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Sample records for protects rgc-5 cells

  1. Lutein Protects RGC-5 Cells Against Hypoxia and Oxidative Stress

    PubMed Central

    Li, Suk-Yee; Lo, Amy C. Y.

    2010-01-01

    Retinal ischemia and oxidative stress lead to neuronal death in many ocular pathologies. Recently, we found that lutein, an oxy-carotenoid, protected the inner retina from ischemia/reperfusion injury. However, it is uncertain whether lutein directly protects retinal ganglion cells (RGCs). Here, an in vitro model of hypoxia and oxidative stress was used to further investigate the neuroprotective role of lutein in RGCs. Cobalt chloride (CoCl2) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) were added to a transformed RGC cell line, RGC-5, to induce chemical hypoxia and oxidative stress, respectively. Either lutein or vehicle was added to cultured cells. A higher cell count was observed in the lutein-treated cells compared with the vehicle-treated cells. Our data from this in vitro model revealed that lutein might protect RGC-5 cells from damage when exposed to either CoCl2-induced chemical hypoxia or H2O2-induced oxidative stress. These results suggest that lutein may play a role as a neuroprotectant. PMID:20559505

  2. Light- and sodium azide-induced death of RGC-5 cells in culture occurs via different mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Ji, Dan; Kamalden, Tengku A; del Olmo-Aguado, Susana; Osborne, Neville N

    2011-04-01

    Previous studies have shown that light impinging on the retina in situ has the capacity to kill neuronal and non-neuronal cells in vitro by interacting directly with mitochondrial constituents. A number of fluorophores are associated with mitochondria which can potentially absorb different wave-lengths of light, including cytochrome oxidase. The aim of the present study was to compare the death mechanism of a light insult to RGC-5 cells in culture with that of sodium azide. Sodium azide's main toxic action is in inhibiting the function of cytochrome oxidase in the mitochondrial electron transport chain. Our studies showed that light and sodium azide kill RGC-5 cells via different mechanisms although some similarities do occur. Both inducers of cell death caused the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), the expression of phosphatidylserine, the breakdown of DNA and the activation of p38 MAPK, resulting in its translocation from the nucleus to the cytoplasm. However, light-induced cell death occurs via necroptosis, in that it was inhibited by necrostatin-1 and was caspase-independent. This was not the case for sodium azide, where the death process was caspase-dependent, occurred via apoptosis and was unaffected by necrostatin-1. Moreover, light caused an activation of the apoptosis inducing factor (AIF), c-Jun, JNK and HO-1, but it did not affect alpha fodrin or caspase-3. In contrast, sodium azide caused the activation of alpha fodrin and the stimulation of caspase-3 content without influencing AIF, c-Jun, JNK or HO-1. Therefore we conclude that light does not have a specific action on cytochrome oxidase in mitochondria to cause cell death.

  3. The D1 dopamine receptor agonist, SKF83959, attenuates hydrogen peroxide-induced injury in RGC-5 cells involving the extracellular signal-regulated kinase/p38 pathways

    PubMed Central

    Li, Guang-Yu; Li, Ting; Fan, Bin; Zheng, Yong-Chen

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Oxidative stress is widely implicated in the death of retinal ganglion cells associated with various optic neuropathies. Agonists of the dopamine D1 receptor have recently been found to be potentially neuroprotective against oxidative stress–induced injury. The goal of this study was to investigate whether SKF83959, a next-generation high-affinity D1 receptor agonist, could protect retinal ganglion cell 5 (RGC-5) cells from H2O2-induced damage and the molecular mechanism involved. Methods We examined expression of the D1 receptor in RGC-5 cells with reverse-transcription–PCR and immunoblotting and assessed neuroprotection using propidium iodide staining and the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay. In addition, we monitored the activation and involvement of members of mitogen-activated protein kinase family, extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), p38 and c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase, with western blot and specific inhibitors. Results We found that the D1 receptor was expressed in RGC-5 cells, but the sequence analysis suggested this cell line is from mouse and not rat origin. SKF83959 exhibited a remarkable neuroprotective effect on H2O2-damaged RGC-5 cells, which was blocked by the specific D1 receptor antagonist, SCH23390. ERK and p38 were activated by SKF83959, and pretreatment with their inhibitors U0126 and SB203580, respectively, significantly blunted the SKF83959-induced cytoprotection. However, the specific c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase inhibitor, SP600125, had no effect on the SKF83959-induced protection. Conclusions We conclude that SKF83959 attenuates hydrogen peroxide–induced injury in RGC-5 cells via a mechanism involving activation of the ERK and p38 pathways and the D1 receptor is a potential molecular target for developing neuroprotective drugs. PMID:23233790

  4. Imipramine protects retinal ganglion cells from oxidative stress through the tyrosine kinase receptor B signaling pathway

    PubMed Central

    Han, Ming-lei; Liu, Guo-hua; Guo, Jin; Yu, Shu-juan; Huang, Jing

    2016-01-01

    Retinal ganglion cell (RGC) degeneration is irreversible in glaucoma and tyrosine kinase receptor B (TrkB)-associated signaling pathways have been implicated in the process. In this study, we attempted to examine whether imipramine, a tricyclic antidepressant, may protect hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced RGC degeneration through the activation of the TrkB pathway in RGC-5 cell lines. RGC-5 cell lines were pre-treated with imipramine 30 minutes before exposure to H2O2. Western blot assay showed that in H2O2 -damaged RGC-5 cells, imipramine activated TrkB pathways through extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase/TrkB phosphorylation. TUNEL staining assay also demonstrated that imipramine ameliorated H2O2 -induced apoptosis in RGC-5 cells. Finally, TrkB-IgG intervention was able to reverse the protective effect of imipramine on H2O2 -induced RGC-5 apoptosis. Imipramine therefore protects RGCs from oxidative stress-induced apoptosis through the TrkB signaling pathway. PMID:27127489

  5. Nerve growth factor protects against palmitic acid-induced injury in retinal ganglion cells

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Pan-shi; Tang, Shu; Zhang, Hai-feng; Guo, Yuan-yuan; Zeng, Zhi-wen; Wen, Qiang

    2016-01-01

    Accumulating evidence supports an important role for nerve growth factor (NGF) in diabetic retinopathy. We hypothesized that NGF has a protective effect on rat retinal ganglion RGC-5 cells injured by palmitic acid (PA), a metabolic factor implicated in the development of diabetes and its complications. Our results show that PA exposure caused apoptosis of RGC-5 cells, while NGF protected against PA insult in a concentration-dependent manner. Additionally, NGF significantly attenuated the levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and malondialdehyde (MDA) in RGC-5 cells. Pathway inhibitor tests showed that the protective effect of NGF was completely reversed by LY294002 (PI3K inhibitor), Akt VIII inhibitor, and PD98059 (ERK1/2 inhibitor). Western blot analysis revealed that NGF induced the phosphorylation of Akt/FoxO1 and ERK1/2 and reversed the PA-evoked reduction in the levels of these proteins. These results indicate that NGF protects RGC-5 cells against PA-induced injury through anti-oxidation and inhibition of apoptosis by modulation of the PI3K/Akt and ERK1/2 signaling pathways. PMID:28123432

  6. Oligomeric proanthocyanidin protects retinal ganglion cells against oxidative stress-induced apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hui; Zhang, Chanjuan; Lu, Dan; Shu, Xiaoming; Zhu, Lihong; Qi, Renbing; So, Kwok-Fai; Lu, Daxiang; Xu, Ying

    2013-01-01

    The death of retinal ganglion cells is a hallmark of many optic neurodegenerative diseases such as glaucoma and retinopathy. Oxidative stress is one of the major reasons to cause the cell death. Oligomeric proanthocyanidin has many health beneficial effects including antioxidative and neuroprotective actions. Here we tested whether oligomeric proanthocyanidin may protect retinal ganglion cells against oxidative stress induced-apoptosis in vitro. Retinal ganglion cells were treated with hydrogen peroxide with or without oligomeric proanthocyanidin. 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay showed that treating retinal ganglion cell line RGC-5 cells with 20 μmol/L oligomeric proanthocyanidin significantly decreased the hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) induced death. Results of flow cytometry and Hoechst staining demonstrated that the death of RGC-5 cells was mainly caused by cell apoptosis. We further found that expression of pro-apoptotic Bax and caspase-3 were significantly decreased while anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 was greatly increased in H2O2 damaged RGC-5 cells with oligomeric proanthocyanidin by western blot assay. Furthermore, in retinal explant culture, the number of surviving retinal ganglion cells in H2O2-damaged retinal ganglion cells with oligomeric proanthocyanidin was significantly increased. Our studies thus demonstrate that oligomeric proanthocyanidin can protect oxidative stress-injured retinal ganglion cells by inhibiting apoptotic process. PMID:25206541

  7. Overexpression of Heme Oxygenase-1 in Mesenchymal Stem Cells Augments Their Protection on Retinal Cells In Vitro and Attenuates Retinal Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury In Vivo against Oxidative Stress

    PubMed Central

    Li, Li; Du, GaiPing; Wang, DaJiang; Zhou, Jin; Jiang, Guomin

    2017-01-01

    Retinal ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury, involving several ocular diseases, seriously threatens human ocular health, mainly treated by attenuating I/R-induced oxidative stress. Currently, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) could restore I/R-injured retina through paracrine secretion. Additionally, heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) could ameliorate oxidative stress and thus retinal apoptosis, but the expression of HO-1 in MSC is limited. Here, we hypothesized that overexpression of HO-1 in MSC (MSC-HO-1) may significantly improve their retina-protective potentials. The overexpression of HO-1 in MSC was achieved by lentivirus transduction. Then, MSC or MSC-HO-1 was cocultured with retinal ganglion cells (RGC-5) in H2O2-simulated oxidative condition and their protection on RGC-5 was systemically valuated in vitro. Compared with MSC, MSC-HO-1 significantly attenuated H2O2-induced injury of RGC-5, including decrease in cellular ROS level and apoptosis, activation of antiapoptotic proteins p-Akt and Bcl-2, and blockage of proapoptotic proteins cleaved caspase 3 and Bax. In retinal I/R rats model, compared with control MSC, MSC-HO-1-treated retina significantly retrieved its structural thickness, reduced cell apoptosis, markedly attenuated retinal oxidative stress level, and largely regained the activities of typical antioxidant enzymes, SOD and CAT. Therefore, it could be concluded that overexpression of HO-1 provides a promising strategy to enhance the MSC-based therapy for I/R-related retinal injury. PMID:28255307

  8. RTP801 immunoreactivity in retinal ganglion cells and its down-regulation in cultured cells protect them from light and cobalt chloride.

    PubMed

    del Olmo-Aguado, Susana; Núñez-Álvarez, Claudia; Ji, Dan; Manso, Alberto García; Osborne, Neville N

    2013-09-01

    RTP801, a stress-related protein, is activated by adverse environmental conditions and inhibits the activity of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) in promoting oxidative stress-dependent cell death. RTP801 exists both in the mammalian retina and the lens of the eye. Here, we observed RTP801 immunoreactivity in some retinal ganglion cells. Intravitreal injection of cobalt chloride (CoCl2) to mimick hypoxia influenced retinal GFAP (glial fibrillary acidic protein) and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) levels, but did not affect RTP801 immunoreactivity or mRNA content relative to GAPDH. However, RTP801 mRNA was elevated when compared with Brn3a mRNA, suggesting that RTP801 is activated in stressed Brn3a retinal ganglion cells. In cultures of RGC-5 cells, RTP801 immunoreactivity was located in the cytoplasm and partly present in the mitochondria. An insult of blue light or CoCl2 increased RTP801 expression, which was accompanied by cell death. However, in cultures where RTP801 mRNA was down-regulated, the negative influence of blue light and CoCl2 was blunted. Rapamycin nullified the CoCl2-induced up-regulation of RTP801 and attenuated cell death. Moreover, rapamycin was non-toxic to RGC-5 cells, even at a high concentration (10μM). The protective effect of rapamycin on RGC-5 cells caused by the inhibition of RTP801 suggests that rapamycin might attenuate retinal ganglion cell death in situ, as in glaucoma.

  9. Protective action of nipradilol mediated through S-nitrosylation of Keap1 and HO-1 induction in retinal ganglion cells.

    PubMed

    Koriyama, Yoshiki; Kamiya, Marie; Takadera, Tsuneo; Arai, Kunizo; Sugitani, Kayo; Ogai, Kazuhiro; Kato, Satoru

    2012-12-01

    Nipradilol (Nip), which has α1- and β-adrenoceptor antagonist and nitric oxide (NO)-donating properties, has clinically been used as an anti-glaucomatous agent in Japan. NO mediates cellular signaling pathways that regulate physiological functions. The major signaling mechanisms mediated by NO are cGMP-dependent signaling and protein S-nitrosylation-dependent signalings. Nip has been described as having neuroprotective effects through cGMP-dependent pathway in retinal ganglion cells (RGCs). However, the effect seems to be partial. On the other hand, whether Nip can prevent cell death through S-nitrosylation is not yet clarified. In this study, we therefore focused on the neuroprotective mechanism of Nip through S-nitrosylation. Nip showed a dramatic neuroprotective effect against oxidative stress-induced death of RGC-5 cells. However, denitro-nipradilol, which does not have NO-donating properties, was not protective against oxidative stress. Furthermore, an NO scavenger significantly reversed the protective action of Nip against oxidative stress. In addition, we demonstrated that α1- or β-adrenoceptor antagonists (prazosin or timolol) did not show any neuroprotective effect against oxidative stress in RGC-5 cells. We also demonstrated that Nip induced the expression of the NO-dependent antioxidant enzyme, heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1). S-nitrosylation of Kelch-like ECH-associated protein by Nip was shown to contribute to the translocation of NF-E2-related factor 2 to the nucleus, and triggered transcriptional activation of HO-1. Furthermore, RGC death and levels of 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (4HNE) were increased after optic nerve injury in vivo. Pretreatment with Nip significantly suppressed RGC death and accumulation of 4HNE after injury through an HO-1 activity-dependent mechanism. These data demonstrate a novel neuroprotective action of Nip against oxidative stress-induced RGC death in vitro and in vivo.

  10. Ginsenoside Rb1 protects rat retinal ganglion cells against hypoxia and oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhaochun; Chen, Juying; Huang, Wendong; Zeng, Zhi; Yang, Yongfei; Zhu, Banghao

    2013-11-01

    The current study was designed to investigate the effect of ginsenoside Rb1 (Rb1) on apoptosis induced by hypoxia and oxidative stress in a retinal ganglion cell line (RGC-5). The underlying mechanism was also investigated. RGC-5 cells were pretreated with 10 µmol/l Rb1 for 24 h and exposed to 400 µmol/l cobalt chloride (CoCl2) for 48 h or 600 µmol/l H2O2 for 24 h. The percentage of cells actively undergoing apoptosis was determined by flow cytometry with Annexin V/propidium iodide (PI) double staining. The expression of caspases was determined using western blot analysis. CoCl2 and H2O2 treatments significantly increased the apoptotic percentages to 24.5 and 21.63%, respectively. Pretreatment of Rb1 reduced the total apoptotic percentages to 15.12 and 12.03%, respectively. The expression of cleaved caspase-3, -9 and -8 was increased in the CoCl2-treated group, however, caspase-3 was not increased in the H2O2-treated group. Pretreatment of Rb1 reduced the expression of cleaved caspase-3 and -9 in the CoCl2-treated group, but reduced only cleaved caspase-9 in the H2O2-treated group. These results suggest that Rb1 may prevent RGC-5 cells from apoptosis against hypoxia and oxidative stress via the mitochondrial pathway.

  11. Nuclear translocation and overexpression of GAPDH by the hyper-pressure in retinal ganglion cell

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Choong-Il; Lee, Sung-Ho; Seong, Gong-Je; Kim, Yeon-Hyang; Lee, Mi-Young . E-mail: miyoung@sch.ac.kr

    2006-03-24

    To investigate the effect of hyper-pressure on retinal ganglion cells (RGC-5), RGC-5 cells were exposed to an ambient hydrostatic pressure of 100 mm Hg. Upon treatment, the proliferation of RGC-5 cells was inhibited and neuronal apoptosis was detected by specific apoptosis marker TUNEL (terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick-end labeling). To probe into the mechanism mediating the apoptosis of RGC-5 cells in 100 mm Hg, protein profile alterations following hyper-pressure treatment were examined using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) followed by MALDI-TOF. Out of the 400 protein spots of RGC-5 cells detected on 2-DE gels, 37 differentially expressed protein spots were further identified using in gel tryptic digestion and mass spectrometry. Among these proteins, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate-dehydrogenase (GAPDH) was significantly expressed 10 times more in 100 mm Hg than in normal pressure. The accumulation of GAPDH in the nucleus and its translocation from the cytosol to the nucleus in 100 mm Hg were observed using a microscope. These results suggest that the hyper-pressure-induced apoptosis in RGC-5 cells may be involved with not only the increase of GAPDH expression, but also the accumulation and the translocalization of GAPDH to the nucleus.

  12. Protective effects of the compounds isolated from the seed of Psoralea corylifolia on oxidative stress-induced retinal damage

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Kyung-A; Shim, Sang Hee; Ahn, Hong Ryul; Jung, Sang Hoon

    2013-06-01

    The mechanism underlying glaucoma remains controversial, but apoptosis caused by increased levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is thought to play a role in its pathogenesis. We investigated the effects of compounds isolated from Psoralea corylifolia on oxidative stress-induced cell death in vitro and in vivo. Transformed retinal ganglion cells (RGC-5) were treated with L-buthione-(S,R)-sulfoximine (BSO) and glutamate in the presence or with pre-treatment with compound 6, bakuchiol isolated from P. corylifolia. We observed reduced cell death in cells pre-treated with bakuchiol. Moreover, bakuchiol inhibited the oxidative stress-induced decrease of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP, ΔΨm). Furthermore, while intracellular Ca{sup 2+} was high in RGC-5 cells after exposure to oxidative stress, bakuchiol reduced these levels. In an in vivo study, in which rat retinal damage was induced by intravitreal injection of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA), bakuchiol markedly reduced translocation of AIF and release of cytochrome c, and inhibited up-regulation of cleaved caspase-3, cleaved caspase-9, and cleaved PARP. The survival rate of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) 7 days after optic nerve crush (ONC) in mice was significantly decreased; however, bakuchiol attenuated the loss of RGCs. Moreover, bakuchiol attenuated ONC-induced up-regulation of apoptotic proteins, including cleaved PARP, cleaved caspase-3, and cleaved caspase-9. Bakuchiol also significantly inhibited translocation of mitochondrial AIF into the nuclear fraction and release of mitochondrial cytochrome c into the cytosol. These results demonstrate that bakuchiol isolated from P. corylifolia has protective effects against oxidative stress-induced retinal damage, and may be considered as an agent for treating or preventing retinal degeneration. - Highlights: • Psoralea corylifolia have neuroprotective effects in vitro and in vivo. • Bakuchiol attenuated the increase of apoptotic proteins induced by oxidative

  13. Hydroxycinnamic acids in Crepidiastrum denticulatum protect oxidative stress-induced retinal damage.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Hong Ryul; Lee, Hee Ju; Kim, Kyung-A; Kim, Chul Young; Nho, Chu Won; Jang, Holim; Pan, Cheol-Ho; Lee, Chang Yong; Jung, Sang Hoon

    2014-02-12

    We investigated the effects of an ethanol extract of C. denticulatum (EECD) in a mouse model of glaucoma established by optic nerve crush (ONC), and found that EECD significantly protected against retinal ganglion cell (RGC) death caused by ONC. Furthermore, EECD effectively protected against N-methyl-d-aspartate-induced damage to the rat retinas. In vitro, EECD attenuated transformed retinal ganglion cell (RGC-5) death and significantly blunted the up-regulation of apoptotic proteins and mRNA level induced by 1-buthionine-(S,R)-sulfoximine combined with glutamate, reduced reactive oxygen species production by radical species, and inhibited lipid peroxidation. The major EECD components were found to be chicoric acid and 3,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid (3,5-DCQA) that have shown beneficial effects on retinal degeneration both in vitro and in vivo studies. Thus, EECD could be used as a natural neuroprotective agent for glaucoma, and chicoric acid and 3,5-DCQA as mark compounds for the development of functional food.

  14. Ferroelectric symmetry-protected multibit memory cell

    PubMed Central

    Baudry, Laurent; Lukyanchuk, Igor; Vinokur, Valerii M.

    2017-01-01

    The tunability of electrical polarization in ferroelectrics is instrumental to their applications in information-storage devices. The existing ferroelectric memory cells are based on the two-level storage capacity with the standard binary logics. However, the latter have reached its fundamental limitations. Here we propose ferroelectric multibit cells (FMBC) utilizing the ability of multiaxial ferroelectric materials to pin the polarization at a sequence of the multistable states. Employing the catastrophe theory principles we show that these states are symmetry-protected against the information loss and thus realize novel topologically-controlled access memory (TAM). Our findings enable developing a platform for the emergent many-valued non-Boolean information technology and target challenges posed by needs of quantum and neuromorphic computing. PMID:28176866

  15. Ferroelectric symmetry-protected multibit memory cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baudry, Laurent; Lukyanchuk, Igor; Vinokur, Valerii M.

    2017-02-01

    The tunability of electrical polarization in ferroelectrics is instrumental to their applications in information-storage devices. The existing ferroelectric memory cells are based on the two-level storage capacity with the standard binary logics. However, the latter have reached its fundamental limitations. Here we propose ferroelectric multibit cells (FMBC) utilizing the ability of multiaxial ferroelectric materials to pin the polarization at a sequence of the multistable states. Employing the catastrophe theory principles we show that these states are symmetry-protected against the information loss and thus realize novel topologically-controlled access memory (TAM). Our findings enable developing a platform for the emergent many-valued non-Boolean information technology and target challenges posed by needs of quantum and neuromorphic computing.

  16. Osteoblasts Protect AML Cells from SDF-1-Induced Apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Kremer, Kimberly N.; Dudakovic, Amel; McGee-Lawrence, Meghan E.; Philips, Rachael L.; Hess, Allan D.; Smith, B. Douglas; van Wijnen, Andre J.; Karp, Judith E.; Kaufmann, Scott H.; Westendorf, Jennifer J.; Hedin, Karen E.

    2014-01-01

    The bone marrow provides a protective environment for acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cells that often allows leukemic stem cells to survive standard chemotherapeutic regimens. Targeting these leukemic stem cells within the bone marrow is critical for preventing relapse. We recently demonstrated that SDF-1, a chemokine abundant in the bone marrow, induces apoptosis in AML cell lines and in patient samples expressing high levels of its receptor, CXCR4. Here we show that a subset of osteoblast lineage cells within the bone marrow can protect AML cells from undergoing apoptosis in response to the SDF-1 naturally present in that location. In co-culture systems, osteoblasts at various stages of differentiation protected AML cell lines and patient isolates from SDF-1-induced apoptosis. The differentiation of the osteoblast cell lines, MC3T3 and W-20-17, mediated this protection via a cell contact-independent mechanism. In contrast, bone marrow-derived mesenchymal cells, the precursors of osteoblasts, induced apoptosis in AML cells via a CXCR4-dependent mechanism and failed to protect AML cells from exogenously added SDF-1. These results indicate that osteoblasts in the process of differentiation potently inhibit the SDF-1-driven apoptotic pathway of CXCR4-expressing AML cells residing in the bone marrow. Drugs targeting this protective mechanism could potentially provide a new approach to treating AML by enhancing the SDF-1-induced apoptosis of AML cells residing within the bone marrow microenvironment. PMID:24851270

  17. Protective mechanism against cancer found in progeria patient cells

    Cancer.gov

    NCI scientists have studied cells of patients with an extremely rare genetic disease that is characterized by drastic premature aging and discovered a new protective cellular mechanism against cancer. They found that cells from patients with Hutchinson Gi

  18. Statins, Bcl-2, and apoptosis: cell death or cell protection?

    PubMed

    Wood, W Gibson; Igbavboa, Urule; Muller, Walter E; Eckert, Gunter P

    2013-10-01

    Statins have proven their effectiveness in the treatment of cardiovascular disease. This class of drugs has also attracted attention as a potential treatment for dissimilar diseases such as certain types of cancers and neurodegenerative diseases. What appears to be a contradiction is that, in the case of cancer, it has been suggested that statins increase apoptosis and alter levels of Bcl-2 family members (e.g., reduce Bcl-2 and increase Bax), whereas studies mainly using noncancerous cells report opposite effects. This review examined studies reporting on the effects of statins on Bcl-2 family members, apoptosis, cell death, and cell protection. Much, but not all, of the evidence supporting the pro-apoptotic effects of statins is based on data in cancer cell lines and the use of relatively high drug concentrations. Studies indicating an anti-apoptotic effect of statins are fewer in number and generally used much lower drug concentrations and normal cells. Those conclusions are not definitive, and certainly, there is a need for additional research to determine if statin repositioning is justified for noncardiovascular diseases.

  19. Dendritic Cell Targeting of Bacillus anthracis Protective Antigen Expressed by Lactobacillus acidophilus Protects Mice from Lethal Challenge

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-10-28

    Dendritic cell targeting of Bacillus anthracis protective antigen expressed by Lactobacillus acidophilus protects mice from lethal challenge M...lethal chal- lenge. A vaccine strategy was established by using Lactobacillus acidophilus to deliver Bacillus anthracis protective antigen (PA) via...4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Dendritic cell targeting of Bacillus anthracis protective antigen expressed by Lactobacillus acidophilus protects mice

  20. Immune signatures of protective spleen memory CD8 T cells

    PubMed Central

    Brinza, Lilia; Djebali, Sophia; Tomkowiak, Martine; Mafille, Julien; Loiseau, Céline; Jouve, Pierre-Emmanuel; de Bernard, Simon; Buffat, Laurent; Lina, Bruno; Ottmann, Michèle; Rosa-Calatrava, Manuel; Schicklin, Stéphane; Bonnefoy, Nathalie; Lauvau, Grégoire; Grau, Morgan; Wencker, Mélanie; Arpin, Christophe; Walzer, Thierry; Leverrier, Yann; Marvel, Jacqueline

    2016-01-01

    Memory CD8 T lymphocyte populations are remarkably heterogeneous and differ in their ability to protect the host. In order to identify the whole range of qualities uniquely associated with protective memory cells we compared the gene expression signatures of two qualities of memory CD8 T cells sharing the same antigenic-specificity: protective (Influenza-induced, Flu-TM) and non-protective (peptide-induced, TIM) spleen memory CD8 T cells. Although Flu-TM and TIM express classical phenotypic memory markers and are polyfunctional, only Flu-TM protects against a lethal viral challenge. Protective memory CD8 T cells express a unique set of genes involved in migration and survival that correlate with their unique capacity to rapidly migrate within the infected lung parenchyma in response to influenza infection. We also enlighten a new set of poised genes expressed by protective cells that is strongly enriched in cytokines and chemokines such as Ccl1, Ccl9 and Gm-csf. CCL1 and GM-CSF genes are also poised in human memory CD8 T cells. These immune signatures are also induced by two other pathogens (vaccinia virus and Listeria monocytogenes). The immune signatures associated with immune protection were identified on circulating cells, i.e. those that are easily accessible for immuno-monitoring and could help predict vaccines efficacy. PMID:27883012

  1. Improved Short-Circuit Protection for Power Cells in Series

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davies, Francis

    2008-01-01

    A scheme for protection against short circuits has been devised for series strings of lithium electrochemical cells that contain built-in short-circuit protection devices, which go into a high-resistance, current-limiting state when heated by excessive current. If cells are simply connected in a long series string to obtain a high voltage and a short circuit occurs, whichever short-circuit protection device trips first is exposed to nearly the full string voltage, which, typically, is large enough to damage the device. Depending on the specific cell design, the damage can defeat the protective function, cause a dangerous internal short circuit in the affected cell, and/or cascade to other cells. In the present scheme, reverse diodes rated at a suitably high current are connected across short series sub-strings, the lengths of which are chosen so that when a short-circuit protection device is tripped, the voltage across it does not exceed its rated voltage. This scheme preserves the resetting properties of the protective devices. It provides for bypassing of cells that fail open and limits cell reversal, though not as well as does the more-expensive scheme of connecting a diode across every cell.

  2. Overdischarge protection in high-temperature cells and batteries

    DOEpatents

    Redey, Laszlo

    1990-01-01

    Overdischarge indication and protection is provided in a lithium alloy - metal sulfide, secondary electrochemical cell and batteries of such cells through use of a low lithium activity phase that ordinarily is not matched with positive electrode material. Low lithium activity phases such as Li.sub.0.1 Al.sub.0.9 and LiAlSi in correspondence with positive electrode material cause a downward gradient in cell voltage as an indication of overdischarge prior to damage to the cell. Moreover, the low lithium activity phase contributes lithium into the electrolyte and provides a lithium shuttling current as overdischarge protection after all of the positive electrode material is discharged.

  3. Protective role of Th17 cells in pulmonary infection.

    PubMed

    Rathore, Jitendra Singh; Wang, Yan

    2016-03-18

    Th17 cells are characterized as preferential producer of interleukins including IL-17A, IL-17F, IL-21 and IL-22. Corresponding receptors of these cytokines are expressed on number of cell types found in the mucosa, including epithelial cells and fibroblasts which constitute the prime targets of the Th17-associated cytokines. Binding of IL-17 family members to their corresponding receptors lead to modulation of antimicrobial functions of target cells including alveolar epithelial cells. Stimulated alveolar epithelial cells produce antimicrobial peptides and are involved in granulepoesis, neutrophil recruitment and tissue repair. Mucosal immunity mediated by Th17 cells is protective against numerous pulmonary pathogens including extracellular bacterial and fungal pathogens. This review focuses on the protective role of Th17 cells during pulmonary infection, highlighting subset differentiation, effector cytokines production, followed by study of the binding of these cytokines to their corresponding receptors, the subsequent signaling pathway they engender and their effector role in host defense.

  4. The neuroprotective effect of resveratrol on retinal ganglion cells after optic nerve transection

    PubMed Central

    Park, Joo Hyun; Kim, Yu Jeong; Park, Ki Ho

    2013-01-01

    Purpose This study aimed to investigate the neuroprotective effect of resveratrol in an optic nerve transection (ONT) model and to identify the neuroprotective mechanism of resveratrol in retinal ganglion cells (RGCs). Methods ONT and retrograde labeling were performed in Sprague-Dawley rats. Various concentrations of resveratrol were injected intravitreally immediately after ONT. The number of labeled RGCs was determined at 1 and 2 weeks after ONT. The effect of resveratrol and sirtinol (a sirtuin 1 inhibitor) co-injection was investigated. RGC-5 cells were cultured and treated with staurosporine to induce differentiation. 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay was performed to evaluate the effect of resveratrol on RGC-5 cell survival under serum-free conditions. RGC-5 cells were cultured with sirtinol to investigate the neuroprotective mechanism of resveratrol. Results A dose–response relationship was observed between resveratrol and RGC survival. A single intravitreal injection of resveratrol was neuroprotective in RGCs at 1 week after ONT (p<0.01). Repeated intravitreal injection of resveratrol showed a neuroprotective effect at 2 weeks after ONT (p<0.01). However, co-injection of resveratrol and sirtinol diminished the neuroprotective effect of resveratrol (p<0.05). The neuroprotective effect of resveratrol was observed in RGC-5 cells under serum-free conditions, and sirtinol diminished this neuroprotective effect. Conclusions Resveratrol exerts its neuroprotective effect on RGCs via activation of the sirtuin 1 pathway in an ONT model. This finding demonstrates the therapeutic potential of resveratrol in treating optic nerve diseases. PMID:23901250

  5. New immobilized cell system with protection against toxic solvents

    SciTech Connect

    Tanaka, H.; Harada, S.; Kurosawa, H.; Yajima, M.

    1987-01-01

    A new immobilized cell system providing protection against toxic solvents was investigated so that normal fermentations could be carried out in a medium containing toxic solvents. The system consists of immobilized growing cells in Ca-alginate gel beads to which vegetable oils, which are inexpensive absorbents of solvents, had been added. The ethanol fermentation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae ATCC 26603 was used as a model fermentation to study the protection afforded by the system against solvent toxicities. The fermentation was inhibited by solvents such as 2-octanol, benzene, toluene, and phenol. Ethanol production of one batch was not finished even after 35 h using immobilized growing yeast cells in conventional Ca-alginate gel beads in an ethanol production medium (5% glucose) containing 0.1% 2-octanol, which is used as a solvent for liquid-liquid extraction and is one of the most toxic solvents in our experiments. With the new immobilized growing cell system using vegetable oils, however, four repeated batch fermentations were completed in 35 h. Castor oil provided even more protection than soy bean, olive, and tung oils, and it was possible to complete six repeated batches in 35 h. The immobilized cell system with vegetable oils also provided protection against other toxic solvents such as benzene and toluene. A possible mechanism for the protective function of the new immobilized cell system is discussed.

  6. Cerium fluoride nanoparticles protect cells against oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Shcherbakov, Alexander B; Zholobak, Nadezhda M; Baranchikov, Alexander E; Ryabova, Anastasia V; Ivanov, Vladimir K

    2015-05-01

    A novel facile method of non-doped and fluorescent terbium-doped cerium fluoride stable aqueous sols synthesis is proposed. Intense green luminescence of CeF3:Tb nanoparticles can be used to visualize these nanoparticles' accumulation in cells using confocal laser scanning microscopy. Cerium fluoride nanoparticles are shown for the first time to protect both organic molecules and living cells from the oxidative action of hydrogen peroxide. Both non-doped and terbium-doped CeF3 nanoparticles are shown to provide noteworthy protection to cells against the vesicular stomatitis virus.

  7. Memory T cells maintain protracted protection against malaria.

    PubMed

    Krzych, Urszula; Zarling, Stasya; Pichugin, Alexander

    2014-10-01

    Immunologic memory is one of the cardinal features of antigen-specific immune responses, and the persistence of memory cells contributes to prophylactic immunizations against infectious agents. Adequately maintained memory T and B cell pools assure a fast, effective and specific response against re-infections. However, many aspects of immunologic memory are still poorly understood, particularly immunologic memory inducible by parasites, for example, Plasmodium spp., the causative agents of malaria. For example, memory responses to Plasmodium antigens amongst residents of malaria endemic areas appear to be either inadequately developed or maintained, because persons who survive episodes of childhood malaria remain vulnerable to intermittent malaria infections. By contrast, multiple exposures of humans and laboratory rodents to radiation-attenuated Plasmodium sporozoites (γ-spz) induce sterile and long-lasting protection against experimental sporozoite challenge. Multifactorial immune mechanisms maintain this protracted and sterile protection. While the presence of memory CD4 T cell subsets has been associated with lasting protection in humans exposed to multiple bites from Anopheles mosquitoes infected with attenuated Plasmodium falciparum, memory CD8 T cells maintain protection induced with Plasmodium yoelii and Plasmodium berghei γ-spz in murine models. In this review, we discuss our observations that show memory CD8 T cells specific for antigens expressed by P. berghei liver stage parasites as an indispensable component for the maintenance of protracted protective immunity against experimental malaria infection; moreover, the provision of an Ag-depot assures a quick recall of memory T cells as IFN-γ-producing effector CD8 T cells and IL-4- producing CD4 T cells that collaborate with B cells for an effective antibody response.

  8. Protective interlayer for high temperature solid electrolyte electrochemical cells

    DOEpatents

    Isenberg, Arnold O.; Ruka, Roswell J.

    1986-01-01

    A high temperature, solid electrolyte electrochemical cell is made, having a first and second electrode with solid electrolyte between them, where the electrolyte is formed by hot chemical vapor deposition, where a solid, interlayer material, which is electrically conductive, oxygen permeable, and protective of electrode material from hot metal halide vapor attack, is placed between the first electrode and the electrolyte, to protect the first electrode from the hot metal halide vapors during vapor deposition.

  9. Protective interlayer for high temperature solid electrolyte electrochemical cells

    DOEpatents

    Isenberg, Arnold O.; Ruka, Roswell J.; Zymboly, Gregory E.

    1985-01-01

    A high temperature, solid electrolyte electrochemical cell is made, having a first and second electrode with solid electrolyte between them, where the electrolyte is formed by hot chemical vapor deposition, where a solid, interlayer material, which is electrically conductive, oxygen permeable, and protective of electrode material from hot metal halide vapor attack, is placed between the first electrode and the electrolyte, to protect the first electrode from the hot metal halide vapors during vapor deposition.

  10. Protective interlayer for high temperature solid electrolyte electrochemical cells

    DOEpatents

    Isenberg, Arnold O.; Ruka, Roswell J.

    1987-01-01

    A high temperature, solid electrolyte electrochemical cell is made, having a first and second electrode with solid electrolyte between them, where the electrolyte is formed by hot chemical vapor deposition, where a solid, interlayer material, which is electrically conductive, oxygen permeable, and protective of electrode material from hot metal halide vapor attack, is placed between the first electrode and the electrolyte, to protect the first electrode from the hot metal halide vapors during vapor deposition.

  11. Peptide-Induced Antiviral Protection by Cytotoxic T Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schulz, Manfred; Zinkernagel, Rolf M.; Hengartner, Hans

    1991-02-01

    A specific antiviral cytotoxic immune response in vivo could be induced by the subcutaneous injection of the T-cell epitope of the lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) nucleoprotein as an unmodified free synthetic peptide (Arg-Pro-Gln-Ala-Ser-Gly-Val-Tyr-Met-Gly-Asn-Leu-Thr-Ala-Gln) emulsified in incomplete Freund's adjuvant. This immunization rendered mice into a LCMV-specific protective state as shown by the inhibition of LCMV replication in spleens of such mice. The protection level of these mice correlated with the ability to respond to the peptide challenge by CD8^+ virus-specific cytotoxic T cells. This is a direct demonstration that peptide vaccines can be antivirally protective in vivo, thus encouraging further search for appropriate mixtures of stable peptides that may be used as T-cell vaccines.

  12. Cocoa phenolic extract protects pancreatic beta cells against oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Martín, María Angeles; Ramos, Sonia; Cordero-Herrero, Isabel; Bravo, Laura; Goya, Luis

    2013-07-31

    Diabetes mellitus is associated with reductions in glutathione, supporting the critical role of oxidative stress in its pathogenesis. Antioxidant food components such as flavonoids have a protective role against oxidative stress-induced degenerative and age-related diseases. Flavonoids constitute an important part of the human diet; they can be found in most plant foods, including green tea, grapes or cocoa and possess multiple biological activities. This study investigates the chemo-protective effect of a cocoa phenolic extract (CPE) containing mainly flavonoids against oxidative stress induced by tert-butylhydroperoxide (t-BOOH) on Ins-1E pancreatic beta cells. Cell viability and oxidative status were evaluated. Ins-1E cells treatment with 5-20 μg/mL CPE for 20 h evoked no cell damage and did not alter ROS production. Addition of 50 μM t-BOOH for 2 h increased ROS and carbonyl groups content and decreased reduced glutathione level. Pre-treatment of cells with CPE significantly prevented the t-BOOH-induced ROS and carbonyl groups and returned antioxidant defences to adequate levels. Thus, Ins-1E cells treated with CPE showed a remarkable recovery of cell viability damaged by t-BOOH, indicating that integrity of surviving machineries in the CPE-treated cells was notably protected against the oxidative insult.

  13. Coenzyme Q10 protects hair cells against aminoglycoside.

    PubMed

    Sugahara, Kazuma; Hirose, Yoshinobu; Mikuriya, Takefumi; Hashimoto, Makoto; Kanagawa, Eiju; Hara, Hirotaka; Shimogori, Hiroaki; Yamashita, Hiroshi

    2014-01-01

    It is well known that the production of free radicals is associated with sensory cell death induced by an aminoglycoside. Many researchers have reported that antioxidant reagents protect sensory cells in the inner ear, and coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) is an antioxidant that is consumed as a health food in many countries. The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of CoQ10 in mammalian vestibular hair cell death induced by aminoglycoside. Cultured utricles of CBA/CaN mice were divided into three groups (control group, neomycin group, and neomycin + CoQ10 group). In the neomycin group, utricles were cultured with neomycin (1 mM) to induce hair cell death. In the neomycin + CoQ10 group, utricles were cultured with neomycin and water-soluble CoQ10 (30-0.3 µM). Twenty-four hours after exposure to neomycin, the cultured tissues were fixed, and vestibular hair cells were labeled using an anti-calmodulin antibody. Significantly more hair cells survived in the neomycin + CoQ10 group than in the neomycin group. These data indicate that CoQ10 protects sensory hair cells against neomycin-induced death in the mammalian vestibular epithelium; therefore, CoQ10 may be useful as a protective drug in the inner ear.

  14. Overdischarge protection in high-temperature cells and batteries

    DOEpatents

    Redey, L.

    1990-06-19

    Overdischarge indication and protection is provided in a lithium alloy metal sulfide, secondary electrochemical cell and batteries of such cells through use of a low lithium activity phase that ordinarily is not matched with positive electrode material. Low lithium activity phases such as Li[sub 0.1]Al[sub 0.9] and LiAlSi in correspondence with positive electrode material cause a downward gradient in cell voltage as an indication of overdischarge prior to damage to the cell. Moreover, the low lithium activity phase contributes lithium into the electrolyte and provides a lithium shuttling current as overdischarge protection after all of the positive electrode material is discharged. 8 figs.

  15. Fas Protects Breast Cancer Stem Cells from Death

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-10-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-13-1-0301 TITLE: Fas Protects Breast Cancer Stem Cells from Death PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Paolo Ceppi CONTRACTING...sensitive to Fas-mediated apoptosis, while the BCSCs part is more sensitive to the death induced by the elimination of CD95 (a phenomenon we have recently...identification of novel molecular targets for the treatment of breast cancer. I have in fact observed a significant enhancement of cancer cell death by

  16. Artemin protects cells and proteins against oxidative and salt stress.

    PubMed

    Takalloo, Zeinab; Sajedi, Reza H; Hosseinkhani, Saman; Moazzenzade, Taghi

    2017-02-01

    Artemin is an abundant thermostable protein in Artemia encysted embryos under environmental stresses. It is confirmed that high regulatory expression of artemin is relevant to stress resistance in this crustacean. Here, the protective role of artemin from Artemia urmiana has been investigated on survival of bacterial cells under salt and oxidative shocks. Also, for continuous monitoring of the effect of artemin in prevention of proteins aggregation/inactivation, co-expression of artemin and luciferase (as an intracellular reporter) in bacterial cells was performed. According to the results, residual activity of luciferase in artemin expressing E. coli cells exposing to different concentrations of H2O2 and NaCl was significantly higher than non-expressing cells. The luciferase activity was rapidly lost in control cells under salt treatments while in co-transformed cells, the activity was considerably retained at higher salt concentrations. Also, analysis from cell viability assays showed that artemin-expressing cells exhibited more resistance to both stress conditions. In the present study, we document for the first time that artemin can protect proteins and bacterial cells against oxidative and salt stress conditions. These results can declare the resistance property of this crustacean against harsh environmental conditions.

  17. Imipramine protects mouse hippocampus against tunicamycin-induced cell death.

    PubMed

    Ono, Yoko; Shimazawa, Masamitsu; Ishisaka, Mitsue; Oyagi, Atsushi; Tsuruma, Kazuhiro; Hara, Hideaki

    2012-12-05

    Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is implicated in various diseases. Recently, some reports have suggested that the sigma-1 receptor may play a role in ER stress, and many antidepressants have a high affinity for the sigma-1 receptor. In the present study, we focused on imipramine, a widely used antidepressant, and investigated whether it might protect against the neuronal cell death induced by tunicamycin, an ER stress inducer. In mouse cultured hippocampal HT22 cells, imipramine inhibited cell death and caspase-3 activation induced by tunicamycin, although it did not alter the elevated expressions of 78 kDa glucose-regulated protein (GRP78) and C/EBP-homologous protein (CHOP). Interestingly, in such cells application of imipramine normalized the expression of the sigma-1 receptor, which was decreased by treatment with tunicamycin alone. Additionally, NE-100, a selective sigma-1 receptor antagonist, abolished the protective effect of imipramine against such tunicamycin-induced cell death. Imipramine inhibited the reduction of mitochondrial membrane potential induced by tunicamycin, and NE-100 blocked this modulating effect of imipramine. Furthermore, in anesthetized mice intracerebroventricular administration of tunicamycin decreased the number of neuronal cells in the hippocampus, particularly in the CA1 and dentate gyrus (DG) areas, and 7 days' imipramine treatment (10mg/kg/day; i.p.) significantly suppressed these reductions in CA1 and DG. These findings suggest that imipramine protects against ER stress-induced hippocampal neuronal cell death both in vitro and in vivo. Such protection may be partly due to the sigma-1 receptor.

  18. Phenylpropenoic Acid Glucoside from Rooibos Protects Pancreatic Beta Cells against Cell Death Induced by Acute Injury

    PubMed Central

    Himpe, Eddy; Cunha, Daniel A.; Song, Imane; Bugliani, Marco; Marchetti, Piero; Cnop, Miriam; Bouwens, Luc

    2016-01-01

    Objective Previous studies demonstrated that a phenylpropenoic acid glucoside (PPAG) from rooibos (Aspalathus linearis) extract had anti-hyperglycemic activity and significant protective effects on the pancreatic beta cell mass in a chronic diet-induced diabetes model. The present study evaluated the cytoprotective effect of the phytochemical on beta cells exposed to acute cell stress. Methods Synthetically prepared PPAG was administered orally in mice treated with a single dose of streptozotocin to acutely induce beta cell death and hyperglycemia. Its effect was assessed on beta cell mass, proliferation and apoptotic cell death. Its cytoprotective effect was also studied in vitro on INS-1E beta cells and on human pancreatic islet cells. Results Treatment with the phytochemical PPAG protected beta cells during the first days after the insult against apoptotic cell death, as evidenced by TUNEL staining, and prevented loss of expression of anti-apoptotic protein BCL2 in vivo. In vitro, PPAG protected INS-1E beta cells from streptozotocin-induced apoptosis and necrosis in a BCL2-dependent and independent way, respectively, depending on glucose concentration. PPAG also protected human pancreatic islet cells against the cytotoxic action of the fatty acid palmitate. Conclusions These findings show the potential use of PPAG as phytomedicine which protects the beta cell mass exposed to acute diabetogenic stress. PMID:27299564

  19. Hydroxytyrosol Protects against Oxidative DNA Damage in Human Breast Cells

    PubMed Central

    Warleta, Fernando; Quesada, Cristina Sánchez; Campos, María; Allouche, Yosra; Beltrán, Gabriel; Gaforio, José J.

    2011-01-01

    Over recent years, several studies have related olive oil ingestion to a low incidence of several diseases, including breast cancer. Hydroxytyrosol and tyrosol are two of the major phenols present in virgin olive oils. Despite the fact that they have been linked to cancer prevention, there is no evidence that clarifies their effect in human breast tumor and non-tumor cells. In the present work, we present hydroxytyrosol and tyrosol’s effects in human breast cell lines. Our results show that hydroxytyrosol acts as a more efficient free radical scavenger than tyrosol, but both fail to affect cell proliferation rates, cell cycle profile or cell apoptosis in human mammary epithelial cells (MCF10A) or breast cancer cells (MDA-MB-231 and MCF7). We found that hydroxytyrosol decreases the intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) level in MCF10A cells but not in MCF7 or MDA-MB-231 cells while very high amounts of tyrosol is needed to decrease the ROS level in MCF10A cells. Interestingly, hydroxytyrosol prevents oxidative DNA damage in the three breast cell lines. Therefore, our data suggest that simple phenol hydroxytyrosol could contribute to a lower incidence of breast cancer in populations that consume virgin olive oil due to its antioxidant activity and its protection against oxidative DNA damage in mammary cells. PMID:22254082

  20. Hydroxytyrosol protects against oxidative DNA damage in human breast cells.

    PubMed

    Warleta, Fernando; Quesada, Cristina Sánchez; Campos, María; Allouche, Yosra; Beltrán, Gabriel; Gaforio, José J

    2011-10-01

    Over recent years, several studies have related olive oil ingestion to a low incidence of several diseases, including breast cancer. Hydroxytyrosol and tyrosol are two of the major phenols present in virgin olive oils. Despite the fact that they have been linked to cancer prevention, there is no evidence that clarifies their effect in human breast tumor and non-tumor cells. In the present work, we present hydroxytyrosol and tyrosol's effects in human breast cell lines. Our results show that hydroxytyrosol acts as a more efficient free radical scavenger than tyrosol, but both fail to affect cell proliferation rates, cell cycle profile or cell apoptosis in human mammary epithelial cells (MCF10A) or breast cancer cells (MDA-MB-231 and MCF7). We found that hydroxytyrosol decreases the intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) level in MCF10A cells but not in MCF7 or MDA-MB-231 cells while very high amounts of tyrosol is needed to decrease the ROS level in MCF10A cells. Interestingly, hydroxytyrosol prevents oxidative DNA damage in the three breast cell lines. Therefore, our data suggest that simple phenol hydroxytyrosol could contribute to a lower incidence of breast cancer in populations that consume virgin olive oil due to its antioxidant activity and its protection against oxidative DNA damage in mammary cells.

  1. Mast Cell Proteases as Protective and Inflammatory Mediators

    PubMed Central

    Caughey, George H.

    2014-01-01

    Proteases are the most abundant class of proteins produced by mast cells. Many of these are stored in membrane-enclosed intracellular granules until liberated by degranulating stimuli, which include cross-linking of high affinity IgE receptor FcεRI by IgE bound to multivalent allergen. Understanding and separating the functions of the proteases is important because expression differs among mast cells in different tissue locations. Differences between laboratory animals and humans in protease expression also influence the degree of confidence with which results obtained in animal models of mast cell function can be extrapolated to humans. The inflammatory potential of mast cell proteases was the first aspect of their biology to be explored and has received the most attention, in part because some of them—notably tryptases and chymases—are biomarkers of local and systemic mast cell degranulation and anaphylaxis. Although some of the proteases indeed augment allergic inflammation and are potential targets for inhibition to treat asthma and related allergic disorders, they are protective and even anti-inflammatory in some settings. For example, mast cell tryptases may protect from serious bacterial lung infections and may limit the “rubor” component of inflammation caused by vasodilating neuropeptides in the skin. Chymases help to maintain intestinal barrier function and to expel parasitic worms, and may support blood pressure during anaphylaxis by generating angiotensin II. In other life-or-death examples, carboxypeptidase A3 and other mast cell peptidases limit systemic toxicity of endogenous peptides like endothelin and neurotensin during septic peritonitis, and inactivate venom-associated peptides. On the other hand, mast cell peptidase-mediated destruction of protective cytokines, like IL-6, can enhance mortality from sepsis. Peptidases released from mast cells also influence non-mast cell proteases, such as by activating matrix metalloproteinase cascades

  2. CXCR5+ T helper cells mediate protective immunity against tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Slight, Samantha R.; Rangel-Moreno, Javier; Gopal, Radha; Lin, Yinyao; Fallert Junecko, Beth A.; Mehra, Smriti; Selman, Moises; Becerril-Villanueva, Enrique; Baquera-Heredia, Javier; Pavon, Lenin; Kaushal, Deepak; Reinhart, Todd A.; Randall, Troy D.; Khader, Shabaana A.

    2013-01-01

    One third of the world’s population is infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb). Although most infected people remain asymptomatic, they have a 10% lifetime risk of developing active tuberculosis (TB). Thus, the current challenge is to identify immune parameters that distinguish individuals with latent TB from those with active TB. Using human and experimental models of Mtb infection, we demonstrated that organized ectopic lymphoid structures containing CXCR5+ T cells were present in Mtb-infected lungs. In addition, we found that in experimental Mtb infection models, the presence of CXCR5+ T cells within ectopic lymphoid structures was associated with immune control. Furthermore, in a mouse model of Mtb infection, we showed that activated CD4+CXCR5+ T cells accumulated in Mtb-infected lungs and produced proinflammatory cytokines. Mice deficient in Cxcr5 had increased susceptibility to TB due to defective T cell localization within the lung parenchyma. We demonstrated that CXCR5 expression in T cells mediated correct T cell localization within TB granulomas, promoted efficient macrophage activation, protected against Mtb infection, and facilitated lymphoid follicle formation. These data demonstrate that CD4+CXCR5+ T cells play a protective role in the immune response against TB and highlight their potential use for future TB vaccine design and therapy. PMID:23281399

  3. TH17 Cells in Autoimmunity and Immunodeficiency: Protective or Pathogenic?

    PubMed

    Marwaha, Ashish K; Leung, Nicole J; McMurchy, Alicia N; Levings, Megan K

    2012-01-01

    In 2005 a newly discovered T helper cell subset that secreted interleukin (IL)-17 became the center of attention in immunology. Initial studies painted Th17 cells as the culprit for destruction in many different autoimmune and auto-inflammatory diseases. Subsequently, the discovery of patients with primary immunodeficiencies in the IL-17 pathway taught us that Th17 cells have a critical role in defense against certain fungal and bacterial infections. Moreover, the paradoxical exacerbation of Crohn's disease in the clinical trials of a Secukinumab (AIN457), a fully human neutralizing antibody to IL-17A, has cast into doubt a universal pro-inflammatory and harmful role for Th17 cells. Evidence now suggests that depending on the environment Th17 cells can alter their differentiation program, ultimately giving rise to either protective or pro-inflammatory cells. In this review we will summarize the evidence from patients with immunodeficiencies, autoimmune, or auto-inflammatory diseases that teaches us how the pro-inflammatory versus protective function of Th17 cells varies within the context of different human diseases.

  4. Intestinal stem cell injury and protection during cancer therapy

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Jian

    2014-01-01

    Radiation and chemotherapy remain the most effective and widely used cancer treatments. These treatments cause DNA damage and selectively target rapidly proliferating cells such as cancer cells, as well as inevitably cause damage to normal tissues, particularly those undergoing rapid self renewal. The side effects associated with radiation and chemotherapy are most pronounced in the hematopoietic (HP) system and gastrointestinal (GI) tract. These tissues are fast renewing and have a well-defined stem cell compartment that plays an essential role in homeostasis, and in treatment-induced acute injury that is dose limiting. Using recently defined intestinal stem cell markers and mouse models, a great deal of insight has been gained in the biology of intestinal stem cells (ISCs), which will undoubtedly help further mechanistic understanding of their injury. This review will cover historic discoveries and recent advances in the identification and characterization of intestinal stem cells, their responses to genotoxic stress, and a new crypt and intestinal stem cell culture system. The discussion will include key pathways regulating intestinal crypt and stem cell injury and regeneration caused by cancer treatments, and strategies for their protection. The focus will be on the acute phase of cell killing in mouse radiation models, where our understanding of the mechanisms in relation to intestinal stem cells is most advanced and interventions appear most effective. PMID:24683536

  5. The versatile low-molecular-weight thiols: Beyond cell protection.

    PubMed

    Wang, Min; Zhao, Qunfei; Liu, Wen

    2015-12-01

    Low-molecular-weight (LMW) thiols are extensively involved in the maintenance of cellular redox potentials and the protection of cells from a variety of reactive chemical and electrophilic species. However, we recently found that the metabolic coupling of two LMW thiols - mycothiol (MSH) and ergothioneine (EGT) - programs the biosynthesis of the anti-infective agent lincomycin A. Remarkably, such a constructive role of the thiols in the biosynthesis of natural products has so far received relatively little attention. We speculate that the unusual thiol EGT might function as a chiral thiolation carrier (for modification) and a novel activator (for glycosylation) of sugar. Additionally, we examine recent evidence for LMW thiols (MSH and others) as sulfur donors of sulfur-containing natural products. Clearly, the LMW thiols have more diverse activities beyond cell protection, and more attention should be paid to the correlation of their functions with thiol-dependent enzymes.

  6. Dendritic cells therapy confers a protective microenvironment in murine pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Miranda, S; Litwin, S; Barrientos, G; Szereday, L; Chuluyan, E; Bartho, J S; Arck, P C; Blois, S M

    2006-11-01

    The fetal-placental unit is a semi-allograft and immunological recognition of pregnancy, together with the subsequent response of the maternal immune system, is necessary for a successful pregnancy. Dendritic cells (DC) show a biological plasticity that confers them special characteristics regulating both immunity and tolerance. Therapy employing DC proved to diminish the abortion in the DBA/2J-mated CBA/J females; however, the underlying mechanisms remain unknown. Here, we evaluated whether DC therapy influences the presence of immunoregulatory populations of cells at the fetal-maternal interface. To address this hypothesis, we analysed the pregnancy-protective CD8, gammadelta cell populations as well as transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta1 and progesterone-induced blocking factor (PIBF) expression at the fetal-maternal interface from abortion-prone female mice that had previously received adoptive transfer of syngeneic DC. Syngeneic DC therapy induced an increase in the number of CD8 and gammadelta cells. Additionally, an upregulation of TGF-beta1 and PIBF expression could be detected after DC transfer. We suggest that DC therapy differentially upregulates a regulatory/protective population of cells at the fetal-maternal interface. It is reasonable to assure that this mechanism would be responsible for the lower abortion rate.

  7. Short protection device for stack of electrolytic cells

    DOEpatents

    Katz, Murray; Schroll, Craig R.

    1985-10-22

    Electrical short protection is provided in an electrolytic cell stack by the combination of a thin, nonporous ceramic shield and a noble metal foil disposed on opposite sides of the sealing medium in a gas manifold gasket. The thin ceramic shield, such as alumina, is placed between the porous gasket and the cell stack face at the margins of the negative end plate to the most negative cells to impede ion current flow. The noble metal foil, for instance gold, is electrically coupled to the negative potential of the stack to collect positive ions at a harmless location away from the stack face. Consequently, corrosion products from the stack structure deposit on the foil rather than on the stack face to eliminate electrical shorting of cells at the negative end of the stack.

  8. Calcium protects differentiating neuroblastoma cells during 50 Hz electromagnetic radiation.

    PubMed

    Tonini, R; Baroni, M D; Masala, E; Micheletti, M; Ferroni, A; Mazzanti, M

    2001-11-01

    Despite growing concern about electromagnetic radiation, the interaction between 50- to 60-Hz fields and biological structures remains obscure. Epidemiological studies have failed to prove a significantly correlation between exposure to radiation fields and particular pathologies. We demonstrate that a 50- to 60-Hz magnetic field interacts with cell differentiation through two opposing mechanisms: it antagonizes the shift in cell membrane surface charges that occur during the early phases of differentiation and it modulates hyperpolarizing K channels by increasing intracellular Ca. The simultaneous onset of both mechanisms prevents alterations in cell differentiation. We propose that cells are normally protected against electromagnetic insult. Pathologies may arise, however, if intracellular Ca regulation or K channel activation malfunctions.

  9. Glutamine protects Chinese Hamster Ovary cells from radiation killing

    SciTech Connect

    Winters, R.; Matthews, R.; Ercal, N.; Krishnan, K. )

    1994-01-01

    Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) cells were propagated in vitro and exposed to varying doses of ionizing radiation. The surviving fraction of cells was determined, being found to be a function of the radiation dose. The cell survival curves obtained as a function of radiation dose were modified by the inclusion of varying doses of glutamine in the medium, with glutamine demonstrating a radioprotective effect. The radioprotectant effect of glutamine for CHO cells was more pronounced at higher radiation doses. These results support the idea that glutamine protects body systems such as the gut more directly as a radioprotector as opposed to a more indirect route, such as preventing bacterial translocation from the gut. 16 refs.

  10. NETRIN-4 protects glioblastoma cells FROM temozolomide induced senescence.

    PubMed

    Li, Li; Hu, Yizhou; Ylivinkka, Irene; Li, Huini; Chen, Ping; Keski-Oja, Jorma; Hyytiäinen, Marko

    2013-01-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme is the most common primary tumor of the central nervous system. The drug temozolomide (TMZ) prolongs lifespan in many glioblastoma patients. The sensitivity of glioblastoma cells to TMZ is interfered by many factors, such as the expression of O-6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) and activation of AKT signaling. We have recently identified the interaction between netrin-4 (NTN4) and integrin beta-4 (ITGB4), which promotes glioblastoma cell proliferation via activating AKT-mTOR signaling pathway. In the current work we have explored the effect of NTN4/ITGB4 interaction on TMZ induced glioblastoma cell senescence. We report here that the suppression of either ITGB4 or NTN4 in glioblastoma cell lines significantly enhances cellular senescence. The sensitivity of GBM cells to TMZ was primarily determined by the expression of MGMT. To omit the effect of MGMT, we concentrated on the cell lines devoid of expression of MGMT. NTN4 partially inhibited TMZ induced cell senescence and rescued AKT from dephosphorylation in U251MG cells, a cell line bearing decent levels of ITGB4. However, addition of exogenous NTN4 displayed no significant effect on TMZ induced senescence rescue or AKT activation in U87MG cells, which expressed ITGB4 at low levels. Furthermore, overexpression of ITGB4 combined with exogenous NTN4 significantly attenuated U87MG cell senescence induced by TMZ. These data suggest that NTN4 protects glioblastoma cells from TMZ induced senescence, probably via rescuing TMZ triggered ITGB4 dependent AKT dephosphorylation. This suggests that interfering the interaction between NTN4 and ITGB4 or concomitant use of the inhibitors of the AKT pathway may improve the therapeutic efficiency of TMZ.

  11. Type I collagen gel protects murine fibrosarcoma L929 cells from TNFα-induced cell death

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Hong-Ju; He, Wen-Qi; Chen, Ling; Liu, Wei-Wei; Xu, Qian; Xia, Ming-Yu; Hayashi, Toshihiko; Fujisaki, Hitomi; Hattori, Shunji; Tashiro, Shin-ichi; Onodera, Satoshi; Ikejima, Takashi

    2015-02-20

    Murine fibrosarcoma L929 cells have been used to test efficacy of proinflammatory cytokine TNFα. In the present study, we reported on protective effect of type I collagen gel used as L929 cell culture. L929 cell grew and proliferated well on collagen gel. However, the L929 cells exhibited cobblestone-like morphology which was much different from the spread fusiform shape when cultured on conventional cell dishes as well as the cells tended to aggregate. On conventional cell culture dishes, the cells treated with TNFα became round in shape and eventually died in a necroptotic manner. The cells cultured on collagen gel, however, were completely unaffected. TNFα treatment was reported to induce autophagy in L929 cells on the plastic dish, and therefore we investigated the effect of collagen gel on induction of autophagy. The results indicated that autophagy induced by TNFα treatment was much reduced when the cells were cultured on collagen gel. In conclusion, type I collagen gel protected L929 cell from TNFα-induced cell death. - Highlights: • Collagen gel culture changed the morphology of L929 cells. • L929 cell cultured on collagen gel were resistant to TNFα-induced cell death. • Collagen gel culture inhibited TNFα-induced autophagy in L929 cells.

  12. Gentiana asclepiadea protects human cells against oxidation DNA lesions.

    PubMed

    Hudecová, Alexandra; Hašplová, Katarína; Miadoková, Eva; Magdolenová, Zuzana; Rinna, Alessandra; Collins, Andrew R; Gálová, Eliška; Vaculčíková, Dagmar; Gregáň, Fridrich; Dušinská, Mária

    2012-03-01

    The objectives of this study were to examine whether the methanolic and aqueous extracts from the haulm and flower of Gentiana asclepiadea exhibited free radical scavenging and protective (antigenotoxic) effect against DNA oxidation induced by H(2)O(2) in human lymphocytes and human embryonic kidney cells (HEK 293). All four extracts exhibited high scavenging effect on 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radicals at concentrations 2.5 and 25 mg ml(-1). The level of DNA damage was measured using the alkaline version of single-cell gel electrophoresis (comet assay). Challenge with H(2)O(2) shows that the pre-treatment of the cells with non-genotoxic doses of Gentiana extracts protected human DNA-either eliminated or significantly reduced H(2)O(2) induced DNA damage. The genotoxic activity of H(2)O(2) was most effectively decreased after 30 min of pre-incubation with 0.05 mg ml(-1) (range, 93.5%-96.3% of reduction in lymphocytes) and 0.25 mg ml(-1) (range, 59.5%-71.4% and 52.7%-66.4% of reduction in lymphocytes and HEK 293 cells, respectively) of G. asclepiadea extracts. These results suggest that the tested G. asclepiadea extracts could be considered as an effective natural antioxidant source.

  13. Output-increasing, protective cover for a solar cell

    DOEpatents

    Hammerbacher, Milfred D.

    1995-11-21

    A flexible cover (14) for a flexible solar cell (12) protects the cell from the ambient and increases the cell's efficiency. The cell(12)includes silicon spheres (16) held in a flexible aluminum sheet matrix (20,22). The cover (14) is a flexible, protective layer (60) of light-transparent material having a relatively flat upper, free surface (64) and an irregular opposed surface (66). The irregular surface (66) includes first portions (68) which conform to the polar regions (31R) of the spheres (16) and second convex (72) or concave (90) portions (72 or 90) which define spaces (78) in conjunction with the reflective surface (20T) of one aluminum sheet (20). Without the cover (14) light (50) falling on the surface (20T) between the spheres (16) is wasted, that is, it does not fall on a sphere (16). The surfaces of the second portions are non-parallel to the direction of the otherwise wasted light (50), which fact, together with a selected relationship between the refractive indices of the cover and the spaces, result in sufficient diffraction of the otherwise wasted light (50) so that about 25% of it is reflected from the surface (20T) onto a sphere (16).

  14. Cysteamine protects gastric epithelial cell monolayers against drug induced damage: evidence for direct cellular protection by sulphydryl compounds.

    PubMed Central

    Romano, M; Razandi, M; Raza, A; Szabo, S; Ivey, J

    1992-01-01

    The sulphydryl containing drug cysteamine protects gastric mucosa in vivo against acute injury. It is not known whether this protection includes a direct effect on gastric cells. Using gastric epithelial cell monolayers derived from a well differentiated human cell line, we evaluated whether cysteamine protects against taurocholate or indomethacin induced damage in conditions which completely exclude the influence of vascular, hormonal, and neural factors. The effect of cysteamine on prostaglandin production by monolayer cells in vitro was also assessed. Cysteamine decreased damage brought about by sodium taurocholate and indomethacin by 40% (p less than 0.01) and 50% (p less than 0.01) respectively. The sulphydryl blocker iodoacetamide prevented the protective effect of cysteamine. Pretreatment with indomethacin, which inhibited prostaglandin E2 output by 60%, did not prevent protection by cysteamine; incubation with cysteamine decreased prostaglandin E2 production by cultured cells. We conclude that (i) cysteamine directly protected gastric epithelial cells in vitro (ii) this protection occurred with indomethacin, which interferes with cellular metabolism of prostaglandins, and taurocholate, whose damaging action at neutral pH is unrelated to interference with prostanoid metabolism, (iii) cysteamine protection in vitro is unrelated to endogenous prostaglandins and is probably mediated by endogenous sulphydryl compounds. Images Figure 1A-1B Figure 1C-1E PMID:1740273

  15. L-carnitine protects C2C12 cells against mitochondrial superoxide overproduction and cell death

    PubMed Central

    Le Borgne, Françoise; Ravaut, Gaétan; Bernard, Arnaud; Demarquoy, Jean

    2017-01-01

    AIM To identify and characterize the protective effect that L-carnitine exerted against an oxidative stress in C2C12 cells. METHODS Myoblastic C2C12 cells were treated with menadione, a vitamin K analog that engenders oxidative stress, and the protective effect of L-carnitine (a nutrient involved in fatty acid metabolism and the control of the oxidative process), was assessed by monitoring various parameters related to the oxidative stress, autophagy and cell death. RESULTS Associated with its physiological function, a muscle cell metabolism is highly dependent on oxygen and may produce reactive oxygen species (ROS), especially under pathological conditions. High levels of ROS are known to induce injuries in cell structure as they interact at many levels in cell function. In C2C12 cells, a treatment with menadione induced a loss of transmembrane mitochondrial potential, an increase in mitochondrial production of ROS; it also induces autophagy and was able to provoke cell death. Pre-treatment of the cells with L-carnitine reduced ROS production, diminished autophagy and protected C2C12 cells against menadione-induced deleterious effects. CONCLUSION In conclusion, L-carnitine limits the oxidative stress in these cells and prevents cell death. PMID:28289521

  16. Reliability Through Life of Internal Protection Devices in Small-Cell ABSL Batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neubauer, Jeremy; Ng, Ka Lok; Bennetti, Andrea; Pearson, Chris; Rao, gopal

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews a reliability analysis of small cell protection batteries. The contents include: 1) The s-p Topology; 2) Cell Level Protection Devices; 3) Battery Level Fault Protection; 4) Large Cell Comparison; and 5) Battery Level Testing and Results.

  17. TMIGD1 is a novel adhesion molecule that protects epithelial cells from oxidative cell injury.

    PubMed

    Arafa, Emad; Bondzie, Philip A; Rezazadeh, Kobra; Meyer, Rosana D; Hartsough, Edward; Henderson, Joel M; Schwartz, John H; Chitalia, Vipul; Rahimi, Nader

    2015-10-01

    Oxidative damage to renal tubular epithelial cells is a fundamental pathogenic mechanism implicated in both acute kidney injury and chronic kidney diseases. Because epithelial cell survival influences the outcome of acute kidney injury and chronic kidney diseases, identifying its molecular regulators could provide new insight into pathobiology and possible new therapeutic strategies for these diseases. We have identified transmembrane and immunoglobulin domain-containing 1 (TMIGD1) as a novel adhesion molecule, which is highly conserved in humans and other species. TMIGD1 is expressed in renal tubular epithelial cells and promotes cell survival. The extracellular domain of TMIGD1 contains two putative immunoglobulin domains and mediates self-dimerization. Our data suggest that TMIGD1 regulates transepithelial electric resistance and permeability of renal epithelial cells. TMIGD1 controls cell migration, cell morphology, and protects renal epithelial cells from oxidative- and nutrient-deprivation-induced cell injury. Hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative cell injury downregulates TMIGD1 expression and targets it for ubiquitination. Moreover, TMIGD1 expression is significantly affected in both acute kidney injury and in deoxy-corticosterone acetate and sodium chloride (deoxy-corticosterone acetate salt)-induced chronic hypertensive kidney disease mouse models. Taken together, we have identified TMIGD1 as a novel cell adhesion molecule expressed in kidney epithelial cells that protects kidney epithelial cells from oxidative cell injury to promote cell survival.

  18. A Translocated Bacterial Protein Protects Vascular Endothelial Cells from Apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Schmid, Michael C; Scheidegger, Florine; Dehio, Michaela; Balmelle-Devaux, Nadège; Schulein, Ralf; Guye, Patrick; Chennakesava, Cuddapah S; Biedermann, Barbara; Dehio, Christoph

    2006-01-01

    The modulation of host cell apoptosis by bacterial pathogens is of critical importance for the outcome of the infection process. The capacity of Bartonella henselae and B. quintana to cause vascular tumor formation in immunocompromised patients is linked to the inhibition of vascular endothelial cell (EC) apoptosis. Here, we show that translocation of BepA, a type IV secretion (T4S) substrate, is necessary and sufficient to inhibit EC apoptosis. Ectopic expression in ECs allowed mapping of the anti-apoptotic activity of BepA to the Bep intracellular delivery domain, which, as part of the signal for T4S, is conserved in other T4S substrates. The anti-apoptotic activity appeared to be limited to BepA orthologs of B. henselae and B. quintana and correlated with (i) protein localization to the host cell plasma membrane, (ii) elevated levels of intracellular cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP), and (iii) increased expression of cAMP-responsive genes. The pharmacological elevation of cAMP levels protected ECs from apoptosis, indicating that BepA mediates anti-apoptosis by heightening cAMP levels by a plasma membrane–associated mechanism. Finally, we demonstrate that BepA mediates protection of ECs against apoptosis triggered by cytotoxic T lymphocytes, suggesting a physiological context in which the anti-apoptotic activity of BepA contributes to tumor formation in the chronically infected vascular endothelium. PMID:17121462

  19. Protection against fat cell hyperplasia in a hibernator, Glis glis.

    PubMed

    Mrosovsky, N; Nash, P; Faust, I M

    1987-10-01

    Dormice, Glis glis, were fed a high-fat diet for 11 mo in one experiment: in another experiment they were fed a high-fat diet for 5 mo, either at room temperature (21.5 degrees C) or in a warm room (27 degrees C). Only in the latter group did adipocyte hyperplasia occur; this was significant in all the fat depots studied (inguinal, retroperitoneal, and gonadal). In the other groups there was no evidence of fat cell hyperplasia, despite weight gains from approximately 160 g (peaks on chow diet) to approximately 250 g (maximums on high-fat diet). Instead, fat cell size, assessed from biopsies of the inguinal area, became considerably enlarged. Taken together with earlier data from other species, the results suggest that hibernators are protected against fat cell hyperplasia. In dormice this protection appears to be present at all phases of their seasonal weight cycles. For species that experience several cycles of weight gain and loss in their lives, it may be adaptive to avoid increases in adipocyte number.

  20. CDDO-Me protects normal lung and breast epithelial cells but not cancer cells from radiation.

    PubMed

    El-Ashmawy, Mariam; Delgado, Oliver; Cardentey, Agnelio; Wright, Woodring E; Shay, Jerry W

    2014-01-01

    Although radiation therapy is commonly used for treatment for many human diseases including cancer, ionizing radiation produces reactive oxygen species that can damage both cancer and healthy cells. Synthetic triterpenoids, including CDDO-Me, act as anti-inflammatory and antioxidant modulators primarily by inducing the transcription factor Nrf2 to activate downstream genes containing antioxidant response elements (AREs). In the present series of experiments, we determined if CDDO-Me can be used as a radioprotector in normal non-cancerous human lung and breast epithelial cells, in comparison to lung and breast cancer cell lines. A panel of normal non-cancerous, partially cancer progressed, and cancer cell lines from both lung and breast tissue was exposed to gamma radiation with and without pre-treatment with CDDO-Me. CDDO-Me was an effective radioprotector when given ∼18 hours before radiation in epithelial cells (average dose modifying factor (DMF) = 1.3), and Nrf2 function was necessary for CDDO-Me to exert these radioprotective effects. CDDO-Me did not protect cancer lines tested from radiation-induced cytotoxicity, nor did it protect experimentally transformed human bronchial epithelial cells (HBECs) with progressive oncogenic manipulations. CDDO-Me also protected human lymphocytes against radiation-induced DNA damage. A therapeutic window exists in which CDDO-Me protects normal cells from radiation by activating the Nrf2 pathway, but does not protect experimentally transformed or cancer cell lines. This suggests that use of this oral available, non-toxic class of drug can protect non-cancerous healthy cells during radiotherapy, resulting in better outcomes and less toxicity for patients.

  1. CDDO-Me Protects Normal Lung and Breast Epithelial Cells but Not Cancer Cells from Radiation

    PubMed Central

    El-Ashmawy, Mariam; Delgado, Oliver; Cardentey, Agnelio; Wright, Woodring E.; Shay, Jerry W.

    2014-01-01

    Although radiation therapy is commonly used for treatment for many human diseases including cancer, ionizing radiation produces reactive oxygen species that can damage both cancer and healthy cells. Synthetic triterpenoids, including CDDO-Me, act as anti-inflammatory and antioxidant modulators primarily by inducing the transcription factor Nrf2 to activate downstream genes containing antioxidant response elements (AREs). In the present series of experiments, we determined if CDDO-Me can be used as a radioprotector in normal non-cancerous human lung and breast epithelial cells, in comparison to lung and breast cancer cell lines. A panel of normal non-cancerous, partially cancer progressed, and cancer cell lines from both lung and breast tissue was exposed to gamma radiation with and without pre-treatment with CDDO-Me. CDDO-Me was an effective radioprotector when given ∼18 hours before radiation in epithelial cells (average dose modifying factor (DMF) = 1.3), and Nrf2 function was necessary for CDDO-Me to exert these radioprotective effects. CDDO-Me did not protect cancer lines tested from radiation-induced cytotoxicity, nor did it protect experimentally transformed human bronchial epithelial cells (HBECs) with progressive oncogenic manipulations. CDDO-Me also protected human lymphocytes against radiation-induced DNA damage. A therapeutic window exists in which CDDO-Me protects normal cells from radiation by activating the Nrf2 pathway, but does not protect experimentally transformed or cancer cell lines. This suggests that use of this oral available, non-toxic class of drug can protect non-cancerous healthy cells during radiotherapy, resulting in better outcomes and less toxicity for patients. PMID:25536195

  2. Interfacial properties of cell culture media with cell-protecting additives.

    PubMed

    Michaels, J D; Nowak, J E; Mallik, A K; Koczo, K; Wasan, D T; Papoutsakis, E T

    1995-08-20

    In an effort to identify key rheological properties that contribute to cell protection against shear damage, we have measured surface shear and dilatationai viscosities, dynamic surface tension, foaminess, and foam stability for media containing cell-protecting additives. In a companion article,(18) we found that cell-to-bubble attachment was decreased in media containing Methocel, Pluronic F68, or polyvinyl alcohol (PVA). In medium containing polyethylene glycol (PEG) or potyvinyl-pyrrolidone (PVP), attachment was increased. PEG, PVP, serum (FBS), and serum albumin (BSA) increased the surface viscosity of the air/medium surface (thus, producing a more rigid interface), whereas F68 and PVA lowered it greatly. Foaming experiments showed that Methocel, PEG, PVA, and F68 decreased the foam half-life while FBS, BSA, and PVP were foam stabilizers. Interestingly, the foam stability of CHO cell suspensions decreased significantly for cell concentrations higher than ca. 2 x 10(6) cells/mL. Nonviable CHO cells reduced foam stability further. Dynamic surface tension values of the media tested were found significantly differentfrom their static surface tension values. The interfacial properties measured and the results presented in the companion study suggest that the additives that lower dynamic surface tension the most (Methocel, F68, and PVA) correlate well with reduced cell-to-bubble attachment, and thus, cell protection. Reduced dynamic surface tension with these additives implies faster surfactant adsorption, mobile interfaces, lower surface viscosity, and foam destabilization. Because PEG and PVP resulted in increased cell-to-bubble attachment and had different interfacial properties, a different mechanism (compared with Methocel, PVP, and F68) is apparently responsible for their protective effect. Finally, cell protection offered by FBS and BSA is attributed to the foam stabilization properties provided by these additives. (c) 1995 John Wiley & Sons Inc.

  3. Morphinane alkaloids with cell protective effects from Sinomenium acutum.

    PubMed

    Bao, Guan-Hu; Qin, Guo-Wei; Wang, Rui; Tang, Xi-Can

    2005-07-01

    One new morphinane alkaloid, sinomenine N-oxide (1), and one new natural occurring morphinane alkaloid, N-demethylsinomenine (2), together with six known alkaloids, 7,8-didehydro-4-hydroxy-3,7-dimethoxymorphinan-6-ol (3), sinomenine (4), sinoacutine (5), N-norsinoacutine, acutumine, and acutumidine, were isolated from the stems of Sinomenium acutum. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic analysis and chemical methods. Compounds 2, 3, and 5 have protective effects against hydrogen peroxide-induced cell injury.

  4. Dying Cells Protect Survivors from Radiation-Induced Cell Death in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Bilak, Amber; Uyetake, Lyle; Su, Tin Tin

    2014-01-01

    We report a phenomenon wherein induction of cell death by a variety of means in wing imaginal discs of Drosophila larvae resulted in the activation of an anti-apoptotic microRNA, bantam. Cells in the vicinity of dying cells also become harder to kill by ionizing radiation (IR)-induced apoptosis. Both ban activation and increased protection from IR required receptor tyrosine kinase Tie, which we identified in a genetic screen for modifiers of ban. tie mutants were hypersensitive to radiation, and radiation sensitivity of tie mutants was rescued by increased ban gene dosage. We propose that dying cells activate ban in surviving cells through Tie to make the latter cells harder to kill, thereby preserving tissues and ensuring organism survival. The protective effect we report differs from classical radiation bystander effect in which neighbors of irradiated cells become more prone to death. The protective effect also differs from the previously described effect of dying cells that results in proliferation of nearby cells in Drosophila larval discs. If conserved in mammals, a phenomenon in which dying cells make the rest harder to kill by IR could have implications for treatments that involve the sequential use of cytotoxic agents and radiation therapy. PMID:24675716

  5. An Engineered Herpesvirus Activates Dendritic Cells and Induces Protective Immunity

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Yijie; Chen, Min; Jin, Huali; Prabhakar, Bellur S.; Valyi-Nagy, Tibor; He, Bin

    2017-01-01

    Herpes simplex viruses (HSV) are human pathogens that switch between lytic and latent infection. While attenuated HSV is explored for vaccine, the underlying event remains poorly defined. Here we report that recombinant HSV-1 with a mutation in the γ134.5 protein, a virulence factor, stimulates dendritic cell (DC) maturation which is dependent on TANK-binding kinase 1 (TBK1). When exposed to CD11+ DCs, the mutant virus that lacks the amino terminus of γ134.5 undergoes temporal replication without production of infectious virus. Mechanistically, this leads to sequential phosphorylation of interferon regulatory factor 3 (IRF3) and p65/RelA. In correlation, DCs up-regulate the expression of co-stimulatory molecules and cytokines. However, selective inhibition of TBK1 precludes phosphorylation of IRF3 and subsequent DC activation by the γ134.5 mutant. Herein, the γ134.5 mutant is immune-stimulatory and non-destructive to DCs. Remarkably, upon immunization the γ134.5 mutant induces protection against lethal challenge by the wild type virus, indicative of its vaccine potential. Furthermore, CD11+ DCs primed by the γ134.5 mutant in vivo mediate protection upon adoptive transfer. These results suggest that activation of TBK1 by engineered HSV is crucial for DC maturation, which may contribute to protective immunity. PMID:28150813

  6. Nanomaterial Solutions for the Protection of Insulin Producing Beta Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atchison, Nicole Ann

    Islet transplantation is a promising treatment for type 1 diabetes. However, even with the many successes, islet transplantation has yet to reach its full potential. Limited islet sources, loss of cell viability during isolation and culture, and post-transplant graft loss are a few of the issues preventing extensive use of islet transplantation. The application of biomaterial systems to alleviate some of the stresses affecting islet viability has led to improvements in isolation and transplantation outcomes, but problems persist. In this work we approach two distinct issues affecting islet viability; ischemic conditions and immunological attack post-transplant. Ischemic conditions have been linked to a loss of islet graft function and occur during organ preservation, islet isolation and culture, and after islets are transplanted. We show that liposomal delivery of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) to beta cells can limit cell death and loss of function in ischemic conditions. We demonstrate that by functionalizing liposomes with the fibronectin-mimetic peptide PR_b, delivery of liposomes to porcine islets and rat beta cells is increased compared to nontargeted controls. Additionally, liposomes are shown to protect by providing both ATP and lipids to the ischemic cells. The delivery of ATP was investigated here but application of PR_b functionalized liposomes could be extended to other interesting cargos as well. The second area of investigation involves encapsulation of islets with silica nanoparticles to create a permselective barrier. Silica nanoparticles are an interesting material for encapsulation given their ability to be fine-tuned and further functionalized. We demonstrate that size-tunable, fluorescent silica nanoparticles can be assembled layer-by-layer on the surface of cells and that silica nanoparticle encapsulated islets are able to secrete insulin in response to a glucose challenge.

  7. Are natural killer cells protecting the metabolically healthy obese patient?

    PubMed

    Lynch, Lydia A; O'Connell, Jean M; Kwasnik, Anna K; Cawood, Thomas J; O'Farrelly, Cliona; O'Shea, Donal B

    2009-03-01

    With the emerging obesity pandemic, identifying those who appear to be protected from adverse consequences such as type 2 diabetes and certain malignancies will become important. We propose that the circulating immune system plays a role in the development of these comorbidities. Clinical data and blood samples were collected from 52 patients with severe obesity attending a hospital weight-management clinic and 11 lean healthy controls. Patients were classified into metabolically "healthy obese" (n = 26; mean age 42.6 years, mean BMI 46.8 kg/m(2)) or "unhealthy obese" (n = 26; mean age 45 years, mean BMI 47.5 kg/m(2)) groups, based upon standard cutoff points for blood pressure, lipid profile, and fasting glucose. Circulating lymphoid populations and phenotypes were assessed by flow cytometry. Obese patients had significantly less circulating natural killer (NK) and cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) compared to lean controls. There were significantly higher levels of NK cells and CTLs in the healthy obese group compared to the unhealthy obese group (NK: 11.7% vs. 6.5%, P < 0.0001, CD8 13.4% vs. 9.3%, P = 0.04), independent of age and BMI and these NK cells were also less activated in the healthy compared to the unhealthy group (CD69, 4.1% vs. 11.8%, P = 0.03). This is the first time that quantitative differences in the circulating immune system of obese patients with similar BMI but different metabolic profiles have been described. The significantly higher levels of CTLs and NK cells, which express fewer inhibitory molecules, could protect against malignancy, infection, and metabolic disease seen in obesity.

  8. Somatostatin protects photoreceptor cells against high glucose–induced apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Mazzeo, Aurora; Cazzoni, Daniele; Beltramo, Elena; Hernández, Cristina; Porta, Massimo; Simó, Rafael; Valverde, Ángela M.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Many cellular and molecular studies in experimental animals and early retinal function tests in patients with diabetic retinopathy (DR) have shown that retinal neurodegeneration is an early event in the pathogenesis of the disease. Somatostatin (SST) is one of the most important neuroprotective factors synthesized by the retina: SST levels are decreased in parallel to retinal neurodegeneration in early stages of DR. In this study, we characterized the induction of apoptosis (programmed cell death) in a 661W photoreceptor-like cell line cultured under high glucose (HG) conditions and the effect of SST. Methods A 661W photoreceptor-like cell line and retinal explants from 10-week-old male C57BL/6 mice were cultured under HG conditions and treated with SST. Results Hyperglycemia significantly reduced the cellular viability by increasing the percentage of apoptotic cells, and this effect was ameliorated by SST (p˂0.05). Activation of caspase-8 by hyperglycemia was found in the 661W cells and retinal explants and decreased in the presence of SST (p˂0.05). Moreover, we detected activation of calpain-2 associated with hyperglycemia-induced cell death, as well as increased protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) protein levels; both had a pattern of cleavage that was absent in the presence of SST (p˂0.05). Treatment of the 661W cells and retinal explants with SST for 24 h increased the phosphorylation of type 1 insulin-like growth factor receptor (IGF-IR; tyrosine 1165/1166) and protein kinase B (Akt; serine 473), suggesting this survival signaling is activated in the neuroretina by SST (p˂0.05). Conclusions This study has provided new mechanistic insights first into the involvement of calpain-2 and PTP1B in the loss of cell survival and increased caspase-8-dependent apoptosis induced by hyperglycemia in photoreceptor cells and second, on the protective effect of SST against apoptosis by the enhancement of IGF-IR-mediated Akt phosphorylation. PMID:28050125

  9. Curcumin Protects Retinal Cells from Light- and Oxidant Stress-induced Cell Death

    PubMed Central

    Mandal, Md Nawajes A.; Patlolla, Jagan M.R.; Zheng, Lixin; Agbaga, Martin-Paul; Tran, Julie-Thu A.; Wicker, Lea; Kasus-Jacobi, Anne; Elliott, Michael H.; Rao, Chinthalapally V.; Anderson, Robert E.

    2009-01-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a complex disease that has potential involvement of inflammatory and oxidative stress-related pathways in its pathogenesis. In search of effective therapeutic agents, we tested curcumin, a naturally-occurring compound with known anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative properties, in rat model of light induced retinal degeneration (LIRD) and in retina derived cell lines. We hypothesized that any compound effective against LIRD, which involves significant oxidative stress and inflammation, would be a candidate for further characterization for its potential application in AMD. We observed significant retinal neuroprotection in rats fed diets supplemented with curcumin (0.2% in diet) for 2 weeks. The mechanism of retinal protection from LIRD by curcumin involves inhibition of NF-κB activation and down-regulation of cellular inflammatory genes. When tested on retina-derived cell lines (661W and ARPE-19), pre-treatment of curcumin protected these cells from H2O2-induced cell death by up-regulating cellular protective enzymes, such as HO-1, thioredoxin. Since, curcumin with its pleiotropic activities can modulate the expression and activation of many cellular regulatory proteins such as NF-κB, AKT, NRF2 and growth factors, which in turn inhibit cellular inflammatory responses and protect cells; we speculate that curcumin would be an effective nutraceutical compound for preventive and augmentative therapy of AMD. PMID:19121385

  10. Life span extension and neuronal cell protection by Drosophila nicotinamidase.

    PubMed

    Balan, Vitaly; Miller, Gregory S; Kaplun, Ludmila; Balan, Karina; Chong, Zhao-Zhong; Li, Faqi; Kaplun, Alexander; VanBerkum, Mark F A; Arking, Robert; Freeman, D Carl; Maiese, Kenneth; Tzivion, Guri

    2008-10-10

    The life span of model organisms can be modulated by environmental conditions that influence cellular metabolism, oxidation, or DNA integrity. The yeast nicotinamidase gene pnc1 was identified as a key transcriptional target and mediator of calorie restriction and stress-induced life span extension. PNC1 is thought to exert its effect on yeast life span by modulating cellular nicotinamide and NAD levels, resulting in increased activity of Sir2 family class III histone deacetylases. In Caenorhabditis elegans, knockdown of a pnc1 homolog was shown recently to shorten the worm life span, whereas its overexpression increased survival under conditions of oxidative stress. The function and regulation of nicotinamidases in higher organisms has not been determined. Here, we report the identification and biochemical characterization of the Drosophila nicotinamidase, D-NAAM, and demonstrate that its overexpression significantly increases median and maximal fly life span. The life span extension was reversed in Sir2 mutant flies, suggesting Sir2 dependence. Testing for physiological effectors of D-NAAM in Drosophila S2 cells, we identified oxidative stress as a primary regulator, both at the transcription level and protein activity. In contrast to the yeast model, stress factors such as high osmolarity and heat shock, calorie restriction, or inhibitors of TOR and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase pathways do not appear to regulate D-NAAM in S2 cells. Interestingly, the expression of D-NAAM in human neuronal cells conferred protection from oxidative stress-induced cell death in a sirtuin-dependent manner. Together, our findings establish a life span extending the ability of nicotinamidase in flies and offer a role for nicotinamide-modulating genes in oxidative stress regulated pathways influencing longevity and neuronal cell survival.

  11. Vanillin protects human keratinocyte stem cells against ultraviolet B irradiation.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jienny; Cho, Jae Youl; Lee, Sang Yeol; Lee, Kyung-Woo; Lee, Jongsung; Song, Jae-Young

    2014-01-01

    Ultraviolet-B (UVB) irradiation is one of major factors which induce cellular damages in the epidermis. We investigated protective effects and mechanisms of vanillin, a main constituent of vanilla beans, against UVB-induced cellular damages in keratinocyte stem cells (KSC). Here, vanillin significantly attenuated UVB irradiation-induced cytotoxicity. The vanillin effects were also demonstrated by the results of the senescence-associated β-galactosidase and alkaline comet assays. In addition, vanillin induced production of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Attempts to elucidate a possible mechanism underlying the vanillin-mediated effects revealed that vanillin significantly reduced UVB-induced phosphorylation of ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM), serine threonine kinase checkpoint kinase 2 (Chk2), tumor suppressor protein 53 (p53), p38/mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38), c-Jun N-terminal kinase/stress-activated protein kinase (JNK), S6 ribosomal protein (S6RP), and histone 2A family member X (H2A.X). UVB-induced activation of p53 luciferase reporter was also significantly inhibited by vanillin. In addition, while ATM inhibitor had no effect on the vanillin effects, mouse double minute 2 homolog (MDM2) inhibitor significantly attenuated suppressive effects of vanillin on UVB-induced activation of p53 reporter in KSC. Taken together, these findings suggest that vanillin protects KSC from UVB irradiation and its effects may occur through the suppression of downstream step of MDM2 in UVB irradiation-induced p53 activation.

  12. Evaluation of overcharge protection life in nickel cadmium cells with non-nylon separators

    SciTech Connect

    Scoles, D.L.; Johnson, Z.W.; Hayden, J.W.; Pickett, D.F. Jr.

    1997-12-01

    Hydrogen gassing and the potential for cell rupture in aerospace nickel cadmium cells is directly related to loss of overcharge protection built into the cell during manufacturing. It is well known that cells having nylon separators contribute to this loss via a hydrolysis reaction of the nylon in the potassium hydroxide electrolyte environment in the cell. The hydrolysis reaction produces lower chain organics which are oxidized by the positive electrode and oxygen. Oxidation of the organics diminishes the overcharge protection. With introduction of the Super NiCd and the Magnum nickel cadmium cells the nylon hydrolysis reaction is eliminated, but any reducing agent in the cell such as nickel or an organic additive can contribute to loss of overcharge protection. The present effort describes analyses made to evaluate the extent of overcharge protection loss in cells which do not have nylon hydrolysis and quantifies the diminished amount of overcharge protection loss as a result of eliminating nylon from aerospace cells.

  13. Role of B Cells in Mucosal Vaccine-Induced Protective CD8+ T Cell Immunity against Pulmonary Tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Khera, Amandeep K; Afkhami, Sam; Lai, Rocky; Jeyanathan, Mangalakumari; Zganiacz, Anna; Mandur, Talveer; Hammill, Joni; Damjanovic, Daniela; Xing, Zhou

    2015-09-15

    Emerging evidence suggests a role of B cells in host defense against primary pulmonary tuberculosis (TB). However, the role of B cells in TB vaccine-induced protective T cell immunity still remains unknown. Using a viral-vectored model TB vaccine and a number of experimental approaches, we have investigated the role of B cells in respiratory mucosal vaccine-induced T cell responses and protection against pulmonary TB. We found that respiratory mucosal vaccination activated Ag-specific B cell responses. Whereas respiratory mucosal vaccination elicited Ag-specific T cell responses in the airway and lung interstitium of genetic B cell-deficient (Jh(-/-) knockout [KO]) mice, the levels of airway T cell responses were lower than in wild-type hosts, which were associated with suboptimal protection against pulmonary Mycobacterium tuberculosis challenge. However, mucosal vaccination induced T cell responses in the airway and lung interstitium and protection in B cell-depleted wild-type mice to a similar extent as in B cell-competent hosts. Furthermore, by using an adoptive cell transfer approach, reconstitution of B cells in vaccinated Jh(-/-) KO mice did not enhance anti-TB protection. Moreover, respiratory mucosal vaccine-activated T cells alone were able to enhance anti-TB protection in SCID mice, and the transfer of vaccine-primed B cells alongside T cells did not further enhance such protection. Alternatively, adoptively transferring vaccine-primed T cells from Jh(-/-) KO mice into SCID mice only provided suboptimal protection. These data together suggest that B cells play a minimal role, and highlight a central role by T cells, in respiratory mucosal vaccine-induced protective immunity against M. tuberculosis.

  14. DJ-1 Protects Pancreatic Beta Cells from Cytokine- and Streptozotocin-Mediated Cell Death.

    PubMed

    Jain, Deepak; Weber, Gesine; Eberhard, Daniel; Mehana, Amir E; Eglinger, Jan; Welters, Alena; Bartosinska, Barbara; Jeruschke, Kay; Weiss, Jürgen; Päth, Günter; Ariga, Hiroyoshi; Seufert, Jochen; Lammert, Eckhard

    2015-01-01

    A hallmark feature of type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus is the progressive dysfunction and loss of insulin-producing pancreatic beta cells, and inflammatory cytokines are known to trigger beta cell death. Here we asked whether the anti-oxidant protein DJ-1 encoded by the Parkinson's disease gene PARK7 protects islet cells from cytokine- and streptozotocin-mediated cell death. Wild type and DJ-1 knockout mice (KO) were treated with multiple low doses of streptozotocin (MLDS) to induce inflammatory beta cell stress and cell death. Subsequently, glucose tolerance tests were performed, and plasma insulin as well as fasting and random blood glucose concentrations were monitored. Mitochondrial morphology and number of insulin granules were quantified in beta cells. Moreover, islet cell damage was determined in vitro after streptozotocin and cytokine treatment of isolated wild type and DJ-1 KO islets using calcein AM/ethidium homodimer-1 staining and TUNEL staining. Compared to wild type mice, DJ-1 KO mice became diabetic following MLDS treatment. Insulin concentrations were substantially reduced, and fasting blood glucose concentrations were significantly higher in MLDS-treated DJ-1 KO mice compared to equally treated wild type mice. Rates of beta cell apoptosis upon MLDS treatment were twofold higher in DJ-1 KO mice compared to wild type mice, and in vitro inflammatory cytokines led to twice as much beta cell death in pancreatic islets from DJ-1 KO mice versus those of wild type mice. In conclusion, this study identified the anti-oxidant protein DJ-1 as being capable of protecting pancreatic islet cells from cell death induced by an inflammatory and cytotoxic setting.

  15. Protective interlayer for high temperature solid electrolyte electrochemical cells

    DOEpatents

    Singh, Prabhakar; Vasilow, Theodore R.; Richards, Von L.

    1996-01-01

    The invention comprises of an electrically conducting doped or admixed cerium oxide composition with niobium oxide and/or tantalum oxide for electrochemical devices, characterized by the general formula: Nb.sub.x Ta.sub.y Ce.sub.1-x-y O.sub.2 where x is about 0.0 to 0.05, y is about 0.0 to 0.05, and x+y is about 0.02 to 0.05, and where x is preferably about 0.02 to 0.05 and y is 0, and a method of making the same. This novel composition is particularly applicable in forming a protective interlayer of a high temperature, solid electrolyte electrochemical cell (10), characterized by a first electrode (12); an electrically conductive interlayer (14) of niobium and/or tantalum doped cerium oxide deposited over at least a first portion (R) of the first electrode; an interconnect (16) deposited over the interlayer; a solid electrolyte (18) deposited over a second portion of the first electrode, the first portion being discontinuous from the second portion; and, a second electrode (20) deposited over the solid electrolyte. The interlayer (14) is characterized as being porous and selected from the group consisting of niobium doped cerium oxide, tantalum doped cerium oxide, and niobium and tantalum doped cerium oxide or admixtures of the same. The first electrode (12), an air electrode, is a porous layer of doped lanthanum manganite, the solid electrolyte layer (18) is a dense yttria stabilized zirconium oxide, the interconnect layer (16) is a dense, doped lanthanum chromite, and the second electrode (20), a fuel electrode, is a porous layer of nickel-zirconium oxide cermet. The electrochemical cell (10) can take on a plurality of shapes such as annular, planar, etc. and can be connected to a plurality of electrochemical cells in series and/or in parallel to generate electrical energy.

  16. Protective interlayer for high temperature solid electrolyte electrochemical cells

    DOEpatents

    Singh, P.; Vasilow, T.R.; Richards, V.L.

    1996-05-14

    The invention is comprised of an electrically conducting doped or admixed cerium oxide composition with niobium oxide and/or tantalum oxide for electrochemical devices, characterized by the general formula: Nb{sub x}Ta{sub y}Ce{sub 1{minus}x{minus}y}O{sub 2} where x is about 0.0 to 0.05, y is about 0.0 to 0.05, and x+y is about 0.02 to 0.05, and where x is preferably about 0.02 to 0.05 and y is 0, and a method of making the same is also described. This novel composition is particularly applicable in forming a protective interlayer of a high temperature, solid electrolyte electrochemical cell, characterized by a first electrode; an electrically conductive interlayer of niobium and/or tantalum doped cerium oxide deposited over at least a first portion of the first electrode; an interconnect deposited over the interlayer; a solid electrolyte deposited over a second portion of the first electrode, the first portion being discontinuous from the second portion; and, a second electrode deposited over the solid electrolyte. The interlayer is characterized as being porous and selected from the group consisting of niobium doped cerium oxide, tantalum doped cerium oxide, and niobium and tantalum doped cerium oxide or admixtures of the same. The first electrode, an air electrode, is a porous layer of doped lanthanum manganite, the solid electrolyte layer is a dense yttria stabilized zirconium oxide, the interconnect layer is a dense, doped lanthanum chromite, and the second electrode, a fuel electrode, is a porous layer of nickel-zirconium oxide cermet. The electrochemical cell can take on a plurality of shapes such as annular, planar, etc. and can be connected to a plurality of electrochemical cells in series and/or in parallel to generate electrical energy. 5 figs.

  17. A Novel Cell-Associated Protection Assay Demonstrates the Ability of Certain Antibiotics To Protect Ocular Surface Cell Lines from Subsequent Clinical Staphylococcus aureus Challenge▿†

    PubMed Central

    Wingard, J. B.; Romanowski, E. G.; Kowalski, R. P.; Mah, F. S.; Ling, Y.; Bilonick, R. A.; Shanks, R. M. Q.

    2011-01-01

    In vivo effectiveness of topical antibiotics may depend on their ability to associate with epithelial cells to provide continued protection, but this contribution is not measured by standard antibiotic susceptibility tests. We report a new in vitro method that measures the ability of test antibiotics azithromycin (AZM), erythromycin (ERY), tetracycline (TET), and bacitracin (BAC) to associate with mammalian cells and to protect these cells from destruction by bacteria. Mammalian cell lines were grown to confluence using antibiotic-free medium and then incubated in medium containing a single antibiotic (0 to 512 μg/ml). After incubation, the cells were challenged with Staphylococcus aureus ocular isolates, without antibiotics added to the culture medium. Epithelial cell layer integrity was assessed by gentian violet staining, and the minimum cell layer protective concentration (MCPC) of an antibiotic sufficient to protect the mammalian cells from S. aureus was determined. Staining was also quantified and analyzed. Bacterial viability was determined by culture turbidity and growth on agar plates. Preincubation of Chang and human corneal limbal epithelial cells with AZM, ERY, and TET at ≥64 μg/ml provided protection against AZM-susceptible S. aureus strains, with increasing protection at higher concentrations. TET toxicity was demonstrated at >64 μg/ml, whereas AZM displayed toxicity to one cell line at 512 μg/ml. BAC failed to show consistent protection at any dose, despite bacterial susceptibility to BAC as determined by traditional antibiotic susceptibility testing. A range of antibiotic effectiveness was displayed in this cell association assay, providing data that may be considered in addition to traditional testing when determining therapeutic dosing regimens. PMID:21628536

  18. Tie-mediated signal from apoptotic cells protects stem cells in Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Xing, Yalan; Su, Tin Tin; Ruohola-Baker, Hannele

    2015-01-01

    Many types of normal and cancer stem cells are resistant to killing by genotoxins, but the mechanism for this resistance is poorly understood. Here we show that adult stem cells in Drosophila melanogaster germline and midgut are resistant to ionizing radiation (IR) or chemically induced apoptosis and dissect the mechanism for this protection. We find that upon IR the receptor tyrosine kinase Tie/Tie-2 is activated, leading to the upregulation of microRNA bantam that represses FOXO-mediated transcription of pro-apoptotic Smac/DIA-BLO orthologue, Hid in germline stem cells. Knockdown of the IR-induced putative Tie ligand, Pvf1, a functional homologue of human Angiopoietin, in differentiating daughter cells renders germline stem cells sensitive to IR, suggesting that the dying daughters send a survival signal to protect their stem cells for future repopulation of the tissue. If conserved in cancer stem cells, this mechanism may provide therapeutic options for the eradication of cancer. PMID:25959206

  19. The thread-protective cell, a new cell performing multiple tasks.

    PubMed

    Dănăilă, L; Păiş, V

    2011-01-01

    Our research work, which has led us to discovering the new cerebral cell, has started 30 years ago. An important moment was the year 1986, when we have highlighted it for the first time, during a study upon the clarification of some undiscovered aspects of cerebral atherosclerosis. In 2006 we have initiated the publishing of our results at three congresses (Cape Town - 2006; San Diego - 2009 and Los Angeles - 2011) as well as in three Atlases, form 2006, 2008 and 2010. By means of the electronic microscope we have analyzed to this purpose alone, a number of neurosurgery patients, with 1176 cerebral, vascular, tumoral, cortical, choroid plexus tumor and infectious biopsies. The cell in question was named cordocit-protectocit (thread-protective cell) in order to highlight its morphological aspect of a belt band and its functional one, of protective element of the noble substance of the brain, acting for its defense against various aggressions, especially hemorrhagic. On this occasion we have discovered that the pia mater is made up of such protective cells, which also play a role in preventing the neuroblasts from migrating. When the chemotactants of our cells are not numerous enough, subcortical cell heterotopias will occur, at the level of the corona radiata, double cortex and other neuronal migration disorders which may generate epilepsy. Therefore, the pia mater should be considered from a cytodynamic perspective. The telocyte at the internal organs level (intestine, heart etc.) is nothing else but the interstitial cell of Cajal (ICC), described by Cajal more than 100 years ago. The ICC spontaneously initiate rhythmic electrical activity, much like the peacemaker cells of the heart.

  20. Type I IFN promotes NK cell expansion during viral infection by protecting NK cells against fratricide.

    PubMed

    Madera, Sharline; Rapp, Moritz; Firth, Matthew A; Beilke, Joshua N; Lanier, Lewis L; Sun, Joseph C

    2016-02-08

    Type I interferon (IFN) is crucial in host antiviral defense. Previous studies have described the pleiotropic role of type I IFNs on innate and adaptive immune cells during viral infection. Here, we demonstrate that natural killer (NK) cells from mice lacking the type I IFN-α receptor (Ifnar(-/-)) or STAT1 (which signals downstream of IFNAR) are defective in expansion and memory cell formation after mouse cytomegalovirus (MCMV) infection. Despite comparable proliferation, Ifnar(-/-) NK cells showed diminished protection against MCMV infection and exhibited more apoptosis compared with wild-type NK cells. Furthermore, we show that Ifnar(-/-) NK cells express increased levels of NK group 2 member D (NKG2D) ligands during viral infection and are susceptible to NK cell-mediated fratricide in a perforin- and NKG2D-dependent manner. Adoptive transfer of Ifnar(-/-) NK cells into NK cell-deficient mice reverses the defect in survival and expansion. Our study reveals a novel type I IFN-dependent mechanism by which NK cells evade mechanisms of cell death after viral infection.

  1. An AD-related neuroprotector rescues transformed rat retinal ganglion cells from CoCl₂-induced apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Men, Jie; Zhang, Xiaohui; Yang, Yang; Gao, Dianwen

    2012-05-01

    Some ocular diseases characterized by apoptotic death of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) and Alzheimer's disease (AD) are chronic neurodegenerative disorders and have similarities in neuropathology. Humanin (HN) is known for its ability to suppress neuronal death induced by AD-related insults. In present study, we investigated the neuroprotective effects of HN on hypoxia-induced toxicity in RGC-5 cells. Hypoxia mimetic compound cobalt chloride (CoCl₂) could increase the cell viability loss and apoptosis, whereas HN can significantly attenuate these effects. This finding may provide new therapeutics for the retinal neurodegenerative diseases targeting neuroprotection.

  2. The preparation of immunogenic cell walls from a highly protective strain of Clostridium chauvoei.

    PubMed

    Chandler, H M; Hamilton, R C

    1975-05-01

    Conventional methods for the preparation of cell walls of a highly protective strain of Clostridium chauvoei destroy the protective antigen. Bacteria were therefore lysed by the enzyme pronase instead of by the mechanical disintegration methods commonly employed. Final purification and separation of cell walls and membranes was achieved by equilibrium density-gradient centrifugation with sodium iodide in a zonal rotor. The resultant cell walls had a two-layered structure when seen in ultra-thin section and were highly immunogenic when used to immunize mice against challenge with C. chauvoei. Rabbit antisera raised against the cell walls provided passive protection against challenge in mice and the level of protection was not diminished by the absorption of all agglutinins from the sera. These results confirm previous observations that the protective antigen is a heatlabile cell wall antigen which stimulates the production of non-agglutinating protective antibody.

  3. Sirtuin1 and autophagy protect cells from fluoride-induced cell stress.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Maiko; Bartlett, John D

    2014-02-01

    Sirtuin1 (SIRT1) is a nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD(+))-dependent deacetylase functioning in the regulation of metabolism, cell survival and organismal lifespan. Active SIRT1 regulates autophagy during cell stress, including calorie restriction, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and oxidative stress. Previously, we reported that fluoride induces ER-stress in ameloblasts responsible for enamel formation, suggesting that ER-stress plays a role in dental fluorosis. However, the molecular mechanism of how cells respond to fluoride-induced cell stress is unclear. Here, we demonstrate that fluoride activates SIRT1 and initiates autophagy to protect cells from fluoride exposure. Fluoride treatment of ameloblast-derived cells (LS8) significantly increased Sirt1 expression and induced SIRT1 phosphorylation resulting in the augmentation of SIRT1 deacetylase activity. To demonstrate that fluoride exposure initiates autophagy, we characterized the expression of autophagy related genes (Atg); Atg5, Atg7 and Atg8/LC3 and showed that both their transcript and protein levels were significantly increased following fluoride treatment. To confirm that SIRT1 plays a protective role in fluoride toxicity, we used resveratrol (RES) to augment SIRT1 activity in fluoride treated LS8 cells. RES increased autophagy, inhibited apoptosis, and decreased fluoride cytotoxicity. Rats treated with fluoride (0, 50, 100 and 125ppm) in drinking water for 6weeks had significantly elevated expression levels of Sirt1, Atg5, Atg7 and Atg8/LC3 in their maturation stage enamel organs. Increased protein levels of p-SIRT1, ATG5 and ATG8/LC3 were present in fluoride-treated rat maturation stage ameloblasts. Therefore, the SIRT1/autophagy pathway may play a critical role as a protective response to help prevent dental fluorosis.

  4. Sirtuin1 and autophagy protect cells from fluoride-induced cell stress

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Maiko; Bartlett, John D.

    2014-01-01

    Sirtuin1 (SIRT1) is an (NAD+)-dependent deacetylase functioning in the regulation of metabolism, cell survival and organismal lifespan. Active SIRT1 regulates autophagy during cell stress, including calorie restriction, endoplasmic reticulum stress and oxidative stress. Previously, we reported that fluoride induces endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in ameloblasts responsible for enamel formation, suggesting that ER-stress plays a role in dental fluorosis. However, the molecular mechanism of how cells respond to fluoride-induced cell stress is unclear. Here, we demonstrate that fluoride activates SIRT1 and initiates autophagy to protect cells from fluoride exposure. Fluoride treatment of ameloblast-derived cells (LS8) significantly increased Sirt1 expression and induced SIRT1 phosphorylation resulting in the augmentation of SIRT1 deacetylase activity. To demonstrate that fluoride exposure initiates autophagy, we characterized the expression of autophagy related genes (Atg); Atg5, Atg7 and Atg8/LC3 and showed that both their transcript and protein levels were significantly increased following fluoride treatment. To confirm that SIRT1 plays a protective role in fluoride toxicity, we used resveratrol (RES) to augmented SIRT1 activity in fluoride treated LS8 cells. RES increased autophagy, inhibited apoptosis, and decreased fluoride cytotoxicity. Rats treated with fluoride (0, 50 and 100 ppm) in drinking water for 6 weeks had significantly elevated expression levels of Sirt1, Atg5, Atg7 and Atg8/LC3 in their maturation stage enamel organs. Increased protein levels of p-SIRT1, ATG5 and ATG8/LC3 were present in fluoride-treated rat maturation stage ameloblasts. Therefore, the SIRT1/autophagy pathway may play a critical role as a protective response to help prevent dental fluorosis. PMID:24296261

  5. Semicarbazone EGA Inhibits Uptake of Diphtheria Toxin into Human Cells and Protects Cells from Intoxication

    PubMed Central

    Schnell, Leonie; Mittler, Ann-Katrin; Mattarei, Andrea; Tehran, Domenico Azarnia; Montecucco, Cesare; Barth, Holger

    2016-01-01

    Diphtheria toxin is a single-chain protein toxin that invades human cells by receptor-mediated endocytosis. In acidic endosomes, its translocation domain inserts into endosomal membranes and facilitates the transport of the catalytic domain (DTA) from endosomal lumen into the host cell cytosol. Here, DTA ADP-ribosylates elongation factor 2 inhibits protein synthesis and leads to cell death. The compound 4-bromobenzaldehyde N-(2,6-dimethylphenyl)semicarbazone (EGA) has been previously shown to protect cells from various bacterial protein toxins which deliver their enzymatic subunits from acidic endosomes to the cytosol, including Bacillus anthracis lethal toxin and the binary clostridial actin ADP-ribosylating toxins C2, iota and Clostridium difficile binary toxin (CDT). Here, we demonstrate that EGA also protects human cells from diphtheria toxin by inhibiting the pH-dependent translocation of DTA across cell membranes. The results suggest that EGA might serve for treatment and/or prevention of the severe disease diphtheria. PMID:27428999

  6. Meninges: from protective membrane to stem cell niche

    PubMed Central

    Decimo, Ilaria; Fumagalli, Guido; Berton, Valeria; Krampera, Mauro; Bifari, Francesco

    2012-01-01

    Meninges are a three tissue membrane primarily known as coverings of the brain. More in depth studies on meningeal function and ultrastructure have recently changed the view of meninges as a merely protective membrane. Accurate evaluation of the anatomical distribution in the CNS reveals that meninges largely penetrate inside the neural tissue. Meninges enter the CNS by projecting between structures, in the stroma of choroid plexus and form the perivascular space (Virchow-Robin) of every parenchymal vessel. Thus, meninges may modulate most of the physiological and pathological events of the CNS throughout the life. Meninges are present since the very early embryonic stages of cortical development and appear to be necessary for normal corticogenesis and brain structures formation. In adulthood meninges contribute to neural tissue homeostasis by secreting several trophic factors including FGF2 and SDF-1. Recently, for the first time, we have identified the presence of a stem cell population with neural differentiation potential in meninges. In addition, we and other groups have further described the presence in meninges of injury responsive neural precursors. In this review we will give a comprehensive view of meninges and their multiple roles in the context of a functional network with the neural tissue. We will highlight the current literature on the developmental feature of meninges and their role in cortical development. Moreover, we will elucidate the anatomical distribution of the meninges and their trophic properties in adult CNS. Finally, we will emphasize recent evidences suggesting the potential role of meninges as stem cell niche harbouring endogenous precursors that can be activated by injury and are able to contribute to CNS parenchymal reaction. PMID:23671802

  7. Intestinal epithelial cell secretion of RELM-beta protects against gastrointestinal worm infection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    IL-4 and IL-13 protect against parasitic helminths, but little is known about the mechanism of host protection. We show that IL-4/IL-13 confer immunity against worms by inducing intestinal epithelial cells (IEC) to differentiate into goblet cells that secrete resistin-like molecule beta (RELMB). R...

  8. γδ T Cells Confer Protection against Murine Cytomegalovirus (MCMV)

    PubMed Central

    Villacreces, Arnaud; Juzan, Marina; Rousseau, Benoît; Dulanto, Sara; Giese, Alban; Costet, Pierre; Praloran, Vincent; Moreau, Jean-François; Dubus, Pierre; Vermijlen, David

    2015-01-01

    Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is a leading infectious cause of morbidity in immune-compromised patients. γδ T cells have been involved in the response to CMV but their role in protection has not been firmly established and their dependency on other lymphocytes has not been addressed. Using C57BL/6 αβ and/or γδ T cell-deficient mice, we here show that γδ T cells are as competent as αβ T cells to protect mice from CMV-induced death. γδ T cell-mediated protection involved control of viral load and prevented organ damage. γδ T cell recovery by bone marrow transplant or adoptive transfer experiments rescued CD3ε−/− mice from CMV-induced death confirming the protective antiviral role of γδ T cells. As observed in humans, different γδ T cell subsets were induced upon CMV challenge, which differentiated into effector memory cells. This response was observed in the liver and lungs and implicated both CD27+ and CD27− γδ T cells. NK cells were the largely preponderant producers of IFNγ and cytotoxic granules throughout the infection, suggesting that the protective role of γδ T cells did not principally rely on either of these two functions. Finally, γδ T cells were strikingly sufficient to fully protect Rag−/−γc−/− mice from death, demonstrating that they can act in the absence of B and NK cells. Altogether our results uncover an autonomous protective antiviral function of γδ T cells, and open new perspectives for the characterization of a non classical mode of action which should foster the design of new γδ T cell based therapies, especially useful in αβ T cell compromised patients. PMID:25747674

  9. Autophagy Protects Against Aminochrome-Induced Cell Death in Substantia Nigra-Derived Cell Line

    PubMed Central

    Paris, Irmgard; Muñoz, Patricia; Huenchuguala, Sandro; Couve, Eduardo; Sanders, Laurie H.; Greenamyre, John Timothy; Caviedes, Pablo; Segura-Aguilar, Juan

    2011-01-01

    Aminochrome, the precursor of neuromelanin, has been proposed to be involved in the neurodegeneration neuromelanin-containing dopaminergic neurons in Parkinson’s disease. We aimed to study the mechanism of aminochrome-dependent cell death in a cell line derived from rat substantia nigra. We found that aminochrome (50μM), in the presence of NAD(P)H-quinone oxidoreductase, EC 1.6.99.2 (DT)-diaphorase inhibitor dicoumarol (DIC) (100μM), induces significant cell death (62 ± 3%; p < 0.01), increase in caspase-3 activation (p < 0.001), release of cytochrome C, disruption of mitochondrial membrane potential (p < 0.01), damage of mitochondrial DNA, damage of mitochondria determined with transmission electron microscopy, a dramatic morphological change characterized as cell shrinkage, and significant increase in number of autophagic vacuoles. To determine the role of autophagy on aminochrome-induced cell death, we incubated the cells in the presence of vinblastine and rapamycin. Interestingly, 10μM vinblastine induces a 5.9-fold (p < 0.001) and twofold (p < 0.01) significant increase in cell death when the cells were incubated with 30μM aminochrome in the absence and presence of DIC, respectively, whereas 10μM rapamycin preincubated 24 h before addition of 50μM aminochrome in the absence and the presence of 100μM DIC induces a significant decrease (p < 0.001) in cell death. In conclusion, autophagy seems to be an important protective mechanism against two different aminochrome-induced cell deaths that initially showed apoptotic features. The cell death induced by aminochrome when DT-diaphorase is inhibited requires activation of mitochondrial pathway, whereas the cell death induced by aminochrome alone requires inhibition of autophagy-dependent degrading of damaged organelles and recycling through lysosomes. PMID:21427056

  10. Minocycline fails to protect cerebellar granular cell cultures against malonate-induced cell death.

    PubMed

    Fernandez-Gomez, F J; Gomez-Lazaro, M; Pastor, D; Calvo, S; Aguirre, N; Galindo, M F; Jordán, J

    2005-11-01

    Experimental and clinical studies support the view that the semisynthetic tetracycline minocycline exhibits neuroprotective roles in several models of neurodegenerative diseases, including ischemia, Huntington, Parkinson diseases, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. However, recent evidence indicates that minocycline does not always present beneficial actions. For instance, in an in vivo model of Huntington's disease, it fails to afford protection after malonate intrastriatal injection. Moreover, it reverses the neuroprotective effect of creatine in nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons. This apparent contradiction prompted us to analyze the effect of this antibiotic on malonate-induced cell death. We show that, in rat cerebellar granular cells, the succinate dehydrogenase inhibitor malonate induces cell death in a concentration-dependent manner. By using DFCA, monochlorobimane and 10-N-nonyl-Acridin Orange to measure, respectively, H2O2-derived oxidant species and reduced forms of GSH and cardiolipin, we observed that malonate induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) production to an extent that surpasses the antioxidant defense capacity of the cells, resulting in GSH depletion and cardiolipin oxidation. The pre-treatment for 4 h with minocycline (10-100 microM) did not present cytoprotective actions. Moreover, minocycline failed to block ROS production and to abrogate malonate-induced oxidation of GSH and cardiolipin. Additional experiments revealed that minocycline was also unsuccessful to prevent the mitochondrial swelling induced by malonate. Furthermore, malonate did not induce the expression of the iNOS, caspase-3, -8, and -9 genes which have been shown to be up-regulated in several models where minocycline resulted cytoprotective. In addition, malonate-induced down-regulation of the antiapoptotic gene Bcl-2 was not prevented by minocycline, controversially the mechanism previously proposed to explain minocycline protective action. These results suggest that the

  11. B cells have distinct roles in host protection against different nematode parasites

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    B cells may mediate protective responses against nematode parasites by supporting Th2 cell development and/or by producing antibodies. To examine this, B cell-deficient mice were inoculated with Nippostrongylus brasiliensis (Nb) or Heligmosomoides polygyrus (Hp). B cell-deficient and wild type (WT...

  12. The protective effect of a constant magnetic field. [reduction of molecular cell pathology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sosunov, A. V.; Tripuzov, A. N.

    1974-01-01

    The protective effect of a constant magnetic field sharply reduced spontaneous lysis of E. coli cells when subjected to ultraviolet radiation. A protective effect of a CMF was found in a study of tissue cultures of normally growing cells (kidney epithelium) and cancer cells (cells from a cancer of the larynx). The protective effect of a CMF is also seen in a combined exposure of tissue cultures to X-rays and CMF energy (strength of the CMF was 2000 oersteds with a gradient of 500 oersteds/cm). The data obtained are of interest to experimental oncology (development of new methods of treating malignant tumors).

  13. Open end protection for solid oxide fuel cells

    DOEpatents

    Zafred, Paolo R.; Dederer, Jeffrey T.; Tomlins, Gregory W.; Toms, James M.; Folser, George R.; Schmidt, Douglas S.; Singh, Prabhakar; Hager, Charles A.

    2001-01-01

    A solid oxide fuel cell (40) having a closed end (44) and an open end (42) operates in a fuel cell generator (10) where the fuel cell open end (42) of each fuel cell contains a sleeve (60, 64) fitted over the open end (42), where the sleeve (60, 64) extends beyond the open end (42) of the fuel cell (40) to prevent degradation of the interior air electrode of the fuel cell by fuel gas during operation of the generator (10).

  14. Different biocompatibility of crystalline triamcinolone deposits on retinal cells in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Szurman, Peter; Sierra, Ana; Kaczmarek, Radoslaw; Jaissle, Gesine B; Wallenfels-Thilo, Barbara; Grisanti, Salvatore; Lüke, Matthias; Bartz-Schmidt, Karl U; Spitzer, Martin S

    2007-07-01

    Epiretinal deposits of triamcinolone acetonide (TA) can be detrimental to retinal cells in vitro as several laboratory studies have shown. This contrasts with the good clinical experience of intravitreal TA use. We investigated the effect of TA crystals on retinal cells concerning the critical dose range, a potential cell recovery, the drug-tissue interaction and what protective biological factors could explain the discrepancy between in vivo and in vitro results. A human retinal pigment epithelium cell line (ARPE19) and transformed rat retinal ganglion cells (RGC5) were used. Purified TA crystals were either added directly on top of the cell cultures or on top of membrane filter inserts, basement membrane sheets or porcine vitreous with the cells growing underneath. To determine the number of live versus dead cells fluorescent stains were used. Proliferation and viability were measured using the MTT assay and the mean inhibitory dose (ID(50)) calculated with or without a filter. Cell recovery was measured after transient TA exposure (0.01-1 mg/ml) compared to continuous exposure after 7 days. To exclude a mere mechanical effect of epicellular deposits the TA crystals were replaced by glass pearls in a serum-free medium and the MTT toxicity assay was performed after 24 h. Without direct contact of TA crystals with the cells only a moderate decrease of mitochondrial activity was observed that fully recovered after transient exposure and showed a clinically safe ID(50) of 7.7 mg/ml. In contrast, direct exposure to even minute crystalline deposits for 7 days caused a rapid progressive and irreversible cell death being significant far below clinically used concentrations (ID(50) 0.058 mg/ml). Direct exposure to glass pearls did not show any loss of viability. Both basement membrane sheets and vitreous reliably prevented direct cytotoxicity to underlying retinal ganglion cells. Our findings suggest that irreversible TA cytotoxicity in a cell culture setting occurs

  15. Venlafaxine protects methylglyoxal-induced apoptosis in the cultured human brain microvascular endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Lv, Qinghua; Gu, Chengyao; Chen, Caijing

    2014-05-21

    It was reported that venlafaxine protects microvascular endothelial cells injury in several models. But the mechanisms of venlafaxine protects cell injury still poor understanding. Here, we shows that in the cultured human brain microvascular endothelial cells (HBMEC), we found that venlafaxine protects methylglyoxal (MGO)-induced cell injury, and the venlafaxine significant reduction in the level of reactive oxygen species, down-regulated expression of pro-apoptotic activated caspase-3 and Bax, increased BDNF release and expression of anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 in the cultured HBMEC. Furthermore, we found that venlafaxine inhibits MGO-induced phosphorylation of JNK. Moreover, venlafaxine increased AKT phosphorylation and the protective effects of venlafaxine was inhibited by PI3K/AKT inhibitor. These findings suggest that venlafaxine protects MGO-induced HBMEC injury through PI3K/AKT and JNK pathway as the potential underlying mechanisms of HBMEC injury in diabetes.

  16. Mucosal BCG Vaccination Induces Protective Lung-Resident Memory T Cell Populations against Tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Perdomo, Carolina; Zedler, Ulrike; Kühl, Anja A.; Lozza, Laura; Saikali, Philippe; Sander, Leif E.; Vogelzang, Alexis; Kupz, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Mycobacterium bovis Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) is the only licensed vaccine against tuberculosis (TB), yet its moderate efficacy against pulmonary TB calls for improved vaccination strategies. Mucosal BCG vaccination generates superior protection against TB in animal models; however, the mechanisms of protection remain elusive. Tissue-resident memory T (TRM) cells have been implicated in protective immune responses against viral infections, but the role of TRM cells following mycobacterial infection is unknown. Using a mouse model of TB, we compared protection and lung cellular infiltrates of parenteral and mucosal BCG vaccination. Adoptive transfer and gene expression analyses of lung airway cells were performed to determine the protective capacities and phenotypes of different memory T cell subsets. In comparison to subcutaneous vaccination, intratracheal and intranasal BCG vaccination generated T effector memory and TRM cells in the lung, as defined by surface marker phenotype. Adoptive mucosal transfer of these airway-resident memory T cells into naive mice mediated protection against TB. Whereas airway-resident memory CD4+ T cells displayed a mixture of effector and regulatory phenotype, airway-resident memory CD8+ T cells displayed prototypical TRM features. Our data demonstrate a key role for mucosal vaccination-induced airway-resident T cells in the host defense against pulmonary TB. These results have direct implications for the design of refined vaccination strategies. PMID:27879332

  17. Regulatory T cells participate in CD39-mediated protection from renal injury.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yuan Min; McRae, Jennifer L; Robson, Simon C; Cowan, Peter J; Zhang, Geoff Yu; Hu, Min; Polhill, Tania; Wang, Yiping; Zheng, Guoping; Wang, Ya; Lee, Vincent W S; Unwin, Robert J; Harris, David C H; Dwyer, Karen M; Alexander, Stephen I

    2012-09-01

    CD39 is an ecto-enzyme that degrades extracellular nucleotides, such as ATP, and is highly expressed on by the vasculature and circulating cells including Foxp3+ regulatory T (Treg) cells. To study the role of purinergic regulation in renal disease, we used the adriamycin nephropathy (AN) mouse model of chronic renal injury, using human CD39-transgenic (hCD39Tg) and wild-type (WT) BALB/c mice. Effects of CD39 expression by Treg cells were assessed in AN by adoptive transfer of CD4(+) CD25(+) and CD4(+) CD25(-) T cells isolated from hCD39Tg and WT mice. hCD39Tg mice were protected from renal injury in AN with decreased urinary protein and serum creatinine, and significantly less renal injury compared with WT mice. While WT CD25(+) and hCD39Tg CD25(-) T cells conferred some protection against AN, hCD39Tg CD25(+) Treg cells offered greater protection. In vitro studies showed direct pro-apoptotic effects of ATP on renal tubular cells. In conclusion, hCD39 expressed by circulating leukocytes and intrinsic renal cells limits innate AN injury. Specifically, CD39 expression by Treg cells contributes to its protective role in renal injury. These findings suggest that extracellular nucleotides mediate AN kidney injury and that CD39, expressed by Treg cells and other cells, is protective in this model.

  18. Cochlear efferent neurones and protection against acoustic trauma: protection of outer hair cell receptor current and interanimal variability.

    PubMed

    Patuzzi, R B; Thompson, M L

    1991-07-01

    We have measured the changes in neural and microphonic sensitivity in the basal turn of the guinea-pig cochlea produced by intense acoustic overstimulation (10 kHz, 115 dB SPL for 60 s and 150 s). As reported previously, the drop in neural and microphonic sensitivities observed after overstimulation were highly correlated [Patuzzi et al. (1989) Hear. Res. 39, 189-202]. Presentation of a non-traumatizing pure-tone to the contralateral ear (10 kHz, 80 dB SPL) during acoustic overstimulation reduced the amount of acoustic trauma measured using the neural response or the microphonic response. Transection of the medial olivo-cochlear system of efferent fibres at the floor of the fourth ventricle abolished this protective effect of contralateral sound and dramatically reduced the variability in the data. Since the low-frequency microphonic is a simple measure of the receptor current through the outer hair cells, and this current probably plays a part in enhancing the mechanical sensitivity of the cochlea, the protection of the microphonic we have observed suggests that the efferent system protects neural sensitivity by protecting the mechano-electrical transduction of outer hair cells. The drop in variability after sectioning the efferents also suggests that inter-animal variations in susceptibility to noise trauma may be a consequence of differing tonic activity of the efferents, and/or a variation in the sensitivity of the efferent pathway.

  19. Protection of cultured mammalian cells by S-2-(3-aminopropylamino)ethylphosphorothioic acid (WR-2721)

    SciTech Connect

    Antoku, S.

    1983-10-01

    The ability of WR-2721 to protect cultured mammalian cells against radiation-induced killing was nearly the same as that of cysteamine when WR-2721 was activated by mouse liver extract. Without the liver extract, protection by WR-2721 required long incubations with the cells prior to irradiation. The protective activity increased in proportion to the cell concentration. The dose reduction factor at a concentration of 4 mM WR-2721 was 1.11 and 1.41 for 1.5 x 10/sup 5/ cells/ml and 15 x 10/sup 5/ cells/ml of cultured cells, respectively. A non-protein bound sulfhydryl group was detected in cell suspensions after incubation with WR-2721, but it was not a dephosphorylated product of WR-2721.

  20. Mechanisms of endothelial cell protection by hydroxycinnamic acids.

    PubMed

    Fuentes, Eduardo; Palomo, Iván

    2014-12-01

    An endothelial dysfunction generates a proatherogenic environment characterized by stimulating thrombus formation. Epidemiological studies have provided evidence of a protective role of healthy diets in the prevention of cardiovascular diseases. Hydroxycinnamic acids constitute abundant polyphenols in our diets as they are present in high levels in many widely consumed foods, such as fruit, vegetables and beverages. Therefore, it can be established that due to the hydroxycinnamic acid content (caffeic, chlorogenic, feluric and p-coumaric acids), fruit, vegetables and beverages contribute to endothelial protection (attenuates oxidative stress, improved nitric oxide bioavailability and decreased E-selectin, ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 expression, among others). In this article, we systematically examine the mechanisms of endothelium protection of hydroxycinnamic acids.

  1. Anti-apoptotic peptides protect against radiation-induced cell death.

    PubMed

    McConnell, Kevin W; Muenzer, Jared T; Chang, Kathy C; Davis, Chris G; McDunn, Jonathan E; Coopersmith, Craig M; Hilliard, Carolyn A; Hotchkiss, Richard S; Grigsby, Perry W; Hunt, Clayton R

    2007-04-06

    The risk of terrorist attacks utilizing either nuclear or radiological weapons has raised concerns about the current lack of effective radioprotectants. Here it is demonstrated that the BH4 peptide domain of the anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-xL can be delivered to cells by covalent attachment to the TAT peptide transduction domain (TAT-BH4) and provide protection in vitro and in vivo from radiation-induced apoptotic cell death. Isolated human lymphocytes treated with TAT-BH4 were protected against apoptosis following exposure to 15Gy radiation. In mice exposed to 5Gy radiation, TAT-BH4 treatment protected splenocytes and thymocytes from radiation-induced apoptotic cell death. Most importantly, in vivo radiation protection was observed in mice whether TAT-BH4 treatment was given prior to or after irradiation. Thus, by targeting steps within the apoptosis signaling pathway it is possible to develop post-exposure treatments to protect radio-sensitive tissues.

  2. Adipose-Derived Stromal Cells Protect Intervertebral Disc Cells in Compression: Implications for Stem Cell Regenerative Disc Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Zhen; Luo, Beier; Liu, Zhi-Heng; Samartzis, Dino; Liu, Zhongyang; Gao, Bo; Huang, Liangliang; Luo, Zhuo-Jing

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Abnormal biomechanics plays a role in intervertebral disc degeneration. Adipose-derived stromal cells (ADSCs) have been implicated in disc integrity; however, their role in the setting of mechanical stimuli upon the disc's nucleus pulposus (NP) remains unknown. As such, the present study aimed to evaluate the influence of ADSCs upon NP cells in compressive load culture. Methods: Human NP cells were cultured in compressive load at 3.0MPa for 48 hours with or without ADSCs co-culture (the ratio was 50:50). We used flow cytometry, live/dead staining and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to evaluate cell death, and determined the expression of specific apoptotic pathways by characterizing the expression of activated caspases-3, -8 and -9. We further used real-time (RT-) PCR and immunostaining to determine the expression of the extracellular matrix (ECM), mediators of matrix degradation (e.g. MMPs, TIMPs and ADAMTSs), pro-inflammatory factors and NP cell phenotype markers. Results: ADSCs inhibited human NP cell apoptosis via suppression of activated caspase-9 and caspase-3. Furthermore, ADSCs protected NP cells from the degradative effects of compressive load by significantly up-regulating the expression of ECM genes (SOX9, COL2A1 and ACAN), tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs) genes (TIMP-1 and TIMP-2) and cytokeratin 8 (CK8) protein expression. Alternatively, ADSCs showed protective effect by inhibiting compressive load mediated increase of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs; MMP-3 and MMP-13), disintegrin and metalloproteinase with thrombospondin motifs (ADAMTSs; ADAMTS-1 and 5), and pro-inflammatory factors (IL-1beta, IL-6, TGF-beta1 and TNF-alpha). Conclusions: Our study is the first in vitro study assessing the impact of ADSCs on NP cells in an un-physiological mechanical stimulation culture environment. Our study noted that ADSCs protect compressive load induced NP cell death and degradation by inhibition of activated caspase-9 and -3

  3. Short protection device for stack of electrolytic cells

    DOEpatents

    Katz, M.; Schroll, C.R.

    1984-11-29

    The present invention relates to a device for preventing the electrical shorting of a stack of electrolytic cells during an extended period of operation. The device has application to fuel cell and other electrolytic cell stacks operating in low or high temperature corrosive environments. It is of particular importance for use in a stack of fuel cells operating with molten metal carbonate electrolyte for the production of electric power. Also, the device may have application in similar technology involving stacks of electrolytic cells for electrolysis to decompose chemical compounds.

  4. CD8 T cells protect adult naive mice from JEV-induced morbidity via lytic function

    PubMed Central

    Chawla, Amanpreet Singh; Agrawal, Tanvi; Biswas, Moanaro; Vrati, Sudhanshu; Rath, Satyajit; George, Anna; Medigeshi, Guruprasad R.

    2017-01-01

    Following Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) infection neutralizing antibodies are shown to provide protection in a significant proportion of cases, but not all, suggesting additional components of immune system might also contribute to elicit protective immune response. Here we have characterized the role of T cells in offering protection in adult mice infected with JEV. Mice lacking α/β–T cells (TCRβ–null) are highly susceptible and die over 10–18 day period as compared to the wild-type (WT) mice which are resistant. This is associated with high viral load, higher mRNA levels of proinflammatory cytokines and breach in the blood-brain-barrier (BBB). Infected WT mice do not show a breach in BBB; however, in contrast to TCRβ-null, they show the presence of T cells in the brain. Using adoptive transfer of cells with specific genetic deficiencies we see that neither the presence of CD4 T cells nor cytokines such as IL-4, IL-10 or interferon-gamma have any significant role in offering protection from primary infection. In contrast, we show that CD8 T cell deficiency is more critical as absence of CD8 T cells alone increases mortality in mice infected with JEV. Further, transfer of T cells from beige mice with defects in granular lytic function into TCRβ-null mice shows poor protection implicating granule-mediated target cell lysis as an essential component for survival. In addition, for the first time we report that γ/δ-T cells also make significant contribution to confer protection from JEV infection. Our data show that effector CD8 T cells play a protective role during primary infection possibly by preventing the breach in BBB and neuronal damage. PMID:28151989

  5. EFFECT OF SIVANAAR AMIRTHAM AND AYAKKANTHA CHENDOORAM IN EXPERIMENTAL INFLAMMATION AND MAST CELL PROTECTION

    PubMed Central

    Jaswanth, A.; Ravikumar, Akila; Robert, S. Jerry Heison; Jayakar, B.

    1998-01-01

    The Siddha Drugs Sivannar Amirthan (SA), Ayakkantha chendooram (AC) and their combinations were screened for their anti-inflammatory effect against carrageenin induced paw edema and for its protective effect on mast cellos against degranulation, A significant anti-inflammatory and mast cell protective effects were observed. PMID:22556884

  6. Baicalein Protects Human Skin Cells against Ultraviolet B-Induced Oxidative Stress

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Min Chang; Piao, Mei Jing; Fernando, Pattage Madushan Dilhara Jayatissa; Han, Xia; Hewage, Susara Ruwan Kumara Madduma; Park, Jeong Eon; Ko, Mi Sung; Jung, Uhee; Kim, In Gyu; Hyun, Jin Won

    2016-01-01

    Baicalein (5,6,7-trihydroxy-2-phenyl-chromen-4-one) is a flavone, a type of flavonoid, originally isolated from the roots of Scutellaria baicalensis. This study evaluated the protective effects of baicalein against oxidative damage-mediated apoptosis induced by ultraviolet B (UVB) radiation in a human keratinocyte cell line (HaCaT). Baicalein absorbed light within the wavelength range of UVB. In addition, baicalein decreased the level of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) in response to UVB radiation. Baicalein protected cells against UVB radiation-induced DNA breaks, 8-isoprostane generation and protein modification in HaCaT cells. Furthermore, baicalein suppressed the apoptotic cell death by UVB radiation. These findings suggest that baicalein protected HaCaT cells against UVB radiation-induced cell damage and apoptosis by absorbing UVB radiation and scavenging ROS. PMID:27257012

  7. Protective role of curcumin in oxidative stress of breast cells.

    PubMed

    Calaf, Gloria M; Echiburú-Chau, Carlos; Roy, Debasish; Chai, Yunfei; Wen, Gengyun; Balajee, Adayabalam S

    2011-10-01

    Curcumin (diferuloylmethane) is a well known antioxidant that exerts anti-proliferative and apoptotic effects. The effects of curcumin were evaluated in a breast cancer model that was developed with the immortalized breast epithelial cell line, MCF-10F after exposure to low doses of high LET (linear energy transfer) α particles (150 keV/µm) of radiation, and subsequently cultured in the presence of 17β-estradiol (estrogen). This model consisted of human breast epithelial cells in different stages of transformation: i) a control cell line, MCF-10F, ii) an estrogen-treated cell line, named Estrogen, iii) a malignant cell line, named Alpha3 and iv) a malignant and tumorigenic, cell line named Alpha5. Curcumin decreased the formation of hydrogen peroxide in the control MCF-10F, Estrogen and Alpha5 cell lines in comparison to their counterparts. Curcumin had little effect on NFκB (50 kDa) but decreased the protein expression in the Estrogen cell line in comparison to their counterparts. Curcumin enhanced manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) protein expression in the MCF-10F and Alpha3 cell lines. Results indicated that catalase protein expression increased in curcumin treated-Alpha3 and Alpha5 cell lines. Curcumin slightly decreased lipid peroxidation in the MCF-10F cell lines, but significantly (P<0.05) decreased it in the Alpha5 cell line treated with curcumin in comparison to their counterparts as demonstrated by the 8-iso-prostaglandin F2α (8-iso-PGF2α) levels. It can be concluded that curcumin acted upon oxidative stress in human breast epithelial cells transformed by the effect of radiation in the presence of estrogen.

  8. Pigment developed to protect spacecraft/solar cells from Sun's harmful rays.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    A pigment (phthalocyanine) is studied at the Marshall Materials and Processes Lab. The pigment has the ability to protect spacecraft against the harmful effects of the Sun's ultraviolet rays, and to increase the efficiency and life of solar cells.

  9. CD8+ T cells complement antibodies in protecting against yellow fever virus.

    PubMed

    Bassi, Maria R; Kongsgaard, Michael; Steffensen, Maria A; Fenger, Christina; Rasmussen, Michael; Skjødt, Karsten; Finsen, Bente; Stryhn, Anette; Buus, Søren; Christensen, Jan P; Thomsen, Allan R

    2015-02-01

    The attenuated yellow fever (YF) vaccine (YF-17D) was developed in the 1930s, yet little is known about the protective mechanisms underlying its efficiency. In this study, we analyzed the relative contribution of cell-mediated and humoral immunity to the vaccine-induced protection in a murine model of YF-17D infection. Using different strains of knockout mice, we found that CD4(+) T cells, B cells, and Abs are required for full clinical protection of vaccinated mice, whereas CD8(+) T cells are dispensable for long-term survival after intracerebral challenge. However, by analyzing the immune response inside the infected CNS, we observed an accelerated T cell influx into the brain after intracerebral challenge of vaccinated mice, and this T cell recruitment correlated with improved virus control in the brain. Using mice deficient in B cells we found that, in the absence of Abs, YF vaccination can still induce some antiviral protection, and in vivo depletion of CD8(+) T cells from these animals revealed a pivotal role for CD8(+) T cells in controlling virus replication in the absence of a humoral response. Finally, we demonstrated that effector CD8(+) T cells also contribute to viral control in the presence of circulating YF-specific Abs. To our knowledge, this is the first time that YF-specific CD8(+) T cells have been demonstrated to possess antiviral activity in vivo.

  10. Cross Protective Mucosal Immunity Mediated by Memory Th17 Cells against Streptococcus pneumoniae Lung Infection

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yan; Jiang, Bin; Guo, Yongli; Li, Wenchao; Tian, Ying; Sonnenberg, Gregory F; Weiser, Jeffery N.; Ni, Xin; Shen, Hao

    2016-01-01

    Pneumonia caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae (Sp) remains a leading cause of serious illness and death worldwide. Immunization with conjugated pneumococcal vaccine has lowered the colonization rate and consequently invasive diseases by inducing serotype-specific antibodies. However, many of current pneumonia cases result from infection by serotype strains not included in the vaccine. In this study, we asked if cross-protection against lung infection by heterologous strains can be induced and investigated the underlying immune mechanism. We found that immune mice recovered from a prior infection were protected against heterologous Sp strains in the pneumonia challenge model, as evident by accelerated bacterial clearance, reduced pathology and apoptosis of lung epithelial cells. Sp infection in the lung induced strong Th17 responses at the lung mucosal site. Transfer of CD4+ T cells from immune mice provided heterologous protection against pneumonia, and this protection was abrogated by IL-17A blockade. Transfer of memory CD4+ T cells from IL-17A knockout mice failed to provide protection. These results indicate that memory Th17 cells played a key role in providing protection against pneumonia in a serotype independent manner and suggest the feasibility of developing a broadly protective vaccine against bacterial pneumonia by targeting mucosal Th17 T cells. PMID:27118490

  11. Lung dendritic cells induce migration of protective T cells to the gastrointestinal tract.

    PubMed

    Ruane, Darren; Brane, Lucas; Reis, Bernardo Sgarbi; Cheong, Cheolho; Poles, Jordan; Do, Yoonkyung; Zhu, Hongfa; Velinzon, Klara; Choi, Jae-Hoon; Studt, Natalie; Mayer, Lloyd; Lavelle, Ed C; Steinman, Ralph M; Mucida, Daniel; Mehandru, Saurabh

    2013-08-26

    Developing efficacious vaccines against enteric diseases is a global challenge that requires a better understanding of cellular recruitment dynamics at the mucosal surfaces. The current paradigm of T cell homing to the gastrointestinal (GI) tract involves the induction of α4β7 and CCR9 by Peyer's patch and mesenteric lymph node (MLN) dendritic cells (DCs) in a retinoic acid-dependent manner. This paradigm, however, cannot be reconciled with reports of GI T cell responses after intranasal (i.n.) delivery of antigens that do not directly target the GI lymphoid tissue. To explore alternative pathways of cellular migration, we have investigated the ability of DCs from mucosal and nonmucosal tissues to recruit lymphocytes to the GI tract. Unexpectedly, we found that lung DCs, like CD103(+) MLN DCs, up-regulate the gut-homing integrin α4β7 in vitro and in vivo, and induce T cell migration to the GI tract in vivo. Consistent with a role for this pathway in generating mucosal immune responses, lung DC targeting by i.n. immunization induced protective immunity against enteric challenge with a highly pathogenic strain of Salmonella. The present report demonstrates novel functional evidence of mucosal cross talk mediated by DCs, which has the potential to inform the design of novel vaccines against mucosal pathogens.

  12. Development of a new integral solar cell protective cover

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Naselow, A. B.; Dupont, P. S.; Scott-Monck, J.

    1983-01-01

    A unique polyimide polymer has been developed which shows promise as an encapsulant for interconnected solar cell modules. Such an integral cover offers important weight and cost advantages. The polymer has been characterized on silicon solar cells with respect to electrical output and spectral response. The response of the material-coated cells to electron, low-energy proton, and vacuum-ultraviolet radiation, thermal shock and humidity tests was determined.

  13. Epithelial Immunization Induces Polyfunctional CD8+ T Cells and Optimal Mousepox Protection

    PubMed Central

    Siciliano, Nicholas A.; DeHaven, Brian C.; Snook, Adam E.

    2014-01-01

    We assessed several routes of immunization with vaccinia virus (VACV) in protecting mice against ectromelia virus (ECTV). By a wide margin, skin scarification provided the greatest protection. Humoral immunity and resident-memory T cells notwithstanding, several approaches revealed that circulating, memory CD8+ T cells primed via scarification were functionally superior and conferred enhanced virus control. Immunization via the epithelial route warrants further investigation, as it may also provide enhanced defense against other infectious agents. PMID:24899206

  14. Molecular mechanisms of retinal ganglion cell degeneration in glaucoma and future prospects for cell body and axonal protection

    PubMed Central

    Munemasa, Yasunari; Kitaoka, Yasushi

    2013-01-01

    Glaucoma, which affects more than 70 million people worldwide, is a heterogeneous group of disorders with a resultant common denominator; optic neuropathy, eventually leading to irreversible blindness. The clinical manifestations of primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG), the most common subtype of glaucoma, include excavation of the optic disc and progressive loss of visual field. Axonal degeneration of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) and apoptotic death of their cell bodies are observed in glaucoma, in which the reduction of intraocular pressure (IOP) is known to slow progression of the disease. A pattern of localized retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) defects in glaucoma patients indicates that axonal degeneration may precede RGC body death in this condition. The mechanisms of degeneration of neuronal cell bodies and their axons may differ. In this review, we addressed the molecular mechanisms of cell body death and axonal degeneration in glaucoma and proposed axonal protection in addition to cell body protection. The concept of axonal protection may become a new therapeutic strategy to prevent further axonal degeneration or revive dying axons in patients with preperimetric glaucoma. Further study will be needed to clarify whether the combination therapy of axonal protection and cell body protection will have greater protective effects in early or progressive glaucomatous optic neuropathy (GON). PMID:23316132

  15. Cytoplasmic PELP1 and ERRgamma Protect Human Mammary Epithelial Cells from Tam-Induced Cell Death

    PubMed Central

    Girard, Brian J.; Regan Anderson, Tarah M.; Welch, Siya Lem; Nicely, Julie; Seewaldt, Victoria L.; Ostrander, Julie H.

    2015-01-01

    Tamoxifen (Tam) is the only FDA-approved chemoprevention agent for pre-menopausal women at high risk for developing breast cancer. While Tam reduces a woman's risk of developing estrogen receptor positive (ER+) breast cancer, the molecular mechanisms associated with risk reduction are poorly understood. Prior studies have shown that cytoplasmic proline, glutamic acid and leucine rich protein 1 (PELP1) promotes Tam resistance in breast cancer cell lines. Herein, we tested for PELP1 localization in breast epithelial cells from women at high risk for developing breast cancer and found that PELP1 was localized to the cytoplasm in 36% of samples. In vitro, immortalized HMECs expressing a nuclear localization signal (NLS) mutant of PELP1 (PELP1-cyto) were resistant to Tam-induced death. Furthermore, PELP1-cyto signaling through estrogen-related receptor gamma (ERRγ) promoted cell survival in the presence of Tam. Overexpression of ERRγ in immortalized HMECs protected cells from Tam-induced death, while knockdown of ERRγ sensitized PELP1-cyto expressing HMECs to Tam. Moreover, Tam-induced HMEC cell death was independent of apoptosis and involved accumulation of the autophagy marker LC3-II. Expression of PELP1-cyto and ERRγ reduced Tam-induced LC3-II accumulation, and knockdown of ERRγ increased LC3-II levels in response to Tam. Additionally, PELP1-cyto expression led to the upregulation of MMP-3 and MAOB, known PELP1 and ERRγ target genes, respectively. Our data indicate that cytoplasmic PELP1 induces signaling pathways that converge on ERRγ to promote cell survival in the presence of Tam. These data suggest that PELP1 localization and/or ERRγ activation could be developed as tissue biomarkers for Tam responsiveness. PMID:25789479

  16. Moonlight-like proteins of the cell wall protect sessile cells of Candida from oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Serrano-Fujarte, Isela; López-Romero, Everardo; Cuéllar-Cruz, Mayra

    2016-01-01

    Biofilms of Candida species are associated with high morbidity and hospital mortality. Candida forms biofilms by adhering to human host epithelium through cell wall proteins (CWP) and simultaneously neutralizing the reactive oxygen species (ROS) produced during the respiratory burst by phagocytic cells. The purpose of this paper is to identify the CWP of Candida albicans, Candida glabrata, Candida krusei and Candida parapsilosis expressed after exposure to different concentrations of H2O2 using a proteomic approach. CWP obtained from sessile cells, both treated and untreated with the oxidizing agent, were resolved by one and two-dimensional (2D-PAGE) gels and identified by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analysis. Some of these proteins were identified and found to correspond to moonlighting CWP such as: (i) glycolytic enzymes, (ii) heat shock, (iii) OSR proteins, (iv) general metabolic enzymes and (v) highly conserved proteins, which are up- or down-regulated in the presence or absence of ROS. We also found that the expression of these CWP is different for each Candida species. Moreover, RT-PCR assays allowed us to demonstrate that transcription of the gene coding for Eno1, one of the moonlight-like CWP identified in response to the oxidant agent, is differentially regulated. To our knowledge this is the first demonstration that, in response to oxidative stress, each species of Candida, differentially regulates the expression of moonlighting CWP, which may protect the organism from the ROS generated during phagocytosis. Presumptively, these proteins allow the pathogen to adhere and form a biofilm, and eventually cause invasive candidiasis in the human host. We propose that, in addition to the antioxidant mechanisms present in Candida, the moonlighting CWP also confer protection to these pathogens from oxidative stress.

  17. Mitochondrial transfer of mesenchymal stem cells effectively protects corneal epithelial cells from mitochondrial damage

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Dan; Gao, Fei; Zhang, Yuelin; Wong, David Sai Hung; Li, Qing; Tse, Hung-fat; Xu, Goufeng; Yu, Zhendong; Lian, Qizhou

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated that mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) can donate mitochondria to airway epithelial cells and rescue mitochondrial damage in lung injury. We sought to determine whether MSCs could donate mitochondria and protect against oxidative stress-induced mitochondrial dysfunction in the cornea. Co-culturing of MSCs and corneal epithelial cells (CECs) indicated that the efficiency of mitochondrial transfer from MSCs to CECs was enhanced by Rotenone (Rot)-induced oxidative stress. The efficient mitochondrial transfer was associated with increased formation of tunneling nanotubes (TNTs) between MSCs and CECs, tubular connections that allowed direct intercellular communication. Separation of MSCs and CECs by a transwell culture system revealed no mitochiondrial transfer from MSCs to CECs and mitochondrial function was impaired when CECs were exposed to Rot challenge. CECs with or without mitochondrial transfer from MSCs displayed a distinct survival capacity and mitochondrial oxygen consumption rate. Mechanistically, increased filopodia outgrowth in CECs for TNT formation was associated with oxidative inflammation-activated NFκB/TNFαip2 signaling pathways that could be attenuated by reactive oxygen species scavenger N-acetylcysteine (NAC) treatment. Furthermore, MSCs grown on a decellularized porcine corneal scaffold were transplanted onto an alkali-injured eye in a rabbit model. Enhanced corneal wound healing was evident following healthy MSC scaffold transplantation. And transferred mitochondria was detected in corneal epithelium. In conclusion, mitochondrial transfer from MSCs provides novel protection for the cornea against oxidative stress-induced mitochondrial damage. This therapeutic strategy may prove relevant for a broad range of mitochondrial diseases. PMID:27831562

  18. Protective cellular retroviral immunity requires both CD4+ and CD8+ immune T cells.

    PubMed Central

    Hom, R C; Finberg, R W; Mullaney, S; Ruprecht, R M

    1991-01-01

    We have found previously that postexposure chemoprophylaxis with 3'-azido-3'-deoxythymidine (also known as zidovudine or AZT) in combination with recombinant human alpha A/D interferon fully protected mice exposed to a lethal dose of Rauscher murine leukemia virus (RLV) against viremia and disease. After cessation of therapy, over 90% of these mice were able to resist rechallenge with live RLV, thus demonstrating an acquired immunity. Adoptive cell transfer of 4 x 10(7) cells from immunized mice fully protected naive recipients from viremia and splenomegaly after RLV challenge. However, when these immune T cells were fractionated into CD4+ and CD8+ subpopulations, only partial protection was found when 4 x 10(7) T cells of either subset were given. Full protection against RLV challenge was seen again when the T-cell subsets from immunized mice were recombined and transferred at the same number into naive mice. We conclude that cellular immunity alone is protective and that both CD4+ and CD8+ cell types are required for conferring full protection against live virus challenge. Images PMID:1898666

  19. Plant cell walls: Protecting the barrier from degradation by microbial enzymes.

    PubMed

    Lagaert, Stijn; Beliën, Tim; Volckaert, Guido

    2009-12-01

    Plant cell walls are predominantly composed of polysaccharides, which are connected in a strong, yet resilient network. They determine the size and shape of plant cells and form the interface between the cell and its often hostile environment. To penetrate the cell wall and thus infect plants, most phytopathogens secrete numerous cell wall degrading enzymes. Conversely, as a first line of defense, plant cell walls contain an array of inhibitors of these enzymes. Scientific knowledge on these inhibitors significantly progressed in the past years and this review is meant to give a comprehensive overview of plant inhibitors against microbial cell wall degrading enzymes and their role in plant protection.

  20. Evidence for direct cellular protective effect of PL-10 substances (synthesized parts of body protection compound, BPC) and their specificity to gastric mucosal cells.

    PubMed

    Bódis, B; Karádi, O; Németh, P; Dohoczky, C; Kolega, M; Mózsik, G

    1997-01-01

    The direct gastric mucosal cellular effect of four PL-10 substances (a synthesized part of human body protection compound, BPC containing 14 or 15 amino acids) was studied on freshly isolated rat gastric mucosal cells and on a mouse myeloma cell line (Sp2/0-Ag14) in an ethanol-induced cell injury model. The examined substances were not toxic for the cells. Two of them proved to be significantly protective against the direct cellular damaging effect of ethanol (PL 10.1.15AK-3 in 5 microg/ml dose and PL 10.1.AK14-2 dose-dependently, ED50=50 ng/ml) on gastric mucosal cells. This cytoprotective effect was failured on mouse myeloma cells. Based on these results a part of the in vivo protection induced by BPC seems to be a direct cellular protective effect to gastric mucosal cells.

  1. Protective effect of creatine against inhibition by methylglyoxal of mitochondrial respiration of cardiac cells.

    PubMed

    Roy, Soumya Sinha; Biswas, Swati; Ray, Manju; Ray, Subhankar

    2003-06-01

    Previous publications from our laboratory have shown that methylglyoxal inhibits mitochondrial respiration of malignant and cardiac cells, but it has no effect on mitochondrial respiration of other normal cells [Biswas, Ray, Misra, Dutta and Ray (1997) Biochem. J. 323, 343-348; Ray, Biswas and Ray (1997) Mol. Cell. Biochem. 171, 95-103]. However, this inhibitory effect of methylglyoxal is not significant in cardiac tissue slices. Moreover, post-mitochondrial supernatant (PMS) of cardiac cells could almost completely protect the mitochondrial respiration against the inhibitory effect of methylglyoxal. A systematic search indicated that creatine present in cardiac cells is responsible for this protective effect. Glutathione has also some protective effect. However, creatine phosphate, creatinine, urea, glutathione disulphide and beta-mercaptoethanol have no protective effect. The inhibitory and protective effects of methylglyoxal and creatine respectively on cardiac mitochondrial respiration were studied with various concentrations of both methylglyoxal and creatine. Interestingly, neither creatine nor glutathione have any protective effect on the inhibition by methylglyoxal on the mitochondrial respiration of Ehrlich ascites carcinoma cells. The creatine and glutathione contents of several PMS, which were tested for the possible protective effect, were measured. The activities of two important enzymes, namely glyoxalase I and creatine kinase, which act upon glutathione plus methylglyoxal and creatine respectively, were also measured in different PMS. Whether mitochondrial creatine kinase had any role in the protective effect of creatine had also been investigated using 1-fluoro-2,4-dinitrobenzene, an inhibitor of creatine kinase. The differential effect of creatine on mitochondria of cardiac and malignant cells has been discussed with reference to the therapeutic potential of methylglyoxal.

  2. Fibroblast growth factor 8 increases breast cancer cell growth by promoting cell cycle progression and by protecting against cell death

    SciTech Connect

    Nilsson, Emeli M.; Brokken, Leon J.S.; Haerkoenen, Pirkko L.

    2010-03-10

    Fibroblast growth factor 8 (FGF-8) is expressed in a large proportion of breast cancers, whereas its level in normal mammary gland epithelium is low. Previous studies have shown that FGF-8b stimulates breast cancer cell growth in vitro and in vivo. To explore the mechanisms by which FGF-8b promotes growth, we studied its effects on cell cycle regulatory proteins and signalling pathways in mouse S115 and human MCF-7 breast cancer cells. We also studied the effect of FGF-8b on cell survival. FGF-8b induced cell cycle progression and up-regulated particularly cyclin D1 mRNA and protein in S115 cells. Silencing cyclin D1 with siRNA inhibited most but not all FGF-8b-induced proliferation. Inhibition of the FGF-8b-activated ERK/MAPK pathway decreased FGF-8b-stimulated proliferation. Blocking the constitutively active PI3K/Akt and p38 MAPK pathways also lowered FGF-8b-induced cyclin D1 expression and proliferation. Corresponding results were obtained in MCF-7 cells. In S115 and MCF-7 mouse tumours, FGF-8b increased cyclin D1 and Ki67 levels. Moreover, FGF-8b opposed staurosporine-induced S115 cell death which effect was blocked by inhibiting the PI3K/Akt pathway but not the ERK/MAPK pathway. In conclusion, our results suggest that FGF-8b increases breast cancer cell growth both by stimulating cell cycle progression and by protecting against cell death.

  3. Mast cells protect against Pseudomonas aeruginosa-induced lung injury.

    PubMed

    Junkins, Robert D; Carrigan, Svetlana O; Wu, Zhengli; Stadnyk, Andrew W; Cowley, Elizabeth; Issekutz, Thomas; Berman, Jason; Lin, Tong-Jun

    2014-08-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa, an opportunistic pathogen, is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in immune-compromised individuals. Maintaining the integrity of the respiratory epithelium is critical for an effective host response to P. aeruginosa. Given the close spatial relationship between mast cells and the respiratory epithelium, and the importance of tightly regulated epithelial permeability during lung infections, we examined whether mast cells influence airway epithelial integrity during P. aeruginosa lung infection in a mouse model. We found that mast cell-deficient Kit(W-sh)/Kit(W-sh) mice displayed greatly increased epithelial permeability, bacterial dissemination, and neutrophil accumulation compared with wild-type animals after P. aeruginosa infection; these defects were corrected on reconstitution with mast cells. An in vitro Transwell co-culture model further demonstrated that a secreted mast cell factor decreased epithelial cell apoptosis and tumor necrosis factor production after P. aeruginosa infection. Together, our data demonstrate a previously unrecognized role for mast cells in the maintenance of epithelial integrity during P. aeruginosa infection, through a mechanism that likely involves prevention of epithelial apoptosis and tumor necrosis factor production. Our understanding of mechanisms of the host response to P. aeruginosa will open new avenues for the development of successful preventative and treatment strategies.

  4. Foxp3-transduced polyclonal regulatory T cells protect against chronic renal injury from adriamycin.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yuan Min; Zhang, Geoff Yu; Wang, Yiping; Hu, Min; Wu, Huiling; Watson, Debbie; Hori, Shohei; Alexander, Ian E; Harris, David C H; Alexander, Stephen I

    2006-03-01

    Chronic proteinuric renal injury is a major cause of ESRD. Adriamycin nephropathy is a murine model of chronic proteinuric renal disease whereby chemical injury is followed by immune and structural changes that mimic human disease. Foxp3 is a gene that induces a regulatory T cell (Treg) phenotype. It was hypothesized that Foxp3-transduced Treg could protect against renal injury in Adriamycin nephropathy. CD4+ T cells were transduced with either a Foxp3-containing retrovirus or a control retrovirus. Foxp3-transduced T cells had a regulatory phenotype by functional and phenotypic assays. Adoptive transfer of Foxp3-transduced T cells protected against renal injury. Urinary protein excretion and serum creatinine were reduced (P<0.05), and there was significantly less glomerulosclerosis, tubular damage, and interstitial infiltrates (P<0.01). It is concluded that Foxp3-transduced Treg cells may have a therapeutic role in protecting against immune injury and disease progression in chronic proteinuric renal disease.

  5. Fas Protects Breast Cancer Stem Cells from Death

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-10-01

    apoptosis and DICE in breast cancer cells, with many potential therapeutical applications. I could also demonstrate the involvement of miRNA in the...process. Moreover, I have developed a novel plasmid-based tool to isolate BCSCS by the activity of miRNAs , and I am going to optimize and test the...relevance of its use in the next reporting period. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Fas, FasL, Cancer, Cancer Stem cells, Apoptosis, miRNA , EMT, cell death. 16

  6. Arthritis protective regulatory potential of self–heat shock protein cross-reactive T cells

    PubMed Central

    van Eden, Willem; Wendling, Uwe; Paul, Liesbeth; Prakken, Berent; van Kooten, Peter; van der Zee, Ruurd

    2000-01-01

    Immunization with heat shock proteins has protective effects in models of induced arthritis. Analysis has shown a reduced synovial inflammation in such protected animals. Adoptive transfer and immunization with selected T cell epitopes (synthetic peptides) have indicated the protection to be mediated by T cells directed to conserved hsp epitopes. This was shown first for mycobacterial hsp60 and later for mycobacterial hsp70. Fine specificity analysis showed that such T cells were cross-reactive with the homologous self hsp. Therefore protection by microbial hsp reactive T cells can be by cross-recognition of self hsp overexpressed in the inflamed tissue. Preimmunization with hsp leads to a relative expansion of such self hsp cross-responsive T cells. The regulatory nature of such T cells may originate from mucosal tolerance maintained by commensal flora derived hsp or from partial activation through recognition of self hsp as a partial agonist (Altered Peptide Ligand) or in the absence of proper costimulation. Recently, we reported the selective upregulation of B7.2 on microbial hsp60 specific T cells in response to self hsp60. Through a preferred interaction with CTLA-4 on proinflammatory T cells this may constitute an effector mechanism of regulation. Also, regulatory T cells produced IL10. PMID:11189451

  7. Corrosion protected, multi-layer fuel cell interface

    DOEpatents

    Feigenbaum, Haim; Pudick, Sheldon; Wang, Chiu L.

    1986-01-01

    An improved interface configuration for use between adjacent elements of a fuel cell stack. The interface is impervious to gas and liquid and provides resistance to corrosion by the electrolyte of the fuel cell. The multi-layer configuration for the interface comprises a non-cupreous metal-coated metallic element to which is film-bonded a conductive layer by hot pressing a resin therebetween. The multi-layer arrangement provides bridging electrical contact.

  8. Alpha1-antitrypsin protects beta-cells from apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Bin; Lu, Yuanqing; Campbell-Thompson, Martha; Spencer, Terry; Wasserfall, Clive; Atkinson, Mark; Song, Sihong

    2007-05-01

    Beta-cell apoptosis appears to represent a key event in the pathogenesis of type 1 diabetes. Previous studies have demonstrated that administration of the serine proteinase inhibitor alpha1-antitrypsin (AAT) prevents type 1 diabetes development in NOD mice and prolongs islet allograft survival in rodents; yet the mechanisms underlying this therapeutic benefit remain largely unclear. Herein we describe novel findings indicating that AAT significantly reduces cytokine- and streptozotocin (STZ)-induced beta-cell apoptosis. Specifically, strong antiapoptotic activities for AAT (Prolastin, human) were observed when murine insulinoma cells (MIN6) were exposed to tumor necrosis factor-alpha. In a second model system involving STZ-induced beta-cell apoptosis, treatment of MIN6 cells with AAT similarly induced a significant increase in cellular viability and a reduction in apoptosis. Importantly, in both model systems, treatment with AAT completely abolished induced caspase-3 activity. In terms of its activities in vivo, treatment of C57BL/6 mice with AAT prevented STZ-induced diabetes and, in agreement with the in vitro analyses, supported the concept of a mechanism involving the disruption of beta-cell apoptosis. These results propose a novel biological function for this molecule and suggest it may represent an effective candidate for attempts seeking to prevent or reverse type 1 diabetes.

  9. The multifunctional role of ectoine as a natural cell protectant.

    PubMed

    Graf, Ruediger; Anzali, Soheila; Buenger, Joachim; Pfluecker, Frank; Driller, Hansjuergen

    2008-01-01

    The protective properties of ectoine, formerly described for only extremophilic microorganisms, can be transferred to human skin. Our present data show that the compatible solute ectoine protects the cellular membrane from damage caused by surfactants. Transepidermal water loss measurements in vivo suggest that the barrier function of the skin is strengthened after the topical application of an oil in water emulsion containing ectoine. Ectoine functions as a superior moisturizer with long-term efficacy. These findings indicating that ectoine is a strong water structure-forming solute are explained in silico by means of molecular dynamic simulations. Spherical clusters containing (1) water, (2) water with ectoine, and (3) water with glycerol are created as model systems. The stronger the water-binding activity of the solute, the greater the quantity of water molecules remaining in the cluster at high temperatures. Water clusters around ectoine molecules remain stable for a long period of time, whereas mixtures of water and glycerol break down and water molecules diffuse out of the spheres. On the basis of these findings, we suggest that the hydrogen bond properties of solutes are not solely responsible for maintaining the water structure form. Moreover, the particular electrostatic potential of ectoine as an amphoteric molecule with zwitterionic character is the major cause for its strong affinity to water. Because of its outstanding water-binding activity, ectoine might be especially useful in preventing water loss in dry atopic skin and in recovering skin viability and preventing skin aging.

  10. Inhibition of Granzyme B by PI-9 protects prostate cancer cells from apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Ray, Manisha; Hostetter, Daniel R.; Loeb, Carly RK; Simko, Jeffry; Craik, Charles S.

    2012-01-01

    Background In order for tumors to grow and proliferate, they must avoid recognition by immune cells and subsequent death by apoptosis. Granzyme B, a protease located in natural killer cells, initiates apoptosis in target cells. Inhibition of Granzyme B by PI-9, its natural inhibitor, can prevent apoptosis. Here we investigate whether PI-9 protects prostate cancer cells from apoptosis. Methods The expression of PI-9 was quantified by qPCR in several prostate cancer cell lines, and Granzyme B activity was tested in each cell line. PI-9 was overexpressed in LNCaP cells, which lack endogenous PI-9. Apoptosis was induced by natural killer cells in LNCaP cells that either contained or lacked PI-9, and the percent cell death in was quantified. Lastly, PI-9 levels were examined by qPCR and immunohistochemistry in prostate tumor tissue. Results Prostate cancer cell lines that expressed PI-9 could inhibit Granzyme B. Overexpression of PI-9 protected LNCaP cells from natural killer cell-mediated apoptosis. Examination of the levels of PI-9 in tissue from prostate tumors showed that PI-9 could be upregulated in low grade tumors and stochastically dysregulated in high grade tumors. Additionally, PI-9 is found consistently in high grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia and atrophic lesions. Conclusions These results indicate that overexpression of PI-9 can protect prostate cancer cells from apoptosis, and this effect may occur in human prostate tumors. These findings imply that early prostatic inflammation may trigger this increase in PI-9. This suggests that PI-9 upregulation is needed early in tumor progression, before additional protective mechanisms are in place. PMID:21919028

  11. Human T-cell leukemia virus types I and II exhibit different DNase I protection patterns

    SciTech Connect

    Altman, R.; Harrich, D.; Garcia, J.A. ); Gaynor, R.B. Wadsworth Veterans Hospital, Los Angeles, CA )

    1988-04-01

    Human T-cell leukemia virus types I (HTLV-I) and II (HTLV-II) are human retroviruses which normally infect T-lymphoid cells. HTLV-I infection is associated with adult T-cell leukemia-lymphoma, and HTLV-II is associated with an indolent form of hairy-cell leukemia. To identify potential transcriptional regulatory elements of these two related human retroviruses, the authors performed DNase I footprinting of both the HTLV-I and HTLV-II long terminal repeats (LTRs) by using extracts prepared from uninfected T cells, HTLV-I and HTLV-II transformed T cells, and HeLa cells. Five regions of the HTLV-I LTR and three regions of the HTLV-II LTR showed protection by DNase I footprinting. All three of the 21-base-pair repeats previously shown to be important in HTLV transcriptional regulation were protected in the HTLV-I LTR, whereas only one of these repeats was protected in the HTLV-II LTR. Several regions exhibited altered protection in extracts prepared from lymphoid cells as compared with HeLa cells, but there were minimal differences in the protection patterns between HTLV-infected and uninfected lymphoid extracts. A number of HTLV-I and HTLV-II LTR fragments which contained regions showing protection in DNase I footprinting were able to function as inducible enhancer elements in transient CAT gene expression assays in the presence of the HTLV-II tat protein. The alterations in the pattern of the cellular proteins which bind to the HTLV-I and HTLV-II LTRs may in part be responsible for differences in the transcriptional regulation of these two related viruses.

  12. Compatibility Study of Protective Relaying in a Grid-Connected Fuel Cell

    SciTech Connect

    Staunton, R.H.

    2004-04-15

    A 200-kW fuel cell produced by International Fuel Cells (IFC), a United Technologies Company, began operation at the National Transportation Research Center (NTRC) in early June 2003. The NTRC is a joint Oak Ridge National laboratory (ORNL) and University of Tennessee research facility located in Knoxville, Tennessee. This research activity investigated the protective relaying functions of this fully commercialized fuel cell power plant, which uses ''synthesized'' protective relays. The project's goal is to characterize the compatibility between the fuel cell's interconnection protection system and the local distribution system or electric power system (EPS). ORNL, with assistance from the Electric Power Research Institute-Power Electronics Applications Center (EPRI-PEAC) in Knoxville, Tennessee, monitored and characterized the system compatibility over a period of 6 months. Distribution utility engineers are distrustful of or simply uncomfortable with the protective relaying and hardware provided as part of distributed generation (DG) plants. Part of this mistrust is due to the fact that utilities generally rely on hardware from certain manufacturers whose reliability is well established based on performance over many years or even decades. Another source of concern is the fact that fuel cells and other types of DG do not use conventional relays but, instead, the protective functions of conventional relays are simulated by digital circuits in the distributed generator's grid interface control unit. Furthermore, the testing and validation of internal protection circuits of DG are difficult to accomplish and can be changed by the vendor at any time. This study investigated and documented the safety and protective relaying present in the IFC fuel cell, collected data on the operation of the fuel cell, recorded event data during EPS disturbances, and assessed the compatibility of the synthesized protective circuits and the local distribution system. The project also

  13. Wharton's Jelly Mesenchymal Stem Cells Protect the Immature Brain in Rats and Modulate Cell Fate.

    PubMed

    Mueller, Martin; Oppliger, Byron; Joerger-Messerli, Marianne; Reinhart, Ursula; Barnea, Eytan; Paidas, Michael; Kramer, Boris W; Surbek, Daniel V; Schoeberlein, Andreina

    2017-02-15

    The development of a mammalian brain is a complex and long-lasting process. Not surprisingly, preterm birth is the leading cause of death in newborns and children. Advances in perinatal care reduced mortality, but morbidity still represents a major burden. New therapeutic approaches are thus desperately needed. Given that mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSCs) emerged as a promising candidate for cell therapy, we transplanted MSCs derived from the Wharton's Jelly (WJ-MSCs) to reduce the burden of immature brain injury in a murine animal model. WJ-MSCs transplantation resulted in protective activity characterized by reduced myelin loss and astroglial activation. WJ-MSCs improved locomotor behavior as well. To address the underlying mechanisms, we tested the key regulators of responses to DNA-damaging agents, such as cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase/calcium-dependent protein kinase (PKA/PKC), cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK), ataxia-telangiectasia-mutated/ATM- and Rad3-related (ATM/ATR) substrates, protein kinase B (Akt), and 14-3-3 binding protein partners. We characterized WJ-MSCs using a specific profiler polymerase chain reaction array. We provide evidence that WJ-MSCs target pivotal regulators of the cell fate such as CDK/14-3-3/Akt signaling. We identified leukemia inhibitory factor as a potential candidate of WJ-MSCs' induced modifications as well. We hypothesize that WJ-MSCs may exert adaptive responses depending on the type of injury they are facing, making them prominent candidates for cell therapy in perinatal injuries.

  14. Melissa Officinalis L. Extracts Protect Human Retinal Pigment Epithelial Cells against Oxidative Stress-Induced Apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Jeung, In Cheul; Jee, Donghyun; Rho, Chang-Rae; Kang, Seungbum

    2016-01-01

    Background: We evaluated the protective effect of ALS-L1023, an extract of Melissa officinalis L. (Labiatae; lemon balm) against oxidative stress-induced apoptosis in human retinal pigment epithelial cells (ARPE-19 cells). Methods: ARPE-19 cells were incubated with ALS-L1023 for 24 h and then treated with hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). Oxidative stress-induced apoptosis and intracellular generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) were assessed by flow cytometry. Caspase-3/7 activation and cleaved poly ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP) were measured to investigate the protective role of ALS-L1023 against apoptosis. The protective effect of ALS-L1023 against oxidative stress through activation of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/protein kinase B (PI3K/Akt) was evaluated by Western blot analysis. Results: ALS-L1023 clearly reduced H2O2-induced cell apoptosis and intracellular production of ROS. H2O2-induced oxidative stress increased caspase-3/7 activity and apoptotic PARP cleavage, which were significantly inhibited by ALS-L1023. Activation of the PI3K/Akt pathway was associated with the protective effect of ALS-L1023 on ARPE-19 cells. Conclusions: ALS-L1023 protected human RPE cells against oxidative damage. This suggests that ALS-L1023 has therapeutic potential for the prevention of dry age-related macular degeneration. PMID:26941573

  15. A new potent natural antioxidant mixture provides global protection against oxidative skin cell damage.

    PubMed

    Jorge, A T S; Arroteia, K F; Lago, J C; de Sá-Rocha, V M; Gesztesi, J; Moreira, P L

    2011-04-01

    Oxidative stress occurs when there is an over production of free radicals and cells are not able to neutralize them by their own antioxidant mechanisms. These excess of free radicals will attack cellular macromolecules leading to cell damage, function impairment or death. Because of that, antioxidant substances have been largely used in products to offer complementary protection. In this study a new mixture of three known antioxidants (cocoa, green tea and alpha-tocopherol) was evaluated and its antioxidant protection was assessed focusing on its capacity to protect main cell macromolecules. Results have shown that it has a high antioxidant capacity by protecting lipids, DNA and proteins against oxidative damage. The antioxidant effect of the mixture on cells was also investigated and it was able to reduce oxidative stress generated by lipopolisacharide in human fibroblasts. Finally, as the mixture has proved to be highly antioxidant, its effect on cell senescence was evaluated, and it was demonstrated that fibroblasts in culture had delayed senescence when treated with these actives on a mixture. All results together provide important data about a new antioxidant mixture that uses a small amount of actives and is able to protect cell against oxidative damages in a global way.

  16. "Untangling Sickle-Cell Anemia and the Teaching of Heterozygote Protection"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howe, Eric Michael

    2007-01-01

    Introductory biology textbooks often use the example of sickle-cell anemia to illustrate the concept of heterozygote protection. Ordinarily scientists expect the frequency of a gene associated with a debilitating illness would be low owing to its continual elimination by natural selection. The gene that causes sickle-cell anemia, however, has a…

  17. Acetaminophen protects brain endothelial cells against oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Tripathy, Debjani; Grammas, Paula

    2009-05-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that acetaminophen has unappreciated anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. Drugs that affect oxidant and inflammatory stress in the brain are of interest because both processes are thought to contribute to the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative disease. The objective of this study is to determine whether acetaminophen affects the response of brain endothelial cells to oxidative stress. Cultured brain endothelial cells are pre-treated with acetaminophen and then exposed to the superoxide-generating compound menadione (25 microM). Cell survival, inflammatory protein expression, and anti-oxidant enzyme activity are measured. Menadione causes a significant (p<0.001) increase in endothelial cell death as well as an increase in RNA and protein levels of tumor necrosis factor alpha, interleukin-1, macrophage inflammatory protein alpha, and RANTES. Menadione also evokes a significant (p<0.001) increase in the activity of the anti-oxidant enzyme superoxide dismutase (SOD). Pre-treatment of endothelial cell cultures with acetaminophen (25-100 microM) increases endothelial cell survival and inhibits menadione-induced expression of inflammatory proteins and SOD activity. In addition, we document, for the first time, that acetaminophen increases expression of the anti-apoptotic protein Bcl2. Suppressing Bcl2 with siRNA blocks the pro-survival effect of acetaminophen. These data show that acetaminophen has anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory effects on the cerebrovasculature and suggest a heretofore unappreciated therapeutic potential for this drug in neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease that are characterized by oxidant and inflammatory stress.

  18. Cabergoline protects dopaminergic neurons against rotenone-induced cell death in primary mesencephalic cell culture.

    PubMed

    Meinel, J; Radad, K; Rausch, W-D; Reichmann, H; Gille, G

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, primary mesencephalic cell cultures prepared from embryonic mouse mesencephala were used to investigate the neuroprotective effect of cabergoline, an ergoline D2 receptor agonist, against the pesticide and neurotoxin rotenone relevant to Parkinson disease (PD). Treatment of cultures with cabergoline alone significantly increased the number of tyrosine hydroxylase immunoreactive (THir) neurons and reduced the release of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) into the culture medium compared to untreated controls. Against rotenone toxicity, cabergoline significantly rescued degenerating THir neurons, reduced the release of LDH into the culture medium and improved the morphology of surviving THir neurons. The neuroprotective effects afforded by cabergoline were independent of dopaminergic stimulation as blocking of dopamine receptors by the dopamine receptor antagonist sulpiride did not prevent them. Furthermore, rotenone-induced formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) was significantly reduced by cabergoline. Although cabergoline increased the glutathione (GSH) content in the culture, the protective effect for dopaminergic neurons seemed not to be predominantly mediated by increasing GSH, as depletion of GSH by L-buthionine-(S,R)-sulfoximine (BSO), a GSH biosynthesis inhibitor, did not prevent cabergoline-mediated neuroprotection of THir neurons in rotenone-treated cultures. Moreover, cabergoline significantly increased the ATP/protein ratio in primary mesencephalic cell cultures when added alone or prior to rotenone treatment. These results indicate a neuroprotective effect of cabergoline for dopaminergic neurons against rotenone toxicity. This effect was independent of dopamine receptor stimulation and was at least partially mediated by reducing ROS production and increasing the ATP/protein ratio.

  19. Curcumin confers protection to irradiated THP-1 cells while its nanoformulation sensitizes these cells via apoptosis induction.

    PubMed

    Soltani, Behrooz; Ghaemi, Nasser; Sadeghizadeh, Majid; Najafi, Farhood

    2016-12-01

    Protection against ionizing radiation (IR) and sensitization of cancer cells to IR are apparently contrasting phenomena. However, curcumin takes on these contrasting roles leading to either protection or enhanced apoptosis in different irradiated cells. Here we studied whether pretreatment with free curcumin or a novel dendrosomal nanoformulation of curcumin (DNC) could exert protective/sensitizing effects on irradiated THP-1 leukemia cells. We employed assays including MTT viability, clonogenic survival, DNA fragmentation, PI/Annexin V flow cytometry, antioxidant system (ROS, TBARS for lipid peroxidation, 8-OHdG and γH2AX for DNA damage, glutathione, CAT and GPx activity, enzymes gene expression), ELISA (NF-κB and Nrf2 binding, TNF-α release), caspase assay, siRNA silencing of caspase-3, and western blotting to illustrate the observed protective role of curcumin in comparison with the opposite sensitizing role of its nanoformulation at a similar 10 μM concentration. The in vivo relevance of this concentration was determined via intraperitoneal administration in mice. Curcumin significantly enhanced the antioxidant defense, while DNC induced apoptosis and reduced viability as well as survival of irradiated THP-1 cells. Nrf2 binding showed an early rise and fall in DNC-treated cells, despite a gradual increase in curcumin-treated cells. We also demonstrated that DNC induced apoptosis in THP-1 cells via caspase-3 activation; whereas in combination with radiation, DNC alternatively employed a caspase-independent apoptosis pathway involving cytochrome c release from mitochondria.

  20. Autophagy Protects from Raddeanin A-Induced Apoptosis in SGC-7901 Human Gastric Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Shen-lin; Fang, Liang-hua; Zhou, Jin-yong; Wu, Jian; Xi, Song-yang; Chen, Yan; Zhang, Ying-ying; Xu, Song

    2016-01-01

    Raddeanin A (RA) is an extractive from Anemone raddeana Regel, a traditional Chinese medicine. The aim of this study is to assess the efficacy of RA against human gastric cancer (GC) cells (SGC-7901) and explore its mechanism. MTT assay showed that RA inhibition of proliferation of SGC-7901 cells increased in a dose-dependent manner. Flow cytometry analysis and Hoechst 33258 staining showed that RA induced apoptosis on SGC-7901 cells. Meanwhile, it induced autophagy. Western blotting analysis showed that the RA induces apoptosis and autophagy by activating p38 MAPK pathway and inhibiting mTOR pathway. Further studies showed that autophagy inhibition could protect from RA-induced apoptosis in SGC-7901 cells. In conclusion, RA can induce SGC-7901 cell apoptosis and autophagy by activating p38 MAPK pathway. And autophagy can protect SGC-7901 cells from apoptosis induced by RA. PMID:27974905

  1. Protective and dysregulated T cell immunity in RSV infection.

    PubMed

    Openshaw, Peter J; Chiu, Christopher

    2013-08-01

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the most important cause of infantile bronchiolitis and a major pathogen in elderly and immunosuppressed persons. Although RSV shows limited antigenic diversity, repeated infections occur throughout life. Vaccine development has been delayed by poor immunogenicity, production issues and the fear of causing enhanced disease. T cells assist in viral clearance, but immune regulation serves to limit these responses and to prevent the exaggerated inflammatory response to RSV infection seen in children with bronchiolitis. Severe RSV disease can therefore be regarded as a dysregulated response to an otherwise trivial infection. Further insights into the role of T cells (including Th17) are needed to enable the rational design of safe, effective vaccines and novel treatments.

  2. Protective and dysregulated T cell immunity in RSV infection☆

    PubMed Central

    Openshaw, Peter J; Chiu, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the most important cause of infantile bronchiolitis and a major pathogen in elderly and immunosuppressed persons. Although RSV shows limited antigenic diversity, repeated infections occur throughout life. Vaccine development has been delayed by poor immunogenicity, production issues and the fear of causing enhanced disease. T cells assist in viral clearance, but immune regulation serves to limit these responses and to prevent the exaggerated inflammatory response to RSV infection seen in children with bronchiolitis. Severe RSV disease can therefore be regarded as a dysregulated response to an otherwise trivial infection. Further insights into the role of T cells (including Th17) are needed to enable the rational design of safe, effective vaccines and novel treatments. PMID:23806514

  3. Fisetin and luteolin protect human retinal pigment epithelial cells from oxidative stress-induced cell death and regulate inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Hytti, Maria; Piippo, Niina; Korhonen, Eveliina; Honkakoski, Paavo; Kaarniranta, Kai; Kauppinen, Anu

    2015-01-01

    Degeneration of retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells is a clinical hallmark of age-related macular degeneration (AMD), the leading cause of blindness among aged people in the Western world. Both inflammation and oxidative stress are known to play vital roles in the development of this disease. Here, we assess the ability of fisetin and luteolin, to protect ARPE-19 cells from oxidative stress-induced cell death and to decrease intracellular inflammation. We also compare the growth and reactivity of human ARPE-19 cells in serum-free and serum-containing conditions. The absence of serum in the culture medium did not prevent ARPE-19 cells from reaching full confluency but caused an increased sensitivity to oxidative stress-induced cell death. Both fisetin and luteolin protected ARPE-19 cells from oxidative stress-induced cell death. They also significantly decreased the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines into the culture medium. The decrease in inflammation was associated with reduced activation of MAPKs and CREB, but was not linked to NF- κB or SIRT1. The ability of fisetin and luteolin to protect and repair stressed RPE cells even after the oxidative insult make them attractive in the search for treatments for AMD. PMID:26619957

  4. Protection of A549 cells against the toxic effects of sulphur mustard by hexamethylenetetramine.

    PubMed

    Lindsay, C D; Hambrook, J L

    1997-02-01

    The A549 cell line was used as a model of the deep lung to study the toxicity and mechanism of action of sulphur mustard (HD), using the neutral red (NR) dye retention and gentian violet (GV) assays as indices of cell viability. It was found that exposure to concentrations in excess of 40 microM HD resulted in a rapid onset of toxicity. Exposure to 1000 microM HD reduced viability in A549 cell cultures to 61% after 2 h (control cultures = 100%), whereas exposure to 40 microM HD did not result in deleterious effects until 26 h at which point viability fell to only 84% (NR assay). Agarose gel electrophoresis of cell cultures exposed to 40 and 1000 microM HD and harvested at 4.5, 19 and 43 h after exposure to HD, indicated that cell death was due to necrosis, despite the observation that at the higher concentration of HD cells displayed many of the features common to cells undergoing apoptotic death. The ability of hexamethylenetetramine (HMT) to protect A549 cells against the effects of an LC50 challenge dose of HD was assessed using the GV and NR assays. It was found that HMT (15 mM) could protect cells against the effects of HD though HMT had to be present at the time of HD challenge. Cultures treated with HD only were 49% viable at 48 h after HD challenge, compared to 101% for protected cultures (NR assay) and 58% and 91% for unprotected and protected cultures respectively using the GV assay. Morphological observations of GV and NR stained cultures confirmed these findings. HMT concentrations of 2.5 to 25 mM were used. Maximal protection against the toxic effects of HD (LC50) was found at 10 to 25 mM HMT. Over this concentration range, HMT did not exert any toxic effects on A549 cells. Pretreatment of A549 cultures with HMT followed by its removal prior to HD challenge had no protective effect. Similarly, treating cultures with HD followed by addition of HMT did not increase the viability of the cultures, even if the HMT was added immediately after HD exposure

  5. Lycium barbarum polysaccharides protected human retinal pigment epithelial cells against oxidative stress-induced apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Lian; Lao, Wei; Ji, Qing-Shan; Yang, Zhi-Hao; Yu, Guo-Cheng; Zhong, Jing-Xiang

    2015-01-01

    AIM To investigate the protective effect and its mechanism of lycium barbarum polysaccharides (LBP) against oxidative stress-induced apoptosis in human retinal pigment epithelial cells. METHODS ARPE-19 cells, a human retinal pigment epithelial cell lines, were exposed to different concentrations of H2O2 for 24h, then cell viability was measured by Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8) assay to get the properly concentration of H2O2 which can induce half apoptosis of APRE-19. With different concentrations of LBP pretreatment, the ARPE-19 cells were then exposed to appropriate concentration of H2O2, cell apoptosis was detected by flow cytometric analysis. Expression levels of Bcl-2 and Bax were measured by real time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) technique. RSULTS LBP significantly reduced the H2O2-induced ARPE-19 cells' apoptosis. LBP inhibited the H2O2-induced down-regulation of Bcl-2 and up-regulation of Bax. CONCLUSION LBP could protect ARPE-19 cells from H2O2-induced apoptosis. The Bcl-2 family had relationship with the protective effects of LBP. PMID:25709900

  6. Heat Shield Employing Cured Thermal Protection Material Blocks Bonded in a Large-Cell Honeycomb Matrix

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zell, Peter

    2012-01-01

    A document describes a new way to integrate thermal protection materials on external surfaces of vehicles that experience the severe heating environments of atmospheric entry from space. Cured blocks of thermal protection materials are bonded into a compatible, large-cell honeycomb matrix that can be applied on the external surfaces of the vehicles. The honeycomb matrix cell size, and corresponding thermal protection material block size, is envisioned to be between 1 and 4 in. (.2.5 and 10 cm) on a side, with a depth required to protect the vehicle. The cell wall thickness is thin, between 0.01 and 0.10 in. (.0.025 and 0.25 cm). A key feature is that the honeycomb matrix is attached to the vehicle fs unprotected external surface prior to insertion of the thermal protection material blocks. The attachment integrity of the honeycomb can then be confirmed over the full range of temperature and loads that the vehicle will experience. Another key feature of the innovation is the use of uniform-sized thermal protection material blocks. This feature allows for the mass production of these blocks at a size that is convenient for quality control inspection. The honeycomb that receives the blocks must have cells with a compatible set of internal dimensions. The innovation involves the use of a faceted subsurface under the honeycomb. This provides a predictable surface with perpendicular cell walls for the majority of the blocks. Some cells will have positive tapers to accommodate mitered joints between honeycomb panels on each facet of the subsurface. These tapered cells have dimensions that may fall within the boundaries of the uniform-sized blocks.

  7. Nrf2 protects human bladder urothelial cells from arsenite and monomethylarsonous acid toxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Xiaojun; Sun Zheng; Chen Weimin; Eblin, Kylee E.; Gandolfi, Jay A.; Zhang, Donna D.

    2007-12-01

    Arsenic is widely spread in our living environment and imposes a big challenge on human health worldwide. Arsenic damages biological systems through multiple mechanisms including the generation of reactive oxygen species. The transcription factor Nrf2 regulates the cellular antioxidant response that protects cells from various insults. In this study, the protective role of Nrf2 in arsenic toxicity was investigated in a human bladder urothelial cell line, UROtsa. Using a UROtsa cell line stably infected with Nrf2-siRNA, we clearly demonstrate that compromised Nrf2 expression sensitized the cells to As(III)- and MMA(III)-induced toxicity. On the other hand, the activation of the Nrf2 pathway by tert-butylhydroquinone (tBHQ) and sulforaphane (SF), the known Nrf2-inducers, rendered UROtsa cells more resistant to As(III) and MMA(III). Furthermore, the wild-type mouse embryo fibroblast (WT-MEF) cells were protected from As(III)- and MMA(III)-induced toxicity following Nrf2 activation by tBHQ or SF, whereas neither tBHQ nor SF conferred protection in the Nrf2{sup -/-}MEF cells, demonstrating that tBHQ- or SF-mediated protection against As(III)- and MMA(III)-induced toxicity depends on Nrf2 activation. These results, obtained by both loss of function and gain of function analyses, clearly demonstrate the protective role of Nrf2 in arsenic-induced toxicity. The current work lays the groundwork for using Nrf2 activators for therapeutic and dietary interventions against adverse effects of arsenic.

  8. Improved antioxidative defence protects insulin-producing cells against homocysteine toxicity.

    PubMed

    Scullion, Siobhan M; Hahn, Claudine; Tyka, Karolina; Flatt, Peter R; McClenaghan, Neville H; Lenzen, Sigurd; Gurgul-Convey, Ewa

    2016-08-25

    Homocysteine (HC) is considered to play an important role in the development of metabolic syndrome complications. Insulin-producing cells are prone to HC toxicity and this has been linked to oxidative stress. However, the exact mechanisms remain unknown. Therefore it was the aim of this study to determine the nature of reactive oxygen species responsible for HC toxicity. Chronic exposure of RINm5F and INS1E insulin-producing cells to HC decreased cell viability and glucose-induced insulin secretion in a concentration-dependent manner and led to a significant induction of hydrogen peroxide generation in the cytosolic, but not the mitochondrial compartment of the cell. Cytosolic overexpression of catalase, a hydrogen peroxide detoxifying enzyme, provided a significant protection against viability loss and hydrogen peroxide generation, while mitochondrial overexpression of catalase did not protect against HC toxicity. Overexpression of CuZnSOD, a cytosolic superoxide dismutating enzyme, also protected against HC toxicity. However, the best protection was achieved in the case of a combined overexpression of CuZnSOD and catalase. Incubation of cells in combination with alloxan resulted in a significant increase of HC toxicity and an increase of hydrogen peroxide generation. Overexpression of CuZnSOD or catalase protected against the toxicity of HC plus alloxan, with a superior protection achieved again by combined overexpression. The results indicate that HC induces oxidative stress in insulin-producing cells by stimulation of superoxide radical and hydrogen peroxide generation in the cytoplasm. The low antioxidative defence status makes the insulin-producing cells very vulnerable to HC toxicity.

  9. Stem cell factor (SCF) protects osteoblasts from oxidative stress through activating c-Kit-Akt signaling

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Lei; Wu, Zhong; Yin, Gang; Liu, Haifeng; Guan, Xiaojun; Zhao, Xiaoqiang; Wang, Jianguang; Zhu, Jianguo

    2014-12-12

    Highlights: • SCF receptor c-Kit is functionally expressed in primary and transformed osteoblasts. • SCF protects primary and transformed osteoblasts from H{sub 2}O{sub 2}. • SCF activation of c-Kit in osteoblasts, required for its cyto-protective effects. • c-Kit mediates SCF-induced Akt activation in cultured osteoblasts. • Akt activation is required for SCF-regulated cyto-protective effects in osteoblasts. - Abstract: Osteoblasts regulate bone formation and remodeling, and are main target cells of oxidative stress in the progression of osteonecrosis. The stem cell factor (SCF)-c-Kit pathway plays important roles in the proliferation, differentiation and survival in a range of cell types, but little is known about its functions in osteoblasts. In this study, we found that c-Kit is functionally expressed in both osteoblastic-like MC3T3-E1 cells and primary murine osteoblasts. Its ligand SCF exerted significant cyto-protective effects against hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}). SCF activated its receptor c-Kit in osteoblasts, which was required for its cyto-protective effects against H{sub 2}O{sub 2}. Pharmacological inhibition (by Imatinib and Dasatinib) or shRNA-mediated knockdown of c-Kit thus inhibited SCF-mediated osteoblast protection. Further investigations showed that protection by SCF against H{sub 2}O{sub 2} was mediated via activation of c-Kit-dependent Akt pathway. Inhibition of Akt activation, through pharmacological or genetic means, suppressed SCF-mediated anti-H{sub 2}O{sub 2} activity in osteoblasts. In summary, we have identified a new SCF-c-Kit-Akt physiologic pathway that protects osteoblasts from H{sub 2}O{sub 2}-induced damages, and might minimize the risk of osteonecrosis caused by oxidative stress.

  10. Carvedilol protects bone marrow stem cells against hydrogen peroxide-induced cell death via PI3K-AKT pathway.

    PubMed

    Chen, Meihui; Chen, Shudong; Lin, Dingkun

    2016-03-01

    Carvedilol, a nonselective β-adrenergic receptor blocker, has been reported to exert potent anti-oxidative activities. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the effects of carvedilol against hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) death, which imitate the microenvironment surrounding transplanted cells in the injured spinal cord in vitro. Carvedilol significantly reduced H2O2-induced reactive oxygen species production, apoptosis and subsequent cell death. LY294002, the PI3K inhibitor, blocked the protective effects and up-regulation of Akt phosphorylation of carvedilol. Together, our results showed that carvedilol protects H2O2-induced BMSCs cell death partly through PI3K-Akt pathway, suggesting carvedilol could be used in combination with BMSCs for the treatment of spinal cord injury by improving the cell survival and oxidative stress microenvironments.

  11. Normal Cellular Prion Protein Protects against Manganese-induced Oxidative Stress and Apoptotic Cell Death

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Christopher J.; Anantharam, Vellareddy; Saetveit, Nathan J.; Houk, Robert. S.; Kanthasamy, Arthi; Kanthasamy, Anumantha G.

    2012-01-01

    The normal prion protein is abundantly expressed in the CNS, but its biological function remains unclear. The prion protein has octapeptide repeat regions that bind to several divalent metals, suggesting that the prion proteins may alter the toxic effect of environmental neurotoxic metals. In the present study, we systematically examined whether prion protein modifies the neurotoxicity of manganese (Mn) by comparing the effect of Mn on mouse neural cells expressing prion protein (PrPC -cells) and prion-knockout (PrPKO -cells). Exposure to Mn (10 μM-1 mM) for 24 hr produced a dose-dependent cytotoxic response in both PrPC -cells and PrPKO -cells. Interestingly, PrPC -cells (EC50 117.6μM) were more resistant to Mn-induced cytotoxicity, as compared to PrPKO -cells (EC50 59.9μM), suggesting a protective role for PrPC against Mn neurotoxicity. Analysis of intracellular Mn levels showed less Mn accumulation in PrPC -cells as compared to PrPKO -cells. Furthermore, Mn-induced mitochondrial depolarization and ROS generation were significantly attenuated in PrPC -cells as compared to PrPKO -cells. Measurement of antioxidant status revealed similar basal levels of glutathione (GSH) in PrPC -cells and PrPKO -cells; however, Mn treatment caused greater depletion of GSH in PrPKO -cells. Mn-induced mitochondrial depolarization and ROS production were followed by time- and dose-dependent activation of the apoptotic cell death cascade involving caspase-9 and -3. Notably, DNA fragmentation induced by both Mn treatment and oxidative stress-inducer hydrogen peroxide (100μM) was significantly suppressed in PrPC -cells as compared to PrPKO -cells. Together, these results demonstrate that prion protein interferes with divalent metal Mn uptake and protects against Mn-induced oxidative stress and apoptotic cell death. PMID:17483122

  12. Alpha-crystallin-mediated protection of lens cells against heat and oxidative stress-induced cell death.

    PubMed

    Christopher, Karen L; Pedler, Michelle G; Shieh, Biehuoy; Ammar, David A; Petrash, J Mark; Mueller, Niklaus H

    2014-02-01

    In addition to their key role as structural lens proteins, α-crystallins also appear to confer protection against many eye diseases, including cataract, retinitis pigmentosa, and macular degeneration. Exogenous recombinant α-crystallin proteins were examined for their ability to prevent cell death induced by heat or oxidative stress in a human lens epithelial cell line (HLE-B3). Wild type αA- or αB-crystallin (WT-αA and WT-αB) and αA- or αB-crystallins, modified by the addition of a cell penetration peptide (CPP) designed to enhance the uptake of proteins into cells (gC-αB, TAT-αB, gC-αA), were produced by recombinant methods. In vitro chaperone-like assays were used to assay the ability of α-crystallins to protect client proteins from chemical or heat induced aggregation. In vivo viability assays were performed in HLE-B3 to determine whether pre-treatment with α-crystallins reduced death after exposure to oxidative or heat stress. Most of the five recombinant α-crystallin proteins tested conferred some in vitro protection from protein aggregation, with the greatest effect seen with WT-αB and gC-αB. All α-crystallins displayed significant protection to oxidative stress induced cell death, while only the αB-crystallins reduced cell death induced by thermal stress. Our findings indicate that the addition of the gC tag enhanced the protective effect of αB-crystallin against oxidative but not thermally-induced cell death. In conclusion, modifications that increase the uptake of α-crystallin proteins into cells, without destroying their chaperone-like activity and anti-apoptotic functions, create the potential to use these proteins therapeutically.

  13. Corrosion Protection of Al/Au/ZnO Anode for Hybrid Cell Application

    PubMed Central

    Slaughter, Gymama; Stevens, Brian

    2015-01-01

    Effective protection of power sources from corrosion is critical in the development of abiotic fuel cells, biofuel cells, hybrid cells and biobateries for implantable bioelectronics. Corrosion of these bioelectronic devices result in device inability to generate bioelectricity. In this paper Al/Au/ZnO was considered as a possible anodic substrate for the development of a hybrid cell. The protective abilities of corrosive resistant aluminum hydroxide and zinc phosphite composite films formed on the surface of Al/Au/ZnO anode in various electrolyte environments were examined by electrochemical methods. The presence of phosphate buffer and physiological saline (NaCl) buffer allows for the formation of aluminum hyrdroxide and zinc phosphite composite films on the surface of the Al/Au/ZnO anode that prevent further corrosion of the anode. The highly protective films formed on the Al/Au/ZnO anode during energy harvesting in a physiological saline environment resulted in 98.5% corrosion protective efficiency, thereby demonstrating that the formation of aluminum hydroxide and zinc phosphite composite films are effective in the prevention of anode corrosion during energy harvesting. A cell assembly consisting of the Al/Au/ZnO anode and platinum cathode resulted in an open circuit voltage of 1.03 V. A maximum power density of 955.3 μW/ cm2 in physiological saline buffer at a cell voltage and current density of 345 mV and 2.89 mA/ cm2, respectively. PMID:26580661

  14. Mechanism of T-cell mediated protection in newborn mice against a Chlamydia infection.

    PubMed

    Pal, Sukumar; de la Maza, Luis M

    2013-01-01

    To determine the immune components needed for protection of newborn mice against Chlamydia muridarum, animals born to Chlamydia-immunized and to sham-immunized dams were infected intranasally with C. muridarum at 2 post-natal days. T-cells isolated from immunized or sham-immunized adult mice were adoptively transferred to newborn mice at the time of infection. Also, to establish what cytokines are involved in protection, IFN-γ, TNF-α, IL-10, and IL-12 were passively transferred to newborn mice. To assess the Chlamydia burden in the lungs mice were euthanized at 12 post-natal days. When T-cells from immunized adult mice were transferred, mice born to and fed by immunized dams were significantly protected as evidenced by the reduced number of Chlamydia isolated from the lungs compared to mice born to and fed by sham-immunized dams. Transfer of IFN-γ and TNF-α also significantly reduced the number of Chlamydia in the lungs of mice born to immunized dams. Transfer of IL-10 or IL-12 did not result in a significant reduction of Chlamydia. In vitro T-cell proliferation data suggest that neonatal antigen presenting cells can present Chlamydia antigens to adult T-cells. In conclusion, maternal antibodies and Chlamydia specific T-cells or Th1 cytokines are required for protection of neonates against this pathogen.

  15. HDLs protect pancreatic β-cells against ER stress by restoring protein folding and trafficking.

    PubMed

    Pétremand, Jannick; Puyal, Julien; Chatton, Jean-Yves; Duprez, Jessica; Allagnat, Florent; Frias, Miguel; James, Richard W; Waeber, Gérard; Jonas, Jean-Christophe; Widmann, Christian

    2012-05-01

    Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) homeostasis alteration contributes to pancreatic β-cell dysfunction and death and favors the development of diabetes. In this study, we demonstrate that HDLs protect β-cells against ER stress induced by thapsigargin, cyclopiazonic acid, palmitate, insulin overexpression, and high glucose concentrations. ER stress marker induction and ER morphology disruption mediated by these stimuli were inhibited by HDLs. Using a temperature-sensitive viral glycoprotein folding mutant, we show that HDLs correct impaired protein trafficking and folding induced by thapsigargin and palmitate. The ability of HDLs to protect β-cells against ER stress was inhibited by brefeldin A, an ER to Golgi trafficking blocker. These results indicate that HDLs restore ER homeostasis in response to ER stress, which is required for their ability to promote β-cell survival. This study identifies a cellular mechanism mediating the beneficial effect of HDLs on β-cells against ER stress-inducing factors.

  16. HDLs Protect Pancreatic β-Cells Against ER Stress by Restoring Protein Folding and Trafficking

    PubMed Central

    Pétremand, Jannick; Puyal, Julien; Chatton, Jean-Yves; Duprez, Jessica; Allagnat, Florent; Frias, Miguel; James, Richard W.; Waeber, Gérard; Jonas, Jean-Christophe; Widmann, Christian

    2012-01-01

    Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) homeostasis alteration contributes to pancreatic β-cell dysfunction and death and favors the development of diabetes. In this study, we demonstrate that HDLs protect β-cells against ER stress induced by thapsigargin, cyclopiazonic acid, palmitate, insulin overexpression, and high glucose concentrations. ER stress marker induction and ER morphology disruption mediated by these stimuli were inhibited by HDLs. Using a temperature-sensitive viral glycoprotein folding mutant, we show that HDLs correct impaired protein trafficking and folding induced by thapsigargin and palmitate. The ability of HDLs to protect β-cells against ER stress was inhibited by brefeldin A, an ER to Golgi trafficking blocker. These results indicate that HDLs restore ER homeostasis in response to ER stress, which is required for their ability to promote β-cell survival. This study identifies a cellular mechanism mediating the beneficial effect of HDLs on β-cells against ER stress-inducing factors. PMID:22399686

  17. Autophagy may protect MC3T3-E1 cells from fluoride-induced apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Wei, Min; Duan, Dongmei; Liu, Yujie; Wang, Zhigang; Li, Zhongli

    2014-06-01

    Fluoride is an essential trace element for all mammalian species; however, excess fluoride intake is known to be toxic to cells in animals and humans. The toxicity of fluoride is mainly exerted via induction of apoptosis. Autophagy is induced by numerous cytotoxic stimuli; however, it is often unclear whether, under specific conditions, autophagy has a pro‑survival or a pro‑apoptotic role. To answer this critical question, the present study assessed autophagy and apoptosis simultaneously in single cells. It was demonstrated that fluoride was able to inhibit cell proliferation and induce apoptosis and autophagy, whereas autophagy appeared to be protective. Further analysis revealed that MAPK/JNK‑dependent autophagy may be protective in fluoride‑induced apoptosis. It is anticipated that the presented single‑cell approach may be a powerful tool for gaining a quantitative understanding of the complex regulation of autophagy, its effect on cell fate and its association with other cellular pathways.

  18. Polysaccharides purified from Cordyceps cicadae protects PC12 cells against glutamate-induced oxidative damage.

    PubMed

    Olatunji, Opeyemi J; Feng, Yan; Olatunji, Oyenike O; Tang, Jian; Wei, Yuan; Ouyang, Zhen; Su, Zhaoliang

    2016-11-20

    Two polysaccharides CPA-1 and CPB-2 were isolated purified from Cordyceps cicadae by hot water extraction, ethanol precipitation and purification using anion exchange and gel filtration chromatography. Preliminary structural characterization of CPA-1 and CPB-2 were performed. The protective effect of CPA-1 and CPB-2 against glutamate-induced oxidative toxicity in PC12 cells was analyzed. The results indicated that pretreatment of PC12 cells with CPA-1 and CPB-2 significantly increased cell survival, Ca(2+) overload and ROS generation. CPA-1 and CPB-2 also markedly up-regulated the antioxidant status of pretreated PC12 cells. Our results suggested that Cordyceps cicadae polysaccharides can protect PC12 cells against glutamate excitotoxicity and might serve as therapeutic agents for neuronal disorders.

  19. Ferritin protects endothelial cells from oxidized low density lipoprotein in vitro.

    PubMed Central

    Juckett, M. B.; Balla, J.; Balla, G.; Jessurun, J.; Jacob, H. S.; Vercellotti, G. M.

    1995-01-01

    Low density lipoprotein (LDL), if it becomes oxidized, develops several unique properties including the capacity to provoke endothelial cytotoxicity via metal-catalyzed free radical-mediated mechanisms. As were previously have shown that iron-catalyzed oxidant injury to endothelial cells can be attenuated by the addition of exogenous iron chelators such as the lazaroids and deferoxamine, we have examined whether the endogenous iron chelator, ferritin, might provide protection from oxidized LDL. LDL oxidized by iron-containing hemin and H2O2 is toxic to endothelial cells in a time- and dose-dependent fashion. Endothelial cell ferritin content is increased by pretreatment of cells with iron compounds or by the direct addition of exogenous apoferritin; ferritin-loaded cells are markedly resistant to the toxicity caused by oxidized LDL. Iron inactivation by ferritin depends on its ferroxidase activity. When a recombinant human ferritin heavy chain mutant, 222, which is devoid of ferroxidase activity, is added to endothelial cells, unlike the excellent protection afforded by the wild-type recombinant heavy chain, endothelial cells are not protected from oxidized LDL. To assess the in vivo relevance of our observation, we examined human coronary arteries of cardiac explants taken from patients with end-stage atherosclerosis. Large amounts of immunoreactive ferritin are focally detected in atherosclerotic lesions, specifically in the myofibroblasts, macrophages, and endothelium without a notable increase in Prussian blue-detectable iron. These findings suggest that ferritin may modulate vascular cell injury in vivo. Images Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:7677189

  20. Natural Bizbenzoquinoline Derivatives Protect Zebrafish Lateral Line Sensory Hair Cells from Aminoglycoside Toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Kruger, Matthew; Boney, Robert; Ordoobadi, Alexander J.; Sommers, Thomas F.; Trapani, Josef G.; Coffin, Allison B.

    2016-01-01

    Moderate to severe hearing loss affects 360 million people worldwide and most often results from damage to sensory hair cells. Hair cell damage can result from aging, genetic mutations, excess noise exposure, and certain medications including aminoglycoside antibiotics. Aminoglycosides are effective at treating infections associated with cystic fibrosis and other life-threatening conditions such as sepsis, but cause hearing loss in 20–30% of patients. It is therefore imperative to develop new therapies to combat hearing loss and allow safe use of these potent antibiotics. We approach this drug discovery question using the larval zebrafish lateral line because zebrafish hair cells are structurally and functionally similar to mammalian inner ear hair cells and respond similarly to toxins. We screened a library of 502 natural compounds in order to identify novel hair cell protectants. Our screen identified four bisbenzylisoquinoline derivatives: berbamine, E6 berbamine, hernandezine, and isotetrandrine, each of which robustly protected hair cells from aminoglycoside-induced damage. Using fluorescence microscopy and electrophysiology, we demonstrated that the natural compounds confer protection by reducing antibiotic uptake into hair cells and showed that hair cells remain functional during and after incubation in E6 berbamine. We also determined that these natural compounds do not reduce antibiotic efficacy. Together, these natural compounds represent a novel source of possible otoprotective drugs that may offer therapeutic options for patients receiving aminoglycoside treatment. PMID:27065807

  1. Protective Role of Cross-Reactive CD8 T Cells Against Dengue Virus Infection.

    PubMed

    Elong Ngono, Annie; Chen, Hui-Wen; Tang, William W; Joo, Yunichel; King, Kevin; Weiskopf, Daniela; Sidney, John; Sette, Alessandro; Shresta, Sujan

    2016-11-01

    Infection with one of the four dengue virus serotypes (DENV1-4) presumably leads to lifelong immunity against the infecting serotype but not against heterotypic reinfection, resulting in a greater risk of developing Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever/Dengue Shock Syndrome (DHF/DSS) during secondary infection. Both antibodies and T cell responses have been implicated in DHF/DSS pathogenesis. According to the T cell-based hypothesis termed "original antigenic sin," secondary DENV infection is dominated by non-protective, cross-reactive T cells that elicit an aberrant immune response. The goal of our study was to compare the roles of serotype-specific and cross-reactive T cells in protection vs. pathogenesis during DENV infection in vivo. Specifically, we utilized IFN-α/βR(-/-) HLA*B0702 transgenic mice in the context of peptide vaccination with relevant human CD8 T cell epitopes. IFN-α/βR(-/-) HLA*B0702 transgenic mice were immunized with DENV serotype 2 (DENV2)-specific epitopes or variants found in any of the other three serotypes (DENV1, DENV3 or DENV4), followed by challenge with DENV. Although cross-reactive T cell responses were lower than responses elicited by serotype-specific T cells, immunization with either serotype-specific or variant peptide epitopes enhanced viral clearance, demonstrating that both serotype-specific and cross-reactive T cells can contribute to protection in vivo against DENV infection.

  2. SOD2 Mediates Amifostine-Induced Protection against Glutamate in PC12 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Ji; Zhang, Lei; Shi, Xiaolei; Wu, Mingchun; Zhou, Xiang; Liu, Xiaonan; Huo, Tingting

    2016-01-01

    Background. Cytoprotectant amifostine attenuates radiation-induced oxidative injury by increasing intracellular manganese superoxide dismutase (SOD2) in peripheral tissue. However, whether amifostine could protect neuronal cells against oxidative injury has not been reported. The purpose of this study is to explore the protection of amifostine in PC12 cells. Methods. PC12 cells exposed to glutamate were used to mimic neuronal oxidative injury. SOD assay kit was taken to evaluate intracellular Cu/Zn SOD (SOD1) and SOD2 activities; western blot analysis and immunofluorescence staining were performed to investigate SOD2 protein expression; MTT, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), release and cell morphology were used to evaluate cell injury degree, and apoptotic rate and cleaved caspase-3 expression were taken to assess apoptosis; mitochondrial superoxide production, intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), and glutathione (GSH) and catalase (CAT) levels were evaluated by reagent kits. Results. Amifostine increased SOD2 activity and expression, decreased cell injury and apoptosis, reduced mitochondrial superoxide production and intracellular ROS generation, and restored intracellular GSH and CAT levels in PC12 cells exposed to glutamate. SOD2-siRNA, however, significantly reversed the amifostine-induced cytoprotective and antioxidative actions. Conclusion. SOD2 mediates amifostine-induced protection in PC12 cells exposed to glutamate. PMID:26770652

  3. Quercetin protects hamster spermatogenic cells from oxidative damage induced by diethylstilboestrol.

    PubMed

    Li, G; Ma, Aituan; Shi, W; Zhong, Xiuhui

    2010-10-01

    Quercetin has been reported to be an efficient antioxidant which protects chicken spermatogonial cells from oxidative damage through increasing intracellular antioxidants and decreasing lipid peroxidation. Exposure to diethylstilboestrol (DES) could cause reproductive damage in males, which is associated with oxidative stress. This study was conducted to investigate the protective effects of quercetin on DES-induced oxidative damage in cultured hamster spermatogenic cells. The cells were treated with different concentrations of DES, and their growth status was observed under inverted microscope. The viability of spermatogenic cells was detected by 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide (MTT). The contents of superoxide dismutase (SOD) in supernatants and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) in cells were detected with spectrophotography. The results showed that quercetin significantly inhibited the DES-induced damage on spermatogenic cells, with the exception of the low-dose group in which no significant difference was observed. The cell survival rate increased significantly in the middle- and high-dose groups. The contents of SOD and GSH-Px were significantly elevated after medication with quercetin (P < 0.01). It can be concluded that quercetin protects spermatogenic cells against DES-induced oxidative damage through increasing intracellular antioxidants and decreasing lipid peroxidation. Quercetin plays a very important role in ameliorating reproductive toxicity induced by environmental oestrogens.

  4. Protective natural autoantibodies to apoptotic cells: evidence of convergent selection of recurrent innate-like clones.

    PubMed

    Silverman, Gregg J

    2015-12-01

    During murine immune development, recurrent B cell clones arise in a predictable fashion. Among these B cells, an archetypical clonotypic set that recognizes phosphorylcholine (PC) antigens and produces anti-PC IgM, first implicated for roles in microbial protection, was later found to become expanded in hyperlipidemic mice and in response to an increased in vivo burden of apoptotic cells. These IgM natural antibodies can enhance clearance of damaged cells and induce intracellular blockade of inflammatory signaling cascades. In clinical populations, raised levels of anti-PC IgM correlate with protection from atherosclerosis and may also downmodulate the severity of autoimmune disease. Human anti-PC-producing clones without hypermutation have been isolated that can similarly discriminate apoptotic from healthy cells. An independent report on unrelated adults has described anti-PC-producing B cells with IgM genes that have conserved CDR3 motifs, similar to stereotypic clonal sets of B cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Taken together, emerging evidence suggests that, despite the capacity to form an effectively limitless range of Ig receptors, the human immune system may often recurrently generate lymphocytes expressing structurally convergent B cell receptors with protective and homeostatic roles.

  5. Stem cell factor (SCF) protects osteoblasts from oxidative stress through activating c-Kit-Akt signaling.

    PubMed

    Yang, Lei; Wu, Zhong; Yin, Gang; Liu, Haifeng; Guan, Xiaojun; Zhao, Xiaoqiang; Wang, Jianguang; Zhu, Jianguo

    2014-12-12

    Osteoblasts regulate bone formation and remodeling, and are main target cells of oxidative stress in the progression of osteonecrosis. The stem cell factor (SCF)-c-Kit pathway plays important roles in the proliferation, differentiation and survival in a range of cell types, but little is known about its functions in osteoblasts. In this study, we found that c-Kit is functionally expressed in both osteoblastic-like MC3T3-E1 cells and primary murine osteoblasts. Its ligand SCF exerted significant cyto-protective effects against hydrogen peroxide (H₂O₂). SCF activated its receptor c-Kit in osteoblasts, which was required for its cyto-protective effects against H₂O₂. Pharmacological inhibition (by Imatinib and Dasatinib) or shRNA-mediated knockdown of c-Kit thus inhibited SCF-mediated osteoblast protection. Further investigations showed that protection by SCF against H₂O₂ was mediated via activation of c-Kit-dependent Akt pathway. Inhibition of Akt activation, through pharmacological or genetic means, suppressed SCF-mediated anti-H₂O₂ activity in osteoblasts. In summary, we have identified a new SCF-c-Kit-Akt physiologic pathway that protects osteoblasts from H₂O₂-induced damages, and might minimize the risk of osteonecrosis caused by oxidative stress.

  6. Induction of broad cytotoxic T cells by protective DNA vaccination against Marburg and Ebola.

    PubMed

    Shedlock, Devon J; Aviles, Jenna; Talbott, Kendra T; Wong, Gary; Wu, Stephan J; Villarreal, Daniel O; Myles, Devin Jf; Croyle, Maria A; Yan, Jian; Kobinger, Gary P; Weiner, David B

    2013-07-01

    Marburg and Ebola hemorrhagic fevers have been described as the most virulent viral diseases known to man due to associative lethality rates of up to 90%. Death can occur within days to weeks of exposure and there is currently no licensed vaccine or therapeutic. Recent evidence suggests an important role for antiviral T cells in conferring protection, but little detailed analysis of this response as driven by a protective vaccine has been reported. We developed a synthetic polyvalent-filovirus DNA vaccine against Marburg marburgvirus (MARV), Zaire ebolavirus (ZEBOV), and Sudan ebolavirus (SUDV). Preclinical efficacy studies were performed in guinea pigs and mice using rodent-adapted viruses, whereas murine T-cell responses were extensively analyzed using a novel modified assay described herein. Vaccination was highly potent, elicited robust neutralizing antibodies, and completely protected against MARV and ZEBOV challenge. Comprehensive T-cell analysis revealed cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) of great magnitude, epitopic breadth, and Th1-type marker expression. This model provides an important preclinical tool for studying protective immune correlates that could be applied to existing platforms. Data herein support further evaluation of this enhanced gene-based approach in nonhuman primate studies for in depth analyses of T-cell epitopes in understanding protective efficacy.

  7. AMP-18 protects barrier function of colonic epithelial cells: role of tight junction proteins

    PubMed Central

    Walsh-Reitz, Margaret M.; Huang, Erick F.; Musch, Mark W.; Chang, Eugene B.; Martin, Terence E.; Kartha, Sreedharan; Toback, F. Gary

    2005-01-01

    AMP-18, a novel gastric antrum mucosal protein, and a synthetic peptide of amino acids 77-97, have mitogenic and motogenic properties for epithelial cells. The possibility that AMP-18 is also protective was evaluated in the colonic mucosa of mice and monolayer cultures of human colonic epithelial Caco2/bbe (C2) cells. Administration of AMP peptide to mice with dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colonic injury delayed the onset of bloody diarrhea, and reduced weight loss. Treatment of C2 cells with AMP peptide protected monolayers against decreases in transepithelial electrical resistance (TER) induced by the oxidant monochloramine, indomethacin, or DSS. A molecular mechanism for these barrier-protective effects was sought by asking if AMP peptide acted on specific tight junction (TJ) proteins. Immunoblots of detergent-insoluble fractions of C2 cells treated with AMP peptide exhibited increased accumulation of specific TJ proteins. Occludin immunoreactivity was also increased in detergent-insoluble fractions obtained from colonic mucosal cells of mice injected with AMP peptide. Laser scanning confocal microscopy (CF) supported the capacity of AMP peptide to enhance accumulation of occludin and ZO-1 in TJ domains of C2 cell monolayers, and together with immunoblot analysis showed that the peptide protected against loss of these TJ proteins following oxidant injury. AMP peptide also protected against a fall in TER during disruption of actin filaments by cytochalasin D, and stabilized perijunctional actin during oxidant injury when assessed by CF. These findings suggest that AMP-18 could protect the intestinal mucosal barrier by acting on specific TJ proteins and stabilizing perijunctional actin. PMID:15961882

  8. Isoflurane protects against human endothelial cell apoptosis by inducing sphingosine kinase-1 via ERK MAPK.

    PubMed

    Bakar, Adnan M; Park, Sang Won; Kim, Mihwa; Lee, H Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Endothelial dysfunction is a major clinical problem affecting virtually every patient requiring critical care. Volatile anesthetics are frequently used during the perioperative period and protect the heart and kidney against ischemia and reperfusion injury. We aimed to determine whether isoflurane, the most commonly used volatile anesthetic in the USA, protects against endothelial apoptosis and necrosis and the mechanisms involved in this protection. Human endothelial EA.hy926 cells were pretreated with isoflurane or carrier gas (95% room air + 5% CO(2)) then subjected to apoptosis with tumor necrosis factor-α or to necrosis with hydrogen peroxide. DNA laddering and in situ Terminal Deoxynucleotidyl Transferase Biotin-dUTP Nick-End Labeling (TUNEL) staining determined EA.hy926 cell apoptosis and percent LDH released determined necrosis. We also determined whether isoflurane modulates the expression and activity of sphingosine kinase-1 (SK1) and induces the phosphorylation of extracellular signal regulated kinase (ERK MAPK) as both enzymes are known to protect against cell death. Isoflurane pretreatment significantly decreased apoptosis in EA.hy926 cells as evidenced by reduced TUNEL staining and DNA laddering without affecting necrosis. Mechanistically, isoflurane induces the phosphorylation of ERK MAPK and increased SK1 expression and activity in EA.hy926 cells. Finally, selective blockade of SK1 (with SKI-II) or S1P(1) receptor (with W146) abolished the anti-apoptotic effects of isoflurane. Taken together, we demonstrate that isoflurane, in addition to its potent analgesic and anesthetic properties, protects against endothelial apoptosis most likely via SK1 and ERK MAPK activation. Our findings have significant clinical implication for protection of endothelial cells during the perioperative period and patients requiring critical care.

  9. Snail/beta-catenin signaling protects breast cancer cells from hypoxia attack

    SciTech Connect

    Scherbakov, Alexander M.; Stefanova, Lidia B.; Sorokin, Danila V.; Semina, Svetlana E.; Berstein, Lev M.; Krasil’nikov, Mikhail A.

    2013-12-10

    The tolerance of cancer cells to hypoxia depends on the combination of different factors – from increase of glycolysis (Warburg Effect) to activation of intracellular growth/apoptotic pathways. Less is known about the influence of epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT) and EMT-associated pathways on the cell sensitivity to hypoxia. The aim of this study was to explore the role of Snail signaling, one of the key EMT pathways, in the mediating of hypoxia response and regulation of cell sensitivity to hypoxia, using as a model in vitro cultured breast cancer cells. Earlier we have shown that estrogen-independent HBL-100 breast cancer cells differ from estrogen-dependent MCF-7 cells with increased expression of Snail1, and demonstrated Snail1 involvement into formation of hormone-resistant phenotype. Because Snail1 belongs to hypoxia-activated proteins, here we studied the influence of Snail1 signaling on the cell tolerance to hypoxia. We found that Snail1-enriched HBL-100 cells were less sensitive to hypoxia-induced growth suppression if compared with MCF-7 line (31% MCF-7 vs. 71% HBL-100 cell viability after 1% O{sub 2} atmosphere for 3 days). Snail1 knock-down enhanced the hypoxia-induced inhibition of cell proliferation giving the direct evidence of Snail1 involvement into cell protection from hypoxia attack. The protective effect of Snail1 was shown to be mediated, at least in a part, via beta-catenin which positively regulated expression of HIF-1-dependent genes. Finally, we found that cell tolerance to hypoxia was accompanied with the failure in the phosphorylation of AMPK – the key energy sensor, and demonstrated an inverse relationship between AMPK and Snail/beta-catenin signaling. Totally, our data show that Snail1 and beta-catenin, besides association with loss of hormone dependence, protect cancer cells from hypoxia and may serve as an important target in the treatment of breast cancer. Moreover, we suggest that the level of these proteins as well

  10. New homoisoflavonoid analogues protect cells by regulating autophagy.

    PubMed

    Gan, Li-She; Zeng, Lin-Wei; Li, Xiang-Rong; Zhou, Chang-Xin; Li, Jie

    2017-03-15

    As a special group of naturally occurring flavonoids, homoisoflavonoids have been discovered as active components of several traditional Chinese medicines for nourishing heart and mind. In this study, twenty homoisoflavonoid analogues, including different substitution groups on rings A and B, as well as heteroaromatic B ring, were synthesized and evaluated for their cardioprotective and neuroprotective activities. In a H2O2-induced H9c2 cardiomyocytes injury assay, nine homoisoflavonoid analogues showed promising activities in the same level as the positive control, diazoxide. Six cardioprotective compounds with representative structure diversities were then evaluated for their neuroprotective effects on MPP+ induced SH-SY5Y cell injury model. Furthermore, autophagy inducing monodansylcadaverine (MDC) fluorescence staining methods and molecular docking studies indicated the action mechanism of these compounds may involve autophagy regulating via class I PI3K signaling pathway.

  11. Barrier-protective effects of activated protein C in human alveolar epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Puig, Ferranda; Fuster, Gemma; Adda, Mélanie; Blanch, Lluís; Farre, Ramon; Navajas, Daniel; Artigas, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    Acute lung injury (ALI) is a clinical manifestation of respiratory failure, caused by lung inflammation and the disruption of the alveolar-capillary barrier. Preservation of the physical integrity of the alveolar epithelial monolayer is of critical importance to prevent alveolar edema. Barrier integrity depends largely on the balance between physical forces on cell-cell and cell-matrix contacts, and this balance might be affected by alterations in the coagulation cascade in patients with ALI. We aimed to study the effects of activated protein C (APC) on mechanical tension and barrier integrity in human alveolar epithelial cells (A549) exposed to thrombin. Cells were pretreated for 3 h with APC (50 µg/ml) or vehicle (control). Subsequently, thrombin (50 nM) or medium was added to the cell culture. APC significantly reduced thrombin-induced cell monolayer permeability, cell stiffening, and cell contraction, measured by electrical impedance, optical magnetic twisting cytometry, and traction microscopy, respectively, suggesting a barrier-protective response. The dynamics of the barrier integrity was also assessed by western blotting and immunofluorescence analysis of the tight junction ZO-1. Thrombin resulted in more elongated ZO-1 aggregates at cell-cell interface areas and induced an increase in ZO-1 membrane protein content. APC attenuated the length of these ZO-1 aggregates and reduced the ZO-1 membrane protein levels induced by thrombin. In conclusion, pretreatment with APC reduced the disruption of barrier integrity induced by thrombin, thus contributing to alveolar epithelial barrier protection.

  12. Dendritic cell editing by activated natural killer cells results in a more protective cancer-specific immune response.

    PubMed

    Morandi, Barbara; Mortara, Lorenzo; Chiossone, Laura; Accolla, Roberto S; Mingari, Maria Cristina; Moretta, Lorenzo; Moretta, Alessandro; Ferlazzo, Guido

    2012-01-01

    Over the last decade, several studies have extensively reported that activated natural killer (NK) cells can kill autologous immature dendritic cells (DCs) in vitro, whereas they spare fully activated DCs. This led to the proposal that activated NK cells might select a more immunogenic subset of DCs during a protective immune response. However, there is no demonstration that autologous DC killing by NK cells is an event occurring in vivo and, consequently, the functional relevance of this killing remains elusive. Here we report that a significant decrease of CD11c(+) DCs was observed in draining lymph nodes of mice inoculated with MHC-devoid cells as NK cell targets able to induce NK cell activation. This in vivo DC editing by NK cells was perforin-dependent and it was functionally relevant, since residual lymph node DCs displayed an improved capability to induce T cell proliferation. In addition, in a model of anti-cancer vaccination, the administration of MHC-devoid cells together with tumor cells increased the number of tumor-specific CTLs and resulted in a significant increase in survival of mice upon challenge with a lethal dose of tumor cells. Depletion of NK cells or the use of perforin knockout mice strongly decreased the tumor-specific CTL expansion and its protective role against tumor cell challenge. As a whole, our data support the hypothesis that NK cell-mediated DC killing takes place in vivo and is able to promote expansion of cancer-specific CTLs. Our results also indicate that cancer vaccines could be improved by strategies aimed at activating NK cells.

  13. The Plant Hormone Cytokinin Confers Protection against Oxidative Stress in Mammalian Cells

    PubMed Central

    Awad, Eman; Stopper, Helga

    2016-01-01

    Modulating key dynamics of plant growth and development, the effects of the plant hormone cytokinin on animal cells gained much attention recently. Most previous studies on cytokinin effects on mammalian cells have been conducted with elevated cytokinin concentration (in the μM range). However, to examine physiologically relevant dose effects of cytokinins on animal cells, we systematically analyzed the impact of kinetin in cultured cells at low and high concentrations (1nM-10μM) and examined cytotoxic and genotoxic conditions. We furthermore measured the intrinsic antioxidant activity of kinetin in a cell-free system using the Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power assay and in cells using the dihydroethidium staining method. Monitoring viability, we looked at kinetin effects in mammalian cells such as HL60 cells, HaCaT human keratinocyte cells, NRK rat epithelial kidney cells and human peripheral lymphocytes. Kinetin manifests no antioxidant activity in the cell free system and high doses of kinetin (500 nM and higher) reduce cell viability and mediate DNA damage in vitro. In contrast, low doses (concentrations up to 100 nM) of kinetin confer protection in cells against oxidative stress. Moreover, our results show that pretreatment of the cells with kinetin significantly reduces 4-nitroquinoline 1-oxide mediated reactive oxygen species production. Also, pretreatment with kinetin retains cellular GSH levels when they are also treated with the GSH-depleting agent patulin. Our results explicitly show that low kinetin doses reduce apoptosis and protect cells from oxidative stress mediated cell death. Future studies on the interaction between cytokinins and human cellular pathway targets will be intriguing. PMID:28005918

  14. Cyclic AMP can promote APL progression and protect myeloid leukemia cells against anthracycline-induced apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Gausdal, G; Wergeland, A; Skavland, J; Nguyen, E; Pendino, F; Rouhee, N; McCormack, E; Herfindal, L; Kleppe, R; Havemann, U; Schwede, F; Bruserud, Ø; Gjertsen, B T; Lanotte, M; Ségal-Bendirdjian, E; Døskeland, S O

    2013-01-01

    We show that cyclic AMP (cAMP) elevating agents protect blasts from patients with acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) against death induced by first-line anti-leukemic anthracyclines like daunorubicin (DNR). The cAMP effect was reproduced in NB4 APL cells, and shown to depend on activation of the generally cytoplasmic cAMP-kinase type I (PKA-I) rather than the perinuclear PKA-II. The protection of both NB4 cells and APL blasts was associated with (inactivating) phosphorylation of PKA site Ser118 of pro-apoptotic Bad and (activating) phosphorylation of PKA site Ser133 of the AML oncogene CREB. Either event would be expected to protect broadly against cell death, and we found cAMP elevation to protect also against 2-deoxyglucose, rotenone, proteasome inhibitor and a BH3-only mimetic. The in vitro findings were mirrored by the findings in NSG mice with orthotopic NB4 cell leukemia. The mice showed more rapid disease progression when given cAMP-increasing agents (prostaglandin E2 analog and theophylline), both with and without DNR chemotherapy. The all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA)-induced terminal APL cell differentiation is a cornerstone in current APL treatment and is enhanced by cAMP. We show also that ATRA-resistant APL cells, believed to be responsible for treatment failure with current ATRA-based treatment protocols, were protected by cAMP against death. This suggests that the beneficial pro-differentiating and non-beneficial pro-survival APL cell effects of cAMP should be weighed against each other. The results suggest also general awareness toward drugs that can affect bone marrow cAMP levels in leukemia patients. PMID:23449452

  15. Cyclic AMP can promote APL progression and protect myeloid leukemia cells against anthracycline-induced apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Gausdal, G; Wergeland, A; Skavland, J; Nguyen, E; Pendino, F; Rouhee, N; McCormack, E; Herfindal, L; Kleppe, R; Havemann, U; Schwede, F; Bruserud, O; Gjertsen, B T; Lanotte, M; Ségal-Bendirdjian, E; Døskeland, S O

    2013-02-28

    We show that cyclic AMP (cAMP) elevating agents protect blasts from patients with acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) against death induced by first-line anti-leukemic anthracyclines like daunorubicin (DNR). The cAMP effect was reproduced in NB4 APL cells, and shown to depend on activation of the generally cytoplasmic cAMP-kinase type I (PKA-I) rather than the perinuclear PKA-II. The protection of both NB4 cells and APL blasts was associated with (inactivating) phosphorylation of PKA site Ser118 of pro-apoptotic Bad and (activating) phosphorylation of PKA site Ser133 of the AML oncogene CREB. Either event would be expected to protect broadly against cell death, and we found cAMP elevation to protect also against 2-deoxyglucose, rotenone, proteasome inhibitor and a BH3-only mimetic. The in vitro findings were mirrored by the findings in NSG mice with orthotopic NB4 cell leukemia. The mice showed more rapid disease progression when given cAMP-increasing agents (prostaglandin E2 analog and theophylline), both with and without DNR chemotherapy. The all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA)-induced terminal APL cell differentiation is a cornerstone in current APL treatment and is enhanced by cAMP. We show also that ATRA-resistant APL cells, believed to be responsible for treatment failure with current ATRA-based treatment protocols, were protected by cAMP against death. This suggests that the beneficial pro-differentiating and non-beneficial pro-survival APL cell effects of cAMP should be weighed against each other. The results suggest also general awareness toward drugs that can affect bone marrow cAMP levels in leukemia patients.

  16. Metformin protects against apoptosis and senescence in nucleus pulposus cells and ameliorates disc degeneration in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Deheng; Xia, Dongdong; Pan, Zongyou; Xu, Daoliang; Zhou, Yifei; Wu, Yaosen; Cai, Ningyu; Tang, Qian; Wang, Chenggui; Yan, Meijun; Zhang, Jing Jie; Zhou, Kailiang; Wang, Quan; Feng, Yongzeng; Wang, Xiangyang; Xu, Huazi; Zhang, Xiaolei; Tian, Naifeng

    2016-01-01

    Intervertebral disc degeneration (IDD) is a complicated process that involves both cellular apoptosis and senescence. Metformin has been reported to stimulate autophagy, whereas autophagy is shown to protect against apoptosis and senescence. Therefore, we hypothesize that metformin may have therapeutic effect on IDD through autophagy stimulation. The effect of metformin on IDD was investigated both in vitro and in vivo. Our study showed that metformin attenuated cellular apoptosis and senescence induced by tert-butyl hydroperoxide in nucleus pulposus cells. Autophagy, as well as its upstream regulator AMPK, was activated by metformin in nucleus pulposus cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Inhibition of autophagy by 3-MA partially abolished the protective effect of metformin against nucleus pulposus cells' apoptosis and senescence, indicating that autophagy was involved in the protective effect of metformin on IDD. In addition, metformin was shown to promote the expression of anabolic genes such as Col2a1 and Acan expression while inhibiting the expression of catabolic genes such as Mmp3 and Adamts5 in nucleus pulposus cells. In vivo study illustrated that metformin treatment could ameliorate IDD in a puncture-induced rat model. Thus, our study showed that metformin could protect nucleus pulposus cells against apoptosis and senescence via autophagy stimulation and ameliorate disc degeneration in vivo, revealing its potential to be a therapeutic agent for IDD. PMID:27787519

  17. Protection of human upper respiratory tract cell lines against sulphur mustard toxicity by hexamethylenetetramine (HMT).

    PubMed

    Andrew, D J; Lindsay, C D

    1998-07-01

    1. Sulphur mustard ('mustard gas', HD) is a highly toxic chemical warfare agent which affects the skin and respiratory tract. The primary targets of inhaled HD are the epithelia of the upper respiratory tract. Hexamethylenetetramine (HMT) has been shown to protect human lung cells against HD toxicity and has also been shown to be effective in vivo against the chemical warfare agent phosgene. The ability of HMT to protect against the toxicity of HD was investigated in the human upper respiratory tract cell lines BEAS-2B and RPMI 2650. 2. HD was highly toxic to both cell lines, with LC50 values of 15-30 microM. HMT, at a concentration of 10 mM, was shown to protect the cell lines against the toxic effects of 20 microM and 40 microM HD. Results demonstrated that it was necessary for HMT to be in situ at the time of exposure to HD for effective cytoprotection. No protection was seen when cells were treated with HMT following exposure to HD, or where HMT was removed prior to HD exposure. 3. Results suggest that HMT may be effective prophylaxis for exposure to HD by inhalation.

  18. NK Cell-Mediated Regulation of Protective Memory Responses against Intracellular Ehrlichial Pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Habib, Samar; El Andaloussi, Abdeljabar; Hisham, Ahmed; Ismail, Nahed

    2016-01-01

    Ehrlichiae are gram-negative obligate intracellular bacteria that cause potentially fatal human monocytic ehrlichiosis. We previously showed that natural killer (NK) cells play a critical role in host defense against Ehrlichia during primary infection. However, the contribution of NK cells to the memory response against Ehrlichia remains elusive. Primary infection of C57BL/6 mice with Ehrlichia muris provides long-term protection against a second challenge with the highly virulent Ixodes ovatus Ehrlichia (IOE), which ordinarily causes fatal disease in naïve mice. Here, we show that the depletion of NK cells in E. muris-primed mice abrogates the protective memory response against IOE. Approximately, 80% of NK cell-depleted E. muris-primed mice succumbed to lethal IOE infection on days 8–10 after IOE infection, similar to naïve mice infected with the same dose of IOE. The lack of a recall response in NK cell-depleted mice correlated with an increased bacterial burden, extensive liver injury, decreased frequency of Ehrlichia-specific IFN-γ-producing memory CD4+ and CD8+ T-cells, and a low titer of Ehrlichia-specific antibodies. Intraperitoneal infection of mice with E. muris resulted in the production of IL-15, IL-12, and IFN-γ as well as an expansion of activated NKG2D+ NK cells. The adoptive transfer of purified E. muris-primed hepatic and splenic NK cells into Rag2-/-Il2rg-/- recipient mice provided protective immunity against challenge with E. muris. Together, these data suggest that E. muris-induced memory-like NK cells, which contribute to the protective, recall response against Ehrlichia. PMID:27092553

  19. Protection of human HepG2 cells against oxidative stress by cocoa phenolic extract.

    PubMed

    Martín, María Angeles; Ramos, Sonia; Mateos, Raquel; Granado Serrano, Ana Belén; Izquierdo-Pulido, María; Bravo, Laura; Goya, Luis

    2008-09-10

    Cocoa is a rich source of flavanols and procyanidin oligomers with antioxidative properties, providing protection against oxidation and nitration. The present study investigated the potential protective effect of a polyphenolic extract from cocoa on cell viability and antioxidant defenses of cultured human HepG2 cells submitted to oxidative stress induced by tert-butylhydroperoxide (t-BOOH). Pretreatment of cells with 0.05-50 microg/mL of cocoa polyphenolic extract (CPE) for 2 or 20 h completely prevented cell damage and enhanced activity of antioxidant enzymes induced by a treatment with t-BOOH. Moreover, lower levels of GSH caused by t-BOOH in HepG2 cells were partly recovered by a pretreatment with CPE. Increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) induced by t-BOOH was dose-dependently prevented when cells were pretreated for 2 or 20 h with CPE. These results show that treatment of HepG2 in culture with CPE (within the physiological range of concentrations) confers a significant protection against oxidation to the cells.

  20. Conditional and specific NF-kappaB blockade protects pancreatic beta cells from diabetogenic agents.

    PubMed

    Eldor, R; Yeffet, A; Baum, K; Doviner, V; Amar, D; Ben-Neriah, Y; Christofori, G; Peled, A; Carel, J C; Boitard, C; Klein, T; Serup, P; Eizirik, D L; Melloul, D

    2006-03-28

    Type 1 diabetes is characterized by the infiltration of inflammatory cells into pancreatic islets of Langerhans, followed by the selective and progressive destruction of insulin-secreting beta cells. Islet-infiltrating leukocytes secrete cytokines such as IL-1beta and IFN-gamma, which contribute to beta cell death. In vitro evidence suggests that cytokine-induced activation of the transcription factor NF-kappaB is an important component of the signal triggering beta cell apoptosis. To study the in vivo role of NF-kappaB in beta cell death, we generated a transgenic mouse line expressing a degradation-resistant NF-kappaB protein inhibitor (DeltaNIkappaBalpha), acting specifically in beta cells, in an inducible and reversible manner, by using the tet-on regulation system. In vitro, islets expressing the DeltaNIkappaBalpha protein were resistant to the deleterious effects of IL-1beta and IFN-gamma, as assessed by reduced NO production and beta-cell apoptosis. This effect was even more striking in vivo, where nearly complete protection against multiple low-dose streptozocin-induced diabetes was observed, with reduced intraislet lymphocytic infiltration. Our results show in vivo that beta cell-specific activation of NF-kappaB is a key event in the progressive loss of beta cells in diabetes. Inhibition of this process could be a potential effective strategy for beta-cell protection.

  1. Tanshinone IIA Protects Endothelial Cells from H2O2-Induced Injuries via PXR Activation.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Haiyan; Chen, Zhiwu; Ma, Zengchun; Tan, Hongling; Xiao, Chengrong; Tang, Xianglin; Zhang, Boli; Wang, Yuguang; Gao, Yue

    2017-02-06

    Tanshinone IIA (Tan IIA) is a pharmacologically active substance extracted from the rhizome of Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge (also known as the Chinese herb Danshen), and is widely used to treat atherosclerosis. The pregnane X receptor (PXR) is a nuclear receptor that is a key regulator of xenobiotic and endobiotic detoxification. Tan IIA is an efficacious PXR agonist that has a potential protective effect on endothelial injuries induced by xenobiotics and endobiotics via PXR activation. Previously numerous studies have demonstrated the possible effects of Tan IIA on human umbilical vein endothelial cells, but the further mechanism for its exerts the protective effect is not well established. To study the protective effects of Tan IIA against hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs), we pretreated cells with or without different concentrations of Tan IIA for 24 h, then exposed the cells to 400 μM H2O2 for another 3 h. Therefore, our data strongly suggests that Tan IIA may lead to increased regeneration of glutathione (GSH) from the glutathione disulfide (GSSG) produced during the GSH peroxidase-catalyzed decomposition of H2O2 in HUVECs, and the PXR plays a significant role in this process. Tan IIA may also exert protective effects against H2O2-induced apoptosis through the mitochondrial apoptosis pathway associated with the participation of PXR. Tan IIA protected HUVECs from inflammatory mediators triggered by H2O2 via PXR activation. In conclusion, Tan IIA protected HUVECs against H2O2-induced cell injury through PXR-dependent mechanisms.

  2. Mast cells control insulitis and increase Treg cells to confer protection against STZ-induced type 1 diabetes in mice.

    PubMed

    Carlos, Daniela; Yaochite, Juliana N U; Rocha, Fernanda A; Toso, Vanina D; Malmegrim, Kelen C R; Ramos, Simone G; Jamur, Maria C; Oliver, Constance; Camara, Niels O; Andrade, Marcus V M; Cunha, Fernando Q; Silva, João S

    2015-10-01

    Quantitative alterations in mast cell numbers in pancreatic lymph nodes (PLNs) have been reported to be associated with type 1 diabetes (T1D) progression, but their potential role during T1D remains unclear. In this study, we evaluated the role of mast cells in T1D induced by multiple low-dose streptozotocin (MLD-STZ) treatments, using two strains of mast cell-deficient mice (W/W(v) or Wsh/Wsh) and the adoptive transfer of mast cells. Mast cell deficient mice developed severe insulitis and accelerated hyperglycemia, with 100% of mice becoming diabetic compared to their littermates. In parallel, these diabetic mice had decreased numbers of T regulatory (Treg) cells in the PLNs. Additionally, mast cell deficiency caused a significant reduction in IL-10, TGF-β, and IL-6 expression in the pancreatic tissue. Interestingly, IL-6-deficient mice are more susceptible to T1D associated with reduced Treg-cell numbers in the PLNs, but mast cell transfer from wild-type mice induced protection to T1D in these mice. Finally, mast cell adoptive transfer prior to MLD-STZ administration conferred resistance to T1D, promoted increased Treg cells, and decreased IL-17-producing T cells in the PLNs. Taken together, our results indicate that mast cells are implicated in resistance to STZ-induced T1D via an immunological tolerance mechanism mediated by Treg cells.

  3. Ankyrin-mediated self-protection during cell invasion by the bacterial predator Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus

    PubMed Central

    Lambert, Carey; Cadby, Ian T.; Till, Rob; Bui, Nhat Khai; Lerner, Thomas R.; Hughes, William S.; Lee, David J.; Alderwick, Luke J.; Vollmer, Waldemar; Sockett, Elizabeth R.; Lovering, Andrew L.

    2015-01-01

    Predatory Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus are natural antimicrobial organisms, killing other bacteria by whole-cell invasion. Self-protection against prey-metabolizing enzymes is important for the evolution of predation. Initial prey entry involves the predator's peptidoglycan DD-endopeptidases, which decrosslink cell walls and prevent wasteful entry by a second predator. Here we identify and characterize a self-protection protein from B. bacteriovorus, Bd3460, which displays an ankyrin-based fold common to intracellular pathogens of eukaryotes. Co-crystal structures reveal Bd3460 complexation of dual targets, binding a conserved epitope of each of the Bd3459 and Bd0816 endopeptidases. Complexation inhibits endopeptidase activity and cell wall decrosslinking in vitro. Self-protection is vital — ΔBd3460 Bdellovibrio deleteriously decrosslink self-peptidoglycan upon invasion, adopt a round morphology, and lose predatory capacity and cellular integrity. Our analysis provides the first mechanistic examination of self-protection in Bdellovibrio, documents protection-multiplicity for products of two different genomic loci, and reveals an important evolutionary adaptation to an invasive predatory bacterial lifestyle. PMID:26626559

  4. Ankyrin-mediated self-protection during cell invasion by the bacterial predator Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus.

    PubMed

    Lambert, Carey; Cadby, Ian T; Till, Rob; Bui, Nhat Khai; Lerner, Thomas R; Hughes, William S; Lee, David J; Alderwick, Luke J; Vollmer, Waldemar; Sockett, R Elizabeth; Sockett, Elizabeth R; Lovering, Andrew L

    2015-12-02

    Predatory Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus are natural antimicrobial organisms, killing other bacteria by whole-cell invasion. Self-protection against prey-metabolizing enzymes is important for the evolution of predation. Initial prey entry involves the predator's peptidoglycan DD-endopeptidases, which decrosslink cell walls and prevent wasteful entry by a second predator. Here we identify and characterize a self-protection protein from B. bacteriovorus, Bd3460, which displays an ankyrin-based fold common to intracellular pathogens of eukaryotes. Co-crystal structures reveal Bd3460 complexation of dual targets, binding a conserved epitope of each of the Bd3459 and Bd0816 endopeptidases. Complexation inhibits endopeptidase activity and cell wall decrosslinking in vitro. Self-protection is vital - ΔBd3460 Bdellovibrio deleteriously decrosslink self-peptidoglycan upon invasion, adopt a round morphology, and lose predatory capacity and cellular integrity. Our analysis provides the first mechanistic examination of self-protection in Bdellovibrio, documents protection-multiplicity for products of two different genomic loci, and reveals an important evolutionary adaptation to an invasive predatory bacterial lifestyle.

  5. Vaccination with Leishmania histone H1-pulsed dendritic cells confers protection in murine visceral leishmaniasis.

    PubMed

    Agallou, Maria; Smirlis, Despina; Soteriadou, Ketty P; Karagouni, Evdokia

    2012-07-20

    Visceral leishmaniasis is the most severe form of leishmaniases affecting millions of people worldwide often resulting in death despite optimal therapy. Thus, there is an urgent need for the development of effective anti-infective vaccine(s). In the present study, we evaluated the prophylactic value of bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (BM-DCs) pulsed with the Leishmania (L.) infantum histone H1. We developed fully mature BM-DCs characterized by enhanced capacity of IL-12 production after ex vivo pulsing with GST-LeishH1. Intravenous administration of these BM-DCs in naive BALB/c mice resulted in antigen-specific spleenocyte proliferation and IgG1 isotype antibody production and conferred protection against experimental challenge with L. infantum independently of CpG oligonucleotides (ODNs) co-administration. Protection was associated with a pronounced enhancement of parasite-specific IFNγ-producing cells and reduction of cells producing IL-10, whereas IL-4 production was comparable in protected and non-protected mice. The polarization of immune responses to Th1 type was further confirmed by the elevation of parasite-specific IgG2a/IgG1 ratio in protected mice. The above data indicate the immunostimulatory capacity of Leishmania histone H1 and further support its exploitation as a candidate protein for vaccine development against leishmaniasis.

  6. Benzimidazole derivatives protect against cytokine-induced apoptosis in pancreatic β-Cells.

    PubMed

    Zawawi, Nik Khairunissa Nik Abdullah; Rajput, Sajid Ali; Taha, Muhammad; Ahmat, Norizan; Ismail, Nor Hadiani; Abdullah, Noraishah; Khan, Khalid Mohammed; Choudhary, M Iqbal

    2015-10-15

    Apoptotic cell death is the cause of the loss of insulin-producing β-cells in all forms of diabetes mellitus. The identification of small molecules capable of protecting cytokine-induced apoptosis could form the basis of useful therapeutic interventions. Here in, we present the discovery and synthesis of new benzimidazole derivatives, capable of rescuing pancreatic β-cells from cytokine-induced apoptosis. Three hydrazone derivatives of benzimidazole significantly increased the cellular ATP levels, reduced caspase-3 activity, reduced nitrite production and increased glucose-stimulated insulin secretion in the presence of proinflammatory cytokines. These findings suggest that these compounds may protect β-cells from the harmful effects of cytokines and may serve as candidates for therapeutic intervention for diabetes.

  7. Protective effects of HGF gene-expressing human mesenchymal stem cells in acetaminophen-treated hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Jang, Yun Ho; You, Dong Hun; Nam, Myeong Jin

    2015-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) secrete a great variety of cytokines that have beneficial paracrine actions. Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) promotes proliferation in several cell types. The aim of the present study was to investigate the protective effect of HGF gene-transfected MSC (HGF-MSC) in acetaminophen (AAP)-treated hepatocytes. We transfected the HGF gene into MSCs and confirmed HGF expression by RT-PCR and western blot. The concentration of HGF in HGF-MSC conditioned media (HGFCM) was upregulated compared with that in control MSCCM samples. Cell viability was increased in HGFCM-treated hepatocytes. Expression of Mcl-1, an anti-apoptosis protein, was increased and expression of pro-apoptosis proteins (Bad, Bik and Bid) was decreased in HGFCM-treated hepatocytes. HGF-MSC had protective effects on AAP-induced hepatocyte damage by enhancing proliferation. These results suggest that HGF-expressing MSCs may provide regenerative potential for liver cell damage.

  8. Selenite protects human endothelial cells from oxidative damage and induces thioredoxin reductase.

    PubMed

    Miller, S; Walker, S W; Arthur, J R; Nicol, F; Pickard, K; Lewin, M H; Howie, A F; Beckett, G J

    2001-05-01

    The ability of selenium to protect cultured human coronary artery endothelial cells (HCAEC), human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) and bovine aortic endothelial cells (BAEC) from oxidative damage induced by 100 microM t-butyl hydroperoxide (t-BuOOH) was compared. Preincubation of human endothelial cells for 24 h with sodium selenite at concentrations as low as 5 nM provided significant protection against the harmful effects of 100 microM t-BuOOH, with complete protection being achieved with 40 nM selenite. The preincubation period was required for selenite to exert this protective effect on endothelial cells. When compared with selenium-deficient cells, the activities of cytoplasmic glutathione peroxidase (GPX-1), phospholipid hydroperoxide glutathione peroxidase (GPX-4) and thioredoxin reductase (TR) were each induced approx. 3--4-fold by 40 nM selenite. HCAEC and HUVEC showed great similarity in their relative abilities to resist oxidative damage in the presence and absence of selenite, and the activities of TR and the GPXs were also similar in these cell types. BAEC were more susceptible to damage by 100 microM t-BuOOH than were human endothelial cells, and could not be protected completely by incubation with selenite at concentrations up to 160 nM. The activity of TR in human endothelial cells was approx. 25-fold greater than that in BAEC of a similar selenium status, but GPX-1 and GPX-4 activities were not significantly different between the human and bovine cells. These studies, although performed with a small number of cultures, show for the first time that selenium at low doses can provide significant protection of the human coronary artery endothelium against damage by oxidative stress. TR may be an important antioxidant selenoprotein in this regard, in addition to the GPXs. The data also suggest that HUVEC, but not BAEC, represent a suitable model system in which to study the effects of selenium on the endothelium of human coronary arteries.

  9. Activation of glutathione peroxidase via Nrf1 mediates genistein's protection against oxidative endothelial cell injury

    SciTech Connect

    Hernandez-Montes, Eva; Pollard, Susan E.; Vauzour, David; Jofre-Montseny, Laia; Rota, Cristina; Rimbach, Gerald; Weinberg, Peter D.; Spencer, Jeremy P.E. . E-mail: j.p.e.spencer@reading.ac.uk

    2006-08-04

    Cellular actions of isoflavones may mediate the beneficial health effects associated with high soy consumption. We have investigated protection by genistein and daidzein against oxidative stress-induced endothelial injury. Genistein but not daidzein protected endothelial cells from damage induced by oxidative stress. This protection was accompanied by decreases in intracellular glutathione levels that could be explained by the generation of glutathionyl conjugates of the oxidised genistein metabolite, 5,7,3',4'-tetrahydroxyisoflavone. Both isoflavones evoked increased protein expression of {gamma}-glutamylcysteine synthetase-heavy subunit ({gamma}-GCS-HS) and increased cytosolic accumulation and nuclear translocation of Nrf2. However, only genistein led to increases in the cytosolic accumulation and nuclear translocation of Nrf1 and the increased expression of and activity of glutathione peroxidase. These results suggest that genistein-induced protective effects depend primarily on the activation of glutathione peroxidase mediated by Nrf1 activation, and not on Nrf2 activation or increases in glutathione synthesis.

  10. Surface glycosaminoglycans protect eukaryotic cells against membrane-driven peptide bacteriocins.

    PubMed

    Martín, Rebeca; Escobedo, Susana; Martín, Carla; Crespo, Ainara; Quiros, Luis M; Suarez, Juan E

    2015-01-01

    Enzymatic elimination of surface glycosaminoglycans or inhibition of their sulfation provokes sensitizing of HT-29 and HeLa cells toward the peptide bacteriocins nisin A, plantaricin C, and pediocin PA-1/AcH. The effect can be partially reversed by heparin, which also lowers the susceptibility of Lactococcus lactis to nisin A. These data indicate that the negative charge of the glycosaminoglycan sulfate residues binds the positively charged bacteriocins, thus protecting eukaryotic cells from plasma membrane damage.

  11. Surface Glycosaminoglycans Protect Eukaryotic Cells against Membrane-Driven Peptide Bacteriocins

    PubMed Central

    Martín, Rebeca; Escobedo, Susana; Martín, Carla; Crespo, Ainara; Quiros, Luis M.

    2014-01-01

    Enzymatic elimination of surface glycosaminoglycans or inhibition of their sulfation provokes sensitizing of HT-29 and HeLa cells toward the peptide bacteriocins nisin A, plantaricin C, and pediocin PA-1/AcH. The effect can be partially reversed by heparin, which also lowers the susceptibility of Lactococcus lactis to nisin A. These data indicate that the negative charge of the glycosaminoglycan sulfate residues binds the positively charged bacteriocins, thus protecting eukaryotic cells from plasma membrane damage. PMID:25331698

  12. VACCINES. A mucosal vaccine against Chlamydia trachomatis generates two waves of protective memory T cells.

    PubMed

    Stary, Georg; Olive, Andrew; Radovic-Moreno, Aleksandar F; Gondek, David; Alvarez, David; Basto, Pamela A; Perro, Mario; Vrbanac, Vladimir D; Tager, Andrew M; Shi, Jinjun; Yethon, Jeremy A; Farokhzad, Omid C; Langer, Robert; Starnbach, Michael N; von Andrian, Ulrich H

    2015-06-19

    Genital Chlamydia trachomatis (Ct) infection induces protective immunity that depends on interferon-γ-producing CD4 T cells. By contrast, we report that mucosal exposure to ultraviolet light (UV)-inactivated Ct (UV-Ct) generated regulatory T cells that exacerbated subsequent Ct infection. We show that mucosal immunization with UV-Ct complexed with charge-switching synthetic adjuvant particles (cSAPs) elicited long-lived protection in conventional and humanized mice. UV-Ct-cSAP targeted immunogenic uterine CD11b(+)CD103(-) dendritic cells (DCs), whereas UV-Ct accumulated in tolerogenic CD11b(-)CD103(+) DCs. Regardless of vaccination route, UV-Ct-cSAP induced systemic memory T cells, but only mucosal vaccination induced effector T cells that rapidly seeded uterine mucosa with resident memory T cells (T(RM) cells). Optimal Ct clearance required both T(RM) seeding and subsequent infection-induced recruitment of circulating memory T cells. Thus, UV-Ct-cSAP vaccination generated two synergistic memory T cell subsets with distinct migratory properties.

  13. Antigen Exposure History Defines CD8 T Cell Dynamics and Protection during Localized Pulmonary Infections

    PubMed Central

    Van Braeckel-Budimir, Natalija; Martin, Matthew D.; Hartwig, Stacey M.; Legge, Kevin L.; Badovinac, Vladimir P.; Harty, John T.

    2017-01-01

    Unlike systemic infections, little is known about the role of repeated localized infections on (re)shaping pathogen-specific memory CD8 T cell responses. Here, we used primary (1°) and secondary (2°) intranasal influenza virus infections of mice as a model to study intrinsic memory CD8 T cell properties. We show that secondary antigen exposure, relative to a single infection, generates memory CD8 T cell responses of superior magnitude in multiple tissue compartments including blood, spleen, draining lymph nodes, and lung. Unexpectedly, regardless of the significantly higher number of 2° memory CD8 T cells, similar degree of protection against pulmonary challenge was observed in both groups of mice containing 1° or 2° memory CD8 T cells. Mechanistically, using pertussis toxin-induced migration block, we showed that superior antigen-driven proliferation and ability to relocate to the site of infection allowed 1° memory CD8 T cells to accumulate in the infected lung during the first few days after challenge, compensating for the initially lower cell numbers. Taken together, the history of antigen exposures to localized pulmonary infections, through altering basic cell biology, dictates dynamic properties of protective memory CD8 T cell responses. This knowledge has important implications for a design of novel and an improvement of existing vaccines and immunization strategies. PMID:28191007

  14. Ginseng Protects Against Respiratory Syncytial Virus by Modulating Multiple Immune Cells and Inhibiting Viral Replication

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jong Seok; Lee, Yu-Na; Lee, Young-Tae; Hwang, Hye Suk; Kim, Ki-Hye; Ko, Eun-Ju; Kim, Min-Chul; Kang, Sang-Moo

    2015-01-01

    Ginseng has been used in humans for thousands of years but its effects on viral infection have not been well understood. We investigated the effects of red ginseng extract (RGE) on respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection using in vitro cell culture and in vivo mouse models. RGE partially protected human epithelial (HEp2) cells from RSV-induced cell death and viral replication. In addition, RGE significantly inhibited the production of RSV-induced pro-inflammatory cytokine (TNF-α) in murine dendritic and macrophage-like cells. More importantly, RGE intranasal pre-treatment prevented loss of mouse body weight after RSV infection. RGE treatment improved lung viral clearance and enhanced the production of interferon (IFN-γ) in bronchoalveolar lavage cells upon RSV infection of mice. Analysis of cellular phenotypes in bronchoalveolar lavage fluids showed that RGE treatment increased the populations of CD8+ T cells and CD11c+ dendritic cells upon RSV infection of mice. Taken together, these results provide evidence that ginseng has protective effects against RSV infection through multiple mechanisms, which include improving cell survival, partial inhibition of viral replication and modulation of cytokine production and types of immune cells migrating into the lung. PMID:25658239

  15. Protective effect of arctigenin on ethanol-induced neurotoxicity in PC12 cells.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jia; Xiao, Lan; Wei, Jing-Xiang; Shu, Ya-Hai; Fang, Shi-Qi; Wang, Yong-Tang; Lu, Xiu-Min

    2017-04-01

    As a neurotropic substance, ethanol can damage nerve cells through an increase in the production of free radicals, interference of neurotrophic factor signaling pathways, activation of endogenous apoptotic signals and other molecular mechanisms. Previous studies have revealed that a number of natural drugs extracted from plants offer protection of nerve cells from damage. Among these, arctigenin (ATG) is a lignine extracted from Arctium lappa (L.), which has been found to exert a neuroprotective effect on scopolamine‑induced memory deficits in mice with Alzheimer's disease and glutamate-induced neurotoxicity in primary neurons. As a result, it may offer beneficial effects on ethanol-induced neurotoxicity. However, the effects of ATG on ethanol‑induced nerve damage remain to be elucidated. To address this issue, the present study used rat pheochromocytoma PC12 cells to investigate the neuroprotective effects of ATG on ethanol-induced cell damage by performing an MTT reduction assay, cell cycle analysis, Hoechst33342/propidium iodide fluorescence staining and flow cytometry to examine apoptosis. The results showed that 10 µM ATG effectively promoted the proliferation of damaged cells, and increased the distribution ratio of the cells at the G2/M and S phases (P<0.05). In addition, the apoptosis and necrosis of the PC12 cells were significantly decreased following treatment with ATG. Therefore, it was concluded that 10 µM ATG had a protective effect on ethanol‑induced injury in PC12 cells.

  16. Protective effect of hydroxytyrosol and tyrosol against oxidative stress in kidney cells.

    PubMed

    Loru, D; Incani, A; Deiana, M; Corona, G; Atzeri, A; Melis, M P; Rosa, A; Dessì, M A

    2009-01-01

    Bioavailability studies in animals and humans fed with extravirgin olive oil demonstrated that hydroxytyrosol and tyrosol, the major simple phenolic compounds in extravirgin olive oil, are dose-dependently absorbed and excreted. Once absorbed, they undergo extensive metabolism; hydroxytyrosol and tyrosol concentrate mainly in the kidney, where they may exert an important role in the prevention of oxidative stress induced renal dysfunction. In this study we monitored the ability of hydroxytyrosol and tyrosol to protect renal cells (LLC-PK1) following oxidative damage induced by H2O2. Oxidative stress was evaluated by monitoring the changes of the membrane lipid fraction. Hydroxytyrosol exerted a significant antioxidant action, inhibiting the production of MDA, fatty acids hydroperoxides and 7-ketocholesterol, major oxidation products of unsaturated fatty acids and cholesterol, and thus protecting the cells from H2O2-induced damage. Tyrosol, instead, in this experimental model, did not exert any protective effect.

  17. Discovery of protective B-cell epitopes for development of antimicrobial vaccines and antibody therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Sharon, Jacqueline; Rynkiewicz, Michael J; Lu, Zhaohua; Yang, Chiou-Ying

    2014-05-01

    Protective antibodies play an essential role in immunity to infection by neutralizing microbes or their toxins and recruiting microbicidal effector functions. Identification of the protective B-cell epitopes, those parts of microbial antigens that contact the variable regions of the protective antibodies, can lead to development of antibody therapeutics, guide vaccine design, enable assessment of protective antibody responses in infected or vaccinated individuals, and uncover or localize pathogenic microbial functions that could be targeted by novel antimicrobials. Monoclonal antibodies are required to link in vivo or in vitro protective effects to specific epitopes and may be obtained from experimental animals or from humans, and their binding can be localized to specific regions of antigens by immunochemical assays. The epitopes are then identified with mapping methods such as X-ray crystallography of antigen-antibody complexes, antibody inhibition of hydrogen-deuterium exchange in the antigen, antibody-induced alteration of the nuclear magnetic resonance spectrum of the antigen, and experimentally validated computational docking of antigen-antibody complexes. The diversity in shape, size and structure of protective B-cell epitopes, and the increasing importance of protective B-cell epitope discovery to development of vaccines and antibody therapeutics are illustrated through examples from different microbe categories, with emphasis on epitopes targeted by broadly neutralizing antibodies to pathogens of high antigenic variation. Examples include the V-shaped Ab52 glycan epitope in the O-antigen of Francisella tularensis, the concave CR6261 peptidic epitope in the haemagglutinin stem of influenza virus H1N1, and the convex/concave PG16 glycopeptidic epitope in the gp120 V1/V2 loop of HIV type 1.

  18. MUC16 provides immune protection by inhibiting synapse formation between NK and ovarian tumor cells

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Cancer cells utilize a variety of mechanisms to evade immune detection and attack. Effective immune detection largely relies on the formation of an immune synapse which requires close contact between immune cells and their targets. Here, we show that MUC16, a heavily glycosylated 3-5 million Da mucin expressed on the surface of ovarian tumor cells, inhibits the formation of immune synapses between NK cells and ovarian tumor targets. Our results indicate that MUC16-mediated inhibition of immune synapse formation is an effective mechanism employed by ovarian tumors to evade immune recognition. Results Expression of low levels of MUC16 strongly correlated with an increased number of conjugates and activating immune synapses between ovarian tumor cells and primary naïve NK cells. MUC16-knockdown ovarian tumor cells were more susceptible to lysis by primary NK cells than MUC16 expressing controls. This increased lysis was not due to differences in the expression levels of the ligands for the activating receptors DNAM-1 and NKG2D. The NK cell leukemia cell line (NKL), which does not express KIRs but are positive for DNAM-1 and NKG2D, also conjugated and lysed MUC16-knockdown cells more efficiently than MUC16 expressing controls. Tumor cells that survived the NKL challenge expressed higher levels of MUC16 indicating selective lysis of MUC16low targets. The higher csMUC16 levels on the NKL resistant tumor cells correlated with more protection from lysis as compared to target cells that were never exposed to the effectors. Conclusion MUC16, a carrier of the tumor marker CA125, has previously been shown to facilitate ovarian tumor metastasis and inhibits NK cell mediated lysis of tumor targets. Our data now demonstrates that MUC16 expressing ovarian cancer cells are protected from recognition by NK cells. The immune protection provided by MUC16 may lead to selective survival of ovarian cancer cells that are more efficient in metastasizing within the peritoneal

  19. Chlorella protects against hydrogen peroxide-induced pancreatic β-cell damage.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chia-Yu; Huang, Pei-Jane; Chao, Che-Yi

    2014-12-01

    Oxidative stress has been implicated in the etiology of pancreatic β-cell dysfunction and diabetes. Studies have shown that chlorella could be important in health promotion or disease prevention through its antioxidant capacity. However, whether chlorella has a cytoprotective effect in pancreatic β-cells remains to be elucidated. We investigated the protective effects of chlorella on H2O2-induced oxidative damage in INS-1 (832/13) cells. Chlorella partially restored cell viability after H2O2 toxicity. To further investigate the effects of chlorella on mitochondria function and cellular oxidative stress, we analyzed mitochondria membrane potential, ATP concentrations, and cellular levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Chlorella prevented mitochondria disruption and maintained cellular ATP levels after H2O2 toxicity. It also normalized intracellular levels of ROS to that of control in the presence of H2O2. Chlorella protected cells from apoptosis as indicated by less p-Histone and caspase 3 activation. In addition, chlorella not only enhanced glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS), but also partially restored the reduced GSIS after H2O2 toxicity. Our results suggest that chlorella is effective in amelioration of cellular oxidative stress and destruction, and therefore protects INS-1 (832/13) cells from H2O2-induced apoptosis and increases insulin secretion. Chlorella should be studied for use in the prevention or treatment of diabetes.

  20. PD-1 suppresses protective immunity to Streptococcus pneumoniae through a B cell-intrinsic mechanism.

    PubMed

    McKay, Jerome T; Egan, Ryan P; Yammani, Rama D; Chen, Lieping; Shin, Tahiro; Yagita, Hideo; Haas, Karen M

    2015-03-01

    Despite the emergence of the programmed cell death 1 (PD-1):PD-1 ligand (PD-L) regulatory axis as a promising target for treating multiple human diseases, remarkably little is known about how this pathway regulates responses to extracellular bacterial infections. We found that PD-1(-/-) mice, as well as wild-type mice treated with a PD-1 blocking Ab, exhibited significantly increased survival against lethal Streptococcus pneumoniae infection following either priming with low-dose pneumococcal respiratory infection or S. pneumoniae-capsular polysaccharide immunization. Enhanced survival in mice with disrupted PD-1:PD-L interactions was explained by significantly increased proliferation, isotype switching, and IgG production by pneumococcal capsule-specific B cells. Both PD-L, B7-H1 and B7-DC, contributed to PD-1-mediated suppression of protective capsule-specific IgG. Importantly, PD-1 was induced on capsule-specific B cells and suppressed IgG production and protection against pneumococcal infection in a B cell-intrinsic manner. To our knowledge, these results provide the first demonstration of a physiologic role for B cell-intrinsic PD-1 expression in vivo. In summary, our study reveals that B cell-expressed PD-1 plays a central role in regulating protection against S. pneumoniae, and thereby represents a promising target for bolstering immunity to encapsulated bacteria.

  1. Interaction and colocalization of HERMES/RBPMS with NonO, PSF, and G3BP1 in neuronal cytoplasmic RNP granules in mouse retinal line cells.

    PubMed

    Furukawa, Mari T; Sakamoto, Hiroshi; Inoue, Kunio

    2015-04-01

    HERMES, also called RBPMS, is a conserved RNA binding protein with a single RNA recognition motif (RRM) that is abundantly expressed in retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) and in the heart in vertebrates. Here, we identified NonO and PSF as the interacting proteins of HERMES only when the neuronal differentiation of the retinal cell line RGC-5 was induced. Although NonO and PSF are nuclear paraspeckle components, these proteins formed cytoplasmic granules with HERMES in the neurites. G3BP1, a component of stress granules, was also colocalized to the granules, interacting with NonO and HERMES even in the absence of cellular stress. Consistent with a previous report that KIF5 interacts with neuronal granules, the localization of KIF5A overlapped with the cytoplasmic granules in differentiated RGC-5 cells. Thus, our study strongly suggests that the cytoplasmic granule containing HERMES, NonO, PSF, and G3BP1 is a neuronal RNA-protein granule that is transported in neurites during retinal differentiation.

  2. Teduglutide ([Gly2]GLP-2) protects small intestinal stem cells from radiation damage.

    PubMed

    Booth, C; Booth, D; Williamson, S; Demchyshyn, L L; Potten, C S

    2004-12-01

    Glucagon-like peptide-2 and its dipeptidyl peptidase (DP-IV) resistant analogue teduglutide are trophic for the gastrointestinal epithelium. Exposure increases villus height and crypt size and results in increased overall intestinal weight. As these effects may be mediated through stimulation of the stem cell compartment, they may promote intestinal healing and act as potential anti-mucositis agents in patients undergoing cancer chemotherapy. A study was initiated to investigate the protective effects of teduglutide on the murine small intestinal epithelium following gamma-irradiation using the crypt microcolony assay as a measure of stem cell survival and functional competence. Teduglutide demonstrated intestinotrophic effects in both CD1 and BDF1 mouse strains. In BDF1 mice, subcutaneous injection of GLP-2 or teduglutide (0.2 mg/kg/day, b.i.d.) for 14 days increased intestinal weight by 28% and resulted in comparable increases in crypt size, villus height and area. Teduglutide given daily for 6 or 14 days prior to whole body, gamma-irradiation significantly increased crypt stem cell survival when compared with vehicle-treated controls. The mean levels of protection over a range of doses provided protection factors from 1.3 to 1.5. A protective effect was only observed when teduglutide was given before irradiation. These results suggest that teduglutide has the ability to modulate clonogenic stem cell survival in the small intestine and this may have a useful clinical application in the prevention of cancer therapy-induced mucositis.

  3. Core-Protected Platinum Monolayer Shell High-Stability Electrocatalysts for Fuel-Cell Cathodes

    SciTech Connect

    K Sasaki; H Naohara; Y Cai; Y Choi; P Liu; M Vukmirovic; J Wang; R Adzic

    2011-12-31

    Platinum monolayers can act as shells for palladium nanoparticles to lead to electrocatalysts with high activities and an ultralow platinum content, but high platinum utilization. The stability derives from the core protecting the shell from dissolution. In fuel-cell tests, no loss of platinum was observed in 200,000 potential cycles, whereas loss of palladium was significant.

  4. Core-Protected Platinum Monolayer Shell High-Stability Electrocatalysts for Fuel-Cell Cathodes

    SciTech Connect

    Adzic, R.R.; Sasaki, K.; Naohara, H.; Cai, Y.; Choi, Y.M.; Liu, P.; Vukmirovic, M.B.; Wang, J.X.

    2010-11-08

    More than skin deep: Platinum monolayers can act as shells for palladium nanoparticles to lead to electrocatalysts with high activities and an ultralow platinum content, but high platinum utilization. The stability derives from the core protecting the shell from dissolution. In fuel-cell tests, no loss of platinum was observed in 200?000 potential cycles, whereas loss of palladium was significant.

  5. Age intrinsic loss of telomere protection via TRF1 reduction in endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Hohensinner, P J; Kaun, C; Buchberger, E; Ebenbauer, B; Demyanets, S; Huk, I; Eppel, W; Maurer, G; Huber, K; Wojta, J

    2016-02-01

    Aging is a major factor predisposing for multiple diseases. Telomeres at the ends of chromosomes protect the integrity of chromosomal DNA. A specialized six-protein complex termed shelterin protects the telomere from unwanted interaction with DNA damage pathways. The aim of our study was to evaluate the integrity of telomeres and the stability of telomere protection during aging in endothelial cells (EC). We describe that aging EC can be characterized by an increased cell size (40%, p=0.02) and increased expression of PAI 1 (4 fold, p=0.02), MCP1 (10 fold, p=0.001) and GMCSF (15 fold, p=0.004). Telomeric state in aging cells is defined by an increased telomere oxidation (27%, p=0.01), reduced telomere length (62%, p=0.02), and increased DNA damage foci formation (5% in young EC versus 16% in aged EC, p=0.003). This telomeric dysfunction is accompanied by a reduction in the shelterin component TRF1 (33% mRNA, p=0.001; 24% protein, p=0.007). Overexpression of TRF1 in aging EC reduced telomere-associated DNA damage foci to 5% (p=0.02) and reduced expression levels of MCP1 (18% reduction, p=0.008). Aged EC have increased telomere damage and an intrinsic loss of telomere protection. Reestablishing telomere integrity could therefore be a target for rejuvenating endothelial cell function.

  6. Testosterone Protects Mitochondrial Function and Regulates Neuroglobin Expression in Astrocytic Cells Exposed to Glucose Deprivation

    PubMed Central

    Toro-Urrego, Nicolas; Garcia-Segura, Luis M.; Echeverria, Valentina; Barreto, George E.

    2016-01-01

    Testosterone is a hormone that has been shown to confer neuroprotection from different insults affecting the central nervous system (CNS). Testosterone induces this protection by different mechanisms that include the activation of anti-apoptotic pathways that are directly implicated in neuronal survival. However, little attention has been devoted to its actions on glial cells. In the present study, we have assessed whether testosterone exerts protection in a human astrocyte cell model, the T98G cells. Our results indicate that testosterone improves cell survival and mitochondrial membrane potential and reduces nuclear fragmentation and reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. These effects were accompanied by a positive regulation of neuroglobin, an oxygen-binding and sensor protein, which may serve as a regulator of ROS and nitrogen reactive species (NOS), and these protective effects of testosterone may be at least in part mediated by estradiol and DHT. In conclusion, these findings suggest that astroglia may mediate some of the protective actions of testosterone in the brain upon pathological conditions. PMID:27445795

  7. Osteocalcin protects pancreatic beta cell function and survival under high glucose conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Kover, Karen; Yan, Yun; Tong, Pei Ying; Watkins, Dara; Li, Xiaoyu; Tasch, James; Hager, Melissa; Clements, Mark; Moore, Wayne V.

    2015-06-19

    Diabetes is characterized by progressive beta cell dysfunction and loss due in part to oxidative stress that occurs from gluco/lipotoxicity. Treatments that directly protect beta cell function and survival in the diabetic milieu are of particular interest. A growing body of evidence suggests that osteocalcin, an abundant non-collagenous protein of bone, supports beta cell function and proliferation. Based on previous gene expression data by microarray, we hypothesized that osteocalcin protects beta cells from glucose-induced oxidative stress. To test our hypothesis we cultured isolated rat islets and INS-1E cells in the presence of normal, high, or high glucose ± osteocalcin for up to 72 h. Oxidative stress and viability/mitochondrial function were measured by H{sub 2}O{sub 2} assay and Alamar Blue assay, respectively. Caspase 3/7 activity was also measured as a marker of apoptosis. A functional test, glucose stimulated insulin release, was conducted and expression of genes/protein was measured by qRT-PCR/western blot/ELISA. Osteocalcin treatment significantly reduced high glucose-induced H{sub 2}O{sub 2} levels while maintaining viability/mitochondrial function. Osteocalcin also significantly improved glucose stimulated insulin secretion and insulin content in rat islets after 48 h of high glucose exposure compared to untreated islets. As expected sustained high glucose down-regulated gene/protein expression of INS1 and BCL2 while increasing TXNIP expression. Interestingly, osteocalcin treatment reversed the effects of high glucose on gene/protein expression. We conclude that osteocalcin can protect beta cells from the negative effects of glucose-induced oxidative stress, in part, by reducing TXNIP expression, thereby preserving beta cell function and survival. - Highlights: • Osteocalcin reduces glucose-induced oxidative stress in beta cells. • Osteocalcin preserves beta cell function and survival under stress conditions. • Osteocalcin reduces glucose

  8. Protective effect of zinc chloride against cobalt chloride-induced cytotoxicity on vero cells: preliminary results.

    PubMed

    Gürbay, Aylin

    2012-07-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the possible time- and dose-dependent cytotoxic effects of cobalt chloride on Vero cells. The cultured cells were incubated with different concentrations of cobalt chloride ranging from 0.5 to 1,000 μM, and cytotoxicity was determined by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) and resazurin assays. Possible protective effects of vitamin E, coenzyme Q(10), and zinc chloride were also tested in this system. A gradual decrease in cell proliferation was observed at concentrations ~≥ 200 μM in incubation periods of 24, 48, 72, and 96 h with MTT assay. Exposure of cells to 500 and 1,000 μM cobalt chloride caused significant decrease in cell survival. A biphasic survival profile of cells was observed at 1-25 μM concentration range following 96 h of incubation. With resazurin assay, cytotoxicity profile of CoCl(2) was found comparable to the results of MTT assay, particularly at high concentrations and long incubation periods. Dose-dependent cytotoxicity was noted following exposure of cells to ≥ 250 μM of CoCl(2) for 24 h and ≥ 100 μM concentrations of CoCl(2) for 48-96 h. Pretreatment of cells with ZnCl(2) for 4 or 24 h provided significant protection against cobalt chloride-induced cytotoxicity when measured with MTT assay. However, vitamin E or coenzyme Q(10) was not protective. CoCl(2) had dose- and time-dependent cytotoxic effects in Vero cells. Preventive effect of ZnCl(2) against CoCl(2)-induced cytotoxicity should be considered in detail to define exact mechanism of toxicity in Vero cells.

  9. Thermal Properties of Microstrain Gauges Used for Protection of Lithium-Ion Cells of Different Designs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jeevarajan, Judith

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this innovation is to use microstrain gauges to monitor minute changes in temperature along with material properties of the metal cans and pouches used in the construction of lithium-ion cells. The sensitivity of the microstrain gauges to extremely small changes in temperatures internal to the cells makes them a valuable asset in controlling the hazards in lithium-ion cells. The test program on lithium-ion cells included various cell configurations, including the pouch type configurations. The thermal properties of microstrain gauges have been found to contribute significantly as safety monitors in lithium-ion cells that are designed even with hard metal cases. Although the metal cans do not undergo changes in material property, even under worst-case unsafe conditions, the small changes in thermal properties observed during charge and discharge of the cell provide an observable change in resistance of the strain gauge. Under abusive or unsafe conditions, the change in the resistance is large. This large change is observed as a significant change in slope, and this can be used to prevent cells from going into a thermal runaway condition. For flexible metal cans or pouch-type lithium-ion cells, combinations of changes in material properties along with thermal changes can be used as an indication for the initiation of an unsafe condition. Lithium-ion cells have a very high energy density, no memory effect, and almost 100-percent efficiency of charge and discharge. However, due to the presence of a flammable electrolyte, along with the very high energy density and the capability of releasing oxygen from the cathode, these cells can go into a hazardous condition of venting, fire, and thermal runaway. Commercial lithium-ion cells have current and voltage monitoring devices that are used to control the charge and discharge of the batteries. Some lithium-ion cells have internal protective devices, but when used in multi-cell configurations, these protective

  10. Protective effect of catechin in type I Gaucher disease cells by reducing endoplasmic reticulum stress

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Yea-Jin; Kim, Sung-Jo; Heo, Tae-Hwe

    2011-09-23

    Highlights: {yields} Catechin reduces the expression level of ER stress marker protein in type I Gaucher disease cells. {yields} Catechin induces the proliferation rate of GD cells similar levels to normal cells. {yields} Catechin improves wound healing activity. {yields} Catechin-mediated reductions in ER stress may be associated with enhanced cell survival. {yields} We identified catechin as a protective agent against ER stress in GD cells. -- Abstract: Gaucher disease (GD) is the most common lysosomal storage disorder (LSD) and is divided into three phenotypes, I, II, and III. Type I is the most prevalent form and has its onset in adulthood. The degree of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is one of the factors that determine GD severity. It has recently been reported that antioxidants reduce ER stress and apoptosis by scavenging the oxidants that cause oxidative stress. For this report, we investigated the possibility that catechin can act on type I GD patient cells to alleviate the pathogenic conditions of GD. We treated GD cells with catechin and examined the expression level of GRP78/BiP (an ER stress marker) by western blots and fluorescence microscopy, the proliferation rate of GD cells, and scratch-induced wound healing activity. Our results show that catechin reduces the expression level of GRP78/BiP, leads to cell proliferation rates of GD cells similar levels to normal cells, and improves wound healing activity. We conclude that catechin protects against ER stress in GD cells and catechin-mediated reductions in ER stress may be associated with enhanced cell survival.

  11. Proline modulates the intracellular redox environment and protects mammalian cells against oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Krishnan, Navasona; Dickman, Martin B; Becker, Donald F

    2008-02-15

    The potential of proline to suppress reactive oxygen species (ROS) and apoptosis in mammalian cells was tested by manipulating intracellular proline levels exogenously and endogenously by overexpression of proline metabolic enzymes. Proline was observed to protect cells against H(2)O(2), tert-butyl hydroperoxide, and a carcinogenic oxidative stress inducer but was not effective against superoxide generators such as menadione. Oxidative stress protection by proline requires the secondary amine of the pyrrolidine ring and involves preservation of the glutathione redox environment. Overexpression of proline dehydrogenase (PRODH), a mitochondrial flavoenzyme that oxidizes proline, resulted in 6-fold lower intracellular proline content and decreased cell survival relative to control cells. Cells overexpressing PRODH were rescued by pipecolate, an analog that mimics the antioxidant properties of proline, and by tetrahydro-2-furoic acid, a specific inhibitor of PRODH. In contrast, overexpression of the proline biosynthetic enzymes Delta(1)-pyrroline-5-carboxylate (P5C) synthetase (P5CS) and P5C reductase (P5CR) resulted in 2-fold higher proline content, significantly lower ROS levels, and increased cell survival relative to control cells. In different mammalian cell lines exposed to physiological H(2)O(2) levels, increased endogenous P5CS and P5CR expression was observed, indicating that upregulation of proline biosynthesis is an oxidative stress response.

  12. Adverse effects of titanium dioxide nanoparticles on human dermal fibroblasts and how to protect cells.

    PubMed

    Pan, Zhi; Lee, Wilson; Slutsky, Lenny; Clark, Richard A F; Pernodet, Nadine; Rafailovich, Miriam H

    2009-04-01

    The effects of exposure of human dermal fibroblasts to rutile and anatase TiO(2) nanoparticles are reported. These particles can impair cell function, with the latter being more potent at producing damage. The exposure to nanoparticles decreases cell area, cell proliferation, mobility, and ability to contract collagen. Individual particles are shown to penetrate easily through the cell membrane in the absence of endocytosis, while some endocytosis is observed for larger particle clusters. Once inside, the particles are sequestered in vesicles, which continue to fill up with increasing incubation time till they rupture. Particles coated with a dense grafted polymer brush are also tested, and, using flow cytometry, are shown to prevent adherence to the cell membrane and hence penetration of the cell, which effectively decreases reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation and protects cells, even in the absence of light exposure. Considering the broad applications of these nanoparticles in personal health care products, the functionalized polymer coating can potentially play an important role in protecting cells and tissue from damage.

  13. Fasting protects mice from lethal DNA damage by promoting small intestinal epithelial stem cell survival.

    PubMed

    Tinkum, Kelsey L; Stemler, Kristina M; White, Lynn S; Loza, Andrew J; Jeter-Jones, Sabrina; Michalski, Basia M; Kuzmicki, Catherine; Pless, Robert; Stappenbeck, Thaddeus S; Piwnica-Worms, David; Piwnica-Worms, Helen

    2015-12-22

    Short-term fasting protects mice from lethal doses of chemotherapy through undetermined mechanisms. Herein, we demonstrate that fasting preserves small intestinal (SI) architecture by maintaining SI stem cell viability and SI barrier function following exposure to high-dose etoposide. Nearly all SI stem cells were lost in fed mice, whereas fasting promoted sufficient SI stem cell survival to preserve SI integrity after etoposide treatment. Lineage tracing demonstrated that multiple SI stem cell populations, marked by Lgr5, Bmi1, or HopX expression, contributed to fasting-induced survival. DNA repair and DNA damage response genes were elevated in SI stem/progenitor cells of fasted etoposide-treated mice, which importantly correlated with faster resolution of DNA double-strand breaks and less apoptosis. Thus, fasting preserved SI stem cell viability as well as SI architecture and barrier function suggesting that fasting may reduce host toxicity in patients undergoing dose intensive chemotherapy.

  14. Myeloid and T Cell-Derived TNF Protects against Central Nervous System Tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Nai-Jen; Francisco, Ngiambudulu M.; Keeton, Roanne; Allie, Nasiema; Quesniaux, Valérie F. J.; Ryffel, Bernhard; Jacobs, Muazzam

    2017-01-01

    Tuberculosis of the central nervous system (CNS-TB) is a devastating complication of tuberculosis, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF) is crucial for innate immunity and controlling the infection. TNF is produced by many cell types upon activation, in particularly the myeloid and T cells during neuroinflammation. Here we used mice with TNF ablation targeted to myeloid and T cell (MT-TNF−/−) to assess the contribution of myeloid and T cell-derived TNF in immune responses during CNS-TB. These mice exhibited impaired innate immunity and high susceptibility to cerebral Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection, a similar phenotype to complete TNF-deficient mice. Further, MT-TNF−/− mice were not able to control T cell responses and cytokine/chemokine production. Thus, our data suggested that collective TNF production by both myeloid and T cells are required to provide overall protective immunity against CNS-TB infection. PMID:28280495

  15. Myeloid and T Cell-Derived TNF Protects against Central Nervous System Tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Nai-Jen; Francisco, Ngiambudulu M; Keeton, Roanne; Allie, Nasiema; Quesniaux, Valérie F J; Ryffel, Bernhard; Jacobs, Muazzam

    2017-01-01

    Tuberculosis of the central nervous system (CNS-TB) is a devastating complication of tuberculosis, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF) is crucial for innate immunity and controlling the infection. TNF is produced by many cell types upon activation, in particularly the myeloid and T cells during neuroinflammation. Here we used mice with TNF ablation targeted to myeloid and T cell (MT-TNF(-/-)) to assess the contribution of myeloid and T cell-derived TNF in immune responses during CNS-TB. These mice exhibited impaired innate immunity and high susceptibility to cerebral Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection, a similar phenotype to complete TNF-deficient mice. Further, MT-TNF(-/-) mice were not able to control T cell responses and cytokine/chemokine production. Thus, our data suggested that collective TNF production by both myeloid and T cells are required to provide overall protective immunity against CNS-TB infection.

  16. Functionality of NGF-protected PC12 cells following exposure to 6-hydroxydopamine

    SciTech Connect

    Kavanagh, Edel T.; Loughlin, John P.; Herbert, Kate Reed; Dockery, Peter; Samali, Afshin; Doyle, Karen M.; Gorman, Adrienne M. . E-mail: adrienne.gorman@nuigalway.ie

    2006-12-29

    6-Hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) is often used in models of Parkinson's disease since it can selectively target and kill dopaminergic cells of the substantia nigra. In this study, pre-treatment of PC12 cells with nerve growth factor (NGF) inhibited apoptosis and necrosis by 6-OHDA, including caspase activity and lactate dehydrogenase release. Notably, cells exposed to 6-OHDA in the presence of NGF were subsequently capable of proliferation (when replated without NGF), or neurite outgrowth (with continued presence of NGF). Following 7 days growth in the presence of NGF, expression of {beta}III tubulin and tyrosine hydroxylase and increased intracellular catecholamines was detectable in PC12 cells, features characteristic of functional dopaminergic neurons. NGF-pre-treated PC12 cells retained expression of {beta}III-tubulin and tyrosine hydroxylase, but not catecholamine content following 6-OHDA exposure. These data indicate that NGF-protected cells maintained some aspects of functionality and were subsequently capable of proliferation or differentiation.

  17. Fasting protects mice from lethal DNA damage by promoting small intestinal epithelial stem cell survival

    PubMed Central

    Tinkum, Kelsey L.; Stemler, Kristina M.; White, Lynn S.; Loza, Andrew J.; Jeter-Jones, Sabrina; Michalski, Basia M.; Kuzmicki, Catherine; Pless, Robert; Stappenbeck, Thaddeus S.; Piwnica-Worms, David; Piwnica-Worms, Helen

    2015-01-01

    Short-term fasting protects mice from lethal doses of chemotherapy through undetermined mechanisms. Herein, we demonstrate that fasting preserves small intestinal (SI) architecture by maintaining SI stem cell viability and SI barrier function following exposure to high-dose etoposide. Nearly all SI stem cells were lost in fed mice, whereas fasting promoted sufficient SI stem cell survival to preserve SI integrity after etoposide treatment. Lineage tracing demonstrated that multiple SI stem cell populations, marked by Lgr5, Bmi1, or HopX expression, contributed to fasting-induced survival. DNA repair and DNA damage response genes were elevated in SI stem/progenitor cells of fasted etoposide-treated mice, which importantly correlated with faster resolution of DNA double-strand breaks and less apoptosis. Thus, fasting preserved SI stem cell viability as well as SI architecture and barrier function suggesting that fasting may reduce host toxicity in patients undergoing dose intensive chemotherapy. PMID:26644583

  18. Protective autophagy is involved in resistance towards MET inhibitors in human gastric adenocarcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Humbert, Magali; Medová, Michaela; Aebersold, Daniel M; Blaukat, Andree; Bladt, Friedhelm; Fey, Martin F; Zimmer, Yitzhak; Tschan, Mario P

    2013-02-08

    MET, also known as hepatocyte growth factor receptor (HGFR), is a receptor tyrosine kinase with an important role, both in normal cellular function as well as in oncogenesis. In many cancer types, abnormal activation of MET is related to poor prognosis and various strategies to inhibit its function, including small molecule inhibitors, are currently in preclinical and clinical evaluation. Autophagy, a self-digesting recycling mechanism with cytoprotective functions, is induced by cellular stress. This process is also induced upon cytotoxic drug treatment of cancer cells and partially allows these cells to escape cell death. Thus, since autophagy protects different tumor cells from chemotherapy-induced cell death, current clinical trials aim at combining autophagy inhibitors with different cancer treatments. We found that in a gastric adenocarcinoma cell line GTL-16, where MET activity is deregulated due to receptor overexpression, two different MET inhibitors PHA665752 and EMD1214063 lead to cell death paralleled by the induction of autophagy. A combined treatment of MET inhibitors together with the autophagy inhibitor 3-MA or genetically impairing autophagy by knocking down the key autophagy gene ATG7 further decreased cell viability of gastric cancer cells. In general, we observed the induction of cytoprotective autophagy in MET expressing cells upon MET inhibition and a combination of MET and autophagy inhibition resulted in significantly decreased cell viability in gastric cancer cells.

  19. Cystatin C protects neuronal cells from amyloid β-induced toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Tizon, Belen; Ribe, Elena M.; Mi, Weiqian; Troy, Carol M.; Levy, Efrat

    2010-01-01

    Multiple studies suggest that cystatin C (CysC) has a role in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and a decrease in CysC secretion is linked to the disease in patients with a polymorphism in the CysC gene. CysC binds amyloid β (Aβ) and inhibits formation of Aβ fibrils and oligomers both in vitro and in mouse models of amyloid deposition. Here we studied the effect of CysC on cultured primary hippocampal neurons and a neuronal cell line exposed to either oligomeric or fibrillar cytotoxic forms of Aβ. The extracellular addition of the secreted human CysC together with preformed either oligomeric or fibrillar Aβ increased cell survival. While CysC inhibits Aβ aggregation, it does not dissolve preformed Aβ fibrils or oligomers. Thus, CysC has multiple protective effects in AD, by preventing the formation of the toxic forms of Aβ and by direct protection of neuronal cells from Aβ toxicity. Therapeutic manipulation of CysC levels, resulting in slightly higher concentrations than physiological could protect neuronal cells from cell death in Alzheimer's disease. PMID:20157244

  20. 17-DMAG induces Hsp70 and protects the auditory hair cells from kanamycin ototoxicity in vitro.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yun; Yu, Yang; Chu, Hanqi; Bing, Dan; Wang, Shaoli; Zhou, Liangqiang; Chen, Jin; Chen, Qingguo; Pan, Chunchen; Sun, Yanbo; Cui, Yonghua

    2015-02-19

    Heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) has been known to be able to play a protective role in the cochlea. The aim of this study was to investigate whether geldanamycin hydrosoluble derivative 17-(dimethylaminoethylamino)-17-demethoxygeldanamycin (17-DMAG) has the ability to induce Hsp70 up-regulation to protect hair cells from kanamycin-induced ototoxicity in vitro. The organ of Corti (OC) explants were isolated from mice at postnatal day 3-5. Then, the explants were exposed to kanamycin with or without pre-incubation with 17-DMAG. The expression of Hsp70 was assessed by reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction, ELISA, and immunofluorescent staining. The surviving hair cells were examined by phalloidin labeling and were counted. We found that Hsp70 expression in the explants after pre-incubation with 17-DMAG was significantly increased at both mRNA and protein levels. Immunofluorescent staining showed that Hsp70 was mainly located in the auditory hair cells. Compared with kanamycin group, the loss of hair cells was inhibited significantly in 17-DMAG+kanamycin group. Our study demonstrated that 17-DMAG induces Hsp70 in the hair cells, and has a significant protective effect against kanamycin ototoxicity in vitro. 17-DMAG has the possibility to be a safe and effective anti-ototoxic drug.

  1. Compromising the 19S proteasome complex protects cells from reduced flux through the proteasome.

    PubMed

    Tsvetkov, Peter; Mendillo, Marc L; Zhao, Jinghui; Carette, Jan E; Merrill, Parker H; Cikes, Domagoj; Varadarajan, Malini; van Diemen, Ferdy R; Penninger, Josef M; Goldberg, Alfred L; Brummelkamp, Thijn R; Santagata, Sandro; Lindquist, Susan

    2015-09-01

    Proteasomes are central regulators of protein homeostasis in eukaryotes. Proteasome function is vulnerable to environmental insults, cellular protein imbalance and targeted pharmaceuticals. Yet, mechanisms that cells deploy to counteract inhibition of this central regulator are little understood. To find such mechanisms, we reduced flux through the proteasome to the point of toxicity with specific inhibitors and performed genome-wide screens for mutations that allowed cells to survive. Counter to expectation, reducing expression of individual subunits of the proteasome's 19S regulatory complex increased survival. Strong 19S reduction was cytotoxic but modest reduction protected cells from inhibitors. Protection was accompanied by an increased ratio of 20S to 26S proteasomes, preservation of protein degradation capacity and reduced proteotoxic stress. While compromise of 19S function can have a fitness cost under basal conditions, it provided a powerful survival advantage when proteasome function was impaired. This means of rebalancing proteostasis is conserved from yeast to humans.

  2. Glucocorticoid receptor in T cells mediates protection from autoimmunity in pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Engler, Jan Broder; Kursawe, Nina; Solano, María Emilia; Patas, Kostas; Wehrmann, Sabine; Heckmann, Nina; Lühder, Fred; Reichardt, Holger M.; Arck, Petra Clara; Gold, Stefan M.

    2017-01-01

    Pregnancy is one of the strongest inducers of immunological tolerance. Disease activity of many autoimmune diseases including multiple sclerosis (MS) is temporarily suppressed by pregnancy, but little is known about the underlying molecular mechanisms. Here, we investigated the endocrine regulation of conventional and regulatory T cells (Tregs) during reproduction. In vitro, we found the pregnancy hormone progesterone to robustly increase Treg frequencies via promiscuous binding to the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) in T cells. In vivo, T-cell–specific GR deletion in pregnant animals undergoing experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), the animal model of MS, resulted in a reduced Treg increase and a selective loss of pregnancy-induced protection, whereas reproductive success was unaffected. Our data imply that steroid hormones can shift the immunological balance in favor of Tregs via differential engagement of the GR in T cells. This newly defined mechanism confers protection from autoimmunity during pregnancy and represents a potential target for future therapy. PMID:28049829

  3. Protection against Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection by adoptive immunotherapy. Requirement for T cell-deficient recipients

    SciTech Connect

    Orme, I.M.; Collins, F.M.

    1983-07-01

    The results of this study demonstrate that spleen cells taken from mice at the height of the primary immune response to intravenous infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis possess the capacity to transfer adoptive protection to M. tuberculosis-infected recipients, but only if these recipients are first rendered T cell-deficient, either by thymectomy and gamma irradiation, or by sublethal irradiation. A similar requirement was necessary to demonstrate the adoptive protection of the lungs after exposure to an acute aerosol-delivered M. tuberculosis infection. In both infectious models successful adoptive immunotherapy was shown to be mediated by T lymphocytes, which were acquired in the donor animals in response to the immunizing infection. It is proposed that the results of this study may serve as a basic model for the subsequent analysis of the nature of the T cell-mediated immune response to both systemic and aerogenic infections with M. tuberculosis.

  4. Curcumin protects endothelial cells against homocysteine induced injury through inhibiting inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jian; Luo, Ming; Xie, Nanzi; Wang, Jianxin; Chen, Li

    2016-01-01

    Objective: This study aimed to investigate the protective effects of curcumin on the homocysteine (HCY) induced injury to the endothelial cells. Methods: Endothelial cells were treated with HCY at different concentrations, and MTT assay was employed to determine an optimal concentration of HCY. Cells were divided into 3 groups: normal control group, HCY group and HCY + curcumin group. In curcumin group, cells were pretreated with 2.5 mmol/L HCY for 2 h and then incubated with curcumin at different concentrations. MTT assay was employed to detect the cell viability. ELISA was performed to detect the content of IL-8 in the supernatant. Western blotting was used to detect NF-κB expression in cells. Results: (1) Endothelial cells were polygonal or stone-like, or aggregated to form masses, and then gradually became long spindle shaped, cell body enlarged, cells were rich in cytoplasm, and immunohistochemistry for factor VIII showed positive. (2) MTT assay showed HCY at ≥2.5 mmol/L caused significant damage to endothelial cells as compared to control group. Thus, 2.5 mmol/L HCY was used in following experiments. (3) ELISA showed IL-8 in the supernatant increased significantly in a time dependent manner after HCY treatment (P<0.01), but curcumin could significantly inhibit the IL-8 secretion in endothelial cells after HCY treatment. (4) Western blotting showed HCY was able to markedly increase NF-κB expression, which, however, was significantly inhibited by curcumin. Conclusion: Curcumin is able to protect the endothelial cells against HCY induced injury through inhibiting NF-κB activation and down-regulating IL-8 expression. PMID:27904665

  5. Plasma from human volunteers subjected to remote ischemic preconditioning protects human endothelial cells from hypoxia-induced cell damage.

    PubMed

    Weber, Nina C; Riedemann, Isabelle; Smit, Kirsten F; Zitta, Karina; van de Vondervoort, Djai; Zuurbier, Coert J; Hollmann, Markus W; Preckel, Benedikt; Albrecht, Martin

    2015-03-01

    Short repeated cycles of peripheral ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) can protect distant organs from subsequent prolonged I/R injury; a phenomenon known as remote ischemic preconditioning (RIPC). A RIPC-mediated release of humoral factors might play a key role in this protection and vascular endothelial cells are potential targets for these secreted factors. In the present study, RIPC-plasma obtained from healthy male volunteers was tested for its ability to protect human umbilical endothelial cells (HUVEC) from hypoxia-induced cell damage. 10 healthy male volunteers were subjected to a RIPC-protocol consisting of 4 × 5 min inflation/deflation of a blood pressure cuff located at the upper arm. Plasma was collected before (T0; control), directly after (T1) and 1 h after (T2) the RIPC procedure. HUVEC were subjected to 24 h hypoxia damage and simultaneously incubated with 5% of the respective RIPC-plasma. Cell damage was evaluated by lactate dehydrogenase (LDH)-measurements. Western blot experiments of hypoxia inducible factor 1 alpha (HIF1alpha), phosphorylated signal transducer and activator of transcription 5 (STAT5), protein kinase B (AKT) and extracellular signal-related kinase 1/2 (ERK-1/2) were performed. Furthermore, the concentrations of hVEGF were evaluated in the RIPC-plasma by sandwich ELISA. Hypoxia-induced cell damage was significantly reduced by plasma T1 (p = 0.02 vs T0). The protective effect of plasma T1 was accompanied by an augmentation of the intracellular HIF1alpha (p = 0.01 vs T0) and increased phosphorylation of ERK-1/2 (p = 0.03 vs T0). Phosphorylation of AKT and STAT5 remained unchanged. Analysis of the protective RIPC-plasma T1 showed significantly reduced levels of hVEGF (p = 0.01 vs T0). RIPC plasma protects endothelial cells from hypoxia-induced cell damage and humoral mediators as well as intracellular HIF1alpha may be involved.

  6. Subdominant CD8 T-cell epitopes account for protection against cytomegalovirus independent of immunodomination.

    PubMed

    Holtappels, Rafaela; Simon, Christian O; Munks, Michael W; Thomas, Doris; Deegen, Petra; Kühnapfel, Birgit; Däubner, Torsten; Emde, Simone F; Podlech, Jürgen; Grzimek, Natascha K A; Oehrlein-Karpi, Silke A; Hill, Ann B; Reddehase, Matthias J

    2008-06-01

    Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection continues to be a complication in recipients of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Preexisting donor immunity is recognized as a favorable prognostic factor for the reconstitution of protective antiviral immunity mediated primarily by CD8 T cells. Furthermore, adoptive transfer of CMV-specific memory CD8 T (CD8-T(M)) cells is a therapeutic option for preventing CMV disease in HSCT recipients. Given the different CMV infection histories of donor and recipient, a problem may arise from an antigenic mismatch between the CMV variant that has primed donor immunity and the CMV variant acquired by the recipient. Here, we have used the BALB/c mouse model of CMV infection in the immunocompromised host to evaluate the importance of donor-recipient CMV matching in immundominant epitopes (IDEs). For this, we generated the murine CMV (mCMV) recombinant virus mCMV-DeltaIDE, in which the two memory repertoire IDEs, the IE1-derived peptide 168-YPHFMPTNL-176 presented by the major histocompatibility complex class I (MHC-I) molecule L(d) and the m164-derived peptide 257-AGPPRYSRI-265 presented by the MHC-I molecule D(d), are both functionally deleted. Upon adoptive transfer, polyclonal donor CD8-T(M) cells primed by mCMV-DeltaIDE and the corresponding revertant virus mCMV-revDeltaIDE controlled infection of immunocompromised recipients with comparable efficacy and regardless of whether or not IDEs were presented in the recipients. Importantly, CD8-T(M) cells primed under conditions of immunodomination by IDEs protected recipients in which IDEs were absent. This shows that protection does not depend on compensatory expansion of non-IDE-specific CD8-T(M) cells liberated from immunodomination by the deletion of IDEs. We conclude that protection is, rather, based on the collective antiviral potential of non-IDEs independent of the presence or absence of IDE-mediated immunodomination.

  7. Protective effect of Phyllanthus emblica fruit extract against hydrogen peroxide-induced endothelial cell death.

    PubMed

    Wongpradabchai, Sudjai; Chularojmontri, Linda; Phornchirasilp, Srichan; Wattanapitayakul, Suvara K

    2013-01-01

    Numerous antioxidants from natural products have been shown to lower ROS levels and enhance vascular endothelial function. The fruits of Phyllanthus emblica are well-known in possessing antioxidative properties but its role and mechanisms in the protection of vascular endothelial cells from ROS damage have not yet been established. The present study was aimed to determine the possible protective effect of P. emblica fruit extract (PE) on human EA.hy926 endothelial cell death induced by hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and PE protective mechanisms. Following incubation of endothelial cells with 300 microM H2O2 for 2 h, cell viability was decreased to 50.65 +/- 0.94% and intracellular ROS levels was increased to 159.01% +/- 6.27% as measured by MTT assay and DCF fluorescent intensity, respectively. Cytotoxic effect of PE was not observed in the range of 0.1 to 100 microM Pretreatment with PE (20 to 100 microg/mL) for 48 h significantly ameliorated the cytotoxic effect of H2O2 and attenuated the excessive intracellular ROS formation in endothelial cells. In addition, western blot analysis revealed that PE pretreatment (40 microg/L) induced Akt phosphorylation but did not activate NF-kappaB pathway. These findings suggest that PE could effectively protect human endothelial cell death induced by H2O2 via modification of ROS-related mechanism along with activation of PI3K/Akt pathway. However the value of this plant in vivo needs further investigations in supporting them to be developed as nutraceuticals for cardiovascular disease prevention.

  8. Protective Effect of an Isoflavone, Tectorigenin, Against Oxidative Stress-induced Cell Death via Catalase Activation

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Rui; Piao, Mei Jing; Oh, Min Chang; Park, Jeong Eon; Shilnikova, Kristina; Moon, Yu Jin; Kim, Dong Hyun; Jung, Uhee; Kim, In Gyu; Hyun, Jin Won

    2016-01-01

    Background Isoflavones are biologically active compounds that occur naturally in a variety of plants, with relatively high levels in soybean. Tectorigenin, an isoflavone, protects against hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced cell damage. However, the underlying mechanism is unknown. Methods The MTT assay was performed to determine cell viability. Catalase activity was assessed by determining the amount of enzyme required to degrade 1 μM H2O2. Protein expression of catalase, phospho-extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), IκB-α, and NF-κB were evaluated by Western blot analysis. A mobility shift assay was performed to assess the DNA-binding ability of NF-κB. Transient transfection and a NF-κB luciferase assay were performed to assess transcriptional activity. Results Tectorigenin reduced H2O2-induced death of Chinese hamster lung fibroblasts (V79-4). In addition, tectorigenin increased the activity and protein expression of catalase. Blockade of catalase activity attenuated the protective effect of tectorigenin against oxidative stress. Furthermore, tectorigenin enhanced phosphorylation of ERK and nuclear expression of NF-κB, while inhibition of ERK and NF-κB attenuated the protective effect of tectorigenin against oxidative stress. Conclusions Tectorigenin protects cells against oxidative damage by activating catalase and modulating the ERK and NF-κB signaling pathway. PMID:28053960

  9. Hydrogen protects auditory hair cells from cisplatin-induced free radicals.

    PubMed

    Kikkawa, Yayoi S; Nakagawa, Takayuki; Taniguchi, Mirei; Ito, Juichi

    2014-09-05

    Cisplatin is a widely used chemotherapeutic agent for the treatment of various malignancies. However, its maximum dose is often limited by severe ototoxicity. Cisplatin ototoxicity may require the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the inner ear by activating enzymes specific to the cochlea. Molecular hydrogen was recently established as an antioxidant that selectively reduces ROS, and has been reported to protect the central nervous system, liver, kidney and cochlea from oxidative stress. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the potential of molecular hydrogen to protect cochleae against cisplatin. We cultured mouse cochlear explants in medium containing various concentrations of cisplatin and examined the effects of hydrogen gas dissolved directly into the media. Following 48-h incubation, the presence of intact auditory hair cells was assayed by phalloidin staining. Cisplatin caused hair cell loss in a dose-dependent manner, whereas the addition of hydrogen gas significantly increased the numbers of remaining auditory hair cells. Additionally, hydroxyphenyl fluorescein (HPF) staining of the spiral ganglion showed that formation of hydroxyl radicals was successfully reduced in hydrogen-treated cochleae. These data suggest that molecular hydrogen can protect auditory tissues against cisplatin toxicity, thus providing an additional strategy to protect against drug-induced inner ear damage.

  10. Cells of Escherichia coli are protected against severe chemical stress by co-habiting cell aggregates formed by Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Jagmann, Nina; Henke, Sebastian Franz; Philipp, Bodo

    2015-10-01

    Bacterial cells within biofilms and cell aggregates show increased resistance against chemical stress compared with suspended cells. It is not known whether bacteria that co-habit biofilms formed by other bacteria also acquire such resistance. This scenario was investigated in a proof-of-principle experiment with Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain PAO1 as cell aggregate-forming bacterium and Escherichia coli strain MG1655 as potential co-habiting bacterium equipped with an inducible bioluminescence system. Cell aggregation of strain PAO1 can be induced by the toxic detergent sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS). In single cultures of strain MG1655, bioluminescence was inhibited by the protonophor carbonylcyanide-m-chlorophenylhydrazone (CCCP) but the cells were still viable. By applying CCCP and SDS together, cells of strain MG1655 lost their bioluminescence and viability indicating the importance of energy-dependent resistance mechanisms against SDS. In co-suspensions with strain PAO1, bioluminescence of strain MG1655 was sustained in the presence of SDS and CCCP. Image analysis showed that bioluminescent cells were located in cell aggregates formed by strain PAO1. Thus, cells of strain MG1655 that co-habited cell aggregates formed by strain PAO1 were protected against a severe chemical stress that was lethal to them in single cultures. Co-habiting could lead to increased survival of pathogens in clinical settings and could be employed in biotechnological applications involving toxic milieus.

  11. Protecting cells by protecting their vulnerable lysosomes: Identification of a new mechanism for preserving lysosomal functional integrity upon oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Pascua-Maestro, Raquel; Diez-Hermano, Sergio; Lillo, Concepción; Ganfornina, Maria D; Sanchez, Diego

    2017-02-01

    Environmental insults such as oxidative stress can damage cell membranes. Lysosomes are particularly sensitive to membrane permeabilization since their function depends on intraluminal acidic pH and requires stable membrane-dependent proton gradients. Among the catalog of oxidative stress-responsive genes is the Lipocalin Apolipoprotein D (ApoD), an extracellular lipid binding protein endowed with antioxidant capacity. Within the nervous system, cell types in the defense frontline, such as astrocytes, secrete ApoD to help neurons cope with the challenge. The protecting role of ApoD is known from cellular to organism level, and many of its downstream effects, including optimization of autophagy upon neurodegeneration, have been described. However, we still cannot assign a cellular mechanism to ApoD gene that explains how this protection is accomplished. Here we perform a comprehensive analysis of ApoD intracellular traffic and demonstrate its role in lysosomal pH homeostasis upon paraquat-induced oxidative stress. By combining single-lysosome in vivo pH measurements with immunodetection, we demonstrate that ApoD is endocytosed and targeted to a subset of vulnerable lysosomes in a stress-dependent manner. ApoD is functionally stable in this acidic environment, and its presence is sufficient and necessary for lysosomes to recover from oxidation-induced alkalinization, both in astrocytes and neurons. This function is accomplished by preventing lysosomal membrane permeabilization. Two lysosomal-dependent biological processes, myelin phagocytosis by astrocytes and optimization of neurodegeneration-triggered autophagy in a Drosophila in vivo model, require ApoD-related Lipocalins. Our results uncover a previously unknown biological function of ApoD, member of the finely regulated and evolutionary conserved gene family of extracellular Lipocalins. They set a lipoprotein-mediated regulation of lysosomal membrane integrity as a new mechanism at the hub of many cellular

  12. Protecting cells by protecting their vulnerable lysosomes: Identification of a new mechanism for preserving lysosomal functional integrity upon oxidative stress

    PubMed Central

    Pascua-Maestro, Raquel

    2017-01-01

    Environmental insults such as oxidative stress can damage cell membranes. Lysosomes are particularly sensitive to membrane permeabilization since their function depends on intraluminal acidic pH and requires stable membrane-dependent proton gradients. Among the catalog of oxidative stress-responsive genes is the Lipocalin Apolipoprotein D (ApoD), an extracellular lipid binding protein endowed with antioxidant capacity. Within the nervous system, cell types in the defense frontline, such as astrocytes, secrete ApoD to help neurons cope with the challenge. The protecting role of ApoD is known from cellular to organism level, and many of its downstream effects, including optimization of autophagy upon neurodegeneration, have been described. However, we still cannot assign a cellular mechanism to ApoD gene that explains how this protection is accomplished. Here we perform a comprehensive analysis of ApoD intracellular traffic and demonstrate its role in lysosomal pH homeostasis upon paraquat-induced oxidative stress. By combining single-lysosome in vivo pH measurements with immunodetection, we demonstrate that ApoD is endocytosed and targeted to a subset of vulnerable lysosomes in a stress-dependent manner. ApoD is functionally stable in this acidic environment, and its presence is sufficient and necessary for lysosomes to recover from oxidation-induced alkalinization, both in astrocytes and neurons. This function is accomplished by preventing lysosomal membrane permeabilization. Two lysosomal-dependent biological processes, myelin phagocytosis by astrocytes and optimization of neurodegeneration-triggered autophagy in a Drosophila in vivo model, require ApoD-related Lipocalins. Our results uncover a previously unknown biological function of ApoD, member of the finely regulated and evolutionary conserved gene family of extracellular Lipocalins. They set a lipoprotein-mediated regulation of lysosomal membrane integrity as a new mechanism at the hub of many cellular

  13. Curcumin Protects β-Lactoglobulin Fibril Formation and Fibril-Induced Neurotoxicity in PC12Cells

    PubMed Central

    Mazaheri, Mansooreh; Moosavi-Movahedi, Ali Akbar; Saboury, Ali Akbar; Khodagholi, Fariba; Shaerzadeh, Fatemeh; Sheibani, Nader

    2015-01-01

    In this study the β-lactoglobulin fibrillation, in the presence or absence of lead ions, aflatoxin M1 and curcumin, was evaluated using ThT fluorescence, Circular dichroism spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy. To investigate the toxicity of the different form of β-Lg fibrils, in the presence or absence of above toxins and curcumin, we monitored changes in the level of reactive oxygen species and morphology of the differentiated neuron-like PC12 cells. The cell viability, cell body area, average neurite length, neurite width, number of primary neurites, percent of bipolar cells and node/primary neurite ratios were used to assess the growth and complexity of PC12 cells exposed to different form of β-Lg fibrils. Incubation of β-Lg with curcumin resulted in a significant decrease in ROS levels even in the presence of lead ions and aflatoxin M1. The β-Lg fibrils formed in the presence of lead ions and aflatoxin M1 attenuated the growth and complexity of PC12 cells compared with other form of β-Lg fibrils. However, the adverse effects of these toxins and protein fibrils were negated in the presence of curcumin. Furthermore, the antioxidant and inhibitory effects of curcumin protected PC12 cells against fibril neurotoxicity and enhanced their survival. Thus, curcumin may provide a protective effect toward β-Lg, and perhaps other protein, fibrils mediated neurotoxicity. PMID:26186474

  14. Silymarin protects against acrylamide-induced neurotoxicity via Nrf2 signalling in PC12 cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Liang; Sun, Hong-Yang; Liu, Wei; Zhao, Hong-Yu; Shao, Mei-Li

    2017-04-01

    Silymarin (SM) is a well-known antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer compound extracted from the milk thistle. Here, we investigated the protective effect of SM against acrylamide (AA)-induced neurotoxicity, mainly caused by oxidative stress, via activation of the nuclear transcription factor E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) signalling pathway in PC12 cells. The MTT reduction assay was used to measure cell viability in various drug-treated groups and demonstrated that SM could increase cell viability in AA-treated PC12 cells. We then measured the reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels by the peroxide-sensitive fluorescent probe DCFH-DA and intracellular glutathione (GSH) and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels by absorption spectrophotometry. Our data revealed that SM could reduce ROS and MDA levels and increase GSH levels in AA-induced PC12 cells. To identify a potential mechanism for SM-induced protection, we measured the mRNA and protein expression levels of Nrf2 and its downstream target antioxidants glutathione peroxidase (Gpx), glutamate cysteine ligase catalytic subunit (GCLC) and glutamate cysteine ligase modifier subunit (GCLM) by quantitative real-time PCR and Western blot, respectively. The results suggested that SM could activate Nrf2 signalling and increase the expression of Nrf2, Gpx, GCLC and GCLM in AA-treated PC12 cells. In conclusion, SM can effectively alleviate AA-induced neurotoxicity in PC12 cells.

  15. Protection of human HepG2 cells against oxidative stress by the flavonoid epicatechin.

    PubMed

    Martín, María Angeles; Ramos, Sonia; Mateos, Raquel; Izquierdo-Pulido, María; Bravo, Laura; Goya, Luis

    2010-04-01

    Flavanols, such as epicatechin (EC), constitute an important part of the human diet; they can be found in green tea, grapes and cocoa and possess different biological activities such as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anticarcinogenic. This study investigated the potential chemo-protective effect of EC against oxidative stress induced by tert-butylhydroperoxide (t-BOOH) on human HepG2 cells. Cell viability by lactate dehydrogenase assay and markers of oxidative status: reduced glutathione (GSH), malondialdehyde (MDA), reactive oxygen species (ROS), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and glutathione reductase (GR) were evaluated. Pretreatment of cells with EC for 20 h prevented the enhanced cell damage and GPx and GR activities as well as the decrease in GSH induced by t-BOOH. The increased ROS generation induced by t-BOOH was also partly prevented by a pretreatment for 20 h with EC. In addition, pretreatment of cells with EC for 20 h recovered the t-BOOH-induced MDA concentration to control values. A pretreatment for 2 h with EC did not reduce cell damage but partly recovered GSH, reduced ROS levels and muffled the increase of GPx and GR after exposure to t-BOOH. Treatment of HepG2 cells with concentrations of EC in the micromolar range confers a significant protection against oxidative stress.

  16. CXCR5⁺ T helper cells mediate protective immunity against tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Slight, Samantha R; Rangel-Moreno, Javier; Gopal, Radha; Lin, Yinyao; Fallert Junecko, Beth A; Mehra, Smriti; Selman, Moises; Becerril-Villanueva, Enrique; Baquera-Heredia, Javier; Pavon, Lenin; Kaushal, Deepak; Reinhart, Todd A; Randall, Troy D; Khader, Shabaana A

    2013-02-01

    One third of the world's population is infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb). Although most infected people remain asymptomatic, they have a 10% lifetime risk of developing active tuberculosis (TB). Thus, the current challenge is to identify immune parameters that distinguish individuals with latent TB from those with active TB. Using human and experimental models of Mtb infection, we demonstrated that organized ectopic lymphoid structures containing CXCR5+ T cells were present in Mtb-infected lungs. In addition, we found that in experimental Mtb infection models, the presence of CXCR5+ T cells within ectopic lymphoid structures was associated with immune control. Furthermore, in a mouse model of Mtb infection, we showed that activated CD4+CXCR5+ T cells accumulated in Mtb-infected lungs and produced proinflammatory cytokines. Mice deficient in Cxcr5 had increased susceptibility to TB due to defective T cell localization within the lung parenchyma. We demonstrated that CXCR5 expression in T cells mediated correct T cell localization within TB granulomas, promoted efficient macrophage activation, protected against Mtb infection, and facilitated lymphoid follicle formation. These data demonstrate that CD4+CXCR5+ T cells play a protective role in the immune response against TB and highlight their potential use for future TB vaccine design and therapy.

  17. Notch protection against apoptosis in T-ALL cells mediated by GIMAP5.

    PubMed

    Chadwick, Nicholas; Zeef, Leo; Portillo, Virginia; Boros, Joanna; Hoyle, Sarah; van Doesburg, Jaap C L; Buckle, Anne-Marie

    2010-10-15

    Recent studies have highlighted the role of Notch signalling in the development of T cell acute lymphoblasic leukaemia (T-ALL). Over-expression of Notch3 and gain of function mutations in the Notch1 gene have been reported. The aims of this study were to determine the effect of Notch signalling on apoptosis in human T-ALL cell lines and to identify targets of Notch signalling that may mediate this effect. Functional studies showed that inhibition of Notch signalling using gamma secretase inhibitors promoted glucocorticoid-induced apoptosis in cells carrying gain of function mutations in Notch1. Moreover, ectopic expression of constitutively activated Notch provided protection against glucocorticoid-induced apoptosis, indicating that signalling via Notch may also contribute to the development of T-ALL by conferring resistance to apoptosis. Microarray analysis revealed that GIMAP5, a gene coding for an anti-apoptotic intracellular protein, is upregulated by Notch in T-ALL cell lines. Knockdown of GIMAP5 expression using siRNA promoted glucocorticoid-induced apoptosis in T-ALL cells carrying gain of function mutations in Notch1 and in T-ALL cells engineered to express ectopic constitutively activated Notch indicating that Notch signalling protects T-ALL cells from apoptosis by upregulating the expression of GIMAP5.

  18. A20 Deficiency in Lung Epithelial Cells Protects against Influenza A Virus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Vereecke, Lars; Mc Guire, Conor; Sze, Mozes; Schuijs, Martijn J.; Willart, Monique; Itati Ibañez, Lorena; Hammad, Hamida; Lambrecht, Bart N.; Beyaert, Rudi; Saelens, Xavier; van Loo, Geert

    2016-01-01

    A20 negatively regulates multiple inflammatory signalling pathways. We here addressed the role of A20 in club cells (also known as Clara cells) of the bronchial epithelium in their response to influenza A virus infection. Club cells provide a niche for influenza virus replication, but little is known about the functions of these cells in antiviral immunity. Using airway epithelial cell-specific A20 knockout (A20AEC-KO) mice, we show that A20 in club cells critically controls innate immune responses upon TNF or double stranded RNA stimulation. Surprisingly, A20AEC-KO mice are better protected against influenza A virus challenge than their wild type littermates. This phenotype is not due to decreased viral replication. Instead host innate and adaptive immune responses and lung damage are reduced in A20AEC-KO mice. These attenuated responses correlate with a dampened cytotoxic T cell (CTL) response at later stages during infection, indicating that A20AEC-KO mice are better equipped to tolerate Influenza A virus infection. Expression of the chemokine CCL2 (also named MCP-1) is particularly suppressed in the lungs of A20AEC-KO mice during later stages of infection. When A20AEC-KO mice were treated with recombinant CCL2 the protective effect was abrogated demonstrating the crucial contribution of this chemokine to the protection of A20AEC-KO mice to Influenza A virus infection. Taken together, we propose a mechanism of action by which A20 expression in club cells controls inflammation and antiviral CTL responses in response to influenza virus infection. PMID:26815999

  19. Activation of mitochondrial ERK protects cancer cells from death through inhibition of the permeability transition.

    PubMed

    Rasola, Andrea; Sciacovelli, Marco; Chiara, Federica; Pantic, Boris; Brusilow, William S; Bernardi, Paolo

    2010-01-12

    We studied human cancer cell models in which we detected constitutive activation of ERK. A fraction of active ERK was found to be located in mitochondria in RWPE-2 cells, obtained by v-Ki-Ras transformation of the epithelial prostate RWPE-1 cell line; in metastatic prostate cancer DU145 cells; and in osteosarcoma SAOS-2 cells. All these tumor cells displayed marked resistance to death caused by apoptotic stimuli like arachidonic acid and the BH3 mimetic EM20-25, which cause cell death through the mitochondrial permeability transition pore (PTP). PTP desensitization and the ensuing resistance to cell death induced by arachidonic acid or EM20-25 could be ablated by inhibiting ERK with the drug PD98059 or with a selective ERK activation inhibitor peptide. ERK inhibition enhanced glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3)-dependent phosphorylation of the pore regulator cyclophilin D, whereas GSK-3 inhibition protected from PTP opening. Neither active ERK in mitochondria nor pore desensitization was observed in non-transformed RWPE-1 cells. Thus, in tumor cells mitochondrial ERK activation desensitizes the PTP through a signaling axis that involves GSK-3 and cyclophilin D, a finding that provides a mechanistic basis for increased resistance to apoptosis of neoplastic cells.

  20. Protection against apoptosis in chicken bursa and thymus cells by phorbol ester in vitro

    SciTech Connect

    Asakawa, J.; Thorbecke, G.J. )

    1991-03-15

    Programmed suicide or apoptosis, due to activation of endogenous nucleases, occurs in immature CD4{sup {minus}}85{sup {minus}} mammalian thymus cells. Like the thymus, the bursa of Fabricius is a site of massive lymphopoiesis accompanied by cell death in vivo. In the present study the authors have, therefore, examined whether chicken bursa and thymus cells exhibit apoptosis. Bursa and thymus cells from SC chickens, 4-10 weeks of age, were incubated for 8-24 hrs with various reagents. Genomic DNA was isolated, electrophoresed in 3% Nusieve agarose gels, and examined for patterns of DNA fragmentation. A laddering of DNA in multiples of 200 base pairs, indicative of apoptosis, was observed with both bursa and thymus cells. These patterns of DNA fragmentation from bursa cells could be prevented by adding phorbol myristic acetate during culture and, more effectively, by PMA plus ionomycin, but not by ionomycin alone or by anti-{mu}. PMA did not affect the patterns of DNA fragmentation seen with spleen cells. Addition of the protein kinase C inhibitor staurosporin inhibited the preventive effect of PMA on apoptosis. PMA also greatly promoted the survival of bursa cells in culture, as assayed by percentage cell death and by {sup 3}H-thymidine incorporation. It is concluded that bursa and thymus cells from the chicken exhibit apoptosis. The data further suggest that protein kinase C activation protects apoptosis in cultured bursa cells.

  1. Exogenous TNFR2 activation protects from acute GvHD via host T reg cell expansion

    PubMed Central

    Chopra, Martin; Brandl, Andreas; Amich, Jorge; Mottok, Anja; Jordán-Garrote, Ana-Laura; Bäuerlein, Carina A.; Brede, Christian; Ribechini, Eliana; Fick, Andrea; Polz, Johannes; Nishikii, Hidekazu; Mattenheimer, Katharina; Schwinn, Stefanie; Winter, Thorsten; Krappmann, Sven; Einsele, Hermann; Reddehase, Matthias J.; Lutz, Manfred B.

    2016-01-01

    Donor CD4+Foxp3+ regulatory T cells (T reg cells) suppress graft-versus-host disease (GvHD) after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HCT [allo-HCT]). Current clinical study protocols rely on the ex vivo expansion of donor T reg cells and their infusion in high numbers. In this study, we present a novel strategy for inhibiting GvHD that is based on the in vivo expansion of recipient T reg cells before allo-HCT, exploiting the crucial role of tumor necrosis factor receptor 2 (TNFR2) in T reg cell biology. Expanding radiation-resistant host T reg cells in recipient mice using a mouse TNFR2-selective agonist before allo-HCT significantly prolonged survival and reduced GvHD severity in a TNFR2- and T reg cell–dependent manner. The beneficial effects of transplanted T cells against leukemia cells and infectious pathogens remained unaffected. A corresponding human TNFR2-specific agonist expanded human T reg cells in vitro. These observations indicate the potential of our strategy to protect allo-HCT patients from acute GvHD by expanding T reg cells via selective TNFR2 activation in vivo. PMID:27526711

  2. The Mitochondrial-Derived Peptide Humanin Protects RPE Cells From Oxidative Stress, Senescence, and Mitochondrial Dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Sreekumar, Parameswaran G.; Ishikawa, Keijiro; Spee, Chris; Mehta, Hemal H.; Wan, Junxiang; Yen, Kelvin; Cohen, Pinchas; Kannan, Ram; Hinton, David R.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the expression of humanin (HN) in human retinal pigment epithelial (hRPE) cells and its effect on oxidative stress–induced cell death, mitochondrial bioenergetics, and senescence. Methods Humanin localization in RPE cells and polarized RPE monolayers was assessed by confocal microscopy. Human RPE cells were treated with 150 μM tert-Butyl hydroperoxide (tBH) in the absence/presence of HN (0.5–10 μg/mL) for 24 hours. Mitochondrial respiration was measured by XF96 analyzer. Retinal pigment epithelial cell death and caspase-3 activation, mitochondrial biogenesis and senescence were analyzed by TUNEL, immunoblot analysis, mitochondrial DNA copy number, SA-β-Gal staining, and p16INK4a expression and HN levels by ELISA. Oxidative stress–induced changes in transepithelial resistance were studied in RPE monolayers with and without HN cotreatment. Results A prominent localization of HN was found in the cytoplasmic and mitochondrial compartments of hRPE. Humanin cotreatment inhibited tBH-induced reactive oxygen species formation and significantly restored mitochondrial bioenergetics in hRPE cells. Exogenous HN was taken up by RPE and colocalized with mitochondria. The oxidative stress–induced decrease in mitochondrial bioenergetics was prevented by HN cotreatment. Humanin treatment increased mitochondrial DNA copy number and upregulated mitochondrial transcription factor A, a key biogenesis regulator protein. Humanin protected RPE cells from oxidative stress–induced cell death by STAT3 phosphorylation and inhibiting caspase-3 activation. Humanin treatment inhibited oxidant-induced senescence. Polarized RPE demonstrated elevated cellular HN and increased resistance to cell death. Conclusions Humanin protected RPE cells against oxidative stress–induced cell death and restored mitochondrial function. Our data suggest a potential role for HN therapy in the prevention of retinal degeneration, including AMD. PMID:26990160

  3. ICRP Publication 131: Stem Cell Biology with Respect to Carcinogenesis Aspects of Radiological Protection.

    PubMed

    Niwa, O; Barcellos-Hoff, M H; Globus, R K; Harrison, J D; Hendry, J H; Jacob, P; Martin, M T; Seed, T M; Shay, J W; Story, M D; Suzuki, K; Yamashita, S

    2015-12-01

    This report provides a review of stem cells/progenitor cells and their responses to ionising radiation in relation to issues relevant to stochastic effects of radiation that form a major part of the International Commission on Radiological Protection's system of radiological protection. Current information on stem cell characteristics, maintenance and renewal, evolution with age, location in stem cell 'niches', and radiosensitivity to acute and protracted exposures is presented in a series of substantial reviews as annexes concerning haematopoietic tissue, mammary gland, thyroid, digestive tract, lung, skin, and bone. This foundation of knowledge of stem cells is used in the main text of the report to provide a biological insight into issues such as the linear-no-threshold (LNT) model, cancer risk among tissues, dose-rate effects, and changes in the risk of radiation carcinogenesis by age at exposure and attained age. Knowledge of the biology and associated radiation biology of stem cells and progenitor cells is more developed in tissues that renew fairly rapidly, such as haematopoietic tissue, intestinal mucosa, and epidermis, although all the tissues considered here possess stem cell populations. Important features of stem cell maintenance, renewal, and response are the microenvironmental signals operating in the niche residence, for which a well-defined spatial location has been identified in some tissues. The identity of the target cell for carcinogenesis continues to point to the more primitive stem cell population that is mostly quiescent, and hence able to accumulate the protracted sequence of mutations necessary to result in malignancy. In addition, there is some potential for daughter progenitor cells to be target cells in particular cases, such as in haematopoietic tissue and in skin. Several biological processes could contribute to protecting stem cells from mutation accumulation: (a) accurate DNA repair; (b) rapidly induced death of injured stem cells

  4. α1-Antitrypsin modifies general NK cell interactions with dendritic cells and specific interactions with islet β-cells in favor of protection from autoimmune diabetes.

    PubMed

    Guttman, Ofer; Yossef, Rami; Freixo-Lima, Gabriella; Rider, Peleg; Porgador, Angel; Lewis, Eli C

    2014-10-13

    The autoimmune destruction of pancreatic β-cells is the hallmark of type 1 diabetes (T1D). Failure of anti-CD3 antibodies to provide long-lasting reversal of T1D and the expression of an NK cell ligand on β-cells suggest that NK cells play a role in disease pathogenesis. Indeed, killing of β-cells by NK cells has been shown to occur, mediated by activation of the NK cell activating receptor, NKp46. α1-antitrypsin (AAT), an anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory glycoprotein, protects β-cells from injurious immune responses and is currently evaluated as a therapeutic for recent onset T1D. While isolated T lymphocytes are not inhibited by AAT, dendritic cells (DCs) become tolerogenic in its presence and other innate immune cells become less inflammatory. Yet a comprehensive profile of NK cell responses in the presence of AAT has yet to be described. In the present study, we demonstrate that AAT significantly reduces NK cell degranulation against β-cells, albeit in the whole animal and not in isolated NK cell cultures. AAT-treated mice, and not isolated cultured β-cells, exhibited a marked reduction in NKp46 ligand levels on β-cells. In related experiments, AAT-treated DCs exhibited reduced inducible DC-expressed IL-15 levels and evoked a weaker NK cell response. NK cell depletion in a T1D mouse model resulted in improved β-cell function and survival, similar to the effects observed by AAT treatment alone; nonetheless, the two approaches were non-synergistic. Our data suggest that AAT is a selective immunomodulator that retains pivotal NK cell responses, while diverting their activities away from islet β-cells. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  5. Transfer of protective immunity in murine histoplasmosis by a CD4+ T-cell clone.

    PubMed

    Allendoerfer, R; Magee, D M; Deepe, G S; Graybill, J R

    1993-02-01

    We have reported that a murine Histoplasma capsulatum-reactive CD4+ T-cell line and clones thereof did not adoptively transfer protection against H. capsulatum infection in normal or cyclophosphamide-treated C57BL/6 mice. One explanation for the results was that the T cells failed to traffic to lymphoid organs in these animals. In this study, we have sought to determine whether one of these clones, 2.3H3, could mediate protection in nude (C57BL/10) or irradiated (5 Gy) heterozygous nude (nu/+) C57BL/6 mice. Mice were inoculated intravenously with 10(7) resting 2.3H3 cells or with an equal number of cells of the ovalbumin-reactive clone 1S6; 2 h later, the mice were challenged intranasally with 5 x 10(6) yeast cells. By day 5 of infection, lungs, livers, and spleens of nude and irradiated nu/+ mice given 2.3H3 contained significantly fewer (P < 0.05) CFU than the same organs from mice inoculated with 1S6. This effect was specific for H. capsulatum, since 2.3H3 did not reduce the number of Coccidioides immitis CFU in lungs, livers, and spleens of irradiated nu/+ mice. By day 10, the amounts of H. capsulatum CFU in lungs, livers, or spleens of nude and irradiated nu/+ mice inoculated with 2.3H3 were smaller than those in 1S6-inoculated mice, but these differences did not reach statistical significance (P > 0.05). The mortality rate of mice inoculated with 2.3H3 and that of mice inoculated with 1S6 were similar. Histopathological examination of tissues from 2.3H3- and 1S6-inoculated mice demonstrated the presence of granulomatous inflammation in organs from both groups. Tissues from 2.3H3-treated mice contained fewer yeasts per high-power field than tissues from 1S6-treated mice. Thus, irradiated or nude mice are permissive for the expression of protective immunity by a CD4+ T-cell clone. Although the protective capacity of T cells in these animals is transient, these animals will be useful for differentiating protective from nonprotective T-cell clones.

  6. The EBV oncogene LMP1 protects lymphoma cells from cell death through the collagen-mediated activation of DDR1.

    PubMed

    Cader, Fathima Zumla; Vockerodt, Martina; Bose, Shikha; Nagy, Eszter; Brundler, Marie-Anne; Kearns, Pamela; Murray, Paul G

    2013-12-19

    The malignant Hodgkin and Reed-Sternberg (HRS) cells of Hodgkin lymphoma are surrounded by a tumor microenvironment that is composed of a variety of cell types, as well as noncellular components such as collagen. Although HRS cells harbor oncogenic Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) in approximately 50% of cases, it is not known if the tumor microenvironment contributes to EBV-driven lymphomagenesis. We show that expression of the EBV-encoded latent membrane protein-1 (LMP1) in primary human germinal center B cells, the presumed progenitors of HRS cells, upregulates discoidin domain receptor 1 (DDR1), a receptor tyrosine kinase activated by collagen. We also show that HRS cells intimately associated with collagen frequently overexpress DDR1 and that short-term exposure to collagen is sufficient to activate DDR1 in Hodgkin lymphoma-derived cell lines. The ectopic expression of DDR1 significantly increased the survival of collagen-treated DG75 Burkitt lymphoma cells, following etoposide treatment. Conversely, knockdown of DDR1 significantly decreased the survival of collagen-treated L428 Hodgkin lymphoma cells in the absence of specific apoptotic stimulus, suggesting that DDR1 also influences baseline survival. Our results identify a hitherto unknown function for collagen in protecting Hodgkin lymphoma cells from apoptosis and suggest an important contribution of the tumor microenvironment in promoting the oncogenic effects of EBV.

  7. Protective effects of ginsenoside Rg1 against colistin sulfate-induced neurotoxicity in PC12 cells.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Guo-Zheng; Li, Ji-Chang

    2014-03-01

    The present study aimed to examine the protective effect of ginsenoside Rg1 against colistin-induced neurotoxicity in cultured rat pheochromocytoma (PC12) cells. Ginsenoside Rg1 was shown to elevate cell viability, decrease levels of malondialdehyde and intracellular reactive oxygen species, enhance activity of superoxide dismutase and glutathione, and decrease the release of cytochrome-c, formation of DNA fragmentation in colistin-treated PC12 cells. Ginsenoside Rg1 also reversed the increased caspase-9 and -3 mRNA levels caused by colistin in PC12 cells. These results suggest that ginsenoside Rg1 exerts a neuroprotective effect on colistin-induced neurotoxicity in PC12 cells, at least in part, via the inhibition of oxidative stress, prevention of apoptosis mediated via mitochondria pathway. Co-administration of ginsenoside Rg1 highlights the potential to increase the therapeutic index of colistin.

  8. Overexpression of Annexin II Receptor-Induced Autophagy Protects Against Apoptosis in Uveal Melanoma Cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yuelu; Song, Hongyuan; Guo, Ting; Zhu, Yongzhe; Tang, Hailin; Qi, Zhongtian; Zhao, Ping; Zhao, Shihong

    2016-05-01

    Uveal melanoma is the most common primary malignant intraocular tumor in adults and still lacks effective systemic therapies. Annexin A2 receptor (AXIIR), a receptor for Annexin II, was demonstrated to play an important role in multiple cells, but its role in uveal melanoma cells remains exclusive. Herein, the authors reported that overexpression of AXIIR was able to reduce cell viability and activate apoptosis apparently in the Mum2C uveal melanoma cell line. Meanwhile, overexpression of AXIIR could induce autophagy and increase autophagy flux. After autophagy was inhibited by chloroquine, enhanced apoptosis and cytotoxicity could be detected. In summary, these data highlighted the crucial role of AXIIR in reducing Mum2C cell viability through inducing apoptosis, while autophagy played a protective role in this process. Interference of this gene may be a promising method for uveal melanoma therapy and combination with specific inhibitor of autophagy may serve as a supplementary.

  9. The protective effect of curcumin in Olfactory Ensheathing Cells exposed to hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Bonfanti, Roberta; Musumeci, Teresa; Russo, Cristina; Pellitteri, Rosalia

    2017-02-05

    Curcumin, a phytochemical component derived from the rhizomes of Curcuma longa, has shown a great variety of pharmacological activities, such as anti-inflammatory, anti-tumor, anti-depression and anti-oxidant activity. Therefore, in the last years it has been used as a therapeutic agent since it confers protection in different neurodegenerative diseases, cerebral ischemia and excitotoxicity. Olfactory Ensheathing Cells (OECs) are glial cells of the olfactory system. They are able to secrete several neurotrophic growth factors, promote axonal growth and support the remyelination of damaged axons. OEC transplantation has emerged as a possible experimental therapy to induce repair of spinal cord injury, even if the functional recovery is still limited. Since hypoxia is a secondary effect in spinal cord injury, this in vitro study investigates the protective effect of curcumin in OECs exposed to hypoxia. Primary OECs were obtained from neonatal rat olfactory bulbs and placed both in normal and hypoxic conditions. Furthermore, some cells were grown with basic Fibroblast Growth Factor (bFGF) and/or curcumin at different concentration and times. The results obtained through immunocytochemical procedures and MTT test show that curcumin stimulates cell viability in OECs grown in normal and hypoxic conditions. Furthermore, the synergistic effect of curcumin and bFGF is the most effective exerting protection on OECs. Since spinal cord injury is often accompanied by secondary insults, such as ischemia or hypoxia, our results suggest that curcumin in combination with bFGF might be considered a possible approach for restoration in injuries.

  10. Extracellular renalase protects cells and organs by outside-in signalling.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yang; Safirstein, Robert; Velazquez, Heino; Guo, Xiao-Jia; Hollander, Lindsay; Chang, John; Chen, Tian-Min; Mu, Jian-Jun; Desir, Gary V

    2017-02-26

    Renalase was discovered as a protein synthesized by the kidney and secreted in blood where it circulates at a concentration of approximately 3-5 μg/ml. Initial reports suggested that it functioned as an NAD(P)H oxidase and could oxidize catecholamines. Administration of renalase lowers blood pressure and heart rate and also protects cells and organs against ischaemic and toxic injury. Although renalase's protective effect was initially ascribed to its oxidase properties, a paradigm shift in our understanding of the cellular actions of renalase is underway. We now understand that, independent of its enzymatic properties, renalase functions as a cytokine that provides protection to cells, tissues and organs by interacting with its receptor to activate protein kinase B, JAK/STAT, and the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways. In addition, recent studies suggest that dysregulated renalase signalling may promote survival of several tumour cells due to its capacity to augment expression of growth-related genes. In this review, we focus on the cytoprotective actions of renalase and its capacity to sustain cancer cell growth and also the translational opportunities these findings represent for the development of novel therapeutic strategies for organ injury and cancer.

  11. Protective effect of oleanolic acid on oxidized-low density lipoprotein induced endothelial cell apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Cao, Jianhua; Li, Guanghui; Wang, Meizhi; Li, Hui; Han, Zhiwu

    2015-10-01

    Oleanolic acid (3β-hydroxyolean-12-en-28-oic acid, OA) is a naturally-occurring triterpenoid with various promising pharmacological properties. The present study was conducted to determine the protective effects of OA against oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL) induced endothelial cell apoptosis and the possible underlying mechanisms. Our results showed that ox-LDL significantly decreased cell viability and induced apoptosis in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). OA in the co-treatment showed a protective effect against ox-LDL induced loss in cell viability and an increase in apoptosis, which was associated with the modulating effect of OA on ox-LDL induced hypoxia-inducible factor 1α(HIF-1α) expression. Moreover, our results showed that the modulating effect of OA against ox-LDL induced HIF-1α expression was obtained via inhibition of lipoprotein receptor 1 (LOX-1)/reactive oxygen species (ROS) signaling. Collectively, we suggested that the protective effect of OA against ox-LDL induced HUVEC apoptosis might, at least in part, be obtained via inhibition of the LOX-1/ROS/HIF-1α signaling pathway.

  12. Phytochemical activation of Nrf2 protects human coronary artery endothelial cells against an oxidative challenge.

    PubMed

    Donovan, Elise L; McCord, Joe M; Reuland, Danielle J; Miller, Benjamin F; Hamilton, Karyn L

    2012-01-01

    Activation of NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) is a potential therapeutic intervention against endothelial cell oxidative stress and associated vascular disease. We hypothesized that treatment with the phytochemicals in the patented dietary supplement Protandim would induce Nrf2 nuclear localization and phase II antioxidant enzyme protein in human coronary artery endothelial cells (HCAECs), protecting against an oxidant challenge in an Nrf2- dependent manner. Protandim treatment induced Nrf2 nuclear localization, and HO-1 (778% of control ± 82.25 P < 0.01), SOD1 (125.9% of control ± 6.05 P < 0.01), NQO1 (126% of control ± 6.5 P < 0.01), and GR (119.5% of control ± 7.00 P < 0.05) protein expression in HCAEC. Treatment of HCAEC with H(2)O(2) induced apoptosis in 34% of cells while pretreatment with Protandim resulted in only 6% apoptotic cells (P < 0.01). Nrf2 silencing significantly decreased the Protandim-induced increase in HO-1 protein (P < 0.01). Nrf2 silencing also significantly decreased the protection afforded by Protandim against H(2)O(2)- induced apoptosis (P < 0.01 compared to no RNA, and P < 0.05 compared to control RNA). These results show that Protandim induces Nrf2 nuclear localization and antioxidant enzyme expression, and protection of HCAEC from an oxidative challenge is Nrf2 dependent.

  13. Phytochemical Activation of Nrf2 Protects Human Coronary Artery Endothelial Cells against an Oxidative Challenge

    PubMed Central

    Donovan, Elise L.; McCord, Joe M.; Reuland, Danielle J.; Miller, Benjamin F.; Hamilton, Karyn L.

    2012-01-01

    Activation of NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) is a potential therapeutic intervention against endothelial cell oxidative stress and associated vascular disease. We hypothesized that treatment with the phytochemicals in the patented dietary supplement Protandim would induce Nrf2 nuclear localization and phase II antioxidant enzyme protein in human coronary artery endothelial cells (HCAECs), protecting against an oxidant challenge in an Nrf2- dependent manner. Protandim treatment induced Nrf2 nuclear localization, and HO-1 (778% of control ± 82.25 P < 0.01), SOD1 (125.9% of control ± 6.05 P < 0.01), NQO1 (126% of control ± 6.5 P < 0.01), and GR (119.5% of control ± 7.00 P < 0.05) protein expression in HCAEC. Treatment of HCAEC with H2O2 induced apoptosis in 34% of cells while pretreatment with Protandim resulted in only 6% apoptotic cells (P < 0.01). Nrf2 silencing significantly decreased the Protandim-induced increase in HO-1 protein (P < 0.01). Nrf2 silencing also significantly decreased the protection afforded by Protandim against H2O2- induced apoptosis (P < 0.01 compared to no RNA, and P < 0.05 compared to control RNA). These results show that Protandim induces Nrf2 nuclear localization and antioxidant enzyme expression, and protection of HCAEC from an oxidative challenge is Nrf2 dependent. PMID:22685617

  14. Ammonia impairs glutamatergic communication in astroglial cells: protective role of resveratrol.

    PubMed

    Bobermin, Larissa Daniele; Hansel, Gisele; Scherer, Emilene B S; Wyse, Angela T S; Souza, Diogo Onofre; Quincozes-Santos, André; Gonçalves, Carlos-Alberto

    2015-12-01

    Ammonia is a key toxin in the precipitation of hepatic encephalopathy (HE), a neuropsychiatric disorder associated with liver failure. In response to ammonia, various toxic events are triggered in astroglial cells, and alterations in brain glutamate communication are common. Resveratrol is a polyphenolic compound that has been extensively studied in pathological events because it presents several beneficial effects, including some in the central nervous system (CNS). We previously described that resveratrol is able to significantly modulate glial functioning and has a protective effect during ammonia challenge in vitro. In this study, we addressed the mechanisms by which resveratrol can protect C6 astroglial cells from glutamatergic alterations induced by ammonia. Resveratrol was able to prevent all the effects triggered by ammonia: (i) decrease in glutamate uptake activity and expression of the EAAC1 glutamate transporter, the main glutamate transporter present in C6 cells; (ii) increase of glutamate release, which was also dependent on the activation of the Na(+)-K(+)-Cl(-) co-transporter NKCC1; (iii) reduction in GS activity and intracellular GSH content; and (iv) impairment of Na(+)K(+)-ATPase activity. Interestingly, resveratrol, per se, also positively modulated the astroglial functions evaluated. Moreover, we demonstrated that heme oxygenase 1 (HO1), an enzyme that is part of the cellular defense system, mediated some of the effects of resveratrol. In conclusion, the mechanisms of the putative protective role of resveratrol against ammonia toxicity involve the modulation of pathways and molecules related to glutamate communication in astroglial cells.

  15. Oxidative stress induces mitochondrial dysfunction and a protective unfolded protein response in RPE cells.

    PubMed

    Cano, Marisol; Wang, Lei; Wan, Jun; Barnett, Bradley P; Ebrahimi, Katayoon; Qian, Jiang; Handa, James T

    2014-04-01

    How cells degenerate from oxidative stress in aging-related disease is incompletely understood. This study's intent was to identify key cytoprotective pathways activated by oxidative stress and determine the extent of their protection. Using an unbiased strategy with microarray analysis, we found that retinal pigmented epithelial (RPE) cells treated with cigarette smoke extract (CSE) had overrepresented genes involved in the antioxidant and unfolded protein response (UPR). Differentially expressed antioxidant genes were predominantly located in the cytoplasm, with no induction of genes that neutralize superoxide and H2O2 in the mitochondria, resulting in accumulation of superoxide and decreased ATP production. Simultaneously, CSE induced the UPR sensors IRE1α, p-PERK, and ATP6, including CHOP, which was cytoprotective because CHOP knockdown decreased cell viability. In mice given intravitreal CSE, the RPE had increased IRE1α and decreased ATP and developed epithelial-mesenchymal transition, as suggested by decreased LRAT abundance, altered ZO-1 immunolabeling, and dysmorphic cell shape. Mildly degenerated RPE from early age-related macular degeneration (AMD) samples had prominent IRE1α, but minimal mitochondrial TOM20 immunolabeling. Although oxidative stress is thought to induce an antioxidant response with cooperation between the mitochondria and the ER, herein we show that mitochondria become impaired sufficiently to induce epithelial-mesenchymal transition despite a protective UPR. With similar responses in early AMD samples, these results suggest that mitochondria are vulnerable to oxidative stress despite a protective UPR during the early phases of aging-related disease.

  16. `Untangling Sickle-cell Anemia and the Teaching of Heterozygote Protection'

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howe, Eric Michael

    2007-01-01

    Introductory biology textbooks often use the example of sickle-cell anemia to illustrate the concept of heterozygote protection. Ordinarily scientists expect the frequency of a gene associated with a debilitating illness would be low owing to its continual elimination by natural selection. The gene that causes sickle-cell anemia, however, has a relatively high frequency in many parts of the world. Historically, scientists proposed and defended several alternative theories to account for this anomaly, though it is now widely recognized among the scientific community that high frequencies of the gene reflect its benefit to heterozygotes against malaria. Textbooks normally develop this concept with reference to the often-used maps of Africa showing how in areas where the frequency of the sickle-cell gene is high, there is also higher exposure to the disease malaria. While sickle-cell anemia is often the example of choice for explaining and illustrating the concept of heterozygote protection, the present paper argues that exploring the history of scientific research behind our contemporary understanding has advantages for helping students understand multiple factors related to population genetics (e.g. mutation, gene flow, drift) in addition to heterozygote protection. In so doing, this approach invites students to evaluate the legitimacy of their own alternative conceptions about introductory population genetics or about the genetics of the disease sickle-cell anemia. The various historical theories scientists proposed and defended often resemble those of students who first learn about the disease. As such, a discussion of how scientists reached consensus about the role of heterozygote protection may help students understand and appreciate what are now recognized to be limitations in the views they bring to their classrooms. The paper concludes by discussing the ramifications of this approach in potentially helping students to examine certain aspects of the nature of

  17. Rapamycin protects against dominant negative-HNF1A-induced apoptosis in INS-1 cells.

    PubMed

    Farrelly, Angela M; Kilbride, Seán M; Bonner, Caroline; Prehn, Jochen H M; Byrne, Maria M

    2011-11-01

    HNF1A-maturity onset diabetes of the young (HNF1A-MODY) is caused by mutations in Hnf1a gene encoding the transcription factor hepatocyte nuclear factor 1alpha (HNF1A). An increased rate of apoptosis has been associated with the decrease in beta-cell mass that is a hallmark of HNF1A-MODY and other forms of diabetes. In a cellular model of HNF1A-MODY, we have recently shown that signalling through mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) is decreased by the overexpression of a dominant-negative mutant of HNF1A (DN-HNF1A). mTOR is a protein kinase which has important roles in cell metabolism and growth, but also in cell survival, where it has been shown to be both protective and detrimental. Here, we show that pharmacological inhibition of mTOR activity with rapamycin protected INS-1 cells against DN-HNF1A-induced apoptosis. Rapamycin also prevented DN-HNF1A-induced activation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), an intracellular energy sensor which we have previously shown to mediate DN-HNF1A-induced apoptosis. Conversely, activation of mTOR with leucine potentiated DN-HNF1A-induced apoptosis. Gene silencing of raptor (regulatory associated protein of mTOR), a subunit of mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1), also conferred protection on INS-1 cells against DN-HNF1A-induced apoptosis, confirming that mTORC1 mediates the protective effect. The potential relevance of this effect with regards to the clinical use of rapamycin as an immunosuppressant in diabetics post-transplantation is discussed.

  18. [Knockdown of Puma protects cord blood CD34(+) cells against γ- irradiation].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Lei; Zhang, Hong-Yan; Pang, Ya-Kun; Gu, Hai-Hui; Xu, Jing; Yuan, Wei-Ping; Cheng, Tao

    2014-04-01

    Puma (P53 upregulated modulator of apoptosis) is a BCL-2 homology 3 (BH3)-only BCL-1 family member and a critical mediator of P53-dependent and -independent apoptosis. Puma plays an essential role in the apoptosis of hematopoietic stem cells exposed to irradiation without an increased risk of malignancies. This study was purposed to develop an effective lentiviral vector to target Puma in human hematopoietic cells and to investigate the effect of Puma gene knockdown on the biological function of human cord blood CD34(+) cells. SF-LV-shPuma-EGFP and control vectors were constructed, and packaged with the pSPAX2/pMD2.G packaging plasmids via 293T cells to produce pseudo-type lentiviruses. SF-LV-shPuma-EGFP or control lentiviruses were harvested within 72 hours after transfection and then were used to transduce human cord blood CD34(+) cells. GFP(+) transduced cells were sorted by flow cytometry (FCM) for subsequent studies. Semi-quantitative real time RT PCR, Western blot, FCM with Annexin V-PE/7-AAD double staining, Ki67 staining, colony forming cell assay (CFC), CCK-8 assay and BrdU incorporation were performed to determine the expression of Puma and its effect on the cord blood CD34(+) cells. The results showed that Puma was significantly knocked down in cord blood CD34(+) cells and the low expression of Puma conferred a radio-protective effect on the cord blood CD34(+) cells. This effect was achieved through reduced apoptosis and sustained quiescence after irradiation due to Puma knockdown. It is concluded that knockdown of puma gene in CD34(+) hematopoietic stem cells of human cord blood possesses the radioprotective effect, maintains the cells in silence targeting Puma in human hematopoietic cells may have a similar effect with that on mouse hematopoietic cells as previously shown, and our lentiviral targeting system for Puma provides a valuable tool for future translational studies with human cells.

  19. Cross-priming of long lived protective CD8+ T cells against Trypanosoma cruzi infection: importance of a TLR9 agonist and CD4+ T cells.

    PubMed

    de Alencar, Bruna C G; Araújo, Adriano F S; Penido, Marcus L O; Gazzinelli, Ricardo T; Rodrigues, Mauricio M

    2007-08-10

    We recently described that vaccination of mice with a glutathione S transferase fusion protein representing amino acids 261-500 of the Amastigote Surface Protein-2 efficiently cross-primed protective CD8+ T cells against a lethal challenge with the human protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi. In this study, we initially established that this protective immunity was long lived. Subsequently, we studied the importance of TLR9 agonist CpG ODN 1826, TLR4 and CD4+ T cells for the generation of these protective CD8+ T cells. We found that: (i) the TLR9 agonist CpG ODN 1826 improved the efficiency of protective immunity; (ii) TLR4 is not relevant for priming of specific CD8+ T cells; (iii) CD4+ T cells are critical for priming of memory/protective CD8+ T cells.

  20. Vaccinium corymbosum L. (blueberry) extracts exhibit protective action against cadmium toxicity in Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells.

    PubMed

    Oprea, Eliza; Ruta, Lavinia L; Nicolau, Ioana; Popa, Claudia V; Neagoe, Aurora D; Farcasanu, Ileana C

    2014-01-01

    Blueberries (Vaccinium corymbosum L.) are a rich source of antioxidants and their consumption is believed to contribute to food-related protection against oxidative stress. In the present study, the chemoprotective action of blueberry extracts against cadmium toxicity was investigated using a cadmium-hypersensitive strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Four varieties of blueberries were used in the study, and it was found that the extracts with high content of total anthocyanidins exhibited significant protective effect against the toxicity of cadmium and H2O2. Both the blueberry extracts and pure cyanidin exhibited protective effects against cadmium in a dose-dependent manner, but without significantly interfering with the cadmium accumulation by the yeast cells. The results imply that the blueberry extracts might be a potentially valuable food supplement for individuals exposed to high cadmium.

  1. Hypoglycemic and beta cell protective effects of andrographolide analogue for diabetes treatment

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background While all anti-diabetic agents can decrease blood glucose level directly or indirectly, few are able to protect and preserve both pancreatic beta cell mass and their insulin-secreting functions. Thus, there is an urgent need to find an agent or combination of agents that can lower blood glucose and preserve pancreatic beta cells at the same time. Herein, we report a dual-functional andrographolide-lipoic acid conjugate (AL-1). The anti-diabetic and beta cell protective activities of this novel andrographolide-lipoic acid conjugate were investigated. Methods In alloxan-treated mice (a model of type 1 diabetes), drugs were administered orally once daily for 6 days post-alloxan treatment. Fasting blood glucose and serum insulin were determined. Pathologic and immunohistochemical analysis of pancreatic islets were performed. Translocation of glucose transporter subtype 4 in soleus muscle was detected by western blot. In RIN-m cells in vitro, the effect of AL-1 on H2O2-induced damage and reactive oxidative species production stimulated by high glucose and glibenclamide were measured. Inhibition of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) activation induced by IL-1β and IFN-γ was investigated. Results In alloxan-induced diabetic mouse model, AL-1 lowered blood glucose, increased insulin and prevented loss of beta cells and their dysfunction, stimulated glucose transport protein subtype 4 (GLUT4) membrane translocation in soleus muscles. Pretreatment of RIN-m cells with AL-1 prevented H2O2-induced cellular damage, quenched glucose and glibenclamide-stimulated reactive oxidative species production, and inhibited cytokine-stimulated NF-κB activation. Conclusion We have demonstrated that AL-1 had both hypoglycemic and beta cell protective effects which translated into antioxidant and NF-κB inhibitory activity. AL-1 is a potential new anti-diabetic agent. PMID:19607676

  2. A Nanoconjugate Apaf-1 Inhibitor Protects Mesothelial Cells from Cytokine-Induced Injury

    PubMed Central

    Santamaría, Beatriz; Benito-Martin, Alberto; Ucero, Alvaro Conrado; Aroeira, Luiz Stark; Reyero, Ana; Vicent, María Jesús; Orzáez, Mar; Celdrán, Angel; Esteban, Jaime; Selgas, Rafael; Ruíz-Ortega, Marta; Cabrera, Manuel López; Egido, Jesús; Pérez-Payá, Enrique; Ortiz, Alberto

    2009-01-01

    Background Inflammation may lead to tissue injury. We have studied the modulation of inflammatory milieu-induced tissue injury, as exemplified by the mesothelium. Peritoneal dialysis is complicated by peritonitis episodes that cause loss of mesothelium. Proinflammatory cytokines are increased in the peritoneal cavity during peritonitis episodes. However there is scarce information on the modulation of cell death by combinations of cytokines and on the therapeutic targets to prevent desmesothelization. Methodology Human mesothelial cells were cultured from effluents of stable peritoneal dialysis patients and from omentum of non-dialysis patients. Mesothelial cell death was studied in mice with S. aureus peritonitis and in mice injected with tumor necrosis factor alpha and interferon gamma. Tumor necrosis factor alpha and interferon gamma alone do not induce apoptosis in cultured mesothelial cells. By contrast, the cytokine combination increased the rate of apoptosis 2 to 3-fold over control. Cell death was associated with the activation of caspases and a pancaspase inhibitor prevented apoptosis. Specific caspase-8 and caspase-3 inhibitors were similarly effective. Co-incubation with both cytokines also impaired mesothelial wound healing in an in vitro model. However, inhibition of caspases did not improve wound healing and even impaired the long-term recovery from injury. By contrast, a polymeric nanoconjugate Apaf-1 inhibitor protected from apoptosis and allowed wound healing and long-term recovery. The Apaf-1 inhibitor also protected mesothelial cells from inflammation-induced injury in vivo in mice. Conclusion Cooperation between tumor necrosis factor alpha and interferon gamma contributes to mesothelial injury and impairs the regenerative capacity of the monolayer. Caspase inhibition attenuates mesothelial cell apoptosis but does not facilitate regeneration. A drug targeting Apaf-1 allows protection from apoptosis as well as regeneration in the course of

  3. Compartmentalization and regulation of iron metabolism proteins protect male germ cells from iron overload.

    PubMed

    Leichtmann-Bardoogo, Yael; Cohen, Lyora A; Weiss, Avital; Marohn, Britta; Schubert, Stephanie; Meinhardt, Andreas; Meyron-Holtz, Esther G

    2012-06-15

    The universal importance of iron, its high toxicity, and complex chemistry present a challenge to biological systems in general and to protected compartments in particular. The high mitotic rate and avid mitochondriogenesis of developing male germ cells imply high iron requirements. Yet access to germ cells is tightly regulated by the blood-testis barrier that protects the meiotic and postmeiotic germ cells. To elucidate how iron is supplied to developing male germ cells, we analyzed iron deposition and iron transport proteins in testes of mice with iron overload and with genetic ablation of the iron regulators Hfe and iron regulatory protein 2. Iron accumulated mainly around seminiferous tubules, and only small amounts localized within the seminiferous tubules. The localization and regulation of proteins involved in iron import, storage, and export such as transferrin, transferrin receptor, the divalent metal transporter-1, cytosolic ferritin, and ferroportin strongly support a model of a largely autonomous iron cycle within seminiferous tubules. We show evidence that ferritin secretion from Sertoli cells may play an important role in iron acquisition of primary spermatocytes. During spermatogenic development iron is carried along from primary spermatocytes to spermatids, and from spermatids iron is recycled to the apical compartment of Sertoli cells, which traffic it back to a new generation of spermatocytes. Losses are replenished by the peripheral circulation. Such an internal iron cycle essentially detaches the iron homeostasis within the seminiferous tubule from the periphery and protects developing germ cells from iron fluctuations. This model explains how compartmentalization can optimize cellular and systemic nutrient homeostasis.

  4. Humanin Protects RPE Cells from Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress-Induced Apoptosis by Upregulation of Mitochondrial Glutathione

    PubMed Central

    Matsunaga, Douglas; Sreekumar, Parameswaran G.; Ishikawa, Keijiro; Terasaki, Hiroto; Barron, Ernesto; Cohen, Pinchas

    2016-01-01

    Humanin (HN) is a small mitochondrial-encoded peptide with neuroprotective properties. We have recently shown protection of retinal pigmented epithelium (RPE) cells by HN in oxidative stress; however, the effect of HN on endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress has not been evaluated in any cell type. Our aim here was to study the effect of HN on ER stress-induced apoptosis in RPE cells with a specific focus on ER-mitochondrial cross-talk. Dose dependent effects of ER stressors (tunicamycin (TM), brefeldin A, and thapsigargin) were studied after 12 hr of treatment in confluent primary human RPE cells with or without 12 hr of HN pretreatment (1–20 μg/mL). All three ER stressors induced RPE cell apoptosis in a dose dependent manner. HN pretreatment significantly decreased the number of apoptotic cells with all three ER stressors in a dose dependent manner. HN pretreatment similarly protected U-251 glioma cells from TM-induced apoptosis in a dose dependent manner. HN pretreatment significantly attenuated activation of caspase 3 and ER stress-specific caspase 4 induced by TM. TM treatment increased mitochondrial superoxide production, and HN co-treatment resulted in a decrease in mitochondrial superoxide compared to TM treatment alone. We further showed that depleted mitochondrial glutathione (GSH) levels induced by TM were restored with HN co-treatment. No significant changes were found for the expression of several antioxidant enzymes between TM and TM plus HN groups except for the expression of glutamylcysteine ligase catalytic subunit (GCLC), the rate limiting enzyme required for GSH biosynthesis, which is upregulated with TM and TM+HN treatment. These results demonstrate that ER stress promotes mitochondrial alterations in RPE that lead to apoptosis. We further show that HN has a protective effect against ER stress-induced apoptosis by restoring mitochondrial GSH. Thus, HN should be further evaluated for its therapeutic potential in disorders linked to ER stress. PMID

  5. Humanin Protects RPE Cells from Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress-Induced Apoptosis by Upregulation of Mitochondrial Glutathione.

    PubMed

    Matsunaga, Douglas; Sreekumar, Parameswaran G; Ishikawa, Keijiro; Terasaki, Hiroto; Barron, Ernesto; Cohen, Pinchas; Kannan, Ram; Hinton, David R

    2016-01-01

    Humanin (HN) is a small mitochondrial-encoded peptide with neuroprotective properties. We have recently shown protection of retinal pigmented epithelium (RPE) cells by HN in oxidative stress; however, the effect of HN on endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress has not been evaluated in any cell type. Our aim here was to study the effect of HN on ER stress-induced apoptosis in RPE cells with a specific focus on ER-mitochondrial cross-talk. Dose dependent effects of ER stressors (tunicamycin (TM), brefeldin A, and thapsigargin) were studied after 12 hr of treatment in confluent primary human RPE cells with or without 12 hr of HN pretreatment (1-20 μg/mL). All three ER stressors induced RPE cell apoptosis in a dose dependent manner. HN pretreatment significantly decreased the number of apoptotic cells with all three ER stressors in a dose dependent manner. HN pretreatment similarly protected U-251 glioma cells from TM-induced apoptosis in a dose dependent manner. HN pretreatment significantly attenuated activation of caspase 3 and ER stress-specific caspase 4 induced by TM. TM treatment increased mitochondrial superoxide production, and HN co-treatment resulted in a decrease in mitochondrial superoxide compared to TM treatment alone. We further showed that depleted mitochondrial glutathione (GSH) levels induced by TM were restored with HN co-treatment. No significant changes were found for the expression of several antioxidant enzymes between TM and TM plus HN groups except for the expression of glutamylcysteine ligase catalytic subunit (GCLC), the rate limiting enzyme required for GSH biosynthesis, which is upregulated with TM and TM+HN treatment. These results demonstrate that ER stress promotes mitochondrial alterations in RPE that lead to apoptosis. We further show that HN has a protective effect against ER stress-induced apoptosis by restoring mitochondrial GSH. Thus, HN should be further evaluated for its therapeutic potential in disorders linked to ER stress.

  6. Autophagy protects meniscal cells from glucocorticoids-induced apoptosis via inositol trisphosphate receptor signaling.

    PubMed

    Shen, Chao; Gu, Wen; Cai, Gui-Quan; Peng, Jian-Ping; Chen, Xiao-Dong

    2015-09-01

    Intra-articular injection of glucocorticoids (GCs) has been widely used in the management of osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis. Nevertheless, several studies showed that GCs had toxic effects on chondrocytes as well as synovial cells. Previously we reported the protective role of autophagy in the degeneration of meniscal tissues. However, the effects of GCs on autophagy in the meniscal cells have not been fully elucidated. To investigate whether GCs can regulate autophagy in human meniscal cells, the meniscal cells were cultured in vitro and exposed in the presence of dexamethasone. The levels of apoptosis and autophagy were investigated via flow cytometry as well as western blotting analysis. The changes of the aggrecanases were measured using real-time PCR. The role of autophagy in dexamethasone-induced apoptosis was investigated using pharmacological agents and RNA interference technique. An agonist of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor (IP3R) was used to investigate the mechanism of dexamethasone-induced autophagy. The results showed that dexamethasone induced autophagy as well as apoptosis in normal human meniscal cells. Using RNA interference technique and pharmacological agents, our results showed that autophagy protected the meniscal cells from dexamethasone-induced apoptosis. Our results also indicated that dexamethasone increased the mRNA levels of aggrecanases. This catabolic effect of dexamethasone was enhanced by 3-MA, the autophagy inhibitor. Furthermore, our results showed that dexamethasone induced autophagy via suppressing the phosphorylation of IP3R. In summary, our results indicated that autophagy protected meniscal cells from GCs-induced apoptosis via inositol trisphosphate receptor signaling.

  7. Partial Regulatory T Cell Depletion Prior to Schistosomiasis Vaccination Does Not Enhance the Protection

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Sha; Xu, Zhipeng; Hoellwarth, Jason; Chen, Xiaojun; He, Lei; Zhang, Rongbo; Liu, Feng; Wang, Jun; Su, Chuan

    2012-01-01

    CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells (Tregs) do not only influence self-antigen specific immune responses, but also dampen the protective effect induced by a number of vaccines. The impact of CD4+CD25+ Tregs on vaccines against schistosomiasis, a neglected tropical disease that is a major public health concern, however, has not been examined. In this study, a DNA vaccine encoding a 26 kDa glutathione S-transferase of Schistosoma japonicum (pVAX1-Sj26GST) was constructed and its potential effects were evaluated by depleting CD25+ cells prior to pVAX1-Sj26GST immunization. This work shows that removal of CD25+ cells prior to immunization with the pVAX1-Sj26GST schistosomiasis DNA vaccine significantly increases the proliferation of splenocytes and IgG levels. However, CD25+ cell-depleted mice immunized with pVAX1-Sj26GST show no improved protection against S. japonicum. Furthermore, depletion of CD25+ cells causes an increase in both pro-inflammatory cytokines (e.g. IFN-γ, GM-CSF and IL-4) and an anti-inflammatory cytokine (e.g. IL-10), with CD4+CD25- T cells being one of the major sources of both IFN-γ and IL-10. These findings indicate that partial CD25+ cell depletion fails to enhance the effectiveness of the schistosome vaccine, possibly due to IL-10 production by CD4+CD25- T cells, or other cell types, after CD25+ cell depletion during vaccination. PMID:22802961

  8. Protective effect of Hibiscus sabdariffa against serum/glucose deprivation-induced PC12 cells injury

    PubMed Central

    Bakhtiari, Elham; Hosseini, Azar; Mousavi, Seyed Hadi

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Findings natural products with antioxidant and antiapoptotic properties has been one of the interesting challenges in the search for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases including ischemic stroke. Serum/glucose deprivation (SGD) has been used as a model for the understanding of the molecular mechanisms of neuronal damage during ischemia in vitro and for the expansion of neuroprotective drugs against ischemia-induced brain injury. Recent studies showed that Hibiscus sabdariffa exert pharmacological actions such as potent antioxidant. Therefore, in this study we investigated the protective effect of extract of H. sabdariffa against SGD-induced PC12 cells injury. Materials and Methods: Cells were pretreated with different concentrations of H. sabdariffa extract (HSE) for 2 hr, and then exposed to SGD condition for 6, 12 and 18 hr. Results: SGD caused a major reduction in cell viability after 6, 12, and 18 hr as compared with control cells (p< 0.001). Pretreatment with HSE (30-500 𝜇g/mL) significantly increased cell viability following SGD insult for 6, 12 and 18 hr. A significant increase in cell apoptosis was seen in cells under SGD condition after 12hr as compared with control cells (p< 0.001). Pretreatment with HSE significantly decreased cell apoptosis subsequent SGD conditionafter12hr at concentration of 60, 125 and 250. Conclusion: These data showed that HSE had a protective property under SGD condition in PC12 cells, suggesting that H. sabdariffa has the potential to be used as a new therapeutic approach for neurodegenerative disorders. PMID:26101756

  9. Lycium barbarum Polysaccharides Protect Human Lens Epithelial Cells against Oxidative Stress–Induced Apoptosis and Senescence

    PubMed Central

    Wen, Yuechun; Liu, Lian; Guo, Xiaoling; Hou, Guanghui; Wang, Guifang; Zhong, Jingxiang

    2014-01-01

    Objectives We aimed to investigate the protective effect of Lycium barbarum polysaccharides (LBPs) against oxidative stress–induced apoptosis and senescence in human lens epithelial cells. Methods To study apoptosis, SRA01/04 cells, a human lens epithelial cell lines, were exposed to 200 µM hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) for 24 h with or without pretreatment with LBPs. Cell viability was measured using a Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8) assay. Cell apoptosis, intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), and the loss of mitochondria membrane potential (Δψm) were detected by flow cytometric analyses. Expression levels of Bcl-2 and Bax proteins were measured by western blot analysis. The levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and glutathione (GSH) were quantized using commercial enzymatic kits according to the manufacturer's instructions. To study senescence, SRA01/04 cells were pre-incubated with LBPs and all cells were then exposed to 100 µM H2O2 for 96 h. Cellular senescence was assessed by morphologic examination and senescence-associated β-galactosidase (SA-β-gal) staining. Results LBPs significantly reduced H2O2-induced cell apoptosis, the generation of ROS, the loss of Δψm, and the levels of MDA. LBPs also inhibited H2O2-induced downregulated Bcl-2 and upregulated Bax proteins and increased the levels of SOD and GSH enzyme activity. Moreover, LBPs significantly attenuated H2O2-induced cellular senescence. Conclusions These findings suggested that LBPs protect human lens epithelial cells from H2O2-induced apoptosis by modulating the generation of ROS, loss of Δψm, Bcl-2 family, and antioxidant enzyme activity and attenuating cellular senescence. PMID:25333784

  10. Protection from type 1 diabetes by invariant NK T cells requires the activity of CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells.

    PubMed

    Ly, Dalam; Mi, Qing-Sheng; Hussain, Shabbir; Delovitch, Terry L

    2006-09-15

    Invariant NK T (iNKT) cells regulate immune responses, express NK cell markers and an invariant TCR, and recognize lipid Ags in a CD1d-restricted manner. Previously, we reported that activation of iNKT cells by alpha-galactosylceramide (alpha-GalCer) protects against type 1 diabetes (T1D) in NOD mice via an IL-4-dependent mechanism. To further investigate how iNKT cells protect from T1D, we analyzed whether iNKT cells require the presence of another subset(s) of regulatory T cells (Treg), such as CD4+ CD25+ Treg, for this protection. We found that CD4+ CD25+ T cells from NOD.CD1d(-/-) mice deficient in iNKT cell function similarly in vitro to CD4+ CD25+ T cells from wild-type NOD mice and suppress the proliferation of NOD T responder cells upon alpha-GalCer stimulation. Cotransfer of NOD diabetogenic T cells with CD4+ CD25+ Tregs from NOD mice pretreated with alpha-GalCer demonstrated that activated iNKT cells do not influence the ability of T(regs) to inhibit the transfer of T1D. In contrast, protection from T1D mediated by transfer of activated iNKT cells requires the activity of CD4+ CD25+ T cells, because splenocytes pretreated with alpha-GalCer and then inactivated by anti-CD25 of CD25+ cells did not protect from T1D. Similarly, mice inactivated of CD4+ CD25+ T cells before alpha-GalCer treatment were also not protected from T1D. Our data suggest that CD4+ CD25+ T cells retain their function during iNKT cell activation, and that the activity of CD4+ CD25+ Tregs is required for iNKT cells to transfer protection from T1D.

  11. Fermented Chinese Formula Shuan-Tong-Ling Protects Brain Microvascular Endothelial Cells against Oxidative Stress Injury

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Lingjing; Zhang, Xiang; Wang, Jinfeng; Li, Xiaoli; Huang, Weifeng; Yang, Songbai

    2016-01-01

    Fermented Chinese formula Shuan-Tong-Ling (STL), composed of fourteen medicinal herbs, was an experiential formula by Dr. Zhigang Mei for treating vascular encephalopathy, but the underlying mechanisms remained unknown. In this study, we aimed to investigate the protective effects of fermented STL on hydrogen peroxide- (H2O2-) induced injury in rat brain microvascular endothelial cells (BMECs) and the possible mechanisms. Cultured BMECs were treated with H2O2, STL, or nicotinamide (NAM, a SIRT1 inhibitor). Then, 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay was employed to detect cell proliferation and senescence-associated beta-galactosidase (SA-β-gal) was used to examine cell senescence. Cell nuclei were observed by 4′,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole. Additionally, changes in reactive oxygen species (ROS), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and glutathione (GSH) levels were measured. Expression of SIRT1, p21, and PGC-1α was determined by western blot. Cell proliferation significantly increased with STL treatment in a dose-dependent manner. H2O2 treatment could intensify cell senescence and nuclei splitting or pyknosis. With STL treatment, the reduced ROS level was accompanied by increased SOD and GSH activity. Further assays showed upregulation of SIRT1 and PGC-1α and downregulation of p21 after STL treatment. The results revealed that STL could protect BMECs against oxidative stress injury at least partially through the SIRT1 pathway. PMID:28096886

  12. Surface-modified particles loaded with CaMKII inhibitor protect cardiac cells against mitochondrial injury.

    PubMed

    Wongrakpanich, Amaraporn; Morris, Angie S; Geary, Sean M; Joiner, Mei-Ling A; Salem, Aliasger K

    2017-03-30

    An excess of calcium (Ca(2+)) influx into mitochondria during mitochondrial re-energization is one of the causes of myocardial cell death during ischemic/reperfusion injury. This overload of Ca(2+) triggers the mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP) opening which leads to programmed cell death. During the ischemic/reperfusion stage, the activated Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) enzyme is responsible for Ca(2+) influx. To reduce CaMKII-related cell death, sub-micron particles composed of poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA), loaded with a CaMKII inhibitor peptide were fabricated. The CaMKII inhibitor peptide-loaded (CIP) particles were coated with a mitochondria targeting moiety, triphenylphosphonium cation (TPP), which allowed the particles to accumulate and release the peptide inside mitochondria to inhibit CaMKII activity. The fluorescently labeled TPP-CIP was taken up by mitochondria and successfully reduced reactive oxygen species (ROS) caused by Isoprenaline (ISO) in a differentiated rat cardiomyocyte-like cell line. When cells were treated with TPP-CIP prior to ISO exposure, they maintained mitochondrial membrane potential. The TPP-CIP protected cells from ISO-induced ROS production and decreased mitochondrial membrane potential. Thus, TPP-CIP has the potential to be used in protection against ischemia/reperfusion injury.

  13. Protective effect of wheat peptides against indomethacin-induced oxidative stress in IEC-6 cells.

    PubMed

    Yin, Hong; Pan, Xingchang; Song, Zhixiu; Wang, Shaokang; Yang, Ligang; Sun, Guiju

    2014-01-29

    Recent studies have demonstrated that wheat peptides protected rats against non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs-induced small intestinal epithelial cells damage, but the mechanism of action is unclear. In the present study, an indomethacin-induced oxidative stress model was used to investigate the effect of wheat peptides on the nuclear factor-κB(NF-κB)-inducible nitric oxide synthase-nitric oxide signal pathway in intestinal epithelial cells-6 cells. IEC-6 cells were treated with wheat peptides (0, 125, 500 and 2000 mg/L) for 24 h, followed by 90 mg/L indomethacin for 12 h. Wheat peptides significantly attenuated the indomethacin-induced decrease in superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase activity. Wheat peptides at 2000 mg/L markedly decreased the expression of the NF-κB in response to indomethacin-induced oxidative stress. This study demonstrated that the addition of wheat peptides to a culture medium significantly inhibited the indomethacin-induced release of malondialdehyde and nitrogen monoxide, and increased antioxidant enzyme activity in IEC-6 cells, thereby providing a possible explanation for the protective effect proposed for wheat peptides in the prevention of indomethacin-induced oxidative stress in small intestinal epithelial cells.

  14. IL-10/TGF-beta-modified macrophages induce regulatory T cells and protect against adriamycin nephrosis.

    PubMed

    Cao, Qi; Wang, Yiping; Zheng, Dong; Sun, Yan; Wang, Ya; Lee, Vincent W S; Zheng, Guoping; Tan, Thian Kui; Ince, Jon; Alexander, Stephen I; Harris, David C H

    2010-06-01

    IL-10/TGF-beta-modified macrophages, a subset of activated macrophages, produce anti-inflammatory cytokines, suggesting that they may protect against inflammation-mediated injury. Here, macrophages modified ex vivo by IL-10/TGF-beta (IL-10/TGF-beta Mu2) significantly attenuated renal inflammation, structural injury, and functional decline in murine adriamycin nephrosis (AN). These cells deactivated effector macrophages and inhibited CD4+ T cell proliferation. IL-10/TGF-beta Mu2 expressed high levels of the regulatory co-stimulatory molecule B7-H4, induced regulatory T cells from CD4+CD25- T cells in vitro, and increased the number of regulatory T cells in lymph nodes draining the kidneys in AN. The phenotype of IL-10/TGF-beta Mu2 did not switch to that of effector macrophages in the inflamed kidney, and these cells did not promote fibrosis. Taken together, these data demonstrate that IL-10/TGF-beta-modified macrophages effectively protect against renal injury in AN and may become part of a therapeutic strategy for chronic inflammatory disease.

  15. Protective effects of salidroside on endothelial cell apoptosis induced by cobalt chloride.

    PubMed

    Tan, Chu-Bing; Gao, Mei; Xu, Wei-Ren; Yang, Xiu-Ying; Zhu, Xiao-Ming; Du, Guan-Hua

    2009-08-01

    Salidroside is a major constituent of Rhodiola rosea L. that elicits beneficial effects for ischemic cardiovascular diseases. The aim of this study was to investigate the protective effects of salidroside on endothelial cells apoptosis induced by the hypoxia mimicking agent, cobalt chloride. After challenge with cobalt chloride for 24 h, loss of cell viability and excessive apoptotic cell death were observed in EA.hy926 endothelial cells, and the level of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) increased concentration-dependently. However, the endothelial cell apoptosis and excessive ROS generation were attenuated markedly by salidroside pretreatment. In addition, salidroside inhibited activation of caspase-3 and cleavage of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) induced by cobalt chloride, decreased expression of Bax and rescued the balance of pro- and anti-apoptotic proteins. These findings suggest that salidroside protects endothelial cells from cobalt chloride-induced apoptosis as an antioxidant and by regulating Bcl-2 family. Salidroside may represent a novel therapeutic agent for the treatment and prevention of hypoxia and oxidative stress-related diseases.

  16. BDNF/TrkB signaling protects HT-29 human colon cancer cells from EGFR inhibition

    SciTech Connect

    Brunetto de Farias, Caroline; Heinen, Tiago Elias; Pereira dos Santos, Rafael; Abujamra, Ana Lucia; Schwartsmann, Gilberto; and others

    2012-08-24

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer BDNF protected HT-29 colorectal cancer cells from the antitumor effect of cetuximab. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer TrkB inhibition potentiated the antitumor effect of cetuximab. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer BDNF/TrkB signaling might be involved in resistance to anti-EGFR therapy. -- Abstract: The clinical success of targeted treatment of colorectal cancer (CRC) is often limited by resistance to anti-epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) therapy. The neurotrophin brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and its receptor TrkB have recently emerged as anticancer targets, and we have previously shown increased BDNF levels in CRC tumor samples. Here we report the findings from in vitro experiments suggesting that BDNF/TrkB signaling can protect CRC cells from the antitumor effects of EGFR blockade. The anti-EGFR monoclonal antibody cetuximab reduced both cell proliferation and the mRNA expression of BDNF and TrkB in human HT-29 CRC cells. The inhibitory effect of cetuximab on cell proliferation and survival was counteracted by the addition of human recombinant BDNF. Finally, the Trk inhibitor K252a synergistically enhanced the effect of cetuximab on cell proliferation, and this effect was blocked by BDNF. These results provide the first evidence that increased BDNF/TrkB signaling might play a role in resistance to EGFR blockade. Moreover, it is possible that targeting TrkB could potentiate the anticancer effects of anti-EGFR therapy.

  17. Mammary stem cells and parity-induced breast cancer protection- new insights.

    PubMed

    Dall, Genevieve; Risbridger, Gail; Britt, Kara

    2016-02-22

    Parity (childbearing) significantly decreases a woman's risk of breast cancer and the protective effect is greater if the woman is younger and has more children. The mechanism/s of parity-induced protection are not known. Although several factors are postulated to play a role, we discuss how a reduction in the number of mammary stem cells (MaSCs) may lead to a reduction in breast cancer risk in parous women. Firstly we review the epidemiology linking childbearing to reduced breast cancer risk and discuss how additional births, a young age at first full term birth, and breastfeeding impact the protection. We then detail the mouse and human studies implicating MaSC in parity induced protection and the in-vivo work being performed in mice to directly investigate the effect of parity on MaSC. Finally we discuss the transplant and lineage tracing experiments assessing MaSC activity according to parity and the need to define if MaSC are indeed more carcinogen sensitive than mature mammary epithelial cells. Continuing and future studies attempting to define the parity induced mechanisms will aid in the development of preventative therapies.

  18. Effect of culture age, protectants, and initial cell concentration on viability of freeze-dried cells of Metschnikowia pulcherrima.

    PubMed

    Spadaro, Davide; Ciavorella, Annalisa Alessandra; Lopez-Reyes, Jorge Giovanny; Garibaldi, Angelo; Gullino, Maria Lodovica

    2010-10-01

    The effect of freeze-drying using different lyoprotectants at different concentrations on the viability and biocontrol efficacy of Metschnikowia pulcherrima was evaluated. The effects of initial yeast cell concentration and culture age on viability were also considered. Yeast cells grown for 36 h were more resistant to freeze-drying than were 48 h cells. An initial concentration of 10⁸ cells·mL⁻¹ favoured the highest survival after freeze-drying. When maltose (25%, m/v) was used as protectant, a high cell viability was obtained (64.2%). Cells maintained a high viability after 6 months of storage at 4 °C. The biocontrol efficacy of freeze-dried cells was similar to the activity of fresh cells on 'Gala' apples and was slightly lower on 'Golden Delicious' apples. After optimizing freeze-drying conditions, the viability of M. pulcherrima cells was similar to that obtained in other studies. The results constitute a first step towards the commercial development of M. pulcherrima as a biocontrol agent.

  19. NLRP3 protects alveolar barrier integrity by an inflammasome-independent increase of epithelial cell adherence

    PubMed Central

    Kostadinova, Elena; Chaput, Catherine; Gutbier, Birgitt; Lippmann, Juliane; Sander, Leif E.; Mitchell, Timothy J.; Suttorp, Norbert; Witzenrath, Martin; Opitz, Bastian

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial pneumonia is a major cause of acute lung injury and acute respiratory distress syndrome, characterized by alveolar barrier disruption. NLRP3 is best known for its ability to form inflammasomes and to regulate IL-1β and IL-18 production in myeloid cells. Here we show that NLRP3 protects the integrity of the alveolar barrier in a mouse model of Streptococcus pneumoniae-induced pneumonia, and ex vivo upon treatment of isolated perfused and ventilated lungs with the purified bacterial toxin, pneumolysin. We reveal that the preserving effect of NLRP3 on the lung barrier is independent of inflammasomes, IL-1β and IL-18. NLRP3 improves the integrity of alveolar epithelial cell monolayers by enhancing cellular adherence. Collectively, our study uncovers a novel function of NLRP3 by demonstrating that it protects epithelial barrier function independently of inflammasomes. PMID:27476670

  20. Glucosamine protects nucleus pulposus cells and induces autophagy via the mTOR-dependent pathway.

    PubMed

    Jiang, LiBo; Jin, YongLong; Wang, HuiRen; Jiang, YunQi; Dong, Jian

    2014-11-01

    Although glucosamine has been suggested to be effective in the treatment of osteoarthritis, its effect on disc degeneration remains unclear. We sought to explore whether glucosamine can activate autophagy in rat nucleus pulposus (NP) cells and protect cells treated with IL-1β or hydrogen peroxide (H2 O2 ). Autophagy in cells was examined by detecting for LC3, Beclin-1, m-TOR, and p70S6K, as well as by analyzing autophagosomes. To inhibit autophagy, 3-methyladenine (3-MA) was used. In the cells treated with IL-1β, the levels of Adamts-4, Mmp-13, aggrecan, and Col2a1 were analyzed by real-time PCR and immunofluorescence. Apoptosis was analyzed by TUNEL. Cell senescence under H2 O2 was revealed by SA-β-Gal staining. Glucosamine could activate autophagy in a dose-dependent manner within 24 h and inhibit the phosphorylation of m-TOR and p70S6K. Autophagy in IL-1β or H2 O2 -treated cells was increased by glucosamine. Glucosamine attenuated the decrease of aggrecan and prevented the apoptosis of the NP cells induced by IL-1β, whereas 3-MA partly reversed these effects. The percentage of SA-β-Gal-positive cells induced by H2 O2 treatment was decreased by glucosamine, accompanied by the decline of p70S6K phosphorylation. Glucosamine protects NP cells and up-regulates autophagy by inhibiting the m-TOR pathway, which might point a potential therapeutic agent for disc degeneration.

  1. STAT3 modulates β-cell cycling in injured mouse pancreas and protects against DNA damage

    PubMed Central

    De Groef, S; Renmans, D; Cai, Y; Leuckx, G; Roels, S; Staels, W; Gradwohl, G; Baeyens, L; Heremans, Y; Martens, G A; De Leu, N; Sojoodi, M; Van de Casteele, M; Heimberg, H

    2016-01-01

    Partial pancreatic duct ligation (PDL) of mouse pancreas induces a doubling of the β-cell mass mainly through proliferation of pre-existing and newly formed β-cells. The molecular mechanism governing this process is still largely unknown. Given the inflammatory nature of PDL and inflammation-induced signaling via the signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3), the activation and the role of STAT3 in PDL-induced β-cell proliferation were investigated. Duct ligation stimulates the expression of several cytokines that can act as ligands inducing STAT3 signaling and phosphorylation in β-cells. β-Cell cycling increased by conditional β-cell-specific Stat3 knockout and decreased by STAT3 activation through administration of interleukin-6. In addition, the level of DNA damage in β-cells of PDL pancreas increased after deletion of Stat3. These data indicate a role for STAT3 in maintaining a steady state in the β-cell, by modulating its cell cycle and protection from DNA damage. PMID:27336716

  2. MHCII-independent CD4+ T cells protect injured CNS neurons via IL-4.

    PubMed

    Walsh, James T; Hendrix, Sven; Boato, Francesco; Smirnov, Igor; Zheng, Jingjing; Lukens, John R; Gadani, Sachin; Hechler, Daniel; Gölz, Greta; Rosenberger, Karen; Kammertöns, Thomas; Vogt, Johannes; Vogelaar, Christina; Siffrin, Volker; Radjavi, Ali; Fernandez-Castaneda, Anthony; Gaultier, Alban; Gold, Ralf; Kanneganti, Thirumala-Devi; Nitsch, Robert; Zipp, Frauke; Kipnis, Jonathan

    2015-02-01

    A body of experimental evidence suggests that T cells mediate neuroprotection following CNS injury; however, the antigen specificity of these T cells and how they mediate neuroprotection are unknown. Here, we have provided evidence that T cell-mediated neuroprotection after CNS injury can occur independently of major histocompatibility class II (MHCII) signaling to T cell receptors (TCRs). Using two murine models of CNS injury, we determined that damage-associated molecular mediators that originate from injured CNS tissue induce a population of neuroprotective, IL-4-producing T cells in an antigen-independent fashion. Compared with wild-type mice, IL-4-deficient animals had decreased functional recovery following CNS injury; however, transfer of CD4+ T cells from wild-type mice, but not from IL-4-deficient mice, enhanced neuronal survival. Using a culture-based system, we determined that T cell-derived IL-4 protects and induces recovery of injured neurons by activation of neuronal IL-4 receptors, which potentiated neurotrophin signaling via the AKT and MAPK pathways. Together, these findings demonstrate that damage-associated molecules from the injured CNS induce a neuroprotective T cell response that is independent of MHCII/TCR interactions and is MyD88 dependent. Moreover, our results indicate that IL-4 mediates neuroprotection and recovery of the injured CNS and suggest that strategies to enhance IL-4-producing CD4+ T cells have potential to attenuate axonal damage in the course of CNS injury in trauma, inflammation, or neurodegeneration.

  3. Toxicity induced by cumene hydroperoxide in PC12 cells: protective role of thiol donors.

    PubMed

    Vimard, F; Saucet, M; Nicole, O; Feuilloley, M; Duval, D

    2011-01-01

    Oxidative shock and production of reactive oxygen species are known to play a major role in situations leading to neuron degeneration, but the precise mechanisms responsible for cell degeneration remain uncertain. In the present article, we have studied in PC 12 cells the effect of cumene hydroxyperoxide on both cell metabolism and morphology. We observed that relatively low concentrations of the drug (100 μM) led to a significant decrease in the cellular content of ATP and reduced glutathione as well as to a decreased mitochondrial potential. These metabolic alterations were followed by an important increase in intracellular free calcium and membrane disruption and death. In parallel, we observed profound changes in cell morphology with a shortening of cell extensions, the formation of ruffles and blebs at the cell surface, and a progressive detachment of the cells from the surface of the culture flasks. We also showed that addition of thiol donors such as N-acetylcysteine or β-mercaptoethanol, which were able to enhance cell glutathione content, almost completely protected PC 12 cells from the toxic action of cumene hydroperoxide whereas pretreatment by buthionine sulfoximine, a selective inhibitor of GSH synthesis, enhanced its action.

  4. Protection against ethanol injury by prostaglandin in a human intestinal cell line: role of microtubules.

    PubMed

    Banan, A; Smith, G S; Rieckenberg, C L; Kokoska, E R; Miller, T A

    1998-01-01

    Prostaglandins have been shown to protect the gastrointestinal (GI) epithelium from injury induced by various luminal insults independent of their known acid-inhibitory effects, a process termed "cytoprotection." The mechanism of this protective action remains unknown. The present investigation determined the role of microtubules (a major cytoskeletal component) in GI injury induced by ethanol (EtOH) and its prevention by 16,16-dimethylprostaglandin E2 (dmPGE2) using cells from a human colonic cell line known as Caco-2 cells. These cells were preincubated in Eagle's minimum essential medium with and without dmPGE2 (2.6 microM) for 15 min and subsequently incubated in media containing 1, 2.5, 5, 7.5, and 10% EtOH. The effects on cell viability and tubulin (the major protein backbone of microtubules) were then determined. EtOH concentrations > or = 2.5% extensively disrupted the microtubules as demonstrated by fragmentation, kinking, and perturbation of the microtubule organizer center. EtOH treatment also led to a significant decrease in the S2 (polymerized) fraction and an increase in the S1 (monomeric) pool of tubulin. Concomitant with these effects were marked decreases in cellular viability. DmPGE2 pretreatment abolished the disruption of microtubules, significantly increased the S2 fraction of tubulin, and increased cellular viability in cultures exposed to EtOH. Furthermore, pretreatment with colchicine, an inhibitor of microtubule assembly, prevented the cytoprotective action of dmPGE2. Taxol, a microtubule stabilizing agent, mimicked the effects of dmPGE2 by also enhancing microtubule integrity and increasing cellular viability in cells exposed to EtOH. Our data indicate that organization and stabilization of microtubules may play an essential role in the mechanism of prostaglandin-induced protection.

  5. Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 Regulates Cholecystokinin Production in β-Cells to Protect From Apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Linnemann, Amelia K; Neuman, Joshua C; Battiola, Therese J; Wisinski, Jaclyn A; Kimple, Michelle E; Davis, Dawn Belt

    2015-07-01

    Cholecystokinin (CCK) is a classic gut hormone that is also expressed in the pancreatic islet, where it is highly up-regulated with obesity. Loss of CCK results in increased β-cell apoptosis in obese mice. Similarly, islet α-cells produce increased amounts of another gut peptide, glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1), in response to cytokine and nutrient stimulation. GLP-1 also protects β-cells from apoptosis via cAMP-mediated mechanisms. Therefore, we hypothesized that the activation of islet-derived CCK and GLP-1 may be linked. We show here that both human and mouse islets secrete active GLP-1 as a function of body mass index/obesity. Furthermore, GLP-1 can rapidly stimulate β-cell CCK production and secretion through direct targeting by the cAMP-modulated transcription factor, cAMP response element binding protein (CREB). We find that cAMP-mediated signaling is required for Cck expression, but CCK regulation by cAMP does not require stimulatory levels of glucose or insulin secretion. We also show that CREB directly targets the Cck promoter in islets from obese (Leptin(ob/ob)) mice. Finally, we demonstrate that the ability of GLP-1 to protect β-cells from cytokine-induced apoptosis is partially dependent on CCK receptor signaling. Taken together, our work suggests that in obesity, active GLP-1 produced in the islet stimulates CCK production and secretion in a paracrine manner via cAMP and CREB. This intraislet incretin loop may be one mechanism whereby GLP-1 protects β-cells from apoptosis.

  6. Role of Natural Killer Cells in Innate Protection Against Lethal Ebola Virus Infection

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Cells Protect against Lethal Ebola Virus Infection174 Several viruses , including human cytomegalovirus, HIV, and Epstein-Barr virus replicate...with VRP-encoding Ebola VP40 blocked IFN- se- cretion induced by the VLPs, whereas control sera from mice vaccinated with a VRP encoding the Lassa virus ...encephalitis replicon particles expressing VP40 (VRP-VP40), or Lassa virus N (VRP- Lassa ), were preincubated for 1 h on ice with 10 g of VLPs

  7. Myeloid-derived suppressor cells help protective immunity to Leishmania major infection despite suppressed T cell responses.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Wânia F; Ribeiro-Gomes, Flávia L; Guillermo, Landi V Costilla; Vellozo, Natália S; Montalvão, Fabrício; Dosreis, George A; Lopes, Marcela F

    2011-12-01

    Th1/Th2 cytokines play a key role in immune responses to Leishmania major by controlling macrophage activation for NO production and parasite killing. MDSCs, including myeloid precursors and immature monocytes, produce NO and suppress T cell responses in tumor immunity. We hypothesized that NO-producing MDSCs could help immunity to L. major infection. Gr1(hi)(Ly6C(hi)) CD11b(hi) MDSCs elicited by L. major infection suppressed polyclonal and antigen-specific T cell proliferation. Moreover, L. major-induced MDSCs killed intracellular parasites in a NO-dependent manner and reduced parasite burden in vivo. By contrast, treatment with ATRA, which induces MDSCs to differentiate into macrophages, increased development of lesions, parasite load, and T cell proliferation in draining LNs. Altogether, these results indicate that NO-producing MDSCs help protective immunity to L. major infection, despite suppressed T cell proliferation.

  8. Glutathione transferase mu 2 protects glioblastoma cells against aminochrome toxicity by preventing autophagy and lysosome dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Huenchuguala, Sandro; Muñoz, Patricia; Zavala, Patricio; Villa, Mónica; Cuevas, Carlos; Ahumada, Ulises; Graumann, Rebecca; Nore, Beston F; Couve, Eduardo; Mannervik, Bengt; Paris, Irmgard; Segura-Aguilar, Juan

    2014-04-01

    U373MG cells constitutively express glutathione S-transferase mu 2 (GSTM2) and exhibit (3)H-dopamine uptake, which is inhibited by 2 µM of nomifensine and 15 µM of estradiol. We generated a stable cell line (U373MGsiGST6) expressing an siRNA against GSTM2 that resulted in low GSTM2 expression (26% of wild-type U373MG cells). A significant increase in cell death was observed when U373MGsiGST6 cells were incubated with 50 µM purified aminochrome (18-fold increase) compared with wild-type cells. The incubation of U373MGsiGST6 cells with 75 µM aminochrome resulted in the formation of autophagic vacuoles containing undigested cellular components, as determined using transmission electron microscopy. A significant increase in autophagosomes was determined by measuring endogenous LC3-II, a significant decrease in cell death was observed in the presence of bafilomycin A 1, and a significant increase in cell death was observed in the presence of trehalose. A significant increase in LAMP2 immunostaining was observed, a significant decrease in bright red fluorescence of lysosomes with acridine orange was observed, and bafilomycin A 1 pretreatment reduced the loss of lysosome acidity. A significant increase in cell death was observed in the presence of lysosomal protease inhibitors. Aggregation of TUBA/α-tubulin (tubulin, α) and SQSTM1 protein accumulation were also observed. Moreover, a significant increase in the number of lipids droplets was observed compared with U373MG cells with normal expression of GSTM2. These results support the notion that GSTM2 is a protective enzyme against aminochrome toxicity in astrocytes and that aminochrome cell death in U373MGsiGST6 cells involves autophagic-lysosomal dysfunction.

  9. Glutathione transferase mu 2 protects glioblastoma cells against aminochrome toxicity by preventing autophagy and lysosome dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Huenchuguala, Sandro; Muñoz, Patricia; Zavala, Patricio; Villa, Mónica; Cuevas, Carlos; Ahumada, Ulises; Graumann, Rebecca; Nore, Beston F; Couve, Eduardo; Mannervik, Bengt; Paris, Irmgard; Segura-Aguilar, Juan

    2014-01-01

    U373MG cells constitutively express glutathione S-transferase mu 2 (GSTM2) and exhibit 3H-dopamine uptake, which is inhibited by 2 µM of nomifensine and 15 µM of estradiol. We generated a stable cell line (U373MGsiGST6) expressing an siRNA against GSTM2 that resulted in low GSTM2 expression (26% of wild-type U373MG cells). A significant increase in cell death was observed when U373MGsiGST6 cells were incubated with 50 µM purified aminochrome (18-fold increase) compared with wild-type cells. The incubation of U373MGsiGST6 cells with 75 µM aminochrome resulted in the formation of autophagic vacuoles containing undigested cellular components, as determined using transmission electron microscopy. A significant increase in autophagosomes was determined by measuring endogenous LC3-II, a significant decrease in cell death was observed in the presence of bafilomycin A1, and a significant increase in cell death was observed in the presence of trehalose. A significant increase in LAMP2 immunostaining was observed, a significant decrease in bright red fluorescence of lysosomes with acridine orange was observed, and bafilomycin A1 pretreatment reduced the loss of lysosome acidity. A significant increase in cell death was observed in the presence of lysosomal protease inhibitors. Aggregation of TUBA/α-tubulin (tubulin, α) and SQSTM1 protein accumulation were also observed. Moreover, a significant increase in the number of lipids droplets was observed compared with U373MG cells with normal expression of GSTM2. These results support the notion that GSTM2 is a protective enzyme against aminochrome toxicity in astrocytes and that aminochrome cell death in U373MGsiGST6 cells involves autophagic-lysosomal dysfunction. PMID:24434817

  10. A protective role for dengue virus-specific CD8+ T cells.

    PubMed

    Yauch, Lauren E; Zellweger, Raphaël M; Kotturi, Maya F; Qutubuddin, Afrina; Sidney, John; Peters, Bjoern; Prestwood, Tyler R; Sette, Alessandro; Shresta, Sujan

    2009-04-15

    Infection with one of the four serotypes of dengue virus (DENV1-4) can result in a range of clinical manifestations in humans, from dengue fever to the more serious dengue hemorrhagic fever/dengue shock syndrome. Although T cells have been implicated in the immunopathogenesis of secondary infections with heterologous DENV serotypes, the role of T cells in protection against DENV is unknown. In this study, we used a mouse-passaged DENV2 strain, S221, to investigate the role of CD8(+) T cells in the immune response to primary DENV infection. S221 did not replicate well in wild-type mice, but did induce a CD8(+) T cell response, whereas viral replication and a robust CD8(+) T cell response were observed after infection of IFN-alpha/betaR(-/-) mice. Depletion of CD8(+) T cells from IFN-alpha/betaR(-/-) mice before infection resulted in significantly higher viral loads compared with undepleted mice. Mapping the specificity of the CD8(+) T cell response led to the identification of 12 epitopes derived from 6 of the 10 DENV proteins, with a similar immunodominance hierarchy observed in wild-type and IFN-alpha/betaR(-/-) mice. DENV-specific CD8(+) T cells produced IFN-gamma, TNF-alpha, expressed cell surface CD107a, and exhibited cytotoxic activity in vivo. Finally, immunization with four of the immunodominant CD8(+) T cell epitopes enhanced viral clearance. Collectively, our results reveal an important role for CD8(+) T cells in the host defense against DENV and demonstrate that the anti-DENV CD8(+) T cell response can be enhanced by immunization, providing rationale for designing DENV-specific vaccines that induce cell-mediated immunity.

  11. Nasal Vaccination Stimulates CD8+ T Cells for Potent Protection Against Mucosal Brucella melitensis Challenge

    PubMed Central

    Clapp, Beata; Yang, Xinghong; Thornburg, Theresa; Walters, Nancy; Pascual, David W.

    2016-01-01

    Brucellosis remains a significant zoonotic threat worldwide. Humans and animals acquire infection via their oropharynx and upper respiratory tract following oral or aerosol exposure. After mucosal infection, brucellosis develops into a systemic disease. Mucosal vaccination could offer a viable alternative to conventional injection practices to deter disease. Using a nasal vaccination approach, the ΔznuA B. melitensis was found to confer potent protection against pulmonary Brucella challenge, and reduce colonization of spleens and lungs by more than 2500-fold, with more than 50% of vaccinated mice showing no detectable brucellae. Furthermore, tenfold more brucellae-specific, IFN-γ-producing CD8+ T cells than CD4+ T cells were induced in the spleen and respiratory lymph nodes. Evaluation of pulmonary and splenic CD8+ T cells from mice vaccinated with ΔznuA B. melitensis revealed that these expressed an activated effector memory (CD44hiCD62LloCCR7lo) T cells producing elevated levels of IFN-γ, TNF-α, perforin, and granzyme B. To assess the relative importance of these increased numbers of CD8+ T cells, CD8−/− mice were challenged with virulent B. melitensis, and they showed markedly increased bacterial loads in organs in contrast to similarly challenged CD4−/− mice. Only ΔznuA B. melitensis- and Rev-1-vaccinated CD4−/− and wild-type mice, not CD8−/− mice, were completely protected against Brucella challenge. Determination of cytokines responsible for conferring protection showed the relative importance of IFN-γ, but not IL-17. Unlike wild-type mice, IL-17 was greatly induced in IFN-γ−/− mice, but IL-17 could not substitute for IFN-γ’s protection, although an increase in brucellae dissemination was observed upon in vivo IL-17 neutralization. These results show that nasal ΔznuA B. melitensis vaccination represents an attractive means to stimulate systemic and mucosal immune protection via CD8+ T cell engagement. PMID:26752510

  12. An evaluation of anti-oxidative protection for cells against atmospheric pressure cold plasma treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Ma Ruonan; Zhang Qian; Feng Hongqing; Liang Yongdong; Li Fangting; Zhu Weidong; Zhang Jue; Fang Jing; Becker, Kurt H.

    2012-03-19

    With the development of plasma medicine, safety issues are emerging as a serious concern. In this study, both intracellular (genetic engineering) and extracellular (scavengers) measures were tested in an effort to determine the best protection for cells against plasma-induced oxidative stress. All results of immediate reactive species detection, short term survival and long term proliferation, suggest that intracellular pathways are superior in reducing oxidative stress and cell death. This work provides a potential mechanism to enhance safety and identifies precautionary measures that should be taken in future clinical applications of plasmas.

  13. Use of "excess" human embryos for stem cell research: protecting women's rights and health.

    PubMed

    Cohen, C B

    2000-01-01

    Proposed National Institutes of Health guidelines for stem cell research are too narrowly drawn and do not adequately protect the freedom of choice and health of women who donate embryos. They need to be expanded to cover not only the point of embryo donation, but also that of embryo creation. Guidelines are provided to ensure that donors undergoing hyperstimulation and egg retrieval gave voluntary informed consent to the production of embryos that might later prove in excess. A standard for determining when embryos have been overproduced is presented to address the possibility that additional embryos will be created for stem cell research in violation of the guidelines and at risk to women's health.

  14. Hydroxysafflor yellow A protects methylglyoxal-induced injury in the cultured human brain microvascular endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Wenlu; Liu, Jie; He, Ping; Ni, Zhenzhen; Hu, Yangmin; Xu, Huimin; Dai, Haibin

    2013-08-09

    Individuals with diabetes have high concentration of methylglyoxal (MGO) and have advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) which play an important role in vascular complications, such as stroke. Our previous data demonstrated that hydroxysafflor yellow A (HSYA), a major active chemical component of the safflower yellow pigment, had antiglycation effect on the AGEs formation in vitro. It is not known whether HSYA can protect against MGO-induced injury in cultured human brain microvascular endothelial cells (HBMEC). Using cultured HBMEC, cell injury was measured by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) formation, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release and AnnexinV/PI staining. Advanced glycogen end-products and caspase-3 formation were measured by Western blotting. Incubation of MGO for 24h concentration-dependently induced HBMEC injury, which was protected by HSYA from 10 to 100 μmol/l. Caspase-3 expression and AnnexinV/PI staining illustrated that the protection of HSYA was probably associated with inhibiting cell apoptosis. What's more, MGO promoted AGEs accumulation in the cultured HBMEC, which was also inhibited by 100 μmol/l HSYA. Thus, our results proved that HSYA could inhibit MGO-induced injury in the cultured HBMEC, which was associated with its antiglycation effect.

  15. Neprilysin protects against cerebral amyloid angiopathy and Aβ-induced degeneration of cerebrovascular smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Miners, James Scott; Kehoe, Patrick; Love, Seth

    2011-09-01

    Neprilysin (NEP), which degrades amyloid-β (Aβ), is expressed by neurons and cerebrovascular smooth muscle cells (CVSMCs). NEP immunolabeling is reduced within cerebral blood vessels of Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients with cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA). We have now measured NEP enzyme activity in leptomeningeal and purified cerebral cortical blood vessel preparations from control and AD patients with and without CAA. Measurements were adjusted for smooth muscle actin (SMA) to control for variations in CVSMC content. NEP activity was reduced in CAA, in both controls and AD. In leptomeningeal vessels, NEP activity was related to APOE genotype, being highest in ε2-positive and lowest in ε4-positive brains. To assess the role of NEP in protecting CVSMCs from Aβ toxicity, we measured cell death in primary human adult CVSMCs exposed to Aβ(1-40) , Aβ(1-42) or Aβ(1-40(Dutch variant)) . Aβ(1-42) was most cytotoxic to CVSMCs. Aβ(1-42) -mediated cell death was increased following siRNA-mediated knockdown or thiorphan-mediated inhibition of NEP activity; conversely Aβ(1-42) -mediated cytotoxicity was reduced by the addition of somatostatin and NEP over-expression following transfection with NEP cDNA. Our findings suggest that NEP protects CVSMCs from Aβ toxicity and protects cerebral blood vessels from the development and complications of CAA.

  16. BRCA1-regulated RRM2 expression protects glioblastoma cells from endogenous replication stress and promotes tumorigenicity

    PubMed Central

    Rasmussen, Rikke D.; Gajjar, Madhavsai K.; Tuckova, Lucie; Jensen, Kamilla E.; Maya-Mendoza, Apolinar; Holst, Camilla B.; Møllgaard, Kjeld; Rasmussen, Jane S.; Brennum, Jannick; Bartek, Jiri; Syrucek, Martin; Sedlakova, Eva; Andersen, Klaus K.; Frederiksen, Marie H.; Bartek, Jiri; Hamerlik, Petra

    2016-01-01

    Oncogene-evoked replication stress (RS) fuels genomic instability in diverse cancer types. Here we report that BRCA1, traditionally regarded a tumour suppressor, plays an unexpected tumour-promoting role in glioblastoma (GBM), safeguarding a protective response to supraphysiological RS levels. Higher BRCA1 positivity is associated with shorter survival of glioma patients and the abrogation of BRCA1 function in GBM enhances RS, DNA damage (DD) accumulation and impairs tumour growth. Mechanistically, we identify a novel role of BRCA1 as a transcriptional co-activator of RRM2 (catalytic subunit of ribonucleotide reductase), whereby BRCA1-mediated RRM2 expression protects GBM cells from endogenous RS, DD and apoptosis. Notably, we show that treatment with a RRM2 inhibitor triapine reproduces the BRCA1-depletion GBM-repressive phenotypes and sensitizes GBM cells to PARP inhibition. We propose that GBM cells are addicted to the RS-protective role of the BRCA1-RRM2 axis, targeting of which may represent a novel paradigm for therapeutic intervention in GBM. PMID:27845331

  17. Encapsulation of mesenchymal stem cells by bioscaffolds protects cell survival and attenuates neuroinflammatory reaction in injured brain tissue after transplantation.

    PubMed

    Sarnowska, Anna; Jablonska, Anna; Jurga, Marcin; Dainiak, Maria; Strojek, Lukasz; Drela, Katarzyna; Wright, Kathleen; Tripathi, Anuj; Kumar, Ashok; Jungvid, Hans; Lukomska, Barbara; Forraz, Nico; McGuckin, Colin; Domanska-Janik, Krystyna

    2013-01-01

    Since the brain is naturally inefficient in regenerating functional tissue after injury or disease, novel restorative strategies including stem cell transplantation and tissue engineering have to be considered. We have investigated the use of such strategies in order to achieve better functional repair outcomes. One of the fundamental challenges of successful transplantation is the delivery of cells to the injured site while maintaining cell viability. Classical cell delivery methods of intravenous or intraparenchymal injections are plagued by low engraftment and poor survival of transplanted stem cells. Novel implantable devices such as 3D bioactive scaffolds can provide the physical and metabolic support required for successful progenitor cell engraftment, proliferation, and maturation. In this study, we performed in situ analysis of laminin-linked dextran and gelatin macroporous scaffolds. We revealed the protective action of gelatin-laminin (GL) scaffolds seeded with mesenchymal stem cells derived from donated human Wharton's jelly (hUCMSCs) against neuroinflammatory reactions of injured mammalian brain tissue. These bioscaffolds have been implanted into (i) intact and (ii) ischemic rat hippocampal organotypic slices and into the striatum of (iii) normal and (iv) focally injured brains of adult Wistar rats. We found that transplantation of hUCMSCs encapsulated in GL scaffolds had a significant impact on the prevention of glial scar formation (low glial acidic fibrillary protein) and in the reduction of neuroinflammation (low interleukin-6 and the microglial markers ED1 and Iba1) in the recipient tissue. Moreover, implantation of hUCMSCs encapsulated within GL scaffolds induced matrix metalloproteinase-2 and -9 proteolytic activities in the surrounding brain tissue. This facilitated scaffold biodegradation while leaving the remaining grafted hUCMSCs untouched. In conclusion, transplanting GL scaffolds preseeded with hUCMSCs into mammalian brain tissue escaped

  18. Antioxidant effect of angiotensin (1-7) in the protection of pancreatic β cell function

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Fen; Liu, Chang; Wang, Lei; Cao, Xi; Wang, Ying Ying; Yang, Jin Kui

    2016-01-01

    It is well known that the local renin-angiotensin system (RAS) is activated in the diabetic state, which results in an increase in the level of oxidative stress injury to pancreatic β cells. The angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2)/angiotensin (1-7) [Ang (1-7)]/Mas axis is a negative regulator of the classical renin-angiotensin system. In order to investigate the antioxidant effect of Ang (1-7) on pancreatic β cells, INS-1 cells were cultured and oxidative stress was induced by treatment with H2O2. Glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS), the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) and glucose-stimulated calcium (GSCa) responses in β cells were determined following treatment with Ang (1-7). It was observed that H2O2 significantly impaired the insulin secreting function, increased the production of ROS, and also decreased the levels of GSCa and MMP. Pre-treatment with Ang (1-7) alleviated these effects and treatment with A779 [antagonist of Ang (1-7)] prevented the effects of Ang (1-7). Based on these findings, it was concluded that Ang (1-7) can protect pancreatic β cells from oxidative injury and such protection can be blocked by its antagonist A779. PMID:27430410

  19. H2S protects against methionine-induced oxidative stress in brain endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Tyagi, Neetu; Moshal, Karni S; Sen, Utpal; Vacek, Thomas P; Kumar, Munish; Hughes, William M; Kundu, Soumi; Tyagi, Suresh C

    2009-01-01

    Homocysteine (Hcy) causes cerebrovascular dysfunction by inducing oxidative stress. However, to date, there are no strategies to prevent Hcy-induced oxidative damage. Hcy is an H2S precursor formed from methionine (Met) metabolism. We aimed to investigate whether H2S ameliorated Met-induced oxidative stress in mouse brain endothelial cells (bEnd3). The bEnd3 cells were exposed to Met treatment in the presence or absence of NaHS (donor of H2S). Met-induced cell toxicity increased the levels of free radicals in a concentration-dependent manner. Met increased NADPH-oxidase-4 (NOX-4) expression and mitigated thioredxion-1(Trx-1) expression. Pretreatment of bEnd3 with NaHS (0.05 mM) attenuated the production of free radicals in the presence of Met and protected the cells from oxidative damage. Furthermore, NaHS enhanced inhibitory effects of apocynin, N-acetyl-l-cysteine (NAC), reduced glutathione (GSH), catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), Nomega-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) on ROS production and redox enzymes levels induced by Met. In conclusion, the administration of H2S protected the cells from oxidative stress induced by hyperhomocysteinemia (HHcy), which suggested that NaHS/H2S may have therapeutic potential against Met-induced oxidative stress.

  20. Edaravone protects osteoblastic cells from dexamethasone through inhibiting oxidative stress and mPTP opening.

    PubMed

    Sun, Wen-xiao; Zheng, Hai-ya; Lan, Jun

    2015-11-01

    Existing evidences have emphasized an important role of oxidative stress in dexamethasone (Dex)-induced osteoblastic cell damages. Here, we investigated the possible anti-Dex activity of edaravone in osteoblastic cells, and studied the underlying mechanisms. We showed that edaravone dose-dependently attenuated Dex-induced death and apoptosis of established human or murine osteoblastic cells. Further, Dex-mediated damages to primary murine osteoblasts were also alleviated by edaravone. In osteoblastic cells/osteoblasts, Dex induced significant oxidative stresses, tested by increased levels of reactive oxygen species and lipid peroxidation, which were remarkably inhibited by edaravone. Meanwhile, edaravone repressed Dex-induced mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP) opening, or mitochondrial membrane potential reduction, in osteoblastic cells/osteoblasts. Significantly, edaravone-induced osteoblast-protective activity against Dex was alleviated with mPTP inhibition through cyclosporin A or cyclophilin-D siRNA. Together, we demonstrate that edaravone protects osteoblasts from Dex-induced damages probably through inhibiting oxidative stresses and following mPTP opening.

  1. Biscuit melanoidins of different molecular masses protect human HepG2 cells against oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Martín, María Angeles; Ramos, Sonia; Mateos, Raquel; Rufián-Henares, José Angel; Morales, Francisco José; Bravo, Laura; Goya, Luis

    2009-08-26

    Soluble melanoidins from biscuits were enzymatically solubilized and isolated by sequential ultrafiltration and separated by molecular mass in three different fractions, below 3 kDa, between 3 and 10 kDa, and over 10 kDa; the latter was subsequently digested by simulating gastric plus pancreatic digestive conditions. The four fractions were investigated for their protective effect against an oxidative challenge in HepG2 cells. Pretreatment of cells for 20 h with 0.5-10 microg/mL of any of the four fractions prevented the increased cell damage evoked by the challenge but, except for the intermediate size fraction, did not suppress the increased reactive oxygen species. Antioxidant defenses were rapidly restored after the challenge, and the increase of the oxidative stress biomarker malondialdehyde was prevented by the pretreatment with all but the undigested high molecular mass fraction. The results show that treatment of HepG2 cells with concentrations of biscuit melanoidins within the expected physiological range confers on the cells a significant protection against an oxidative challenge.

  2. Th1 and Th17 Cells in Tuberculosis: Protection, Pathology, and Biomarkers.

    PubMed

    Lyadova, I V; Panteleev, A V

    2015-01-01

    The outcome of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) infection ranges from a complete pathogen clearance through asymptomatic latent infection (LTBI) to active tuberculosis (TB) disease. It is now understood that LTBI and active TB represent a continuous spectrum of states with different degrees of pathogen "activity," host pathology, and immune reactivity. Therefore, it is important to differentiate LTBI and active TB and identify active TB stages. CD4(+) T cells play critical role during Mtb infection by mediating protection, contributing to inflammation, and regulating immune response. Th1 and Th17 cells are the main effector CD4(+) T cells during TB. Th1 cells have been shown to contribute to TB protection by secreting IFN-γ and activating antimycobacterial action in macrophages. Th17 induce neutrophilic inflammation, mediate tissue damage, and thus have been implicated in TB pathology. In recent years new findings have accumulated that alter our view on the role of Th1 and Th17 cells during Mtb infection. This review discusses these new results and how they can be implemented for TB diagnosis and monitoring.

  3. Intravacuolar Membranes Regulate CD8 T Cell Recognition of Membrane-Bound Toxoplasma gondii Protective Antigen.

    PubMed

    Lopez, Jodie; Bittame, Amina; Massera, Céline; Vasseur, Virginie; Effantin, Grégory; Valat, Anne; Buaillon, Célia; Allart, Sophie; Fox, Barbara A; Rommereim, Leah M; Bzik, David J; Schoehn, Guy; Weissenhorn, Winfried; Dubremetz, Jean-François; Gagnon, Jean; Mercier, Corinne; Cesbron-Delauw, Marie-France; Blanchard, Nicolas

    2015-12-15

    Apicomplexa parasites such as Toxoplasma gondii target effectors to and across the boundary of their parasitophorous vacuole (PV), resulting in host cell subversion and potential presentation by MHC class I molecules for CD8 T cell recognition. The host-parasite interface comprises the PV limiting membrane and a highly curved, membranous intravacuolar network (IVN) of uncertain function. Here, using a cell-free minimal system, we dissect how membrane tubules are shaped by the parasite effectors GRA2 and GRA6. We show that membrane association regulates access of the GRA6 protective antigen to the MHC I pathway in infected cells. Although insertion of GRA6 in the PV membrane is key for immunogenicity, association of GRA6 with the IVN limits presentation and curtails GRA6-specific CD8 responses in mice. Thus, membrane deformations of the PV regulate access of antigens to the MHC class I pathway, and the IVN may play a role in immune modulation.

  4. Polydatin Protects Bone Marrow Stem Cells against Oxidative Injury: Involvement of Nrf 2/ARE Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Meihui; Hou, Yu; Lin, Dingkun

    2016-01-01

    Polydatin, a glucoside of resveratrol, has been reported to possess potent antioxidative effects. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the effects of polydatin in bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) death caused by hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), imitating the microenvironment surrounding transplanted cells in the injured spinal cord in vitro. In our study, MTT results showed that polydatin effectively prevented the decrease of cell viability caused by H2O2. Hochest 33258, Annexin V-PI, and Western blot assay showed H2O2-induced apoptosis in BMSCs, which was attenuated by polydatin. Further studies indicated that polydatin significantly protects BMSCs against apoptosis due to its antioxidative effects and the regulation of Nrf 2/ARE pathway. Taken together, our results indicate that polydatin could be used in combination with BMSCs for the treatment of spinal cord injury by improving the cell survival and oxidative stress microenvironments. PMID:27022401

  5. A re-evaluation of the role of B cells in protective immunity to Chlamydia infection.

    PubMed

    Li, Lin-Xi; McSorley, Stephen J

    2015-04-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis is the etiological agent of the most commonly reported bacterial sexual transmitted infection (STI) in North America and Europe. The control of Chlamydia infection is hindered by the asymptomatic nature of initial infection but the consequence of untreated infection seriously threatens the reproductive health of young women. Unfortunately, there is no licensed vaccine for Chlamydia vaccine, in part due to our incomplete understanding of the immune response to Chlamydia urogenital infection. It has been well established that T cell-mediated immunity plays a dominant role in protective immunity against Chlamydia and thus the importance of B cells is somewhat underappreciated. Here, we summarize recent progress on understanding the role of B cells during Chlamydia genital tract infections and discuss how B cells and humoral immunity make an effective contribution to host defense against important intracellular pathogens, including Chlamydia.

  6. The protective effect of dopamine against OGD/R injury-induced cell death in HT22 mouse hippocampal cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wenzhu; Zhao, Lixi; Bai, Fan; Zhang, Tong; Dong, Hao; Liu, Lixu

    2016-03-01

    Previous studies have shown that levo-dopamine (L-dopa) can improve the consciousness of certain patients with prolonged coma after cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury, and promote cell growth in vivo. This study aimed to investigate whether L-dopa, which is used clinically to treat Parkinson's disease, might also ameliorate ischemia-reperfusion injury-induced cell death. The oxygen-glucose deprivation and re-oxygenation (OGD/R) model was used to mimic the ischemia-reperfusion pathological process in vitro. HT22 cells were treated with dopamine hydrochloride at different times (i.e., 2 h prior to OGD, during the period of OGD, during the period of R, and throughout the period of OGD/R) and at different concentrations (i.e., 25 μM, 50 μM, 100 μM). Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release, flow cytometry-annexin V, and propidium iodide staining with light microscopy showed that dopamine hydrochloride (added during re-oxygenation) promoted cell proliferation and facilitated maintenance of normal cell morphology. However, when present during oxygen-glucose deprivation for 18 h and present throughout OGD/R, dopamine hydrochloride increased cell damage as manifested by shrinkage, rounding up, and reduced viability. In conclusion, dopamine protected HT22 cells from OGD/R injury-induced cell death only at a particular point in time, suggesting that it may be useful for treating severe ischemia-reperfusion brain injury.

  7. Protection against nonylphenol-induced cell death by DJ-1 in cultured Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes) cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Hong Mei; Taira, Takahiro; Maita, Chinatsu; Ariga, Hiroyoshi; Iguchi-Ariga, Sanae M M

    2006-12-07

    The Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes) has been used to investigate diverse aspects of toxicology, genetics and developmental biology and to monitor biological changes caused by endocrine disruptors. In this study, we analyzed a medaka homolog of human DJ-1 (meDJ-1) in cultured medaka cells into which nonylphenol (NP) was added. Like human DJ-1, meDJ-1 was found to be oxidized by treatment with H(2)O(2) and its pI was shifted to acidic points. NP was found to induce cell death with kinetics similar to that of H(2)O(2) in cultured medaka OLHE-13 cells. After OLHE-13 cells had been treated with sub-lethal concentrations of H(2)O(2) and NP, production of reactive oxygen species and oxidation of meDJ-1 were observed. meDJ-1 knockdown by short interfering RNA rendered OLHE-13 cells susceptible to H(2)O(2) and NP-induced cell death, suggesting a protective role of DJ-1 against oxidative stress-induced cell death in medaka cells. These results suggest that meDJ-1 is a suitable biomarker for oxidative stress reactions in medaka.

  8. Compound 19e, a Novel Glucokinase Activator, Protects against Cytokine-Induced Beta-Cell Apoptosis in INS-1 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Yoon Sin; Seo, Eunhui; Park, Kaapjoo; Jun, Hee-Sook

    2017-01-01

    Previously, compound 19e, a novel heteroaryl-containing benzamide derivative, was identified as a potent glucokinase activator (GKA) and showed a glucose-lowering effect in diabetic mice. In this study, the anti-apoptotic actions of 19e were evaluated in INS-1 pancreatic beta-cells co-treated with TNF-α and IL-1β to induce cell death. Compound 19e protected INS-1 cells from cytokine-induced cell death, and the effect was similar to treatment with another GKA or exendin-4. Compound 19e reduced annexin-V stained cells and the expression of cleaved caspase-3 and poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase protein, as well as upregulated the expression of B-cell lymphoma-2 protein. Compound 19e inhibited apoptotic signaling via induction of the ATP content, and the effect was correlated with the downregulation of nuclear factor-κB p65 and inducible nitric oxide synthase. Further, 19e increased NAD-dependent protein deacetylase sirtuin-1 (SIRT1) deacetylase activity, and the anti-apoptotic effect of 19e was attenuated by SIRT1 inhibitor or SIRT1 siRNA treatment. Our results demonstrate that the novel GKA, 19e, prevents cytokine-induced beta-cell apoptosis via SIRT1 activation and has potential as a therapeutic drug for the preservation of pancreatic beta-cells.

  9. DJ-1 protects against cell death following acute cardiac ischemia-reperfusion injury.

    PubMed

    Dongworth, R K; Mukherjee, U A; Hall, A R; Astin, R; Ong, S-B; Yao, Z; Dyson, A; Szabadkai, G; Davidson, S M; Yellon, D M; Hausenloy, D J

    2014-02-27

    Novel therapeutic targets are required to protect the heart against cell death from acute ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI). Mutations in the DJ-1 (PARK7) gene in dopaminergic neurons induce mitochondrial dysfunction and a genetic form of Parkinson's disease. Genetic ablation of DJ-1 renders the brain more susceptible to cell death following ischemia-reperfusion in a model of stroke. Although DJ-1 is present in the heart, its role there is currently unclear. We sought to investigate whether mitochondrial DJ-1 may protect the heart against cell death from acute IRI by preventing mitochondrial dysfunction. Overexpression of DJ-1 in HL-1 cardiac cells conferred the following beneficial effects: reduced cell death following simulated IRI (30.4±4.7% with DJ-1 versus 52.9±4.7% in control; n=5, P<0.05); delayed mitochondrial permeability transition pore (MPTP) opening (a critical mediator of cell death) (260±33 s with DJ-1 versus 121±12 s in control; n=6, P<0.05); and induction of mitochondrial elongation (81.3±2.5% with DJ-1 versus 62.0±2.8% in control; n=6 cells, P<0.05). These beneficial effects of DJ-1 were absent in cells expressing the non-functional DJ-1(L166P) and DJ-1(Cys106A) mutants. Adult mice devoid of DJ-1 (KO) were found to be more susceptible to cell death from in vivo IRI with larger myocardial infarct sizes (50.9±3.5% DJ-1 KO versus 41.1±2.5% in DJ-1 WT; n≥7, P<0.05) and resistant to cardioprotection by ischemic preconditioning. DJ-1 KO hearts showed increased mitochondrial fragmentation on electron microscopy, although there were no differences in calcium-induced MPTP opening, mitochondrial respiratory function or myocardial ATP levels. We demonstrate that loss of DJ-1 protects the heart from acute IRI cell death by preventing mitochondrial dysfunction. We propose that DJ-1 may represent a novel therapeutic target for cardioprotection.

  10. Xanthone biosynthesis in Hypericum perforatum cells provides antioxidant and antimicrobial protection upon biotic stress.

    PubMed

    Franklin, Gregory; Conceição, Luis F R; Kombrink, Erich; Dias, Alberto C P

    2009-01-01

    Xanthone production in Hypericum perforatum (HP) suspension cultures in response to elicitation by Agrobacterium tumefaciens co-cultivation has been studied. RNA blot analyses of HP cells co-cultivated with A. tumefaciens have shown a rapid up-regulation of genes encoding important enzymes of the general phenylpropanoid pathway (PAL, phenylalanine ammonia lyase and 4CL, 4-coumarate:CoA ligase) and xanthone biosynthesis (BPS, benzophenone synthase). Analyses of HPLC chromatograms of methanolic extracts of control and elicited cells (HP cells that were co-cultivated for 24h with A. tumefaciens) have revealed a 12-fold increase in total xanthone concentration and also the emergence of many xanthones after elicitation. Methanolic extract of elicited cells exhibited significantly higher antioxidant and antimicrobial competence than the equivalent extract of control HP cells indicating that these properties have been significantly increased in HP cells after elicitation. Four major de novo synthesized xanthones have been identified as 1,3,6,7-tetrahydroxy-8-prenyl xanthone, 1,3,6,7-tetrahydroxy-2-prenyl xanthone, 1,3,7-trihydroxy-6-methoxy-8-prenyl xanthone and paxanthone. Antioxidant and antimicrobial characterization of these de novo xanthones have revealed that xanthones play dual function in plant cells during biotic stress: (1) as antioxidants to protect the cells from oxidative damage and (2) as phytoalexins to impair the pathogen growth.

  11. Protective effect of edaravone against Alzheimer's disease-relevant insults in neuroblastoma N2a cells.

    PubMed

    Yan, Yufang; Gong, Kai; Ma, Tuo; Zhang, Lihai; Zhao, Nanming; Zhang, Xiufang; Tang, Peifu; Gong, Yandao

    2012-12-07

    Oxidative stress has been demonstrated to be involved in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Thus, antioxidant therapy may represent a promising avenue for the treatment of AD. Edaravone (3-methyl-1-phenyl-2-pyrazolin-5-one) is a potent free radical scavenger and has been shown to provide neuroprotection in both animal models of cerebral ischemia and stroke patients. In the present study, we investigated the protective effect of edaravone against AD-relevant insults in neuroblastoma N2a cells and explored the potential mechanisms involved. N2a/Swe.Δ9 cells were used as the AD model cells, which exhibited reduced cell viability, increased apoptosis and oxidative stress as well as decreased mitochondrial membrane potential compared with N2a/Wt cells. All of these phenotypes were significantly reversed by edaravone treatment. Edaravone treatment significantly elevated cell viability, reduced apoptotic rate, attenuated oxidative stress and improved mitochondrial membrane potential in N2a/Swe.Δ9 cells. Furthermore, edaravone treatment inhibited mitochondria-dependent apoptosis pathways in N2a/Swe.Δ9 cells through decreasing the Bax/Bcl-2 ratio, attenuating cytochrome c release and suppressing the activation of caspase-3. These results demonstrate that edaravone provides neuroprotection in an AD-related in vitro model and therefore, may be a potential complement for AD therapy.

  12. Autophagy protects intestinal epithelial cells against deoxynivalenol toxicity by alleviating oxidative stress via IKK signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Tang, Yulong; Li, Jianjun; Li, Fengna; Hu, Chien-An A; Liao, Peng; Tan, Kunrong; Tan, Bie; Xiong, Xia; Liu, Gang; Li, Tiejun; Yin, Yulong

    2015-12-01

    Autophagy is an intracellular process of homeostatic degradation that promotes cell survival under various stressors. Deoxynivalenol (DON), a fungal toxin, often causes diarrhea and disturbs the homeostasis of the intestinal system. To investigate the function of intestinal autophagy in response to DON and associated mechanisms, we firstly knocked out ATG5 (autophagy-related gene 5) in porcine intestinal epithelial cells (IPEC-J2) using CRISPR-Cas9 technology. When treated with DON, autophagy was induced in IPEC-J2 cells but not in IPEC-J2.Atg5ko cells. The deficiency in autophagy increased DON-induced apoptosis in IPEC-J2.atg5ko cells, in part, through the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). The cellular stress response can be restored in IPEC-J2.atg5ko cells by overexpressing proteins involved in protein folding. Interestingly, we found that autophagy deficiency downregulated the expression of endoplasmic reticulum folding proteins BiP and PDI when IPEC-J2.atg5ko cells were treated with DON. In addition, we investigated the molecular mechanism of autophagy involved in the IKK, AMPK, and mTOR signaling pathway and found that Bay-117082 and Compound C, specific inhibitors for IKK and AMPK, respectively, inhibited the induction of autophagy. Taken together, our results suggest that autophagy is pivotal for protection against DON in pig intestinal cells.

  13. Hepatocyte growth factor protects human endothelial cells against advanced glycation end products-induced apoposis

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou Yijun . E-mail: zhou-yijun@hotmail.com; Wang Jiahe; Zhang Jin

    2006-06-02

    Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) form by a non-enzymatic reaction between reducing sugars and biological proteins, which play an important role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. In this study, we assessed AGEs effects on human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) growth, proliferation and apoptosis. Additionally, we investigated whether hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), an anti-apoptotic factor for endothelial cells, prevents AGEs-induced apoptosis of HUVECs. HUVECs were treated with AGEs in the presence or absence of HGF. Treatment of HUVECs with AGEs changed cell morphology, decreased cell viability, and induced DNA fragmentation, leading to apoptosis. Apoptosis was induced by AGEs in a dose- and time-dependent fashion. AGEs markedly elevated Bax and decreased NF-{kappa}B, but not Bcl-2 expression. Additionally, AGEs significantly inhibited cell growth through a pro-apoptotic action involving caspase-3 and -9 activations in HUVECs. Most importantly, pretreatment with HGF protected against AGEs-induced cytotoxicity in the endothelial cells. HGF significantly promoted the expression of Bcl-2 and NF-{kappa}B, while decreasing the activities of caspase-3 and -9 without affecting Bax level. Our data suggest that AGEs induce apoptosis in endothelial cells. HGF effectively attenuate AGEs-induced endothelial cell apoptosis. These findings provide new perspectives in the role of HGF in cardiovascular disease.

  14. Galantamine and carbon monoxide protect brain microvascular endothelial cells by heme oxygenase-1 induction

    SciTech Connect

    Nakao, Atsunori; Kaczorowski, David J.; Zuckerbraun, Brian S.; Lei Jing; Faleo, Gaetano; Deguchi, Kentaro; McCurry, Kenneth R.; Billiar, Timothy R.; Kanno, Shinichi

    2008-03-14

    Galantamine, a reversible inhibitor of acetylcholine esterase (AChE), is a novel drug treatment for mild to moderate Alzheimer's disease and vascular dementia. Interestingly, it has been suggested that galantamine treatment is associated with more clinical benefit in patients with mild-to-moderate Alzheimer disease compared to other AChE inhibitors. We hypothesized that the protective effects of galantamine would involve induction of the protective gene, heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), in addition to enhancement of the cholinergic system. Brain microvascular endothelial cells (mvECs) were isolated from spontaneous hypertensive rats. Galantamine significantly reduced H{sub 2}O{sub 2}-induced cell death of mvECs in association with HO-1 induction. These protective effects were completely reversed by nuclear factor-{kappa}B (NF-{kappa}B) inhibition or HO inhibition. Furthermore, galantamine failed to induce HO-1 in mvECs which lack inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), supplementation of a nitric oxide (NO) donor or iNOS gene transfection on iNOS-deficient mvECs resulted in HO-1 induction with galantamine. These data suggest that the protective effects of galantamine require NF-{kappa}B activation and iNOS expression, in addition to HO-1. Likewise, carbon monoxide (CO), one of the byproducts of HO, up-regulated HO-1 and protected mvECs from oxidative stress in a similar manner. Our data demonstrate that galantamine mediates cytoprotective effects on mvECs through induction HO-1. This pharmacological action of galantamine may, at least in part, account for the superior clinical efficacy of galantamine in vascular dementia and Alzheimer disease.

  15. Skin cell protection against UVA by Sideroxyl, a new antioxidant complementary to sunscreens.

    PubMed

    Pygmalion, Marie-Jocelyne; Ruiz, Laetitia; Popovic, Evelyne; Gizard, Julie; Portes, Pascal; Marat, Xavier; Lucet-Levannier, Karine; Muller, Benoit; Galey, Jean-Baptiste

    2010-12-01

    Oxidative stress resulting from photosensitized ROS production in skin is widely accepted as the main contributor to the deleterious effects of UVA exposure. Among the mechanisms known to be involved in UVA-induced oxidative damage, iron plays a central role. UVA radiation of skin cells induces an immediate release of iron, which can then act as a catalyst for uncontrolled oxidation reactions of cell components. Such site-specific damage can scarcely be counteracted by classical antioxidants. In contrast, iron chelators potentially offer an effective way to protect skin against UVA insults. However, iron chelation is very difficult to achieve without disturbing iron homeostasis or inducing iron depletion. A novel compound was developed to avoid these potentially harmful side effects. Sideroxyl was designed to acquire its strong chelating capability only during oxidative stress according to an original process of intramolecular hydroxylation. Herein, we describe in vitro results demonstrating the protective efficiency of Sideroxyl against deleterious effects of UVA at the molecular, cellular, and tissular levels. First, the Sideroxyl diacid form protects a model protein against UVA-induced photosensitized carbonylation. Second, intracellular ROS are dose-dependently decreased in the presence of Sideroxyl in both human cultured fibroblasts and human keratinocytes. Third, Sideroxyl protects normal human fibroblasts against UVA-induced DNA damage as measured by the comet assay and MMP-1 production. Finally, Sideroxyl provides protection against UVA-induced alterations in human reconstructed skin. These results suggest that Sideroxyl may prevent UVA-induced damage in human skin as a complement to sunscreens, especially in the long-wavelength UVA range.

  16. Mitofusin-2 protects against cold stress-induced cell injury in HEK293 cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wenbin; Chen, Yaomin; Yang, Qun; Che, Honglei; Chen, Xiangjun; Yao, Ting; Zhao, Fang; Liu, Mingchao; Ke, Tao; Chen, Jingyuan; Luo, Wenjing

    2010-06-25

    Mitochondrial impairment is hypothesized to contribute to cell injury during cold stress. Mitochondria fission and fusion are closely related in the function of the mitochondria, but the precise mechanisms whereby these processes regulate cell injury during cold stress remain to be determined. HEK293 cells were cultured in a cold environment (4.0+/-0.1 degrees C) for 2, 4, 8, or 12h. Western blot analyses showed that these cells expressed decreased fission-related protein Drp1 and increased fusion-related protein Mfn2 at 4h; meanwhile, electron microscopy analysis revealed large and long mitochondrial morphology within these cells, indicating increased mitochondrial fusion. With silencing of Mfn2 but not of Mfn1 by siRNA promoted cold-stress-induced cell death with decreased ATP production in HEK293 cells. Our results show that increased expression of Mfn2 and mitochondrial fusion are important for mitochondrial function as well as cell survival during cold stress. These findings have important implications for understanding the mechanisms of mitochondrial fusion and fission in cold-stress-induced cell injury.

  17. Balancing Immune Protection and Immune Pathology by CD8+ T-Cell Responses to Influenza Infection

    PubMed Central

    Duan, Susu; Thomas, Paul G.

    2016-01-01

    Influenza A virus (IAV) is a significant human pathogen causing annual epidemics and periodic pandemics. CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL)-mediated immunity contributes to the clearance of virus-infected cells, and CTL immunity targeting the conserved internal proteins of IAVs is a key protection mechanism when neutralizing antibodies are absent during heterosubtypic IAV infection. However, CTL infiltration into the airways, its cytotoxicity, and the effects of produced proinflammatory cytokines can cause severe lung tissue injury, thereby contributing to immunopathology. Studies have discovered complicated and exquisite stimulatory and inhibitory mechanisms that regulate CTL magnitude and effector activities during IAV infection. Here, we review the state of knowledge on the roles of IAV-specific CTLs in immune protection and immunopathology during IAV infection in animal models, highlighting the key findings of various requirements and constraints regulating the balance of immune protection and pathology involved in CTL immunity. We also discuss the evidence of cross-reactive CTL immunity as a positive correlate of cross-subtype protection during secondary IAV infection in both animal and human studies. We argue that the effects of CTL immunity on protection and immunopathology depend on multiple layers of host and viral factors, including complex host mechanisms to regulate CTL magnitude and effector activity, the pathogenic nature of the IAV, the innate response milieu, and the host historical immune context of influenza infection. Future efforts are needed to further understand these key host and viral factors, especially to differentiate those that constrain optimally effective CTL antiviral immunity from those necessary to restrain CTL-mediated non-specific immunopathology in the various contexts of IAV infection, in order to develop better vaccination and therapeutic strategies for modifying protective CTL immunity. PMID:26904022

  18. M-Cell Targeting of Whole Killed Bacteria Induces Protective Immunity against Gastrointestinal Pathogens▿

    PubMed Central

    Chionh, Yok-Teng; Wee, Janet L. K.; Every, Alison L.; Ng, Garrett Z.; Sutton, Philip

    2009-01-01

    As the majority of human pathogens infect via a mucosal surface, delivery of killed vaccines by mucosal routes could potentially improve protection against many such organisms. Our ability to develop effective killed mucosal vaccines is inhibited by a lack of adjuvants that are safe and effective in humans. The Ulex europaeus agglutinin I (UEA-I) lectin specifically binds M cells lining the murine gastrointestinal tract. We explored the potential for M-cell-targeted vaccination of whole, killed Helicobacter pylori, the main causative agent of peptic ulcer disease and gastric cancer, and Campylobacter jejuni, the most common cause of diarrhea. Oral delivery of UEA-I-agglutinated H. pylori or C. jejuni induced a significant increase in both serum and intestinal antibody levels. This elevated response (i) required the use of whole bacteria, as it did not occur with lysate; (ii) was not mediated by formation of particulate clumps, as agglutination with a lectin with a different glycan specificity had no effect; and (iii) was not due to lectin-mediated, nonspecific immunostimulatory activity, as UEA-I codelivery with nonagglutinated bacteria did not enhance the response. Vaccination with UEA-I-agglutinated, killed whole H. pylori induced a protective response against subsequent live challenge that was as effective as that induced by cholera toxin adjuvant. Moreover, vaccination against C. jejuni by this approach resulted in complete protection against challenge in almost all animals. We believe that this is the first demonstration that targeting of whole killed bacteria to mucosal M cells can induce protective immunity without the addition of an immunostimulatory adjuvant. PMID:19380476

  19. M-cell targeting of whole killed bacteria induces protective immunity against gastrointestinal pathogens.

    PubMed

    Chionh, Yok-Teng; Wee, Janet L K; Every, Alison L; Ng, Garrett Z; Sutton, Philip

    2009-07-01

    As the majority of human pathogens infect via a mucosal surface, delivery of killed vaccines by mucosal routes could potentially improve protection against many such organisms. Our ability to develop effective killed mucosal vaccines is inhibited by a lack of adjuvants that are safe and effective in humans. The Ulex europaeus agglutinin I (UEA-I) lectin specifically binds M cells lining the murine gastrointestinal tract. We explored the potential for M-cell-targeted vaccination of whole, killed Helicobacter pylori, the main causative agent of peptic ulcer disease and gastric cancer, and Campylobacter jejuni, the most common cause of diarrhea. Oral delivery of UEA-I-agglutinated H. pylori or C. jejuni induced a significant increase in both serum and intestinal antibody levels. This elevated response (i) required the use of whole bacteria, as it did not occur with lysate; (ii) was not mediated by formation of particulate clumps, as agglutination with a lectin with a different glycan specificity had no effect; and (iii) was not due to lectin-mediated, nonspecific immunostimulatory activity, as UEA-I codelivery with nonagglutinated bacteria did not enhance the response. Vaccination with UEA-I-agglutinated, killed whole H. pylori induced a protective response against subsequent live challenge that was as effective as that induced by cholera toxin adjuvant. Moreover, vaccination against C. jejuni by this approach resulted in complete protection against challenge in almost all animals. We believe that this is the first demonstration that targeting of whole killed bacteria to mucosal M cells can induce protective immunity without the addition of an immunostimulatory adjuvant.

  20. Alpha thalassemia protects sickle cell anemia patients from macro-albuminuria through its effects on red blood cell rheological properties.

    PubMed

    Lamarre, Yann; Romana, Marc; Lemonne, Nathalie; Hardy-Dessources, Marie-Dominique; Tarer, Vanessa; Mougenel, Danielle; Waltz, Xavier; Tressières, Benoît; Lalanne-Mistrih, Marie-Laure; Etienne-Julan, Maryse; Connes, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    While chronic hemolysis has been suspected to be involved in the development of glomerulopathy in patients with sickle cell anemia (SCA), no study focused on the implications of blood rheology. Ninety-six adults with SCA at steady state were included in the present cross-sectional study. Three categories were defined: normo-albuminuria (NORMO, n = 41), micro-albuminuria (MICRO, n = 23) and macro-albuminuria (MACRO, n = 32). Blood was sampled to measure hematological and hemorheological parameters, and genomic DNA extraction was performed to detect the presence of α-thalassemia. The prevalence of α-thalassemia was lower in the MACRO group compared with the two other groups. Anemia was more severe in the MACRO compared with the NORMO group leading the former group to exhibit decreased blood viscosity. Red blood cell deformability was lower and red blood cell aggregates strength was greater in the MACRO compared to the two other groups, and this was directly attributed to the lower frequency of α-thalassemia in the former group. Our results show the protective role of α-thalassemia against the development of sickle cell glomerulopathy, and strongly suggest that this protection is mediated through the decrease of anemia, the increase of RBC deformability and the lowering of the RBC aggregates strength.

  1. Protection of Bovine Mammary Epithelial Cells from Hydrogen Peroxide-Induced Oxidative Cell Damage by Resveratrol.

    PubMed

    Jin, Xiaolu; Wang, Kai; Liu, Hongyun; Hu, Fuliang; Zhao, Fengqi; Liu, Jianxin

    2016-01-01

    The mammary epithelial cells (MECs) of high-producing dairy cows are likely to be subject to oxidative stress (OS) due to the intensive cell metabolism. The objectives of this study were to investigate the cytoprotective effects of resveratrol against hydrogen peroxide- (H2O2-) induced OS in cultured bovine MECs (MAC-T). Pretreatment of MAC-T cells with resveratrol could rescue the decrease in cell viability and resulted in lower intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation after H2O2 exposure. Resveratrol helped MAC-T cells to prevent H2O2-induced endoplasmic reticulum stress and mitochondria-related cell apoptosis. Moreover, resveratrol induced mRNA expression of multiple antioxidant defense genes in MAC-T cells under normal/oxidative conditions. Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) was required for the cytoprotective effects on MAC-T cells by resveratrol, as knockdown of Nrf2 significantly abolished resveratrol-induced cytoprotective effects against OS. In addition, by using selective inhibitors, we further confirmed that the induction of Nrf2 by resveratrol was mediated through the prolonged activation of PI3K/Akt and ERK/MAPK pathways but negatively regulated by p38/MAPK pathway. Overall, resveratrol has beneficial effects on bovine MECs redox balance and may be potentially used as a therapeutic medicine against oxidative insult in lactating animals.

  2. Protection of Bovine Mammary Epithelial Cells from Hydrogen Peroxide-Induced Oxidative Cell Damage by Resveratrol

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Xiaolu; Wang, Kai; Liu, Hongyun; Hu, Fuliang; Zhao, Fengqi; Liu, Jianxin

    2016-01-01

    The mammary epithelial cells (MECs) of high-producing dairy cows are likely to be subject to oxidative stress (OS) due to the intensive cell metabolism. The objectives of this study were to investigate the cytoprotective effects of resveratrol against hydrogen peroxide- (H2O2-) induced OS in cultured bovine MECs (MAC-T). Pretreatment of MAC-T cells with resveratrol could rescue the decrease in cell viability and resulted in lower intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation after H2O2 exposure. Resveratrol helped MAC-T cells to prevent H2O2-induced endoplasmic reticulum stress and mitochondria-related cell apoptosis. Moreover, resveratrol induced mRNA expression of multiple antioxidant defense genes in MAC-T cells under normal/oxidative conditions. Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) was required for the cytoprotective effects on MAC-T cells by resveratrol, as knockdown of Nrf2 significantly abolished resveratrol-induced cytoprotective effects against OS. In addition, by using selective inhibitors, we further confirmed that the induction of Nrf2 by resveratrol was mediated through the prolonged activation of PI3K/Akt and ERK/MAPK pathways but negatively regulated by p38/MAPK pathway. Overall, resveratrol has beneficial effects on bovine MECs redox balance and may be potentially used as a therapeutic medicine against oxidative insult in lactating animals. PMID:26962394

  3. B cells are not essential for Lactobacillus-mediated protection against lethal pneumovirus infection*

    PubMed Central

    Percopo, Caroline M.; Dyer, Kimberly D.; Garcia-Crespo, Katia E.; Gabryszewski, Stanislaw J.; Shaffer, Arthur L.; Domachowske, Joseph B.; Rosenberg, Helene F.

    2014-01-01

    We have shown previously that priming of respiratory mucosa with live Lactobacillus species promotes robust and prolonged survival from an otherwise lethal infection with pneumonia virus of mice (PVM), a property known as heterologous immunity. Lactobacillus-priming results in a moderate reduction in virus recovery and a dramatic reduction in virus-induced proinflammatory cytokine production; the precise mechanisms underlying these findings remain to be elucidated. As B cells have been shown to promote heterologous immunity against respiratory virus pathogens under similar conditions, here we explore the role of B cells in Lactobacillus-mediated protection against acute pneumovirus infection. We found that Lactobacillus-primed mice feature elevated levels of airway immunoglobulins IgG, IgA and IgM and lung tissues with dense, B cell (B220+) enriched peribronchial and perivascular infiltrates with germinal centers consistent with descriptions of bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue. No B cells were detected in lung tissue of Lactobacillus-primed B-cell deficient μMT mice or Jh mice, and Lactobacillus-primed μMT mice had no characteristic infiltrates or airway immunoglobulins. Nonetheless, we observed diminished virus recovery and profound suppression of virus-induced proinflammatory cytokines CCL2, IFN-gamma, and CXCL10 in both wild-type and Lactobacillus-primed μMT mice. Furthermore, L. plantarum-primed, B-cell deficient μMT and Jh mice were fully protected from an otherwise lethal PVM infection, as were their respective wild-types. We conclude that B cells are dispensable for Lactobacillus-mediated heterologous immunity and were not crucial for promoting survival in response to an otherwise lethal pneumovirus infection. PMID:24748495

  4. Candida parapsilosis Protects Premature Intestinal Epithelial Cells from Invasion and Damage by Candida albicans

    PubMed Central

    Gonia, Sara; Archambault, Linda; Shevik, Margaret; Altendahl, Marie; Fellows, Emily; Bliss, Joseph M.; Wheeler, Robert T.; Gale, Cheryl A.

    2017-01-01

    Candida is a leading cause of late-onset sepsis in premature infants and is thought to invade the host via immature or damaged epithelial barriers. We previously showed that the hyphal form of Candida albicans invades and causes damage to premature intestinal epithelial cells (pIECs), whereas the non-hyphal Candida parapsilosis, also a fungal pathogen of neonates, has less invasion and damage abilities. In this study, we investigated the potential for C. parapsilosis to modulate pathogenic interactions of C. albicans with the premature intestine. While a mixed infection with two fungal pathogens may be expected to result in additive or synergistic damage to pIECs, we instead found that C. parapsilosis was able to protect pIECs from invasion and damage by C. albicans. C. albicans-induced pIEC damage was reduced to a similar extent by multiple different C. parapsilosis strains, but strains differed in their ability to inhibit C. albicans invasion of pIECs, with the inhibitory activity correlating with their adhesiveness for C. albicans and epithelial cells. C. parapsilosis cell-free culture fractions were also able to significantly reduce C. albicans adhesion and damage to pIECs. Furthermore, coadministration of C. parapsilosis cell-free fractions with C. albicans was associated with decreased infection and mortality in zebrafish. These results indicate that C. parapsilosis is able to reduce invasion, damage, and virulence functions of C. albicans. Additionally, the results with cellular and cell-free fractions of yeast cultures suggest that inhibition of pathogenic interactions between C. albicans and host cells by C. parapsilosis occurs via secreted molecules as well as by physical contact with the C. parapsilosis cell surface. We propose that non-invasive commensals can be used to inhibit virulence features of pathogens and deserve further study as a non-pharmacological strategy to protect the fragile epithelial barriers of premature infants. PMID:28382297

  5. The Differentiation and Protective Function of Cytolytic CD4 T Cells in Influenza Infection

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Deborah M.; Lampe, Anna T.; Workman, Aspen M.

    2016-01-01

    CD4 T cells that recognize peptide antigen in the context of class II MHC can differentiate into various subsets that are characterized by their helper functions. However, increasing evidence indicates that CD4 cells with direct cytolytic activity (CD4 CTL) play a role in chronic as well as acute infections, such as influenza A virus (IAV) infection. In the last couple of decades, techniques to measure the frequency and activity of these cytolytic cells has demonstrated their abundance in infections, such as human immunodeficiency virus, mouse pox, murine gamma herpes virus, cytomegalovirus, Epstein–Barr virus, and influenza among others. We now appreciate a greater role for CD4 CTL as direct effectors in viral infections and antitumor immunity through their ability to acquire perforin-mediated cytolytic activity and contribution to lysis of virally infected targets or tumors. As early as the 1980s, CD4 T cell clones with cytolytic potential were identified after influenza virus infection, yet much of this early work was dependent on in vitro culture and little was known about the physiological relevance of CD4 CTL. Here, we discuss the direct role CD4 CTL play in protection against lethal IAV infection and the factors that drive the generation of perforin-mediated lytic activity in CD4 cells in vivo during IAV infection. While focusing on CD4 CTL generated during IAV infection, we pull comparisons from the literature in other antiviral and antitumor systems. Further, we highlight what is currently known about CD4 CTL secondary and memory responses, as well as vaccination strategies to induce these potent killer cells that provide an extra layer of cell-mediated immune protection against heterosubtypic IAV infection. PMID:27014272

  6. A natural protective function of invariant NKT cells in a mouse model of innate-cell-driven lung inflammation.

    PubMed

    Bourgeois, Elvire A; Levescot, Anaïs; Diem, Séverine; Chauvineau, Angélique; Bergès, Hortense; Milpied, Pierre; Lehuen, Agnès; Damotte, Diane; Gombert, Jean-Marc; Schneider, Elke; Girard, Jean-Philippe; Gourdy, Pierre; Herbelin, André

    2011-02-01

    Activation of invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cells by treatment with their α-galactosyl ceramide ligand provides therapeutic benefits in several immune inflammatory settings. Given the artificial nature of this stimulation, the natural regulatory functions of iNKT remain uncertain. Addressing this issue in a mouse model of innate-cell-driven lung inflammation induced by the cytokine/alarmin IL-33 that targets iNKT cells, we found that eosinophil and neutrophil recruitment was markedly increased in treated iNKT cell-deficient (Jα18 KO) mice, as was the local production of eotaxin and keratinocyte chemoattractant chemokines. By contrast, lung inflammation decreased after adoptive transfer of iNKT cells, which restored the WT inflammatory response in Jα18 KO mice. Finally, we established that this natural anti-inflammatory function of iNKT cells depends on their IFN-γ production and on endogenous IL-12. Our study provides the first evidence of a protective role of iNKT cells during lung inflammation that does not require pharmacological TCR engagement.

  7. Aryl hydrocarbon receptor protects lung adenocarcinoma cells against cigarette sidestream smoke particulates-induced oxidative stress

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, Ya-Hsin; Huang, Su-Chin; Lin, Chun-Ju; Cheng, Li-Chuan; Li, Lih-Ann

    2012-03-15

    Environmental cigarette smoke has been suggested to promote lung adenocarcinoma progression through aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR)-signaled metabolism. However, whether AhR facilitates metabolic activation or detoxification in exposed adenocarcinoma cells remains ambiguous. To address this question, we have modified the expression level of AhR in two human lung adenocarcinoma cell lines and examined their response to an extract of cigarette sidestream smoke particulates (CSSP). We found that overexpression of AhR in the CL1-5 cell line reduced CSSP-induced ROS production and oxidative DNA damage, whereas knockdown of AhR expression increased ROS level in CSSP-exposed H1355 cells. Oxidative stress sensor Nrf2 and its target gene NQO1 were insensitive to AhR expression level and CSSP treatment in human lung adenocarcinoma cells. In contrast, induction of AhR expression concurrently increased mRNA expression of xenobiotic-metabolizing genes CYP1B1, UGT1A8, and UGT1A10 in a ligand-independent manner. It appeared that AhR accelerated xenobiotic clearing and diminished associated oxidative stress by coordinate regulation of a set of phase I and II metabolizing genes. However, the AhR-signaled protection could not shield cells from constant oxidative stress. Prolonged exposure to high concentrations of CSSP induced G0/G1 cell cycle arrest via the p53–p21–Rb1 signaling pathway. Despite no effect on DNA repair rate, AhR facilitated the recovery of cells from growth arrest when CSSP exposure ended. AhR-overexpressing lung adenocarcinoma cells exhibited an increased anchorage-dependent and independent proliferation when recovery from exposure. In summary, our data demonstrated that AhR protected lung adenocarcinoma cells against CSSP-induced oxidative stress and promoted post-exposure clonogenicity. -- Highlights: ► AhR expression level influences cigarette sidestream smoke-induced ROS production. ► AhR reduces oxidative stress by coordinate regulation of

  8. Protection of pulmonary epithelial cells from oxidative stress by hMYH adenine glycosylase

    PubMed Central

    Kremer, Ted M; Rinne, Mikael L; Xu, Yi; Chen, Xian Ming; Kelley, Mark R

    2004-01-01

    Background Oxygen toxicity is a major cause of lung injury. The base excision repair pathway is one of the most important cellular protection mechanisms that responds to oxidative DNA damage. Lesion-specific DNA repair enzymes include hOgg1, hMYH, hNTH and hMTH. Methods The above lesion-specific DNA repair enzymes were expressed in human alveolar epithelial cells (A549) using the pSF91.1 retroviral vector. Cells were exposed to a 95% oxygen environment, ionizing radiation (IR), or H2O2. Cell growth analysis was performed under non-toxic conditions. Western blot analysis was performed to verify over-expression and assess endogenous expression under toxic and non-toxic conditions. Statistical analysis was performed using the paired Student's t test with significance being accepted for p < 0.05. Results Cell killing assays demonstrated cells over-expressing hMYH had improved survival to both increased oxygen and IR. Cell growth analysis of A549 cells under non-toxic conditions revealed cells over-expressing hMYH also grow at a slower rate. Western blot analysis demonstrated over-expression of each individual gene and did not result in altered endogenous expression of the others. However, it was observed that O2 toxicity did lead to a reduced endogenous expression of hNTH in A549 cells. Conclusion Increased expression of the DNA glycosylase repair enzyme hMYH in A549 cells exposed to O2 and IR leads to improvements in cell survival. DNA repair through the base excision repair pathway may provide an alternative way to offset the damaging effects of O2 and its metabolites. PMID:15450125

  9. Airway Epithelial Cell Integrity Protects from Cytotoxicity of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Quorum-Sensing Signals.

    PubMed

    Losa, Davide; Köhler, Thilo; Bacchetta, Marc; Saab, Joanna Bou; Frieden, Maud; van Delden, Christian; Chanson, Marc

    2015-08-01

    Cell-to-cell communication via gap junctions regulates airway epithelial cell homeostasis and maintains the epithelium host defense. Quorum-sensing molecules produced by Pseudomonas aeruginosa coordinate the expression of virulence factors by this respiratory pathogen. These bacterial signals may also incidentally modulate mammalian airway epithelial cell responses to the pathogen, a process called interkingdom signaling. We investigated the interactions between the P. aeruginosa N-3-oxo-dodecanoyl-L-homoserine lactone (C12) quorum-sensing molecule and human airway epithelial cell gap junctional intercellular communication (GJIC). C12 degradation and its effects on cells were monitored in various airway epithelial cell models grown under nonpolarized and polarized conditions. Its concentration was further monitored in daily tracheal aspirates of colonized intubated patients. C12 rapidly altered epithelial integrity and decreased GJIC in nonpolarized airway epithelial cells, whereas other quorum-sensing molecules had no effect. The effects of C12 were dependent on [Ca(2+)]i and could be prevented by inhibitors of Src tyrosine family and Rho-associated protein kinases. In contrast, polarized airway cells grown on Transwell filters were protected from C12 except when undergoing repair after wounding. In vivo during colonization of intubated patients, C12 did not accumulate, but it paralleled bacterial densities. In vitro C12 degradation, a reaction catalyzed by intracellular paraoxonase 2 (PON2), was impaired in nonpolarized cells, whereas PON2 expression was increased during epithelial polarization. The cytotoxicity of C12 on nonpolarized epithelial cells, combined with its impaired degradation allowing its accumulation, provides an additional pathogenic mechanism for P. aeruginosa infections.

  10. YopE specific CD8+ T cells provide protection against systemic and mucosal Yersinia pseudotuberculosis infection

    PubMed Central

    Bergman, Molly A.; Orihuela, Carlos J.

    2017-01-01

    Prior studies indicated that CD8+ T cells responding to a surrogate single antigen expressed by Y. pseudotuberculosis, ovalbumin, were insufficient to protect against yersiniosis. Herein we tested the hypothesis that CD8+ T cells reactive to the natural Yersinia antigen YopE would be more effective at providing mucosal protection. We first confirmed that immunization with the attenuated ksgA- strain of Y. pseudotuberculosis generated YopE-specific CD8+ T cells. These T cells were protective against challenge with virulent Listeria monocytogenes expressing secreted YopE. Mice immunized with an attenuated L. monocytogenes YopE+ strain generated large numbers of functional YopE-specific CD8+ T cells, and initially controlled a systemic challenge with virulent Y. pseudotuberculosis, yet eventually succumbed to yersiniosis. Mice vaccinated with a YopE peptide and cholera toxin vaccine generated robust T cell responses, providing protection to 60% of the mice challenged mucosally but failed to show complete protection against systemic infection with virulent Y. pseudotuberculosis. These studies demonstrate that vaccination with recombinant YopE vaccines can generate YopE-specific CD8+ T cells, that can provide significant mucosal protection but these cells are insufficient to provide sterilizing immunity against systemic Y. pseudotuberculosis infection. Our studies have implications for Yersinia vaccine development studies. PMID:28207901

  11. Thioredoxin-like 6 protects retinal cell line from photooxidative damage by upregulating NF-kappaB activity.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiao Wei; Tan, Bao Zhen; Sun, Miao; Ho, Bow; Ding, Jeak Ling

    2008-08-01

    Apoptosis is the common pathway to photoreceptor cell death in many eye diseases including age-related macular degeneration which affects more than 8 million individuals in the United States alone. RdCVF, a truncated mouse thioredoxin is specifically expressed by rod photoreceptor cells and prevents the apoptosis of cone cells. However the protective mechanism of RdCVF and the implications of its human homologue, thioredoxin-like 6 (TXNL6), on the apoptosis of retinal cells remain unknown. In this study, we examined the function of TXNL6 and investigated its mechanism of protection using a cone photoreceptor cell line, 661W. We found that the photooxidative stress-induced degradation of NF-kappaB proteins is rescued by overexpression of TXNL6, which enabled the NF-kappaB transactivation activity. Furthermore, the overexpression of TXNL6 rescued the photooxidative stress-induced apoptosis of 661W cells. Interestingly, this protective effect was significantly blocked by NF-kappaB specific inhibitors demonstrating that TXNL6 exerts its protective effect against apoptosis via NF-kappaB. Taken together, our study shows that the TXNL6 probably protects retinal cells from photooxidative damage-induced apoptosis via upregulation of NF-kappaB activity. The identification of TXNL6 and the demonstration of its protective mechanism offer new insights into treatment possibilities for photoreceptor cell degradation.

  12. YopE specific CD8+ T cells provide protection against systemic and mucosal Yersinia pseudotuberculosis infection.

    PubMed

    González-Juarbe, Norberto; Shen, Haiqian; Bergman, Molly A; Orihuela, Carlos J; Dube, Peter H

    2017-01-01

    Prior studies indicated that CD8+ T cells responding to a surrogate single antigen expressed by Y. pseudotuberculosis, ovalbumin, were insufficient to protect against yersiniosis. Herein we tested the hypothesis that CD8+ T cells reactive to the natural Yersinia antigen YopE would be more effective at providing mucosal protection. We first confirmed that immunization with the attenuated ksgA- strain of Y. pseudotuberculosis generated YopE-specific CD8+ T cells. These T cells were protective against challenge with virulent Listeria monocytogenes expressing secreted YopE. Mice immunized with an attenuated L. monocytogenes YopE+ strain generated large numbers of functional YopE-specific CD8+ T cells, and initially controlled a systemic challenge with virulent Y. pseudotuberculosis, yet eventually succumbed to yersiniosis. Mice vaccinated with a YopE peptide and cholera toxin vaccine generated robust T cell responses, providing protection to 60% of the mice challenged mucosally but failed to show complete protection against systemic infection with virulent Y. pseudotuberculosis. These studies demonstrate that vaccination with recombinant YopE vaccines can generate YopE-specific CD8+ T cells, that can provide significant mucosal protection but these cells are insufficient to provide sterilizing immunity against systemic Y. pseudotuberculosis infection. Our studies have implications for Yersinia vaccine development studies.

  13. Protective effect of mild endoplasmic reticulum stress on radiation-induced bystander effects in hepatocyte cells.

    PubMed

    Xie, Yuexia; Ye, Shuang; Zhang, Jianghong; He, Mingyuan; Dong, Chen; Tu, Wenzhi; Liu, Peifeng; Shao, Chunlin

    2016-12-13

    Radiation-induced bystander effect (RIBE) has important implications for secondary cancer risk assessment during cancer radiotherapy, but the defense and self-protective mechanisms of bystander normal cells are still largely unclear. The present study found that micronuclei (MN) formation could be induced in the non-irradiated HL-7702 hepatocyte cells after being treated with the conditioned medium from irradiated hepatoma HepG2 cells under either normoxia or hypoxia, where the ratio of the yield of bystander MN induction to the yield of radiation-induced MN formation under hypoxia was much higher than that of normoxia. Nonetheless, thapsigargin induced endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and dramatically suppressed this bystander response manifested as the decrease of MN and apoptosis inductions. Meanwhile, the interference of BiP gene, a major ER chaperone, amplified the detrimental RIBE. More precisely, thapsigargin provoked ER sensor of PERK to initiate an instantaneous and moderate ER stress thus defensed the hazard form RIBE, while BiP depletion lead to persistently destroyed homeostasis of ER and exacerbated cell injury. These findings provide new insights that the mild ER stress through BiP-PERK-p-eIF2α signaling pathway has a profound role in protecting cellular damage from RIBE and hence may decrease the potential secondary cancer risk after cancer radiotherapy.

  14. YAP activation protects urothelial cell carcinoma from treatment-induced DNA damage

    PubMed Central

    Ciamporcero, Eric; Shen, He; Ramakrishnan, Swathi; Ku, Sheng Yu; Chintala, Sreenivasulu; Shen, Li; Adelaiye, Remi; Miles, Kiersten Marie; Ullio, Chiara; Pizzimenti, Stefania; Daga, Martina; Azabdaftari, Gissou; Attwood, Kris; Johnson, Candace; Zhang, Jianmin; Barrera, Giuseppina; Pili, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    Current standard of care for muscle-invasive urothelial cell carcinoma (UCC) is surgery along with perioperative platinum-based chemotherapy. UCC is sensitive to cisplatin-based regimens, but acquired resistance eventually occurs, and a subset of tumors is intrinsically resistant. Thus, there is an unmet need for new therapeutic approaches to target chemotherapy-resistant UCC. Yes-associated protein (YAP) is a transcriptional co-activator that has been associated with bladder cancer progression and cisplatin resistance in ovarian cancer. In contrast, YAP has been shown to induce DNA damage associated apoptosis in non-small cell lung carcinoma. However, no data have been reported on the YAP role in UCC chemo-resistance. Thus, we have investigated the potential dichotomous role of YAP in UCC response to chemotherapy utilizing two patient-derived xenograft models recently established. Constitutive expression and activation of YAP inversely correlated with in vitro and in vivo cisplatin sensitivity. YAP overexpression protected while YAP knock-down sensitized UCC cells to chemotherapy and radiation effects via increased accumulation of DNA damage and apoptosis. Furthermore, pharmacological YAP inhibition with verteporfin inhibited tumor cell proliferation and restored sensitivity to cisplatin. In addition, nuclear YAP expression was associated with poor outcome in UCC patients who received perioperative chemotherapy. In conclusion, these results suggest that YAP activation exerts a protective role and represents a pharmacological target to enhance the anti-tumor effects of DNA damaging modalities in the treatment of UCC. PMID:26119935

  15. Protective effects of ginsenoside Rg1 against hydrogen peroxide-induced injury in human neuroblastoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Zhi-gao; Chen, Li-ping; Wang, Fa-wei; Xu, Cheng-yong; Geng, Miao

    2016-01-01

    The active ingredient of ginseng, ginsenosides Rg1, has been shown to scavenge free radicals and improve antioxidant capacity. This study hypothesized that ginsenosides Rg1 has a protective role in human neuroblastoma cells injured by H2O2. Ginsenosides Rg1 at different concentrations (50 and 100 μM) was used to treat H2O2 (150 μM)-injured SH-SY5Y cells. Results demonstrated that ginsenoside Rg1 elevated the survival rate of SH-SY5Y cells injured by H2O2, diminished the amount of leaked lactate dehydrogenase, and increased superoxide dismutase activity. Ginsenoside Rg1 effectively suppressed caspase-3 immunoreactivity, and contributed to heat shock protein 70 gene expression, in a dose-dependent manner. These results indicate that ginsenoside Rg1 has protective effects on SH-SY5Y cells injured by H2O2 and that its mechanism of action is associated with anti-oxidation and the inhibition of apoptosis. PMID:27630703

  16. Low temperature protects mammalian cells from apoptosis initiated by various stimuli in vitro

    SciTech Connect

    Sakurai, Toshiharu; Itoh, Katsuhiko; Liu Yu; Higashitsuji, Hiroaki; Sumitomo, Yasuhiko; Sakamaki, Kazuhiro; Fujita, Jun . E-mail: jfujita@virus.kyoto-u.ac.jp

    2005-10-01

    Mild hypothermia shows protective effects on patients with brain damage and cardiac arrest. To elucidate the molecular mechanisms underlying these effects, we examined the effects of low temperature (32 deg. C) on cells exposed to a variety of stress in vitro. We found that 32 deg. C suppressed induction of apoptosis by cytotoxic stimuli such as adriamycin, etoposide, thapsigargin, NaCl, H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, and anti-Fas antibody. In adriamycin-treated BALB/3T3 cells, the down-shift in temperature from 37 deg. C to 32 deg. C increased the Bcl-xL protein level and decreased the mRNA level of Puma and mitochondrial translocation of Bax, suppressing caspase-9-mediated apoptosis. Furthermore, the protein level and stability of p53 were decreased, and its nuclear export was increased concomitant with Mdm2 mRNA upregulation. The low temperature effect was not observed in p53 {sup -/-}/Mdm2 {sup -/-} mouse embryonic fibroblasts, suggesting that the effect is mediated by suppression of the p53 pathway. In contrast, while thapsigargin-induced apoptosis was suppressed by the low temperature, no effect on the p53 protein level was observed. Furthermore, the survival rate of p53 {sup -/-}/Mdm2 {sup -/-} cells exposed to thapsigargin was increased when cultured at 32 deg. C compared with 37 deg. C. In conclusion, mild hypothermia protects cells from a variety of stress by p53-dependent and p53-independent mechanisms.

  17. Macelignan protects HepG2 cells against tert-butylhydroperoxide-induced oxidative damage.

    PubMed

    Sohn, Jong Hee; Han, Kyu Lee; Choo, Jeong Han; Hwang, Jae-Kwan

    2007-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the protective effect of macelignan, isolated from Myristica fragrans Houtt. (nutmeg) against tert-butylhydroperoxide (t-BHP)-induced cytotoxicity in a human hepatoma cell line, HepG2. The tetrazolium dye colorimetric test (MTT test) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) assay were used to monitor cell viability and necrosis, respectively. Lipid peroxidation [malondialdehyde (MDA) formation] was estimated by the fluorometric method. Intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation was measured using a fluorescent probe 2',7'-dichlorofluorescein diacetate (DCFH-DA), and DNA damage was detected using single cell gel electrophoresis (comet assay). The results showed that macelignan significantly reduced the cell growth inhibition and necrosis caused by t-BHP. Furthermore, macelignan ameliorated lipid peroxidation as demonstrated by a reduction in MDA formation in a dose-dependent manner. It was also found that macelignan reduced intracellular ROS formation and DNA damaging effect caused by t-BHP. These results strongly suggest that macelignan has significant protective ability against oxidative damage caused by reactive intermediates.

  18. Protective effect of polyphenols from Glycyrrhiza glabra against oxidative stress in Caco-2 cells.

    PubMed

    D'Angelo, Stefania; Morana, Alessandra; Salvatore, Anna; Zappia, Vincenzo; Galletti, Patrizia

    2009-12-01

    In the present article, we have investigated the antioxidant properties of methanolic liquorice polyphenol extracts (LPE(s)). Polyphenol extraction was performed with 60% and 100% methanol. Analysis of LPE(s) by thin-layer chromatography revealed that a higher amount of polyphenols was recovered by extraction with 60% methanol. Antioxidant activity measurement of the reducing power, scavenging effect on 2,2'-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl free radical, and hydrogen peroxide scavenging capability have been taken as the parameters for assessment of antioxidant potential of LPE(s). Results have been compared with both natural and synthetic antioxidants. All experimental data have indicated that LPE(s) possess strong antioxidant power proportional to their o-diphenolic and total polyphenolic content, independently from the assay used. Therefore, the LPE(s) antioxidant property was examined against the cytotoxic effects of reactive oxygen species in human colon carcinoma cells. Pretreatment of Caco-2 cells with liquorice polyphenolic extracts provided a remarkable protection against oxidative damage induced by H(2)O(2). The highest oxidative stress protection (72% of cell vitality) was measured in cells pretreated with 0.54 mM polyphenols. This effect seems to be associated to the antioxidant activity of liquorice polyphenolic compounds. Our data suggest that polyphenols from Glycyrrhiza glabra could exert a beneficial action in the prevention of intestinal pathologies related to production of reactive oxygen species.

  19. bcl-2 transgene expression can protect neurons against developmental and induced cell death.

    PubMed Central

    Farlie, P G; Dringen, R; Rees, S M; Kannourakis, G; Bernard, O

    1995-01-01

    The bcl-2 protooncogene, which protects various cell types from apoptotic cell death, is expressed in the developing and adult nervous system. To explore its role in regulation of neuronal cell death, we generated transgenic mice expressing Bcl-2 under the control of the neuron-specific enolase promoter, which forced expression uniquely in neurons. Sensory neurons isolated from dorsal root ganglia of newborn mice normally require nerve growth factor for their survival in culture, but those from the bcl-2 transgenic mice showed enhanced survival in its absence. Furthermore, apoptotic death of motor neurons after axotomy of the sciatic nerve was inhibited in these mice. The number of neurons in two neuronal populations from the central and peripheral nervous system was increased by 30%, indicating that Bcl-2 expression can protect neurons from cell death during development. The generation of these transgenic mice suggests that Bcl-2 may play an important role in survival of neurons both during development and throughout adult life. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 4 PMID:7753817

  20. Neonatal Fc receptor expression in dendritic cells mediates protective immunity against colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Baker, Kristi; Rath, Timo; Flak, Magdalena B; Arthur, Janelle C; Chen, Zhangguo; Glickman, Jonathan N; Zlobec, Inti; Karamitopoulou, Eva; Stachler, Matthew D; Odze, Robert D; Lencer, Wayne I; Jobin, Christian; Blumberg, Richard S

    2013-12-12

    Cancers arising in mucosal tissues account for a disproportionately large fraction of malignancies. Immunoglobulin G (IgG) and the neonatal Fc receptor for IgG (FcRn) have an important function in the mucosal immune system that we have now shown extends to the induction of CD8(+) T cell-mediated antitumor immunity. We demonstrate that FcRn within dendritic cells (DCs) was critical for homeostatic activation of mucosal CD8(+) T cells that drove protection against the development of colorectal cancers and lung metastases. FcRn-mediated tumor protection was driven by DCs activation of endogenous tumor-reactive CD8(+) T cells via the cross-presentation of IgG complexed antigens (IgG IC), as well as the induction of cytotoxicity-promoting cytokine secretion, particularly interleukin-12, both of which were independently triggered by the FcRn-IgG IC interaction in murine and human DCs. FcRn thus has a primary role within mucosal tissues in activating local immune responses that are critical for priming efficient anti-tumor immunosurveillance.

  1. Protective Effects of Costunolide against Hydrogen Peroxide-Induced Injury in PC12 Cells.

    PubMed

    Cheong, Chong-Un; Yeh, Ching-Sheng; Hsieh, Yi-Wen; Lee, Ying-Ray; Lin, Mei-Ying; Chen, Chung-Yi; Lee, Chien-Hsing

    2016-07-09

    Oxidative stress-mediated cellular injury has been considered as a major cause of neurodegenerative diseases including Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases. The scavenging of reactive oxygen species (ROS) mediated by antioxidants may be a potential strategy for retarding the diseases' progression. Costunolide (CS) is a well-known sesquiterpene lactone, used as a popular herbal remedy, which possesses anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activity. This study aimed to investigate the protective role of CS against the cytotoxicity induced by hydrogen peroxide (H₂O₂) and to elucidate potential protective mechanisms in PC12 cells. The results showed that the treatment of PC12 cells with CS prior to H₂O₂ exposure effectively increased the cell viability. Furthermore, it decreased the intracellular ROS, stabilized the mitochondria membrane potential (MMP), and reduced apoptosis-related protein such as caspase 3. In addition, CS treatment attenuated the cell injury by H₂O₂ through the inhibition of phosphorylation of p38 and the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK). These results demonstrated that CS is promising as a potential therapeutic candidate for neurodegenerative diseases resulting from oxidative damage and further research on this topic should be encouraged.

  2. Cross-protective efficacy of dendritic cells targeting conserved influenza virus antigen expressed by Lactobacillus plantarum

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Wen-Tao; Shi, Shao-Hua; Yang, Gui-Lian; Jiang, Yan-Long; Zhao, Liang; Li, Yu; Wang, Chun-Feng

    2016-01-01

    Avian influenza virus (AIV) can infect birds and mammals, including humans, and are thus a serious threat to public health. Vaccination is vital for controlling AIV circulation. In this study, we generated a recombinant lactobacillus expressing the NP-M1-DCpep of H9N2 avian influenza virus and evaluated the activation effect of NC8-pSIP409-NP-M1-DCpep on dendritic cells (DCs) in a mouse model. The specific mucosal antibody responses and B and T cell responses in lymphoid tissues were also characterized. Importantly, we confirmed that specific CD8 T cells presented in vitro and antigen-specific cytotoxicity (activated the expression of CD107a) and in vivo antigen-specific cytotoxicity after vaccination. The adoptive transfer of NC8-pSIP409-NP-M1-DCpep-primed CD8+ T cells into NOD-SCID mice resulted in effective protection against mouse-adapted AIV infection. In addition, we observed protection in immunized mice challenged with mouse-adapted H9N2 AIV and H1N1 influenza virus, as evidenced by reductions in the lung virus titers, improvements in lung pathology, and weight loss and complete survival. Our data are promising for the generation of effective, non-traditional influenza vaccines against AIVs. PMID:28004787

  3. Protective effect of mild endoplasmic reticulum stress on radiation-induced bystander effects in hepatocyte cells

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Yuexia; Ye, Shuang; Zhang, Jianghong; He, Mingyuan; Dong, Chen; Tu, Wenzhi; Liu, Peifeng; Shao, Chunlin

    2016-01-01

    Radiation-induced bystander effect (RIBE) has important implications for secondary cancer risk assessment during cancer radiotherapy, but the defense and self-protective mechanisms of bystander normal cells are still largely unclear. The present study found that micronuclei (MN) formation could be induced in the non-irradiated HL-7702 hepatocyte cells after being treated with the conditioned medium from irradiated hepatoma HepG2 cells under either normoxia or hypoxia, where the ratio of the yield of bystander MN induction to the yield of radiation-induced MN formation under hypoxia was much higher than that of normoxia. Nonetheless, thapsigargin induced endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and dramatically suppressed this bystander response manifested as the decrease of MN and apoptosis inductions. Meanwhile, the interference of BiP gene, a major ER chaperone, amplified the detrimental RIBE. More precisely, thapsigargin provoked ER sensor of PERK to initiate an instantaneous and moderate ER stress thus defensed the hazard form RIBE, while BiP depletion lead to persistently destroyed homeostasis of ER and exacerbated cell injury. These findings provide new insights that the mild ER stress through BiP-PERK-p-eIF2α signaling pathway has a profound role in protecting cellular damage from RIBE and hence may decrease the potential secondary cancer risk after cancer radiotherapy. PMID:27958308

  4. Implication of Tumor Microenvironment in Chemoresistance: Tumor-Associated Stromal Cells Protect Tumor Cells from Cell Death

    PubMed Central

    Castells, Magali; Thibault, Benoît; Delord, Jean-Pierre; Couderc, Bettina

    2012-01-01

    Tumor development principally occurs following the accumulation of genetic and epigenetic alterations in tumor cells. These changes pave the way for the transformation of chemosensitive cells to chemoresistant ones by influencing the uptake, metabolism, or export of drugs at the cellular level. Numerous reports have revealed the complexity of tumors and their microenvironment with tumor cells located within a heterogeneous population of stromal cells. These stromal cells (fibroblasts, endothelial or mesothelial cells, adipocytes or adipose tissue-derived stromal cells, immune cells and bone marrow-derived stem cells) could be involved in the chemoresistance that is acquired by tumor cells via several mechanisms: (i) cell–cell and cell–matrix interactions influencing the cancer cell sensitivity to apoptosis; (ii) local release of soluble factors promoting survival and tumor growth (crosstalk between stromal and tumor cells); (iii) direct cell-cell interactions with tumor cells (crosstalk or oncologic trogocytosis); (iv) generation of specific niches within the tumor microenvironment that facilitate the acquisition of drug resistance; or (v) conversion of the cancer cells to cancer-initiating cells or cancer stem cells. This review will focus on the implication of each member of the heterogeneous population of stromal cells in conferring resistance to cytotoxins and physiological mediators of cell death. PMID:22949815

  5. Dig1 protects against cell death provoked by glyphosate-based herbicides in human liver cell lines

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Worldwide used pesticides containing different adjuvants like Roundup formulations, which are glyphosate-based herbicides, can provoke some in vivo toxicity and in human cells. These pesticides are commonly found in the environment, surface waters and as food residues of Roundup tolerant genetically modified plants. In order to know their effects on cells from liver, a major detoxification organ, we have studied their mechanism of action and possible protection by precise medicinal plant extracts called Dig1. Methods The cytotoxicity pathways of four formulations of glyphosate-based herbicides were studied using human hepatic cell lines HepG2 and Hep3B, known models to study xenobiotic effects. We monitored mitochondrial succinate dehydrogenase activity and caspases 3/7 for cell mortality and protection by Dig1, as well as cytochromes P450 1A1, 1A2, 3A4 and 2C9 and glutathione-S-transferase to approach the mechanism of actions. Results All the four Roundup formulations provoke liver cell death, with adjuvants having stronger effects than glyphosate alone. Hep3B are 3-5 times more sensitive over 48 h. Caspases 3/7 are greatly activated in HepG2 by Roundup at non-cytotoxic levels, and some apoptosis induction by Roundup is possible together with necrosis. CYP3A4 is specifically enhanced by Roundup at doses 400 times less than used in agriculture (2%). CYP1A2 is increased to a lesser extent together with glutathione-S-transferase (GST) down-regulation. Dig 1, non cytotoxic and not inducing caspases by itself, is able to prevent Roundup-induced cell death in a time-dependant manner with an important efficiency of up to 89%, within 48 h. In addition, we evidenced that it prevents Caspases 3/7 activation and CYP3A4 enhancement, and not GST reduction, but in turn it slightly inhibited CYP2C9 when added before Roundup. Conclusion Roundup is able to provoke intracellular disruption in hepatic cell lines at different levels, but a mixture of medicinal plant

  6. Late embryogenesis abundant proteins protect human hepatoma cells during acute desiccation.

    PubMed

    Li, Shumin; Chakraborty, Nilay; Borcar, Apurva; Menze, Michael A; Toner, Mehmet; Hand, Steven C

    2012-12-18

    Expression of late embryogenesis abundant (LEA) proteins is highly correlated with desiccation tolerance in anhydrobiotic animals, selected land plants, and bacteria. Genes encoding two LEA proteins, one localized to the cytoplasm/nucleus (AfrLEA2) and one targeted to mitochondria (AfrLEA3m), were stably transfected into human HepG2 cells. A trehalose transporter was used for intracellular loading of this disaccharide. Cells were rapidly and uniformly desiccated to low water content (<0.12 g H(2)O/g dry weight) with a recently developed spin-drying technique. Immediately on rehydration, control cells without LEA proteins or trehalose exhibited 0% membrane integrity, compared with 98% in cells loaded with trehalose and expressing AfrLEA2 or AfrLEA3m; surprisingly, AfrLEA3m without trehalose conferred 94% protection. Cell proliferation across 7 d showed an 18-fold increase for cells dried with AfrLEA3m and trehalose, compared with 27-fold for nondried controls. LEA proteins dramatically enhance desiccation tolerance in mammalian cells and offer the opportunity for engineering biostability in the dried state.

  7. Protective Action of Carica papaya on β-Cells in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats

    PubMed Central

    Miranda-Osorio, Pedro H.; Castell-Rodríguez, Andrés E.; Vargas-Mancilla, Juan; Tovilla-Zárate, Carlos A.; Ble-Castillo, Jorge L.; Aguilar-Domínguez, Dora E.; Juárez-Rojop, Isela E.; Díaz-Zagoya, Juan C.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of C. papaya L. leaf extract (CPLE) on pancreatic islets in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats, as well as on cultured normal pancreatic cells with STZ in the medium. CPLE (3–125 mg/Kg) was administered orally for 20 days, while a group of diabetic rats received 5 IU/Kg/day of insulin. At the end of the treatment the rats were sacrificed. Blood was obtained to assess glucose and insulin levels. The pancreas was dissected to evaluate β cells by immunohistochemistry. In addition, normal pancreatic cells were cultured in a medium that included CPLE (3–12 mg). One half of the cultured cells received simultaneously CPLE and STZ (6 mg), while the other half received CPLE and five days later the STZ. After three days of incubation, insulin was assayed in the incubation medium. The CPLE administered to diabetic rats improved the fasting glycemia and preserved the number and structure of pancreatic islets. However, when CPLE was added to pancreatic cells in culture along with STZ, the insulin concentration was higher in comparison with the cells that only received STZ. In conclusion, the CPLE preserves the integrity of pancreatic islets, improves the basal insulin secretion and protects cultured cells from the adverse effects of STZ. PMID:27128930

  8. Angiotensin II protects cultured midbrain dopaminergic neurons against rotenone-induced cell death.

    PubMed

    Grammatopoulos, Tom N; Ahmadi, Ferogh; Jones, Susan M; Fariss, Marc W; Weyhenmeyer, James A; Zawada, W Michael

    2005-05-31

    In this study, we demonstrate that angiotensin II (Ang II) protects dopamine (DA) neurons from rotenone toxicity in vitro. Primary ventral mesencephalic (VM) cultures from E15 rats were grown for 5 days and then cultured in the presence of the mitochondrial complex I inhibitor, rotenone. Acute exposure (20 h) to 20 nM rotenone reduced the number of tyrosine hydroxylase-positive (TH+) neurons by 50 +/- 6% when compared to untreated cultures. Pre-treatment of VM cultures with 100 nM Ang II decreased TH+ neuronal loss to 25 +/- 10% at the 20-nM rotenone concentration. Ang II in the presence of the angiotensin type 1 receptor (AT1R) antagonist, losartan, was even more effective in protecting DA neurons showing a loss of only 13 +/- 4% at 20 nM rotenone. Conversely, the AT2R antagonist, PD123319, abolished the protective effects of Ang II. Furthermore, both the NMDA receptor antagonist, MK801, and the antioxidant, alpha-tocopheryl succinate (vitamin E analogue), prevented rotenone-induced toxicity. Here, we show that acute exposure of VM cultures to the pesticide rotenone leads to dopaminergic neuronal cell death and that angiotensin acting through the AT2 receptor protects dopamine neurons from rotenone toxicity.

  9. Cannabidiol protects oligodendrocyte progenitor cells from inflammation-induced apoptosis by attenuating endoplasmic reticulum stress.

    PubMed

    Mecha, M; Torrao, A S; Mestre, L; Carrillo-Salinas, F J; Mechoulam, R; Guaza, C

    2012-06-28

    Cannabidiol (CBD) is the most abundant cannabinoid in Cannabis sativa that has no psychoactive properties. CBD has been approved to treat inflammation, pain and spasticity associated with multiple sclerosis (MS), of which demyelination and oligodendrocyte loss are hallmarks. Thus, we investigated the protective effects of CBD against the damage to oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs) mediated by the immune system. Doses of 1 μM CBD protect OPCs from oxidative stress by decreasing the production of reactive oxygen species. CBD also protects OPCs from apoptosis induced by LPS/IFNγ through the decrease of caspase 3 induction via mechanisms that do not involve CB1, CB2, TRPV1 or PPARγ receptors. Tunicamycin-induced OPC death was attenuated by CBD, suggesting a role of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in the mode of action of CBD. This protection against ER stress-induced apoptosis was associated with reduced phosphorylation of eiF2α, one of the initiators of the ER stress pathway. Indeed, CBD diminished the phosphorylation of PKR and eiF2α induced by LPS/IFNγ. The pro-survival effects of CBD in OPCs were accompanied by decreases in the expression of ER apoptotic effectors (CHOP, Bax and caspase 12), and increased expression of the anti-apoptotic Bcl-2. These findings suggest that attenuation of the ER stress pathway is involved in the 'oligoprotective' effects of CBD during inflammation.

  10. Cannabidiol protects oligodendrocyte progenitor cells from inflammation-induced apoptosis by attenuating endoplasmic reticulum stress

    PubMed Central

    Mecha, M; Torrao, A S; Mestre, L; Carrillo-Salinas, F J; Mechoulam, R; Guaza, C

    2012-01-01

    Cannabidiol (CBD) is the most abundant cannabinoid in Cannabis sativa that has no psychoactive properties. CBD has been approved to treat inflammation, pain and spasticity associated with multiple sclerosis (MS), of which demyelination and oligodendrocyte loss are hallmarks. Thus, we investigated the protective effects of CBD against the damage to oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs) mediated by the immune system. Doses of 1 μM CBD protect OPCs from oxidative stress by decreasing the production of reactive oxygen species. CBD also protects OPCs from apoptosis induced by LPS/IFNγ through the decrease of caspase 3 induction via mechanisms that do not involve CB1, CB2, TRPV1 or PPARγ receptors. Tunicamycin-induced OPC death was attenuated by CBD, suggesting a role of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in the mode of action of CBD. This protection against ER stress-induced apoptosis was associated with reduced phosphorylation of eiF2α, one of the initiators of the ER stress pathway. Indeed, CBD diminished the phosphorylation of PKR and eiF2α induced by LPS/IFNγ. The pro-survival effects of CBD in OPCs were accompanied by decreases in the expression of ER apoptotic effectors (CHOP, Bax and caspase 12), and increased expression of the anti-apoptotic Bcl-2. These findings suggest that attenuation of the ER stress pathway is involved in the ‘oligoprotective' effects of CBD during inflammation. PMID:22739983

  11. A fusion DNA vaccine that targets antigen-presenting cells increases protection from viral challenge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deliyannis, Georgia; Boyle, Jefferey S.; Brady, Jamie L.; Brown, Lorena E.; Lew, Andrew M.

    2000-06-01

    Improving the immunological potency, particularly the Ab response, is a serious hurdle for the protective efficacy and hence broad application of DNA vaccines. We examined the immunogenicity and protective efficacy of a hemagglutinin-based influenza DNA vaccine that was targeted to antigen-presenting cells (APCs) by fusion to CTLA4. The targeted vaccine was shown to induce an accelerated and increased Ab response (as compared with those receiving the nontargeted control) that was predominated by IgG1 and recognized conformationally dependent viral epitopes. Moreover, mice receiving the APC-targeted DNA vaccine had significantly reduced viral titers (100-fold) after a nonlethal virus challenge. The increased protective efficacy was most likely because of increased Ab responses, as cytotoxic T lymphocyte responses were not enhanced. Targeting was demonstrated by direct binding studies of CTLA4 fusion proteins to the cognate ligand (B7; expressed on APCs in vivo). In addition, a targeted protein was detected at 4-fold higher levels in draining lymph nodes within 2-24 h of administration. Therefore, this study demonstrates that targeting DNA-encoded antigen to APCs results in enhanced immunity and strongly suggests that this approach may be useful in improving the protective efficacy of DNA vaccines.

  12. Autophagy plays a protective role in cell death of osteoblasts exposure to lead chloride.

    PubMed

    Lv, Xiao-hua; Zhao, Da-hang; Cai, Shi-zhong; Luo, Shi-ying; You, Tingting; Xu, Bi-lian; Chen, Ke

    2015-12-03

    Lead (Pb) is a toxic heavy metal widespreadly used in industrial field. Prior studies showed that Pb exposure had detrimental effects on osteoblasts. The mechanisms underlying Pb-induced damage are complex. Autophagy can protect cells from various cytotoxic stimuli. In the present study, the aim of our research was to investigate whether Pb could activate autophagy to play a protective role against osteoblasts apoptosis. Our results indicated that PbCl2 induced autophagy and autophagic flux in MC3T3-E1 murine osteoblastic cell by RT-PCR, western blot, as well as fluorescence microscopy analysis of GFP-LC3, AO and MDC staining. Pb increased the apoptosis of osteoblasts, evidenced by western blot and Hoechst 33258 staining assessment. In addition, inhibiting autophagy by 3-MA further increased the osteoblasts apoptosis after Pb exposure, showed by flow cytometry and Hoechst 33258 staining. Furthermore, phosphorylation of mTOR and p70S6K was inhibited by Pb exposure, indicating that Pb might induce autophagy in osteoblasts via inhibiting mTOR pathway. Altogether, these evidence suggested that Pb exporsure promoted autophagy flux in osteoblasts. The activation of autophagy by Pb played a protective role in osteoblasts apoptosis, which might be mediated through the mTOR pathway.

  13. Guarding the perimeter: protection of the mucosa by tissue-resident memory T cells.

    PubMed

    Cauley, L S; Lefrançois, L

    2013-01-01

    Mucosal tissues are continually bombarded with infectious agents seeking to gain entry into the body. The absence of a tough physical exterior layer surrounding these tissues creates a unique challenge for the immune system, which manages to provide broad protection against a plethora of different organisms with the aid of special adaptations that augment immunity at these vulnerable sites. For example, specialized populations of memory T lymphocytes reside at initial sites of pathogen entry into the body, where they provide an important protective barrier. Similar anatomically-confined populations of pathogen-specific CD8 T cells can be found near the outer margins of the body following recovery from a variety of local infections, where they share very similar phenotypic characteristics. How these tissue-resident T cells are retained in a single anatomic location where they can promote immunity is beginning to be defined. Here, we will review current knowledge of the mechanisms that help establish and maintain these regional lymphocytes in the mucosal tissues and discuss relevant data that enhance our understanding of the contribution of these lymphocyte populations to protective immunity against infectious diseases.

  14. Low molecular weight fucoidan protects renal tubular cells from injury induced by albumin overload

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Yingli; Sun, Yi; Weng, Lin; Li, Yingjie; Zhang, Quanbin; Zhou, Hong; Yang, Baoxue

    2016-01-01

    Albuminuria is a causative and aggravating factor for progressive renal damage in chronic kidney disease (CKD). The aim of this study was to determine if low molecular weight fucoidan (LMWF) could protect renal function and tubular cells from albumin overload caused injury. Treatment with 10 mg/g bovine serum albumin caused renal dysfunction, morphological changes, and overexpression of inflammation and fibrosis associated proteins in 129S2/Sv mice. LMWF (100 mg/kg) protected against kidney injury and renal dysfunction with decreased blood creatinine by 34% and urea nitrogen by 25%, increased creatinine clearance by 48%, and decreased significantly urinary albumin concentration. In vitro proximal tubule epithelial cell (NRK-52E) model showed that LMWF dose-dependently inhibited overexpression of proinflammatory and profibrotic factors, oxidative stress and apoptosis caused by albumin overload. These experimental results indicate that LMWF protects against albumin overload caused renal injury by inhibiting inflammation, fibrosis, oxidative stress and apoptosis, which suggests that LMWF could be a promising candidate drug for preventing CKD. PMID:27545472

  15. Protective effect of quercetin and luteolin in human melanoma HMB-2 cells.

    PubMed

    Horváthová, Katarína; Chalupa, Ivan; Sebová, Lívia; Tóthová, Darina; Vachálková, Anna

    2005-01-03

    Multifunctional effects of flavonoids are reported to be markedly connected with their structure and the functional groups in the molecule. The important role in the activity play C2-C3 double bond, hydroxyl group at C3 and the number of hydroxyl groups at phenyl ring (B). In this paper, the DNA protective free radical scavenging potential of quercetin (QU) and luteolin (LU) against H2O2 and their clastogenic effect alone and in combination with melphalan (MH) were investigated in human melanoma HMB-2 cells. Elevated frequency of chromosomal aberrations induced by MH, that at high doses have shown a variety of toxic side effects, was statistically decreased by studied flavonoids regarding to control (QU at the concentration of 50 microM and LU already at the concentration of 20 microM). The results concerning DNA protective potential against free radicals in HMB-2 cells demonstrated that QU and LU have significant effect in dose dependent manner. The percentage of QU protective effect is 40% at the concentration 20 microM, resp. 80% at the concentration 100 microM. Comparable values were obtained with LU. Results are correlated to their structural arrangement and organization of the hydroxyl groups.

  16. Programmed cell death-10 enhances proliferation and protects malignant T cells from apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Lauenborg, Britt; Kopp, Katharina; Krejsgaard, Thorbjørn; Eriksen, Karsten W; Geisler, Carsten; Dabelsteen, Sally; Gniadecki, Robert; Zhang, Qian; Wasik, Mariusz A; Woetmann, Anders; Odum, Niels

    2010-10-01

    The programmed cell death-10 (PDCD10; also known as cerebral cavernous malformation-3 or CCM3) gene encodes an evolutionarily conserved protein associated with cell apoptosis. Mutations in PDCD10 result in cerebral cavernous malformations, an important cause of cerebral hemorrhage. PDCD10 is associated with serine/threonine kinases and phosphatases and modulates the extracellular signal-regulated kinase pathway suggesting a role in the regulation of cellular growth. Here we provide evidence of a constitutive expression of PDCD10 in malignant T cells and cell lines from peripheral blood of cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (Sezary syndrome) patients. PDCD10 is associated with protein phosphatase-2A, a regulator of mitogenesis and apoptosis in malignant T cells. Inhibition of oncogenic signal pathways [Jak3, Notch1, and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB)] partly inhibits the constitutive PDCD10 expression, whereas an activator of Jak3 and NF-κB, interleukin-2 (IL-2), enhances PDCD10 expression. Functional data show that PDCD10 depletion by small interfering RNA induces apoptosis and decreases proliferation of the sensitive cells. To our knowledge, these data provide the first functional link between PDCD10 and cancer.

  17. Infection of Human Fallopian Tube Epithelial Cells with Neisseria gonorrhoeae Protects Cells from Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha-Induced Apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Morales, Priscilla; Reyes, Paz; Vargas, Macarena; Rios, Miguel; Imarai, Mónica; Cardenas, Hugo; Croxatto, Horacio; Orihuela, Pedro; Vargas, Renato; Fuhrer, Juan; Heckels, John E.; Christodoulides, Myron; Velasquez, Luis

    2006-01-01

    Following infection with Neisseria gonorrhoeae, bacteria may ascend into the Fallopian tubes (FT) and induce salpingitis, a major cause of infertility. In the FT, interactions between mucosal epithelial cells and gonococci are pivotal events in the pathogen's infection cycle and the inflammatory response. In the current study, primary FT epithelial cells were infected in vitro with different multiplicities of infection (MOI) of Pil+ Opa+ gonococci. Bacteria showed a dose-dependent association with cells and induced the secretion of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α). A significant finding was that gonococcal infection (MOI = 1) induced apoptosis in approximately 30% of cells, whereas increasing numbers of bacteria (MOI = 10 to 100) did not induce apoptosis. Apoptosis was observed in only 11% of cells with associated bacteria, whereas >84% of cells with no adherent bacteria were apoptotic. TNF-α was a key contributor to apoptosis, since (i) culture supernatants from cells infected with gonococci (MOI = 1) induced apoptosis in naïve cultures, suggesting that a soluble factor was responsible; (ii) gonococcal infection-induced apoptosis was inhibited with anti-TNF-α antibodies; and (iii) the addition of exogenous TNF-α induced apoptosis, which was inhibited by the presence of increasing numbers of bacteria (MOI = 10 to 100). These data suggest that TNF-α-mediated apoptosis of FT epithelial cells is likely a primary host defense mechanism to prevent pathogen colonization. However, epithelial cell-associated gonococci have evolved a mechanism to protect the cells from undergoing TNF-α-mediated apoptosis, and this modulation of the host innate response may contribute to establishment of infection. Understanding the antiapoptotic mechanisms used by Neisseria gonorrhoeae will inform the pathogenesis of salpingitis and could suggest new intervention strategies for prevention and treatment of the disease. PMID:16714596

  18. Radio-protective effects of manganese-containing superoxide dismutase mimics on ataxia telangiectasia cells

    PubMed Central

    Pollard, Julianne M.; Reboucas, Julio S.; Durazo, Armando; Kos, Ivan; Fike, Francesca; Panni, Moeen; Gralla, Edith Butler; Valentine, Joan Selverstone; Batinic-Haberle, Ines; Gatti, Richard A.

    2009-01-01

    We tested several classes of antioxidant manganese compounds for radioprotective effects using human lymphoblastoid cells: six porphyrins, three salens and two cyclic polyamines. Radioprotection was evaluated by seven assays: XTT; Annexin V and propidium iodide flow cytometry analysis; γ-H2AX immunofluorescence; the neutral comet assay; dichlorofluorescein and dihydroethidium staining; resazurin and colony survival assay. Two compounds were most effective in protecting wildtype, and A-T cells, against radiation-induced damage: MnMx-2-PyP-Calbio (a mixture of differently N-methylated MnT-2-PyP+ from Calbiochem) and MnTnHex-2-PyP. MnTnHex-2-PyP protected WT cells against radiation-induced apoptosis by 58% (p=0.04) in WT by XTT and 39% (p=0.01) in A-T by Annexin V and propidium iodide staining. MnTnHex-2-PyP protected WT cells against DNA damage by 57% (p=0.005) by Gamma H2AX immunofluorescence and by 30% (p<0.01) by neutral comet assay. MnTnHex-2-PyP is more lipophilic than MnMx-2-PyP-Calbio and is also >10-fold more SOD-active; consequently it is >50-fold more potent as a radioprotectant, as supported by six of the tests employed in this study. Thus, lipophilicity and antioxidant potency correlated with the magnitude of the beneficial radioprotectant effects observed. Our results identify a new class of porphyrinic radioprotectants for the general and radiosensitive populations and may also provide a new option for treating A-T patients. PMID:19389472

  19. Protective effect of boric acid on lead- and cadmium-induced genotoxicity in V79 cells.

    PubMed

    Ustündağ, Aylin; Behm, Claudia; Föllmann, Wolfram; Duydu, Yalçin; Degen, Gisela H

    2014-06-01

    The toxic heavy metals cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) are important environmental pollutants which can cause serious damage to human health. As the metal ions (Cd(2+) and Pb(2+)) accumulate in the organism, there is special concern regarding chronic toxicity and damage to the genetic material. Metal-induced genotoxicity has been attributed to indirect mechanisms, such as induction of oxidative stress and interference with DNA repair. Boron is a naturally occurring element and considered to be an essential micronutrient, although the cellular activities of boron compounds remain largely unexplored. The present study has been conducted to evaluate potential protective effects of boric acid (BA) against genotoxicity induced by cadmium chloride (CdCl2) and lead chloride (PbCl2) in V79 cell cultures. Cytotoxicity assays (neutral red uptake and cell titer blue assay) served to determine suitable concentrations for subsequent genotoxicity assays. Chromosomal damage and DNA strand breaks were assessed by micronucleus tests and comet assays. Both PbCl2 and CdCl2 (at 3, 5 and 10 µM) were shown to induce concentration-dependent increases in micronucleus frequencies and DNA strand breaks in V79 cells. BA itself was not cytotoxic (up to 300 µM) and showed no genotoxic effects. Pretreatment of cells with low levels of BA (2.5 and 10 µM) was found to strongly reduce the genotoxic effects of the tested metals. Based on the findings of this in vitro study, it can be suggested that boron provides an efficient protection against the induction of DNA strand breaks and micronuclei by lead and cadmium. Further studies on the underlying mechanisms for the protective effect of boron are needed.

  20. Pharmacologically blocking p53-dependent apoptosis protects intestinal stem cells and mice from radiation

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xinwei; Wei, Liang; Cramer, Julie M.; Leibowitz, Brian J.; Judge, Colleen; Epperly, Michael; Greenberger, Joel; Wang, Fengchao; Li, Linheng; Stelzner, Matthias G.; Dunn, James C. Y.; Martin, Martin G.; Lagasse, Eric; Zhang, Lin; Yu, Jian

    2015-01-01

    Exposure to high levels of ionizing radiation (IR) leads to debilitating and dose-limiting gastrointestinal (GI) toxicity. Using three-dimensional mouse crypt culture, we demonstrated that p53 target PUMA mediates radiation-induced apoptosis via a cell-intrinsic mechanism, and identified the GSK-3 inhibitor CHIR99021 as a potent radioprotector. CHIR99021 treatment improved Lgr5+ cell survival and crypt regeneration after radiation in culture and mice. CHIR99021 treatment specifically blocked apoptosis and PUMA induction and K120 acetylation of p53 mediated by acetyl-transferase Tip60, while it had no effect on p53 stabilization, phosphorylation or p21 induction. CHIR99021 also protected human intestinal cultures from radiation by PUMA but not p21 suppression. These results demonstrate that p53 posttranslational modifications play a key role in the pathological and apoptotic response of the intestinal stem cells to radiation and can be targeted pharmacologically. PMID:25858503

  1. Isorhamnetin Protects Human Keratinocytes against Ultraviolet B-Induced Cell Damage

    PubMed Central

    Han, Xia; Piao, Mei Jing; Kim, Ki Cheon; Madduma Hewage, Susara Ruwan Kumara; Yoo, Eun Sook; Koh, Young Sang; Kang, Hee Kyoung; Shin, Jennifer H; Park, Yeunsoo; Yoo, Suk Jae; Chae, Sungwook; Hyun, Jin Won

    2015-01-01

    Isorhamnetin (3-methylquercetin) is a flavonoid derived from the fruits of certain medicinal plants. This study investigated the photoprotective properties of isorhamnetin against cell damage and apoptosis resulting from excessive ultraviolet (UV) B exposure in human HaCaT keratinocytes. Isorhamnetin eliminated UVB-induced intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) and attenuated the oxidative modification of DNA, lipids, and proteins in response to UVB radiation. Moreover, isorhamnetin repressed UVB-facilitated programmed cell death in the keratinocytes, as evidenced by a reduction in apoptotic body formation, and nuclear fragmentation. Additionally, isorhamnetin suppressed the ability of UVB light to trigger mitochondrial dysfunction. Taken together, these results indicate that isorhamnetin has the potential to protect human keratinocytes against UVB-induced cell damage and death. PMID:26157553

  2. Isorhamnetin Protects Human Keratinocytes against Ultraviolet B-Induced Cell Damage.

    PubMed

    Han, Xia; Piao, Mei Jing; Kim, Ki Cheon; Madduma Hewage, Susara Ruwan Kumara; Yoo, Eun Sook; Koh, Young Sang; Kang, Hee Kyoung; Shin, Jennifer H; Park, Yeunsoo; Yoo, Suk Jae; Chae, Sungwook; Hyun, Jin Won

    2015-07-01

    Isorhamnetin (3-methylquercetin) is a flavonoid derived from the fruits of certain medicinal plants. This study investigated the photoprotective properties of isorhamnetin against cell damage and apoptosis resulting from excessive ultraviolet (UV) B exposure in human HaCaT keratinocytes. Isorhamnetin eliminated UVB-induced intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) and attenuated the oxidative modification of DNA, lipids, and proteins in response to UVB radiation. Moreover, isorhamnetin repressed UVB-facilitated programmed cell death in the keratinocytes, as evidenced by a reduction in apoptotic body formation, and nuclear fragmentation. Additionally, isorhamnetin suppressed the ability of UVB light to trigger mitochondrial dysfunction. Taken together, these results indicate that isorhamnetin has the potential to protect human keratinocytes against UVB-induced cell damage and death.

  3. STAT3-Activated GM-CSFRα Translocates to the Nucleus and Protects CLL Cells from Apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ping; Harris, David; Liu, Zhiming; Rozovski, Uri; Ferrajoli, Alessandra; Wang, Yongtao; Bueso-Ramos, Carlos; Hazan-Halevy, Inbal; Grgurevic, Srdana; Wierda, William; Burger, Jan; O'Brien, Susan; Faderl, Stefan; Keating, Michael; Estrov, Zeev

    2014-01-01

    Here it was determined that Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia (CLL) cells express the α-subunit but not the β-subunit of the granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor receptor (GM-CSFR/CSF3R). GM-CSFRα was detected on the surface, in the cytosol, and the nucleus of CLL cells via confocal microscopy, cell fractionation, and GM-CSFRα antibody epitope mapping. Because STAT3 is frequently activated in CLL and the GM-CSFRα promoter harbors putative STAT3 consensus binding sites, MM1 cells were transfected with truncated forms of the GM-CSFRα promoter, then stimulated with IL-6 to activate STAT3 to identify STAT3 binding sites. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) and an electoromobility shift assay (EMSA) confirmed STAT3 occupancy to those promoter regions in both IL-6 stimulated MM1 and CLL cells. Transfection of MM1 cells with STAT3 siRNA or CLL cells with STAT3 shRNA significantly down-regulated GM-CSFRα mRNA and protein levels. RNA transcripts, involved in regulating cell-survival pathways, and the proteins KAP1 (TRIM28) and ISG15 co-immunoprecipitated with GM-CSFRα. GM-CSFRα-bound KAP1 enhanced the transcriptional activity of STAT3, whereas ISG15 inhibited the NF-κB pathway. Nevertheless, overexpression of GM-CSFRα protected MM1 cells from dexamethasone-induced apoptosis, and GM-CSFRα knockdown induced apoptosis in CLL cells, suggesting that GM-CSFRα provides a ligand-independent survival advantage. PMID:24836891

  4. Protective role of NK1.1+ cells in experimental Staphylococcus aureus arthritis

    PubMed Central

    NILSSON, N; BREMELL, T; TARKOWSKI, A; CARLSTEN, H

    1999-01-01

    In a model of Staphylococcus aureus-induced septic arthritis in C57Bl/6 mice we investigated the role of natural killer (NK) cells in the development of disease. Depletion of NK1.1+ cells was achieved by repeated injections of the PK136 antibody, whereas control mice received an irrelevant monoclonal antibody, O1C5.B2. Both groups of mice then received injections intravenously with 2 × 107 live S. aureus LS-1 secreting toxic shock syndrome toxin-1 (TSST-1). The mice were evaluated for 16 days with regard to weight, mortality and arthritis. Nine days after bacterial injection, 9/19 mice depleted of NK cells had developed arthritis compared with 1/17 in the control group (P = 0.01). The experiment was repeated twice with the same outcome. NK cell-depleted and control mice displayed the same degree of histopathological signs of arthritis at day 16. Depletion of NK cells did not affect uptake of bacteria by phagocytic cells in vitro, or bacterial clearance in vivo. In NK cell-depleted mice there was a tendency to increased levels of antibodies to TSST-1, whereas total immunoglobulin levels were similar to those in controls. NK cell depletion of non-infected mice did not affect the magnitude of inflammatory response during the T cell-dependent cutaneous DTH reaction to oxazolone, or during granulocyte-mediated inflammation. However, specific antibody responses to oxazolone were greatly increased in depleted animals. In conclusion, our study demonstrates that NK cells protect against arthritis during S. aureus infection. This outcome does not seem to be due to an influence on bacterial clearance, but could be due to an interaction with the host anti-inflammatory mechanisms. PMID:10403917

  5. Prion protein prevents heavy metals overloading of cells and thus protects them against their toxicity.

    PubMed

    Prčina, M; Kontseková, E; Novák, M

    2015-06-01

    Physiological function of a prion protein (PrP) is not known yet. Regarding the relation of PrP to heavy metals it is known that PrP is able to bind divalent ions of copper, zinc, manganese and nickel through its octarepeat region. It has been hypothesized but not yet confirmed that PrP could play a role in copper metabolism. In this study, cells expressing human full-length PrP (HuPrP1) and PrP-knockout (PrP0/0/1) cells were incubated with various concentrations of copper, zinc, manganese and nickel for 4 days and then were assayed for intracellular content of these metals and cell viability. The results showed that HuPrP1 cells accumulated less heavy metals than PrP0/0/1 cells when concentrations of heavy metals exceeded physiological level. In conclusion, HuPrP1 cells are more resistant to chronic overload with copper, manganese, zinc or nickel than PrP0/0/1 cells. The resistance to metals overload is caused solely by the presence of PrP, since HuPrP1 and PrP0/0/1 cells differ only in the expression of PrP. These results indicate that one of the functions of PrP can be the modulation of trace heavy metal concentrations in cells and protection of cells against heavy metals overload and subsequent oxidative stress.

  6. Ebselen protects brain, skin, lung and blood cells from mechlorethamine toxicity.

    PubMed

    Hardej, Diane; Billack, Blase

    2007-05-01

    Nitrogen mustards are vesicants capable of burning the skin, eyes and respiratory tract of exposed individuals. While generally less toxic than sulfur mustards, these compounds have the potential for use as chemical warfare agents. Presently, no antidote exists for treatment against nitrogen mustard toxicity. The purpose of this study was to investigate the in vitro toxicity of the nitrogen mustard mechlorethamine (HN2) in four cell models: CEM-SS human T cells, A431 human skin epithelial cells, rat hippocampal astrocytes and rat pleural mesothelial cells. Furthermore, the efficacy of the synthetic seleno-organic compound ebselen (Eb) (2-phenyl-1,2- benzisoselenazol-3(2H)-one) as a cytoprotective agent against such toxicity was evaluated. Significant increases in cell viability, as assessed using an MTT assay for viability, was demonstrated when 30 microM Eb was used as a cotreatment with HN2 in all cell models tested at the following doses of HN2: A431 skin cells,10-40 microM; rat astrocytes, 20 and 40 microM; rat mesothelia, 10-40 microM; and human T cells 4-16 microM. Decreases in cell viability and toxicity to HN2 were confirmed using light and scanning electron microscopy. Membrane damage, observed with HN2 exposure, such as blebbing and loss of cell projections, was ameliorated with Eb cotreatment. Our results demonstrate a generalized protective effect observed with Eb cotreatment that suggests that this agent may have potential as an antidote for HN2 exposure and toxicity.

  7. Nrf2 protects photoreceptor cells from photo-oxidative stress induced by blue light.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wan-Ju; Wu, Caiying; Xu, Zhenhua; Kuse, Yoshiki; Hara, Hideaki; Duh, Elia J

    2017-01-01

    Oxidative stress plays a key role in age-related macular degeneration and hereditary retinal degenerations. Light damage in rodents has been used extensively to model oxidative stress-induced photoreceptor degeneration, and photo-oxidative injury from blue light is particularly damaging to photoreceptors. The endogenous factors protecting photoreceptors from oxidative stress, including photo-oxidative stress, are continuing to be elucidated. In this study, we evaluated the effect of blue light exposure on photoreceptors and its relationship to Nrf2 using cultured murine photoreceptor (661W) cells. 661W cells were exposed to blue light at 2500 lux. Exposure to blue light for 6-24 h resulted in a significant increase in intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) and death of 661W cells in a time-dependent fashion. Blue light exposure resulted in activation of Nrf2, as indicated by an increase in nuclear translocation of Nrf2. This was associated with a significant induction of expression of Nrf2 as well as an array of Nrf2 target genes, including antioxidant genes, as indicated by quantitative reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR). In order to determine the functional role of Nrf2, siRNA-mediated knockdown studies were performed. Nrf2-knockdown in 661W cells resulted in significant exacerbation of blue light-induced reactive oxygen species levels as well as cell death. Taken together, these findings indicate that Nrf2 is an important endogenous protective factor against oxidative stress in photoreceptor cells. This suggests that drugs targeting Nrf2 could be considered as a neuroprotective strategy for photoreceptors in AMD and other retinal conditions.

  8. Puerarin may protect against Schwann cell damage induced by glucose fluctuation.

    PubMed

    Xue, Bing; Wang, Lin; Zhang, Zhe; Wang, Rui; Xia, Xin-Xin; Han, Ping-Ping; Cao, Li-Jun; Liu, Yong-Hui; Sun, Lian-Qing

    2017-02-08

    Puerarin is one of the major active ingredients in Gegen, a traditional Chinese herb that has been reported to have a wide variety of beneficial pharmacology functions. Previous studies have implicated that the damaging effects of hyperglycemia resulting from oxidative stress and glucose fluctuation may be more dangerous than constant high glucose in the development of diabetes-related complications. The present study focuses on the effects of puerarin on glucose fluctuation-induced oxidative stress-induced Schwann cell (SC) apoptosis in vitro. Primarily cultured SCs were exposed to different conditions and the effect of puerarin on cell viability was determined by MTT assays. Intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and mitochondrial transmembrane potential were detected by flow cytometry analysis. Apoptosis was confirmed by the Annexin V-FITC/PI and TUNEL method. Quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction was performed to analyze the expression levels of bax and bcl-2. Western blot was performed to analyze the expression levels of some important transcription factors and proteins. The results showed that incubating SCs with intermittent high glucose for 48 h decreased cell viability and increased the number of apoptotic cells whereas treating with puerarin protected SCs against glucose fluctuation-induced cell damage. Further study demonstrated that puerarin suppressed activation of apoptosis-related proteins including PARP and caspase-3, downregulation of bcl-2, and upregulation of intracellular distribution of bax from cytosol to mitochondria, which was induced by glucose fluctuation. Moreover, puerarin inhibited the elevation of intracellular ROS and mitochondrial depolarization induced by glucose fluctuation. These results suggest that puerarin may protect SCs against glucose fluctuation-induced cell injury through inhibiting apoptosis as well as oxidative stress.

  9. The cumulus cell layer protects the bovine maturing oocyte against fatty acid-induced lipotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Lolicato, Francesca; Brouwers, Jos F; de Lest, Chris H A van; Wubbolts, Richard; Aardema, Hilde; Priore, Paola; Roelen, Bernard A J; Helms, J Bernd; Gadella, Bart M

    2015-01-01

    Mobilization of fatty acids from adipose tissue during metabolic stress increases the amount of free fatty acids in blood and follicular fluid and is associated with impaired female fertility. In a previous report, we described the effects of the three predominant fatty acids in follicular fluid (saturated palmitate and stearate and unsaturated oleate) on oocyte maturation and quality. In the current study, the effects of elevated fatty acid levels on cumulus cells were investigated. In a dose-dependent manner, the three fatty acids induced lipid storage in cumulus cells accompanied by an enhanced immune labeling of perilipin-2, a marker for lipid droplets. Lipidomic analysis confirmed incorporation of the administered fatty acids into triglyceride, resulting in a 3- to 6-fold increase of triglyceride content. In addition, palmitate selectively induced ceramide formation, which has been implicated in apoptosis. Indeed, of the three fatty acids tested, palmitate induced reactive oxygen species formation, caspase 3 activation, and mitochondria deterioration, leading to degeneration of the cumulus cell layers. This effect could be mimicked by addition of the ceramide-C2 analog and could be inhibited by the ceramide synthase inhibitor fumonisin-B1. Interfering with the intactness of the cumulus cell layers, either by mechanical force or by palmitate treatment, resulted in enhanced uptake of lipids in the oocyte and increased radical formation. Our results show that cumulus cells act as a barrier, protecting oocytes from in vitro induced lipotoxic effects. We suggest that this protective function of the cumulus cell layers is important for the developmental competence of the oocyte. The relevance of our findings for assisted reproduction technologies is discussed.

  10. Cellular Preoxygenation Partially Attenuates the Antitumoral Effect of Cisplatin despite Highly Protective Effects on Renal Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Rasoulian, Bahram; Rezaei, Maryam; Hajializadeh, Zahra

    2017-01-01

    Our previous in vitro studies demonstrated that oxygen pretreatment significantly protects human embryonic renal tubular cell against acute cisplatin- (CP-) induced cytotoxicity. The present study was designed to investigate whether this protective effect is associated with decreasing therapeutic effects of cisplatin on malignant cells. For this purpose, cultured human embryonic kidney epithelial-like (AD293), cervical carcinoma epithelial-like (Hela), and ovarian adenocarcinoma epithelial-like (OVCAR-3) cells were subjected to either 2-hour pretreatment with oxygen (≥90%) or normal air and then to a previously determined 50% lethal dose of cisplatin for 24 hours. Cellular viability was evaluated via MTT and Neutral Red assays. Also, activated caspase-3 and Bax/Bcl-2 ratio, as the biochemical markers of cell apoptosis, were determined using immunoblotting. The hyperoxic preexposure protocol significantly protects renal AD293 cells against cisplatin-induced toxicity. Oxygen pretreatment also partially attenuated the cisplatin-induced cytotoxic effects on Hela and OVCAR-3 cells. However, it did not completely protect these cells against the therapeutic cytotoxic effects of cisplatin. In summary, the protective methods for reducing cisplatin nephrotoxic side effects like oxygen pretreatment might be associated with concurrent reduction of the therapeutic cytotoxic effects of cisplatin on malignant cells like cervical carcinoma (Hela) and ovarian adenocarcinoma (OVCAR-3) cells. PMID:28298953

  11. Cellular Preoxygenation Partially Attenuates the Antitumoral Effect of Cisplatin despite Highly Protective Effects on Renal Epithelial Cells.

    PubMed

    Rasoulian, Bahram; Kaeidi, Ayat; Rezaei, Maryam; Hajializadeh, Zahra

    2017-01-01

    Our previous in vitro studies demonstrated that oxygen pretreatment significantly protects human embryonic renal tubular cell against acute cisplatin- (CP-) induced cytotoxicity. The present study was designed to investigate whether this protective effect is associated with decreasing therapeutic effects of cisplatin on malignant cells. For this purpose, cultured human embryonic kidney epithelial-like (AD293), cervical carcinoma epithelial-like (Hela), and ovarian adenocarcinoma epithelial-like (OVCAR-3) cells were subjected to either 2-hour pretreatment with oxygen (≥90%) or normal air and then to a previously determined 50% lethal dose of cisplatin for 24 hours. Cellular viability was evaluated via MTT and Neutral Red assays. Also, activated caspase-3 and Bax/Bcl-2 ratio, as the biochemical markers of cell apoptosis, were determined using immunoblotting. The hyperoxic preexposure protocol significantly protects renal AD293 cells against cisplatin-induced toxicity. Oxygen pretreatment also partially attenuated the cisplatin-induced cytotoxic effects on Hela and OVCAR-3 cells. However, it did not completely protect these cells against the therapeutic cytotoxic effects of cisplatin. In summary, the protective methods for reducing cisplatin nephrotoxic side effects like oxygen pretreatment might be associated with concurrent reduction of the therapeutic cytotoxic effects of cisplatin on malignant cells like cervical carcinoma (Hela) and ovarian adenocarcinoma (OVCAR-3) cells.

  12. Tyrosol exerts a protective effect against dopaminergic neuronal cell death in in vitro model of Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Dewapriya, Pradeep; Himaya, S W A; Li, Yong-Xin; Kim, Se-Kwon

    2013-11-15

    Experimental evidence suggests that tyrosol [2-(4-hydroxyphenyl)ethanol] exhibits potent protective activities against several pathogeneses. In this study, we evaluated the protective effect of tyrosol against 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP(+))-induced CATH.a neuron cell death. Tyrosol dose-dependently protected CATH.a cells from MPP(+)-induced cell death and the protection was more apparent after prolong incubation (48h). The data showed that tyrosol treatment suppressed the reduction of phospho-tyrosine hydroxylase level in CATH.a cells. Further, the compound repressed MPP(+)-induced depletion of mitochondrial membrane potential (Δψm) and thereby maintained intracellular ATP production in the cell. The cellular signalling pathway studies revealed that tyrosol protected CATH.a cells from MPP(+)-induced apoptotic signalling, most likely via activation of PI3K/Akt signalling pathway along with up-regulation of anti-oxidative enzymes (SOD-1 and SOD-2) and DJ-1 protein in the cell. Collectively, present study demonstrates that tyrosol significantly protects dopaminergic neurons from MPP(+)-induced degradation, and reveals potential neuroprotective mechanism of tyrosol.

  13. Protective effect of carnosine during nitrosative stress in astroglial cell cultures.

    PubMed

    Calabrese, V; Colombrita, C; Guagliano, E; Sapienza, M; Ravagna, A; Cardile, V; Scapagnini, G; Santoro, A M; Mangiameli, A; Butterfield, D A; Giuffrida Stella, A M; Rizzarelli, E

    2005-01-01

    Formation of nitric oxide by astrocytes has been suggested to contribute, via impairment of mitochondrial function, to the neurodegenerative process. Mitochondria under oxidative stress are thought to play a key role in various neurodegenerative disorders; therefore protection by antioxidants against oxidative stress to mitochondria may prove to be beneficial in delaying the onset or progression of these diseases. Carnosine has been recently proposed to act as antioxidant in vivo. In the present study, we demonstrate its neuroprotective effect in astrocytes exposed to LPS- and INFgamma-induced nitrosative stress. Carnosine protected against nitric oxide-induced impairment of mitochondrial function. This effect was associated with decreased formation of oxidatively modified proteins and with decreased up-regulation oxidative stress-responsive genes, such as Hsp32, Hsp70 and mt-SOD. Our results sustain the possibility that carnosine might have anti-ageing effects to brain cells under pathophysiological conditions leading to degenerative damage, such as aging and neurodegenerative disorders.

  14. Shark-cartilage containing preparation protects cells against hydrogen peroxide induced damage and mutagenesis.

    PubMed

    Gomes, E M; Souto, P R; Felzenszwalb, I

    1996-04-06

    Natural products from flora and fauna are frequently used as nutritional supplements and medicaments. Two short-term assays were carried out and negative results were obtained for shark-cartilage containing preparation. The tests employed were the Salmonella/mammalian microsome assay using tester strains TA97, TA98, TA100, TA102 and TA1535 with or without S9 mix and the SOS-Chromotest with Escherichia coli strain PQ37. Evidence for shark-cartilage containing preparation functioning as an antimutagen was detected. Using bacterial survival assays with Escherichia coli fpg (BH20) and xthA (BW9091), we investigated the putative role of shark-cartilage containing preparation in protecting cells against lesions induced by hydrogen peroxide in normal and low iron level conditions. Our data suggest that shark-cartilage containing preparation can play a scavenger role for reactive oxygen species and protect against DNA lesions in both conditions.

  15. Rosiglitazone protects human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells against acetaldehyde-induced cytotoxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Jung, Tae Woo; Lee, Ji Young; Shim, Wan Sub; Kang, Eun Seok; Kim, Soo Kyung; Ahn, Chul Woo; Lee, Hyun Chul; Cha, Bong Soo . E-mail: bscha@yumc.yonsei.ac.kr

    2006-02-03

    Acetaldehyde, an inhibitor of mitochondrial function, has been widely used as a neurotoxin because it elicits a severe Parkinson's disease-like syndrome with elevation of the intracellular reactive oxygen species level and apoptosis. Rosiglitazone, a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-{gamma} agonist, has been known to show various non-hypoglycemic effects, including anti-inflammatory, anti-atherogenic, and anti-apoptotic. In this study, we investigated the protective effects of rosiglitazone on acetaldehyde-induced apoptosis in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells and attempted to examine its mechanism. Acetaldehyde-induced apoptosis was moderately reversed by rosiglitazone treatment. Our results suggest that the protective effects of rosiglitazone on acetaldehyde-induced apoptosis may be ascribed to ability to induce the expression of anti-oxidant enzymes and to regulate Bcl-2 and Bax expression. These data indicate that rosiglitazone may provide a useful therapeutic strategy for the prevention of progressive neurodegenerative disease such as Parkinson's disease.

  16. Sonic Hedgehog Signaling Protects Human Hepatocellular Carcinoma Cells Against Ionizing Radiation in an Autocrine Manner

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Yu-Jen; Lin, Chin-Ping; Hsu, Ming-Ling; Shieh, Hui-Ru; Chao, Nicholas K.; Chao, K.S. Clifford

    2011-07-01

    Purpose: Sonic hedgehog (Shh) signaling is critical to embryogenesis and resistance to chemotherapy. We aimed to examine the role of Shh signaling in the response to radiation of human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells. Methods and Materials: Response to ionizing radiation therapy (RT) was evaluated by clonogenic assay. Quantitative RT-polymerase chain reaction for patched-1 (PTCH-1) expression was performed. Cytosolic accumulation of Shh and nuclear translocation of Gli-1 were assessed by immunofluorescence. Gli-1 knockdown was done by RNA interference (RNAi). Immunoprecipitation was performed to detect Shh ligand in conditioned medium. Immunofluorescent stain for {gamma}-H2AX was used as an index of DNA double strand breaks (DSB). Expression of proteins related to DNA damage repair was assessed by Western blotting. Results: We found that Shh ligand could protect human HCC HA22T and Sk-Hep1 cells against RT. In HA22T cells, Shh ligand activated the Shh signaling with upregulation of Shh, PTCH-1, and Gli-1 expression. The nuclear translocation of Gli-1 further supports the activation of Gli-1. The radioprotection by Shh ligand was partly blocked by Shh antibody neutralization and was abolished by Gli-1 RNAi, suggesting a critical role of Shh signaling in radiation resistance. Furthermore, we noted that soluble factors secreted into conditioned medium, either constitutively or responding to radiation, by HA22T or Sk-Hep1 cells protected subsequent culturing cells against RT. Immunoprecipitation shows the presence of Shh peptide in conditioned medium. Intriguingly, antibody neutralization of Shh ligand or knockdown of Gli-1 reversed the radioprotective effect of conditioned medium. Furthermore, Shh ligand reduced the RT-induced phosphorylation of checkpoint kinase 1 and impaired the repair of DNA DSB. Conclusions: Activation of Shh signaling protects HCC cells against ionizing radiation in an autocrine manner. Impairment of DNA damage repair might involve

  17. Autophagy protects type II alveolar epithelial cells from Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection

    SciTech Connect

    Guo, Xu-Guang; Ji, Tian-Xing; Xia, Yong; Ma, Yue-Yun

    2013-03-08

    Highlights: ► We investigated the protective effect of autophagy pathway against MTB infection. ► MTB-infected A549 cells had higher LDH release. ► Inhibition of autophagy signaling significantly enhanced the MTB-induced necrosis. ► Autophagy prevents apoptosis and promotes cell survival in infected cells. -- Abstract: This study was designed to investigate the protective effect of the autophagy signaling pathway against Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection in type II alveolar epithelial cells. An in vitro M. tuberculosis system was established using human A549 cells. Infection-induced changes in the expression of the autophagic marker LC3 were assessed by reverse transcription-PCR and Western blotting. Morphological changes in autophagosomes were detected by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The function of the autophagy signaling pathway during infection was assessed by measuring the level of cell death and the amount of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) released in the presence or absence of the inhibitor 3-methyladenine (3-MA). In addition, effects on LDH release were assessed after the siRNA-mediated knockdown of the essential autophagosomal structural membrane protein Atg5. LC3 mRNA expression was significantly reduced in M.tuberculosis-infected A549 cells (16888.76 ± 1576.34 vs. uninfected: 12744.29 ± 1089.37; P < 0.05). TEM revealed M.tuberculosis bacilli-containing compartments that were surrounded by double membranes characteristic of the autophagic process. M.tuberculosis-infected A549 cells released more LDH (1.45 ± 0.12 vs. uninfected: 0.45 ± 0.04; P < 0.05). The inhibition of autophagy signaling significantly enhanced M.tuberculosis-induced necrosis (3-MA: 75 ± 5% vs. untreated: 15 ± 1%; P < 0.05) and LDH release (3-MA: 2.50 ± 0.24 vs. untreated: 0.45 ± 0.04; Atg5 knockdown: 3.19 ± 0.29 vs. untreated: 1.28 ± 0.11; P < 0.05). Our results indicate that autophagy signaling pathway prevents apoptosis in type II alveolar epithelial cells

  18. Antioxidant Protection of NADPH-Depleted Oligodendrocyte Precursor Cells Is Dependent on Supply of Reduced Glutathione

    PubMed Central

    Kilanczyk, Ewa; Saraswat Ohri, Sujata; Whittemore, Scott R.

    2016-01-01

    The pentose phosphate pathway is the main source of NADPH, which by reducing oxidized glutathione, contributes to antioxidant defenses. Although oxidative stress plays a major role in white matter injury, significance of NADPH for oligodendrocyte survival has not been yet investigated. It is reported here that the NADPH antimetabolite 6-amino-NADP (6AN) was cytotoxic to cultured adult rat spinal cord oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs) as well as OPC-derived oligodendrocytes. The 6AN-induced necrosis was preceded by increased production of superoxide, NADPH depletion, and lower supply of reduced glutathione. Moreover, survival of NADPH-depleted OPCs was improved by the antioxidant drug trolox. Such cells were also protected by physiological concentrations of the neurosteroid dehydroepiandrosterone (10−8 M). The protection by dehydroepiandrosterone was associated with restoration of reduced glutathione, but not NADPH, and was sensitive to inhibition of glutathione synthesis. A similar protective mechanism was engaged by the cAMP activator forskolin or the G protein-coupled estrogen receptor (GPER/GPR30) ligand G1. Finally, treatment with the glutathione precursor N-acetyl cysteine reduced cytotoxicity of 6AN. Taken together, NADPH is critical for survival of OPCs by supporting their antioxidant defenses. Consequently, injury-associated inhibition of the pentose phosphate pathway may be detrimental for the myelination or remyelination potential of the white matter. Conversely, steroid hormones and cAMP activators may promote survival of NADPH-deprived OPCs by increasing a NADPH-independent supply of reduced glutathione. Therefore, maintenance of glutathione homeostasis appears as a critical effector mechanism for OPC protection against NADPH depletion and preservation of the regenerative potential of the injured white matter. PMID:27449129

  19. Curcumin induces autophagy to protect vascular endothelial cell survival from oxidative stress damage.

    PubMed

    Han, Jing; Pan, Xue-Yang; Xu, Yan; Xiao, Yuan; An, Yu; Tie, Lu; Pan, Yan; Li, Xue-Jun

    2012-05-01

    Our study first proposed that curcumin could protect human endothelial cells from the damage caused by oxidative stress via autophagy. Furthermore, our results revealed that curcumin causes some novel cellular mechanisms that promote autophagy as a protective effect. Pretreatment with curcumin remarkably improves the survival of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) from H 2O 2-induced viability loss, which specifically evokes an autophagic response. Exposed to H 2O 2, curcumin-treated HUVECs upregulate the level of microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3-II (LC3-II), the number of autophagosomes, and the degradation of p62. We show that this compound promotes BECN1 expression and inhibits the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PtdIns3K)-AKT-mechanistic target of rapamycin (MTOR) signaling pathway. Curcumin can also reverse FOXO1 (a mediator of autophagy) nuclear localization along with causing an elevated level of cytoplasmic acetylation of FOXO1 and the interaction of acetylated FOXO1 and ATG7, under the circumstance of oxidative stress. Additionally, knockdown of FOXO1 by shRNA inhibits not only the protective effects that curcumin induced, but the autophagic process, from the quantity of LC3-II to the expression of RAB7. These results suggest that curcumin induces autophagy, indicating that curcumin has the potential for use as an autophagic-related antioxidant for prevention and treatment of oxidative stress. These data uncover a brand new protective mechanism involving FOXO1 as having a critical role in regulating autophagy in HUVECs, and suggest a novel role for curcumin in inducing a beneficial form of autophagy in HUVECs, which may be a potential multitargeted therapeutic avenue for the treatment of oxidative stress-related cardiovascular diseases.

  20. Pericytes Derived from Adipose-Derived Stem Cells Protect against Retinal Vasculopathy

    PubMed Central

    Mendel, Thomas A.; Clabough, Erin B. D.; Kao, David S.; Demidova-Rice, Tatiana N.; Durham, Jennifer T.; Zotter, Brendan C.; Seaman, Scott A.; Cronk, Stephen M.; Rakoczy, Elizabeth P.; Katz, Adam J.; Herman, Ira M.; Peirce, Shayn M.; Yates, Paul A.

    2013-01-01

    Background Retinal vasculopathies, including diabetic retinopathy (DR), threaten the vision of over 100 million people. Retinal pericytes are critical for microvascular control, supporting retinal endothelial cells via direct contact and paracrine mechanisms. With pericyte death or loss, endothelial dysfunction ensues, resulting in hypoxic insult, pathologic angiogenesis, and ultimately blindness. Adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) differentiate into pericytes, suggesting they may be useful as a protective and regenerative cellular therapy for retinal vascular disease. In this study, we examine the ability of ASCs to differentiate into pericytes that can stabilize retinal vessels in multiple pre-clinical models of retinal vasculopathy. Methodology/Principal Findings We found that ASCs express pericyte-specific markers in vitro. When injected intravitreally into the murine eye subjected to oxygen-induced retinopathy (OIR), ASCs were capable of migrating to and integrating with the retinal vasculature. Integrated ASCs maintained marker expression and pericyte-like morphology in vivo for at least 2 months. ASCs injected after OIR vessel destabilization and ablation enhanced vessel regrowth (16% reduction in avascular area). ASCs injected intravitreally before OIR vessel destabilization prevented retinal capillary dropout (53% reduction). Treatment of ASCs with transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β1) enhanced hASC pericyte function, in a manner similar to native retinal pericytes, with increased marker expression of smooth muscle actin, cellular contractility, endothelial stabilization, and microvascular protection in OIR. Finally, injected ASCs prevented capillary loss in the diabetic retinopathic Akimba mouse (79% reduction 2 months after injection). Conclusions/Significance ASC-derived pericytes can integrate with retinal vasculature, adopting both pericyte morphology and marker expression, and provide functional vascular protection in multiple murine models of

  1. Morroniside protects SK-N-SH human neuroblastoma cells against H2O2-induced damage

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jing-Xing; Wang, Rui; Xi, Jin; Shen, Lin; Zhu, An-You; Qi, Qi; Wang, Qi-Yi; Zhang, Lun-Jun; Wang, Feng-Chao; Lü, He-Zuo; Hu, Jian-Guo

    2017-01-01

    Oxidative stress-induced cell injury has been linked to the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative disorders such as spinal cord injury, Parkinson's disease, and multiple sclerosis. Morroniside is an antioxidant derived from the Chinese herb Shan-Zhu-Yu. The present study investigated the neuroprotective effect of morroniside against hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced cell death in SK-N-SH human neuroblastoma cells. H2O2 increased cell apoptosis, as determined by flow cytometry and Hoechst 33342 staining. This effect was reversed by pretreatment with morroniside at concentrations of 1–100 µM. The increase in intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and lipid peroxidation induced by H2O2 was also abrogated by morroniside. H2O2 induced a reduction in mitochondrial membrane potential, increased caspase-3 activity, and caused downregulation of B cell lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2) and upregulation of Bcl-2-associated X protein (Bax) expression. These effects were blocked by morroniside pretreatment. Thus, morroniside protects human neuroblastoma cells against oxidative damage by inhibiting ROS production while suppressing Bax and stimulating Bcl-2 expression, thereby blocking mitochondrial-mediated apoptosis. These results indicate that morroniside has therapeutic potential for the prevention and treatment of neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:28204825

  2. 4-1BB protects dendritic cells from prostate cancer-induced apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Youlin, Kuang; Jianwei, Zhang; Xin, Gou; Li, Zhang; Xiaodong, Weng; Xiuheng, Liu; Hengchen, Zhu; Zhiyuan, Chen

    2013-04-01

    It has been shown that human prostate cancer (PCa) cells induced apoptotic death of the most potent antigen-presenting cells, dendritic cells (DCs), which are responsible for the induction of specific antitumor immune responses. Here, we investigated the function of 4-1BB on protecting DCs from prostate cancer-induced apoptosis with an agonistic mAb to 4-1BB. RM-1 cells and DCs were co-incubated for 48 h and DC apoptosis was assessed by Annexin Vassay. TNF-α and IL-12 production were assessed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL on DCs were analyzed by Western blot. We have shown that co-incubation of RM-1 cells with DCs is accompanied by an increased level of DCs apoptosis. Triggering 4-1BB on DCs resulted in increased resistance of DCs to RM-1 cells-induced apoptosis, which was owing to the up-regulated expression of Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL, and increased secretion of TNF-αand IL-12. These results demonstrate that triggering 4-1BB on DCs could increased resistance of DCs to PCa-induced apoptosis.

  3. Dimethylsulfoniopropionate Promotes Process Outgrowth in Neural Cells and Exerts Protective Effects against Tropodithietic Acid

    PubMed Central

    Wichmann, Heidi; Brinkhoff, Thorsten; Simon, Meinhard; Richter-Landsberg, Christiane

    2016-01-01

    The marine environment harbors a plethora of bioactive substances, including drug candidates of potential value in the field of neuroscience. The present study was undertaken to investigate the effects of dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP), produced by several algae, corals and higher plants, on cells of the mammalian nervous system, i.e., neuronal N2a and OLN-93 cells as model system for nerve cells and glia, respectively. Additionally, the protective capabilities of DMSP were assessed in cells treated with tropodithietic acid (TDA), a marine metabolite produced by several Roseobacter clade bacteria. Both cell lines, N2a and OLN-93, have previously been shown to be a sensitive target for the action of TDA, and cytotoxic effects of TDA have been connected to the induction of oxidative stress. Our data shows that DMSP promotes process outgrowth and microtubule reorganization and bundling, accompanied by an increase in alpha-tubulin acetylation. Furthermore, DMSP was able to prevent the cytotoxic effects exerted by TDA, including the breakdown of the mitochondrial membrane potential, upregulation of heat shock protein Hsp32 and activation of the extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1/2 (ERK1/2). Our study points to the conclusion that DMSP provides an antioxidant defense, not only in algae but also in mammalian neural cells. PMID:27164116

  4. Erythropoietin protects against diabetes through direct effects on pancreatic β cells

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Diana; Schroer, Stephanie A.; Lu, Shun Yan; Wang, Linyuan; Wu, Xiaohong; Liu, Yunfeng; Zhang, Yi; Gaisano, Herbert Y.; Wagner, Kay-Uwe; Wu, Hong; Retnakaran, Ravi

    2010-01-01

    A common feature among all forms of diabetes mellitus is a functional β-cell mass insufficient to maintain euglycemia; therefore, the promotion of β-cell growth and survival is a fundamental goal for diabetes prevention and treatment. Evidence has suggested that erythropoietin (EPO) exerts cytoprotective effects on nonerythroid cells. However, the influence of EPO on pancreatic β cells and diabetes has not been evaluated to date. In this study, we report that recombinant human EPO treatment can protect against diabetes development in streptozotocin-induced and db/db mouse models of type 1 and type 2 diabetes, respectively. EPO exerts antiapoptotic, proliferative, antiinflammatory, and angiogenic effects within the islets. Using β-cell–specific EPO receptor and JAK2 knockout mice, we show that these effects of EPO result from direct biological effects on β cells and that JAK2 is an essential intracellular mediator. Thus, promotion of EPO signaling in β cells may be a novel therapeutic strategy for diabetes prevention and treatment. PMID:21149549

  5. Astaxanthin protects steroidogenesis from hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative stress in mouse Leydig cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jyun-Yuan; Lee, Yue-Jia; Chou, Mei-Chia; Chang, Renin; Chiu, Chih-Hsien; Liang, Yao-Jen; Wu, Leang-Shin

    2015-03-16

    Androgens, especially testosterone produced in Leydig cells, play an essential role in development of the male reproductive phenotype and fertility. However, testicular oxidative stress may cause a decline in testosterone production. Many antioxidants have been used as reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavengers to eliminate oxidative stress to protect steroidogenesis. Astaxanthin (AST), a natural extract from algae and plants ubiquitous in the marine environment, has been shown to have antioxidant activity in many previous studies. In this study, we treated primary mouse Leydig cells or MA-10 cells with hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) to cause oxidative stress. Testosterone and progesterone production was suppressed and the expression of the mature (30 kDa) form of StAR protein was down-regulated in MA-10 cells by H2O2 and cAMP co-treatment. However, progesterone production and expression of mature StAR protein were restored in MA-10 cells by a one-hour pretreatment with AST. AST also reduced ROS levels in cells so that they were lower than the levels in untreated controls. These results provide additional evidence of the potential health benefits of AST as a potential food additive to ease oxidative stress.

  6. Antrodia camphorata Increases Insulin Secretion and Protects from Apoptosis in MIN6 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Vong, Chi Teng; Tseng, Hisa Hui Ling; Kwan, Yiu Wa; Lee, Simon Ming-Yuen; Hoi, Maggie Pui Man

    2016-01-01

    Antrodia camphorata is a Taiwanese-specific fungus which has been used clinically to treat hypertension, immune- and liver-related diseases and cancer; however, it has never been studied in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Hyperglycemia in T2DM causes endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, leading to β-cell dysfunction. During chronic ER stress, misfolded proteins accumulate and initiate β-cell apoptosis. Moreover, β-cell dysfunction leads to defect in insulin secretion, which is the key process in the development and progression of T2DM. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to examine the effects of A. camphorata on insulin secretion and ER stress-induced apoptosis in a mouse β-cell line, MIN6, and their underlying mechanisms. We demonstrated that the ethanolic extract of A. camphorata increased glucose-induced insulin secretion dose-dependently through peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPAR-γ) pathway, and upregulated genes that were involved in insulin secretion, including PPAR-γ, glucose transporter-2 and glucokinase. Furthermore, A. camphorata slightly increased cell proliferation, as well as protected from ER stress-induced apoptosis in MIN6 cells. In conclusion, this study provided evidences that A. camphorata might have anti-diabetic effects and could be a novel drug for T2DM. PMID:27047382

  7. Antrodia camphorata Increases Insulin Secretion and Protects from Apoptosis in MIN6 Cells.

    PubMed

    Vong, Chi Teng; Tseng, Hisa Hui Ling; Kwan, Yiu Wa; Lee, Simon Ming-Yuen; Hoi, Maggie Pui Man

    2016-01-01

    Antrodia camphorata is a Taiwanese-specific fungus which has been used clinically to treat hypertension, immune- and liver-related diseases and cancer; however, it has never been studied in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Hyperglycemia in T2DM causes endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, leading to β-cell dysfunction. During chronic ER stress, misfolded proteins accumulate and initiate β-cell apoptosis. Moreover, β-cell dysfunction leads to defect in insulin secretion, which is the key process in the development and progression of T2DM. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to examine the effects of A. camphorata on insulin secretion and ER stress-induced apoptosis in a mouse β-cell line, MIN6, and their underlying mechanisms. We demonstrated that the ethanolic extract of A. camphorata increased glucose-induced insulin secretion dose-dependently through peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPAR-γ) pathway, and upregulated genes that were involved in insulin secretion, including PPAR-γ, glucose transporter-2 and glucokinase. Furthermore, A. camphorata slightly increased cell proliferation, as well as protected from ER stress-induced apoptosis in MIN6 cells. In conclusion, this study provided evidences that A. camphorata might have anti-diabetic effects and could be a novel drug for T2DM.

  8. The Citrus Flavanone Naringenin Protects Myocardial Cells against Age-Associated Damage

    PubMed Central

    Costa, Barbara; Cavallini, Chiara; Testai, Lara; Martelli, Alma; Calderone, Vincenzo; Martini, Claudia

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, the health-promoting effects of the citrus flavanone naringenin have been examined. The results have provided evidence for the modulation of some key mechanisms involved in cellular damage by this compound. In particular, naringenin has been revealed to have protective properties such as an antioxidant effect in cardiometabolic disorders. Very recently, beneficial effects of naringenin have been demonstrated in old rats. Because aging has been demonstrated to be directly related to the occurrence of cardiac disorders, in the present study, the ability of naringenin to prevent cardiac cell senescence was investigated. For this purpose, a cellular model of senescent myocardial cells was set up and evaluated using colorimetric, fluorimetric, and immunometric techniques. Relevant cellular senescence markers, such as X-gal staining, cell cycle regulator levels, and the percentage of cell cycle-arrested cells, were found to be reduced in the presence of naringenin. In addition, cardiac markers of aging-induced damage, including radical oxidative species levels, mitochondrial metabolic activity, mitochondrial calcium buffer capacity, and estrogenic signaling functions, were also modulated by the compound. These results suggested that naringenin has antiaging effects on myocardial cells. PMID:28386313

  9. Redox homeostasis protects mitochondria through accelerating ROS conversion to enhance hypoxia resistance in cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Pengying; Zhang, Dongyang; Shen, Lingxiao; Dong, Kelei; Wu, Meiling; Ou, Zhouluo; Shi, Dongyun

    2016-03-09

    Mitochondria are the powerhouses of eukaryotic cells and the main source of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in hypoxic cells, participating in regulating redox homeostasis. The mechanism of tumor hypoxia tolerance, especially the role of mitochondria in tumor hypoxia resistance remains largely unknown. This study aimed to explore the role of mitochondria in tumor hypoxia resistance. We observed that glycolysis in hypoxic cancer cells was up-regulated more rapidly, with far lesser attenuation in aerobic oxidation, thus contributing to a more stable ATP/ADP ratio. In hypoxia, cancer cells rapidly convert hypoxia-induced O(2˙)(-) into H2O2. H2O2 is further decomposed by a relatively stronger antioxidant system, causing ROS levels to increase lesser compared to normal cells. The moderate ROS leads to an appropriate degree of autophagy, eliminating the damaged mitochondria and offering nutrients to promote mitochondria fusion, thus protects mitochondria and improves hypoxia tolerance in cancer. The functional mitochondria could enable tumor cells to flexibly switch between glycolysis and oxidative phosphorylation to meet the different physiological requirements during the hypoxia/re-oxygenation cycling of tumor growth.

  10. Morroniside protects SK-N-SH human neuroblastoma cells against H2O2-induced damage.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jing-Xing; Wang, Rui; Xi, Jin; Shen, Lin; Zhu, An-You; Qi, Qi; Wang, Qi-Yi; Zhang, Lun-Jun; Wang, Feng-Chao; Lü, He-Zuo; Hu, Jian-Guo

    2017-03-01

    Oxidative stress-induced cell injury has been linked to the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative disorders such as spinal cord injury, Parkinson's disease, and multiple sclerosis. Morroniside is an antioxidant derived from the Chinese herb Shan-Zhu-Yu. The present study investigated the neuroprotective effect of morroniside against hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced cell death in SK-N-SH human neuroblastoma cells. H2O2 increased cell apoptosis, as determined by flow cytometry and Hoechst 33342 staining. This effect was reversed by pretreatment with morroniside at concentrations of 1-100 µM. The increase in intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and lipid peroxidation induced by H2O2 was also abrogated by morroniside. H2O2 induced a reduction in mitochondrial membrane potential, increased caspase-3 activity, and caused downregulation of B cell lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2) and upregulation of Bcl-2-associated X protein (Bax) expression. These effects were blocked by morroniside pretreatment. Thus, morroniside protects human neuroblastoma cells against oxidative damage by inhibiting ROS production while suppressing Bax and stimulating Bcl-2 expression, thereby blocking mitochondrial-mediated apoptosis. These results indicate that morroniside has therapeutic potential for the prevention and treatment of neurodegenerative diseases.

  11. Redox homeostasis protects mitochondria through accelerating ROS conversion to enhance hypoxia resistance in cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Li, Pengying; Zhang, Dongyang; Shen, Lingxiao; Dong, Kelei; Wu, Meiling; Ou, Zhouluo; Shi, Dongyun

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondria are the powerhouses of eukaryotic cells and the main source of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in hypoxic cells, participating in regulating redox homeostasis. The mechanism of tumor hypoxia tolerance, especially the role of mitochondria in tumor hypoxia resistance remains largely unknown. This study aimed to explore the role of mitochondria in tumor hypoxia resistance. We observed that glycolysis in hypoxic cancer cells was up-regulated more rapidly, with far lesser attenuation in aerobic oxidation, thus contributing to a more stable ATP/ADP ratio. In hypoxia, cancer cells rapidly convert hypoxia-induced O2·− into H2O2. H2O2 is further decomposed by a relatively stronger antioxidant system, causing ROS levels to increase lesser compared to normal cells. The moderate ROS leads to an appropriate degree of autophagy, eliminating the damaged mitochondria and offering nutrients to promote mitochondria fusion, thus protects mitochondria and improves hypoxia tolerance in cancer. The functional mitochondria could enable tumor cells to flexibly switch between glycolysis and oxidative phosphorylation to meet the different physiological requirements during the hypoxia/re-oxygenation cycling of tumor growth. PMID:26956544

  12. Protection from MPTP-induced neurotoxicity in differentiating mouse N2a neuroblastoma cells.

    PubMed

    De Girolamo, L A; Hargreaves, A J; Billett, E E

    2001-02-01

    We have shown previously that subcytotoxic concentrations of MPTP (1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine) inhibit axon outgrowth and are associated with increased neurofilament heavy chain (NF-H) phosphorylation in differentiating mouse N2a neuroblastoma cells while higher doses (> 100 microM) cause cell death. In this work we assessed the ability of potential neuroprotective agents to alleviate both MPTP-induced cell death (cytotoxicity) and MPTP-induced NF-H phosphorylation/reduction in axon outgrowth (neurotoxicity) in N2a cells induced to differentiate by dbcAMP. The neurotoxic effects of MPTP occurred in the absence of significant alterations in energy status or mitochondrial membrane potential. The hormone oestradiol (100 microM) reduced the cytotoxic effect of MPTP, but blocked di-butyryl cyclic AMP (dbcAMP)-induced differentiation, i.e. axon outgrowth. Both the cytotoxic and neurotoxic effects of MPTP were reduced by the monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitors deprenyl and, to a lesser extent, clorgyline. Alleviation of both neurotoxicity and cytotoxicity was also achieved by conditioned medium derived from rat C6 glioma cells. In contrast, whilst the p38 MAP kinase inhibitor, SB202190, protected cells against MPTP-induced neurotoxicity, it could not maintain cell viability at high MPTP exposures. In each case neuroprotection involved maintenance of the differentiating phenotype linked with attenuation of NF-H hyper-phosphorylation; the latter may represent a mechanism by which neuronal cells can moderate MPTP-induced neurotoxicity. The use of a simplified neuronal cell model, which expresses subtle biochemical changes following neurotoxic insult, could therefore provide a valuable tool for the identification of potential neuroprotective agents.

  13. Regulatory T cells are protective in systemic inflammation response syndrome induced by zymosan in mice.

    PubMed

    Jia, Wenyuan; Cao, Li; Yang, Shuangwen; Dong, Hailong; Zhang, Yun; Wei, Haidong; Jing, Wei; Hou, Lichao; Wang, Chen

    2013-01-01

    Systemic inflammation response syndrome (SIRS) is a key and mainly detrimental process in the pathophysiology of multiple organ dysfunction syndrome. The balance of pro-inflammation and anti-inflammation controls the initiation and development of SIRS. However, the endogenous counterregulatory immune mechanisms that are involved in the development of SIRS are not well understood. CD4(+)CD25(+)Foxp3 (forkhead box P3)(+) regulatory T lymphocytes (Treg cells) play a key role in the immunological balance of the body. Thus, our aim was to investigate the contribution of these key immunomodulators (Treg cells) to the immune dysfunction that is observed in zymosan-induced SIRS in mice. We first evaluated the level of Treg cells in the lung of mice 6 h, 1 d, 2 d, 3 d, 5 d, and 7 d after the injection of zymosan or normal saline by western blot, real-time PCR and flow cytometry. We found that the number of Treg cells and the levels of the Treg cell-related transcription factor (Foxp3) and cytokines (IL-10) in the zymosan-treated group significantly decreased on day 1 and day 2 and significantly increased on day 5 compared with the NS-treated group. In the next experiment, the mice were injected with 200 μg of anti-CD25 mAb (clone PC61) to deplete the Treg cells and then injected with zymosan 2 days later. The number of Treg cells decreased by more than 50% after the injection of the PC61 mAb. In addition, the expression of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 also decreased. Moreover, the depletion of the Treg cells profoundly increased the mice'mortality and the degree of lung tissue injury. In conclusion, Treg cells tend to play a protective role in pathogenesis of the zymosan-induced generalized inflammation, and IL-10 signaling is associated with their immunomodulatory effect.

  14. Inactivation of Kupffer Cells by Gadolinium Chloride Protects Murine Liver From Radiation-Induced Apoptosis

    SciTech Connect

    Du Shisuo; Qiang Min; Zeng Zhaochong; Ke Aiwu; Ji Yuan; Zhang Zhengyu; Zeng Haiying; Liu Zhongshan

    2010-03-15

    Purpose: To determine whether the inhibition of Kupffer cells before radiotherapy (RT) would protect hepatocytes from radiation-induced apoptosis. Materials and Methods: A single 30-Gy fraction was administered to the upper abdomen of Sprague-Dawley rats. The Kupffer cell inhibitor gadolinium chloride (GdCl3; 10 mg/kg body weight) was intravenously injected 24 h before RT. The rats were divided into four groups: group 1, sham RT plus saline (control group); group 2, sham RT plus GdCl3; group 3, RT plus saline; and group 4, RT plus GdCl3. Liver tissue was collected for measurement of apoptotic cytokine expression and evaluation of radiation-induced liver toxicity by analysis of liver enzyme activities, hepatocyte micronucleus formation, apoptosis, and histologic staining. Results: The expression of interleukin-1beta, interleukin-6, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha was significantly attenuated in group 4 compared with group 3 at 2, 6, 24, and 48 h after injection (p <0.05). At early points after RT, the rats in group 4 exhibited significantly lower levels of liver enzyme activity, apoptotic response, and hepatocyte micronucleus formation compared with those in group 3. Conclusion: Selective inactivation of Kupffer cells with GdCl3 reduced radiation-induced cytokine production and protected the liver against acute radiation-induced damage.

  15. A protective role of murine langerin+ cells in immune responses to cutaneous vaccination with microneedle patches

    PubMed Central

    Pulit-Penaloza, Joanna A.; Esser, E. Stein; Vassilieva, Elena V.; Lee, Jeong Woo; Taherbhai, Misha T.; Pollack, Brian P.; Prausnitz, Mark R.; Compans, Richard W.; Skountzou, Ioanna

    2014-01-01

    Cutaneous vaccination with microneedle patches offers several advantages over more frequently used approaches for vaccine delivery, including improved protective immunity. However, the involvement of specific APC subsets and their contribution to the induction of immunity following cutaneous vaccine delivery is not well understood. A better understanding of the functions of individual APC subsets in the skin will allow us to target specific skin cell populations in order to further enhance vaccine efficacy. Here we use a Langerin-EGFP-DTR knock-in mouse model to determine the contribution of langerin+ subsets of skin APCs in the induction of adaptive immune responses following cutaneous microneedle delivery of influenza vaccine. Depletion of langerin+ cells prior to vaccination resulted in substantial impairment of both Th1 and Th2 responses, and decreased post-challenge survival rates, in mice vaccinated cutaneously but not in those vaccinated via the intramuscular route or in non-depleted control mice. Our results indicate that langerin+ cells contribute significantly to the induction of protective immune responses following cutaneous vaccination with a subunit influenza vaccine. PMID:25130187

  16. Baicalin Inhibits Renal Cell Apoptosis and Protects Against Acute Kidney Injury in Pediatric Sepsis

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Yanping; Fu, Yanxia; Lin, Hairong

    2016-01-01

    Background Pediatric sepsis has high morbidity in children, may lead to acute kidney injury (AKI), and further aggravate the disease. Baicalin is a kind of flavonoid in Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi and has been reported to protect against several diseases, but its roles in septic AKI remain unclear. This study aimed to uncover the effects of baicalin in AKI during pediatric sepsis. Material/Methods Blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and serum creatinine (Cr) levels were detected in 50 pediatric patients, who underwent basic therapy with or without baicalin adjunctive therapy. Mouse sepsis models were constructed by cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) and treated with baicalin intragastrically, after which BUN and Cr examination, TUNEL apoptosis assay, and expression analyses of BAX and BCL2 were performed. Results Baicalin adjunctive therapy significantly decreased BUN and Cr levels in pediatric sepsis patients (P<0.05). CLP led to elevated BUN and Cr levels in the mouse model (P<0.01), indicating kidney injury accompanied by sepsis. Baicalin decreased BUN and Cr levels (P<0.05), and reduced the apoptotic cell percent in the renal tissue (P<0.05) of the CLP model. It inhibited BAX and promoted BCL2 in the renal tissue, which was consistent with cell apoptosis changes. Conclusions Baicalin is capable of suppressing renal cell apoptosis and protecting against AKI in pediatric sepsis. This study provides a potential adjunctive therapy for treating AKI in pediatric sepsis, and further research is necessary to reveal its deeper mechanisms. PMID:28013315

  17. Cerebrosides from Sea Cucumber Protect Against Oxidative Stress in SAMP8 Mice and PC12 Cells.

    PubMed

    Che, Hongxia; Du, Lei; Cong, Peixu; Tao, Suyuan; Ding, Ning; Wu, Fengjuan; Xue, Changhu; Xu, Jie; Wang, Yuming

    2017-04-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder. Emerging evidence implicates β-amyloid (Aβ) plays a critical role in the progression of AD. In this study, we investigated the protective effect of cerebrosides obtained from sea cucumber against senescence-accelerated mouse prone 8 (SAMP8) mice in vivo. We also studied the effect of cerebrosides on Aβ-induced cytotoxicity on the rat pheochromocytoma cell (PC12) and the underlying molecular mechanisms. Cerebrosides ameliorated learning and memory deficits and the Aβ accumulation in demented mice, decreased the content of malondialdehyde (MDA), 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-oxo-G), and nitric oxide (NO), and enhanced the superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity significantly. The neuroprotective effect of sea cucumber cerebrosides (SCC) was also verified in vitro: the cerebrosides increased the survival rate of PC12 cells, recovered the cellular morphology, downregulated the protein levels of Caspase-9, cleaved Caspase-3, total Caspase-3, and Bax, and upregulated the protein level of Bcl-2, revealing that cerebrosides could inhibit Aβ-induced cell apoptosis. The results showed the protective effect of SCC was regulated by the mitochondria-dependent apoptotic pathway. Our results provide a new approach to developing the marine organisms as functional foods for neuroprotection.

  18. Protective effects of N-acetylcysteine against monosodium glutamate-induced astrocytic cell death.

    PubMed

    Park, Euteum; Yu, Kyoung Hwan; Kim, Do Kyung; Kim, Seung; Sapkota, Kumar; Kim, Sung-Jun; Kim, Chun Sung; Chun, Hong Sung

    2014-05-01

    Monosodium glutamate (MSG) is a flavor enhancer, largely used in the food industry and it was reported to have excitotoxic effects. Higher amounts of MSG consumption have been related with increased risk of many diseases, including Chinese restaurant syndrome and metabolic syndromes in human. This study investigated the protective effects of N-acetylcysteine (NAC) on MSG-induced cytotoxicity in C6 astrocytic cells. MSG (20 mM)-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and apoptotic cell death were significantly attenuated by NAC (500 μM) pretreatment. NAC effectively inhibited the MSG-induced mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) loss and intracellular reduced glutathione (GSH) depletion. In addition, NAC significantly attenuated MSG-induced endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress markers, such as XBP1 splicing and CHOP, PERK, and GRP78 up-regulation. Furthermore, NAC prevented the changes of MSG-induced Bcl-2 expression level. These results suggest that NAC can protect C6 astrocytic cells against MSG-induced oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, and ER stress.

  19. Protection of macaques from vaginal SHIV challenge by vaginally delivered inhibitors of virus-cell fusion.

    PubMed

    Veazey, Ronald S; Klasse, Per Johan; Schader, Susan M; Hu, Qinxue; Ketas, Thomas J; Lu, Min; Marx, Preston A; Dufour, Jason; Colonno, Richard J; Shattock, Robin J; Springer, Martin S; Moore, John P

    2005-11-03

    Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) continues to spread, principally by heterosexual sex, but no vaccine is available. Hence, alternative prevention methods are needed to supplement educational and behavioural-modification programmes. One such approach is a vaginal microbicide: the application of inhibitory compounds before intercourse. Here, we have evaluated the microbicide concept using the rhesus macaque 'high dose' vaginal transmission model with a CCR5-receptor-using simian-human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV-162P3) and three compounds that inhibit different stages of the virus-cell attachment and entry process. These compounds are BMS-378806, a small molecule that binds the viral gp120 glycoprotein and prevents its attachment to the CD4 and CCR5 receptors, CMPD167, a small molecule that binds to CCR5 to inhibit gp120 association, and C52L, a bacterially expressed peptide inhibitor of gp41-mediated fusion. In vitro, all three compounds inhibit infection of T cells and cervical tissue explants, and C52L acts synergistically with CMPD167 or BMS-378806 to inhibit infection of cell lines. In vivo, significant protection was achieved using each compound alone and in combinations. CMPD167 and BMS-378806 were protective even when applied 6 h before challenge.

  20. FSH protects mouse granulosa cells from oxidative damage by repressing mitophagy

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Ming; Jiang, Yi; Guan, Zhiqiang; Cao, Yan; Sun, Shao-chen; Liu, Honglin

    2016-01-01

    Oxidative stress has been implicated in triggering granulosa cell (GC) death during follicular atresia. Recent studies suggested that follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) has a pivotal role in protecting GCs from oxidative injury, although the exact mechanism remains largely unknown. Here, we report that FSH promotes GC survival by inhibiting oxidative stress-induced mitophagy. The loss of GC viability caused by oxidative stress was significantly reduced after FSH treatment, which was correlated with impaired activation of mitophagy upon oxidative stress. Compared with FSH treatment, blocking mitophagy displayed approximate preventive effect on oxidative stress-induced GC death, but FSH did not further restore viability of cells pretreated with mitophagy inhibitor. Importantly, FSH suppressed the induction of serine/threonine kinase PINK1 during oxidative stress. This inhibited the mitochondrial translocation of the E3 ligase Parkin, which is required for the subsequent clearance of mitochondria, and ultimately cell death via mitophagy. In addition, knocking down PINK1 using RNAi confirmed the role of the FSH-PINK1-Parkin-mitophagy pathway in regulating GC survival under oxidative conditions. These findings introduce a novel physiological function of FSH in protecting GCs against oxidative damage by targeting PINK1-Parkin-mediated mitophagy. PMID:27901103

  1. Sclareol protects Staphylococcus aureus-induced lung cell injury via inhibiting alpha-hemolysin expression.

    PubMed

    Ouyang, Ping; Sun, Mao; He, Xuewen; Wang, Kaiyu; Yin, Zhongqiong; Fu, Hualin; Li, Yinglun; Geng, Yi; Shu, Gang; He, Changliang; Liang, Xiaoxia; Lai, Weiming; Li, Lixia; Zou, Yuanfeng; Song, Xu; Yin, Lizi

    2016-09-23

    Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) is a common Gram-positive bacterium that causes serious infections in human and animals. With the continuous emergence of the methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) strains, antibiotics have limited efficacy in treating MRSA infections. Accordingly, novel agents that act on new targets are desperately needed to combat these infections. S. aureus alpha-hemolysin plays an indispensable role in its pathogenicity. In this study, we demonstrate that sclareol, a fragrant chemical compound found in clary sage, can prominently decrease alpha-hemolysin secretion in S. aureus strain USA300 at sub-inhibitory concentrations. Hemolysis assays, western-blotting and RT-PCR were used to detect the production of alpha-hemolysin in the culture supernatant. When USA300 was co-cultured with and A549 epithelial cells, sclareol could protect A549 cells at a final concentration of 8 µg/ml. The protective capability of sclareol against the USA300-mediated injury of A549 cells was further shown by cytotoxicity assays and live/dead analysis. In conclusion, sclareol was shown to inhibit the production of S. aureus alpha-hemolysin. Sclareol has potential for development as a new agent to treat S. aureus infections.

  2. QID74 Cell wall protein of Trichoderma harzianum is involved in cell protection and adherence to hydrophobic surfaces.

    PubMed

    Rosado, Iván V; Rey, Manuel; Codón, Antonio C; Govantes, Javier; Moreno-Mateos, Miguel A; Benítez, Tahía

    2007-10-01

    Trichoderma is widely used as biocontrol agent against phytopathogenic fungi, and as biofertilizer because of its ability to establish mycorriza-like association with plants. The key factor to the ecological success of this genus is the combination of very active mycoparasitic mechanisms plus effective defense strategies induced in plants. This work, different from most of the studies carried out that address the attacking mechanisms, focuses on elucidating how Trichoderma is able to tolerate hostile conditions. A gene from Trichoderma harzianum CECT 2413, qid74, was strongly expressed during starvation of carbon or nitrogen sources; it encoded a cell wall protein of 74kDa that plays a significant role in mycelium protection. qid74 was originally isolated and characterized, in a previous work, by a differential hybridization approach under simulated mycoparasitism conditions. Heterologous expression of Qid74 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae indicated that the protein, located in the cell wall, interfered with mating and sporulation but not with cell integrity. The qid74 gene was disrupted by homologous recombination and it was overexpressed by isolating transformants selected for the amdS gene that carried several copies of qid74 gene under the control of the pki promoter. Disruptants and transformants showed similar growth rate and viability when they were cultivated in different media, temperatures and osmolarities, or were subjected to different abiotic stress conditions. However, disruptants produced about 70% mass yield under any condition and were substantially more sensitive than the wild type to cell wall degradation by different lytic preparations. Transformants had similar mass yield and were more resistant to lytic enzymes but more sensitive to copper sulfate than the wild type. When experiments of adherence to hydrophobic surfaces were carried out, the disruptants had a reduced capacity to adhere, whereas that capacity in the overproducer transformants was

  3. [Protective effects of glucagon-like peptide-1 on beta-cells: preclinical and clinical data].

    PubMed

    Consoli, Agostino; Di Biagio, Rosamaria

    2011-12-01

    Dipartimento di Medicina Interna e Scienze dell'Invecchiamento, Università degli Studi "G. d'Annunzio", Chieti Continuing b-cell mass and function loss represents the key mechanism for the pathogenesis and the progression of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Drugs capable of arresting b-cell loss and eventually able to bring b-cell function close to be back to normal would then be a formidable help in type 2 diabetes mellitus treatment. The glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonists exenatide and liraglutide can stimulate in vitro neogenesis and prevent apoptosis in b-cell-like cell lines. Consistently, treatment with GLP-1 receptor agonists ameliorates glucose metabolism, preserves b-cell mass and improves b-cell function in several animal models of diabetes. For instance, in the db/db mice, liraglutide protects the b-cell from oxidative stress and endoplasmic reticulum stress-related damage. Data in humans, in vivo, are less definitive and often based on scarcely reliable indexes of b-cell function. However, short-term treatment (14 weeks) with liraglutide increased b-cell maximal response capacity in a dose-response fashion. A longer (1 year) exenatide treatment also was able to increase b-cell maximal response capacity, but the effect was no longer there after a 4-week washout period. However, a marginal, although significant as compared to glargine treatment, improvement in another b-cell function index (disposition index) was observed after a 4-week washout period following 3-year exenatide treatment. Finally, although no clinical trials with a long enough follow-up period are presently available, durable glucose control has been obtained during 2 years of liraglutide treatment in monotherapy. Since the durability of good control is strictly dependent upon a lack of further b-cell function deterioration, these clinical data may foster hope that GLP-1 receptor antagonist treatment might help preserving b-cell function also in individuals affected by type 2

  4. EBOV Protection Is Supported by T Cell-Dependent Humoral Responses But Is Not Requisite for Survival

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-06-03

    Sabrina Stronsky, David Langan, Jesse Steffens, Sean Van 2 Tongeren, and Sina Bavari 3 Abstract 4 Despite agreement across Ebola virus (EBOV) vaccine ...infection, the establishment of protective EBOV B cell responses has yet to be fully described. 7 Previously, we demonstrated that vaccination of mice...clearance of pathogens and protective 20 vaccines . Antibody-mediated control (i.e. opsonization, neutralization, antibody-dependent cell-21 mediated

  5. A secretory cell type develops alongside multiciliated cells, ionocytes and goblet cells, and provides a protective, anti-infective function in the frog embryonic mucociliary epidermis

    PubMed Central

    Dubaissi, Eamon; Rousseau, Karine; Lea, Robert; Soto, Ximena; Nardeosingh, Siddarth; Schweickert, Axel; Amaya, Enrique; Thornton, David J.; Papalopulu, Nancy

    2014-01-01

    The larval epidermis of Xenopus is a bilayered epithelium, which is an excellent model system for the study of the development and function of mucosal and mucociliary epithelia. Goblet cells develop in the outer layer while multiciliated cells and ionocytes sequentially intercalate from the inner to the outer layer. Here, we identify and characterise a fourth cell type, the small secretory cell (SSC). We show that the development of these cells is controlled by the transcription factor Foxa1 and that they intercalate into the outer layer of the epidermis relatively late, at the same time as embryonic hatching. Ultrastructural and molecular characterisation shows that these cells have an abundance of large apical secretory vesicles, which contain highly glycosylated material, positive for binding of the lectin, peanut agglutinin, and an antibody to the carbohydrate epitope, HNK-1. By specifically depleting SSCs, we show that these cells are crucial for protecting the embryo against bacterial infection. Mass spectrometry studies show that SSCs secrete a glycoprotein similar to Otogelin, which may form the structural component of a mucus-like protective layer, over the surface of the embryo, and several potential antimicrobial substances. Our study completes the characterisation of all the epidermal cell types in the early tadpole epidermis and reinforces the suitability of this system for the in vivo study of complex epithelia, including investigation of innate immune defences. PMID:24598166

  6. Insulin Protects Pancreatic Acinar Cells from Palmitoleic Acid-induced Cellular Injury*

    PubMed Central

    Samad, Aysha; James, Andrew; Wong, James; Mankad, Parini; Whitehouse, John; Patel, Waseema; Alves-Simoes, Marta; Siriwardena, Ajith K.; Bruce, Jason I. E.

    2014-01-01

    Acute pancreatitis is a serious and sometimes fatal inflammatory disease where the pancreas digests itself. The non-oxidative ethanol metabolites palmitoleic acid (POA) and POA-ethylester (POAEE) are reported to induce pancreatitis caused by impaired mitochondrial metabolism, cytosolic Ca2+ ([Ca2+]i) overload and necrosis of pancreatic acinar cells. Metabolism and [Ca2+]i are linked critically by the ATP-driven plasma membrane Ca2+-ATPase (PMCA) important for maintaining low resting [Ca2+]i. The aim of the current study was to test the protective effects of insulin on cellular injury induced by the pancreatitis-inducing agents, ethanol, POA, and POAEE. Rat pancreatic acinar cells were isolated by collagenase digestion and [Ca2+]i was measured by fura-2 imaging. An in situ [Ca2+]i clearance assay was used to assess PMCA activity. Magnesium green (MgGreen) and a luciferase-based ATP kit were used to assess cellular ATP depletion. Ethanol (100 mm) and POAEE (100 μm) induced a small but irreversible Ca2+ overload response but had no significant effect on PMCA activity. POA (50–100 μm) induced a robust Ca2+ overload, ATP depletion, inhibited PMCA activity, and consequently induced necrosis. Insulin pretreatment (100 nm for 30 min) prevented the POA-induced Ca2+ overload, ATP depletion, inhibition of the PMCA, and necrosis. Moreover, the insulin-mediated protection of the POA-induced Ca2+ overload was partially prevented by the phosphoinositide-3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitor, LY294002. These data provide the first evidence that insulin directly protects pancreatic acinar cell injury induced by bona fide pancreatitis-inducing agents, such as POA. This may have important therapeutic implications for the treatment of pancreatitis. PMID:24993827

  7. Heme oxygenase-1 protects endothelial cells from the toxicity of air pollutant chemicals

    SciTech Connect

    Lawal, Akeem O.; Zhang, Min; Dittmar, Michael; Lulla, Aaron; Araujo, Jesus A.

    2015-05-01

    Diesel exhaust particles (DEPs) are a major component of diesel emissions, responsible for a large portion of their toxicity. In this study, we examined the toxic effects of DEPs on endothelial cells and the role of DEP-induced heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) expression. Human microvascular endothelial cells (HMECs) were treated with an organic extract of DEPs from an automobile engine (A-DEP) or a forklift engine (F-DEP) for 1 and 4 h. ROS generation, cell viability, lactate dehydrogenase leakage, expression of HO-1, inflammatory genes, cell adhesion molecules and unfolded protein respone (UPR) gene were assessed. HO-1 expression and/or activity were inhibited by siRNA or tin protoporphyrin (Sn PPIX) and enhanced by an expression plasmid or cobalt protoporphyrin (CoPPIX). Exposure to 25 μg/ml of A-DEP and F-DEP significantly induced ROS production, cellular toxicity and greater levels of inflammatory and cellular adhesion molecules but to a different degree. Inhibition of HO-1 enzymatic activity with SnPPIX and silencing of the HO-1 gene by siRNA enhanced DEP-induced ROS production, further decreased cell viability and increased expression of inflammatory and cell adhesion molecules. On the other hand, overexpression of the HO-1 gene by a pcDNA 3.1D/V5-HO-1 plasmid significantly mitigated ROS production, increased cell survival and decreased the expression of inflammatory genes. HO-1 expression protected HMECs from DEP-induced prooxidative and proinflammatory effects. Modulation of HO-1 expression could potentially serve as a therapeutic target in an attempt to inhibit the cardiovascular effects of ambient PM. - Highlights: • We examined the role of HO-1 expression on diesel exhaust particle (DEP) in endothelial cells. • DEPs exert cytotoxic and inflammatory effects on human microvascular endothelial cells (HMECs). • DEPs induce HO-1 expression in HMECs. • HO-1 protects against the oxidative stress induced by DEps. • HO-1 attenuates the proinflammatory effects

  8. Trypanosoma cruzi evades the protective role of interferon-gamma-signaling in parasite-infected cells.

    PubMed

    Stahl, Philipp; Ruppert, Volker; Schwarz, Ralph T; Meyer, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    The protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi is responsible for the zoonotic Chagas disease, a chronic and systemic infection in humans and warm-blooded animals typically leading to progressive dilated cardiomyopathy and gastrointestinal manifestations. In the present study, we report that the transcription factor STAT1 (signal transducer and activator of transcription 1) reduces the susceptibility of human cells to infection with T. cruzi. Our in vitro data demonstrate that interferon -γ (IFNγ) pre-treatment causes T. cruzi-infected cells to enter an anti-parasitic state through the activation of the transcription factor STAT1. Whereas stimulation of STAT1-expressing cells with IFNγ significantly impaired intracellular replication of parasites, no protective effect of IFNγ was observed in STAT1-deficient U3A cells. The gene encoding indoleamine 2, 3-dioxygenase (ido) was identified as a STAT1-regulated target gene engaged in parasite clearance. Exposure of cells to T. cruzi trypomastigotes in the absence of IFNγ resulted in both sustained tyrosine and serine phosphorylation of STAT1 and its increased DNA binding. Furthermore, we found that in response to T. cruzi the total amount of intracellular STAT1 increased in an infectious dose-dependent manner, both at the mRNA and protein level. While STAT1 activation is a potent strategy of the host in the fight against the invading pathogen, amastigotes replicating intracellularly antagonize this pathway by specifically promoting the dephosphorylation of STAT1 serine 727, thereby partially circumventing its protective effects. These findings point to the crucial role of the IFNγ/STAT1 signal pathway in the evolutionary combat between T. cruzi parasites and their host.

  9. Exogenous Nitric Oxide Protects Human Embryonic Stem Cell-Derived Cardiomyocytes against Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury

    PubMed Central

    Pálóczi, János; Varga, Zoltán V.; Szebényi, Kornélia; Sarkadi, Balázs; Madonna, Rosalinda; De Caterina, Raffaele; Csont, Tamás; Eschenhagen, Thomas; Ferdinandy, Péter; Görbe, Anikó

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims. Human embryonic stem cell- (hESC-) derived cardiomyocytes are one of the useful screening platforms of potential cardiocytoprotective molecules. However, little is known about the behavior of these cardiomyocytes in simulated ischemia/reperfusion conditions. In this study, we have tested the cytoprotective effect of an NO donor and the brain type natriuretic peptide (BNP) in a screening platform based first on differentiated embryonic bodies (EBs, 6 + 4 days) and then on more differentiated cardiomyocytes (6 + 24 days), both derived from hESCs. Methods. Both types of hESC-derived cells were exposed to 150 min simulated ischemia, followed by 120 min reperfusion. Cell viability was assessed by propidium iodide staining. The following treatments were applied during simulated ischemia in differentiated EBs: the NO-donor S-nitroso-N-acetylpenicillamine (SNAP) (10−7, 10−6, and 10−5 M), BNP (10−9, 10−8, and 10−7 M), and the nonspecific NO synthase inhibitor Nω-nitro-L-arginine (L-NNA, 10−5 M). Results. SNAP (10−6, 10−5 M) significantly attenuated cell death in differentiated EBs. However, simulated ischemia/reperfusion-induced cell death was not affected by BNP or by L-NNA. In separate experiments, SNAP (10−6 M) also protected hESC-derived cardiomyocytes. Conclusions. We conclude that SNAP, but not BNP, protects differentiated EBs or cardiomyocytes derived from hESCs against simulated ischemia/reperfusion injury. The present screening platform is a useful tool for discovery of cardiocytoprotective molecules and their cellular mechanisms. PMID:27403231

  10. Overexpression of LOXIN Protects Endothelial Progenitor Cells From Apoptosis Induced by Oxidized Low Density Lipoprotein.

    PubMed

    Veas, Carlos; Jara, Casandra; Willis, Naomi D; Pérez-Contreras, Karen; Gutierrez, Nicolas; Toledo, Jorge; Fernandez, Paulina; Radojkovic, Claudia; Zuñiga, Felipe A; Escudero, Carlos; Aguayo, Claudio

    2016-04-01

    Human endothelial progenitor cells (hEPC) are adult stem cells located in the bone marrow and peripheral blood. Studies have indicated that hEPC play an important role in the recovery and repair of injured endothelium, however, their quantity and functional capacity is reduced in several diseases including hypercholesterolemia. Recently, it has been demonstrated that hEPC express lectin-like oxidized low-density lipoprotein receptor-1 (LOX-1) and its activation by oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL) induces cellular dysfunction and apoptosis. This study aimed to investigate whether overexpression of LOXIN, a truncated isoform of LOX-1 that acts as a dominant negative, plays a protective role against ox-LDL-induced apoptosis in hEPC. Human endothelial progenitor cells exposed to ox-LDL showed a significant increase in LOX-1 expression, and apoptosis began at ox-LDL concentrations above 50 μg/mL. All hEPC apoptosed at 200 μg/mL ox-LDL. High LOXIN expression was generated using adenoviral systems in hEPC and SiHa cells transduced with 100 colony-forming units per cell. Transduced LOXIN localized to the plasma membrane and blocked ox-LDL uptake mediated by LOX-1. Overexpression of LOXIN protected hEPC from ox-LDL-induced apoptosis, and therefore maybe a novel way of improving hEPC function and quantity. These results suggest that adenoviral vectors of LOXIN may provide a possible treatment for diseases related to ox-LDL and vascular endothelium dysfunction, including atherosclerosis.

  11. Protection against UVA-induced photooxidative damage in mammalian cell lines expressing increased levels of metallothionein

    SciTech Connect

    Dudek, E.J. Illinois Inst. of Tech., Chicago, IL . Dept. of Biology); Peak, J.G.; Peak, M.J. ); Roth, R.M. . Dept. of Biology)

    1990-01-01

    Metallothionein (MT) is an endogenous low molecular weight protein that is inducible in a variety of eukaryotic cells and has the ability to selectivity bind heavy metal ions such as zinc and the cadmium. Although the exact physiological role of MT is still not understood, there is strong evidence that MT is involved in providing cellular resistance against the damaging effects of heavy metals and in the regulation of intracellular zinc and copper. Recently, it has been demonstrated that MT can scavenge radiation-induced reactive oxygen intermediates in vitro, specifically hydroxyl and superoxide radicals, and because of these observations it has been suggested that MT may provide protection against radiation-induced oxidative stress in vivo. Cell lines expressing increased levels of MT have demonstrated resistance to ionizing radiation, to ultraviolet radiation, and also to various DNA damaging agents including melphalan and cis-diaminedichloroplatinum. It is therefore important to gain some insight into the relationship between cellular MT content and cellular resistance to radiation and other DNA damaging agents. In this study we investigated the role of MT in providing protection against monochromatic 365-nm UVA radiation, which is known to generate intracellular reactive oxygen species that are involved in both DNA damage and cell killing. For this purpose, we used zinc acetate, a potent inducer of MT, to elevate MT levels in V79 Chinese hamster fibroblasts prior to UVA exposure and determined cell survival for uninduced and induced cultures. In order to eliminate any zinc effects other than MT induction, we also isolated and characterized cadmium chloride-resistant clones of V79 cells that have increased steady-state levels of both MT mRNA and protein, and we examined their survival characteristics against 365-nm radiation in the absence of zinc acetate. 14 refs., 3 figs.

  12. High Mobility Group A2 protects cancer cells against telomere dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Natarajan, Suchitra; Begum, Farhana; Gim, Jeonga; Wark, Landon; Henderson, Dana; Davie, James R.

    2016-01-01

    The non-histone chromatin binding protein High Mobility Group AT-hook protein 2 (HMGA2) plays important roles in the repair and protection of genomic DNA in embryonic stem cells and cancer cells. Here we show that HMGA2 localizes to mammalian telomeres and enhances telomere stability in cancer cells. We present a novel interaction of HMGA2 with the key shelterin protein TRF2. We found that the linker (L1) region of HMGA2 contributes to this interaction but the ATI-L1-ATII molecular region of HMGA2 is required for strong interaction with TRF2. This interaction was independent of HMGA2 DNA-binding and did not require the TRF2 interacting partner RAP1 but involved the homodimerization and hinge regions of TRF2. HMGA2 retained TRF2 at telomeres and reduced telomere-dysfunction despite induced telomere stress. Silencing of HMGA2 resulted in (i) reduced binding of TRF2 to telomere DNA as observed by ChIP, (ii) increased telomere instability and (iii) the formation of telomere dysfunction-induced foci (TIF). This resulted in increased telomere aggregation, anaphase bridges and micronuclei. HMGA2 prevented ATM-dependent pTRF2T188 phosphorylation and attenuated signaling via the telomere specific ATM-CHK2-CDC25C DNA damage signaling axis. In summary, our data demonstrate a unique and novel role of HMGA2 in telomere protection and promoting telomere stability in cancer cells. This identifies HMGA2 as a new therapeutic target for the destabilization of telomeres in HMGA2+ cancer cells. PMID:26799419

  13. Overcharge Protection And Cell Voltage Monitoring For Lithium-Ion Batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altemose, George; Salim, Abbas

    2011-10-01

    This paper describes a new Battery Interface and Electronics (BIE) assembly used to monitor battery and cell voltages, as well as provide overvoltage (overcharge) protection for Lithium Ion batteries with up to 8-cells in series. The BIE performs accurate measurement of the individual cell voltages, the total battery voltage, and the individual cell temperatures. In addition, the BIE provides an independent over-charge protection (OCP) circuit that terminates the charging process by isolating the battery from the charging source in the event that the voltage of any cell exceeds a preset limit of +4.500V. The OCP circuit utilizes dual redundancy, and is immune to single-point failures in the sense that no single-point failure can cause the battery to become isolated inadvertently. A typical application of the BIE in a spacecraft electrical power subsystem is shown in Figure 1. The BIE circuits have been designed with Chip On Board (COB) technology. Using this technology, integrated circuit die, Field Effect Transistors (FETs) and diodes are mounted and wired directly on a multi-layer printed wiring board (PWB). For those applications where long term reliability can be achieved without hermeticity, COB technology provides many benefits such as size and weight reduction while lowering production costs. The BIE was designed, fabricated and tested to meet the specifications provided by Orbital Sciences Corporation (OSC) for use with Lithium-Ion batteries in the Commercial Orbital Transportation System (COTS). COTS will be used to deliver cargo to the International Space Station at low earth orbit (LEO). Aeroflex has completed the electrical and mechanical design of the BIE and fabricated and tested the Engineering Model (EM), as well as the Engineering Qualification Model (EQM). Flight units have also been fabricated, tested and delivered to OSC.

  14. Salidroside as a Novel Protective Agent to Improve Red Blood Cell Cryopreservation

    PubMed Central

    Alotaibi, Noha A. S.; Slater, Nigel K. H.; Rahmoune, Hassan

    2016-01-01

    Glycerol and trehalose have been widely examined as protective agents in the cryopreservation of red blood cells (RBCs). However, the effectiveness of these reagents alone on cell viability is moderate. Here, the addition of salidroside attenuated oxidative damage of sheep RBCs prior to and post cryostorage. The supplementation of salidroside to the cryopreservation media containing 10% glycerol improved RBC survival by approximately 61.1±4.8% vs 37.9±4.6%. A smaller effect was seen in RBCs cryopreserved in 300 mM trehalose where the addition of salidroside improved survival by 7.6±0.3%. Furthermore, the addition of salidroside to cold storage solution demonstrated a significant reduction of haemolysis after 4 days for RBCs loaded with either glycerol or trehalose, compared to cells incubated without salidroside. RBCs survival was 2-fold greater following freezing in trehalose, compared with glycerol. After 10 days, salidroside enabled a lower haemolysis of 16.7±1.3% compared to 29.0±8.4% for cells incubated without salidroside. However, salidroside had no effect on RBCs which had been frozen in glycerol as the resulting haemolysis rate by day 10 was approximately 60%. Salidroside increased glutathione reductase activity and decreased lactate dehydrogenase activity. Furthermore, it led to reduced carbonylation of proteins in both glycerol and trehalose loaded cells. Finally, no effect on lipid peroxidation was found in the glycerol loaded RBCs although this was reduced in RBCs loaded with trehalose and salidroside. The present findings confirm the potential use of salidroside as a novel protective agent in cryopreservation and refrigerated storage of sheep RBCs. PMID:27631782

  15. MDR1 transporter protects against paraquat-induced toxicity in human and mouse proximal tubule cells.

    PubMed

    Wen, Xia; Gibson, Christopher J; Yang, Ill; Buckley, Brian; Goedken, Michael J; Richardson, Jason R; Aleksunes, Lauren M

    2014-10-01

    Paraquat is a herbicide that is highly toxic to the lungs and kidneys following acute exposures. Prior studies have demonstrated that the organic cation transporter 2 and multidrug and toxin extrusion protein 1 contribute to the urinary secretion of paraquat in the kidneys. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the multidrug resistance protein 1 (MDR1/Mdr1, ABCB1, or P-glycoprotein) also participates in the removal of paraquat from the kidneys and protects against renal injury. Paraquat transport and toxicity were quantified in human renal proximal tubule epithelial cells (RPTEC) that endogenously express MDR1, HEK293 cells overexpressing MDR1, and Mdr1a/1b knockout mice. In RPTEC cells, reduction of MDR1 activity using the antagonist PSC833 or siRNA transfection increased the cellular accumulation of paraquat by 50%. Reduced efflux of paraquat corresponded with enhanced cytotoxicity in PSC833-treated cells. Likewise, stable overexpression of the human MDR1 gene in HEK293 cells reduced intracellular levels of paraquat by 50%. In vivo studies assessed the renal accumulation and subsequent nephrotoxicity of paraquat (10 or 30 mg/kg ip) in wild-type and Mdr1a/1b knockout mice. At 4 h after paraquat treatment, renal concentrations of paraquat in the kidneys of Mdr1a/1b knockout mice were 750% higher than wild-type mice. By 72 h, paraquat-treated Mdr1a/1b knockout mice had more extensive tubular degeneration and significantly greater mRNA expression of kidney injury-responsive genes, including kidney injury molecule-1, lipocalin-2, and NAD(P)H quinone oxidoreductase 1, compared with wild-type mice. In conclusion, MDR1/Mdr1 participates in the elimination of paraquat from the kidneys and protects against subsequent toxicity.

  16. Ultraviolet-B Protective Effect of Flavonoids from Eugenia caryophylata on Human Dermal Fibroblast Cells

    PubMed Central

    Patwardhan, Juilee; Bhatt, Purvi

    2015-01-01

    Background: The exposure of skin to ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiations leads to deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) damage and can induce production of free radicals which imbalance the redox status of the cell and lead to increased oxidative stress. Clove has been traditionally used for its analgesic, anti-inflammatory, anti-microbial, anti-viral, and antiseptic effects. Objective: To evaluate the UV-B protective activity of flavonoids from Eugenia caryophylata (clove) buds on human dermal fibroblast cells. Materials and Methods: Protective ability of flavonoid-enriched (FE) fraction of clove was studied against UV-B induced cytotoxicity, anti-oxidant regulation, oxidative DNA damage, intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, apoptotic morphological changes, and regulation of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) gene through nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 antioxidant response element (Nrf2 ARE) pathway. Results: FE fraction showed a significant antioxidant potential. Pretreatment of cells with FE fraction (10–40 μg/ml) reversed the effects of UV-B induced cytotoxicity, depletion of endogenous enzymatic antioxidants, oxidative DNA damage, intracellular ROS production, apoptotic changes, and overexpression of Nrf2 and HO-1. Conclusion: The present study demonstrated for the first time that the FE fraction from clove could confer UV-B protection probably through the Nrf2-ARE pathway, which included the down-regulation of Nrf2 and HO-1. These findings suggested that the flavonoids from clove could potentially be considered as UV-B protectants and can be explored further for its topical application to the area of the skin requiring protection. SUMMARY Pretreatment of human dermal fibroblast with flavonoid-enriched fraction of Eugenia caryophylata attenuated effects of ultraviolet-B radiationsIt also conferred protection through nuclear factor E2-related factor 2-antioxidant response pathway and increased tolerance of cells against oxidative stress

  17. The Protective Roles of ROS-Mediated Mitophagy on 125I Seeds Radiation Induced Cell Death in HCT116 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Lelin; Wang, Hao; Huang, Li; Zhao, Yong

    2016-01-01

    For many unresectable carcinomas and locally recurrent cancers (LRC), 125I seeds brachytherapy is a feasible, effective, and safe treatment. Several studies have shown that 125I seeds radiation exerts anticancer activity by triggering DNA damage. However, recent evidence shows mitochondrial quality to be another crucial determinant of cell fate, with mitophagy playing a central role in this control mechanism. Herein, we found that 125I seeds irradiation injured mitochondria, leading to significantly elevated mitochondrial and intracellular ROS (reactive oxygen species) levels in HCT116 cells. The accumulation of mitochondrial ROS increased the expression of HIF-1α and its target genes BINP3 and NIX (BINP3L), which subsequently triggered mitophagy. Importantly, 125I seeds radiation induced mitophagy promoted cells survival and protected HCT116 cells from apoptosis. These results collectively indicated that 125I seeds radiation triggered mitophagy by upregulating the level of ROS to promote cellular homeostasis and survival. The present study uncovered the critical role of mitophagy in modulating the sensitivity of tumor cells to radiation therapy and suggested that chemotherapy targeting on mitophagy might improve the efficiency of 125I seeds radiation treatment, which might be of clinical significance in tumor therapy. PMID:28119765

  18. Antibodies against nonstructural protein 1 protect mice from dengue virus-induced mast cell activation.

    PubMed

    Chu, Ya-Ting; Wan, Shu-Wen; Chang, Yu-Chang; Lee, Chien-Kuo; Wu-Hsieh, Betty A; Anderson, Robert; Lin, Yee-Shin

    2017-02-27

    Dengue virus (DENV) infection causes dengue fever, dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF), and dengue shock syndrome (DSS). DHF/DSS patients have been reported to have increased levels of urinary histamine, chymase, and tryptase, which are major granule-associated mediators from mast cells. Previous studies also showed that DENV-infected human mast cells induce production of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines, suggesting a role played by mast cells in vascular perturbation as well as leukocyte recruitment. In this study, we show that DENV but not UV-inactivated DENV enhanced degranulation of mast cells and production of chemokines (MCP-1, RANTES, and IP-10) in a mouse model. We have previously shown that antibodies (Abs) against a modified DENV nonstructural protein 1 (NS1), designated DJ NS1, provide protection in mice against DENV challenge. In the present study, we investigate the effects of DJ NS1 Abs on mast cell-associated activities. We showed that administration of anti-DJ NS1 Abs into mice resulted in a reduction of mast cell degranulation and macrophage infiltration at local skin DENV infection sites. The production of DENV-induced chemokines (MCP-1, RANTES, and IP-10) and the percentages of tryptase-positive activated mast cells were also reduced by treatment with anti-DJ NS1 Abs. These results indicate that Abs against NS1 protein provide multiple therapeutic benefits, some of which involve modulating DENV-induced mast cell activation.Laboratory Investigation advance online publication, 27 February 2017; doi:10.1038/labinvest.2017.10.

  19. Magnesium isoglycyrrhizinate protects hepatic L02 cells from ischemia/reperfusion induced injury.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xinli; Qin, Jianjie; Lu, Sen

    2014-01-01

    Human liver ischemia/reperfusion injury (IRI) is a common and major clinical problem complicating liver surgery and transplantation. The pathogenesis underlying IRI is complex, involving a series of signaling mediators and mechanisms. This study aimed to investigate the effects of Magnesium Isoglycyrrhizinate (MgIG) on the changes of oxidant stress and apoptosis induced by IRI in human hepatic L02 cells. L02 cells with IRI were treated with or without MgIG and mitoKATP (Mitochondrial adenosine triphosphate-dependent potassium) channel modulators. Cell viability was assessed using CCK-8 assay. Cell apoptosis was quantified by flow cytometry. The activity of the antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) were measured. Effects of MgIG on the expression of Bax, Bcl-2, Caspase 3, PARP (poly ADP-ribose polymerase), Akt, and ERK in L02 cells with IRI were examined. Our results showed that MgIG treatment significantly reduced the population of apoptotic cells and the expression of apoptosis-related proteins in hepatic L02 cells with IRI. MgIG also counteract ischemia reperfusion induced oxidative challenge as it effectively reduced malondialdehyde (MDA) and increased the activities of SOD and GSH-Px. L02 cells treated with MgIG showed increased expression of p-Akt and p-ERK, indicating that the protective effect of MgIG might be associated with the activation of Akt and ERK pathways. Moreover, the addition of Diazoxide (DE), a mitoKATP channel opener, enhanced the cytoprotective activity of MgIG, while the mitoKATP blocker 5-hydroxydecanoate (5-HD) reduced the cytoprotective activity of MgIG.

  20. Magnesium isoglycyrrhizinate protects hepatic L02 cells from ischemia/reperfusion induced injury

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Xinli; Qin, Jianjie; Lu, Sen

    2014-01-01

    Human liver ischemia/reperfusion injury (IRI) is a common and major clinical problem complicating liver surgery and transplantation. The pathogenesis underlying IRI is complex, involving a series of signaling mediators and mechanisms. This study aimed to investigate the effects of Magnesium Isoglycyrrhizinate (MgIG) on the changes of oxidant stress and apoptosis induced by IRI in human hepatic L02 cells. L02 cells with IRI were treated with or without MgIG and mitoKATP (Mitochondrial adenosine triphosphate-dependent potassium) channel modulators. Cell viability was assessed using CCK-8 assay. Cell apoptosis was quantified by flow cytometry. The activity of the antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) were measured. Effects of MgIG on the expression of Bax, Bcl-2, Caspase 3, PARP (poly ADP-ribose polymerase), Akt, and ERK in L02 cells with IRI were examined. Our results showed that MgIG treatment significantly reduced the population of apoptotic cells and the expression of apoptosis-related proteins in hepatic L02 cells with IRI. MgIG also counteract ischemia reperfusion induced oxidative challenge as it effectively reduced malondialdehyde (MDA) and increased the activities of SOD and GSH-Px. L02 cells treated with MgIG showed increased expression of p-Akt and p-ERK, indicating that the protective effect of MgIG might be associated with the activation of Akt and ERK pathways. Moreover, the addition of Diazoxide (DE), a mitoKATP channel opener, enhanced the cytoprotective activity of MgIG, while the mitoKATP blocker 5-hydroxydecanoate (5-HD) reduced the cytoprotective activity of MgIG. PMID:25197346

  1. S-CMC-Lys protective effects on human respiratory cells during oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Garavaglia, Maria Lisa; Bononi, Elena; Dossena, Silvia; Mondini, Anna; Bazzini, Claudia; Lanata, Luigi; Balsamo, Rossella; Bagnasco, Michela; Conese, Massimo; Bottà, Guido; Paulmichl, Markus; Meyer, Giuliano

    2008-01-01

    The mucoactive drug S-carbocysteine lysine salt monohydrate (S-CMC-Lys) stimulates glutathione (GSH) efflux from respiratory cells. Since GSH is one of the most important redox regulatory mechanisms, the aim of this study was to evaluate the S-CMC-Lys effects on GSH efflux and intracellular concentration during an oxidative stress induced by the hydroxyl radical (xOH). Experiments were performed on cultured human respiratory WI-26VA4 cells by means of patch-clamp experiments in whole-cell configuration and of fluorimetric analyses at confocal microscope. xOH exposure induced an irreversible inhibition of the GSH and chloride currents that was prevented if the cells were incubated with S-CMC-Lys. In this instance, the currents were inhibited by the specific blocker CFTR(inh)-172. CFT1-C2 cells, which lack a functional CFTR channel, were not responsive to S-CMC-Lys, but the stimulatory effect of the drug was restored in LCFSN-infected CFT1 cells, functionally corrected to express CFTR. Fluorimetric measurements performed on the S-CMC-Lys-incubated cells revealed a significant increase of the GSH concentration that was completely hindered after oxidative stress and abolished by CFTR(inh)-172. The cellular content of reactive oxygen species was significantly lower in the S-CMC-Lys-treated cells either before or after xOH exposure. As a conclusion, S-CMC-Lys could exert a protective function during oxidative stress, therefore preventing or reducing the ROS-mediated inflammatory response.

  2. A Mitochondria-Targeted Nitroxide/Hemigramicidin S Conjugate Protects Mouse Embryonic Cells Against Gamma Irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang Jianfei; Belikova, Natalia A.; Hoye, Adam T.; Zhao Qing; Epperly, Michael W.; Greenberger, Joel S.; Wipf, Peter; Kagan, Valerian E.

    2008-03-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the in vitro radioprotective effect of the mitochondria-targeted hemigramicidin S-conjugated 4-amino-2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-piperidine-N-oxyl (hemi-GS-TEMPO) 5-125 in {gamma}-irradiated mouse embryonic cells and adenovirus-12 SV40 hybrid virus transformed human bronchial epithelial cells BEAS-2B and explore the mechanisms involved in its radioprotective effect. Methods and Materials: Cells were incubated with 5-125 before (10 minutes) or after (1 hour) {gamma}-irradiation. Superoxide generation was determined by using dihydroethidium assay, and lipid oxidation was quantitated by using a fluorescence high-performance liquid chromatography-based Amplex Red assay. Apoptosis was characterized by evaluating the accumulation of cytochrome c in the cytosol and externalization of phosphatidylserine on the cell surface. Cell survival was measured by means of a clonogenic assay. Results: Treatment (before and after irradiation) of cells with 5-125 at low concentrations (5, 10, and 20 {mu}M) effectively suppressed {gamma}-irradiation-induced superoxide generation, cardiolipin oxidation, and delayed irradiation-induced apoptosis, evaluated by using cytochrome c release and phosphatidylserine externalization. Importantly, treatment with 5-125 increased the clonogenic survival rate of {gamma}-irradiated cells. In addition, 5-125 enhanced and prolonged {gamma}-irradiation-induced G{sub 2}/M phase arrest. Conclusions: Radioprotection/mitigation by hemi-GS-TEMPO likely is caused by its ability to act as an electron scavenger and prevent superoxide generation, attenuate cardiolipin oxidation in mitochondria, and hence prevent the release of proapoptotic factors from mitochondria. Other mechanisms, including cell-cycle arrest at the G{sub 2}/M phase, may contribute to the protection.

  3. Selenium Protects Retinal Cells from Cisplatin-Induced Alterations in Carbohydrate Residues

    PubMed Central

    Akşit, Dilek; Yazıcı, Alper; Akşit, Hasan; Sarı, Esin S.; Yay, Arzu; Yıldız, Onur; Kılıç, Adil; Ermiş, Sıtkı S.; Seyrek, Kamil

    2016-01-01

    Background: Investigate alterations in the expression and localization of carbohydrate units in rat retinal cells exposed to cisplatin toxicity. Aims: The aim of the study was to evaluate putative protective effects of selenium on retinal cells subjected to cisplatin. Study Design: Animal experiment. Methods: Eighteen healthy Wistar rats were divided into three equal groups: 1. Control, 2. Cisplatin and 3. Cisplatin+selenium groups. After anesthesia, the right eye of each rat was enucleated. Results: Histochemically, retinal cells of control groups reacted with α-2,3-bound sialic acid-specific Maackia amurensis lectin (MAA) strongly, while cisplatin reduced the staining intensity for MAA. However, selenium administration alleviated the reducing effect of cisplatin on the binding sites for MAA in retinal cells. The staining intensity for N-acetylgalactosamine (GalNAc residues) specific Griffonia simplicifolia-1 (GSL–1) was relatively slight in control animals and cisplatin reduced this slight staining for GSL-1 further. Selenium administration mitigated the reducing effect of cisplatin on the binding sites for GSL-1. A diffuse staining for N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc) specific wheat germ agglutinin (WGA) was observed throughout the retina of the control animals. In particular, cells localized in the inner plexiform and photoreceptor layers are reacted strongly with WGA. Compared to the control animals, binding sites for WGA in the retina of rats given cisplatin were remarkably decreased. However, the retinal cells of rats given selenium reacted strongly with WGA. Conclusion: Cisplatin reduces α-2,3-bound sialic acid, GlcNAc and GalNAc residues in certain retinal cells. However, selenium alleviates the reducing effect of cisplatin on carbohydrate residues in retinal cells. PMID:27606141

  4. Selective and potent furin inhibitors protect cells from anthrax without significant toxicity.

    PubMed

    Remacle, Albert G; Gawlik, Katarzyna; Golubkov, Vladislav S; Cadwell, Gregory W; Liddington, Robert C; Cieplak, Piotr; Millis, Sherri Z; Desjardins, Roxane; Routhier, Sophie; Yuan, Xue Wen; Neugebauer, Witold A; Day, Robert; Strongin, Alex Y

    2010-06-01

    Furin and related proprotein convertases cleave the multibasic motifs R-X-R/K/X-R in the precursor proteins and, as a result, transform the latent proproteins into biologically active proteins and peptides. Furin is present both in the intracellular secretory pathway and at the cell surface. Intracellular furin processes its multiple normal cellular targets in the Golgi and secretory vesicle compartments while cell-surface furin appears to be essential only for the processing of certain pathogenic proteins and, importantly, anthrax. To design potent, safe and selective inhibitors of furin, we evaluated the potency and selectivity of the derivatized peptidic inhibitors modeled from the extended furin cleavage sequence of avian influenza A H5N1. We determined that the N- and C-terminal modifications of the original RARRRKKRT inhibitory scaffold produced selective and potent, nanomolar range, inhibitors of furin. These inhibitors did not interfere with the normal cellular function of furin because of the likely functional redundancy existing between furin and other proprotein convertases. These furin inhibitors, however, were highly potent in blocking the furin-dependent cell-surface processing of anthrax protective antigen-83 both in vitro and cell-based assays and in vivo. We conclude that the inhibitors we have designed have a promising potential as selective anthrax inhibitors, without affecting major cell functions.

  5. Edaravone leads to proteome changes indicative of neuronal cell protection in response to oxidative stress

    PubMed Central

    Jami, Mohammad-Saeid; Salehi-Najafabadi, Zahra; Ahmadinejad, Fereshteh; Hoedt, Esthelle; Chaleshtori, Morteza Hashemzadeh; Neubert, Thomas A.; Larsen, Jan Petter; Møller, Simon Geir

    2015-01-01

    Neuronal cell death, in neurodegenerative disorders, is mediated through a spectrum of biological processes. Excessive amounts of free radicals, such as reactive oxygen species (ROS), has detrimental effects on neurons leading to cell damage via peroxidation of unsaturated fatty acids in the cell membrane. Edaravone (3-methyl-1-phenyl-2-pyrazolin-5-one) has been used for neurological recovery in several countries, including Japan and China, and it has been suggested that Edaravone may have cytoprotective effects in neurodegeneration. Edaravone protects nerve cells in the brain by reducing ROS and inhibiting apoptosis. To gain further insight into the cytoprotective effects of Edaravone against oxidative stress condition we have performed comparative two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2DE)-based proteomic analyses on SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells exposed to oxidative stress and in combination with Edaravone. We showed that Edaravone can reverse the cytotoxic effects of H2O2 through its specific mechanism. We observed that oxidative stress changes metabolic pathways and cytoskeletal integrity. Edaravone seems to reverse the H2O2-mediated effects at both the cellular and protein level via induction of Peroxiredoxin-2. PMID:26232623

  6. B Cell Subsets Contribute to Both Renal Injury and Renal Protection after Ischemia/Reperfusion

    PubMed Central

    Renner, Brandon; Strassheim, Derek; Amura, Claudia R.; Kulik, Liudmila; Ljubanovic, Danica; Glogowska, Magdalena J.; Takahashi, Kazue; Carroll, Michael C.; Holers, V. Michael; Thurman, Joshua M.

    2011-01-01

    Ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) triggers a robust inflammatory response within the kidney. Numerous components of the immune system contribute to the resultant renal injury including the complement system. We sought to identify whether natural antibodies bind to the post-ischemic kidney and contribute to complement activation after I/R. We depleted peritoneal B cells in mice by hypotonic shock. Depletion of the peritoneal B cells prevented the deposition of IgM within the glomeruli after renal I/R, and attenuated renal injury after I/R. We found that glomerular IgM activates the classical pathway of complement but does not cause substantial deposition of C3 within the kidney. Furthermore, mice deficient in classical pathway proteins were not protected from injury, indicating that glomerular IgM does not cause injury through activation of the classical pathway. We also subjected mice deficient in all mature B cells (μMT mice) to renal I/R and found that they sustained worse renal injury than wild-type controls. Serum IL-10 levels were lower in the μMT mice. Regarded together, these results indicate that natural antibody produced by peritoneal B cells binds within the glomerulus after renal I/R and contributes to functional renal injury. However, non-peritoneal B cells attenuate renal injury after I/R, possibly through the production of IL-10. PMID:20810984