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Sample records for protein arginine methyltransferase

  1. An allosteric inhibitor of protein arginine methyltransferase 3.

    PubMed

    Siarheyeva, Alena; Senisterra, Guillermo; Allali-Hassani, Abdellah; Dong, Aiping; Dobrovetsky, Elena; Wasney, Gregory A; Chau, Irene; Marcellus, Richard; Hajian, Taraneh; Liu, Feng; Korboukh, Ilia; Smil, David; Bolshan, Yuri; Min, Jinrong; Wu, Hong; Zeng, Hong; Loppnau, Peter; Poda, Gennadiy; Griffin, Carly; Aman, Ahmed; Brown, Peter J; Jin, Jian; Al-Awar, Rima; Arrowsmith, Cheryl H; Schapira, Matthieu; Vedadi, Masoud

    2012-08-01

    PRMT3, a protein arginine methyltransferase, has been shown to influence ribosomal biosynthesis by catalyzing the dimethylation of the 40S ribosomal protein S2. Although PRMT3 has been reported to be a cytosolic protein, it has been shown to methylate histone H4 peptide (H4 1-24) in vitro. Here, we report the identification of a PRMT3 inhibitor (1-(benzo[d][1,2,3]thiadiazol-6-yl)-3-(2-cyclohexenylethyl)urea; compound 1) with IC50 value of 2.5 μM by screening a library of 16,000 compounds using H4 (1-24) peptide as a substrate. The crystal structure of PRMT3 in complex with compound 1 as well as kinetic analysis reveals an allosteric mechanism of inhibition. Mutating PRMT3 residues within the allosteric site or using compound 1 analogs that disrupt interactions with allosteric site residues both abrogated binding and inhibitory activity. These data demonstrate an allosteric mechanism for inhibition of protein arginine methyltransferases, an emerging class of therapeutic targets.

  2. Redox Control of Protein Arginine Methyltransferase 1 (PRMT1) Activity*

    PubMed Central

    Morales, Yalemi; Nitzel, Damon V.; Price, Owen M.; Gui, Shanying; Li, Jun; Qu, Jun; Hevel, Joan M.

    2015-01-01

    Elevated levels of asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) correlate with risk factors for cardiovascular disease. ADMA is generated by the catabolism of proteins methylated on arginine residues by protein arginine methyltransferases (PRMTs) and is degraded by dimethylarginine dimethylaminohydrolase. Reports have shown that dimethylarginine dimethylaminohydrolase activity is down-regulated and PRMT1 protein expression is up-regulated under oxidative stress conditions, leading many to conclude that ADMA accumulation occurs via increased synthesis by PRMTs and decreased degradation. However, we now report that the methyltransferase activity of PRMT1, the major PRMT isoform in humans, is impaired under oxidative conditions. Oxidized PRMT1 displays decreased activity, which can be rescued by reduction. This oxidation event involves one or more cysteine residues that become oxidized to sulfenic acid (-SOH). We demonstrate a hydrogen peroxide concentration-dependent inhibition of PRMT1 activity that is readily reversed under physiological H2O2 concentrations. Our results challenge the unilateral view that increased PRMT1 expression necessarily results in increased ADMA synthesis and demonstrate that enzymatic activity can be regulated in a redox-sensitive manner. PMID:25911106

  3. Diamidine Compounds for Selective Inhibition of Protein Arginine Methyltransferase 1

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Protein arginine methylation is a posttranslational modification critical for a variety of biological processes. Misregulation of protein arginine methyltransferases (PRMTs) has been linked to many pathological conditions. Most current PRMT inhibitors display limited specificity and selectivity, indiscriminately targeting many methyltransferase enzymes that use S-adenosyl-l-methionine as a cofactor. Here we report diamidine compounds for specific inhibition of PRMT1, the primary type I enzyme. Docking, molecular dynamics, and MM/PBSA analysis together with biochemical assays were conducted to understand the binding modes of these inhibitors and the molecular basis of selective inhibition for PRMT1. Our data suggest that 2,5-bis(4-amidinophenyl)furan (1, furamidine, DB75), one leading inhibitor, targets the enzyme active site and is primarily competitive with the substrate and noncompetitive toward the cofactor. Furthermore, cellular studies revealed that 1 is cell membrane permeable and effectively inhibits intracellular PRMT1 activity and blocks cell proliferation in leukemia cell lines with different genetic lesions. PMID:24564570

  4. The Role of Protein Arginine Methyltransferases in Inflammatory Responses

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Ji Hye; Yoo, Byong Chul; Yang, Woo Seok; Kim, Eunji; Hong, Sungyoul

    2016-01-01

    Protein arginine methyltransferases (PRMTs) mediate the methylation of a number of protein substrates of arginine residues and serve critical functions in many cellular responses, including cancer development, progression, and aggressiveness, T-lymphocyte activation, and hepatic gluconeogenesis. There are nine members of the PRMT family, which are divided into 4 types (types I–IV). Although most PRMTs do not require posttranslational modification (PTM) to be activated, fine-tuning modifications, such as interactions between cofactor proteins, subcellular compartmentalization, and regulation of RNA, via micro-RNAs, seem to be required. Inflammation is an essential defense reaction of the body to eliminate harmful stimuli, including damaged cells, irritants, or pathogens. However, chronic inflammation can eventually cause several types of diseases, including some cancers, atherosclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis, and periodontitis. Therefore, inflammation responses should be well modulated. In this review, we briefly discuss the role of PRMTs in the control of inflammation. More specifically, we review the roles of four PRMTs (CARM1, PRMT1, PRMT5, and PRMT6) in modulating inflammation responses, particularly in terms of modulating the transcriptional factors or cofactors related to inflammation. Based on the regulatory roles known so far, we propose that PRMTs should be considered one of the target molecule groups that modulate inflammatory responses. PMID:27041824

  5. Mechanistic studies on transcriptional coactivator protein arginine methyltransferase 1.

    PubMed

    Rust, Heather L; Zurita-Lopez, Cecilia I; Clarke, Steven; Thompson, Paul R

    2011-04-26

    Protein arginine methyltransferases (PRMTs) catalyze the transfer of methyl groups from S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) to the guanidinium group of arginine residues in a number of important cell signaling proteins. PRMT1 is the founding member of this family, and its activity appears to be dysregulated in heart disease and cancer. To begin to characterize the catalytic mechanism of this isozyme, we assessed the effects of mutating a number of highly conserved active site residues (i.e., Y39, R54, E100, E144, E153, M155, and H293), which are believed to play key roles in SAM recognition, substrate binding, and catalysis. The results of these studies, as well as pH-rate studies, and the determination of solvent isotope effects (SIEs) indicate that M155 plays a critical role in both SAM binding and the processivity of the reaction but is not responsible for the regiospecific formation of asymmetrically dimethylated arginine (ADMA). Additionally, mutagenesis studies on H293, combined with pH studies and the lack of a normal SIE, do not support a role for this residue as a general base. Furthermore, the lack of a normal SIE with either the wild type or catalytically impaired mutants suggests that general acid/base catalysis is not important for promoting methyl transfer. This result, combined with the fact that the E144A/E153A double mutant retains considerably more activity then the single mutants alone, suggests that the PRMT1-catalyzed reaction is primarily driven by bringing the substrate guanidinium into the proximity of the S-methyl group of SAM and that the prior deprotonation of the substrate guanidinium is not required for methyl transfer.

  6. Discovery of a Potent Class I Protein Arginine Methyltransferase Fragment Inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Ferreira de Freitas, Renato; Eram, Mohammad S; Szewczyk, Magdalena M; Steuber, Holger; Smil, David; Wu, Hong; Li, Fengling; Senisterra, Guillermo; Dong, Aiping; Brown, Peter J; Hitchcock, Marion; Moosmayer, Dieter; Stegmann, Christian M; Egner, Ursula; Arrowsmith, Cheryl; Barsyte-Lovejoy, Dalia; Vedadi, Masoud; Schapira, Matthieu

    2016-02-11

    Protein methyltransferases (PMTs) are a promising target class in oncology and other disease areas. They are composed of SET domain methyltransferases and structurally unrelated Rossman-fold enzymes that include protein arginine methyltransferases (PRMTs). In the absence of a well-defined medicinal chemistry tool-kit focused on PMTs, most current inhibitors were identified by screening large and diverse libraries of leadlike molecules. So far, no successful fragment-based approach was reported against this target class. Here, by deconstructing potent PRMT inhibitors, we find that chemical moieties occupying the substrate arginine-binding site can act as efficient fragment inhibitors. Screening a fragment library against PRMT6 produced numerous hits, including a 300 nM inhibitor (ligand efficiency of 0.56) that decreased global histone 3 arginine 2 methylation in cells, and can serve as a warhead for the development of PRMT chemical probes.

  7. A glutamate/aspartate switch controls product specificity in a protein arginine methyltransferase

    PubMed Central

    Debler, Erik W.; Jain, Kanishk; Warmack, Rebeccah A.; Feng, You; Clarke, Steven G.; Blobel, Günter; Stavropoulos, Pete

    2016-01-01

    Trypanosoma brucei PRMT7 (TbPRMT7) is a protein arginine methyltransferase (PRMT) that strictly monomethylates various substrates, thus classifying it as a type III PRMT. However, the molecular basis of its unique product specificity has remained elusive. Here, we present the structure of TbPRMT7 in complex with its cofactor product S-adenosyl-l-homocysteine (AdoHcy) at 2.8 Å resolution and identify a glutamate residue critical for its monomethylation behavior. TbPRMT7 comprises the conserved methyltransferase and β-barrel domains, an N-terminal extension, and a dimerization arm. The active site at the interface of the N-terminal extension, methyltransferase, and β-barrel domains is stabilized by the dimerization arm of the neighboring protomer, providing a structural basis for dimerization as a prerequisite for catalytic activity. Mutagenesis of active-site residues highlights the importance of Glu181, the second of the two invariant glutamate residues of the double E loop that coordinate the target arginine in substrate peptides/proteins and that increase its nucleophilicity. Strikingly, mutation of Glu181 to aspartate converts TbPRMT7 into a type I PRMT, producing asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA). Isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) using a histone H4 peptide showed that the Glu181Asp mutant has markedly increased affinity for monomethylated peptide with respect to the WT, suggesting that the enlarged active site can favorably accommodate monomethylated peptide and provide sufficient space for ADMA formation. In conclusion, these findings yield valuable insights into the product specificity and the catalytic mechanism of protein arginine methyltransferases and have important implications for the rational (re)design of PRMTs. PMID:26858449

  8. Identification of Protein Arginine Methyltransferase 5 as a Regulator for Encystation of Acanthamoeba

    PubMed Central

    Moon, Eun-Kyung; Hong, Yeonchul; Chung, Dong-Il; Goo, Youn-Kyoung; Kong, Hyun-Hee

    2016-01-01

    Encystation is an essential process for Acanthamoeba survival under nutrient-limiting conditions and exposure to drugs. The expression of several genes has been observed to increase or decrease during encystation. Epigenetic processes involved in regulation of gene expression have been shown to play a role in several pathogenic parasites. In the present study, we identified the protein arginine methyltransferase 5 (PRMT5), a known epigenetic regulator, in Acanthamoeba castellanii. PRMT5 of A. castellanii (AcPRMT5) contained domains found in S-adenosylmethionine-dependent methyltransferases and in PRMT5 arginine-N-methyltransferase. Expression levels of AcPRMT5 were increased during encystation of A. castellanii. The EGFP-PRMT5 fusion protein was mainly localized in the nucleus of trophozoites. A. castellanii transfected with siRNA designed against AcPRMT5 failed to form mature cysts. The findings of this study lead to a better understanding of epigenetic mechanisms behind the regulation of encystation in cyst-forming pathogenic protozoa. PMID:27180570

  9. The protein arginine methyltransferase PRMT5 promotes D2-like dopamine receptor signaling.

    PubMed

    Likhite, Neah; Jackson, Christopher A; Liang, Mao-Shih; Krzyzanowski, Michelle C; Lei, Pedro; Wood, Jordan F; Birkaya, Barbara; Michaels, Kerry L; Andreadis, Stelios T; Clark, Stewart D; Yu, Michael C; Ferkey, Denise M

    2015-11-10

    Protein arginine methylation regulates diverse functions of eukaryotic cells, including gene expression, the DNA damage response, and circadian rhythms. We showed that arginine residues within the third intracellular loop of the human D2 dopamine receptor, which are conserved in the DOP-3 receptor in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, were methylated by protein arginine methyltransferase 5 (PRMT5). By mutating these arginine residues, we further showed that their methylation enhanced the D2 receptor-mediated inhibition of cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) signaling in cultured human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293T cells. Analysis of prmt-5-deficient worms indicated that methylation promoted the dopamine-mediated modulation of chemosensory and locomotory behaviors in C. elegans through the DOP-3 receptor. In addition to delineating a previously uncharacterized means of regulating GPCR (heterotrimeric guanine nucleotide-binding protein-coupled receptor) signaling, these findings may lead to the development of a new class of pharmacological therapies that modulate GPCR signaling by changing the methylation status of these key proteins. PMID:26554819

  10. Methylation of ribosomal protein S10 by protein-arginine methyltransferase 5 regulates ribosome biogenesis.

    PubMed

    Ren, Jinqi; Wang, Yaqing; Liang, Yuheng; Zhang, Yongqing; Bao, Shilai; Xu, Zhiheng

    2010-04-23

    Modulation of ribosomal assembly is a fine tuning mechanism for cell number and organ size control. Many ribosomal proteins undergo post-translational modification, but their exact roles remain elusive. Here, we report that ribosomal protein s10 (RPS10) is a novel substrate of an oncoprotein, protein-arginine methyltransferase 5 (PRMT5). We show that PRMT5 interacts with RPS10 and catalyzes its methylation at the Arg(158) and Arg(160) residues. The methylation of RPS10 at Arg(158) and Arg(160) plays a role in the proper assembly of ribosomes, protein synthesis, and optimal cell proliferation. The RPS10-R158K/R160K mutant is not efficiently assembled into ribosomes and is unstable and prone to degradation by the proteasomal pathway. In nucleoli, RPS10 interacts with nucleophosmin/B23 and is predominantly concentrated in the granular component region, which is required for ribosome assembly. The RPS10 methylation mutant interacts weakly with nucleophosmin/B23 and fails to concentrate in the granular component region. Our results suggest that PRMT5 is likely to regulate cell proliferation through the methylation of ribosome proteins, and thus reveal a novel mechanism for PRMT5 in tumorigenesis.

  11. EWS is a substrate of type I protein arginine methyltransferase, PRMT8.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jun-Dal; Kako, Koichiro; Kakiuchi, Misako; Park, Gwi Gun; Fukamizu, Akiyoshi

    2008-09-01

    EWS, a pro-oncoprotein which is encoded by the Ewing sarcoma (EWS) gene, contains arginine-glycine-glycine repeats (RGG box) in its COOH-terminus. We previously found that the RGG box of EWS is a target for dimethylation catalyzed by protein arginine methyltransferases (PRMTs). Although it has been observed that arginine residues in EWS are dimethylated in vivo, the endogenous enzyme(s) responsible for this reaction have not been identified to date. In the present study, we determined that EWS was physically associated with PRMT8, the novel eighth member of the PRMT family, through the COOH-terminal region of EWS including RGG3 with the NH2-terminal region of PRMT8 encompassing the S-adenosyl-L-methionine binding domain, and that arginine residues in EWS were asymmetrically dimethylated by PRMT8 using amino acid analysis with thin-layer chromatography. These results suggested that EWS is a substrate for PRMT8, as efficient as for PRMT1.

  12. Identification of methylated proteins in the yeast small ribosomal subunit: a role for SPOUT methyltransferases in protein arginine methylation.

    PubMed

    Young, Brian D; Weiss, David I; Zurita-Lopez, Cecilia I; Webb, Kristofor J; Clarke, Steven G; McBride, Anne E

    2012-06-26

    We have characterized the posttranslational methylation of Rps2, Rps3, and Rps27a, three small ribosomal subunit proteins in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, using mass spectrometry and amino acid analysis. We found that Rps2 is substoichiometrically modified at arginine-10 by the Rmt1 methyltransferase. We demonstrated that Rps3 is stoichiometrically modified by ω-monomethylation at arginine-146 by mass spectrometric and site-directed mutagenic analyses. Substitution of alanine for arginine at position 146 is associated with slow cell growth, suggesting that the amino acid identity at this site may influence ribosomal function and/or biogenesis. Analysis of the three-dimensional structure of Rps3 in S. cerevisiae shows that arginine-146 makes contacts with the small subunit rRNA. Screening of deletion mutants encoding potential yeast methyltransferases revealed that the loss of the YOR021C gene results in the absence of methylation of Rps3. We demonstrated that recombinant Yor021c catalyzes ω-monomethylarginine formation when incubated with S-adenosylmethionine and hypomethylated ribosomes prepared from a YOR021C deletion strain. Interestingly, Yor021c belongs to the family of SPOUT methyltransferases that, to date, have only been shown to modify RNA substrates. Our findings suggest a wider role for SPOUT methyltransferases in nature. Finally, we have demonstrated the presence of a stoichiometrically methylated cysteine residue at position 39 of Rps27a in a zinc-cysteine cluster. The discovery of these three novel sites of protein modification within the small ribosomal subunit will now allow for an analysis of their functional roles in translation and possibly other cellular processes.

  13. Different methylation characteristics of protein arginine methyltransferase 1 and 3 toward the Ewing Sarcoma protein and a peptide.

    PubMed

    Pahlich, Steffen; Bschir, Karim; Chiavi, Claudio; Belyanskaya, Larisa; Gehring, Heinz

    2005-10-01

    The multifunctional Ewing Sarcoma (EWS) protein, a member of a large family of RNA-binding proteins, is extensively asymmetrically dimethylated at arginine residues within RGG consensus sequences. Using recombinant proteins we examined whether type I protein arginine methyltransferase (PRMT)1 or 3 is responsible for asymmetric dimethylations of the EWS protein. After in vitro methylation of the EWS protein by GST-PRMT1, we identified 27 dimethylated arginine residues out of 30 potential methylation sites by mass spectrometry-based techniques (MALDI-TOF MS and MS/MS). Thus, PRMT1 recognizes most if not all methylation sites of the EWS protein. With GST-PRMT3, however, only nine dimethylated arginines, located mainly in the C-terminal region of EWS protein, could be assigned, indicating that structural determinants prevent complete methylation. In contrary to previous reports this study also revealed that trypsin is able to cleave after methylated arginines. Pull-down experiments showed that endogenous EWS protein binds efficiently to GST-PRMT1 but less to GST-PRMT3, which is in accordance to the in vitro methylation results. Furthermore, methylation of a peptide containing different methylation sites revealed differences in the site selectivity as well as in the kinetic properties of GST-PRMT1 and GST-PRMT3. Kinetic differences due to an inhibition effect of the methylation inhibitor S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine could be excluded by determining the corresponding K(i) values of the two enzymes and the K(d) values for the methyl donor S-adenosyl-L-methionine. The study demonstrates the strength of MS-based methods for a qualitative and quantitative analysis of enzymic arginine methylation, a posttranslational modification that becomes more and more the object of investigations.

  14. Protein-arginine methyltransferase 1 (PRMT1) methylates Ash2L, a shared component of mammalian histone H3K4 methyltransferase complexes.

    PubMed

    Butler, Jill S; Zurita-Lopez, Cecilia I; Clarke, Steven G; Bedford, Mark T; Dent, Sharon Y R

    2011-04-01

    Multiple enzymes and enzymatic complexes coordinately regulate the addition and removal of post-translational modifications on histone proteins. The oncoprotein Ash2L is a component of the mixed lineage leukemia (MLL) family members 1-4, Setd1A, and Setd1B mammalian histone H3K4 methyltransferase complexes and is essential to maintain global trimethylation of histone H3K4. However, regulation of these complexes at the level of expression and activity remains poorly understood. In this report, we demonstrate that Ash2L is methylated on arginine residues both in vitro and in cells. We found that both protein-arginine methyltransferases 1 and 5 methylate Arg-296 within Ash2L. These findings are the first to demonstrate that post-translational modifications occur on the Ash2L protein and provide a novel example of cross-talk between chromatin-modifying enzyme complexes. PMID:21285357

  15. Automethylation of protein arginine methyltransferase 8 (PRMT8) regulates activity by impeding S-adenosylmethionine sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Dillon, Myles B C; Rust, Heather L; Thompson, Paul R; Mowen, Kerri A

    2013-09-27

    Protein arginine methyltransferase (PRMT) 8 is unique among the PRMTs, as it has a highly restricted tissue expression pattern and an N terminus that contains two automethylation sites and a myristoylation site. PRMTs catalyze the transfer of a methyl group from S-adenosylmethionine (AdoMet) to a peptidylarginine on a protein substrate. Currently, the physiological roles, regulation, and cellular substrates of PRMT8 are poorly understood. However, a thorough understanding of PRMT8 kinetics should provide insights into each of these areas, thereby enhancing our understanding of this unique enzyme. In this study, we determined how automethylation regulates the enzymatic activity of PRMT8. We found that preventing automethylation with lysine mutations (preserving the positive charge of the residue) increased the turnover rate and decreased the Km of AdoMet but did not affect the Km of the protein substrate. In contrast, mimicking automethylation with phenylalanine (i.e. mimicking the increased hydrophobicity) decreased the turnover rate. The inhibitory effect of the PRMT8 N terminus could be transferred to PRMT1 by creating a chimeric protein containing the N terminus of PRMT8 fused to PRMT1. Thus, automethylation of the N terminus likely regulates PRMT8 activity by decreasing the affinity of the enzyme for AdoMet. PMID:23946480

  16. Protein arginine methyltransferase 5 (PRMT5) is a novel coactivator of constitutive androstane receptor (CAR)

    SciTech Connect

    Kanno, Yuichiro Inajima, Jun; Kato, Sayaka; Matsumoto, Maika; Tokumoto, Chikako; Kure, Yuki; Inouye, Yoshio

    2015-03-27

    The constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) plays a key role in the expression of xenobiotic/steroid and drug metabolizing enzymes and their transporters. In this study, we demonstrated that protein arginine methyltransferase 5 (PRMT5) is a novel CAR-interacting protein. Furthermore, the PRMT-dependent induction of a CAR reporter gene, which was independent of methyltransferase activity, was enhanced in the presence of steroid receptor coactivator 1 (SRC1), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma coactivator 1 alpha (PGC-1α) or DEAD box DNA/RNA helicase DP97. Using tetracycline inducible-hCAR system in HepG2 cells, we showed that knockdown of PRMT5 with small interfering RNA suppressed tetracycline -induced mRNA expression of CYP2B6 but not of CYP2C9 or CYP3A4. PRMT5 enhanced phenobarbital-mediated transactivation of a phenobarbital-responsive enhancer module (PBREM)-driven reporter gene in co-operation with PGC-1α in rat primary hepatocytes. Based on these findings, we suggest PRMT5 to be a gene (or promoter)-selective coactivator of CAR by mediating the formation of complexes between hCAR and appropriate coactivators. - Highlights: • Nuclear receptor CAR interact with PRMT5. • PRMT5 enhances transcriptional activity of CAR. • PRMT5 synergistically enhances transactivity of CAR by the co-expression of SRC-1, DP97 or PGC1α. • PRMT5 is a gene-selective co-activator for hCAR.

  17. Modulation of Epstein–Barr Virus Nuclear Antigen 2-dependent transcription by protein arginine methyltransferase 5

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Cheng-Der; Cheng, Chi-Ping; Fang, Jia-Shih; Chen, Ling-Chih; Zhao, Bo; Kieff, Elliott; Peng, Chih-Wen

    2013-01-18

    Highlights: ► Catalytic active PRMT5 substantially binds to the EBNA2 RG domain. ► PRMT5 augments the EBNA2-dependent transcription. ► PRMT5 triggers the symmetric dimethylation of the EBNA2 RG domain. ► PRMT5 enhances the promoter occupancy of EBNA2 on its target promoters. -- Abstract: Epstein–Barr Virus Nuclear Antigen (EBNA) 2 features an Arginine–Glycine repeat (RG) domain at amino acid positions 335–360, which is a known target for protein arginine methyltransferaser 5 (PRMT5). In this study, we performed protein affinity pull-down assays to demonstrate that endogenous PRMT5 derived from lymphoblastoid cells specifically associated with the protein bait GST-E2 RG. Transfection of a plasmid expressing PRMT5 induced a 2.5- to 3-fold increase in EBNA2-dependent transcription of both the LMP1 promoter in AKATA cells, which contain the EBV genome endogenously, and a Cp-Luc reporter plasmid in BJAB cells, which are EBV negative. Furthermore, we showed that there was a 2-fold enrichment of EBNA2 occupancy in target promoters in the presence of exogenous PRMT5. Taken together, we show that PRMT5 triggers the symmetric dimethylation of EBNA2 RG domain to coordinate with EBNA2-mediated transcription. This modulation suggests that PRMT5 may play a role in latent EBV infection.

  18. Exploration of Cyanine Compounds as Selective Inhibitors of Protein Arginine Methyltransferases: Synthesis and Biological Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Protein arginine methyltransferase 1 (PRMT1) is involved in many biological activities, such as gene transcription, signal transduction, and RNA processing. Overexpression of PRMT1 is related to cardiovascular diseases, kidney diseases, and cancers; therefore, selective PRMT1 inhibitors serve as chemical probes to investigate the biological function of PRMT1 and drug candidates for disease treatment. Our previous work found trimethine cyanine compounds that effectively inhibit PRMT1 activity. In our present study, we systematically investigated the structure–activity relationship of cyanine structures. A pentamethine compound, E-84 (compound 50), showed inhibition on PRMT1 at the micromolar level and 6- to 25-fold selectivity over CARM1, PRMT5, and PRMT8. The cellular activity suggests that compound 50 permeated the cellular membrane, inhibited cellular PRMT1 activity, and blocked leukemia cell proliferation. Additionally, our molecular docking study suggested compound 50 might act by occupying the cofactor binding site, which provided a roadmap to guide further optimization of this lead compound. PMID:25559100

  19. Protein arginine methyltransferase 7 promotes breast cancer cell invasion through the induction of MMP9 expression

    PubMed Central

    Baldwin, R. Mitchell; Haghandish, Nasim; Daneshmand, Manijeh; Amin, Shahrier; Paris, Geneviève; Falls, Theresa J.; Bell, John C.; Islam, Shahidul; Côté, Jocelyn

    2015-01-01

    Recent evidence points to the protein arginine methyltransferase (PRMT) family of enzymes playing critical roles in cancer. PRMT7 has been identified in several gene expression studies to be associated with increased metastasis and decreased survival in breast cancer patients. However, this has not been extensively studied. Here we report that PRMT7 expression is significantly upregulated in both primary breast tumour tissues and in breast cancer lymph node metastases. We have demonstrated that reducing PRMT7 levels in invasive breast cancer cells using RNA interference significantly decreased cell invasion in vitro and metastasis in vivo. Conversely, overexpression of PRMT7 in non-aggressive MCF7 cells enhanced their invasiveness. Furthermore, we show that PRMT7 induces the expression of matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP9), a well-known mediator of breast cancer metastasis. Importantly, we significantly rescued invasion of aggressive breast cancer cells depleted of PRMT7 by the exogenous expression of MMP9. Our results demonstrate that upregulation of PRMT7 in breast cancer may have a significant role in promoting cell invasion through the regulation of MMP9. This identifies PRMT7 as a novel and potentially significant biomarker and therapeutic target for breast cancer. PMID:25605249

  20. Cytoplasmic sequestration of FUS/TLS associated with ALS alters histone marks through loss of nuclear protein arginine methyltransferase 1.

    PubMed

    Tibshirani, Michael; Tradewell, Miranda L; Mattina, Katie R; Minotti, Sandra; Yang, Wencheng; Zhou, Hongru; Strong, Michael J; Hayward, Lawrence J; Durham, Heather D

    2015-02-01

    Mutations in the RNA-binding protein FUS/TLS (FUS) have been linked to the neurodegenerative disease amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Although predominantly nuclear, this heterogenous nuclear ribonuclear protein (hnRNP) has multiple functions in RNA processing including intracellular trafficking. In ALS, mutant or wild-type (WT) FUS can form neuronal cytoplasmic inclusions. Asymmetric arginine methylation of FUS by the class 1 arginine methyltransferase, protein arginine methyltransferase 1 (PRMT1), regulates nucleocytoplasmic shuttling of FUS. In motor neurons of primary spinal cord cultures, redistribution of endogenous mouse and that of ectopically expressed WT or mutant human FUS to the cytoplasm led to nuclear depletion of PRMT1, abrogating methylation of its nuclear substrates. Specifically, hypomethylation of arginine 3 of histone 4 resulted in decreased acetylation of lysine 9/14 of histone 3 and transcriptional repression. Distribution of neuronal PRMT1 coincident with FUS also was detected in vivo in the spinal cord of FUS(R495X) transgenic mice. However, nuclear PRMT1 was not stable postmortem obviating meaningful evaluation of ALS autopsy cases. This study provides evidence for loss of PRMT1 function as a consequence of cytoplasmic accumulation of FUS in the pathogenesis of ALS, including changes in the histone code regulating gene transcription.

  1. Protein arginine methyltransferase 6 enhances polyglutamine-expanded androgen receptor function and toxicity in spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy.

    PubMed

    Scaramuzzino, Chiara; Casci, Ian; Parodi, Sara; Lievens, Patricia M J; Polanco, Maria J; Milioto, Carmelo; Chivet, Mathilde; Monaghan, John; Mishra, Ashutosh; Badders, Nisha; Aggarwal, Tanya; Grunseich, Christopher; Sambataro, Fabio; Basso, Manuela; Fackelmayer, Frank O; Taylor, J Paul; Pandey, Udai Bhan; Pennuto, Maria

    2015-01-01

    Polyglutamine expansion in androgen receptor (AR) is responsible for spinobulbar muscular atrophy (SBMA) that leads to selective loss of lower motor neurons. Using SBMA as a model, we explored the relationship between protein structure/function and neurodegeneration in polyglutamine diseases. We show here that protein arginine methyltransferase 6 (PRMT6) is a specific co-activator of normal and mutant AR and that the interaction of PRMT6 with AR is significantly enhanced in the AR mutant. AR and PRMT6 interaction occurs through the PRMT6 steroid receptor interaction motif, LXXLL, and the AR activating function 2 surface. AR transactivation requires PRMT6 catalytic activity and involves methylation of arginine residues at Akt consensus site motifs, which is mutually exclusive with serine phosphorylation by Akt. The enhanced interaction of PRMT6 and mutant AR leads to neurodegeneration in cell and fly models of SBMA. These findings demonstrate a direct role of arginine methylation in polyglutamine disease pathogenesis.

  2. Unique Features of Human Protein Arginine Methyltransferase 9 (PRMT9) and Its Substrate RNA Splicing Factor SF3B2*

    PubMed Central

    Hadjikyriacou, Andrea; Yang, Yanzhong; Espejo, Alexsandra; Bedford, Mark T.; Clarke, Steven G.

    2015-01-01

    Human protein arginine methyltransferase (PRMT) 9 symmetrically dimethylates arginine residues on splicing factor SF3B2 (SAP145) and has been functionally linked to the regulation of alternative splicing of pre-mRNA. Site-directed mutagenesis studies on this enzyme and its substrate had revealed essential unique residues in the double E loop and the importance of the C-terminal duplicated methyltransferase domain. In contrast to what had been observed with other PRMTs and their physiological substrates, a peptide containing the methylatable Arg-508 of SF3B2 was not recognized by PRMT9 in vitro. Although amino acid substitutions of residues surrounding Arg-508 had no great effect on PRMT9 recognition of SF3B2, moving the arginine residue within this sequence abolished methylation. PRMT9 and PRMT5 are the only known mammalian enzymes capable of forming symmetric dimethylarginine (SDMA) residues as type II PRMTs. We demonstrate here that the specificity of these enzymes for their substrates is distinct and not redundant. The loss of PRMT5 activity in mouse embryo fibroblasts results in almost complete loss of SDMA, suggesting that PRMT5 is the primary SDMA-forming enzyme in these cells. PRMT9, with its duplicated methyltransferase domain and conserved sequence in the double E loop, appears to have a unique structure and specificity among PRMTs for methylating SF3B2 and potentially other polypeptides. PMID:25979344

  3. Protein arginine methyltransferase CARM1 attenuates the paraspeckle-mediated nuclear retention of mRNAs containing IRAlus.

    PubMed

    Hu, Shi-Bin; Xiang, Jian-Feng; Li, Xiang; Xu, Yefen; Xue, Wei; Huang, Min; Wong, Catharine C; Sagum, Cari A; Bedford, Mark T; Yang, Li; Cheng, Donghang; Chen, Ling-Ling

    2015-03-15

    In many cells, mRNAs containing inverted repeated Alu elements (IRAlus) in their 3' untranslated regions (UTRs) are inefficiently exported to the cytoplasm. Such nuclear retention correlates with paraspeckle-associated protein complexes containing p54(nrb). However, nuclear retention of mRNAs containing IRAlus is variable, and how regulation of retention and export is achieved is poorly understood. Here we show one mechanism of such regulation via the arginine methyltransferase CARM1 (coactivator-associated arginine methyltransferase 1). We demonstrate that disruption of CARM1 enhances the nuclear retention of mRNAs containing IRAlus. CARM1 regulates this nuclear retention pathway at two levels: CARM1 methylates the coiled-coil domain of p54(nrb), resulting in reduced binding of p54(nrb) to mRNAs containing IRAlus, and also acts as a transcription regulator to suppress NEAT1 transcription, leading to reduced paraspeckle formation. These actions of CARM1 work together synergistically to regulate the export of transcripts containing IRAlus from paraspeckles under certain cellular stresses, such as poly(I:C) treatment. This work demonstrates how a post-translational modification of an RNA-binding protein affects protein-RNA interaction and also uncovers a mechanism of transcriptional regulation of the long noncoding RNA NEAT1. PMID:25792598

  4. Protein arginine methyltransferase CARM1 attenuates the paraspeckle-mediated nuclear retention of mRNAs containing IRAlus

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Shi-Bin; Xiang, Jian-Feng; Li, Xiang; Xu, Yefen; Xue, Wei; Huang, Min; Wong, Catharine C.; Sagum, Cari A.; Bedford, Mark T.; Yang, Li

    2015-01-01

    In many cells, mRNAs containing inverted repeated Alu elements (IRAlus) in their 3′ untranslated regions (UTRs) are inefficiently exported to the cytoplasm. Such nuclear retention correlates with paraspeckle-associated protein complexes containing p54nrb. However, nuclear retention of mRNAs containing IRAlus is variable, and how regulation of retention and export is achieved is poorly understood. Here we show one mechanism of such regulation via the arginine methyltransferase CARM1 (coactivator-associated arginine methyltransferase 1). We demonstrate that disruption of CARM1 enhances the nuclear retention of mRNAs containing IRAlus. CARM1 regulates this nuclear retention pathway at two levels: CARM1 methylates the coiled-coil domain of p54nrb, resulting in reduced binding of p54nrb to mRNAs containing IRAlus, and also acts as a transcription regulator to suppress NEAT1 transcription, leading to reduced paraspeckle formation. These actions of CARM1 work together synergistically to regulate the export of transcripts containing IRAlus from paraspeckles under certain cellular stresses, such as poly(I:C) treatment. This work demonstrates how a post-translational modification of an RNA-binding protein affects protein–RNA interaction and also uncovers a mechanism of transcriptional regulation of the long noncoding RNA NEAT1. PMID:25792598

  5. Protein arginine methyltransferase 5 is an essential component of the hypoxia-inducible factor 1 signaling pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Lim, Ji-Hong; Choi, Yong-Joon; Cho, Chung-Hyun

    2012-02-10

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer HIF-1{alpha} is expressed PRMT5-dependently in hypoxic cancer cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The HIF-1 regulation of hypoxia-induced genes is attenuated in PRMT5-knocked-down cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The de novo synthesis of HIF-1{alpha} depends on PRMT5. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer PRMT5 is involved in the HIF-1{alpha} translation initiated by 5 Prime UTR of HIF-1{alpha} mRNA. -- Abstract: Protein arginine methyltransferase 5 (PRMT5) is an enzyme that transfers one or two methyl groups to the arginine residues of histones or non-histone proteins, and that plays critical roles in cellular processes as diverse as receptor signaling and gene expression. Furthermore, PRMT5 is highly expressed in tumors, where it may be associated with tumor growth. Although much research has been conducted on PRMT5, little is known regarding its role in adaption to hypoxia. As hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1) is a key player in hypoxic response, we examined the possible involvement of PRMT5 in the HIF-1 signaling pathway. Of the siRNAs targeting PRMT1-8, only PRMT5 siRNA attenuated the hypoxic induction of HIF-1{alpha} in A549 cells, and this result was reproducible in all three cancer cell lines examined. PRMT5 knock-down also repressed the promoter activities and the transcript levels of HIF-1-governed genes. Mechanistically, de novo synthesis of HIF-1{alpha} protein was reduced in PRMT5-knocked-down A549 cells, and this was rescued by PRMT5 restoration. In contrast, HIF-1{alpha} transcription, RNA processing, and protein stability were unaffected by PRMT5 knock-down. Furthermore, PRMT5 was found to be essential for the HIF-1{alpha} translation initiated by the 5 Prime UTR of HIF-1{alpha} mRNA. Given our results and previous reports, we believe that PRMT5 probably promotes tumor growth by stimulating cell proliferation and by participating in the construction of a tumor-favorable microenvironment via HIF-1 activation.

  6. Cloning of a protein arginine methyltransferase PRMT1 homologue from Schistosoma mansoni: Evidence for roles in nuclear receptor signaling and RNA metabolism

    SciTech Connect

    Mansure, Jose Joao; Furtado, Daniel Rodrigues; Bastos de Oliveira, Francisco Meirelles; Rumjanek, Franklin David; Franco, Gloria Regina; Fantappie, Marcelo Rosado . E-mail: fantappie@bioqmed.ufrj.br

    2005-10-07

    The most studied arginine methyltransferase is the type I enzyme, which catalyzes the transfer of an S-adenosyl-L-methionine to a broad spectrum of substrates, including histones, RNA-transporting proteins, and nuclear hormone receptor coactivators. We cloned a cDNA encoding a protein arginine methyltransferase in Schistosoma mansoni (SmPRMT1). SmPRMT1 is highly homologous to the vertebrate PRMT1 enzyme. In vitro methylation assays showed that SmPRMT1 recombinant protein was able to specifically methylate histone H4. Two schistosome proteins likely to be involved in RNA metabolism, SMYB1 and SmSmD3, that display a number of RGG motifs, were strongly methylated by SmPRMT1. In vitro GST pull-down assays showed that SMYB1 and SmSmD3 physically interacted with SmPRMT1. Additional GST pull-down assay suggested the occurrence of a ternary complex including SmPRMT1, SmRXR1 nuclear receptor, and the p160 (SRC-1) nuclear receptor coactivator. Together, these data suggest a mechanism by which SmPRMT1 plays a role in nuclear receptor-mediated chromatin remodeling and RNA transactions.

  7. Protein arginine Methyltransferase 8 gene is expressed in pluripotent stem cells and its expression is modulated by the transcription factor Sox2.

    PubMed

    Solari, Claudia; Echegaray, Camila Vázquez; Luzzani, Carlos; Cosentino, María Soledad; Waisman, Ariel; Petrone, María Victoria; Francia, Marcos; Sassone, Alina; Canizo, Jésica; Sevlever, Gustavo; Barañao, Lino; Miriuka, Santiago; Guberman, Alejandra

    2016-04-22

    Addition of methyl groups to arginine residues is catalyzed by a group of enzymes called Protein Arginine Methyltransferases (Prmt). Although Prmt1 is essential in development, its paralogue Prmt8 has been poorly studied. This gene was reported to be expressed in nervous system and involved in neurogenesis. In this work, we found that Prmt8 is expressed in mouse embryonic stem cells (ESC) and in induced pluripotent stem cells, and modulated along differentiation to neural precursor cells. We found that Prmt8 promoter activity is induced by the pluripotency transcription factors Oct4, Sox2 and Nanog. Moreover, endogenous Prmt8 mRNA levels were reduced in ESC transfected with Sox2 shRNA vector. As a whole, our results indicate that Prmt8 is expressed in pluripotent stem cells and its transcription is modulated by pluripotency transcription factors. These findings suggest that besides its known function in nervous system, Prmt8 could play a role in pluripotent stem cells.

  8. Selective Inhibitors of Protein Methyltransferases

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Mounting evidence suggests that protein methyltransferases (PMTs), which catalyze methylation of histone and nonhistone proteins, play a crucial role in diverse biological processes and human diseases. In particular, PMTs have been recognized as major players in regulating gene expression and chromatin state. PMTs are divided into two categories: protein lysine methyltransferases (PKMTs) and protein arginine methyltransferases (PRMTs). There has been a steadily growing interest in these enzymes as potential therapeutic targets and therefore discovery of PMT inhibitors has also been pursued increasingly over the past decade. Here, we present a perspective on selective, small-molecule inhibitors of PMTs with an emphasis on their discovery, characterization, and applicability as chemical tools for deciphering the target PMTs’ physiological functions and involvement in human diseases. We highlight the current state of PMT inhibitors and discuss future directions and opportunities for PMT inhibitor discovery. PMID:25406853

  9. Protein Arginine Methyltransferase Prmt5-Mep50 Methylates Histones H2A and H4 and the Histone Chaperone Nucleoplasmin in Xenopus laevis Eggs*

    PubMed Central

    Wilczek, Carola; Chitta, Raghu; Woo, Eileen; Shabanowitz, Jeffrey; Chait, Brian T.; Hunt, Donald F.; Shechter, David

    2011-01-01

    Histone proteins carry information contained in post-translational modifications. Eukaryotic cells utilize this histone code to regulate the usage of the underlying DNA. In the maturing oocytes and eggs of the frog Xenopus laevis, histones are synthesized in bulk in preparation for deposition during the rapid early developmental cell cycles. During this key developmental time frame, embryonic pluripotent chromatin is established. In the egg, non-chromatin-bound histones are complexed with storage chaperone proteins, including nucleoplasmin. Here we describe the identification and characterization of a complex of the protein arginine methyltransferase 5 (Prmt5) and the methylosome protein 50 (Mep50) isolated from Xenopus eggs that specifically methylates predeposition histones H2A/H2A.X-F and H4 and the histone chaperone nucleoplasmin on a conserved motif (GRGXK). We demonstrate that nucleoplasmin (Npm), an exceedingly abundant maternally deposited protein, is a potent substrate for Prmt5-Mep50 and is monomethylated and symmetrically dimethylated at Arg-187. Furthermore, Npm modulates Prmt5-Mep50 activity directed toward histones, consistent with a regulatory role for Npm in vivo. We show that H2A and nucleoplasmin methylation appears late in oogenesis and is most abundant in the laid egg. We hypothesize that these very abundant arginine methylations are constrained to pre-mid blastula transition events in the embryo and therefore may be involved in the global transcriptional repression found in this developmental time frame. PMID:22009756

  10. Protein arginine methyltransferase Prmt5-Mep50 methylates histones H2A and H4 and the histone chaperone nucleoplasmin in Xenopus laevis eggs.

    PubMed

    Wilczek, Carola; Chitta, Raghu; Woo, Eileen; Shabanowitz, Jeffrey; Chait, Brian T; Hunt, Donald F; Shechter, David

    2011-12-01

    Histone proteins carry information contained in post-translational modifications. Eukaryotic cells utilize this histone code to regulate the usage of the underlying DNA. In the maturing oocytes and eggs of the frog Xenopus laevis, histones are synthesized in bulk in preparation for deposition during the rapid early developmental cell cycles. During this key developmental time frame, embryonic pluripotent chromatin is established. In the egg, non-chromatin-bound histones are complexed with storage chaperone proteins, including nucleoplasmin. Here we describe the identification and characterization of a complex of the protein arginine methyltransferase 5 (Prmt5) and the methylosome protein 50 (Mep50) isolated from Xenopus eggs that specifically methylates predeposition histones H2A/H2A.X-F and H4 and the histone chaperone nucleoplasmin on a conserved motif (GRGXK). We demonstrate that nucleoplasmin (Npm), an exceedingly abundant maternally deposited protein, is a potent substrate for Prmt5-Mep50 and is monomethylated and symmetrically dimethylated at Arg-187. Furthermore, Npm modulates Prmt5-Mep50 activity directed toward histones, consistent with a regulatory role for Npm in vivo. We show that H2A and nucleoplasmin methylation appears late in oogenesis and is most abundant in the laid egg. We hypothesize that these very abundant arginine methylations are constrained to pre-mid blastula transition events in the embryo and therefore may be involved in the global transcriptional repression found in this developmental time frame.

  11. Transcriptional regulation of the human ferritin gene by coordinated regulation of Nrf2 and protein arginine methyltransferases PRMT1 and PRMT4

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Bo-Wen; Ray, Paul D.; Iwasaki, Kenta; Tsuji, Yoshiaki

    2013-01-01

    Antioxidant genes such as ferritin are transcriptionally activated in oxidative stress via the antioxidant responsive element (ARE), to which nuclear factor-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) binds and activates transcription. Histone modification plays a cooperative and essential role in transcriptional regulation; however, its role in antioxidant gene transcription remains elusive. Arsenic exposure activated ferritin transcription via the ARE concomitant with increased methylation of histones H4Arg3 (H4R3) and H3Arg17 (H3R17). To test our hypothesis that histone H4R3 and H3R17 methylation regulates ferritin transcription, H4R3 and H3R17 protein arginine (R) methyltransferases 1 and 4 (PRMT1 and PRMT4) were investigated. Arsenic exposure of human HaCaT keratinocytes induced nuclear accumulation of PRMT1 and PRMT4, histone H4R3 and H3R17 methylation proximal to the ARE, but not to the non-ARE regions of ferritin genes. PRMT1 or PRMT4 knockdown did not block Nrf2 nuclear accumulation but inhibited Nrf2 binding to the AREs by ∼40% (P<0.05), thus diminishing ferritin transcription in HaCaT and human primary keratinocytes and fibroblasts, causing enhanced cellular susceptibility to arsenic toxicity as evidenced by 2-fold caspase 3 activation. Focused microarray further characterized several oxidative stress response genes are subject to PRMT1 or PRMT4 regulation. Collectively, PRMT1 and PRMT4 regulate the ARE and cellular antioxidant response to arsenic.—Huang, B.-W., Ray, P. D., Iwasaki, K., Tsuji, Y. Transcriptional regulation of the human ferritin gene by coordinated regulation of Nrf2 and protein arginine methyltransferases PRMT1 and PRMT4. PMID:23699174

  12. Protein arginine Methyltransferase 8 gene is expressed in pluripotent stem cells and its expression is modulated by the transcription factor Sox2.

    PubMed

    Solari, Claudia; Echegaray, Camila Vázquez; Luzzani, Carlos; Cosentino, María Soledad; Waisman, Ariel; Petrone, María Victoria; Francia, Marcos; Sassone, Alina; Canizo, Jésica; Sevlever, Gustavo; Barañao, Lino; Miriuka, Santiago; Guberman, Alejandra

    2016-04-22

    Addition of methyl groups to arginine residues is catalyzed by a group of enzymes called Protein Arginine Methyltransferases (Prmt). Although Prmt1 is essential in development, its paralogue Prmt8 has been poorly studied. This gene was reported to be expressed in nervous system and involved in neurogenesis. In this work, we found that Prmt8 is expressed in mouse embryonic stem cells (ESC) and in induced pluripotent stem cells, and modulated along differentiation to neural precursor cells. We found that Prmt8 promoter activity is induced by the pluripotency transcription factors Oct4, Sox2 and Nanog. Moreover, endogenous Prmt8 mRNA levels were reduced in ESC transfected with Sox2 shRNA vector. As a whole, our results indicate that Prmt8 is expressed in pluripotent stem cells and its transcription is modulated by pluripotency transcription factors. These findings suggest that besides its known function in nervous system, Prmt8 could play a role in pluripotent stem cells. PMID:27012206

  13. RioK1, a New Interactor of Protein Arginine Methyltransferase 5 (PRMT5), Competes with pICln for Binding and Modulates PRMT5 Complex Composition and Substrate Specificity*

    PubMed Central

    Guderian, Gernot; Peter, Christoph; Wiesner, Julia; Sickmann, Albert; Schulze-Osthoff, Klaus; Fischer, Utz; Grimmler, Matthias

    2011-01-01

    Protein arginine methylation plays a critical role in differential gene expression through modulating protein-protein and protein-DNA/RNA interactions. Although numerous proteins undergo arginine methylation, only limited information is available on how protein arginine methyltransferases (PRMTs) identify their substrates. The human PRMT5 complex consists of PRMT5, WD45/MEP50 (WD repeat domain 45/methylosome protein 50), and pICln and catalyzes the symmetrical arginine dimethylation of its substrate proteins. pICln recruits the spliceosomal Sm proteins to the PRMT5 complex for methylation, which allows their subsequent loading onto snRNA to form small nuclear ribonucleoproteins. To understand how the PRMT5 complex is regulated, we investigated its biochemical composition and identified RioK1 as a novel, stoichiometric component of the PRMT5 complex. We show that RioK1 and pICln bind to PRMT5 in a mutually exclusive fashion. This results in a PRMT5-WD45/MEP50 core structure that either associates with pICln or RioK1 in distinct complexes. Furthermore, we show that RioK1 functions in analogy to pICln as an adapter protein by recruiting the RNA-binding protein nucleolin to the PRMT5 complex for its symmetrical methylation. The exclusive interaction of PRMT5 with either pICln or RioK1 thus provides the first mechanistic insight into how a methyltransferase can distinguish between its substrate proteins. PMID:21081503

  14. Severe Hypomyelination and Developmental Defects Are Caused in Mice Lacking Protein Arginine Methyltransferase 1 (PRMT1) in the Central Nervous System.

    PubMed

    Hashimoto, Misuzu; Murata, Kazuya; Ishida, Junji; Kanou, Akihiko; Kasuya, Yoshitoshi; Fukamizu, Akiyoshi

    2016-01-29

    Protein arginine methyltransferase 1 (PRMT1) is involved in cell proliferation, DNA damage response, and transcriptional regulation. Although PRMT1 is extensively expressed in the CNS at embryonic and perinatal stages, the physiological role of PRMT1 has been poorly understood. Here, to investigate the primary function of PRMT1 in the CNS, we generated CNS-specific PRMT1 knock-out mice by the Cre-loxP system. These mice exhibited postnatal growth retardation with tremors, and most of them died within 2 weeks after birth. Brain histological analyses revealed prominent cell reduction in the white matter tracts of the mutant mice. Furthermore, ultrastructural analysis demonstrated that myelin sheath was almost completely ablated in the CNS of these animals. In agreement with hypomyelination, we also observed that most major myelin proteins including myelin basic protein (MBP), 2',3'-cyclic-nucleotide 3'-phosphodiesterase (CNPase), and myelin-associated glycoprotein (MAG) were dramatically decreased, although neuronal and astrocytic markers were preserved in the brain of CNS-specific PRMT1 knock-out mice. These animals had a reduced number of OLIG2(+) oligodendrocyte lineage cells in the white matter. We found that expressions of transcription factors essential for oligodendrocyte specification and further maturation were significantly suppressed in the brain of the mutant mice. Our findings provide evidence that PRMT1 is required for CNS development, especially for oligodendrocyte maturation processes. PMID:26637354

  15. Severe Hypomyelination and Developmental Defects Are Caused in Mice Lacking Protein Arginine Methyltransferase 1 (PRMT1) in the Central Nervous System.

    PubMed

    Hashimoto, Misuzu; Murata, Kazuya; Ishida, Junji; Kanou, Akihiko; Kasuya, Yoshitoshi; Fukamizu, Akiyoshi

    2016-01-29

    Protein arginine methyltransferase 1 (PRMT1) is involved in cell proliferation, DNA damage response, and transcriptional regulation. Although PRMT1 is extensively expressed in the CNS at embryonic and perinatal stages, the physiological role of PRMT1 has been poorly understood. Here, to investigate the primary function of PRMT1 in the CNS, we generated CNS-specific PRMT1 knock-out mice by the Cre-loxP system. These mice exhibited postnatal growth retardation with tremors, and most of them died within 2 weeks after birth. Brain histological analyses revealed prominent cell reduction in the white matter tracts of the mutant mice. Furthermore, ultrastructural analysis demonstrated that myelin sheath was almost completely ablated in the CNS of these animals. In agreement with hypomyelination, we also observed that most major myelin proteins including myelin basic protein (MBP), 2',3'-cyclic-nucleotide 3'-phosphodiesterase (CNPase), and myelin-associated glycoprotein (MAG) were dramatically decreased, although neuronal and astrocytic markers were preserved in the brain of CNS-specific PRMT1 knock-out mice. These animals had a reduced number of OLIG2(+) oligodendrocyte lineage cells in the white matter. We found that expressions of transcription factors essential for oligodendrocyte specification and further maturation were significantly suppressed in the brain of the mutant mice. Our findings provide evidence that PRMT1 is required for CNS development, especially for oligodendrocyte maturation processes.

  16. The Critical Role of Protein Arginine Methyltransferase prmt8 in Zebrafish Embryonic and Neural Development Is Non-Redundant with Its Paralogue prmt1

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yu-Fang; Cheng, Yi-Chuan; Hung, Chuan-Mao; Lee, Yi-Jen; Pan, Huichin; Li, Chuan

    2013-01-01

    Protein arginine methyltransferase (PRMT) 1 is the most conserved and widely distributed PRMT in eukaryotes. PRMT8 is a vertebrate-restricted paralogue of PRMT1 with an extra N-terminal sequence and brain-specific expression. We use zebrafish (Danio rerio) as a vertebrate model to study PRMT8 function and putative redundancy with PRMT1. The transcripts of zebrafish prmt8 were specifically expressed in adult zebrafish brain and ubiquitously expressed from zygotic to early segmentation stage before the neuronal development. Whole-mount in situ hybridization revealed ubiquitous prmt8 expression pattern during early embryonic stages, similar to that of prmt1. Knockdown of prmt8 with antisense morpholino oligonucleotide phenocopied prmt1-knockdown, with convergence/extension defects at gastrulation. Other abnormalities observed later include short body axis, curled tails, small and malformed brain and eyes. Catalytically inactive prmt8 failed to complement the morphants, indicating the importance of methyltransferase activity. Full-length prmt8 but not prmt1 cRNA can rescue the phenotypic changes. Nevertheless, cRNA encoding Prmt1 fused with the N-terminus of Prmt8 can rescue the prmt8 morphants. In contrast, N-terminus- deleted but not full-length prmt8 cRNA can rescue the prmt1 morphants as efficiently as prmt1 cRNA. Abnormal brain morphologies illustrated with brain markers and loss of fluorescent neurons in a transgenic fish upon prmt8 knockdown confirm the critical roles of prmt8 in neural development. In summery, our study is the first report showing the expression and function of prmt8 in early zebrafish embryogenesis. Our results indicate that prmt8 may play important roles non-overlapping with prmt1 in embryonic and neural development depending on its specific N-terminus. PMID:23554853

  17. Identification of Small-Molecule Enhancers of Arginine Methylation Catalyzed by Coactivator-Associated Arginine Methyltransferase 1

    PubMed Central

    Castellano, Sabrina; Spannhoff, Astrid; Milite, Ciro; Dal Piaz, Fabrizio; Cheng, Donghang; Tosco, Alessandra; Viviano, Monica; Yamani, Abdellah; Cianciulli, Agostino; Sala, Marina; Cura, Vincent; Cavarelli, Jean; Novellino, Ettore; Mai, Antonello; Bedford, Mark T.; Sbardella, Gianluca

    2012-01-01

    Arginine methylation is a common post-translational modification that is crucial in modulating gene expression at multiple critical levels. The arginine methyltransferases (PRMTs) are envisaged as promising druggable targets but their role in physiological and pathological pathways is far from being clear, due to the limited number of modulators reported to date. In this effort, enzyme activators can be invaluable tools useful as gain-of-function reagents to interrogate the biological roles in cells and in vivo of PRMTs. Yet the identification of such molecules is rarely pursued. Herein we describe a series of aryl ureido acetamido indole carboxylates (dubbed “uracandolates”), able to increase the methylation of histone- (H3) or non-histone (polyadenylate-binding protein 1, PABP1) substrates induced by coactivator-associated arginine methyltransferase 1 (CARM1), both in in vitro and cellular settings. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of compounds acting as CARM1 activators. PMID:23095008

  18. Protein Arginine Methyltransferase 6 (Prmt6) Is Essential for Early Zebrafish Development through the Direct Suppression of gadd45αa Stress Sensor Gene.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xin-Xi; Zhang, Yun-Bin; Ni, Pei-Li; Wu, Zhi-Li; Yan, Yuan-Chang; Li, Yi-Ping

    2016-01-01

    Histone lysine methylation is important in early zebrafish development; however, the role of histone arginine methylation in this process remains unclear. H3R2me2a, generated by protein arginine methyltransferase 6 (Prmt6), is a repressive mark. To explore the role of Prmt6 and H3R2me2a during zebrafish embryogenesis, we identified the maternal characteristic of prmt6 and designed two prmt6-specific morpholino-oligos (MOs) to study its importance in early development, application of which led to early epiboly defects and significantly reduced the level of H3R2me2a marks. prmt6 mRNA could rescue the epiboly defects and the H3R2me2a reduction in the prmt6 morphants. Functionally, microarray data demonstrated that growth arrest and DNA damage-inducible, α, a (gadd45αa) was a significantly up-regulated gene in MO-treated embryos, the activity of which was linked to the activation of the p38/JNK pathway and apoptosis. Importantly, gadd45αa MO and p38/JNK inhibitors could partially rescue the defect of prmt6 morphants, the downstream targets of Prmt6, and the apoptosis ratios of the prmt6 morphants. Moreover, the results of ChIP quantitative real time PCR and luciferase reporter assay indicated that gadd45αa is a repressive target of Prmt6. Taken together, these results suggest that maternal Prmt6 is essential to early zebrafish development by directly repressing gadd45αa.

  19. Protein arginine methyltransferase 1 may be involved in pregnane x receptor-activated overexpression of multidrug resistance 1 gene during acquired multidrug resistant

    PubMed Central

    Li, Tingting; Kong, Ah-Ng Tony; Ma, Zhiqiang; Liu, Haiyan; Liu, Pinghua; Xiao, Yu; Jiang, Xuehua; Wang, Ling

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Pregnane x receptor (PXR) - activated overexpression of the multidrug resistance 1 (MDR1) gene is an important way for tumor cells to acquire drug resistance. However, the detailed mechanism still remains unclear. In the present study, we aimed to investigate whether protein arginine methyl transferase 1(PRMT1) is involved in PXR - activated overexpression of MDR1 during acquired multidrug resistant. Experimental Design Arginine methyltransferase inhibitor 1 (AMI-1) was used to pharmacologically block PRMT1 in resistant breast cancer cells (MCF7/adr). The mRNA and protein levels of MDR1 were detected by real-time PCR and western blotting analysis. Immunofluorescence microscopy and co-immunoprecipitation were used to investigate the physical interaction between PXR and PRMT1. Then, 136 candidate compounds were screened for PRMT1 inhibitors. Lastly, luciferase reporter gene and nude mice bearing resistant breast cancer xenografts were adopted to investigate the anti-tumor effect of PRMT1 inhibitors when combined with adriamycin. Results AMI-1 significantly suppressed the expression of MDR1 in MCF7/adr cells and increased cells sensitivity of MCF7/adr to adriamycin. Physical interaction between PRMT1 and PXR exists in MCF7/adr cells, which could be disrupted by AMI-1. Those results suggest that PRMT1 may be involved in PXR-activated overexpression of MDR1 in resistant breast cancer cells, and AMI-1 may suppress MDR1 by disrupting the interaction between PRMT1 and PXR. Then, five compounds including rutin, isoquercitrin, salvianolic acid A, naproxen, and felodipline were identified to be PRMT1 inhibitors. Finally, those PRMT1 inhibitors were observed to significantly decrease MDR1 promoter activity in vitro and enhance the antitumor effect of adriamycin in nude mice that bearing resistant breast cancer xenografts. Conclusions PRMT1 may be an important co-activator of PXR in activating MDR1 gene during acquired resistance, and PRMT1 inhibitor combined with

  20. Histone H2A and H4 N-terminal tails are positioned by the MEP50 WD repeat protein for efficient methylation by the PRMT5 arginine methyltransferase.

    PubMed

    Burgos, Emmanuel S; Wilczek, Carola; Onikubo, Takashi; Bonanno, Jeffrey B; Jansong, Janina; Reimer, Ulf; Shechter, David

    2015-04-10

    The protein arginine methyltransferase PRMT5 is complexed with the WD repeat protein MEP50 (also known as Wdr77 or androgen coactivator p44) in vertebrates in a tetramer of heterodimers. MEP50 is hypothesized to be required for protein substrate recruitment to the catalytic domain of PRMT5. Here we demonstrate that the cross-dimer MEP50 is paired with its cognate PRMT5 molecule to promote histone methylation. We employed qualitative methylation assays and a novel ultrasensitive continuous assay to measure enzyme kinetics. We demonstrate that neither full-length human PRMT5 nor the Xenopus laevis PRMT5 catalytic domain has appreciable protein methyltransferase activity. We show that histones H4 and H3 bind PRMT5-MEP50 more efficiently compared with histone H2A(1-20) and H4(1-20) peptides. Histone binding is mediated through histone fold interactions as determined by competition experiments and by high density histone peptide array interaction studies. Nucleosomes are not a substrate for PRMT5-MEP50, consistent with the primary mode of interaction via the histone fold of H3-H4, obscured by DNA in the nucleosome. Mutation of a conserved arginine (Arg-42) on the MEP50 insertion loop impaired the PRMT5-MEP50 enzymatic efficiency by increasing its histone substrate Km, comparable with that of Caenorhabditis elegans PRMT5. We show that PRMT5-MEP50 prefers unmethylated substrates, consistent with a distributive model for dimethylation and suggesting discrete biological roles for mono- and dimethylarginine-modified proteins. We propose a model in which MEP50 and PRMT5 simultaneously engage the protein substrate, orienting its targeted arginine to the catalytic site.

  1. Arginine methyltransferase CARM1/PRMT4 regulates endochondral ossification

    PubMed Central

    Ito, Tatsuo; Yadav, Neelu; Lee, Jaeho; Furumatsu, Takayuki; Yamashita, Satoshi; Yoshida, Kenji; Taniguchi, Noboru; Hashimoto, Megumi; Tsuchiya, Megumi; Ozaki, Toshifumi; Lotz, Martin; Bedford, Mark T; Asahara, Hiroshi

    2009-01-01

    Background Chondrogenesis and subsequent endochondral ossification are processes tightly regulated by the transcription factor Sox9 (SRY-related high mobility group-Box gene 9), but molecular mechanisms underlying this activity remain unclear. Here we report that coactivator-associated arginine methyltransferase 1 (CARM1) regulates chondrocyte proliferation via arginine methylation of Sox9. Results CARM1-null mice display delayed endochondral ossification and decreased chondrocyte proliferation. Conversely, cartilage development of CARM1 transgenic mice was accelerated. CARM1 specifically methylates Sox9 at its HMG domain in vivo and in vitro. Arg-methylation of Sox9 by CARM1 disrupts interaction of Sox9 with beta-catenin, regulating Cyclin D1 expression and cell cycle progression of chondrocytes. Conclusion These results establish a role for CARM1 as an important regulator of chondrocyte proliferation during embryogenesis. PMID:19725955

  2. pUL69 of Human Cytomegalovirus Recruits the Cellular Protein Arginine Methyltransferase 6 via a Domain That Is Crucial for mRNA Export and Efficient Viral Replication

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Marco; Sonntag, Eric; Müller, Regina; Schmidt, Stefanie; Zielke, Barbara; Fossen, Torgils

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The regulatory protein pUL69 of human cytomegalovirus acts as a viral mRNA export factor, facilitating the cytoplasmic accumulation of unspliced RNA via interaction with the cellular mRNA export factor UAP56. Here we provide evidence for a posttranslational modification of pUL69 via arginine methylation within the functionally important N terminus. First, we demonstrated a specific immunoprecipitation of full-length pUL69 as well as pUL69aa1-146 by a mono/dimethylarginine-specific antibody. Second, we observed a specific electrophoretic mobility shift upon overexpression of the catalytically active protein arginine methyltransferase 6 (PRMT6). Third, a direct interaction of pUL69 and PRMT6 was confirmed by yeast two-hybrid and coimmunoprecipitation analyses. We mapped the PRMT6 interaction motif to the pUL69 N terminus and identified critical amino acids within the arginine-rich R1 box of pUL69 that were crucial for PRMT6 and/or UAP56 recruitment. In order to test the impact of putative methylation substrates on the functions of pUL69, we constructed various pUL69 derivatives harboring arginine-to-alanine substitutions and tested them for RNA export activity. Thus, we were able to discriminate between arginines within the R1 box of pUL69 that were crucial for UAP56/PRMT6-interaction and/or mRNA export activity. Remarkably, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analyses revealed the same α-helical structures for pUL69 sequences encoding either the wild type R1/R2 boxes or a UAP56/PRMT6 binding-deficient derivative, thereby excluding the possibility that R/A amino acid substitutions within R1 affected the secondary structure of pUL69. We therefore conclude that the pUL69 N terminus is methylated by PRMT6 and that this critically affects the functions of pUL69 for efficient mRNA export and replication of human cytomegalovirus. IMPORTANCE The UL69 protein of human cytomegalovirus is a multifunctional regulatory protein that acts as a viral RNA export factor with a

  3. Drosophila arginine methyltransferase 1 (DART1) is an ecdysone receptor co-repressor

    SciTech Connect

    Kimura, Shuhei; Sawatsubashi, Shun; Ito, Saya; Kouzmenko, Alexander; Suzuki, Eriko; Zhao, Yue; Yamagata, Kaoru; Tanabe, Masahiko; Ueda, Takashi; Fujiyama, Sari; Murata, Takuya; Matsukawa, Hiroyuki; Takeyama, Ken-ichi; Yaegashi, Nobuo

    2008-07-11

    Histone arginine methylation is an epigenetic marker that regulates gene expression by defining the chromatin state. Arginine methyltransferases, therefore, serve as transcriptional co-regulators. However, unlike other transcriptional co-regulators, the physiological roles of arginine methyltransferases are poorly understood. Drosophila arginine methyltransferase 1 (DART1), the mammalian PRMT1 homologue, methylates the arginine residue of histone H4 (H4R3me2). Disruption of DART1 in Drosophila by imprecise P-element excision resulted in low viability during metamorphosis in the pupal stages. In the pupal stage, an ecdysone hormone signal is critical for developmental progression. DART1 interacted with the nuclear ecdysone receptor (EcR) in a ligand-dependent manner, and co-repressed EcR in intact flies. These findings suggest that DART1, a histone arginine methyltransferase, is a co-repressor of EcR that is indispensable for normal pupal development in the intact fly.

  4. Functional insights from structures of coactivator-associated arginine methyltransferase 1 domains.

    PubMed

    Troffer-Charlier, Nathalie; Cura, Vincent; Hassenboehler, Pierre; Moras, Dino; Cavarelli, Jean

    2007-10-17

    Coactivator-associated arginine methyltransferase 1 (CARM1), a protein arginine methyltransferase recruited by several transcription factors, methylates a large variety of proteins and plays a critical role in gene expression. We report, in this paper, four crystal structures of isolated modules of CARM1. The 1.7 A crystal structure of the N-terminal domain of CARM1 reveals an unexpected PH domain, a scaffold frequently found to regulate protein-protein interactions in a large variety of biological processes. Three crystal structures of the CARM1 catalytic module, two free and one cofactor-bound forms (refined at 2.55 A, 2.4 A and 2.2 A, respectively) reveal large structural modifications including disorder to order transition, helix to strand transition and active site modifications. The N-terminal and the C-terminal end of CARM1 catalytic module contain molecular switches that may inspire how CARM1 regulates its biological activities by protein-protein interactions.

  5. The PRMT5 arginine methyltransferase: many roles in development, cancer and beyond.

    PubMed

    Stopa, Nicole; Krebs, Jocelyn E; Shechter, David

    2015-06-01

    Post-translational arginine methylation is responsible for regulation of many biological processes. The protein arginine methyltransferase 5 (PRMT5, also known as Hsl7, Jbp1, Skb1, Capsuleen, or Dart5) is the major enzyme responsible for mono- and symmetric dimethylation of arginine. An expanding literature demonstrates its critical biological function in a wide range of cellular processes. Histone and other protein methylation by PRMT5 regulate genome organization, transcription, stem cells, primordial germ cells, differentiation, the cell cycle, and spliceosome assembly. Metazoan PRMT5 is found in complex with the WD-repeat protein MEP50 (also known as Wdr77, androgen receptor coactivator p44, or Valois). PRMT5 also directly associates with a range of other protein factors, including pICln, Menin, CoPR5 and RioK1 that may alter its subcellular localization and protein substrate selection. Protein substrate and PRMT5-MEP50 post-translation modifications induce crosstalk to regulate PRMT5 activity. Crystal structures of C. elegans PRMT5 and human and frog PRMT5-MEP50 complexes provide substantial insight into the mechanisms of substrate recognition and procession to dimethylation. Enzymological studies of PRMT5 have uncovered compelling insights essential for future development of specific PRMT5 inhibitors. In addition, newly accumulating evidence implicates PRMT5 and MEP50 expression levels and their methyltransferase activity in cancer tumorigenesis, and, significantly, as markers of poor clinical outcome, marking them as potential oncogenes. Here, we review the substantial new literature on PRMT5 and its partners to highlight the significance of understanding this essential enzyme in health and disease.

  6. The PRMT5 arginine methyltransferase: many roles in development, cancer and beyond

    PubMed Central

    Stopa, Nicole

    2015-01-01

    Post-translational arginine methylation is responsible for regulation of many biological processes. The protein arginine methyltransferase 5 (PRMT5, also known as Hsl7, Jbp1, Skb1, Capsuleen, or Dart5) is the major enzyme responsible for mono- and symmetric dimethylation of arginine. An expanding literature demonstrates its critical biological function in a wide range of cellular processes. Histone and other protein methylation by PRMT5 regulate genome organization, transcription, stem cells, primordial germ cells, differentiation, the cell cycle, and spliceosome assembly. Metazoan PRMT5 is found in complex with the WD-repeat protein MEP50 (also known as Wdr77, androgen receptor coactivator p44, or Valois). PRMT5 also directly associates with a range of other protein factors, including pICln, Menin, CoPR5 and RioK1 that may alter its subcellular localization and protein substrate selection. Protein substrate and PRMT5–MEP50 post-translation modifications induce crosstalk to regulate PRMT5 activity. Crystal structures of C. elegans PRMT5 and human and frog PRMT5–MEP50 complexes provide substantial insight into the mechanisms of substrate recognition and procession to dimethylation. Enzymo-logical studies of PRMT5 have uncovered compelling insights essential for future development of specific PRMT5 inhibitors. In addition, newly accumulating evidence implicates PRMT5 and MEP50 expression levels and their methyltransferase activity in cancer tumorigenesis, and, significantly, as markers of poor clinical outcome, marking them as potential oncogenes. Here, we review the substantial new literature on PRMT5 and its partners to highlight the significance of understanding this essential enzyme in health and disease. PMID:25662273

  7. Arginine methyltransferase PRMT5 is essential for sustaining normal adult hematopoiesis

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Fan; Cheng, Guoyan; Hamard, Pierre-Jacques; Greenblatt, Sarah; Wang, Lan; Man, Na; Perna, Fabiana; Xu, Haiming; Tadi, Madhavi; Luciani, Luisa; Nimer, Stephen D.

    2015-01-01

    Epigenetic regulators play critical roles in normal hematopoiesis, and the activity of these enzymes is frequently altered in hematopoietic cancers. The major type II protein arginine methyltransferase PRMT5 catalyzes the formation of symmetric dimethyl arginine and has been implicated in various cellular processes, including pluripotency and tumorigenesis. Here, we generated Prmt5 conditional KO mice to evaluate the contribution of PRMT5 to adult hematopoiesis. Loss of PRMT5 triggered an initial but transient expansion of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs); however, Prmt5 deletion resulted in a concurrent loss of hematopoietic progenitor cells (HPCs), leading to fatal BM aplasia. PRMT5-specific effects on hematopoiesis were cell intrinsic and depended on PRMT5 methyltransferase activity. We found that PRMT5-deficient hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells exhibited severely impaired cytokine signaling as well as upregulation of p53 and expression of its downstream targets. Together, our results demonstrate that PRMT5 plays distinct roles in the behavior of HSCs compared with HPCs and is essential for the maintenance of adult hematopoietic cells. PMID:26258414

  8. MTAP deletion confers enhanced dependency on the PRMT5 arginine methyltransferase in cancer cells | Office of Cancer Genomics

    Cancer.gov

    The discovery of cancer dependencies has the potential to inform therapeutic strategies and to identify putative drug targets. Integrating data from comprehensive genomic profiling of cancer cell lines and from functional characterization of cancer cell dependencies, we discovered that loss of the enzyme methylthioadenosine phosphorylase (MTAP) confers a selective dependence on protein arginine methyltransferase 5 (PRMT5) and its binding partner WDR77. MTAP is frequently lost due to its proximity to the commonly deleted tumor suppressor gene, CDKN2A.

  9. Protein arginine methylation of non-histone proteins and its role in diseases

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Han; Mundade, Rasika; Lange, Kevin C; Lu, Tao

    2014-01-01

    Protein arginine methyltransferases (PRMTs) are a family of enzymes that can methylate arginine residues on histones and other proteins. PRMTs play a crucial role in influencing various cellular functions, including cellular development and tumorigenesis. Arginine methylation by PRMTs is found on both nuclear and cytoplasmic proteins. Recently, there is increasing evidence regarding post-translational modifications of non-histone proteins by PRMTs, illustrating the previously unknown importance of PRMTs in the regulation of various cellular functions by post-translational modifications. In this review, we present the recent developments in the regulation of non-histone proteins by PRMTs. PMID:24296620

  10. Using oriented peptide array libraries to evaluate methylarginine-specific antibodies and arginine methyltransferase substrate motifs.

    PubMed

    Gayatri, Sitaram; Cowles, Martis W; Vemulapalli, Vidyasiri; Cheng, Donghang; Sun, Zu-Wen; Bedford, Mark T

    2016-01-01

    Signal transduction in response to stimuli relies on the generation of cascades of posttranslational modifications that promote protein-protein interactions and facilitate the assembly of distinct signaling complexes. Arginine methylation is one such modification, which is catalyzed by a family of nine protein arginine methyltransferases, or PRMTs. Elucidating the substrate specificity of each PRMT will promote a better understanding of which signaling networks these enzymes contribute to. Although many PRMT substrates have been identified, and their methylation sites mapped, the optimal target motif for each of the nine PRMTs has not been systematically addressed. Here we describe the use of Oriented Peptide Array Libraries (OPALs) to methodically dissect the preferred methylation motifs for three of these enzymes - PRMT1, CARM1 and PRMT9. In parallel, we show that an OPAL platform with a fixed methylarginine residue can be used to validate the methyl-specific and sequence-specific properties of antibodies that have been generated against different PRMT substrates, and can also be used to confirm the pan nature of some methylarginine-specific antibodies. PMID:27338245

  11. Using oriented peptide array libraries to evaluate methylarginine-specific antibodies and arginine methyltransferase substrate motifs

    PubMed Central

    Gayatri, Sitaram; Cowles, Martis W.; Vemulapalli, Vidyasiri; Cheng, Donghang; Sun, Zu-Wen; Bedford, Mark T.

    2016-01-01

    Signal transduction in response to stimuli relies on the generation of cascades of posttranslational modifications that promote protein-protein interactions and facilitate the assembly of distinct signaling complexes. Arginine methylation is one such modification, which is catalyzed by a family of nine protein arginine methyltransferases, or PRMTs. Elucidating the substrate specificity of each PRMT will promote a better understanding of which signaling networks these enzymes contribute to. Although many PRMT substrates have been identified, and their methylation sites mapped, the optimal target motif for each of the nine PRMTs has not been systematically addressed. Here we describe the use of Oriented Peptide Array Libraries (OPALs) to methodically dissect the preferred methylation motifs for three of these enzymes – PRMT1, CARM1 and PRMT9. In parallel, we show that an OPAL platform with a fixed methylarginine residue can be used to validate the methyl-specific and sequence-specific properties of antibodies that have been generated against different PRMT substrates, and can also be used to confirm the pan nature of some methylarginine-specific antibodies. PMID:27338245

  12. The arginine methyltransferase PRMT5 regulates CIITA-dependent MHC II transcription.

    PubMed

    Fan, Zhiwen; Kong, Xiaocen; Xia, Jun; Wu, Xiaoyan; Li, He; Xu, Huihui; Fang, Mingming; Xu, Yong

    2016-05-01

    Class II major histocompatibility complex (MHC II) dependent antigen presentation serves as a key step in mammalian adaptive immunity and host defense. In antigen presenting cells (e.g., macrophages), MHC II transcription can be activated by interferon gamma (IFN-γ) and mediated by class II transactivator (CIITA). The underlying epigenetic mechanism, however, is not completely understood. Here we report that following IFN-γ stimulation, symmetrically dimethylated histone H3 arginine 2 (H3R2Me2s) accumulated on the MHC II promoter along with CIITA. IFN-γ augmented expression, nuclear translocation, and promoter binding of the protein arginine methyltransferase PRMT5 in macrophages. Over-expression of PRMT5 potentiated IFN-γ induced activation of MHC II transcription in an enzyme activity-dependent manner. In contrast, PRMT5 silencing or inhibition of PRMT5 activity by methylthioadenosine (MTA) suppressed MHC II transactivation by IFN-γ. CIITA interacted with and recruited PRMT5 to the MHC II promoter and mediated the synergy between PRMT5 and ASH2/WDR5 to activate MHC II transcription. PRMT5 expression was down-regulated in senescent and H2O2-treated macrophages rendering ineffectual induction of MHC II transcription by IFN-γ. Taken together, our data reveal a pathophysiologically relevant role for PRMT5 in MHC II transactivation in macrophages. PMID:26972221

  13. Expression, purification, crystallization and preliminary crystallographic study of isolated modules of the mouse coactivator-associated arginine methyltransferase 1

    SciTech Connect

    Troffer-Charlier, Nathalie; Cura, Vincent; Hassenboehler, Pierre; Moras, Dino; Cavarelli, Jean

    2007-04-01

    Isolated modules of mouse coactivator-associated arginine methyltransferase 1 encompassing the protein arginine N-methyltransferase catalytic domain have been overexpressed, purified and crystallized. X-ray diffraction data have been collected and have enabled determination of the structures by multiple isomorphous replacement using anomalous scattering. Coactivator-associated arginine methyltransferase 1 (CARM1) plays a crucial role in gene expression as a coactivator of several nuclear hormone receptors and also of non-nuclear receptor systems. Its recruitment by the transcriptional machinery induces protein methylation, leading to chromatin remodelling and gene activation. CARM1{sub 28–507} and two structural states of CARM1{sub 140–480} were expressed, purified and crystallized. Crystals of CARM1{sub 28–507} belong to space group P6{sub 2}22, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 136.0, c = 125.3 Å; they diffract to beyond 2.5 Å resolution using synchrotron radiation and contain one monomer in the asymmetric unit. The structure of CARM1{sub 28–507} was solved by multiple isomorphous replacement and anomalous scattering methods. Crystals of apo CARM1{sub 140–480} belong to space group I222, with unit-cell parameters a = 74.6, b = 99.0, c = 207.4 Å; they diffract to beyond 2.7 Å resolution and contain two monomers in the asymmetric unit. Crystals of CARM1{sub 140–480} in complex with S-adenosyl-l-homocysteine belong to space P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2, with unit-cell parameters a = 74.6, b = 98.65, c = 206.08 Å; they diffract to beyond 2.6 Å resolution and contain four monomers in the asymmetric unit. The structures of apo and holo CARM1{sub 140–480} were solved by molecular-replacement techniques from the structure of CARM1{sub 28–507}.

  14. Interplay among coactivator-associated arginine methyltransferase 1, CBP, and CIITA in IFN-gamma-inducible MHC-II gene expression.

    PubMed

    Zika, Eleni; Fauquier, Lucas; Vandel, Laurence; Ting, Jenny P-Y

    2005-11-01

    Class II major histocompatibility (MHC-II) genes are prototype targets of IFN-gamma. IFN-gamma activates the expression of the non-DNA-binding master regulator of MHC-II, class II transactivator (CIITA), which is crucial for enhanceosome formation and gene activation. This report shows the importance of the histone methyltransferase, coactivator-associated arginine methyltransferase (CARM1/PRMT4), during IFN-gamma-induced MHC-II gene activation. It also demonstrates the coordinated regulation of CIITA, CARM1, and the acetyltransferase cyclic-AMP response element binding (CREB)-binding protein (CBP) during this process. CARM1 synergizes with CIITA in activating MHC-II transcription and synergy is abrogated when an arginine methyltransferase-defective CARM1 mutant is used. Protein-arginine methyltransferase 1 has much less effect on MHC-II transcription. Specific RNA interference reduced CARM1 expression as well as MHC-II expression. The recruitment of CARM1 to the promoter requires endogenous CIITA and results in methylation of histone H3-R17; hence, CIITA is an upstream regulator of histone methylation. Previous work has shown that CARM1 can methylate CBP at three arginine residues. Using wild-type CBP and a mutant of CBP lacking the CARM1-targeted arginine residues (R3A), we show that arginine methylation of CBP is required for IFN-gamma induction of MHC-II. A kinetic analysis shows that CIITA, CARM1, and H3-R17 methylation all precede CBP loading on the MHC-II promoter during IFN-gamma treatment. These results suggest functional and temporal relationships among CIITA, CARM1, and CBP for IFN-gamma induction of MHC-II.

  15. MTAP deletion confers enhanced dependency on the arginine methyltransferase PRMT5 in human cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Kryukov, Gregory V; Wilson, Frederick H; Ruth, Jason R; Paulk, Joshiawa; Tsherniak, Aviad; Marlow, Sara E; Vazquez, Francisca; Weir, Barbara A; Fitzgerald, Mark E; Tanaka, Minoru; Bielski, Craig M; Scott, Justin M; Dennis, Courtney; Cowley, Glenn S; Boehm, Jesse S; Root, David E; Golub, Todd R; Clish, Clary B; Bradner, James E; Hahn, William C

    2016-01-01

    The discovery of cancer dependencies has the potential to inform therapeutic strategies and to identify putative drug targets. Integrating data from comprehensive genomic profiling of cancer cell lines and from functional characterization of cancer cell dependencies, we discovered that loss of the enzyme methylthioadenosine phosphorylase (MTAP) confers a selective dependence on protein arginine methyltransferase 5 (PRMT5) and its binding partner WDR77. MTAP is frequently lost due to its proximity to the commonly deleted tumor suppressor gene, CDKN2A. We observed increased intracellular concentrations of methylthioadenosine (MTA; the metabolite cleaved by MTAP) in cells harboring MTAP deletions. Furthermore, MTA specifically inhibited PRMT5 enzymatic activity. Administration of either MTA or a small molecule PRMT5 inhibitor showed a modest preferential impairment of cell viability for MTAP-null cancer cell lines compared to isogenic MTAP-expressing counterparts. Together, our findings reveal PRMT5 as a potential vulnerability across multiple cancer lineages augmented by a common “passenger” genomic alteration. PMID:26912360

  16. The arginine methyltransferase Rmt2 is enriched in the nucleus and co-purifies with the nuclear porins Nup49, Nup57 and Nup100

    SciTech Connect

    Olsson, Ida; Berrez, Jean-Marc; Leipus, Arunas; Ostlund, Cecilia; Mutvei, Ann . E-mail: ann.mutvei@sh.se

    2007-05-15

    Arginine methylation is a post-translational modification of proteins implicated in RNA processing, protein compartmentalization, signal transduction, transcriptional regulation and DNA repair. In a screen for proteins associated with the nuclear envelope in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, we have identified the arginine methyltransferase Rmt2, previously shown to methylate the ribosomal protein L12. By indirect immunofluorescence and subcellular fractionations we demonstrate here that Rmt2 has nuclear and cytoplasmic localizations. Biochemical analysis of a fraction enriched in nuclei reveals that nuclear Rmt2 is resistant to extractions with salt and detergent, indicating an association with structural components. This was supported by affinity purification experiments with TAP-tagged Rmt2. Rmt2 was found to co-purify with the nucleoporins Nup49, Nup57 and Nup100, revealing a novel link between arginine methyltransferases and the nuclear pore complex. In addition, a genome-wide transcription study of the rmt2{delta} mutant shows significant downregulation of the transcription of MYO1, encoding the Type II myosin heavy chain required for cytokinesis and cell separation.

  17. Rmt1 catalyzes zinc-finger independent arginine methylation of ribosomal protein Rps2 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    SciTech Connect

    Lipson, Rebecca S.; Webb, Kristofor J.; Clarke, Steven G.

    2010-01-22

    Rps2/rpS2 is a well conserved protein of the eukaryotic ribosomal small subunit. Rps2 has previously been shown to contain asymmetric dimethylarginine residues, the addition of which is catalyzed by zinc-finger-containing arginine methyltransferase 3 (Rmt3) in the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe and protein arginine methyltransferase 3 (PRMT3) in mammalian cells. Here, we demonstrate that despite the lack of a zinc-finger-containing homolog of Rmt3/PRMT3 in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Rps2 is partially modified to generate asymmetric dimethylarginine and monomethylarginine residues. We find that this modification of Rps2 is dependent upon the major arginine methyltransferase 1 (Rmt1) in S. cerevisiae. These results are suggestive of a role for Rmt1 in modifying the function of Rps2 in a manner distinct from that occurring in S. pombe and mammalian cells.

  18. Regulation of arginine methyltransferase 3 by a Wolbachia-induced microRNA in Aedes aegypti and its effect on Wolbachia and dengue virus replication.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Guangmei; Hussain, Mazhar; Asgari, Sassan

    2014-10-01

    The gram-negative endosymbiotic bacteria, Wolbachia, have been found to colonize a wide range of invertebrates, including over 40% of insect species. Best known for host reproductive manipulations, some strains of Wolbachia have been shown to reduce the host life span by about 50% and inhibit replication and transmission of dengue virus (DENV) in the mosquito vector, Aedes aegypti. The molecular mechanisms underlying these effects still are not well understood. Our previous studies showed that Wolbachia uses host microRNAs (miRNAs) to manipulate host gene expression for its efficient maintenance and limiting replication of DENV in Ae. aegypti. Protein arginine methyltransferases are structurally and functionally conserved proteins from yeast to human. In mammals, it has been reported that protein arginine methyltransferases such as PRMT1, 5 and 6 could regulate replication of different viruses. Ae. aegypti contains eight members of protein arginine methyltransferases (AaArgM1-8). Here, we show that the wMelPop strain of Wolbachia introduced into Ae. aegypti significantly induces the expression of AaArgM3. Interestingly, we found that Wolbachia uses aae-miR-2940, which is highly upregulated in Wolbachia-infected mosquitoes, to upregulate the expression of AaArgM3. Silencing of AaArgM3 in a mosquito cell line led to a significant reduction in Wolbachia replication, but had no effect on the replication of DENV. These results provide further evidence that Wolbachia uses the host miRNAs to manipulate host gene expression and facilitate colonization in Ae. aegypti mosquito.

  19. Characterization of prenylated protein methyltransferase in Leishmania.

    PubMed Central

    Hasne, M P; Lawrence, F

    1999-01-01

    Prenylated protein methyltransferase, an enzyme involved in the post-translational modification of many signalling proteins, has been characterized in a parasitic flagellated protozoan, Leishmania donovani. The activity of this enzyme was monitored by the methylation of an artificial substrate, an S-prenylated cysteine analogue, with S-adenosyl-l-[methyl-(3)H]methionine as methyl donor. More than 85% of the methyltransferase activity was associated with membranes. The enzyme methylates N-acetyl-S-trans, trans-farnesyl-l-cysteine and N-acetyl-S-all-trans-geranylgeranyl-l-cysteine, but N-acetyl-S-trans, trans-geranyl-l-cysteine only very weakly. In contrast with the enzyme from mammals, the leishmanial enzyme had a greater affinity for the farnesylated substrate than for the geranylgeranylated one. Activity in vitro was not modulated by cAMP, protein kinase C activator or guanosine 5'-[gamma-thio]triphosphate. An analysis of the endogenous substrates showed that the carboxymethylated proteins were also isoprenylated. The main carboxymethylated proteins have molecular masses of 95, 68, 55, 46, 34-23, 18 and less than 14 kDa. Treatment of cells with N-acetyl-S-trans,trans-farnesyl-l-cysteine decreased the carboxymethylation level, whereas treatment with guanosine 5'-[gamma-thio]triphosphate increased the carboxymethylation of various proteins, particularly those of molecular masses 30-20 kDa. PMID:10477261

  20. Arginine depletion by arginine deiminase does not affect whole protein metabolism or muscle fractional protein synthesis rate in mice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Due to the absolute need for arginine that certain cancer cells have, arginine depletion is a therapy in clinical trials to treat several types of cancers. Arginine is an amino acids utilized not only as a precursor for other important molecules, but also for protein synthesis. Because arginine depl...

  1. Toxoplasma gondii Arginine Methyltransferase 1 (PRMT1) Is Necessary for Centrosome Dynamics during Tachyzoite Cell Division

    PubMed Central

    El Bissati, Kamal; Suvorova, Elena S.; Xiao, Hui; Lucas, Olivier; Upadhya, Rajendra; Ma, Yanfen; Hogue Angeletti, Ruth; White, Michael W.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The arginine methyltransferase family (PRMT) has been implicated in a variety of cellular processes, including signal transduction, epigenetic regulation, and DNA repair pathways. PRMT1 is thought to be responsible for the majority of PRMT activity in Toxoplasma gondii, but its exact function is unknown. To further define the biological function of the PRMT family, we generated T. gondii mutants lacking PRMT1 (Δprmt1) by deletion of the PRMT1 gene. Δprmt1 parasites exhibit morphological defects during cell division and grow slowly, and this phenotype reverses in the Δprmt::PRMT1mRFP complemented strain. Tagged PRMT1 localizes primarily in the cytoplasm with enrichment at the pericentriolar material, and the strain lacking PRMT1 is unable to segregate progeny accurately. Unlike wild-type and complemented parasites, Δprmt1 parasites have abnormal daughter buds, perturbed centrosome stoichiometry, and loss of synchronous replication. Whole-genome expression profiling demonstrated differences in expression of cell-cycle-regulated genes in the Δprmt1 strain relative to the complemented Δprmt1::PRMT1mRFP and parental wild-type strains, but these changes do not correlate with a specific block in cell cycle. Although PRMT1’s primary biological function was previously proposed to be methylation of histones, our studies suggest that PRMT1 plays an important role within the centrosome to ensure the proper replication of the parasite. PMID:26838719

  2. Discovery and mechanistic study of a class of protein arginine methylation inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Feng, You; Li, Mingyong; Wang, Binghe; Zheng, Yujun George

    2010-08-26

    Protein arginine methylation regulates multiple biological processes such as chromatin remodeling and RNA splicing. Malfunction of protein arginine methyltransferases (PRMTs) is correlated with many human diseases. Thus, small molecule inhibitors of protein arginine methylation are of great potential for therapeutic development. Herein, we report a type of compound that blocks PRMT1-mediated arginine methylation at micromolar potency through a unique mechanism. Most of the discovered compounds bear naphthalene and sulfonate groups and are structurally different from typical PRMT substrates, for example, histone H4 and glycine- and arginine-rich sequences. To elucidate the molecular basis of inhibition, we conducted a variety of kinetic and biophysical assays. The combined data reveal that this type of naphthyl-sulfo (NS) molecule directly targets the substrates but not PRMTs for the observed inhibition. We also found that suramin effectively inhibited PRMT1 activity. These findings about novel PRMT inhibitors and their unique inhibition mechanism provide a new way for chemical regulation of protein arginine methylation. PMID:20666457

  3. Discovery and mechanistic study of a class of protein arginine methylation inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Feng, You; Li, Mingyong; Wang, Binghe; Zheng, Yujun George

    2010-08-26

    Protein arginine methylation regulates multiple biological processes such as chromatin remodeling and RNA splicing. Malfunction of protein arginine methyltransferases (PRMTs) is correlated with many human diseases. Thus, small molecule inhibitors of protein arginine methylation are of great potential for therapeutic development. Herein, we report a type of compound that blocks PRMT1-mediated arginine methylation at micromolar potency through a unique mechanism. Most of the discovered compounds bear naphthalene and sulfonate groups and are structurally different from typical PRMT substrates, for example, histone H4 and glycine- and arginine-rich sequences. To elucidate the molecular basis of inhibition, we conducted a variety of kinetic and biophysical assays. The combined data reveal that this type of naphthyl-sulfo (NS) molecule directly targets the substrates but not PRMTs for the observed inhibition. We also found that suramin effectively inhibited PRMT1 activity. These findings about novel PRMT inhibitors and their unique inhibition mechanism provide a new way for chemical regulation of protein arginine methylation.

  4. Novel mechanism of negative regulation of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3-induced 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 24-hydroxylase (Cyp24a1) Transcription: epigenetic modification involving cross-talk between protein-arginine methyltransferase 5 and the SWI/SNF complex.

    PubMed

    Seth-Vollenweider, Tanya; Joshi, Sneha; Dhawan, Puneet; Sif, Said; Christakos, Sylvia

    2014-12-01

    The SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling complex facilitates gene transcription by remodeling chromatin using the energy of ATP hydrolysis. Recent studies have indicated an interplay between the SWI/SNF complex and protein-arginine methyltransferases (PRMTs). Little is known, however, about the role of SWI/SNF and PRMTs in vitamin D receptor (VDR)-mediated transcription. Using SWI/SNF-defective cells, we demonstrated that Brahma-related gene 1 (BRG1), an ATPase that is a component of the SWI/SNF complex, plays a fundamental role in induction by 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25(OH)2D3) of the transcription of Cyp24a1 encoding the enzyme 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 24-hydroxylase involved in the catabolism of 1,25(OH)2D3. BRG1 was found to associate with CCAAT-enhancer-binding protein (C/EBP) β and cooperate with VDR and C/EBPβ in regulating Cyp24a1 transcription. PRMT5, a type II PRMT that interacts with BRG1, repressed Cyp24a1 transcription and mRNA expression. Our findings indicate the requirement of the C/EBP site for the inhibitory effect of PRMT5 via its methylation of H3R8 and H4R3. These findings indicate that the SWI/SNF complex and PRMT5 may be key factors involved in regulation of 1,25(OH)2D3 catabolism and therefore in the maintenance of calcium homeostasis by vitamin D. These studies also define epigenetic events linked to a novel mechanism of negative regulation of VDR-mediated transcription.

  5. A novel methyltransferase (Hmt1p) modifies poly(A)+-RNA-binding proteins.

    PubMed Central

    Henry, M F; Silver, P A

    1996-01-01

    RNA-binding proteins play many essential roles in the metabolism of nuclear pre-mRNA. As such, they demonstrate a myriad of dynamic behaviors and modifications. In particular, heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoproteins (hnRNPs) contain the bulk of methylated arginine residues in eukaryotic cells. We have identified the first eukaryotic hnRNP-specific methyltransferase via a genetic screen for proteins that interact with an abundant poly(A)+-RNA-binding protein termed Npl3p. We have previously shown that npl3-1 mutants are temperature sensitive for growth and defective for export of mRNA from the nucleus. New mutants in interacting genes were isolated by their failure to survive in the presence of the npl3-1 allele. Four alleles of the same gene were identified in this manner. Cloning of the cognate gene revealed an encoded protein with similarity to methyltransferases that was termed HMT1 for hnRNP methyltransferase. HMT1 is not required for normal cell viability except when NPL3 is also defective. The Hmt1 protein is located in the nucleus. We demonstrate that Npl3p is methylated by Hmt1p both in vivo and in vitro. These findings now allow further exploration of the function of this previously uncharacterized class of enzymes. PMID:8668183

  6. Arginine depletion by arginine deiminase does not affect whole protein metabolism or muscle fractional protein synthesis rate in mice.

    PubMed

    Marini, Juan C; Didelija, Inka Cajo

    2015-01-01

    Due to the absolute need for arginine that certain cancer cells have, arginine depletion is a therapy in clinical trials to treat several types of cancers. Arginine is an amino acids utilized not only as a precursor for other important molecules, but also for protein synthesis. Because arginine depletion can potentially exacerbate the progressive loss of body weight, and especially lean body mass, in cancer patients we determined the effect of arginine depletion by pegylated arginine deiminase (ADI-PEG 20) on whole body protein synthesis and fractional protein synthesis rate in multiple tissues of mice. ADI-PEG 20 successfully depleted circulating arginine (<1 μmol/L), and increased citrulline concentration more than tenfold. Body weight and body composition, however, were not affected by ADI-PEG 20. Despite the depletion of arginine, whole body protein synthesis and breakdown were maintained in the ADI-PEG 20 treated mice. The fractional protein synthesis rate of muscle was also not affected by arginine depletion. Most tissues (liver, kidney, spleen, heart, lungs, stomach, small and large intestine, pancreas) were able to maintain their fractional protein synthesis rate; however, the fractional protein synthesis rate of brain, thymus and testicles was reduced due to the ADI-PEG 20 treatment. Furthermore, these results were confirmed by the incorporation of ureido [14C]citrulline, which indicate the local conversion into arginine, into protein. In conclusion, the intracellular recycling pathway of citrulline is able to provide enough arginine to maintain protein synthesis rate and prevent the loss of lean body mass and body weight.

  7. In vivo and in vitro arginine methylation of RNA-binding proteins.

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Q; Dreyfuss, G

    1995-01-01

    Heterogenous nuclear ribonucleoproteins (hnRNPs) bind pre-mRNAs and facilitate their processing into mRNAs. Many of the hnRNPs undergo extensive posttranslational modifications including methylation on arginine residues. hnRNPs contain about 65% of the total NG,NG-dimethylarginine found in the cell nucleus. The role of this modification is not known. Here we identify the hnRNPs that are methylated in HeLa cells and demonstrate that most of the pre-mRNA-binding proteins receive this modification. Using recombinant human hnRNP A1 as a substrate, we have partially purified and characterized a protein-arginine N-methyltransferase specific for hnRNPs from HeLa cells. This methyltransferase can methylate the same subset of hnRNPs in vitro as are methylated in vivo. Furthermore, it can also methylate other RNA-binding proteins that contain the RGG motif RNA-binding domain. This activity is evolutionarily conserved from lower eukaryotes to mammals, suggesting that methylation has a significant role in the function of RNA-binding proteins. PMID:7739561

  8. Role of arginine in the stabilization of proteins against aggregation.

    PubMed

    Baynes, Brian M; Wang, Daniel I C; Trout, Bernhardt L

    2005-03-29

    The amino acid arginine is frequently used as a solution additive to stabilize proteins against aggregation, especially in the process of protein refolding. Despite arginine's prevalence, the mechanism by which it stabilizes proteins is not presently understood. We propose that arginine deters aggregation by slowing protein-protein association reactions, with only a small concomitant effect on protein folding. The associated rate effect was observed experimentally in association of globular proteins (insulin and a monoclonal anti-insulin) and in refolding of carbonic anhydrase. We suggest that this effect arises because arginine is preferentially excluded from protein-protein encounter complexes but not from dissociated protein molecules. Such an effect is predicted by our gap effect theory [Baynes and Trout (2004) Biophys. J. 87, 1631] for "neutral crowder" additives such as arginine which are significantly larger than water but have only a small effect on the free energies of isolated protein molecules. The effect of arginine on refolding of carbonic anhydrase was also shown to be consistent with this hypothesis.

  9. Inhibiting Protein Arginine Deiminases Has Antioxidant Consequences

    PubMed Central

    Witalison, Erin E.; Cui, Xiangli; Hofseth, Anne B.; Subramanian, Venkataraman; Causey, Corey P.; Thompson, Paul R.

    2015-01-01

    Ulcerative colitis is a dynamic, idiopathic, chronic inflammatory condition that carries a high colon cancer risk. We previously showed that Cl-amidine, a small-molecule inhibitor of the protein arginine deiminases, suppresses colitis in mice. Because colitis is defined as inflammation of the colon associated with infiltration of white blood cells that release free radicals and citrullination is an inflammation-dependent process, we asked whether Cl-amidine has antioxidant properties. Here we show that colitis induced with azoxymethane via intraperitoneal injection + 2% dextran sulfate sodium in the drinking water is suppressed by Cl-amidine (also given in the drinking water). Inducible nitric oxide synthase, an inflammatory marker, was also downregulated in macrophages by Cl-amidine. Because epithelial cell DNA damage associated with colitis is at least in part a result of an oxidative burst from overactive leukocytes, we tested the hypothesis that Cl-amidine can inhibit leukocyte activation, as well as subsequent target epithelial cell DNA damage in vitro and in vivo. Results are consistent with this hypothesis, and because DNA damage is a procancerous mechanism, our data predict that Cl-amidine will not only suppress colitis, but we hypothesize that it may prevent colon cancer associated with colitis. PMID:25635139

  10. Protein arginine methylation facilitates KCNQ channel-PIP2 interaction leading to seizure suppression

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyun-Ji; Jeong, Myong-Ho; Kim, Kyung-Ran; Jung, Chang-Yun; Lee, Seul-Yi; Kim, Hanna; Koh, Jewoo; Vuong, Tuan Anh; Jung, Seungmoon; Yang, Hyunwoo; Park, Su-Kyung; Choi, Dahee; Kim, Sung Hun; Kang, KyeongJin; Sohn, Jong-Woo; Park, Joo Min; Jeon, Daejong; Koo, Seung-Hoi; Ho, Won-Kyung; Kang, Jong-Sun; Kim, Seong-Tae; Cho, Hana

    2016-01-01

    KCNQ channels are critical determinants of neuronal excitability, thus emerging as a novel target of anti-epileptic drugs. To date, the mechanisms of KCNQ channel modulation have been mostly characterized to be inhibitory via Gq-coupled receptors, Ca2+/CaM, and protein kinase C. Here we demonstrate that methylation of KCNQ by protein arginine methyltransferase 1 (Prmt1) positively regulates KCNQ channel activity, thereby preventing neuronal hyperexcitability. Prmt1+/- mice exhibit epileptic seizures. Methylation of KCNQ2 channels at 4 arginine residues by Prmt1 enhances PIP2 binding, and Prmt1 depletion lowers PIP2 affinity of KCNQ2 channels and thereby the channel activities. Consistently, exogenous PIP2 addition to Prmt1+/- neurons restores KCNQ currents and neuronal excitability to the WT level. Collectively, we propose that Prmt1-dependent facilitation of KCNQ-PIP2 interaction underlies the positive regulation of KCNQ activity by arginine methylation, which may serve as a key target for prevention of neuronal hyperexcitability and seizures. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.17159.001 PMID:27466704

  11. Arginine methylation in yeast proteins during stationary-phase growth and heat shock.

    PubMed

    Lakowski, Ted M; Pak, Magnolia L; Szeitz, András; Thomas, Dylan; Vhuiyan, Mynol I; Clement, Bernd; Frankel, Adam

    2015-12-01

    Arginine methyltransferases (RMTs) catalyze the methylation of arginine residues on proteins. We examined the effects of log-phase growth, stationary-phase growth, and heat shock on the formation of methylarginines on yeast proteins to determine if the conditions favor a particular type of methylation. Utilizing linear ion trap mass spectrometry, we identify methylarginines in wild-type and RMT deletion yeast strains using secondary product ion scans (MS(3)), and quantify the methylarginines using multiple reaction monitoring (MRM). Employing MS(3) and isotopic incorporation, we demonstrate for the first time that Nη1, Nη2-dimethylarginine (sDMA) is present on yeast proteins, and make a detailed structural determination of the fragment ions from the spectra. Nη-monomethylarginine (ηMMA), Nδ-monomethylarginine (δMMA), Nη1, Nη1-dimethylarginine (aDMA), and sDMA were detected in RMT deletion yeast using MS(3) and MRM with and without isotopic incorporation, suggesting that additional RMT enzymes remain to be discovered in yeast. The concentrations of ηMMA and δMMA decreased by half during heat shock and stationary phase compared to log-phase growth of wild-type yeast, whereas sDMA increased by as much as sevenfold and aDMA decreased by 11-fold. Therefore, upon entering stressful conditions like heat shock or stationary-phase growth, there is a net increase in sDMA and decreases in aDMA, ηMMA, and δMMA on yeast proteins.

  12. In vitro Methylation Assay to Study Protein Arginine Methylation

    PubMed Central

    Bikkavilli, Rama Kamesh; Avasarala, Sreedevi; Van Scoyk, Michelle; Karuppusamy Rathinam, Manoj Kumar; Tauler, Jordi; Borowicz, Stanley; Winn, Robert A.

    2014-01-01

    Protein arginine methylation is one of the most abundant post-translational modifications in the nucleus. Protein arginine methylation can be identified and/or determined via proteomic approaches, and/or immunoblotting with methyl-arginine specific antibodies. However, these techniques sometimes can be misleading and often provide false positive results. Most importantly, these techniques cannot provide direct evidence in support of the PRMT substrate specificity. In vitro methylation assays, on the other hand, are useful biochemical assays, which are sensitive, and consistently reveal if the identified proteins are indeed PRMT substrates. A typical in vitro methylation assay includes purified, active PRMTs, purified substrate and a radioisotope labeled methyl donor (S-adenosyl-L-[methyl-3H] methionine). Here we describe a step-by-step protocol to isolate catalytically active PRMT1, a ubiquitously expressed PRMT family member. The methyl transferase activities of the purified PRMT1 were later tested on Ras-GTPase activating protein binding protein 1 (G3BP1), a known PRMT substrate, in the presence of S-adenosyl-L-[methyl-3H] methionine as the methyl donor. This protocol can be employed not only for establishing the methylation status of novel physiological PRMT1 substrates, but also for understanding the basic mechanism of protein arginine methylation. PMID:25350748

  13. RmtA, a Putative Arginine Methyltransferase, Regulates Secondary Metabolism and Development in Aspergillus flavus.

    PubMed

    Satterlee, Timothy; Cary, Jeffrey W; Calvo, Ana M

    2016-01-01

    Aspergillus flavus colonizes numerous oil seed crops such as corn, peanuts, treenuts and cotton worldwide, contaminating them with aflatoxin and other harmful potent toxins. In the phylogenetically related model fungus Aspergillus nidulans, the methyltransferase, RmtA, has been described to be involved in epigenetics regulation through histone modification. Epigenetics regulation affects a variety of cellular processes, including morphogenesis and secondary metabolism. Our study shows that deletion of rmtA in A. flavus results in hyperconidiating colonies, indicating that rmtA is a repressor of asexual development in this fungus. The increase in conidiation in the absence of rmtA coincides with greater expression of brlA, abaA, and wetA compared to that in the wild type. Additionally, the rmtA deletion mutant presents a drastic reduction or loss of sclerotial production, while forced expression of this gene increased the ability of this fungus to generate these resistant structures, revealing rmtA as a positive regulator of sclerotial formation. Importantly, rmtA is also required for the production of aflatoxin B1 in A. flavus, affecting the expression of aflJ. Furthermore, biosynthesis of additional metabolites is also controlled by rmtA, indicating a broad regulatory output in the control of secondary metabolism. This study also revealed that rmtA positively regulates the expression of the global regulatory gene veA, which could contribute to mediate the effects of rmtA on development and secondary metabolism in this relevant opportunistic plant pathogen. PMID:27213959

  14. RmtA, a Putative Arginine Methyltransferase, Regulates Secondary Metabolism and Development in Aspergillus flavus

    PubMed Central

    Satterlee, Timothy; Cary, Jeffrey W.; Calvo, Ana M.

    2016-01-01

    Aspergillus flavus colonizes numerous oil seed crops such as corn, peanuts, treenuts and cotton worldwide, contaminating them with aflatoxin and other harmful potent toxins. In the phylogenetically related model fungus Aspergillus nidulans, the methyltransferase, RmtA, has been described to be involved in epigenetics regulation through histone modification. Epigenetics regulation affects a variety of cellular processes, including morphogenesis and secondary metabolism. Our study shows that deletion of rmtA in A. flavus results in hyperconidiating colonies, indicating that rmtA is a repressor of asexual development in this fungus. The increase in conidiation in the absence of rmtA coincides with greater expression of brlA, abaA, and wetA compared to that in the wild type. Additionally, the rmtA deletion mutant presents a drastic reduction or loss of sclerotial production, while forced expression of this gene increased the ability of this fungus to generate these resistant structures, revealing rmtA as a positive regulator of sclerotial formation. Importantly, rmtA is also required for the production of aflatoxin B1 in A. flavus, affecting the expression of aflJ. Furthermore, biosynthesis of additional metabolites is also controlled by rmtA, indicating a broad regulatory output in the control of secondary metabolism. This study also revealed that rmtA positively regulates the expression of the global regulatory gene veA, which could contribute to mediate the effects of rmtA on development and secondary metabolism in this relevant opportunistic plant pathogen. PMID:27213959

  15. Novel 3,5-Bis(bromohydroxybenzylidene)piperidin-4-ones as Coactivator-associated Arginine Methyltransferase 1 Inhibitors: Enzyme Selectivity and Cellular Activity

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Donghang; Valente, Sergio; Castellano, Sabrina; Sbardella, Gianluca; Di Santo, Roberto; Costi, Roberta; Bedford, Mark T.; Mai, Antonello

    2012-01-01

    Coactivator-associated arginine methyltransferase 1 (CARM1) represents a valuable target for hormone-dependent tumors such as prostate and breast cancers. Here we report the enzyme and cellular characterization of the 1-benzyl-3,5-bis(3-bromo-4-hydroxybenzylidene) piperidin-4-one (7g) and its analogues 8a-l. Among them, 7g, 8e, and 8l displayed high and selective CARM1 inhibition, with lower or no activity against a panel of different PRMTs or HKMTs. In human LNCaP cells, 7g showed a significant dose-dependent reduction of the PSA promoter activity. PMID:21612300

  16. Two protein lysine methyltransferases methylate outer membrane protein B from Rickettsia.

    PubMed

    Abeykoon, Amila H; Chao, Chien-Chung; Wang, Guanghui; Gucek, Marjan; Yang, David C H; Ching, Wei-Mei

    2012-12-01

    Rickettsia prowazekii, the etiologic agent of epidemic typhus, is a potential biological threat agent. Its outer membrane protein B (OmpB) is an immunodominant antigen and plays roles as protective envelope and as adhesins. The observation of the correlation between methylation of lysine residues in rickettsial OmpB and bacterial virulence has suggested the importance of an enzymatic system for the methylation of OmpB. However, no rickettsial lysine methyltransferase has been characterized. Bioinformatic analysis of genomic DNA sequences of Rickettsia identified putative lysine methyltransferases. The genes of the potential methyltransferases were synthesized, cloned, and expressed in Escherichia coli, and expressed proteins were purified by nickel-nitrilotriacetic acid (Ni-NTA) affinity chromatography. The methyltransferase activities of the purified proteins were analyzed by methyl incorporation of radioactively labeled S-adenosylmethionine into recombinant fragments of OmpB. Two putative recombinant methyltransferases (rRP789 and rRP027-028) methylated recombinant OmpB fragments. The specific activity of rRP789 is 10- to 30-fold higher than that of rRP027-028. Western blot analysis using specific antibodies against trimethyl lysine showed that both rRP789 and rRP027-028 catalyzed trimethylation of recombinant OmpB fragments. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS-MS) analysis showed that rRP789 catalyzed mono-, di-, and trimethylation of lysine, while rRP027-028 catalyzed exclusively trimethylation. To our knowledge, rRP789 and rRP027-028 are the first biochemically characterized lysine methyltransferases of outer membrane proteins from Gram-negative bacteria. The production and characterization of rickettsial lysine methyltransferases provide new tools to investigate the mechanism of methylation of OmpB, effects of methylation on the structure and function of OmpB, and development of methylated OmpB-based diagnostic assays and vaccine candidates.

  17. PRMT4-Mediated Arginine Methylation Negatively Regulates Retinoblastoma Tumor Suppressor Protein and Promotes E2F-1 Dissociation

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Kevin Y.; Wang, Don-Hong; Campbell, Mel; Huerta, Steve B.; Shevchenko, Bogdan; Izumiya, Chie

    2014-01-01

    The retinoblastoma protein (pRb/p105) tumor suppressor plays a pivotal role in cell cycle regulation by blockage of the G1-to-S-phase transition. pRb tumor suppressor activity is governed by a variety of posttranslational modifications, most notably phosphorylation by cyclin-dependent kinase (Cdk) complexes. Here we report a novel regulation of pRb through protein arginine methyltransferase 4 (PRMT4)-mediated arginine methylation, which parallels phosphorylation. PRMT4 specifically methylates pRb at the pRb C-terminal domain (pRb Cterm) on arginine (R) residues R775, R787, and R798 in vitro and R787 in vivo. Arginine methylation is important for efficient pRb Cterm phosphorylation, as manifested by the reduced phosphorylation of a methylation-impaired mutant, pRb (R3K). A methylmimetic form of pRb, pRb (R3F), disrupts the formation of the E2F-1/DP1-pRb complex in cells as well as in an isolated system. Finally, studies using a Gal4–E2F-1 reporter system show that pRb (R3F) expression reduces the ability of pRb to repress E2F-1 transcriptional activation, while pRb (R3K) expression further represses E2F-1 transcriptional activation relative to that for cells expressing wild-type pRb. Together, our results suggest that arginine methylation negatively regulates the tumor suppressor function of pRb during cell cycle control, in part by creating a better substrate for Cdk complex phosphorylation and disrupting the interaction of pRb with E2F-1. PMID:25348716

  18. Symmetrical dimethylation of arginine residues in spliceosomal Sm protein B/B' and the Sm-like protein LSm4, and their interaction with the SMN protein.

    PubMed Central

    Brahms, H; Meheus, L; de Brabandere, V; Fischer, U; Lührmann, R

    2001-01-01

    Arginine residues in RG-rich proteins are frequently dimethylated posttranslationally by protein arginine methyltransferases (PRMTs). The most common methylation pattern is asymmetrical dimethylation, a modification important for protein shuttling and signal transduction. Symmetrically dimethylated arginines (sDMA) have until now been confined to the myelin basic protein MBP and the Sm proteins D1 and D3. We show here by mass spectrometry and protein sequencing that also the human Sm protein B/B' and, for the first time, one of the Sm-like proteins, LSm4, contain sDMA in vivo. The symmetrical dimethylation of B/B', LSm4, D1, and D3 decisively influences their binding to the Tudor domain of the "survival of motor neurons" protein (SMN): inhibition of dimethylation by S-adenosylhomocysteine (SAH) abolished the binding of D1, D3, B/B', and LSm4 to this domain. A synthetic peptide containing nine sDMA-glycine dipeptides, but not asymmetrically modified or nonmodified peptides, specifically inhibited the interaction of D1, D3, B/B', LSm4, and UsnRNPs with SMN-Tudor. Recombinant D1 and a synthetic peptide could be methylated in vitro by both HeLa cytosolic S100 extract and nuclear extract; however, only the cytosolic extract produced symmetrical dimethylarginines. Thus, the Sm-modifying PRMT is cytoplasmic, and symmetrical dimethylation of B/B', D1, and D3 is a prerequisite for the SMN-dependent cytoplasmic core-UsnRNP assembly. Our demonstration of sDMAs in LSm4 suggests additional functions of sDMAs in tri-UsnRNP biogenesis and mRNA decay. Our findings also have interesting implications for the understanding of the aetiology of spinal muscular atrophy (SMA). PMID:11720283

  19. Symmetrical dimethylation of arginine residues in spliceosomal Sm protein B/B' and the Sm-like protein LSm4, and their interaction with the SMN protein.

    PubMed

    Brahms, H; Meheus, L; de Brabandere, V; Fischer, U; Lührmann, R

    2001-11-01

    Arginine residues in RG-rich proteins are frequently dimethylated posttranslationally by protein arginine methyltransferases (PRMTs). The most common methylation pattern is asymmetrical dimethylation, a modification important for protein shuttling and signal transduction. Symmetrically dimethylated arginines (sDMA) have until now been confined to the myelin basic protein MBP and the Sm proteins D1 and D3. We show here by mass spectrometry and protein sequencing that also the human Sm protein B/B' and, for the first time, one of the Sm-like proteins, LSm4, contain sDMA in vivo. The symmetrical dimethylation of B/B', LSm4, D1, and D3 decisively influences their binding to the Tudor domain of the "survival of motor neurons" protein (SMN): inhibition of dimethylation by S-adenosylhomocysteine (SAH) abolished the binding of D1, D3, B/B', and LSm4 to this domain. A synthetic peptide containing nine sDMA-glycine dipeptides, but not asymmetrically modified or nonmodified peptides, specifically inhibited the interaction of D1, D3, B/B', LSm4, and UsnRNPs with SMN-Tudor. Recombinant D1 and a synthetic peptide could be methylated in vitro by both HeLa cytosolic S100 extract and nuclear extract; however, only the cytosolic extract produced symmetrical dimethylarginines. Thus, the Sm-modifying PRMT is cytoplasmic, and symmetrical dimethylation of B/B', D1, and D3 is a prerequisite for the SMN-dependent cytoplasmic core-UsnRNP assembly. Our demonstration of sDMAs in LSm4 suggests additional functions of sDMAs in tri-UsnRNP biogenesis and mRNA decay. Our findings also have interesting implications for the understanding of the aetiology of spinal muscular atrophy (SMA).

  20. Protein lysine methylation by seven-β-strand methyltransferases.

    PubMed

    Falnes, Pål Ø; Jakobsson, Magnus E; Davydova, Erna; Ho, Angela; Małecki, Jędrzej

    2016-07-15

    Methylation of biomolecules is a frequent biochemical reaction within the cell, and a plethora of highly specific methyltransferases (MTases) catalyse the transfer of a methyl group from S-adenosylmethionine (AdoMet) to various substrates. The posttranslational methylation of lysine residues, catalysed by numerous lysine (K)-specific protein MTases (KMTs), is a very common and important protein modification, which recently has been subject to intense studies, particularly in the case of histone proteins. The majority of KMTs belong to a class of MTases that share a defining 'SET domain', and these enzymes mostly target lysines in the flexible tails of histones. However, the so-called seven-β-strand (7BS) MTases, characterized by a twisted beta-sheet structure and certain conserved sequence motifs, represent the largest MTase class, and these enzymes methylate a wide range of substrates, including small metabolites, lipids, nucleic acids and proteins. Until recently, the histone-specific Dot1/DOT1L was the only identified eukaryotic 7BS KMT. However, a number of novel 7BS KMTs have now been discovered, and, in particular, several recently characterized human and yeast members of MTase family 16 (MTF16) have been found to methylate lysines in non-histone proteins. Here, we review the status and recent progress on the 7BS KMTs, and discuss these enzymes at the levels of sequence/structure, catalytic mechanism, substrate recognition and biological significance. PMID:27407169

  1. Haloarchaeal Protein Translocation via the Twin Arginine Translocation Pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Pohlschroder Mechthild

    2009-02-03

    Protein transport across hydrophobic membranes that partition cellular compartments is essential in all cells. The twin arginine translocation (Tat) pathway transports proteins across the prokaryotic cytoplasmic membranes. Distinct from the universally conserved Sec pathway, which secretes unfolded proteins, the Tat machinery is unique in that it secretes proteins in a folded conformation, making it an attractive pathway for the transport and secretion of heterologously expressed proteins that are Sec-incompatible. During the past 7 years, the DOE-supported project has focused on the characterization of the diversity of bacterial and archaeal Tat substrates as well as on the characterization of the Tat pathway of a model archaeon, Haloferax volcanii, a member of the haloarchaea. We have demonstrated that H. volcanii uses this pathway to transport most of its secretome.

  2. Establishment of an ectopically expressed and functional PRMT1 for proteomic analysis of arginine-methylated proteins.

    PubMed

    Chang, Yuan-I; Lin, Sheng-Wei; Chiou, Yi-Ying; Sung, Jung-Sung; Cheng, Lee-Chun; Lu, Yu-Ling; Sun, Kuang-Hui; Chang, Keejong; Lin, Chao-Hsiung; Lin, Wey-Jinq

    2010-12-01

    Protein arginine methylation, catalyzed by protein arginine methyltransferases (PRMTs), plays crucial roles in a variety of cellular processes. Mammalian PRMT1 exists in a large protein complex in cells, which has been implied in modulating the regulatory and catalytic properties of this enzyme. Establishment of a mammalian comparative approach will help to identify putative substrates of PRMT1 in an authentic condition. Here, we showed that ectopically expressed PRMT1 in mammalian HEK293 cells not only exhibited catalytic properties comparable to the endogenous enzyme but also existed in a functional complex together with endogenous PRMT1 and thus functioned as an endogenous counterpart. In addition, the measured methylation level of cellular proteins using a tritium-labeled methyl donor was accordingly enhanced upon ectopic expression of PRMT1. Subsequent proteomic analysis with such PRMT1-expressing cells allowed us to identify several known and putative methylated proteins. In vitro methylation of selected proteins, eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4A-I and vimentin, by cellular PRMT1 was shown. Together, we have demonstrated the functional equivalence of ectopically expressed PRMT1 in HEK293 cells and its application to systematically identify the substrate proteins in a mammalian cell context. PMID:21080372

  3. Methylation of translation-associated proteins in Saccharomyces cerevisiae: Identification of methylated lysines and their methyltransferases.

    PubMed

    Couttas, Timothy A; Raftery, Mark J; Padula, Matthew P; Herbert, Ben R; Wilkins, Marc R

    2012-04-01

    This study aimed to identify sites of lysine methylation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and the associated methyltransferases. Hexapeptide ligand affinity chromatography was used to normalize the abundance levels of proteins in whole cell lysate. MS/MS, in association with antibody-based detection, was then used to identify lysine methylated proteins and the precise sites of modification. Lysine methylation was found on the proteins elongation factor (EF) 1-α, 2, and 3A, as well as ribosomal proteins 40S S18-A/B, 60S L11-A/B, L18-A/B, and L42-A/B. Precise sites were mapped in all cases. Single-gene knockouts of known and putative methyltransferase(s), in association with MS/MS, showed that EF1-α is monomethylated by Efm1 at lysin 30 and dimethylated by See1 at lysine 316. Methyltransferase Rkm1 was found to monomethylate 40S ribosomal protein S18-A/B at lysine 48. Knockout analysis also revealed that putative methyltransferase YBR271W affects the methylation of proteins EF2 and 3A; this was detected by Western blotting and immunodetection. This methyltransferase shows strong interspecies conservation and a tryptophan-containing motif associated with its active site. We suggest that enzyme YBR271W is named EF methyltransferase 2 (Efm2), in line with the recent naming of YHL039W as Efm1. PMID:22522802

  4. Arginine Inhibits Adsorption of Proteins on Polystyrene Surface

    PubMed Central

    Shikiya, Yui; Tomita, Shunsuke; Arakawa, Tsutomu; Shiraki, Kentaro

    2013-01-01

    Nonspecific adsorption of protein on solid surfaces causes a reduction of concentration as well as enzyme inactivation during purification and storage. However, there are no versatile inhibitors of the adsorption between proteins and solid surfaces at low concentrations. Therefore, we examined additives for the prevention of protein adsorption on polystyrene particles (PS particles) as a commonly-used material for vessels such as disposable test tubes and microtubes. A protein solution was mixed with PS particles, and then adsorption of protein was monitored by the concentration and activity of protein in the supernatant after centrifugation. Five different proteins bound to PS particles through electrostatic, hydrophobic, and aromatic interactions, causing a decrease in protein concentration and loss of enzyme activity in the supernatant. Among the additives, including arginine hydrochloride (Arg), lysine hydrochloride, guanidine hydrochloride, NaCl, glycine, and glucose, Arg was most effective in preventing the binding of proteins to PS particles as well as activity loss. Moreover, even after the mixing of protein and PS particles, the addition of Arg caused desorption of the bound protein from PS particles. This study demonstrated a new function of Arg, which expands the potential for application of Arg to proteins. PMID:23967100

  5. Kinetic Mechanism of Protein N-terminal Methyltransferase 1*

    PubMed Central

    Richardson, Stacie L.; Mao, Yunfei; Zhang, Gang; Hanjra, Pahul; Peterson, Darrell L.; Huang, Rong

    2015-01-01

    The protein N-terminal methyltransferase 1 (NTMT1) catalyzes the transfer of the methyl group from the S-adenosyl-l-methionine to the protein α-amine, resulting in formation of S-adenosyl-l-homocysteine and α-N-methylated proteins. NTMT1 is an interesting potential anticancer target because it is overexpressed in gastrointestinal cancers and plays an important role in cell mitosis. To gain insight into the biochemical mechanism of NTMT1, we have characterized the kinetic mechanism of recombinant NTMT1 using a fluorescence assay and mass spectrometry. The results of initial velocity, product, and dead-end inhibition studies indicate that methylation by NTMT1 proceeds via a random sequential Bi Bi mechanism. In addition, our processivity studies demonstrate that NTMT1 proceeds via a distributive mechanism for multiple methylations. Together, our studies provide new knowledge about the kinetic mechanism of NTMT1 and lay the foundation for the development of mechanism-based inhibitors. PMID:25771539

  6. Proteome-wide analysis of arginine monomethylation reveals widespread occurrence in human cells.

    PubMed

    Larsen, Sara C; Sylvestersen, Kathrine B; Mund, Andreas; Lyon, David; Mullari, Meeli; Madsen, Maria V; Daniel, Jeremy A; Jensen, Lars J; Nielsen, Michael L

    2016-01-01

    The posttranslational modification of proteins by arginine methylation is functionally important, yet the breadth of this modification is not well characterized. Using high-resolution mass spectrometry, we identified 8030 arginine methylation sites within 3300 human proteins in human embryonic kidney 293 cells, indicating that the occurrence of this modification is comparable to phosphorylation and ubiquitylation. A site-level conservation analysis revealed that arginine methylation sites are less evolutionarily conserved compared to arginines that were not identified as modified by methylation. Through quantitative proteomics and RNA interference to examine arginine methylation stoichiometry, we unexpectedly found that the protein arginine methyltransferase (PRMT) family of arginine methyltransferases catalyzed methylation independently of arginine sequence context. In contrast to the frequency of somatic mutations at arginine methylation sites throughout the proteome, we observed that somatic mutations were common at arginine methylation sites in proteins involved in mRNA splicing. Furthermore, in HeLa and U2OS cells, we found that distinct arginine methyltransferases differentially regulated the functions of the pre-mRNA splicing factor SRSF2 (serine/arginine-rich splicing factor 2) and the RNA transport ribonucleoprotein HNRNPUL1 (heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein U-like 1). Knocking down PRMT5 impaired the RNA binding function of SRSF2, whereas knocking down PRMT4 [also known as coactivator-associated arginine methyltransferase 1 (CARM1)] or PRMT1 increased the RNA binding function of HNRNPUL1. High-content single-cell imaging additionally revealed that knocking down CARM1 promoted the nuclear accumulation of SRSF2, independent of cell cycle phase. Collectively, the presented human arginine methylome provides a missing piece in the global and integrative view of cellular physiology and protein regulation. PMID:27577262

  7. Heterologous protein production using the twin arginine translocation pathway

    DOEpatents

    Pohlschroder, Mechtild; Kissinger, Jessica C; Rose, R. Wesley; Brueser, Thomas; Dilks, Kieran

    2008-11-04

    Provided are means for evaluating and identifying putative substrates of the twin arginine translocation (Tat) secretory pathway in Streptomyces and other bacterial species. Also provided, therefore, are simple ways to express, secrete and purify correctly folded heterologous proteins on a large scale using host microorganisms, such as, Streptomyces and the Tat pathway therein. Many of the thus-produced proteins are of significant therapeutic value in the pharmaceutical and biochemical industries, particularly when they can be secreted from the host in fully-folded active form. Accordingly, there are further provided the heterologous proteins produced by the Tat secretion pathway using the foregoing methods, and the computer algorithm used to identify the Tat signal sequence and putative substrates.

  8. Protein kinase C catalyses the phosphorylation and activation of rat liver phospholipid methyltransferase.

    PubMed Central

    Villalba, M; Pajares, M A; Renart, M F; Mato, J M

    1987-01-01

    When a partially purified rat liver phospholipid methyltransferase is incubated with [gamma-32P]ATP and rat brain protein kinase C, phospholipid methyltransferase (Mr 50,000, pI 4.75) becomes phosphorylated. Phosphorylation of the enzyme showed Ca2+/lipid-dependency. Protein kinase C-dependent phosphorylation of phospholipid methyltransferase was accompanied by an approx. 2-fold activation of the enzyme activity. Activity changes and enzyme phosphorylation showed the same time course. Activation of the enzyme also showed Ca2+/lipid-dependency. Protein kinase C mediates phosphorylation of predominantly serine residues of the methyltransferase. One major peak of phosphorylation was identified by analysis of tryptic phosphopeptides by isoelectrofocusing. This peak (pI 5.2) differs from that phosphorylated by the cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase (pI 7.2), demonstrating the specificity of phosphorylation of protein kinase C. Tryptic-peptide mapping by h.p.l.c. of the methyltransferase phosphorylated by protein kinase C revealed one major peak of radioactivity, which could be resolved into two labelled phosphopeptides by t.l.c. The significance of protein kinase C-mediated phosphorylation of phospholipid methyltransferase is discussed. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 4. PMID:3593229

  9. Ribosomal protein methyltransferases in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae: Roles in ribosome biogenesis and translation.

    PubMed

    Al-Hadid, Qais; White, Jonelle; Clarke, Steven

    2016-02-12

    A significant percentage of the methyltransferasome in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and higher eukaryotes is devoted to methylation of the translational machinery. Methylation of the RNA components of the translational machinery has been studied extensively and is important for structure stability, ribosome biogenesis, and translational fidelity. However, the functional effects of ribosomal protein methylation by their cognate methyltransferases are still largely unknown. Previous work has shown that the ribosomal protein Rpl3 methyltransferase, histidine protein methyltransferase 1 (Hpm1), is important for ribosome biogenesis and translation elongation fidelity. In this study, yeast strains deficient in each of the ten ribosomal protein methyltransferases in S. cerevisiae were examined for potential defects in ribosome biogenesis and translation. Like Hpm1-deficient cells, loss of four of the nine other ribosomal protein methyltransferases resulted in defects in ribosomal subunit synthesis. All of the mutant strains exhibited resistance to the ribosome inhibitors anisomycin and/or cycloheximide in plate assays, but not in liquid culture. Translational fidelity assays measuring stop codon readthrough, amino acid misincorporation, and programmed -1 ribosomal frameshifting, revealed that eight of the ten enzymes are important for translation elongation fidelity and the remaining two are necessary for translation termination efficiency. Altogether, these results demonstrate that ribosomal protein methyltransferases in S. cerevisiae play important roles in ribosome biogenesis and translation. PMID:26801560

  10. Ribosomal protein methyltransferases in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae: Roles in ribosome biogenesis and translation.

    PubMed

    Al-Hadid, Qais; White, Jonelle; Clarke, Steven

    2016-02-12

    A significant percentage of the methyltransferasome in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and higher eukaryotes is devoted to methylation of the translational machinery. Methylation of the RNA components of the translational machinery has been studied extensively and is important for structure stability, ribosome biogenesis, and translational fidelity. However, the functional effects of ribosomal protein methylation by their cognate methyltransferases are still largely unknown. Previous work has shown that the ribosomal protein Rpl3 methyltransferase, histidine protein methyltransferase 1 (Hpm1), is important for ribosome biogenesis and translation elongation fidelity. In this study, yeast strains deficient in each of the ten ribosomal protein methyltransferases in S. cerevisiae were examined for potential defects in ribosome biogenesis and translation. Like Hpm1-deficient cells, loss of four of the nine other ribosomal protein methyltransferases resulted in defects in ribosomal subunit synthesis. All of the mutant strains exhibited resistance to the ribosome inhibitors anisomycin and/or cycloheximide in plate assays, but not in liquid culture. Translational fidelity assays measuring stop codon readthrough, amino acid misincorporation, and programmed -1 ribosomal frameshifting, revealed that eight of the ten enzymes are important for translation elongation fidelity and the remaining two are necessary for translation termination efficiency. Altogether, these results demonstrate that ribosomal protein methyltransferases in S. cerevisiae play important roles in ribosome biogenesis and translation.

  11. Evaluation of chemical labeling methods for identifying functional arginine residues of proteins by mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Wanigasekara, Maheshika S K; Chowdhury, Saiful M

    2016-09-01

    Arginine residues undergo several kinds of post-translational modifications (PTMs). These PTMs are associated with several inflammatory diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis, atherosclerosis, and diabetes. Mass spectrometric studies of arginine modified proteins and peptides are very important, not only to identify the reactive arginine residues but also to understand the tandem mass spectrometry behavior of these peptides for assigning the sequences unambiguously. Herein, we utilize tandem mass spectrometry to report the performance of two widely used arginine labeling reagents, 1,2-cyclohexanedione (CHD) and phenylglyoxal (PG) with several arginine containing peptides and proteins. Time course labeling studies were performed to demonstrate the selectivity of the reagents in proteins or protein digests. Structural studies on the proteins were also explored to better understand the reaction sites and position of arginine residues. We found CHD showed better labeling efficiencies compared to phenylglyoxal. Reactive arginine profiling on a purified albumin protein clearly pointed out the cellular glycation modification site for this protein with high confidence. We believe these detailed mass-spectrometric studies will provide significant input to profile reactive arginine residues in large-scale studies; therefore, targeted proteomics can be performed to the short listed reactive sites for cellular arginine modifications. PMID:27543028

  12. The CASTOR proteins are arginine sensors for the mTORC1 pathway

    PubMed Central

    Chantranupong, Lynne; Scaria, Sonia M.; Saxton, Robert A.; Gygi, Melanie P.; Shen, Kuang; Wyant, Gregory A.; Wang, Tim; Harper, J. Wade; Gygi, Steven P.; Sabatini, David M.

    2016-01-01

    Amino acids signal to the mTOR complex I (mTORC1) growth pathway through the Rag GTPases. Multiple distinct complexes regulate the Rags, including GATOR1, a GTPase activating protein (GAP), and GATOR2, a positive regulator of unknown molecular function. Arginine stimulation of cells activates mTORC1, but how it is sensed is not well understood. Recently, SLC38A9 was identified as a putative lysosomal arginine sensor required for arginine to activate mTORC1 but how arginine deprivation represses mTORC1 is unknown. Here, we show that CASTOR1, a previously uncharacterized protein, interacts with GATOR2 and is required for arginine deprivation to inhibit mTORC1. CASTOR1 homodimerizes and can also heterodimerize with the related protein, CASTOR2. Arginine disrupts the CASTOR1-GATOR2 complex by binding to CASTOR1 with a dissociation constant of ~30 μM, and its arginine-binding capacity is required for arginine to activate mTORC1 in cells. Collectively, these results establish CASTOR1 as an arginine sensor for the mTORC1 pathway. PMID:26972053

  13. DNA Methyltransferase protein synthesis is reduced in CXXC finger protein 1-deficient embryonic stem cells.

    PubMed

    Butler, Jill S; Palam, Lakshmi R; Tate, Courtney M; Sanford, Jeremy R; Wek, Ronald C; Skalnik, David G

    2009-05-01

    CXXC finger protein 1 (CFP1) binds to unmethylated CpG dinucleotides and is required for embryogenesis. CFP1 is also a component of the Setd1A and Setd1B histone H3K4 methyltransferase complexes. Murine embryonic stem (ES) cells lacking CFP1 fail to differentiate, and exhibit a 70% reduction in global genomic cytosine methylation and a 50% reduction in DNA methyltransferase (DNMT1) protein and activity. This study investigated the underlying mechanism for reduced DNMT1 expression in CFP1-deficient ES cells. DNMT1 transcript levels were significantly elevated in ES cells lacking CFP1, despite the observed reduction in DNMT1 protein levels. To address the posttranscriptional mechanisms by which CFP1 regulates DNMT1 protein activity, pulse/chase analyses were carried out, demonstrating a modest reduction in DNMT1 protein half-life in CFP1-deficient ES cells. Additionally, global protein synthesis was decreased in ES cells lacking CFP1, contributing to a reduction in the synthesis of DNMT1 protein. ES cells lacking CFP1 were found to contain elevated levels of phosphorylated eIF2alpha, and an accompanying reduction in translation initiation as revealed by a lower level of polyribosomes. These results reveal a novel role for CFP1 in the regulation of translation initiation, and indicate that loss of CFP1 function leads to decreased DNMT1 protein synthesis and half-life. PMID:19388845

  14. Proteomic analyses and identification of arginine methylated proteins differentially recognized by autosera from anti-Sm positive SLE patients

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Antibodies against spliceosome Sm proteins (anti-Sm autoantibodies) are specific to the autoimmune disease systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Anti-Sm autosera have been reported to specifically recognize Sm D1 and D3 with symmetric di-methylarginines (sDMA). We investigated if anti-Sm sera from local SLE patients can differentially recognize Sm proteins or any other proteins due to their methylation states. Results We prepared HeLa cell proteins at normal or hypomethylation states (treated with an indirect methyltransferase inhibitor adenosine dialdehyde, AdOx). A few signals detected by the anti-Sm positive sera from typical SLE patients decreased consistently in the immunoblots of hypomethylated cell extracts. The differentially detected signals by one serum (Sm1) were pinpointed by two-dimensional electrophoresis and identified by mass spectrometry. Three identified proteins: splicing factor, proline- and glutamine-rich (SFPQ), heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein D-like (hnRNP DL) and cellular nucleic acid binding protein (CNBP) are known to contain methylarginines in their glycine and arginine rich (GAR) sequences. We showed that recombinant hnRNP DL and CNBP expressed in Escherichia coli can be detected by all anti-Sm positive sera we tested. As CNBP appeared to be differentially detected by the SLE sera in the pilot study, differential recognition of arginine methylated CNBP protein by the anti-Sm positive sera were further examined. Hypomethylated FLAG-CNBP protein immunopurified from AdOx-treated HeLa cells was less recognized by Sm1 compared to the CNBP protein expressed in untreated cells. Two of 20 other anti-Sm positive sera specifically differentiated the FLAG-CNBP protein expressed in HeLa cells due to the methylation. We also observed deferential recognition of methylated recombinant CNBP proteins expressed from E. coli by some of the autosera. Conclusion Our study showed that hnRNP DL and CNBP are novel antigens for SLE patients and

  15. Unusual Arginine Formations in Protein Function and Assembly: Rings, Strings and Stacks

    PubMed Central

    Neves, Marco A. C.; Yeager, Mark; Abagyan, Ruben

    2012-01-01

    Protein-protein interfaces are often stabilized by a small number of dominant contacts, exemplified by the overrepresentation of arginine residues at oligomerization interfaces. Positively charged arginines are most commonly involved in ion pairs of opposite charge; however, previous work of Scheraga and coworkers described the stable, close range interaction between guanidinium pairs in a solvated environment. To extend this work, we searched over 70 thousand protein structures and complexes for unusual formations of arginine residues supported by the electron density. Symmetry transformations were used to generate full assemblies. Clusters of four to eight arginine residues with Cζ-Cζ distances < 5 Å, organized as rings with 4 to 8 members, stacks of two arginines, and strings of stacked arginines, are commonly located at the interfaces of oligomeric proteins. The positive charge is properly balanced by negatively charged counter ions in about 90% of the cases. We also observed planar stacking of guanidinium groups, bridged by hydrogen bonds and interactions with water molecules. The guanidinium groups are commonly involved in 5 hydrogen bonds with water molecules and acceptor groups from surrounding amino acids. Water molecules have a bridging effect on the arginine pairs, but in some cases small molecular weight chemicals in the crystallization buffer may be misinterpreted as water molecules. In summary, despite electrostatic repulsion, arginines do form various clusters that are exposed to interact with and potentially be controlled or switched by charged metabolites, membrane lipids, nucleic acids or side chains of other proteins. Control of the stability of arginine clusters may play an important role in protein-protein oligomerization, molecular recognition and ligand binding. PMID:22497303

  16. UPF0586 Protein C9orf41 Homolog Is Anserine-producing Methyltransferase*

    PubMed Central

    Drozak, Jakub; Piecuch, Maria; Poleszak, Olga; Kozlowski, Piotr; Chrobok, Lukasz; Baelde, Hans J.; de Heer, Emile

    2015-01-01

    Anserine (β-alanyl-N(Pi)-methyl-l-histidine), a methylated derivative of carnosine (β-alanyl-l-histidine), is an abundant constituent of vertebrate skeletal muscles. Although it has been suggested to serve as a proton buffer and radical scavenger, its physiological function remains mysterious. The formation of anserine is catalyzed by carnosine N-methyltransferase, recently identified in chicken as histamine N-methyltransferase-like (HNMT-like) protein. Although the HNMT-like gene is absent in mammalian genomes, the activity of carnosine N-methyltransferase was reported in most mammalian species. In the present investigation, we purified carnosine N-methyltransferase from rat muscles about 2600-fold. Three polypeptides of ∼45, 50, and 70 kDa coeluting with the enzyme activity were identified in the preparation. Mass spectrometry analysis of these polypeptides resulted in the identification of UPF0586 protein C9orf41 homolog as the only meaningful candidate. Rat UPF0586 and its yeast, chicken, and human orthologs were expressed in COS-7 cells and purified to homogeneity. Although all recombinant proteins catalyzed the formation of anserine, as confirmed by chromatographic and mass spectrometry analysis, rat UPF0586 was more active on carnosine than other orthologs. Confocal microscopy of HeLa cells expressing recombinant UPF5086 proteins revealed their presence in both cytosol and nucleus. Carnosine and Gly-His were the best substrates for all UPF0586 orthologs studied, although the enzymes also methylated other l-histidine-containing di- and tripeptides. Finally, cotransfection of COS-7 cells with rat or human UPF0586 and carnosine synthase transformed the cells into efficient anserine producers. We conclude that UPF0586 is mammalian carnosine N-methyltransferase and hypothesize that it may also serve as a peptide or protein methyltransferase in eukaryotes. PMID:26001783

  17. Quantitative Phosphoproteomics Reveals the Role of Protein Arginine Phosphorylation in the Bacterial Stress Response*

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, Andreas; Trentini, Débora Broch; Spiess, Silvia; Fuhrmann, Jakob; Ammerer, Gustav; Mechtler, Karl; Clausen, Tim

    2014-01-01

    Arginine phosphorylation is an emerging protein modification implicated in the general stress response of Gram-positive bacteria. The modification is mediated by the arginine kinase McsB, which phosphorylates and inactivates the heat shock repressor CtsR. In this study, we developed a mass spectrometric approach accounting for the peculiar chemical properties of phosphoarginine. The improved methodology was used to analyze the dynamic changes in the Bacillus subtilis arginine phosphoproteome in response to different stress situations. Quantitative analysis showed that a B. subtilis mutant lacking the YwlE arginine phosphatase accumulated a strikingly large number of arginine phosphorylations (217 sites in 134 proteins), however only a minor fraction of these sites was increasingly modified during heat shock or oxidative stress. The main targets of McsB-mediated arginine phosphorylation comprise central factors of the stress response system including the CtsR and HrcA heat shock repressors, as well as major components of the protein quality control system such as the ClpCP protease and the GroEL chaperonine. These findings highlight the impact of arginine phosphorylation in orchestrating the bacterial stress response. PMID:24263382

  18. A Study on the Effect of Surface Lysine to Arginine Mutagenesis on Protein Stability and Structure Using Green Fluorescent Protein

    PubMed Central

    Sokalingam, Sriram; Raghunathan, Govindan; Soundrarajan, Nagasundarapandian; Lee, Sun-Gu

    2012-01-01

    Two positively charged basic amino acids, arginine and lysine, are mostly exposed to protein surface, and play important roles in protein stability by forming electrostatic interactions. In particular, the guanidinium group of arginine allows interactions in three possible directions, which enables arginine to form a larger number of electrostatic interactions compared to lysine. The higher pKa of the basic residue in arginine may also generate more stable ionic interactions than lysine. This paper reports an investigation whether the advantageous properties of arginine over lysine can be utilized to enhance protein stability. A variant of green fluorescent protein (GFP) was created by mutating the maximum possible number of lysine residues on the surface to arginines while retaining the activity. When the stability of the variant was examined under a range of denaturing conditions, the variant was relatively more stable compared to control GFP in the presence of chemical denaturants such as urea, alkaline pH and ionic detergents, but the thermal stability of the protein was not changed. The modeled structure of the variant indicated putative new salt bridges and hydrogen bond interactions that help improve the rigidity of the protein against different chemical denaturants. Structural analyses of the electrostatic interactions also confirmed that the geometric properties of the guanidinium group in arginine had such effects. On the other hand, the altered electrostatic interactions induced by the mutagenesis of surface lysines to arginines adversely affected protein folding, which decreased the productivity of the functional form of the variant. These results suggest that the surface lysine mutagenesis to arginines can be considered one of the parameters in protein stability engineering. PMID:22792305

  19. [Bioinformatics analysis and expressed level of histone methyltransferase genes in Lonicera japonica].

    PubMed

    Qi, Lin-jie; Yuan, Yuan; Huang, Lu-qi; Long, Ping; Zha, Liang-ping; Wang, Yao-long

    2015-06-01

    Twenty-three histone methyltransferase genes were obtained from transcriptome dataset of Lonicera japonica. The nucleotide and proteins characteristics, subcellular localization, senior structural domains and conservative forecasting were analyzed. The result of phylogenetic tree showed that 23 histone methyltransferases were mainly divided into two groups: lysine methyltransferase and arginine methyltransferases. The result of gene expression showed that 23 histone methyltransferases showed preference in terms of interspecies and organs. They were more expressed in buds of L. japonica than in L. japonica var. chinensis and lower in leaves of L. japonica than in L. japonica var. chinensis. Eight genes were specific expressed in flower. These results provided basis for further understanding the function of histone methyltransferase and epigenetic regulation of active ingredients of L. japonica. PMID:26552158

  20. Construction of a robust and sensitive arginine biosensor through ancestral protein reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Whitfield, Jason H; Zhang, William H; Herde, Michel K; Clifton, Ben E; Radziejewski, Johanna; Janovjak, Harald; Henneberger, Christian; Jackson, Colin J

    2015-09-01

    Biosensors for signaling molecules allow the study of physiological processes by bringing together the fields of protein engineering, fluorescence imaging, and cell biology. Construction of genetically encoded biosensors generally relies on the availability of a binding "core" that is both specific and stable, which can then be combined with fluorescent molecules to create a sensor. However, binding proteins with the desired properties are often not available in nature and substantial improvement to sensors can be required, particularly with regard to their durability. Ancestral protein reconstruction is a powerful protein-engineering tool able to generate highly stable and functional proteins. In this work, we sought to establish the utility of ancestral protein reconstruction to biosensor development, beginning with the construction of an l-arginine biosensor. l-arginine, as the immediate precursor to nitric oxide, is an important molecule in many physiological contexts including brain function. Using a combination of ancestral reconstruction and circular permutation, we constructed a Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) biosensor for l-arginine (cpFLIPR). cpFLIPR displays high sensitivity and specificity, with a Kd of ∼14 µM and a maximal dynamic range of 35%. Importantly, cpFLIPR was highly robust, enabling accurate l-arginine measurement at physiological temperatures. We established that cpFLIPR is compatible with two-photon excitation fluorescence microscopy and report l-arginine concentrations in brain tissue.

  1. Construction of a robust and sensitive arginine biosensor through ancestral protein reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Whitfield, Jason H; Zhang, William H; Herde, Michel K; Clifton, Ben E; Radziejewski, Johanna; Janovjak, Harald; Henneberger, Christian; Jackson, Colin J

    2015-01-01

    Biosensors for signaling molecules allow the study of physiological processes by bringing together the fields of protein engineering, fluorescence imaging, and cell biology. Construction of genetically encoded biosensors generally relies on the availability of a binding “core” that is both specific and stable, which can then be combined with fluorescent molecules to create a sensor. However, binding proteins with the desired properties are often not available in nature and substantial improvement to sensors can be required, particularly with regard to their durability. Ancestral protein reconstruction is a powerful protein-engineering tool able to generate highly stable and functional proteins. In this work, we sought to establish the utility of ancestral protein reconstruction to biosensor development, beginning with the construction of an l-arginine biosensor. l-arginine, as the immediate precursor to nitric oxide, is an important molecule in many physiological contexts including brain function. Using a combination of ancestral reconstruction and circular permutation, we constructed a Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) biosensor for l-arginine (cpFLIPR). cpFLIPR displays high sensitivity and specificity, with a Kd of ∼14 µM and a maximal dynamic range of 35%. Importantly, cpFLIPR was highly robust, enabling accurate l-arginine measurement at physiological temperatures. We established that cpFLIPR is compatible with two-photon excitation fluorescence microscopy and report l-arginine concentrations in brain tissue. PMID:26061224

  2. Structural basis of arginine asymmetrical dimethylation by PRMT6.

    PubMed

    Wu, Hong; Zheng, Weihong; Eram, Mohammad S; Vhuiyan, Mynol; Dong, Aiping; Zeng, Hong; He, Hao; Brown, Peter; Frankel, Adam; Vedadi, Masoud; Luo, Minkui; Min, Jinrong

    2016-10-01

    PRMT6 is a type I protein arginine methyltransferase, generating the asymmetric dimethylarginine mark on proteins such as histone H3R2. Asymmetric dimethylation of histone H3R2 by PRMT6 acts as a repressive mark that antagonizes trimethylation of H3 lysine 4 by the MLL histone H3K4 methyltransferase. PRMT6 is overexpressed in several cancer types, including prostate, bladder and lung cancers; therefore, it is of great interest to develop potent and selective inhibitors for PRMT6. Here, we report the synthesis of a potent bisubstrate inhibitor GMS [6'-methyleneamine sinefungin, an analog of sinefungin (SNF)], and the crystal structures of human PRMT6 in complex, respectively, with S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine (SAH) and the bisubstrate inhibitor GMS that shed light on the significantly improved inhibition effect of GMS on methylation activity of PRMT6 compared with SAH and an S-adenosyl-L-methionine competitive methyltransferase inhibitor SNF. In addition, we also crystallized PRMT6 in complex with SAH and a short arginine-containing peptide. Based on the structural information here and available in the PDB database, we proposed a mechanism that can rationalize the distinctive arginine methylation product specificity of different types of arginine methyltransferases and pinpoint the structural determinant of such a specificity. PMID:27480107

  3. Type II arginine methyltransferase PRMT5 regulates gene expression of inhibitors of differentiation/DNA binding Id2 and Id4 during glial cell differentiation.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jinghan; Vogel, Gillian; Yu, Zhenbao; Almazan, Guillermina; Richard, Stéphane

    2011-12-30

    PRMT5 is a type II protein arginine methyltranferase that catalyzes monomethylation and symmetric dimethylation of arginine residues. PRMT5 is functionally involved in a variety of biological processes including embryo development and circadian clock regulation. However, the role of PRMT5 in oligodendrocyte differentiation and central nervous system myelination is unknown. Here we show that PRMT5 expression gradually increases throughout postnatal brain development, coinciding with the period of active myelination. PRMT5 expression was observed in neurons, astrocytes, and oligodendrocytes. siRNA-mediated depletion of PRMT5 in mouse primary oligodendrocyte progenitor cells abrogated oligodendrocyte differentiation. In addition, the PRMT5-depleted oligodendrocyte progenitor and C6 glioma cells expressed high levels of the inhibitors of differentiation/DNA binding, Id2 and Id4, known repressors of glial cell differentiation. We observed that CpG-rich islands within the Id2 and Id4 genes were bound by PRMT5 and were hypomethylated in PRMT5-deficient cells, suggesting that PRMT5 plays a role in gene silencing during glial cell differentiation. Our findings define a role of PRMT5 in glial cell differentiation and link PRMT5 to epigenetic changes during oligodendrocyte differentiation. PMID:22041901

  4. Phosphorylation drives a dynamic switch in serine/arginine-rich proteins.

    PubMed

    Xiang, Shengqi; Gapsys, Vytautas; Kim, Hai-Young; Bessonov, Sergey; Hsiao, He-Hsuan; Möhlmann, Sina; Klaukien, Volker; Ficner, Ralf; Becker, Stefan; Urlaub, Henning; Lührmann, Reinhard; de Groot, Bert; Zweckstetter, Markus

    2013-12-01

    Serine/arginine-rich (SR) proteins are important players in RNA metabolism and are extensively phosphorylated at serine residues in RS repeats. Here, we show that phosphorylation switches the RS domain of the serine/arginine-rich splicing factor 1 from a fully disordered state to a partially rigidified arch-like structure. Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy in combination with molecular dynamics simulations revealed that the conformational switch is restricted to RS repeats, critically depends on the phosphate charge state and strongly decreases the conformational entropy of RS domains. The dynamic switch also occurs in the 100 kDa SR-related protein hPrp28, for which phosphorylation at the RS repeat is required for spliceosome assembly. Thus, a phosphorylation-induced dynamic switch is common to the class of serine/arginine-rich proteins and provides a molecular basis for the functional redundancy of serine/arginine-rich proteins and the profound influence of RS domain phosphorylation on protein-protein and protein-RNA interactions. PMID:24183573

  5. Glucose autoxidation induces functional damage to proteins via modification of critical arginine residues.

    PubMed

    Chetyrkin, Sergei; Mathis, Missy; Pedchenko, Vadim; Sanchez, Otto A; McDonald, W Hayes; Hachey, David L; Madu, Hartman; Stec, Donald; Hudson, Billy; Voziyan, Paul

    2011-07-12

    Nonenzymatic modification of proteins in hyperglycemia is a major mechanism causing diabetic complications. These modifications can have pathogenic consequences when they target active site residues, thus affecting protein function. In the present study, we examined the role of glucose autoxidation in functional protein damage using lysozyme and RGD-α3NC1 domain of collagen IV as model proteins in vitro. We demonstrated that glucose autoxidation induced inhibition of lysozyme activity as well as NC1 domain binding to α(V)β(3) integrin receptor via modification of critical arginine residues by reactive carbonyl species (RCS) glyoxal (GO) and methylglyoxal while nonoxidative glucose adduction to the protein did not affect protein function. The role of RCS in protein damage was confirmed using pyridoxamine which blocked glucose autoxidation and RCS production, thus protecting protein function, even in the presence of high concentrations of glucose. Glucose autoxidation may cause protein damage in vivo since increased levels of GO-derived modifications of arginine residues were detected within the assembly interface of collagen IV NC1 domains isolated from renal ECM of diabetic rats. Since arginine residues are frequently present within protein active sites, glucose autoxidation may be a common mechanism contributing to ECM protein functional damage in hyperglycemia and oxidative environment. Our data also point out the pitfalls in functional studies, particularly in cell culture experiments, that involve glucose treatment but do not take into account toxic effects of RCS derived from glucose autoxidation.

  6. Glucose Autoxidation Induces Functional Damage to Proteins via Modification of Critical Arginine Residues†

    PubMed Central

    Chetyrkin, Sergei; Mathis, Missy; Pedchenko, Vadim; Sanchez, Otto A.; McDonald, W. Hayes; Hachey, David L.; Madu, Hartman; Stec, Donald; Hudson, Billy; Voziyan, Paul

    2011-01-01

    Non-enzymatic modification of proteins in hyperglycemia is a major mechanism causing diabetic complications. These modifications can have pathogenic consequences when they target active site residues, thus affecting protein function. In the present study, we examined the role of glucose autoxidation in functional protein damage using lysozyme and RGD-α3NC1 domain of collagen IV as model proteins in vitro. We demonstrated that glucose autoxidation induced inhibition of lysozyme activity as well as NC1 domain binding to αVβ3 integrin receptor via modification of critical arginine residues by reactive carbonyl species (RCS) glyoxal (GO) and methylglyoxal while non-oxidative glucose adduction to the protein did not affect protein function. The role of RCS in protein damage was confirmed using pyridoxamine which blocked glucose autoxidation and RCS production, thus protecting protein function, even in the presence of high concentrations of glucose. Glucose autoxidation may cause protein damage in vivo since increased levels of GO-derived modifications of arginine residues were detected within the assembly interface of collagen IV NC1 domains isolated from renal ECM of diabetic rats. Since arginine residues are frequently present within protein active sites, glucose autoxidation may be a common mechanism contributing to ECM protein functional damage in hyperglycemia and oxidative environment. Our data also point out the pitfalls in functional studies, particularly in cell culture experiments, that involve glucose treatment but do not take into account toxic effects of RCS derived from glucose autoxidation. PMID:21661747

  7. Histone lysine methyltransferases as anti-cancer targets for drug discovery

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Qing; Wang, Ming-wei

    2016-01-01

    Post-translational epigenetic modification of histones is controlled by a number of histone-modifying enzymes. Such modification regulates the accessibility of DNA and the subsequent expression or silencing of a gene. Human histone methyltransferases (HMTs)constitute a large family that includes histone lysine methyltransferases (HKMTs) and histone/protein arginine methyltransferases (PRMTs). There is increasing evidence showing a correlation between HKMTs and cancer pathogenesis. Here, we present an overview of representative HKMTs, including their biological and biochemical properties as well as the profiles of small molecule inhibitors for a comprehensive understanding of HKMTs in drug discovery. PMID:27397541

  8. Identification and Characterization of a Novel Human Methyltransferase Modulating Hsp70 Protein Function through Lysine Methylation*

    PubMed Central

    Jakobsson, Magnus E.; Moen, Anders; Bousset, Luc; Egge-Jacobsen, Wolfgang; Kernstock, Stefan; Melki, Ronald; Falnes, Pål Ø.

    2013-01-01

    Hsp70 proteins constitute an evolutionarily conserved protein family of ATP-dependent molecular chaperones involved in a wide range of biological processes. Mammalian Hsp70 proteins are subject to various post-translational modifications, including methylation, but for most of these, a functional role has not been attributed. In this study, we identified the methyltransferase METTL21A as the enzyme responsible for trimethylation of a conserved lysine residue found in several human Hsp70 (HSPA) proteins. This enzyme, denoted by us as HSPA lysine (K) methyltransferase (HSPA-KMT), was found to catalyze trimethylation of various Hsp70 family members both in vitro and in vivo, and the reaction was stimulated by ATP. Furthermore, we show that HSPA-KMT exclusively methylates 70-kDa proteins in mammalian protein extracts, demonstrating that it is a highly specific enzyme. Finally, we show that trimethylation of HSPA8 (Hsc70) has functional consequences, as it alters the affinity of the chaperone for both the monomeric and fibrillar forms of the Parkinson disease-associated protein α-synuclein. PMID:23921388

  9. Shrimp arginine kinase being a binding protein of WSSV envelope protein VP31

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Cuiyan; Gao, Qiang; Liang, Yan; Li, Chen; Liu, Chao; Huang, Jie

    2016-11-01

    Viral entry into the host is the earliest stage of infection in the viral life cycle in which attachment proteins play a key role. VP31 (WSV340/WSSV396), an envelope protein of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV), contains an Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) peptide domain known as a cellular attachment site. At present, the process of VP31 interacting with shrimp host cells has not been explored. Therefore, the VP31 gene was cloned into pET30a (+), expressed in Escherichia coli strain BL21 and purified with immobilized metal ion affinity chromatography. Four gill cellular proteins of shrimp ( Fenneropenaeus chinensis) were pulled down by an affinity column coupled with recombinant VP31 (rVP31), and the amino acid sequences were identified with MALDI-TOF/TOF mass spectrometry. Hemocyanin, beta-actin, arginine kinase (AK), and an unknown protein were suggested as the putative VP31 receptor proteins. SDS-PAGE showed that AK is the predominant binding protein of VP31. An i n vitro binding activity experiment indicated that recombinant AK's (rAK) binding activity with rVP31 is comparable to that with the same amount of WSSV. These results suggested that AK, as a member of the phosphagen kinase family, plays a role in WSSV infection. This is the first evidence showing that AK is a binding protein of VP31. Further studies on this topic will elucidate WSSV infection mechanism in the future.

  10. Shrimp arginine kinase being a binding protein of WSSV envelope protein VP31

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Cuiyan; Gao, Qiang; Liang, Yan; Li, Chen; Liu, Chao; Huang, Jie

    2016-03-01

    Viral entry into the host is the earliest stage of infection in the viral life cycle in which attachment proteins play a key role. VP31 (WSV340/WSSV396), an envelope protein of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV), contains an Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) peptide domain known as a cellular attachment site. At present, the process of VP31 interacting with shrimp host cells has not been explored. Therefore, the VP31 gene was cloned into pET30a (+), expressed in Escherichia coli strain BL21 and purified with immobilized metal ion affinity chromatography. Four gill cellular proteins of shrimp (Fenneropenaeus chinensis) were pulled down by an affinity column coupled with recombinant VP31 (rVP31), and the amino acid sequences were identified with MALDI-TOF/TOF mass spectrometry. Hemocyanin, beta-actin, arginine kinase (AK), and an unknown protein were suggested as the putative VP31 receptor proteins. SDS-PAGE showed that AK is the predominant binding protein of VP31. An i n vitro binding activity experiment indicated that recombinant AK's (rAK) binding activity with rVP31 is comparable to that with the same amount of WSSV. These results suggested that AK, as a member of the phosphagen kinase family, plays a role in WSSV infection. This is the first evidence showing that AK is a binding protein of VP31. Further studies on this topic will elucidate WSSV infection mechanism in the future.

  11. Polypeptide substrate specificity of PsLSMT. A set domain protein methyltransferase.

    PubMed

    Magnani, Roberta; Nayak, Nihar R; Mazarei, Mitra; Dirk, Lynnette M A; Houtz, Robert L

    2007-09-21

    Rubisco large subunit methyltransferase (PsLSMT) is a SET domain protein responsible for the trimethylation of Lys-14 in the large subunit of Rubisco. The polypeptide substrate specificity determinants for pea Rubisco large subunit methyltransferase were investigated using a fusion protein construct between the first 23 amino acids from the large subunit of Rubisco and human carbonic anhydrase II. A total of 40 conservative and non-conservative amino acid substitutions flanking the target Lys-14 methylation site (positions P(-3) to P(+3)) were engineered in the fusion protein. The catalytic efficiency (k(cat)/K(m)) of PsLSMT was determined using each of the substitutions and a polypeptide consensus recognition sequence deduced from the results. The consensus sequence, represented by X-(Gly/Ser)-(Phe/Tyr)-Lys-(Ala/Lys/Arg)-(Gly/Ser)-pi, where X is any residue, Lys is the methylation site, and pi is any aromatic or hydrophobic residue, was used to predict potential alternative substrates for PsLSMT. Four chloroplast-localized proteins were identified including gamma-tocopherol methyltransferase (gamma-TMT). In vitro methylation assays using PsLSMT and a bacterially expressed form of gamma-TMT from Perilla frutescens confirmed recognition and methylation of gamma-TMT by PsLSMT in vitro. RNA interference-mediated knockdown of the PsLSMT homologue (NtLSMT) in transgenic tobacco plants resulted in a 2-fold decrease of alpha-tocopherol, the product of gamma-TMT. The results demonstrate the efficacy of consensus sequence-driven identification of alternative substrates for PsLSMT as well as identification of functional attributes of protein methylation catalyzed by LSMT.

  12. Novel Function of Lysine Methyltransferase G9a in the Regulation of Sox2 Protein Stability

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jae-Young; Lee, Se-Hwan; Heo, Sun-Hee; Kim, Kwang-Soo; Kim, Changhoon; Kim, Dae-Kwan; Ko, Jeong-Jae; Park, Kyung-Soon

    2015-01-01

    G9a is a lysine methyltransferase (KMTase) for histone H3 lysine 9 that plays critical roles in a number of biological processes. Emerging evidence suggests that aberrant expression of G9a contributes to tumor metastasis and maintenance of a malignant phenotype in cancer by inducing epigenetic silencing of tumor suppressor genes. Here, we show that G9a regulates Sox2 protein stability in breast cancer cells. When G9a lysine methyltransferase activity was chemically inhibited in the ER(+) breast cancer cell line MCF7, Sox2 protein levels were decreased. In addition, ectopic overexpression of G9a induced accumulation of Sox2. Changes in cell migration, invasion, and mammosphere formation by MCF7 cells were correlated with the activity or expression level of G9a. Ectopic expression of G9a also increased Sox2 protein levels in another ER(+) breast cancer cell line, ZR-75-1, whereas it did not affect Sox2 expression in MDA-MB-231 cells, an ER(-) breast cancer cell line, or in glioblastoma cell lines. Furthermore, treatment of mouse embryonic stem cells with a KMT inhibitor, BIX-01294, resulted in a rapid reduction in Sox2 protein expression despite increased Sox2 transcript levels. This finding suggests that G9a has a novel function in the regulation of Sox2 protein stability in a cell type-dependent manner. PMID:26492085

  13. A plant viral coat protein RNA binding consensus sequence contains a crucial arginine.

    PubMed Central

    Ansel-McKinney, P; Scott, S W; Swanson, M; Ge, X; Gehrke, L

    1996-01-01

    A defining feature of alfalfa mosaic virus (AMV) and ilarviruses [type virus: tobacco streak virus (TSV)] is that, in addition to genomic RNAs, viral coat protein is required to establish infection in plants. AMV and TSV coat proteins, which share little primary amino acid sequence identity, are functionally interchangeable in RNA binding and initiation of infection. The lysine-rich amino-terminal RNA binding domain of the AMV coat protein lacks previously identified RNA binding motifs. Here, the AMV coat protein RNA binding domain is shown to contain a single arginine whose specific side chain and position are crucial for RNA binding. In addition, the putative RNA binding domain of two ilarvirus coat proteins, TSV and citrus variegation virus, is identified and also shown to contain a crucial arginine. AMV and ilarvirus coat protein sequence alignment centering on the key arginine revealed a new RNA binding consensus sequence. This consensus may explain in part why heterologous viral RNA-coat protein mixtures are infectious. Images PMID:8890181

  14. Enveloped virus inactivation using neutral arginine solutions and applications in therapeutic protein purification processes.

    PubMed

    McCue, Justin T; Selvitelli, Keith; Cecchini, Doug; Brown, Rhonda

    2014-01-01

    For the manufacturing of recombinant protein therapeutics produced from mammalian cell culture, demonstrating the capacity of the purification process to effectively clear infectious viruses is a regulatory requirement. At least two process steps, using different mechanisms of virus removal and/or inactivation, should be validated in support of the regulatory approval process. For example, exposure of the product stream to low pH, detergents or solvent/detergent combinations is commonly incorporated in protein purification processes for the inactivation of lipid-enveloped viruses. However, some proteins have limited stability at low pH or in the presence of the detergents, and alternative techniques for achieving the inactivation of enveloped viruses would be beneficial. We present here an alternative and novel approach for the rapid inactivation of enveloped viruses using pH-neutral buffer solutions containing arginine. The implementation of this approach in a monoclonal antibody or Fc-fusion protein purification process is described and illustrated with several different therapeutic proteins. The use of the neutral pH arginine solution was able to effectively inactivate two enveloped model viruses, with no measurable effect on the product quality of the investigated proteins. Thus, the use of pH-neutral arginine containing buffer solutions provides an alternative means of virus inactivation where other forms of virus inactivation, such as low pH and/or solvent/detergent treatments are not possible or undesirable due to protein stability limitations.

  15. Arginine-rich intracellular delivery peptides noncovalently transport protein into living cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ya-Hui; Chen, Chung-Pin; Chan, Ming-Huan; Chang, Microsugar; Hou, Yu-Wun; Chen, Hwei-Hsien; Hsu, Hui-Ru; Liu, Kevin; Lee, Han-Jung

    2006-08-01

    Plasma membranes of plant or animal cells are generally impermeable to peptides or proteins. Many basic peptides have previously been investigated and covalently cross-linked with cargoes for cellular internalization. In the current study, we demonstrate that arginine-rich intracellular delivery (AID) peptides are able to deliver fluorescent proteins or beta-galactosidase enzyme into animal and plant cells, as well as animal tissue. Cellular internalization and transdermal delivery of protein could be mediated by effective and nontoxic AID peptides in a neither fusion protein nor conjugation fashion. Therefore, noncovalent AID peptides may provide a useful strategy to have active proteins function in living cells and tissues in vivo.

  16. Arginine-rich intracellular delivery peptides noncovalently transport protein into living cells

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Y.-H.; Chen, C.-P.; Chan, M.-H.; Chang, M.; Hou, Y.-W.; Chen, H.-H.; Hsu, H.-R.; Liu, Kevin; Lee, H.-J. . E-mail: hjlee@mail.ndhu.edu.tw

    2006-08-04

    Plasma membranes of plant or animal cells are generally impermeable to peptides or proteins. Many basic peptides have previously been investigated and covalently cross-linked with cargoes for cellular internalization. In the current study, we demonstrate that arginine-rich intracellular delivery (AID) peptides are able to deliver fluorescent proteins or {beta}-galactosidase enzyme into animal and plant cells, as well as animal tissue. Cellular internalization and transdermal delivery of protein could be mediated by effective and nontoxic AID peptides in a neither fusion protein nor conjugation fashion. Therefore, noncovalent AID peptides may provide a useful strategy to have active proteins function in living cells and tissues in vivo.

  17. Substrate Specificity of the HEMK2 Protein Glutamine Methyltransferase and Identification of Novel Substrates.

    PubMed

    Kusevic, Denis; Kudithipudi, Srikanth; Jeltsch, Albert

    2016-03-18

    Bacterial HEMK2 homologs initially had been proposed to be involved in heme biogenesis or to function as adenine DNA methyltransferase. Later it was shown that this family of enzymes has protein glutamine methyltransferase activity, and they methylate the glutamine residue in the GGQ motif of ribosomal translation termination factors. The murine HEMK2 enzyme methylates Gln(185) of the eukaryotic translation termination factor eRF1. We have employed peptide array libraries to investigate the peptide sequence recognition specificity of murine HEMK2. Our data show that HEMK2 requires a GQX3R motif for methylation activity. In addition, amino acid preferences were observed between the -3 and +7 positions of the peptide substrate (considering the target glutamine as 0), including a preference for Ser, Arg, and Gly at the +1 and a preference for Arg at the +7 position. Based on our specificity profile, we identified several human proteins that contain putative HEMK2 methylation sites and show that HEMK2 methylates 58 novel peptide substrates. After cloning, expression, and purification of the corresponding protein domains, we confirmed methylation for 11 of them at the protein level. Transfected CHD5 (chromodomain helicase DNA-binding protein 5) and NUT (nuclear protein in testis) were also demonstrated to be methylated by HEMK2 in human HEK293 cells. Our data expand the range of proteins potentially subjected to glutamine methylation significantly, but further investigation will be required to understand the function of HEMK2-mediated methylation in proteins other than eRF1. PMID:26797129

  18. The putative protein methyltransferase LAE1 controls cellulase gene expression in Trichoderma reesei.

    PubMed

    Seiboth, Bernhard; Karimi, Razieh Aghcheh; Phatale, Pallavi A; Linke, Rita; Hartl, Lukas; Sauer, Dominik G; Smith, Kristina M; Baker, Scott E; Freitag, Michael; Kubicek, Christian P

    2012-06-01

    Trichoderma reesei is an industrial producer of enzymes that degrade lignocellulosic polysaccharides to soluble monomers, which can be fermented to biofuels. Here we show that the expression of genes for lignocellulose degradation are controlled by the orthologous T. reesei protein methyltransferase LAE1. In a lae1 deletion mutant we observed a complete loss of expression of all seven cellulases, auxiliary factors for cellulose degradation, β-glucosidases and xylanases were no longer expressed. Conversely, enhanced expression of lae1 resulted in significantly increased cellulase gene transcription. Lae1-modulated cellulase gene expression was dependent on the function of the general cellulase regulator XYR1, but also xyr1 expression was LAE1-dependent. LAE1 was also essential for conidiation of T. reesei. Chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by high-throughput sequencing ('ChIP-seq') showed that lae1 expression was not obviously correlated with H3K4 di- or trimethylation (indicative of active transcription) or H3K9 trimethylation (typical for heterochromatin regions) in CAZyme coding regions, suggesting that LAE1 does not affect CAZyme gene expression by directly modulating H3K4 or H3K9 methylation. Our data demonstrate that the putative protein methyltransferase LAE1 is essential for cellulase gene expression in T. reesei through mechanisms that remain to be identified.

  19. Synthesis of Lysine Methyltransferase Inhibitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Tao; Hui, Chunngai

    2015-07-01

    Lysine methyltransferase which catalyze methylation of histone and nonhistone proteins, play a crucial role in diverse biological processes and has emerged as a promising target for the development of various human diseases, including cancer, inflammation, and psychiatric disorders. However, inhibiting Lysine methyltransferases selectively has presented many challenges to medicinal chemists. During the past decade, lysine methyltransferase inhibitors covering many different structural classes have been designed and developed. In this review, we describe the development of selective, small-molecule inhibitors of lysine methyltransferases with an emphasis on their discovery and chemical synthesis. We highlight the current state of lysine methyltransferase inhibitors and discuss future directions and opportunities for lysine methyltransferase inhibitor discovery.

  20. Strategy to target the substrate binding site of SET domain protein methyltransferases.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Kong T; Li, Fengling; Poda, Gennadiy; Smil, David; Vedadi, Masoud; Schapira, Matthieu

    2013-03-25

    Protein methyltransferases (PMTs) are a novel gene family of therapeutic relevance involved in chromatin-mediated signaling and other biological mechanisms. Most PMTs are organized around the structurally conserved SET domain that catalyzes the methylation of a substrate lysine. A few potent chemical inhibitors compete with the protein substrate, and all are anchored in the channel recruiting the methyl-accepting lysine. We propose a novel strategy to design focused chemical libraries targeting the substrate binding site, where a limited number of warheads each occupying the lysine-channel of multiple enzymes would be decorated by different substituents. A variety of sequence and structure-based approaches used to analyze the diversity of the lysine channel of SET domain PMTs support the relevance of this strategy. We show that chemical fragments derived from published inhibitors are valid warheads that can be used in the design of novel focused libraries targeting other PMTs.

  1. Arginine, a key residue for the enhancing ability of an antifreeze protein of the beetle Dendroides canadensis†

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Sen; Amornwittawat, Natapol; Juwita, Vonny; Kao, Yu; Duman, John G.; Pascal, Tod A.; Goddard, William A.; Wen, Xin

    2009-01-01

    Antifreeze proteins (AFPs) can produce a difference between the nonequilibrium freezing point and the melting point is termed thermal hysteresis (TH). The TH activity of an antifreeze protein (AFP) depends on the specific AFP, its concentration as well as the presence of co-solutes including low-molecular-mass solutes and/or proteins. We recently identified series of carboxylates and polyols as efficient enhancers for an AFP from the beetle Dendroides canadensis. In this study, we chemically modified DAFP-1 using the arginine-specific reagent 1,2-cyclohexanedione. We demonstrated that 1,2-cyclohexanedione specifically modifies one arginine residue and the modified DAFP-1 loses its enhancing ability completely or partially in the presence of previously identified enhancers. The stronger the enhancement ability of the enhancer on the native DAFP-1, the stronger the enhancement effect of the enhancer has on the modified DAFP-1. The weaker enhancers (e.g., glycerol) completely lose their enhancement effect on the modified DAFP-1 due to their inability to compete with 1,2-cyclohexanedione for the arginine residue. Regeneration of the arginine residue using hydroxylamine fully restored the enhancing ability of DAFP-1. These studies indicated that an arginine residue is critical for the enhancing ability of DAFP-1 and the guanidinium group of the arginine residue is important for its interaction with the enhancers, where the general mechanism of arginine-ligand interaction is borne. This work may initiate a complete mechanistic study of the enhancement effect in AFPs. PMID:19746966

  2. Structural origins for the product specificity of SET domain protein methyltransferases.

    SciTech Connect

    Couture, Jean-Francois; Dirk, Lynnette M.A.; Brunzelle, Joseph S.; Houtz, Robert L.; Trievel, Raymond C.

    2009-02-19

    SET domain protein lysine methyltransferases (PKMTs) regulate transcription and other cellular functions through site-specific methylation of histones and other substrates. PKMTs catalyze the formation of monomethylated, dimethylated, or trimethylated products, establishing an additional hierarchy with respect to methyllysine recognition in signaling. Biochemical studies of PKMTs have identified a conserved position within their active sites, the Phe/Tyr switch, that governs their respective product specificities. To elucidate the mechanism underlying this switch, we have characterized a Phe/Tyr switch mutant of the histone H4 Lys-20 (H4K20) methyltransferase SET8, which alters its specificity from a monomethyltransferase to a dimethyltransferase. The crystal structures of the SET8 Y334F mutant bound to histone H4 peptides bearing unmodified, monomethyl, and dimethyl Lys-20 reveal that the phenylalanine substitution attenuates hydrogen bonding to a structurally conserved water molecule adjacent to the Phe/Tyr switch, facilitating its dissociation. The additional space generated by the solvent's dissociation enables the monomethyllysyl side chain to adopt a conformation that is catalytically competent for dimethylation and furnishes sufficient volume to accommodate the dimethyl {epsilon}-ammonium product. Collectively, these results indicate that the Phe/Tyr switch regulates product specificity through altering the affinity of an active-site water molecule whose dissociation is required for lysine multiple methylation.

  3. Sequence-specific labeling of nucleic acids and proteins with methyltransferases and cofactor analogues.

    PubMed

    Hanz, Gisela Maria; Jung, Britta; Giesbertz, Anna; Juhasz, Matyas; Weinhold, Elmar

    2014-11-22

    S-Adenosyl-l-methionine (AdoMet or SAM)-dependent methyltransferases (MTase) catalyze the transfer of the activated methyl group from AdoMet to specific positions in DNA, RNA, proteins and small biomolecules. This natural methylation reaction can be expanded to a wide variety of alkylation reactions using synthetic cofactor analogues. Replacement of the reactive sulfonium center of AdoMet with an aziridine ring leads to cofactors which can be coupled with DNA by various DNA MTases. These aziridine cofactors can be equipped with reporter groups at different positions of the adenine moiety and used for Sequence-specific Methyltransferase-Induced Labeling of DNA (SMILing DNA). As a typical example we give a protocol for biotinylation of pBR322 plasmid DNA at the 5'-ATCGAT-3' sequence with the DNA MTase M.BseCI and the aziridine cofactor 6BAz in one step. Extension of the activated methyl group with unsaturated alkyl groups results in another class of AdoMet analogues which are used for methyltransferase-directed Transfer of Activated Groups (mTAG). Since the extended side chains are activated by the sulfonium center and the unsaturated bond, these cofactors are called double-activated AdoMet analogues. These analogues not only function as cofactors for DNA MTases, like the aziridine cofactors, but also for RNA, protein and small molecule MTases. They are typically used for enzymatic modification of MTase substrates with unique functional groups which are labeled with reporter groups in a second chemical step. This is exemplified in a protocol for fluorescence labeling of histone H3 protein. A small propargyl group is transferred from the cofactor analogue SeAdoYn to the protein by the histone H3 lysine 4 (H3K4) MTase Set7/9 followed by click labeling of the alkynylated histone H3 with TAMRA azide. MTase-mediated labeling with cofactor analogues is an enabling technology for many exciting applications including identification and functional study of MTase substrates as

  4. Comparison of the Effects of Ornithine and Arginine on the Brain Protein Synthesis Rate in Young Rats.

    PubMed

    Suzumura, Shoko; Tujioka, Kazuyo; Yamada, Takashi; Yokogoshi, Hidehiko; Akiduki, Saori; Hishida, Yukihiro; Tsutsui, Kazumi; Hayase, Kazutoshi

    2015-01-01

    Brain protein synthesis and the plasma concentration of growth hormone (GH) are sensitive to dietary ornithine. The purpose of this study was to determine whether dietary arginine, the metabolite of ornithine, affects the brain protein synthesis, and to that end, the effects of arginine on brain protein synthesis were compared with that of ornithine treatment in young rats. Two experiments were done on five or three groups of young rats (5-wk-old) given 0%, 0.25%, 0.5%, 0.7% arginine or 0.7% ornithine-HCl added to a 20% casein diet for 1 d (only one 3 h period) (Experiment 1), or given a diet containing 0% or 0.7% ornithine-HCl or 0.7% arginine added to a 20% casein diet (Experiment 2). The concentrations of plasma growth hormone (GH) and fractional rates of protein synthesis in the brains increased significantly with the 20% casein+0.7% arginine diet and still more with the 20% casein+0.7% ornithine diet compared with the 20% casein diet alone. In the cerebral cortex and cerebellum, the RNA activity [g protein synthesized/(g RNA•d)] significantly correlated with the fractional rate of protein synthesis. The RNA concentration (mg RNA/g protein) was also related to the fractional rate of protein synthesis in these organs. The results suggest that the treatment with arginine is likely to increase the concentrations of GH and the rate of brain protein synthesis in rats, and that the effects of arginine on brain protein synthesis and GH concentration were lower than that of ornithine. The RNA activity is at least partly related to the fractional rate of brain protein synthesis.

  5. Cellular Activity of New Small Molecule Protein Arginine Deiminase 3 (PAD3) Inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Jamali, Haya; Khan, Hasan A; Tjin, Caroline C; Ellman, Jonathan A

    2016-09-01

    The protein arginine deiminases (PADs) catalyze the post-translational deimination of arginine side chains. Multiple PAD isozymes have been characterized, and abnormal PAD activity has been associated with several human disease states. PAD3 has been characterized as a modulator of cell growth via apoptosis inducing factor and has been implicated in the neurodegenerative response to spinal cord injury. Here, we describe the design, synthesis, and evaluation of conformationally constrained versions of the potent and selective PAD3 inhibitor 2. The cell activity of representative inhibitors in this series was also demonstrated for the first time by rescue of thapsigargin-induced cell death in PAD3-expressing HEK293T cells. PMID:27660689

  6. Periplasmic Binding Proteins in Thermophiles: Characterization and Potential Application of an Arginine-Binding Protein from Thermotoga maritima: A Brief Thermo-Story.

    PubMed

    Ausili, Alessio; Staiano, Maria; Dattelbaum, Jonathan; Varriale, Antonio; Capo, Alessandro; D'Auria, Sabato

    2013-01-01

    Arginine-binding protein from the extremophile Thermotoga maritima is a 27.7 kDa protein possessing the typical two-domain structure of the periplasmic binding proteins family. The protein is characterized by a very high specificity and affinity to bind to arginine, also at high temperatures. Due to its features, this protein could be taken into account as a potential candidate for the design of a biosensor for arginine. It is important to investigate the stability of proteins when they are used for biotechnological applications. In this article, we review the structural and functional features of an arginine-binding protein from the extremophile Thermotoga maritima with a particular eye on its potential biotechnological applications. PMID:25371336

  7. Mannitol/l-Arginine-Based Formulation Systems for Freeze Drying of Protein Pharmaceuticals: Effect of the l-Arginine Counter Ion and Formulation Composition on the Formulation Properties and the Physical State of Mannitol.

    PubMed

    Stärtzel, Peter; Gieseler, Henning; Gieseler, Margit; Abdul-Fattah, Ahmad M; Adler, Michael; Mahler, Hanns-Christian; Goldbach, Pierre

    2016-10-01

    Previous studies have shown that protein storage stability in freeze-dried l-arginine-based systems improved in the presence of chloride ions. However, chloride ions reduced the glass transition temperature of the freeze concentrate (Tg') and made freeze drying more challenging. In this study, l-arginine was freeze dried with mannitol to obtain partially crystalline solids that can be freeze dried in a fast process and result in elegant cakes. We characterized the effect of different l-arginine counter ions on physicochemical properties of mannitol compared with mannitol/sucrose systems. Thermal properties of formulations with different compositions were correlated to thermal history during freeze drying and to physicochemical properties (cake appearance, residual moisture, reconstitution time, crystallinity). Partially crystalline solids were obtained even at the highest l-arginine level (mannitol:l-arginine of 2:1) used in this study. All l-arginine-containing formulations yielded elegant cakes. Only cakes containing l-arginine chloride and succinate showed a surface "crust" formed by phase separation. X-ray powder diffraction showed that inhibition of mannitol crystallization was stronger for l-arginine compared with sucrose and varied with the type of l-arginine counter ion. The counter ion affected mannitol polymorphism and higher levels of mannitol hemi-hydrate were obtained at high levels of l-arginine chloride.

  8. Mannitol/l-Arginine-Based Formulation Systems for Freeze Drying of Protein Pharmaceuticals: Effect of the l-Arginine Counter Ion and Formulation Composition on the Formulation Properties and the Physical State of Mannitol.

    PubMed

    Stärtzel, Peter; Gieseler, Henning; Gieseler, Margit; Abdul-Fattah, Ahmad M; Adler, Michael; Mahler, Hanns-Christian; Goldbach, Pierre

    2016-10-01

    Previous studies have shown that protein storage stability in freeze-dried l-arginine-based systems improved in the presence of chloride ions. However, chloride ions reduced the glass transition temperature of the freeze concentrate (Tg') and made freeze drying more challenging. In this study, l-arginine was freeze dried with mannitol to obtain partially crystalline solids that can be freeze dried in a fast process and result in elegant cakes. We characterized the effect of different l-arginine counter ions on physicochemical properties of mannitol compared with mannitol/sucrose systems. Thermal properties of formulations with different compositions were correlated to thermal history during freeze drying and to physicochemical properties (cake appearance, residual moisture, reconstitution time, crystallinity). Partially crystalline solids were obtained even at the highest l-arginine level (mannitol:l-arginine of 2:1) used in this study. All l-arginine-containing formulations yielded elegant cakes. Only cakes containing l-arginine chloride and succinate showed a surface "crust" formed by phase separation. X-ray powder diffraction showed that inhibition of mannitol crystallization was stronger for l-arginine compared with sucrose and varied with the type of l-arginine counter ion. The counter ion affected mannitol polymorphism and higher levels of mannitol hemi-hydrate were obtained at high levels of l-arginine chloride. PMID:27506270

  9. Structure of the TatC core of the twin-arginine protein transport system.

    PubMed

    Rollauer, Sarah E; Tarry, Michael J; Graham, James E; Jääskeläinen, Mari; Jäger, Franziska; Johnson, Steven; Krehenbrink, Martin; Liu, Sai-Man; Lukey, Michael J; Marcoux, Julien; McDowell, Melanie A; Rodriguez, Fernanda; Roversi, Pietro; Stansfeld, Phillip J; Robinson, Carol V; Sansom, Mark S P; Palmer, Tracy; Högbom, Martin; Berks, Ben C; Lea, Susan M

    2012-12-13

    The twin-arginine translocation (Tat) pathway is one of two general protein transport systems found in the prokaryotic cytoplasmic membrane and is conserved in the thylakoid membrane of plant chloroplasts. The defining, and highly unusual, property of the Tat pathway is that it transports folded proteins, a task that must be achieved without allowing appreciable ion leakage across the membrane. The integral membrane TatC protein is the central component of the Tat pathway. TatC captures substrate proteins by binding their signal peptides. TatC then recruits TatA family proteins to form the active translocation complex. Here we report the crystal structure of TatC from the hyperthermophilic bacterium Aquifex aeolicus. This structure provides a molecular description of the core of the Tat translocation system and a framework for understanding the unique Tat transport mechanism.

  10. Endothelial transcriptome in response to pharmacological methyltransferase inhibition.

    PubMed

    Okabe, Jun; Fernandez, Ana Z; Ziemann, Mark; Keating, Samuel T; Balcerczyk, Aneta; El-Osta, Assam

    2014-08-01

    The enzymatic activities of protein methyltransferases serve to write covalent modifications on histone and non-histone proteins in the control of gene transcription. Here, we describe gene expression changes in human endothelial cells caused by treatment with methyltransferase inhibitors 7,7'-carbonylbis (azanediyl) bis(4-hydroxynaphthalene-2 -sulfonic acid (AMI-1) and disodium-2-(2,4,5,7- tetrabromo-3-oxido-6-oxoxanthen-9-yl) benzoate trihydrate (AMI-5). Deep sequencing of mRNA indicated robust change on transcription following AMI-5 treatment compared with AMI-1. Functional annotation analysis revealed that both compounds suppress the expression of genes associated with translational regulation, suggesting arginine methylation by protein arginine methyltransferases (PRMTs) could be associated with regulation of this pathway. Interestingly, AMI-5 but not AMI-1 was found to decrease methylation of H3 histones at lysine 4 and down-regulate gene expression associated with interleukin-6 (IL-6) and activator protein-1 (AP-1) signaling pathways. These results imply that inhibition of protein methylation by AMI-1 and AMI-5 can differentially regulate specific pathways with potential to interrupt pathological signaling in the vascular endothelium. PMID:24850797

  11. Endothelial transcriptome in response to pharmacological methyltransferase inhibition.

    PubMed

    Okabe, Jun; Fernandez, Ana Z; Ziemann, Mark; Keating, Samuel T; Balcerczyk, Aneta; El-Osta, Assam

    2014-08-01

    The enzymatic activities of protein methyltransferases serve to write covalent modifications on histone and non-histone proteins in the control of gene transcription. Here, we describe gene expression changes in human endothelial cells caused by treatment with methyltransferase inhibitors 7,7'-carbonylbis (azanediyl) bis(4-hydroxynaphthalene-2 -sulfonic acid (AMI-1) and disodium-2-(2,4,5,7- tetrabromo-3-oxido-6-oxoxanthen-9-yl) benzoate trihydrate (AMI-5). Deep sequencing of mRNA indicated robust change on transcription following AMI-5 treatment compared with AMI-1. Functional annotation analysis revealed that both compounds suppress the expression of genes associated with translational regulation, suggesting arginine methylation by protein arginine methyltransferases (PRMTs) could be associated with regulation of this pathway. Interestingly, AMI-5 but not AMI-1 was found to decrease methylation of H3 histones at lysine 4 and down-regulate gene expression associated with interleukin-6 (IL-6) and activator protein-1 (AP-1) signaling pathways. These results imply that inhibition of protein methylation by AMI-1 and AMI-5 can differentially regulate specific pathways with potential to interrupt pathological signaling in the vascular endothelium.

  12. Freeze-Drying of L-Arginine/Sucrose-Based Protein Formulations, Part 2: Optimization of Formulation Design and Freeze-Drying Process Conditions for an L-Arginine Chloride-Based Protein Formulation System.

    PubMed

    Stärtzel, Peter; Gieseler, Henning; Gieseler, Margit; Abdul-Fattah, Ahmad M; Adler, Michael; Mahler, Hanns-Christian; Goldbach, Pierre

    2015-12-01

    We recently reported that the presence of chloride counter ions in freeze-dried l-arginine/sucrose formulations provided the greatest protein stability, but led to low collapse temperatures and glass transition temperatures of the freeze concentrates. The objectives of this study were to identify l-arginine chloride-based formulations and optimize freeze-drying process conditions to deliver a freeze-dried product with good physical quality attributes (including cake appearance, residual moisture, and reconstitution time). Additional properties were tested such as thermal properties, cake microstructure, and protein physical stability. Excipient concentrations were varied with and without a model protein (bovine serum albumin, BSA). Formulations were frozen with and without annealing or with and without controlled nucleation. Primary drying was conducted at high and low shelf temperature. Cakes with least defects and optimum physical attributes were achieved when protein to excipient ratios were high. Controlled nucleation led to elegant cakes for most systems at a low shelf temperature. Replacing BSA by a monoclonal antibody showed that protein (physical) stability was slightly improved under stress storage temperature (i.e., 40°C) in the presence of a low concentration of l-arginine in a sucrose-based formulation. At higher l-arginine concentrations, cake defects increased. Using optimized formulation design, addition of l-arginine chloride to a sucrose-based formulation provided elegant cakes and benefits for protein stability.

  13. Activation of l-arginine transport by protein kinase C in rabbit, rat and mouse alveolar macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Racké, Kurt; Hey, Claudia; Mössner, Jutta; Hammermann, Rainer; Stichnote, Christina; Wessler, Ignaz

    1998-01-01

    The role of protein kinase C in controlling L-arginine transport in alveolar macrophages was investigated. L-[3H]Arginine uptake in rabbit alveolar macrophages declined by 80 % after 20 h in culture. 4β-Phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA), but not 4α-phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (α-PMA), present during 20 h culture, enhanced L-[3H]arginine uptake more than 10-fold. Staurosporine and chelerythrine opposed this effect. L-[3H]Arginine uptake was saturable and blockable by L-lysine. After PMA treatment Vmax was increased more than 5-fold and Km was reduced from 0.65 to 0.32 mM. Time course experiments showed that PMA increased L-[3H]arginine uptake almost maximally within 2 h. This short-term effect was not affected by cycloheximide or actinomycin D. L-[3H]Arginine uptake and its stimulation by PMA was also observed in sodium-free medium. L-Leucine (0.1 mM) inhibited L-[3H]arginine uptake by 50 % in sodium-containing medium, but not in sodium-free medium. At 1 mM, L-leucine caused significant inhibition in sodium-free medium also. L-Leucine showed similar effects on PMA-treated cells. N-Ethylmaleimide (200 μm, 10 min) reduced L-[3H]arginine uptake by 70 % in control cells, but had no effect on PMA-treated (20 or 2 h) cells. In alveolar macrophages, multiple transport systems are involved in L-arginine uptake, which is markedly stimulated by protein kinase C, probably by modulation of the activity of already expressed cationic amino acid transporters. PMID:9714862

  14. De novo DNA methyltransferase DNMT3b interacts with NEDD8-modified proteins.

    PubMed

    Shamay, Meir; Greenway, Melanie; Liao, Gangling; Ambinder, Richard F; Hayward, S Diane

    2010-11-19

    DNA methylation and histone modifications play an important role in transcription regulation. In cancer cells, many promoters become aberrantly methylated through the activity of the de novo DNA methyltransferases DNMT3a and DNMT3b and acquire repressive chromatin marks. NEDD8 is a ubiquitin-like protein modifier that is conjugated to target proteins, such as cullins, to regulate their activity, and cullin 4A (CUL4A) in its NEDD8-modified form is essential for repressive chromatin formation. We found that DNMT3b associates with NEDD8-modified proteins. Whereas DNMT3b interacts directly in vitro with NEDD8, conjugation of NEDD8 to target proteins enhances this interaction in vivo. DNMT3b immunoprecipitated two major bands of endogenously NEDDylated proteins at the size of NEDDylated cullins, and indeed DNMT3b interacted with CUL1, CUL2, CUL3, CUL4A, and CUL5. Moreover, DNMT3b preferentially immunoprecipitated the NEDDylated form of endogenous CUL4A. NEDD8 enhanced DNMT3b-dependent DNA methylation. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays suggest that DNMT3b recruits CUL4A and NEDD8 to chromatin, whereas deletion of Dnmt3b reduces the association of CUL4A and NEDD8 at a repressed promoter in a cancer cell line. PMID:20847044

  15. Interaction of arginine with protein during refolding process probed by amide H/D exchange mass spectrometry and isothermal titration calorimetry.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Dawei; Liu, Yongdong; Zhang, Guifeng; Zhang, Chun; Li, Xiunan; Wang, Qingqing; Shi, Hong; Su, Zhiguo

    2015-01-01

    Arginine has been widely used as low molecular weight additive to promote protein refolding by suppressing aggregate formation. However, methods to investigate the role of arginine in protein refolding are often limited on protein's global conformational properties. Here, hydrogen/deuterium exchange mass spectrometry (HDX-MS) was used to study the effects of arginine on recombinant human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (rhG-CSF) refolding at the scale of peptide mapping. It was found that deuteration levels of rhG-CSF refolded with arginine was higher than that without arginine during the whole refolding process, but they became almost the same when the refolding reached equilibrium. This phenomenon indicated that arginine could protect some amide deuterium atoms from being exchanged with hydrogen, but the protection diminished gradually along with refolding proceeding. Enzymatic digestion revealed six particular peptides of 16-47, 72-84, 84-93, 114-124, 145-153 and 154-162 were mainly responsible for the deuteration, and all of them dominantly located in protein's α-helix domain. Furthermore, thermodynamics analysis by isothermal titration calorimetry provided direct evidence that arginine could only react with denatured and partially refolded rhG-CSF. Taking all of the results together, we suggest that arginine suppresses protein aggregation by a reversible combination. At the initial refolding stage, arginine could combine with the denatured protein mainly through hydrogen bonding. Subsequently, arginine is gradually excluded from protein with protein's native conformation recovering.

  16. Synthesis of Mycoplasma arginine deiminase in E. coli using stress-responsive proteins.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Keum-Young; Lee, Boram; Han, Kyung-Yeon; Song, Jong-Am; Lee, Doo Sung; Lee, Jeewon

    2014-09-01

    We found Escherichia coli proteins, elongation factor Ts (Tsf), and malate dehydrogenase (Mdh) that can exist in the form of native and soluble proteins even under stress situation such as heat shock and protein denaturing condition. To examine their property as solubility enhancers, aggregation-prone Mycoplasma arginine deiminase (mADI), which has been suggested as anti-cancer agent, was fused to the C-terminal of each of them and cloned into pET28a to be expressed in the E. coli cytoplasm. When mADI was fused to fusion partners (Mdh, Tsf), a significant portion of the recombinant mADI was expressed in a soluble fraction (>90%) whereas the directly expressed mADI was aggregated to the inclusion body. In addition, recombinant mADI released from the fusion tag retained its soluble form and presented its specific enzymatic activity of converting l-arginine into citrulline (>10 U/mg). These results show that Tsf and Mdh could serve as effective solubility enhancers for aggregation-prone proteins (e.g. mADI in this case) when used as fusion expression partners in bacterial expression systems. PMID:25039059

  17. Synthesis of Mycoplasma arginine deiminase in E. coli using stress-responsive proteins.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Keum-Young; Lee, Boram; Han, Kyung-Yeon; Song, Jong-Am; Lee, Doo Sung; Lee, Jeewon

    2014-09-01

    We found Escherichia coli proteins, elongation factor Ts (Tsf), and malate dehydrogenase (Mdh) that can exist in the form of native and soluble proteins even under stress situation such as heat shock and protein denaturing condition. To examine their property as solubility enhancers, aggregation-prone Mycoplasma arginine deiminase (mADI), which has been suggested as anti-cancer agent, was fused to the C-terminal of each of them and cloned into pET28a to be expressed in the E. coli cytoplasm. When mADI was fused to fusion partners (Mdh, Tsf), a significant portion of the recombinant mADI was expressed in a soluble fraction (>90%) whereas the directly expressed mADI was aggregated to the inclusion body. In addition, recombinant mADI released from the fusion tag retained its soluble form and presented its specific enzymatic activity of converting l-arginine into citrulline (>10 U/mg). These results show that Tsf and Mdh could serve as effective solubility enhancers for aggregation-prone proteins (e.g. mADI in this case) when used as fusion expression partners in bacterial expression systems.

  18. S-adenosylmethionine-dependent protein methylation in mammalian cytosol via tyrphostin modification by catechol-O-methyltransferase.

    PubMed

    Lipson, Rebecca S; Clarke, Steven G

    2007-10-19

    It has previously been shown that incubation of mammalian cell cytosolic extracts with the protein kinase inhibitor tyrphostin A25 results in enhanced transfer of methyl groups from S-adenosyl-[methyl-3H]methionine to proteins. These findings were interpreted as demonstrating tyrphostin stimulation of a novel type of protein carboxyl methyltransferase. We find here, however, that tyrphostin A25 addition to mouse heart cytosol incubated with S-adenosyl-[methyl-3H]methionine or S-adenosyl-[methyl-14C]methionine stimulates the labeling of small molecules in addition to proteins. Base treatment of both protein and small molecule fractions releases volatile radioactivity, suggesting labile ester-like linkages of the labeled methyl group. Production of both the base-volatile product and labeled protein occurs with tyrphostins A25, A47, and A51, but not with thirteen other tyrphostin family members. These active tyrphostins all contain a catechol moiety and are good substrates for recombinant and endogenous catechol-O-methyltransferase. Inhibition of catechol-O-methyltransferase activity with tyrphostin AG1288 prevents both base-volatile product formation and protein labeling from methyl-labeled S-adenosylmethionine in heart, kidney, and liver, but not in testes or brain extracts. These results suggest that the incorporation of methyl groups into protein follows a complex pathway initiated by the methylation of select tyrphostins by endogenous catechol-O-methyltransferase. We suggest that the methylated tyrphostins are further modified in the cell extract and covalently attached to cellular proteins. The presence of endogenous catechols in cells suggests that similar reactions can also occur in vivo.

  19. Universal stress protein Rv2624c alters abundance of arginine and enhances intracellular survival by ATP binding in mycobacteria

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Qiong; Hu, Xinling; Shi, Dawei; Zhang, Yan; Sun, Meihao; Wang, Jianwei; Mi, Kaixia; Zhu, Guofeng

    2016-01-01

    The universal stress protein family is a family of stress-induced proteins. Universal stress proteins affect latency and antibiotic resistance in mycobacteria. Here, we showed that Mycobacterium smegmatis overexpressing M. tuberculosis universal stress protein Rv2624c exhibits increased survival in human monocyte THP-1 cells. Transcriptome analysis suggested that Rv2624c affects histidine metabolism, and arginine and proline metabolism. LC-MS/MS analysis showed that Rv2624c affects the abundance of arginine, a modulator of both mycobacteria and infected THP-1 cells. Biochemical analysis showed that Rv2624c is a nucleotide-binding universal stress protein, and an Rv2624c mutant incapable of binding ATP abrogated the growth advantage in THP-1 cells. Rv2624c may therefore modulate metabolic pathways in an ATP-dependent manner, changing the abundance of arginine and thus increasing survival in THP-1 cells. PMID:27762279

  20. Atomic Insight into the Altered O6-Methylguanine-DNA Methyltransferase Protein Architecture in Gastric Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Chikan, Naveed Anjum; Bukhari, Shoiab; Shabir, Nadeem; Amin, Asif; Shafi, Sheikh; Qadri, Raies Ahmad; Patel, Trupti Navin Chandra

    2015-01-01

    O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) is one of the major DNA repair protein that counteracts the alkalyting agent-induced DNA damage by replacing O6-methylguanine (mutagenic lesion) back to guanine, eventually suppressing the mismatch errors and double strand crosslinks. Exonic alterations in the form of nucleotide polymorphism may result in altered protein structure that in turn can lead to the loss of function. In the present study, we focused on the population feared for high exposure to alkylating agents owing to their typical and specialized dietary habits. To this end, gastric cancer patients pooled out from the population were selected for the mutational screening of a specific error prone region of MGMT gene. We found that nearly 40% of the studied neoplastic samples harbored missense mutation at codon151 resulting into Serine to Isoleucine variation. This variation resulted in bringing about the structural disorder, subsequently ensuing into a major stoichiometric variance in recognition domain, substrate binding and selectivity loop of the active site of the MGMT protein, as observed under virtual microscope of molecular dynamics simulation (MDS). The atomic insight into MGMT protein by computational approach showed a significant change in the intra molecular hydrogen bond pattern, thus leading to the observed structural anomalies. To further examine the mutational implications on regulatory plugs of MGMT that holds the protein in a DNA-Binding position, a MDS based analysis was carried out on, all known physically interacting amino acids essentially clustered into groups based on their position and function. The results generated by physical-functional clustering of protein indicated that the identified mutation in the vicinity of the active site of MGMT protein causes the local and global destabilization of a protein by either eliminating the stabilizing salt bridges in cluster C3, C4, and C5 or by locally destabilizing the “protein

  1. Arginine methylation of HSP70 regulates retinoid acid-mediated RARβ2 gene activation

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Wei-wei; Xiao, Rong-quan; Peng, Bing-ling; Xu, Huan-teng; Shen, Hai-feng; Huang, Ming-feng; Shi, Tao-tao; Yi, Jia; Zhang, Wen-juan; Wu, Xiao-nan; Gao, Xiang; Lin, Xiang-zhi; Dorrestein, Pieter C.; Rosenfeld, Michael G.; Liu, Wen

    2015-01-01

    Although “histone” methyltransferases and demethylases are well established to regulate transcriptional programs and to use nonhistone proteins as substrates, their possible roles in regulation of heat-shock proteins in the nucleus have not been investigated. Here, we report that a highly conserved arginine residue, R469, in HSP70 (heat-shock protein of 70 kDa) proteins, an evolutionarily conserved protein family of ATP-dependent molecular chaperone, was monomethylated (me1), at least partially, by coactivator-associated arginine methyltransferase 1/protein arginine methyltransferase 4 (CARM1/PRMT4) and demethylated by jumonji-domain–containing 6 (JMJD6), both in vitro and in cultured cells. Functional studies revealed that HSP70 could directly regulate retinoid acid (RA)-induced retinoid acid receptor β2 (RARβ2) gene transcription through its binding to chromatin, with R469me1 being essential in this process. HSP70’s function in gene transcriptional regulation appears to be distinct from its protein chaperon activity. R469me1 was shown to mediate the interaction between HSP70 and TFIIH, which involves in RNA polymerase II phosphorylation and thus transcriptional initiation. Our findings expand the repertoire of nonhistone substrates targeted by PRMT4 and JMJD6, and reveal a new function of HSP70 proteins in gene transcription at the chromatin level aside from its classic role in protein folding and quality control. PMID:26080448

  2. Arabidopsis Protein Repair L-Isoaspartyl Methyltransferases: Predominant Activities at Lethal Temperatures.

    PubMed

    Villa, Sarah T; Xu, Qilong; Downie, A Bruce; Clarke, Steven G

    2006-12-01

    Protein L-isoaspartyl (D-aspartyl) O-methyltransferases (EC 2.1.1.77; PIMT or PCMT) are enzymes that initiate the full or partial repair of damaged L-aspartyl and L-asparaginyl residues, respectively. These enzymes are found in most organisms and maintain a high degree of sequence conservation. Arabidopsis thaliana (Arabidopsis L. Heynh.) is unique among eukaryotes in that it contains two genes, rather than one, that encode PIMT isozymes. We describe a novel Arabidopsis PIMT isozyme, designated AtPIMT2αω, encoded by the PIMT2 gene (At5g50240). We characterized the enzymatic activity of the recombinant AtPIMT2αω in comparison to the other AtPIMT2 isozymes, AtPIMT1, and to the human PCMT ortholog, to better understand its role in Arabidopsis. All Arabidopsis PIMT isozymes are active over a relatively wide pH range. For AtPIMT2αω maximal activity is observed at 50 °C (a lethal temperature for Arabidopsis); this activity is almost ten times greater than the activity at the growth temperature of 25 °C. Interestingly, enzyme activity decreases after pre-incubation at temperatures above 30°C. A similar situation is found for the recombinant AtPIMT2ψ and the AtPIMT2ω isozymes, as well as for the AtPIMT1 and human PCMT1 enzymes. These results suggest that the short-term ability of these methyltransferases to initiate repair under extreme temperature conditions may be a common feature of both the plant and animal species.

  3. Primary structure of a human arginine-rich nuclear protein that colocalizes with spliceosome components

    SciTech Connect

    Chaudhary, N.; McMahon, C.; Blobel, G. )

    1991-09-15

    The cDNA for a 54-kDa nuclear protein (p54) has been cloned from a human hepatoma expression library. Contained within p54 is an arginine/serine-rich region similar to segments of several proteins that participate in pre-mRNA splicing including the 70-kDa component of U1 small nuclear ribonucleoprotein particle (snRNP) and the Drosophila transformer and suppressor-of-white-apricot proteins. The arginine/serine-rich region is dominated by a series of 8-amino acid imperfect repetitive motifs (consensus sequence, Arg-Arg-Ser-Arg-Ser-Arg-Ser-Arg). Antibodies raised against synthetic peptides of p54 react with an {approximately}70-kDa protein on immunoblots of HeLa cell and rat liver nuclear proteins. This apparent discrepancy in mass is also observed when p54 mRNA is translated in vitro. Indirect immunofluorescence studies in HeLa cells show that p54 is distributed throughout the nucleus in a speckled pattern, with an additional diffuse labeling of the nucleus excluding the nucleoli. Double immunofluorescence experiments indicate that these punctate regions are coincident with the speckles seen in cells stained with antibodies against several constituents of the pre-mRNA splicing machinery. Sedimentation analysis of HeLa cell extracts on sucrose gradients showed that p54 migrates at 4-6 S, indicating that the protein is not a tightly associated component of snRNPs. Although the function of p54 is not yet known, the structure and immunolocalization data suggest that this protein may have a role in pre-mRNA processing.

  4. Overexpression of DNA methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1) protein in astrocytic tumour and its correlation with O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) expression

    PubMed Central

    Rahman, Wan Faiziah Wan Abdul; Rahman, Khairul Shakir Ab; Nafi, Siti Norasikin Mohd; Fauzi, Mohd Hashairi; Jaafar, Hasnan

    2015-01-01

    Background: The relationship between DNA methyltransferase (DNMT) and O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) in mediating tumorigenesis is still poorly understood. This study was carried out to investigate a correlation between DNMT1 and MGMT immunoexpression in astrocytic tumour samples. Methods: Formalin-fixed paraffin embedded tissues of astrocytic tumour patients was obtained from an observational study conducted in Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia (USM), which was performed from January 1997 until May 2012. Patient’s histological information was retrieved from the accessible Pathology Registry. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) staining was performed to assess DNMT1 and MGMT expressions in patients’ tumours. Results: Our data showed that DNMT1 was highly expressed in high grade astrocytic tumours. A multiple regression analysis demonstrated a significant association of DNMT1 overexpression with tumour grade III and IV (GIII: OR=5.802; 95% CI: 1.059, 31.785; p value=0.043; GIV: OR=40.663; 95% CI=4.069, 406.347; p value=0.002). The MGMT protein was downregulated in tumours with higher grade as evident by a reduction mean H-score for MGMT expression from GI to GIV [28.36 ± 43.88, 28.08 ± 33.67, 26.00 ± 48.70 and 16.20 ± 35.61]. However, a good negative correlation was observed between DNMT1 and MGMT in high grade tumour [Spearman correlation test: r=-0.561, p value≤0.001 in percentage expression and r=-0.576, p value≤0.001 in H score]. Conclusion: DNMT1 overexpression was seen correlated with a reduction of MGMT protein expression in high grade astrocytic tumour. Understanding the role of these markers could be important to overcome astrocytic tumour aggresiveness. PMID:26261487

  5. Hydrogen bonding motifs of protein side chains: descriptions of binding of arginine and amide groups.

    PubMed Central

    Shimoni, L.; Glusker, J. P.

    1995-01-01

    The modes of hydrogen bonding of arginine, asparagine, and glutamine side chains and of urea have been examined in small-molecule crystal structures in the Cambridge Structural Database and in crystal structures of protein-nucleic acid and protein-protein complexes. Analysis of the hydrogen bonding patterns of each by graph-set theory shows three patterns of rings (R) with one or two hydrogen bond acceptors and two donors and with eight, nine, or six atoms in the ring, designated R2(2)(8), R2(2)(9), and R1(2)(6). These three patterns are found for arginine-like groups and for urea, whereas only the first two patterns R2(2)(8) and R2(2)(9) are found for asparagine- and glutamine-like groups. In each case, the entire system is planar within 0.7 A or less. On the other hand, in macromolecular crystal structures, the hydrogen bonding patterns in protein-nucleic acid complexes between the nucleic acid base and the protein are all R2(2)(9), whereas hydrogen bonding between Watson-Crick-like pairs of nucleic acid bases is R2(2)(8). These two hydrogen bonding arrangements [R2(2)(9)] and R2(2)(8)] are predetermined by the nature of the groups available for hydrogen bonding. The third motif identified, R1(2)(6), involves hydrogen bonds that are less linear than in the other two motifs and is found in proteins. PMID:7773178

  6. TatE as a Regular Constituent of Bacterial Twin-arginine Protein Translocases.

    PubMed

    Eimer, Ekaterina; Fröbel, Julia; Blümmel, Anne-Sophie; Müller, Matthias

    2015-12-01

    Twin-arginine translocation (Tat) systems mediate the transmembrane translocation of completely folded proteins that possess a conserved twin-arginine (RR) motif in their signal sequences. Many Tat systems consist of three essential membrane components named TatA, TatB, and TatC. It is not understood why some bacteria, in addition, constitutively express a functional paralog of TatA called TatE. Here we show, in live Escherichia coli cells, that, upon expression of a Tat substrate protein, fluorescently labeled TatE-GFP relocates from a rather uniform distribution in the plasma membrane into a number of discrete clusters. Clustering strictly required an intact RR signal peptide and the presence of the TatABC subunits, suggesting that TatE-GFP associates with functional Tat translocases. In support of this notion, site-specific photo cross-linking revealed interactions of TatE with TatA, TatB, and TatC. The same approach also disclosed a pronounced tendency of TatE and TatA to hetero-oligomerize. Under in vitro conditions, we found that TatE replaces TatA inefficiently. Our collective results are consistent with TatE being a regular constituent of the Tat translocase in E. coli.

  7. A direct, ratiometric, and quantitative MALDI–MS assay for protein methyltransferases and acetyltransferases

    PubMed Central

    Richardson, Stacie L.; Hanjra, Pahul; Zhang, Gang; Mackie, Brianna D.; Peterson, Darrell L.; Huang, Rong

    2016-01-01

    Protein methylation and acetylation play important roles in biological processes, and misregulation of these modifications is involved in various diseases. Therefore, it is critical to understand the activities of the enzymes responsible for these modifications. Herein we describe a sensitive method for ratiometric quantification of methylated and acetylated peptides via MALDI-MS by direct spotting of enzymatic methylation and acetylation reaction mixtures without tedious purification procedures. The quantifiable detection limit for peptides with our method is approximately 10 fmol. This is achieved by increasing the signal-to-noise ratio through the addition of NH4H2PO4 to the matrix solution and reduction of the matrix α-cyanohydroxycinnamic acid concentration to 2 mg/ml. We have demonstrated the application of this method in enzyme kinetic analysis and inhibition studies. The unique feature of this method is the simultaneous quantification of multiple peptide species for investigation of processivity mechanisms. Its wide buffer compatibility makes it possible to be adapted to investigate the activity of any protein methyltransferase or acetyltransferase. PMID:25778392

  8. Trimethylation of Histone H3 Lysine 36 by Human Methyltransferase PRDM9 Protein*

    PubMed Central

    Eram, Mohammad S.; Bustos, Susan P.; Lima-Fernandes, Evelyne; Siarheyeva, Alena; Senisterra, Guillermo; Hajian, Taraneh; Chau, Irene; Duan, Shili; Wu, Hong; Dombrovski, Ludmila; Schapira, Matthieu; Arrowsmith, Cheryl H.; Vedadi, Masoud

    2014-01-01

    PRDM9 (PR domain-containing protein 9) is a meiosis-specific protein that trimethylates H3K4 and controls the activation of recombination hot spots. It is an essential enzyme in the progression of early meiotic prophase. Disruption of the PRDM9 gene results in sterility in mice. In human, several PRDM9 SNPs have been implicated in sterility as well. Here we report on kinetic studies of H3K4 methylation by PRDM9 in vitro indicating that PRDM9 is a highly active histone methyltransferase catalyzing mono-, di-, and trimethylation of the H3K4 mark. Screening for other potential histone marks, we identified H3K36 as a second histone residue that could also be mono-, di-, and trimethylated by PRDM9 as efficiently as H3K4. Overexpression of PRDM9 in HEK293 cells also resulted in a significant increase in trimethylated H3K36 and H3K4 further confirming our in vitro observations. Our findings indicate that PRDM9 may play critical roles through H3K36 trimethylation in cells. PMID:24634223

  9. Altered Arginine Metabolism in Cells Transfected with Human Wild-Type Beta Amyloid Precursor Protein (βAPP).

    PubMed

    Jęśko, Henryk; Wilkaniec, Anna; Cieślik, Magdalena; Hilgier, Wojciech; Gąssowska, Magdalena; Lukiw, Walter J; Adamczyk, Agata

    2016-01-01

    Alterations of enzymes linked to arginine metabolism have been recently implicated in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Despite strong association of arginine changes with nitric oxide (NO) pathway, the impact of amyloid β (Aβ) peptides on arginine degradation and re-synthesis is unknown. In the present study we compared expression levels of arginases (ARG1, ARG2), neuronal, endothelial and inducible NO synthase isoforms (NNOS, ENOS, INOS), enzymes that metabolize arginine or resynthesize it from citrulline and the levels of corresponding amino acids in rat pheochromocytoma (PC12) cells overexpressing human Aβ precursor protein (APPwt cells). Moreover, we investigated the changes in miRNAs responsible for modulation of arginine metabolism in AD brains. Real-time PCR analysis revealed in APPwt cells significant decreases of ARG1 and ARG2 which are responsible for lysing arginine into ornithine and urea; this reduction was followed by significantly lower enzyme activity. NNOS and ENOS mRNAs were elevated in APPwt cells while iNOS was undetectable in both cell lines. The expression of argininosuccinate synthase (ASS) that metabolizes citrulline was down-regulated without changes in argininosuccinate lyase (ASL). Ornithine decarboxylase (ODC), which decarboxylates ornithine to form putrescine was also reduced. Arginine, the substrate for both arginases and NOS, was unchanged in APPwt cells. However, citrulline concentration was significantly higher. Elevated miRNA-9 and miRNA-128a found in AD brain tissues might modulate the expression of ASS and NOS, respectively. Our results indicate that Aβ affects arginine metabolism and this influence might have important role in the pathomechanism of AD.

  10. Altered Arginine Metabolism in Cells Transfected with Human Wild-Type Beta Amyloid Precursor Protein (βAPP).

    PubMed

    Jęśko, Henryk; Wilkaniec, Anna; Cieślik, Magdalena; Hilgier, Wojciech; Gąssowska, Magdalena; Lukiw, Walter J; Adamczyk, Agata

    2016-01-01

    Alterations of enzymes linked to arginine metabolism have been recently implicated in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Despite strong association of arginine changes with nitric oxide (NO) pathway, the impact of amyloid β (Aβ) peptides on arginine degradation and re-synthesis is unknown. In the present study we compared expression levels of arginases (ARG1, ARG2), neuronal, endothelial and inducible NO synthase isoforms (NNOS, ENOS, INOS), enzymes that metabolize arginine or resynthesize it from citrulline and the levels of corresponding amino acids in rat pheochromocytoma (PC12) cells overexpressing human Aβ precursor protein (APPwt cells). Moreover, we investigated the changes in miRNAs responsible for modulation of arginine metabolism in AD brains. Real-time PCR analysis revealed in APPwt cells significant decreases of ARG1 and ARG2 which are responsible for lysing arginine into ornithine and urea; this reduction was followed by significantly lower enzyme activity. NNOS and ENOS mRNAs were elevated in APPwt cells while iNOS was undetectable in both cell lines. The expression of argininosuccinate synthase (ASS) that metabolizes citrulline was down-regulated without changes in argininosuccinate lyase (ASL). Ornithine decarboxylase (ODC), which decarboxylates ornithine to form putrescine was also reduced. Arginine, the substrate for both arginases and NOS, was unchanged in APPwt cells. However, citrulline concentration was significantly higher. Elevated miRNA-9 and miRNA-128a found in AD brain tissues might modulate the expression of ASS and NOS, respectively. Our results indicate that Aβ affects arginine metabolism and this influence might have important role in the pathomechanism of AD. PMID:26971935

  11. Nuclear localization and in vivo dynamics of a plant-specific serine/arginine-rich protein.

    PubMed

    Ali, Gul Shad; Golovkin, Maxim; Reddy, Anireddy S N

    2003-12-01

    Serine/arginine-rich (SR) proteins in non-plant systems are known to play important roles in both constitutive and alternative splicing of pre-messenger RNAs (pre-mRNAs). Recently, we isolated a novel SR protein (SR45), which interacts with U1 snRNP 70K protein, a key protein involved in 5' splice site recognition. SR45 is found only in plants and is unique in having two SR domains separated by an RNA recognition motif (RRM). To study the localization and dynamics of SR45, we expressed it as a fusion to green fluorescent protein (GFP) in cultured cells and transgenic Arabidopsis plants. The SR45 is localized exclusively to nuclei. In interphase nuclei, GFP-SR45 was found both in speckles and nucleoplasm. The speckles exhibited intranuclear movements and changes in morphology. Inhibition of transcription and protein phosphorylation resulted in redistribution of SR45 to bigger speckles. The change in the number and morphology of speckles caused by inhibition of transcription was blocked by an inhibitor of phosphatases. These results indicate that transcription activity of the cell and protein (de)phosphorylation regulate the intranuclear distribution of SR45. PMID:14675452

  12. RamA, a Protein Required for Reductive Activation of Corrinoid-dependent Methylamine Methyltransferase Reactions in Methanogenic Archaea*S⃞

    PubMed Central

    Ferguson, Tsuneo; Soares, Jitesh A.; Lienard, Tanja; Gottschalk, Gerhard; Krzycki, Joseph A.

    2009-01-01

    Archaeal methane formation from methylamines is initiated by distinct methyltransferases with specificity for monomethylamine, dimethylamine, or trimethylamine. Each methylamine methyltransferase methylates a cognate corrinoid protein, which is subsequently demethylated by a second methyltransferase to form methyl-coenzyme M, the direct methane precursor. Methylation of the corrinoid protein requires reduction of the central cobalt to the highly reducing and nucleophilic Co(I) state. RamA, a 60-kDa monomeric iron-sulfur protein, was isolated from Methanosarcina barkeri and is required for in vitro ATP-dependent reductive activation of methylamine:CoM methyl transfer from all three methylamines. In the absence of the methyltransferases, highly purified RamA was shown to mediate the ATP-dependent reductive activation of Co(II) corrinoid to the Co(I) state for the monomethylamine corrinoid protein, MtmC. The ramA gene is located near a cluster of genes required for monomethylamine methyltransferase activity, including MtbA, the methylamine-specific CoM methylase and the pyl operon required for co-translational insertion of pyrrolysine into the active site of methylamine methyltransferases. RamA possesses a C-terminal ferredoxin-like domain capable of binding two tetranuclear iron-sulfur proteins. Mutliple ramA homologs were identified in genomes of methanogenic Archaea, often encoded near methyltrophic methyltransferase genes. RamA homologs are also encoded in a diverse selection of bacterial genomes, often located near genes for corrinoid-dependent methyltransferases. These results suggest that RamA mediates reductive activation of corrinoid proteins and that it is the first functional archetype of COG3894, a family of redox proteins of unknown function. PMID:19043046

  13. Protein arginine deiminase 2 binds calcium in an ordered fashion: Implications for inhibitor design

    SciTech Connect

    Slade, Daniel J.; Fang, Pengfei; Dreyton, Christina J.; Zhang, Ying; Fuhrmann, Jakob; Rempel, Don; Bax, Benjamin D.; Coonrod, Scott A.; Lewis, Huw D.; Guo, Min; Gross, Michael L.; Thompson, Paul R.

    2015-01-26

    Protein arginine deiminases (PADs) are calcium-dependent histone-modifying enzymes whose activity is dysregulated in inflammatory diseases and cancer. PAD2 functions as an Estrogen Receptor (ER) coactivator in breast cancer cells via the citrullination of histone tail arginine residues at ER binding sites. Although an attractive therapeutic target, the mechanisms that regulate PAD2 activity are largely unknown, especially the detailed role of how calcium facilitates enzyme activation. To gain insights into these regulatory processes, we determined the first structures of PAD2 (27 in total), and through calcium-titrations by X-ray crystallography, determined the order of binding and affinity for the six calcium ions that bind and activate this enzyme. These structures also identified several PAD2 regulatory elements, including a calcium switch that controls proper positioning of the catalytic cysteine residue, and a novel active site shielding mechanism. Additional biochemical and mass-spectrometry-based hydrogen/deuterium exchange studies support these structural findings. The identification of multiple intermediate calcium-bound structures along the PAD2 activation pathway provides critical insights that will aid the development of allosteric inhibitors targeting the PADs.

  14. Arginine rich coconut kernel protein modulates diabetes in alloxan treated rats.

    PubMed

    Salil, G; Nevin, K G; Rajamohan, T

    2011-01-15

    Diabetes mellitus is a syndrome characterized by the loss of glucose homeostasis due to several reasons. In spite of the presence of known anti-diabetic medicines in the pharmaceutical market, remedies from natural resources are used with success to treat this disease. The present study was undertaken to investigate the effect of coconut kernel protein (CKP) on alloxan induced diabetes in Sprague-Dawley rats. Diabetes was induced by injecting a single dose of alloxan (150mg/kg body weight) intraperitoneally. After inducing diabetes, purified CKP isolated from dried coconut kernel was administered to rats along with a semi synthetic diet for 45 days. After the experimental period, serum glucose, insulin, activities of different key enzymes involved in glucose metabolism, liver glycogen levels and the histopathology of the pancreas were evaluated. The amount of individual amino acids of CKP was also determined using HPLC. Results showed that CKP has significant amount of arginine. CKP feeding attenuated the increase in the glucose and insulin levels in diabetic rats. Glycogen levels in the liver and the activities of carbohydrate metabolizing enzymes in the serum of treated diabetic rats were reverted back to the normal levels compared to that of control. Histopathology revealed that CKP feeding reduced the diabetes related pancreatic damage in treated rats compared to the control. These results clearly demonstrated the potent anti-diabetic activity of CKP which may be probably due to its effect on pancreatic β cell regeneration through arginine.

  15. Protein arginine deiminase 2 binds calcium in an ordered fashion: Implications for inhibitor design

    DOE PAGES

    Slade, Daniel J.; Fang, Pengfei; Dreyton, Christina J.; Zhang, Ying; Fuhrmann, Jakob; Rempel, Don; Bax, Benjamin D.; Coonrod, Scott A.; Lewis, Huw D.; Guo, Min; et al

    2015-01-26

    Protein arginine deiminases (PADs) are calcium-dependent histone-modifying enzymes whose activity is dysregulated in inflammatory diseases and cancer. PAD2 functions as an Estrogen Receptor (ER) coactivator in breast cancer cells via the citrullination of histone tail arginine residues at ER binding sites. Although an attractive therapeutic target, the mechanisms that regulate PAD2 activity are largely unknown, especially the detailed role of how calcium facilitates enzyme activation. To gain insights into these regulatory processes, we determined the first structures of PAD2 (27 in total), and through calcium-titrations by X-ray crystallography, determined the order of binding and affinity for the six calcium ionsmore » that bind and activate this enzyme. These structures also identified several PAD2 regulatory elements, including a calcium switch that controls proper positioning of the catalytic cysteine residue, and a novel active site shielding mechanism. Additional biochemical and mass-spectrometry-based hydrogen/deuterium exchange studies support these structural findings. The identification of multiple intermediate calcium-bound structures along the PAD2 activation pathway provides critical insights that will aid the development of allosteric inhibitors targeting the PADs.« less

  16. Protein arginine deiminase 2 binds calcium in an ordered fashion: implications for inhibitor design.

    PubMed

    Slade, Daniel J; Fang, Pengfei; Dreyton, Christina J; Zhang, Ying; Fuhrmann, Jakob; Rempel, Don; Bax, Benjamin D; Coonrod, Scott A; Lewis, Huw D; Guo, Min; Gross, Michael L; Thompson, Paul R

    2015-04-17

    Protein arginine deiminases (PADs) are calcium-dependent histone-modifying enzymes whose activity is dysregulated in inflammatory diseases and cancer. PAD2 functions as an Estrogen Receptor (ER) coactivator in breast cancer cells via the citrullination of histone tail arginine residues at ER binding sites. Although an attractive therapeutic target, the mechanisms that regulate PAD2 activity are largely unknown, especially the detailed role of how calcium facilitates enzyme activation. To gain insights into these regulatory processes, we determined the first structures of PAD2 (27 in total), and through calcium-titrations by X-ray crystallography, determined the order of binding and affinity for the six calcium ions that bind and activate this enzyme. These structures also identified several PAD2 regulatory elements, including a calcium switch that controls proper positioning of the catalytic cysteine residue, and a novel active site shielding mechanism. Additional biochemical and mass-spectrometry-based hydrogen/deuterium exchange studies support these structural findings. The identification of multiple intermediate calcium-bound structures along the PAD2 activation pathway provides critical insights that will aid the development of allosteric inhibitors targeting the PADs.

  17. Protein repair L-isoaspartyl methyltransferase in plants. Phylogenetic distribution and the accumulation of substrate proteins in aged barley seeds.

    PubMed Central

    Mudgett, M B; Lowenson, J D; Clarke, S

    1997-01-01

    Protein L-isoaspartate (D-aspartate) O-methyltransferases (MTs; EC 2.1.1.77) can initiate the conversion of detrimental L-isoaspartyl residues in spontaneously damaged proteins to normal L-aspartyl residues. We detected this enzyme in 45 species from 23 families representing most of the divisions of the plant kingdom. MT activity is often localized in seeds, suggesting that it has a role in their maturation, quiescence, and germination. The relationship among MT activity, the accumulation of abnormal protein L-isoaspartyl residues, and seed viability was explored in barley (Hordeum vulgare cultivar Himalaya) seeds, which contain high levels of MT. Natural aging of barley seeds for 17 years resulted in a significant reduction in MT activity and in seed viability, coupled with increased levels of "unrepaired" L-isoaspartyl residues. In seeds heated to accelerate aging, we found no reduction of MT activity, but we did observe decreased seed viability and the accumulation of isoaspartyl residues. Among populations of accelerated aged seed, those possessing the highest levels of L-isoaspartyl-containing proteins had the lowest germination percentages. These results suggest that the MT present in seeds cannot efficiently repair all spontaneously damaged proteins containing altered aspartyl residues, and their accumulation during aging may contribute to the loss of seed viability. PMID:9414558

  18. Crystal Structure of the Arginine Repressor Protein in Complex With the DNA Operator From Mycobacterium Tuberculosis

    SciTech Connect

    Cherney, L.T.; Cherney, M.M.; Garen, C.R.; Lu, G.J.; James, M.N.G.

    2009-05-12

    The Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) gene product encoded by open reading frame Rv1657 is an arginine repressor (ArgR). All genes involved in the L-arginine (hereafter arginine) biosynthetic pathway are essential for optimal growth of the Mtb pathogen, thus making MtbArgR a potential target for drug design. The C-terminal domains of arginine repressors (CArgR) participate in oligomerization and arginine binding. Several crystal forms of CArgR from Mtb (MtbCArgR) have been obtained. The X-ray crystal structures of MtbCArgR were determined at 1.85 {angstrom} resolution with bound arginine and at 2.15 {angstrom} resolution in the unliganded form. These structures show that six molecules of MtbCArgR are arranged into a hexamer having approximate 32 point symmetry that is formed from two trimers. The trimers rotate relative to each other by about 11{sup o} upon binding arginine. All residues in MtbCArgR deemed to be important for hexamer formation and for arginine binding have been identified from the experimentally determined structures presented. The hexamer contains six regular sites in which the arginine molecules have one common binding mode and three sites in which the arginine molecules have two overlapping binding modes. The latter sites only bind the ligand at high (200 mM) arginine concentrations.

  19. Anhydrobiosis vs. aging: comparative genomics of protein repair L-isoaspartyl methyltransferases in the sleeping chironomid. .

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gusev, Oleg; Kikawada, Takahiro; Shagimardanova, Elena; Suetsugu, Yoshitaka; Ayupov, Rustam

    Origin of anhydrobiosis in the larvae of the sleeping chironomid Polypedilum vanderplanki represents unique example of set of evolutionary events in a single species, resulted in acquiring new ability allowing survival in extremely changeable environment. Complex comparative analysis of the genome of P. vanderplanki resulted in discovery of a set of features, including existence of the set of unique clusters of genes contributing in desiccation resistance. Surprisingly, in several cases, the genes mainly contributing to the formation of the molecular shield in the larvae are sleeping chironomid-specific and have no homology with genes from other insects, including P. nubifer - a chironomid from the same genus. Protein L-isoaspartyl methyltransferase (PIMT) acts on proteins that have been non-enzymatically damaged due to age, and partially restores aspartic residues, extending life of the polypeptides. PIMT a highly conserved enzyme present in nearly all eukaryotes, and microorganisms mostly in a single copy (or in a few isoforms in certain plants and some bacteria). While conducting a comparative analysis of the genomes of two chironomid midge species different in their ability to stand complete water loss, we have noticed that structure and number of PIMT-coding genes in the desiccation resistant (anhydrobiotic) midge (Polypedilum vanderplanki, Pv) is different from those of the common desiccation-sensitive midge (Polypedilum nubifer, Pn) and the rest of insects. Both species have a clear orthologous PIMT shared by all insects. At the same time, in contrast to Pn which has only one PIMT gene (PnPimt-1), the Pv genome contains 12 additional genes paralogous to Pimt1 (PvPimt-2-12) presumably coding functional PIMT proteins, which are arranged in a single cluster. Remarkably, PvPimt-1 location in the Pv is different from the rest of Pimt-like genes. PvPimt-1 gene is ubiquitously expressed during the life cycle, but expression of the PvPimt2-12 is limited to the eggs

  20. Nicotinamide N-methyltransferase regulates hepatic nutrient metabolism through Sirt1 protein stabilization

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Shangyu; Moreno-Navarrete, Jose M; Wei, Xiaojing; Kikukawa, Yusuke; Tzameli, Iphigenia; Prasad, Deepthi; Lee, Yoonjin; Asara, John M; Fernandez-Real, Jose Manuel; Maratos-Flier, Eleftheria; Pissios, Pavlos

    2015-01-01

    Nicotinamide N-methyltransferase (Nnmt) methylates nicotinamide, a form of vitamin B3, to produce N1-methylnicotinamide (MNAM). Nnmt is an emerging metabolic regulator in adipocytes but its role in the liver, a tissue with the strongest Nnmt expression, is not known. In spite of its overall high expression, here we find that hepatic expression of Nnmt is highly variable and correlates with multiple metabolic parameters in mice and in humans. Further, we find that suppression of hepatic Nnmt expression in vivo alters glucose and cholesterol metabolism and that the metabolic effects of Nnmt in the liver are mediated by its product MNAM. Supplementation of high fat diet with MNAM decreases serum and liver cholesterol and liver triglycerides levels in mice. Mechanistically, increasing Nnmt expression or MNAM levels stabilizes sirtuin 1 protein, an effect, which is required for their metabolic benefits. In summary, we describe a novel regulatory pathway for vitamin B3 that could provide a new opportunity for metabolic disease therapy. PMID:26168293

  1. Structural basis for G9a-like protein lysine methyltransferase inhibition by BIX-01294

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, Yanqi; Zhang, Xing; Horton, John R.; Upadhyay, Anup K.; Spannhoff, Astrid; Liu, Jin; Synder, James P.; Bedford, Mark T.; Cheng, Xiaodong

    2009-03-26

    Histone lysine methylation is an important epigenetic mark that regulates gene expression and chromatin organization. G9a and G9a-like protein (GLP) are euchromatin-associated methyltransferases that repress transcription by methylating histone H3 Lys9. BIX-01294 was originally identified as a G9a inhibitor during a chemical library screen of small molecules and has previously been used in the generation of induced pluripotent stem cells. Here we present the crystal structure of the catalytic SET domain of GLP in complex with BIX-01294 and S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine. The inhibitor is bound in the substrate peptide groove at the location where the histone H3 residues N-terminal to the target lysine lie in the previously solved structure of the complex with histone peptide. The inhibitor resembles the bound conformation of histone H3 Lys4 to Arg8, and is positioned in place by residues specific for G9a and GLP through specific interactions.

  2. An SC35-like protein and a novel serine/arginine-rich protein interact with Arabidopsis U1-70K protein.

    PubMed

    Golovkin, M; Reddy, A S

    1999-12-17

    The U1 small nuclear ribonucleoprotein 70-kDa protein, a U1 small nuclear ribonucleoprotein-specific protein, has been shown to have multiple roles in nuclear precursor mRNA processing in animals. By using the C-terminal arginine-rich region of Arabidopsis U1-70K protein in the yeast two-hybrid system, we have identified an SC35-like (SR33) and a novel plant serine/arginine-rich (SR) protein (SR45) that interact with the plant U1-70K. The SR33 and SR45 proteins share several features with SR proteins including modular domains typical of splicing factors in the SR family of proteins. However, both plant SR proteins are rich in proline, and SR45, unlike most animal SR proteins, has two distinct arginine/serine-rich domains separated by an RNA recognition motif. By using coprecipitation assays we confirmed the interaction of plant U1-70K with SR33 and SR45 proteins. Furthermore, in vivo and in vitro protein-protein interaction experiments have shown that SR33 protein interacts with itself and with SR45 protein but not with two other members (SRZ21 and SRZ22) of the SR family that are known to interact with the Arabidopsis full-length U-70K only. A Clk/Sty protein kinase (AFC-2) from Arabidopsis phosphorylated four SR proteins (SR33, SR45, SRZ21, and SRZ22). Coprecipitation studies have confirmed the interaction of SR proteins with AFC2 kinase, and the interaction between AFC2 and SR33 is modulated by the phosphorylation status of these proteins. These and our previous results suggest that the plant U1-70K interacts with at least four distinct members of the SR family including SR45 with its two arginine/serine-rich domains, and the interaction between the SR proteins and AFC2 is modulated by phosphorylation. The interaction of plant U1-70K with a novel set of proteins suggests the early stages of spliceosome assembly, and intron recognition in plants is likely to be different from animals. PMID:10593939

  3. Arginine as an eluent overcomes the hindrance of monoclonal antibody quantification by dextran sulfate in protein A affinity chromatography.

    PubMed

    Kim, Bong Gyun; Park, Hong Woo

    2015-01-01

    Analytical chromatography using protein A affinity columns was employed for the fast and simple quantitative analysis of monoclonal antibodies (mAb) from suspension cultures of recombinant Chinese hamster ovary (rCHO) cells. Reliable results could not be obtained from analysis of rCHO cell culture supernatants containing dextran sulfate using elution buffers such as phosphate, glycine, or MgCl2 . These problems increased as the number of analysis and the concentration of dextran sulfate in samples increased. Arginine was identified as an alternative eluent to overcome the hindrance by dextran sulfate. When the samples contain dextran sulfate up to 100 mg/L, the elution buffer containing 0.6-1.0 M arginine at pH 3.0-3.8 is useful for the effective analysis. Reproducible results in the mAb quantification could be obtained by this developed arginine elution buffer from rCHO cell culture supernatants containing dextran sulfate.

  4. Arginine as an eluent overcomes the hindrance of monoclonal antibody quantification by dextran sulfate in protein A affinity chromatography.

    PubMed

    Kim, Bong Gyun; Park, Hong Woo

    2015-01-01

    Analytical chromatography using protein A affinity columns was employed for the fast and simple quantitative analysis of monoclonal antibodies (mAb) from suspension cultures of recombinant Chinese hamster ovary (rCHO) cells. Reliable results could not be obtained from analysis of rCHO cell culture supernatants containing dextran sulfate using elution buffers such as phosphate, glycine, or MgCl2 . These problems increased as the number of analysis and the concentration of dextran sulfate in samples increased. Arginine was identified as an alternative eluent to overcome the hindrance by dextran sulfate. When the samples contain dextran sulfate up to 100 mg/L, the elution buffer containing 0.6-1.0 M arginine at pH 3.0-3.8 is useful for the effective analysis. Reproducible results in the mAb quantification could be obtained by this developed arginine elution buffer from rCHO cell culture supernatants containing dextran sulfate. PMID:26363185

  5. Weaver Syndrome‐Associated EZH2 Protein Variants Show Impaired Histone Methyltransferase Function In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Yap, Damian B.; Lewis, M.E. Suzanne; Chijiwa, Chieko; Ramos‐Arroyo, Maria A.; Tkachenko, Natália; Milano, Valentina; Fradin, Mélanie; McKinnon, Margaret L.; Townsend, Katelin N.; Xu, Jieqing; Van Allen, M.I.; Ross, Colin J.D.; Dobyns, William B.; Weaver, David D.; Gibson, William T.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Weaver syndrome (WS) is a rare congenital disorder characterized by generalized overgrowth, macrocephaly, specific facial features, accelerated bone age, intellectual disability, and susceptibility to cancers. De novo mutations in the enhancer of zeste homolog 2 (EZH2) have been shown to cause WS. EZH2 is a histone methyltransferase that acts as the catalytic agent of the polycomb‐repressive complex 2 (PRC2) to maintain gene repression via methylation of lysine 27 on histone H3 (H3K27). Functional studies investigating histone methyltransferase activity of mutant EZH2 from various cancers have been reported, whereas WS‐associated mutations remain poorly characterized. To investigate the role of EZH2 in WS, we performed functional studies using artificially assembled PRC2 complexes containing mutagenized human EZH2 that reflected the codon changes predicted from patients with WS. We found that WS‐associated amino acid alterations reduce the histone methyltransferase function of EZH2 in this in vitro assay. Our results support the hypothesis that WS is caused by constitutional mutations in EZH2 that alter the histone methyltransferase function of PRC2. However, histone methyltransferase activities of different EZH2 variants do not appear to correlate directly with the phenotypic variability between WS patients and individuals with a common c.553G>C (p.Asp185His) polymorphism in EZH2. PMID:26694085

  6. MEP50/PRMT5 reduces gene expression by histone arginine methylation and this is reversed by PKCδ/p38δ signaling

    PubMed Central

    Saha, Kamalika; Adhikary, Gautam; Eckert, Richard L.

    2016-01-01

    PKCδ and p38δ are key proteins in a cascade that stimulates keratinocyte differentiation. This cascade activates transcription of involucrin (hINV) and other genes associated with differentiation. Protein arginine methyltransferase 5 (PRMT5) is an arginine methyltransferase that symmetrically dimethylates arginine residues. This protein interacts with a cofactor, MEP50, and symmetrically dimethylates arginine eight of histone 3 (H3R8me2s) and arginine three of histone 4 (H4R3me2s) to silence gene expression. We use the involucrin gene as a tool to understand the relationship between PKCδ/p38δ and PRMT5/MEP50 signaling. MEP50 suppresses hINV mRNA level and promoter activity. This is associated with increased arginine dimethylation of hINV gene-associated H3/H4. We further show that the PKCδ/p38δ keratinocyte differentiation cascade reduces PRMT5 and MEP50 expression, association with the hINV gene promoter, and H3R8me2s and H4R2me2s formation. We propose that PRMT5/MEP50-dependent methylation is an epigenetic mechanism that assists in silencing of hINV expression, and that PKCδ signaling activates gene expression by directly activating transcription and by suppressing PRMT5/MEP50 dependent arginine dimethylation of promoter associated histones. This is an example of crosstalk between PKCδ/p38δ signaling and PRMT5/MEP50 epigenetic silencing. PMID:26763441

  7. Molecular studies on bromovirus capsid protein. VII. Selective packaging on BMV RNA4 by specific N-terminal arginine residuals.

    PubMed

    Choi, Y G; Rao, A L

    2000-09-15

    An arginine-rich RNA-binding motif (ARM) found at the N-proximal region of Brome mosaic virus (BMV) coat protein (CP) adopts alpha-helical conformation and shares homology with CPs of plant and insect RNA viruses, HIV-Rev and Tat proteins, bacterial antiterminators, and ribosomal splicing factors. The ARM of BMV CP, consisting of amino acids 9 through 21 with six arginine residues, is essential for RNA binding and subsequent packaging. In this study analysis of the alpha-helical contents of wild-type and mutant peptides by circular dichroism spectra identified protein determinants required for such conformation. Electrophoretic mobility-shift assays between viral RNA and BMV CP peptides with either proline or alanine substitutions revealed that the interaction is nonspecific. Expression in vivo of mature full-length BMV CP subunits, having the same substitutions for each arginine within the ARM, derived from biologically active clones was found to be competent to assemble into infectious virions and cause visible symptom phenotypes in whole plants. However, analysis of virion progeny RNA profiles of CP variants and subsequent in vitro reassembly assays between mutant CP and four BMV RNAs unveiled the ability of arginine residues at positions 10, 13, or 14 of the ARM to confer selective packaging of BMV RNA4. Thus, BMV CP contains determinants that specifically interact with RNA4 to ensure selective packaging.

  8. CROP/Luc7A, a novel serine/arginine-rich nuclear protein, isolated from cisplatin-resistant cell line.

    PubMed

    Nishii, Y; Morishima, M; Kakehi, Y; Umehara, K; Kioka, N; Terano, Y; Amachi, T; Ueda, K

    2000-01-14

    A novel putative SR protein, designated cisplatin resistance-associated overexpressed protein (CROP), has been cloned from cisplatin-resistant cell lines by differential display. The N-half of the deduced amino acid sequence of 432 amino acids of CROP contains cysteine/histidine motifs and leucine zipper-like repeats. The C-half consists mostly of charged and polar amino acids: arginine (58 residues or 25%), glutamate (36 residues or 16%), serine (35 residues or 15%), lysine (30 residues, 13%), and aspartate (20 residues or 9%). The C-half is extremely hydrophilic and comprises domains rich in lysine and glutamate residues, rich in alternating arginine and glutamate residues, and rich in arginine and serine residues. The arginine/serine-rich domain is dominated by a series of 8 amino acid imperfect repetitive motif (consensus sequence, Ser-Arg-Ser-Arg-Asp/Glu-Arg-Arg-Arg), which has been found in RNA splicing factors. The RNase protection assay and Western blotting analysis indicate that the expression of CROP is about 2-3-fold higher in mRNA and protein levels in cisplatin-resistant ACHN/CDDP cells than in host ACHN cells. CROP is the human homologue of yeast Luc7p, which is supposed to be involved in 5'-splice site recognition and is essential for vegetative growth. PMID:10631324

  9. Scintillation Proximity Assay of Arginine Methylation

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Jiang; Xie, Nan; Feng, You; Zheng, Y. George

    2011-01-01

    Methylation of arginine residues, catalyzed by protein arginine methyltransferases (PRMTs), is one important protein post-translational modification involved in epigenetic regulation of gene expression. A fast and effective assay for PRMT can provide valuable information for dissecting the biological functions of PRMTs, as well as for screening small-molecule inhibitors of arginine methylation. Currently, among the methods used for PRMT activity measurement, many contain laborious separation procedures, which restrict the applications of these assays for high-throughput screening (HTS) in drug discovery. The authors report here a mix-and-measure method to measure PRMT activity based on the principle of scintillation proximity assay (SPA). In this assay, 3H-AdoMet was used as methyl donor, and biotin-modified histone H4 peptide served as a methylation substrate. Following the methylation reaction catalyzed by PRMTs, streptavidin-coated SPA beads were added to the reaction solution, and SPA signals were detected by a MicroBeta scintillation counter. No separation step is needed, which simplifies the assay procedure and greatly enhances the assay speed. Particularly, the miniaturization and robustness suggest that this method is suited for HTS of PRMT inhibitors. PMID:21821785

  10. Response of maize serine/arginine-rich protein gene family in seedlings to drought stress.

    PubMed

    Li, Jiao; Guo, Yuqi; Cui, Weiling; Xu, Aihua; Tian, Zengyuan

    2014-07-01

    Alternative splicing (AS) in eukaryotic organisms is closely related to the gene regulation in plant abiotic stress responses, in which serine/arginine-rich proteins (SR proteins) act as key regulators. The genome sequence of maize inbred line B73 was analyzed, showing that the promoter regions of SR genes possess about three to eight kinds of cis-acting regulatory elements. Twenty-seven SR genes encode alkaline proteins, and 23 of which are divided into five subgroups in terms of the first RNA recognition motif (RRM) at the amino terminal. The expression of SR genes showed tissue-specific and genotype-dependent features under drought stress in the hybrid Zhengdan-958 and its parents, Zheng-58 and Chang-7-2 via bidirectional hierarchical clustering. SR genes were down-regulated in roots while they were up-regulated in shoots under drought stress. However, SR genes were down-regulated in both roots and shoots in three different rehydration stages after severe drought stress. Additionally, a widespread alternative splicing exists in all SR genes although SR genes showed differential expression tendency under drought stress and/or during rehydration stages. Results above will deepen our understanding of the molecular mechanisms of plant response to abiotic stress from the perspective of AS-network.

  11. Exogenous arginine in sepsis.

    PubMed

    Luiking, Yvette C; Deutz, Nicolaas E P

    2007-09-01

    Sepsis is a severe condition in critically ill patients and is considered an arginine deficiency state. The rationale for arginine deficiency in sepsis is mainly based on the reduced arginine levels in sepsis that are associated with the specific changes in arginine metabolism related to endothelial dysfunction, severe catabolism, and worse outcome. Exogenous arginine supplementation in sepsis shows controversial results with only limited data in humans and variable results in animal models of sepsis. Since in these studies the severity of sepsis varies but also the route, timing, and dose of arginine, it is difficult to draw a definitive conclusion for sepsis in general without considering the influence of these factors. Enhanced nitric oxide production in sepsis is related to suggested detrimental effects on hemodynamic instability and enhanced oxidative stress. Potential mechanisms for beneficial effects of exogenous arginine in sepsis include enhanced (protein) metabolism, improved microcirculation and organ function, effects on immune function and antibacterial effects, improved gut function, and an antioxidant role of arginine. We recently performed a study indicating that arginine can be given to septic patients without major effects on hemodynamics, suggesting that more studies can be conducted on the effects of arginine supplementation in septic patients.

  12. Synthesis of lysine methyltransferase inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Hui, Chunngai; Ye, Tao

    2015-01-01

    Lysine methyltransferase which catalyze methylation of histone and non-histone proteins, play a crucial role in diverse biological processes and has emerged as a promising target for the development of various human diseases, including cancer, inflammation, and psychiatric disorders. However, inhibiting lysine methyltransferases selectively has presented many challenges to medicinal chemists. During the past decade, lysine methyltransferase inhibitors covering many different structural classes have been designed and developed. In this review, we describe the development of selective, small-molecule inhibitors of lysine methyltransferases with an emphasis on their discovery and chemical synthesis. We highlight the current state of lysine methyltransferase inhibitors and discuss future directions and opportunities for lysine methyltransferase inhibitor discovery. PMID:26258118

  13. Identification of critical residues in Hepatitis E virus macro domain involved in its interaction with viral methyltransferase and ORF3 proteins

    PubMed Central

    Anang, Saumya; Subramani, Chandru; Nair, Vidya P.; Kaul, Sheetal; Kaushik, Nidhi; Sharma, Chandresh; Tiwari, Ashutosh; Ranjith-Kumar, CT; Surjit, Milan

    2016-01-01

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is a major cause of hepatitis in normal and organ transplant individuals. HEV open reading frame-1 encodes a polypeptide comprising of the viral nonstructural proteins as well as domains of unknown function such as the macro domain (X-domain), V, DUF3729 and Y. The macro domain proteins are ubiquitously present from prokaryotes to human and in many positive-strand RNA viruses, playing important roles in multiple cellular processes. Towards understanding the function of the HEV macro domain, we characterized its interaction partners among other HEV encoded proteins. Here, we report that the HEV X-domain directly interacts with the viral methyltransferase and the ORF3 proteins. ORF3 association with the X-domain was mediated through two independent motifs, located within its N-terminal 35aa (amino acids) and C-terminal 63-123aa. Methyltransferase interaction domain was mapped to N-terminal 30-90aa. The X-domain interacted with both ORF3 and methyltransferase through its C-terminal region, involving 66th,67th isoleucine and 101st,102nd leucine, conserved across HEV genotypes. Furthermore, ORF3 and methyltransferase competed with each other for associating with the X-domain. These findings provide molecular understanding of the interaction between the HEV macro domain, methyltransferase and ORF3, suggesting an important role of the macro domain in the life cycle of HEV. PMID:27113483

  14. Identification of critical residues in Hepatitis E virus macro domain involved in its interaction with viral methyltransferase and ORF3 proteins.

    PubMed

    Anang, Saumya; Subramani, Chandru; Nair, Vidya P; Kaul, Sheetal; Kaushik, Nidhi; Sharma, Chandresh; Tiwari, Ashutosh; Ranjith-Kumar, C T; Surjit, Milan

    2016-04-26

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is a major cause of hepatitis in normal and organ transplant individuals. HEV open reading frame-1 encodes a polypeptide comprising of the viral nonstructural proteins as well as domains of unknown function such as the macro domain (X-domain), V, DUF3729 and Y. The macro domain proteins are ubiquitously present from prokaryotes to human and in many positive-strand RNA viruses, playing important roles in multiple cellular processes. Towards understanding the function of the HEV macro domain, we characterized its interaction partners among other HEV encoded proteins. Here, we report that the HEV X-domain directly interacts with the viral methyltransferase and the ORF3 proteins. ORF3 association with the X-domain was mediated through two independent motifs, located within its N-terminal 35aa (amino acids) and C-terminal 63-123aa. Methyltransferase interaction domain was mapped to N-terminal 30-90aa. The X-domain interacted with both ORF3 and methyltransferase through its C-terminal region, involving 66(th),67(th) isoleucine and 101(st),102(nd) leucine, conserved across HEV genotypes. Furthermore, ORF3 and methyltransferase competed with each other for associating with the X-domain. These findings provide molecular understanding of the interaction between the HEV macro domain, methyltransferase and ORF3, suggesting an important role of the macro domain in the life cycle of HEV.

  15. Changing Transcriptional Initiation Sites and Alternative 5'- and 3'-Splice Site Selection of the First Intron Deploys the Arabidopsis Protein Isoaspartyl Methyltransferase2 Variants to Different Subcellular Compartments

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh. possesses two PROTEIN-L-ISOASPARTATE METHYLTRANSFERASE (PIMT), genes encoding an enzyme (EC 2.1.1.77) capable of converting uncoded, L-isoaspartyl residues, arising spontaneously at L-asparaginyl and L-aspartyl sites in proteins, to L-aspartate. PIMT2 produces at lea...

  16. Construction and overexpression of a synthetic gene for human DNA methylguanine methyltransferase: renaturation and rapid purification of the protein.

    PubMed

    Brown, L R; Deng, J; Noll, D M; Mori, N; Clarke, N D

    1997-04-01

    A synthetic gene was constructed that encodes human DNA methylguanine methyltransferase (hMGMT). The synthetic gene was designed with a number of unique restriction sites to facilitate cassette mutagenesis and to reflect the preferences found among genes in Escherichia coli. Both the full-length gene and a gene for a functional variant (hMGMT delta C) that lacks the C-terminal 28 codons were constructed, and the genes were overexpressed using a T7 RNA polymerase promoter. The proteins are made in the form of insoluble aggregates but the truncated form of the protein (hMGMT delta C) has been successfully denatured, renatured, and purified to near homogeneity by ion exchange. Methyltransferase activity assays of hMGMT delta C demonstrate that the reconstituted protein has substantial DNA repair activity, though somewhat less than full-length hMGMT that had been expressed and purified in a soluble form. Mass spectrometry of a mixture of proteolytic fragments confirmed the protein sequence and indicated no detectable oxidation of the active site cysteine. The protein was determined to be monomeric by gel filtration chromatography, and circular dichroism spectra for renatured hMGMT delta C and fully soluble hMGMT are consistent with the renatured protein preparation being fully folded. Refolded hMGMT delta C had a curious propensity to form large aggregates in a time-dependent manner when injected into a dynamic light scattering instrument; this aggregation behavior was not observed for hMGMT purified in a soluble form. Differences in susceptibility to aggregation may account for differences in methyltransfer activity. Yields of purified protein were approximately 5 mg/liter of culture.

  17. Influence of developmental lead exposure on expression of DNA methyltransferases and methyl cytosine-binding proteins in hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Schneider, J S; Kidd, S K; Anderson, D W

    2013-02-13

    Developmental exposure to lead (Pb) has adverse effects on cognitive functioning and behavior that can persist into adulthood. Exposures that occur during fetal or early life periods may produce changes in brain related to physiological re-programming from an epigenetic influence such as altered DNA methylation status. Since DNA methylation is regulated by DNA methyltransferases and methyl cytosine-binding proteins, this study assessed the extent to which developmental Pb exposure might affect expression of these proteins in the hippocampus. Long Evans dams were fed chow with or without added Pb acetate (0, 150, 375, 750 ppm) prior to breeding and remained on the same diet through weaning (perinatal exposure group). Other animals were exposed to the same doses of Pb but exposure started on postnatal day 1 and continued through weaning (early postnatal exposure group). All animals were euthanized on day 55 and hippocampi were removed. Western blot analyses showed significant effects of Pb exposure on DNMT1, DNMT3a, and MeCP2 expression, with effects often seen at the lowest level of exposure and modified by sex and developmental window of Pb exposure. These data suggest potential epigenetic effects of developmental Pb exposure on DNA methylation mediated at least in part through dysregulation of methyltransferases. PMID:23246732

  18. Identification of DIM-7, a protein required to target the DIM-5 H3 methyltransferase to chromatin

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Zachary A.; Adhvaryu, Keyur K.; Honda, Shinji; Shiver, Anthony L.; Selker, Eric U.

    2010-01-01

    Functionally distinct chromatin domains are delineated by distinct posttranslational modifications of histones, and in some organisms by differences in DNA methylation. Proper establishment and maintenance of chromatin domains is critical but not well understood. We previously demonstrated that heterochromatin in the filamentous fungus Neurospora crassa is marked by cytosine methylation directed by trimethylated Lysine 9 on histone H3 (H3K9me3). H3K9me3 is the product of the DIM-5 Lysine methyltransferase and is recognized by a protein complex containing heterochromatin protein-1 and the DIM-2 DNA methyltransferase. To identify additional components that control the establishment and function of DNA methylation and heterochromatin, we built a strain harboring two selectable reporter genes that are silenced by DNA methylation and employed this strain to select for mutants that are defective in DNA methylation (dim). We report a previously unidentified gene (dim-7) that is essential for H3K9me3 and DNA methylation. DIM-7 homologs are found only in fungi and are highly divergent. We found that DIM-7 interacts with DIM-5 in vivo and demonstrated that a conserved domain near the N terminus of DIM-7 is required for its stability. In addition, we found that DIM-7 is essential for recruitment of DIM-5 to form heterochromatin. PMID:20404183

  19. Distinct patterns of expression but similar biochemical properties of protein L-isoaspartyl methyltransferase in higher plants.

    PubMed

    Thapar, N; Kim, A K; Clarke, S

    2001-02-01

    Protein L-isoaspartyl methyltransferase is a widely distributed repair enzyme that initiates the conversion of abnormal L-isoaspartyl residues to their normal L-aspartyl forms. Here we show that this activity is expressed in developing corn (Zea mays) and carrot (Daucus carota var. Danvers Half Long) plants in patterns distinct from those previously seen in winter wheat (Triticum aestivum cv Augusta) and thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana), whereas the pattern of expression observed in rice (Oryza sativa) is similar to that of winter wheat. Although high levels of activity are found in the seeds of all of these plants, relatively high levels of activity in vegetative tissues are only found in corn and carrot. The activity in leaves was found to decrease with aging, an unexpected finding given the postulated role of this enzyme in repairing age-damaged proteins. In contrast with the situation in wheat and Arabidopsis, we found that osmotic or salt stress could increase the methyltransferase activity in newly germinated seeds (but not in seeds or seedlings), whereas abscisic acid had no effect. We found that the corn, rice, and carrot enzymes have comparable affinity for methyl-accepting substrates and similar optimal temperatures for activity of 45 degrees C to 55 degrees C as the wheat and Arabidopsis enzymes. These experiments suggest that this enzyme may have specific roles in different plant tissues despite a common catalytic function.

  20. Ornithine is a novel amino acid and a marker of arginine damage by oxoaldehydes in senescent proteins.

    PubMed

    Sell, David R; Monnier, Vincent M

    2005-06-01

    Long-lived proteins undergo age-related postsynthetic modifications by glycation and advanced glycation end products (AGEs), which destabilize them by altering their conformation and charge. It was accidentally discovered that ornithine (orn) increased with age in acid hydrolyzates of human skin collagen and lens crystallins which led us to investigate the source of orn. Here, we detected such modifications of orn in these proteins. Acid hydrolysis of arginine (arg)-base AGE standards produced orn at different yields. The data provide unequivocal evidence for the in vivo formation of orn and its own AGEs in aging proteins, and suggest that arg-based AGEs serve as precursors of orn.

  1. Arginine methylation of DRBD18 differentially impacts its opposing effects on the trypanosome transcriptome

    PubMed Central

    Lott, Kaylen; Mukhopadhyay, Shreya; Li, Jun; Wang, Jie; Yao, Jin; Sun, Yijun; Qu, Jun; Read, Laurie K.

    2015-01-01

    Arginine methylation is a posttranslational modification that impacts wide-ranging cellular functions, including transcription, mRNA splicing and translation. RNA binding proteins (RBPs) represent one of the largest classes of arginine methylated proteins in both mammals and the early diverging parasitic protozoan, Trypanosoma brucei. Here, we report the effects of arginine methylation on the functions of the essential and previously uncharacterized T. brucei RBP, DRBD18. RNAseq analysis shows that DRBD18 depletion causes extensive rearrangement of the T. brucei transcriptome, with increases and decreases in hundreds of mRNAs. DRBD18 contains three methylated arginines, and we used complementation of DRBD18 knockdown cells with methylmimic or hypomethylated DRBD18 to assess the functions of these methylmarks. Methylmimic and hypomethylated DRBD18 associate with different ribonucleoprotein complexes. These altered macromolecular interactions translate into differential impacts on the T. brucei transcriptome. Methylmimic DRBD18 preferentially stabilizes target RNAs, while hypomethylated DRBD18 is more efficient at destabilizing RNA. The protein arginine methyltransferase, TbPRMT1, interacts with DRBD18 and knockdown of TbPRMT1 recapitulates the effects of hypomethylated DRBD18 on mRNA levels. Together, these data support a model in which arginine methylation acts as a switch that regulates T. brucei gene expression. PMID:25940618

  2. LLY-507, a Cell-active, Potent, and Selective Inhibitor of Protein-lysine Methyltransferase SMYD2*

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Hannah; Allali-Hassani, Abdellah; Antonysamy, Stephen; Chang, Shawn; Chen, Lisa Hong; Curtis, Carmen; Emtage, Spencer; Fan, Li; Gheyi, Tarun; Li, Fengling; Liu, Shichong; Martin, Joseph R.; Mendel, David; Olsen, Jonathan B.; Pelletier, Laura; Shatseva, Tatiana; Wu, Song; Zhang, Feiyu Fred; Arrowsmith, Cheryl H.; Brown, Peter J.; Campbell, Robert M.; Garcia, Benjamin A.; Barsyte-Lovejoy, Dalia; Mader, Mary; Vedadi, Masoud

    2015-01-01

    SMYD2 is a lysine methyltransferase that catalyzes the monomethylation of several protein substrates including p53. SMYD2 is overexpressed in a significant percentage of esophageal squamous primary carcinomas, and that overexpression correlates with poor patient survival. However, the mechanism(s) by which SMYD2 promotes oncogenesis is not understood. A small molecule probe for SMYD2 would allow for the pharmacological dissection of this biology. In this report, we disclose LLY-507, a cell-active, potent small molecule inhibitor of SMYD2. LLY-507 is >100-fold selective for SMYD2 over a broad range of methyltransferase and non-methyltransferase targets. A 1.63-Å resolution crystal structure of SMYD2 in complex with LLY-507 shows the inhibitor binding in the substrate peptide binding pocket. LLY-507 is active in cells as measured by reduction of SMYD2-induced monomethylation of p53 Lys370 at submicromolar concentrations. We used LLY-507 to further test other potential roles of SMYD2. Mass spectrometry-based proteomics showed that cellular global histone methylation levels were not significantly affected by SMYD2 inhibition with LLY-507, and subcellular fractionation studies indicate that SMYD2 is primarily cytoplasmic, suggesting that SMYD2 targets a very small subset of histones at specific chromatin loci and/or non-histone substrates. Breast and liver cancers were identified through in silico data mining as tumor types that display amplification and/or overexpression of SMYD2. LLY-507 inhibited the proliferation of several esophageal, liver, and breast cancer cell lines in a dose-dependent manner. These findings suggest that LLY-507 serves as a valuable chemical probe to aid in the dissection of SMYD2 function in cancer and other biological processes. PMID:25825497

  3. CXXC finger protein 1 restricts the Setd1A histone H3K4 methyltransferase complex to euchromatin.

    PubMed

    Tate, Courtney M; Lee, Jeong-Heon; Skalnik, David G

    2010-01-01

    CXXC finger protein 1 (Cfp1), encoded by the CXXC1 gene, is a component of the euchromatic Setd1A histone H3K4 methyltransferase complex, and is a critical regulator of histone methylation, cytosine methylation, cellular differentiation, and vertebrate development. Murine embryonic stem (ES) cells lacking Cfp1 (CXXC1(-/-)) are viable but show increased levels of global histone H3K4 methylation, suggesting that Cfp1 functions to inhibit or restrict the activity of the Setd1A histone H3K4 methyltransferase complex. The studies reported here reveal that ES cells lacking Cfp1 contain decreased levels of Setd1A and show subnuclear mislocalization of both Setd1A and trimethylation of histone H3K4 with regions of heterochromatin. Remarkably, structure-function studies reveal that expression of either the N-terminal fragment of Cfp1 (amino acids 1-367) or the C-terminal fragment of Cfp1 (amino acids 361-656) is sufficient to restore appropriate levels of Setd1A in CXXC1(-/-) ES cells. Furthermore, functional analysis of various Cfp1 point mutations reveals that retention of either Cfp1 DNA-binding activity or association with the Setd1 histone H3K4 methyltransferase complex is required to restore normal Setd1A levels. In contrast, expression of full-length Cfp1 in CXXC1(-/-) ES cells is required to restrict Setd1A and histone H3K4 trimethylation to euchromatin, indicating that both Cfp1 DNA-binding activity and interaction with the Setd1A complex are required for appropriate genomic targeting of the Setd1A complex. These studies illustrate the complexity of Cfp1 function, and identify Cfp1 as a regulator of Setd1A genomic targeting. PMID:19951360

  4. Plasmodium falciparum PfSET7: enzymatic characterization and cellular localization of a novel protein methyltransferase in sporozoite, liver and erythrocytic stage parasites

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Patty B.; Ding, Shuai; Zanghì, Gigliola; Soulard, Valérie; DiMaggio, Peter A.; Fuchter, Matthew J.; Mecheri, Salah; Mazier, Dominique; Scherf, Artur; Malmquist, Nicholas A.

    2016-01-01

    Epigenetic control via reversible histone methylation regulates transcriptional activation throughout the malaria parasite genome, controls the repression of multi-copy virulence gene families and determines sexual stage commitment. Plasmodium falciparum encodes ten predicted SET domain-containing protein methyltransferases, six of which have been shown to be refractory to knock-out in blood stage parasites. We have expressed and purified the first recombinant malaria methyltransferase in sufficient quantities to perform a full enzymatic characterization and reveal the ill-defined PfSET7 is an AdoMet-dependent histone H3 lysine methyltransferase with highest activity towards lysines 4 and 9. Steady-state kinetics of the PfSET7 enzyme are similar to previously characterized histone methyltransferase enzymes from other organisms, however, PfSET7 displays specific protein substrate preference towards nucleosomes with pre-existing histone H3 lysine 14 acetylation. Interestingly, PfSET7 localizes to distinct cytoplasmic foci adjacent to the nucleus in erythrocytic and liver stage parasites, and throughout the cytoplasm in salivary gland sporozoites. Characterized recombinant PfSET7 now allows for target based inhibitor discovery. Specific PfSET7 inhibitors can aid in further investigating the biological role of this specific methyltransferase in transmission, hepatic and blood stage parasites, and may ultimately lead to the development of suitable antimalarial drug candidates against this novel class of essential parasite enzymes. PMID:26902486

  5. Automethylation of SUV39H2, an oncogenic histone lysine methyltransferase, regulates its binding affinity to substrate proteins

    PubMed Central

    Piao, Lianhua; Nakakido, Makoto; Suzuki, Takehiro; Dohmae, Naoshi; Nakamura, Yusuke; Hamamoto, Ryuji

    2016-01-01

    We previously reported that the histone lysine methyltransferase SUV39H2, which is overexpressed in various types of human cancer, plays a critical role in the DNA repair after double strand breakage, and possesses oncogenic activity. Although its biological significance in tumorigenesis has been elucidated, the regulatory mechanism of SUV39H2 activity through post-translational modification is not well known. In this study, we demonstrate in vitro and in vivo automethylation of SUV39H2 at lysine 392. Automethylation of SUV39H2 led to impairment of its binding affinity to substrate proteins such as histone H3 and LSD1. Furthermore, we observed that hyper-automethylated SUV39H2 reduced methylation activities to substrates through affecting the binding affinity to substrate proteins. Our finding unveils a novel autoregulatory mechanism of SUV39H2 through lysine automethylation. PMID:26988914

  6. Egg-specific expression of protein with DNA methyltransferase activity in the biocarcinogenic liver fluke Clonorchis sinensis.

    PubMed

    Kim, Seon-Hee; Cho, Hye-Jeong; Sohn, Woon-Mok; Ahn, Chun-Seob; Kong, Yoon; Yang, Hyun-Jong; Bae, Young-An

    2015-08-01

    Despite recent reports regarding the biology of cytosine methylation in Schistosoma mansoni, the impact of the regulatory machinery remains unclear in diverse platyhelminthes. This ambiguity is reinforced by discoveries of DNA methyltransferase 2 (DNMT2)-only organisms and the substrate specificity of DNMT2 preferential to RNA molecules. Here, we characterized a novel DNA methyltransferase, named CsDNMT2, in a liver fluke Clonorchis sinensis. The protein exhibited structural properties conserved in other members of the DNMT2 family. The native and recombinant CsDNMT2 exhibited considerable enzymatic activity on DNA. The spatiotemporal expression of CsDNMT2 mirrored that of 5-methylcytosine (5 mC), both of which were elevated in the C. sinensis eggs. However, CsDNMT2 and 5 mC were marginally detected in other histological regions of C. sinensis adults including ovaries and seminal receptacle. The methylation site seemed not related to genomic loci occupied by progenies of an active long-terminal-repeat retrotransposon. Taken together, our data strongly suggest that C. sinensis has preserved the functional DNA methylation machinery and that DNMT2 acts as a genuine alternative to DNMT1/DNMT3 to methylate DNA in the DNMT2-only organism. The epigenetic regulation would target functional genes primarily involved in the formation and/or maturation of eggs, rather than retrotransposons. PMID:26036304

  7. A human tRNA methyltransferase 9-like protein prevents tumour growth by regulating LIN9 and HIF1-α.

    PubMed

    Begley, Ulrike; Sosa, Maria Soledad; Avivar-Valderas, Alvaro; Patil, Ashish; Endres, Lauren; Estrada, Yeriel; Chan, Clement T Y; Su, Dan; Dedon, Peter C; Aguirre-Ghiso, Julio A; Begley, Thomas

    2013-03-01

    Emerging evidence points to aberrant regulation of translation as a driver of cell transformation in cancer. Given the direct control of translation by tRNA modifications, tRNA modifying enzymes may function as regulators of cancer progression. Here, we show that a tRNA methyltransferase 9-like (hTRM9L/KIAA1456) mRNA is down-regulated in breast, bladder, colorectal, cervix and testicular carcinomas. In the aggressive SW620 and HCT116 colon carcinoma cell lines, hTRM9L is silenced and its re-expression and methyltransferase activity dramatically suppressed tumour growth in vivo. This growth inhibition was linked to decreased proliferation, senescence-like G0/G1-arrest and up-regulation of the RB interacting protein LIN9. Additionally, SW620 cells re-expressing hTRM9L did not respond to hypoxia via HIF1-α-dependent induction of GLUT1. Importantly, hTRM9L-negative tumours were highly sensitive to aminoglycoside antibiotics and this was associated with altered tRNA modification levels compared to antibiotic resistant hTRM9L-expressing SW620 cells. Our study links hTRM9L and tRNA modifications to inhibition of tumour growth via LIN9 and HIF1-α-dependent mechanisms. It also suggests that aminoglycoside antibiotics may be useful to treat hTRM9L-deficient tumours. PMID:23381944

  8. The l-Isoaspartyl Protein Repair Methyltransferase Enhances Survival of Aging Escherichia coli Subjected to Secondary Environmental Stresses

    PubMed Central

    Visick, Jonathan E.; Cai, Hui; Clarke, Steven

    1998-01-01

    Like its homologs throughout the biological world, the l-isoaspartyl protein repair methyltransferase of Escherichia coli, encoded by the pcm gene, can convert abnormal l-isoaspartyl residues in proteins (which form spontaneously from asparaginyl or aspartyl residues) to normal aspartyl residues. Mutations in pcm were reported to greatly reduce survival in stationary phase and when cells were subjected to heat or osmotic stresses (C. Li and S. Clarke, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 89:9885–9889, 1992). However, we subsequently demonstrated that those strains had a secondary mutation in rpoS, which encodes a stationary-phase-specific sigma factor (J. E. Visick and S. Clarke, J. Bacteriol. 179:4158–4163, 1997). We now show that the rpoS mutation, resulting in a 90% decrease in HPII catalase activity, can account for the previously observed phenotypes. We further demonstrate that a new pcm mutant lacks these phenotypes. Interestingly, the newly constructed pcm mutant, when maintained in stationary phase for extended periods, is susceptible to environmental stresses, including exposure to methanol, oxygen radical generation by paraquat, high salt concentrations, and repeated heating to 42°C. The pcm mutation also results in a competitive disadvantage in stationary-phase cells. All of these phenotypes can be complemented by a functional pcm gene integrated elsewhere in the chromosome. These data suggest that protein denaturation and isoaspartyl formation may act synergistically to the detriment of aging E. coli and that the repair methyltransferase can play a role in limiting the accumulation of the potentially disruptive isoaspartyl residues in vivo. PMID:9573145

  9. Rapid, large-scale purification and characterization of 'Ada protein' (O6 methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase) of E. coli.

    PubMed Central

    Bhattacharyya, D; Tano, K; Bunick, G J; Uberbacher, E C; Behnke, W D; Mitra, S

    1988-01-01

    The E. coli Ada protein (O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase) has been purified using a high-level expression vector with a yield of about 3 mg per liter of E. coli culture. The 39-kDa protein has an extinction coefficient (E280 nm (1%)) of 5.3. Its isoelectric point of 7.1 is lower than that predicted from the amino acid content. The homogeneous Ada protein is fully active as a methyl acceptor from O6-methylguanine in DNA. Its reaction with O6-methylguanine in a synthetic DNA has a second-order rate constant of 1.1 x 10(9) M-1 min-1 at O degree C. Both the native form and the protein methylated at Cys-69 are monomeric. The CD spectrum suggests a low alpha-helical content and the radius of gyration of 23 A indicates a compact, globular shape. The middle region of the protein is sensitive to a variety of proteases, including an endogenous activity in E. coli, suggesting that the protein is composed of N-terminal and C-terminal domains connected by a hinge region. E. coli B has a higher level of this protease than does K12. Images PMID:3041376

  10. Protein repair L-isoaspartyl methyltransferase 1 (PIMT1) in rice improves seed longevity by preserving embryo vigor and viability.

    PubMed

    Wei, Yidong; Xu, Huibin; Diao, Lirong; Zhu, Yongsheng; Xie, Hongguang; Cai, Qiuhua; Wu, Fangxi; Wang, Zonghua; Zhang, Jianfu; Xie, Huaan

    2015-11-01

    Damaged proteins containing abnormal isoaspartyl (isoAsp) accumulate as seeds age and the abnormality is thought to undermine seed vigor. Protein-L-isoaspartyl methyltransferase (PIMT) is involved in isoAsp-containing protein repair. Two PIMT genes from rice (Oryza sativa L.), designated as OsPIMT1 and OsPIMT2, were isolated and investigated for their roles. The results indicated that OsPIMT2 was mainly present in green tissues, but OsPIMT1 largely accumulated in embryos. Confocal visualization of the transient expression of OsPIMTs showed that OsPIMT2 was localized in the chloroplast and nucleus, whereas OsPIMT1 was predominately found in the cytosol. Artificial aging results highlighted the sensitivity of the seeds of OsPIMT1 mutant line when subjected to accelerated aging. Overexpression of OsPIMT1 in transgenic seeds reduced the accumulation of isoAsp-containing protein in embryos, and increased embryo viability. The germination percentage of transgenic seeds overexpressing OsPIMT1 increased 9-15% compared to the WT seeds after 21-day of artificial aging, whereas seeds from the OsPIMT1 RNAi lines overaccumulated isoAsp in embryos and experienced rapid loss of seed germinability. Taken together, these data strongly indicated that OsPIMT1-related seed longevity improvement is probably due to the repair of detrimental isoAsp-containing proteins that over accumulate in embryos when subjected to accelerated aging.

  11. Discovery and Characterization of a Highly Potent and Selective Aminopyrazoline-Based in Vivo Probe (BAY-598) for the Protein Lysine Methyltransferase SMYD2

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Protein lysine methyltransferases have recently emerged as a new target class for the development of inhibitors that modulate gene transcription or signaling pathways. SET and MYND domain containing protein 2 (SMYD2) is a catalytic SET domain containing methyltransferase reported to monomethylate lysine residues on histone and nonhistone proteins. Although several studies have uncovered an important role of SMYD2 in promoting cancer by protein methylation, the biology of SMYD2 is far from being fully understood. Utilization of highly potent and selective chemical probes for target validation has emerged as a concept which circumvents possible limitations of knockdown experiments and, in particular, could result in an improved exploration of drug targets with a complex underlying biology. Here, we report the development of a potent, selective, and cell-active, substrate-competitive inhibitor of SMYD2, which is the first reported inhibitor suitable for in vivo target validation studies in rodents. PMID:27075367

  12. Structural Characterization and Comparative Phylogenetic Analysis of Escherichia coli HemK, a Protein (N5)-glutamine Methyltransferase

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Zhe; Shipman, Lance; Zhang, Meng; Anton, Brian P.; Roberts, Richard J.; Cheng, Xiaodong

    2009-01-01

    Protein glutamine methylation at GGQ sites of protein chain release factors plays a pivotal role in the termination of translation. We report here the crystal structure of the Escherichia coli HemK protein (N5)-glutamine methyltransferase (MTase) in a binary complex with the methyl-donor product S-adenosyl-l-homocysteine (AdoHcy). HemK contains two domains: a putative substrate binding domain at the N terminus consisting of a five helix bundle and a seven-stranded catalytic domain at the C terminus that harbors the binding site for AdoHcy. The two domains are linked by a β-hairpin. Structure-guided sequence analysis of the HemK family revealed 11 invariant residues functioning in methyl-donor binding and catalysis of methyl transfer. The putative substrate-binding domains of HemK from E. coli and Thermotoga maritima are structurally similar, despite the fact that they share very little sequence similarity. When the two proteins are aligned structurally, the helical N-terminal domain is subject to approximately 10° of hinge movement relative to the C-terminal domain. The apparent hinge mobility of the two domains may reflect functional importance during the reaction cycle. Comparative phylogenetic analysis of the hemK gene and its frequent neighbor gene, prfA, which encodes a major substrate, provides evidence for several examples of lateral gene transfer. PMID:15223314

  13. Identification of Streptomyces lividans proteins secreted by the twin-arginine translocation pathway following growth with different carbon sources.

    PubMed

    Guimond, Julien; Morosoli, Rolf

    2008-07-01

    Genome-based signal peptide predictions classified Streptomyces coelicolor as the microorganism that secretes the most proteins through the twin-arginine translocation (Tat)-dependent secretion pathway. Availability of a DeltatatC mutant of the closely related strain Streptomyces lividans impaired Tat-dependent protein secretion and enabled identification of many extracellular proteins that are secreted via the Tat pathway. Proteomic techniques were applied to analyze proteins from the supernatants of log-phase cultures. Since the bacterial secretome depends mainly on the carbon sources available during growth, xylose, glucose, chitin, and soil extracts were used. A total of 63 proteins were identified, among which 7 were predicted by the TATscan program, and 20 were not predicted but contained a potential Tat signal motif. Thirteen proteins having no signal sequence could be co-transported by Tat-dependent proteins because the genes that encode these proteins are in close proximity in the genome. Finally, the presence of 23 proteins lacking signal peptides was difficult to explain. More secreted proteins could be identified as Tat substrates in varying carbon sources.

  14. Plant serine/arginine-rich proteins: roles in precursor messenger RNA splicing, plant development, and stress responses.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Anireddy S N; Shad Ali, Gul

    2011-01-01

    Global analyses of splicing of precursor messenger RNAs (pre-mRNAs) have revealed that alternative splicing (AS) is highly pervasive in plants. Despite the widespread occurrence of AS in plants, the mechanisms that control splicing and the roles of splice variants generated from a gene are poorly understood. Studies on plant serine/arginine-rich (SR) proteins, a family of highly conserved proteins, suggest their role in both constitutive splicing and AS of pre-mRNAs. SR proteins have a characteristic domain structure consisting of one or two RNA recognition motifs at the N-terminus and a C-terminal RS domain rich in arginine/serine dipeptides. Plants have many more SR proteins compared to animals including several plant-specific subfamilies. Pre-mRNAs of plant SR proteins are extensively alternatively spliced to increase the transcript complexity by about six-fold. Some of this AS is controlled in a tissue- and development-specific manner. Furthermore, AS of SR pre-mRNAs is altered by various stresses, raising the possibility of rapid reprogramming of the whole transcriptome by external signals through regulation of the splicing of these master regulators of splicing. Most SR splice variants contain a premature termination codon and are degraded by up-frameshift 3 (UPF3)-mediated nonsense-mediated decay (NMD), suggesting a link between NMD and regulation of expression of the functional transcripts of SR proteins. Limited functional studies with plant SRs suggest key roles in growth and development and plant responses to the environment. Here, we discuss the current status of research on plant SRs and some promising approaches to address many unanswered questions about plant SRs.

  15. Expression level and immunolocalization of de novo methyltransferase 3 protein (TuDNMT3) in adult females and males of the two-spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae.

    PubMed

    Yang, Si-Xia; Guo, Chao; Zhang, Yan-Kai; Sun, Jing-Tao; Hong, Xiao-Yue

    2015-11-01

    DNA methylation is an epigenetic mechanism for regulating developmental and other important processes in eukaryotes. Several essential components of the DNA methylation machinery have been identified, such as DNA methyltransferases. In the two-spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch, we have identified one DNA methyltransferase 3 gene (Tudnmt3) and tentatively investigated its potential role in adult females and males. Here, to better elucidate the functional role of Tudnmt3, its protein structure, expression and localization were subjected to more detailed analyses. Bioinformatic analyses clearly showed that the structure of TuDNMT3 was highly conserved, with several vital amino acid residues for the activation and stabilization of its confirmation. Western blot analyses revealed that this protein was expressed in both genders, with higher expression in adult females, which was inconsistent with the gene expression, suggesting translational regulation of Tudnmt3. Subsequent immunodetection provided supportive evidence for higher expression of the TuDNMT3 protein in adult females and indicated that this protein was generally localized in the cytoplasm and that its expression was predominantly confined to the genital region of spider mites, strengthening the hypothesis that de novo methylation mediated by Tudnmt3 in gonad development or gametogenesis has a different mechanism from maintenance methyltransferase.

  16. The UHRF1 Protein Stimulates the Activity and Specificity of the Maintenance DNA Methyltransferase DNMT1 by an Allosteric Mechanism*

    PubMed Central

    Bashtrykov, Pavel; Jankevicius, Gytis; Jurkowska, Renata Z.; Ragozin, Sergey; Jeltsch, Albert

    2014-01-01

    The ubiquitin-like, containing PHD and RING finger domains protein 1 (UHRF1) is essential for maintenance DNA methylation by DNA methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1). UHRF1 has been shown to recruit DNMT1 to replicated DNA by the ability of its SET and RING-associated (SRA) domain to bind to hemimethylated DNA. Here, we demonstrate that UHRF1 also increases the activity of DNMT1 by almost 5-fold. This stimulation is mediated by a direct interaction of both proteins through the SRA domain of UHRF1 and the replication focus targeting sequence domain of DNMT1, and it does not require DNA binding by the SRA domain. Disruption of the interaction between DNMT1 and UHRF1 by replacement of key residues in the replication focus targeting sequence domain led to a strong reduction of DNMT1 stimulation. Additionally, the interaction with UHRF1 increased the specificity of DNMT1 for methylation of hemimethylated CpG sites. These findings show that apart from the targeting of DNMT1 to the replicated DNA UHRF1 increases the activity and specificity of DNMT1, thus exerting a multifaceted influence on the maintenance of DNA methylation. PMID:24368767

  17. The methyltransferase domain of dengue virus protein NS5 ensures efficient RNA synthesis initiation and elongation by the polymerase domain.

    PubMed

    Potisopon, Supanee; Priet, Stéphane; Collet, Axelle; Decroly, Etienne; Canard, Bruno; Selisko, Barbara

    2014-10-01

    Viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerases (RdRps) responsible for the replication of single-strand RNA virus genomes exert their function in the context of complex replication machineries. Within these replication complexes the polymerase activity is often highly regulated by RNA elements, proteins or other domains of multi-domain polymerases. Here, we present data of the influence of the methyltransferase domain (NS5-MTase) of dengue virus (DENV) protein NS5 on the RdRp activity of the polymerase domain (NS5-Pol). The steady-state polymerase activities of DENV-2 recombinant NS5 and NS5-Pol are compared using different biochemical assays allowing the dissection of the de novo initiation, transition and elongation steps of RNA synthesis. We show that NS5-MTase ensures efficient RdRp activity by stimulating the de novo initiation and the elongation phase. This stimulation is related to a higher affinity of NS5 toward the single-strand RNA template indicating NS5-MTase either completes a high-affinity RNA binding site and/or promotes the correct formation of the template tunnel. Furthermore, the NS5-MTase increases the affinity of the priming nucleotide ATP upon de novo initiation and causes a higher catalytic efficiency of the polymerase upon elongation. The complex stimulation pattern is discussed under the perspective that NS5 adopts several conformations during RNA synthesis. PMID:25209234

  18. The methyltransferase domain of dengue virus protein NS5 ensures efficient RNA synthesis initiation and elongation by the polymerase domain

    PubMed Central

    Potisopon, Supanee; Priet, Stéphane; Collet, Axelle; Decroly, Etienne; Canard, Bruno; Selisko, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    Viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerases (RdRps) responsible for the replication of single-strand RNA virus genomes exert their function in the context of complex replication machineries. Within these replication complexes the polymerase activity is often highly regulated by RNA elements, proteins or other domains of multi-domain polymerases. Here, we present data of the influence of the methyltransferase domain (NS5-MTase) of dengue virus (DENV) protein NS5 on the RdRp activity of the polymerase domain (NS5-Pol). The steady-state polymerase activities of DENV-2 recombinant NS5 and NS5-Pol are compared using different biochemical assays allowing the dissection of the de novo initiation, transition and elongation steps of RNA synthesis. We show that NS5-MTase ensures efficient RdRp activity by stimulating the de novo initiation and the elongation phase. This stimulation is related to a higher affinity of NS5 toward the single-strand RNA template indicating NS5-MTase either completes a high-affinity RNA binding site and/or promotes the correct formation of the template tunnel. Furthermore, the NS5-MTase increases the affinity of the priming nucleotide ATP upon de novo initiation and causes a higher catalytic efficiency of the polymerase upon elongation. The complex stimulation pattern is discussed under the perspective that NS5 adopts several conformations during RNA synthesis. PMID:25209234

  19. PRMT1-mediated arginine methylation controls ATXN2L localization

    SciTech Connect

    Kaehler, Christian; Guenther, Anika; Uhlich, Anja; Krobitsch, Sylvia

    2015-05-15

    Arginine methylation is a posttranslational modification that is of importance in diverse cellular processes. Recent proteomic mass spectrometry studies reported arginine methylation of ataxin-2-like (ATXN2L), the paralog of ataxin-2, a protein that is implicated in the neurodegenerative disorder spinocerebellar ataxia type 2. Here, we investigated the methylation state of ATXN2L and its significance for ATXN2L localization. We first confirmed that ATXN2L is asymmetrically dimethylated in vivo, and observed that the nuclear localization of ATXN2L is altered under methylation inhibition. We further discovered that ATXN2L associates with the protein arginine-N-methyltransferase 1 (PRMT1). Finally, we showed that neither mutation of the arginine–glycine-rich motifs of ATXN2L nor methylation inhibition alters ATXN2L localization to stress granules, suggesting that methylation of ATXN2L is probably not mandatory. - Highlights: • ATXN2L is asymmetrically dimethylated in vivo. • ATXN2L interacts with PRMT1 under normal and stress conditions. • PRMT1-mediated dimethylation of ATXN2L controls its nuclear localization. • ATXN2L localization to stress granules appears independent of its methylation state.

  20. Nuclear Speckle-related Protein 70 Binds to Serine/Arginine-rich Splicing Factors 1 and 2 via an Arginine/Serine-like Region and Counteracts Their Alternative Splicing Activity.

    PubMed

    Kim, Chang-Hyun; Kim, Young-Dae; Choi, Eun-Kyung; Kim, Hye-Ran; Na, Bo-Ra; Im, Sin-Hyeog; Jun, Chang-Duk

    2016-03-18

    Nuclear speckles are subnuclear storage sites containing pre-mRNA splicing machinery. Proteins assembled in nuclear speckles are known to modulate transcription and pre-mRNA processing. We have previously identified nuclear speckle-related protein 70 (NSrp70) as a novel serine/arginine (SR)-related protein that co-localizes with classical SR proteins such as serine/arginine-rich splicing factor 1 (SRSF1 or ASF/SF2) and SRSF2 (SC35). NSrp70 mediates alternative splice site selection, targeting several pre-mRNAs, including CD44 exon v5. Here we demonstrated that NSrp70 interacts physically with two SR proteins, SRSF1 and SRSF2, and reverses their splicing activity in terms of CD44 exon v5 as exon exclusion. The NSrp70 RS-like region was subdivided into three areas. Deletion of the first arginine/serine-rich-like region (RS1) completely abrogated binding to the SR proteins and to target mRNA and also failed to induce splicing of CD44 exon v5, suggesting that RS1 is critical for NSrp70 functioning. Interestingly, RS1 deletion also resulted in the loss of NSrp70 and SR protein speckle positioning, implying a potential scaffolding role for NSrp70 in nuclear speckles. NSrp70 contains an N-terminal coiled-coil domain that is critical not only for self-oligomerization but also for splicing activity. Consistently, deletion of the coiled-coil domain resulted in indefinite formation of nuclear speckles. Collectively, these results demonstrate that NSrp70 acts as a new molecular counterpart for alternative splicing of target RNA, counteracting SRSF1 and SRSF2 splicing activity.

  1. Dietary Flavones as Dual Inhibitors of DNA Methyltransferases and Histone Methyltransferases

    PubMed Central

    Kanwal, Rajnee; Datt, Manish; Liu, Xiaoqi; Gupta, Sanjay

    2016-01-01

    Methylation of DNA and histone proteins are mutually involved in the epigenetic regulation of gene expression mediated by DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs) and histone methyltransferases (HMTs). DNMTs methylate cytosine residues within gene promoters, whereas HMTs catalyze the transfer of methyl groups to lysine and arginine residues of histone proteins, thus causing chromatin condensation and transcriptional repression, which play an important role in the pathogenesis of cancer. The potential reversibility of epigenetic alterations has encouraged the development of dual pharmacologic inhibitors of DNA and histone methylation as anticancer therapeutics. Dietary flavones can affect epigenetic modifications that accumulate over time and have shown anticancer properties, which are undefined. Through DNA binding and in silico protein-ligand docking studies with plant flavones viz. Apigenin, Chrysin and Luteolin, the effect of flavones on DNA and histone methylation was assessed. Spectroscopic analysis of flavones with calf-thymus DNA revealed intercalation as the dominant binding mode, with specific binding to a GC-rich sequence in the DNA duplex. A virtual screening approach using a model of the catalytic site of DNMT and EZH2 demonstrated that plant flavones are tethered at both ends inside the catalytic pocket of DNMT and EZH2 by means of hydrogen bonding. Epigenetic studies performed with flavones exhibited a decrease in DNMT enzyme activity and a reversal of the hypermethylation of cytosine bases in the DNA and prevented cytosine methylation in the GC-rich promoter sequence incubated with the M.SssI enzyme. Furthermore, a marked decrease in HMT activity and a decrease in EZH2 protein expression and trimethylation of H3K27 were noted in histones isolated from cancer cells treated with plant flavones. Our results suggest that dietary flavones can alter DNMT and HMT activities and the methylation of DNA and histone proteins that regulate epigenetic modifications, thus

  2. Design, Synthesis, and Biological Evaluation of Tetrazole Analogs of Cl-Amidine as Protein Arginine Deiminase Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Protein arginine deiminases (PADs) catalyze the post-translational hydrolysis of arginine residues to form citrulline. This once obscure modification is now known to play a key role in the etiology of multiple autoimmune diseases (e.g., rheumatoid arthritis, multiple sclerosis, lupus, and ulcerative colitis) and in some forms of cancer. Among the five human PADs (PAD1, -2, -3, -4, and -6), it is unclear which isozyme contributes to disease pathogenesis. Toward the identification of potent, selective, and bioavailable PAD inhibitors that can be used to elucidate the specific roles of each isozyme, we describe tetrazole analogs as suitable backbone amide bond bioisosteres for the parent pan PAD inhibitor Cl-amidine. These tetrazole based analogs are highly potent and show selectivity toward particular isozymes. Importantly, one of the compounds, biphenyl tetrazole tert-butyl Cl-amidine (compound 13), exhibits enhanced cell killing in a PAD4 expressing osteosarcoma bone marrow (U2OS) cell line and can also block the formation of neutrophil extracellular traps. These bioisosteres represent an important step in our efforts to develop stable, bioavailable, and selective inhibitors for the PADs. PMID:25559347

  3. Design, synthesis, and biological evaluation of tetrazole analogs of Cl-amidine as protein arginine deiminase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Subramanian, Venkataraman; Knight, Jason S; Parelkar, Sangram; Anguish, Lynne; Coonrod, Scott A; Kaplan, Mariana J; Thompson, Paul R

    2015-02-12

    Protein arginine deiminases (PADs) catalyze the post-translational hydrolysis of arginine residues to form citrulline. This once obscure modification is now known to play a key role in the etiology of multiple autoimmune diseases (e.g., rheumatoid arthritis, multiple sclerosis, lupus, and ulcerative colitis) and in some forms of cancer. Among the five human PADs (PAD1, -2, -3, -4, and -6), it is unclear which isozyme contributes to disease pathogenesis. Toward the identification of potent, selective, and bioavailable PAD inhibitors that can be used to elucidate the specific roles of each isozyme, we describe tetrazole analogs as suitable backbone amide bond bioisosteres for the parent pan PAD inhibitor Cl-amidine. These tetrazole based analogs are highly potent and show selectivity toward particular isozymes. Importantly, one of the compounds, biphenyl tetrazole tert-butyl Cl-amidine (compound 13), exhibits enhanced cell killing in a PAD4 expressing osteosarcoma bone marrow (U2OS) cell line and can also block the formation of neutrophil extracellular traps. These bioisosteres represent an important step in our efforts to develop stable, bioavailable, and selective inhibitors for the PADs.

  4. Expression, Purification And Preliminary X-Ray Analysis of the C-Terminal Domain of An Arginine Repressor Protein From Mycobacterium Tuberculosis

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, G.J.; Garen, C.R.; Cherney, M.M.; Cherney, L.T.; Lee, C.; James, M.N.J.

    2009-06-03

    The gene product of an open reading frame Rv1657 from Mycobacterium tuberculosis is a putative arginine repressor protein (ArgR), a transcriptional factor that regulates the expression of arginine-biosynthetic enzymes. Rv1657 was expressed and purified and a C-terminal domain was crystallized using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method. Diffraction data were collected and processed to a resolution of 2.15 {angstrom}. The crystals belong to space group P1 and the Matthews coefficient suggests that the crystals contain six C-terminal domain molecules per unit cell. Previous structural and biochemical studies on the arginine repressor proteins from other organisms have likewise shown the presence of six molecules per unit cell.

  5. An Arginine-Faced Amphipathic Alpha Helix Is Required for Adenovirus Type 5 E4orf6 Protein Function

    PubMed Central

    Orlando, Joseph S.; Ornelles, David A.

    1999-01-01

    A region in the carboxy terminus of the protein encoded by open reading frame 6 in early region 4 (E4orf6) of adenovirus type 5 was determined to be required for directing nuclear localization of the E1B 55-kDa protein and for efficient virus replication. A peptide encompassing this region, corresponding to amino acids 239 through 255 of the E4orf6 protein, was analyzed by circular dichroism spectroscopy. The peptide showed evidence of self-interaction and displayed the characteristic spectra of an amphipathic α helix in the helix-stabilizing solvent trifluoroethanol. Disrupting the integrity of this α helix in the E4orf6 protein by proline substitutions or by removing amino acids 241 through 250 abolished its ability to direct the E1B 55-kDa protein to the nucleus when both proteins were transiently expressed in HeLa cells. Expression of E4orf6 variants that failed to direct nuclear localization of the E1B 55-kDa protein failed to enhance replication of the E4 mutant virus, dl1014, whereas expression of the wild-type E4orf6 protein restored growth of dl1014 to near-wild-type levels. These results suggest that the E4orf6 protein contains an arginine-faced, amphipathic α helix that is critical for a functional interaction with the E1B 55-kDa protein in the cell and for the function of the E4orf6 protein during a lytic infection. PMID:10233919

  6. Linking electrostatic effects and protein motions in enzymatic catalysis. A theoretical analysis of catechol o-methyltransferase.

    PubMed

    García-Meseguer, Rafael; Zinovjev, Kirill; Roca, Maite; Ruiz-Pernía, Javier J; Tuñón, Iñaki

    2015-01-22

    The role of protein motions in enzymatic catalysis is the subject of a hot scientific debate. We here propose the use of an explicit solvent coordinate to analyze the impact of environmental motions during the reaction process. The example analyzed here is the reaction catalyzed by catechol O-methyltransferase, a methyl transfer reaction from S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) to the nucleophilic oxygen atom of catecholate. This reaction proceeds from a charged reactant to a neutral product, and then a large electrostatic coupling with the environment could be expected. By means of a two-dimensional free energy surface, we show that a large fraction of the environmental motions needed to attain the transition state happens during the first stages of the reaction because most of the environmental motions are slower than changes in the substrate. The incorporation of the solvent coordinate in the definition of the transition state improves the transmission coefficient and the committor histogram in solution, while the changes are much less significant in the enzyme. The equilibrium solvation approach seems then to work better in the enzyme than in aqueous solution because the enzyme provides a preorganized environment where the reaction takes place.

  7. The preRC protein ORCA organizes heterochromatin by assembling histone H3 lysine 9 methyltransferases on chromatin

    PubMed Central

    Giri, Sumanprava; Aggarwal, Vasudha; Pontis, Julien; Shen, Zhen; Chakraborty, Arindam; Khan, Abid; Mizzen, Craig; Prasanth, Kannanganattu V; Ait-Si-Ali, Slimane; Ha, Taekjip; Prasanth, Supriya G

    2015-01-01

    Heterochromatic domains are enriched with repressive histone marks, including histone H3 lysine 9 methylation, written by lysine methyltransferases (KMTs). The pre-replication complex protein, origin recognition complex-associated (ORCA/LRWD1), preferentially localizes to heterochromatic regions in post-replicated cells. Its role in heterochromatin organization remained elusive. ORCA recognizes methylated H3K9 marks and interacts with repressive KMTs, including G9a/GLP and Suv39H1 in a chromatin context-dependent manner. Single-molecule pull-down assays demonstrate that ORCA-ORC (Origin Recognition Complex) and multiple H3K9 KMTs exist in a single complex and that ORCA stabilizes H3K9 KMT complex. Cells lacking ORCA show alterations in chromatin architecture, with significantly reduced H3K9 di- and tri-methylation at specific chromatin sites. Changes in heterochromatin structure due to loss of ORCA affect replication timing, preferentially at the late-replicating regions. We demonstrate that ORCA acts as a scaffold for the establishment of H3K9 KMT complex and its association and activity at specific chromatin sites is crucial for the organization of heterochromatin structure. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.06496.001 PMID:25922909

  8. The human interferon-regulated ISG95 protein interacts with RNA polymerase II and shows methyltransferase activity

    SciTech Connect

    Haline-Vaz, Thais; Lima Silva, Tereza Cristina; Zanchin, Nilson I.T.

    2008-08-08

    A major mechanism of cellular resistance to viral invasion involves genes from the interferon signaling pathway, called ISGs (interferon stimulated genes). Global transcriptional profiling studies have linked increased expression of ISG95 (KIAA0082) to response to interferon treatment and viral infection, suggesting that it may be part of the cellular defense against viral replication. In this work, we show that the ISG95 promoter can drive interferon-induced transcription of a reporter gene in Vero cells. Recombinant ISG95 shows RNA- and S-adenosyl-methionine binding and protein methyltransferase activity in vitro. ISG95 interacts with the C-terminal domain of RNA polymerase II, which is consistent with its nuclear localization and with the predicted function of the WW domain found in the C-terminal region of ISG95. The results presented in this work indicate that ISG95 is part of the interferon response pathway and functions in the pre-mRNA processing events mediated by the C-terminal domain of the RNA polymerase II.

  9. Dengue Virus Nonstructural Protein 5 (NS5) Assembles into a Dimer with a Unique Methyltransferase and Polymerase Interface

    PubMed Central

    Klema, Valerie J.; Ye, Mengyi; Hindupur, Aditya; Teramoto, Tadahisa; Gottipati, Keerthi; Padmanabhan, Radhakrishnan; Choi, Kyung H.

    2016-01-01

    Flavivirus nonstructural protein 5 (NS5) consists of methyltransferase (MTase) and RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) domains, which catalyze 5’-RNA capping/methylation and RNA synthesis, respectively, during viral genome replication. Although the crystal structure of flavivirus NS5 is known, no data about the quaternary organization of the functional enzyme are available. We report the crystal structure of dengue virus full-length NS5, where eight molecules of NS5 are arranged as four independent dimers in the crystallographic asymmetric unit. The relative orientation of each monomer within the dimer, as well as the orientations of the MTase and RdRp domains within each monomer, is conserved, suggesting that these structural arrangements represent the biologically relevant conformation and assembly of this multi-functional enzyme. Essential interactions between MTase and RdRp domains are maintained in the NS5 dimer via inter-molecular interactions, providing evidence that flavivirus NS5 can adopt multiple conformations while preserving necessary interactions between the MTase and RdRp domains. Furthermore, many NS5 residues that reduce viral replication are located at either the inter-domain interface within a monomer or at the inter-molecular interface within the dimer. Hence the X-ray structure of NS5 presented here suggests that MTase and RdRp activities could be coordinated as a dimer during viral genome replication. PMID:26895240

  10. Charge-based interaction conserved within histone H3 lysine 4 (H3K4) methyltransferase complexes is needed for protein stability, histone methylation, and gene expression.

    PubMed

    Mersman, Douglas P; Du, Hai-Ning; Fingerman, Ian M; South, Paul F; Briggs, Scott D

    2012-01-20

    Histone H3 lysine 4 (H3K4) methyltransferases are conserved from yeast to humans, assemble in multisubunit complexes, and are needed to regulate gene expression. The yeast H3K4 methyltransferase complex, Set1 complex or complex of proteins associated with Set1 (COMPASS), consists of Set1 and conserved Set1-associated proteins: Swd1, Swd2, Swd3, Spp1, Bre2, Sdc1, and Shg1. The removal of the WD40 domain-containing subunits Swd1 and Swd3 leads to a loss of Set1 protein and consequently a complete loss of H3K4 methylation. However, until now, how these WD40 domain-containing proteins interact with Set1 and contribute to the stability of Set1 and H3K4 methylation has not been determined. In this study, we identified small basic and acidic patches that mediate protein interactions between the C terminus of Swd1 and the nSET domain of Set1. Absence of either the basic or acidic patches of Set1 and Swd1, respectively, disrupts the interaction between Set1 and Swd1, diminishes Set1 protein levels, and abolishes H3K4 methylation. Moreover, these basic and acidic patches are also important for cell growth, telomere silencing, and gene expression. We also show that the basic and acidic patches of Set1 and Swd1 are conserved in their human counterparts SET1A/B and RBBP5, respectively, and are needed for the protein interaction between SET1A and RBBP5. Therefore, this charge-based interaction is likely important for maintaining the protein stability of the human SET1A/B methyltransferase complexes so that proper H3K4 methylation, cell growth, and gene expression can also occur in mammals. PMID:22147691

  11. Profiling of Methyltransferases and Other S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine-binding Proteins by Capture Compound Mass Spectrometry (CCMS)

    PubMed Central

    Lenz, Thomas; Poot, Peter; Gräbner, Olivia; Glinski, Mirko; Weinhold, Elmar; Dreger, Mathias; Köster, Hubert

    2010-01-01

    There is a variety of approaches to reduce the complexity of the proteome on the basis of functional small molecule-protein interactions such as affinity chromatography 1 or Activity Based Protein Profiling 2. Trifunctional Capture Compounds (CCs, Figure 1A) 3 are the basis for a generic approach, in which the initial equilibrium-driven interaction between a small molecule probe (the selectivity function, here S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine, SAH, Figure 1A) and target proteins is irreversibly fixed upon photo-crosslinking between an independent photo-activable reactivity function (here a phenylazide) of the CC and the surface of the target proteins. The sorting function (here biotin) serves to isolate the CC - protein conjugates from complex biological mixtures with the help of a solid phase (here streptavidin magnetic beads). Two configurations of the experiments are possible: "off-bead" 4 or the presently described "on-bead" configuration (Figure 1B). The selectivity function may be virtually any small molecule of interest (substrates, inhibitors, drug molecules). S-Adenosyl-L-methionine (SAM, Figure 1A) is probably, second to ATP, the most widely used cofactor in nature 5, 6. It is used as the major methyl group donor in all living organisms with the chemical reaction being catalyzed by SAM-dependent methyltransferases (MTases), which methylate DNA 7, RNA 8, proteins 9, or small molecules 10. Given the crucial role of methylation reactions in diverse physiological scenarios (gene regulation, epigenetics, metabolism), the profiling of MTases can be expected to become of similar importance in functional proteomics as the profiling of kinases. Analytical tools for their profiling, however, have not been available. We recently introduced a CC with SAH as selectivity group to fill this technological gap (Figure 1A). SAH, the product of SAM after methyl transfer, is a known general MTase product inhibitor 11. For this reason and because the natural cofactor SAM is used by

  12. Profiling of methyltransferases and other S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine-binding Proteins by Capture Compound Mass Spectrometry (CCMS).

    PubMed

    Lenz, Thomas; Poot, Peter; Gräbner, Olivia; Glinski, Mirko; Weinhold, Elmar; Dreger, Mathias; Köster, Hubert

    2010-01-01

    There is a variety of approaches to reduce the complexity of the proteome on the basis of functional small molecule-protein interactions such as affinity chromatography (1) or Activity Based Protein Profiling (2). Trifunctional Capture Compounds (CCs, Figure 1A) (3) are the basis for a generic approach, in which the initial equilibrium-driven interaction between a small molecule probe (the selectivity function, here S-adenosyl-(L)-homocysteine, SAH, Figure 1A) and target proteins is irreversibly fixed upon photo-crosslinking between an independent photo-activable reactivity function (here a phenylazide) of the CC and the surface of the target proteins. The sorting function (here biotin) serves to isolate the CC - protein conjugates from complex biological mixtures with the help of a solid phase (here streptavidin magnetic beads). Two configurations of the experiments are possible: "off-bead" (4) or the presently described "on-bead" configuration (Figure 1B). The selectivity function may be virtually any small molecule of interest (substrates, inhibitors, drug molecules). S-Adenosyl-(L)-methionine (SAM, Figure 1A) is probably, second to ATP, the most widely used cofactor in nature (5, 6). It is used as the major methyl group donor in all living organisms with the chemical reaction being catalyzed by SAM-dependent methyltransferases (MTases), which methylate DNA (7), RNA (8), proteins (9), or small molecules (10). Given the crucial role of methylation reactions in diverse physiological scenarios (gene regulation, epigenetics, metabolism), the profiling of MTases can be expected to become of similar importance in functional proteomics as the profiling of kinases. Analytical tools for their profiling, however, have not been available. We recently introduced a CC with SAH as selectivity group to fill this technological gap (Figure 1A). SAH, the product of SAM after methyl transfer, is a known general MTase product inhibitor (11). For this reason and because the natural

  13. Integrated proteomic analysis of major isoaspartyl-containing proteins in the urine of wild type and protein L-isoaspartate O-methyltransferase-deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Dai, Shujia; Ni, Wenqin; Patananan, Alexander N; Clarke, Steven G; Karger, Barry L; Zhou, Zhaohui Sunny

    2013-02-19

    The formation of isoaspartyl residues (isoAsp or isoD) via either aspartyl isomerization or asparaginyl deamidation alters protein structure and potentially biological function. This is a spontaneous and nonenzymatic process, ubiquitous both in vivo and in nonbiological systems, such as in protein pharmaceuticals. In almost all organisms, protein L-isoaspartate O-methyltransferase (PIMT, EC2.1.1.77) recognizes and initiates the conversion of isoAsp back to aspartic acid. Additionally, alternative proteolytic and excretion pathways to metabolize isoaspartyl-containing proteins have been proposed but not fully explored, largely due to the analytical challenges for detecting isoAsp. We report here the relative quantitation and site profiling of isoAsp in urinary proteins from wild type and PIMT-deficient mice, representing products from excretion pathways. First, using a biochemical approach, we found that the total isoaspartyl level of proteins in urine of PIMT-deficient male mice was elevated. Subsequently, the major isoaspartyl protein species in urine from these mice were identified as major urinary proteins (MUPs) by shotgun proteomics. To enhance the sensitivity of isoAsp detection, a targeted proteomic approach using electron transfer dissociation-selected reaction monitoring (ETD-SRM) was developed to investigate isoAsp sites in MUPs. A total of 38 putative isoAsp modification sites in MUPs were investigated, with five derived from the deamidation of asparagine that were confirmed to contribute to the elevated isoAsp levels. Our findings lend experimental evidence for the hypothesized excretion pathway for isoAsp proteins. Additionally, the developed method opens up the possibility to explore processing mechanisms of isoaspartyl proteins at the molecular level, such as the fate of protein pharmaceuticals in circulation.

  14. Two Proteins with Ornithine Acetyltransferase Activity Show Different Functions in Streptomyces clavuligerus: Oat2 Modulates Clavulanic Acid Biosynthesis in Response to Arginine

    PubMed Central

    de la Fuente, A.; Martín, J. F.; Rodríguez-García, A.; Liras, P.

    2004-01-01

    The oat2 gene, located in the clavulanic acid gene cluster in Streptomyces clavuligerus, is similar to argJ, which encodes N-acetylornithine:glutamic acid acetyltransferase activity. Purified proteins obtained by expression in Escherichia coli of the argJ and oat2 genes of S. clavuligerus posses N-acetyltransferase activity. The kinetics and substrate specificities of both proteins are very similar. Deletion of the oat2 gene did not affect the total N-acetylornithine transferase activity and slightly reduced the formation of clavulanic acid under standard culture conditions. However, the oat2 mutant produced more clavulanic acid than the parental strain in cultures supplemented with high levels (above 1 mM) of arginine. The purified S. clavuligerus ArgR protein bound the arginine box in the oat2 promoter, and the expression of oat2 was higher in mutants with a disruption in argR (arginine-deregulated), confirming that the Arg boxes of oat2 are functional in vivo. Our results suggest that the Oat2 protein or one of its reaction products has a regulatory role that modulates clavulanic acid biosynthesis in response to high arginine concentrations. PMID:15375131

  15. The putative protein methyltransferase LAE1 of Trichoderma atroviride is a key regulator of asexual development and mycoparasitism.

    PubMed

    Karimi Aghcheh, Razieh; Druzhinina, Irina S; Kubicek, Christian P

    2013-01-01

    In Ascomycota the protein methyltransferase LaeA is a global regulator that affects the expression of secondary metabolite gene clusters, and controls sexual and asexual development. The common mycoparasitic fungus Trichoderma atroviride is one of the most widely studied agents of biological control of plant-pathogenic fungi that also serves as a model for the research on regulation of asexual sporulation (conidiation) by environmental stimuli such as light and/or mechanical injury. In order to learn the possible involvement of LAE1 in these two traits, we assessed the effect of deletion and overexpression of lae1 gene on conidiation and mycoparasitic interaction. In the presence of light, conidiation was 50% decreased in a Δ lae1 and 30-50% increased in lae1-overexpressing (OElae1) strains. In darkness, Δ lae1 strains did not sporulate, and the OElae1 strains produced as much spores as the parent strain. Loss-of-function of lae1 also abolished sporulation triggered by mechanical injury of the mycelia. Deletion of lae1 also increased the sensitivity of T. atroviride to oxidative stress, abolished its ability to defend against other fungi and led to a loss of mycoparasitic behaviour, whereas the OElae1 strains displayed enhanced mycoparasitic vigor. The loss of mycoparasitic activity in the Δ lae1 strain correlated with a significant underexpressionn of several genes normally upregulated during mycoparasitic interaction (proteases, GH16 ß-glucanases, polyketide synthases and small cystein-rich secreted proteins), which in turn was reflected in the partial reduction of formation of fungicidal water soluble metabolites and volatile compounds. Our study shows T. atroviride LAE1 is essential for asexual reproduction in the dark and for defense and parasitism on other fungi.

  16. Arginine transport in catabolic disease states.

    PubMed

    Pan, Ming; Choudry, Haroon A; Epler, Mark J; Meng, Qinghe; Karinch, Anne; Lin, Chengmao; Souba, Wiley

    2004-10-01

    Arginine appears to be a semiessential amino acid in humans during critical illness. Catabolic disease states such as sepsis, injury, and cancer cause an increase in arginine utilization, which exceeds body production, leading to arginine depletion. This is aggravated by the reduced nutrient intake that is associated with critical illness. Arginine depletion may have negative consequences on tissue function under these circumstances. Nutritional regimens containing arginine have been shown to improve nitrogen balance and lymphocyte function, and stimulate arginine transport in the liver. We have studied the effects of stress mediators on arginine transport in vascular endothelium, liver, and gut epithelium. In vascular endothelium, endotoxin stimulates arginine uptake, an effect that is mediated by the cytokine tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and by the cyclo-oxygenase pathway. This TNF-alpha stimulation involves the activation of intracellular protein kinase C (PKC). A significant increase in hepatic arginine transport activity also occurs following burn injury and in rats with progressive malignant disease. Surgical removal of the growing tumor results in a normalization of the accelerated hepatic arginine transport within days. Chronic metabolic acidosis and sepsis individually augment intestinal arginine transport in rats and Caco-2 cell culture. PKC and mitogen-activated protein kinases are involved in mediating the sepsis/acidosis stimulation of arginine transport. Understanding the regulation of plasma membrane arginine transport will enhance our knowledge of nutrition and metabolism in seriously ill patients and may lead to the design of improved nutritional support formulas. PMID:15465794

  17. Functions that Protect Escherichia coli from Tightly Bound DNA-Protein Complexes Created by Mutant EcoRII Methyltransferase

    PubMed Central

    Henderson, Morgan L.; Kreuzer, Kenneth N

    2015-01-01

    Expression of mutant EcoRII methyltransferase protein (M.EcoRII-C186A) in Escherichia coli leads to tightly bound DNA-protein complexes (TBCs), located sporadically on the chromosome rather than in tandem arrays. The mechanisms behind the lethality induced by such sporadic TBCs are not well studied, nor is it clear whether very tight binding but non-covalent complexes are processed in the same way as covalent DNA-protein crosslinks (DPCs). Using 2D gel electrophoresis, we found that TBCs induced by M.EcoRII-C186A block replication forks in vivo. Specific bubble molecules were detected as spots on the 2D gel, only when M.EcoRII-C186A was induced, and a mutation that eliminates a specific EcoRII methylation site led to disappearance of the corresponding spot. We also performed a candidate gene screen for mutants that are hypersensitive to TBCs induced by M.EcoRII-C186A. We found several gene products necessary for protection against these TBCs that are known to also protect against DPCs induced with wild-type M.EcoRII (after 5-azacytidine incorporation): RecA, RecBC, RecG, RuvABC, UvrD, FtsK, XerCD and SsrA (tmRNA). In contrast, the RecFOR pathway and Rep helicase are needed for protection against TBCs but not DPCs induced by M.EcoRII. We propose that stalled fork processing by RecFOR and RecA promotes release of tightly bound (but non-covalent) blocking proteins, perhaps by licensing Rep helicase-driven dissociation of the blocking M.EcoRII-C186A. Our studies also argued against the involvement of several proteins that might be expected to protect against TBCs. We took the opportunity to directly compare the sensitivity of all tested mutants to two quinolone antibiotics, which target bacterial type II topoisomerases and induce a unique form of DPC. We uncovered rep, ftsK and xerCD as novel quinolone hypersensitive mutants, and also obtained evidence against the involvement of a number of functions that might be expected to protect against quinolones. PMID:25993347

  18. Effect of counter ions of arginine as an additive for the solubilization of protein and aromatic compounds.

    PubMed

    Yoshizawa, Shunsuke; Arakawa, Tsutomu; Shiraki, Kentaro

    2016-10-01

    Arginine is widely used in biotechnological application, but mostly with chloride counter ion. Here, we examined the effects of various anions on solubilization of aromatic compounds and reduced lysozyme and on refolding of the lysozyme. All arginine salts tested increased the solubility of propyl gallate with acetate much more effectively than chloride. The effects of arginine salts were compared with those of sodium or guanidine salts, indicating that the ability of anions to modulate the propyl gallate solubility is independent of the cation. Comparison of transfer free energy of propyl gallate between sodium and arginine salts indicates that the interaction of propyl gallate is more favorable with arginine than sodium. On the contrary, the solubility of aromatic amino acids is only slightly modulated by anions, implying that there is specific interaction between acetic acid and propyl gallate. Unlike their effects on the solubility of small aromatic compounds, the solubility of reduced lysozyme was much higher in arginine chloride than in arginine acetate or sulfate. Consistent with high solubility, refolding of reduced lysozyme was most effective in arginine chloride. These results suggest potential broader applications of arginine modulated by different anions. PMID:27234496

  19. Effect of counter ions of arginine as an additive for the solubilization of protein and aromatic compounds.

    PubMed

    Yoshizawa, Shunsuke; Arakawa, Tsutomu; Shiraki, Kentaro

    2016-10-01

    Arginine is widely used in biotechnological application, but mostly with chloride counter ion. Here, we examined the effects of various anions on solubilization of aromatic compounds and reduced lysozyme and on refolding of the lysozyme. All arginine salts tested increased the solubility of propyl gallate with acetate much more effectively than chloride. The effects of arginine salts were compared with those of sodium or guanidine salts, indicating that the ability of anions to modulate the propyl gallate solubility is independent of the cation. Comparison of transfer free energy of propyl gallate between sodium and arginine salts indicates that the interaction of propyl gallate is more favorable with arginine than sodium. On the contrary, the solubility of aromatic amino acids is only slightly modulated by anions, implying that there is specific interaction between acetic acid and propyl gallate. Unlike their effects on the solubility of small aromatic compounds, the solubility of reduced lysozyme was much higher in arginine chloride than in arginine acetate or sulfate. Consistent with high solubility, refolding of reduced lysozyme was most effective in arginine chloride. These results suggest potential broader applications of arginine modulated by different anions.

  20. PROTEIN L-ISOASPARTYL METHYLTRANSFERASE2 is differentially expressed in chickpea and enhances seed vigor and longevity by reducing abnormal isoaspartyl accumulation predominantly in seed nuclear proteins.

    PubMed

    Verma, Pooja; Kaur, Harmeet; Petla, Bhanu Prakash; Rao, Venkateswara; Saxena, Saurabh C; Majee, Manoj

    2013-03-01

    PROTEIN l-ISOASPARTYL METHYLTRANSFERASE (PIMT) is a widely distributed protein-repairing enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of abnormal l-isoaspartyl residues in spontaneously damaged proteins to normal aspartyl residues. This enzyme is encoded by two divergent genes (PIMT1 and PIMT2) in plants, unlike many other organisms. While the biological role of PIMT1 has been elucidated, the role and significance of the PIMT2 gene in plants is not well defined. Here, we isolated the PIMT2 gene (CaPIMT2) from chickpea (Cicer arietinum), which exhibits a significant increase in isoaspartyl residues in seed proteins coupled with reduced germination vigor under artificial aging conditions. The CaPIMT2 gene is found to be highly divergent and encodes two possible isoforms (CaPIMT2 and CaPIMT2') differing by two amino acids in the region I catalytic domain through alternative splicing. Unlike CaPIMT1, both isoforms possess a unique 56-amino acid amino terminus and exhibit similar yet distinct enzymatic properties. Expression analysis revealed that CaPIMT2 is differentially regulated by stresses and abscisic acid. Confocal visualization of stably expressed green fluorescent protein-fused PIMT proteins and cell fractionation-immunoblot analysis revealed that apart from the plasma membrane, both CaPIMT2 isoforms localize predominantly in the nucleus, while CaPIMT1 localizes in the cytosol. Remarkably, CaPIMT2 enhances seed vigor and longevity by repairing abnormal isoaspartyl residues predominantly in nuclear proteins upon seed-specific expression in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), while CaPIMT1 enhances seed vigor and longevity by repairing such abnormal proteins mainly in the cytosolic fraction. Together, our data suggest that CaPIMT2 has most likely evolved through gene duplication, followed by subfunctionalization to specialize in repairing the nuclear proteome.

  1. DTL, the Drosophila homolog of PIMT/Tgs1 nuclear receptor coactivator-interacting protein/RNA methyltransferase, has an essential role in development.

    PubMed

    Komonyi, Orbán; Pápai, Gábor; Enunlu, Izzet; Muratoglu, Selen; Pankotai, Tibor; Kopitova, Darija; Maróy, Péter; Udvardy, Andor; Boros, Imre

    2005-04-01

    We describe a novel Drosophila gene, dtl (Drosophila Tat-like), which encodes a 60-kDa protein with RNA binding activity and a methyltransferase (MTase) domain. Dtl has an essential role in Drosophila development. The homologs of DTL recently described include PIMT (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-interacting protein with a methyltransferase domain), an RNA-binding protein that interacts with and enhances the nuclear receptor coactivator function, and TGS1, the methyltransferase involved in the formation of the 2,2,7-trimethylguanosine (m3G) cap of non-coding small RNAs. DTL is expressed throughout all of the developmental stages of Drosophila. The dtl mRNA has two ORFs (uORF and dORF). The product of dORF is the 60-kDa PIMT/TGS1 homolog protein that is translated from an internal AUG located 538 bp downstream from the 5' end of the message. This product of dtl is responsible for the formation of the m3G cap of small RNAs of Drosophila. Trimethylguanosine synthase activity is essential in Drosophila. The deletion in the dORF or point mutation in the putative MTase active site results in a reduced pool of m3G cap-containing RNAs and lethality in the early pupa stage. The 5' region of the dtl message also has the coding capacity (uORF) for a 178 amino acid protein. For complete rescue of the lethal phenotype of dtl mutants, the presence of the entire dtl transcription unit is required. Transgenes that carry mutations within the uORF restore the MTase activity but result in only partial rescue of the lethal phenotype. Interestingly, two transgenes bearing a mutation in uORF or dORF in trans can result in complete rescue.

  2. Structural rationale for the recognition of arginine at P₃ in PEXEL motif containing proteins of Plasmodium falciparum by plasmepsin V.

    PubMed

    Guruprasad, Lalitha; Tanneeru, Karunakar; Guruprasad, Kunchur

    2011-06-01

    The virulent form of malaria is caused by Plasmodium falciparum that infects red blood cells. In order to survive inside the host, the parasite remodels the infected erythrocytes by exporting more than 300 effector proteins outside the parasitophorous vacuole membrane into the cytosol. The main feature of all the export proteins is the presence of a pentapeptide sequence motif; RxLxE/Q/D. This sequence motif is hydrolysed between L-x and the proteins with the acetylated new N-terminus xE/Q/D are exported. The enzyme responsible for this hydrolysis is plasmepsin V which is one of the ten aspartic proteases in P. falciparum. In order to understand the structural rationale for the specificity of this protease towards cleavage of the above motif, we generated three-dimensional models of seven plasmepsins (I, V to X) for which experimental structures are not available and compared these along with the crystal structures of three P. falciparum plasmepsins (II to IV). The structure comparisons revealed the importance of Tyr13, Glu77 and Ala117 specific to plasmepsin V that facilitates the accommodation of arginine at P₃ in the RxLxE/Q/D motif. Our analysis correlates the structure-function relationship of plasmepsin V.

  3. Hepatitis B virus DNA-negative dane particles lack core protein but contain a 22-kDa precore protein without C-terminal arginine-rich domain.

    PubMed

    Kimura, Tatsuji; Ohno, Nobuhiko; Terada, Nobuo; Rokuhara, Akinori; Matsumoto, Akihiro; Yagi, Shintaro; Tanaka, Eiji; Kiyosawa, Kendo; Ohno, Shinichi; Maki, Noboru

    2005-06-10

    DNA-negative Dane particles have been observed in hepatitis B virus (HBV)-infected sera. The capsids of the empty particles are thought to be composed of core protein but have not been studied in detail. In the present study, the protein composition of the particles was examined using new enzyme immunoassays for the HBV core antigen (HBcAg) and for the HBV precore/core proteins (core-related antigens, HBcrAg). HBcrAg were abundant in fractions slightly less dense than HBcAg and HBV DNA. Three times more Dane-like particles were observed in the HBcrAg-rich fraction than in the HBV DNA-rich fraction by electron microscopy. Western blots and mass spectrometry identified the HBcrAg as a 22-kDa precore protein (p22cr) containing the uncleaved signal peptide and lacking the arginine-rich domain that is involved in binding the RNA pregenome or the DNA genome. In sera from 30 HBV-infected patients, HBcAg represented only a median 10.5% of the precore/core proteins in enveloped particles. These data suggest that most of the Dane particles lack viral DNA and core capsid but contain p22cr. This study provides a model for the formation of the DNA-negative Dane particles. The precore proteins, which lack the arginine-rich nucleotide-binding domain, form viral RNA/DNA-negative capsid-like particles and are enveloped and released as empty particles.

  4. Recruitment of histone methyltransferase G9a mediates transcriptional repression of Fgf21 gene by E4BP4 protein.

    PubMed

    Tong, Xin; Zhang, Deqiang; Buelow, Katie; Guha, Anirvan; Arthurs, Blake; Brady, Hugh J M; Yin, Lei

    2013-02-22

    The liver responds to fasting-refeeding cycles by reprogramming expression of metabolic genes. Fasting potently induces one of the key hepatic hormones, fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21), to promote lipolysis, fatty acid oxidation, and ketogenesis, whereas refeeding suppresses its expression. We previously reported that the basic leucine zipper transcription factor E4BP4 (E4 binding protein 4) represses Fgf21 expression and disrupts its circadian oscillations in cultured hepatocytes. However, the epigenetic mechanism for E4BP4-dependent suppression of Fgf21 has not yet been addressed. Here we present evidence that histone methyltransferase G9a mediates E4BP4-dependent repression of Fgf21 during refeeding by promoting repressive histone modification. We find that Fgf21 expression is up-regulated in E4bp4 knock-out mouse liver. We demonstrate that the G9a-specific inhibitor BIX01294 abolishes suppression of the Fgf21 promoter activity by E4BP4, whereas overexpression of E4bp4 leads to increased levels of dimethylation of histone 3 lysine 9 (H3K9me2) around the Fgf21 promoter region. Furthermore, we also show that E4BP4 interacts with G9a, and knockdown of G9a blocks repression of Fgf21 promoter activity and expression in cells overexpressing E4bp4. A G9a mutant lacking catalytic activity, due to deletion of the SET domain, fails to inhibit the Fgf21 promoter activity. Importantly, acute hepatic knockdown by adenoviral shRNA targeting G9a abolishes Fgf21 repression by refeeding, concomitant with decreased levels of H3K9me2 around the Fgf21 promoter region. In summary, we show that G9a mediates E4BP4-dependent suppression of hepatic Fgf21 by enhancing histone methylation (H3K9me2) of the Fgf21 promoter. PMID:23283977

  5. The Influence of Arginine on the Response of Enamel Matrix Derivative (EMD) Proteins to Thermal Stress: Towards Improving the Stability of EMD-Based Products.

    PubMed

    Apicella, Alessandra; Heunemann, Peggy; Bolisetty, Sreenath; Marascio, Matteo; Gemperli Graf, Anja; Garamszegi, Laszlo; Mezzenga, Raffaele; Fischer, Peter; Plummer, Christopher J; Månson, Jan-Anders

    2015-01-01

    In a current procedure for periodontal tissue regeneration, enamel matrix derivative (EMD), which is the active component, is mixed with a propylene glycol alginate (PGA) gel carrier and applied directly to the periodontal defect. Exposure of EMD to physiological conditions then causes it to precipitate. However, environmental changes during manufacture and storage may result in modifications to the conformation of the EMD proteins, and eventually premature phase separation of the gel and a loss in therapeutic effectiveness. The present work relates to efforts to improve the stability of EMD-based formulations such as Emdogain™ through the incorporation of arginine, a well-known protein stabilizer, but one that to our knowledge has not so far been considered for this purpose. Representative EMD-buffer solutions with and without arginine were analyzed by 3D-dynamic light scattering, UV-Vis spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy at different acidic pH and temperatures, T, in order to simulate the effect of pH variations and thermal stress during manufacture and storage. The results provided evidence that arginine may indeed stabilize EMD against irreversible aggregation with respect to variations in pH and T under these conditions. Moreover, stopped-flow transmittance measurements indicated arginine addition not to suppress precipitation of EMD from either the buffers or the PGA gel carrier when the pH was raised to 7, a fundamental requirement for dental applications. PMID:26670810

  6. The Influence of Arginine on the Response of Enamel Matrix Derivative (EMD) Proteins to Thermal Stress: Towards Improving the Stability of EMD-Based Products

    PubMed Central

    Bolisetty, Sreenath; Marascio, Matteo; Gemperli Graf, Anja; Garamszegi, Laszlo; Mezzenga, Raffaele; Fischer, Peter; Månson, Jan-Anders

    2015-01-01

    In a current procedure for periodontal tissue regeneration, enamel matrix derivative (EMD), which is the active component, is mixed with a propylene glycol alginate (PGA) gel carrier and applied directly to the periodontal defect. Exposure of EMD to physiological conditions then causes it to precipitate. However, environmental changes during manufacture and storage may result in modifications to the conformation of the EMD proteins, and eventually premature phase separation of the gel and a loss in therapeutic effectiveness. The present work relates to efforts to improve the stability of EMD-based formulations such as Emdogain™ through the incorporation of arginine, a well-known protein stabilizer, but one that to our knowledge has not so far been considered for this purpose. Representative EMD-buffer solutions with and without arginine were analyzed by 3D-dynamic light scattering, UV-Vis spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy at different acidic pH and temperatures, T, in order to simulate the effect of pH variations and thermal stress during manufacture and storage. The results provided evidence that arginine may indeed stabilize EMD against irreversible aggregation with respect to variations in pH and T under these conditions. Moreover, stopped-flow transmittance measurements indicated arginine addition not to suppress precipitation of EMD from either the buffers or the PGA gel carrier when the pH was raised to 7, a fundamental requirement for dental applications. PMID:26670810

  7. Structural Biology of Human H3K9 Methyltransferases

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, H.; Min, J; Lunin, V; Antoshenko, T; Dombrovsk, L; Zeng, H; Allali-Hassani, A; Campagna-Slater, V; Vedadi, M; et. al.

    2010-01-01

    SET domain methyltransferases deposit methyl marks on specific histone tail lysine residues and play a major role in epigenetic regulation of gene transcription. We solved the structures of the catalytic domains of GLP, G9a, Suv39H2 and PRDM2, four of the eight known human H3K9 methyltransferases in their apo conformation or in complex with the methyl donating cofactor, and peptide substrates. We analyzed the structural determinants for methylation state specificity, and designed a G9a mutant able to tri-methylate H3K9. We show that the I-SET domain acts as a rigid docking platform, while induced-fit of the Post-SET domain is necessary to achieve a catalytically competent conformation. We also propose a model where long-range electrostatics bring enzyme and histone substrate together, while the presence of an arginine upstream of the target lysine is critical for binding and specificity. Post-translational modifications of histone proteins regulate chromatin compaction, mediate epigenetic regulation of transcription, and control cellular differentiation in health and disease. Methylation of histone tails is one of the fundamental events of epigenetic signaling. Tri-methylation of lysine 9 of histone 3 (H3K9) mediates chromatin recruitment of HP1, heterochromatin condensation and gene silencing. Similarly, methylation of H3K27 and H4K20 are associated with a repressed state of chromatin, whereas expressed genes are methylated at H3K4, H3K36 and H3K79. Histone methyltransferases are divided into protein arginine methyltransferases (PRMTs) and histone lysine methyltransferases (HKMTs). HKMTs catalyze the transfer of a methyl group from the co-factor S-adenosyl-L-methionine (SAM) to a substrate lysine and, with the exception of DOT1L, are all organized around a canonical SET domain. The structures of a number of HKMTs have been reported, including ternary complexes of human orthologs with co-factor and substrate peptides (SETD7-H3K4, SETD8-H4K20 and MLL1-H3K4), as well

  8. Impaired Homocysteine Transmethylation and Protein-Methyltransferase Activity Reduce Expression of Selenoprotein P: Implications for Obesity and Metabolic Syndrome

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Obesity causes Metabolic Syndrome and Type-II Diabetes, disrupting hepatic function, methionine (Met)/homocysteine (Hcy) transmethylation and methyltransferase (PRMT) activities. Selenoprotein P (SEPP1), exported from the liver, is the predominate form of plasma selenium (Se) and the physiological S...

  9. Milk protein responses in dairy cows to changes in postruminal supplies of arginine, isoleucine, and valine.

    PubMed

    Haque, M N; Rulquin, H; Lemosquet, S

    2013-01-01

    An ideal profile of essential AA (EAA) can improve the efficiency of metabolizable protein (or PDIE, the equivalent in the INRA feeding system) utilization in dairy cows. Compared with other EAA, existing recommendations for the requirements of Arg, Ile, and Val are few and inconsistent. Four multiparous Holstein dairy cows at 22±6 wk of lactation received 4 treatments (duodenal infusions of 445±22.4 g/d of an EAA mixture complementing a low-protein diet in a 4×4 Latin square design with a period length of 1 wk). The control treatment provided a balanced supply (in % of PDIE) of 5.1% Arg, 5.2% Ile, and 5.9% Val, whereas in the 3 subsequent treatments of -Arg, -Ile, and -Val, the concentrations of these 3 EAA were reduced to 3.5, 4.1, and 4.5%, respectively. All treatments were made isonitrogenous and were balanced to provide 7 other EAA (Lys, Met, His, Leu, Phe, Thr, and Trp), according to the recommendations described in the literature. Combined, the diet and the infusions provided 14.3±0.1% crude protein on a dry matter basis, and 66.0±1.2 g of PDIE/Mcal of net energy for lactation. Neither dry matter intake (19.2 kg/d) nor milk yield (30.4±0.4 kg/d) was affected by treatments. The -Arg and -Ile treatments did not modify milk protein synthesis or the efficiency of N utilization. However, the -Val treatment decreased milk protein content by 4.9% and milk crude protein content by 4.3%, and tended to decrease the efficiency of N use for milk protein yield by 3.7% (compared with the control). These effects of Val were related to a decrease in the plasma concentration of Val as well as a trend toward decreasing plasma concentrations of Met, His, and the sum of all EAA and nonessential AA in the -Val treatment, which indicates a different utilization of all AA in response to the Val deficit. The deletion of Ile, compared with the deletion of Val, tended to decrease the milk protein-to-fat ratio by 3.8%. In conclusion, the supply of Arg at 3.5% of PDIE was not

  10. Proline 235 plays a key role in the regulation of the oligomeric states of Thermotoga maritima Arginine Binding Protein.

    PubMed

    Smaldone, Giovanni; Vigorita, Marilisa; Ruggiero, Alessia; Balasco, Nicole; Dattelbaum, Jonathan D; D'Auria, Sabato; Del Vecchio, Pompea; Graziano, Giuseppe; Vitagliano, Luigi

    2016-07-01

    The Arginine Binding Protein isolated from Thermotoga maritima (TmArgBP) is a protein endowed with several peculiar properties. We have previously shown that TmArgBP dimerization is a consequence of the swapping of the C-terminal helix. Here we explored the structural determinants of TmArgBP domain swapping and oligomerization. In particular, we report a mutational analysis of the residue Pro235, which is located in the hinge region of the swapping dimer. This residue was either replaced with a Gly-Lys dipeptide (TmArgBP(P235GK)) or a Gly residue (TmArgBP(P235G)). Different forms of these mutants were generated and extensively characterized using biophysical techniques. For both TmArgBP(P235GK) and TmArgBP(P235G) mutants, the occurrence of multiple oligomerization states (monomers, dimers and trimers) was detected. The formation of well-folded monomeric forms for these mutants indicates that the dimerization through C-terminal domain swapping observed in wild-type TmArgBP is driven by conformational restraints imposed by the presence of Pro235 in the hinge region. Molecular dynamics studies corroborate this observation by showing that Gly235 assumes conformational states forbidden for Pro residues in the TmArgBP(P235G) monomer. Unexpectedly, the trimeric forms present: (a) peculiar circular dichroism spectra, (b) a great susceptibility to heating, and (c) the ability to bind the Thioflavin T dye. The present findings clearly demonstrate that single-point mutations have an important impact on the TmArgBP oligomerization process. In a wider context, they also indicate that proteins endowed with an intrinsic propensity to swap have an easy access to states with altered structural and, possibly, functional properties.

  11. Proline 235 plays a key role in the regulation of the oligomeric states of Thermotoga maritima Arginine Binding Protein.

    PubMed

    Smaldone, Giovanni; Vigorita, Marilisa; Ruggiero, Alessia; Balasco, Nicole; Dattelbaum, Jonathan D; D'Auria, Sabato; Del Vecchio, Pompea; Graziano, Giuseppe; Vitagliano, Luigi

    2016-07-01

    The Arginine Binding Protein isolated from Thermotoga maritima (TmArgBP) is a protein endowed with several peculiar properties. We have previously shown that TmArgBP dimerization is a consequence of the swapping of the C-terminal helix. Here we explored the structural determinants of TmArgBP domain swapping and oligomerization. In particular, we report a mutational analysis of the residue Pro235, which is located in the hinge region of the swapping dimer. This residue was either replaced with a Gly-Lys dipeptide (TmArgBP(P235GK)) or a Gly residue (TmArgBP(P235G)). Different forms of these mutants were generated and extensively characterized using biophysical techniques. For both TmArgBP(P235GK) and TmArgBP(P235G) mutants, the occurrence of multiple oligomerization states (monomers, dimers and trimers) was detected. The formation of well-folded monomeric forms for these mutants indicates that the dimerization through C-terminal domain swapping observed in wild-type TmArgBP is driven by conformational restraints imposed by the presence of Pro235 in the hinge region. Molecular dynamics studies corroborate this observation by showing that Gly235 assumes conformational states forbidden for Pro residues in the TmArgBP(P235G) monomer. Unexpectedly, the trimeric forms present: (a) peculiar circular dichroism spectra, (b) a great susceptibility to heating, and (c) the ability to bind the Thioflavin T dye. The present findings clearly demonstrate that single-point mutations have an important impact on the TmArgBP oligomerization process. In a wider context, they also indicate that proteins endowed with an intrinsic propensity to swap have an easy access to states with altered structural and, possibly, functional properties. PMID:27087545

  12. Arginine kinase: differentiation of gene expression and protein activity in the red imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta.

    PubMed

    Wang, Haichuan; Zhang, Lan; Zhang, Lee; Lin, Qin; Liu, Nannan

    2009-02-01

    Arginine kinase (AK), a primary enzyme in cell metabolism and adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP)-consuming processes, plays an important role in cellular energy metabolism and maintaining constant ATP levels in invertebrate cells. In order to identify genes that are differentially expressed between larvae and adults, queens and workers, and female alates (winged) and queens (wingless), AK cDNA was obtained from the red imported fire ant. The cDNA sequence of the gene has open reading frames of 1065 nucleotides, encoding a protein of 355 amino acid residues that includes the substrate recognition region, the signature sequence pattern of ATP:guanidino kinases, and an "actinin-type" actin binding domain. Northern blot analysis and protein activity analysis demonstrated that the expression of the AK gene and its protein activity were developmentally, caste specifically, and tissue specifically regulated in red imported fire ants with a descending order of worker> alate (winged adult) female> alate (winged adult) male> larvae> worker pupae approximately alate pupae. These results suggest a different demand for energy-consumption and production in the different castes of the red imported fire ant, which may be linked to their different missions and physiological activities in the colonies. The highest level of the AK gene expression and activity was identified in head tissue of both female alates and workers and thorax tissue of workers, followed by thorax tissue of female alates and abdomen tissue of male alates, suggesting the main tissues or cells in these body parts, such as brain, neurons and muscles, which have been identified as the major tissues and/or cells that display high and variable rates of energy turnover in other organisms, play a key role in energy production and its utilization in the fire ant. In contrast, in the male alate, the highest AK expression and activity were found in the abdomen, suggesting that here energy demand may relate to sperm formation

  13. Diversity and Evolution of Bacterial Twin Arginine Translocase Protein, TatC, Reveals a Protein Secretion System That Is Evolving to Fit Its Environmental Niche

    PubMed Central

    Simone, Domenico; Bay, Denice C.; Leach, Thorin; Turner, Raymond J.

    2013-01-01

    Background The twin-arginine translocation (Tat) protein export system enables the transport of fully folded proteins across a membrane. This system is composed of two integral membrane proteins belonging to TatA and TatC protein families and in some systems a third component, TatB, a homolog of TatA. TatC participates in substrate protein recognition through its interaction with a twin arginine leader peptide sequence. Methodology/Principal Findings The aim of this study was to explore TatC diversity, evolution and sequence conservation in bacteria to identify how TatC is evolving and diversifying in various bacterial phyla. Surveying bacterial genomes revealed that 77% of all species possess one or more tatC loci and half of these classes possessed only tatC and tatA genes. Phylogenetic analysis of diverse TatC homologues showed that they were primarily inherited but identified a small subset of taxonomically unrelated bacteria that exhibited evidence supporting lateral gene transfer within an ecological niche. Examination of bacilli tatCd/tatCy isoform operons identified a number of known and potentially new Tat substrate genes based on their frequent association to tatC loci. Evolutionary analysis of these Bacilli isoforms determined that TatCy was the progenitor of TatCd. A bacterial TatC consensus sequence was determined and highlighted conserved and variable regions within a three dimensional model of the Escherichia coli TatC protein. Comparative analysis between the TatC consensus sequence and Bacilli TatCd/y isoform consensus sequences revealed unique sites that may contribute to isoform substrate specificity or make TatA specific contacts. Synonymous to non-synonymous nucleotide substitution analyses of bacterial tatC homologues determined that tatC sequence variation differs dramatically between various classes and suggests TatC specialization in these species. Conclusions/Significance TatC proteins appear to be diversifying within particular bacterial

  14. Dual Targeting of the Protein Methyltransferase PrmA Contributes to Both Chloroplastic and Mitochondrial Ribosomal Protein L11 Methylation in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Mazzoleni, Meryl; Figuet, Sylvie; Martin-Laffon, Jacqueline; Mininno, Morgane; Gilgen, Annabelle; Leroux, Mélanie; Brugière, Sabine; Tardif, Marianne; Alban, Claude; Ravanel, Stéphane

    2015-09-01

    Methylation of ribosomal proteins has long been described in prokaryotes and eukaryotes, but our knowledge about the enzymes responsible for these modifications in plants is scarce. The bacterial protein methyltransferase PrmA catalyzes the trimethylation of ribosomal protein L11 (RPL11) at three distinct sites. The role of these modifications is still unknown. Here, we show that PrmA from Arabidopsis thaliana (AtPrmA) is dually targeted to chloroplasts and mitochondria. Mass spectrometry and enzymatic assays indicated that the enzyme methylates RPL11 in plasto- and mitoribosomes in vivo. We determined that the Arabidopsis and Escherichia coli PrmA enzymes share similar product specificity, making trimethylated residues, but, despite an evolutionary relationship, display a difference in substrate site specificity. In contrast to the bacterial enzyme that trimethylates the ε-amino group of two lysine residues and the N-terminal α-amino group, AtPrmA methylates only one lysine in the MAFCK(D/E)(F/Y)NA motif of plastidial and mitochondrial RPL11. The plant enzyme possibly methylates the N-terminus of plastidial RPL11, whereas mitochondrial RPL11 is N-α-acetylated by an unknown acetyltransferase. Lastly, we found that an Arabidopsis prma-null mutant is viable in standard environmental conditions and no molecular defect could be associated with a lack of RPL11 methylation in leaf chloroplasts or mitochondria. However, the conservation of PrmA during the evolution of photosynthetic eukaryotes together with the location of methylated residues at the binding site of translation factors to ribosomes suggests that RPL11 methylation in plant organelles could be involved, in combination with other post-translational modifications, in optimizing ribosome function. PMID:26116422

  15. Purification and characterization of moschins, arginine-glutamate-rich proteins with translation-inhibiting activity from brown pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata) seeds.

    PubMed

    Ng, T B; Parkash, A; Tso, W W

    2002-10-01

    From fresh brown pumpkin seeds, two proteins with a molecular mass of 12kDa and an N-terminal sequence rich in arginine and glutamate residues were obtained. The protein designated alpha-moschin closely resembled the fruitfly programmed-cell death gene product and the protein designated beta-moschin demonstrated striking similarity to prepro 2S albumin in N-terminal sequence. alpha- and beta-moschins inhibited translation in the rabbit reticulocyte lysate system with an IC(50) of 17 microM and 300nM, respectively.

  16. Valine, isoleucine, arginine and glycine supplementation of low-protein diets for broiler chickens during the starter and grower phases.

    PubMed

    Ospina-Rojas, I C; Murakami, A E; Duarte, C R A; Eyng, C; Oliveira, C A L; Janeiro, V

    2014-01-01

    1. Two experiments were performed to study the supplementation of valine, isoleucine, arginine and glycine (Val, Ile, Arg, Gly) in low-protein diets for broiler chickens in the starter (1-21 d; Exp. 1) and grower (22-42 d; Exp. 2) phases. 2. A low-crude protein (CP) diet was formulated to meet the requirements of all amino acids (AA) supplied by the control diet except for Val, Ile, Arg and Gly. The other experimental diets were obtained by the isolated or combined supplementation of the studied AA in the low-CP diet. 3. Growth, serum parameters and litter characteristics were taken in both of the experiments. Carcass measurements were taken in Experiment 2. 4. In the starter and grower phases, low-CP diets without supplementation resulted in birds with a poorer weight gain and feed conversion than those of the birds that received the control diet. 5. In the starter phase, individual supplementation with Val and Gly, but not Ile and Arg, restored the weight gain of the birds, while diets with the addition of Val + Gly, Val + Ile + Arg, Val + Ile + Gly and Val + Ile + Arg + Gly restored their feed conversion. 6. In the grower phase, weight gain was re-established at the same rate as the control diet for the diets supplemented with Val + Ile, Val + Ile + Arg, Val + Ile + Gly and Val + Ile + Arg + Gly. However, the feed conversion was restored only in birds that received the diet supplemented with all studied AA. 7. The supplementation of Val and Gly in low-CP diets was sufficient to avoid adverse effects in the performance and serum parameters of broilers in the starter phase. However, birds in the grower phase required the combined supplementation of Val, Ile, Arg and Gly, to prevent compromised performance.

  17. The phage growth limitation system in Streptomyces coelicolor A(3)2 is a toxin/antitoxin system, comprising enzymes with DNA methyltransferase, protein kinase and ATPase activity.

    PubMed

    Hoskisson, Paul A; Sumby, Paul; Smith, Margaret C M

    2015-03-01

    The phage growth limitation system of Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2) is an unusual bacteriophage defence mechanism. Progeny ϕC31 phage from an initial infection are thought to be modified such that subsequent infections are attenuated in a Pgl(+) host but normal in a Pgl(-) strain. Earlier work identified four genes required for phage resistance by Pgl. Here we demonstrate that Pgl is an elaborate and novel phage restriction system that, in part, comprises a toxin/antitoxin system where PglX, a DNA methyltransferase is toxic in the absence of a functional PglZ. In addition, the ATPase activity of PglY and a protein kinase activity in PglW are shown to be essential for phage resistance by Pgl. We conclude that on infection of a Pgl(+) cell by bacteriophage ϕC31, PglW transduces a signal, probably via phosphorylation, to other Pgl proteins resulting in the activation of the DNA methyltransferase, PglX and this leads to phage restriction.

  18. Implementing a Rational and Consistent Nomenclature for Serine/Arginine-Rich Protein Splicing Factors (SR Proteins) in Plants

    PubMed Central

    Barta, Andrea; Kalyna, Maria; Reddy, Anireddy S.N.

    2010-01-01

    Growing interest in alternative splicing in plants and the extensive sequencing of new plant genomes necessitate more precise definition and classification of genes coding for splicing factors. SR proteins are a family of RNA binding proteins, which function as essential factors for constitutive and alternative splicing. We propose a unified nomenclature for plant SR proteins, taking into account the newly revised nomenclature of the mammalian SR proteins and a number of plant-specific properties of the plant proteins. We identify six subfamilies of SR proteins in Arabidopsis thaliana and rice (Oryza sativa), three of which are plant specific. The proposed subdivision of plant SR proteins into different subfamilies will allow grouping of paralogous proteins and simple assignment of newly discovered SR orthologs from other plant species and will promote functional comparisons in diverse plant species. PMID:20884799

  19. Posttranslational modification of the Ha-ras oncogene protein: evidence for a third class of protein carboxyl methyltransferases.

    PubMed Central

    Clarke, S; Vogel, J P; Deschenes, R J; Stock, J

    1988-01-01

    The ras oncogene products require membrane localization for their function, and this is thought to be accomplished by the addition of a palmitoyl group to a cysteine residue near the carboxyl terminus of the nascent chain. A lipidated carboxyl-terminal cysteine residue is also found in sequence-related yeast sex factors, and in at least two cases, the alpha-carboxyl group is also methyl esterified. To determine if ras proteins are themselves modified by a similar type of methylation reaction, we incubated rat embryo fibroblasts transformed with p53 and activated Ha-ras oncogenes with L-[methyl-3H]methionine under conditions in which the isotope was converted to the methyl donor S-adenosyl-L-[methyl-3H]methionine. By using an assay that detects methyl ester linkages, we found that immunoprecipitated ras proteins are in fact esterified and that the stability of these esters is consistent with a carboxyl-terminal localization. This methylation reaction may be important in regulating the interaction of ras proteins with plasma membrane components. The presence of analogous carboxyl-terminal tetrapeptide sequences in other proteins may provide a general recognition sequence for lipidation and methylation modification reactions. Images PMID:3290900

  20. The Ca2+-induced methyltransferase xPRMT1b controls neural fate in amphibian embryo.

    PubMed

    Batut, Julie; Vandel, Laurence; Leclerc, Catherine; Daguzan, Christiane; Moreau, Marc; Néant, Isabelle

    2005-10-18

    We have previously shown that an increase in intracellular Ca2+ is both necessary and sufficient to commit ectoderm to a neural fate in Xenopus embryos. However, the relationship between this Ca2+ increase and the expression of early neural genes has yet to be defined. Using a subtractive cDNA library between untreated and caffeine-treated animal caps, i.e., control ectoderm and ectoderm induced toward a neural fate by a release of Ca2+, we have isolated the arginine N-methyltransferase, xPRMT1b, a Ca2+-induced target gene, which plays a pivotal role in this process. First, we show in embryo and in animal cap that xPRMT1b expression is Ca2+-regulated. Second, overexpression of xPRMT1b induces the expression of early neural genes such as Zic3. Finally, in the whole embryo, antisense approach with morpholino oligonucleotide against xPRMT1b impairs neural development and in animal caps blocks the expression of neural markers induced by a release of internal Ca2+. Our results implicate an instructive role of an enzyme, an arginine methyltransferase protein, in the embryonic choice of determination between epidermal and neural fate. The results presented provide insights by which a Ca2+ increase induces neural fate.

  1. Utilization of a calmodulin lysine methyltransferase co-expression system for the generation of a combinatorial library of post-translationally modified proteins.

    PubMed

    Magnani, Roberta; Chaffin, Brian; Dick, Emerson; Bricken, Michael L; Houtz, Robert L; Bradley, Luke H

    2012-12-01

    By successfully incorporating sequence diversity into proteins, combinatorial libraries have been a staple technology used in protein engineering, directed evolution, and synthetic biology for generating proteins with novel specificities and activities. However, these approaches mostly overlook the incorporations of post-translational modifications, which nature extensively uses for modulating protein activities in vivo. As an initial step of incorporating post-translational modifications into combinatorial libraries, we present a bacterial co-expression system, utilizing a recently characterized calmodulin methyltransferase (CaM KMT), to trimethylate a combinatorial library of the calmodulin central linker region. We show that this system is robust, with the successful over-expression and post-translational modification performed in Escherichia coli. Furthermore we show that trimethylation differentially affected the conformational dynamics of the protein upon the binding of calcium, and the thermal stability of the apoprotein. Collectively, these data support that when applied to an appropriately designed protein library scaffold, CaM KMT is able to produce a post-translationally modified library of protein sequences, thus providing a powerful tool for future protein library designs and constructions.

  2. Methyllysine reader plant homeodomain (PHD) finger protein 20-like 1 (PHF20L1) antagonizes DNA (cytosine-5) methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1) proteasomal degradation.

    PubMed

    Estève, Pierre-Olivier; Terragni, Jolyon; Deepti, Kanneganti; Chin, Hang Gyeong; Dai, Nan; Espejo, Alexsandra; Corrêa, Ivan R; Bedford, Mark T; Pradhan, Sriharsa

    2014-03-21

    Inheritance of DNA cytosine methylation pattern during successive cell division is mediated by maintenance DNA (cytosine-5) methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1). Lysine 142 of DNMT1 is methylated by the SET domain containing lysine methyltransferase 7 (SET7), leading to its degradation by proteasome. Here we show that PHD finger protein 20-like 1 (PHF20L1) regulates DNMT1 turnover in mammalian cells. Malignant brain tumor (MBT) domain of PHF20L1 binds to monomethylated lysine 142 on DNMT1 (DNMT1K142me1) and colocalizes at the perinucleolar space in a SET7-dependent manner. PHF20L1 knockdown by siRNA resulted in decreased amounts of DNMT1 on chromatin. Ubiquitination of DNMT1K142me1 was abolished by overexpression of PHF20L1, suggesting that its binding may block proteasomal degradation of DNMT1K142me1. Conversely, siRNA-mediated knockdown of PHF20L1 or incubation of a small molecule MBT domain binding inhibitor in cultured cells accelerated the proteasomal degradation of DNMT1. These results demonstrate that the MBT domain of PHF20L1 reads and controls enzyme levels of methylated DNMT1 in cells, thus representing a novel antagonist of DNMT1 degradation.

  3. Identification of protein-protein interactions between the TatB and TatC subunits of the twin-arginine translocase system and respiratory enzyme specific chaperones.

    PubMed

    Kuzniatsova, Lalita; Winstone, Tara M L; Turner, Raymond J

    2016-04-01

    The Twin-arginine translocation (Tat) pathway serves for translocation of fully folded proteins across the cytoplasmic membrane in bacterial and chloroplast thylakoid membranes. The Escherichia coli Tat system consists of three core components: TatA, TatB, and TatC. The TatB and TatC subunits form the receptor complex for Tat dependent proteins. The TatB protein is composed of a single transmembrane helix and cytoplasmic domain. The structure of TatC revealed six transmembrane helices. Redox Enzyme Maturation Proteins (REMPs) are system specific chaperones, which play roles in the maturation of Tat dependent respiratory enzymes. Here we applied the in vivo bacterial two-hybrid technique to investigate interaction of REMPs with the TatBC proteins, finding that all but the formate dehydrogenase REMP dock to TatB or TatC. We focused on the NarJ subfamily, where DmsD--the REMP for dimethyl sulfoxide reductase in E. coli--was previously shown to interact with TatB and TatC. We found that these REMPs interact with TatC cytoplasmic loops 1, 2 and 4, with the exception of NarJ, that only interacts with 1 and 4. An in vitro isothermal titration calorimetry study was applied to confirm the evidence of interactions between TatC fragments and DmsD chaperone. Using a peptide overlapping array, it was shown that the different NarJ subfamily REMPs interact with different regions of the TatB cytoplasmic domains. The results demonstrate a role of REMP chaperones in targeting respiratory enzymes to the Tat system. The data suggests that the different REMPs may have different mechanisms for this task.

  4. Homocysteine homeostasis in the rat is maintained by compensatory changes in cystathionine β-synthase, betaine-homocysteine methyltransferase, and phosphatidylethanolamine N-methyltransferase gene transcription occurring in response to maternal protein and folic acid intake during pregnancy and fat intake after weaning.

    PubMed

    Chmurzynska, Agata; Malinowska, Anna M

    2011-07-01

    The reactions of the methionine/homocysteine pathway are mediated by several enzymes, including phosphatidylethanolamine N-methyltransferase, cystathionine β-synthase, and betaine-homocysteine methyltransferase. Homocysteine homeostasis is regulated by these enzymes. We hypothesized here that the protein and folic acid content in the maternal diet affects methionine/homocysteine metabolism in the progeny. To test this hypothesis, pregnant rats were fed a diet with normal protein and normal folic acid levels (a modified casein-based AIN-93G diet), a protein-restricted and normal folic acid diet, a protein-restricted and folic acid-supplemented diet, or a normal protein and folic acid-supplemented diet. The progeny were fed either the modified AIN-93G diet or a high-fat lard-based diet. Progeny were analyzed for expression of the phosphatidylethanolamine N-methyltransferase, cystathionine β-synthase, and betaine-homocysteine methyltransferase genes in the liver and for serum homocysteine concentration. Interactions between prenatal and postnatal nutrition were also determined. The progeny of the dams fed the diets supplemented with folic acid showed decreased expression of all 3 genes (P < .001). An interaction effect between the protein and folic acid content in the maternal diet contributed to this down-regulation (P < .001), and the postweaning diet modified these effects. Serum homocysteine concentrations were approximately 15% higher in the male rats (P < .01), but neither prenatal nutrition nor the postweaning diet affected it significantly. We conclude that maternal diet during gestation has an important effect on the transcription level of these 3 genes, but changes in gene expression were not associated with significant changes in progeny homocysteine concentrations.

  5. FlpS, the FNR-Like Protein of Streptococcus suis Is an Essential, Oxygen-Sensing Activator of the Arginine Deiminase System

    PubMed Central

    Willenborg, Jörg; Koczula, Anna; Fulde, Marcus; de Greeff, Astrid; Beineke, Andreas; Eisenreich, Wolfgang; Huber, Claudia; Seitz, Maren; Valentin-Weigand, Peter; Goethe, Ralph

    2016-01-01

    Streptococcus (S.) suis is a zoonotic pathogen causing septicemia and meningitis in pigs and humans. During infection S. suis must metabolically adapt to extremely diverse environments of the host. CcpA and the FNR family of bacterial transcriptional regulators are important for metabolic gene regulation in various bacteria. The role of CcpA in S. suis is well defined, but the function of the FNR-like protein of S. suis, FlpS, is yet unknown. Transcriptome analyses of wild-type S. suis and a flpS mutant strain suggested that FlpS is involved in the regulation of the central carbon, arginine degradation and nucleotide metabolism. However, isotopologue profiling revealed no substantial changes in the core carbon and amino acid de novo biosynthesis. FlpS was essential for the induction of the arcABC operon of the arginine degrading pathway under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. The arcABC-inducing activity of FlpS could be associated with the level of free oxygen in the culture medium. FlpS was necessary for arcABC-dependent intracellular bacterial survival but redundant in a mice infection model. Based on these results, we propose that the core function of S. suis FlpS is the oxygen-dependent activation of the arginine deiminase system. PMID:27455333

  6. FlpS, the FNR-Like Protein of Streptococcus suis Is an Essential, Oxygen-Sensing Activator of the Arginine Deiminase System.

    PubMed

    Willenborg, Jörg; Koczula, Anna; Fulde, Marcus; de Greeff, Astrid; Beineke, Andreas; Eisenreich, Wolfgang; Huber, Claudia; Seitz, Maren; Valentin-Weigand, Peter; Goethe, Ralph

    2016-07-21

    Streptococcus (S.) suis is a zoonotic pathogen causing septicemia and meningitis in pigs and humans. During infection S. suis must metabolically adapt to extremely diverse environments of the host. CcpA and the FNR family of bacterial transcriptional regulators are important for metabolic gene regulation in various bacteria. The role of CcpA in S. suis is well defined, but the function of the FNR-like protein of S. suis, FlpS, is yet unknown. Transcriptome analyses of wild-type S. suis and a flpS mutant strain suggested that FlpS is involved in the regulation of the central carbon, arginine degradation and nucleotide metabolism. However, isotopologue profiling revealed no substantial changes in the core carbon and amino acid de novo biosynthesis. FlpS was essential for the induction of the arcABC operon of the arginine degrading pathway under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. The arcABC-inducing activity of FlpS could be associated with the level of free oxygen in the culture medium. FlpS was necessary for arcABC-dependent intracellular bacterial survival but redundant in a mice infection model. Based on these results, we propose that the core function of S. suis FlpS is the oxygen-dependent activation of the arginine deiminase system.

  7. The RNA-binding protein HOS5 and serine/arginine-rich proteins RS40 and RS41 participate in miRNA biogenesis in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Tao; Cui, Peng; Xiong, Liming

    2015-09-30

    MicroRNAs are a class of small regulatory RNAs that are generated from primary miRNA (pri-miRNA) transcripts with a stem-loop structure. Accuracy of the processing of pri-miRNA into mature miRNA in plants can be enhanced by SERRATE (SE) and HYPONASTIC LEAVES 1 (HYL1). HYL1 activity is regulated by the FIERY2 (FRY2)/RNA polymerase II C-terminal domain phosphatase-like 1 (CPL1). Here, we discover that HIGH OSMOTIC STRESS GENE EXPRESSION 5 (HOS5) and two serine/arginine-rich splicing factors RS40 and RS41, previously shown to be involved in pre-mRNA splicing, affect the biogenesis of a subset of miRNA. These proteins are required for correct miRNA strand selection and the maintenance of miRNA levels. FRY2 dephosphorylates HOS5 whose phosphorylation status affects its subnuclear localization. HOS5 and the RS proteins bind both intronless and intron-containing pri-miRNAs. Importantly, all of these splicing-related factors directly interact with both HYL1 and SE in nuclear splicing speckles. Our results indicate that these splicing factors are directly involved in the biogenesis of a group of miRNA.

  8. The RNA-binding protein HOS5 and serine/arginine-rich proteins RS40 and RS41 participate in miRNA biogenesis in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Tao; Cui, Peng; Xiong, Liming

    2015-01-01

    MicroRNAs are a class of small regulatory RNAs that are generated from primary miRNA (pri-miRNA) transcripts with a stem-loop structure. Accuracy of the processing of pri-miRNA into mature miRNA in plants can be enhanced by SERRATE (SE) and HYPONASTIC LEAVES 1 (HYL1). HYL1 activity is regulated by the FIERY2 (FRY2)/RNA polymerase II C-terminal domain phosphatase-like 1 (CPL1). Here, we discover that HIGH OSMOTIC STRESS GENE EXPRESSION 5 (HOS5) and two serine/arginine-rich splicing factors RS40 and RS41, previously shown to be involved in pre-mRNA splicing, affect the biogenesis of a subset of miRNA. These proteins are required for correct miRNA strand selection and the maintenance of miRNA levels. FRY2 dephosphorylates HOS5 whose phosphorylation status affects its subnuclear localization. HOS5 and the RS proteins bind both intronless and intron-containing pri-miRNAs. Importantly, all of these splicing-related factors directly interact with both HYL1 and SE in nuclear splicing speckles. Our results indicate that these splicing factors are directly involved in the biogenesis of a group of miRNA. PMID:26227967

  9. Structures of the N47A and E109Q mutant proteins of pyruvoyl-dependent arginine decarboxylase from Methanococcus jannaschii

    SciTech Connect

    Soriano, Erika V.; McCloskey, Diane E.; Kinsland, Cynthia; Pegg, Anthony E.; Ealick, Steven E.

    2008-04-01

    The crystal structures of two arginine decarboxylase mutant proteins provide insights into the mechanisms of pyruvoyl-group formation and the decarboxylation reaction. Pyruvoyl-dependent arginine decarboxylase (PvlArgDC) catalyzes the first step of the polyamine-biosynthetic pathway in plants and some archaebacteria. The pyruvoyl group of PvlArgDC is generated by an internal autoserinolysis reaction at an absolutely conserved serine residue in the proenzyme, resulting in two polypeptide chains. Based on the native structure of PvlArgDC from Methanococcus jannaschii, the conserved residues Asn47 and Glu109 were proposed to be involved in the decarboxylation and autoprocessing reactions. N47A and E109Q mutant proteins were prepared and the three-dimensional structure of each protein was determined at 2.0 Å resolution. The N47A and E109Q mutant proteins showed reduced decarboxylation activity compared with the wild-type PvlArgDC. These residues may also be important for the autoprocessing reaction, which utilizes a mechanism similar to that of the decarboxylation reaction.

  10. The DNA Methyltransferase DNMT1 and Tyrosine-Protein Kinase KIT Cooperatively Promote Resistance to 5-Aza-2'-deoxycytidine (Decitabine) and Midostaurin (PKC412) in Lung Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    Yan, Fei; Shen, Na; Pang, Jiuxia; Molina, Julian R; Yang, Ping; Liu, Shujun

    2015-07-24

    Lung cancer cells are sensitive to 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine (decitabine) or midostaurin (PKC412), because decitabine restores the expression of methylation-silenced tumor suppressor genes, whereas PKC412 inhibits hyperactive kinase signaling, which is essential for cancer cell growth. Here, we demonstrated that resistance to decitabine (decitabine(R)) or PKC412 (PKC412(R)) eventually results from simultaneously remethylated DNA and reactivated kinase cascades. Indeed, both decitabine(R) and PKC412(R) displayed the up-regulation of DNA methyltransferase DNMT1 and tyrosine-protein kinase KIT, the enhanced phosphorylation of KIT and its downstream effectors, and the increased global and gene-specific DNA methylation with the down-regulation of tumor suppressor gene epithelial cadherin CDH1. Interestingly, decitabine(R) and PKC412(R) had higher capability of colony formation and wound healing than parental cells in vitro, which were attributed to the hyperactive DNMT1 or KIT, because inactivation of KIT or DNMT1 reciprocally blocked decitabine(R) or PKC412(R) cell proliferation. Further, DNMT1 knockdown sensitized PKC412(R) cells to PKC412; conversely, KIT depletion synergized with decitabine in eliminating decitabine(R). Importantly, when engrafted into nude mice, decitabine(R) and PKC412(R) had faster proliferation with stronger tumorigenicity that was caused by the reactivated KIT kinase signaling and further CDH1 silencing. These findings identify functional cross-talk between KIT and DNMT1 in the development of drug resistance, implying the reciprocal targeting of protein kinases and DNA methyltransferases as an essential strategy for durable responses in lung cancer.

  11. Facilitation of cell adhesion by immobilized dengue viral nonstructural protein 1 (NS1): arginine-glycine-aspartic acid structural mimicry within the dengue viral NS1 antigen.

    PubMed

    Chang, Hsin-Hou; Shyu, Huey-Fen; Wang, Yo-Ming; Sun, Der-Shan; Shyu, Rong-Hwa; Tang, Shiao-Shek; Huang, Yao-Shine

    2002-09-15

    Dengue virus infection causes life-threatening hemorrhagic fever. Increasing evidence implies that dengue viral nonstructural protein 1 (NS1) exhibits a tendency to elicit potentially hazardous autoantibodies, which show a wide spectrum of specificity against extracellular matrix and platelet antigens. How NS1 elicits autoantibodies remains unclear. To address the hypothesis that NS1 and matrix proteins may have structural and functional similarity, cell-matrix and cell-NS1 interactions were evaluated using a cell-adhesion assay. The present study showed that dengue NS1 immobilized on coverslips resulted in more cell adhesion than did the control proteins. This cell adhesion was inhibited by peptides containing arginine-glycine-aspartic acid (RGD), a motif important for integrin-mediated cell adhesion. In addition, anti-NS1 antibodies blocked RGD-mediated cell adhesion. Although there is no RGD motif in the NS1 protein sequence, these data indicate that RGD structural mimicry exists within the NS1 antigen.

  12. Arginine deprivation therapy for malignant melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Jung-Ki; Frankel, Arthur E; Feun, Lynn G; Ekmekcioglu, Suhendan; Kim, Kevin B

    2013-01-01

    Despite recent development of promising immunotherapeutic and targeted drugs, prognosis in patients with advanced melanoma remains poor, and a cure for this disease remains elusive in most patients. The success of melanoma therapy depends on a better understanding of the biology of melanoma and development of drugs that effectively target the relevant genes or proteins essential for tumor cell survival. Melanoma cells frequently lack argininosuccinate synthetase, an essential enzyme for arginine synthesis, and as a result they become dependent on the availability of exogenous arginine. Accordingly, a therapeutic approach involving depletion of available arginine has been shown to be effective in preclinical studies. Early clinical studies have demonstrated sufficient antitumor activity to give rise to cautious optimism. In this article, the rationale for arginine deprivation therapy is discussed. Additionally, various strategies for depleting arginine are discussed and the preclinical and clinical investigations of arginine deprivation therapy in melanoma are reviewed. PMID:23293541

  13. Guanidinoacetate methyltransferase (GAMT) deficiency: outcomes in 48 individuals and recommendations for diagnosis, treatment and monitoring.

    PubMed

    Stockler-Ipsiroglu, Sylvia; van Karnebeek, Clara; Longo, Nicola; Korenke, G Christoph; Mercimek-Mahmutoglu, Saadet; Marquart, Iris; Barshop, Bruce; Grolik, Christiane; Schlune, Andrea; Angle, Brad; Araújo, Helena Caldeira; Coskun, Turgay; Diogo, Luisa; Geraghty, Michael; Haliloglu, Goknur; Konstantopoulou, Vassiliki; Leuzzi, Vincenzo; Levtova, Alina; Mackenzie, Jennifer; Maranda, Bruno; Mhanni, Aizeddin A; Mitchell, Grant; Morris, Andrew; Newlove, Theresa; Renaud, Deborah; Scaglia, Fernando; Valayannopoulos, Vassili; van Spronsen, Francjan J; Verbruggen, Krijn T; Yuskiv, Nataliya; Nyhan, William; Schulze, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    We collected data on 48 patients from 38 families with guanidinoacetate methyltransferase (GAMT) deficiency. Global developmental delay/intellectual disability (DD/ID) with speech/language delay and behavioral problems as the most affected domains was present in 44 participants, with additional epilepsy present in 35 and movement disorder in 13. Treatment regimens included various combinations/dosages of creatine-monohydrate, l-ornithine, sodium benzoate and protein/arginine restricted diets. The median age at treatment initiation was 25.5 and 39 months in patients with mild and moderate DD/ID, respectively, and 11 years in patients with severe DD/ID. Increase of cerebral creatine and decrease of plasma/CSF guanidinoacetate levels were achieved by supplementation with creatine-monohydrate combined with high dosages of l-ornithine and/or an arginine-restricted diet (250 mg/kg/d l-arginine). Therapy was associated with improvement or stabilization of symptoms in all of the symptomatic cases. The 4 patients treated younger than 9 months had normal or almost normal developmental outcomes. One with inconsistent compliance had a borderline IQ at age 8.6 years. An observational GAMT database will be essential to identify the best treatment to reduce plasma guanidinoacetate levels and improve long-term outcomes.

  14. PRMT6 increases cytoplasmic localization of p21CDKN1A in cancer cells through arginine methylation and makes more resistant to cytotoxic agents.

    PubMed

    Nakakido, Makoto; Deng, Zhenzhong; Suzuki, Takehiro; Dohmae, Naoshi; Nakamura, Yusuke; Hamamoto, Ryuji

    2015-10-13

    p21(CDKN1A) is known as a potent inhibitor of cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK), which regulates cell cycle in response to various stimuli, including DNA damage, on the p53-dependent manner. Here we demonstrate that protein arginine methyltransferase 6 (PRMT6) methylates p21 at arginine 156 and promotes phosphorylation of threonine 145 on p21, resulting in the increase of cytoplasmic localization of p21. The cytoplasmic presence of p21 makes cancer cells more resistant to cytotoxic agents. Our results indicate that PRMT6 appears to be one of the key proteins to dysregulate p21 functions in human cancer, and targeting this pathway may be an appropriate strategy for development of anticancer drugs.

  15. Unique Role of the WD-40 Repeat Protein 5 (WDR5) Subunit within the Mixed Lineage Leukemia 3 (MLL3) Histone Methyltransferase Complex.

    PubMed

    Shinsky, Stephen A; Cosgrove, Michael S

    2015-10-23

    The MLL3 (mixed lineage leukemia 3) protein is a member of the human SET1 family of histone H3 lysine 4 methyltransferases and contains the conserved WDR5 interaction (Win) motif and the catalytic suppressor of variegation, enhancer of zeste, trithorax (SET) domain. The human SET1 family includes MLL1-4 and SETd1A/B, which all interact with a conserved subcomplex containing WDR5, RbBP5, Ash2L, and DPY-30 (WRAD) to form the minimal core complex required for full methyltransferase activity. However, recent evidence suggests that the WDR5 subunit may not be utilized in an identical manner within all SET1 family core complexes. Although the roles of WDR5 within the MLL1 core complex have been extensively studied, not much is known about the roles of WDR5 in other SET1 family core complexes. In this investigation, we set out to characterize the roles of the WDR5 subunit in the MLL3 core complex. We found that unlike MLL1, the MLL3 SET domain assembles with the RbBP5/Ash2L heterodimer independently of the Win motif-WDR5 interaction. Furthermore, we observed that WDR5 inhibits the monomethylation activity of the MLL3 core complex, which is dependent on the Win motif. We also found evidence suggesting that the WRAD subcomplex catalyzes weak H3K4 monomethylation within the context of the MLL3 core complex. Furthermore, solution structures of the MLL3 core complex assembled with and without WDR5 by small angle x-ray scattering show similar overall topologies. Together, this work demonstrates a unique role for WDR5 in modulating the enzymatic activity of the MLL3 core complex. PMID:26324722

  16. Unique Role of the WD-40 Repeat Protein 5 (WDR5) Subunit within the Mixed Lineage Leukemia 3 (MLL3) Histone Methyltransferase Complex*

    PubMed Central

    Shinsky, Stephen A.; Cosgrove, Michael S.

    2015-01-01

    The MLL3 (mixed lineage leukemia 3) protein is a member of the human SET1 family of histone H3 lysine 4 methyltransferases and contains the conserved WDR5 interaction (Win) motif and the catalytic suppressor of variegation, enhancer of zeste, trithorax (SET) domain. The human SET1 family includes MLL1–4 and SETd1A/B, which all interact with a conserved subcomplex containing WDR5, RbBP5, Ash2L, and DPY-30 (WRAD) to form the minimal core complex required for full methyltransferase activity. However, recent evidence suggests that the WDR5 subunit may not be utilized in an identical manner within all SET1 family core complexes. Although the roles of WDR5 within the MLL1 core complex have been extensively studied, not much is known about the roles of WDR5 in other SET1 family core complexes. In this investigation, we set out to characterize the roles of the WDR5 subunit in the MLL3 core complex. We found that unlike MLL1, the MLL3 SET domain assembles with the RbBP5/Ash2L heterodimer independently of the Win motif-WDR5 interaction. Furthermore, we observed that WDR5 inhibits the monomethylation activity of the MLL3 core complex, which is dependent on the Win motif. We also found evidence suggesting that the WRAD subcomplex catalyzes weak H3K4 monomethylation within the context of the MLL3 core complex. Furthermore, solution structures of the MLL3 core complex assembled with and without WDR5 by small angle x-ray scattering show similar overall topologies. Together, this work demonstrates a unique role for WDR5 in modulating the enzymatic activity of the MLL3 core complex. PMID:26324722

  17. TatBC, TatB, and TatC form structurally autonomous units within the twin arginine protein transport system of Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Orriss, George L; Tarry, Michael J; Ize, Bérengère; Sargent, Frank; Lea, Susan M; Palmer, Tracy; Berks, Ben C

    2007-08-21

    The Tat (twin arginine translocation) system transports folded proteins across bacterial and thylakoid membranes. The integral membrane proteins TatA, TatB, and TatC are the essential components of the Tat pathway in Escherichia coli. We demonstrate that formation of a stable complex between TatB and TatC does not require TatA or other Tat components. We show that the TatB and TatC proteins are each able to a form stable, defined, homomultimeric complexes. These we suggest correspond to structural subcomplexes within the parental TatBC complex. We infer that TatC forms a core to the TatBC complex on to which TatB assembles. PMID:17686475

  18. A loose domain swapping organization confers a remarkable stability to the dimeric structure of the arginine binding protein from Thermotoga maritima.

    PubMed

    Ruggiero, Alessia; Dattelbaum, Jonathan D; Staiano, Maria; Berisio, Rita; D'Auria, Sabato; Vitagliano, Luigi

    2014-01-01

    The arginine binding protein from Thermatoga maritima (TmArgBP), a substrate binding protein (SBP) involved in the ABC system of solute transport, presents a number of remarkable properties. These include an extraordinary stability to temperature and chemical denaturants and the tendency to form multimeric structures, an uncommon feature among SBPs involved in solute transport. Here we report a biophysical and structural characterization of the TmArgBP dimer. Our data indicate that the dimer of the protein is endowed with a remarkable stability since its full dissociation requires high temperature as well as SDS and urea at high concentrations. In order to elucidate the atomic level structural properties of this intriguing protein, we determined the crystallographic structures of the apo and the arginine-bound forms of TmArgBP using MAD and SAD methods, respectively. The comparison of the liganded and unliganded models demonstrates that TmArgBP tertiary structure undergoes a very large structural re-organization upon arginine binding. This transition follows the Venus Fly-trap mechanism, although the entity of the re-organization observed in TmArgBP is larger than that observed in homologous proteins. Intriguingly, TmArgBP dimerizes through the swapping of the C-terminal helix. This dimer is stabilized exclusively by the interactions established by the swapping helix. Therefore, the TmArgBP dimer combines a high level of stability and conformational freedom. The structure of the TmArgBP dimer represents an uncommon example of large tertiary structure variations amplified at quaternary structure level by domain swapping. Although the biological relevance of the dimer needs further assessments, molecular modelling suggests that the two TmArgBP subunits may simultaneously interact with two distinct ABC transporters. Moreover, the present protein structures provide some clues about the determinants of the extraordinary stability of the biomolecule. The availability of

  19. A loose domain swapping organization confers a remarkable stability to the dimeric structure of the arginine binding protein from Thermotoga maritima.

    PubMed

    Ruggiero, Alessia; Dattelbaum, Jonathan D; Staiano, Maria; Berisio, Rita; D'Auria, Sabato; Vitagliano, Luigi

    2014-01-01

    The arginine binding protein from Thermatoga maritima (TmArgBP), a substrate binding protein (SBP) involved in the ABC system of solute transport, presents a number of remarkable properties. These include an extraordinary stability to temperature and chemical denaturants and the tendency to form multimeric structures, an uncommon feature among SBPs involved in solute transport. Here we report a biophysical and structural characterization of the TmArgBP dimer. Our data indicate that the dimer of the protein is endowed with a remarkable stability since its full dissociation requires high temperature as well as SDS and urea at high concentrations. In order to elucidate the atomic level structural properties of this intriguing protein, we determined the crystallographic structures of the apo and the arginine-bound forms of TmArgBP using MAD and SAD methods, respectively. The comparison of the liganded and unliganded models demonstrates that TmArgBP tertiary structure undergoes a very large structural re-organization upon arginine binding. This transition follows the Venus Fly-trap mechanism, although the entity of the re-organization observed in TmArgBP is larger than that observed in homologous proteins. Intriguingly, TmArgBP dimerizes through the swapping of the C-terminal helix. This dimer is stabilized exclusively by the interactions established by the swapping helix. Therefore, the TmArgBP dimer combines a high level of stability and conformational freedom. The structure of the TmArgBP dimer represents an uncommon example of large tertiary structure variations amplified at quaternary structure level by domain swapping. Although the biological relevance of the dimer needs further assessments, molecular modelling suggests that the two TmArgBP subunits may simultaneously interact with two distinct ABC transporters. Moreover, the present protein structures provide some clues about the determinants of the extraordinary stability of the biomolecule. The availability of

  20. A Loose Domain Swapping Organization Confers a Remarkable Stability to the Dimeric Structure of the Arginine Binding Protein from Thermotoga maritima

    PubMed Central

    Ruggiero, Alessia; Dattelbaum, Jonathan D.; Staiano, Maria; Berisio, Rita; D'Auria, Sabato; Vitagliano, Luigi

    2014-01-01

    The arginine binding protein from Thermatoga maritima (TmArgBP), a substrate binding protein (SBP) involved in the ABC system of solute transport, presents a number of remarkable properties. These include an extraordinary stability to temperature and chemical denaturants and the tendency to form multimeric structures, an uncommon feature among SBPs involved in solute transport. Here we report a biophysical and structural characterization of the TmArgBP dimer. Our data indicate that the dimer of the protein is endowed with a remarkable stability since its full dissociation requires high temperature as well as SDS and urea at high concentrations. In order to elucidate the atomic level structural properties of this intriguing protein, we determined the crystallographic structures of the apo and the arginine-bound forms of TmArgBP using MAD and SAD methods, respectively. The comparison of the liganded and unliganded models demonstrates that TmArgBP tertiary structure undergoes a very large structural re-organization upon arginine binding. This transition follows the Venus Fly-trap mechanism, although the entity of the re-organization observed in TmArgBP is larger than that observed in homologous proteins. Intriguingly, TmArgBP dimerizes through the swapping of the C-terminal helix. This dimer is stabilized exclusively by the interactions established by the swapping helix. Therefore, the TmArgBP dimer combines a high level of stability and conformational freedom. The structure of the TmArgBP dimer represents an uncommon example of large tertiary structure variations amplified at quaternary structure level by domain swapping. Although the biological relevance of the dimer needs further assessments, molecular modelling suggests that the two TmArgBP subunits may simultaneously interact with two distinct ABC transporters. Moreover, the present protein structures provide some clues about the determinants of the extraordinary stability of the biomolecule. The availability of

  1. Cigarette smoke induces proteasomal-mediated degradation of DNA methyltransferases and methyl CpG-/CpG domain-binding proteins in embryonic orofacial cells.

    PubMed

    Mukhopadhyay, Partha; Greene, Robert M; Pisano, M Michele

    2015-12-01

    Orofacial clefts, the most prevalent of developmental anomalies, occur with a frequency of 1 in 700 live births. Maternal cigarette smoking during pregnancy represents a risk factor for having a child with a cleft lip and/or cleft palate. Using primary cultures of first branchial arch-derived cells (1-BA cells), which contribute to the formation of the lip and palate, the present study addressed the hypothesis that components of cigarette smoke alter global DNA methylation, and/or expression of DNA methyltransferases (Dnmts) and various methyl CpG-binding proteins. Primary cultures of 1-BA cells, exposed to 80μg/mL cigarette smoke extract (CSE) for 24h, exhibited a >13% decline in global DNA methylation and triggered proteasomal-mediated degradation of Dnmts (DNMT-1 and -3a), methyl CpG binding protein 2 (MeCP2) and methyl-CpG binding domain protein 3 (MBD-3). Pretreatment of 1-BA cells with the proteasomal inhibitor MG-132 completely reversed such degradation. Collectively, these data allow the suggestion of a potential epigenetic mechanism underlying maternal cigarette smoke exposure-induced orofacial clefting.

  2. Protein L-isoaspartyl methyltransferase1 (CaPIMT1) from chickpea mitigates oxidative stress-induced growth inhibition of Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Verma, Pooja; Singh, Ajeet; Kaur, Harmeet; Majee, Manoj

    2010-01-01

    PROTEIN L-ISOASPARTYL METHYLTRANSFERASE (PIMT) repairs deleterious L-isoaspartyl residues synthesized spontaneously in proteins due to aging or stressful environments and is widespread in living organisms including plants. Even though PIMT activity has been detected from various plant sources, detailed studies are limited to a few species. Our present study on a chickpea (Cicer arietinum) PIMT reveals that apart from seed, PIMT activity is present in other organs and noticeably enhanced during stressful conditions. Using degenerate oligonucleotides and RACE strategy, a full length cDNA (CaPIMT1) was cloned and sequenced. The cDNA is 920 bp in length and contains only one open reading frame of 690 bp encoding 229 amino acids. Genomic structure reveals that the CaPIMT1 gene spans about 2,050 bp in length and contains four exons and three introns. By quantitative real-time RT-PCR, we demonstrate that the transcript of CaPIMT1 is distributed across the organs with maximum levels in seed and is also enhanced under various environmental stress conditions. Purified bacterially expressed protein is further characterized for its catalytic properties. The activity is found to be elevated towards high temperature and pH conditions. Escherichia coli expressing CaPIMT1 show greater tolerance to oxidative stress than E. coli without CaPIMT1. Taken together, our results suggest that PIMT from chickpea shows a distinct pattern of expression and may have a specific role in stress adaptation apart from seed.

  3. Differences in folate-protein interactions result in differing inhibition of native rat liver and recombinant glycine N-methyltransferase by 5-methyltetrahydrofolate

    SciTech Connect

    Luka, Zigmund; Pakhomova, Svetlana; Loukachevitch, Lioudmila V; Newcomer, Marcia E; Wagner, Conrad

    2012-06-27

    Glycine N-methyltransferase (GNMT) is a key regulatory enzyme in methyl group metabolism. In mammalian liver it reduces S-adenosylmethionine levels by using it to methylate glycine, producing N-methylglycine (sarcosine) and S-adenosylhomocysteine. GNMT is inhibited by binding two molecules of 5-methyltetrahydrofolate (mono- or polyglutamate forms) per tetramer of the active enzyme. Inhibition is sensitive to the status of the N-terminal valine of GNMT and to polyglutamation of the folate inhibitor. It is inhibited by pentaglutamate form more efficiently compared to monoglutamate form. The native rat liver GNMT contains an acetylated N-terminal valine and is inhibited much more efficiently compared to the recombinant protein expressed in E. coli where the N-terminus is not acetylated. In this work we used a protein crystallography approach to evaluate the structural basis for these differences. We show that in the folate-GNMT complexes with the native enzyme, two folate molecules establish three and four hydrogen bonds with the protein. In the folate-recombinant GNMT complex only one hydrogen bond is established. This difference results in more effective inhibition by folate of the native liver GNMT activity compared to the recombinant enzyme.

  4. Designs for the self-assembly of open and closed macromolecular structures and a molecular switch using DNA methyltransferases to order proteins on nucleic acid scaffolds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Steven S.

    2002-06-01

    The methyltransferase-directed addressing of fusion proteins to DNA scaffolds offers an approach to the construction of protein/nucleic acid biostructures with potential in a variety of applications. The technology is currently only limited by the yield of high occupancy structures. However, current evidence shows that DNA scaffolds that contain three or four targeted proteins can be reliably constructed. This permits a variety of macromolecular designs, several of which are given in this paper. Designs for open and closed two-dimensional and three-dimensional assemblies and a design for a molecular switch are discussed. The closed two-dimensional assembly takes the form of a square, and could find application as a component of other systems including a macromolecular rotaxane. The closed three-dimensional system takes the form of a trigonal bipyramid and could find application as a macromolecular carcerand. The molecular switch could find application as a peptide biosensor. Guidelines for the construction and structural verification of these designs are reported.

  5. Differences in folate-protein interactions result in differing inhibition of native rat liver and recombinant glycine N-methyltransferase by 5-methyltetrahydrofolate

    PubMed Central

    Luka, Zigmund; Pakhomova, Svetlana; Loukachevitch, Lioudmila V.; Newcomer, Marcia E.; Wagner, Conrad

    2011-01-01

    Glycine N-methyltransferase (GNMT) is a key regulatory enzyme in methyl group metabolism. In mammalian liver it reduces S-adenosylmethionine levels by using it to methylate glycine, producing N-methylglycine (sarcosine) and S-adenosylhomocysteine. GNMT is inhibited by binding two molecules of 5-methyltetrahydrofolate (mono- or polyglutamate forms) per tetramer of the active enzyme. Inhibition is sensitive to the status of the N-terminal valine of GNMT and to polyglutamation of the folate inhibitor. It is inhibited by pentaglutamate form more efficiently compared to monoglutamate form. The native rat liver GNMT contains an acetylated N-terminal valine and is inhibited much more efficiently compared to the recombinant protein expressed in E. coli where the N-terminus is not acetylated. In this work we used a protein crystallography approach to evaluate the structural basis for these differences. We show that in the folate-GNMT complexes with the native enzyme, two folate molecules establish three and four hydrogen bonds with the protein. In the folate-recombinant GNMT complex only one hydrogen bond is established. This difference results in more effective inhibition by folate of the native liver GNMT activity compared to the recombinant enzyme. PMID:22037183

  6. Physiological implications of arginine metabolism in plants

    PubMed Central

    Winter, Gudrun; Todd, Christopher D.; Trovato, Maurizio; Forlani, Giuseppe; Funck, Dietmar

    2015-01-01

    Nitrogen is a limiting resource for plant growth in most terrestrial habitats since large amounts of nitrogen are needed to synthesize nucleic acids and proteins. Among the 21 proteinogenic amino acids, arginine has the highest nitrogen to carbon ratio, which makes it especially suitable as a storage form of organic nitrogen. Synthesis in chloroplasts via ornithine is apparently the only operational pathway to provide arginine in plants, and the rate of arginine synthesis is tightly regulated by various feedback mechanisms in accordance with the overall nutritional status. While several steps of arginine biosynthesis still remain poorly characterized in plants, much wider attention has been paid to inter- and intracellular arginine transport as well as arginine-derived metabolites. A role of arginine as alternative source besides glutamate for proline biosynthesis is still discussed controversially and may be prevented by differential subcellular localization of enzymes. Apparently, arginine is a precursor for nitric oxide (NO), although the molecular mechanism of NO production from arginine remains unclear in higher plants. In contrast, conversion of arginine to polyamines is well documented, and in several plant species also ornithine can serve as a precursor for polyamines. Both NO and polyamines play crucial roles in regulating developmental processes as well as responses to biotic and abiotic stress. It is thus conceivable that arginine catabolism serves on the one hand to mobilize nitrogen storages, while on the other hand it may be used to fine-tune development and defense mechanisms against stress. This review summarizes the recent advances in our knowledge about arginine metabolism, with a special focus on the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana, and pinpoints still unresolved critical questions. PMID:26284079

  7. L-arginine

    MedlinePlus

    ... muscle and nervous system problems). There is some interest in using L-arginine to improve symptoms associated ... might also increase potassium in the body. In theory, taking L-arginine along with some "water pills" ...

  8. Dopamine down-regulation of protein L-isoaspartyl methyltransferase is dependent on reactive oxygen species in SH-SY5Y cells.

    PubMed

    Ouazia, D; Levros, L-C; Rassart, E; Desrosiers, R R

    2014-05-16

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a chronic and progressive neurological disorder that is characterized by the loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra. Dopamine, via the oxidative stress that it generates in the cytosol, could contribute to the selective loss of neurons observed in PD. Protein L-isoaspartyl methyltransferase (PIMT) is an enzyme that repairs L-isoaspartyl-containing proteins and possesses anti-apoptotic properties. PIMT expression has been shown to decrease with age. Together, these observations prompted us to investigate whether dopamine can regulate PIMT expression in SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells. Here, we report that dopamine down-regulated PIMT at both gene and protein levels. The same inhibition of PIMT protein level was caused by the electron transport chain inhibitor, rotenone, which was accompanied, in both cases, by an increase in cell death and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. In fact, pre-treatment with the antioxidant N-acetyl cysteine blocked PIMT dopamine-associated down-regulation. PCMT1 promoter mapping experiments allowed the identification of two regions that showed different sensitivity to DA action. A first region localized between 61 and 94bp upstream of transcription start site was very sensitive to dopamine inhibition while a second region between 41 and 61bp appeared more resistant to dopamine inhibitory effect. The inhibition of PCMT1 promoter activity was mediated by dopamine-induced ROS since it was prevented by the hydroxyl radical scavenger N,N'-dimethylthiourea. Conversely, H2O2 inhibited in a dose-dependent manner the transcriptional activity of PCMT1 promoter. Therefore, our findings identified new molecular mechanisms, cytosolic dopamine and its resulting ROS, as inhibitors of PIMT expression. This suggests that ROS generated from cytosolic dopamine could reduce both the PCMT1 gene promoter activity and the PIMT protein level thus decreasing its capacity to repair proteins involved in apoptosis and

  9. Arginine methylation and citrullination of splicing factor proline- and glutamine-rich (SFPQ/PSF) regulates its association with mRNA.

    PubMed

    Snijders, Ambrosius P; Hautbergue, Guillaume M; Bloom, Alex; Williamson, James C; Minshull, Thomas C; Phillips, Helen L; Mihaylov, Simeon R; Gjerde, Douglas T; Hornby, David P; Wilson, Stuart A; Hurd, Paul J; Dickman, Mark J

    2015-03-01

    Splicing factor proline- and glutamine-rich (SFPQ) also commonly known as polypyrimidine tract-binding protein-associated-splicing factor (PSF) and its binding partner non-POU domain-containing octamer-binding protein (NONO/p54nrb), are highly abundant, multifunctional nuclear proteins. However, the exact role of this complex is yet to be determined. Following purification of the endogeneous SFPQ/NONO complex, mass spectrometry analysis identified a wide range of interacting proteins, including those involved in RNA processing, RNA splicing, and transcriptional regulation, consistent with a multifunctional role for SFPQ/NONO. In addition, we have identified several sites of arginine methylation in SFPQ/PSF using mass spectrometry and found that several arginines in the N-terminal domain of SFPQ/PSF are asymmetrically dimethylated. Furthermore, we find that the protein arginine N-methyltransferase, PRMT1, catalyzes this methylation in vitro and that this is antagonized by citrullination of SFPQ. Arginine methylation and citrullination of SFPQ/PSF does not affect complex formation with NONO. However, arginine methylation was shown to increase the association with mRNA in mRNP complexes in mammalian cells. Finally we show that the biochemical properties of the endogenous complex from cell lysates are significantly influenced by the ionic strength during purification. At low ionic strength, the SFPQ/NONO complex forms large heterogeneous protein assemblies or aggregates, preventing the purification of the SFPQ/NONO complex. The ability of the SFPQ/NONO complex to form varying protein assemblies, in conjunction with the effect of post-translational modifications of SFPQ modulating mRNA binding, suggests key roles affecting mRNP dynamics within the cell.

  10. Arginine methylation and citrullination of splicing factor proline- and glutamine-rich (SFPQ/PSF) regulates its association with mRNA

    PubMed Central

    Snijders, Ambrosius P.; Hautbergue, Guillaume M.; Bloom, Alex; Williamson, James C.; Minshull, Thomas C.; Phillips, Helen L.; Mihaylov, Simeon R.; Gjerde, Douglas T.; Hornby, David P.; Wilson, Stuart A.; Hurd, Paul J.

    2015-01-01

    Splicing factor proline- and glutamine-rich (SFPQ) also commonly known as polypyrimidine tract-binding protein-associated-splicing factor (PSF) and its binding partner non-POU domain-containing octamer-binding protein (NONO/p54nrb), are highly abundant, multifunctional nuclear proteins. However, the exact role of this complex is yet to be determined. Following purification of the endogeneous SFPQ/NONO complex, mass spectrometry analysis identified a wide range of interacting proteins, including those involved in RNA processing, RNA splicing, and transcriptional regulation, consistent with a multifunctional role for SFPQ/NONO. In addition, we have identified several sites of arginine methylation in SFPQ/PSF using mass spectrometry and found that several arginines in the N-terminal domain of SFPQ/PSF are asymmetrically dimethylated. Furthermore, we find that the protein arginine N-methyltransferase, PRMT1, catalyzes this methylation in vitro and that this is antagonized by citrullination of SFPQ. Arginine methylation and citrullination of SFPQ/PSF does not affect complex formation with NONO. However, arginine methylation was shown to increase the association with mRNA in mRNP complexes in mammalian cells. Finally we show that the biochemical properties of the endogenous complex from cell lysates are significantly influenced by the ionic strength during purification. At low ionic strength, the SFPQ/NONO complex forms large heterogeneous protein assemblies or aggregates, preventing the purification of the SFPQ/NONO complex. The ability of the SFPQ/NONO complex to form varying protein assemblies, in conjunction with the effect of post-translational modifications of SFPQ modulating mRNA binding, suggests key roles affecting mRNP dynamics within the cell. PMID:25605962

  11. The C-terminal domain of the largest subunit of RNA polymerase II interacts with a novel set of serine/arginine-rich proteins.

    PubMed Central

    Yuryev, A; Patturajan, M; Litingtung, Y; Joshi, R V; Gentile, C; Gebara, M; Corden, J L

    1996-01-01

    Although transcription and pre-mRNA processing are colocalized in eukaryotic nuclei, molecules linking these processes have not previously been described. We have identified four novel rat proteins by their ability to interact with the repetitive C-terminal domain (CTD) of RNA polymerase II in a yeast two-hybrid assay. A yeast homolog of one of the rat proteins has also been shown to interact with the CTD. These CTD-binding proteins are all similar to the SR (serine/arginine-rich) family of proteins that have been shown to be involved in constitutive and regulated splicing. In addition to alternating Ser-Arg domains, these proteins each contain discrete N-terminal or C-terminal CTD-binding domains. We have identified SR-related proteins in a complex that can be immunoprecipitated from nuclear extracts with antibodies directed against RNA polymerase II. In addition, in vitro splicing is inhibited either by an antibody directed against the CTD or by wild-type but not mutant CTD peptides. Thus, these results suggest that the CTD and a set of CTD-binding proteins may act to physically and functionally link transcription and pre-mRNA processing. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:8692929

  12. The BioC O-Methyltransferase Catalyzes Methyl Esterification of Malonyl-Acyl Carrier Protein, an Essential Step in Biotin Synthesis*

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Steven; Cronan, John E.

    2012-01-01

    Recent work implicated the Escherichia coli BioC protein as the initiator of the synthetic pathway that forms the pimeloyl moiety of biotin (Lin, S., Hanson, R. E., and Cronan, J. E. (2010) Nat. Chem. Biol. 6, 682–688). BioC was believed to be an O-methyltransferase that methylated the free carboxyl of either malonyl-CoA or malonyl-acyl carrier protein based on the ability of O-methylated (but not unmethylated) precursors to bypass the BioC requirement for biotin synthesis both in vivo and in vitro. However, only indirect proof of the hypothesized enzymatic activity was obtained because the activities of the available BioC preparations were too low for direct enzymatic assay. Because E. coli BioC protein was extremely recalcitrant to purification in an active form, BioC homologues of other bacteria were tested. We report that the native form of Bacillus cereus ATCC10987 BioC functionally replaced E. coli BioC in vivo, and the protein could be expressed in soluble form and purified to homogeneity. In disagreement with prior scenarios that favored malonyl-CoA as the methyl acceptor, malonyl-acyl carrier protein was a far better acceptor of methyl groups from S-adenosyl-l-methionine than was malonyl-CoA. BioC was specific for the malonyl moiety and was inhibited by S-adenosyl-l-homocysteine and sinefungin. High level expression of B. cereus BioC in E. coli blocked cell growth and fatty acid synthesis. PMID:22965231

  13. The Vaccine Candidate Substrate Binding Protein SBP2 Plays a Key Role in Arginine Uptake, Which Is Required for Growth of Moraxella catarrhalis

    PubMed Central

    Otsuka, Taketo; Kirkham, Charmaine; Brauer, Aimee; Koszelak-Rosenblum, Mary; Malkowski, Michael G.

    2015-01-01

    Moraxella catarrhalis is an exclusively human pathogen that is an important cause of otitis media in children and lower respiratory tract infections in adults with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. A vaccine to prevent M. catarrhalis infections would have an enormous global impact in reducing morbidity resulting from these infections. Substrate binding protein 2 (SBP2) of an ABC transporter system has recently been identified as a promising vaccine candidate antigen on the bacterial surface of M. catarrhalis. In this study, we showed that SBP1, -2, and -3 individually bind different basic amino acids with exquisite specificity. We engineered mutants that each expressed a single SBP from this gene cluster and showed in growth experiments that SBP1, -2, and -3 serve a nutritional function through acquisition of amino acids for the bacterium. SBP2 mediates uptake of arginine, a strict growth requirement of M. catarrhalis. Adherence and invasion assays demonstrated that SBP1 and SBP3 play a role in invasion of human respiratory epithelial cells, consistent with a nutritional role in intracellular survival in the human respiratory tract. This work demonstrates that the SBPs of an ABC transporter system function in the uptake of basic amino acids to support growth of M. catarrhalis. The critical role of SBP2 in arginine uptake may contribute to its potential as a vaccine antigen. PMID:26597985

  14. High-level secretion of a recombinant protein to the culture medium with a Bacillus subtilis twin-arginine translocation system in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Albiniak, Anna M; Matos, Cristina F R O; Branston, Steven D; Freedman, Robert B; Keshavarz-Moore, Eli; Robinson, Colin

    2013-08-01

    The twin-arginine translocation (Tat) system transports folded proteins across the plasma membrane in bacteria, and heterologous proteins can be exported by this pathway if a Tat-type signal peptide is present at the N-terminus. The system thus has potential for biopharmaceutical production in Escherichia coli, where export to the periplasm is often a favoured approach. Previous studies have shown that E. coli cells can export high levels of protein by the Tat pathway, and the protein product accummulates almost exclusively in the periplasm. In this study, we analysed E. coli cells that express the Bacillus subtilis TatAdCd system in place of the native TatABC system. We show that a heterologous model protein, comprising the TorA signal peptide linked to green fluorescent protein (TorA-GFP), is efficiently exported by the TatAdCd system. However, whereas the GFP is exported initially to the periplasm during batch fermentation, the mature protein is increasingly found in the extracellular culture medium. By the end of a 16-h fermentation, ~ 90% of exported GFP is present in the medium as active mature protein. The total protein profiles of the medium and periplasm are essentially identical, confirming that the outer membrane becomes leaky during the fermentation process. The cells are otherwise intact, and there is no large-scale release of cytoplasmic contents. Export levels are relatively high, with ~ 0.35 g GFP·L⁻¹ culture present in the medium. This system thus offers a means of producing recombinant protein in E. coli and harvesting directly from the medium, with potential advantages in terms of ease of purification and downstream processing. PMID:23745597

  15. PRMT1 promotes mitosis of cancer cells through arginine methylation of INCENP.

    PubMed

    Deng, Xiaolan; Von Keudell, Gottfried; Suzuki, Takehiro; Dohmae, Naoshi; Nakakido, Makoto; Piao, Lianhua; Yoshioka, Yuichiro; Nakamura, Yusuke; Hamamoto, Ryuji

    2015-11-01

    Inner centromere protein (INCENP) is a part of a protein complex known as the chromosomal passenger complex (CPC) that is essential for correcting non-bipolar chromosome attachments and for cytokinesis. We here demonstrate that a protein arginine methyltransferase PRMT1, which are overexpressed in various types of cancer including lung and bladder cancer, methylates arginine 887 in an Aurora Kinase B (AURKB)-binding region of INCENP both in vitro and in vivo. R887-substituted INCENP revealed lower binding-affinity to AURKB than wild-type INCENP in the presence of PRMT1. Knockdown of PRMT1 as well as overexpression of methylation-inactive INCENP attenuated the AURKB activity in cancer cells, and resulted in abnormal chromosomal alignment and segregation. Furthermore, introduction of methylation-inactive INCENP into cancer cells reduced the growth rate, compared with those introduced wild-type INCENP or Mock. Our data unveils a novel mechanism of PRMT1-mediated CPC regulation through methylation of INCENP.

  16. Dynamic Arginine Methylation of Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF) Receptor-associated Factor 6 Regulates Toll-like Receptor Signaling*

    PubMed Central

    Tikhanovich, Irina; Kuravi, Sudhakiranmayi; Artigues, Antonio; Villar, Maria T.; Dorko, Kenneth; Nawabi, Atta; Roberts, Benjamin; Weinman, Steven A.

    2015-01-01

    Arginine methylation is a common post-translational modification, but its role in regulating protein function is poorly understood. This study demonstrates that, TNF receptor-associated factor 6 (TRAF6), an E3 ubiquitin ligase involved in innate immune signaling, is regulated by reversible arginine methylation in a range of primary and cultured cells. Under basal conditions, TRAF6 is methylated by the methyltransferase PRMT1, and this inhibits its ubiquitin ligase activity, reducing activation of toll-like receptor signaling. In response to toll-like receptor ligands, TRAF6 is demethylated by the Jumonji domain protein JMJD6. Demethylation is required for maximal activation of NF-κB. Loss of JMJD6 leads to reduced response, and loss of PRMT1 leads to basal pathway activation with subsequent desensitization to ligands. In human primary cells, variations in the PRMT1/JMJD6 ratio significantly correlate with TRAF6 methylation, basal activation of NF-κB, and magnitude of response to LPS. Reversible arginine methylation of TRAF6 by the opposing effects of PRMT1 and JMJD6 is, therefore, a novel mechanism for regulation of innate immune pathways. PMID:26221041

  17. The nitrosated bile acid DNA lesion O6-carboxymethylguanine is a substrate for the human DNA repair protein O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase

    PubMed Central

    Senthong, Pattama; Millington, Christopher L.; Wilkinson, Oliver J.; Marriott, Andrew S.; Watson, Amanda J.; Reamtong, Onrapak; Eyers, Claire E.; Williams, David M.; Margison, Geoffrey P.; Povey, Andrew C.

    2013-01-01

    The consumption of red meat is a risk factor in human colorectal cancer (CRC). One hypothesis is that red meat facilitates the nitrosation of bile acid conjugates and amino acids, which rapidly convert to DNA-damaging carcinogens. Indeed, the toxic and mutagenic DNA adduct O6-carboxymethylguanine (O6-CMG) is frequently present in human DNA, increases in abundance in people with high levels of dietary red meat and may therefore be a causative factor in CRC. Previous reports suggested that O6-CMG is not a substrate for the human version of the DNA damage reversal protein O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT), which protects against the genotoxic effects of other O6-alkylguanine lesions by removing alkyl groups from the O6-position. We now show that synthetic oligodeoxyribonucleotides containing the known MGMT substrate O6-methylguanine (O6-MeG) or O6-CMG effectively inactivate MGMT in vitro (IC50 0.93 and 1.8 nM, respectively). Inactivation involves the removal of the O6-alkyl group and its transfer to the active-site cysteine residue of MGMT. O6-CMG is therefore an MGMT substrate, and hence MGMT is likely to be a protective factor in CRC under conditions where O6-CMG is a potential causative agent. PMID:23335782

  18. Characterization of cDNA encoding mouse DNA repair protein O sup 6 -methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase and high-level expression of the wild-type and mutant proteins in Escherichia coli

    SciTech Connect

    Shiota, Susumu; Tano, Keizo ); von Wronski, M.A.; Brent, T.P. ); Bigner, D.D. ); Mitra, S. )

    1992-02-25

    A mouse cDNA clone encoding O{sup 6}-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT), responsible for repair of mutagenic O{sup 6}-alkylguanine in DNA, was cloned from a {lambda}gt11 library. On the basis of an open reading frame in cDNA, the mouse protein contains 211 amino acids with a molecular mass of 22 kDa. The size and the predicted N-terminal sequence of the mouse protein were confirmed experimentally. The deduced amino acid sequence of the mouse MGMT is 70% homologous to that of the human MGMT. Cysteine-149 was shown to be the only alkyl acceptor residue in the mouse protein, in confirmation of the prediction based on conserved sequences of different MGMTs. Mouse MGMT protein is recognized by some monoclonal antibodies specific for human MGMT. Site-directed mutagenesis was utilized to reclone the mouse cDNA in a T7 promoter-based vector for overexpression of the native repair protein in Escherichia coli. The mouse protein has a tetrapeptide sequence, Pro-Glu-Gly-Val at positions 56-59, absent in the human protein. Neither deletion of this tetrapeptide nor substitution of valine-169 with alanine affected the activity of the mutant proteins.

  19. Monoclonal antibodies to the West Nile virus NS5 protein map to linear and conformational epitopes in the methyltransferase and polymerase domains.

    PubMed

    Hall, Roy A; Tan, Si En; Selisko, Barbara; Slade, Rachael; Hobson-Peters, Jody; Canard, Bruno; Hughes, Megan; Leung, Jason Y; Balmori-Melian, Ezequiel; Hall-Mendelin, Sonja; Pham, Kim B; Clark, David C; Prow, Natalie A; Khromykh, Alexander A

    2009-12-01

    The West Nile virus (WNV) NS5 protein contains a methyltransferase (MTase) domain involved in RNA capping and an RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) domain essential for virus replication. Crystal structures of individual WNV MTase and RdRp domains have been solved; however, the structure of full-length NS5 has not been determined. To gain more insight into the structure of NS5 and interactions between the MTase and RdRp domains, we generated a panel of seven monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) to the NS5 protein of WNV (Kunjin strain) and mapped their binding sites using a series of truncated NS5 proteins and synthetic peptides. Binding sites of four mAbs (5D4, 4B6, 5C11 and 6A10) were mapped to residues 354-389 in the fingers subdomain of the RdRp. This is consistent with the ability of these mAbs to inhibit RdRp activity in vitro and suggests that this region represents a potential target for RdRp inhibitors. Using a series of synthetic peptides, we also identified a linear epitope (bound by mAb 5H1) that mapped to a 13 aa stretch surrounding residues 47 and 49 in the MTase domain, a region predicted to interact with the palm subdomain of the RdRp. The failure of one mAb (7G6) to bind both N- and C-terminally truncated NS5 recombinants indicates that the antibody recognizes a conformational epitope that requires the presence of residues in both the MTase and RdRp domains. These data support a structural model of the full-length NS5 molecule that predicts a physical interaction between the MTase and the RdRp domains. PMID:19710254

  20. The role of arginine in infection and sepsis.

    PubMed

    Luiking, Yvette C; Poeze, Martijn; Ramsay, Graham; Deutz, Nicolaas E P

    2005-01-01

    Sepsis is a systemic response to an infection, with high morbidity and mortality rates. Metabolic changes during infection and sepsis could be related to changes in metabolism of the amino acid L-arginine. In sepsis, protein breakdown is increased, which is a key process to maintain arginine delivery because both endogenous de novo arginine production from citrulline and food intake are reduced. Arginine catabolism, on the other hand, is markedly increased by enhanced use of arginine via the arginase and nitric oxide pathways. As a result, lowered plasma arginine levels are usually found. Arginine may therefore be considered as an essential amino acid in sepsis, and supplementation could be beneficial in sepsis by improving microcirculation and protein anabolism. L-Arginine supplementation in a hyperdynamic pig model of sepsis prohibits the increase in pulmonary arterial blood pressure, improves muscle and liver protein metabolism, and restores the intestinal motility pattern. Arguments raised against arginine supplementation are mainly pointed at stimulating nitric oxide (NO) production, with concerns about toxicity of increased NO and hemodynamic instability with refractory hypotension. NO synthase inhibition, however, increased mortality. Arginine supplementation in septic patients has transient effects on hemodynamics when supplied as a bolus but seems without hemodynamic side effects when supplied continuously. In conclusion, arginine could have an essential role in infection and sepsis.

  1. Loss of RUNX1/AML1 arginine-methylation impairs peripheral T cell homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Mizutani, Shinsuke; Yoshida, Tatsushi; Zhao, Xinyang; Nimer, Stephen D; Taniwaki, Masafumi; Okuda, Tsukasa

    2015-09-01

    RUNX1 (previously termed AML1) is a frequent target of human leukaemia-associated gene aberrations, and it encodes the DNA-binding subunit of the Core-Binding Factor transcription factor complex. RUNX1 expression is essential for the initiation of definitive haematopoiesis, for steady-state thrombopoiesis, and for normal lymphocytes development. Recent studies revealed that protein arginine methyltransferase 1 (PRMT1), which accounts for the majority of the type I PRMT activity in cells, methylates two arginine residues in RUNX1 (R206 and R210), and these modifications inhibit corepressor-binding to RUNX1 thereby enhancing its transcriptional activity. In order to elucidate the biological significance of these methylations, we established novel knock-in mouse lines with non-methylable, double arginine-to-lysine (RTAMR-to-KTAMK) mutations in RUNX1. Homozygous Runx1(KTAMK) (/) (KTAMK) mice are born alive and appear normal during adulthood. However, Runx1(KTAMK) (/) (KTAMK) mice showed a reduction in CD3(+) T lymphoid cells and a decrease in CD4(+) T cells in peripheral lymphoid organs, in comparison to their wild-type littermates, leading to a reduction in the CD4(+) to CD8(+) T-cell ratio. These findings suggest that arginine-methylation of RUNX1 in the RTAMR-motif is dispensable for the development of definitive haematopoiesis and for steady-state platelet production, however this modification affects the role of RUNX1 in the maintenance of the peripheral CD4(+) T-cell population. PMID:26010396

  2. Polygalacturonase-Inhibiting Protein Interacts with Pectin through a Binding Site Formed by Four Clustered Residues of Arginine and Lysine1

    PubMed Central

    Spadoni, Sara; Zabotina, Olga; Di Matteo, Adele; Mikkelsen, Jørn Dalgaard; Cervone, Felice; De Lorenzo, Giulia; Mattei, Benedetta; Bellincampi, Daniela

    2006-01-01

    Polygalacturonase-inhibiting protein (PGIP) is a cell wall protein that inhibits fungal polygalacturonases (PGs) and retards the invasion of plant tissues by phytopathogenic fungi. Here, we report the interaction of two PGIP isoforms from Phaseolus vulgaris (PvPGIP1 and PvPGIP2) with both polygalacturonic acid and cell wall fractions containing uronic acids. We identify in the three-dimensional structure of PvPGIP2 a motif of four clustered arginine and lysine residues (R183, R206, K230, and R252) responsible for this binding. The four residues were mutated and the protein variants were expressed in Pichia pastoris. The ability of both wild-type and mutated proteins to bind pectins was investigated by affinity chromatography. Single mutations impaired the binding and double mutations abolished the interaction, thus indicating that the four clustered residues form the pectin-binding site. Remarkably, the binding of PGIP to pectin is displaced in vitro by PGs, suggesting that PGIP interacts with pectin and PGs through overlapping although not identical regions. The specific interaction of PGIP with polygalacturonic acid may be strategic to protect pectins from the degrading activity of fungal PGs. PMID:16648220

  3. Poly-L-arginine-Induced internalization of tight junction proteins increases the paracellular permeability of the Caco-2 cell monolayer to hydrophilic macromolecules.

    PubMed

    Yamaki, Tsutomu; Ohtake, Kazuo; Ichikawa, Keiko; Uchida, Masaki; Uchida, Hiroyuki; Oshima, Shinji; Ohshima, Shinji; Juni, Kazuhiko; Kobayashi, Jun; Morimoto, Yasunori; Natsume, Hideshi

    2013-01-01

    We investigated whether poly-L-arginine (PLA) enhances the paracellular permeability of the Caco-2 monolayer to hydrophilic macromolecules and clarified the disposition of tight junction (TJ) proteins. The transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER) and fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-dextran (FD-4) permeation were determined after treatment with PLA. TJ proteins were visualized using immunofluorescence microscopy after PLA exposure and depletion, and their expression levels were determined. The barrier function of TJs was also evaluated by measuring the alterations in the TEER and in the localization of TJ proteins. PLA induced an increase in hydrophilic macromolecule, FD-4, permeation through Caco-2 cell monolayers and a decrease in the TEER in a concentration-dependent manner, without any significant impact on the cell viability. This increased paracellular permeability induced by PLA was found to be internalized of claudin-4, ZO-1, tricellulin and mainly occludin from cell-cell junction to the subcellular space. ZO-1 appeared to play an important role in the reconstitution of TJ strand structures following PLA depletion. These results indicate that the PLA led to the internalization of TJ proteins to the subcellular space, subsequently increasing the permeability of the Caco-2 cell monolayer to FD-4 via a paracellular route.

  4. Arginine requirement of starting broiler chicks.

    PubMed

    Cuca, M; Jensen, L S

    1990-08-01

    Three experiments were conducted to estimate the arginine requirement of male broiler chicks from 0 to 3 wk of age. The experiments were conducted in battery brooders with wires floors, and the birds received water and feed ad libitum. In the first experiment, chicks were fed a diet based on corn, soybean meal, casein, and corn-gluten meal containing 3,200 kcal ME per kg and either 20 or 23% crude protein. Regression analysis indicated an arginine requirement of 1.22% for maximum growth rate and feed efficiency with the 20% protein diet. For chicks fed the 23% protein diet, neither growth rate nor feed efficiency was significantly different among the diets containing arginine ranging from 1.13 to 1.43%. In the second experiment, a basal diet was used containing 17.5% casein and 22.5% protein with arginine ranging from 1.03 to 1.43%. An arginine requirement of 1.18% for maximum body weight gain was estimated by regression analysis, but no significant response to arginine above the basal level was observed for feed efficiency. Performance of chicks fed the basal diet was somewhat reduced because of a difficulty with adherence of feed to the beaks. In a third experiment, three basal diets containing 21, 22, or 23% protein were formulated from practical ingredients without use of casein. The requirement for maximum growth rate and feed efficiency was estimated to be 1.24 to 1.28% for the three diets. The results of these investigations indicate that the arginine requirement for starting chicks suggested by the National Research Council in 1984 of 1.44% in diets containing 3,200 kcal ME per kg is too high for practical diets. The data presented here support an arginine requirement of 1.25%. PMID:2235851

  5. The YqfN protein of Bacillus subtilis is the tRNA: m1A22 methyltransferase (TrmK).

    PubMed

    Roovers, Martine; Kaminska, Katarzyna H; Tkaczuk, Karolina L; Gigot, Daniel; Droogmans, Louis; Bujnicki, Janusz M

    2008-06-01

    N(1)-methylation of adenosine to m(1)A occurs in several different positions in tRNAs from various organisms. A methyl group at position N(1) prevents Watson-Crick-type base pairing by adenosine and is therefore important for regulation of structure and stability of tRNA molecules. Thus far, only one family of genes encoding enzymes responsible for m(1)A methylation at position 58 has been identified, while other m(1)A methyltransferases (MTases) remain elusive. Here, we show that Bacillus subtilis open reading frame yqfN is necessary and sufficient for N(1)-adenosine methylation at position 22 of bacterial tRNA. Thus, we propose to rename YqfN as TrmK, according to the traditional nomenclature for bacterial tRNA MTases, or TrMet(m(1)A22) according to the nomenclature from the MODOMICS database of RNA modification enzymes. tRNAs purified from a DeltatrmK strain are a good substrate in vitro for the recombinant TrmK protein, which is sufficient for m(1)A methylation at position 22 as are tRNAs from Escherichia coli, which natively lacks m(1)A22. TrmK is conserved in Gram-positive bacteria and present in some Gram-negative bacteria, but its orthologs are apparently absent from archaea and eukaryota. Protein structure prediction indicates that the active site of TrmK does not resemble the active site of the m(1)A58 MTase TrmI, suggesting that these two enzymatic activities evolved independently.

  6. Chaperone protein L-isoaspartate (D-aspartyl) O-methyltransferase as a novel predictor of poor prognosis in lung adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Saito, Heisuke; Yamashita, Masahiro; Ogasawara, Masahito; Yamada, Noriyuki; Niisato, Miyuki; Tomoyasu, Makoto; Deguchi, Hiroyuki; Tanita, Tatsuo; Ishida, Kazuyuki; Sugai, Tamotsu; Yamauchi, Kohei

    2016-04-01

    Endoplasmic reticulum stress and chaperone dysfunction have recently been associated with poor prognoses in various cancers. The newly discovered chaperone protein L-isoaspartyl (D-aspartyl) O-methyltransferase (PIMT) regulates the viability of cancer cells in various cancers, although no clinical information regarding the relationship between lung cancer and PIMT expression has been reported. In this study, we aimed to elucidate the relationship between PIMT expression and the prognosis of lung adenocarcinoma. Paraffin-embedded lung tissues obtained from 208 patients with surgically resected lung adenocarcinoma were subjected to immunohistochemical analyses using primary antibodies against PIMT. Kaplan-Meier curves, log-rank tests, and the Cox proportional hazards model were used to analyze the association between PIMT expression and patient survival. Strong PIMT expression was detected in 106 (50.9%) patients, being particularly observed in patients with advanced stages of lung adenocarcinoma. Strong PIMT expression was associated with that of 78-kDa glucose-regulated protein, a marker of endoplasmic reticulum stress. Patients with strong PIMT expression had a shorter survival time (Kaplan-Meier analysis, P<.001). Multivariate Cox hazard regression analysis demonstrated that strong PIMT expression was an independent predictor of poor prognosis of lung adenocarcinoma, including those with stage I disease (hazard ratios, 6.45 and 6.81, respectively; 95% confidence intervals, 2.46-16.9 and 1.79-25.8, respectively; P<.001 and P=.005, respectively). Collectively, strong PIMT expression was a predictive marker of poor prognosis for surgically resected lung adenocarcinoma, and this finding might help clinicians determine the need for postoperative adjuvant chemotherapy in patients with stage I lung adenocarcinoma.

  7. Arginine de novo and nitric oxide production in disease states.

    PubMed

    Luiking, Yvette C; Ten Have, Gabriella A M; Wolfe, Robert R; Deutz, Nicolaas E P

    2012-11-15

    Arginine is derived from dietary protein intake, body protein breakdown, or endogenous de novo arginine production. The latter may be linked to the availability of citrulline, which is the immediate precursor of arginine and limiting factor for de novo arginine production. Arginine metabolism is highly compartmentalized due to the expression of the enzymes involved in arginine metabolism in various organs. A small fraction of arginine enters the NO synthase (NOS) pathway. Tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) is an essential and rate-limiting cofactor for the production of NO. Depletion of BH4 in oxidative-stressed endothelial cells can result in so-called NOS3 "uncoupling," resulting in production of superoxide instead of NO. Moreover, distribution of arginine between intracellular transporters and arginine-converting enzymes, as well as between the arginine-converting and arginine-synthesizing enzymes, determines the metabolic fate of arginine. Alternatively, NO can be derived from conversion of nitrite. Reduced arginine availability stemming from reduced de novo production and elevated arginase activity have been reported in various conditions of acute and chronic stress, which are often characterized by increased NOS2 and reduced NOS3 activity. Cardiovascular and pulmonary disorders such as atherosclerosis, diabetes, hypercholesterolemia, ischemic heart disease, and hypertension are characterized by NOS3 uncoupling. Therapeutic applications to influence (de novo) arginine and NO metabolism aim at increasing substrate availability or at influencing the metabolic fate of specific pathways related to NO bioavailability and prevention of NOS3 uncoupling. These include supplementation of arginine or citrulline, provision of NO donors including inhaled NO and nitrite (sources), NOS3 modulating agents, or the targeting of endogenous NOS inhibitors like asymmetric dimethylarginine.

  8. SMN and symmetric arginine dimethylation of RNA polymerase II C-terminal domain control termination.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Dorothy Yanling; Gish, Gerald; Braunschweig, Ulrich; Li, Yue; Ni, Zuyao; Schmitges, Frank W; Zhong, Guoqing; Liu, Ke; Li, Weiguo; Moffat, Jason; Vedadi, Masoud; Min, Jinrong; Pawson, Tony J; Blencowe, Benjamin J; Greenblatt, Jack F

    2016-01-01

    The carboxy-terminal domain (CTD) of the RNA polymerase II (RNAP II) subunit POLR2A is a platform for modifications specifying the recruitment of factors that regulate transcription, mRNA processing, and chromatin remodelling. Here we show that a CTD arginine residue (R1810 in human) that is conserved across vertebrates is symmetrically dimethylated (me2s). This R1810me2s modification requires protein arginine methyltransferase 5 (PRMT5) and recruits the Tudor domain of the survival of motor neuron (SMN, also known as GEMIN1) protein, which is mutated in spinal muscular atrophy. SMN interacts with senataxin, which is sometimes mutated in ataxia oculomotor apraxia type 2 and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Because POLR2A R1810me2s and SMN, like senataxin, are required for resolving RNA-DNA hybrids created by RNA polymerase II that form R-loops in transcription termination regions, we propose that R1810me2s, SMN, and senataxin are components of an R-loop resolution pathway. Defects in this pathway can influence transcription termination and may contribute to neurodegenerative disorders. PMID:26700805

  9. The effects of arginine glutamate, a promising excipient for protein formulation, on cell viability: Comparisons with NaCl

    PubMed Central

    Kheddo, Priscilla; Golovanov, Alexander P.; Mellody, Kieran T.; Uddin, Shahid; van der Walle, Christopher F.; Dearman, Rebecca J.

    2016-01-01

    The effects of an equimolar mixture of l-arginine and l-glutamate (Arg·Glu) on cell viability and cellular stress using in vitro cell culture systems are examined with reference to NaCl, in the context of monoclonal antibody formulation. Cells relevant to subcutaneous administration were selected: the human monocyte cell line THP-1, grown as a single cell suspension, and adherent human primary fibroblasts. For THP-1 cells, the mechanism of cell death caused by relatively high salt concentrations was investigated and effects on cell activation/stress assessed as a function of changes in membrane marker and cytokine (interleukin-8) expression. These studies demonstrated that Arg·Glu does not have any further detrimental effects on THP-1 viability in comparison to NaCl at equivalent osmolalities, and that both salts at higher concentrations cause cell death by apoptosis; there was no significant effect on measures of THP-1 cellular stress/activation. For adherent fibroblasts, both salts caused significant toxicity at ~ 400 mOsm/kg, although Arg·Glu caused a more precipitous subsequent decline in viability than did NaCl. These data indicate that Arg·Glu is of equivalent toxicity to NaCl and that the mechanism of toxicity is such that cell death is unlikely to trigger inflammation upon subcutaneous injection in vivo. PMID:26873863

  10. The effects of arginine glutamate, a promising excipient for protein formulation, on cell viability: Comparisons with NaCl.

    PubMed

    Kheddo, Priscilla; Golovanov, Alexander P; Mellody, Kieran T; Uddin, Shahid; van der Walle, Christopher F; Dearman, Rebecca J

    2016-06-01

    The effects of an equimolar mixture of l-arginine and l-glutamate (Arg·Glu) on cell viability and cellular stress using in vitro cell culture systems are examined with reference to NaCl, in the context of monoclonal antibody formulation. Cells relevant to subcutaneous administration were selected: the human monocyte cell line THP-1, grown as a single cell suspension, and adherent human primary fibroblasts. For THP-1 cells, the mechanism of cell death caused by relatively high salt concentrations was investigated and effects on cell activation/stress assessed as a function of changes in membrane marker and cytokine (interleukin-8) expression. These studies demonstrated that Arg·Glu does not have any further detrimental effects on THP-1 viability in comparison to NaCl at equivalent osmolalities, and that both salts at higher concentrations cause cell death by apoptosis; there was no significant effect on measures of THP-1 cellular stress/activation. For adherent fibroblasts, both salts caused significant toxicity at ~400 mOsm/kg, although Arg·Glu caused a more precipitous subsequent decline in viability than did NaCl. These data indicate that Arg·Glu is of equivalent toxicity to NaCl and that the mechanism of toxicity is such that cell death is unlikely to trigger inflammation upon subcutaneous injection in vivo. PMID:26873863

  11. Hepatitis B virus X protein upregulates DNA methyltransferase 3A/3B and enhances SOCS-1CpG island methylation.

    PubMed

    Fu, Xiaoyu; Song, Xiaoling; Li, Yanyan; Tan, Deming; Liu, Guozhen

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of hepatitis B virus X protein (HBx) on the expression of DNA methyltransferase (DNMT)3A/3B and suppressors of cytokine signaling‑1 (SOCS‑1), as well as promoter CpG island methylation of the SOCS‑1 gene. Stable hepatocyte cell lines expressing the HBx gene (pcDNA‑X/QSG7701) or an empty gene (pcDNA3.0/QSG7701) were established. Reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to detect the mRNA expression levels of DNMT3A/3B and SOCS‑1. Immunohistochemistry was used to detect the protein expression of DNMT3A/3B. Methylation‑specific PCR (MSP) was used to detect the methylation status of the SOCS‑1 gene promoter. The mRNA and protein expression levels of DNMT3A/3B were significantly higher in the pcDNA‑X/QSG7701‑transfected cells, compared with those in the pcDNA3.0/QSG7701 or non‑transfected QSG7701 cells (P<0.05), whereas the relative mRNA expression of SOCS‑1 was significantly lower in the pcDNA‑X/QSG7701 cells compared with the pcDNA3.0/QSG7701 and non‑transfected QSG7701 cells (F=19.6; P<0.05). Western blot analysis showed that the protein expression of SOCS‑1 was significantly lower in the pcDNA‑X/QSG7701 cells, compared with the pcDNA3.0/QSG7701 or non‑transfected QSG7701 cells (F=19.4; P<0.05). The results of the MSP analysis showed that SOCS‑1 promoter region methylation was present only in the pcDNA‑X/QSG7701 cells. The HBV‑X gene upregulated the mRNA and protein expression levels of DNMT3A/3B, downregulated the expression of SOCS‑1 and increased SOCS‑1 gene promoter CpG island methylation. This may provide a potential explanation of the mechanism underlying HBx-associated hepatocellular carcinoma.

  12. Cloning and expresion of cDNA for rat O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase.

    PubMed

    Sakumi, K; Shiraishi, A; Hayakawa, H; Sekiguchi, M

    1991-10-25

    cDNA for O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase was isolated by screening rat liver cDNA libraries, using as a probe the human cDNA sequence for methyltransferase. The rat cDNA encodes a protein with 209 amino acid residues. The predicted amino acid sequence of the rat methyltransferase exhibits considerable homology with those of the human, yeast and bacterial enzymes, especially around putative methyl acceptor sites. When the cDNA was placed under control of the lac promoter and expressed in methyltransferase-deficient Escherichia coli (ada-, ogt-) cells, a characteristic methyltransferase protein was produced. The rat DNA methyltransferase thus expressed could complement the biological defects of the E. coli cell caused by lack of its own DNA methyltransferases; e.g. increased sensitivity to alkylating agents in terms of both cell death and mutation induction.

  13. Feed intake and brain neuropeptide Y (NPY) and cholecystokinin (CCK) gene expression in juvenile cobia fed plant-based protein diets with different lysine to arginine ratios.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Minh Van; Jordal, Ann-Elise Olderbakk; Espe, Marit; Buttle, Louise; Lai, Hung Van; Rønnestad, Ivar

    2013-07-01

    Cobia (Rachycentron canadum, Actinopterygii, Perciformes;10.5±0.1g) were fed to satiation with three plant-based protein test diets with different lysine (L) to arginine (A) ratios (LL/A, 0.8; BL/A, 1.1; and HL/A, 1.8), using a commercial diet as control for six weeks. The test diets contained 730 g kg(-1) plant ingredients with 505-529 g protein, 90.2-93.9 g lipid kg(-1) dry matter; control diet contained 550 g protein and 95 g lipid kg(-1) dry matter. Periprandial expression of brain NPY and CCK (npy and cck) was measured twice (weeks 1 and 6). At week one, npy levels were higher in pre-feeding than postfeeding cobia for all diets, except LL/A. At week six, npy levels in pre-feeding were higher than in postfeeding cobia for all diets. cck in pre-feeding cobia did not differ from that in postfeeding for all diets, at either time point. Cobia fed LL/A had lower feed intake (FI) than cobia fed BL/A and control diet, but no clear correlations between dietary L/A ratio and FI, growth and expression of npy and cck were detected. The data suggest that NPY serves as an orexigenic factor, but further studies are necessary to describe links between dietary L/A and regulation of appetite and FI in cobia.

  14. Chemical modification of arginine residues in the lactose repressor

    SciTech Connect

    Whitson, P.A.; Matthews, K.S.

    1987-10-06

    The lactose repressor protein was chemically modified with 2,3-butanedione and phenylglyoxal. Arginine reaction was quantitated by either amino aced analysis or incorporation of /sup 14/C-labeled phenylglyoxal. Inducer binding activity was unaffected by the modification of arginine residues, while both operator and nonspecific DNA binding activities were diminished, although to differing degrees. The correlation of the decrease in DNA binding activities with the modification of approx. 1-2 equiv of arginine per monomer suggests increased reactivity of a functionally essential residue(s). For both reagents, operator DNA binding activity was protected by the presence of calf thymus DNA, and the extent of reaction with phenylglyoxal was simultaneously diminished. This protection presumably results from steric restriction of reagent access to an arginine(s) that is (are) essential for DNA binding interactions. These experiments suggest that there is (are) an essential reactive arginine(s) critical for repressor binding to DNA.

  15. DNA Methyltransferase 1-associated Protein (DMAP1) Is a Co-repressor That Stimulates DNA Methylation Globally and Locally at Sites of Double Strand Break Repair*

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Gun E.; Kim, Joo Hee; Taylor, Michael; Muller, Mark T.

    2010-01-01

    Correction of double strand DNA breaks proceeds in an error-free pathway of homologous recombination (HR), which can result in gene silencing of half of the DNA molecules caused by action by DNA methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1) (Cuozzo, C., Porcellini, A., Angrisano, T., Morano, A., Lee, B., Di Pardo, A., Messina, S., Iuliano, R., Fusco, A., Santillo, M. R., Muller, M. T., Chiariotti, L., Gottesman, M. E., and Avvedimento, E. V. (2007) PLoS Genet. 3, e110). To explore the mechanism that leads to HR-induced silencing, a genetic screen was carried out based on the silencing of a GFP reporter to identify potential partners. DMAP1, a DNMT1 interacting protein, was identified as a mediator of this process. DMAP1 is a potent activator of DNMT1 methylation in vitro, suggesting that DMAP1 is a co-repressor that supports the maintenance and de novo action of DNMT1. To examine critical roles for DMAP1 in vivo, lentiviral shRNA was used to conditionally reduce cellular DMAP1 levels. The shRNA transduced cells grew poorly and eventually ceased their growth. Analysis of the tumor suppressor gene p16 methylation status revealed a clear reduction in methylated CpGs in the shRNA cells, suggesting that reactivation of a tumor suppressor gene pathway caused the slow growth phenotype. Analysis of HR, using a fluorescence-based reporter, revealed that knocking down DMAP1 also caused hypomethylation of the DNA repair products following gene conversion. DMAP1 was selectively enriched in recombinant GFP chromatin based on chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis. The picture that emerges is that DMAP1 activates DNMT1 preferentially at sites of HR repair. Because DMAP1 depleted cells display enhanced HR, we conclude that it has additional roles in genomic stability. PMID:20864525

  16. DNA methyltransferase 1-associated protein (DMAP1) is a co-repressor that stimulates DNA methylation globally and locally at sites of double strand break repair.

    PubMed

    Lee, Gun E; Kim, Joo Hee; Taylor, Michael; Muller, Mark T

    2010-11-26

    Correction of double strand DNA breaks proceeds in an error-free pathway of homologous recombination (HR), which can result in gene silencing of half of the DNA molecules caused by action by DNA methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1) (Cuozzo, C., Porcellini, A., Angrisano, T., Morano, A., Lee, B., Di Pardo, A., Messina, S., Iuliano, R., Fusco, A., Santillo, M. R., Muller, M. T., Chiariotti, L., Gottesman, M. E., and Avvedimento, E. V. (2007) PLoS Genet. 3, e110). To explore the mechanism that leads to HR-induced silencing, a genetic screen was carried out based on the silencing of a GFP reporter to identify potential partners. DMAP1, a DNMT1 interacting protein, was identified as a mediator of this process. DMAP1 is a potent activator of DNMT1 methylation in vitro, suggesting that DMAP1 is a co-repressor that supports the maintenance and de novo action of DNMT1. To examine critical roles for DMAP1 in vivo, lentiviral shRNA was used to conditionally reduce cellular DMAP1 levels. The shRNA transduced cells grew poorly and eventually ceased their growth. Analysis of the tumor suppressor gene p16 methylation status revealed a clear reduction in methylated CpGs in the shRNA cells, suggesting that reactivation of a tumor suppressor gene pathway caused the slow growth phenotype. Analysis of HR, using a fluorescence-based reporter, revealed that knocking down DMAP1 also caused hypomethylation of the DNA repair products following gene conversion. DMAP1 was selectively enriched in recombinant GFP chromatin based on chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis. The picture that emerges is that DMAP1 activates DNMT1 preferentially at sites of HR repair. Because DMAP1 depleted cells display enhanced HR, we conclude that it has additional roles in genomic stability. PMID:20864525

  17. Inhibition of mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase, DNA methyltransferase, and transforming growth factor-β promotes differentiation of human induced pluripotent stem cells into enterocytes.

    PubMed

    Kodama, Nao; Iwao, Takahiro; Kabeya, Tomoki; Horikawa, Takashi; Niwa, Takuro; Kondo, Yuki; Nakamura, Katsunori; Matsunaga, Tamihide

    2016-06-01

    We previously reported that small-molecule compounds were effective in generating pharmacokinetically functional enterocytes from human induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells. In this study, to determine whether the compounds promote the differentiation of human iPS cells into enterocytes, we investigated the effects of a combination of mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MEK), DNA methyltransferase (DNMT), and transforming growth factor (TGF)-β inhibitors on intestinal differentiation. Human iPS cells cultured on feeder cells were differentiated into endodermal cells by activin A. These endodermal-like cells were then differentiated into intestinal stem cells by fibroblast growth factor 2. Finally, the cells were differentiated into enterocyte cells by epidermal growth factor and small-molecule compounds. After differentiation, mRNA expression levels and drug-metabolizing enzyme activities were measured. The mRNA expression levels of the enterocyte marker sucrase-isomaltase and the major drug-metabolizing enzyme cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A4 were increased by a combination of MEK, DNMT, and TGF-β inhibitors. The mRNA expression of CYP3A4 was markedly induced by 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3. Metabolic activities of CYP1A1/2, CYP2B6, CYP2C9, CYP2C19, CYP3A4/5, UDP-glucuronosyltransferase, and sulfotransferase were also observed in the differentiated cells. In conclusion, MEK, DNMT, and TGF-β inhibitors can be used to promote the differentiation of human iPS cells into pharmacokinetically functional enterocytes.

  18. Inhibition of O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase by an alkyltransferase-like protein from Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Pearson, Steven J.; Ferguson, Jennifer; Santibanez-Koref, Mauro; Margison, Geoffrey P.

    2005-01-01

    The alkyltransferase-like (ATL) proteins contain primary sequence motifs resembling those found in DNA repair O6-alkylguanine-DNA alkyltransferase proteins. However, in the putative active site of ATL proteins, a tryptophan (W83) residue replaces the cysteine at the known active site of alkyltransferases. The Escherichia coli atl gene was expressed as a fusion protein and purified. Neither ATL nor C83 or A83 mutants transferred [3H] from [3H]-methylated DNA to themselves, and the levels of O6-methyl guanine (O6-meG) in substrate DNA were not affected by ATL. However, ATL inhibited the transfer of methyl groups to human alkyltransferase (MGMT). Inhibition was reduced by prolonged incubation in the presence of MGMT, again suggesting that O6-meG in the substrate is not changed by ATL. Gel-shift assays show that ATL binds to short single- or double-stranded oligonucleotides containing O6-meG, but not to oligonucleotides containing 8-oxoguanine, ethenoadenine, 5-hydroxycytosine or O4-methylthymine. There was no evidence of demethylation of O6-meG or of glycosylase or endonuclease activity. Overexpression of ATL in E.coli increased, or did not affect, the toxicity of N-methyl-N′-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine in an alklyltransferase-proficient and -deficient strain, respectively. These results suggest that ATL may act as a damage sensor that flags O6-meG and possibly other O6-alkylation lesions for processing by other repair pathways. PMID:16027108

  19. Influence of betaine and arginine supplementation of reduced protein diets on fatty acid composition and gene expression in the muscle and subcutaneous adipose tissue of cross-bred pigs.

    PubMed

    Madeira, Marta S; Rolo, Eva S; Alfaia, Cristina M; Pires, Virgínia R; Luxton, Richard; Doran, Olena; Bessa, Rui J B; Prates, José A M

    2016-03-28

    The isolated or combined effects of betaine and arginine supplementation of reduced protein diets (RPD) on fat content, fatty acid composition and mRNA levels of genes controlling lipid metabolism in pig m. longissimus lumborum and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) were assessed. The experiment was performed on forty intact male pigs (Duroc×Large White×Landrace cross-breed) with initial and final live weights of 60 and 93 kg, respectively. Pigs were randomly assigned to one of the following five diets (n 8): 16·0 % of crude protein (control), 13·0 % of crude protein (RPD), RPD supplemented with 0·33 % of betaine, RPD supplemented with 1·5 % of arginine and RPD supplemented with 0·33 % of betaine and 1·5 % of arginine. Data confirmed that RPD increase intramuscular fat (IMF) content and total fat content in SAT. The increased total fat content in SAT was accompanied by higher GLUT type 4, lipoprotein lipase and stearoyl-CoA desaturase mRNA expression levels. In addition, the supplementation of RPD with betaine and/or arginine did not affect either IMF or total fat in SAT. However, dietary betaine supplementation slightly affected fatty acid composition in both muscle and SAT. This effect was associated with an increase of carnitine O-acetyltransferase mRNA levels in SAT but not in muscle, which suggests that betaine might be involved in the differential regulation of some key genes of lipid metabolism in pig muscle and SAT. Although the arginine-supplemented diet decreased the mRNA expression level of PPARG in muscle and SAT, it did not influence fat content or fatty acid composition in any of these pig tissues.

  20. Transcriptome-Wide Identification of RNA Targets of Arabidopsis SERINE/ARGININE-RICH45 Uncovers the Unexpected Roles of This RNA Binding Protein in RNA Processing[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yajun; Hamilton, Michael; Ben-Hur, Asa; Reddy, Anireddy S.N.

    2015-01-01

    Plant SR45 and its metazoan ortholog RNPS1 are serine/arginine-rich (SR)-like RNA binding proteins that function in splicing/postsplicing events and regulate diverse processes in eukaryotes. Interactions of SR45 with both RNAs and proteins are crucial for regulating RNA processing. However, in vivo RNA targets of SR45 are currently unclear. Using RNA immunoprecipitation followed by high-throughput sequencing, we identified over 4000 Arabidopsis thaliana RNAs that directly or indirectly associate with SR45, designated as SR45-associated RNAs (SARs). Comprehensive analyses of these SARs revealed several roles for SR45. First, SR45 associates with and regulates the expression of 30% of abscisic acid (ABA) signaling genes at the postsplicing level. Second, although most SARs are derived from intron-containing genes, surprisingly, 340 SARs are derived from intronless genes. Expression analysis of the SARs suggests that SR45 differentially regulates intronless and intron-containing SARs. Finally, we identified four overrepresented RNA motifs in SARs that likely mediate SR45’s recognition of its targets. Therefore, SR45 plays an unexpected role in mRNA processing of intronless genes, and numerous ABA signaling genes are targeted for regulation at the posttranscriptional level. The diverse molecular functions of SR45 uncovered in this study are likely applicable to other species in view of its conservation across eukaryotes. PMID:26603559

  1. Transcriptome-Wide Identification of RNA Targets of Arabidopsis SERINE/ARGININE-RICH45 Uncovers the Unexpected Roles of This RNA Binding Protein in RNA Processing.

    PubMed

    Xing, Denghui; Wang, Yajun; Hamilton, Michael; Ben-Hur, Asa; Reddy, Anireddy S N

    2015-12-01

    Plant SR45 and its metazoan ortholog RNPS1 are serine/arginine-rich (SR)-like RNA binding proteins that function in splicing/postsplicing events and regulate diverse processes in eukaryotes. Interactions of SR45 with both RNAs and proteins are crucial for regulating RNA processing. However, in vivo RNA targets of SR45 are currently unclear. Using RNA immunoprecipitation followed by high-throughput sequencing, we identified over 4000 Arabidopsis thaliana RNAs that directly or indirectly associate with SR45, designated as SR45-associated RNAs (SARs). Comprehensive analyses of these SARs revealed several roles for SR45. First, SR45 associates with and regulates the expression of 30% of abscisic acid (ABA) signaling genes at the postsplicing level. Second, although most SARs are derived from intron-containing genes, surprisingly, 340 SARs are derived from intronless genes. Expression analysis of the SARs suggests that SR45 differentially regulates intronless and intron-containing SARs. Finally, we identified four overrepresented RNA motifs in SARs that likely mediate SR45's recognition of its targets. Therefore, SR45 plays an unexpected role in mRNA processing of intronless genes, and numerous ABA signaling genes are targeted for regulation at the posttranscriptional level. The diverse molecular functions of SR45 uncovered in this study are likely applicable to other species in view of its conservation across eukaryotes. PMID:26603559

  2. Variable stoichiometry of the TatA component of the twin-arginine protein transport system observed by in vivo single-molecule imaging.

    PubMed

    Leake, Mark C; Greene, Nicholas P; Godun, Rachel M; Granjon, Thierry; Buchanan, Grant; Chen, Shuyun; Berry, Richard M; Palmer, Tracy; Berks, Ben C

    2008-10-01

    The twin-arginine translocation (Tat) system transports folded proteins across the bacterial cytoplasmic membrane and the thylakoid membrane of plant chloroplasts. The essential components of the Tat pathway are the membrane proteins TatA, TatB, and TatC. TatA is thought to form the protein translocating element of the Tat system. Current models for Tat transport make predictions about the oligomeric state of TatA and whether, and how, this state changes during the transport cycle. We determined the oligomeric state of TatA directly at native levels of expression in living cells by photophysical analysis of individual yellow fluorescent protein-labeled TatA complexes. TatA forms complexes exhibiting a broad range of stoichiometries with an average of approximately 25 TatA subunits per complex. Fourier analysis of the stoichiometry distribution suggests the complexes are assembled from tetramer units. Modeling the diffusion behavior of the complexes suggests that TatA protomers associate as a ring and not a bundle. Each cell contains approximately 15 mobile TatA complexes and a pool of approximately 100 TatA molecules in a more disperse state in the membrane. Dissipation of the protonmotive force that drives Tat transport has no affect on TatA complex stoichiometry. TatA complexes do not form in cells lacking TatBC, suggesting that TatBC controls the oligomeric state of TatA. Our data support the TatA polymerization model for the mechanism of Tat transport.

  3. Genome-wide DNA methylation analysis of Haloferax volcanii H26 and identification of DNA methyltransferase related PD-(D/E)XK nuclease family protein HVO_A0006

    PubMed Central

    Ouellette, Matthew; Jackson, Laura; Chimileski, Scott; Papke, R. Thane

    2015-01-01

    Restriction-modification (RM) systems have evolved to protect the cell from invading DNAs and are composed of two enzymes: a DNA methyltransferase and a restriction endonuclease. Although RM systems are present in both archaeal and bacterial genomes, DNA methylation in archaea has not been well defined. In order to characterize the function of RM systems in archaeal species, we have made use of the model haloarchaeon Haloferax volcanii. A genomic DNA methylation analysis of H. volcanii strain H26 was performed using PacBio single molecule real-time (SMRT) sequencing. This analysis was also performed on a strain of H. volcanii in which an annotated DNA methyltransferase gene HVO_A0006 was deleted from the genome. Sequence analysis of H26 revealed two motifs which are modified in the genome: Cm4TAG and GCAm6BN6VTGC. Analysis of the ΔHVO_A0006 strain indicated that it exhibited reduced adenine methylation compared to the parental strain and altered the detected adenine motif. However, protein domain architecture analysis and amino acid alignments revealed that HVO_A0006 is homologous only to the N-terminal endonuclease region of Type IIG RM proteins and contains a PD-(D/E)XK nuclease motif, suggesting that HVO_A0006 is a PD-(D/E)XK nuclease family protein. Further bioinformatic analysis of the HVO_A0006 gene demonstrated that the gene is rare among the Halobacteria. It is surrounded by two transposition genes suggesting that HVO_A0006 is a fragment of a Type IIG RM gene, which has likely been acquired through gene transfer, and affects restriction-modification activity by interacting with another RM system component(s). Here, we present the first genome-wide characterization of DNA methylation in an archaeal species and examine the function of a DNA methyltransferase related gene HVO_A0006. PMID:25904898

  4. The TatC component of the twin-arginine protein translocase functions as an obligate oligomer.

    PubMed

    Cléon, François; Habersetzer, Johann; Alcock, Felicity; Kneuper, Holger; Stansfeld, Phillip J; Basit, Hajra; Wallace, Mark I; Berks, Ben C; Palmer, Tracy

    2015-10-01

    The Tat protein export system translocates folded proteins across the bacterial cytoplasmic membrane and the plant thylakoid membrane. The Tat system in Escherichia coli is composed of TatA, TatB and TatC proteins. TatB and TatC form an oligomeric, multivalent receptor complex that binds Tat substrates, while multiple protomers of TatA assemble at substrate-bound TatBC receptors to facilitate substrate transport. We have addressed whether oligomerisation of TatC is an absolute requirement for operation of the Tat pathway by screening for dominant negative alleles of tatC that inactivate Tat function in the presence of wild-type tatC. Single substitutions that confer dominant negative TatC activity were localised to the periplasmic cap region. The variant TatC proteins retained the ability to interact with TatB and with a Tat substrate but were unable to support the in vivo assembly of TatA complexes. Blue-native PAGE analysis showed that the variant TatC proteins produced smaller TatBC complexes than the wild-type TatC protein. The substitutions did not alter disulphide crosslinking to neighbouring TatC molecules from positions in the periplasmic cap but abolished a substrate-induced disulphide crosslink in transmembrane helix 5 of TatC. Our findings show that TatC functions as an obligate oligomer.

  5. Arginine, citrulline and nitric oxide metabolism in sepsis.

    PubMed

    Kao, Christina C; Bandi, Venkata; Guntupalli, Kalpalatha K; Wu, Manhong; Castillo, Leticia; Jahoor, Farook

    2009-06-02

    Arginine has vasodilatory effects, via its conversion by NO synthase into NO, and immunomodulatory actions which play important roles in sepsis. Protein breakdown affects arginine availability and the release of asymmetric dimethylarginine, an inhibitor of NO synthase, may therefore affect NO synthesis in patients with sepsis. The objective of the present study was to investigate whole-body in vivo arginine and citrulline metabolism and NO synthesis rates, and their relationship to protein breakdown in patients with sepsis or septic shock and in healthy volunteers. Endogenous leucine flux, an index of whole-body protein breakdown rate, was measured in 13 critically ill patients with sepsis or septic shock and seven healthy controls using an intravenous infusion of [1-13C]leucine. Arginine flux, citrulline flux and the rate of conversion of arginine into citrulline (an index of NO synthesis) were measured with intravenous infusions of [15N2]guanidino-arginine and [5,5-2H2]citrulline. Plasma concentrations of nitrite plus nitrate, arginine, citrulline and asymmetric dimethylarginine were measured. Compared with controls, patients had a higher leucine flux and higher NO metabolites, but arginine flux, plasma asymmetric dimethylarginine concentration and the rate of NO synthesis were not different. Citrulline flux and plasma arginine and citrulline were lower in patients than in controls. Arginine production was positively correlated with the protein breakdown rate. Whole-body arginine production and NO synthesis were similar in patients with sepsis and septic shock and healthy controls. Despite increased proteolysis in sepsis, there is a decreased arginine plasma concentration, suggesting inadequate de novo synthesis secondary to decreased citrulline production.

  6. Structural analysis of substrate binding by the TatBC component of the twin-arginine protein transport system.

    PubMed

    Tarry, Michael J; Schäfer, Eva; Chen, Shuyun; Buchanan, Grant; Greene, Nicholas P; Lea, Susan M; Palmer, Tracy; Saibil, Helen R; Berks, Ben C

    2009-08-11

    The Tat system transports folded proteins across the bacterial cytoplasmic membrane and the thylakoid membrane of plant chloroplasts. In Escherichia coli substrate proteins initially bind to the integral membrane TatBC complex which then recruits the protein TatA to effect translocation. Overproduction of TatBC and the substrate protein SufI in the absence of TatA led to the accumulation of TatBC-SufI complexes that could be purified using an affinity tag on the substrate. Three-dimensional structures of the TatBC-SufI complexes and unliganded TatBC were obtained by single-particle electron microscopy and random conical tilt reconstruction. Comparison of the structures shows that substrate molecules bind on the periphery of the TatBC complex and that substrate binding causes a significant reduction in diameter of the TatBC part of the complex. Although the TatBC complex contains multiple copies of the signal peptide-binding TatC protomer, purified TatBC-SufI complexes contain only 1 or 2 SufI molecules. Where 2 substrates are present in the TatBC-SufI complex, they are bound at adjacent sites. These observations imply that only certain TatC protomers within the complex interact with substrate or that there is a negative cooperativity of substrate binding. Similar TatBC-substrate complexes can be generated by an alternative in vitro reconstitution method and using a different substrate protein.

  7. Selection of DNA binding sites by regulatory proteins: the LexA protein and the arginine repressor use different strategies for functional specificity.

    PubMed Central

    Berg, O G

    1988-01-01

    The DNA sequences in the operator sites of the arginine regulon and of the SOS regulon have been subject to a statistical analysis. A quantitative correlation is found between the statistics of sequence choice and the activity at individual operator sites in both systems, as expected from theoretical considerations [Berg & von Hippel, J.Mol.Biol. (1987) 193, 723-750]. Based on these correlations it is possible to predict the effect of various sequence mutations. There is a significant difference in the slopes of the correlation lines between sequence and activity for the two systems. From this difference it can be expected that individual point mutations in the ARG boxes will have a much smaller effect on activity than similar changes in the SOS boxes. This difference may be related to a strong cooperative activity at tandem ARG boxes while the binding at SOS boxes appears to be mostly noncooperative. PMID:3290847

  8. Catalytic site remodelling of the DOT1L methyltransferase by selective inhibitors

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, Wenyu; Chory, Emma J.; Wernimont, Amy K.; Tempel, Wolfram; Scopton, Alex; Federation, Alexander; Marineau, Jason J.; Qi, Jun; Barsyte-Lovejoy, Dalia; Yi, Joanna; Marcellus, Richard; Iacob, Roxana E.; Engen, John R.; Griffin, Carly; Aman, Ahmed; Wienholds, Erno; Li, Fengling; Pineda, Javier; Estiu, Guillermina; Shatseva, Tatiana; Hajian, Taraneh; Al-awar, Rima; Dick, John E.; Vedadi, Masoud; Brown, Peter J.; Arrowsmith, Cheryl H.; Bradner, James E.; Schapira, Matthieu

    2012-12-18

    Selective inhibition of protein methyltransferases is a promising new approach to drug discovery. An attractive strategy towards this goal is the development of compounds that selectively inhibit binding of the cofactor, S-adenosylmethionine, within specific protein methyltransferases. Here we report the three-dimensional structure of the protein methyltransferase DOT1L bound toEPZ004777, the first S-adenosylmethionine-competitive inhibitor of a protein methyltransferase with in vivo efficacy. This structure and those of four new analogues reveal remodelling of the catalytic site. EPZ004777 and a brominated analogue, SGC0946, inhibit DOT1L in vitro and selectively kill mixed lineage leukaemia cells, in which DOT1L is aberrantly localized via interaction with an oncogenic MLL fusion protein. These data provide important new insight into mechanisms of cell-active S-adenosylmethionine-competitive protein methyltransferase inhibitors, and establish a foundation for the further development of drug-like inhibitors of DOT1L for cancer therapy.

  9. Interaction of arginine with Capto MMC in multimodal chromatography.

    PubMed

    Hirano, Atsushi; Arakawa, Tsutomu; Kameda, Tomoshi

    2014-04-18

    This study highlights the ability of arginine to elute bovine serum albumin (BSA) and a monoclonal antibody against interleukin-8 (mAb-IL8) from Capto MMC, which is a multimodal cation exchanger. Arginine provides high recovery of monomeric BSA from Capto MMC chromatography columns at yields similar to NaCl elution, and oligomeric BSA was more readily eluted by arginine than by NaCl. The effectiveness of arginine as an eluent also enabled the separation of monomeric BSA from the oligomeric forms. The purification of mAb-IL8 was successfully achieved using Capto MMC chromatography and arginine as the eluent. The mechanism of the effects of arginine on protein elution was determined by calculating the binding free energy between arginine and Capto MMC using molecular dynamics simulations. The overall affinity of arginine for Capto MMC was associated with electrostatic interactions. However, additional affinities contributed by hydrophobic interaction or hydrogen bonding were also observed to play a role in the interaction between arginine and Capto MMC, which likely results in the characteristic elution by arginine.

  10. Crystal Structure of Human DNA Methyltransferase 1.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhi-Min; Liu, Shuo; Lin, Krystal; Luo, Youfu; Perry, John Jefferson; Wang, Yinsheng; Song, Jikui

    2015-07-31

    DNMT1 (DNA methyltransferase 1) is responsible for propagating the DNA methylation patterns during DNA replication. DNMT1 contains, in addition to a C-terminal methyltransferase domain, a large N-terminal regulatory region that is composed of an RFTS (replication foci targeting sequence) domain, a CXXC zinc finger domain and a pair of BAH (bromo adjacent homology) domains. The regulatory domains of DNMT1 mediate a network of protein-protein and protein-DNA interactions to control the recruitment and enzymatic activity of DNMT1. Here we report the crystal structure of human DNMT1 with all the structural domains (hDNMT1, residues 351-1600) in complex with S-adenosyl-l-homocysteine at 2.62Å resolution. The RFTS domain directly associates with the methyltransferase domain, thereby inhibiting the substrate binding of hDNMT1. Through structural analysis, mutational, biochemical and enzymatic studies, we further identify that a linker sequence between the CXXC and BAH1 domains, aside from its role in the CXXC domain-mediated DNMT1 autoinhibition, serves as an important regulatory element in the RFTS domain-mediated autoinhibition. In comparison with the previously determined structure of mouse DNMT1, this study also reveals a number of distinct structural features that may underlie subtle functional diversity observed for the two orthologues. In addition, this structure provides a framework for understanding the functional consequence of disease-related hDNMT1 mutations.

  11. Arginine, citrulline and nitric oxide metabolism in sepsis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Arginine has vasodilatory effects, via its conversion by nitric oxide (NO) synthase into NO, and immunomodulatory actions that play important roles in sepsis. Protein breakdown affects arginine availability, and the release of asymmetric dimethylarginine, an inhibitor of NO synthase, may therefore a...

  12. Arginine Biosynthesis in Thermotoga maritima: Characterization of the Arginine-Sensitive N-Acetyl-l-Glutamate Kinase

    PubMed Central

    Fernández-Murga, M. Leonor; Gil-Ortiz, Fernando; Llácer, José L.; Rubio, Vicente

    2004-01-01

    To help clarify the control of arginine synthesis in Thermotoga maritima, the putative gene (argB) for N-acetyl-l-glutamate kinase (NAGK) from this microorganism was cloned and overexpressed, and the resulting protein was purified and shown to be a highly thermostable and specific NAGK that is potently and selectively inhibited by arginine. Therefore, NAGK is in T. maritima the feedback control point of arginine synthesis, a process that in this organism involves acetyl group recycling and appears not to involve classical acetylglutamate synthase. The inhibition of NAGK by arginine was found to be pH independent and to depend sigmoidally on the concentration of arginine, with a Hill coefficient (N) of ∼4, and the 50% inhibitory arginine concentration (I0.5) was shown to increase with temperature, approaching above 65°C the I0.50 observed at 37°C with the mesophilic NAGK of Pseudomonas aeruginosa (the best-studied arginine-inhibitable NAGK). At 75°C, the inhibition by arginine of T. maritima NAGK was due to a large increase in the Km for acetylglutamate triggered by the inhibitor, but at 37°C arginine also substantially decreased the Vmax of the enzyme. The NAGKs of T. maritima and P. aeruginosa behaved in gel filtration as hexamers, justifying the sigmoidicity and high Hill coefficient of arginine inhibition, and arginine or the substrates failed to disaggregate these enzymes. In contrast, Escherichia coli NAGK is not inhibited by arginine and is dimeric, and thus the hexameric architecture may be an important determinant of arginine sensitivity. Potential thermostability determinants of T. maritima NAGK are also discussed. PMID:15342584

  13. The Effect of PRMT1-Mediated Arginine Methylation on the Subcellular Localization, Stress Granules, and Detergent-Insoluble Aggregates of FUS/TLS

    PubMed Central

    Yamaguchi, Atsushi; Kitajo, Keiko

    2012-01-01

    Fused in sarcoma/translocated in liposarcoma (FUS/TLS) is one of causative genes for familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). In order to identify binding partners for FUS/TLS, we performed a yeast two-hybrid screening and found that protein arginine methyltransferase 1 (PRMT1) is one of binding partners primarily in the nucleus. In vitro and in vivo methylation assays showed that FUS/TLS could be methylated by PRMT1. The modulation of arginine methylation levels by a general methyltransferase inhibitor or conditional over-expression of PRMT1 altered slightly the nucleus-cytoplasmic ratio of FUS/TLS in cell fractionation assays. Although co-localized primarily in the nucleus in normal condition, FUS/TLS and PRMT1 were partially recruited to the cytoplasmic granules under oxidative stress, which were merged with stress granules (SGs) markers in SH-SY5Y cell. C-terminal truncated form of FUS/TLS (FUS-dC), which lacks C-terminal nuclear localization signal (NLS), formed cytoplasmic inclusions like ALS-linked FUS mutants and was partially co-localized with PRMT1. Furthermore, conditional over-expression of PRMT1 reduced the FUS-dC-mediated SGs formation and the detergent-insoluble aggregates in HEK293 cells. These findings indicate that PRMT1-mediated arginine methylation could be implicated in the nucleus-cytoplasmic shuttling of FUS/TLS and in the SGs formation and the detergent-insoluble inclusions of ALS-linked FUS/TLS mutants. PMID:23152885

  14. The effect of PRMT1-mediated arginine methylation on the subcellular localization, stress granules, and detergent-insoluble aggregates of FUS/TLS.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Atsushi; Kitajo, Keiko

    2012-01-01

    Fused in sarcoma/translocated in liposarcoma (FUS/TLS) is one of causative genes for familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). In order to identify binding partners for FUS/TLS, we performed a yeast two-hybrid screening and found that protein arginine methyltransferase 1 (PRMT1) is one of binding partners primarily in the nucleus. In vitro and in vivo methylation assays showed that FUS/TLS could be methylated by PRMT1. The modulation of arginine methylation levels by a general methyltransferase inhibitor or conditional over-expression of PRMT1 altered slightly the nucleus-cytoplasmic ratio of FUS/TLS in cell fractionation assays. Although co-localized primarily in the nucleus in normal condition, FUS/TLS and PRMT1 were partially recruited to the cytoplasmic granules under oxidative stress, which were merged with stress granules (SGs) markers in SH-SY5Y cell. C-terminal truncated form of FUS/TLS (FUS-dC), which lacks C-terminal nuclear localization signal (NLS), formed cytoplasmic inclusions like ALS-linked FUS mutants and was partially co-localized with PRMT1. Furthermore, conditional over-expression of PRMT1 reduced the FUS-dC-mediated SGs formation and the detergent-insoluble aggregates in HEK293 cells. These findings indicate that PRMT1-mediated arginine methylation could be implicated in the nucleus-cytoplasmic shuttling of FUS/TLS and in the SGs formation and the detergent-insoluble inclusions of ALS-linked FUS/TLS mutants.

  15. Single amino acid substitution in the methyltransferase domain of Paprika mild mottle virus replicase proteins confers the ability to overcome the high temperature-dependent Hk gene-mediated resistance in Capsicum plants.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Katsutoshi; Johnishi, Kousuke; Hamada, Hiroyuki; Sawada, Hiromasa; Takeuchi, Shigeharu; Kobayashi, Kappei; Suzuki, Kazumi; Kiba, Akinori; Hikichi, Yasufumi

    2009-03-01

    Capsicum plants harboring the Hk gene (Hk) show resistance to Paprika mild mottle virus (PaMMV) at 32 degrees C but not 24 degrees C. To identify the viral elicitor that activates the Hk-mediated resistance, several chimeric viral genomes were constructed between PaMMV and Tobacco mosaic virus-L. Infection patterns of these chimeric viruses in Hk-harboring plants revealed responsibility of PaMMV replicase genes for activation of the Hk-mediated resistance. The comparison of nucleotide sequence of replicase genes between PaMMV and PaHk1, an Hk-resistance-breaking strain of PaMMV, revealed that the adenine-to-uracil substitution at the nucleotide position 721 causes an amino acid change from threonine to serine at the 241st residue in the methyltransferase domain. Introduction of the A721U mutation into the replicase genes of parental PaMMV overcame the Hk resistance at 32 degrees C. The results indicate that Hk-mediated resistance is induced by PaMMV replicase proteins and that methyltransferase domain has a role in this elicitation.

  16. Genome-Wide Chromatin Immunoprecipitation Sequencing Analysis of the Penicillium chrysogenum Velvet Protein PcVelA Identifies Methyltransferase PcLlmA as a Novel Downstream Regulator of Fungal Development

    PubMed Central

    Becker, Kordula; Ziemons, Sandra; Lentz, Katharina; Freitag, Michael

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Penicillium chrysogenum is the sole industrial producer of the β-lactam antibiotic penicillin, which is the most commonly used drug for treating bacterial infections. In P. chrysogenum and other filamentous fungi, secondary metabolism and morphogenesis are controlled by the highly conserved multisubunit velvet complex. Here we present the first chromatin immunoprecipitation next-generation sequencing (ChIP-seq) analysis of a fungal velvet protein, providing experimental evidence that a velvet homologue in P. chrysogenum (PcVelA) acts as a direct transcriptional regulator at the DNA level in addition to functioning as a regulator at the protein level in P. chrysogenum, which was previously described. We identified many target genes that are related to processes known to be dependent on PcVelA, e.g., secondary metabolism as well as asexual and sexual development. We also identified seven PcVelA target genes that encode putative methyltransferases. Yeast two-hybrid and bimolecular fluorescence complementation analyses showed that one of the putative methyltransferases, PcLlmA, directly interacts with PcVelA. Furthermore, functional characterization of PcLlmA demonstrated that this protein is involved in the regulation of conidiosporogenesis, pellet formation, and hyphal morphology, all traits with major biotechnological relevance. IMPORTANCE Filamentous fungi are of major interest for biotechnological and pharmaceutical applications. This is due mainly to their ability to produce a wide variety of secondary metabolites, many of which are relevant as antibiotics. One of the most prominent examples is penicillin, a β-lactam antibiotic that is produced on the industrial scale by fermentation of P. chrysogenum. In recent years, the multisubunit protein complex velvet has been identified as one of the key regulators of fungal secondary metabolism and development. However, until recently, only a little has been known about how velvet mediates regulation at

  17. Genome-Wide Chromatin Immunoprecipitation Sequencing Analysis of the Penicillium chrysogenum Velvet Protein PcVelA Identifies Methyltransferase PcLlmA as a Novel Downstream Regulator of Fungal Development.

    PubMed

    Becker, Kordula; Ziemons, Sandra; Lentz, Katharina; Freitag, Michael; Kück, Ulrich

    2016-01-01

    Penicillium chrysogenum is the sole industrial producer of the β-lactam antibiotic penicillin, which is the most commonly used drug for treating bacterial infections. In P. chrysogenum and other filamentous fungi, secondary metabolism and morphogenesis are controlled by the highly conserved multisubunit velvet complex. Here we present the first chromatin immunoprecipitation next-generation sequencing (ChIP-seq) analysis of a fungal velvet protein, providing experimental evidence that a velvet homologue in P. chrysogenum (PcVelA) acts as a direct transcriptional regulator at the DNA level in addition to functioning as a regulator at the protein level in P. chrysogenum, which was previously described. We identified many target genes that are related to processes known to be dependent on PcVelA, e.g., secondary metabolism as well as asexual and sexual development. We also identified seven PcVelA target genes that encode putative methyltransferases. Yeast two-hybrid and bimolecular fluorescence complementation analyses showed that one of the putative methyltransferases, PcLlmA, directly interacts with PcVelA. Furthermore, functional characterization of PcLlmA demonstrated that this protein is involved in the regulation of conidiosporogenesis, pellet formation, and hyphal morphology, all traits with major biotechnological relevance. IMPORTANCE Filamentous fungi are of major interest for biotechnological and pharmaceutical applications. This is due mainly to their ability to produce a wide variety of secondary metabolites, many of which are relevant as antibiotics. One of the most prominent examples is penicillin, a β-lactam antibiotic that is produced on the industrial scale by fermentation of P. chrysogenum. In recent years, the multisubunit protein complex velvet has been identified as one of the key regulators of fungal secondary metabolism and development. However, until recently, only a little has been known about how velvet mediates regulation at the

  18. Genome-Wide Chromatin Immunoprecipitation Sequencing Analysis of the Penicillium chrysogenum Velvet Protein PcVelA Identifies Methyltransferase PcLlmA as a Novel Downstream Regulator of Fungal Development.

    PubMed

    Becker, Kordula; Ziemons, Sandra; Lentz, Katharina; Freitag, Michael; Kück, Ulrich

    2016-01-01

    Penicillium chrysogenum is the sole industrial producer of the β-lactam antibiotic penicillin, which is the most commonly used drug for treating bacterial infections. In P. chrysogenum and other filamentous fungi, secondary metabolism and morphogenesis are controlled by the highly conserved multisubunit velvet complex. Here we present the first chromatin immunoprecipitation next-generation sequencing (ChIP-seq) analysis of a fungal velvet protein, providing experimental evidence that a velvet homologue in P. chrysogenum (PcVelA) acts as a direct transcriptional regulator at the DNA level in addition to functioning as a regulator at the protein level in P. chrysogenum, which was previously described. We identified many target genes that are related to processes known to be dependent on PcVelA, e.g., secondary metabolism as well as asexual and sexual development. We also identified seven PcVelA target genes that encode putative methyltransferases. Yeast two-hybrid and bimolecular fluorescence complementation analyses showed that one of the putative methyltransferases, PcLlmA, directly interacts with PcVelA. Furthermore, functional characterization of PcLlmA demonstrated that this protein is involved in the regulation of conidiosporogenesis, pellet formation, and hyphal morphology, all traits with major biotechnological relevance. IMPORTANCE Filamentous fungi are of major interest for biotechnological and pharmaceutical applications. This is due mainly to their ability to produce a wide variety of secondary metabolites, many of which are relevant as antibiotics. One of the most prominent examples is penicillin, a β-lactam antibiotic that is produced on the industrial scale by fermentation of P. chrysogenum. In recent years, the multisubunit protein complex velvet has been identified as one of the key regulators of fungal secondary metabolism and development. However, until recently, only a little has been known about how velvet mediates regulation at the

  19. Purification of free arginine from chickpea (Cicer arietinum) seeds.

    PubMed

    Cortés-Giraldo, Isabel; Megías, Cristina; Alaiz, Manuel; Girón-Calle, Julio; Vioque, Javier

    2016-02-01

    Chickpea is a grain legume widely consumed in the Mediterranean region and other parts of the world. Chickpea seeds are rich in proteins but they also contain a substantial amount of free amino acids, especially arginine. Hence chickpea may represent a useful source of free amino acids for nutritional or pharmaceutical purposes. Arginine is receiving great attention in recent years because it is the substrate for the synthesis of nitric oxide, an important signaling molecule involved in numerous physiological and pathological processes in mammals. In this work we describe a simple procedure for the purification of arginine from chickpea seeds, using nanofiltration technology and an ion-exchange resin, Amberlite IR-120. Arginine was finally purified by precipitation or crystallization, yielding preparations with purities of 91% and 100%, respectively. Chickpea may represent an affordable green source of arginine, and a useful alternative to production by fermentation or protein hydrolysis.

  20. Two distinct O-methyltransferases in aflatoxin biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Yabe, K; Ando, Y; Hashimoto, J; Hamasaki, T

    1989-09-01

    The substances belonging to the sterigmatocystin group bear a close structural relationship to aflatoxins. When demethylsterigmatocystin (DMST) was fed to Aspergillus parasiticus NIAH-26, which endogenously produces neither aflatoxins nor precursors in YES medium, aflatoxins B1 and G1 were produced. When dihydrodemethylsterigmatocystin (DHDMST) was fed to this mutant, aflatoxins B2 and G2 were produced. Results of the cell-free experiment with S-adenosyl-[methyl-3H]methionine showed that first the C-6-OH groups of DMST and DHDMST are methylated to produce sterigmatocystin and dihydrosterigmatocystin (O-methyltransferase I) and then the C-7-OH groups are methylated to produce O-methylsterigmatocystin (OMST) and dihydro-O-methylsterigmatocystin (DHOMST) (O-methyltransferase II). However, no methyltransferase activity was observed when either OMST, DHOMST, 5,6-dimethoxysterigmatocystin, 5-methoxysterigmatocystin, or sterigmatin was incubated with the cell extract. Treatment of the cell extract with N-ethylmaleimide inhibited O-methyltransferase I activity but not that of O-methyltransferase II. Furthermore, these O-methyltransferases were different in their protein molecules and were involved in both the reactions from DMST to OMST and DHDMST to DHOMST. The reactions described in this paper were not observed when the same mold had been cultured in YEP medium.

  1. Selective Interactions between Vertebrate Polycomb Homologs and the SUV39H1 Histone Lysine Methyltransferase Suggest that Histone H3-K9 Methylation Contributes to Chromosomal Targeting of Polycomb Group Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Sewalt, Richard G. A. B.; Lachner, Monika; Vargas, Mark; Hamer, Karien M.; den Blaauwen, Jan L.; Hendrix, Thijs; Melcher, Martin; Schweizer, Dieter; Jenuwein, Thomas; Otte, Arie P.

    2002-01-01

    Polycomb group (PcG) proteins form multimeric chromatin-associated protein complexes that are involved in heritable repression of gene activity. Two distinct human PcG complexes have been characterized. The EED/EZH2 PcG complex utilizes histone deacetylation to repress gene activity. The HPC/HPH PcG complex contains the HPH, RING1, BMI1, and HPC proteins. Here we show that vertebrate Polycomb homologs HPC2 and XPc2, but not M33/MPc1, interact with the histone lysine methyltransferase (HMTase) SUV39H1 both in vitro and in vivo. We further find that overexpression of SUV39H1 induces selective nuclear relocalization of HPC/HPH PcG proteins but not of the EED/EZH2 PcG proteins. This SUV39H1-dependent relocalization concentrates the HPC/HPH PcG proteins to the large pericentromeric heterochromatin domains (1q12) on human chromosome 1. Within these PcG domains we observe increased H3-K9 methylation. Finally, we show that H3-K9 HMTase activity is associated with endogenous HPC2. Our findings suggest a role for the SUV39H1 HMTase and histone H3-K9 methylation in the targeting of human HPC/HPH PcG proteins to modified chromatin structures. PMID:12101246

  2. A nonpyrrolysine member of the widely distributed trimethylamine methyltransferase family is a glycine betaine methyltransferase.

    PubMed

    Ticak, Tomislav; Kountz, Duncan J; Girosky, Kimberly E; Krzycki, Joseph A; Ferguson, Donald J

    2014-10-28

    COG5598 comprises a large number of proteins related to MttB, the trimethylamine:corrinoid methyltransferase. MttB has a genetically encoded pyrrolysine residue proposed essential for catalysis. MttB is the only known trimethylamine methyltransferase, yet the great majority of members of COG5598 lack pyrrolysine, leaving the activity of these proteins an open question. Here, we describe the function of one of the nonpyrrolysine members of this large protein family. Three nonpyrrolysine MttB homologs are encoded in Desulfitobacterium hafniense, a Gram-positive strict anaerobe present in both the environment and human intestine. D. hafniense was found capable of growth on glycine betaine with electron acceptors such as nitrate or fumarate, producing dimethylglycine and CO2 as products. Examination of the genome revealed genes for tetrahydrofolate-linked oxidation of a methyl group originating from a methylated corrinoid protein, but no obvious means to carry out corrinoid methylation with glycine betaine. DSY3156, encoding one of the nonpyrrolysine MttB homologs, was up-regulated during growth on glycine betaine. The recombinant DSY3156 protein converts glycine betaine and cob(I)alamin to dimethylglycine and methylcobalamin. To our knowledge, DSY3156 is the first glycine betaine:corrinoid methyltransferase described, and a designation of MtgB is proposed. In addition, DSY3157, an adjacently encoded protein, was shown to be a methylcobalamin:tetrahydrofolate methyltransferase and is designated MtgA. Homologs of MtgB are widely distributed, especially in marine bacterioplankton and nitrogen-fixing plant symbionts. They are also found in multiple members of the human microbiome, and may play a beneficial role in trimethylamine homeostasis, which in recent years has been directly tied to human cardiovascular health.

  3. A nonpyrrolysine member of the widely distributed trimethylamine methyltransferase family is a glycine betaine methyltransferase

    PubMed Central

    Ticak, Tomislav; Kountz, Duncan J.; Girosky, Kimberly E.; Krzycki, Joseph A.; Ferguson, Donald J.

    2014-01-01

    COG5598 comprises a large number of proteins related to MttB, the trimethylamine:corrinoid methyltransferase. MttB has a genetically encoded pyrrolysine residue proposed essential for catalysis. MttB is the only known trimethylamine methyltransferase, yet the great majority of members of COG5598 lack pyrrolysine, leaving the activity of these proteins an open question. Here, we describe the function of one of the nonpyrrolysine members of this large protein family. Three nonpyrrolysine MttB homologs are encoded in Desulfitobacterium hafniense, a Gram-positive strict anaerobe present in both the environment and human intestine. D. hafniense was found capable of growth on glycine betaine with electron acceptors such as nitrate or fumarate, producing dimethylglycine and CO2 as products. Examination of the genome revealed genes for tetrahydrofolate-linked oxidation of a methyl group originating from a methylated corrinoid protein, but no obvious means to carry out corrinoid methylation with glycine betaine. DSY3156, encoding one of the nonpyrrolysine MttB homologs, was up-regulated during growth on glycine betaine. The recombinant DSY3156 protein converts glycine betaine and cob(I)alamin to dimethylglycine and methylcobalamin. To our knowledge, DSY3156 is the first glycine betaine:corrinoid methyltransferase described, and a designation of MtgB is proposed. In addition, DSY3157, an adjacently encoded protein, was shown to be a methylcobalamin:tetrahydrofolate methyltransferase and is designated MtgA. Homologs of MtgB are widely distributed, especially in marine bacterioplankton and nitrogen-fixing plant symbionts. They are also found in multiple members of the human microbiome, and may play a beneficial role in trimethylamine homeostasis, which in recent years has been directly tied to human cardiovascular health. PMID:25313086

  4. Nutritional consequences of interspecies differences in arginine and lysine metabolism.

    PubMed

    Ball, Ronald O; Urschel, Kristine L; Pencharz, Paul B

    2007-06-01

    Differences in lysine and arginine requirements among various species such as omnivores (humans, pigs, rats, dogs), carnivores (cats), herbivores (rabbits, horses), ruminants (cattle), poultry, and fish, are covered in detail in this article. Although lysine is classified as an indispensable amino acid across species, the classification of arginine as either an indispensable or dispensable amino acid is more ambiguous because of differences among species in rates of de novo arginine synthesis. Because lysine is most often the limiting amino acid in the diet, its requirement has been extensively studied. By use of the ideal protein concept, the requirements of the other indispensable amino acids can be extrapolated from the lysine requirement. The successful use of this concept in pigs is compared with potential application of the ideal protein concept in humans. The current dietary arginine requirement varies widely among species, with ruminants, rabbits, and rats having relatively low requirements and carnivores, fish, and poultry having high requirements. Interspecies differences in metabolic arginine utilization and reasons for different rates of de novo arginine synthesis are reviewed in detail, as these are the primary determinants of the dietary arginine requirement. There is presently no dietary requirement for humans of any age, although this needs to be reassessed, particularly in neonates. A thorough understanding of the factors contributing to the lysine and arginine requirements in different species will be useful in our understanding of human amino acid requirements.

  5. Synthesis and Assays of Inhibitors of Methyltransferases.

    PubMed

    Cai, X-C; Kapilashrami, K; Luo, M

    2016-01-01

    Epigenetic regulation requires site-specific modification of the genome and is involved in multiple physiological processes and disease etiology. Methyltransferases, which catalyze the transfer of a methyl group from S-adenosyl-l-methionine (SAM) to various substrates, are critical components of the epigenetic machinery. This group of enzymes can methylate diverse substrates including DNA, RNA, proteins, and small-molecule metabolites. Their dysregulation has also been implicated in multiple disease states such as cancer, neurological, and cardiovascular disorders. Developing potent and selective small-molecule inhibitors of methyltransferases is valuable not only for therapeutic intervention but also for investigating the roles of these enzymes in disease progression. In this chapter, we will discuss the strategies of designing and synthesizing methyltransferases inhibitors based on the SAM scaffold. Following the section of inhibitor design, we will briefly review representative assays that are available to evaluate the potency of these inhibitors along with a detailed description of the most commonly used radiometric assay. PMID:27423865

  6. Asymmetric arginine dimethylation of RelA provides a repressive mark to modulate TNFα/NF-κB response

    PubMed Central

    Reintjes, Anja; Fuchs, Julian E.; Kremser, Leopold; Lindner, Herbert H.; Liedl, Klaus R.; Huber, Lukas A.; Valovka, Taras

    2016-01-01

    Nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) is an inducible transcription factor that plays critical roles in immune and stress responses and is often implicated in pathologies, including chronic inflammation and cancer. Although much has been learned about NF-κB–activating pathways, the specific repression of NF-κB is far less well understood. Here we identified the type I protein arginine methyltransferase 1 (PRMT1) as a restrictive factor controlling TNFα-induced activation of NF-κB. PRMT1 forms a cellular complex with NF-κB through direct interaction with the Rel homology domain of RelA. We demonstrate that PRMT1 methylates RelA at evolutionary conserved R30, located in the DNA-binding L1 loop, which is a critical residue required for DNA binding. Asymmetric R30 dimethylation inhibits the binding of RelA to DNA and represses NF-κB target genes in response to TNFα. Molecular dynamics simulations of the DNA-bound RelA:p50 predicted structural changes in RelA caused by R30 methylation or a mutation that interferes with the stability of the DNA–NF-κB complex. Our findings provide evidence for the asymmetric arginine dimethylation of RelA and unveil a unique mechanism controlling TNFα/NF-κB signaling. PMID:27051065

  7. The DNA Methyltransferase DNMT1 and Tyrosine-Protein Kinase KIT Cooperatively Promote Resistance to 5-Aza-2′-deoxycytidine (Decitabine) and Midostaurin (PKC412) in Lung Cancer Cells*

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Fei; Shen, Na; Pang, Jiuxia; Molina, Julian R.; Yang, Ping; Liu, Shujun

    2015-01-01

    Lung cancer cells are sensitive to 5-aza-2′-deoxycytidine (decitabine) or midostaurin (PKC412), because decitabine restores the expression of methylation-silenced tumor suppressor genes, whereas PKC412 inhibits hyperactive kinase signaling, which is essential for cancer cell growth. Here, we demonstrated that resistance to decitabine (decitabineR) or PKC412 (PKC412R) eventually results from simultaneously remethylated DNA and reactivated kinase cascades. Indeed, both decitabineR and PKC412R displayed the up-regulation of DNA methyltransferase DNMT1 and tyrosine-protein kinase KIT, the enhanced phosphorylation of KIT and its downstream effectors, and the increased global and gene-specific DNA methylation with the down-regulation of tumor suppressor gene epithelial cadherin CDH1. Interestingly, decitabineR and PKC412R had higher capability of colony formation and wound healing than parental cells in vitro, which were attributed to the hyperactive DNMT1 or KIT, because inactivation of KIT or DNMT1 reciprocally blocked decitabineR or PKC412R cell proliferation. Further, DNMT1 knockdown sensitized PKC412R cells to PKC412; conversely, KIT depletion synergized with decitabine in eliminating decitabineR. Importantly, when engrafted into nude mice, decitabineR and PKC412R had faster proliferation with stronger tumorigenicity that was caused by the reactivated KIT kinase signaling and further CDH1 silencing. These findings identify functional cross-talk between KIT and DNMT1 in the development of drug resistance, implying the reciprocal targeting of protein kinases and DNA methyltransferases as an essential strategy for durable responses in lung cancer. PMID:26085088

  8. Stimulated Nitric Oxide Production and Arginine Deficiency in Cystic Fibrosis Children with Nutritional Failure

    PubMed Central

    Engelen, Mariëlle PKJ; Com, Gulnur; Luiking, Yvette C; Deutz, Nicolaas EP

    2013-01-01

    Objective Reduced nitric oxide (NO) concentrations are found in the airways of many patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) and are associated with increased airflow obstruction. We determined whether upregulated whole body de novo arginine synthesis and protein breakdown are present as a compensatory mechanism to meet the increased demand for arginine and nitric oxide production in pediatric patients with CF and nutritional failure. Study design In 16 children with CF, studied at the end of antibiotic treatment for a pulmonary exacerbation, and 17 healthy controls, whole body arginine, citrulline, and protein turnover were assessed by stable isotope methodology and de novo arginine synthesis, arginine clearance, NO synthesis, protein synthesis and breakdown, and net protein balance were calculated. The plasma isotopic enrichments and amino acid concentrations were measured by LC-MS/MS. Results Increased arginine clearance was found in patients with CF (p<0.001) whereas whole body NO production rate and plasma arginine levels were not different. Whole body arginine production (P<0.001), de novo arginine synthesis, and protein breakdown and synthesis (P<0.05) were increased in patients with CF, but net protein balance was comparable. Patients with CF with nutritional failure (n=7) had significantly higher NO production (P<0.05), de novo arginine synthesis, citrulline production (P<0.001), and plasma citrulline concentration (P<0.05) and lower plasma arginine concentration (P<0.05) than those without nutritional failure (n=9). Conclusions Nutritional failure in CF is associated with increased NO production. However, upregulation of de novo arginine synthesis and citrulline production was not sufficient to meet the increased arginine needs leading to arginine deficiency. PMID:23419590

  9. Altered brain arginine metabolism in schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Liu, P; Jing, Y; Collie, N D; Dean, B; Bilkey, D K; Zhang, H

    2016-01-01

    Previous research implicates altered metabolism of l-arginine, a versatile amino acid with a number of bioactive metabolites, in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia. The present study, for we believe the first time, systematically compared the metabolic profile of l-arginine in the frontal cortex (Brodmann's area 8) obtained post-mortem from schizophrenic individuals and age- and gender-matched non-psychiatric controls (n=20 per group). The enzyme assays revealed no change in total nitric oxide synthase (NOS) activity, but significantly increased arginase activity in the schizophrenia group. Western blot showed reduced endothelial NOS protein expression and increased arginase II protein level in the disease group. High-performance liquid chromatography and liquid chromatography/mass spectrometric assays confirmed significantly reduced levels of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), but increased agmatine concentration and glutamate/GABA ratio in the schizophrenia cases. Regression analysis indicated positive correlations between arginase activity and the age of disease onset and between l-ornithine level and the duration of illness. Moreover, cluster analyses revealed that l-arginine and its main metabolites l-citrulline, l-ornithine and agmatine formed distinct groups, which were altered in the schizophrenia group. The present study provides further evidence of altered brain arginine metabolism in schizophrenia, which enhances our understanding of the pathogenesis of schizophrenia and may lead to the future development of novel preventions and/or therapeutics for the disease. PMID:27529679

  10. An engineered l-arginine sensor of Chlamydia pneumoniae enables arginine-adjustable transcription control in mammalian cells and mice

    PubMed Central

    Hartenbach, Shizuka; Daoud-El Baba, Marie; Weber, Wilfried; Fussenegger, Martin

    2007-01-01

    For optimal compatibility with biopharmaceutical manufacturing and gene therapy, heterologous transgene control systems must be responsive to side-effect-free physiologic inducer molecules. The arginine-inducible interaction of the ArgR repressor and the ArgR-specific ARG box, which synchronize arginine import and synthesis in the intracellular human pathogen Chlamydia pneumoniae, was engineered for arginine-regulated transgene (ART) expression in mammalian cells. A synthetic arginine-responsive transactivator (ARG), consisting of ArgR fused to the Herpes simplex VP16 transactivation domain, reversibly adjusted transgene transcription of chimeric ARG box-containing mammalian minimal promoters (PART) in an arginine-inducible manner. Arginine-controlled transgene expression showed rapid induction kinetics in a variety of mammalian cell lines and was adjustable and reversible at concentrations which were compatible with host cell physiology. ART variants containing different transactivation domains, variable spacing between ARG box and minimal promoter and several tandem ARG boxes showed modified regulation performance tailored for specific expression scenarios and cell types. Mice implanted with microencapsulated cells engineered for ART-inducible expression of the human placental secreted alkaline phosphatase (SEAP) exhibited adjustable serum phosphatase levels after treatment with different arginine doses. Using a physiologic inducer, such as the amino acid l-arginine, to control heterologous transgenes in a seamless manner which is devoid of noticeable metabolic interference will foster novel opportunities for precise expression dosing in future gene therapy scenarios as well as the manufacturing of difficult-to-produce protein pharmaceuticals. PMID:17947334

  11. Inhibition of lytic infection of pseudorabies virus by arginine depletion

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, H.-C.; Kao, Y.-C.; Chang, T-J.; Wong, M.-L. . E-mail: mlwong@dragon.nchu.edu.tw

    2005-08-26

    Pseudorabies virus (PRV) is a member of Alphahepesviruses; it is an enveloped virus with a double-stranded DNA genome. Polyamines (such as spermine and spermidine) are ubiquitous in animal cells and participate in cellular proliferation and differentiation. Previous results of our laboratory showed that the PRV can accomplish lytic infection either in the presence of exogenous spermine (or spermidine) or depletion of cellular polyamines. The amino acid arginine is a precursor of polyamine biosynthesis. In this work, we investigated the role of arginine in PRV infection. It was found that the plaque formation of PRV was inhibited by arginase (enzyme catalyzing the conversion of arginine into ornithine and urea) treatment whereas this inhibition can be reversed by exogenous arginine, suggesting that arginine is essential for PRV proliferation. Western blotting was conducted to study the effect of arginine depletion on the levels of structural proteins of PRV in virus-infected cells. Four PRV structural proteins (gB, gE, UL47, and UL48) were chosen for examination, and results revealed that the levels of viral proteins were obviously reduced in long time arginase treatment. However, the overall protein synthesis machinery was apparently not influenced by arginase treatment either in mock or PRV-infected cells. Analyzing with native gel, we found that arginase treatment affected the mobility of PRV structural proteins, suggesting the conformational change of viral proteins by arginine depletion. Heat shock proteins, acting as molecular chaperons, participate in protein folding and translocation. Our results demonstrated that long time arginase treatment could reduce the expression of cellular heat shock proteins 70 (hsc70 and hsp70), and transcriptional suppression of heat shock protein 70 gene promoter was one of the mechanisms involved in this reduced expression.

  12. Conserved plant genes with similarity to mammalian de novo DNA methyltransferases

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Xiaofeng; Springer, Nathan M.; Muszynski, Michael G.; Phillips, Ronald L.; Kaeppler, Shawn; Jacobsen, Steven E.

    2000-01-01

    DNA methylation plays a critical role in controlling states of gene activity in most eukaryotic organisms, and it is essential for proper growth and development. Patterns of methylation are established by de novo methyltransferases and maintained by maintenance methyltransferase activities. The Dnmt3 family of de novo DNA methyltransferases has recently been characterized in animals. Here we describe DNA methyltransferase genes from both Arabidopsis and maize that show a high level of sequence similarity to Dnmt3, suggesting that they encode plant de novo methyltransferases. Relative to all known eukaryotic methyltransferases, these plant proteins contain a novel arrangement of the motifs required for DNA methyltransferase catalytic activity. The N termini of these methyltransferases contain a series of ubiquitin-associated (UBA) domains. UBA domains are found in several ubiquitin pathway proteins and in DNA repair enzymes such as Rad23, and they may be involved in ubiquitin binding. The presence of UBA domains provides a possible link between DNA methylation and ubiquitin/proteasome pathways. PMID:10781108

  13. Methylation mediated by an anthocyanin, O-methyltransferase, is involved in purple flower coloration in Paeonia.

    PubMed

    Du, Hui; Wu, Jie; Ji, Kui-Xian; Zeng, Qing-Yin; Bhuiya, Mohammad-Wadud; Su, Shang; Shu, Qing-Yan; Ren, Hong-Xu; Liu, Zheng-An; Wang, Liang-Sheng

    2015-11-01

    Anthocyanins are major pigments in plants. Methylation plays a role in the diversity and stability of anthocyanins. However, the contribution of anthocyanin methylation to flower coloration is still unclear. We identified two homologous anthocyanin O-methyltransferase (AOMT) genes from purple-flowered (PsAOMT) and red-flowered (PtAOMT) Paeonia plants, and we performed functional analyses of the two genes in vitro and in vivo. The critical amino acids for AOMT catalytic activity were studied by site-directed mutagenesis. We showed that the recombinant proteins, PsAOMT and PtAOMT, had identical substrate preferences towards anthocyanins. The methylation activity of PsAOMT was 60 times higher than that of PtAOMT in vitro. Interestingly, this vast difference in catalytic activity appeared to result from a single amino acid residue substitution at position 87 (arginine to leucine). There were significant differences between the 35S::PsAOMT transgenic tobacco and control flowers in relation to their chromatic parameters, which further confirmed the function of PsAOMT in vivo. The expression levels of the two homologous AOMT genes were consistent with anthocyanin accumulation in petals. We conclude that AOMTs are responsible for the methylation of cyanidin glycosides in Paeonia plants and play an important role in purple coloration in Paeonia spp.

  14. Methylation mediated by an anthocyanin, O-methyltransferase, is involved in purple flower coloration in Paeonia

    PubMed Central

    Du, Hui; Wu, Jie; Ji, Kui-Xian; Zeng, Qing-Yin; Bhuiya, Mohammad-Wadud; Su, Shang; Shu, Qing-Yan; Ren, Hong-Xu; Liu, Zheng-An; Wang, Liang-Sheng

    2015-01-01

    Anthocyanins are major pigments in plants. Methylation plays a role in the diversity and stability of anthocyanins. However, the contribution of anthocyanin methylation to flower coloration is still unclear. We identified two homologous anthocyanin O-methyltransferase (AOMT) genes from purple-flowered (PsAOMT) and red-flowered (PtAOMT) Paeonia plants, and we performed functional analyses of the two genes in vitro and in vivo. The critical amino acids for AOMT catalytic activity were studied by site-directed mutagenesis. We showed that the recombinant proteins, PsAOMT and PtAOMT, had identical substrate preferences towards anthocyanins. The methylation activity of PsAOMT was 60 times higher than that of PtAOMT in vitro. Interestingly, this vast difference in catalytic activity appeared to result from a single amino acid residue substitution at position 87 (arginine to leucine). There were significant differences between the 35S::PsAOMT transgenic tobacco and control flowers in relation to their chromatic parameters, which further confirmed the function of PsAOMT in vivo. The expression levels of the two homologous AOMT genes were consistent with anthocyanin accumulation in petals. We conclude that AOMTs are responsible for the methylation of cyanidin glycosides in Paeonia plants and play an important role in purple coloration in Paeonia spp. PMID:26208646

  15. IDENTIFYING CRITICAL CYSTEINE RESIDUES IN ARSENIC (+3 OXIDATION STATE) METHYLTRANSFERASE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Arsenic (+3 oxidation state) methyltransferase (AS3MT) catalyzes methylation of inorganic arsenic to mono, di, and trimethylated arsenicals. Orthologous AS3MT genes in genomes ranging from simple echinoderm to human predict a protein with five conserved cysteine (C) residues. In ...

  16. Catalytic promiscuity of a bacterial α-N-methyltransferase

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Qi; van der Donk, Wilfred A.

    2012-01-01

    The posttranslational methylation of N-terminal α-amino groups (α-N-methylation) is a ubiquitous reaction found in all domains of life. Although this modification usually occurs on protein substrates, recent studies have shown that it also takes place on ribosomally synthesized natural products. Here we report an investigation of the bacterial α-N-methyltransferase CypM involved in the biosynthesis of the peptide antibiotic cypemycin. We demonstrate that CypM has low substrate selectivity and methylates a variety of oligopeptides, cyclic peptides such as nisin and haloduracin, and the ε-amino group of lysine. Hence it may have potential for enzyme engineering and combinatorial biosynthesis. Bayesian phylogenetic inference of bacterial α-N-methyltransferases suggests that they have not evolved as a specific group based on the chemical transformations they catalyze, but that they have been acquired from various other methyltransferase classes during evolution. PMID:22841713

  17. Arginine deiminase inhibits Porphyromonas gingivalis surface attachment

    PubMed Central

    Cugini, Carla; Stephens, Danielle N.; Nguyen, Daniel; Kantarci, Alpdogan

    2013-01-01

    The oral cavity is host to a complex microbial community whose maintenance depends on an array of cell-to-cell interactions and communication networks, with little known regarding the nature of the signals or mechanisms by which they are sensed and transmitted. Determining the signals that control attachment, biofilm development and outgrowth of oral pathogens is fundamental to understanding pathogenic biofilm development. We have previously identified a secreted arginine deiminase (ADI) produced by Streptococcus intermedius that inhibited biofilm development of the commensal pathogen Porphyromonas gingivalis through downregulation of genes encoding the major (fimA) and minor (mfa1) fimbriae, both of which are required for proper biofilm development. Here we report that this inhibitory effect is dependent on enzymic activity. We have successfully cloned, expressed and defined the conditions to ensure that ADI from S. intermedius is enzymically active. Along with the cloning of the wild-type allele, we have created a catalytic mutant (ADIC399S), in which the resulting protein is not able to catalyse the hydrolysis of l-arginine to l-citrulline. P. gingivalis is insensitive to the ADIC399S catalytic mutant, demonstrating that enzymic activity is required for the effects of ADI on biofilm formation. Biofilm formation is absent under l-arginine-deplete conditions, and can be recovered by the addition of the amino acid. Taken together, the results indicate that arginine is an important signal that directs biofilm formation by this anaerobe. Based on our findings, we postulate that ADI functions to reduce arginine levels and, by a yet to be identified mechanism, signals P. gingivalis to alter biofilm development. ADI release from the streptococcal cell and its cross-genera effects are important findings in understanding the nature of inter-bacterial signalling and biofilm-mediated diseases of the oral cavity. PMID:23242802

  18. The Bacterial Twin-Arginine Translocation Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Philip A.; Tullman-Ercek, Danielle; Georgiou, George

    2009-01-01

    The twin-arginine translocation (Tat) pathway is responsible for the export of folded proteins across the cytoplasmic membrane of bacteria. Substrates for the Tat pathway include redox enzymes requiring cofactor insertion in the cytoplasm, multimeric proteins that have to assemble into a complex prior to export, certain membrane proteins, and proteins whose folding is incompatible with Sec export. These proteins are involved in a diverse range of cellular activities including anaerobic metabolism, cell envelope biogenesis, metal acquisition and detoxification, and virulence. The Escherichia coli translocase consists of the TatA, TatB, and TatC proteins, but little is known about the precise sequence of events that leads to protein translocation, the energetic requirements, or the mechanism that prevents the export of misfolded proteins. Owing to the unique characteristics of the pathway, it holds promise for biotechnological applications. PMID:16756481

  19. Arginine Supplementation Recovered the IFN-γ-Mediated Decrease in Milk Protein and Fat Synthesis by Inhibiting the GCN2/eIF2α Pathway, Which Induces Autophagy in Primary Bovine Mammary Epithelial Cells.

    PubMed

    Xia, Xiaojing; Che, Yanyi; Gao, Yuanyuan; Zhao, Shuang; Ao, Changjin; Yang, Hongjian; Liu, Juxiong; Liu, Guowen; Han, Wenyu; Wang, Yuping; Lei, Liancheng

    2016-05-31

    During the lactation cycle of the bovine mammary gland, autophagy is induced in bovine mammary epithelial cells (BMECs) as a cellular homeostasis and survival mechanism. Interferon gamma (IFN-γ) is an important antiproliferative and apoptogenic factor that has been shown to induce autophagy in multiple cell lines in vitro. However, it remains unclear whether IFN-γ can induce autophagy and whether autophagy affects milk synthesis in BMECs. To understand whether IFN-γ affects milk synthesis, we isolated and purified primary BMECs and investigated the effect of IFN-γ on milk synthesis in primary BMECs in vitro. The results showed that IFN-γ significantly inhibits milk synthesis and that autophagy was clearly induced in primary BMECs in vitro within 24 h. Interestingly, autophagy was observed following IFN-γ treatment, and the inhibition of autophagy can improve milk protein and milk fat synthesis. Conversely, upregulation of autophagy decreased milk synthesis. Furthermore, mechanistic analysis confirmed that IFN-γ mediated autophagy by depleting arginine and inhibiting the general control nonderepressible-2 kinase (GCN2)/eukaryotic initiation factor 2α (eIF2α) signaling pathway in BMECs. Then, it was found that arginine supplementation could attenuate IFN-γ-induced autophagy and recover milk synthesis to some extent. These findings may not only provide a novel measure for preventing the IFN-γ-induced decrease in milk quality but also a useful therapeutic approach for IFN-γ-associated breast diseases in other animals and humans.

  20. Arginine Supplementation Recovered the IFN-γ-Mediated Decrease in Milk Protein and Fat Synthesis by Inhibiting the GCN2/eIF2α Pathway, Which Induces Autophagy in Primary Bovine Mammary Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Xiaojing; Che, Yanyi; Gao, Yuanyuan; Zhao, Shuang; Ao, Changjin; Yang, Hongjian; Liu, Juxiong; Liu, Guowen; Han, Wenyu; Wang, Yuping; Lei, Liancheng

    2016-01-01

    During the lactation cycle of the bovine mammary gland, autophagy is induced in bovine mammary epithelial cells (BMECs) as a cellular homeostasis and survival mechanism. Interferon gamma (IFN-γ) is an important antiproliferative and apoptogenic factor that has been shown to induce autophagy in multiple cell lines in vitro. However, it remains unclear whether IFN-γ can induce autophagy and whether autophagy affects milk synthesis in BMECs. To understand whether IFN-γ affects milk synthesis, we isolated and purified primary BMECs and investigated the effect of IFN-γ on milk synthesis in primary BMECs in vitro. The results showed that IFN-γ significantly inhibits milk synthesis and that autophagy was clearly induced in primary BMECs in vitro within 24 h. Interestingly, autophagy was observed following IFN-γ treatment, and the inhibition of autophagy can improve milk protein and milk fat synthesis. Conversely, upregulation of autophagy decreased milk synthesis. Furthermore, mechanistic analysis confirmed that IFN-γ mediated autophagy by depleting arginine and inhibiting the general control nonderepressible-2 kinase (GCN2)/eukaryotic initiation factor 2α (eIF2α) signaling pathway in BMECs. Then, it was found that arginine supplementation could attenuate IFN-γ-induced autophagy and recover milk synthesis to some extent. These findings may not only provide a novel measure for preventing the IFN-γ-induced decrease in milk quality but also a useful therapeutic approach for IFN-γ-associated breast diseases in other animals and humans. PMID:27025389

  1. Arginine starvation in colorectal carcinoma cells: Sensing, impact on translation control and cell cycle distribution.

    PubMed

    Vynnytska-Myronovska, Bozhena O; Kurlishchuk, Yuliya; Chen, Oleh; Bobak, Yaroslav; Dittfeld, Claudia; Hüther, Melanie; Kunz-Schughart, Leoni A; Stasyk, Oleh V

    2016-02-01

    Tumor cells rely on a continued exogenous nutrient supply in order to maintain a high proliferative activity. Although a strong dependence of some tumor types on exogenous arginine sources has been reported, the mechanisms of arginine sensing by tumor cells and the impact of changes in arginine availability on translation and cell cycle regulation are not fully understood. The results presented herein state that human colorectal carcinoma cells rapidly exhaust the internal arginine sources in the absence of exogenous arginine and repress global translation by activation of the GCN2-mediated pathway and inhibition of mTOR signaling. Tumor suppressor protein p53 activation and G1/G0 cell cycle arrest support cell survival upon prolonged arginine starvation. Cells with the mutant or deleted TP53 fail to stop cell cycle progression at defined cell cycle checkpoints which appears to be associated with reduced recovery after durable metabolic stress triggered by arginine withdrawal.

  2. Arginine production in the neonate

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Endogenous arginine synthesis in adults is a complex multiorgan process, in which citrulline is synthesized in the gut, enters the general circulation, and is converted into arginine in the kidney, by what is known as the intestinal-renal axis. In neonates, the enzymes required to convert citrulline...

  3. Arginine side chain interactions and the role of arginine as a gating charge carrier in voltage sensitive ion channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armstrong, Craig T.; Mason, Philip E.; Anderson, J. L. Ross; Dempsey, Christopher E.

    2016-02-01

    Gating charges in voltage-sensing domains (VSD) of voltage-sensitive ion channels and enzymes are carried on arginine side chains rather than lysine. This arginine preference may result from the unique hydration properties of the side chain guanidinium group which facilitates its movement through a hydrophobic plug that seals the center of the VSD, as suggested by molecular dynamics simulations. To test for side chain interactions implicit in this model we inspected interactions of the side chains of arginine and lysine with each of the 19 non-glycine amino acids in proteins in the protein data bank. The arginine guanidinium interacts with non-polar aromatic and aliphatic side chains above and below the guanidinium plane while hydrogen bonding with polar side chains is restricted to in-plane positions. In contrast, non-polar side chains interact largely with the aliphatic part of the lysine side chain. The hydration properties of arginine and lysine are strongly reflected in their respective interactions with non-polar and polar side chains as observed in protein structures and in molecular dynamics simulations, and likely underlie the preference for arginine as a mobile charge carrier in VSD.

  4. Arginine side chain interactions and the role of arginine as a gating charge carrier in voltage sensitive ion channels.

    PubMed

    Armstrong, Craig T; Mason, Philip E; Anderson, J L Ross; Dempsey, Christopher E

    2016-01-01

    Gating charges in voltage-sensing domains (VSD) of voltage-sensitive ion channels and enzymes are carried on arginine side chains rather than lysine. This arginine preference may result from the unique hydration properties of the side chain guanidinium group which facilitates its movement through a hydrophobic plug that seals the center of the VSD, as suggested by molecular dynamics simulations. To test for side chain interactions implicit in this model we inspected interactions of the side chains of arginine and lysine with each of the 19 non-glycine amino acids in proteins in the protein data bank. The arginine guanidinium interacts with non-polar aromatic and aliphatic side chains above and below the guanidinium plane while hydrogen bonding with polar side chains is restricted to in-plane positions. In contrast, non-polar side chains interact largely with the aliphatic part of the lysine side chain. The hydration properties of arginine and lysine are strongly reflected in their respective interactions with non-polar and polar side chains as observed in protein structures and in molecular dynamics simulations, and likely underlie the preference for arginine as a mobile charge carrier in VSD. PMID:26899474

  5. Arginine side chain interactions and the role of arginine as a gating charge carrier in voltage sensitive ion channels

    PubMed Central

    Armstrong, Craig T.; Mason, Philip E.; Anderson, J. L. Ross; Dempsey, Christopher E.

    2016-01-01

    Gating charges in voltage-sensing domains (VSD) of voltage-sensitive ion channels and enzymes are carried on arginine side chains rather than lysine. This arginine preference may result from the unique hydration properties of the side chain guanidinium group which facilitates its movement through a hydrophobic plug that seals the center of the VSD, as suggested by molecular dynamics simulations. To test for side chain interactions implicit in this model we inspected interactions of the side chains of arginine and lysine with each of the 19 non-glycine amino acids in proteins in the protein data bank. The arginine guanidinium interacts with non-polar aromatic and aliphatic side chains above and below the guanidinium plane while hydrogen bonding with polar side chains is restricted to in-plane positions. In contrast, non-polar side chains interact largely with the aliphatic part of the lysine side chain. The hydration properties of arginine and lysine are strongly reflected in their respective interactions with non-polar and polar side chains as observed in protein structures and in molecular dynamics simulations, and likely underlie the preference for arginine as a mobile charge carrier in VSD. PMID:26899474

  6. Photoaffinity labelling of methyltransferase enzymes with S-adenosylmethionine: effects of methyl acceptor substrates.

    PubMed

    Hurst, J H; Billingsley, M L; Lovenberg, W

    1984-07-31

    Radioactivity from 3H-[methyl]-S-adenosyl-L-methionine (AdoMet) was covalently bound to protein-O-carboxylmethyltransferase and phenylethanolamine N-methyltransferase following 10-15 min irradiation by short-wave ultraviolet light. This photoaffinity binding of 3H-[methyl]-AdoMet was blocked by S-adenosylhomocysteine and sinefungin, but was not affected by 5 mM dithiothreitol. The binding was also inhibited by including methyl acceptors such as calmodulin (protein-O-carboxylmethyltransferase) or phenylethanolamine (phenylethanolamine N-methyltransferase) in the photoaffinity incubation. Staphlococcus V8 protease digests of 3H-[methyl]-AdoMet/enzyme complexes revealed that the primary structure around the AdoMet binding site is different in these two enzymes. Thus, protein-O-carboxylmethyltransferase, a large molecule methyltransferase, can covalently bind 3H-[methyl]-AdoMet in a manner similar to that of phenylethanolamine-N-methyltransferase.

  7. Glutamine, arginine, and leucine signaling in the intestine.

    PubMed

    Marc Rhoads, J; Wu, Guoyao

    2009-05-01

    Glutamine and leucine are abundant constituents of plant and animal proteins, whereas the content of arginine in foods and physiological fluids varies greatly. Besides their role in protein synthesis, these three amino acids individually activate signaling pathway to promote protein synthesis and possibly inhibit autophagy-mediated protein degradation in intestinal epithelial cells. In addition, glutamine and arginine stimulate the mitogen-activated protein kinase and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR)/p70 (s6) kinase pathways, respectively, to enhance mucosal cell migration and restitution. Moreover, through the nitric oxide-dependent cGMP signaling cascade, arginine regulates multiple physiological events in the intestine that are beneficial for cell homeostasis and survival. Available evidence from both in vitro and in vivo animal studies shows that glutamine and arginine promote cell proliferation and exert differential cytoprotective effects in response to nutrient deprivation, oxidative injury, stress, and immunological challenge. Additionally, when nitric oxide is available, leucine increases the migration of intestinal cells. Therefore, through cellular signaling mechanisms, arginine, glutamine, and leucine play crucial roles in intestinal growth, integrity, and function.

  8. Discrimination between citrulline and arginine transport in activated murine macrophages: inefficient synthesis of NO from recycling of citrulline to arginine.

    PubMed Central

    Baydoun, A. R.; Bogle, R. G.; Pearson, J. D.; Mann, G. E.

    1994-01-01

    1. The kinetics, specificity, pH- and Na(+)-dependency of L-citrulline transport were examined in unstimulated and lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated murine macrophage J774 cells. The dependency of nitric oxide production on extracellular arginine or citrulline was investigated in cells activated with LPS (1 microgram ml-1) for 24 h. 2. In unstimulated J774 cells, transport of citrulline was saturable (Kt = 0.16 mM and Vmax = 32 pmol micrograms-1 protein min-1), pH-insensitive and partially Na(+)-dependent. In contrast to arginine, transport of citrulline was unchanged in LPS-activated (1 microgram ml-1, 24 h) cells. 3. Kinetic inhibition experiments revealed that arginine was a relatively poor inhibitor of citrulline transport, whilst citrulline was a more potent inhibitor (Ki = 3.4 mM) of arginine transport but only in the presence of extracellular Na+. Neutral amino acids inhibited citrulline transport (Ki = 0.2-0.3 mM), but were poor inhibitors of arginine transport. 4. Activated J774 cells did not release nitrite in the absence of exogenous arginine. Addition of citrulline (0.01-10 mM), in the absence of exogenous arginine, could only partially restore the ability of cells to synthesize nitrite, which was abolished by 100 microM NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester or NG-iminoethyl-L-ornithine. 5. Intracellular metabolism of L-[14C]-citrulline to L-[14C]-arginine was detected in unstimulated J774 cells and was increased further in cells activated with LPS and interferon-gamma. 6. We conclude that J774 macrophage cells transport citrulline via a saturable but nonselective neutral carrier which is insensitive to induction by LPS.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8075867

  9. New insights into estrogenic regulation of O6-methylguanine DNA-methyltransferase (MGMT) in human breast cancer cells: Co-degradation of ER-α and MGMT proteins by fulvestrant or O6-benzylguanine indicates fresh avenues for therapy

    PubMed Central

    Paranjpe, Ameya; Bailey, Nathan I.; Konduri, Santhi; Bobustuc, George C.; Ali-Osman, Francis; Yusuf, Mohd. A.; Punganuru, Surendra R.; Madala, Hanumantha Rao; Basak, Debasish; Mostofa, AGM; Srivenugopal, Kalkunte S.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Endocrine therapy using estrogen receptor-α (ER-α) antagonists for attenuating horm2one-driven cell proliferation is a major treatment modality for breast cancers. To exploit any DNA repair deficiencies associated with endocrine therapy, we investigated the functional and physical interactions of ER-α with O6-methylguanine DNA methyltransferase (MGMT), a unique DNA repair protein that confers tumor resistance to various anticancer alkylating agents. The ER-α -positive breast cancer cell lines (MCF-7, T47D) and ER- negative cell lines (MDAMB-468, MDAMB-231), and established inhibitors of ER-α and MGMT, namely, ICI-182,780 (Faslodex) and O6-benzylguanine, respectively, were used to study MGMT- ER interactions. The MGMT gene promoter was found to harbor one full and two half estrogen-responsive elements (EREs) and two antioxidant-responsive elements (AREs). MGMT expression was upregulated by estrogen, downregulated by tamoxifen in Western blot and promoter-linked reporter assays. Similarly, both transient and stable transfections of Nrf-2 (nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor-2) increased the levels of MGMT protein and activity 3 to 4-fold reflecting novel regulatory nodes for this drug-resistance determinant. Of the different ER-α antagonists tested, the pure anti-estrogen fulvestrant was most potent in inhibiting the MGMT activity in a dose, time and ER-α dependent manner, similar to O6-benzylguanine. Interestingly, fulvestrant exposure led to a degradation of both ER-α and MGMT proteins and O6-benzylguanine also induced a specific loss of ER-α and MGMT proteins in MCF-7 and T47D breast cancer cells with similar kinetics. Immunoprecipitation revealed a specific association of ER-α and MGMT proteins in breast cancer cells. Furthermore, silencing of MGMT gene expression triggered a decrease in the levels of both MGMT and ER-α proteins. The involvement of proteasome in the drug-induced degradation of both proteins was also demonstrated

  10. Arginine methylation enhances the RNA chaperone activity of the West Nile virus host factor AUF1 p45.

    PubMed

    Friedrich, Susann; Schmidt, Tobias; Schierhorn, Angelika; Lilie, Hauke; Szczepankiewicz, Grit; Bergs, Sandra; Liebert, Uwe G; Golbik, Ralph P; Behrens, Sven-Erik

    2016-10-01

    A prerequisite for the intracellular replication process of the Flavivirus West Nile virus (WNV) is the cyclization of the viral RNA genome, which enables the viral replicase to initiate RNA synthesis. Our earlier studies indicated that the p45 isoform of the cellular AU-rich element binding protein 1 (AUF1) has an RNA chaperone activity, which supports RNA cyclization and viral RNA synthesis by destabilizing a stem structure at the WNV RNA's 3'-end. Here we show that in mammalian cells, AUF1 p45 is consistently modified by arginine methylation of its C terminus. By a combination of different experimental approaches, we can demonstrate that the methyltransferase PRMT1 is necessary and sufficient for AUF1 p45 methylation and that PRMT1 is required for efficient WNV replication. Interestingly, in comparison to the nonmethylated AUF1 p45, the methylated AUF1 p45(aDMA) exhibits a significantly increased affinity to the WNV RNA termini. Further data also revealed that the RNA chaperone activity of AUF1 p45(aDMA) is improved and the methylated protein stimulates viral RNA synthesis considerably more efficiently than the nonmethylated AUF1 p45. In addition to its destabilizing RNA chaperone activity, we identified an RNA annealing activity of AUF1 p45, which is not affected by methylation. Arginine methylation of AUF1 p45 thus represents a specific determinant of its RNA chaperone activity while functioning as a WNV host factor. Our data suggest that the methylation modifies the conformation of AUF1 p45 and in this way affects its RNA binding and restructuring activities.

  11. Mammalian WTAP is a regulatory subunit of the RNA N6-methyladenosine methyltransferase.

    PubMed

    Ping, Xiao-Li; Sun, Bao-Fa; Wang, Lu; Xiao, Wen; Yang, Xin; Wang, Wen-Jia; Adhikari, Samir; Shi, Yue; Lv, Ying; Chen, Yu-Sheng; Zhao, Xu; Li, Ang; Yang, Ying; Dahal, Ujwal; Lou, Xiao-Min; Liu, Xi; Huang, Jun; Yuan, Wei-Ping; Zhu, Xiao-Fan; Cheng, Tao; Zhao, Yong-Liang; Wang, Xinquan; Rendtlew Danielsen, Jannie M; Liu, Feng; Yang, Yun-Gui

    2014-02-01

    The methyltransferase like 3 (METTL3)-containing methyltransferase complex catalyzes the N6-methyladenosine (m6A) formation, a novel epitranscriptomic marker; however, the nature of this complex remains largely unknown. Here we report two new components of the human m6A methyltransferase complex, Wilms' tumor 1-associating protein (WTAP) and methyltransferase like 14 (METTL14). WTAP interacts with METTL3 and METTL14, and is required for their localization into nuclear speckles enriched with pre-mRNA processing factors and for catalytic activity of the m6A methyltransferase in vivo. The majority of RNAs bound by WTAP and METTL3 in vivo represent mRNAs containing the consensus m6A motif. In the absence of WTAP, the RNA-binding capability of METTL3 is strongly reduced, suggesting that WTAP may function to regulate recruitment of the m6A methyltransferase complex to mRNA targets. Furthermore, transcriptomic analyses in combination with photoactivatable-ribonucleoside-enhanced crosslinking and immunoprecipitation (PAR-CLIP) illustrate that WTAP and METTL3 regulate expression and alternative splicing of genes involved in transcription and RNA processing. Morpholino-mediated knockdown targeting WTAP and/or METTL3 in zebrafish embryos caused tissue differentiation defects and increased apoptosis. These findings provide strong evidence that WTAP may function as a regulatory subunit in the m6A methyltransferase complex and play a critical role in epitranscriptomic regulation of RNA metabolism. PMID:24407421

  12. Proteomic Analysis Reveals Diverse Classes of Arginine Methylproteins in Mitochondria of Trypanosomes*

    PubMed Central

    Fisk, John C.; Li, Jun; Wang, Hao; Aletta, John M.; Qu, Jun; Read, Laurie K.

    2013-01-01

    Arginine (arg) methylation is a widespread posttranslational modification of proteins that impacts numerous cellular processes such as chromatin remodeling, RNA processing, DNA repair, and cell signaling. Known arg methylproteins arise mostly from yeast and mammals, and are almost exclusively nuclear and cytoplasmic. Trypanosoma brucei is an early branching eukaryote whose genome encodes five putative protein arg methyltransferases, and thus likely contains a plethora of arg methylproteins. Additionally, trypanosomes and related organisms possess a unique mitochondrion that undergoes dramatic developmental regulation and uses novel RNA editing and mitochondrial DNA replication mechanisms. Here, we performed a global mass spectrometric analysis of the T. brucei mitochondrion to identify new arg methylproteins in this medically relevant parasite. Enabling factors of this work are use of a combination digestion with two orthogonal enzymes, an efficient offline two dimensional chromatography separation, and high-resolution mass spectrometry analysis with two complementary activations. This approach led to the comprehensive, sensitive and confident identification and localization of methylarg at a proteome level. We identified 167 arg methylproteins with wide-ranging functions including metabolism, transport, chaperoning, RNA processing, translation, and DNA replication. Our data suggest that arg methylproteins in trypanosome mitochondria possess both trypanosome-specific and evolutionarily conserved modifications, depending on the protein targeted. This study is the first comprehensive analysis of mitochondrial arg methylation in any organism, and represents a significant advance in our knowledge of the range of arg methylproteins and their sites of modification. Moreover, these studies establish T. brucei as a model organism for the study of posttranslational modifications. PMID:23152538

  13. BRAF inhibitor resistance enhances vulnerability to arginine deprivation in melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ying-Ying; Wu, Chunjing; Chen, Shu-Mei; Shah, Sumedh S.; Wangpaichitr, Medhi; Feun, Lynn G.; Kuo, Macus T.; Suarez, Miguel; Prince, Jeffrey; Savaraj, Niramol

    2016-01-01

    BRAF inhibitor (BRAFi) has been used for treatment of melanomas harboring V600E mutation. Despite a high initial response rate, resistance to BRAFi is inevitable. Here, we demonstrate that BRAFi-resistant (BR) melanomas are susceptible to arginine deprivation due to inability to initiate re-expression of argininosuccinate synthetase (ASS1, a key enzyme for arginine synthesis) as well as ineffective autophagy. Autophagy and ASS1 re-expression are known to protect melanoma cells from cell death upon arginine deprivation. When melanoma cells become BR cells by long-term in vitro incubation with BRAFi, c-Myc-mediated ASS1 re-expression and the levels of autophagy-associated proteins (AMPK-α1 and Atg5) are attenuated. Furthermore, our study uncovers that downregulation of deubiquitinase USP28 which results in more active c-Myc degradation via ubiquitin-proteasome machinery is the primary mechanism for inability to re-express ASS1 upon arginine deprivation in BR cells. Overexpression of USP28 in BR cells enhances c-Myc expression and hence increases ASS1 transcription upon arginine deprivation, and consequently leads to cell survival. On the other hand, overexpression of Atg5 or AMPK-α1 in BR cells can redirect arginine deprivation-induced apoptosis toward autophagy. The xenograft models also confirm that BR tumors possess lower expression of ASS1 and are hypersensitive to arginine deprivation. These biochemical changes in BRAFi resistance which make them vulnerable to arginine deprivation can be exploited for the future treatment of BR melanoma patients. PMID:26771234

  14. Changes in arginine metabolism during sepsis and critical illness in children.

    PubMed

    de Betue, Carlijn T I; Deutz, Nicolaas E P

    2013-01-01

    Arginine is an important amino acid during disease and healing because of functions in the immune system and as precursor of nitric oxide (NO). In critically ill adults and children, plasma arginine and citrulline concentrations are substantially decreased, indicating an arginine-deficient state. Arginine availability is reduced because of increased arginine disposal in combination with reduced de novo arginine synthesis. The latter is most likely caused by reduced citrulline availability. As a result, NO synthesis may be impaired, which might compromise microcirculation. These metabolic changes seem to be dependent on the severity of inflammation. Arginine or citrulline supplementation in severe inflammation might therefore be beneficial. Possibly, the use of protein-energy-enriched formulas may be a first step to improve arginine availability and NO synthesis. In critically ill children, arginine metabolism and supplementation is however a virtually unexplored field. Since pediatric sepsis is a significant health problem, which differs in epidemiology and pathophysiology from sepsis in adults, and because of the scarcity of data in this population, studies focused on pathophysiological mechanisms and possible interventions in arginine metabolism in pediatric critical illness are warranted.

  15. Prediction of binding modes between protein L-isoaspartyl (D-aspartyl) O-methyltransferase and peptide substrates including isomerized aspartic acid residues using in silico analytic methods for the substrate screening.

    PubMed

    Oda, Akifumi; Noji, Ikuhiko; Fukuyoshi, Shuichi; Takahashi, Ohgi

    2015-12-10

    Because the aspartic acid (Asp) residues in proteins are occasionally isomerized in the human body, not only l-α-Asp but also l-β-Asp, D-α-Asp and D-β-Asp are found in human proteins. In these isomerized aspartic acids, the proportion of D-β-Asp is the largest and the proportions of l-β-Asp and D-α-Asp found in human proteins are comparatively small. To explain the proportions of aspartic acid isomers, the possibility of an enzyme able to repair l-β-Asp and D-α-Asp is frequently considered. The protein L-isoaspartyl (D-aspartyl) O-methyltransferase (PIMT) is considered one of the possible repair enzymes for l-β-Asp and D-α-Asp. Human PIMT is an enzyme that recognizes both l-β-Asp and D-α-Asp, and catalyzes the methylation of their side chains. In this study, the binding modes between PIMT and peptide substrates containing l-β-Asp or D-α-Asp residues were investigated using computational protein-ligand docking and molecular dynamics simulations. The results indicate that carboxyl groups of both l-β-Asp and D-α-Asp were recognized in similar modes by PIMT and that the C-terminal regions of substrate peptides were located in similar positions on PIMT for both the l-β-Asp and D-α-Asp peptides. In contrast, for peptides containing l-α-Asp or D-β-Asp residues, which are not substrates of PIMT, the computationally constructed binding modes between PIMT and peptides greatly differed from those between PIMT and substrates. In the nonsubstrate peptides, not inter- but intra-molecular hydrogen bonds were observed, and the conformations of peptides were more rigid than those of substrates. Thus, the in silico analytical methods were able to distinguish substrates from nonsubstrates and the computational methods are expected to complement experimental analytical methods.

  16. Nucleolar Methyltransferase Fibrillarin: Evolution of Structure and Functions.

    PubMed

    Shubina, M Y; Musinova, Y R; Sheval, E V

    2016-09-01

    Fibrillarin is one of the most studied nucleolar proteins. Its main functions are methylation and processing of pre-rRNA. Fibrillarin is a highly conserved protein; however, in the course of evolution from archaea to eukaryotes, it acquired an additional N-terminal glycine and arginine-rich (GAR) domain. In this review, we discuss the evolution of fibrillarin structure and its relation to the functions of the protein in prokaryotes and eukaryotes. PMID:27682166

  17. Conserved arginine residues in the carboxyl terminus of the equine arteritis virus E protein may play a role in heparin binding but may not affect viral infectivity in equine endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Lu, Zhengchun; Sarkar, Sanjay; Zhang, Jianqiang; Balasuriya, Udeni B R

    2016-04-01

    Equine arteritis virus (EAV), the causative agent of equine viral arteritis, has relatively broad cell tropism in vitro. In horses, EAV primarily replicates in macrophages and endothelial cells of small blood vessels. Until now, neither the cellular receptor(s) nor the mechanism(s) of virus attachment and entry have been determined for this virus. In this study, we investigated the effect of heparin on EAV infection in equine endothelial cells (EECs). Heparin, but not other glycosaminoglycans, could reduce EAV infection up to 93 %. Sequence analysis of the EAV E minor envelope protein revealed a conserved amino acid sequence (52 RSLVARCSRGARYR 65) at the carboxy terminus of the E protein, which was predicted to be the heparin-binding domain. The basic arginine (R) amino acid residues were subsequently mutated to glycine by site-directed mutagenesis of ORF2a in an E protein expression vector and an infectious cDNA clone of EAV. Two single mutations in E (R52G and R57G) did not affect the heparin-binding capability, whereas the E double mutation (R52,60G) completely eliminated the interaction between the E protein and heparin. Although the mutant R52,60G EAV did not bind heparin, the mutations did not completely abolish infectivity, indicating that heparin is not the only critical factor for EAV infection. This also suggested that other viral envelope protein(s) might be involved in attachment through heparin or other cell-surface molecules, and this warrants further investigation.

  18. An Arginine Deprivation Response Pathway Is Induced in Leishmania during Macrophage Invasion.

    PubMed

    Goldman-Pinkovich, Adele; Balno, Caitlin; Strasser, Rona; Zeituni-Molad, Michal; Bendelak, Keren; Rentsch, Doris; Ephros, Moshe; Wiese, Martin; Jardim, Armando; Myler, Peter J; Zilberstein, Dan

    2016-04-01

    Amino acid sensing is an intracellular function that supports nutrient homeostasis, largely through controlled release of amino acids from lysosomal pools. The intracellular pathogen Leishmania resides and proliferates within human macrophage phagolysosomes. Here we describe a new pathway in Leishmania that specifically senses the extracellular levels of arginine, an amino acid that is essential for the parasite. During infection, the macrophage arginine pool is depleted due to its use to produce metabolites (NO and polyamines) that constitute part of the host defense response and its suppression, respectively. We found that parasites respond to this shortage of arginine by up-regulating expression and activity of the Leishmania arginine transporter (LdAAP3), as well as several other transporters. Our analysis indicates the parasite monitors arginine levels in the environment rather than the intracellular pools. Phosphoproteomics and genetic analysis indicates that the arginine-deprivation response is mediated through a mitogen-activated protein kinase-2-dependent signaling cascade. PMID:27043018

  19. An Arginine Deprivation Response Pathway Is Induced in Leishmania during Macrophage Invasion

    PubMed Central

    Strasser, Rona; Zeituni-Molad, Michal; Bendelak, Keren; Rentsch, Doris; Ephros, Moshe; Wiese, Martin; Jardim, Armando; Myler, Peter J.; Zilberstein, Dan

    2016-01-01

    Amino acid sensing is an intracellular function that supports nutrient homeostasis, largely through controlled release of amino acids from lysosomal pools. The intracellular pathogen Leishmania resides and proliferates within human macrophage phagolysosomes. Here we describe a new pathway in Leishmania that specifically senses the extracellular levels of arginine, an amino acid that is essential for the parasite. During infection, the macrophage arginine pool is depleted due to its use to produce metabolites (NO and polyamines) that constitute part of the host defense response and its suppression, respectively. We found that parasites respond to this shortage of arginine by up-regulating expression and activity of the Leishmania arginine transporter (LdAAP3), as well as several other transporters. Our analysis indicates the parasite monitors arginine levels in the environment rather than the intracellular pools. Phosphoproteomics and genetic analysis indicates that the arginine-deprivation response is mediated through a mitogen-activated protein kinase-2-dependent signaling cascade. PMID:27043018

  20. Characterization of arginine decarboxylase from Dianthus caryophyllus.

    PubMed

    Ha, Byung Hak; Cho, Ki Joon; Choi, Yu Jin; Park, Ky Young; Kim, Kyung Hyun

    2004-04-01

    Arginine decarboxylase (ADC, EC 4.1.1.9) is a key enzyme in the biosynthesis of polyamines in higher plants, whereas ornithine decarboxylase represents the sole pathway of polyamine biosynthesis in animals. Previously, we characterized a genomic clone from Dianthus caryophyllus, in which the deduced polypeptide of ADC was 725 amino acids with a molecular mass of 78 kDa. In the present study, the ADC gene was subcloned into the pGEX4T1 expression vector in combination with glutathione S-transferase (GST). The fusion protein GST-ADC was water-soluble and thus was purified by sequential GSTrap-arginine affinity chromatography. A thrombin-mediated on-column cleavage reaction was employed to release free ADC from GST. Hiload superdex gel filtration FPLC was then used to obtain a highly purified ADC. The identity of the ADC was confirmed by immunoblot analysis, and its specific activity with respect to (14)C-arginine decarboxylation reaction was determined to be 0.9 CO(2) pkat mg(-1) protein. K(m) and V(max) of the reaction between ADC and the substrate were 0.077 +/- 0.001 mM and 6.0 +/- 0.6 pkat mg(-1) protein, respectively. ADC activity was reduced by 70% in the presence of 0.1 mM Cu(2+) or CO(2+), but was only marginally affected by Mg(2+), or Ca(2+) at the same concentration. Moreover, spermine at 1 mM significantly reduced its activity by 30%.

  1. Melatonin biosynthesis requires N-acetylserotonin methyltransferase activity of caffeic acid O-methyltransferase in rice.

    PubMed

    Byeon, Yeong; Choi, Geun-Hee; Lee, Hyoung Yool; Back, Kyoungwhan

    2015-11-01

    Caffeic acid O-methyltransferase (COMT) methylates N-acetylserotonin into melatonin; that is, it has N-acetylserotonin O-methyltransferase (ASMT) activity. The ASMT activity of COMT was first detected in Arabidopsis thaliana COMT (AtCOMT). To confirm the involvement of COMT on melatonin synthesis in other plant species, the ASMT activity of a COMT from rice (Oryza sativa) (OsCOMT) was evaluated. Purified recombinant OsCOMT protein from Escherichia coli was used to validate the high ASMT activity of OsCOMT, similar to that of AtCOMT. The K m and V max values for the ASMT activity of OsCOMT were 243 µM and 2400 pmol min(-1) mg protein(-1), which were similar to those of AtCOMT. Similar to AtCOMT, OsCOMT was localized in the cytoplasm. In vitro ASMT activity was significantly inhibited by either caffeic acid or quercetin in a dose-dependent manner. Analogously, in vivo production of melatonin was significantly inhibited by quercetin in 4-week-old detached rice leaves. Lastly, the transgenic rice plants overexpressing rice COMT showed an increase in melatonin levels whereas transgenic rice plants suppressing the rice COMT had a significant decrease on melatonin levels, suggestive of the direct role of COMT in melatonin biosynthesis in plants.

  2. l-Arginine modulates neonatal lymphocyte proliferation through an interleukin-2 independent pathway

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Hong-Ren; Kuo, Ho-Chang; Huang, Li-Tung; Chen, Chih-Cheng; Tain, You-Lin; Sheen, Jiunn-Ming; Tiao, Mao-Meng; Huang, Hsin-Chun; Yang, Kuender D; Ou, Chia-Yo; Hsu, Te-Yao

    2014-01-01

    In cases of arginine depletion, lymphocyte proliferation, cytokine production and CD3ζ chain expression are all diminished. In addition to myeloid suppressor cells, polymorphonuclear cells (PMN) also exert T-cell immune suppressive effects through arginase-induced l-arginine depletion, especially during pregnancy. In this study, we investigated how arginase/l-arginine modulates neonatal lymphocyte proliferation. Results showed that the neonatal plasma l-arginine level was lower than in adults (48·1 ± 11·3 versus 86·5 ± 14·6 μm; P = 0·003). Neonatal PMN had a greater abundance of arginase I protein than adult PMN. Both transcriptional regulation and post-transcriptional regulation were responsible for the higher arginase I expression of neonatal PMN. Exogenous l-arginine enhanced neonate lymphocyte proliferation but not that of adult cells. The RNA-binding protein HuR was important but was not the only modulation factor in l-arginine-regulated neonatal T-cell proliferation. l-Arginine-mediated neonatal lymphocyte proliferation could not be blocked by interleukin-2 receptor blocking antibodies. These results suggest that the altered arginase/l-arginine cascade may be one of the mechanisms that contribute to altered neonatal immune responses. Exogenous l-arginine could enhance neonate lymphocyte proliferation through an interleukin-2-independent pathway. PMID:24697328

  3. Structure and Function of Flavivirus NS5 Methyltransferase

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou,Y.; Ray, D.; Zhao, Y.; Dong, H.; Ren, S.; Li, Z.; Guo, Y.; Bernard, K.; Shi, P.; Li, H.

    2007-01-01

    The plus-strand RNA genome of flavivirus contains a 5' terminal cap 1 structure (m{sup 7}GpppAmG). The flaviviruses encode one methyltransferase, located at the N-terminal portion of the NS5 protein, to catalyze both guanine N-7 and ribose 2'-OH methylations during viral cap formation. Representative flavivirus methyltransferases from dengue, yellow fever, and West Nile virus (WNV) sequentially generate GpppA {yields} m{sup 7}GpppA {yields} m{sup 7}GpppAm. The 2'-O methylation can be uncoupled from the N-7 methylation, since m{sup 7}GpppA-RNA can be readily methylated to m{sup 7}GpppAm-RNA. Despite exhibiting two distinct methylation activities, the crystal structure of WNV methyltransferase at 2.8 {angstrom} resolution showed a single binding site for S-adenosyl-L-methionine (SAM), the methyl donor. Therefore, substrate GpppA-RNA should be repositioned to accept the N-7 and 2'-O methyl groups from SAM during the sequential reactions. Electrostatic analysis of the WNV methyltransferase structure showed that, adjacent to the SAM-binding pocket, is a highly positively charged surface that could serve as an RNA binding site during cap methylations. Biochemical and mutagenesis analyses show that the N-7 and 2'-O cap methylations require distinct buffer conditions and different side chains within the K{sub 61}-D{sub 146}-K{sub 182}-E{sub 218} motif, suggesting that the two reactions use different mechanisms. In the context of complete virus, defects in both methylations are lethal to WNV; however, viruses defective solely in 2'-O methylation are attenuated and can protect mice from later wild-type WNV challenge. The results demonstrate that the N-7 methylation activity is essential for the WNV life cycle and, thus, methyltransferase represents a novel target for flavivirus therapy.

  4. Construction of a novel twin-arginine translocation (Tat)-dependent type expression vector for secretory production of heterologous proteins in Corynebacterium glutamicum.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lirong; Jia, Huimin; Xu, Daqing

    2015-11-01

    Corynebacterium glutamicum is recognized as a favorable host for the secretory production of heterologous proteins. However, there are few secretion-type expression vectors available for protein production in C. glutamicum. In this study, we constructed a shuttle expression vector pAU3, which harbors the strong promoter tac-M for constitutive gene transcription, the consensus RBS sequence for protein translation, and the strong cgR_0949 signal sequence for protein secretion via the Tat pathway in C. glutamicum. The applicability of pAU3 was confirmed by the highly efficient expression and secretion of the CAT protein in C. glutamicum. The vector pAU3 is highly useful for secretory production of heterologous proteins in C. glutamicum.

  5. In vivo whole body and organ arginine metabolism during endotoxemia (sepsis) is dependent on mouse strain and gender.

    PubMed

    Luiking, Y C; Hallemeesch, M M; Vissers, Y L J; Lamers, W H; Deutz, N E P

    2004-10-01

    Arginine metabolism involves various organs such as the kidney, the intestines, and the liver, which act together in an interorgan axis. Major pathways for arginine production are protein breakdown and de novo arginine production from citrulline; disposal of arginine is mainly used for protein synthesis or used by the enzymes arginase and nitric oxide synthase (NOS). To assess in vivo organ arginine metabolism under normal conditions and during endotoxemia we used a mouse model, and analyzed for gender and strain differences. Male and female inbred FVB and C57BL6/J mice were anesthetized and catheterized to study whole body, gut, liver, renal and muscle metabolism, using a stable isotope infusion protocol. Animals were treated with saline or lipopolysaccharide. Plasma arginine levels tended to be higher in female mice, although levels were not significantly different from male mice (P = 0.09). Although not all significantly different, whole body arginine production and arginine clearance tended to be higher in C57BL6/J mice (P < 0.1), while citrulline (P = 0.05), NO (P = 0.08), and de novo arginine (P < 0.01) production were higher in FVB mice. During endotoxemia, NO production increased in general (P < 0.05), while whole body arginine clearance increased in FVB mice, but decreased in C57BL6/J mice (P < 0.01). At the organ level, portal-drained viscera (PDV) arginine metabolism was higher in FVB than in C57BL6/J mice (P < 0.05). During endotoxemia, liver arginine metabolism decreased in general (P < 0.05), while strain differences existed for PDV, muscle, and renal arginine metabolism. In conclusion, stable isotope techniques in multicatheterized mice allow measurements of arginine metabolism on whole body and organ level. Strain and gender differences are present in arginine metabolism under physiological conditions and during endotoxemia.

  6. RNA:(guanine-N2) methyltransferases RsmC/RsmD and their homologs revisited – bioinformatic analysis and prediction of the active site based on the uncharacterized Mj0882 protein structure

    PubMed Central

    2002-01-01

    Background Escherichia coli guanine-N2 (m2G) methyltransferases (MTases) RsmC and RsmD modify nucleosides G1207 and G966 of 16S rRNA. They possess a common MTase domain in the C-terminus and a variable region in the N-terminus. Their C-terminal domain is related to the YbiN family of hypothetical MTases, but nothing is known about the structure or function of the N-terminal domain. Results Using a combination of sequence database searches and fold recognition methods it has been demonstrated that the N-termini of RsmC and RsmD are related to each other and that they represent a "degenerated" version of the C-terminal MTase domain. Novel members of the YbiN family from Archaea and Eukaryota were also indentified. It is inferred that YbiN and both domains of RsmC and RsmD are closely related to a family of putative MTases from Gram-positive bacteria and Archaea, typified by the Mj0882 protein from M. jannaschii (1dus in PDB). Based on the results of sequence analysis and structure prediction, the residues involved in cofactor binding, target recognition and catalysis were identified, and the mechanism of the guanine-N2 methyltransfer reaction was proposed. Conclusions Using the known Mj0882 structure, a comprehensive analysis of sequence-structure-function relationships in the family of genuine and putative m2G MTases was performed. The results provide novel insight into the mechanism of m2G methylation and will serve as a platform for experimental analysis of numerous uncharacterized N-MTases. PMID:11929612

  7. Purification of phospholipid methyltransferase from rat liver microsomal fraction.

    PubMed Central

    Pajares, M A; Villalba, M; Mato, J M

    1986-01-01

    Phospholipid methyltransferase, the enzyme that converts phosphatidylethanolamine into phosphatidylcholine with S-adenosyl-L-methionine as the methyl donor, was purified to apparent homogeneity from rat liver microsomal fraction. When analysed by SDS/polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis only one protein, with molecular mass about 50 kDa, is detected. This protein could be phosphorylated at a single site by incubation with [alpha-32P]ATP and the catalytic subunit of cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase. A less-purified preparation of the enzyme is mainly composed of two proteins, with molecular masses about 50 kDa and 25 kDa, the 50 kDa form being phosphorylated at the same site as the homogeneous enzyme. After purification of both proteins by electro-elution, the 25 kDa protein forms a dimer and migrates on SDS/polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis with molecular mass about 50 kDa. Peptide maps of purified 25 kDa and 50 kDa proteins are identical, indicating that both proteins are formed by the same polypeptide chain(s). It is concluded that rat liver phospholipid methyltransferase can exist in two forms, as a monomer of 25 kDa and as a dimer of 50 kDa. The dimer can be phosphorylated by cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase. Images Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 6. PMID:3800912

  8. Ultrasensitive electrochemical immunoassay for DNA methyltransferase activity and inhibitor screening based on methyl binding domain protein of MeCP2 and enzymatic signal amplification.

    PubMed

    Yin, Huanshun; Zhou, Yunlei; Xu, Zhenning; Wang, Mo; Ai, Shiyun

    2013-11-15

    In this work, we fabricated a novel electrochemical immunosensor for detection of DNA methylation, analysis of DNA MTase activity and screening of MTase inhibitor. The immunosensor was on the basis of methyl binding domain protein of MeCP2 as DNA CpG methylation recognization unit, anti-His tag antibody as "immuno-bridge" and horseradish peroxidase labeled immuneglobulin G functionalized gold nanoparticles (AuNPs-IgG-HRP) as signal amplification unit. In the presence of M. SssI MTase, the symmetrical sequence of 5'-CCGG-3' was methylated and then recognized by MeCP2 protein. By the immunoreactions, anti-His tag antibody and AuNPs-IgG-HRP was captured on the electrode surface successively. Under the catalysis effect of HRP towards hydroquinone oxidized by H2O2, the electrochemical reduction signal of benzoquinone was used to analyze M. SssI MTase activity. The electrochemical reduction signal demonstrated a wide linear relationship with M. SssI concentration ranging from 0.05 unit/mL to 90 unit/mL, achieving a detection limit of 0.017 unit/mL (S/N=3). The most important advantages of this method were its high sensitivity and good selectivity, which enabled the detection of even one-base mismatched sequence. In addition, we also verified that the developed method could be applied for screening the inhibitors of DNA MTase and for developing new anticancer drugs.

  9. Convergent Mechanistic Features between the Structurally Diverse N- and O-Methyltransferases: Glycine N-Methyltransferase and Catechol O-Methyltransferase.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jianyu; Klinman, Judith P

    2016-07-27

    Although an enormous and still growing number of biologically diverse methyltransferases have been reported and identified, a comprehensive understanding of the enzymatic methyl transfer mechanism is still lacking. Glycine N-methyltransferase (GNMT), a member of the family that acts on small metabolites as the substrate, catalyzes methyl transfer from S-adenosyl-l-methionine (AdoMet) to glycine to form S-adenosyl-l-homocysteine and sarcosine. We report primary carbon ((12)C/(14)C) and secondary ((1)H3/(3)H3) kinetic isotope effects at the transferred methyl group, together with (1)H3/(3)H3 binding isotope effects for wild-type GNMT and a series of Tyr21 mutants. The data implicate a compaction effect in the methyl transfer step that is conferred by the protein structure. Furthermore, a remarkable similarity of properties is observed between GNMT and catechol O-methyltransferase, despite significant differences between these enzymes with regard to their active site structures and catalyzed reactions. We attribute these results to a catalytically relevant reduction in the methyl donor-acceptor distance that is dependent on a tyrosine side chain positioned behind the methyl-bearing sulfur of AdoMet. PMID:27355841

  10. Metabolism of Arginine by Aging and 7 Day Old Pumpkin Seedlings

    PubMed Central

    Splittstoesser, Walter E.

    1969-01-01

    The metabolism of arginine by etiolated pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata) seedlings was studied over various time and age intervals by injecting arginine-U-14C into the cotyledons. At most, 25% of the 14C was transported from the cotyledon to the axis tissue and the amount of this transport decreased with increasing age of the seedlings. The cotyledons of 25 day old plants contained 60% of the administered 14C as unmetabolized arginine. Little 14C was in sugars and it appeared that arginine was the primary translocation product. Time course studies showed that arginine was extensively metabolized and the labeling patterns suggest that different pathways were in operation in the axis and cotyledons. The amount of arginine incorporated into cotyledonary protein show that synthesis and turnover were occurring at rapid rate. Only 25% of the label incorporated into protein by 1.5 hr remained after 96 hr. The label in protein was stable in the axis tissue. By 96 hr 50% of the administered label occurred as 14CO2 and it appeared that arginine was metabolized, through glutamate, by the citrio acid cycle in the cotyledons. The experiments showed that an extensive conversion of arginine carbon into other amino acids did not occur. PMID:16657070

  11. The crystal structure of a novel SAM-dependent methyltransferase PH1915 from Pyrococcus horikoshii.

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, W.; Xu, X.; Pavlova, M.; Edwards, A.; Joachimiak, A.; Savchenko, A.; Christendat, D.; Biosciences Division; Univ. of Toronto; Univ. Health Network

    2005-01-01

    The S-adenosyl-L-methionine (SAM)-dependent methyltransferases represent a diverse and biologically important class of enzymes. These enzymes utilize the ubiquitous methyl donor SAM as a cofactor to methylate proteins, small molecules, lipids, and nucleic acids. Here we present the crystal structure of PH1915 from Pyrococcus horikoshii OT3, a predicted SAM-dependent methyltransferase. This protein belongs to the Cluster of Orthologous Group 1092, and the presented crystal structure is the first representative structure of this protein family. Based on sequence and 3D structure analysis, we have made valuable functional insights that will facilitate further studies for characterizing this group of proteins. Specifically, we propose that PH1915 and its orthologs are rRNA- or tRNA-specific methyltransferases.

  12. Evidence that a threshold of serine/arginine-rich (SR) proteins recruits CFIm to promote rous sarcoma virus mRNA 3' end formation.

    PubMed

    Hudson, Stephen W; McNally, Lisa M; McNally, Mark T

    2016-11-01

    The weak polyadenylation site (PAS) of Rous sarcoma virus (RSV) is activated by the juxtaposition of SR protein binding sites within the spatially separate negative regulator of splicing (NRS) element and the env RNA splicing enhancer (Env enhancer), which are far upstream of the PAS. Juxtaposition occurs by formation of the NRS - 3' ss splicing regulatory complex and is thought to provide a threshold of SR proteins that facilitate long-range stimulation of the PAS. We provide evidence for the threshold model by showing that greater than three synthetic SR protein binding sites are needed to substitute for the Env enhancer, that either the NRS or Env enhancer alone promotes polyadenylation when the distance to the PAS is decreased, and that SR protein binding sites promote binding of the polyadenylation factor cleavage factor I (CFIm) to the weak PAS. These observations may be relevant for cellular PASs. PMID:27596537

  13. Melatonin biosynthesis requires N-acetylserotonin methyltransferase activity of caffeic acid O-methyltransferase in rice

    PubMed Central

    Byeon, Yeong; Choi, Geun-Hee; Lee, Hyoung Yool; Back, Kyoungwhan

    2015-01-01

    Caffeic acid O-methyltransferase (COMT) methylates N-acetylserotonin into melatonin; that is, it has N-acetylserotonin O-methyltransferase (ASMT) activity. The ASMT activity of COMT was first detected in Arabidopsis thaliana COMT (AtCOMT). To confirm the involvement of COMT on melatonin synthesis in other plant species, the ASMT activity of a COMT from rice (Oryza sativa) (OsCOMT) was evaluated. Purified recombinant OsCOMT protein from Escherichia coli was used to validate the high ASMT activity of OsCOMT, similar to that of AtCOMT. The K m and V max values for the ASMT activity of OsCOMT were 243 µM and 2400 pmol min−1 mg protein−1, which were similar to those of AtCOMT. Similar to AtCOMT, OsCOMT was localized in the cytoplasm. In vitro ASMT activity was significantly inhibited by either caffeic acid or quercetin in a dose-dependent manner. Analogously, in vivo production of melatonin was significantly inhibited by quercetin in 4-week-old detached rice leaves. Lastly, the transgenic rice plants overexpressing rice COMT showed an increase in melatonin levels whereas transgenic rice plants suppressing the rice COMT had a significant decrease on melatonin levels, suggestive of the direct role of COMT in melatonin biosynthesis in plants. PMID:26276868

  14. ARGININE DEIMINASE PLAYS MULTIPLE REGULATORY ROLES IN THE BIOLOGY OF GIARDIA LAMBLIA

    PubMed Central

    Touz, Maria Carolina; Ropolo, Andrea Silvana; Rivero, Maria Romina; Vranych, Cecilia Veronica; Conrad, John Thomas; Svard, Staffan Gunnar; Nash, Theodore Elliot

    2008-01-01

    SUMMARY The protozoan parasite Giardia lamblia utilizes arginine deiminase (gADI) to produce energy from free L-arginine under anaerobic conditions. In this work, we demonstrate that in addition to its known role as a metabolic enzyme, it also functions as a pepidtyl-arginine deiminase converting protein-bound arginine into citrulline. gADI specifically binds to and citrullinates the arginine in the conserved CRGKA tail of variant-specific surface proteins (VSPs) affecting both antigenic switching and antibody mediated cell death. During encystation gADI translocates from the cytoplasm to the nucleus and appear to play a regulatory role in the expression of encystation specific genes. gADI is also sumoylated, which may modulate its activity. Our findings reveal a dual role played by gADI and define novel regulatory pathways used by Giardia for survival. PMID:18697833

  15. Safety of long-term dietary supplementation with L-arginine in pigs.

    PubMed

    Hu, Shengdi; Li, Xilong; Rezaei, Reza; Meininger, Cynthia J; McNeal, Catherine J; Wu, Guoyao

    2015-05-01

    This study was conducted with a swine model to determine the safety of long-term dietary supplementation with L-arginine-HCl or L-arginine free base. Beginning at 30 days of age, pigs were fed a corn- and soybean meal-based diet (31.5 g/kg body weight/day) supplemented with 0, 1.21, 1.81 or 2.42 % L-arginine-HCl (Experiment 1) or with 0, 1, 1.5 or 2 % L-arginine (Experiment 2). The supplemental doses of 0, 1, 1.5, and 2 % L-arginine provided pigs with 0, 315, 473, and 630 mg L-arginine/kg body weight/day, respectively, which were equivalent to 0, 286, 430, and 573 mg L-arginine/kg body weight/day, respectively, in humans. At 121 days of age (91 days after initiation of supplementation), blood samples were obtained from the jugular vein of pigs at 1 and 4 h after feeding for hematological and clinical chemistry tests. Dietary supplementation with L-arginine increased plasma concentrations of arginine, ornithine, proline, albumin and reticulocytes, while reducing plasma concentrations of ammonia, free fatty acids, triglyceride, cholesterol, and neutrophils. L-Arginine supplementation enhanced protein gain and reduced white-fat deposition in the body. Other variables in standard hematology and clinical chemistry tests, serum concentrations of insulin, growth hormone and insulin-like growth factor-I did not differ among all the groups of pigs. These results indicate that dietary supplementation with L-arginine (up to 630 mg/kg body weight/day) is safe in pigs for at least 91 days. Our findings help guide clinical studies to determine the safety of long-term oral administration of L-arginine to humans.

  16. The role of the arginine metabolome in pain: implications for sickle cell disease

    PubMed Central

    Bakshi, Nitya; Morris, Claudia R

    2016-01-01

    Sickle cell disease (SCD) is the most common hemoglobinopathy in the US, affecting approximately 100,000 individuals in the US and millions worldwide. Pain is the hallmark of SCD, and a subset of patients experience pain virtually all of the time. Of interest, the arginine metabolome is associated with several pain mechanisms highlighted in this review. Since SCD is an arginine deficiency syndrome, the contribution of the arginine metabolome to acute and chronic pain in SCD is a topic in need of further attention. Normal arginine metabolism is impaired in SCD through various mechanisms that contribute to endothelial dysfunction, vaso-occlusion, pulmonary complications, risk of leg ulcers, and early mortality. Arginine is a semiessential amino acid that serves as a substrate for protein synthesis and is the precursor to nitric oxide (NO), polyamines, proline, glutamate, creatine, and agmatine. Since arginine is involved in multiple metabolic processes, a deficiency of this amino acid has the potential to disrupt many cellular and organ functions. NO is a potent vasodilator that is depleted in SCD and may contribute to vaso-occlusive pain. As the obligate substrate for NO production, arginine also plays a mechanistic role in SCD-related pain, although its contribution to pain pathways likely extends beyond NO. Low global arginine bioavailability is associated with pain severity in both adults and children with SCD as well as other non-SCD pain syndromes. Preliminary clinical studies of arginine therapy in SCD demonstrate efficacy in treating acute vaso-occlusive pain, as well as leg ulcers and pulmonary hypertension. Restoration of arginine bioavailability through exogenous supplementation of arginine is, therefore, a promising therapeutic target. Phase II clinical trials of arginine therapy for sickle-related pain are underway and a Phase III randomized controlled trial is anticipated in the near future. PMID:27099528

  17. The role of the arginine metabolome in pain: implications for sickle cell disease.

    PubMed

    Bakshi, Nitya; Morris, Claudia R

    2016-01-01

    Sickle cell disease (SCD) is the most common hemoglobinopathy in the US, affecting approximately 100,000 individuals in the US and millions worldwide. Pain is the hallmark of SCD, and a subset of patients experience pain virtually all of the time. Of interest, the arginine metabolome is associated with several pain mechanisms highlighted in this review. Since SCD is an arginine deficiency syndrome, the contribution of the arginine metabolome to acute and chronic pain in SCD is a topic in need of further attention. Normal arginine metabolism is impaired in SCD through various mechanisms that contribute to endothelial dysfunction, vaso-occlusion, pulmonary complications, risk of leg ulcers, and early mortality. Arginine is a semiessential amino acid that serves as a substrate for protein synthesis and is the precursor to nitric oxide (NO), polyamines, proline, glutamate, creatine, and agmatine. Since arginine is involved in multiple metabolic processes, a deficiency of this amino acid has the potential to disrupt many cellular and organ functions. NO is a potent vasodilator that is depleted in SCD and may contribute to vaso-occlusive pain. As the obligate substrate for NO production, arginine also plays a mechanistic role in SCD-related pain, although its contribution to pain pathways likely extends beyond NO. Low global arginine bioavailability is associated with pain severity in both adults and children with SCD as well as other non-SCD pain syndromes. Preliminary clinical studies of arginine therapy in SCD demonstrate efficacy in treating acute vaso-occlusive pain, as well as leg ulcers and pulmonary hypertension. Restoration of arginine bioavailability through exogenous supplementation of arginine is, therefore, a promising therapeutic target. Phase II clinical trials of arginine therapy for sickle-related pain are underway and a Phase III randomized controlled trial is anticipated in the near future. PMID:27099528

  18. Arginine Decarboxylase Is Localized in Chloroplasts.

    PubMed Central

    Borrell, A.; Culianez-Macia, F. A.; Altabella, T.; Besford, R. T.; Flores, D.; Tiburcio, A. F.

    1995-01-01

    Plants, unlike animals, can use either ornithine decarboxylase or arginine decarboxylase (ADC) to produce the polyamine precursor putrescine. Lack of knowledge of the exact cellular and subcellular location of these enzymes has been one of the main obstacles to our understanding of the biological role of polyamines in plants. We have generated polyclonal antibodies to oat (Avena sativa L.) ADC to study the spatial distribution and subcellular localization of ADC protein in different oat tissues. By immunoblotting and immunocytochemistry, we show that ADC is organ specific. By cell fractionation and immunoblotting, we show that ADC is localized in chloroplasts associated with the thylakoid membrane. The results also show that increased levels of ADC protein are correlated with high levels of ADC activity and putrescine in osmotically stressed oat leaves. A model of compartmentalization for the arginine pathway and putrescine biosynthesis in active photosynthetic tissues has been proposed. In the context of endosymbiote-driven metabolic evolution in plants, the location of ADC in the chloroplast compartment may have major evolutionary significance, since it explains (a) why plants can use two alternative pathways for putrescine biosynthesis and (b) why animals do not possess ADC. PMID:12228631

  19. PARAQUAT TOLERANCE3 Is an E3 Ligase That Switches off Activated Oxidative Response by Targeting Histone-Modifying PROTEIN METHYLTRANSFERASE4b

    PubMed Central

    Du, Jin; Zhao, Tao-Lan; Wang, Peng-Fei; Zhao, Ping-Xia; Xie, Qi; Cao, Xiao-Feng; Xiang, Cheng-Bin

    2016-01-01

    Oxidative stress is unavoidable for aerobic organisms. When abiotic and biotic stresses are encountered, oxidative damage could occur in cells. To avoid this damage, defense mechanisms must be timely and efficiently modulated. While the response to oxidative stress has been extensively studied in plants, little is known about how the activated response is switched off when oxidative stress is diminished. By studying Arabidopsis mutant paraquat tolerance3, we identified the genetic locus PARAQUAT TOLERANCE3 (PQT3) as a major negative regulator of oxidative stress tolerance. PQT3, encoding an E3 ubiquitin ligase, is rapidly down-regulated by oxidative stress. PQT3 has E3 ubiquitin ligase activity in ubiquitination assay. Subsequently, we identified PRMT4b as a PQT3-interacting protein. By histone methylation, PRMT4b upregulates the expression of APX1 and GPX1, encoding two key enzymes against oxidative stress. On the other hand, PRMT4b is recognized by PQT3 for targeted degradation via 26S proteasome. Therefore, we have identified PQT3 as an E3 ligase that acts as a negative regulator of activated response to oxidative stress and found that histone modification by PRMT4b at APX1 and GPX1 loci plays an important role in oxidative stress tolerance. PMID:27676073

  20. An Arabidopsis thaliana methyltransferase Capable of Methylating Farnesoic Acid

    SciTech Connect

    Yang,Y.; Yuan, J.; Ross, J.; Noel, J.; Pichersky, E.

    2006-01-01

    We previously reported the identification of a new family of plant methyltransferases (MTs), named the SABATH family, that use S-adenosyl-l-methionine (SAM) to methylate a carboxyl moiety or a nitrogen-containing functional group on a diverse array of plant compounds. The Arabidopsis genome alone contains 24 distinct SABATH genes. To identify the catalytic specificities of members of this protein family in Arabidopsis, we screened recombinantly expressed and purified enzymes with a large number of potential substrates. Here, we report that the Arabidopsis thaliana gene At3g44860 encodes a protein with high catalytic specificity towards farnesoic acid (FA). Under steady-state conditions, this farnesoic acid carboxyl methyltransferase (FAMT) exhibits K{sub M} values of 41 and 71 {mu}M for FA and SAM, respectively. A three-dimensional model of FAMT constructed based upon similarity to the experimentally determined structure of Clarkia breweri salicylic acid methyltransferase (SAMT) suggests a reasonable model for FA recognition in the FAMT active site. In plants, the mRNA levels of At3g44860 increase in response to the exogenous addition of several compounds previously shown to induce plant defense responses at the transcriptional level. Although methyl farnesoate (MeFA) has not yet been detected in Arabidopsis, the presence of a FA-specific carboxyl methyltransferase in Arabidopsis capable of producing MeFA, an insect juvenile hormone made by some plants as a presumed defense against insect herbivory, suggests that MeFA or chemically similar compounds are likely to serve as new specialized metabolites in Arabidopsis.

  1. Crystal structure of dengue virus methyltransferase without S-adenosyl-L-methionine.

    PubMed

    Noble, Christian G; Li, Shi-Hua; Dong, Hongping; Chew, Sock Hui; Shi, Pei-Yong

    2014-11-01

    Flavivirus methyltransferase is a genetically-validated antiviral target. Crystal structures of almost all available flavivirus methyltransferases contain S-adenosyl-L-methionine (SAM), the methyl donor molecule that co-purifies with the enzymes. This raises a possibility that SAM is an integral structural component required for the folding of dengue virus (DENV) methyltransferase. Here we exclude this possibility by solving the crystal structure of DENV methyltransferase without SAM. The SAM ligand was removed from the enzyme through a urea-mediated denaturation-and-renaturation protocol. The crystal structure of the SAM-depleted enzyme exhibits a vacant SAM-binding pocket, with a conformation identical to that of the SAM-enzyme co-crystal structure. Functionally, equivalent enzymatic activities (N-7 methylation, 2'-O methylation, and GMP-enzyme complex formation) were detected for the SAM-depleted and SAM-containing recombinant proteins. These results clearly indicate that the SAM molecule is not an essential component for the correct folding of DENV methyltransferase. Furthermore, the results imply a potential antiviral approach to search for inhibitors that can bind to the SAM-binding pocket and compete against SAM binding. To demonstrate this potential, we have soaked crystals of DENV methyltransferase without a bound SAM with the natural product Sinefungin and show that preformed crystals are capable of binding ligands in this pocket. PMID:25241250

  2. Stimulation of growth and polyamine biosynthesis of the ciliated protozoan Tetrahymena thermophila. Regulation by L-arginine.

    PubMed

    Eichler, W

    1989-10-01

    Tetrahymena thermophila cells grown in a synthetic nutrient medium for 9 h removed 97% of the free L-arginine but less than 50% of any of the other essential amino acids. The major portion of the arginine was degraded rapidly (76-92%) whereas 5-15% was conserved as intact and only 2.5-10% were incorporated into protein. However, if bovine serum albumin (BSA) was present in the medium as a macromolecular arginine source the incorporation of free arginine into protein was reduced to less than 1% but the degraded fraction was increased. Apparently, the uptake mode of arginine determines its fate: arginine taken up by phagocytosis is bound for protein biosynthesis, arginine taken up by membrane receptors is chanelled to degradation. Media without arginine did not support growth of Tetrahymena. Citrulline and ornithine, the precursors of arginine biosynthesis in yeast and vertebrates, were not able to substitute for arginine. Pronounced morphological changes, e.g. greatly reduced ribosome content, were observed in Tetrahymena cells after 24 h of arginine starvation in otherwise complete medium, but not in cells starved in water, salt solution, or buffer. Thus, arginine is an essential nutrient component for Tetrahymena and the rapid degradation of this compound involving the enzymes arginine deiminase (ADI) and citrulline hydrolase (CH) might be of regulatory importance for the unicellular, as it is the case with acetylcholine and catecholamines in mammalian organisms. Since the product of these enzymes, L-ornithine, is the substrate for the regulatory key enzyme of polyamine biosynthesis, ornithine decarboxylase (ODC), the effects of the presence of absence of arginine on the activities of each particular enzyme of the pathway were studied, including ODC and the enzyme ornithine-oxo-acid aminotransferase (O delta T), which is a competitor of ODC for the common substrate. The arginine-degradative pathway was stimulated by extracellular free but not by peptide

  3. Aspartate-90 and arginine-269 of hamster aspartate transcarbamylase affect the oligomeric state of a chimaeric protein with an Escherichia coli maltose-binding domain.

    PubMed Central

    Qiu, Y; Davidson, J N

    1998-01-01

    Residues Asp-90 and Arg-269 of Escherichia coli aspartate transcarbamylase seem to interact at the interface of adjacent catalytic subunits. Alanine substitutions at the analogous positions in the hamster aspartate transcarbamylase of a chimaeric protein carrying an E. coli maltose-binding domain lead to changes in both the kinetics of the enzyme and the quaternary structure of the protein. The Vmax for the Asp-90-->Ala and Arg-269-->Ala substitutions is decreased to 1/21 and 1/50 respectively, the [S]0.5 for aspartate is increased 540-fold and 826-fold respectively, and the [S]0.5 for carbamoyl phosphate is increased 60-fold for both. These substitutions decrease the oligomeric size of the protein. Whereas the native chimaeric protein behaves as a pentamer, the Asp-90 variant is a trimer and the Arg-269 variant is a dimer. The altered enzymes also exhibit marked decreases in thermal stability and are inactivated at much lower concentrations of urea than is the unaltered enzyme. Taken together, these results are consistent with the hypothesis that both Asp-90 and Arg-269 have a role in the enzymic function and structural integrity of hamster aspartate transcarbamylase. PMID:9425105

  4. Metabolic fate of L-arginine in relation to microbiostatic capability of murine macrophages.

    PubMed Central

    Granger, D L; Hibbs, J B; Perfect, J R; Durack, D T

    1990-01-01

    L-arginine is required for the fungistatic action of murine macrophages in vitro. To further investigate this requirement, L-arginine metabolism by macrophages was measured under conditions where fungistasis either succeeded or failed. Macrophage fungistasis correlated with metabolism of L-arginine to citrulline, nitrite, and nitrate. The metabolic rate was dependent on extracellular L-arginine concentration, reaching a maximum of 67 nmol nitrite/h per mg protein. It accounted for one-third of arginine consumed by fungistatic macrophages. Equimolar amounts of citrulline and total nitrite plus nitrate accumulated in medium. This was consistent with the hypothesis that one of the equivalent guanidino nitrogens of L-arginine was oxidized to both nitrite and nitrate leaving L-citrulline as the amino acid reaction product. The analogue, NG-mono-methyl-L-arginine, selectively inhibited nitrogen oxidation and it was shown previously that it inhibited fungistatic capability. Resident macrophages were not fungistatic and their nitrogen oxidation was low. Once macrophages began producing nitrite/nitrate, protein synthesis was not required during the next 8 h for either fungistasis or nitrogen oxidation. Two-thirds of L-arginine consumption was due to macrophage arginase yielding L-ornithine and urea, which accumulated in medium. This activity was dissociated from macrophage fungistasis. Nitrogen oxidation metabolism by macrophages is linked to a mechanism that inhibits proliferation of fungi. This may involve synthesis of an intermediate compound(s) that has antimicrobial properties. PMID:2404026

  5. Pseudomonas aeruginosa mutants affected in anaerobic growth on arginine: evidence for a four-gene cluster encoding the arginine deiminase pathway.

    PubMed Central

    Vander Wauven, C; Piérard, A; Kley-Raymann, M; Haas, D

    1984-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO was able to grow in the absence of exogenous terminal electron acceptors, provided that the medium contained 30 to 40 mM L-arginine and 0.4% yeast extract. Under strictly anaerobic conditions (O2 at less than 1 ppm), growth could be measured as an increase in protein and proceeded in a non-exponential way; arginine was largely converted to ornithine but not entirely consumed at the end of growth. In the GasPak anaerobic jar (Becton Dickinson and Co.), the wild-type strain PAO1 grew on arginine-yeast extract medium in 3 to 5 days; mutants could be isolated that were unable to grow under these conditions. All mutants (except one) were defective in at least one of the three enzymes of the arginine deiminase pathway (arcA, arcB, and arcC mutants) or in a novel function that might be involved in anaerobic arginine uptake (arcD mutants). The mutations arcA (arginine deiminase), arcB (catabolic ornithine carbamoyltransferase), arcC (carbamate kinase), and arcD were highly cotransducible and mapped in the 17-min chromosome region. Some mutations in the arc cluster led to low, noninducible levels of all three arginine deiminase pathway enzymes and thus may affect control elements required for induction of the postulated arc operon. Two fluorescent pseudomonads (P. putida and P. fluorescens) and P. mendocina, as well as one PAO mutant, possessed an inducible arginine deiminase pathway and yet were unable to grow fermentatively on arginine. The ability to use arginine-derived ATP for growth may provide P. aeruginosa with a selective advantage when oxygen and nitrate are scarce. PMID:6438064

  6. Case-control studies show that a non-conservative amino-acid change from a glutamine to arginine in the P2RX7 purinergic receptor protein is associated with both bipolar- and unipolar-affective disorders.

    PubMed

    McQuillin, A; Bass, N J; Choudhury, K; Puri, V; Kosmin, M; Lawrence, J; Curtis, D; Gurling, H M D

    2009-06-01

    Three linkage studies of bipolar disorder have implicated chromosome 12q24.3 with lod scores of over 3.0 and several other linkage studies have found lods between 2 and 3. Fine mapping within the original chromosomal linkage regions has identified several loci that show association with bipolar disorder. One of these is the P2RX7 gene encoding a central nervous system-expressed purinergic receptor. A non-synonymous single nucleotide polymorphism, rs2230912 (P2RX7-E13A, G allele) and a microsatellite marker NBG6 were both previously found to be associated with bipolar disorder (P=0.00071 and 0.008, respectively). rs2230912 has also been found to show association with unipolar depression. The effect of the polymorphism is non-conservative and results in a glutamine to arginine change (Gln460Arg), which is likely to affect P2RX7 dimerization and protein-protein interactions. We have confirmed the allelic associations between bipolar disorder and the markers rs2230912 (P2RX7-E13A, G allele, P=0.043) and NBG6 (P=0.010) in a London-based sample of 604 bipolar cases and 560 controls. When we combined these data with the published case-control studies of P2RX7 and mood disorder (3586 individuals) the association between rs2230912 (Gln460Arg) and affective disorders became more robust (P=0.002). The increase in Gln460Arg was confined to heterozygotes rather than homozygotes suggesting a dominant effect (odds ratio 1.302, CI=1.129-1.503). Although further research is needed to prove that the Gln460Arg change has an aetiological role, it is so far the most convincing mutation to have been found with a role for increasing susceptibility to bipolar and genetically related unipolar disorders.

  7. Enteral Arginine Does Not Increase Superior Mesenteric Arterial Blood Flow but Induces Mucosal Growth in Neonatal Pigs123

    PubMed Central

    Puiman, Patrycja J.; Stoll, Barbara; van Goudoever, Johannes B.; Burrin, Douglas G.

    2011-01-01

    Arginine is an essential amino acid in neonates synthesized by gut epithelial cells and a precursor for NO that regulates vasodilatation and blood flow. Arginine supplementation has been shown to improve intestinal integrity in ischemia-reperfusion models and low plasma levels are associated with necrotizing enterocolitis. We hypothesized that enteral arginine is a specific stimulus for neonatal intestinal blood flow and mucosal growth under conditions of total parenteral nutrition (TPN) or partial enteral nutrition (PEN). We first tested the dose dependence and specificity of acute (3 h) enteral arginine infusion on superior mesenteric artery (SMA) blood flow in pigs fed TPN or PEN. We then determined whether chronic (4 d) arginine supplementation of PEN increases mucosal growth and if this was affected by treatment with the NO synthase inhibitor, NG-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME). Acute enteral arginine infusion increased plasma arginine dose dependently in both TPN and PEN groups, but the plasma response was markedly higher (100–250%) in the PEN group than in the TPN group at the 2 highest arginine doses. Baseline SMA blood flow was 90% higher in the PEN (2.37 ± 0.32 L⋅kg−1⋅h−1) pigs than in the TPN pigs (1.23 ± 0.17 L⋅kg−1⋅h−1), but was not affected by acute infusion individually of arginine, citrulline, or other major gut fuels. Chronic dietary arginine supplementation in PEN pigs induced mucosal growth in the intestine, but this effect was not prevented by treatment with L-NAME. Intestinal crypt cell proliferation, protein synthesis, and phosphorylation of mammalian target of rapamycin and p70S6 kinase were not affected by dietary arginine. We conclude that partial enteral feeding, but not acute enteral arginine, increases SMA blood flow in the neonatal pig. Furthermore, supplementing arginine in partial enteral feeding modestly increases intestinal mucosal growth and was NO independent. PMID:21106927

  8. Utilization of arginine by Klebsiella aerogenes.

    PubMed

    Friedrich, B; Magasanik, B

    1978-02-01

    Klebsiella aerogenes utilized arginine as the sole source of carbon or nitrogen for growth. Arginine was degraded to 2-ketoglutarate and not to succinate, since a citrate synthaseless mutant grows on arginine as the only nitrogen source. When glucose was the energy source, all four nitrogen atoms of arginine were utilized. Three of them apparently did not pass through ammonia but were transferred by transamination, since a mutant unable to produce glutamate by glutamate synthase or glutamate dehydrogenase utilized three of four nitrogen atoms of arginine. Urea was not involved as intermediate, since a unreaseless mutant did not accumulate urea and grew on arginine as efficiently as the wild-type strain. Ornithine appeared to be an intermediate, because cells grown either on glucose and arginine or arginine alone could convert arginine in the presence of hydroxylamine to ornithine. This indicates that an amidinotransferase is the initiating enzyme of arginine breakdown. In addition, the cells contained a transaminase specific for ornithine. In contrast to the hydroxylamine-dependent reaction, this activity could be demonstrated in extracts. The arginine-utilizing system (aut) is apparently controlled like the enzymes responsible for the degradation of histidine (hut) through induction, catabolite repression, and activation by glutamine synthetase.

  9. Comparative Analysis of Serine/Arginine-Rich Proteins across 27 Eukaryotes: Insights into Sub-Family Classification and Extent of Alternative Splicing

    PubMed Central

    Richardson, Dale N.; Rogers, Mark F.; Labadorf, Adam; Ben-Hur, Asa; Guo, Hui; Paterson, Andrew H.; Reddy, Anireddy S. N.

    2011-01-01

    Alternative splicing (AS) of pre-mRNA is a fundamental molecular process that generates diversity in the transcriptome and proteome of eukaryotic organisms. SR proteins, a family of splicing regulators with one or two RNA recognition motifs (RRMs) at the N-terminus and an arg/ser-rich domain at the C-terminus, function in both constitutive and alternative splicing. We identified SR proteins in 27 eukaryotic species, which include plants, animals, fungi and “basal” eukaryotes that lie outside of these lineages. Using RNA recognition motifs (RRMs) as a phylogenetic marker, we classified 272 SR genes into robust sub-families. The SR gene family can be split into five major groupings, which can be further separated into 11 distinct sub-families. Most flowering plants have double or nearly double the number of SR genes found in vertebrates. The majority of plant SR genes are under purifying selection. Moreover, in all paralogous SR genes in Arabidopsis, rice, soybean and maize, one of the two paralogs is preferentially expressed throughout plant development. We also assessed the extent of AS in SR genes based on a splice graph approach (http://combi.cs.colostate.edu/as/gmap_SRgenes). AS of SR genes is a widespread phenomenon throughout multiple lineages, with alternative 3′ or 5′ splicing events being the most prominent type of event. However, plant-enriched sub-families have 57%–88% of their SR genes experiencing some type of AS compared to the 40%–54% seen in other sub-families. The SR gene family is pervasive throughout multiple eukaryotic lineages, conserved in sequence and domain organization, but differs in gene number across lineages with an abundance of SR genes in flowering plants. The higher number of alternatively spliced SR genes in plants emphasizes the importance of AS in generating splice variants in these organisms. PMID:21935421

  10. Dietary arginine affects energy metabolism through polyamine turnover in juvenile Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar).

    PubMed

    Andersen, Synne M; Holen, Elisabeth; Aksnes, Anders; Rønnestad, Ivar; Zerrahn, Jens-Erik; Espe, Marit

    2013-12-14

    In the present study, quadruplicate groups of juvenile Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) were fed plant protein-based diets with increasing arginine inclusions (range 28·8-37·4 g/kg DM) to investigate whether arginine supplementation affects growth and lipid accumulation through an elevated polyamine turnover. Dietary lysine was held at a constant concentration, just below the requirement. All other amino acids were balanced and equal in the diets. Arginine supplementation increased protein and fat accretion, without affecting the hepatosomatic or visceralsomatic indices. Dietary arginine correlated with putrescine in the liver (R 0·78, P= 0·01) and with ornithine in the muscle, liver and plasma (P= 0·0002, 0·003 and 0·0002, respectively). The mRNA of ornithine decarboxylase, the enzyme producing putrescine, was up-regulated in the white adipose tissue of fish fed the high-arginine inclusion compared with those fed the low-arginine diet. Concomitantly, spermidine/spermine-(N1)-acetyltransferase, the rate-limiting enzyme for polyamine turnover that consumes acetyl-CoA, showed an increased activity in the liver of fish fed the arginine-supplemented diets. In addition, lower acetyl-CoA concentrations were observed in the liver of fish fed the high-arginine diet, while ATP, which is used in the process of synthesising spermidine and spermine, did not show a similar trend. Gene expression of the rate-limiting enzyme for β-oxidation of long-chain fatty acids, carnitine palmitoyl transferase-1, was up-regulated in the liver of fish fed the high-arginine diet. Taken together, the data support that increased dietary arginine activates polyamine turnover and β-oxidation in the liver of juvenile Atlantic salmon and may act to improve the metabolic status of the fish. PMID:23656796

  11. Dietary arginine affects energy metabolism through polyamine turnover in juvenile Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar).

    PubMed

    Andersen, Synne M; Holen, Elisabeth; Aksnes, Anders; Rønnestad, Ivar; Zerrahn, Jens-Erik; Espe, Marit

    2013-12-14

    In the present study, quadruplicate groups of juvenile Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) were fed plant protein-based diets with increasing arginine inclusions (range 28·8-37·4 g/kg DM) to investigate whether arginine supplementation affects growth and lipid accumulation through an elevated polyamine turnover. Dietary lysine was held at a constant concentration, just below the requirement. All other amino acids were balanced and equal in the diets. Arginine supplementation increased protein and fat accretion, without affecting the hepatosomatic or visceralsomatic indices. Dietary arginine correlated with putrescine in the liver (R 0·78, P= 0·01) and with ornithine in the muscle, liver and plasma (P= 0·0002, 0·003 and 0·0002, respectively). The mRNA of ornithine decarboxylase, the enzyme producing putrescine, was up-regulated in the white adipose tissue of fish fed the high-arginine inclusion compared with those fed the low-arginine diet. Concomitantly, spermidine/spermine-(N1)-acetyltransferase, the rate-limiting enzyme for polyamine turnover that consumes acetyl-CoA, showed an increased activity in the liver of fish fed the arginine-supplemented diets. In addition, lower acetyl-CoA concentrations were observed in the liver of fish fed the high-arginine diet, while ATP, which is used in the process of synthesising spermidine and spermine, did not show a similar trend. Gene expression of the rate-limiting enzyme for β-oxidation of long-chain fatty acids, carnitine palmitoyl transferase-1, was up-regulated in the liver of fish fed the high-arginine diet. Taken together, the data support that increased dietary arginine activates polyamine turnover and β-oxidation in the liver of juvenile Atlantic salmon and may act to improve the metabolic status of the fish.

  12. Downregulation of a barley (Hordeum vulgare) leucine-rich repeat, non-arginine-aspartate receptor-like protein kinase reduces expression of numerous genes involved in plant pathogen defense.

    PubMed

    Parrott, David L; Huang, Li; Fischer, Andreas M

    2016-03-01

    Pattern recognition receptors represent a first line of plant defense against pathogens. Comparing the flag leaf transcriptomes of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) near-isogenic lines varying in the allelic state of a locus controlling senescence, we have previously identified a leucine-rich repeat receptor-like protein kinase gene (LRR-RLK; GenBank accession: AK249842), which was strongly upregulated in leaves of early-as compared to late-senescing germplasm. Bioinformatic analysis indicated that this gene codes for a subfamily XII, non-arginine-aspartate (non-RD) LRR-RLK. Virus-induced gene silencing resulted in a two-fold reduction of transcript levels as compared to controls. Transcriptomic comparison of leaves from untreated plants, from plants treated with virus only without any plant sequences (referred to as 'empty virus' control), and from plants in which AK249842 expression was knocked down identified numerous genes involved in pathogen defense. These genes were strongly induced in 'empty virus' as compared to untreated controls, but their expression was significantly reduced (again compared to 'empty virus' controls) when AK249842 was knocked down, indicating that their expression partially depends on the LRR-RLK investigated here. Expression analysis, using datasets from BarleyBase/PLEXdb, demonstrated that AK249842 transcript levels are heavily influenced by the allelic state of the well-characterized mildew resistance a (Mla) locus, and that the gene is induced after powdery mildew and stem rust infection. Together, our data suggest that AK249842 is a barley pattern recognition receptor with a tentative role in defense against fungal pathogens, setting the stage for its full functional characterization.

  13. Two key arginine residues in the coat protein of Bamboo mosaic virus differentially affect the accumulation of viral genomic and subgenomic RNAs.

    PubMed

    Hung, Chien-Jen; Hu, Chung-Chi; Lin, Na-Sheng; Lee, Ya-Chien; Meng, Menghsiao; Tsai, Ching-Hsiu; Hsu, Yau-Heiu

    2014-02-01

    The interactions between viral RNAs and coat proteins (CPs) are critical for the efficient completion of infection cycles of RNA viruses. However, the specificity of the interactions between CPs and genomic or subgenomic RNAs remains poorly understood. In this study, Bamboo mosaic virus (BaMV) was used to analyse such interactions. Using reversible formaldehyde cross-linking and mass spectrometry, two regions in CP, each containing a basic amino acid (R99 and R227, respectively), were identified to bind directly to the 5' untranslated region of BaMV genomic RNA. Analyses of the alanine mutations of R99 and R227 revealed that the secondary structures of CP were not affected significantly, whereas the accumulation of BaMV genomic, but not subgenomic, RNA was severely decreased at 24 h post-inoculation in the inoculated protoplasts. In the absence of CP, the accumulation levels of genomic and subgenomic RNAs were decreased to 1.1%-1.5% and 33%-40% of that of the wild-type (wt), respectively, in inoculated leaves at 5 days post-inoculation (dpi). In contrast, in the presence of mutant CPs, the genomic RNAs remained about 1% of that of wt, whereas the subgenomic RNAs accumulated to at least 87%, suggesting that CP might increase the accumulation of subgenomic RNAs. The mutations also restricted viral movement and virion formation in Nicotiana benthamiana leaves at 5 dpi. These results demonstrate that R99 and R227 of CP play crucial roles in the accumulation, movement and virion formation of BaMV RNAs, and indicate that genomic and subgenomic RNAs interact differently with BaMV CP.

  14. Crystal structure of MboIIA methyltransferase.

    SciTech Connect

    Osipiuk, J.; Walsh, M. A.; Joachimiak, A.; Biosciences Division; Univ. of Gdansk; Medical Research Council France

    2003-09-15

    DNA methyltransferases (MTases) are sequence-specific enzymes which transfer a methyl group from S-adenosyl-L-methionine (AdoMet) to the amino group of either cytosine or adenine within a recognized DNA sequence. Methylation of a base in a specific DNA sequence protects DNA from nucleolytic cleavage by restriction enzymes recognizing the same DNA sequence. We have determined at 1.74 {angstrom} resolution the crystal structure of a {beta}-class DNA MTase MboIIA (M {center_dot} MboIIA) from the bacterium Moraxella bovis, the smallest DNA MTase determined to date. M {center_dot} MboIIA methylates the 3' adenine of the pentanucleotide sequence 5'-GAAGA-3'. The protein crystallizes with two molecules in the asymmetric unit which we propose to resemble the dimer when M {center_dot} MboIIA is not bound to DNA. The overall structure of the enzyme closely resembles that of M {center_dot} RsrI. However, the cofactor-binding pocket in M {center_dot} MboIIA forms a closed structure which is in contrast to the open-form structures of other known MTases.

  15. Arginine infusion in patients with septic shock increases nitric oxide production without haemodynamic instability.

    PubMed

    Luiking, Yvette C; Poeze, Martijn; Deutz, Nicolaas E

    2015-01-01

    Arginine deficiency in sepsis may impair nitric oxide (NO) production for local perfusion and add to the catabolic state. In contrast, excessive NO production has been related to global haemodynamic instability. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the dose-response effect of intravenous arginine supplementation in post-absorptive patients with septic shock on arginine-NO and protein metabolism and on global and regional haemodynamics. Eight critically ill patients with a diagnosis of septic shock participated in this short-term (8 h) dose-response study. L-Arginine-HCl was continuously infused [intravenously (IV)] in three stepwise-increasing doses (33, 66 and 99 μmol·kg-1·h-1). Whole-body arginine-NO and protein metabolism were measured using stable isotope techniques, and baseline values were compared with healthy controls. Global and regional haemodynamic parameters were continuously recorded during the study. Upon infusion, plasma arginine increased from 48±7 to 189±23 μmol·l-1 (means±S.D.; P<0.0001). This coincided with increased de novo arginine (P<0.0001) and increased NO production (P<0.05). Sepsis patients demonstrated elevated protein breakdown at baseline (P<0.001 compared with healthy controls), whereas protein breakdown and synthesis both decreased during arginine infusion (P<0.0001). Mean arterial and pulmonary pressure and gastric mucosal-arterial partial pressure of carbon dioxide difference (Pr-aCO2) gap did not alter during arginine infusion (P>0.05), whereas stroke volume (SV) increased (P<0.05) and arterial lactate decreased (P<0.05). In conclusion, a 4-fold increase in plasma arginine with intravenous arginine infusion in sepsis stimulates de novo arginine and NO production and reduces whole-body protein breakdown. These potential beneficial metabolic effects occurred without negative alterations in haemodynamic parameters, although improvement in regional perfusion could not be demonstrated in the eight

  16. Arginine transcriptional response does not require inositol phosphate synthesis.

    PubMed

    Bosch, Daniel; Saiardi, Adolfo

    2012-11-01

    Inositol phosphates are key signaling molecules affecting a large variety of cellular processes. Inositol-polyphosphate multikinase (IPMK) is a central component of the inositol phosphate biosynthetic routes, playing essential roles during development. IPMK phosphorylates inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate to inositol tetrakisphosphate and subsequently to inositol pentakisphosphate and has also been described to function as a lipid kinase. Recently, a catalytically inactive mammalian IPMK was reported to be involved in nutrient signaling by way of mammalian target of rapamycin and AMP-activated protein kinase. In yeast, the IPMK homologue, Arg82, is the sole inositol-trisphosphate kinase. Arg82 has been extensively studied as part of the transcriptional complex regulating nitrogen sensing, in particular arginine metabolism. Whether this role requires Arg82 catalytic activity has long been a matter of contention. In this study, we developed a novel method for the real time study of promoter strength in vivo and used it to demonstrate that catalytically inactive Arg82 fully restored the arginine-dependent transcriptional response. We also showed that expression in yeast of catalytically active, but structurally very different, mammalian or plant IPMK homologue failed to restore arginine regulation. Our work indicates that inositol phosphates do not regulate arginine-dependent gene expression. PMID:22992733

  17. Cloning, expression, purification and crystallization of Schizosaccharomyces pombe Set7, a putative histone methyltransferase.

    PubMed

    Mevius, Damiaan E H F; Shen, Yunpeng; Morishita, Masayo; di Luccio, Eric

    2016-04-01

    Dysfunction of histone-modifying enzymes affects chromatin regulation and is involved in carcinogenesis, tumour progression and other diseases. Histone methyltransferases are a family of key histone-modifying enzymes, but their structures, functions and mechanisms are incompletely understood, thus constraining drug-design efforts. Here, preliminary steps towards structure-function studies of Schizosaccharomyces pombe Set7, a putative histone methyltransferase and the first yeast full-length SET-domain-containing protein to be studied using X-ray crystallography, are reported. The methods from cloning to X-ray diffraction and phasing are discussed and the results will aid in prospective studies of histone-modifying enzymes.

  18. Critical Role for Arginine Methylation in Adenovirus-Infected Cells▿

    PubMed Central

    Iacovides, Demetris C.; O'Shea, Clodagh C.; Oses-Prieto, Juan; Burlingame, Alma; McCormick, Frank

    2007-01-01

    During the late stages of adenovirus infection, the 100K protein (100K) inhibits the translation of cellular messages in the cytoplasm and regulates hexon trimerization and assembly in the nucleus. However, it is not known how it switches between these two functions. Here we show that 100K is methylated on arginine residues at its C terminus during infection and that this region is necessary for binding PRMT1 methylase. Methylated 100K is exclusively nuclear. Mutation of the third RGG motif (amino acids 741 to 743) prevents localization to the nucleus during infection, suggesting that methylation of that sequence is important for 100K shuttling. Treatment of infected cells with methylation inhibitors inhibits expression of late structural proteins. These data suggest that arginine methylation of 100K is necessary for its localization to the nucleus and is a critical cellular function necessary for productive adenovirus infection. PMID:17686851

  19. Enzymes of creatine biosynthesis, arginine and methionine metabolism in normal and malignant cells.

    PubMed

    Bera, Soumen; Wallimann, Theo; Ray, Subhankar; Ray, Manju

    2008-12-01

    The creatine/creatine kinase system decreases drastically in sarcoma. In the present study, an investigation of catalytic activities, western blot and mRNA expression unambiguously demonstrates the prominent expression of the creatine-synthesizing enzymes l-arginine:glycine amidinotransferase and N-guanidinoacetate methyltransferase in sarcoma, Ehrlich ascites carcinoma and Sarcoma 180 cells, whereas both enzymes were virtually undetectable in normal muscle. Compared to that of normal animals, these enzymes remained unaffected in the kidney or liver of sarcoma-bearing mice. High activity and expression of mitochondrial arginase II in sarcoma indicated increased ornithine formation. Slightly or moderately higher levels of ornithine, guanidinoacetate and creatinine were observed in sarcoma compared to muscle. Despite the intrinsically low level of creatine in Ehrlich ascites carcinoma and Sarcoma 180 cells, these cells could significantly take up and release creatine, suggesting a functional creatine transport, as verified by measuring mRNA levels of creatine transporter. Transcript levels of arginase II, ornithine-decarboxylase, S-adenosyl-homocysteine hydrolase and methionine-synthase were significantly upregulated in sarcoma and in Ehrlich ascites carcinoma and Sarcoma 180 cells. Overall, the enzymes related to creatine and arginine/methionine metabolism were found to be significantly upregulated in malignant cells. However, the low levels of creatine kinase in the same malignant cells do not appear to be sufficient for the building up of an effective creatine/phosphocreatine pool. Instead of supporting creatine biosynthesis, l-arginine:glycine amidinotransferase and N-guanidinoacetate methyltransferase appear to be geared to support cancer cell metabolism in the direction of polyamine and methionine synthesis because both these compounds are in high demand in proliferating cancer cells.

  20. Multimethylation of Rickettsia OmpB Catalyzed by Lysine Methyltransferases*

    PubMed Central

    Abeykoon, Amila; Wang, Guanghui; Chao, Chien-Chung; Chock, P. Boon; Gucek, Marjan; Ching, Wei-Mei; Yang, David C. H.

    2014-01-01

    Methylation of rickettsial OmpB (outer membrane protein B) has been implicated in bacterial virulence. Rickettsial methyltransferases RP789 and RP027-028 are the first biochemically characterized methyltransferases to catalyze methylation of outer membrane protein (OMP). Methylation in OMP remains poorly understood. Using semiquantitative integrated liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectroscopy, we characterize methylation of (i) recombinantly expressed fragments of Rickettsia typhi OmpB exposed in vitro to trimethyltransferases of Rickettsia prowazekii RP027-028 and of R. typhi RT0101 and to monomethyltransferases of R. prowazekii RP789 and of R. typhi RT0776, and (ii) native OmpBs purified from R. typhi and R. prowazekii strains Breinl, RP22, and Madrid E. We found that in vitro trimethylation occurs at relatively specific locations in OmpB with consensus motifs, KX(G/A/V/I)N and KT(I/L/F), whereas monomethylation is pervasive throughout OmpB. Native OmpB from virulent R. typhi contains mono- and trimethyllysines at locations well correlated with methylation in recombinant OmpB catalyzed by methyltransferases in vitro. Native OmpBs from highly virulent R. prowazekii strains Breinl and RP22 contain multiple clusters of trimethyllysine in contrast to a single cluster in OmpB from mildly virulent R. typhi. Furthermore, OmpB from the avirulent strain Madrid E contains mostly monomethyllysine and no trimethyllysine. The native OmpB from Madrid E was minimally trimethylated by RT0101 or RP027-028, consistent with a processive mechanism of trimethylation. This study provides the first in-depth characterization of methylation of an OMP at the molecular level and may lead to uncovering the link between OmpB methylation and rickettsial virulence. PMID:24497633

  1. Characterization of Phenylpropene O-Methyltransferases from Sweet Basil

    PubMed Central

    Gang, David R.; Lavid, Noa; Zubieta, Chloe; Chen, Feng; Beuerle, Till; Lewinsohn, Efraim; Noel, Joseph P.; Pichersky, Eran

    2002-01-01

    Some basil varieties are able to convert the phenylpropenes chavicol and eugenol to methylchavicol and methyleugenol, respectively. Chavicol O-methyltransferase (CVOMT) and eugenol O-methyltransferase (EOMT) cDNAs were isolated from the sweet basil variety EMX-1 using a biochemical genomics approach. These cDNAs encode proteins that are 90% identical to each other and very similar to several isoflavone O-methyltransferases such as IOMT, which catalyzes the 4′-O-methylation of 2,7,4′-trihydroxyisoflavanone. On the other hand, CVOMT1 and EOMT1 are related only distantly to (iso)eugenol OMT from Clarkia breweri, indicating that the eugenol O-methylating enzymes in basil and C. breweri evolved independently. Transcripts for CVOMT1 and EOMT1 were highly expressed in the peltate glandular trichomes on the surface of the young basil leaves. The CVOMT1 and EOMT1 cDNAs were expressed in Escherichia coli, and active proteins were produced. CVOMT1 catalyzed the O-methylation of chavicol, and EOMT1 also catalyzed the O-methylation of chavicol with equal efficiency to that of CVOMT1, but it was much more efficient in O-methylating eugenol. Molecular modeling, based on the crystal structure of IOMT, suggested that a single amino acid difference was responsible for the difference in substrate discrimination between CVOMT1 and EOMT1. This prediction was confirmed by site-directed mutagenesis, in which the appropriate mutants of CVOMT1 (F260S) and EOMT1 (S261F) were produced that exhibited the opposite substrate preference relative to the respective native enzyme. PMID:11884690

  2. Heterologous Expression and Functional Characterization of the Exogenously Acquired Aminoglycoside Resistance Methyltransferases RmtD, RmtD2, and RmtG

    PubMed Central

    Corrêa, Laís L.; Witek, Marta A.; Zelinskaya, Natalia; Picão, Renata C.

    2015-01-01

    The exogenously acquired 16S rRNA methyltransferases RmtD, RmtD2, and RmtG were cloned and heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli, and the recombinant proteins were purified to near homogeneity. Each methyltransferase conferred an aminoglycoside resistance profile consistent with m7G1405 modification, and this activity was confirmed by in vitro 30S methylation assays. Analyses of protein structure and interaction with S-adenosyl-l-methionine suggest that the molecular mechanisms of substrate recognition and catalysis are conserved across the 16S rRNA (m7G1405) methyltransferase family. PMID:26552988

  3. The RNA binding motif protein 15B (RBM15B/OTT3) is a functional competitor of serine-arginine (SR) proteins and antagonizes the positive effect of the CDK11p110-cyclin L2α complex on splicing.

    PubMed

    Loyer, Pascal; Busson, Adeline; Trembley, Janeen H; Hyle, Judith; Grenet, Jose; Zhao, Wei; Ribault, Catherine; Montier, Tristan; Kidd, Vincent J; Lahti, Jill M

    2011-01-01

    Here, we report the identification of the RNA binding motif protein RBM15B/OTT3 as a new CDK11(p110) binding partner that alters the effects of CDK11 on splicing. RBM15B was initially identified as a binding partner of the Epstein-Barr virus mRNA export factor and, more recently, as a cofactor of the nuclear export receptor NXF1. In this study, we found that RBM15B co-elutes with CDK11(p110), cyclin L2α, and serine-arginine (SR) proteins, including SF2/ASF, in a large nuclear complex of ∼1-MDa molecular mass following size exclusion chromatography. Using co-immunoprecipitation experiments and in vitro pulldown assays, we mapped two distinct domains of RBM15B that are essential for its direct interaction with the N-terminal extension of CDK11(p110), cyclin L2α, and SR proteins such as 9G8 and SF2/ASF. Finally, we established that RBM15B is a functional competitor of the SR proteins SF2/ASF and 9G8, inhibits formation of the functional spliceosomal E complex, and antagonizes the positive effect of the CDK11(p110)-cyclin L2α complex on splicing both in vitro and in vivo. PMID:21044963

  4. Geometry of guanidinium groups in arginines.

    PubMed

    Malinska, Maura; Dauter, Miroslawa; Dauter, Zbigniew

    2016-09-01

    The restraints in common usage today have been obtained based on small molecule X-ray crystal structures available 25 years ago and recent reports have shown that the values of bond lengths and valence angles can be, in fact, significantly different from those stored in libraries, for example for the peptide bond or the histidine ring geometry. We showed that almost 50% of outliers found in protein validation reports released in the Protein Data Bank on 23 March 2016 come from geometry of guanidine groups in arginines. Therefore, structures of small molecules and atomic resolution protein crystal structures have been used to derive new target values for the geometry of this group. The most significant difference was found for NE-CZ-NH1 and NE-CZ-NH2 angles, showing that the guanidinium group is not symmetric. The NE-CZ-NH1 angle is larger, 121.5(10)˚, than NE-CZ-NH2, 119.2(10)˚, due to the repulsive interaction between NH1 and CD1 atom.

  5. Wdr82 is a C-terminal domain-binding protein that recruits the Setd1A Histone H3-Lys4 methyltransferase complex to transcription start sites of transcribed human genes.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jeong-Heon; Skalnik, David G

    2008-01-01

    Histone H3-Lys4 trimethylation is associated with the transcription start site of transcribed genes, but the molecular mechanisms that control this distribution in mammals are unclear. The human Setd1A histone H3-Lys4 methyltransferase complex was found to physically associate with the RNA polymerase II large subunit. The Wdr82 component of the Setd1A complex interacts with the RNA recognition motif of Setd1A and additionally binds to the Ser5-phosphorylated C-terminal domain of RNA polymerase II, which is involved in initiation of transcription, but does not bind to an unphosphorylated or Ser2-phosphorylated C-terminal domain. Chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis revealed that Setd1A is localized near the transcription start site of expressed genes. Small interfering RNA-mediated depletion of Wdr82 leads to decreased Setd1A expression and occupancy at transcription start sites and reduced histone H3-Lys4 trimethylation at these sites. However, neither RNA polymerase II (RNAP II) occupancy nor target gene expression levels are altered following Wdr82 depletion. Hence, Wdr82 is required for the targeting of Setd1A-mediated histone H3-Lys4 trimethylation near transcription start sites via tethering to RNA polymerase II, an event that is a consequence of transcription initiation. These results suggest a model for how the mammalian RNAP II machinery is linked with histone H3-Lys4 histone methyltransferase complexes at transcriptionally active genes. PMID:17998332

  6. Interethnic difference in thiopurine methyltransferase activity.

    PubMed

    Klemetsdal, B; Tollefsen, E; Loennechen, T; Johnsen, K; Utsi, E; Gisholt, K; Wist, E; Aarbakke, J

    1992-01-01

    A number of metabolic pathways are subject to both genetic polymorphism and interethnic differences. A catabolic pathway of 6-mercaptopurine, red blood cell (RBC) thiopurine methyltransferase (TPMT) activity showed genetic polymorphism in Caucasians, but variation according to ethnicity has not been studied. We investigated if red blood cell thiopurine methyltransferase was subject to interethnic variation in a Saami (Lappish; n = 36) and a Caucasian population (n = 50). The Saami population sample had 29% higher thiopurine methyltransferase activity, 17.0 +/- 3.3 U/ml red blood cell compared with the Caucasian population sample, 13.1 +/- 2.9 U/ml red blood cell (p much less than 0.001). Probit plots and frequency distribution histograms supported bimodality consistent with genetic polymorphism in both study populations. Differences in chronic diseases, drug consumption, age, or gender could not explain the interethnic difference in red blood cell thiopurine methyltransferase activity. The higher red blood cell thiopurine methyltransferase activity in the Saami population group indicates that these subjects may require higher dosages of thiopurine drugs than Caucasians.

  7. Combined glutamine and arginine decrease proinflammatory cytokine production by biopsies from Crohn's patients in association with changes in nuclear factor-kappaB and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways.

    PubMed

    Lecleire, Stéphane; Hassan, Aktham; Marion-Letellier, Rachel; Antonietti, Michel; Savoye, Guillaume; Bôle-Feysot, Christine; Lerebours, Eric; Ducrotté, Philippe; Déchelotte, Pierre; Coëffier, Moïse

    2008-12-01

    Glutamine (Gln) and arginine (Arg) are conditionally essential amino acids with immunomodulatory properties. The aim of the study was to assess the effects of Gln and Arg alone or in combination on cytokine release by cultured colonic biopsies from patients with active Crohn's disease (CD). Ten consecutive patients [mean (range) age 26 (18-39) y] with active colonic CD (mean CD activity index: 383.7 +/- 129.8) were prospectively included in the study. Eight colonic biopsies were obtained via a colonoscopy and incubated during 18 h with low (physiological) or high (pharmacological) doses of Arg (0.1 or 2 mmol/L designated as Arg(low) or Arg(high), respectively) and Gln (0.6 or 10 mmol/L designated as Gln(low) or Gln(high), respectively). The concentrations of cytokines [interleukin (IL)-4, IL-10, IL-8, IL-6, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFalpha), IL-1beta, interferon-gamma) were assessed by ELISA, and nitric oxide (NO) production was evaluated by Griess assay. Nuclear factor (NF)-kappaB p65 subunit, inhibitor of NFkappaB-alpha, and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) were assessed by immunoblotting. Arg(high)/Gln(high) decreased the production of TNFalpha, IL-1beta, IL-8, and IL-6 (each P < 0.01). Arg(low)/Gln(high) decreased IL-6 and IL-8 production (both P < 0.01), whereas Arg(high)/Gln(low) did not affect cytokine and NO production. Arg(low)/Gln(high) and Arg(high)/Gln(high) decreased NF-kappaB p65 subunit expression, whereas p38 MAPK was decreased only by Arg(high)/Gln(high). Combined pharmacological doses of Arg and Gln decreased TNFalpha and the main proinflammatory cytokines release in active colonic CD biopsies via NF-kappaB and p38 MAPK pathways. These results could be the basis of prospective studies evaluating the effects of enteral supply of combined Arg and Gln during active CD.

  8. Depletion of arginine in yeast cells decreases the resistance to hydrostatic pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nomura, Kazuki; Iwahashi, Hitoshi; Iguchi, Akinori; Shigematsu, Toru

    2015-07-01

    High hydrostatic pressure (HP) inhibits growth and inactivates microorganisms by destabilizing non-covalent molecular interactions. Arginine contributes to stress resistance because it has a guanidine side chain, which assists in the refolding of aggregated proteins. We attempted to analyze the contribution of arginine to high HP stress using a pressure-sensitive mutant strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and a metabolomics approach. Our results showed that the content of 136 out of 250 detected metabolites differed in the mutant and parent strains. Decreased metabolites were involved in the tricarboxylic acid cycle and arginine biosynthesis. The expression of genes contributing to arginine biosynthesis was significantly lower in the mutant strain than in the parent strain. When arginine was supplemented to the medium, the mutant strain showed more tolerance to pressure. These results suggest that yeast cells survived due to the contribution of arginine to high pressure resistance. This indicates that depletion of arginine caused by decreased activity of the biosynthesis pathway confers sensitivity to HP.

  9. Dynamics and reactivity in Thermus aquaticus N6-adenine methyltransferase.

    PubMed

    Aranda, Juan; Zinovjev, Kirill; Roca, Maite; Tuñón, Iñaki

    2014-11-19

    M.TaqI is a DNA methyltransferase from Thermus aquaticus that catalyzes the transfer of a methyl group from S-adenosyl-L-methionine to the N6 position of an adenine, a process described only in prokaryotes. We have used full atomistic classical molecular dynamics simulations to explore the protein-SAM-DNA ternary complex where the target adenine is flipped out into the active site. Key protein-DNA interactions established by the target adenine in the active site are described in detail. The relaxed structure was used for a combined quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics exploration of the reaction mechanism using the string method. According to our free energy calculations the reaction takes place through a stepwise mechanism where the methyl transfer precedes the abstraction of the proton from the exocyclic amino group. The methyl transfer is the rate-determining step, and the obtained free energy barrier is in good agreement with the value derived from the experimental rate constant. Two possible candidates to extract the leftover proton have been explored: a water molecule found in the active site and Asn105, a residue activated by the hydrogen bonds formed through the amide hydrogens. The barrier for the proton abstraction is smaller when Asn105 acts as a base. The reaction mechanisms can be different in other N6-DNA-methyltransferases, as determined from the exploration of the reaction mechanism in the Asn105Asp M.TaqI mutant. PMID:25347783

  10. Relations among arginine, citrulline, ornithine, and leucine kinetics in adult burn patients.

    PubMed

    Yu, Y M; Ryan, C M; Burke, J F; Tompkins, R G; Young, V R

    1995-11-01

    Plasma fluxes of arginine, citrulline, and leucine, and the rate of conversion of labeled citrulline to arginine (Qcit-->arg) were determined in nine severely burned patients (mean: 56% body surface burn area, mean 10 d postinjury) while they received total parenteral nutrition (TPN) including an L-amino acid mixture that supplied a generous amount of nitrogen (mean: 0.39 +/- 0.02 g.kg-1.d-1). Plasma fluxes were also studied in these patients during a basal state (low-dose intravenous glucose) by using a primed, 4-h constant intravenous tracer-infusion protocol. Stable-nuclide labeled tracers were L-[15N-15N-guanidino,5,5,2H2]arginine; L-[13C-ureido]citrulline; L-[1-13C]leucine; and NaH13CO3 (prime only), with blood and expired air samples drawn at intervals to determine isotopic abundance of arginine, citrulline, ornithine, and alpha-ketoisocaproate (KIC; for leucine) in plasma and 13CO2 in breath. Leucine kinetics (flux and disappearance into protein synthesis) confirmed the anticipated higher protein turnover in these burn patients compared with healthy control subjects. The plasma arginine fluxes were correspondingly higher in burn patients than in healthy control subjects. However, the citrulline flux and rate of conversion of citrulline to arginine were not higher than values obtained in our laboratories in healthy adult subjects. We hypothesize that the higher rates of arginine loss from the body after burn injury would need to be balanced by an appropriate exogenous intake of preformed arginine to maintain protein homeostasis and promote recovery from this catabolic condition. PMID:7572742

  11. Granulocyte functions are independent of arginine availability.

    PubMed

    Kapp, Katharina; Prüfer, Steve; Michel, Christian S; Habermeier, Alice; Luckner-Minden, Claudia; Giese, Thomas; Bomalaski, John; Langhans, Claus-Dieter; Kropf, Pascale; Müller, Ingrid; Closs, Ellen I; Radsak, Markus P; Munder, Markus

    2014-12-01

    Arginine depletion via myeloid cell arginase is critically involved in suppression of the adaptive immune system during cancer or chronic inflammation. On the other hand, arginine depletion is being developed as a novel anti-tumor metabolic strategy to deprive arginine-auxotrophic cancer cells of this amino acid. In human immune cells, arginase is mainly expressed constitutively in PMNs. We therefore purified human primary PMNs from healthy donors and analyzed PMN function as the main innate effector cell and arginase producer in the context of arginine deficiency. We demonstrate that human PMN viability, activation-induced IL-8 synthesis, chemotaxis, phagocytosis, generation of ROS, and fungicidal activity are not impaired by the absence of arginine in vitro. Also, profound pharmacological arginine depletion in vivo via ADI-PEG20 did not inhibit PMN functions in a mouse model of pulmonary invasive aspergillosis; PMN invasion into the lung, activation, and successful PMN-dependent clearance of Aspergillus fumigatus and survival of mice were not impaired. These novel findings add to a better understanding of immunity during inflammation-associated arginine depletion and are also important for the development of therapeutic arginine depletion as anti-metabolic tumor therapy. PMID:25104794

  12. Arginines Plasma Concentration and Oxidative Stress in Mild to Moderate COPD

    PubMed Central

    Zinellu, Angelo; Fois, Alessandro Giuseppe; Sotgia, Salvatore; Sotgiu, Elisabetta; Zinellu, Elisabetta; Bifulco, Fabiana; Mangoni, Arduino A; Pirina, Pietro; Carru, Ciriaco

    2016-01-01

    Background Elevated plasma concentrations of the endogenous nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitor asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) have been observed in respiratory conditions such as asthma and cystic fibrosis. Since oxidative stress has been shown to increase the activity of arginine methylating enzymes, hence increased ADMA synthesis, and to reduce ADMA degrading enzymes, hence increased ADMA concentrations, we assessed methylated arginines concentrations in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), a disease characterized by increased oxidative stress. Methods Plasma arginine, ADMA and symmetric dimethylarginine (SDMA), oxidative stress markers (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, TBARS, and plasma proteins SH, PSH) and antioxidants (taurine and paraoxonase 1, PON1, activity) were measured in 43 COPD patients with mild (n = 29) or moderate (n = 14) disease and 43 age- and sex-matched controls. Results TBARS significantly increased with COPD presence and severity (median 2.93 vs 3.18 vs 3.64 μmol/L, respectively in controls, mild and moderate group, p<0.0001 by ANOVA) whereas PSH decreased (6.69±1.15 vs 6.04±0.85 vs 5.33±0.96 μmol/gr prot, p<0.0001 by ANOVA). Increased ADMA/arginine ratio, primarily due to reduced arginine concentrations, was also observed with COPD presence and severity (median 0.0067 vs 0.0075 vs 0.0100, p<0.0001 by ANOVA). In multiple logistic regression analysis, only TBARS (OR 0.44, 95% CI 0.25–0.77; p = 0.0045) and ADMA/Arginine ratio (OR 1.72, 95% CI 2.27–13.05; p = 0.02) were independently associated with COPD severity. Conclusion COPD presence and severity are associated with increased oxidative stress and alterations in arginine metabolism. The reduced arginine concentrations in COPD may offer a new target for therapeutic interventions increasing arginine availability. PMID:27479314

  13. Genomic Survey, Gene Expression Analysis and Structural Modeling Suggest Diverse Roles of DNA Methyltransferases in Legumes

    PubMed Central

    Garg, Rohini; Kumari, Romika; Tiwari, Sneha; Goyal, Shweta

    2014-01-01

    DNA methylation plays a crucial role in development through inheritable gene silencing. Plants possess three types of DNA methyltransferases (MTases), namely Methyltransferase (MET), Chromomethylase (CMT) and Domains Rearranged Methyltransferase (DRM), which maintain methylation at CG, CHG and CHH sites. DNA MTases have not been studied in legumes so far. Here, we report the identification and analysis of putative DNA MTases in five legumes, including chickpea, soybean, pigeonpea, Medicago and Lotus. MTases in legumes could be classified in known MET, CMT, DRM and DNA nucleotide methyltransferases (DNMT2) subfamilies based on their domain organization. First three MTases represent DNA MTases, whereas DNMT2 represents a transfer RNA (tRNA) MTase. Structural comparison of all the MTases in plants with known MTases in mammalian and plant systems have been reported to assign structural features in context of biological functions of these proteins. The structure analysis clearly specified regions crucial for protein-protein interactions and regions important for nucleosome binding in various domains of CMT and MET proteins. In addition, structural model of DRM suggested that circular permutation of motifs does not have any effect on overall structure of DNA methyltransferase domain. These results provide valuable insights into role of various domains in molecular recognition and should facilitate mechanistic understanding of their function in mediating specific methylation patterns. Further, the comprehensive gene expression analyses of MTases in legumes provided evidence of their role in various developmental processes throughout the plant life cycle and response to various abiotic stresses. Overall, our study will be very helpful in establishing the specific functions of DNA MTases in legumes. PMID:24586452

  14. Herbivore-Induced SABATH Methyltransferases of Maize That Methylate Anthranilic Acid Using S-Adenosyl-l-Methionine1[W

    PubMed Central

    Köllner, Tobias G.; Lenk, Claudia; Zhao, Nan; Seidl-Adams, Irmgard; Gershenzon, Jonathan; Chen, Feng; Degenhardt, Jörg

    2010-01-01

    Volatile methyl esters are common constituents of plant volatiles with important functions in plant defense. To study the biosynthesis of these compounds, especially methyl anthranilate and methyl salicylate, we identified a group of methyltransferases that are members of the SABATH enzyme family in maize (Zea mays). In vitro biochemical characterization after bacterial expression revealed three S-adenosyl-l-methionine-dependent methyltransferases with high specificity for anthranilic acid as a substrate. Of these three proteins, Anthranilic Acid Methyltransferase1 (AAMT1) appears to be responsible for most of the S-adenosyl-l-methionine-dependent methyltransferase activity and methyl anthranilate formation observed in maize after herbivore damage. The enzymes may also be involved in the formation of low amounts of methyl salicylate, which are emitted from herbivore-damaged maize. Homology-based structural modeling combined with site-directed mutagenesis identified two amino acid residues, designated tyrosine-246 and glutamine-167 in AAMT1, which are responsible for the high specificity of AAMTs toward anthranilic acid. These residues are conserved in each of the three main clades of the SABATH family, indicating that the carboxyl methyltransferases are functionally separated by these clades. In maize, this gene family has diversified especially toward benzenoid carboxyl methyltransferases that accept anthranilic acid and benzoic acid. PMID:20519632

  15. Expression of DNA methyltransferases is influenced by growth hormone in the long-living Ames dwarf mouse in vivo and in vitro.

    PubMed

    Armstrong, Vanessa L; Rakoczy, Sharlene; Rojanathammanee, Lalida; Brown-Borg, Holly M

    2014-08-01

    Methyltransferase expression and DNA methylation are linked to aging and age-related disease. We utilized 3-, 12-, and 24-month-old Ames dwarf and their wild-type siblings to examine the genotype and age-related differences in the expression of methyltransferase enzymes related to DNA methylation in the liver, glycine-N-methyltransferase and DNA methyltransferase (DNMT). We found that DNMT proteins and transcripts are differentially expressed in dwarf mice compared with wild-type siblings that can be attributed to age and/or genotype. However, DNMT1 protein expression is drastically reduced compared with wild-type controls at every age. DNMT3a protein levels coincide with differences observed in DNMT activity. Growth hormone appears to modulate expression of DNMT1 and 3a in dwarf liver tissue and primary hepatocytes. Therefore, growth hormone may contribute to age-related processes, DNA methylation, and, ultimately, longevity.

  16. Expression of DNA methyltransferases is influenced by growth hormone in the long-living Ames dwarf mouse in vivo and in vitro.

    PubMed

    Armstrong, Vanessa L; Rakoczy, Sharlene; Rojanathammanee, Lalida; Brown-Borg, Holly M

    2014-08-01

    Methyltransferase expression and DNA methylation are linked to aging and age-related disease. We utilized 3-, 12-, and 24-month-old Ames dwarf and their wild-type siblings to examine the genotype and age-related differences in the expression of methyltransferase enzymes related to DNA methylation in the liver, glycine-N-methyltransferase and DNA methyltransferase (DNMT). We found that DNMT proteins and transcripts are differentially expressed in dwarf mice compared with wild-type siblings that can be attributed to age and/or genotype. However, DNMT1 protein expression is drastically reduced compared with wild-type controls at every age. DNMT3a protein levels coincide with differences observed in DNMT activity. Growth hormone appears to modulate expression of DNMT1 and 3a in dwarf liver tissue and primary hepatocytes. Therefore, growth hormone may contribute to age-related processes, DNA methylation, and, ultimately, longevity. PMID:24201695

  17. Novel CARM1-Interacting Protein, DZIP3, Is a Transcriptional Coactivator of Estrogen Receptor-α.

    PubMed

    Purcell, Daniel J; Chauhan, Swati; Jimenez-Stinson, Diane; Elliott, Kathleen R; Tsewang, Tenzin D; Lee, Young-Ho; Marples, Brian; Lee, David Y

    2015-12-01

    Coactivator-associated arginine methyltransferase 1 (CARM1) is known to promote estrogen receptor (ER)α-mediated transcription in breast cancer cells. To further characterize the regulation of ERα-mediated transcription by CARM1, we screened CARM1-interacting proteins by yeast two-hybrid. Here, we have identified an E3 ubiquitin ligase, DAZ (deleted in azoospermia)-interacting protein 3 (DZIP3), as a novel CARM1-binding protein. DZIP3-dependent ubiquitination of histone H2A has been associated with repression of transcription. However, ERα reporter gene assays demonstrated that DZIP3 enhanced ERα-mediated transcription and cooperated synergistically with CARM1. Interaction with CARM1 was observed with the E3 ligase RING domain of DZIP3. The methyltransferase activity of CARM1 partially contributed to the synergy with DZIP3 for transcription activation, but the E3 ubiquitin ligase activity of DZIP3 was dispensable. DZIP3 also interacted with the C-terminal activation domain 2 of glucocorticoid receptor-interacting protein 1 (GRIP1) and enhanced the interaction between GRIP1 and CARM1. Depletion of DZIP3 by small interfering RNA in MCF7 cells reduced estradiol-induced gene expression of ERα target genes, GREB1 and pS2, and DZIP3 was recruited to the estrogen response elements of the same ERα target genes. These results indicate that DZIP3 is a novel coactivator of ERα target gene expression.

  18. Diminished L-arginine bioavailability in hypertension.

    PubMed

    Moss, Monique B; Brunini, Tatiana M C; Soares De Moura, Roberto; Novaes Malagris, Lúcia E; Roberts, Norman B; Ellory, J Clive; Mann, Giovanni E; Mendes Ribeiro, Antônio C

    2004-10-01

    L-Arginine is the precursor of NO (nitric oxide), a key endogenous mediator involved in endothelium-dependent vascular relaxation and platelet function. Although the concentration of intracellular L-arginine is well above the Km for NO synthesis, in many cells and pathological conditions the transport of L-arginine is essential for NO production (L-arginine paradox). The present study was designed to investigate the modulation of L-arginine/NO pathway in systemic arterial hypertension. Transport of L-arginine into RBCs (red blood cells) and platelets, NOS (NO synthase) activity and amino acid profiles in plasma were analysed in hypertensive patients and in an animal model of hypertension. Influx of L-arginine into RBCs was mediated by the cationic amino acid transport systems y+ and y+L, whereas, in platelets, influx was mediated only via system y+L. Chromatographic analyses revealed higher plasma levels of L-arginine in hypertensive patients (175+/-19 micromol/l) compared with control subjects (137+/-8 micromol/l). L-Arginine transport via system y+L, but not y+, was significantly reduced in RBCs from hypertensive patients (60+/-7 micromol.l(-1).cells(-1).h(-1); n=16) compared with controls (90+/-17 micromol.l(-1).cells(-1).h(-1); n=18). In human platelets, the Vmax for L-arginine transport via system y+L was 86+/-17 pmol.10(9) cells(-1).min(-1) in controls compared with 36+/-9 pmol.10(9) cells(-1).min(-1) in hypertensive patients (n=10; P<0.05). Basal NOS activity was decreased in platelets from hypertensive patients (0.12+/-0.02 pmol/10(8) cells; n=8) compared with controls (0.22+/-0.01 pmol/10(8) cells; n=8; P<0.05). Studies with spontaneously hypertensive rats demonstrated that transport of L-arginine via system y+L was also inhibited in RBCs. Our findings provide the first evidence that hypertension is associated with an inhibition of L-arginine transport via system y+L in both humans and animals, with reduced availability of L-arginine limiting NO synthesis

  19. Diminished L-arginine bioavailability in hypertension.

    PubMed

    Moss, Monique B; Brunini, Tatiana M C; Soares De Moura, Roberto; Novaes Malagris, Lúcia E; Roberts, Norman B; Ellory, J Clive; Mann, Giovanni E; Mendes Ribeiro, Antônio C

    2004-10-01

    L-Arginine is the precursor of NO (nitric oxide), a key endogenous mediator involved in endothelium-dependent vascular relaxation and platelet function. Although the concentration of intracellular L-arginine is well above the Km for NO synthesis, in many cells and pathological conditions the transport of L-arginine is essential for NO production (L-arginine paradox). The present study was designed to investigate the modulation of L-arginine/NO pathway in systemic arterial hypertension. Transport of L-arginine into RBCs (red blood cells) and platelets, NOS (NO synthase) activity and amino acid profiles in plasma were analysed in hypertensive patients and in an animal model of hypertension. Influx of L-arginine into RBCs was mediated by the cationic amino acid transport systems y+ and y+L, whereas, in platelets, influx was mediated only via system y+L. Chromatographic analyses revealed higher plasma levels of L-arginine in hypertensive patients (175+/-19 micromol/l) compared with control subjects (137+/-8 micromol/l). L-Arginine transport via system y+L, but not y+, was significantly reduced in RBCs from hypertensive patients (60+/-7 micromol.l(-1).cells(-1).h(-1); n=16) compared with controls (90+/-17 micromol.l(-1).cells(-1).h(-1); n=18). In human platelets, the Vmax for L-arginine transport via system y+L was 86+/-17 pmol.10(9) cells(-1).min(-1) in controls compared with 36+/-9 pmol.10(9) cells(-1).min(-1) in hypertensive patients (n=10; P<0.05). Basal NOS activity was decreased in platelets from hypertensive patients (0.12+/-0.02 pmol/10(8) cells; n=8) compared with controls (0.22+/-0.01 pmol/10(8) cells; n=8; P<0.05). Studies with spontaneously hypertensive rats demonstrated that transport of L-arginine via system y+L was also inhibited in RBCs. Our findings provide the first evidence that hypertension is associated with an inhibition of L-arginine transport via system y+L in both humans and animals, with reduced availability of L-arginine limiting NO synthesis

  20. Control of TSC2-Rheb signaling axis by arginine regulates mTORC1 activity

    PubMed Central

    Carroll, Bernadette; Maetzel, Dorothea; Maddocks, Oliver DK; Otten, Gisela; Ratcliff, Matthew; Smith, Graham R; Dunlop, Elaine A; Passos, João F; Davies, Owen R; Jaenisch, Rudolf; Tee, Andrew R; Sarkar, Sovan; Korolchuk, Viktor I

    2016-01-01

    The mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) is the key signaling hub that regulates cellular protein homeostasis, growth, and proliferation in health and disease. As a prerequisite for activation of mTORC1 by hormones and mitogens, there first has to be an available pool of intracellular amino acids. Arginine, an amino acid essential during mammalian embryogenesis and early development is one of the key activators of mTORC1. Herein, we demonstrate that arginine acts independently of its metabolism to allow maximal activation of mTORC1 by growth factors via a mechanism that does not involve regulation of mTORC1 localization to lysosomes. Instead, arginine specifically suppresses lysosomal localization of the TSC complex and interaction with its target small GTPase protein, Rheb. By interfering with TSC-Rheb complex, arginine relieves allosteric inhibition of Rheb by TSC. Arginine cooperates with growth factor signaling which further promotes dissociation of TSC2 from lysosomes and activation of mTORC1. Arginine is the main amino acid sensed by the mTORC1 pathway in several cell types including human embryonic stem cells (hESCs). Dependence on arginine is maintained once hESCs are differentiated to fibroblasts, neurons, and hepatocytes, highlighting the fundamental importance of arginine-sensing to mTORC1 signaling. Together, our data provide evidence that different growth promoting cues cooperate to a greater extent than previously recognized to achieve tight spatial and temporal regulation of mTORC1 signaling. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.11058.001 PMID:26742086

  1. Occurrence of Arginine Deiminase Pathway Enzymes in Arginine Catabolism by Wine Lactic Acid Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Liu, S.; Pritchard, G. G.; Hardman, M. J.; Pilone, G. J.

    1995-01-01

    l-Arginine, an amino acid found in significant quantities in grape juice and wine, is known to be catabolized by some wine lactic acid bacteria. The correlation between the occurrence of arginine deiminase pathway enzymes and the ability to catabolize arginine was examined in this study. The activities of the three arginine deiminase pathway enzymes, arginine deiminase, ornithine transcarbamylase, and carbamate kinase, were measured in cell extracts of 35 strains of wine lactic acid bacteria. These enzymes were present in all heterofermentative lactobacilli and most leuconostocs but were absent in all the homofermentative lactobacilli and pediococci examined. There was a good correlation among arginine degradation, formation of ammonia and citrulline, and the occurrence of arginine deiminase pathway enzymes. Urea was not detected during arginine degradation, suggesting that the catabolism of arginine did not proceed via the arginase-catalyzed reaction, as has been suggested in some earlier studies. Detection of ammonia with Nessler's reagent was shown to be a simple, rapid test to assess the ability of wine lactic acid bacteria to degrade arginine, although in media containing relatively high concentrations (>0.5%) of fructose, ammonia formation is inhibited. PMID:16534912

  2. DNA Electrochemistry Shows DNMT1 Methyltransferase Hyperactivity in Colorectal Tumors.

    PubMed

    Furst, Ariel L; Barton, Jacqueline K

    2015-07-23

    DNMT1, the most abundant human methyltransferase, is responsible for translating the correct methylation pattern during DNA replication, and aberrant methylation by DNMT1 has been linked to tumorigenesis. We have developed a sensitive signal-on electrochemical assay for the measurement of DNMT1 activity in crude tissue lysates. We have further analyzed ten tumor sets and have found a direct correlation between DNMT1 hyperactivity and tumorous tissue. In the majority of samples analyzed, the tumorous tissue has significantly higher DNMT1 activity than the healthy adjacent tissue. No such correlation is observed in measurements of DNMT1 expression by qPCR, DNMT1 protein abundance by western blotting, or DNMT1 activity using a radiometric DNA labeling assay. DNMT1 hyperactivity can result from both protein overexpression and enzyme hyperactivity. DNMT1 activity measured electrochemically provides a direct measure of activity in cell lysates and, as a result, provides a sensitive and early indication of cancerous transformation.

  3. DNA methyltransferases and epigenetic regulation in bacteria.

    PubMed

    Adhikari, Satish; Curtis, Patrick D

    2016-09-01

    Epigenetics is a change in gene expression that is heritable without a change in DNA sequence itself. This phenomenon is well studied in eukaryotes, particularly in humans for its role in cellular differentiation, X chromosome inactivation and diseases like cancer. However, comparatively little is known about epigenetic regulation in bacteria. Bacterial epigenetics is mainly present in the form of DNA methylation where DNA methyltransferases add methyl groups to nucleotides. This review focuses on two methyltransferases well characterized for their roles in gene regulation: Dam and CcrM. Dam methyltransferase in Escherichia coli is important for expression of certain genes such as the pap operon, as well as other cellular processes like DNA replication initiation and DNA repair. In Caulobacter crescentus and other Alphaproteobacteria, the methyltransferase CcrM is cell cycle regulated and is involved in the cell-cycle-dependent regulation of several genes. The diversity of regulatory targets as well as regulatory mechanisms suggests that gene regulation by methylation could be a widespread and potent method of regulation in bacteria. PMID:27476077

  4. Resolution and quantification of arginine, monomethylarginine, asymmetric dimethylarginine, and symmetric dimethylarginine in plasma using HPLC with internal calibration

    PubMed Central

    Alkaitis, Matthew S.; Nardone, Glenn; Chertow, Jessica H.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract NG,NG‐dimethyl‐l‐arginine (asymmetric dimethylarginine, ADMA),NG‐monomethyl‐l‐arginine (l‐NMMA) and NG,N G’‐dimethyl‐l‐arginine (symmetric dimethylarginine, SDMA) are released during hydrolysis of proteins containing methylated arginine residues. ADMA and l‐NMMA inhibit nitric oxide synthase by competing with l‐arginine substrate. All three methylarginine derivatives also inhibit arginine transport. To enable investigation of methylarginines in diseases involving impaired nitric oxide synthesis, we developed a high‐performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) assay to simultaneously quantify arginine, ADMA, l‐NMMA and SDMA. Our assay requires 12 μL of plasma and is ideal for applications where sample availability is limited. We extracted arginine and methylarginines with mixed‐mode cation‐exchange columns, using synthetic monoethyl‐l‐arginine as an internal standard. Metabolites were derivatized with ortho‐phthaldialdeyhde and 3‐mercaptopropionic acid, separated by reverse‐phase HPLC and quantified with fluorescence detection. Standard curve linearity was ≥0.9995 for all metabolites. Inter‐day coefficient of variation (CV) values were ≤5% for arginine, ADMA and SDMA in human plasma and for arginine and ADMA in mouse plasma. The CV value for l‐NMMA was higher in human (10.4%) and mouse (15.8%) plasma because concentrations were substantially lower than ADMA and SDMA. This assay provides unique advantages of small sample volume requirements, excellent separation of target metabolites from contaminants and validation for both human and mouse plasma samples. © 2015 The Authors Biomedical Chromatography published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26130049

  5. Identification and Characterization of a Putative Arginine Kinase Homolog from Myxococcus xanthus Required for Fruiting Body Formation and Cell Differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Bragg, Jonathan; Rajkovic, Andrei; Anderson, Chance; Curtis, Rachael; Van Houten, Jason; Begres, Brittany; Naples, Colin; Snider, Mark; Fraga, Dean

    2012-01-01

    Arginine kinases catalyze the reversible transfer of a high-energy phosphoryl group from ATP to l-arginine to form phosphoarginine, which is used as an energy buffer in insects, crustaceans, and some unicellular organisms. It plays an analogous role to that of phosphocreatine in vertebrates. Recently, putative arginine kinases were identified in several bacterial species, including the social Gram-negative soil bacterium Myxococcus xanthus. It is still unclear what role these proteins play in bacteria and whether they have evolved to acquire novel functions in the species in which they are found. In this study, we biochemically purified and characterized a putative M. xanthus arginine kinase, Ark, and demonstrated that it has retained the ability to catalyze the phosphorylation of arginine by using ATP. We also constructed a null mutation in the ark gene and demonstrated its role in both certain stress responses and development. PMID:22389486

  6. Use of arginine aminopeptidase activity in characterization of arginine-utilizing mycoplasmas.

    PubMed Central

    Ball, H J; Neill, S D; Reid, L R

    1982-01-01

    The aminopeptidase activity of arginine-utilizing mycoplasmas was investigated with 20 aminoacyl beta-naphthylamide substrates. High levels of arginyl-beta-naphthylamide hydrolysis were demonstrated in 6 of 11 species when extracts of concentrated washed organisms were used. Relatively low arginine aminopeptidase activity was demonstrated with similar extracts from 22 species not utilizing arginine. The high level of arginine aminopeptidase activity could also be demonstrated with unwashed, unconcentrated samples of the same 6 species and also with Mycoplasma arthritidis. The procedure for preparing the extract of M. arthritidis appeared to remove the arginine aminopeptidase activity which was demonstrated to be present in the untreated culture. Fluorogenic and chromogenic tests were developed whereby this distinctive arginine aminopeptidase activity could be demonstrated within 4 h with the use of small volumes of broth culture (10 microliter) or single colonies, thus providing a rapid test for early characterization of some Mycoplasma species. PMID:6764773

  7. Keeping them all together: β-propeller domains in histone methyltransferase complexes.

    PubMed

    Bergamin, Elisa; Blais, Alexandre; Couture, Jean-François

    2014-10-01

    Histone methyltransferases (HKMTs) residing in multi-subunit protein complexes frequently require the presence of β-propeller proteins to achieve their biological functions. Recent biochemical studies have highlighted the functional diversity of these scaffolding proteins in maintaining the integrity of the complexes, allosterically regulating HKMT enzymatic activity and acting as "histone tethering devices" to facilitate the interaction between HKMTs and their substrates. Structural studies have revealed that, while β-propeller domain proteins share structural similarity, they employ divergent mechanisms to achieve their functions. This review focuses on the progress made in the last decade to identify the biochemical determinants underlying the functions of these important proteins.

  8. Differential role of arginine mutations on the structure and functions of α-crystallin☆

    PubMed Central

    Panda, Alok Kumar; Nandi, Sandip Kumar; Chakraborty, Ayon; Nagaraj, Ram H.; Biswas, Ashis

    2016-01-01

    Background α-Crystallin is a major protein of the eye lens in vertebrates. It is composed of two subunits, αA- and αB-crystallin. α-Crystallin is an oligomeric protein having these two subunits in 3:1 ratio. It belongs to small heat shock protein family and exhibits molecular chaperone function, which plays an important role in maintaining the lens transparency. Apart from chaperone function, both subunits also exhibit anti-apoptotic property. Comparison of their primary sequences reveals that αA- and αB-crystallin posses 13 and 14 arginine residues, respectively. Several of them undergo mutations which eventually lead to various eye diseases such as congenital cataract, juvenile cataract, and retinal degeneration. Interestingly, many arginine residues of these subunits are modified during glycation and even some are truncated during aging. All these facts indicate the importance of arginine residues in α-crystallin. Scope of review In this review, we will emphasize the recent in vitro and in vivo findings related to congenital cataract causing arginine mutations in α-crystallin. Major conclusions Congenital cataract causing arginine mutations alters the structure and decreases the chaperone function of α-crystallin. These mutations also affect the lens morphology and phenotypes. Interestingly, non-natural arginine mutations (generated for mimicking the glycation and truncation environment) improve the chaperone function of α-crystallin which may play an important role in maintaining the eye lens transparency during aging. General significance The neutralization of positive charge on the guanidino group of arginine residues is not always detrimental to the functionality of α-crystallin. PMID:26080000

  9. Arginine- and Polyamine-Induced Lactic Acid Resistance in Neisseria gonorrhoeae

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Zheng; Tang, M. Matt; Wu, Xueliang; Phillips, Nancy; Galkowski, Dariusz; Jarvis, Gary A.; Fan, Huizhou

    2016-01-01

    Microbe-derived lactic acid protects women from pathogens in their genital tract. The purpose of this study was to determine lactic acid susceptibility of Neisseria gonorrhoeae, and identify potential acid resistance mechanisms present in this pathogen. Tested in vitro, lactic acid killed all 10 gonococcal strains analyzed in a low pH-dependent manner. Full inactivation occurred at pH 4.5. At low pH, lactic acid treatment resulted in the entry of the DNA-binding fluorochrome propidium iodide into the microbial cells, suggesting that hydrogen ions from lactic acid compromise the integrity of the bacterial cell wall/membrane. Most likely, hydrogen ions also inactivate intracellular proteins since arginine rendered significant protection against lactic acid presumably through action of the gonococcal arginine decarboxylase, an enzyme located in the bacterial cytoplasm. Surprisingly, arginine also lessened lactic acid-mediated cell wall/membrane disruption. This effect is probably mediated by agmatine, a triamine product of arginine decarboxylase, since agmatine demonstrated a stronger protective effect on GC than arginine at equal molar concentration. In addition to agmatine, diamines cadaverine and putrescine, which are generated by bacterial vaginosis-associated microbes, also induced significant resistance to lactic acid-mediated GC killing and cell wall/membrane disruption. These findings suggest that the arginine-rich semen protects gonococci through both neutralization-dependent and independent mechanisms, whereas polyamine-induced acid resistance contributes to the increased risk of gonorrhea in women with bacterial vaginosis. PMID:26808268

  10. Arginine- and Polyamine-Induced Lactic Acid Resistance in Neisseria gonorrhoeae.

    PubMed

    Gong, Zheng; Tang, M Matt; Wu, Xueliang; Phillips, Nancy; Galkowski, Dariusz; Jarvis, Gary A; Fan, Huizhou

    2016-01-01

    Microbe-derived lactic acid protects women from pathogens in their genital tract. The purpose of this study was to determine lactic acid susceptibility of Neisseria gonorrhoeae, and identify potential acid resistance mechanisms present in this pathogen. Tested in vitro, lactic acid killed all 10 gonococcal strains analyzed in a low pH-dependent manner. Full inactivation occurred at pH 4.5. At low pH, lactic acid treatment resulted in the entry of the DNA-binding fluorochrome propidium iodide into the microbial cells, suggesting that hydrogen ions from lactic acid compromise the integrity of the bacterial cell wall/membrane. Most likely, hydrogen ions also inactivate intracellular proteins since arginine rendered significant protection against lactic acid presumably through action of the gonococcal arginine decarboxylase, an enzyme located in the bacterial cytoplasm. Surprisingly, arginine also lessened lactic acid-mediated cell wall/membrane disruption. This effect is probably mediated by agmatine, a triamine product of arginine decarboxylase, since agmatine demonstrated a stronger protective effect on GC than arginine at equal molar concentration. In addition to agmatine, diamines cadaverine and putrescine, which are generated by bacterial vaginosis-associated microbes, also induced significant resistance to lactic acid-mediated GC killing and cell wall/membrane disruption. These findings suggest that the arginine-rich semen protects gonococci through both neutralization-dependent and independent mechanisms, whereas polyamine-induced acid resistance contributes to the increased risk of gonorrhea in women with bacterial vaginosis.

  11. Arginine- and Polyamine-Induced Lactic Acid Resistance in Neisseria gonorrhoeae.

    PubMed

    Gong, Zheng; Tang, M Matt; Wu, Xueliang; Phillips, Nancy; Galkowski, Dariusz; Jarvis, Gary A; Fan, Huizhou

    2016-01-01

    Microbe-derived lactic acid protects women from pathogens in their genital tract. The purpose of this study was to determine lactic acid susceptibility of Neisseria gonorrhoeae, and identify potential acid resistance mechanisms present in this pathogen. Tested in vitro, lactic acid killed all 10 gonococcal strains analyzed in a low pH-dependent manner. Full inactivation occurred at pH 4.5. At low pH, lactic acid treatment resulted in the entry of the DNA-binding fluorochrome propidium iodide into the microbial cells, suggesting that hydrogen ions from lactic acid compromise the integrity of the bacterial cell wall/membrane. Most likely, hydrogen ions also inactivate intracellular proteins since arginine rendered significant protection against lactic acid presumably through action of the gonococcal arginine decarboxylase, an enzyme located in the bacterial cytoplasm. Surprisingly, arginine also lessened lactic acid-mediated cell wall/membrane disruption. This effect is probably mediated by agmatine, a triamine product of arginine decarboxylase, since agmatine demonstrated a stronger protective effect on GC than arginine at equal molar concentration. In addition to agmatine, diamines cadaverine and putrescine, which are generated by bacterial vaginosis-associated microbes, also induced significant resistance to lactic acid-mediated GC killing and cell wall/membrane disruption. These findings suggest that the arginine-rich semen protects gonococci through both neutralization-dependent and independent mechanisms, whereas polyamine-induced acid resistance contributes to the increased risk of gonorrhea in women with bacterial vaginosis. PMID:26808268

  12. Targeting argininosuccinate synthetase negative melanomas using combination of arginine degrading enzyme and cisplatin.

    PubMed

    Savaraj, Niramol; Wu, Chunjing; Li, Ying-Ying; Wangpaichitr, Medhi; You, Min; Bomalaski, John; He, Wei; Kuo, Macus Tien; Feun, Lynn G

    2015-03-20

    Loss of argininosuccinate synthetase (ASS) expression in melanoma makes these tumor cells vulnerable to arginine deprivation. Pegylated arginine deiminase (ADI-PEG20) which degrades arginine to citrulline and ammonia has been used clinically and partial responses and stable disease have been noted with minimal toxicity. In order to improve the therapeutic efficacy of ADI-PEG20, we have combined ADI-PEG20 with a DNA damaging agent, cisplatin. We have shown that the combination of the two drugs together significantly improved the therapeutic efficacy when compared to ADI-PEG20 alone or cisplatin alone in 4 melanoma cell lines, regardless of their BRAF mutation. In-vivo study also exhibited the same effect as in-vitro with no added toxicity to either agent alone. The underlying mechanism is complex, but increased DNA damage upon arginine deprivation due to decreased DNA repair proteins, FANCD2, ATM, and CHK1/2 most likely leads to increased apoptosis. This action is further intensified by increased proapoptotic protein, NOXA, and decreased antiapoptotic proteins, SURVIVIN, BCL2 and XIAP. The autophagic process which protects cells from apoptosis upon ADI-PEG20 treatment also dampens upon cisplatin administration. Thus, the combination of arginine deprivation and cisplatin function in concert to kill tumor cells which do not express ASS without added toxicity to normal cells. PMID:25749046

  13. Targeting argininosuccinate synthetase negative melanomas using combination of arginine degrading enzyme and cisplatin

    PubMed Central

    Savaraj, Niramol; Wu, Chunjing; Li, Ying-Ying; Wangpaichitr, Medhi; You, Min; Bomalaski, John; He, Wei; Kuo, Macus Tien; Feun, Lynn G.

    2015-01-01

    Loss of argininosuccinate synthetase (ASS) expression in melanoma makes these tumor cells vulnerable to arginine deprivation. Pegylated arginine deiminase (ADI-PEG20) which degrades arginine to citrulline and ammonia has been used clinically and partial responses and stable disease have been noted with minimal toxicity. In order to improve the therapeutic efficacy of ADI-PEG20, we have combined ADI-PEG20 with a DNA damaging agent, cisplatin. We have shown that the combination of the two drugs together significantly improved the therapeutic efficacy when compared to ADI-PEG20 alone or cisplatin alone in 4 melanoma cell lines, regardless of their BRAF mutation. In-vivo study also exhibited the same effect as in-vitro with no added toxicity to either agent alone. The underlying mechanism is complex, but increased DNA damage upon arginine deprivation due to decreased DNA repair proteins, FANCD2, ATM, and CHK1/2 most likely leads to increased apoptosis. This action is further intensified by increased proapoptotic protein, NOXA, and decreased antiapoptotic proteins, SURVIVIN, BCL2 and XIAP. The autophagic process which protects cells from apoptosis upon ADI-PEG20 treatment also dampens upon cisplatin administration. Thus, the combination of arginine deprivation and cisplatin function in concert to kill tumor cells which do not express ASS without added toxicity to normal cells. PMID:25749046

  14. Targeting argininosuccinate synthetase negative melanomas using combination of arginine degrading enzyme and cisplatin.

    PubMed

    Savaraj, Niramol; Wu, Chunjing; Li, Ying-Ying; Wangpaichitr, Medhi; You, Min; Bomalaski, John; He, Wei; Kuo, Macus Tien; Feun, Lynn G

    2015-03-20

    Loss of argininosuccinate synthetase (ASS) expression in melanoma makes these tumor cells vulnerable to arginine deprivation. Pegylated arginine deiminase (ADI-PEG20) which degrades arginine to citrulline and ammonia has been used clinically and partial responses and stable disease have been noted with minimal toxicity. In order to improve the therapeutic efficacy of ADI-PEG20, we have combined ADI-PEG20 with a DNA damaging agent, cisplatin. We have shown that the combination of the two drugs together significantly improved the therapeutic efficacy when compared to ADI-PEG20 alone or cisplatin alone in 4 melanoma cell lines, regardless of their BRAF mutation. In-vivo study also exhibited the same effect as in-vitro with no added toxicity to either agent alone. The underlying mechanism is complex, but increased DNA damage upon arginine deprivation due to decreased DNA repair proteins, FANCD2, ATM, and CHK1/2 most likely leads to increased apoptosis. This action is further intensified by increased proapoptotic protein, NOXA, and decreased antiapoptotic proteins, SURVIVIN, BCL2 and XIAP. The autophagic process which protects cells from apoptosis upon ADI-PEG20 treatment also dampens upon cisplatin administration. Thus, the combination of arginine deprivation and cisplatin function in concert to kill tumor cells which do not express ASS without added toxicity to normal cells.

  15. Structural insights into the function of aminoglycoside-resistance A1408 16S rRNA methyltransferases from antibiotic-producing and human pathogenic bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Macmaster, Rachel; Zelinskaya, Natalia; Savic, Miloje; Rankin, C. Robert; Conn, Graeme L.

    2010-01-01

    X-ray crystal structures were determined of the broad-spectrum aminoglycoside-resistance A1408 16S rRNA methyltransferases KamB and NpmA, from the aminoglycoside-producer Streptoalloteichus tenebrarius and human pathogenic Escherichia coli, respectively. Consistent with their common function, both are Class I methyltransferases with additional highly conserved structural motifs that embellish the core SAM-binding fold. In overall structure, the A1408 rRNA methyltransferase were found to be most similar to a second family of Class I methyltransferases of distinct substrate specificity (m7G46 tRNA). Critical residues for A1408 rRNA methyltransferase activity were experimentally defined using protein mutagenesis and bacterial growth assays with kanamycin. Essential residues for SAM coenzyme binding and an extended protein surface that likely interacts with the 30S ribosomal subunit were thus revealed. The structures also suggest potential mechanisms of A1408 target nucleotide selection and positioning. We propose that a dynamic extended loop structure that is positioned adjacent to both the bound SAM and a functionally critical structural motif may mediate concerted conformational changes in rRNA and protein that underpin the specificity of target selection and activation of methyltransferase activity. These new structures provide important new insights that may provide a starting point for strategies to inhibit these emerging causes of pathogenic bacterial resistance to aminoglycosides. PMID:20639535

  16. Arginine methylation of REF/ALY promotes efficient handover of mRNA to TAP/NXF1.

    PubMed

    Hung, Ming-Lung; Hautbergue, Guillaume M; Snijders, Ambrosius P L; Dickman, Mark J; Wilson, Stuart A

    2010-06-01

    The REF/ALY mRNA export adaptor binds TAP/NXF1 via an arginine-rich region, which overlaps with its RNA-binding domain. When TAP binds a REF:RNA complex, it triggers transfer of the RNA from REF to TAP. Here, we have examined the effects of arginine methylation on the activities of the REF protein in mRNA export. We have mapped the arginine methylation sites of REF using mass spectrometry and find that several arginines within the TAP and RNA binding domains are methylated in vivo. However, arginine methylation has no effect on the REF:TAP interaction. Instead, arginine methylation reduces the RNA-binding activity of REF in vitro and in vivo. The reduced RNA-binding activity of REF in its methylated state is essential for efficient displacement of RNA from REF by TAP in vivo. Therefore, arginine methylation fine-tunes the RNA-binding activity of REF such that the RNA-protein interaction can be readily disrupted by export factors further down the pathway.

  17. Expression of Sindbis virus nsP1 and methyltransferase activity in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Mi, S; Stollar, V

    1991-09-01

    We have constructed two plasmids, pSR5-42 and pSR5-Toto, which under lac control expressed the SVLM21 and the SVToto forms, respectively, of the Sindbis virus nonstructural protein, nsP1. The induced protein, which was the major protein made following induction with IPTG, had an apparent molecular weight of 60,000 and an amino terminal sequence in agreement with that expected for nsP1. Following induction with IPTG, cells carrying pSR5-42 (which contains the SVLM21 gene sequence) generated much higher RNA methyltransferase activity than cells carrying pSR5-Toto (which contains the SVToto gene sequence). This result is in agreement with what is observed when methyltransferase is measured in cells infected with SVLM21 and SVSTD (or SVToto), respectively. These results provide strong evidence that nsP1 has methyltransferase activity in the absence of any other viral nonstructural proteins. PMID:1831311

  18. Novel Broad Spectrum Inhibitors Targeting the Flavivirus Methyltransferase

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Binbin; Banavali, Nilesh K.; Jones, Susan A.; Zhang, Jing; Li, Zhong; Kramer, Laura D.; Li, Hongmin

    2015-01-01

    The flavivirus methyltransferase (MTase) is an essential enzyme that sequentially methylates the N7 and 2’-O positions of the viral RNA cap, using S-adenosyl-L-methionine (SAM) as a methyl donor. We report here that small molecule compounds, which putatively bind to the SAM-binding site of flavivirus MTase and inhibit its function, were identified by using virtual screening. In vitro methylation experiments demonstrated significant MTase inhibition by 13 of these compounds, with the most potent compound displaying sub-micromolar inhibitory activity. The most active compounds showed broad spectrum activity against the MTase proteins of multiple flaviviruses. Two of these compounds also exhibited low cytotoxicity and effectively inhibited viral replication in cell-based assays, providing further structural insight into flavivirus MTase inhibition. PMID:26098995

  19. RNA methyltransferase NSUN2 promotes stress-induced HUVEC senescence

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Hao; Hu, Han; Pang, Lijun; Xing, Junyue; Liu, Zhenyun; Luo, Yuhong; Jiang, Bin; Liu, Te; Gorospe, Myriam; Chen, Chuan; Wang, Wengong

    2016-01-01

    The tRNA methyltransferase NSUN2 delays replicative senescence by regulating the translation of CDK1 and CDKN1B mRNAs. However, whether NSUN2 influences premature cellular senescence remains untested. Here we show that NSUN2 methylates SHC mRNA in vitro and in cells, thereby enhancing the translation of the three SHC proteins, p66SHC, p52SHC, and p46SHC. Our results further show that the elevation of SHC expression by NSUN2-mediated mRNA methylation increased the levels of ROS, activated p38MAPK, thereby accelerating oxidative stress- and high-glucose-induced senescence of human vascular endothelial cells (HUVEC). Our findings highlight the critical impact of NSUN2-mediated mRNA methylation in promoting premature senescence. PMID:26992231

  20. COBALAMIN- AND COBAMIDE-DEPENDENT METHYLTRANSFERASES

    PubMed Central

    Matthews, Rowena G.; Koutmos, Markos; Datta, Supratim

    2008-01-01

    Methyltransferases that employ cobalamin cofactors, or their analogues the cobamides, as intermediates in catalysis of methyl transfer play vital roles in energy generation in anaerobic unicellular organisms. In a broader range of organisms they are involved in the conversion of homocysteine to methionine. Although the individual methyl transfer reactions catalyzed are simple SN2 displacements, the required change in coordination at the cobalt of the cobalamin or cobamide cofactors and the lability of the reduced Co+1 intermediates introduces the necessity for complex conformational changes during the catalytic cycle. Recent spectroscopic and structural studies on several of these methyltransferases have helped to reveal the strategies by which these conformational changes are facilitated and controlled. PMID:19059104

  1. Arginine and glutamine availability and macrophage functions in the obese insulin-resistant Zucker rat.

    PubMed

    Blanc, Marie-Céline; Moinard, Christophe; Béziel, Aurélie; Darquy, Sylviane; Cynober, Luc; De Bandt, Jean-Pascal

    2005-01-01

    Increased susceptibility to infections in obese patients may be related to decreased availability of arginine and glutamine, which may affect immune cell functions. Our aim was to evaluate the in vitro effects of these amino acids on the function of macrophages from obese insulin-resistant Zucker rats. Macrophages, isolated from male Zucker obese or lean rats by peritoneal lavage, were incubated in Dulbecco's modified Eagle medium (DMEM) without arginine or glutamine. Arginine or glutamine was added to the medium at increasing final concentrations (0, 0.25, 0.5, 1 or 2 mM). After stimulation by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) from E. coli (40 microg/ml), productions of tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha) and of nitric oxide (NO) were measured after 3 or 48 h incubation, respectively. NO production, lower in macrophages from obese rats, decreased in macrophages from lean rats (0 mM: 2,423 +/- 1,174 vs. 2 mM: 198 +/- 31 microM/mg protein/24 h; P < 0.05), but not in those from obese rats, when glutamine was added. TNFalpha production, lower in macrophages from obese rats, was inversely correlated with glutamine concentration. In the presence of arginine, NO production was constantly higher in macrophages from obese rats. It peaked at 0.5 mM arginine and decreased thereafter in both groups. TNFalpha production in macrophages from lean rats was unaffected by arginine, but decreased in macrophages from obese rats (0 mM: 1920 +/- 450 vs. 2 mM: 810 +/- 90 microM/mg protein/3 h; P < 0.05). These results suggest that abnormalities in cell signalling or in arginine and glutamine metabolism in macrophages of obese rats, resulting in decreased TNFalpha production and increased NO release, may contribute to increased susceptibility to infection in insulin-resistant states.

  2. Diabetic nephropathy is resistant to oral L-arginine or L-citrulline supplementation.

    PubMed

    You, Hanning; Gao, Ting; Cooper, Timothy K; Morris, Sidney M; Awad, Alaa S

    2014-12-01

    Our recent publication showed that pharmacological blockade of arginases confers kidney protection in diabetic nephropathy via a nitric oxide (NO) synthase (NOS)3-dependent mechanism. Arginase competes with endothelial NOS (eNOS) for the common substrate L-arginine. Lack of L-arginine results in reduced NO production and eNOS uncoupling, which lead to endothelial dysfunction. Therefore, we hypothesized that L-arginine or L-citrulline supplementation would ameliorate diabetic nephropathy. DBA mice injected with multiple low doses of vehicle or streptozotocin (50 mg/kg ip for 5 days) were provided drinking water with or without L-arginine (1.5%, 6.05 g·kg(-1)·day(-1)) or L-citrulline (1.66%, 5.73 g·kg(-1)·day(-1)) for 9 wk. Nonsupplemented diabetic mice showed significant increases in albuminuria, blood urea nitrogen, glomerular histopathological changes, kidney macrophage recruitment, kidney TNF-α and fibronectin mRNA expression, kidney arginase activity, kidney arginase-2 protein expression, and urinary oxidative stress along with a significant reduction of nephrin and eNOS protein expression and kidney nitrite + nitrate compared with normal mice after 9 wk of diabetes. Surprisingly, L-arginine or L-citrulline supplementation in diabetic mice did not affect any of these parameters despite greatly increasing kidney and plasma arginine levels. These findings demonstrate that chronic L-arginine or L-citrulline supplementation does not prevent or reduce renal injury in a model of type 1 diabetes. PMID:25320354

  3. Delineation of the arginine- and tetrahydrobiopterin-binding sites of neuronal nitric oxide synthase.

    PubMed Central

    Boyhan, A; Smith, D; Charles, I G; Saqi, M; Lowe, P N

    1997-01-01

    Nitric oxide synthase (EC 1.14.13.39) catalyses the conversion of arginine, NADPH and oxygen to nitric oxide and citrulline, using haem, (6R)-5,6,7,8-tetrahydro-l-biopterin (tetrahydrobiopterin), calmodulin, FAD and FMN as cofactors. The enzyme consists of a central calmodulin-binding sequence flanked on the N-terminal side by a haem-binding region that contains the arginine and tetrahydrobiopterin sites and on the C-terminal side by a region homologous with NADPH:cytochrome P-450 reductase. By using domain boundaries defined by limited proteolysis of full-length enzyme, recombinant haem-binding regions of rat brain neuronal nitric oxide synthase were expressed and purified. Two proteins were made in high yield: one, corresponding to residues 221-724, contained bound haem and tetrahydrobiopterin and was able to bind Nomega-nitro-l-arginine (nitroarginine) or arginine; the other, containing residues 350-724, contained bound haem but was unable to bind tetrahydrobiopterin, nitroarginine or arginine. These results showed that rat brain neuronal nitric oxide synthase contains a critical determinant for arginine/tetrahydrobiopterin binding between residues 221 and 350. Limited proteolysis with chymotrypsin of the former protein resulted in a new species with an N-terminal residue 275 that retained the ability to bind nitroarginine, further defining the critical region for arginine binding as being between 275 and 350. Comparison of the sequences of nitric oxide synthase and the tetrahydrobiopterin-requiring amino acid hydroxylases revealed a similarity in the region between residues 470 and 600, suggesting that this might represent the core region of the pterin-binding site. The stoichiometries of binding of substrate and cofactors to the recombinant domains were not more than 0.5 mol/mol of monomer, suggesting that there might be a single high-affinity site per dimer. PMID:9173872

  4. The Histone Methyltransferase Inhibitor A-366 Uncovers a Role for G9a/GLP in the Epigenetics of Leukemia

    PubMed Central

    He, Yupeng; Ferguson, Debra; Jagadeeswaran, Sujatha; Osterling, Donald J.; Gao, Wenqing; Spence, Julie K.; Pliushchev, Marina; Sweis, Ramzi F.; Buchanan, Fritz G.; Michaelides, Michael R.; Shoemaker, Alexander R.; Tse, Chris; Chiang, Gary G.

    2015-01-01

    Histone methyltransferases are epigenetic regulators that modify key lysine and arginine residues on histones and are believed to play an important role in cancer development and maintenance. These epigenetic modifications are potentially reversible and as a result this class of enzymes has drawn great interest as potential therapeutic targets of small molecule inhibitors. Previous studies have suggested that the histone lysine methyltransferase G9a (EHMT2) is required to perpetuate malignant phenotypes through multiple mechanisms in a variety of cancer types. To further elucidate the enzymatic role of G9a in cancer, we describe herein the biological activities of a novel peptide-competitive histone methyltransferase inhibitor, A-366, that selectively inhibits G9a and the closely related GLP (EHMT1), but not other histone methyltransferases. A-366 has significantly less cytotoxic effects on the growth of tumor cell lines compared to other known G9a/GLP small molecule inhibitors despite equivalent cellular activity on methylation of H3K9me2. Additionall