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Sample records for protein binding microarrays

  1. Development of a protein microarray using sequence-specific DNA binding domain on DNA chip surface

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, Yoo Seong; Pack, Seung Pil; Yoo, Young Je . E-mail: yjyoo@snu.ac.kr

    2005-04-22

    A protein microarray based on DNA microarray platform was developed to identify protein-protein interactions in vitro. The conventional DNA chip surface by 156-bp PCR product was prepared for a substrate of protein microarray. High-affinity sequence-specific DNA binding domain, GAL4 DNA binding domain, was introduced to the protein microarray as fusion partner of a target model protein, enhanced green fluorescent protein. The target protein was oriented immobilized directly on the DNA chip surface. Finally, monoclonal antibody of the target protein was used to identify the immobilized protein on the surface. This study shows that the conventional DNA chip can be used to make a protein microarray directly, and this novel protein microarray can be applicable as a tool for identifying protein-protein interactions.

  2. Protein Microarrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ricard-Blum, S.

    Proteins are key actors in the life of the cell, involved in many physiological and pathological processes. Since variations in the expression of messenger RNA are not systematically correlated with variations in the protein levels, the latter better reflect the way a cell functions. Protein microarrays thus supply complementary information to DNA chips. They are used in particular to analyse protein expression profiles, to detect proteins within complex biological media, and to study protein-protein interactions, which give information about the functions of those proteins [3-9]. They have the same advantages as DNA microarrays for high-throughput analysis, miniaturisation, and the possibility of automation. Section 18.1 gives a brief overview of proteins. Following this, Sect. 18.2 describes how protein microarrays can be made on flat supports, explaining how proteins can be produced and immobilised on a solid support, and discussing the different kinds of substrate and detection method. Section 18.3 discusses the particular format of protein microarrays in suspension. The diversity of protein microarrays and their applications are then reported in Sect. 18.4, with applications to therapeutics (protein-drug interactions) and diagnostics. The prospects for future developments of protein microarrays are then outlined in the conclusion. The bibliography provides an extensive list of reviews and detailed references for those readers who wish to go further in this area. Indeed, the aim of the present chapter is not to give an exhaustive or detailed analysis of the state of the art, but rather to provide the reader with the basic elements needed to understand how proteins are designed and used.

  3. Screening of the Binding of Small Molecules to Proteins by Desorption Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry Combined with Protein Microarray

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Chenxi; Wang, Tao; Zhang, Buqing; He, Dacheng; Na, Na; Ouyang, Jin

    2015-11-01

    The interaction between bioactive small molecule ligands and proteins is one of the important research areas in proteomics. Herein, a simple and rapid method is established to screen small ligands that bind to proteins. We designed an agarose slide to immobilize different proteins. The protein microarrays were allowed to interact with different small ligands, and after washing, the microarrays were screened by desorption electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (DESI MS). This method can be applied to screen specific protein binding ligands and was shown for seven proteins and 34 known ligands for these proteins. In addition, a high-throughput screening was achieved, with the analysis requiring approximately 4 s for one sample spot. We then applied this method to determine the binding between the important protein matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) and 88 small compounds. The molecular docking results confirmed the MS results, demonstrating that this method is suitable for the rapid and accurate screening of ligands binding to proteins.

  4. Nanotechnologies in protein microarrays.

    PubMed

    Krizkova, Sona; Heger, Zbynek; Zalewska, Marta; Moulick, Amitava; Adam, Vojtech; Kizek, Rene

    2015-01-01

    Protein microarray technology became an important research tool for study and detection of proteins, protein-protein interactions and a number of other applications. The utilization of nanoparticle-based materials and nanotechnology-based techniques for immobilization allows us not only to extend the surface for biomolecule immobilization resulting in enhanced substrate binding properties, decreased background signals and enhanced reporter systems for more sensitive assays. Generally in contemporarily developed microarray systems, multiple nanotechnology-based techniques are combined. In this review, applications of nanoparticles and nanotechnologies in creating protein microarrays, proteins immobilization and detection are summarized. We anticipate that advanced nanotechnologies can be exploited to expand promising fields of proteins identification, monitoring of protein-protein or drug-protein interactions, or proteins structures. PMID:26039143

  5. Functional Protein Microarray Technology

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Shaohui; Xie, Zhi; Qian, Jiang; Blackshaw, Seth; Zhu, Heng

    2010-01-01

    Functional protein microarrays are emerging as a promising new tool for large-scale and high-throughput studies. In this article, we will review their applications in basic proteomics research, where various types of assays have been developed to probe binding activities to other biomolecules, such as proteins, DNA, RNA, small molecules, and glycans. We will also report recent progress of using functional protein microarrays in profiling protein posttranslational modifications, including phosphorylation, ubiquitylation, acetylation, and nitrosylation. Finally, we will discuss potential of functional protein microarrays in biomarker identification and clinical diagnostics. We strongly believe that functional protein microarrays will soon become an indispensible and invaluable tool in proteomics research and systems biology. PMID:20872749

  6. Detection of the specific binding on protein microarrays by oblique-incidence reflectivity difference method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Heng; Wen, Juan; Wang, Xu; Yuan, Kun; Li, Wei; Lu, Huibin; Zhou, Yueliang; Jin, Kuijuan; Ruan, Kangcheng; Yang, Guozhen

    2010-09-01

    The specific binding between Cy5-labeled goat anti-mouse Immunoglobulin G (IgG) and mouse IgG with a concentration range from 625 to 104 µg ml - 1 has been detected successfully by the oblique-incidence reflectivity difference (OI-RD) method in each procedure of microarray fabrication. The experimental data prove that the OI-RD method can be employed not only to distinguish the different concentrations in label-free fashion but also to detect the antibody-antigen capture. In addition, the differential treatment of the OI-RD signals can decrease the negative influences of glass slide as the microarray upholder. Therefore the OI-RD technique has promising applications for the label-free and high-throughput detection of protein microarrays.

  7. A Comparison Study for DNA Motif Modeling on Protein Binding Microarray.

    PubMed

    Wong, Ka-Chun; Li, Yue; Peng, Chengbin; Wong, Hau-San

    2016-01-01

    Transcription factor binding sites (TFBSs) are relatively short (5-15 bp) and degenerate. Identifying them is a computationally challenging task. In particular, protein binding microarray (PBM) is a high-throughput platform that can measure the DNA binding preference of a protein in a comprehensive and unbiased manner; for instance, a typical PBM experiment can measure binding signal intensities of a protein to all possible DNA k-mers (k = 8∼10). Since proteins can often bind to DNA with different binding intensities, one of the major challenges is to build TFBS (also known as DNA motif) models which can fully capture the quantitative binding affinity data. To learn DNA motif models from the non-convex objective function landscape, several optimization methods are compared and applied to the PBM motif model building problem. In particular, representative methods from different optimization paradigms have been chosen for modeling performance comparison on hundreds of PBM datasets. The results suggest that the multimodal optimization methods are very effective for capturing the binding preference information from PBM data. In particular, we observe a general performance improvement if choosing di-nucleotide modeling over mono-nucleotide modeling. In addition, the models learned by the best-performing method are applied to two independent applications: PBM probe rotation testing and ChIP-Seq peak sequence prediction, demonstrating its biological applicability.

  8. RAP: Accurate and Fast Motif Finding Based on Protein-Binding Microarray Data

    PubMed Central

    Orenstein, Yaron; Mick, Eran

    2013-01-01

    Abstract The novel high-throughput technology of protein-binding microarrays (PBMs) measures binding intensity of a transcription factor to thousands of DNA probe sequences. Several algorithms have been developed to extract binding-site motifs from these data. Such motifs are commonly represented by positional weight matrices. Previous studies have shown that the motifs produced by these algorithms are either accurate in predicting in vitro binding or similar to previously published motifs, but not both. In this work, we present a new simple algorithm to infer binding-site motifs from PBM data. It outperforms prior art both in predicting in vitro binding and in producing motifs similar to literature motifs. Our results challenge previous claims that motifs with lower information content are better models for transcription-factor binding specificity. Moreover, we tested the effect of motif length and side positions flanking the “core” motif in the binding site. We show that side positions have a significant effect and should not be removed, as commonly done. A large drop in the results quality of all methods is observed between in vitro and in vivo binding prediction. The software is available on acgt.cs.tau.ac.il/rap. PMID:23464877

  9. Screening of the binding of small molecules to proteins by desorption electrospray ionization mass spectrometry combined with protein microarray.

    PubMed

    Yao, Chenxi; Wang, Tao; Zhang, Buqing; He, Dacheng; Na, Na; Ouyang, Jin

    2015-11-01

    The interaction between bioactive small molecule ligands and proteins is one of the important research areas in proteomics. Herein, a simple and rapid method is established to screen small ligands that bind to proteins. We designed an agarose slide to immobilize different proteins. The protein microarrays were allowed to interact with different small ligands, and after washing, the microarrays were screened by desorption electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (DESI MS). This method can be applied to screen specific protein binding ligands and was shown for seven proteins and 34 known ligands for these proteins. In addition, a high-throughput screening was achieved, with the analysis requiring approximately 4 s for one sample spot. We then applied this method to determine the binding between the important protein matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) and 88 small compounds. The molecular docking results confirmed the MS results, demonstrating that this method is suitable for the rapid and accurate screening of ligands binding to proteins. Graphical Abstract ᅟ. PMID:26174365

  10. Screening of the binding of small molecules to proteins by desorption electrospray ionization mass spectrometry combined with protein microarray.

    PubMed

    Yao, Chenxi; Wang, Tao; Zhang, Buqing; He, Dacheng; Na, Na; Ouyang, Jin

    2015-11-01

    The interaction between bioactive small molecule ligands and proteins is one of the important research areas in proteomics. Herein, a simple and rapid method is established to screen small ligands that bind to proteins. We designed an agarose slide to immobilize different proteins. The protein microarrays were allowed to interact with different small ligands, and after washing, the microarrays were screened by desorption electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (DESI MS). This method can be applied to screen specific protein binding ligands and was shown for seven proteins and 34 known ligands for these proteins. In addition, a high-throughput screening was achieved, with the analysis requiring approximately 4 s for one sample spot. We then applied this method to determine the binding between the important protein matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) and 88 small compounds. The molecular docking results confirmed the MS results, demonstrating that this method is suitable for the rapid and accurate screening of ligands binding to proteins. Graphical Abstract ᅟ.

  11. Host Tissue and Glycan Binding Specificities of Avian Viral Attachment Proteins Using Novel Avian Tissue Microarrays

    PubMed Central

    Ambepitiya Wickramasinghe, Iresha N.; de Vries, Robert P.; Eggert, Amber M.; Wandee, Nantaporn; de Haan, Cornelis A. M.; Gröne, Andrea; Verheije, Monique H.

    2015-01-01

    The initial interaction between viral attachment proteins and the host cell is a critical determinant for the susceptibility of a host for a particular virus. To increase our understanding of avian pathogens and the susceptibility of poultry species, we developed novel avian tissue microarrays (TMAs). Tissue binding profiles of avian viral attachment proteins were studied by performing histochemistry on multi-species TMA, comprising of selected tissues from ten avian species, and single-species TMAs, grouping organ systems of each species together. The attachment pattern of the hemagglutinin protein was in line with the reported tropism of influenza virus H5N1, confirming the validity of TMAs in profiling the initial virus-host interaction. The previously believed chicken-specific coronavirus (CoV) M41 spike (S1) protein displayed a broad attachment pattern to respiratory tissues of various avian species, albeit with lower affinity than hemagglutinin, suggesting that other avian species might be susceptible for chicken CoV. When comparing tissue-specific binding patterns of various avian coronaviral S1 proteins on the single-species TMAs, chicken and partridge CoV S1 had predominant affinity for the trachea, while pigeon CoV S1 showed marked preference for lung of their respective hosts. Binding of all coronaviral S1 proteins was dependent on sialic acids; however, while chicken CoV S1 preferred sialic acids type I lactosamine (Gal(1-3)GlcNAc) over type II (Gal(1-4)GlcNAc), the fine glycan specificities of pigeon and partridge CoVs were different, as chicken CoV S1-specific sialylglycopolymers could not block their binding to tissues. Taken together, TMAs provide a novel platform in the field of infectious diseases to allow identification of binding specificities of viral attachment proteins and are helpful to gain insight into the susceptibility of host and organ for avian pathogens. PMID:26035584

  12. Surface plasmon resonance imaging analysis of protein binding to a sialoside-based carbohydrate microarray.

    PubMed

    Linman, Matthew J; Yu, Hai; Chen, Xi; Cheng, Quan

    2012-01-01

    Monitoring multiple biological interactions in a multiplexed array format has numerous advantages. However, converting well-developed surface chemistry for spectroscopic measurements to array-based, high-throughput screening is not a trivial process and often proves to be the bottleneck in method development. This chapter reports the fabrication and characterization of a new carbohydrate microarray with synthetic sialosides for surface plasmon resonance imaging analysis of lectin-carbohydrate interactions. Contact printing of functional sialosides on neutravidin-coated surfaces was carried out and the properties of the resulting elements were characterized by fluorescence microscopy. Sambucus nigra agglutinin (SNA) was used for testing on four different carbohydrate-functionalized surfaces and differential binding was analyzed. Multiplexed detection of SNA/biotinylated sialoside interactions on arrays up to 400 elements has been performed with good data correlation, demonstrating the effectiveness of the biotin-neutravidin-based biointerface to control probe orientation for reproducible and efficient protein binding to carbohydrates.

  13. Protein microarrays: prospects and problems.

    PubMed

    Kodadek, T

    2001-02-01

    Protein microarrays are potentially powerful tools in biochemistry and molecular biology. Two types of protein microarrays are defined. One, termed a protein function array, will consist of thousands of native proteins immobilized in a defined pattern. Such arrays can be utilized for massively parallel testing of protein function, hence the name. The other type is termed a protein-detecting array. This will consist of large numbers of arrayed protein-binding agents. These arrays will allow for expression profiling to be done at the protein level. In this article, some of the major technological challenges to the development of protein arrays are discussed, along with potential solutions.

  14. Boosting AthaMap Database Content with Data from Protein Binding Microarrays.

    PubMed

    Hehl, Reinhard; Norval, Leo; Romanov, Artyom; Bülow, Lorenz

    2016-01-01

    The AthaMap database generates a map of predicted transcription factor binding sites (TFBS) and small RNA target sites for the whole Arabidopsis thaliana genome. With the advent of protein binding microarrays (PBM), the number of known TFBS for A. thaliana transcription factors (TFs) has increased dramatically. Using 113 positional weight matrices (PWMs) generated from a single PBM study and representing a total number of 68 different TFs, the number of predicted TFBS in AthaMap was now increased by about 3.8 × 10(7) to 4.9 × 10(7). The number of TFs with PWM-predicted TFBS annotated in AthaMap has increased to 126, representing a total of 29 TF families and newly including ARF, AT-Hook, YABBY, LOB/AS2 and SRS. Furthermore, links from all Arabidopsis TFs and genes to the newly established Arabidopsis Information Portal (AIP) have been implemented. With this qualitative and quantitative update, the improved AthaMap increases its value as a resource for the analysis of A. thaliana gene expression regulation at www.athamap.de. PMID:26542109

  15. Self-Assembling Protein Microarrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramachandran, Niroshan; Hainsworth, Eugenie; Bhullar, Bhupinder; Eisenstein, Samuel; Rosen, Benjamin; Lau, Albert Y.; C. Walter, Johannes; LaBaer, Joshua

    2004-07-01

    Protein microarrays provide a powerful tool for the study of protein function. However, they are not widely used, in part because of the challenges in producing proteins to spot on the arrays. We generated protein microarrays by printing complementary DNAs onto glass slides and then translating target proteins with mammalian reticulocyte lysate. Epitope tags fused to the proteins allowed them to be immobilized in situ. This obviated the need to purify proteins, avoided protein stability problems during storage, and captured sufficient protein for functional studies. We used the technology to map pairwise interactions among 29 human DNA replication initiation proteins, recapitulate the regulation of Cdt1 binding to select replication proteins, and map its geminin-binding domain.

  16. Identification of Immunodominant B-cell Epitope Regions of Reticulocyte Binding Proteins in Plasmodium vivax by Protein Microarray Based Immunoscreening.

    PubMed

    Han, Jin-Hee; Li, Jian; Wang, Bo; Lee, Seong-Kyun; Nyunt, Myat Htut; Na, Sunghun; Park, Jeong-Hyun; Han, Eun-Taek

    2015-08-01

    Plasmodium falciparum can invade all stages of red blood cells, while Plasmodium vivax can invade only reticulocytes. Although many P. vivax proteins have been discovered, their functions are largely unknown. Among them, P. vivax reticulocyte binding proteins (PvRBP1 and PvRBP2) recognize and bind to reticulocytes. Both proteins possess a C-terminal hydrophobic transmembrane domain, which drives adhesion to reticulocytes. PvRBP1 and PvRBP2 are large (> 326 kDa), which hinders identification of the functional domains. In this study, the complete genome information of the P. vivax RBP family was thoroughly analyzed using a prediction server with bioinformatics data to predict B-cell epitope domains. Eleven pvrbp family genes that included 2 pseudogenes and 9 full or partial length genes were selected and used to express recombinant proteins in a wheat germ cell-free system. The expressed proteins were used to evaluate the humoral immune response with vivax malaria patients and healthy individual serum samples by protein microarray. The recombinant fragments of 9 PvRBP proteins were successfully expressed; the soluble proteins ranged in molecular weight from 16 to 34 kDa. Evaluation of the humoral immune response to each recombinant PvRBP protein indicated a high antigenicity, with 38-88% sensitivity and 100% specificity. Of them, N-terminal parts of PvRBP2c (PVX_090325-1) and PvRBP2 like partial A (PVX_090330-1) elicited high antigenicity. In addition, the PvRBP2-like homologue B (PVX_116930) fragment was newly identified as high antigenicity and may be exploited as a potential antigenic candidate among the PvRBP family. The functional activity of the PvRBP family on merozoite invasion remains unknown.

  17. Measurement of Small Molecule Binding Kinetics on a Protein Microarray by Plasmonic-Based Electrochemical Impedance Imaging

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    We report on a quantitative study of small molecule binding kinetics on protein microarrays with plasmonic-based electrochemical impedance microscopy (P-EIM). P-EIM measures electrical impedance optically with high spatial resolution by converting a surface charge change to a surface plasmon resonance (SPR) image intensity change, and the signal is not scaled to the mass of the analyte. Using P-EIM, we measured binding kinetics and affinity between small molecule drugs (imatinib and SB202190) and their target proteins (kinases Abl1 and p38-α). The measured affinity values are consistent with reported values measured by an indirect competitive binding assay. We also found that SB202190 has weak bindings to ABL1 with KD > 10 μM, which is not reported in the literature. Furthermore, we found that P-EIM is less prone to nonspecific binding, a long-standing issue in SPR. Our results show that P-EIM is a novel method for high-throughput measurement of small molecule binding kinetics and affinity, which is critical to the understanding of small molecules in biological systems and discovery of small molecule drugs. PMID:25153794

  18. Glycoconjugate microarray based on an evanescent-field fluorescence-assisted detection principle for investigation of glycan-binding proteins.

    PubMed

    Tateno, Hiroaki; Mori, Atsushi; Uchiyama, Noboru; Yabe, Rikio; Iwaki, Jun; Shikanai, Toshihide; Angata, Takashi; Narimatsu, Hisashi; Hirabayashi, Jun

    2008-10-01

    The extensive involvement of glycan-binding proteins (GBPs) as regulators in diverse biological phenomena provides a fundamental reason to investigate their glycan-binding specificities. Here, we developed a glycoconjugate microarray based on an evanescent-field fluorescence-assisted detection principle for investigation of GBPs. Eighty-nine selected multivalent glycoconjugates comprising natural glycoproteins, neo-glycoproteins, and polyacrylamide (PAA)-conjugated glycan epitopes were immobilized on an epoxy-activated glass slide. The GBP binding was monitored by an evanescent-field fluorescence-assisted scanner at equilibrium without washing steps. The detection principle also allows direct application of unpurified GBPs with the aid of specific antibodies. Model experiments using plant lectins (RCA120, ConA, and SNA), galectins (3 and 8), a C-type lectin (DC-SIGN) and a siglec (CD22) provided data consistent with previous work within 4 h using less than 40 ng of GBPs per analysis. As an application, serum profiling of antiglycan antibodies (IgG and IgM) was performed with Cy3-labeled secondary antibodies. Moreover, novel carbohydrate-binding ability was demonstrated for a human IL-18 binding protein. Thus, the developed glycan array is useful for investigation of various types of GBPs, with the added advantage of wash-free analysis.

  19. UniPROBE, update 2011: expanded content and search tools in the online database of protein-binding microarray data on protein-DNA interactions.

    PubMed

    Robasky, Kimberly; Bulyk, Martha L

    2011-01-01

    The Universal PBM Resource for Oligonucleotide-Binding Evaluation (UniPROBE) database is a centralized repository of information on the DNA-binding preferences of proteins as determined by universal protein-binding microarray (PBM) technology. Each entry for a protein (or protein complex) in UniPROBE provides the quantitative preferences for all possible nucleotide sequence variants ('words') of length k ('k-mers'), as well as position weight matrix (PWM) and graphical sequence logo representations of the k-mer data. In this update, we describe >130% expansion of the database content, incorporation of a protein BLAST (blastp) tool for finding protein sequence matches in UniPROBE, the introduction of UniPROBE accession numbers and additional database enhancements. The UniPROBE database is available at http://uniprobe.org.

  20. Poly(glycidyl methacrylate-co-2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) Brushes as Peptide/Protein Microarray Substrate for Improving Protein Binding and Functionality.

    PubMed

    Lei, Zhen; Gao, Jiaxue; Liu, Xia; Liu, Dianjun; Wang, Zhenxin

    2016-04-27

    We developed a three-dimensional (3D) polymer-brush substrate for protein and peptide microarray fabrication, and this substrate was facilely prepared by copolymerization of glycidyl methacrylate (GMA) and 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA) monomers via surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization (SI-ATRP) on a glass slide. The performance of obtained poly(glycidyl methacrylate-co-2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) (P(GMA-HEMA)) brush substrate was assessed by binding of human IgG with rabbit antihuman IgG antibodies on a protein microarray and by the determination of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) activities on a peptide microarray. The P(GMA-HEMA) brush substrate exhibited higher immobilization capacities for proteins and peptides than those of a two-dimensional (2D) planar epoxy slide. Furthermore, the sensitivity of the P(GMA-HEMA) brush-based microarray on rabbit antihuman IgG antibody detection was much higher than that of its 2D counterpart. The enzyme activities of MMPs were determined specifically with a low detection limit of 6.0 pg mL(-1) for MMP-2 and 5.7 pg mL(-1) for MMP-9. By taking advantage of the biocompatibility of PHEMA, the P(GMA-HEMA) brush-based peptide microarray was also employed to evaluate the secretion of MMP-2 and MMP-9 by cells cultured off the chip or directly on the chip, and satisfactory results were obtained. PMID:27049528

  1. Poly(glycidyl methacrylate-co-2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) Brushes as Peptide/Protein Microarray Substrate for Improving Protein Binding and Functionality.

    PubMed

    Lei, Zhen; Gao, Jiaxue; Liu, Xia; Liu, Dianjun; Wang, Zhenxin

    2016-04-27

    We developed a three-dimensional (3D) polymer-brush substrate for protein and peptide microarray fabrication, and this substrate was facilely prepared by copolymerization of glycidyl methacrylate (GMA) and 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA) monomers via surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization (SI-ATRP) on a glass slide. The performance of obtained poly(glycidyl methacrylate-co-2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) (P(GMA-HEMA)) brush substrate was assessed by binding of human IgG with rabbit antihuman IgG antibodies on a protein microarray and by the determination of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) activities on a peptide microarray. The P(GMA-HEMA) brush substrate exhibited higher immobilization capacities for proteins and peptides than those of a two-dimensional (2D) planar epoxy slide. Furthermore, the sensitivity of the P(GMA-HEMA) brush-based microarray on rabbit antihuman IgG antibody detection was much higher than that of its 2D counterpart. The enzyme activities of MMPs were determined specifically with a low detection limit of 6.0 pg mL(-1) for MMP-2 and 5.7 pg mL(-1) for MMP-9. By taking advantage of the biocompatibility of PHEMA, the P(GMA-HEMA) brush-based peptide microarray was also employed to evaluate the secretion of MMP-2 and MMP-9 by cells cultured off the chip or directly on the chip, and satisfactory results were obtained.

  2. UniPROBE, update 2015: new tools and content for the online database of protein-binding microarray data on protein-DNA interactions.

    PubMed

    Hume, Maxwell A; Barrera, Luis A; Gisselbrecht, Stephen S; Bulyk, Martha L

    2015-01-01

    The Universal PBM Resource for Oligonucleotide Binding Evaluation (UniPROBE) serves as a convenient source of information on published data generated using universal protein-binding microarray (PBM) technology, which provides in vitro data about the relative DNA-binding preferences of transcription factors for all possible sequence variants of a length k ('k-mers'). The database displays important information about the proteins and displays their DNA-binding specificity data in terms of k-mers, position weight matrices and graphical sequence logos. This update to the database documents the growth of UniPROBE since the last update 4 years ago, and introduces a variety of new features and tools, including a new streamlined pipeline that facilitates data deposition by universal PBM data generators in the research community, a tool that generates putative nonbinding (i.e. negative control) DNA sequences for one or more proteins and novel motifs obtained by analyzing the PBM data using the BEEML-PBM algorithm for motif inference. The UniPROBE database is available at http://uniprobe.org.

  3. [Protein microarrays and personalized medicine].

    PubMed

    Yu, Xiabo; Schneiderhan-Marra, Nicole; Joos, Thomas O

    2011-01-01

    Over the last 10 years, DNA microarrays have achieved a robust analytical performance, enabling their use for analyzing the whole transcriptome or for screening thousands of single-nucleotide polymorphisms in a single experiment. DNA microarrays allow scientists to correlate gene expression signatures with disease progression, to screen for disease-specific mutations, and to treat patients according to their individual genetic profiles; however, the real key is proteins and their manifold functions. It is necessary to achieve a greater understanding of not only protein function and abundance but also their role in the development of diseases. Protein concentrations have been shown to reflect the physiological and pathologic state of an organ, tissue, or cells far more directly than DNA, and proteins can be profiled effectively with protein microarrays, which require only a small amount of sample material. Protein microarrays have become wellestablished tools in basic and applied research, and the first products have already entered the in vitro diagnostics market. This review focuses on protein microarray applications for biomarker discovery and validation, disease diagnosis, and use within the area of personalized medicine. Protein microarrays have proved to be reliable research tools in screening for a multitude of parameters with only a minimal quantity of sample and have enormous potential in applications for diagnostic and personalized medicine.

  4. High-throughput allogeneic antibody detection using protein microarrays.

    PubMed

    Paul, Jed; Sahaf, Bita; Perloff, Spenser; Schoenrock, Kelsi; Wu, Fang; Nakasone, Hideki; Coller, John; Miklos, David

    2016-05-01

    Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) have traditionally been used to detect alloantibodies in patient plasma samples post hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT); however, protein microarrays have the potential to be multiplexed, more sensitive, and higher throughput than ELISAs. Here, we describe the development of a novel and sensitive microarray method for detection of allogeneic antibodies against minor histocompatibility antigens encoded on the Y chromosome, called HY antigens. Six microarray surfaces were tested for their ability to bind recombinant protein and peptide HY antigens. Significant allogeneic immune responses were determined in male patients with female donors by considering normal male donor responses as baseline. HY microarray results were also compared with our previous ELISA results. Our overall goal was to maximize antibody detection for both recombinant protein and peptide epitopes. For detection of HY antigens, the Epoxy (Schott) protein microarray surface was both most sensitive and reliable and has become the standard surface in our microarray platform. PMID:26902899

  5. Orally administered lactoperoxidase increases expression of the FK506 binding protein 5 gene in epithelial cells of the small intestine of mice: a DNA microarray study.

    PubMed

    Wakabayashi, Hiroyuki; Miyauchi, Hirofumi; Shin, Kouichirou; Yamauchi, Koji; Matsumoto, Ichiro; Abe, Keiko; Takase, Mitsunori

    2007-09-01

    Lactoperoxidase (LPO) is a component of milk and other external secretions. To study the influence of ingested LPO on the digestive tract, we performed DNA microarray analysis of the small intestine of mice administered LPO. LPO administration upregulated 78 genes, including genes involved in metabolism, immunity, apoptosis, and the cell cycle, and downregulated nine genes, including immunity-related genes. The most upregulated gene was FK506 binding protein 5 (FKBP5), a glucocorticoid regulating immunophilin. The upregulation of this gene was confirmed by quantitative RT-PCR in other samples. In situ hybridization revealed that expression of the FKBP5 gene in the crypt epithelial cells of the small intestine was enhanced by LPO. These results suggest that ingested LPO modulates gene expression in the small intestine and especially increases FKBP5 gene expression in the epithelial cells of the intestine.

  6. Applications in high-content functional protein microarrays.

    PubMed

    Moore, Cedric D; Ajala, Olutobi Z; Zhu, Heng

    2016-02-01

    Protein microarray technology provides a versatile platform for characterization of hundreds to thousands of proteins in a parallel and high-throughput manner. Over the last decade, applications of functional protein microarrays in particular have flourished in studying protein function at a systems level and have led to the construction of networks and pathways describing these functions. Relevant areas of research include the detection of various binding properties of proteins, the study of enzyme-substrate relationships, the analysis of host-microbe interactions, and profiling antibody specificity. In addition, discovery of novel biomarkers in autoimmune diseases and cancers is emerging as a major clinical application of functional protein microarrays. In this review, we will summarize the recent advances of functional protein microarrays in both basic and clinical applications. PMID:26599287

  7. Protein Microarrays: Novel Developments and Applications

    PubMed Central

    Berrade, Luis; Garcia, Angie E.

    2011-01-01

    Protein microarray technology possesses some of the greatest potential for providing direct information on protein function and potential drug targets. For example, functional protein microarrays are ideal tools suited for the mapping of biological pathways. They can be used to study most major types of interactions and enzymatic activities that take place in biochemical pathways and have been used for the analysis of simultaneous multiple biomolecular interactions involving protein-protein, protein-lipid, protein-DNA and protein-small molecule interactions. Because of this unique ability to analyze many kinds of molecular interactions en masse, the requirement of very small sample amount and the potential to be miniaturized and automated, protein microarrays are extremely well suited for protein profiling, drug discovery, drug target identification and clinical prognosis and diagnosis. The aim of this review is to summarize the most recent developments in the production, applications and analysis of protein microarrays. PMID:21116694

  8. Label-free optical detection of small-molecule compound microarrays immobilized on solid support using macromolecular scaffolds and subsequent protein binding reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Y. S.; Landry, J. P.; Fei, Y. Y.; Zhu, X. D.; Luo, J. T.; Wang, X. B.; Lam, K. S.

    2009-02-01

    Small-molecule microarrays composed of tens of thousands of distinct synthetic molecules, natural products, and their combinations/modifications provide a high-throughput platform for studying protein-ligand interactions. Immobilization of small molecule compounds on solid supports remains a challenge as widely varied small molecules generally lack unique chemical groups that readily react with singly or even multiply functionalized solid support. We explored two strategies for immobilizing small molecule compounds on epoxy-functionalized glass surface using primary-aminecontaining macromolecular scaffolds: bovine serum albumin (BSA) and amine-modified poly-vinyl alcohol (PVA). Small molecules with N-hydroxysuccinimide (NHS) groups were conjugated to BSA or amine-modified PVA. Small-molecule-BSA conjugates and small-molecule-PVA conjugates were subsequently immobilized on epoxy-functionalized glass slides through amine-epoxy reactions. Using an oblique-incidence reflectivity difference (OI-RD) scanning microscope as a label-free detector, we performed a comparative study of the effectiveness of BSA and PVA as macromolecular scaffolds for anchoring small molecule compounds in terms of conjugation efficiency, surface immobilization efficiency, effect of the scaffold on end-point and kinetics of subsequent binding reactions with protein probes.

  9. A protein multiplex microarray substrate with high sensitivity and specificity

    PubMed Central

    Fici, Dolores A.; McCormick, William; Brown, David W.; Herrmann, John E.; Kumar, Vikram; Awdeh, Zuheir L.

    2010-01-01

    The problems that have been associated with protein multiplex microarray immunoassay substrates and existing technology platforms include: binding, sensitivity, a low signal to noise ratio, target immobilization and the optimal simultaneous detection of diverse protein targets. Current commercial substrates for planar multiplex microarrays rely on protein attachment chemistries that range from covalent attachment to affinity ligand capture, to simple adsorption. In this pilot study, experimental performance parameters for direct monoclonal mouse IgG detection were compared for available two and three dimensional slide surface coatings with a new colloidal nitrocellulose substrate. New technology multiplex microarrays were also developed and evaluated for the detection of pathogen specific antibodies in human serum and the direct detection of enteric viral antigens. Data supports the nitrocellulose colloid as an effective reagent with the capacity to immobilize sufficient diverse protein target quantities for increased specificory signal without compromising authentic protein structure. The nitrocellulose colloid reagent is compatible with the array spotters and scanners routinely used for microarray preparation and processing. More importantly, as an alternate to fluorescence, colorimetric chemistries may be used for specific and sensitive protein target detection. The advantages of the nitrocellulose colloid platform indicate that this technology may be a valuable tool for the further development and expansion of multiplex microarray immunoassays in both the clinical and research laborat environment. PMID:20974147

  10. Microarrays for identifying binding sites and probing structure of RNAs

    PubMed Central

    Kierzek, Ryszard; Turner, Douglas H.; Kierzek, Elzbieta

    2015-01-01

    Oligonucleotide microarrays are widely used in various biological studies. In this review, application of oligonucleotide microarrays for identifying binding sites and probing structure of RNAs is described. Deep sequencing allows fast determination of DNA and RNA sequence. High-throughput methods for determination of secondary structures of RNAs have also been developed. Those methods, however, do not reveal binding sites for oligonucleotides. In contrast, microarrays directly determine binding sites while also providing structural insights. Microarray mapping can be used over a wide range of experimental conditions, including temperature, pH, various cations at different concentrations and the presence of other molecules. Moreover, it is possible to make universal microarrays suitable for investigations of many different RNAs, and readout of results is rapid. Thus, microarrays are used to provide insight into oligonucleotide sequences potentially able to interfere with biological function. Better understanding of structure–function relationships of RNA can be facilitated by using microarrays to find RNA regions capable to bind oligonucleotides. That information is extremely important to design optimal sequences for antisense oligonucleotides and siRNA because both bind to single-stranded regions of target RNAs. PMID:25505162

  11. A Protein Microarray ELISA for Screening Biological Fluids

    SciTech Connect

    Varnum, Susan M.; Woodbury, Ronald L.; Zangar, Richard C.

    2004-02-01

    Protein microarrays permit the simultaneous measurement of many proteins in a small sample volume and therefore provide an attractive approach for the quantitative measurement of proteins in biological fluids, including serum. This chapter describes a microarray ELISA assay. Capture antibodies are immobilized onto a glass surface, the covalently attached antibodies bind a specific antigen from a sample overlaying the array. A second, biotinylated antibody that recognizes the same antigen as the first antibody but at a different epitope is then used for detection. Detection is based upon an enzymatic signal enhancement method known as tyramide signal amplification (TSA). By coupling a microarray-ELISA format with the signal amplification of tyramide deposition, the assay sensitivity is as low as sub-pg/ml.

  12. Protein microarrays for parasite antigen discovery.

    PubMed

    Driguez, Patrick; Doolan, Denise L; Molina, Douglas M; Loukas, Alex; Trieu, Angela; Felgner, Phil L; McManus, Donald P

    2015-01-01

    The host serological profile to a parasitic infection, such as schistosomiasis, can be used to define potential vaccine and diagnostic targets. Determining the host antibody response using traditional approaches is hindered by the large number of putative antigens in any parasite proteome. Parasite protein microarrays offer the potential for a high-throughput host antibody screen to simplify this task. In order to construct the array, parasite proteins are selected from available genomic sequence and protein databases using bioinformatic tools. Selected open reading frames are PCR amplified, incorporated into a vector for cell-free protein expression, and printed robotically onto glass slides. The protein microarrays can be probed with antisera from infected/immune animals or humans and the antibody reactivity measured with fluorophore labeled antibodies on a confocal laser microarray scanner to identify potential targets for diagnosis or therapeutic or prophylactic intervention. PMID:25388117

  13. Protein microarray: sensitive and effective immunodetection for drug residues

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Veterinary drugs such as clenbuterol (CL) and sulfamethazine (SM2) are low molecular weight (<1000 Da) compounds, or haptens, that are difficult to develop immunoassays due to their low immunogenicity. In this study, we conjugated the drugs to ovalbumin to increase their immunogenicity for antiserum production in rabbits and developed a protein microarray immunoassay for detection of clenbuterol and sulfamethazine. The sensitivity of this approach was then compared to traditional ELISA technique. Results The artificial antigens were spotted on microarray slides. Standard concentrations of the compounds were added to compete with the spotted antigens for binding to the antisera to determine the IC50. Our microarray assay showed the IC50 were 39.6 ng/ml for CL and 48.8 ng/ml for SM2, while the traditional competitive indirect-ELISA (ci-ELISA) showed the IC50 were 190.7 ng/ml for CL and 156.7 ng/ml for SM2. We further validated the two methods with CL fortified chicken muscle tissues, and the protein microarray assay showed 90% recovery while the ci-ELISA had 76% recovery rate. When tested with CL-fed chicken muscle tissues, the protein microarray assay had higher sensitivity (0.9 ng/g) than the ci-ELISA (0.1 ng/g) for detection of CL residues. Conclusions The protein microarrays showed 4.5 and 3.5 times lower IC50 than the ci-ELISA detection for CL and SM2, respectively, suggesting that immunodetection of small molecules with protein microarray is a better approach than the traditional ELISA technique. PMID:20158905

  14. Plant protein kinase substrates identification using protein microarrays.

    PubMed

    Ma, Shisong; Dinesh-Kumar, Savithramma P

    2015-01-01

    Protein kinases regulate signaling pathways by phosphorylating their targets. They play critical roles in plant signaling networks. Although many important protein kinases have been identified in plants, their substrates are largely unknown. We have developed and produced plant protein microarrays with more than 15,000 purified plant proteins. Here, we describe a detailed protocol to use these microarrays to identify plant protein kinase substrates via in vitro phosphorylation assays on these arrays. PMID:25930701

  15. Protein Microarrays for the Detection of Biothreats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herr, Amy E.

    Although protein microarrays have proven to be an important tool in proteomics research, the technology is emerging as useful for public health and defense applications. Recent progress in the measurement and characterization of biothreat agents is reviewed in this chapter. Details concerning validation of various protein microarray formats, from contact-printed sandwich assays to supported lipid bilayers, are presented. The reviewed technologies have important implications for in vitro characterization of toxin-ligand interactions, serotyping of bacteria, screening of potential biothreat inhibitors, and as core components of biosensors, among others, research and engineering applications.

  16. Profiling protein function with small molecule microarrays

    PubMed Central

    Winssinger, Nicolas; Ficarro, Scott; Schultz, Peter G.; Harris, Jennifer L.

    2002-01-01

    The regulation of protein function through posttranslational modification, local environment, and protein–protein interaction is critical to cellular function. The ability to analyze on a genome-wide scale protein functional activity rather than changes in protein abundance or structure would provide important new insights into complex biological processes. Herein, we report the application of a spatially addressable small molecule microarray to an activity-based profile of proteases in crude cell lysates. The potential of this small molecule-based profiling technology is demonstrated by the detection of caspase activation upon induction of apoptosis, characterization of the activated caspase, and inhibition of the caspase-executed apoptotic phenotype using the small molecule inhibitor identified in the microarray-based profile. PMID:12167675

  17. Data Analysis Strategies for Protein Microarrays

    PubMed Central

    Díez, Paula; Dasilva, Noelia; González-González, María; Matarraz, Sergio; Casado-Vela, Juan; Orfao, Alberto; Fuentes, Manuel

    2012-01-01

    Microarrays constitute a new platform which allows the discovery and characterization of proteins. According to different features, such as content, surface or detection system, there are many types of protein microarrays which can be applied for the identification of disease biomarkers and the characterization of protein expression patterns. However, the analysis and interpretation of the amount of information generated by microarrays remain a challenge. Further data analysis strategies are essential to obtain representative and reproducible results. Therefore, the experimental design is key, since the number of samples and dyes, among others aspects, would define the appropriate analysis method to be used. In this sense, several algorithms have been proposed so far to overcome analytical difficulties derived from fluorescence overlapping and/or background noise. Each kind of microarray is developed to fulfill a specific purpose. Therefore, the selection of appropriate analytical and data analysis strategies is crucial to achieve successful biological conclusions. In the present review, we focus on current algorithms and main strategies for data interpretation.

  18. Data Analysis Strategies for Protein Microarrays

    PubMed Central

    Díez, Paula; Dasilva, Noelia; González-González, María; Matarraz, Sergio; Casado-Vela, Juan; Orfao, Alberto; Fuentes, Manuel

    2012-01-01

    Microarrays constitute a new platform which allows the discovery and characterization of proteins. According to different features, such as content, surface or detection system, there are many types of protein microarrays which can be applied for the identification of disease biomarkers and the characterization of protein expression patterns. However, the analysis and interpretation of the amount of information generated by microarrays remain a challenge. Further data analysis strategies are essential to obtain representative and reproducible results. Therefore, the experimental design is key, since the number of samples and dyes, among others aspects, would define the appropriate analysis method to be used. In this sense, several algorithms have been proposed so far to overcome analytical difficulties derived from fluorescence overlapping and/or background noise. Each kind of microarray is developed to fulfill a specific purpose. Therefore, the selection of appropriate analytical and data analysis strategies is crucial to achieve successful biological conclusions. In the present review, we focus on current algorithms and main strategies for data interpretation. PMID:27605336

  19. Protein Microarrays--Without a Trace

    SciTech Connect

    Camarero, J A

    2007-04-05

    Many experimental approaches in biology and biophysics, as well as applications in diagnosis and drug discovery, require proteins to be immobilized on solid supports. Protein microarrays, for example, provide a high-throughput format to study biomolecular interactions. The technique employed for protein immobilization is a key to the success of these applications. Recent biochemical developments are allowing, for the first time, the selective and traceless immobilization of proteins generated by cell-free systems without the need for purification and/or reconcentration prior to the immobilization step.

  20. Compact, universal DNA microarrays to comprehensively determine transcription-factor binding site specificities

    PubMed Central

    Berger, Michael F.; Philippakis, Anthony A.; Qureshi, Aaron M.; He, Fangxue S.; Estep, Preston W.; Bulyk, Martha L.

    2015-01-01

    Transcription factors (TFs) regulate the expression of genes involved in myriad cellular processes through sequence-specific interactions with DNA. In order to predict DNA regulatory elements and the TFs targeting them with greater accuracy, detailed knowledge of the binding preferences of TFs is needed. Protein binding microarray (PBM) technology permits rapid, high-throughput characterization of the in vitro DNA binding specificities of proteins1. Here, we present a novel, maximally compact, synthetic DNA sequence design that represents all possible DNA sequence variants of a given length k (i.e., all “k-mers”) on a single, universal microarray. We constructed such all k-mer microarrays covering all 10 base pair (bp) binding sites by converting high-density single-stranded oligonucleotide arrays to double-stranded DNA arrays. Using these microarrays, we comprehensively determined the binding specificities over a full range of affinities for five TFs of diverse structural classes from yeast, worm, mouse, and human. Importantly, the unbiased coverage of all k-mers permits an interrogation of binding site preferences, including nucleotide interdependencies, at unprecedented resolution. PMID:16998473

  1. Advancing translational research with next-generation protein microarrays.

    PubMed

    Yu, Xiaobo; Petritis, Brianne; LaBaer, Joshua

    2016-04-01

    Protein microarrays are a high-throughput technology used increasingly in translational research, seeking to apply basic science findings to enhance human health. In addition to assessing protein levels, posttranslational modifications, and signaling pathways in patient samples, protein microarrays have aided in the identification of potential protein biomarkers of disease and infection. In this perspective, the different types of full-length protein microarrays that are used in translational research are reviewed. Specific studies employing these microarrays are presented to highlight their potential in finding solutions to real clinical problems. Finally, the criteria that should be considered when developing next-generation protein microarrays are provided. PMID:26749402

  2. PMD: A Resource for Archiving and Analyzing Protein Microarray data.

    PubMed

    Xu, Zhaowei; Huang, Likun; Zhang, Hainan; Li, Yang; Guo, Shujuan; Wang, Nan; Wang, Shi-Hua; Chen, Ziqing; Wang, Jingfang; Tao, Sheng-Ce

    2016-01-27

    Protein microarray is a powerful technology for both basic research and clinical study. However, because there is no database specifically tailored for protein microarray, the majority of the valuable original protein microarray data is still not publically accessible. To address this issue, we constructed Protein Microarray Database (PMD), which is specifically designed for archiving and analyzing protein microarray data. In PMD, users can easily browse and search the entire database by experimental name, protein microarray type, and sample information. Additionally, PMD integrates several data analysis tools and provides an automated data analysis pipeline for users. With just one click, users can obtain a comprehensive analysis report for their protein microarray data. The report includes preliminary data analysis, such as data normalization, candidate identification, and an in-depth bioinformatics analysis of the candidates, which include functional annotation, pathway analysis, and protein-protein interaction network analysis. PMD is now freely available at www.proteinmicroarray.cn.

  3. PMD: A Resource for Archiving and Analyzing Protein Microarray data

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Zhaowei; Huang, Likun; Zhang, Hainan; Li, Yang; Guo, Shujuan; Wang, Nan; Wang, Shi-hua; Chen, Ziqing; Wang, Jingfang; Tao, Sheng-ce

    2016-01-01

    Protein microarray is a powerful technology for both basic research and clinical study. However, because there is no database specifically tailored for protein microarray, the majority of the valuable original protein microarray data is still not publically accessible. To address this issue, we constructed Protein Microarray Database (PMD), which is specifically designed for archiving and analyzing protein microarray data. In PMD, users can easily browse and search the entire database by experimental name, protein microarray type, and sample information. Additionally, PMD integrates several data analysis tools and provides an automated data analysis pipeline for users. With just one click, users can obtain a comprehensive analysis report for their protein microarray data. The report includes preliminary data analysis, such as data normalization, candidate identification, and an in-depth bioinformatics analysis of the candidates, which include functional annotation, pathway analysis, and protein-protein interaction network analysis. PMD is now freely available at www.proteinmicroarray.cn. PMID:26813635

  4. Integrated imaging instrument for self-calibrated fluorescence protein microarrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reddington, A. P.; Monroe, M. R.; Ünlü, M. S.

    2013-10-01

    Protein microarrays, or multiplexed and high-throughput assays, monitor multiple protein binding events to facilitate the understanding of disease progression and cell physiology. Fluorescence imaging is a popular method to detect proteins captured by immobilized probes with high sensitivity and specificity. Reliability of fluorescence assays depends on achieving minimal inter- and intra-assay probe immobilization variation, an ongoing challenge for protein microarrays. Therefore, it is desirable to establish a label-free method to quantify the probe density prior to target incubation to calibrate the fluorescence readout. Previously, a silicon oxide on silicon chip design was introduced to enhance the fluorescence signal and enable interferometric imaging to self-calibrate the signal with the immobilized probe density. In this paper, an integrated interferometric reflectance imaging sensor and wide-field fluorescence instrument is introduced for sensitive and calibrated microarray measurements. This platform is able to analyze a 2.5 mm × 3.4 mm area, or 200 spots (100 μm diameter with 200 μm pitch), in a single field-of-view.

  5. Direct writing of a protein micro-array: lab-on-a-chip for multipurpose sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rocchia, Massimiliano; Borini, Stefano; Rossi, Andrea Mario; Rossi, Mosè; D'Auria, Sabato

    2007-02-01

    A protein microarray has been realized on a porous silicon (PS) chip by means of electron beam irradiation using a standard SEM equipped with a nanopattern generator system. Two proteins have been used to generate the array: the glucose-binding protein (GBP) and the glutamine-binding protein (GlnBP), both isolated from Escherichia coli. The proteins functionality have been tested by means of a competitive assay.

  6. Studying cellular processes and detecting disease with protein microarrays

    SciTech Connect

    Zangar, Richard C.; Varnum, Susan M.; Bollinger, Nikki

    2005-10-31

    Protein microarrays are a rapidly developing analytic tool with diverse applications in biomedical research. These applications include profiling of disease markers or autoimmune responses, understanding molecular pathways, protein modifications and protein activities. One factor that is driving this expanding usage is the wide variety of experimental formats that protein microarrays can take. In this review, we provide a short, conceptual overview of the different approaches for protein microarray. We then examine some of the most significant applications of these microarrays to date, with an emphasis on how global protein analyses can be used to facilitate biomedical research.

  7. ProMAT: protein microarray analysis tool

    SciTech Connect

    White, Amanda M.; Daly, Don S.; Varnum, Susan M.; Anderson, Kevin K.; Bollinger, Nikki; Zangar, Richard C.

    2006-04-04

    Summary: ProMAT is a software tool for statistically analyzing data from ELISA microarray experiments. The software estimates standard curves, sample protein concentrations and their uncertainties for multiple assays. ProMAT generates a set of comprehensive figures for assessing results and diagnosing process quality. The tool is available for Windows or Mac, and is distributed as open-source Java and R code. Availability: ProMAT is available at http://www.pnl.gov/statistics/ProMAT. ProMAT requires Java version 1.5.0 and R version 1.9.1 (or more recent versions) which are distributed with the tool.

  8. Applications of Functional Protein Microarrays in Basic and Clinical Research

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Heng; Qian, Jiang

    2013-01-01

    The protein microarray technology provides a versatile platform for characterization of hundreds of thousands of proteins in a highly parallel and high-throughput manner. It is viewed as a new tool that overcomes the limitation of DNA microarrays. On the basis of its application, protein microarrays fall into two major classes: analytical and functional protein microarrays. In addition, tissue or cell lysates can also be directly spotted on a slide to form the so-called “reverse-phase” protein microarray. In the last decade, applications of functional protein microarrays in particular have flourished in studying protein function and construction of networks and pathways. In this chapter, we will review the recent advancements in the protein microarray technology, followed by presenting a series of examples to illustrate the power and versatility of protein microarrays in both basic and clinical research. As a powerful technology platform, it would not be surprising if protein microarrays will become one of the leading technologies in proteomic and diagnostic fields in the next decade. PMID:22989767

  9. Microarray analysis of E-box binding-related gene expression in young and replicatively senescent human fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Semov, Alexandre; Marcotte, Richard; Semova, Natalie; Ye, Xiangyun; Wang, Eugenia

    2002-03-01

    An E-box (CACGTG) designer microarray was developed to monitor a group of genes whose expressions share a particular regulatory mode. Sensitivity and specificity of microarray hybridization, as well as variability of microarray data, were evaluated. This designer microarray was used to generate expression profiles of E-box binding-related genes in WI-38 fibroblast cultures at three different growth states: low-passage replicating, low-passage contact-inhibited quiescent, and replicatively senescent. Microarray gene screening reveals that quiescent and senescent cells, in comparison with replicating ones, are characterized by downregulation of Pam, a protein associated with c-Myc, and upregulation of Mad family genes, Max dimerization proteins. Moreover, quiescence and senescence can be distinguished by increased expression of Irlb, c-Myc transcription factor, and Miz-1, c-Myc-interacting Zn finger protein 1, only in the former state. Senescence is characterized by downregulation of Id4, inhibitor of DNA binding 4, and Mitf, microphthalmia-associated transcription factor, in comparison with young replicating and quiescent states. Differential expression of genes detected by microarray hybridization was independently confirmed by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction technique. Alterations in the expression of E-box-binding transcription factors and c-Myc-binding proteins demonstrate the importance of these genes in establishing the contact-inhibited quiescent or senescent phenotypes.

  10. Fluorescent Protein Nanowire-Mediated Protein Microarrays for Multiplexed and Highly Sensitive Pathogen Detection.

    PubMed

    Men, Dong; Zhou, Juan; Li, Wei; Leng, Yan; Chen, Xinwen; Tao, Shengce; Zhang, Xian-En

    2016-07-13

    Protein microarrays are powerful tools for high-throughput and simultaneous detection of different target molecules in complex biological samples. However, the sensitivity of conventional fluorescence-labeling protein detection methods is limited by the availability of signal molecules for binding to the target molecule. Here, we built a multifunctional fluorescent protein nanowire (FNw) by harnessing self-assembly of yeast amyloid protein. The FNw integrated a large number of fluorescent molecules, thereby enhancing the fluorescent signal output in target detection. The FNw was then combined with protein microarray technology to detect proteins derived from two pathogens, including influenza virus (hemagglutinin 1, HA1) and human immunodeficiency virus (p24 and gp120). The resulting detection sensitivity achieved a 100-fold improvement over a commercially available detection reagent. PMID:27315221

  11. An ultralow background substrate for protein microarray technology.

    PubMed

    Feng, Hui; Zhang, Qingyang; Ma, Hongwei; Zheng, Bo

    2015-08-21

    We herein report an ultralow background substrate for protein microarrays. Conventional protein microarray substrates often suffer from non-specific protein adsorption and inhomogeneous spot morphology. Consequently, surface treatment and a suitable printing solution are required to improve the microarray performance. In the current work, we improved the situation by developing a new microarray substrate based on a fluorinated ethylene propylene (FEP) membrane. A polydopamine microspot array was fabricated on the FEP membrane, with proteins conjugated to the FEP surface through polydopamine. Uniform microspots were obtained on FEP without the application of a special printing solution. The modified FEP membrane demonstrated ultralow background signal and was applied in protein and peptide microarray analysis. PMID:26134063

  12. Protein Binding Pocket Dynamics.

    PubMed

    Stank, Antonia; Kokh, Daria B; Fuller, Jonathan C; Wade, Rebecca C

    2016-05-17

    The dynamics of protein binding pockets are crucial for their interaction specificity. Structural flexibility allows proteins to adapt to their individual molecular binding partners and facilitates the binding process. This implies the necessity to consider protein internal motion in determining and predicting binding properties and in designing new binders. Although accounting for protein dynamics presents a challenge for computational approaches, it expands the structural and physicochemical space for compound design and thus offers the prospect of improved binding specificity and selectivity. A cavity on the surface or in the interior of a protein that possesses suitable properties for binding a ligand is usually referred to as a binding pocket. The set of amino acid residues around a binding pocket determines its physicochemical characteristics and, together with its shape and location in a protein, defines its functionality. Residues outside the binding site can also have a long-range effect on the properties of the binding pocket. Cavities with similar functionalities are often conserved across protein families. For example, enzyme active sites are usually concave surfaces that present amino acid residues in a suitable configuration for binding low molecular weight compounds. Macromolecular binding pockets, on the other hand, are located on the protein surface and are often shallower. The mobility of proteins allows the opening, closing, and adaptation of binding pockets to regulate binding processes and specific protein functionalities. For example, channels and tunnels can exist permanently or transiently to transport compounds to and from a binding site. The influence of protein flexibility on binding pockets can vary from small changes to an already existent pocket to the formation of a completely new pocket. Here, we review recent developments in computational methods to detect and define binding pockets and to study pocket dynamics. We introduce five

  13. Protein Binding Pocket Dynamics.

    PubMed

    Stank, Antonia; Kokh, Daria B; Fuller, Jonathan C; Wade, Rebecca C

    2016-05-17

    The dynamics of protein binding pockets are crucial for their interaction specificity. Structural flexibility allows proteins to adapt to their individual molecular binding partners and facilitates the binding process. This implies the necessity to consider protein internal motion in determining and predicting binding properties and in designing new binders. Although accounting for protein dynamics presents a challenge for computational approaches, it expands the structural and physicochemical space for compound design and thus offers the prospect of improved binding specificity and selectivity. A cavity on the surface or in the interior of a protein that possesses suitable properties for binding a ligand is usually referred to as a binding pocket. The set of amino acid residues around a binding pocket determines its physicochemical characteristics and, together with its shape and location in a protein, defines its functionality. Residues outside the binding site can also have a long-range effect on the properties of the binding pocket. Cavities with similar functionalities are often conserved across protein families. For example, enzyme active sites are usually concave surfaces that present amino acid residues in a suitable configuration for binding low molecular weight compounds. Macromolecular binding pockets, on the other hand, are located on the protein surface and are often shallower. The mobility of proteins allows the opening, closing, and adaptation of binding pockets to regulate binding processes and specific protein functionalities. For example, channels and tunnels can exist permanently or transiently to transport compounds to and from a binding site. The influence of protein flexibility on binding pockets can vary from small changes to an already existent pocket to the formation of a completely new pocket. Here, we review recent developments in computational methods to detect and define binding pockets and to study pocket dynamics. We introduce five

  14. Analysis of protein tyrosine phosphatase interactions with microarrayed phosphopeptide substrates using imaging mass spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    McKee, Christopher J.; Hines, Harry B.; Ulrich, Robert G.

    2013-01-01

    Microarrays of peptide and recombinant protein libraries are routinely used for high-throughput studies of protein-protein interactions and enzymatic activities. Imaging mass spectrometry (IMS) is currently applied as a method to localize analytes on thin tissue sections and other surfaces. Here, we have applied IMS as a label-free means to analyze protein-peptide interactions in a microarray-based phosphatase assay. This IMS strategy visualizes the entire microarray in one composite image by collecting a pre-defined raster of MALDI-TOF MS spectra over the surface of the chip. Examining the bacterial tyrosine phosphatase YopH, we used IMS as a label-free means to visualize enzyme binding and activity with a microarrayed phosphopeptide library printed on chips coated with either gold or indium-tin oxide. Further, we demonstrate that microarray-based IMS can be coupled with surface plasmon resonance imaging to add kinetic analyses to measured binding interactions. The method described here is within the capabilities of many modern MALDI-TOF instruments and has general utility for the label-free analysis of microarray assays. PMID:23906642

  15. The use of lectin microarray for assessing glycosylation of therapeutic proteins

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Lei; Luo, Shen; Zhang, Baolin

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Glycans or carbohydrates attached to therapeutic glycoproteins can directly affect product quality, safety and efficacy, and therefore must be adequately analyzed and controlled throughout product life cycles. However, the complexity of protein glycosylation poses a daunting analytical challenge. In this study, we evaluated the utility of a lectin microarray for assessing protein glycans. Using commercial lectin chips, which contain 45 lectins toward distinct glycan structures, we were able to determine the lectin binding patterns of a panel of 15 therapeutic proteins, including 8 monoclonal antibodies. Lectin binding signals were analyzed to generate glycan profiles that were generally consistent with the known glycan patterns for these glycoproteins. In particular, the lectin-based microarray was found to be highly sensitive to variations in the terminal carbohydrate structures such as galactose versus sialic acid epitopes. These data suggest that lectin microarray could be used for screening glycan patterns of therapeutic glycoproteins. PMID:26918373

  16. Efficient monitoring of protein ubiquitylation levels using TUBEs-based microarrays.

    PubMed

    Serna, Sonia; Xolalpa, Wendy; Lang, Valérie; Aillet, Fabienne; England, Patrick; Reichardt, Niels; Rodriguez, Manuel S

    2016-08-01

    Analyzing protein ubiquitylation changes during physiological or pathological processes is challenging due to its high reversibility and dynamic turnover of modified targets. We have developed a protein microarray to assess endogenous ubiquitylation levels from cell cultures, employing tandem ubiquitin-binding entities (TUBEs) with three or four ubiquitin-associated (UBA) domains as capture probes. Adriamycin (ADR)-stimulated MCF7 cells were used to differentiate protein ubiquitylation levels between cells that are sensitive or resistant to ADR treatment. We show that TUBEs-based microarrays can be used for the analysis of cellular processes regulated by ubiquitylation and for the detection of pathologies with aberrant ubiquitylation levels. PMID:27410252

  17. Efficient monitoring of protein ubiquitylation levels using TUBEs-based microarrays.

    PubMed

    Serna, Sonia; Xolalpa, Wendy; Lang, Valérie; Aillet, Fabienne; England, Patrick; Reichardt, Niels; Rodriguez, Manuel S

    2016-08-01

    Analyzing protein ubiquitylation changes during physiological or pathological processes is challenging due to its high reversibility and dynamic turnover of modified targets. We have developed a protein microarray to assess endogenous ubiquitylation levels from cell cultures, employing tandem ubiquitin-binding entities (TUBEs) with three or four ubiquitin-associated (UBA) domains as capture probes. Adriamycin (ADR)-stimulated MCF7 cells were used to differentiate protein ubiquitylation levels between cells that are sensitive or resistant to ADR treatment. We show that TUBEs-based microarrays can be used for the analysis of cellular processes regulated by ubiquitylation and for the detection of pathologies with aberrant ubiquitylation levels.

  18. Combining Microarray and Genomic Data to Predict DNA Binding Motifs

    SciTech Connect

    Mao, Linyong; Mackenzie, Ronald C.; Roh, J. H.; Eraso, Jesus M.; Kaplan, Samuel; Resat, Haluk

    2005-10-01

    The ability to detect regulatory elements within genome sequences is important in understanding how gene expression is controlled in biological systems. In this work, we combine microarray data analysis with genome sequence analysis to predict DNA sequences in the photosynthetic bacterium Rhodobacter sphaeroides that bind the regulators PrrA, PpsR and FnrL. These predictions were made by using hierarchical clustering to detect genes that share similar expression patterns. The DNA sequences upstream of these genes were then searched for possible transcription factor recognition motifs that may be involved in their co-regulation. The approach used promises to be widely applicable for the prediction of cis-acting DNA binding elements. Using this method we were independently able to detect and extend the previously described consensus sequences that have been suggested to bind FnrL and PpsR. In addition we have predicted sequences that may be recognized by the global regulator PrrA. Our results support the earlier suggestions that the DNA binding sequence of PrrA may have a variable sized gap between its conserved block elements. Using the predicted DNA binding sequences, we have performed a whole genome scale analysis to determine the relative importance of the interplay between these three regulators PpsR, FnrL and PrrA. Results of this analysis showed that, compared to the regulation by PpsR and FnrL, a much larger number of genes are candidates to be regulated by PrrA. Our study demonstrates by example that integration of multiple data types can be a powerful approach for inferring transcriptional regulatory patterns in microbial systems, and it allowed us to detect the photosynthesis related regulatory patterns in R. sphaeroides.

  19. Severe acute respiratory syndrome diagnostics using a coronavirus protein microarray.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Heng; Hu, Shaohui; Jona, Ghil; Zhu, Xiaowei; Kreiswirth, Nate; Willey, Barbara M; Mazzulli, Tony; Liu, Guozhen; Song, Qifeng; Chen, Peng; Cameron, Mark; Tyler, Andrea; Wang, Jian; Wen, Jie; Chen, Weijun; Compton, Susan; Snyder, Michael

    2006-03-14

    To monitor severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) infection, a coronavirus protein microarray that harbors proteins from SARS coronavirus (SARS-CoV) and five additional coronaviruses was constructed. These microarrays were used to screen approximately 400 Canadian sera from the SARS outbreak, including samples from confirmed SARS-CoV cases, respiratory illness patients, and healthcare professionals. A computer algorithm that uses multiple classifiers to predict samples from SARS patients was developed and used to predict 206 sera from Chinese fever patients. The test assigned patients into two distinct groups: those with antibodies to SARS-CoV and those without. The microarray also identified patients with sera reactive against other coronavirus proteins. Our results correlated well with an indirect immunofluorescence test and demonstrated that viral infection can be monitored for many months after infection. We show that protein microarrays can serve as a rapid, sensitive, and simple tool for large-scale identification of viral-specific antibodies in sera.

  20. Microintaglio Printing of In situ Synthesized Proteins Enables Rapid Printing of High-Density Protein Microarrays Directly from DNA Microarrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biyani, Manish; Moriyasu, Junpei; Tanaka, Yoko; Sato, Shusuke; Ueno, Shingo; Ichiki, Takanori

    2013-08-01

    A simple and versatile approach to the simultaneous on-chip synthesis and printing of proteins has been studied for high-density protein microarray applications. The method used is based on the principle of intaglio printing using microengraved plates. Unlike conventional approaches that require multistep reactions for synthesizing proteins off the chip followed by printing using a robotic spotter, our approach demonstrates the following: (i) parallel and spotter-free printing of high-density protein microarrays directly from a type of DNA microarray and (ii) microcompartmentalization of cell-free coupled transcription/translation reaction and direct transferring of picoliter protein solution per spot to pattern microarrays of 25-100 µm features.

  1. The folate binding proteins.

    PubMed

    Corrocher, R; Olivieri, O; Pacor, M L

    1991-01-01

    Folates are essential molecules for cell life and, not surprisingly, their transport in biological fluids and their transfer to cells are finely regulated. Folate binding proteins play a major role in this regulation. This paper will review our knowledge on these proteins and examine the most recent advances in this field. PMID:1820987

  2. Printing Proteins as Microarrays for High-Throughput Function Determination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacBeath, Gavin; Schreiber, Stuart L.

    2000-09-01

    Systematic efforts are currently under way to construct defined sets of cloned genes for high-throughput expression and purification of recombinant proteins. To facilitate subsequent studies of protein function, we have developed miniaturized assays that accommodate extremely low sample volumes and enable the rapid, simultaneous processing of thousands of proteins. A high-precision robot designed to manufacture complementary DNA microarrays was used to spot proteins onto chemically derivatized glass slides at extremely high spatial densities. The proteins attached covalently to the slide surface yet retained their ability to interact specifically with other proteins, or with small molecules, in solution. Three applications for protein microarrays were demonstrated: screening for protein-protein interactions, identifying the substrates of protein kinases, and identifying the protein targets of small molecules.

  3. Microarrays

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plomin, Robert; Schalkwyk, Leonard C.

    2007-01-01

    Microarrays are revolutionizing genetics by making it possible to genotype hundreds of thousands of DNA markers and to assess the expression (RNA transcripts) of all of the genes in the genome. Microarrays are slides the size of a postage stamp that contain millions of DNA sequences to which single-stranded DNA or RNA can hybridize. This…

  4. Label-free detection repeatability of protein microarrays by oblique-incidence reflectivity difference method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Jun; Li, Lin; Wang, JingYi; He, LiPing; Lu, HuiBin; Ruan, KangCheng; Jin, KuiJuan; Yang, GuoZhen

    2012-12-01

    We examine the repeatabilities of oblique-incidence reflectivity difference (OIRD) method for label-free detecting biological molecular interaction using protein microarrays. The experimental results show that the repeatabilities are the same in a given microarray or microarray-microarray and are consistent, indicating that OIRD is a promising label-free detection technique for biological microarrays.

  5. Cellulose binding domain proteins

    DOEpatents

    Shoseyov, O.; Shpiegl, I.; Goldstein, M.; Doi, R.

    1998-11-17

    A cellulose binding domain (CBD) having a high affinity for crystalline cellulose and chitin is disclosed, along with methods for the molecular cloning and recombinant production. Fusion products comprising the CBD and a second protein are likewise described. A wide range of applications are contemplated for both the CBD and the fusion products, including drug delivery, affinity separations, and diagnostic techniques. 16 figs.

  6. Cellulose binding domain proteins

    DOEpatents

    Shoseyov, Oded; Shpiegl, Itai; Goldstein, Marc; Doi, Roy

    1998-01-01

    A cellulose binding domain (CBD) having a high affinity for crystalline cellulose and chitin is disclosed, along with methods for the molecular cloning and recombinant production thereof. Fusion products comprising the CBD and a second protein are likewise described. A wide range of applications are contemplated for both the CBD and the fusion products, including drug delivery, affinity separations, and diagnostic techniques.

  7. Exploiting fluorescence for multiplex immunoassays on protein microarrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herbáth, Melinda; Papp, Krisztián; Balogh, Andrea; Matkó, János; Prechl, József

    2014-09-01

    Protein microarray technology is becoming the method of choice for identifying protein interaction partners, detecting specific proteins, carbohydrates and lipids, or for characterizing protein interactions and serum antibodies in a massively parallel manner. Availability of the well-established instrumentation of DNA arrays and development of new fluorescent detection instruments promoted the spread of this technique. Fluorescent detection has the advantage of high sensitivity, specificity, simplicity and wide dynamic range required by most measurements. Fluorescence through specifically designed probes and an increasing variety of detection modes offers an excellent tool for such microarray platforms. Measuring for example the level of antibodies, their isotypes and/or antigen specificity simultaneously can offer more complex and comprehensive information about the investigated biological phenomenon, especially if we take into consideration that hundreds of samples can be measured in a single assay. Not only body fluids, but also cell lysates, extracted cellular components, and intact living cells can be analyzed on protein arrays for monitoring functional responses to printed samples on the surface. As a rapidly evolving area, protein microarray technology offers a great bulk of information and new depth of knowledge. These are the features that endow protein arrays with wide applicability and robust sample analyzing capability. On the whole, protein arrays are emerging new tools not just in proteomics, but glycomics, lipidomics, and are also important for immunological research. In this review we attempt to summarize the technical aspects of planar fluorescent microarray technology along with the description of its main immunological applications.

  8. Label and Label-Free Detection Techniques for Protein Microarrays

    PubMed Central

    Syahir, Amir; Usui, Kenji; Tomizaki, Kin-ya; Kajikawa, Kotaro; Mihara, Hisakazu

    2015-01-01

    Protein microarray technology has gone through numerous innovative developments in recent decades. In this review, we focus on the development of protein detection methods embedded in the technology. Early microarrays utilized useful chromophores and versatile biochemical techniques dominated by high-throughput illumination. Recently, the realization of label-free techniques has been greatly advanced by the combination of knowledge in material sciences, computational design and nanofabrication. These rapidly advancing techniques aim to provide data without the intervention of label molecules. Here, we present a brief overview of this remarkable innovation from the perspectives of label and label-free techniques in transducing nano-biological events.

  9. Site-specific immobilization of biotinylated proteins for protein microarray analysis.

    PubMed

    Lue, Rina Y P; Chen, Grace Y J; Zhu, Qing; Lesaicherre, Marie-Laure; Yao, Shao Q

    2004-01-01

    The postgenome era has led to a new frontier of proteomics that requires the development of protein microarray, which enables us to unravel the biological function of proteins in a massively parallel fashion. Several ways of immobilizing proteins onto surfaces have been reported, but many of these attachments are unspecific, resulting in the unfavorable orientation of the immobilized proteins. His6 tag has been used to site-specifically immobilize proteins onto nickel-coated slides, which presumably oriented proteins uniformly on the surface of the slide. However, the binding between Ni-NTA and His tag proteins is not strong, causing the immobilized proteins to dissociate from the slide even under simple wash conditions. The authors have developed a novel strategy of using an intein-mediated expression system to generate biotinylated proteins suitable for immobilization onto avidin-functionalized glass slides. Array-scan results not only show successful immobilization of proteins onto slides by antibody detection method but also full retention of biological activities of the immobilized proteins. The strong and specific interaction between biotin and avidin also permits the use of stringent incubation and washing conditions on the protein microchip, thus making it a highly robust method for array studies.

  10. Design of a combinatorial dna microarray for protein-dnainteraction studies

    SciTech Connect

    Mintseris, Julian; Eisen, Michael B.

    2006-07-07

    Background: Discovery of precise specificity oftranscription factors is an important step on the way to understandingthe complex mechanisms of gene regulation in eukaryotes. Recently,doublestranded protein-binding microarrays were developed as apotentially scalable approach to tackle transcription factor binding siteidentification. Results: Here we present an algorithmic approach toexperimental design of a microarray that allows for testing fullspecificity of a transcription factor binding to all possible DNA bindingsites of a given length, with optimally efficient use of the array. Thisdesign is universal, works for any factor that binds a sequence motif andis not species-specific. Furthermore, simulation results show that dataproduced with the designed arrays is easier to analyze and would resultin more precise identification of binding sites. Conclusion: In thisstudy, we present a design of a double stranded DNA microarray forprotein-DNA interaction studies and show that our algorithm allowsoptimally efficient use of the arrays for this purpose. We believe such adesign will prove useful for transcription factor binding siteidentification and other biological problems.

  11. Probing High-density Functional Protein Microarrays to Detect Protein-protein Interactions.

    PubMed

    Fasolo, Joseph; Im, Hogune; Snyder, Michael P

    2015-01-01

    High-density functional protein microarrays containing ~4,200 recombinant yeast proteins are examined for kinase protein-protein interactions using an affinity purified yeast kinase fusion protein containing a V5-epitope tag for read-out. Purified kinase is obtained through culture of a yeast strain optimized for high copy protein production harboring a plasmid containing a Kinase-V5 fusion construct under a GAL inducible promoter. The yeast is grown in restrictive media with a neutral carbon source for 6 hr followed by induction with 2% galactose. Next, the culture is harvested and kinase is purified using standard affinity chromatographic techniques to obtain a highly purified protein kinase for use in the assay. The purified kinase is diluted with kinase buffer to an appropriate range for the assay and the protein microarrays are blocked prior to hybridization with the protein microarray. After the hybridization, the arrays are probed with monoclonal V5 antibody to identify proteins bound by the kinase-V5 protein. Finally, the arrays are scanned using a standard microarray scanner, and data is extracted for downstream informatics analysis to determine a high confidence set of protein interactions for downstream validation in vivo. PMID:26274875

  12. Nanotechnology in the Fabrication of Protein Microarrays.

    PubMed

    Fuentes, Manuel; Díez, Paula; Casado-Vela, Juan

    2016-01-01

    Protein biochips are the heart of many medical and bioanalytical applications. Increasing interest of protein biochip fabrication has been focused on surface activation and subsequent functionalization strategies for the immobilization of these molecules.

  13. Nanotechnology in the Fabrication of Protein Microarrays.

    PubMed

    Fuentes, Manuel; Díez, Paula; Casado-Vela, Juan

    2016-01-01

    Protein biochips are the heart of many medical and bioanalytical applications. Increasing interest of protein biochip fabrication has been focused on surface activation and subsequent functionalization strategies for the immobilization of these molecules. PMID:26614077

  14. NAPPA as a Real New Method for Protein Microarray Generation

    PubMed Central

    Díez, Paula; González-González, María; Lourido, Lucía; Dégano, Rosa M.; Ibarrola, Nieves; Casado-Vela, Juan; LaBaer, Joshua; Fuentes, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    Nucleic Acid Programmable Protein Arrays (NAPPA) have emerged as a powerful and innovative technology for the screening of biomarkers and the study of protein-protein interactions, among others possible applications. The principal advantages are the high specificity and sensitivity that this platform offers. Moreover, compared to conventional protein microarrays, NAPPA technology avoids the necessity of protein purification, which is expensive and time-consuming, by substituting expression in situ with an in vitro transcription/translation kit. In summary, NAPPA arrays have been broadly employed in different studies improving knowledge about diseases and responses to treatments. Here, we review the principal advances and applications performed using this platform during the last years.

  15. Method for printing functional protein microarrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delehanty, James B.; Ligler, Frances S.

    2003-01-01

    Piezoelectric dispensing of proteins from borosilicate glass capillaries is a popular method of protein biochip fabrication that offers the advantages of sample recovery and noncontact with the printing substrate. However, little regard has been given to the quantitative aspects of dispensing minute volumes (1 nL or less) at the low protein concentrations (20 micrograms/mL or less) typically used in microprinting. Specifically, loss of protein sample due to nonspecific adsorption to the glass surface of the dispensing capillaries can limit the amount of protein delivered to the substrate. We demonstrate the benefits of a low ionic strength buffer containing the carrier protein BSA that effectively minimizes the ionic strength-dependent phenomenon of nonspecific protein adsorption to borosilicate glass. Over the concentration range of 20-2.5 micrograms/mL, the dispensing of a reference IgG in 10 mM PBS including 0.1% BSA resulted in the deposition of 3.6- to 44-fold more IgG compared to the deposition of IgG in standard 150 mM PBS in the absence of BSA. Furthermore, when the IgG was dispensed with carrier protein, the resulting spots exhibited a more uniform morphology. In a direct immunoassay for cholera toxin, capture antibody spots dispensed in 10 mM PBS containing 0.1% BSA produced fluorescent signals that were 2.8- to 4.3-fold more intense than antibody spots that were dispensed in 150 mM PBS without BSA. Interestingly, no differences were observed in the specific activities of the capture antibodies as a result of printing in the different buffers. The implications of these results on the future development of protein biochips are discussed.

  16. Producing reverse phase protein microarrays from formalin-fixed tissues.

    PubMed

    Wolff, Claudia; Schott, Christina; Malinowsky, Katharina; Berg, Daniela; Becker, Karl-Friedrich

    2011-01-01

    In most hospitals around the world FFPE (formalin fixed, paraffin embedded) tissues have been used for diagnosis and have subsequently been archived since decades. This has lead to a sizeable pool of this kind of tissues. Till quite recently it was not possible to use this congeries of samples for protein analysis, but now several groups described successful protein extraction from FFPE tissues. In this chapter, we describe a protein extraction protocol established in our laboratory combined with the use of reverse phase protein microarray.

  17. Discovering cancer biomarkers from clinical samples by protein microarrays.

    PubMed

    Hu, Bin; Niu, Xin; Cheng, Li; Yang, Li-Na; Li, Qing; Wang, Yang; Tao, Sheng-Ce; Zhou, Shu-Min

    2015-02-01

    Cancer biomarkers are of potential use in early cancer diagnosis, anticancer therapy development, and monitoring the responses to treatments. Protein-based cancer biomarkers are major forms in use, as they are much easier to be monitored in body fluids or tissues. For cancer biomarker discovery, high-throughput techniques such as protein microarrays hold great promises, because they are capable of global unbiased monitoring but with a miniaturized format. In doing so, novel and cancer type specific biomarkers can be systematically discovered at an affordable cost. In this review, we give a relatively complete picture on protein microarrays applied to clinical samples for cancer biomarker discovery, and conclude this review with the future perspectives. PMID:25523829

  18. A microarray immunoassay for simultaneous detection of proteins and bacteria

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delehanty, James B.; Ligler, Frances S.

    2002-01-01

    We report the development and characterization of an antibody microarray biosensor for the rapid detection of both protein and bacterial analytes under flow conditions. Using a noncontact microarray printer, biotinylated capture antibodies were immobilized at discrete locations on the surface of an avidin-coated glass microscope slide. Preservation of capture antibody function during the deposition process was accomplished with the use of a low-salt buffer containing sucrose and bovine serum albumin. The slide was fitted with a six-channel flow module that conducted analyte-containing solutions over the array of capture antibody microspots. Detection of bound analyte was subsequently achieved using fluorescent tracer antibodies. The pattern of fluorescent complexes was interrogated using a scanning confocal microscope equipped with a 635-nm laser. This microarray system was employed to detect protein and bacterial analytes both individually and in samples containing mixtures of analytes. Assays were completed in 15 min, and detection of cholera toxin, staphylococcal enterotoxin B, ricin, and Bacillus globigii was demonstrated at levels as low as 8 ng/mL, 4 ng/mL, 10 ng/mL, and 6.2 x 10(4) cfu/mL, respectively. The assays presented here are very fast, as compared to previously published methods for measuring antibody-antigen interactions using microarrays (minutes versus hours).

  19. Chromatin immunoprecipitation and microarray-based analysis of protein location

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Tong Ihn; Johnstone, Sarah E; Young, Richard A

    2010-01-01

    Genome-wide location analysis, also known as ChIP-Chip, combines chromatin immunoprecipitation and DNA microarray analysis to identify protein-DNA interactions that occur in living cells. Protein-DNA interactions are captured in vivo by chemical crosslinking. Cell lysis, DNA fragmentation and immunoaffinity purification of the desired protein will co-purify DNA fragments that are associated with that protein. The enriched DNA population is then labeled, combined with a differentially labeled reference sample and applied to DNA microarrays to detect enriched signals. Various computational and bioinformatic approaches are then applied to normalize the enriched and reference channels, to connect signals to the portions of the genome that are represented on the DNA microarrays, to provide confidence metrics and to generate maps of protein-genome occupancy. Here, we describe the experimental protocols that we use from crosslinking of cells to hybridization of labeled material, together with insights into the aspects of these protocols that influence the results. These protocols require approximately 1 week to complete once sufficient numbers of cells have been obtained, and have been used to produce robust, high-quality ChIP-chip results in many different cell and tissue types. PMID:17406303

  20. Preparation and use of reverse protein microarrays.

    PubMed

    Pin, Elisa; Federici, Giulia; Petricoin, Emanuel F

    2014-01-01

    Reverse-phase protein array (RPPA) is a multiplex, high-throughput proteomic technique for profiling the activation status of signal transduction pathways involved in cancer survival and progression, potentially allowing for identification of new biomarkers and drug targets. On RPPA, the entire patient proteome is immobilized on a spot and single proteins can be quantified across a set of samples, spotted on the same array, with high specificity and sensitivity. Array immunostaining and signal amplification systems are used to generate a signal proportional to the concentration of the analyte. Dedicated scanners and software are used to detect spots, measure intensity, subtract background, normalize signal, and generate a numeric value as output. The generated output file is then analyzed using several different bioinformatic and biostatistical tools. In this unit, the RPPA procedure is described in depth, from sample handling and preparation to data analysis, with particular emphasis on tissue sample analysis. PMID:24510676

  1. Cross-comparison of Protein Recognition of Sialic Acid Diversity on Two Novel Sialoglycan Microarrays*

    PubMed Central

    Padler-Karavani, Vered; Song, Xuezheng; Yu, Hai; Hurtado-Ziola, Nancy; Huang, Shengshu; Muthana, Saddam; Chokhawala, Harshal A.; Cheng, Jiansong; Verhagen, Andrea; Langereis, Martijn A.; Kleene, Ralf; Schachner, Melitta; de Groot, Raoul J.; Lasanajak, Yi; Matsuda, Haruo; Schwab, Richard; Chen, Xi; Smith, David F.; Cummings, Richard D.; Varki, Ajit

    2012-01-01

    DNA and protein arrays are commonly accepted as powerful exploratory tools in research. This has mainly been achieved by the establishment of proper guidelines for quality control, allowing cross-comparison between different array platforms. As a natural extension, glycan microarrays were subsequently developed, and recent advances using such arrays have greatly enhanced our understanding of protein-glycan recognition in nature. However, although it is assumed that biologically significant protein-glycan binding is robustly detected by glycan microarrays, there are wide variations in the methods used to produce, present, couple, and detect glycans, and systematic cross-comparisons are lacking. We address these issues by comparing two arrays that together represent the marked diversity of sialic acid modifications, linkages, and underlying glycans in nature, including some identical motifs. We compare and contrast binding interactions with various known and novel plant, vertebrate, and viral sialic acid-recognizing proteins and present a technical advance for assessing specificity using mild periodate oxidation of the sialic acid chain. These data demonstrate both the diversity of sialic acids and the analytical power of glycan arrays, showing that different presentations in different formats provide useful and complementary interpretations of glycan-binding protein specificity. They also highlight important challenges and questions for the future of glycan array technology and suggest that glycan arrays with similar glycan structures cannot be simply assumed to give similar results. PMID:22549775

  2. Reverse phase protein microarrays advance to use in clinical trials

    PubMed Central

    Mueller, Claudius; Liotta, Lance A.; Espina, Virginia

    2010-01-01

    Individualizing cancer therapy for molecular targeted inhibitors requires a new class of molecular profiling technology that can map the functional state of the cancer cell signal pathways containing the drug targets. Reverse phase protein microarrays (RPMA) are a technology platform designed for quantitative, multiplexed analysis of specific phosphorylated, cleaved, or total (phosphorylated and non-phosphorylated) forms of cellular proteins from a limited amount of sample. This class of microarray can be used to interrogate tissue samples, cells, serum, or body fluids. RPMA were previously a research tool; now this technology has graduated to use in research clinical trials with clinical grade sensitivity and precision. In this review we describe the application of RPMA for multiplexed signal pathway analysis in therapeutic monitoring, biomarker discovery, and evaluation of pharmaceutical targets, and conclude with a summary of the technical aspects of RPMA construction and analysis. PMID:20974554

  3. Functional protein microarray as molecular decathlete: a versatile player in clinical proteomics.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Heng; Cox, Eric; Qian, Jiang

    2012-12-01

    Functional protein microarrays were developed as a high-throughput tool to overcome the limitations of DNA microarrays and to provide a versatile platform for protein functional analyses. Recent years have witnessed tremendous growth in the use of protein microarrays, particularly functional protein microarrays, to address important questions in the field of clinical proteomics. In this review, we will summarize some of the most innovative and exciting recent applications of protein microarrays in clinical proteomics, including biomarker identification, pathogen-host interactions, and cancer biology. PMID:23027439

  4. A novel surface modification approach for protein and cell microarrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurkuri, Mahaveer D.; Driever, Chantelle; Thissen, Helmut W.; Voelcker, Nicholas H.

    2007-01-01

    Tissue engineering and stem cell technologies have led to a rapidly increasing interest in the control of the behavior of mammalian cells growing on tissue culture substrates. Multifunctional polymer coatings can assist research in this area in many ways, for example, by providing low non-specific protein adsorption properties and reactive functional groups at the surface. The latter can be used for immobilization of specific biological factors that influence cell behavior. In this study, glass slides were coated with copolymers of glycidyl methacrylate (GMA) and poly(ethylene glycol) methacrylate (PEGMA). The coatings were prepared by three different methods based on dip and spin coating as well as polymer grafting procedures. Coatings were characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, surface sensitive infrared spectroscopy, ellipsometry and contact angle measurements. A fluorescently labelled protein was deposited onto reactive coatings using a contact microarrayer. Printing of a model protein (fluorescein labeled bovine serum albumin) was performed at different protein concentrations, pH, temperature, humidity and using different micropins. The arraying of proteins was studied with a microarray scanner. Arrays printed at a protein concentration above 50 μg/mL prepared in pH 5 phosphate buffer at 10°C and 65% relative humidity gave the most favourable results in terms of the homogeneity of the printed spots and the fluorescence intensity.

  5. Quantum Dots-based Reverse Phase Protein Microarray

    SciTech Connect

    Shingyoji, Masato; Gerion, Daniele; Pinkel, Dan; Gray, Joe W.; Chen, Fanqing

    2005-07-15

    CdSe nanocrystals, also called quantum dots (Qdots) are a novel class of fluorophores, which have a diameter of a few nanometers and possess high quantum yield, tunable emission wavelength and photostability. They are an attractive alternative to conventional fluorescent dyes. Quantum dots can be silanized to be soluble in aqueous solution under biological conditions, and thus be used in bio-detection. In this study, we established a novel Qdot-based technology platform that can perform accurate and reproducible quantification of protein concentration in a crude cell lysate background. Protein lysates have been spiked with a target protein, and a dilution series of the cell lysate with a dynamic range of three orders of magnitude has been used for this proof-of-concept study. The dilution series has been spotted in microarray format, and protein detection has been achieved with a sensitivity that is at least comparable to standard commercial assays, which are based on horseradish peroxidase (HRP) catalyzed diaminobenzidine (DAB) chromogenesis. The data obtained through the Qdot method has shown a close linear correlation between relative fluorescence unit and relative protein concentration. The Qdot results are in almost complete agreement with data we obtained with the well-established HRP-DAB colorimetric array (R{sup 2} = 0.986). This suggests that Qdots can be used for protein quantification in microarray format, using the platform presented here.

  6. Multiplexed protein profiling on microarrays by rolling-circle amplification

    PubMed Central

    Schweitzer, Barry; Roberts, Scott; Grimwade, Brian; Shao, Weiping; Wang, Minjuan; Fu, Qin; Shu, Quiping; Laroche, Isabelle; Zhou, Zhimin; Tchernev, Velizar T.; Christiansen, Jason; Velleca, Mark; Kingsmore, Stephen F.

    2010-01-01

    Fluorescent-sandwich immunoassays on microarrays hold appeal for proteomics studies, because equipment and antibodies are readily available, and assays are simple, scalable, and reproducible. The achievement of adequate sensitivity and specificity, however, requires a general method of immunoassay amplification. We describe coupling of isothermal rolling-circle amplification (RCA) to universal antibodies for this purpose. A total of 75 cytokines were measured simultaneously on glass arrays with signal amplification by RCA with high specificity, femtomolar sensitivity, 3 log quantitative range, and economy of sample consumption. A 51-feature RCA cytokine glass array was used to measure secretion from human dendritic cells (DCs) induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α). As expected, LPS induced rapid secretion of inflammatory cytokines such as macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-1β, interleukin (IL)-8, and interferon-inducible protein (IP)-10. We found that eotaxin-2 and I-309 were induced by LPS; in addition, macrophage-derived chemokine (MDC), thymus and activation-regulated chemokine (TARC), soluble interleukin 6 receptor (sIL-6R), and soluble tumor necrosis factor receptor I (sTNF-RI) were induced by TNF-α treatment. Because microarrays can accommodat ~1,000 sandwich immunoassays of this type, a relatively small number of RCA microarrays seem to offer a tractable approach for proteomic surveys. PMID:11923841

  7. A Sialylated Glycan Microarray Reveals Novel Interactions of Modified Sialic Acids with Proteins and Viruses*

    PubMed Central

    Song, Xuezheng; Yu, Hai; Chen, Xi; Lasanajak, Yi; Tappert, Mary M.; Air, Gillian M.; Tiwari, Vinod K.; Cao, Hongzhi; Chokhawala, Harshal A.; Zheng, Haojie; Cummings, Richard D.; Smith, David F.

    2011-01-01

    Many glycan-binding proteins in animals and pathogens recognize sialic acid or its modified forms, but their molecular recognition is poorly understood. Here we describe studies on sialic acid recognition using a novel sialylated glycan microarray containing modified sialic acids presented on different glycan backbones. Glycans terminating in β-linked galactose at the non-reducing end and with an alkylamine-containing fluorophore at the reducing end were sialylated by a one-pot three-enzyme system to generate α2–3- and α2–6-linked sialyl glycans with 16 modified sialic acids. The resulting 77 sialyl glycans were purified and quantified, characterized by mass spectrometry, covalently printed on activated slides, and interrogated with a number of key sialic acid-binding proteins and viruses. Sialic acid recognition by the sialic acid-binding lectins Sambucus nigra agglutinin and Maackia amurensis lectin-I, which are routinely used for detecting α2–6- and α2–3-linked sialic acids, are affected by sialic acid modifications, and both lectins bind glycans terminating with 2-keto-3-deoxy-d-glycero-d-galactonononic acid (Kdn) and Kdn derivatives stronger than the derivatives of more common N-acetylneuraminic acid (Neu5Ac) and N-glycolylneuraminic acid (Neu5Gc). Three human parainfluenza viruses bind to glycans terminating with Neu5Ac or Neu5Gc and some of their derivatives but not to Kdn and its derivatives. Influenza A virus also does not bind glycans terminating in Kdn or Kdn derivatives. An especially novel aspect of human influenza A virus binding is its ability to equivalently recognize glycans terminated with either α2–6-linked Neu5Ac9Lt or α2–6-linked Neu5Ac. Our results demonstrate the utility of this sialylated glycan microarray to investigate the biological importance of modified sialic acids in protein-glycan interactions. PMID:21757734

  8. Straightforward protein immobilization on Sylgard 184 PDMS microarray surface.

    PubMed

    Heyries, Kevin A; Marquette, Christophe A; Blum, Loïc J

    2007-04-10

    In this work, a straightforward technique for protein immobilization on Sylgard 184 is described. The method consists of a direct transfer of dried protein/salt solutions to the PDMS interface during the polymer curing. Such non-conventional treatment of proteins was found to have no major negative consequence on their integrity. The mechanisms of this direct immobilization were investigated using a lysine modified dextran molecule as a model. Clear experimental results suggested that both chemical bounding and molding effect were implicated. As a proof of concept study, three different proteins were immobilized on a single microarray (Arachis hypogaea lectin, rabbit IgG, and human IgG) and used as antigens for capture of chemiluminescent immunoassays. The proteins were shown to be easily recognized by their specific antibodies, giving antibody detection limits in the fmol range.

  9. Microarray Analysis of Akt PH Domain Binding Employing Synthetic Biotinylated Analogs of all Seven Phosphoinositide Headgroup Isomers

    PubMed Central

    Rowland, Meng M.; Gong, Denghuang; Bostic, Heidi E.; Lucas, Nathan; Cho, Wonhwa

    2011-01-01

    Signaling lipids control many of the most important biological pathways, typically by recruiting cognate protein binding targets to cell surfaces, thereby regulating both their function and subcellular localization. A critical family of signaling lipids is that of the phosphatidylinositol polyphosphates (PIPns), which is composed of seven isomers that vary based on phosphorylation pattern. A key protein that is activated upon PIPn binding is Akt, which then plays important roles in regulating the cell cycle, and is thus aberrant in disease. Characterization of protein–PIPn binding interactions is hindered by the complexity of the membrane environment and of the PIPn structures. Herein, we describe two rapid assays of use for characterizing protein–PIPn binding interactions. First, a microplate-based binding assay was devised to characterize the binding of effectors to immobilized synthetic PIPn headgroup–biotin conjugates corresponding to all seven isomers. The assay was implemented for simultaneous analysis of Akt-PH domain, indicating PI(3,4,5)P3 and PI(3,4)P2 as the primary ligands. In addition, density-dependant studies indicated that the amount of ligand immobilized on the surface affected the amplitude of protein binding, but not the affinity, for Akt-PH. Since the PIPn ligand motifs used in this analysis lack the membrane environment and glycerolipid backbone, yet still exhibit high-affinity protein binding, these results narrow down the structural requirements for Akt recognition. Additionally, binding detection was also achieved through microarray analysis via the robotic pin printing of ligands onto glass slides in a miniaturized format. Here, fluorescence-based detection provided sensitive detection of binding using minimal amounts of materials. Due to their high-throughput and versatile attributes, these assays provide invaluable tools for probing and perturbing protein–membrane binding interactions. PMID:22178158

  10. A novel high-throughput scanning microscope for label-free detection of protein and small-molecule chemical microarrays

    PubMed Central

    Fei, Y.Y.; Landry, J.P.; Sun, Y.S.; Luo, J.T.; Wang, X.B.; Lam, K.S; Zhu, X.D.

    2009-01-01

    We describe a novel scanning optical microscope based on a polarization-modulated nulling ellipsometry. The new microscope employs a combination of scanning mirror and sample translation and thus enables high-throughput label-free detection of biomolecular microarrays with more than 10,000 protein or small molecule targets. For illustration, we show the image of a 2760-spot protein microarray on a functionalized glass slide obtained with such a microscope. The new scanning microscope is also capable of determining, in parallel, the real-time binding kinetics of multiple molecular species under aqueous conditions. PMID:18248040

  11. Interactome Mapping: Using Protein Microarray Technology to Reconstruct Diverse Protein Networks

    PubMed Central

    Uzoma, Ijeoma; Zhu, Heng

    2013-01-01

    A major focus of systems biology is to characterize interactions between cellular components, in order to develop an accurate picture of the intricate networks within biological systems. Over the past decade, protein microarrays have greatly contributed to advances in proteomics and are becoming an important platform for systems biology. Protein microarrays are highly flexible, ranging from large-scale proteome microarrays to smaller customizable microarrays, making the technology amenable for detection of a broad spectrum of biochemical properties of proteins. In this article, we will focus on the numerous studies that have utilized protein microarrays to reconstruct biological networks including protein–DNA interactions, posttranslational protein modifications (PTMs), lectin–glycan recognition, pathogen–host interactions and hierarchical signaling cascades. The diversity in applications allows for integration of interaction data from numerous molecular classes and cellular states, providing insight into the structure of complex biological systems. We will also discuss emerging applications and future directions of protein microarray technology in the global frontier. PMID:23395178

  12. GABPα Binding to Overlapping ETS and CRE DNA Motifs Is Enhanced by CREB1: Custom DNA Microarrays.

    PubMed

    He, Ximiao; Syed, Khund Sayeed; Tillo, Desiree; Mann, Ishminder; Weirauch, Matthew T; Vinson, Charles

    2015-07-16

    To achieve proper spatiotemporal control of gene expression, transcription factors cooperatively assemble onto specific DNA sequences. The ETS domain protein monomer of GABPα and the B-ZIP domain protein dimer of CREB1 cooperatively bind DNA only when the ETS ((C)/GCGGAA GT: ) and CRE ( GT: GACGTCAC) motifs overlap precisely, producing the ETS↔CRE motif ((C)/GCGGAA GT: GACGTCAC). We designed a Protein Binding Microarray (PBM) with 60-bp DNAs containing four identical sectors, each with 177,440 features that explore the cooperative interactions between GABPα and CREB1 upon binding the ETS↔CRE motif. The DNA sequences include all 15-mers of the form (C)/GCGGA--CG-, the ETS↔CRE motif, and all single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), and occurrences in the human and mouse genomes. CREB1 enhanced GABPα binding to the canonical ETS↔CRE motif CCGGAAGT two-fold, and up to 23-fold for several SNPs at the beginning and end of the ETS motif, which is suggestive of two separate and distinct allosteric mechanisms of cooperative binding. We show that the ETS-CRE array data can be used to identify regions likely cooperatively bound by GABPα and CREB1 in vivo, and demonstrate their ability to identify human genetic variants that might inhibit cooperative binding.

  13. Multiplexed electrospray deposition for protein microarray with micromachined silicon device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhatnagar, Parijat

    2007-07-01

    Multiplexed electrospray deposition device capable of delivering picoliter volumes made by silicon micromachining technology has been developed as a deposition tool for making protein microarrays in a noncontact mode. Upon application of potential difference in the range of 7-9kV, biomolecules dissolved in suitable buffer with nonionic surfactant and loaded on the electrospray tips were dispensed on the substrate with microfabricated hydrogel features (1-10μm) in cone-jet mode. Schiff base chemistry followed by reductive amination was utilized for covalent immobilization.

  14. High-throughput screening of monoclonal antibodies against plant cell wall glycans by hierarchical clustering of their carbohydrate microarray binding profiles

    PubMed Central

    Moller, Isabel; Marcus, Susan E.; Haeger, Ash; Verhertbruggen, Yves; Verhoef, Rene; Schols, Henk; Ulvskov, Peter; Mikkelsen, Jørn Dalgaard; Knox, J. Paul

    2007-01-01

    Antibody-producing hybridoma cell lines were created following immunisation with a crude extract of cell wall polymers from the plant Arabidopsis thaliana. In order to rapidly screen the specificities of individual monoclonal antibodies (mAbs), their binding to microarrays containing 50 cell wall glycans immobilized on nitrocellulose was assessed. Hierarchical clustering of microarray binding profiles from newly produced mAbs, together with the profiles for mAbs with previously defined specificities allowed the rapid assignments of mAb binding to antigen classes. mAb specificities were further investigated using subsequent immunochemical and biochemical analyses and two novel mAbs are described in detail. mAb LM13 binds to an arabinanase-sensitive pectic epitope and mAb LM14, binds to an epitope occurring on arabinogalactan-proteins. Both mAbs display novel patterns of recognition of cell walls in plant materials. PMID:17629746

  15. Exploration of high-density protein microarrays for antibody validation and autoimmunity profiling.

    PubMed

    Sjöberg, Ronald; Mattsson, Cecilia; Andersson, Eni; Hellström, Cecilia; Uhlen, Mathias; Schwenk, Jochen M; Ayoglu, Burcu; Nilsson, Peter

    2016-09-25

    High-density protein microarrays of recombinant human protein fragments, representing 12,412 unique Ensembl Gene IDs, have here been produced and explored. These protein microarrays were used to analyse antibody off-target interactions, as well as for profiling the human autoantibody repertoire in plasma against the antigens represented by the protein fragments. Affinity-purified polyclonal antibodies produced within the Human Protein Atlas (HPA) were analysed on microarrays of three different sizes, ranging from 384 antigens to 21,120 antigens, for evaluation of the antibody validation criteria in the HPA. Plasma samples from secondary progressive multiple sclerosis patients were also screened in order to explore the feasibility of these arrays for broad-scale profiling of autoantibody reactivity. Furthermore, analysis on these near proteome-wide microarrays was complemented with analysis on HuProt™ Human Proteome protein microarrays. The HPA recombinant protein microarray with 21,120 antigens and the HuProt™ Human Proteome protein microarray are currently the largest protein microarray platforms available to date. The results on these arrays show that the Human Protein Atlas antibodies have few off-target interactions if the antibody validation criteria are kept stringent and demonstrate that the HPA-produced high-density recombinant protein fragment microarrays allow for a high-throughput analysis of plasma for identification of possible autoantibody targets in the context of various autoimmune conditions. PMID:26417875

  16. Antibody Colocalization Microarray: A Scalable Technology for Multiplex Protein Analysis in Complex Samples*

    PubMed Central

    Pla-Roca, M.; Leulmi, R. F.; Tourekhanova, S.; Bergeron, S.; Laforte, V.; Moreau, E.; Gosline, S. J. C.; Bertos, N.; Hallett, M.; Park, M.; Juncker, D.

    2012-01-01

    DNA microarrays were rapidly scaled up from 256 to 6.5 million targets, and although antibody microarrays were proposed earlier, sensitive multiplex sandwich assays have only been scaled up to a few tens of targets. Cross-reactivity, arising because detection antibodies are mixed, is a known weakness of multiplex sandwich assays that is mitigated by lengthy optimization. Here, we introduce (1) vulnerability as a metric for assays. The vulnerability of multiplex sandwich assays to cross-reactivity increases quadratically with the number of targets, and together with experimental results, substantiates that scaling up of multiplex sandwich assays is unfeasible. We propose (2) a novel concept for multiplexing without mixing named antibody colocalization microarray (ACM). In ACMs, both capture and detection antibodies are physically colocalized by spotting to the same two-dimensional coordinate. Following spotting of the capture antibodies, the chip is removed from the arrayer, incubated with the sample, placed back onto the arrayer and then spotted with the detection antibodies. ACMs with up to 50 targets were produced, along with a binding curve for each protein. The ACM was validated by comparing it to ELISA and to a small-scale, conventional multiplex sandwich assay (MSA). Using ACMs, proteins in the serum of breast cancer patients and healthy controls were quantified, and six candidate biomarkers identified. Our results indicate that ACMs are sensitive, robust, and scalable. PMID:22171321

  17. When is protein binding important?

    PubMed

    Heuberger, Jules; Schmidt, Stephan; Derendorf, Hartmut

    2013-09-01

    The present paper is an ode to a classic citation by Benet and Hoener (2002. Clin Pharm Ther 71(3):115-121). The now classic paper had a huge impact on drug development and the way the issue of protein binding is perceived and interpreted. Although the authors very clearly pointed out the limitations and underlying assumptions for their delineations, these are too often overlooked and the classic paper's message is misinterpreted by broadening to cases that were not intended. Some members of the scientific community concluded from the paper that protein binding is not important. This was clearly not intended by the authors, as they finished their paper with a paragraph entitled: "When is protein binding important?" Misinterpretation of the underlying assumptions in the classic work can result in major pitfalls in drug development. Therefore, we revisit the topic of protein binding with the intention of clarifying when clinically relevant changes should be considered during drug development.

  18. [The cell-free protein synthesis-based protein microarray technology].

    PubMed

    Lu, Linli; Lin, Bicheng

    2010-12-01

    The major bottle-neck in the way of constructing high density protein microarray is the availability and stability of proteins. The traditional methods of generating protein arrays require the in-vivo expression, purification and immobilization of hundreds or thousands of proteins. The cell-free protein array technology employs cell-free expression systems to produce proteins directly onto surface from co-distributed or pre-arrayed DNA or RNA, thus avoiding the laborious and often costly processes of protein preparation in the traditional approach. Here we provide an overview of recently developed novel technology in cell free based protein microarray and their applications in protein interaction analysis, in antibody specificity and vaccine screening, and in biomarker assay. PMID:21375003

  19. Development of a Method for Profiling Protein Interactions with LNA-Modified Antisense Oligonucleotides Using Protein Microarrays.

    PubMed

    Kakiuchi-Kiyota, Satoko; Whiteley, Lawrence O; Ryan, Anne M; Mathialagan, Nagappan

    2016-04-01

    Development of locked nucleic acid (LNA) gapmers, antisense oligonucleotides used for efficient inhibition of target RNA expression, is limited by nontarget-mediated hepatotoxicity. Increased binding of hepatocellular proteins to toxic LNA gapmers may be one of the mechanisms contributing to LNA gapmer-induced hepatotoxicity in vivo. In the present study, we investigated the protein binding propensity of nontoxic sequence-1 (NTS-1), toxic sequence-2 (TS-2), and severely highly toxic sequence-3 (HTS-3) LNA gapmers using human protein microarrays. We previously demonstrated by the transcription profiling analysis of liver RNA isolated from mice that TS-2 and HTS-3 gapmers modulate different transcriptional pathways in mice leading to hepatotoxicity. Our protein array profiling demonstrated that a greater number of proteins, including ones associated with hepatotoxicity, hepatic system disorder, and cell functions, were bound by TS-2 and HTS-3 compared with NTS-1. However, the profiles of proteins bound by TS-2 and HTS-3 were similar and did not distinguish proteins contributing to severe in vivo toxicity. These results, together with the previous transcription profiling analysis, indicate that the combination of sequence-dependent transcription modulation and increased protein binding of toxic LNA gapmers contributes to hepatotoxicity. PMID:26643897

  20. Creating highly dense and uniform protein and DNA microarrays through photolithography and plasma modification of glass substrates.

    PubMed

    Malainou, A; Petrou, P S; Kakabakos, S E; Gogolides, E; Tserepi, A

    2012-04-15

    We demonstrate a method to create high density protein microarrays with excellent spot uniformity using photolithography and plasma processing on low cost commercially available microscope glass slides. Protein deposition and fluorescence signal evaluation on these substrates are performed by standard arrayers and scanners. To this end, spots of commercial photoresists (AZ5214, SU8 and Ormocomp(®)) were defined through lithography on glass substrates followed by short SF(6) plasma treatment and selective protein adsorption on these spots with respect to glass (spot to background fluorescence signal ratios 30:1 to 40:1) was demonstrated using model protein binding assays. Among the photoresists tested, Ormocomp was selected since it provided the highest protein binding capacity. No ageing of Ormocomp/glass substrates in terms of protein binding capacity was observed for at least two months. Besides to protein microarrays, DNA microarrays were also developed by spotting streptavidin-biotinylated oligonucleotide conjugates corresponding to wild- and mutant-type sequences of four deleterious BRCA1 gene mutations. For all of the examined mutations, higher specific hybridization signals (1.5-4 times) and improved discrimination ratios between wild- and mutant-type sequences as well as higher spot uniformity and repeatability were demonstrated on Ormocomp/glass substrates with intra- and inter-spot CVs of 8.0% and 4.5%, respectively, compared to commercial polystyrene (intra- and inter-spot CVs 36% and 18%) and epoxy-coated glass (intra- and inter-spot CVs 26% and 20%) slides. Thus, the proposed substrates can be readily applied to protein and DNA microarrays fabrication and, moreover, the described method for selective protein adsorption can be advantageously implemented in various analytical microdevices for multi-analyte detection.

  1. Protein Profiling Gastric Cancer and Neighboring Control Tissues Using High-Content Antibody Microarrays.

    PubMed

    Sill, Martin; Schröder, Christoph; Shen, Ying; Marzoq, Aseel; Komel, Radovan; Hoheisel, Jörg D; Nienhüser, Henrik; Schmidt, Thomas; Kastelic, Damjana

    2016-01-01

    In this study, protein profiling was performed on gastric cancer tissue samples in order to identify proteins that could be utilized for an effective diagnosis of this highly heterogeneous disease and as targets for therapeutic approaches. To this end, 16 pairs of postoperative gastric adenocarcinomas and adjacent non-cancerous control tissues were analyzed on microarrays that contain 813 antibodies targeting 724 proteins. Only 17 proteins were found to be differentially regulated, with much fewer molecules than the numbers usually identified in studies comparing tumor to healthy control tissues. Insulin-like growth factor-binding protein 7 (IGFBP7), S100 calcium binding protein A9 (S100A9), interleukin-10 (IL-10) and mucin 6 (MUC6) exhibited the most profound variations. For an evaluation of the proteins' capacity for discriminating gastric cancer, a Receiver Operating Characteristic curve analysis was performed, yielding an accuracy (area under the curve) value of 89.2% for distinguishing tumor from non-tumorous tissue. For confirmation, immunohistological analyses were done on tissue slices prepared from another cohort of patients with gastric cancer. The utility of the 17 marker proteins, and particularly the four molecules with the highest specificity for gastric adenocarcinoma, is discussed for them to act as candidates for diagnosis, even in serum, and targets for therapeutic approaches. PMID:27600085

  2. High-throughput identification of proteins with AMPylation using self-assembled human protein (NAPPA) microarrays

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Xiaobo; LaBaer, Joshua

    2015-01-01

    Summary AMPylation (adenylylation) has been recognized as an important post translational modification employed by pathogens to regulate host cellular proteins and their associated signaling pathways. AMPylation has potential functions in various cellular processes and is widely conserved across both prokaryotes and eukaryotes. However, despite the identification of many AMPylators, relatively few candidate substrates of AMPylation are known. This is changing with the recent development of a robust and reliable method to identify new substrates using protein microarrays, which can significantly expand the list of potential substrates. Here, we describe procedures to detect AMPylated and auto-AMPylated proteins in a sensitive, high throughput, and non-radioactive manner. The approach employs high-density protein microarrays fabricated using NAPPA (Nucleic Acid Programmable Protein Arrays) technology, which enables the highly successful display of fresh recombinant human proteins in situ. The modification of target proteins is determined via copper-catalyzed azide–alkyne cycloaddition. The assay can be accomplished within 11 hours. PMID:25881200

  3. Protein Profiling Gastric Cancer and Neighboring Control Tissues Using High-Content Antibody Microarrays

    PubMed Central

    Sill, Martin; Schröder, Christoph; Shen, Ying; Marzoq, Aseel; Komel, Radovan; Hoheisel, Jörg D.; Nienhüser, Henrik; Schmidt, Thomas; Kastelic, Damjana

    2016-01-01

    In this study, protein profiling was performed on gastric cancer tissue samples in order to identify proteins that could be utilized for an effective diagnosis of this highly heterogeneous disease and as targets for therapeutic approaches. To this end, 16 pairs of postoperative gastric adenocarcinomas and adjacent non-cancerous control tissues were analyzed on microarrays that contain 813 antibodies targeting 724 proteins. Only 17 proteins were found to be differentially regulated, with much fewer molecules than the numbers usually identified in studies comparing tumor to healthy control tissues. Insulin-like growth factor-binding protein 7 (IGFBP7), S100 calcium binding protein A9 (S100A9), interleukin-10 (IL‐10) and mucin 6 (MUC6) exhibited the most profound variations. For an evaluation of the proteins’ capacity for discriminating gastric cancer, a Receiver Operating Characteristic curve analysis was performed, yielding an accuracy (area under the curve) value of 89.2% for distinguishing tumor from non-tumorous tissue. For confirmation, immunohistological analyses were done on tissue slices prepared from another cohort of patients with gastric cancer. The utility of the 17 marker proteins, and particularly the four molecules with the highest specificity for gastric adenocarcinoma, is discussed for them to act as candidates for diagnosis, even in serum, and targets for therapeutic approaches. PMID:27600085

  4. Protein Microarrays-Based Strategies for Life Detection in Astrobiology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parro, Víctor; Rivas, Luis A.; Gómez-Elvira, Javier

    2008-03-01

    The detection of organic molecules of unambiguous biological origin is fundamental for the confirmation of present or past life. Planetary exploration requires the development of miniaturized apparatus for in situ life detection. Analytical techniques based on mass spectrometry have been traditionally used in space science. Following the Viking landers, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) for organic detection has gained general acceptance and has been used successfully in the Cassini-Huygens mission to Titan. Microfluidics allows the development of miniaturized capillary electrophoresis devices for the detection of important molecules for life, like amino acids or nucleobases. Recently, a new approach is gaining acceptance in the space science community: the application of the well-known, highly specific, antibody-antigen affinity interaction for the detection and identification of organics and biochemical compounds. Antibodies can specifically bind a plethora of structurally different compounds of a broad range of molecular sizes, from amino acids level to whole cells. Antibody microarray technology allows us to look for the presence of thousands of different compounds in a single assay and in just one square centimeter. Herein, we discuss several important issues—most of which are common with other instruments dealing with life signature detection in the solar system—that must be addressed in order to use antibody microarrays for life detection and planetary exploration. These issues include (1) preservation of biomarkers, (2) the extraction techniques for biomarkers, (3) terrestrial analogues, (4) the antibody stability under space environments, (5) the selection of unequivocal biomarkers for the antibody production, or (6) the instrument design and implementation.

  5. Protein Microarrays-Based Strategies for Life Detection in Astrobiology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parro, Víctor; Rivas, Luis A.; Gómez-Elvira, Javier

    The detection of organic molecules of unambiguous biological origin is fundamental for the confirmation of present or past life. Planetary exploration requires the development of miniaturized apparatus for in situ life detection. Analytical techniques based on mass spectrometry have been traditionally used in space science. Following the Viking landers, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) for organic detection has gained general acceptance and has been used successfully in the Cassini-Huygens mission to Titan. Microfluidics allows the development of miniaturized capillary electrophoresis devices for the detection of important molecules for life, like amino acids or nucleobases. Recently, a new approach is gaining acceptance in the space science community: the application of the well-known, highly specific, antibody-antigen affinity interaction for the detection and identification of organics and biochemical compounds. Antibodies can specifically bind a plethora of structurally different compounds of a broad range of molecular sizes, from amino acids level to whole cells. Antibody microarray technology allows us to look for the presence of thousands of different compounds in a single assay and in just one square centimeter. Herein, we discuss several important issues—most of which are common with other instruments dealing with life signature detection in the solar system—that must be addressed in order to use antibody microarrays for life detection and planetary exploration. These issues include (1) preservation of biomarkers, (2) the extraction techniques for biomarkers, (3) terrestrial analogues, (4) the antibody stability under space environments, (5) the selection of unequivocal biomarkers for the antibody production, or (6) the instrument design and implementation.

  6. Direct, Specific and Rapid Detection of Staphylococcal Proteins and Exotoxins Using a Multiplex Antibody Microarray

    PubMed Central

    Stieber, Bettina; Monecke, Stefan; Müller, Elke; Büchler, Joseph; Ehricht, Ralf

    2015-01-01

    Background S. aureus is a pathogen in humans and animals that harbors a wide variety of virulence factors and resistance genes. This bacterium can cause a wide range of mild to life-threatening diseases. In the latter case, fast diagnostic procedures are important. In routine diagnostic laboratories, several genotypic and phenotypic methods are available to identify S. aureus strains and determine their resistances. However, there is a demand for multiplex routine diagnostic tests to directly detect staphylococcal toxins and proteins. Methods In this study, an antibody microarray based assay was established and validated for the rapid detection of staphylococcal markers and exotoxins. The following targets were included: staphylococcal protein A, penicillin binding protein 2a, alpha- and beta-hemolysins, Panton Valentine leukocidin, toxic shock syndrome toxin, enterotoxins A and B as well as staphylokinase. All were detected simultaneously within a single experiment, starting from a clonal culture on standard media. The detection of bound proteins was performed using a new fluorescence reading device for microarrays. Results 110 reference strains and clinical isolates were analyzed using this assay, with a DNA microarray for genotypic characterization performed in parallel. The results showed a general high concordance of genotypic and phenotypic data. However, genotypic analysis found the hla gene present in all S. aureus isolates but its expression under given conditions depended on the clonal complex affiliation of the actual isolate. Conclusions The multiplex antibody assay described herein allowed a rapid and reliable detection of clinically relevant staphylococcal toxins as well as resistance- and species-specific markers. PMID:26624622

  7. Protein microarrays imaging using oblique-incidence reflectivity difference method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Heng; Zhang, Hongyan; Li, Wei; Zhou, Yueliang; Lu, Huibin; Jin, Kuijuan; Yang, Guozhen; Ruan, Kangcheng

    2007-11-01

    In this study Oblique-Incidence Reflectivity Difference (OIRD) technique, a recent developed label-free detection, is applied to image biomolecular microarrays. Compared to the currently widely used fluorescence-dependent optical microscopy, OIRD technique not only images the morphology of protein bio-arrays in the absence of extrinsic labeling molecules but also monitors the changes in the optical properties of biochips in high-throughput fashion. Additionally, such a technique complements other label-free detections including Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR) and Mass Spectrometry (MS) by offering the opportunity to detect biochemical activities without the special requirements on the substrate or the specific matrix medium. It is shown in this article that the surface topography can be reflected by OIRD method. Besides, the differences among printing concentrations and various proteins are able to be identified as well. Incidentally, the OIRD images appear to be useful aids to distinguish the variations resulting from antibody-antigen capture. Both the imaginary and real parts of OIRD images we presented provide more information than the single imaginary one especially. On the basis of the scattering mechanism, the absorptive properties of protein molecules are analyzed through the real part of OIRD signal. Accordingly, OIRD technique shows its unique potential in detection of biochemical processes.

  8. Elucidating glycosaminoglycan–protein–protein interactions using carbohydrate microarray and computational approaches

    PubMed Central

    Rogers, Claude J.; Clark, Peter M.; Tully, Sarah E.; Abrol, Ravinder; Garcia, K. Christopher; Goddard, William A.; Hsieh-Wilson, Linda C.

    2011-01-01

    Glycosaminoglycan polysaccharides play critical roles in many cellular processes, ranging from viral invasion and angiogenesis to spinal cord injury. Their diverse biological activities are derived from an ability to regulate a remarkable number of proteins. However, few methods exist for the rapid identification of glycosaminoglycan–protein interactions and for studying the potential of glycosaminoglycans to assemble multimeric protein complexes. Here, we report a multidisciplinary approach that combines new carbohydrate microarray and computational modeling methodologies to elucidate glycosaminoglycan–protein interactions. The approach was validated through the study of known protein partners for heparan and chondroitin sulfate, including fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2) and its receptor FGFR1, the malarial protein VAR2CSA, and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α). We also applied the approach to identify previously undescribed interactions between a specific sulfated epitope on chondroitin sulfate, CS-E, and the neurotrophins, a critical family of growth factors involved in the development, maintenance, and survival of the vertebrate nervous system. Our studies show for the first time that CS is capable of assembling multimeric signaling complexes and modulating neurotrophin signaling pathways. In addition, we identify a contiguous CS-E-binding site by computational modeling that suggests a potential mechanism to explain how CS may promote neurotrophin-tyrosine receptor kinase (Trk) complex formation and neurotrophin signaling. Together, our combined microarray and computational modeling methodologies provide a general, facile means to identify new glycosaminoglycan–protein–protein interactions, as well as a molecular-level understanding of those complexes. PMID:21628576

  9. Cellulose binding domain fusion proteins

    DOEpatents

    Shoseyov, O.; Yosef, K.; Shpiegl, I.; Goldstein, M.A.; Doi, R.H.

    1998-02-17

    A cellulose binding domain (CBD) having a high affinity for crystalline cellulose and chitin is disclosed, along with methods for the molecular cloning and recombinant production. Fusion products comprising the CBD and a second protein are likewise described. A wide range of applications are contemplated for both the CBD and the fusion products, including drug delivery, affinity separations, and diagnostic techniques. 16 figs.

  10. Cellulose binding domain fusion proteins

    DOEpatents

    Shoseyov, Oded; Shpiegl, Itai; Goldstein, Marc A.; Doi, Roy H.

    1998-01-01

    A cellulose binding domain (CBD) having a high affinity for crystalline cellulose and chitin is disclosed, along with methods for the molecular cloning and recombinant production thereof. Fusion products comprising the CBD and a second protein are likewise described. A wide range of applications are contemplated for both the CBD and the fusion products, including drug delivery, affinity separations, and diagnostic techniques.

  11. Label-free, single protein detection on a near-infrared fluorescent single-walled carbon nanotube/protein microarray fabricated by cell-free synthesis.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Jin-Ho; Kim, Jong-Ho; Reuel, Nigel F; Barone, Paul W; Boghossian, Ardemis A; Zhang, Jingqing; Yoon, Hyeonseok; Chang, Alice C; Hilmer, Andrew J; Strano, Michael S

    2011-07-13

    Excessive sample volumes continue to be a major limitation in the analysis of protein-protein interactions, motivating the search for label-free detection methods of greater sensitivity. Herein, we report the first chemical approach for selective protein recognition using fluorescent single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) enabling label-free microarrays capable of single protein detection. Hexahistidine-tagged capture proteins directly expressed by cell-free synthesis on SWNT/chitosan microarray are bound to a Ni(2+) chelated by Nα,Nα-bis(carboxymethyl)-L-lysine grafted to chitosan surrounding the SWNT. The Ni(2+) acts as a proximity quencher with the Ni(2+)/SWNT distance altered upon docking of analyte proteins. This ability to discern single protein binding events decreases the apparent detection limit from 100 nM, for the ensemble average, to 10 pM for an observation time of 600 s. This first use of cell-free synthesis to functionalize a nanosensor extends this method to a virtually infinite number of capture proteins. To demonstrate this, the SWNT microarrays are used to analyze a network of 1156 protein-protein interactions in the staurosporine-induced apoptosis of SH-SY5Y cells, confirming literature predictions. PMID:21627102

  12. Screening of Pre-miRNA-155 Binding Peptides for Apoptosis Inducing Activity Using Peptide Microarrays.

    PubMed

    Pai, Jaeyoung; Hyun, Soonsil; Hyun, Ji Young; Park, Seong-Hyun; Kim, Won-Je; Bae, Sung-Hun; Kim, Nak-Kyoon; Yu, Jaehoon; Shin, Injae

    2016-01-27

    MicroRNA-155, one of the most potent miRNAs that suppress apoptosis in human cancer, is overexpressed in numerous cancers, and it displays oncogenic activity. Peptide microarrays, constructed by immobilizing 185 peptides containing the C-terminal hydrazide onto epoxide-derivatized glass slides, were employed to evaluate peptide binding properties of pre-miRNA-155 and to identify its binding peptides. Two peptides, which were identified based on the results of peptide microarray and in vitro Dicer inhibition studies, were found to inhibit generation of mature miRNA-155 catalyzed by Dicer and to enhance expression of miRNA-155 target genes in cells. In addition, the results of cell experiments indicate that peptide inhibitors promote apoptotic cell death via a caspase-dependent pathway. Finally, observations made in NMR and molecular modeling studies suggest that a peptide inhibitor preferentially binds to the upper bulge and apical stem-loop region of pre-miRNA-155, thereby suppressing Dicer-mediated miRNA-155 processing. PMID:26771315

  13. Anti-heat shock protein autoantibody profiling in breast cancer using customized protein microarray.

    PubMed

    Shi, Liu; Gehin, Thomas; Chevolot, Yann; Souteyrand, Eliane; Mangé, Alain; Solassol, Jérôme; Laurenceau, Emmanuelle

    2016-02-01

    Heat shock proteins (HSPs) are over-expressed in a wide range of human cancers. It results in the stimulation of the immune system and consequently in elevated concentration of anti-HSP autoantibodies. Elevated anti-HSP autoantibodies were found in breast cancer patients, and they are associated with tumor metastasis. Therefore, screening these autoantibodies could be of diagnostic and prognostic values. Protein microarrays have already demonstrated their great potential as a diagnostic tool. However, protein diversity requires optimization of the microarray fabrication to achieve high sensitivity and specificity. In this study, seven HSPs were immobilized on six different surface chemistries. After evaluation and optimization with purified antibodies of the six surface chemistries, two surfaces were selected to detect anti-HSP autoantibodies in breast cancer sera. Multiplex detection of anti-HSP autoantibodies allowed discrimination of breast cancer patients (50) from healthy controls (26) with a sensitivity of 86% and a specificity of 100%. PMID:26715250

  14. Dye-Doped Silica Nanoparticle Labels/Protein Microarray for Detection of Protein Biomarkers

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Hong; Huo, Qisheng; Varnum, Susan M.; Liu, Guodong; Wang, Jun; Nie, Zimin; Liu, Jun; Lin, Yuehe

    2008-10-20

    Biomarkers serve as indicators of biological and pathological processes, or physiological and pharmacological responses to a drug treatment. Interleukin-6 (IL-6), a biomarker with its important biological and pathological functions, has been studied for decades. Conventional fluorescence immunoassay has been widely used for analysis of biomakers like IL-6. However, single fluorophore labeling shows its limitations of low intensity and poor stability. We report a dye-encapsulated silica nanoparticle as a label, with the advantages of high fluorescence intensity, photostability, and biocompatibility, in conjunction with microarray technology for sensitive immunoassay of IL-6 on a microarray format. The tris (2,2’-bipyridyl)ruthenium (II)chloride hexahydrate (Rubpy) dye incorporated into silica nanoparticles using a simple one-step microemulsion synthesis step. The nanoparticles are uniform in size with a diameter of 50 nm. The microarray fluorescent immunoassay approach based on dye-doped silica nanoparticle labels has high sensitivity for practical applications with a limit of detection for IL-6 down to 0.1 ng mL-1. The calibration curve is linear over the range from 0.1 ng mL-1 to 10 ng mL-1. Furthermore, results illustrated that the assay is highly specific for IL-6 in the presence of range of cytokines or proteins. The RuDS dye-labeled nanoparticles in connection with protein microarrays show the promise for clinical diagnosis of biomarkers.

  15. Dye-Doped Silica Nanoparticle Labels/Protein Microarray for Detection of Protein Biomarkers

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Hong; Huo, Qisheng; Varnum, Susan; Wang, Jun; Liu, Guodong; Nie, Zimin; Liu, Jun; Lin, Yuehe

    2008-01-01

    We report a dye-encapsulated silica nanoparticle as a label, with the advantages of high fluorescence intensity, photostability, and biocompatibility, in conjunction with microarray technology for sensitive immunoassay of a biomarker, Interleukin-6 (IL-6), on a microarray format. The tris (2,2’-bipyridyl)ruthenium (II)chloride hexahydrate (Rubpy) dye was incorporated into silica nanoparticles using a simple one-step microemulsion synthesis. In this synthesis process, Igepal CA520 was used as the surfactant, therefore, no requirement of cosolvent during the synthesis and the particle size was reduced comparing to the commonly used Triton surfactant system. The nanoparticles are uniform in size with a diameter of 50 nm. The microarray fluorescent immunoassay approach based on dye-doped silica nanoparticle labels has high sensitivity for practical applications with a limit of detection for IL-6 down to 0.1 ng mL−1. The calibration curve is linear over the range from 0.1 ng mL−1 to 10 ng mL−1. Furthermore, results illustrated that the assay is highly specific for IL-6 in the presence of range of cytokines or proteins. The RuDS dye-labeled nanoparticles in connection with protein microarrays show the promise for clinical diagnosis of biomarkers. PMID:18936832

  16. Protein Microarrays with Novel Microfluidic Methods: Current Advances

    PubMed Central

    Dixit, Chandra K.; Aguirre, Gerson R.

    2014-01-01

    Microfluidic-based micromosaic technology has allowed the pattering of recognition elements in restricted micrometer scale areas with high precision. This controlled patterning enabled the development of highly multiplexed arrays multiple analyte detection. This arraying technology was first introduced in the beginning of 2001 and holds tremendous potential to revolutionize microarray development and analyte detection. Later, several microfluidic methods were developed for microarray application. In this review we discuss these novel methods and approaches which leverage the property of microfluidic technologies to significantly improve various physical aspects of microarray technology, such as enhanced imprinting homogeneity, stability of the immobilized biomolecules, decreasing assay times, and reduction of the costs and of the bulky instrumentation.

  17. Detection of antibodies against avian influenza virus by protein microarray using nucleoprotein expressed in insect cells.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yuhui; Wang, Xiurong; Chen, Pucheng; Zeng, Xianying; Bao, Hongmei; Wang, Yunhe; Xu, Xiaolong; Jiang, Yongping; Chen, Hualan; Li, Guangxing

    2015-04-01

    Avian influenza (AI) is an infectious disease caused by avian influenza viruses (AIVs) which belong to the influenza virus A group. AI causes tremendous economic losses in poultry industry and pose great threatens to human health. Active serologic surveillance is necessary to prevent and control the spread of AI. In this study, a protein microarray using nucleoprotein (NP) of H5N1 AIV expressed in insect cells was developed to detect antibodies against AIV NP protein. The protein microarray was used to test Newcastle disease virus (NDV), infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV), AIV positive and negative sera. The results indicated that the protein microarray could hybridize specifically with antibodies against AIV with strong signals and without cross-hybridization. Moreover, 76 field serum samples were detected by microarray, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and hemagglutination inhibition test (HI). The positive rate was 92.1% (70/76), 93.4% (71/76) and 89.4% (68/76) by protein microarray, ELISA and HI test, respectively. Compared with ELISA, the microarray showed 100% (20/20) agreement ratio in chicken and 98.2% (55/56) in ornamental bird. In conclusion, this method provides an alternative serological diagnosis for influenza antibody screening and will provide a basis for the development of protein microarrays that can be used to respectively detect antibodies of different AIV subtypes and other pathogens. PMID:25650059

  18. A platform for combined DNA and protein microarrays based on total internal reflection fluorescence.

    PubMed

    Asanov, Alexander; Zepeda, Angélica; Vaca, Luis

    2012-01-01

    We have developed a novel microarray technology based on total internal reflection fluorescence (TIRF) in combination with DNA and protein bioassays immobilized at the TIRF surface. Unlike conventional microarrays that exhibit reduced signal-to-background ratio, require several stages of incubation, rinsing and stringency control, and measure only end-point results, our TIRF microarray technology provides several orders of magnitude better signal-to-background ratio, performs analysis rapidly in one step, and measures the entire course of association and dissociation kinetics between target DNA and protein molecules and the bioassays. In many practical cases detection of only DNA or protein markers alone does not provide the necessary accuracy for diagnosing a disease or detecting a pathogen. Here we describe TIRF microarrays that detect DNA and protein markers simultaneously, which reduces the probabilities of false responses. Supersensitive and multiplexed TIRF DNA and protein microarray technology may provide a platform for accurate diagnosis or enhanced research studies. Our TIRF microarray system can be mounted on upright or inverted microscopes or interfaced directly with CCD cameras equipped with a single objective, facilitating the development of portable devices. As proof-of-concept we applied TIRF microarrays for detecting molecular markers from Bacillus anthracis, the pathogen responsible for anthrax.

  19. A Platform for Combined DNA and Protein Microarrays Based on Total Internal Reflection Fluorescence

    PubMed Central

    Asanov, Alexander; Zepeda, Angélica; Vaca, Luis

    2012-01-01

    We have developed a novel microarray technology based on total internal reflection fluorescence (TIRF) in combination with DNA and protein bioassays immobilized at the TIRF surface. Unlike conventional microarrays that exhibit reduced signal-to-background ratio, require several stages of incubation, rinsing and stringency control, and measure only end-point results, our TIRF microarray technology provides several orders of magnitude better signal-to-background ratio, performs analysis rapidly in one step, and measures the entire course of association and dissociation kinetics between target DNA and protein molecules and the bioassays. In many practical cases detection of only DNA or protein markers alone does not provide the necessary accuracy for diagnosing a disease or detecting a pathogen. Here we describe TIRF microarrays that detect DNA and protein markers simultaneously, which reduces the probabilities of false responses. Supersensitive and multiplexed TIRF DNA and protein microarray technology may provide a platform for accurate diagnosis or enhanced research studies. Our TIRF microarray system can be mounted on upright or inverted microscopes or interfaced directly with CCD cameras equipped with a single objective, facilitating the development of portable devices. As proof-of-concept we applied TIRF microarrays for detecting molecular markers from Bacillus anthracis, the pathogen responsible for anthrax. PMID:22438738

  20. A Protein Microarray ELISA for the Detection of Botulinum neurotoxin A

    SciTech Connect

    Varnum, Susan M.

    2007-06-01

    An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) microarray was developed for the specific and sensitive detection of botulinum neurotoxin A (BoNT/A), using high-affinity recombinant monoclonal antibodies against the receptor binding domain of the heavy chain of BoNT/A. The ELISA microarray assay, because of its sensitivity, offers a screening test with detection limits comparable to the mouse bioassay, with results available in hours instead of days.

  1. Microarrays in Glycoproteomics Research

    PubMed Central

    Yue, Tingting; Haab, Brian B.

    2009-01-01

    Microarrays have been extremely useful for investigating binding interactions among diverse types of molecular species, with the main advantage being the ability to examine many interactions using small amount of samples and reagents. Microarrays are increasingly being used to advance research in the field of glycobiology, which is the study of the nature and function and carbohydrates in health and disease. Several types of microarrays are being used in the study of glycans and proteins in glycobiology, including glycan arrays to study the recognition of carbohydrates, lectin arrays to determine carbohydrate expression on purified proteins or on cells, and antibody arrays to examine the variation in particular glycan structures on specific proteins. This review will cover the technology and applications of these types of microarrays, as well as their use for obtaining complementary information on various aspects of glycobiology. PMID:19389548

  2. Detection of protein microarrays by oblique-incidence reflectivity difference technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, Juan; Lu, Heng; Wang, Xu; Yuan, Kun; Lü, Huibin; Zhou, Yueliang; Yin, Kuijuan; Yang, Guozhen; Li, Wei; Ruan, Kangcheng

    2010-02-01

    Biological microarrays with different proteins and different protein concentrations are detected without external labeling by an oblique-incidence reflectivity difference (OIRD) technique. The initial experiment results reveal that the intensities of OIRD signals can distinguish the different proteins and concentrations of protein. The OIRD technique promises feasible applications to life sciences for label-free and high-throughput detection.

  3. High-throughput identification of proteins with AMPylation using self-assembled human protein (NAPPA) microarrays.

    PubMed

    Yu, Xiaobo; LaBaer, Joshua

    2015-05-01

    AMPylation (adenylylation) has been recognized as an important post-translational modification that is used by pathogens to regulate host cellular proteins and their associated signaling pathways. AMPylation has potential functions in various cellular processes, and it is widely conserved across both prokaryotes and eukaryotes. However, despite the identification of many AMPylators, relatively few candidate substrates of AMPylation are known. This is changing with the recent development of a robust and reliable method for identifying new substrates using protein microarrays, which can markedly expand the list of potential substrates. Here we describe procedures for detecting AMPylated and auto-AMPylated proteins in a sensitive, high-throughput and nonradioactive manner. The approach uses high-density protein microarrays fabricated using nucleic acid programmable protein array (NAPPA) technology, which enables the highly successful display of fresh recombinant human proteins in situ. The modification of target proteins is determined via copper-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition (CuAAC). The assay can be accomplished within 11 h. PMID:25881200

  4. High-throughput identification of proteins with AMPylation using self-assembled human protein (NAPPA) microarrays.

    PubMed

    Yu, Xiaobo; LaBaer, Joshua

    2015-05-01

    AMPylation (adenylylation) has been recognized as an important post-translational modification that is used by pathogens to regulate host cellular proteins and their associated signaling pathways. AMPylation has potential functions in various cellular processes, and it is widely conserved across both prokaryotes and eukaryotes. However, despite the identification of many AMPylators, relatively few candidate substrates of AMPylation are known. This is changing with the recent development of a robust and reliable method for identifying new substrates using protein microarrays, which can markedly expand the list of potential substrates. Here we describe procedures for detecting AMPylated and auto-AMPylated proteins in a sensitive, high-throughput and nonradioactive manner. The approach uses high-density protein microarrays fabricated using nucleic acid programmable protein array (NAPPA) technology, which enables the highly successful display of fresh recombinant human proteins in situ. The modification of target proteins is determined via copper-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition (CuAAC). The assay can be accomplished within 11 h.

  5. Erythropoietin binding protein from mammalian serum

    DOEpatents

    Clemons, G.K.

    1997-04-29

    Purified mammalian erythropoietin binding-protein is disclosed, and its isolation, identification, characterization, purification, and immunoassay are described. The erythropoietin binding protein can be used for regulation of erythropoiesis by regulating levels and half-life of erythropoietin. A diagnostic kit for determination of level of erythropoietin binding protein is also described. 11 figs.

  6. Erythropoietin binding protein from mammalian serum

    DOEpatents

    Clemons, Gisela K.

    1997-01-01

    Purified mammalian erythropoietin binding-protein is disclosed, and its isolation, identification, characterization, purification, and immunoassay are described. The erythropoietin binding protein can be used for regulation of erythropoiesis by regulating levels and half-life of erythropoietin. A diagnostic kit for determination of level of erythropoietin binding protein is also described.

  7. Protein Microarrays with Novel Microfluidic Methods: Current Advances

    PubMed Central

    Dixit, Chandra K.; Aguirre, Gerson R.

    2014-01-01

    Microfluidic-based micromosaic technology has allowed the pattering of recognition elements in restricted micrometer scale areas with high precision. This controlled patterning enabled the development of highly multiplexed arrays multiple analyte detection. This arraying technology was first introduced in the beginning of 2001 and holds tremendous potential to revolutionize microarray development and analyte detection. Later, several microfluidic methods were developed for microarray application. In this review we discuss these novel methods and approaches which leverage the property of microfluidic technologies to significantly improve various physical aspects of microarray technology, such as enhanced imprinting homogeneity, stability of the immobilized biomolecules, decreasing assay times, and reduction of the costs and of the bulky instrumentation. PMID:27600343

  8. Small Molecule Microarrays Enable the Identification of a Selective, Quadruplex-Binding Inhibitor of MYC Expression

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The transcription factor MYC plays a pivotal role in cancer initiation, progression, and maintenance. However, it has proven difficult to develop small molecule inhibitors of MYC. One attractive route to pharmacological inhibition of MYC has been the prevention of its expression through small molecule-mediated stabilization of the G-quadruplex (G4) present in its promoter. Although molecules that bind globally to quadruplex DNA and influence gene expression are well-known, the identification of new chemical scaffolds that selectively modulate G4-driven genes remains a challenge. Here, we report an approach for the identification of G4-binding small molecules using small molecule microarrays (SMMs). We use the SMM screening platform to identify a novel G4-binding small molecule that inhibits MYC expression in cell models, with minimal impact on the expression of other G4-associated genes. Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) and thermal melt assays demonstrated that this molecule binds reversibly to the MYC G4 with single digit micromolar affinity, and with weaker or no measurable binding to other G4s. Biochemical and cell-based assays demonstrated that the compound effectively silenced MYC transcription and translation via a G4-dependent mechanism of action. The compound induced G1 arrest and was selectively toxic to MYC-driven cancer cell lines containing the G4 in the promoter but had minimal effects in peripheral blood mononucleocytes or a cell line lacking the G4 in its MYC promoter. As a measure of selectivity, gene expression analysis and qPCR experiments demonstrated that MYC and several MYC target genes were downregulated upon treatment with this compound, while the expression of several other G4-driven genes was not affected. In addition to providing a novel chemical scaffold that modulates MYC expression through G4 binding, this work suggests that the SMM screening approach may be broadly useful as an approach for the identification of new G4-binding small

  9. Chemically-blocked Antibody Microarray for Multiplexed High-throughput Profiling of Specific Protein Glycosylation in Complex Samples

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Chen; Wonsidler, Joshua L.; Li, Jianwei; Du, Yanming; Block, Timothy; Haab, Brian; Chen, Songming

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we describe an effective protocol for use in a multiplexed high-throughput antibody microarray with glycan binding protein detection that allows for the glycosylation profiling of specific proteins. Glycosylation of proteins is the most prevalent post-translational modification found on proteins, and leads diversified modifications of the physical, chemical, and biological properties of proteins. Because the glycosylation machinery is particularly susceptible to disease progression and malignant transformation, aberrant glycosylation has been recognized as early detection biomarkers for cancer and other diseases. However, current methods to study protein glycosylation typically are too complicated or expensive for use in most normal laboratory or clinical settings and a more practical method to study protein glycosylation is needed. The new protocol described in this study makes use of a chemically blocked antibody microarray with glycan-binding protein (GBP) detection and significantly reduces the time, cost, and lab equipment requirements needed to study protein glycosylation. In this method, multiple immobilized glycoprotein-specific antibodies are printed directly onto the microarray slides and the N-glycans on the antibodies are blocked. The blocked, immobilized glycoprotein-specific antibodies are able to capture and isolate glycoproteins from a complex sample that is applied directly onto the microarray slides. Glycan detection then can be performed by the application of biotinylated lectins and other GBPs to the microarray slide, while binding levels can be determined using Dylight 549-Streptavidin. Through the use of an antibody panel and probing with multiple biotinylated lectins, this method allows for an effective glycosylation profile of the different proteins found in a given human or animal sample to be developed. Introduction Glycosylation of protein, which is the most ubiquitous post-translational modification on proteins, modifies

  10. Baculovirus display for discovery of low-affinity extracellular receptor-ligand interactions using protein microarrays.

    PubMed

    Tom, Irene; Estevez, Alberto; Bowman, Krista; Gonzalez, Lino C

    2015-06-15

    When used in conjunction with multivalent protein probes, protein microarrays offer a robust technology for discovery of low-affinity extracellular protein-protein interactions. Probes for receptor-matching screens generally consist of purified extracellular domains fused to affinity tags. Given that approximately two-thirds of extracellular proteins are transmembrane domain-containing proteins, it would be desirable to develop a system to express and display probe receptors in a native-like membrane environment. Toward this end, we evaluated baculovirus display as a platform for generating multivalent probes for protein microarray screens. Virion particles were generated displaying single-transmembrane domain receptors BTLA, CD200, and EFNB2, representing a range of affinities for their interacting partners. Virions directly labeled with Cy5 fluorophore were screened against a microarray containing more than 600 extracellular proteins, and the results were compared with data derived from soluble Fc protein or probe-coated protein A microbeads. An optimized protocol employing a blocking step with a nonrelated probe-expressing control baculovirus allowed identification of the expected interactions with a signal-to-noise ratio similar to or higher than those obtained with the other formats. Our results demonstrate that baculovirus display is suitable for detection of high- and low-affinity extracellular protein-protein interactions on protein microarrays. This platform eliminates the need for protein purification and provides a native-like lipid environment for membrane-associated receptors. PMID:25797350

  11. Microarray-based method for screening of immunogenic proteins from bacteria

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Detection of immunogenic proteins remains an important task for life sciences as it nourishes the understanding of pathogenicity, illuminates new potential vaccine candidates and broadens the spectrum of biomarkers applicable in diagnostic tools. Traditionally, immunoscreenings of expression libraries via polyclonal sera on nitrocellulose membranes or screenings of whole proteome lysates in 2-D gel electrophoresis are performed. However, these methods feature some rather inconvenient disadvantages. Screening of expression libraries to expose novel antigens from bacteria often lead to an abundance of false positive signals owing to the high cross reactivity of polyclonal antibodies towards the proteins of the expression host. A method is presented that overcomes many disadvantages of the old procedures. Results Four proteins that have previously been described as immunogenic have successfully been assessed immunogenic abilities with our method. One protein with no known immunogenic behaviour before suggested potential immunogenicity. We incorporated a fusion tag prior to our genes of interest and attached the expressed fusion proteins covalently on microarrays. This enhances the specific binding of the proteins compared to nitrocellulose. Thus, it helps to reduce the number of false positives significantly. It enables us to screen for immunogenic proteins in a shorter time, with more samples and statistical reliability. We validated our method by employing several known genes from Campylobacter jejuni NCTC 11168. Conclusions The method presented offers a new approach for screening of bacterial expression libraries to illuminate novel proteins with immunogenic features. It could provide a powerful and attractive alternative to existing methods and help to detect and identify vaccine candidates, biomarkers and potential virulence-associated factors with immunogenic behaviour furthering the knowledge of virulence and pathogenicity of studied bacteria. PMID

  12. Designing ligands to bind proteins.

    PubMed

    Whitesides, George M; Krishnamurthy, Vijay M

    2005-11-01

    The ability to design drugs (so-called 'rational drug design') has been one of the long-term objectives of chemistry for 50 years. It is an exceptionally difficult problem, and many of its parts lie outside the expertise of chemistry. The much more limited problem - how to design tight-binding ligands (rational ligand design) - would seem to be one that chemistry could solve, but has also proved remarkably recalcitrant. The question is 'Why is it so difficult?' and the answer is 'We still don't entirely know'. This perspective discusses some of the technical issues - potential functions, protein plasticity, enthalpy/entropy compensation, and others - that contribute, and suggests areas where fundamental understanding of protein-ligand interactions falls short of what is needed. It surveys recent technological developments (in particular, isothermal titration calorimetry) that will, hopefully, make now the time for serious progress in this area. It concludes with the calorimetric examination of the association of a series of systematically varied ligands with a model protein. The counterintuitive thermodynamic results observed serve to illustrate that, even in relatively simple systems, understanding protein-ligand association is challenging.

  13. Expression of SATB1 protein in the ductal breast carcinoma tissue microarrays - preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Kobierzycki, Christopher; Wojnar, Andrzej; Dziegiel, Piotr

    2013-01-01

    Special AT-rich sequence-binding protein 1 (SATB1) is a nuclear matrix protein which interacts with specific regions of DNA, ensuring its proper organization and function in the cell. The expression of SATB1 was primarily found in thymocytes, but its increased levels were observed in various types of cancers. However, the knowledge of the function and application possibilities of this protein is still limited. The aim of this study was to investigate the expression of SATB1 protein using immunohistochemistry and tissue microarray (TMA) technique and determine its possible relationship with the proliferative marker Ki-67, estrogen a (ER) and progesterone (PR) receptors as well as grade of histological malignancy (G). The study was performed on material of 48 archival invasive ductal breast cancers (IDC). The TMAs were prepared with the use of 0.6 mm diameter punches. Immunohistochemical reactions were carried out using antibodies against Ki-67, ER, PR and SATB1 proteins. The intensity of the nuclear reaction was evaluated using a light microscope and computer-assisted image analysis. Expression of Ki-67 and SATB1 protein was observed in 89.58% and 31.25% of cancer cases, respectively. 62.5% of tumors were classified as ER-positive, and 47.92% as PR-positive. Statistical analysis showed a moderate positive correlation between Ki-67 and SATB1 expression (r = 0.291, p = 0.045 independently on the receptor status, and r = 0.392, p = 0.032 in ER-negative tumors). The expression of the Ki-67 antigen increased with higher grade of histological malignancy (G). The results suggest that SATB1 protein may play an indirect role in the cell proliferation and should be evaluated in relation to the other markers. Further studies concerning determination of its role in cancer progression and metastasis, in terms of application as therapeutic target and prognostic marker, are recommended.

  14. Generation and analyses of human synthetic antibody libraries and their application for protein microarrays.

    PubMed

    Säll, Anna; Walle, Maria; Wingren, Christer; Müller, Susanne; Nyman, Tomas; Vala, Andrea; Ohlin, Mats; Borrebaeck, Carl A K; Persson, Helena

    2016-10-01

    Antibody-based proteomics offers distinct advantages in the analysis of complex samples for discovery and validation of biomarkers associated with disease. However, its large-scale implementation requires tools and technologies that allow development of suitable antibody or antibody fragments in a high-throughput manner. To address this we designed and constructed two human synthetic antibody fragment (scFv) libraries denoted HelL-11 and HelL-13. By the use of phage display technology, in total 466 unique scFv antibodies specific for 114 different antigens were generated. The specificities of these antibodies were analyzed in a variety of immunochemical assays and a subset was further evaluated for functionality in protein microarray applications. This high-throughput approach demonstrates the ability to rapidly generate a wealth of reagents not only for proteome research, but potentially also for diagnostics and therapeutics. In addition, this work provides a great example on how a synthetic approach can be used to optimize library designs. By having precise control of the diversity introduced into the antigen-binding sites, synthetic libraries offer increased understanding of how different diversity contributes to antibody binding reactivity and stability, thereby providing the key to future library optimization. PMID:27590051

  15. Development and Validation of Protein Microarray Technology for Simultaneous Inflammatory Mediator Detection in Human Sera

    PubMed Central

    Negm, Ola H.; Hamed, Mohamed R.; Tubby, Carolyn; Todd, Ian; Tighe, Patrick J.; Harrison, Tim; Fairclough, Lucy C.

    2014-01-01

    Biomarkers, including cytokines, can help in the diagnosis, prognosis, and prediction of treatment response across a wide range of disease settings. Consequently, the recent emergence of protein microarray technology, which is able to quantify a range of inflammatory mediators in a large number of samples simultaneously, has become highly desirable. However, the cost of commercial systems remains somewhat prohibitive. Here we show the development, validation, and implementation of an in-house microarray platform which enables the simultaneous quantitative analysis of multiple protein biomarkers. The accuracy and precision of the in-house microarray system were investigated according to the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) guidelines for pharmacokinetic assay validation. The assay fell within these limits for all but the very low-abundant cytokines, such as interleukin- (IL-) 10. Additionally, there were no significant differences between cytokine detection using our microarray system and the “gold standard” ELISA format. Crucially, future biomarker detection need not be limited to the 16 cytokines shown here but could be expanded as required. In conclusion, we detail a bespoke protein microarray system, utilizing well-validated ELISA reagents, that allows accurate, precise, and reproducible multiplexed biomarker quantification, comparable with commercial ELISA, and allowing customization beyond that of similar commercial microarrays. PMID:25382942

  16. DNA and protein microarray printing on silicon nitride waveguide surfaces.

    PubMed

    Wu, Peng; Hogrebe, Paul; Grainger, David W

    2006-01-15

    Sputtered silicon nitride optical waveguide surfaces were silanized and modified with a hetero-bifunctional crosslinker to facilitate thiol-reactive immobilization of contact-printed DNA probe oligonucleotides, streptavidin and murine anti-human interleukin-1 beta capture agents in microarray formats. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) was used to characterize each reaction sequence on the native silicon oxynitride surface. Thiol-terminated DNA probe oligonucleotides exhibited substantially higher surface printing immobilization and target hybridization efficiencies than non-thiolated DNA probe oligonucleotides: strong fluorescence signals from target DNA hybridization supported successful DNA oligonucleotide probe microarray fabrication and specific capture bioactivity. Analogously printed arrays of thiolated streptavidin and non-thiolated streptavidin did not exhibit noticeable differences in either surface immobilization or analyte capture assay signals. Non-thiolated anti-human interleukin-1 beta printed on modified silicon nitride surfaces reactive to thiol chemistry exhibited comparable performance for capturing human interleukin-1 beta analyte to commercial amine-reactive microarraying polymer surfaces in sandwich immunoassays, indicating substantial non-specific antibody-surface capture responsible for analyte capture signal.

  17. Detailed insights from microarray and crystallographic studies into carbohydrate recognition by microneme protein 1 (MIC1) of Toxoplasma gondii

    PubMed Central

    Garnett, James A; Liu, Yan; Leon, Ester; Allman, Sarah A; Friedrich, Nikolas; Saouros, Savvas; Curry, Stephen; Soldati-Favre, Dominique; Davis, Benjamin G; Feizi, Ten; Matthews, Stephen

    2009-01-01

    The intracellular protozoan Toxoplasma gondii is among the most widespread parasites. The broad host cell range of the parasite can be explained by carbohydrate microarray screening analyses that have demonstrated the ability of the T. gondii adhesive protein, TgMIC1, to bind to a wide spectrum of sialyl oligosaccharide ligands. Here, we investigate by further microarray analyses in a dose-response format the differential binding of TgMIC1 to 2-3- and 2-6-linked sialyl carbohydrates. Interestingly, two novel synthetic fluorinated analogs of 3′SiaLacNAc1–4 and 3′SiaLacNAc1–3 were identified as highly potent ligands. To understand the structural basis of the carbohydrate binding specificity of TgMIC1, we have determined the crystal structures of TgMIC1 micronemal adhesive repeat (MAR)-region (TgMIC1-MARR) in complex with five sialyl-N-acetyllactosamine analogs. These crystal structures have revealed a specific, water-mediated hydrogen bond network that accounts for the preferential binding of TgMIC1-MARR to arrayed 2-3-linked sialyl oligosaccharides and the high potency of the fluorinated analogs. Furthermore, we provide strong evidence for the first observation of a C—F···H—O hydrogen bond within a lectin-carbohydrate complex. Finally, detailed comparison with other oligosaccharide-protein complexes in the Protein Data Bank (PDB) reveals a new family of sialic-acid binding sites from lectins in parasites, bacteria, and viruses. PMID:19593815

  18. Protein microarrays for the diagnosis of allergic diseases: state-of-the-art and future development.

    PubMed

    Harwanegg, Christian; Hiller, Reinhard

    2005-01-01

    In the emerging field of Functional Proteomics, protein microarrays are considered to be one of the most promising tools for the simultaneous analysis of the a) abundance, b) function, and c) interaction of proteins on a system-wide scale. Resting on the technological grounds of widely used DNA biochips, the great power of microarray-based miniature solid-phase immunoassays lies in their potential to investigate in parallel large numbers of analyte pairs in a variety of biological samples. Consequently, this has fueled aspirations that protein microarrays may serve as tools for the high-throughput functional investigation of complete proteomes and, moreover, that they will develop into promising candidates for innovative in-vitro diagnostic (IVD) applications. To date, published examples of protein microarrays for IVD purposes have included tests for allergy, autoimmune and infectious diseases. Here, we discuss recent advancements in the development of protein microarrays for the profiling of IgE antibodies in the diagnosis of Type 1-related allergic diseases.

  19. Site-specific and covalent attachment of his-tagged proteins by chelation assisted photoimmobilization: a strategy for microarraying of protein ligands.

    PubMed

    Ericsson, Emma M; Enander, Karin; Bui, Lan; Lundström, Ingemar; Konradsson, Peter; Liedberg, Bo

    2013-09-17

    A novel strategy for site-specific and covalent attachment of proteins has been developed, intended for robust and controllable immobilization of histidine (His)-tagged ligands in protein microarrays. The method is termed chelation assisted photoimmobilization (CAP) and was demonstrated using human IgG-Fc modified with C-terminal hexahistidines (His-IgGFc) as the ligand and protein A as the analyte. Alkanethiols terminated with either nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA), benzophenone (BP), or oligo(ethylene glycol) were synthesized and mixed self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) were prepared on gold and thoroughly characterized by infrared reflection absorption spectroscopy (IRAS), ellipsometry, and contact angle goniometry. In the process of CAP, NTA chelates Ni(2+) and the complex coordinates the His-tagged ligand in an oriented assembly. The ligand is then photoimmobilized via BP, which forms covalent bonds upon UV light activation. In the development of affinity biosensors and protein microarrays, site-specific attachment of ligands in a fashion where analyte binding sites are available is often preferred to random coupling. Analyte binding performance of ligands immobilized either by CAP or by standard amine coupling was characterized by surface plasmon resonance in combination with IRAS. The relative analyte response with randomly coupled ligand was 2.5 times higher than when site-specific attachment was used. This is a reminder that also when immobilizing ligands via residues far from the binding site, there are many other factors influencing availability and activity. Still, CAP provides a valuable expansion of protein immobilization techniques since it offers attractive microarraying possibilities amenable to applications within proteomics. PMID:24007525

  20. Kinetic identification of protein ligands in a 51,200 small-molecule library using microarrays and a label-free ellipsometric scanner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landry, James P.; Proudian, Andrew P.; Malovichko, Galina; Zhu, Xiangdong

    2013-02-01

    Drug discovery begins by identifying protein-small molecule binding pairs. Afterwards, binding kinetics and biofunctional assays are performed, to reduce candidates for further development. High-throughput screening, typically employing fluorescence, is widely used to find protein ligands in small-molecule libraries, but is rarely used for binding kinetics measurement because: (1) attaching fluorophores to proteins can alter kinetics and (2) most label-free technologies for kinetics measurement are inherently low-throughput and consume expensive sensing surfaces. We addressed this need with polarization-modulated ellipsometric scanning microscopes, called oblique-incidence reflectivity difference (OI-RD). Label-free ligand screening and kinetics measurement are performed simultaneously on small-molecule microarrays printed on relatively inexpensive isocyanate-functionalized glass slides. As a microarray is reacted, an OI-RD microscope tracks the change in surface-bound macromolecule density in real-time at every spot. We report progress applying OI-RD to screen purified proteins and virus particles against a 51,200-compound library from the National Cancer Institute. Four microarrays, each containing 12,800 library compounds, are installed in four flow cells in an automated OI-RD microscope. The slides are reacted serially, each giving 12,800 binding curves with ~30 sec time resolution. The entire library is kinetically screened against a single probe in ~14 hours and multiple probes can be reacted sequentially under automation. Real-time binding detection identifies both high-affinity and low-affinity (transient binding) interactions; fluorescence endpoint images miss the latter. OI-RD and microarrays together is a powerful high-throughput tool for early stage drug discovery and development. The platform also has great potential for downstream steps such as in vitro inhibition assays.

  1. Calcium-binding proteins and development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beckingham, K.; Lu, A. Q.; Andruss, B. F.; McIntire, L. V. (Principal Investigator)

    1998-01-01

    The known roles for calcium-binding proteins in developmental signaling pathways are reviewed. Current information on the calcium-binding characteristics of three classes of cell-surface developmental signaling proteins (EGF-domain proteins, cadherins and integrins) is presented together with an overview of the intracellular pathways downstream of these surface receptors. The developmental roles delineated to date for the universal intracellular calcium sensor, calmodulin, and its targets, and for calcium-binding regulators of the cytoskeleton are also reviewed.

  2. Evaluating Common Humoral Responses against Fungal Infections with Yeast Protein Microarrays.

    PubMed

    Coelho, Paulo S R; Im, Hogune; Clemons, Karl V; Snyder, Michael P; Stevens, David A

    2015-09-01

    We profiled the global immunoglobulin response against fungal infection by using yeast protein microarrays. Groups of CD-1 mice were infected systemically with human fungal pathogens (Coccidioides posadasii, Candida albicans, or Paracoccidioides brasiliensis) or inoculated with PBS as a control. Another group was inoculated with heat-killed yeast (HKY) of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. After 30 days, serum from mice in the groups were collected and used to probe S. cerevisiae protein microarrays containing 4800 full-length glutathione S-transferase (GST)-fusion proteins. Antimouse IgG conjugated with Alexafluor 555 and anti-GST antibody conjugated with Alexafluor 647 were used to detect antibody-antigen interactions and the presence of GST-fusion proteins, respectively. Serum after infection with C. albicans reacted with 121 proteins: C. posadasii, 81; P. brasiliensis, 67; and after HKY, 63 proteins on the yeast protein microarray, respectively. We identified a set of 16 antigenic proteins that were shared across the three fungal pathogens. These include retrotransposon capsid proteins, heat shock proteins, and mitochondrial proteins. Five of these proteins were identified in our previous study of fungal cell wall by mass spectrometry (Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 2012, 1273, 44-51). The results obtained give a comprehensive view of the immunological responses to fungal infections at the proteomic level. They also offer insight into immunoreactive protein commonality among several fungal pathogens and provide a basis for a panfungal vaccine. PMID:26258609

  3. Evaluating Common Humoral Responses against Fungal Infections with Yeast Protein Microarrays.

    PubMed

    Coelho, Paulo S R; Im, Hogune; Clemons, Karl V; Snyder, Michael P; Stevens, David A

    2015-09-01

    We profiled the global immunoglobulin response against fungal infection by using yeast protein microarrays. Groups of CD-1 mice were infected systemically with human fungal pathogens (Coccidioides posadasii, Candida albicans, or Paracoccidioides brasiliensis) or inoculated with PBS as a control. Another group was inoculated with heat-killed yeast (HKY) of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. After 30 days, serum from mice in the groups were collected and used to probe S. cerevisiae protein microarrays containing 4800 full-length glutathione S-transferase (GST)-fusion proteins. Antimouse IgG conjugated with Alexafluor 555 and anti-GST antibody conjugated with Alexafluor 647 were used to detect antibody-antigen interactions and the presence of GST-fusion proteins, respectively. Serum after infection with C. albicans reacted with 121 proteins: C. posadasii, 81; P. brasiliensis, 67; and after HKY, 63 proteins on the yeast protein microarray, respectively. We identified a set of 16 antigenic proteins that were shared across the three fungal pathogens. These include retrotransposon capsid proteins, heat shock proteins, and mitochondrial proteins. Five of these proteins were identified in our previous study of fungal cell wall by mass spectrometry (Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 2012, 1273, 44-51). The results obtained give a comprehensive view of the immunological responses to fungal infections at the proteomic level. They also offer insight into immunoreactive protein commonality among several fungal pathogens and provide a basis for a panfungal vaccine.

  4. Monitoring Protein Kinase Expression and Phosphorylation in Cell Lysates with Antibody Microarrays.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hong; Shi, Xiaoqing; Pelech, Steven

    2016-01-01

    Fuelled by advances in our understanding of the human kinome and phosphoproteome and the increasing availability of pan- and phosphosite-specific antibodies, antibody microarrays have emerged as powerful tools for interrogating protein phosphorylation-mediated signaling systems in ex vivo studies. This economical platform permits ultra-sensitive, semiquantitative measurements of the levels of hundreds of protein kinases and their substrates along with their phosphorylation status simultaneously with minute amounts of specimens. Recent technological innovations in the design and fabrication of antibody microarrays and sample preparation have permitted further refinements of the technology to yield improvements in data quality. In this chapter, we describe a detailed protocol that we have developed for tracking the expression and phosphorylation of protein kinases and their substrates in crude cell lysate samples using a high-content antibody microarray.

  5. Quantification of the epitope diversity of HIV-1-specific binding antibodies by peptide microarrays for global HIV-1 vaccine development

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Stephenson, Kathryn E.; Neubauer, George H.; Reimer, Ulf; Pawlowski, Nikolaus; Knaute, Tobias; Zerweck, Johannes; Korber, Bette T.; Barouch, Dan H.

    2014-11-14

    An effective vaccine against human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) will have to provide protection against a vast array of different HIV-1 strains. Current methods to measure HIV-1-specific binding antibodies following immunization typically focus on determining the magnitude of antibody responses, but the epitope diversity of antibody responses has remained largely unexplored. Here we describe the development of a global HIV-1 peptide microarray that contains 6564 peptides from across the HIV-1 proteome and covers the majority of HIV-1 sequences in the Los Alamos National Laboratory global HIV-1 sequence database. Using this microarray, we quantified the magnitude, breadth, and depth ofmore » IgG binding to linear HIV-1 sequences in HIV-1-infected humans and HIV-1-vaccinated humans, rhesus monkeys and guinea pigs. The microarray measured potentially important differences in antibody epitope diversity, particularly regarding the depth of epitope variants recognized at each binding site. Our data suggest that the global HIV-1 peptide microarray may be a useful tool for both preclinical and clinical HIV-1 research.« less

  6. Quantification of the epitope diversity of HIV-1-specific binding antibodies by peptide microarrays for global HIV-1 vaccine development

    SciTech Connect

    Stephenson, Kathryn E.; Neubauer, George H.; Reimer, Ulf; Pawlowski, Nikolaus; Knaute, Tobias; Zerweck, Johannes; Korber, Bette T.; Barouch, Dan H.

    2014-11-14

    An effective vaccine against human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) will have to provide protection against a vast array of different HIV-1 strains. Current methods to measure HIV-1-specific binding antibodies following immunization typically focus on determining the magnitude of antibody responses, but the epitope diversity of antibody responses has remained largely unexplored. Here we describe the development of a global HIV-1 peptide microarray that contains 6564 peptides from across the HIV-1 proteome and covers the majority of HIV-1 sequences in the Los Alamos National Laboratory global HIV-1 sequence database. Using this microarray, we quantified the magnitude, breadth, and depth of IgG binding to linear HIV-1 sequences in HIV-1-infected humans and HIV-1-vaccinated humans, rhesus monkeys and guinea pigs. The microarray measured potentially important differences in antibody epitope diversity, particularly regarding the depth of epitope variants recognized at each binding site. Our data suggest that the global HIV-1 peptide microarray may be a useful tool for both preclinical and clinical HIV-1 research.

  7. A novel concept for protein microarray: land-contrast BioCD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xuefeng; Zhao, Ming; Nolte, David D.

    2009-02-01

    We present a new type of protein microarray called the Land-contrast (LC) BioCD in which imaging contrast is induced by a patterned substrate rather than by patterned protein. This is realized by etching spot patterns in a silicon wafer. On the spot region the silicon dioxide thickness is 140 nm and on the land it is 77 nm. The spot and the land have equal reflectance but opposite interferometric quadrature responses for protein layer. Protein is evenly immobilized on the entire chip and detected by reflectometry. Therefore there is no need for protein printing, nor spectrometers, nor high angles nor polarization control to image the surface-bound protein. The LC BioCD can facilitate research on protein microarrays.

  8. The detection of DNA-binding proteins by protein blotting.

    PubMed Central

    Bowen, B; Steinberg, J; Laemmli, U K; Weintraub, H

    1980-01-01

    A method, called "protein blotting," for the detection of DNA-binding proteins is described. Proteins are separated on an SDA-polyacrylamide gel. The gel is sandwiched between 2 nitrocellulose filters and the proteins allowed to diffuse out of the gel and onto the filters. The proteins are tightly bound to each filter, producing a replica of the original gel pattern. The replica is used to detect DNA-binding proteins, RNA-binding proteins or histone-binding proteins by incubation of the filter with [32P]DNA, [125I]RNA, or [125I] histone. Evidence is also presented that specific protein-DNA interactions may be detected by this technique; under appropriate conditions, the lac repressor binds only to DNA containing the lac operator. Strategies for the detection of specific protein-DNA interactions are discussed. Images PMID:6243775

  9. Profiling Lipid–protein Interactions Using Nonquenched Fluorescent Liposomal Nanovesicles and Proteome Microarrays*

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Kuan-Yi; Tao, Sheng-Ce; Yang, Tzu-Ching; Ho, Yu-Hsuan; Lee, Chia-Hsien; Lin, Chen-Ching; Juan, Hsueh-Fen; Huang, Hsuan-Cheng; Yang, Chin-Yu; Chen, Ming-Shuo; Lin, Yu-Yi; Lu, Jin-Ying; Zhu, Heng; Chen, Chien-Sheng

    2012-01-01

    Fluorescent liposomal nanovesicles (liposomes) are commonly used for lipid research and/or signal enhancement. However, the problem of self-quenching with conventional fluorescent liposomes limits their applications because these liposomes must be lysed to detect the fluorescent signals. Here, we developed a nonquenched fluorescent (NQF)1 liposome by optimizing the proportion of sulforhodamine B (SRB) encapsulant and lissamine rhodamine B-dipalmitoyl phosphatidylethanol (LRB-DPPE) on a liposomal surface for signal amplification. Our study showed that 0.3% of LRB-DPPE with 200 μm of SRB provided the maximal fluorescent signal without the need to lyse the liposomes. We also observed that the NQF liposomes largely eliminated self-quenching effects and produced greatly enhanced signals than SRB-only liposomes by 5.3-fold. To show their application in proteomics research, we constructed NQF liposomes that contained phosphatidylinositol 3,5-bisphosphate (PI(3,5)P2) and profiled its protein interactome using a yeast proteome microarray. Our profiling led to the identification of 162 PI(3,5)P2-specific binding proteins (PI(3,5)P2-BPs). We not only recovered many proteins that possessed known PI(3,5)P2-binding domains, but we also found two unknown Pfam domains (Pfam-B_8509 and Pfam-B_10446) that were enriched in our dataset. The validation of many newly discovered PI(3,5)P2-BPs was performed using a bead-based affinity assay. Further bioinformatics analyses revealed that the functional roles of 22 PI(3,5)P2-BPs were similar to those associated with PI(3,5)P2, including vesicle-mediated transport, GTPase, cytoskeleton, and kinase. Among the 162 PI(3,5)P2-BPs, we found a novel motif, HRDIKP[ES]NJLL that showed statistical significance. A docking simulation showed that PI(3,5)P2 interacted primarily with lysine or arginine side chains of the newly identified PI(3,5)P2-binding kinases. Our study showed that this new tool would greatly benefit profiling lipid–protein

  10. Protein microarrays: a new tool for the study of autoantibodies in immunodeficiency.

    PubMed

    Rosenberg, Jacob M; Utz, Paul J

    2015-01-01

    Autoimmunity is highly coincident with immunodeficiency. In a small but growing number of primary immunodeficiencies, autoantibodies are diagnostic of a given disease and implicated in disease pathogenesis. In order to improve our understanding of the role of autoantibodies in immunodeficiencies and to discover novel autoantibodies, new proteomic tools are needed. Protein microarrays have the ability to screen for reactivity to hundreds to many thousands of unique autoantigens simultaneously on a single chip using minimal serum input. Here, we review different types of protein microarrays and how they can be useful in framing the study of primary and secondary immunodeficiencies. PMID:25904912

  11. Lithographic techniques and surface chemistries for the fabrication of PEG-passivated protein microarrays

    PubMed Central

    Kannan, Balaji; Castelino, Kenneth; Chen, Fanqing Frank

    2009-01-01

    This article presents a new technique to fabricate patterns of functional molecules surrounded by a coating of the inert poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) on glass slides for applications in protein microarray technology. The chief advantages of this technique are that it is based entirely on standard lithography processes, makes use of glass slides employing surface chemistries that are standard in the microarray community, and has the potential to massively scale up the density of microarray spots. It is shown that proteins and antibodies can be made to self-assemble on the functional patterns in a microarray format, with the PEG coating acting as an effective passivating agent to prevent non-specific protein adsorption. Various standard surface chemistries such as aldehyde, epoxy and amine are explored for the functional layer, and it is conclusively demonstrated that only an amine-terminated surface satisfies all the process constraints imposed by the lithography process sequence. The effectiveness of this microarray technology is demonstrated by patterning fluorescent streptavidin and a fluorescent secondary antibody using the well-known and highly specific interaction between biotin and streptavidin. PMID:16457998

  12. Calmodulin Binding Proteins and Alzheimer's Disease.

    PubMed

    O'Day, Danton H; Eshak, Kristeen; Myre, Michael A

    2015-01-01

    The small, calcium-sensor protein, calmodulin, is ubiquitously expressed and central to cell function in all cell types. Here the literature linking calmodulin to Alzheimer's disease is reviewed. Several experimentally-verified calmodulin-binding proteins are involved in the formation of amyloid-β plaques including amyloid-β protein precursor, β-secretase, presenilin-1, and ADAM10. Many others possess potential calmodulin-binding domains that remain to be verified. Three calmodulin binding proteins are associated with the formation of neurofibrillary tangles: two kinases (CaMKII, CDK5) and one protein phosphatase (PP2B or calcineurin). Many of the genes recently identified by genome wide association studies and other studies encode proteins that contain putative calmodulin-binding domains but only a couple (e.g., APOE, BIN1) have been experimentally confirmed as calmodulin binding proteins. At least two receptors involved in calcium metabolism and linked to Alzheimer's disease (mAchR; NMDAR) have also been identified as calmodulin-binding proteins. In addition to this, many proteins that are involved in other cellular events intimately associated with Alzheimer's disease including calcium channel function, cholesterol metabolism, neuroinflammation, endocytosis, cell cycle events, and apoptosis have been tentatively or experimentally verified as calmodulin binding proteins. The use of calmodulin as a potential biomarker and as a therapeutic target is discussed. PMID:25812852

  13. An overview of innovations and industrial solutions in Protein Microarray Technology.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Shabarni; Manubhai, K P; Kulkarni, Vishwesh; Srivastava, Sanjeeva

    2016-04-01

    The complexity involving protein array technology reflects in the fact that instrumentation and data analysis are subject to change depending on the biological question, technical compatibility of instruments and software used in each experiment. Industry has played a pivotal role in establishing standards for future deliberations in sustenance of these technologies in the form of protein array chips, arrayers, scanning devices, and data analysis software. This has enhanced the outreach of protein microarray technology to researchers across the globe. These have encouraged a surge in the adaptation of "nonclassical" approaches such as DNA-based protein arrays, micro-contact printing, label-free protein detection, and algorithms for data analysis. This review provides a unique overview of these industrial solutions available for protein microarray based studies. It aims at assessing the developments in various commercial platforms, thus providing a holistic overview of various modalities, options, and compatibility; summarizing the journey of this powerful high-throughput technology. PMID:27089056

  14. Computational Prediction of RNA-Binding Proteins and Binding Sites.

    PubMed

    Si, Jingna; Cui, Jing; Cheng, Jin; Wu, Rongling

    2015-01-01

    Proteins and RNA interaction have vital roles in many cellular processes such as protein synthesis, sequence encoding, RNA transfer, and gene regulation at the transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels. Approximately 6%-8% of all proteins are RNA-binding proteins (RBPs). Distinguishing these RBPs or their binding residues is a major aim of structural biology. Previously, a number of experimental methods were developed for the determination of protein-RNA interactions. However, these experimental methods are expensive, time-consuming, and labor-intensive. Alternatively, researchers have developed many computational approaches to predict RBPs and protein-RNA binding sites, by combining various machine learning methods and abundant sequence and/or structural features. There are three kinds of computational approaches, which are prediction from protein sequence, prediction from protein structure, and protein-RNA docking. In this paper, we review all existing studies of predictions of RNA-binding sites and RBPs and complexes, including data sets used in different approaches, sequence and structural features used in several predictors, prediction method classifications, performance comparisons, evaluation methods, and future directions.

  15. Quantitative characterization of conformational-specific protein-DNA binding using a dual-spectral interferometric imaging biosensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xirui; Daaboul, George G.; Spuhler, Philipp S.; Dröge, Peter; Ünlü, M. Selim

    2016-03-01

    DNA-binding proteins play crucial roles in the maintenance and functions of the genome and yet, their specific binding mechanisms are not fully understood. Recently, it was discovered that DNA-binding proteins recognize specific binding sites to carry out their functions through an indirect readout mechanism by recognizing and capturing DNA conformational flexibility and deformation. High-throughput DNA microarray-based methods that provide large-scale protein-DNA binding information have shown effective and comprehensive analysis of protein-DNA binding affinities, but do not provide information of DNA conformational changes in specific protein-DNA complexes. Building on the high-throughput capability of DNA microarrays, we demonstrate a quantitative approach that simultaneously measures the amount of protein binding to DNA and nanometer-scale DNA conformational change induced by protein binding in a microarray format. Both measurements rely on spectral interferometry on a layered substrate using a single optical instrument in two distinct modalities. In the first modality, we quantitate the amount of binding of protein to surface-immobilized DNA in each DNA spot using a label-free spectral reflectivity technique that accurately measures the surface densities of protein and DNA accumulated on the substrate. In the second modality, for each DNA spot, we simultaneously measure DNA conformational change using a fluorescence vertical sectioning technique that determines average axial height of fluorophores tagged to specific nucleotides of the surface-immobilized DNA. The approach presented in this paper, when combined with current high-throughput DNA microarray-based technologies, has the potential to serve as a rapid and simple method for quantitative and large-scale characterization of conformational specific protein-DNA interactions.DNA-binding proteins play crucial roles in the maintenance and functions of the genome and yet, their specific binding mechanisms are

  16. Identification of Novel Protein-Ligand Interactions by Exon Microarray Analysis of Yeast Surface Displayed cDNA Library Selection Outputs.

    PubMed

    Bidlingmaier, Scott; Liu, Bin

    2015-01-01

    Yeast surface display is widely utilized to screen large libraries for proteins or protein fragments with specific binding properties. We have previously constructed and utilized yeast surface displayed human cDNA libraries to identify protein fragments that bind to various target ligands. Conventional approaches employ monoclonal screening and sequencing of polyclonal outputs that have been enriched for binding to a target molecule by several rounds of affinity-based selection. Frequently, a small number of clones will dominate the selection output, making it difficult to comprehensively identify potentially important interactions due to low representation in the selection output. We have developed a novel method to address this problem. By analyzing selection outputs using high-density human exon microarrays, the full potential of selection output diversity can be revealed in one experiment. FACS-based selection using yeast surface displayed human cDNA libraries combined with exon microarray analysis of the selection outputs is a powerful way of rapidly identifying protein fragments with affinity for any soluble ligand that can be fluorescently detected, including small biological molecules and drugs. In this report we present protocols for exon microarray-based analysis of yeast surface display human cDNA library selection outputs. PMID:26060075

  17. Plasmonic substrates for multiplexed protein microarrays with femtomolar sensitivity and broad dynamic range

    PubMed Central

    Tabakman, Scott M.; Lau, Lana; Robinson, Joshua T.; Price, Jordan; Sherlock, Sarah P.; Wang, Hailiang; Zhang, Bo; Chen, Zhuo; Tangsombatvisit, Stephanie; Jarrell, Justin A.; Utz, Paul J.; Dai, Hongjie

    2012-01-01

    Protein chips are widely used for high-throughput proteomic analysis, but to date, the low sensitivity and narrow dynamic range have limited their capabilities in diagnostics and proteomics. Here we present protein microarrays on a novel nanostructured, plasmonic gold film with near-infrared fluorescence enhancement of up to 100-fold, extending the dynamic range of protein detection by three orders of magnitude towards the fM regime. We employ plasmonic protein microarrays for the early detection of a cancer biomarker, carcinoembryonic antigen, in the sera of mice bearing a xenograft tumour model. Further, we demonstrate a multiplexed autoantigen array for human autoantibodies implicated in a range of autoimmune diseases with superior signal-to-noise ratios and broader dynamic range compared with commercial nitrocellulose and glass substrates. The high sensitivity, broad dynamic range and easy adaptability of plasmonic protein chips presents new opportunities in proteomic research and diagnostics applications. PMID:21915108

  18. Aptamer Microarrays

    SciTech Connect

    Angel-Syrett, Heather; Collett, Jim; Ellington, Andrew D.

    2009-01-02

    In vitro selection can yield specific, high-affinity aptamers. We and others have devised methods for the automated selection of aptamers, and have begun to use these reagents for the construction of arrays. Arrayed aptamers have proven to be almost as sensitive as their solution phase counterparts, and when ganged together can provide both specific and general diagnostic signals for proteins and other analytes. We describe here technical details regarding the production and processing of aptamer microarrays, including blocking, washing, drying, and scanning. We will also discuss the challenges involved in developing standardized and reproducible methods for binding and quantitating protein targets. While signals from fluorescent analytes or sandwiches are typically captured, it has proven possible for immobilized aptamers to be uniquely coupled to amplification methods not available to protein reagents, thus allowing for protein-binding signals to be greatly amplified. Into the future, many of the biosensor methods described in this book can potentially be adapted to array formats, thus further expanding the utility of and applications for aptamer arrays.

  19. Erratum: Colorectal Cancer Cell Surface Protein Profiling Using an Antibody Microarray and Fluorescence Multiplexing.

    PubMed

    2015-01-01

    The author's email has been corrected in the publication of Colorectal Cancer Cell Surface Protein Profiling Using an Antibody Microarray and Fluorescence Multiplexing. There was an error with the author, Jerry Zhou's, email. The author's email has been updated to: j.zhou@uws.edu.au from: jzho7551@mail.usyd.edu.au. PMID:26167960

  20. Profiling Humoral Immune Responses to Clostridium difficile-Specific Antigens by Protein Microarray Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Negm, Ola H.; Hamed, Mohamed R.; Dilnot, Elizabeth M.; Shone, Clifford C.; Marszalowska, Izabela; Lynch, Mark; Loscher, Christine E.; Edwards, Laura J.; Tighe, Patrick J.; Wilcox, Mark H.

    2015-01-01

    Clostridium difficile is an anaerobic, Gram-positive, and spore-forming bacterium that is the leading worldwide infective cause of hospital-acquired and antibiotic-associated diarrhea. Several studies have reported associations between humoral immunity and the clinical course of C. difficile infection (CDI). Host humoral immune responses are determined using conventional enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) techniques. Herein, we report the first use of a novel protein microarray assay to determine systemic IgG antibody responses against a panel of highly purified C. difficile-specific antigens, including native toxins A and B (TcdA and TcdB, respectively), recombinant fragments of toxins A and B (TxA4 and TxB4, respectively), ribotype-specific surface layer proteins (SLPs; 001, 002, 027), and control proteins (tetanus toxoid and Candida albicans). Microarrays were probed with sera from a total of 327 individuals with CDI, cystic fibrosis without diarrhea, and healthy controls. For all antigens, precision profiles demonstrated <10% coefficient of variation (CV). Significant correlation was observed between microarray and ELISA in the quantification of antitoxin A and antitoxin B IgG. These results indicate that microarray is a suitable assay for defining humoral immune responses to C. difficile protein antigens and may have potential advantages in throughput, convenience, and cost. PMID:26178385

  1. A quantitative liposome microarray to systematically characterize protein-lipid interactions.

    PubMed

    Saliba, Antoine-Emmanuel; Vonkova, Ivana; Ceschia, Stefano; Findlay, Greg M; Maeda, Kenji; Tischer, Christian; Deghou, Samy; van Noort, Vera; Bork, Peer; Pawson, Tony; Ellenberg, Jan; Gavin, Anne-Claude

    2014-01-01

    Lipids have a role in virtually all biological processes, acting as structural elements, scaffolds and signaling molecules, but they are still largely under-represented in known biological networks. Here we describe a liposome microarray-based assay (LiMA), a method that measures protein recruitment to membranes in a quantitative, automated, multiplexed and high-throughput manner.

  2. Mercury-binding proteins of Mytilus edulis

    SciTech Connect

    Roesijadi, G.; Morris, J. E.; Calabrese, A.

    1981-11-01

    Mytilus edulis possesses low molecular weight, mercury-binding proteins. The predominant protein isolated from gill tissue is enriched in cysteinyl residues (8%) and possesses an amino acid composition similar to cadmium-binding proteins of mussels and oysters. Continuous exposure of mussels to 5 ..mu..g/l mercury results in spillover of mercury from these proteins to high molecular weight proteins. Antibodies to these proteins have been isolated, and development of immunoassays is presently underway. Preliminary studies to determine whether exposure of adult mussels to mercury will result in induction of mercury-binding proteins in offspring suggest that such proteins occur in larvae although additional studies are indicated for a conclusive demonstration.

  3. Chemokine binding proteins encoded by pathogens.

    PubMed

    Alcami, Antonio; Saraiva, Margarida

    2009-01-01

    Chemokines are chemoattractant cytokines that play an important role in immunity. The role of chemokines against invading pathogens is emphasized by the expression of chemokine inhibitors by many pathogens. A mechanims employed by poxviruses and herpesviruses is the secretion of chemokine bindingproteins unrelated to host receptors that bind chemokines with high affinity and block their activity. Soluble chemokine binding proteins have also been identified in the human parasite Schistosoma mansoni and in ticks. The binding specificity of these inhibitors of cell migration point at chemokines that contribute to host defense mechanisms against various pathogens. Chemokine binding proteins modulate the immune response and may lead to new therapeutic approaches to treat inflamatory diseases.

  4. Merging photolithography and robotic protein printing to create cellular microarrays.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ji Youn; Revzin, Alexander

    2011-01-01

    Photolithographic patterning of proteins on surfaces has been used extensively in the past to define cell adhesion domains with micrometer-scale resolution. However, photolithographic patterning is not amenable to depositing several different proteins on the same surface. We propose to merge photolithography with robotic printing of proteins in order to create arrays of protein spots (∼300-500 μm diameters) with encoded micrometer-scale cell adhesive domains. This method for biointerface design can employ standard positive tone resist lithography to create temporary stencils for printing of protein arrays. Alternatively, nonfouling poly(ethylene glycol) hydrogels can be micropatterned on top of protein spots. In both cases, cells become adherent on the underlying protein domains, but on-the-spot distribution of cells is defined by the photolithographic pattern. The ability to define multiple cell-substrate and cell-cell interaction scenarios on the same surface is applicable to high-throughput screening of the microenvironment components required for cellular differentiation, for example, for guiding stem cells toward the desired tissue type.

  5. Investigation of the relationship between protein-protein interaction and catalytic activity of a heme-regulated phosphodiesterase from Escherichia coli (Ec DOS) by protein microarray.

    PubMed

    Sasakura, Yukie; Kanda, Katsuhiro; Yoshimura-Suzuki, Tokiko; Matsui, Takuya; Fukuzono, Shinichi; Shimizu, Toru

    2005-07-19

    Ec DOS, a heme-regulated phosphodiesterase from Escherichia coli, is composed of an N-terminal heme-bound PAS domain and a C-terminal phosphodiesterase domain. The heme redox state in the PAS domain regulates Ec DOS phosphodiesterase activity. Interestingly, the isolated heme-bound PAS fragment enhances phosphodiesterase activity of full-length Ec DOS. The enhancement is also regulated by the heme redox state of the isolated PAS domain. In the present study, we used a newly developed protein microarray system to examine the relationship between catalytic activity and the interaction of full-length Ec DOS and the isolated PAS fragment. Adenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (cAMP), a substrate of the Ec DOS phosphodiesterase, was found to be indispensable for the interaction between Ec DOS and the PAS fragment, and two phosphodiesterase inhibitors, 3-isobutyl-methyl-xanthine and etazolate hydrochloride, hindered the interaction. In addition, an enzyme with a mutation in the putative cAMP-binding sites (H590 and H594) was unable to interact with Ec DOS and lacked enzymatic activity. These results strongly suggest a close relationship between Ec DOS phosphodiesterase activity and interaction with the isolated PAS fragment. Therefore, this study provides insights into the mechanism of how the isolated PAS domain activates Ec DOS, which has important implications for the general role of the isolated PAS domain in cells. Moreover, we found that multiple microscale analyses using the protein microarray system had several advantages over conventional affinity column methods, including the quantity of protein needed, the sensitivity, the variability of immobilized protein, and the time required for the experiment. PMID:16008345

  6. Molecular beacons for detecting DNA binding proteins.

    PubMed

    Heyduk, Tomasz; Heyduk, Ewa

    2002-02-01

    We report here a simple, rapid, homogeneous fluorescence assay, the molecular beacon assay, for the detection and quantification of sequence-specific DNA-binding proteins. The central feature of the assay is the protein-dependent association of two DNA fragments each containing about half of a DNA sequence defining a protein-binding site. Protein-dependent association of DNA fragments can be detected by any proximity-based spectroscopic signal, such as fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) between fluorochromes introduced into these DNA molecules. The assay is fully homogeneous and requires no manipulations aside from mixing of the sample and the test solution. It offers flexibility with respect to the mode of signal detection and the fluorescence probe, and is compatible with multicolor simultaneous detection of several proteins. The assay can be used in research and medical diagnosis and for high-throughput screening of drugs targeted to DNA-binding proteins.

  7. Non-contact protein microarray fabrication using a procedure based on liquid bridge formation.

    PubMed

    Hartmann, Michael; Sjödahl, Johan; Stjernström, Mårten; Redeby, Johan; Joos, Thomas; Roeraade, Johan

    2009-01-01

    Contemporary microarrayers of contact or non-contact format used in protein microarray fabrication still suffer from a number of problems, e.g. generation of satellite spots, inhomogeneous spots, misplaced or even absent spots, and sample carryover. In this paper, a new concept of non-contact sample deposition that reduces such problems is introduced. To show the potential and robustness of this pressure-assisted deposition technique, different sample solutions known to cause severe problems or to be even impossible to print with conventional microarrayers were accurately printed. The samples included 200 mg mL(-1) human serum albumin, highly concentrated sticky cell adhesion proteins, pure high-salt cell-lysis buffer, pure DMSO, and a suspension of 5-microm polystyrene beads. Additionally, a water-immiscible liquid fluorocarbon, which was shown not to affect the functionality of the capture molecules, was employed as a lid to reduce evaporation during microarray printing. The fluorocarbon liquid lid was shown to circumvent hydrolysis of water-sensitive activated surfaces during long-term deposition procedures. PMID:19023564

  8. Phage display of engineered binding proteins.

    PubMed

    Levisson, Mark; Spruijt, Ruud B; Winkel, Ingrid Nolla; Kengen, Servé W M; van der Oost, John

    2014-01-01

    In current purification processes optimization of the capture step generally has a large impact on cost reduction. At present, valuable biomolecules are often produced in relatively low concentrations and, consequently, the eventual selective separation from complex mixtures can be rather inefficient. A separation technology based on a very selective high-affinity binding may overcome these problems. Proteins in their natural environment manifest functionality by interacting specifically and often with relatively high affinity with other molecules, such as substrates, inhibitors, activators, or other proteins. At present, antibodies are the most commonly used binding proteins in numerous applications. However, antibodies do have limitations, such as high production costs, low stability, and a complex patent landscape. A novel approach is therefore to use non-immunoglobulin engineered binding proteins in affinity purification. In order to obtain engineered binders with a desired specificity, a large mutant library of the new to-be-developed binding protein has to be created and screened for potential binders. A powerful technique to screen and select for proteins with desired properties from a large pool of variants is phage display. Here, we indicate several criteria for potential binding protein scaffolds and explain the principle of M13 phage display. In addition, we describe experimental protocols for the initial steps in setting up a M13 phage display system based on the pComb3X vector, including construction of the phagemid vector, production of phages displaying the protein of interest, and confirmation of display on the M13 phage.

  9. A Chemiluminescent Protein Microarray Method for Determining the Seroglycoid Fucosylation Index.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Aiying; Skog, Sven; Wang, Shengqi; Ke, Yang; Zhang, Yonghong; Li, Kang; He, Ellen; Li, Ning

    2016-01-01

    The Lens culinaris agglutinin-reactive fraction of AFP (AFP-L3) is widely used to screen for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in Japan and China. We developed a chemiluminescent protein microarray for determining the AFP-L3/AFP index (the ratio of AFP-L3 to total AFP, AFP-L3%) by fixing AFP-specific antibodies and Lens culinaris lectin on aldehyde-coated glass slides. Serum samples were tested for AFP using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to validate the microarray. AFP-L3 was detected using Hotgen Biotech glycosyl capture spin column pretreatment technology and ELISA. When the AFP cut-off value was set to 20 ng/ml, the protein microarray displayed 89.74% sensitivity and 100% specificity for HCC diagnosis, and the ELISA displayed 87.17% sensitivity and 100% specificity. When the AFP-L3% cut-off value was set to 0.1, the protein microarray displayed 56.41% sensitivity and 100% specificity for HCC diagnosis, and the ELISA displayed 53.84% sensitivity and 100% specificity. The ROC curve for the HCC diagnosis showed that the AFP area under the ROC curve (AUC = 0.996; 95% CI: 0.986-1.005) was much higher than that of AFP-L3 (AUC = 0.857; 95% CI: 0.769-0.94) and AFP-L3% (AUC = 0.827; CI: 0.730-0.924). The microarray assay used in this study is a highly sensitive, accurate, and efficient assay for the determination of the AFP-L3%. PMID:27528397

  10. A Chemiluminescent Protein Microarray Method for Determining the Seroglycoid Fucosylation Index

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Aiying; Skog, Sven; Wang, Shengqi; Ke, Yang; Zhang, Yonghong; Li, Kang; He, Ellen; Li, Ning

    2016-01-01

    The Lens culinaris agglutinin-reactive fraction of AFP (AFP-L3) is widely used to screen for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in Japan and China. We developed a chemiluminescent protein microarray for determining the AFP-L3/AFP index (the ratio of AFP-L3 to total AFP, AFP-L3%) by fixing AFP-specific antibodies and Lens culinaris lectin on aldehyde-coated glass slides. Serum samples were tested for AFP using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to validate the microarray. AFP-L3 was detected using Hotgen Biotech glycosyl capture spin column pretreatment technology and ELISA. When the AFP cut-off value was set to 20 ng/ml, the protein microarray displayed 89.74% sensitivity and 100% specificity for HCC diagnosis, and the ELISA displayed 87.17% sensitivity and 100% specificity. When the AFP-L3% cut-off value was set to 0.1, the protein microarray displayed 56.41% sensitivity and 100% specificity for HCC diagnosis, and the ELISA displayed 53.84% sensitivity and 100% specificity. The ROC curve for the HCC diagnosis showed that the AFP area under the ROC curve (AUC = 0.996; 95% CI: 0.986–1.005) was much higher than that of AFP-L3 (AUC = 0.857; 95% CI: 0.769–0.94) and AFP-L3% (AUC = 0.827; CI: 0.730–0.924). The microarray assay used in this study is a highly sensitive, accurate, and efficient assay for the determination of the AFP-L3%. PMID:27528397

  11. Lipid binding proteins from parasitic platyhelminthes.

    PubMed

    Alvite, Gabriela; Esteves, Adriana

    2012-01-01

    TWO MAIN FAMILIES OF LIPID BINDING PROTEINS HAVE BEEN IDENTIFIED IN PARASITIC PLATYHELMINTHES: hydrophobic ligand binding proteins (HLBPs) and fatty acid binding proteins (FABPs). Members of the former family of proteins are specific to the Cestoda class, while FABPs are conserved across a wide range of animal species. Because Platyhelminthes are unable to synthesize their own lipids, these lipid-binding proteins are important molecules in these organisms. HLBPs are a high molecular mass complex of proteins and lipids. They are composed of subunits of low molecular mass proteins and a wide array of lipid molecules ranging from CoA esters to cholesterol. These proteins are excretory-secretory molecules and are key serological tools for diagnosis of diseases caused by cestodes. FABPs are mainly intracellular proteins of low molecular weight. They are also vaccine candidates. Despite that the knowledge of their function is scarce, the differences in their molecular organization, ligand preferences, intra/extracellular localization, evolution, and phylogenetic distribution, suggest that platyhelminths HLBPs and FABPs should play different functions. FABPs might be involved in the removal of fatty acids from the inner surface of the cell membrane and in their subsequent targeting to specific cellular destinations. In contrast, HLBPs might be involved in fatty acid uptake from the host environment.

  12. Calling Biomarkers in Milk Using a Protein Microarray on Your Smartphone.

    PubMed

    Ludwig, Susann K J; Tokarski, Christian; Lang, Stefan N; van Ginkel, Leendert A; Zhu, Hongying; Ozcan, Aydogan; Nielen, Michel W F

    2015-01-01

    Here we present the concept of a protein microarray-based fluorescence immunoassay for multiple biomarker detection in milk extracts by an ordinary smartphone. A multiplex immunoassay was designed on a microarray chip, having built-in positive and negative quality controls. After the immunoassay procedure, the 48 microspots were labelled with Quantum Dots (QD) depending on the protein biomarker levels in the sample. QD-fluorescence was subsequently detected by the smartphone camera under UV light excitation from LEDs embedded in a simple 3D-printed opto-mechanical smartphone attachment. The somewhat aberrant images obtained under such conditions, were corrected by newly developed Android-based software on the same smartphone, and protein biomarker profiles were calculated. The indirect detection of recombinant bovine somatotropin (rbST) in milk extracts based on altered biomarker profile of anti-rbST antibodies was selected as a real-life challenge. RbST-treated and untreated cows clearly showed reproducible treatment-dependent biomarker profiles in milk, in excellent agreement with results from a flow cytometer reference method. In a pilot experiment, anti-rbST antibody detection was multiplexed with the detection of another rbST-dependent biomarker, insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1). Milk extract IGF-1 levels were found to be increased after rbST treatment and correlated with the results obtained from the reference method. These data clearly demonstrate the potential of the portable protein microarray concept towards simultaneous detection of multiple biomarkers. We envisage broad application of this 'protein microarray on a smartphone'-concept for on-site testing, e.g., in food safety, environment and health monitoring.

  13. Calling Biomarkers in Milk Using a Protein Microarray on Your Smartphone.

    PubMed

    Ludwig, Susann K J; Tokarski, Christian; Lang, Stefan N; van Ginkel, Leendert A; Zhu, Hongying; Ozcan, Aydogan; Nielen, Michel W F

    2015-01-01

    Here we present the concept of a protein microarray-based fluorescence immunoassay for multiple biomarker detection in milk extracts by an ordinary smartphone. A multiplex immunoassay was designed on a microarray chip, having built-in positive and negative quality controls. After the immunoassay procedure, the 48 microspots were labelled with Quantum Dots (QD) depending on the protein biomarker levels in the sample. QD-fluorescence was subsequently detected by the smartphone camera under UV light excitation from LEDs embedded in a simple 3D-printed opto-mechanical smartphone attachment. The somewhat aberrant images obtained under such conditions, were corrected by newly developed Android-based software on the same smartphone, and protein biomarker profiles were calculated. The indirect detection of recombinant bovine somatotropin (rbST) in milk extracts based on altered biomarker profile of anti-rbST antibodies was selected as a real-life challenge. RbST-treated and untreated cows clearly showed reproducible treatment-dependent biomarker profiles in milk, in excellent agreement with results from a flow cytometer reference method. In a pilot experiment, anti-rbST antibody detection was multiplexed with the detection of another rbST-dependent biomarker, insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1). Milk extract IGF-1 levels were found to be increased after rbST treatment and correlated with the results obtained from the reference method. These data clearly demonstrate the potential of the portable protein microarray concept towards simultaneous detection of multiple biomarkers. We envisage broad application of this 'protein microarray on a smartphone'-concept for on-site testing, e.g., in food safety, environment and health monitoring. PMID:26308444

  14. Calling Biomarkers in Milk Using a Protein Microarray on Your Smartphone

    PubMed Central

    Ludwig, Susann K. J.; Tokarski, Christian; Lang, Stefan N.; van Ginkel, Leendert A.; Zhu, Hongying; Ozcan, Aydogan; Nielen, Michel W. F.

    2015-01-01

    Here we present the concept of a protein microarray-based fluorescence immunoassay for multiple biomarker detection in milk extracts by an ordinary smartphone. A multiplex immunoassay was designed on a microarray chip, having built-in positive and negative quality controls. After the immunoassay procedure, the 48 microspots were labelled with Quantum Dots (QD) depending on the protein biomarker levels in the sample. QD-fluorescence was subsequently detected by the smartphone camera under UV light excitation from LEDs embedded in a simple 3D-printed opto-mechanical smartphone attachment. The somewhat aberrant images obtained under such conditions, were corrected by newly developed Android-based software on the same smartphone, and protein biomarker profiles were calculated. The indirect detection of recombinant bovine somatotropin (rbST) in milk extracts based on altered biomarker profile of anti-rbST antibodies was selected as a real-life challenge. RbST-treated and untreated cows clearly showed reproducible treatment-dependent biomarker profiles in milk, in excellent agreement with results from a flow cytometer reference method. In a pilot experiment, anti-rbST antibody detection was multiplexed with the detection of another rbST-dependent biomarker, insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1). Milk extract IGF-1 levels were found to be increased after rbST treatment and correlated with the results obtained from the reference method. These data clearly demonstrate the potential of the portable protein microarray concept towards simultaneous detection of multiple biomarkers. We envisage broad application of this ‘protein microarray on a smartphone’-concept for on-site testing, e.g., in food safety, environment and health monitoring. PMID:26308444

  15. Antibody microarray analyses of signal transduction protein expression and phosphorylation during porcine oocyte maturation.

    PubMed

    Pelech, Steven; Jelinkova, Lucie; Susor, Andrej; Zhang, Hong; Shi, Xiaoqing; Pavlok, Antonin; Kubelka, Michal; Kovarova, Hana

    2008-07-01

    Kinex antibody microarray analyses was used to investigate the regulation of 188 protein kinases, 24 protein phosphatases, and 170 other regulatory proteins during meiotic maturation of immature germinal vesicle (GV+) pig oocytes to maturing oocytes that had completed meiosis I (MI), and fully mature oocytes arrested at metaphase of meiosis II (MII). Increases in apparent protein levels of protein kinases accounted for most of the detected changes during the GV to MI transition, whereas reduced protein kinase levels and increased protein phosphorylation characterized the MI to MII transition. During the MI to MII period, many of the MI-associated increased levels of the proteins and phosphosites were completely or partially reversed. The regulation of these proteins were also examined in parallel during the meiotic maturation of bovine, frog, and sea star oocytes with the Kinex antibody microarray. Western blotting analyses confirmed altered expression levels of Bub1A, IRAK4, MST2, PP4C, and Rsk2, and the phosphorylation site changes in the kinases Erk5 (T218 + Y220), FAK (S722), GSK3-beta (Y216), MEK1 (S217 + S221) and PKR1 (T451), and nucleophosmin/B23 (S4) during pig oocyte maturation.

  16. Copper binding in the prion protein.

    PubMed

    Millhauser, Glenn L

    2004-02-01

    A conformational change of the prion protein is responsible for a class of neurodegenerative diseases called the transmissible spongiform encephalopathies that include mad cow disease and the human afflictions kuru and Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. Despite the attention given to these diseases, the normal function of the prion protein in healthy tissue is unknown. Research over the past few years, however, demonstrates that the prion protein is a copper binding protein with high selectivity for Cu(2+). The structural features of the Cu(2+) binding sites have now been characterized and are providing important clues about the normal function of the prion protein and perhaps how metals or loss of protein function play a role in disease. The link between prion protein and copper may provide insight into the general, and recently appreciated, role of metals in neurodegenerative disease. PMID:14967054

  17. Synthesis and microarray-assisted binding studies of core xylose and fucose containing N-glycans.

    PubMed

    Brzezicka, Katarzyna; Echeverria, Begoña; Serna, Sonia; van Diepen, Angela; Hokke, Cornelis H; Reichardt, Niels-Christian

    2015-05-15

    The synthesis of a collection of 33 xylosylated and core-fucosylated N-glycans found only in nonmammalian organisms such as plants and parasitic helminths has been achieved by employing a highly convergent chemo-enzymatic approach. The influence of these core modifications on the interaction with plant lectins, with the human lectin DC-SIGN (Dendritic Cell-Specific Intercellular adhesion molecule-3-Grabbing Nonintegrin), and with serum antibodies from schistosome-infected individuals was studied. Core xylosylation markedly reduced or completely abolished binding to several mannose-binding plant lectins and to DC-SIGN, a C-type lectin receptor present on antigen presenting cells. Employing the synthetic collection of core-fucosylated and core-xylosylated N-glycans in the context of a larger glycan array including structures lacking these core modifications, we were able to dissect core xylose and core fucose specific antiglycan antibody responses in S. mansoni infection sera, and we observed clear and immunologically relevant differences between children and adult groups infected with this parasite. The work presented here suggests that, quite similar to bisecting N-acetylglucosamine, core xylose distorts the conformation of the unsubstituted glycan, with important implications for the immunogenicity and protein binding properties of complex N-glycans.

  18. The binding domain structure of retinoblastoma-binding proteins.

    PubMed Central

    Figge, J.; Breese, K.; Vajda, S.; Zhu, Q. L.; Eisele, L.; Andersen, T. T.; MacColl, R.; Friedrich, T.; Smith, T. F.

    1993-01-01

    The retinoblastoma gene product (Rb), a cellular growth suppressor, complexes with viral and cellular proteins that contain a specific binding domain incorporating three invariant residues: Leu-X-Cys-X-Glu, where X denotes a nonconserved residue. Hydrophobic and electrostatic properties are strongly conserved in this segment even though the nonconserved amino acids vary considerably from one Rb-binding protein to another. In this report, we present a diagnostic computer pattern for a high-affinity Rb-binding domain featuring the three conserved residues as well as the conserved physico-chemical properties. Although the pattern encompasses only 10 residues (with only 4 of these explicitly defined), it exhibits 100% sensitivity and 99.95% specificity in database searches. This implies that a certain pattern of structural and physico-chemical properties encoded by this short sequence is sufficient to govern specific Rb binding. We also present evidence that the secondary structural conformation through this region is important for effective Rb binding. PMID:8382993

  19. Quantitative assessment of the p53-Mdm2 feedback loop using protein lysate microarrays.

    PubMed

    Ramalingam, Sundhar; Honkanen, Peter; Young, Lynn; Shimura, Tsutomu; Austin, John; Steeg, Patricia S; Nishizuka, Satoshi

    2007-07-01

    Mathematical simulations of the p53-Mdm2 feedback loop suggest that both proteins will exhibit impulsive expression characteristics in response to high cellular stress levels. However, little quantitative experimental evaluation has been done, particularly of the phosphorylated forms. To evaluate the mathematical models experimentally, we used lysate microarrays from an isogenic pair of gamma-ray-irradiated cell lysates from HCT116 (p53(+/+) and p53(-/-)). Both p53 and Mdm2 proteins showed expected pulses in the wild type, whereas no pulses were seen in the knockout. Based on experimental observations, we determined model parameters and generated an in silico "knockout," reflecting the experimental data, including phosphorylated proteins.

  20. Folding funnels, binding funnels, and protein function.

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, C. J.; Kumar, S.; Ma, B.; Nussinov, R.

    1999-01-01

    Folding funnels have been the focus of considerable attention during the last few years. These have mostly been discussed in the general context of the theory of protein folding. Here we extend the utility of the concept of folding funnels, relating them to biological mechanisms and function. In particular, here we describe the shape of the funnels in light of protein synthesis and folding; flexibility, conformational diversity, and binding mechanisms; and the associated binding funnels, illustrating the multiple routes and the range of complexed conformers. Specifically, the walls of the folding funnels, their crevices, and bumps are related to the complexity of protein folding, and hence to sequential vs. nonsequential folding. Whereas the former is more frequently observed in eukaryotic proteins, where the rate of protein synthesis is slower, the latter is more frequent in prokaryotes, with faster translation rates. The bottoms of the funnels reflect the extent of the flexibility of the proteins. Rugged floors imply a range of conformational isomers, which may be close on the energy landscape. Rather than undergoing an induced fit binding mechanism, the conformational ensembles around the rugged bottoms argue that the conformers, which are most complementary to the ligand, will bind to it with the equilibrium shifting in their favor. Furthermore, depending on the extent of the ruggedness, or of the smoothness with only a few minima, we may infer nonspecific, broad range vs. specific binding. In particular, folding and binding are similar processes, with similar underlying principles. Hence, the shape of the folding funnel of the monomer enables making reasonable guesses regarding the shape of the corresponding binding funnel. Proteins having a broad range of binding, such as proteolytic enzymes or relatively nonspecific endonucleases, may be expected to have not only rugged floors in their folding funnels, but their binding funnels will also behave similarly

  1. Phosphoprotein Stability in Clinical Tissue and Its Relevance for Reverse Phase Protein Microarray Technology

    PubMed Central

    Espina, Virginia; Mueller, Claudius; Liotta, Lance A.

    2013-01-01

    Phosphorylated proteins reflect the activity of specific cell signaling nodes in biological kinase protein networks. Cell signaling pathways can be either activated or deactivated depending on the phosphorylation state of the constituent proteins. The state of these kinase pathways reflects the in vivo activity of the cells and tissue at any given point in time. As such, cell signaling pathway information can be extrapolated to infer which phosphorylated proteins/pathways are driving an individual tumor’s growth. Reverse Phase Protein Microarrays (RPMA) are a sensitive and precise platform that can be applied to the quantitative measurement of hundreds of phosphorylated signal proteins from a small sample of tissue. Pre-analytical variability originating from tissue procurement and preservation may cause significant variability and bias in downstream molecular analysis. Depending on the ex vivo delay time in tissue processing, and the manner of tissue handling, protein biomarkers such as signal pathway phosphoproteins will be elevated or suppressed in a manner that does not represent the biomarker levels at the time of excision. Consequently, assessment of the state of these kinase networks requires stabilization, or preservation, of the phosphoproteins immediately post tissue procurement. We have employed reverse phase protein microarray analysis of phosphoproteins to study the factors influencing stability of phosphoproteins in tissue following procurement. Based on this analysis we have established tissue procurement guidelines for clinical research with an emphasis on quantifying phosphoproteins by RPMA. PMID:21901591

  2. Affinity regression predicts the recognition code of nucleic acid binding proteins

    PubMed Central

    Pelossof, Raphael; Singh, Irtisha; Yang, Julie L.; Weirauch, Matthew T.; Hughes, Timothy R.; Leslie, Christina S.

    2016-01-01

    Predicting the affinity profiles of nucleic acid-binding proteins directly from the protein sequence is a major unsolved problem. We present a statistical approach for learning the recognition code of a family of transcription factors (TFs) or RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) from high-throughput binding assays. Our method, called affinity regression, trains on protein binding microarray (PBM) or RNA compete experiments to learn an interaction model between proteins and nucleic acids, using only protein domain and probe sequences as inputs. By training on mouse homeodomain PBM profiles, our model correctly identifies residues that confer DNA-binding specificity and accurately predicts binding motifs for an independent set of divergent homeodomains. Similarly, learning from RNA compete profiles for diverse RBPs, our model can predict the binding affinities of held-out proteins and identify key RNA-binding residues. More broadly, we envision applying our method to model and predict biological interactions in any setting where there is a high-throughput ‘affinity’ readout. PMID:26571099

  3. An advanced application of protein microarrays: cell-based assays for functional genomics.

    PubMed

    Carbone, Roberta

    2009-01-01

    Microarrays have become common tools for approaching different experimental questions: DNA, protein and peptide arrays offer the power of multiplexing the assay and by means of miniaturization technology, the possibility to reduce cost and amount of samples and reagents. Recently, a novel technology for functional assays has been proposed. Sabatini and co-workers have shown a cell-based microarrays method (1) that relies on the deposition and immobilization of an array of cDNA plasmids on a slide where cells are subsequently plated; the cDNA is then internalized by "reverse transfection" and cells overexpress or downregulate in each single spot the genes of interest. This approach allows the screening of different phenotypes in living cells of many genes in parallel on a single slide. To overcome some relevant limitations of this approach, we have implemented the technology by means of viral immobilization (2) on a novel surface of cluster-assembled nanostructured TiO2 (3) previously functionalized with an array of a docking protein. In this work, we present the detailed development of the "reverse infection cell-microarray based technology" in U2OS cells on a novel coated slide that represents an advanced application of protein arrays.

  4. A Detour for Yeast Oxysterol Binding Proteins*

    PubMed Central

    Beh, Christopher T.; McMaster, Christopher R.; Kozminski, Keith G.; Menon, Anant K.

    2012-01-01

    Oxysterol binding protein-related proteins, including the yeast proteins encoded by the OSH gene family (OSH1–OSH7), are implicated in the non-vesicular transfer of sterols between intracellular membranes and the plasma membrane. In light of recent studies, we revisited the proposal that Osh proteins are sterol transfer proteins and present new models consistent with known Osh protein functions. These models focus on the role of Osh proteins as sterol-dependent regulators of phosphoinositide and sphingolipid pathways. In contrast to their posited role as non-vesicular sterol transfer proteins, we propose that Osh proteins coordinate lipid signaling and membrane reorganization with the assembly of tethering complexes to promote molecular exchanges at membrane contact sites. PMID:22334669

  5. Immunoassay, DNA Analysis, and Other Ligand Binding Assay Techniques: From Electropherograms to Multiplexed, Ultrasensitive Microarrays on a Chip

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ekins, Roger P.

    1999-06-01

    "Ligand" or "binding" assays have made a major impact on biomedical research and clinical diagnosis since their development in the late 1950s. Immunoassay techniques (relying on specific antibodies to bind the target analyte) represent the best-known example, but analogous DNA and RNA analysis methods (using oligonucleotides to recognize defined polynucleotide sequences) are rapidly gaining in importance and are likely to exert profound effects on human society. The evolution of these methods may be divided into three phases: (i) the initial development and widespread use of sensitive "competitive" assays relying on radioisotopically labeled analyte to monitor the binding reaction; (ii) the introduction in the 1980s of "ultrasensitive", "noncompetitive", labeled antibody methods relying on high-specific-activity nonisotopic labels, leading to the emergence of the automatic analyzers that now dominate the field, and (iii) the present development of "microarray"methods based on antibody or oligonucleotide microspots (each recognizing an individual analyte) arrayed on a solid support and relying on observation (typically by confocal microscopy) of fluorescent signals emitted from each spot. Miniaturized microarray methods permitting ultrasensitive measurement of hundreds of different analytes in a minute sample are likely to revolutionize medicine and related fields within the next decade.

  6. Ancestral Protein Reconstruction Yields Insights into Adaptive Evolution of Binding Specificity in Solute-Binding Proteins.

    PubMed

    Clifton, Ben E; Jackson, Colin J

    2016-02-18

    The promiscuous functions of proteins are an important reservoir of functional novelty in protein evolution, but the molecular basis for binding promiscuity remains elusive. We used ancestral protein reconstruction to experimentally characterize evolutionary intermediates in the functional expansion of the polar amino acid-binding protein family, which has evolved to bind a variety of amino acids with high affinity and specificity. High-resolution crystal structures of an ancestral arginine-binding protein in complex with l-arginine and l-glutamine show that the promiscuous binding of l-glutamine is enabled by multi-scale conformational plasticity, water-mediated interactions, and selection of an alternative conformational substate productive for l-glutamine binding. Evolution of specialized glutamine-binding proteins from this ancestral protein was achieved by displacement of water molecules from the protein-ligand interface, reducing the entropic penalty associated with the promiscuous interaction. These results provide a structural and thermodynamic basis for the co-option of a promiscuous interaction in the evolution of binding specificity.

  7. Plasma protein binding of zomepirac sodium.

    PubMed

    O'Neill, P J

    1981-07-01

    The plasma protein binding of zomepirac, a new nonnarcotic analgesic, was studied using equilibrium dialysis. Experiments were performed using human plasma and plasma from mice, rats, and rhesus monkeys, all species of pharmacological or toxicological interest. At concentrations approximating those achieved in vivo, the binding was fairly constant at 98-99% in all species except the rhesus monkey, where binding was decreased from 98 to approximately 96% at higher concentrations (greater then 50 microgram/ml). Zomepirac (10 microgram/ml) did not appear to displace or to be displaced by warfarin (10 microgram/ml) caused a concentration-dependent decrease in zomepirac (10 microgram/ml) binding. Zomepirac did not affect salicylate binding.

  8. Aspects of Protein, Chemistry, Part II: Oxygen-Binding Proteins

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nixon, J. E.

    1977-01-01

    Compares differences in function and behavior of two oxygen-binding proteins, myoglobin found in muscle and hemoglobin found in blood. Describes the mechanism of oxygen-binding and allosteric effect in hemoglobin; also describes the effect of pH on the affinity of hemoglobin for oxygen. (CS)

  9. Identification of Transmembrane Protein 88 (TMEM88) as a Dishevelled-binding Protein*

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Ho-Jin; Finkelstein, David; Li, Xiaofeng; Wu, Dianqing; Shi, De-Li; Zheng, Jie J.

    2010-01-01

    Wnt signaling pathways are involved in embryonic development and adult tissue maintenance and have been implicated in tumorigenesis. Dishevelled (Dvl/Dsh) protein is one of key components in Wnt signaling and plays essential roles in regulating these pathways through protein-protein interactions. Identifying and characterizing Dvl-binding proteins are key steps toward understanding biological functions. Given that the tripeptide VWV (Val-Trp-Val) binds to the PDZ domain of Dvl, we searched publically available databases to identify proteins containing the VWV motif at the C terminus that could be novel Dvl-binding partners. On the basis of the cellular localization and expression patterns of the candidates, we selected for further study the TMEM88 (target protein transmembrane 88), a two-transmembrane-type protein. The interaction between the PDZ domain of Dvl and the C-terminal tail of TMEM88 was confirmed by using NMR and fluorescence spectroscopy. Furthermore, in HEK293 cells, TMEM88 attenuated the Wnt/β-catenin signaling induced by Wnt-1 ligand in a dose-dependent manner, and TMEM88 knockdown by RNAi increased Wnt activity. In Xenopus, TMEM88 protein is sublocalized at the cell membrane and inhibits Wnt signaling induced by Xdsh but not β-catenin. In addition, TMEM88 protein inhibits the formation of a secondary axis normally induced by Xdsh. The findings suggest that TMEM88 plays a role in regulating Wnt signaling. Indeed, analysis of microarray data revealed that the expression of the Tmem88 gene was strongly correlated with that of Wnt signaling-related genes in embryonic mouse intestines. Together, we propose that TMEM88 associates with Dvl proteins and regulates Wnt signaling in a context-dependent manner. PMID:21044957

  10. Development and application of an antibody-based protein microarray to assess physiological stress in grizzly bears (Ursus arctos)

    PubMed Central

    Carlson, Ruth I.; Cattet, Marc R. L.; Sarauer, Bryan L.; Nielsen, Scott E.; Boulanger, John; Stenhouse, Gordon B.; Janz, David M.

    2016-01-01

    A novel antibody-based protein microarray was developed that simultaneously determines expression of 31 stress-associated proteins in skin samples collected from free-ranging grizzly bears (Ursus arctos) in Alberta, Canada. The microarray determines proteins belonging to four broad functional categories associated with stress physiology: hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis proteins, apoptosis/cell cycle proteins, cellular stress/proteotoxicity proteins and oxidative stress/inflammation proteins. Small skin samples (50–100 mg) were collected from captured bears using biopsy punches. Proteins were isolated and labelled with fluorescent dyes, with labelled protein homogenates loaded onto microarrays to hybridize with antibodies. Relative protein expression was determined by comparison with a pooled standard skin sample. The assay was sensitive, requiring 80 µg of protein per sample to be run in triplicate on the microarray. Intra-array and inter-array coefficients of variation for individual proteins were generally <10 and <15%, respectively. With one exception, there were no significant differences in protein expression among skin samples collected from the neck, forelimb, hindlimb and ear in a subsample of n = 4 bears. This suggests that remotely delivered biopsy darts could be used in future sampling. Using generalized linear mixed models, certain proteins within each functional category demonstrated altered expression with respect to differences in year, season, geographical sampling location within Alberta and bear biological parameters, suggesting that these general variables may influence expression of specific proteins in the microarray. Our goal is to apply the protein microarray as a conservation physiology tool that can detect, evaluate and monitor physiological stress in grizzly bears and other species at risk over time in response to environmental change. PMID:27293753

  11. Development and application of an antibody-based protein microarray to assess physiological stress in grizzly bears (Ursus arctos).

    PubMed

    Carlson, Ruth I; Cattet, Marc R L; Sarauer, Bryan L; Nielsen, Scott E; Boulanger, John; Stenhouse, Gordon B; Janz, David M

    2016-01-01

    A novel antibody-based protein microarray was developed that simultaneously determines expression of 31 stress-associated proteins in skin samples collected from free-ranging grizzly bears (Ursus arctos) in Alberta, Canada. The microarray determines proteins belonging to four broad functional categories associated with stress physiology: hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis proteins, apoptosis/cell cycle proteins, cellular stress/proteotoxicity proteins and oxidative stress/inflammation proteins. Small skin samples (50-100 mg) were collected from captured bears using biopsy punches. Proteins were isolated and labelled with fluorescent dyes, with labelled protein homogenates loaded onto microarrays to hybridize with antibodies. Relative protein expression was determined by comparison with a pooled standard skin sample. The assay was sensitive, requiring 80 µg of protein per sample to be run in triplicate on the microarray. Intra-array and inter-array coefficients of variation for individual proteins were generally <10 and <15%, respectively. With one exception, there were no significant differences in protein expression among skin samples collected from the neck, forelimb, hindlimb and ear in a subsample of n = 4 bears. This suggests that remotely delivered biopsy darts could be used in future sampling. Using generalized linear mixed models, certain proteins within each functional category demonstrated altered expression with respect to differences in year, season, geographical sampling location within Alberta and bear biological parameters, suggesting that these general variables may influence expression of specific proteins in the microarray. Our goal is to apply the protein microarray as a conservation physiology tool that can detect, evaluate and monitor physiological stress in grizzly bears and other species at risk over time in response to environmental change.

  12. Development and application of an antibody-based protein microarray to assess physiological stress in grizzly bears (Ursus arctos).

    PubMed

    Carlson, Ruth I; Cattet, Marc R L; Sarauer, Bryan L; Nielsen, Scott E; Boulanger, John; Stenhouse, Gordon B; Janz, David M

    2016-01-01

    A novel antibody-based protein microarray was developed that simultaneously determines expression of 31 stress-associated proteins in skin samples collected from free-ranging grizzly bears (Ursus arctos) in Alberta, Canada. The microarray determines proteins belonging to four broad functional categories associated with stress physiology: hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis proteins, apoptosis/cell cycle proteins, cellular stress/proteotoxicity proteins and oxidative stress/inflammation proteins. Small skin samples (50-100 mg) were collected from captured bears using biopsy punches. Proteins were isolated and labelled with fluorescent dyes, with labelled protein homogenates loaded onto microarrays to hybridize with antibodies. Relative protein expression was determined by comparison with a pooled standard skin sample. The assay was sensitive, requiring 80 µg of protein per sample to be run in triplicate on the microarray. Intra-array and inter-array coefficients of variation for individual proteins were generally <10 and <15%, respectively. With one exception, there were no significant differences in protein expression among skin samples collected from the neck, forelimb, hindlimb and ear in a subsample of n = 4 bears. This suggests that remotely delivered biopsy darts could be used in future sampling. Using generalized linear mixed models, certain proteins within each functional category demonstrated altered expression with respect to differences in year, season, geographical sampling location within Alberta and bear biological parameters, suggesting that these general variables may influence expression of specific proteins in the microarray. Our goal is to apply the protein microarray as a conservation physiology tool that can detect, evaluate and monitor physiological stress in grizzly bears and other species at risk over time in response to environmental change. PMID:27293753

  13. The Development and Application of a Quantitative Peptide Microarray Based Approach to Protein Interaction Domain Specificity Space*

    PubMed Central

    Engelmann, Brett W.; Kim, Yohan; Wang, Miaoyan; Peters, Bjoern; Rock, Ronald S.; Nash, Piers D.

    2014-01-01

    Protein interaction domain (PID) linear peptide motif interactions direct diverse cellular processes in a specific and coordinated fashion. PID specificity, or the interaction selectivity derived from affinity preferences between possible PID-peptide pairs is the basis of this ability. Here, we develop an integrated experimental and computational cellulose peptide conjugate microarray (CPCMA) based approach for the high throughput analysis of PID specificity that provides unprecedented quantitative resolution and reproducibility. As a test system, we quantify the specificity preferences of four Src Homology 2 domains and 124 physiological phosphopeptides to produce a novel quantitative interactome. The quantitative data set covers a broad affinity range, is highly precise, and agrees well with orthogonal biophysical validation, in vivo interactions, and peptide library trained algorithm predictions. In contrast to preceding approaches, the CPCMAs proved capable of confidently assigning interactions into affinity categories, resolving the subtle affinity contributions of residue correlations, and yielded predictive peptide motif affinity matrices. Unique CPCMA enabled modes of systems level analysis reveal a physiological interactome with expected node degree value decreasing as a function of affinity, resulting in minimal high affinity binding overlap between domains; uncover that Src Homology 2 domains bind ligands with a similar average affinity yet strikingly different levels of promiscuity and binding dynamic range; and parse with unprecedented quantitative resolution contextual factors directing specificity. The CPCMA platform promises broad application within the fields of PID specificity, synthetic biology, specificity focused drug design, and network biology. PMID:25135669

  14. Nonconsensus Protein Binding to Repetitive DNA Sequence Elements Significantly Affects Eukaryotic Genomes

    PubMed Central

    Barber-Zucker, Shiran; Gordân, Raluca; Lukatsky, David B.

    2015-01-01

    in vitro TF-DNA preferences obtained from the universal protein binding microarrays (PBM) for ~90 eukaryotic TFs belonging to 22 different DNA-binding domain types. As a result of this new analysis, we conclude that nonconsensus protein-DNA binding is a widespread phenomenon that significantly affects protein-DNA binding preferences and need not require the presence of consensus (specific) TFBSs in order to achieve genome-wide TF-DNA binding specificity. PMID:26285121

  15. Protein-protein binding site identification by enumerating the configurations

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The ability to predict protein-protein binding sites has a wide range of applications, including signal transduction studies, de novo drug design, structure identification and comparison of functional sites. The interface in a complex involves two structurally matched protein subunits, and the binding sites can be predicted by identifying structural matches at protein surfaces. Results We propose a method which enumerates “all” the configurations (or poses) between two proteins (3D coordinates of the two subunits in a complex) and evaluates each configuration by the interaction between its components using the Atomic Contact Energy function. The enumeration is achieved efficiently by exploring a set of rigid transformations. Our approach incorporates a surface identification technique and a method for avoiding clashes of two subunits when computing rigid transformations. When the optimal transformations according to the Atomic Contact Energy function are identified, the corresponding binding sites are given as predictions. Our results show that this approach consistently performs better than other methods in binding site identification. Conclusions Our method achieved a success rate higher than other methods, with the prediction quality improved in terms of both accuracy and coverage. Moreover, our method is being able to predict the configurations of two binding proteins, where most of other methods predict only the binding sites. The software package is available at http://sites.google.com/site/guofeics/dobi for non-commercial use. PMID:22768846

  16. Ice-Binding Proteins and Their Function.

    PubMed

    Bar Dolev, Maya; Braslavsky, Ido; Davies, Peter L

    2016-06-01

    Ice-binding proteins (IBPs) are a diverse class of proteins that assist organism survival in the presence of ice in cold climates. They have different origins in many organisms, including bacteria, fungi, algae, diatoms, plants, insects, and fish. This review covers the gamut of IBP structures and functions and the common features they use to bind ice. We discuss mechanisms by which IBPs adsorb to ice and interfere with its growth, evidence for their irreversible association with ice, and methods for enhancing the activity of IBPs. The applications of IBPs in the food industry, in cryopreservation, and in other technologies are vast, and we chart out some possibilities. PMID:27145844

  17. Predicting protein concentrations with ELISA microarray assays, monotonic splines and Monte Carlo simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Daly, Don S.; Anderson, Kevin K.; White, Amanda M.; Gonzalez, Rachel M.; Varnum, Susan M.; Zangar, Richard C.

    2008-07-14

    Background: A microarray of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays, or ELISA microarray, predicts simultaneously the concentrations of numerous proteins in a small sample. These predictions, however, are uncertain due to processing error and biological variability. Making sound biological inferences as well as improving the ELISA microarray process require require both concentration predictions and creditable estimates of their errors. Methods: We present a statistical method based on monotonic spline statistical models, penalized constrained least squares fitting (PCLS) and Monte Carlo simulation (MC) to predict concentrations and estimate prediction errors in ELISA microarray. PCLS restrains the flexible spline to a fit of assay intensity that is a monotone function of protein concentration. With MC, both modeling and measurement errors are combined to estimate prediction error. The spline/PCLS/MC method is compared to a common method using simulated and real ELISA microarray data sets. Results: In contrast to the rigid logistic model, the flexible spline model gave credible fits in almost all test cases including troublesome cases with left and/or right censoring, or other asymmetries. For the real data sets, 61% of the spline predictions were more accurate than their comparable logistic predictions; especially the spline predictions at the extremes of the prediction curve. The relative errors of 50% of comparable spline and logistic predictions differed by less than 20%. Monte Carlo simulation rendered acceptable asymmetric prediction intervals for both spline and logistic models while propagation of error produced symmetric intervals that diverged unrealistically as the standard curves approached horizontal asymptotes. Conclusions: The spline/PCLS/MC method is a flexible, robust alternative to a logistic/NLS/propagation-of-error method to reliably predict protein concentrations and estimate their errors. The spline method simplifies model selection and fitting

  18. Calcium-binding proteins: an overview.

    PubMed

    Weinman, S

    1991-03-01

    In order to understand the mechanism of the various responses evoked by calcium in the cell, the identification and characterization of a number of calcium receptors were undertaken within the past two decades. Advances in amino acid sequence and protein three-dimensional structure led to the description of two families of calcium-binding proteins, the EF-hand homolog family and the annexin family. The EF-hand motif consists of two alpha helices, "E" and "F", joined by a Ca(2+)-binding loop. EF-hands have been identified in numerous Ca(2+)-binding proteins by similarity of amino acid sequence and confirmed in some crystal structures. Functional EF-hands seem always to occur in pairs. To date, the EF-hand homolog family contains more than 160 different Ca(2+)-modulated proteins which have a broad range of functions. Among them, are the calmodulin, the troponin C, the myosin regulatory light chain, the parvalbumin, the S-100 proteins and the calbindins 9- and 28 kDa. The most striking feature of the EF-hand family is the ability to modulate the activity of a number of enzymes. Several groups have identified proteins from various tissues that show calcium-dependent binding to membranes. These proteins, termed annexins have a molecular weight of 35- or 67 kDa. The amino acid sequences of the members of the annexin family show that each protein contains conserved internal repeats of about 70 amino acids each. The 35 kDa annexins contain four repeats, which show a high degree of homology with each other and with the repeat sequences of the other proteins. These repeats correspond to structural domains with a similar fold.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1864864

  19. Information flow through calcium binding proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bak, Ji Hyun; Bialek, William

    2013-03-01

    Calcium signaling is a ubiquitous mode of biological communication, which regulates a great variety of vital processes in living systems. Such a signal typically begins with an elementary event, in which calcium ions bind to a protein, inducing a change in the protein's structure. Information can only be lost, from what was conveyed through this initial event, as the signal is further transduced through the downstream networks. In the present work we analyze and optimize the information flow in the calcium binding process. We explicitly calculate the mutual information between the calcium concentration and the states of the protein, using a simple model for allosteric regulation in a dimeric protein. The optimal solution depends on the dynamic range of the input as well as on the timescale of signal integration. According to our result, the optimizing strategy involves allowing the calcium-binding protein to be ``activated'' by a partial occupation of its sites, and tuning independently the strengths of cooperative interactions in the binding and unbinding processes.

  20. Cadmium-binding protein (metallothionein) in carp

    SciTech Connect

    Kito, H.; Ose, Y.; Sato, T.

    1986-03-01

    When carp (Cyprinus carpio) were exposed to 5 and 30 ppm Cd in the water, the contents of Cd-binding protein, which has low molecular weight, increased in the hepatopancreas, kidney, gills and gastrointestinal tract with duration of exposure. This Cd-binding protein was purified from hepatopancreas, kidney, gills, and spleen of carp administered 2 mg/kg Cd (as CdCl/sub 2/), intraperitoneally for 6 days. Two Cd-binding proteins were separated by DEAE-Sephadex A-25 column chromatography. These proteins had Cd-mercaptide bond, high cysteine contents (ca. 29-34%), but no aromatic amino acids or histidine. From these characteristics the Cd-binding proteins were identified as metallothionein. By using antiserum obtained from a rabbit to which carp hepatopancreas MT-II had been administered, immunological characteristics between hepatopancreas MT-I, II and kidney MT-II were studied, and a slight difference in antigenic determinant was observed among them. By immunological staining techniques with horseradish peroxidase, the localization of metallothionein was investigated. Carp were bred in 1 ppm Cd, 5 ppm Zn solution, and tap water for 14 days, following transfer to 15 ppm Cd solution, respectively. The survival ratio was the highest in the Zn group followed by Cd-treated and control groups.

  1. Antibodies against the calcium-binding protein

    SciTech Connect

    Chou, Mei; Jensen, K.G.; Sjolund, R.D. ); Krause, K.H.; Campbell, K.P. )

    1989-12-01

    Plant microsomes contain a protein clearly related to a calcium-binding protein, calsequestrin, originally found in the sarcoplasmic reticulum of muscle cells, responsible for the rapid release and uptake of Ca{sup 2+} within the cells. The location and role of calsequestrin in plant cells is unknown. To generate monoclonal antibodies specific to plant calsequestrin, mice were immunized with a microsomal fraction from cultured cells of Streptanthus tortuosus (Brassicaceae). Two clones cross-reacted with one protein band with a molecular weight equal to that of calsequestrin (57 kilodaltons) by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and immunoblotting. This band is able to bind {sup 45}Ca{sup 2+} and can be recognized by a polyclonal antibody against the canine cardiac muscle calsequestrin. Rabbit skeletal muscle calsequestrin cross-reacted with the plant monoclonal antibodies. The plant monoclonal antibodies generated here are specific to calsequestrin protein.

  2. Direct DNA Methylation Profiling Using Methyl Binding Domain Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Yinni; Blair, Steve; Gillespie, David; Jensen, Randy; Myszka, David G.; Badran, Ahmed H.; Ghosh, Indraneel; Chagovetz, Alexander

    2010-01-01

    Methylation of DNA is responsible for gene silencing by establishing heterochromatin structure that represses transcription, and studies have shown that cytosine methylation of CpG islands in promoter regions acts as a precursor to early cancer development. The naturally occurring methyl binding domain (MBD) proteins from mammals are known to bind to the methylated CpG dinucleotide (mCpG), and subsequently recruit other chromatin-modifying proteins to suppress transcription. Conventional methods of detection for methylated DNA involve bisulfite treatment or immunoprecipitation prior to performing an assay. We focus on proof-of-concept studies for a direct microarray-based assay using surface-bound methylated probes. The recombinant protein 1xMBD-GFP recognizes hemi-methylation and symmetric methylation of the CpG sequence of hybridized dsDNA, while displaying greater affinity for the symmetric methylation motif, as evaluated by SPR. From these studies, for symmetric mCpG, the KD for 1xMBD-GFP ranged from 106 nM to 870 nM, depending upon the proximity of the methylation site to the sensor surface. The KD values for non-symmetrical methylation motifs were consistently greater (> 2 µM), but the binding selectivity between symmetric and hemi-methylation motifs ranged from 4 to 30, with reduced selectivity for sites close to the surface or multiple sites in proximity, which we attribute to steric effects. Fitting skew normal probability density functions to our data, we estimate an accuracy of 97.5% for our method in identifying methylated CpG loci, which can be improved through optimization of probe design and surface density. PMID:20507169

  3. AUXIN BINDING PROTEIN1: The Outsider

    PubMed Central

    Sauer, Michael; Kleine-Vehn, Jürgen

    2011-01-01

    AUXIN BINDING PROTEIN1 (ABP1) is one of the first characterized proteins that bind auxin and has been implied as a receptor for a number of auxin responses. Early studies characterized its auxin binding properties and focused on rapid electrophysiological and cell expansion responses, while subsequent work indicated a role in cell cycle and cell division control. Very recently, ABP1 has been ascribed a role in modulating endocytic events at the plasma membrane and RHO OF PLANTS-mediated cytoskeletal rearrangements during asymmetric cell expansion. The exact molecular function of ABP1 is still unresolved, but its main activity apparently lies in influencing events at the plasma membrane. This review aims to connect the novel findings with the more classical literature on ABP1 and to point out the many open questions that still separate us from a comprehensive model of ABP1 action, almost 40 years after the first reports of its existence. PMID:21719690

  4. Protein Binding Studies with Zero Mode Waveguides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samiee, K.; Foquet, M.; Cox, E. C.; Craighead, H. G.

    2004-03-01

    Single protein molecules binding to their DNA operator site are observed using zero mode waveguides, novel quasi one-dimensional optical nanostructures. The subwavelength features of the waveguides allow the formation of a focal volume smaller than those allowed by classical diffraction limited optics. The small observation volume allows the use of fluorescence correlation spectroscopy to measure diffusion constants at fluorophore concentrations as high as10uM. Binding is observed between a DNA oligomer containing OR1, an operator site on the Lambda genome, and CI, the repressor protein that inhibits the bacteriophage's lytic growth cycle. The dimensions of the waveguide should allow a single DNA fragment to be fixed at the bottom where its binding dynamics can be characterized on a single molecule basis.

  5. Protein microarrays for the identification of praja1 e3 ubiquitin ligase substrates.

    PubMed

    Loch, Christian M; Eddins, Michael J; Strickler, James E

    2011-06-01

    Although they are the primary determinants of substrate specificity, few E3-substrate pairs have been positively identified, and few E3's profiled in a proteomic fashion. Praja1 is an E3 implicated in bone development and highly expressed in brain. Although it has been well studied relative to the majority of E3's, little is known concerning the repertoire of proteins it ubiquitylates. We sought to identify high confidence substrates for Praja1 from an unbiased proteomic profile of thousands of human proteins using protein microarrays. We first profiled Praja1 activity against a panel of E2's to identify its optimal partner in vitro. We then ubiquitylated multiple, identical protein arrays and detected putative substrates with reagents that vary in ubiquitin recognition according to the extent of chain formation. Gene ontology clustering identified putative substrates consistent with information previously known about Praja1 function, and provides clues into novel aspects of this enzyme's function.

  6. Evolution of Protein-binding DNA Sequences through Competitive Binding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Weiqun; Gerland, Ulrich; Hwa, Terence; Levine, Herbert

    2002-03-01

    The dynamics of in vitro DNA evolution controlled via competitive binding of DNA sequences to proteins has been explored in a recent serial transfer experiment footnote B. Dubertret, S.Liu, Q. Ouyang, A. Libchaber, Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 6022 (2001).. Motivated by the experiment, we investigate a continuum model for this evolution process in various parameter regimes. We establish a self-consistent mean-field evolution equation, determine its dynamical properties and finite population size corrections. In addition, we discuss the experimental implications of our results.

  7. Quantifying drug-protein binding in vivo.

    SciTech Connect

    Buchholz, B; Bench, G; Keating III, G; Palmblad, M; Vogel, J; Grant, P G; Hillegonds, D

    2004-02-17

    Accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) provides precise quantitation of isotope labeled compounds that are bound to biological macromolecules such as DNA or proteins. The sensitivity is high enough to allow for sub-pharmacological (''micro-'') dosing to determine macromolecular targets without inducing toxicities or altering the system under study, whether it is healthy or diseased. We demonstrated an application of AMS in quantifying the physiologic effects of one dosed chemical compound upon the binding level of another compound in vivo at sub-toxic doses [4].We are using tissues left from this study to develop protocols for quantifying specific binding to isolated and identified proteins. We also developed a new technique to quantify nanogram to milligram amounts of isolated protein at precisions that are comparable to those for quantifying the bound compound by AMS.

  8. Two-color, rolling-circle amplification on antibody microarrays for sensitive, multiplexed serum-protein measurements.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Heping; Bouwman, Kerri; Schotanus, Mark; Verweij, Cornelius; Marrero, Jorge A; Dillon, Deborah; Costa, Jose; Lizardi, Paul; Haab, Brian B

    2004-01-01

    The ability to conveniently and rapidly profile a diverse set of proteins has valuable applications. In a step toward further enabling such a capability, we developed the use of rolling-circle amplification (RCA) to measure the relative levels of proteins from two serum samples, labeled with biotin and digoxigenin, respectively, that have been captured on antibody microarrays. Two-color RCA produced fluorescence up to 30-fold higher than direct-labeling and indirect-detection methods using antibody microarrays prepared on both polyacrylamide-based hydrogels and nitrocellulose. Replicate RCA measurements of multiple proteins from sets of 24 serum samples were highly reproducible and accurate. In addition, RCA enabled reproducible measurements of distinct expression profiles from lower-abundance proteins that were not measurable using the other detection methods. Two-color RCA on antibody microarrays should allow the convenient acquisition of expression profiles from a great diversity of proteins for a variety of applications.

  9. Two-color, rolling-circle amplification on antibody microarrays for sensitive, multiplexed serum-protein measurements.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Heping; Bouwman, Kerri; Schotanus, Mark; Verweij, Cornelius; Marrero, Jorge A; Dillon, Deborah; Costa, Jose; Lizardi, Paul; Haab, Brian B

    2004-01-01

    The ability to conveniently and rapidly profile a diverse set of proteins has valuable applications. In a step toward further enabling such a capability, we developed the use of rolling-circle amplification (RCA) to measure the relative levels of proteins from two serum samples, labeled with biotin and digoxigenin, respectively, that have been captured on antibody microarrays. Two-color RCA produced fluorescence up to 30-fold higher than direct-labeling and indirect-detection methods using antibody microarrays prepared on both polyacrylamide-based hydrogels and nitrocellulose. Replicate RCA measurements of multiple proteins from sets of 24 serum samples were highly reproducible and accurate. In addition, RCA enabled reproducible measurements of distinct expression profiles from lower-abundance proteins that were not measurable using the other detection methods. Two-color RCA on antibody microarrays should allow the convenient acquisition of expression profiles from a great diversity of proteins for a variety of applications. PMID:15059261

  10. Piezo dispensed microarray of multivalent chelating thiols for dissecting complex protein-protein interactions.

    PubMed

    Klenkar, Goran; Valiokas, Ramûnas; Lundström, Ingemar; Tinazli, Ali; Tampé, Robert; Piehler, Jacob; Liedberg, Bo

    2006-06-01

    The fabrication of a novel biochip, designed for dissection of multiprotein complex formation, is reported. An array of metal chelators has been produced by piezo dispensing of a bis-nitrilotriacetic acid (bis-NTA) thiol on evaporated gold thin films, prestructured with a microcontact printed grid of eicosanethiols. The bis-NTA thiol is mixed in various proportions with an inert, tri(ethylene glycol) hexadecane thiol, and the thickness and morphological homogeneity of the dispensed layers are characterized by imaging ellipsometry before and after back-filling with the same inert thiol and subsequent rinsing. It is found that the dispensed areas display a monotonic increase in thickness with increasing molar fraction of bis-NTA in the dispensing solution, and they are consistently a few Angströms thicker than those prepared at the same molar fraction by solution self-assembly under equilibrium-like conditions. The bulkiness of the bis-NTA tail group and the short period of time available for chemisorption and in-plane organization of the dispensed thiols are most likely responsible for the observed difference in thickness. Moreover, the functional properties of this biochip are demonstrated by studying multiple protein-protein interactions using imaging surface plasmon resonance. The subunits of the type I interferon receptor are immobilized as a composition array determined by the surface concentration of bis-NTA in the array elements. Ligand dissociation kinetics depends on the receptor surface concentration, which is ascribed to the formation of a ternary complex by simultaneous interaction of the ligand with the two receptor subunits. Thus, multiplexed monitoring of binding phenomena at various compositions (receptor densities) offers a powerful tool to dissect protein-protein interactions.

  11. Microarrays, Integrated Analytical Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Combinatorial chemistry is used to find materials that form sensor microarrays. This book discusses the fundamentals, and then proceeds to the many applications of microarrays, from measuring gene expression (DNA microarrays) to protein-protein interactions, peptide chemistry, carbodhydrate chemistry, electrochemical detection, and microfluidics.

  12. The dynamics of ligands binding to proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Callender, Robert

    2001-03-01

    The static structures of many proteins have been solved, and this has revealed much about how they function. On the other hand, although the importance of atomic motion to how proteins function has been conjectured for several decades, the characterization of protein dynamics on multiple time scales is scant. This is because of severe experimental and theoretical difficulties, particularly characterizing the nanosecond to millisecond time scales. Recently, several new techniques have been introduced that make it possible to initiate chemical reactions on fast time scales. We have applied advanced laser induced temperature jump relaxation spectroscopy with nanosecond resolution to examine the binding kinetics of ligands to several enzymes. The observed kinetics take place over multiple time scales. The results reveal the dynamical nature of the binding process and show that there are substantial populations of many structures that are in a constant dynamic equilibrium in some cases. Some of these structures lie quite far from the static structure defined in crystallographic studies, which suggest that the conventional thermodynamical picture of binding (an equilibrium between ligand free in solution and bound) is far off the mark. Moreover, the results suggest that the dynamics can certainly play a crucial role in kinetic control of protein function as in, for example, affecting the rates of enzymatic catalysis. This work is a collaborative project with Hong Deng and Nick Zhadin, also at Albert Einstein. Work supported by the NSF and NIH.

  13. Inferring epitopes of a polymorphic antigen amidst broadly cross-reactive antibodies using protein microarrays: a study of OspC proteins of Borrelia burgdorferi.

    PubMed

    Baum, Elisabeth; Randall, Arlo Z; Zeller, Michael; Barbour, Alan G

    2013-01-01

    Epitope mapping studies aim to identify the binding sites of antibody-antigen interactions to enhance the development of vaccines, diagnostics and immunotherapeutic compounds. However, mapping is a laborious process employing time- and resource-consuming 'wet bench' techniques or epitope prediction software that are still in their infancy. For polymorphic antigens, another challenge is characterizing cross-reactivity between epitopes, teasing out distinctions between broadly cross-reactive responses, limited cross-reactions among variants and the truly type-specific responses. A refined understanding of cross-reactive antibody binding could guide the selection of the most informative subsets of variants for diagnostics and multivalent subunit vaccines. We explored the antibody binding reactivity of sera from human patients and Peromyscus leucopus rodents infected with Borrelia burgdorferi to the polymorphic outer surface protein C (OspC), an attractive candidate antigen for vaccine and improved diagnostics for Lyme disease. We constructed a protein microarray displaying 23 natural variants of OspC and quantified the degree of cross-reactive antibody binding between all pairs of variants, using Pearson correlation calculated on the reactivity values using three independent transforms of the raw data: (1) logarithmic, (2) rank, and (3) binary indicators. We observed that the global amino acid sequence identity between OspC pairs was a poor predictor of cross-reactive antibody binding. Then we asked if specific regions of the protein would better explain the observed cross-reactive binding and performed in silico screening of the linear sequence and 3-dimensional structure of OspC. This analysis pointed to residues 179 through 188 the fifth C-terminal helix of the structure as a major determinant of type-specific cross-reactive antibody binding. We developed bioinformatics methods to systematically analyze the relationship between local sequence/structure variation

  14. Immune-Signatures for Lung Cancer Diagnostics: Evaluation of Protein Microarray Data Normalization Strategies

    PubMed Central

    Brezina, Stefanie; Soldo, Regina; Kreuzhuber, Roman; Hofer, Philipp; Gsur, Andrea; Weinhaeusel, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    New minimal invasive diagnostic methods for early detection of lung cancer are urgently needed. It is known that the immune system responds to tumors with production of tumor-autoantibodies. Protein microarrays are a suitable highly multiplexed platform for identification of autoantibody signatures against tumor-associated antigens (TAA). These microarrays can be probed using 0.1 mg immunoglobulin G (IgG), purified from 10 µL of plasma. We used a microarray comprising recombinant proteins derived from 15,417 cDNA clones for the screening of 100 lung cancer samples, including 25 samples of each main histological entity of lung cancer, and 100 controls. Since this number of samples cannot be processed at once, the resulting data showed non-biological variances due to “batch effects”. Our aim was to evaluate quantile normalization, “distance-weighted discrimination” (DWD), and “ComBat” for their effectiveness in data pre-processing for elucidating diagnostic immune-signatures. “ComBat” data adjustment outperformed the other methods and allowed us to identify classifiers for all lung cancer cases versus controls and small-cell, squamous cell, large-cell, and adenocarcinoma of the lung with an accuracy of 85%, 94%, 96%, 92%, and 83% (sensitivity of 0.85, 0.92, 0.96, 0.88, 0.83; specificity of 0.85, 0.96, 0.96, 0.96, 0.83), respectively. These promising data would be the basis for further validation using targeted autoantibody tests.

  15. Exploring host-pathogen interactions through genome wide protein microarray analysis.

    PubMed

    Scietti, Luigi; Sampieri, Katia; Pinzuti, Irene; Bartolini, Erika; Benucci, Barbara; Liguori, Alessia; Haag, Andreas F; Lo Surdo, Paola; Pansegrau, Werner; Nardi-Dei, Vincenzo; Santini, Laura; Arora, Seguinde; Leber, Xavier; Rindi, Simonetta; Savino, Silvana; Costantino, Paolo; Maione, Domenico; Merola, Marcello; Speziale, Pietro; Bottomley, Matthew J; Bagnoli, Fabio; Masignani, Vega; Pizza, Mariagrazia; Scharenberg, Meike; Schlaeppi, Jean-Marc; Nissum, Mikkel; Liberatori, Sabrina

    2016-01-01

    During bacterial pathogenesis extensive contacts between the human and the bacterial extracellular proteomes take place. The identification of novel host-pathogen interactions by standard methods using a case-by-case approach is laborious and time consuming. To overcome this limitation, we took advantage of large libraries of human and bacterial recombinant proteins. We applied a large-scale protein microarray-based screening on two important human pathogens using two different approaches: (I) 75 human extracellular proteins were tested on 159 spotted Staphylococcus aureus recombinant proteins and (II) Neisseria meningitidis adhesin (NadA), an important vaccine component against serogroup B meningococcus, was screened against ≈2300 spotted human recombinant proteins. The approach presented here allowed the identification of the interaction between the S. aureus immune evasion protein FLIPr (formyl-peptide receptor like-1 inhibitory protein) and the human complement component C1q, key players of the offense-defense fighting; and of the interaction between meningococcal NadA and human LOX-1 (low-density oxidized lipoprotein receptor), an endothelial receptor. The novel interactions between bacterial and human extracellular proteins here presented might provide a better understanding of the molecular events underlying S. aureus and N. meningitidis pathogenesis. PMID:27302108

  16. Emerging tools for real-time label-free detection of interactions on functional protein microarrays.

    PubMed

    Ramachandran, Niroshan; Larson, Dale N; Stark, Peter R H; Hainsworth, Eugenie; LaBaer, Joshua

    2005-11-01

    The availability of extensive genomic information and content has spawned an era of high-throughput screening that is generating large sets of functional genomic data. In particular, the need to understand the biochemical wiring within a cell has introduced novel approaches to map the intricate networks of biological interactions arising from the interactions of proteins. The current technologies for assaying protein interactions--yeast two-hybrid and immunoprecipitation with mass spectrometric detection--have met with considerable success. However, the parallel use of these approaches has identified only a small fraction of physiologically relevant interactions among proteins, neglecting all nonprotein interactions, such as with metabolites, lipids, DNA and small molecules. This highlights the need for further development of proteome scale technologies that enable the study of protein function. Here we discuss recent advances in high-throughput technologies for displaying proteins on functional protein microarrays and the real-time label-free detection of interactions using probes of the local index of refraction, carbon nanotubes and nanowires, or microelectromechanical systems cantilevers. The combination of these technologies will facilitate the large-scale study of protein interactions with proteins as well as with other biomolecules.

  17. Exploring host-pathogen interactions through genome wide protein microarray analysis

    PubMed Central

    Scietti, Luigi; Sampieri, Katia; Pinzuti, Irene; Bartolini, Erika; Benucci, Barbara; Liguori, Alessia; Haag, Andreas F.; Lo Surdo, Paola; Pansegrau, Werner; Nardi-Dei, Vincenzo; Santini, Laura; Arora, Seguinde; Leber, Xavier; Rindi, Simonetta; Savino, Silvana; Costantino, Paolo; Maione, Domenico; Merola, Marcello; Speziale, Pietro; Bottomley, Matthew J.; Bagnoli, Fabio; Masignani, Vega; Pizza, Mariagrazia; Scharenberg, Meike; Schlaeppi, Jean-Marc; Nissum, Mikkel; Liberatori, Sabrina

    2016-01-01

    During bacterial pathogenesis extensive contacts between the human and the bacterial extracellular proteomes take place. The identification of novel host-pathogen interactions by standard methods using a case-by-case approach is laborious and time consuming. To overcome this limitation, we took advantage of large libraries of human and bacterial recombinant proteins. We applied a large-scale protein microarray-based screening on two important human pathogens using two different approaches: (I) 75 human extracellular proteins were tested on 159 spotted Staphylococcus aureus recombinant proteins and (II) Neisseria meningitidis adhesin (NadA), an important vaccine component against serogroup B meningococcus, was screened against ≈2300 spotted human recombinant proteins. The approach presented here allowed the identification of the interaction between the S. aureus immune evasion protein FLIPr (formyl-peptide receptor like-1 inhibitory protein) and the human complement component C1q, key players of the offense-defense fighting; and of the interaction between meningococcal NadA and human LOX-1 (low-density oxidized lipoprotein receptor), an endothelial receptor. The novel interactions between bacterial and human extracellular proteins here presented might provide a better understanding of the molecular events underlying S. aureus and N. meningitidis pathogenesis. PMID:27302108

  18. Exploring host-pathogen interactions through genome wide protein microarray analysis.

    PubMed

    Scietti, Luigi; Sampieri, Katia; Pinzuti, Irene; Bartolini, Erika; Benucci, Barbara; Liguori, Alessia; Haag, Andreas F; Lo Surdo, Paola; Pansegrau, Werner; Nardi-Dei, Vincenzo; Santini, Laura; Arora, Seguinde; Leber, Xavier; Rindi, Simonetta; Savino, Silvana; Costantino, Paolo; Maione, Domenico; Merola, Marcello; Speziale, Pietro; Bottomley, Matthew J; Bagnoli, Fabio; Masignani, Vega; Pizza, Mariagrazia; Scharenberg, Meike; Schlaeppi, Jean-Marc; Nissum, Mikkel; Liberatori, Sabrina

    2016-06-15

    During bacterial pathogenesis extensive contacts between the human and the bacterial extracellular proteomes take place. The identification of novel host-pathogen interactions by standard methods using a case-by-case approach is laborious and time consuming. To overcome this limitation, we took advantage of large libraries of human and bacterial recombinant proteins. We applied a large-scale protein microarray-based screening on two important human pathogens using two different approaches: (I) 75 human extracellular proteins were tested on 159 spotted Staphylococcus aureus recombinant proteins and (II) Neisseria meningitidis adhesin (NadA), an important vaccine component against serogroup B meningococcus, was screened against ≈2300 spotted human recombinant proteins. The approach presented here allowed the identification of the interaction between the S. aureus immune evasion protein FLIPr (formyl-peptide receptor like-1 inhibitory protein) and the human complement component C1q, key players of the offense-defense fighting; and of the interaction between meningococcal NadA and human LOX-1 (low-density oxidized lipoprotein receptor), an endothelial receptor. The novel interactions between bacterial and human extracellular proteins here presented might provide a better understanding of the molecular events underlying S. aureus and N. meningitidis pathogenesis.

  19. Multicolor surface plasmon resonance imaging of ink jet-printed protein microarrays.

    PubMed

    Singh, Bipin K; Hillier, Andrew C

    2007-07-15

    We report a technique that utilizes surface plasmon resonance dispersion as a mechanism to provide multicolor contrast for imaging thin molecular films. Illumination of gold surfaces with p-polarized white light in the Kretschmann configuration produces distinct reflected colors due to excitation of surface plasmons and the resulting absorption of specific wavelengths from the source light. In addition, these colors transform in response to the formation of thin molecular films. This process represents a simple detection method for distinguishing between films of varying thickness in sensor applications. As an example, we interrogated a protein microarray formed by a commercial drop-on-demand chemical ink jet printer. Submonolayer films of a test protein (bovine serum albumin) were readily detected by this method. Analysis of the dispersion relations and absorbance sensitivities illustrate the performance and characteristics of this system. Higher detection sensitivity was achieved at angles where red wavelengths coupled to surface plasmons. However, improved contrast and spatial resolution occurred when the angle of incidence was such that shorter wavelengths coupled to the surface plasmons. Simplified optics combined with the robust microarray printing platform are used to demonstrate the applicability of this technique as a rapid and versatile, high-throughput tool for label-free detection of adsorbed films and macromolecules.

  20. Sterol carrier protein-2: binding protein for endocannabinoids.

    PubMed

    Liedhegner, Elizabeth Sabens; Vogt, Caleb D; Sem, Daniel S; Cunningham, Christopher W; Hillard, Cecilia J

    2014-08-01

    The endocannabinoid (eCB) system, consisting of eCB ligands and the type 1 cannabinoid receptor (CB1R), subserves retrograde, activity-dependent synaptic plasticity in the brain. eCB signaling occurs "on-demand," thus the processes regulating synthesis, mobilization and degradation of eCBs are also primary mechanisms for the regulation of CB1R activity. The eCBs, N-arachidonylethanolamine (AEA) and 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG), are poorly soluble in water. We hypothesize that their aqueous solubility, and, therefore, their intracellular and transcellular distribution, are facilitated by protein binding. Using in silico docking studies, we have identified the nonspecific lipid binding protein, sterol carrier protein 2 (SCP-2), as a potential AEA binding protein. The docking studies predict that AEA and AM404 associate with SCP-2 at a putative cholesterol binding pocket with ∆G values of -3.6 and -4.6 kcal/mol, respectively. These values are considerably higher than cholesterol (-6.62 kcal/mol) but consistent with a favorable binding interaction. In support of the docking studies, SCP-2-mediated transfer of cholesterol in vitro is inhibited by micromolar concentrations of AEA; and heterologous expression of SCP-2 in HEK 293 cells increases time-related accumulation of AEA in a temperature-dependent fashion. These results suggest that SCP-2 facilitates cellular uptake of AEA. However, there is no effect of SCP-2 transfection on the cellular accumulation of AEA determined at equilibrium or the IC50 values for AEA, AM404 or 2-AG to inhibit steady state accumulation of radiolabelled AEA. We conclude that SCP-2 is a low affinity binding protein for AEA that can facilitate its cellular uptake but does not contribute significantly to intracellular sequestration of AEA.

  1. Gene encoding herbicide safener binding protein

    SciTech Connect

    Walton, J.D.; Scott-Craig, J.S.

    1999-10-26

    The cDNA encoding safener binding protein (SafBP), also referred to as SBP1, is presented. The deduced amino acid sequence is provided. Methods of making and using SBP1 and SafBP to alter a plant's sensitivity to certain herbicides or a plant's responsiveness to certain safeners are also provided, as well as expression vectors, transgenic plants or other organisms transfected with vectors and seeds from the plants.

  2. Polynucleotides encoding TRF1 binding proteins

    DOEpatents

    Campisi, Judith; Kim, Sahn-Ho

    2002-01-01

    The present invention provides a novel telomere associated protein (Trf1-interacting nuclear protein 2 "Tin2") that hinders the binding of Trf1 to its specific telomere repeat sequence and mediates the formation of a Tin2-Trf1-telomeric DNA complex that limits telomerase access to the telomere. Also included are the corresponding nucleic acids that encode the Tin2 of the present invention, as well as mutants of Tin2. Methods of making, purifying and using Tin2 of the present invention are described. In addition, drug screening assays to identify drugs that mimic and/or complement the effect of Tin2 are presented.

  3. Production of Tissue Microarrays, Immunohistochemistry Staining and Digitalization Within the Human Protein Atlas

    PubMed Central

    Kampf, Caroline; Olsson, IngMarie; Ryberg, Urban; Sjöstedt, Evelina; Pontén, Fredrik

    2012-01-01

    The tissue microarray (TMA) technology provides the means for high-throughput analysis of multiple tissues and cells. The technique is used within the Human Protein Atlas project for global analysis of protein expression patterns in normal human tissues, cancer and cell lines. Here we present the assembly of 1 mm cores, retrieved from microscopically selected representative tissues, into a single recipient TMA block. The number and size of cores in a TMA block can be varied from approximately forty 2 mm cores to hundreds of 0.6 mm cores. The advantage of using TMA technology is that large amount of data can rapidly be obtained using a single immunostaining protocol to avoid experimental variability. Importantly, only limited amount of scarce tissue is needed, which allows for the analysis of large patient cohorts 1 2. Approximately 250 consecutive sections (4 μm thick) can be cut from a TMA block and used for immunohistochemical staining to determine specific protein expression patterns for 250 different antibodies. In the Human Protein Atlas project, antibodies are generated towards all human proteins and used to acquire corresponding protein profiles in both normal human tissues from 144 individuals and cancer tissues from 216 different patients, representing the 20 most common forms of human cancer. Immunohistochemically stained TMA sections on glass slides are scanned to create high-resolution images from which pathologists can interpret and annotate the outcome of immunohistochemistry. Images together with corresponding pathology-based annotation data are made publically available for the research community through the Human Protein Atlas portal (www.proteinatlas.org) (Figure 1) 3 4. The Human Protein Atlas provides a map showing the distribution and relative abundance of proteins in the human body. The current version contains over 11 million images with protein expression data for 12.238 unique proteins, corresponding to more than 61% of all proteins

  4. High-throughput identification of putative receptors for cancer-binding peptides using biopanning and microarray analysis

    PubMed Central

    Ferraro, Daniel J; Bhave, Sandeep R; Kotipatruni, Rama P; Hunn, Jeremy C; Wildman, Scott A; Hong, Charles; Dadey, David Y. A.; Muhoro, Lincoln K.; Jaboin, Jerry J; Thotala, Dinesh; Hallahan, Dennis E

    2013-01-01

    Phage-display peptide biopanning has been successfully used to identify cancer-targeting peptides in multiple models. For cancer-binding peptides, identification of the peptide receptor is necessary to demonstrate mechanism of action and to further optimize specificity and target binding. The process of receptor identification can be slow and some peptides may turn out to bind ubiquitous proteins not suitable for further drug development. In this report, we describe a high-throughput method for screening a large number of peptides in parallel to identify peptide receptors, which we have termed “reverse biopanning,” which can then be selected for further development based on their peptide receptor. To demonstrate this method, we screened a library of 39 peptides previously identified in our laboratory to bind specifically cancers after irradiation. The reverse biopanning process identified 2 peptides, RKFLMTTRYSRV and KTAKKNVFFCSV, as candidate ligands for the protein tax interacting protein 1 (TIP-1), a protein previously identified in our laboratory to be expressed in the cell surface in tumors and upregulated after exposure to ionizing radiation. We used computational modeling as the initial method for rapid validation of peptide-TIP-1 binding. Pseudo-binding energies were calculated to be −360.645 kcal/mol, −487.239 kcal/mol, and −595.328 kcal/mol for HVGGSSV, TTRYSRV, and NVFFCSV respectively, suggesting that the peptides would have at least similar, if not stronger, binding to TIP-1 compared to the known TIP-1 binding peptide HVGGSSV. We validated peptide in vitro via electrophoretic mobility shift assay, which showed strong binding of RKFLMTTRYSRV and the truncated form TTRYSRV. This method allows for the identification of many peptide receptors and subsequent selection of peptides for further drug development based on the peptide receptor. PMID:23147990

  5. Genome-Scale Protein Microarray Comparison of Human Antibody Responses in Plasmodium vivax Relapse and Reinfection

    PubMed Central

    Chuquiyauri, Raul; Molina, Douglas M.; Moss, Eli L.; Wang, Ruobing; Gardner, Malcolm J.; Brouwer, Kimberly C.; Torres, Sonia; Gilman, Robert H.; Llanos-Cuentas, Alejandro; Neafsey, Daniel E.; Felgner, Philip; Liang, Xiaowu; Vinetz, Joseph M.

    2015-01-01

    Large scale antibody responses in Plasmodium vivax malaria remains unexplored in the endemic setting. Protein microarray analysis of asexual-stage P. vivax was used to identify antigens recognized in sera from residents of hypoendemic Peruvian Amazon. Over 24 months, of 106 participants, 91 had two symptomatic P. vivax malaria episodes, 11 had three episodes, 3 had four episodes, and 1 had five episodes. Plasmodium vivax relapse was distinguished from reinfection by a merozoite surface protein-3α restriction fragment length polymorphism polymerase chain reaction (MSP3α PCR-RFLP) assay. Notably, P. vivax reinfection subjects did not have higher reactivity to the entire set of recognized P. vivax blood-stage antigens than relapse subjects, regardless of the number of malaria episodes. The most highly recognized P. vivax proteins were MSP 4, 7, 8, and 10 (PVX_003775, PVX_082650, PVX_097625, and PVX_114145); sexual-stage antigen s16 (PVX_000930); early transcribed membrane protein (PVX_090230); tryptophan-rich antigen (Pv-fam-a) (PVX_092995); apical merozoite antigen 1 (PVX_092275); and proteins of unknown function (PVX_081830, PVX_117680, PVX_118705, PVX_121935, PVX_097730, PVX_110935, PVX_115450, and PVX_082475). Genes encoding reactive proteins exhibited a significant enrichment of non-synonymous nucleotide variation, an observation suggesting immune selection. These data identify candidates for seroepidemiological tools to support malaria elimination efforts in P. vivax-endemic regions. PMID:26149860

  6. Novel stereospecificity of the L-arabinose-binding protein

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quiocho, Florante A.; Vyas, Nand K.

    1984-08-01

    Tertiary structure refinement at 1.7 Å resolution of the liganded form of L-arabinose-binding protein from Escherichia coli has revealed a novel binding site geometry which accommodates both α- and β-anomers of L-arabinose. This detailed structure analysis provides new understanding of protein-sugar interaction, the process by which the binding protein minimizes the difference in the stability of the two bound sugar anomers, and the roles of periplasmic binding proteins in active transport

  7. Systematic discovery of Xist RNA binding proteins.

    PubMed

    Chu, Ci; Zhang, Qiangfeng Cliff; da Rocha, Simão Teixeira; Flynn, Ryan A; Bharadwaj, Maheetha; Calabrese, J Mauro; Magnuson, Terry; Heard, Edith; Chang, Howard Y

    2015-04-01

    Noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs) function with associated proteins to effect complex structural and regulatory outcomes. To reveal the composition and dynamics of specific noncoding RNA-protein complexes (RNPs) in vivo, we developed comprehensive identification of RNA binding proteins by mass spectrometry (ChIRP-MS). ChIRP-MS analysis of four ncRNAs captures key protein interactors, including a U1-specific link to the 3' RNA processing machinery. Xist, an essential lncRNA for X chromosome inactivation (XCI), interacts with 81 proteins from chromatin modification, nuclear matrix, and RNA remodeling pathways. The Xist RNA-protein particle assembles in two steps coupled with the transition from pluripotency to differentiation. Specific interactors include HnrnpK, which participates in Xist-mediated gene silencing and histone modifications but not Xist localization, and Drosophila Split ends homolog Spen, which interacts via the A-repeat domain of Xist and is required for gene silencing. Thus, Xist lncRNA engages with proteins in a modular and developmentally controlled manner to coordinate chromatin spreading and silencing.

  8. Systematic discovery of Xist RNA binding proteins

    PubMed Central

    Chu, Ci; Zhang, Qiangfeng Cliff; da Rocha, Simão Teixeira; Flynn, Ryan A.; Bharadwaj, Maheetha; Calabrese, J. Mauro; Magnuson, Terry; Heard, Edith; Chang, Howard Y.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs) function with associated proteins to effect complex structural and regulatory outcomes. To reveal the composition and dynamics of specific noncoding RNA- protein complexes (RNPs) in vivo, we developed comprehensive identification of RNA-binding proteins by mass spectrometry (ChIRP-MS). ChIRP-MS analysis of four ncRNAs captures key protein interactors, including a U1-specific link to the 3′ RNA processing machinery. Xist, an essential lncRNA for X-chromosome inactivation (XCI), interacts with 81 proteins from chromatin modification, nuclear matrix, and RNA remodeling pathways. The Xist RNA-protein particle assembles in two steps coupled with the transition from pluripotency to differentiation. Specific interactors include HnrnpK that participates in Xist-mediated gene silencing and histone modifications, but not Xist localization and Drosophila Split ends homolog Spen that interacts via the A-repeat domain of Xist and is required for gene silencing. Thus, Xist lncRNA engages with proteins in a modular and developmentally controlled manner to coordinate chromatin spreading and silencing. PMID:25843628

  9. Engineering a uranyl specific binding protein from NikR.

    SciTech Connect

    Wegner, S. V.; Boyaci, H.; Chen, H.; Jensen, M. P.; He, C.

    2009-03-16

    The first uranyl-selective DNA-binding protein is designed using the E. coli nickel(II)-responsive protein NikR as the template. The resulting NikR? protein binds uranyl (see picture) with a dissociation constant Kd=53?nM and selectively binds to DNA in the presence of uranyl.

  10. Copper-binding protein in Mimulus guttatus

    SciTech Connect

    Robinson, N.J.; Thurman, D.A.

    1985-01-01

    A Cu-binding protein has been purified from the roots of Mimulus guttatus using gel permeation chromatography on Sephadex G-75 and anion exchange chromatography on DEAE Biogel A. The protein has similar properties to putative metallothioneins (MTS) purified from other angiosperms. Putative MT was estimated by measuring the relative percentage incorporation of (/sup 35/S) into fractions containing the protein after HPLC on SW 3000-gel. In the roots of both Cu-tolerant and non tolerant plants synthesis of putative MT is induced by increased Cu concentration in the nutrient solution. The relative percentage incorporation of (/sup 35/S) into putative MT is significantly higher in extracts from the roots of Cu-tolerant than non tolerant M. guttatus after growth in 1 ..mu..M Cu suggesting involvement in the mechanism of tolerance. 22 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  11. A Crayfish Insulin-like-binding Protein

    PubMed Central

    Rosen, Ohad; Weil, Simy; Manor, Rivka; Roth, Ziv; Khalaila, Isam; Sagi, Amir

    2013-01-01

    Across the animal kingdom, the involvement of insulin-like peptide (ILP) signaling in sex-related differentiation processes is attracting increasing attention. Recently, a gender-specific ILP was identified as the androgenic sex hormone in Crustacea. However, moieties modulating the actions of this androgenic insulin-like growth factor were yet to be revealed. Through molecular screening of an androgenic gland (AG) cDNA library prepared from the crayfish Cherax quadricarinatus, we have identified a novel insulin-like growth factor-binding protein (IGFBP) termed Cq-IGFBP. Based on bioinformatics analyses, the deduced Cq-IGFBP was shown to share high sequence homology with IGFBP family members from both invertebrates and vertebrates. The protein also includes a sequence determinant proven crucial for ligand binding, which according to three-dimensional modeling is assigned to the exposed outer surface of the protein. Recombinant Cq-IGFBP (rCq-IGFBP) protein was produced and, using a “pulldown” methodology, was shown to specifically interact with the insulin-like AG hormone of the crayfish (Cq-IAG). Particularly, using both mass spectral analysis and an immunological tool, rCq-IGFBP was shown to bind the Cq-IAG prohormone. Furthermore, a peptide corresponding to residues 23–38 of the Cq-IAG A-chain was found sufficient for in vitro recognition by rCq-IGFBP. Cq-IGFBP is the first IGFBP family member shown to specifically interact with a gender-specific ILP. Unlike their ILP ligands, IGFBPs are highly conserved across evolution, from ancient arthropods, like crustaceans, to humans. Such conservation places ILP signaling at the center of sex-related phenomena in early animal development. PMID:23775079

  12. Identification of DNA-binding and protein-binding proteins using enhanced graph wavelet features.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yuan; Zhou, Weiqiang; Dai, Dao-Qing; Yan, Hong

    2013-01-01

    Interactions between biomolecules play an essential role in various biological processes. For predicting DNA-binding or protein-binding proteins, many machine-learning-based techniques have used various types of features to represent the interface of the complexes, but they only deal with the properties of a single atom in the interface and do not take into account the information of neighborhood atoms directly. This paper proposes a new feature representation method for biomolecular interfaces based on the theory of graph wavelet. The enhanced graph wavelet features (EGWF) provides an effective way to characterize interface feature through adding physicochemical features and exploiting a graph wavelet formulation. Particularly, graph wavelet condenses the information around the center atom, and thus enhances the discrimination of features of biomolecule binding proteins in the feature space. Experiment results show that EGWF performs effectively for predicting DNA-binding and protein-binding proteins in terms of Matthew's correlation coefficient (MCC) score and the area value under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC). PMID:24334394

  13. Identification of novel biomarkers in chronic immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) by microarray-based serum protein profiling.

    PubMed

    Bal, Gürkan; Futschik, Matthias E; Hartl, Daniela; Ringel, Frauke; Kamhieh-Milz, Julian; Sterzer, Viktor; Hoheisel, Jörg D; Alhamdani, Mohamed S S; Salama, Abdulgabar

    2016-02-01

    The pathological mechanisms underlying the development of immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) are unclear and its diagnosis remains a process of exclusion. Currently, there are no known specific biomarkers for ITP to support differential diagnosis and treatment decisions. Profiling of serum proteins may be valuable for identifying such biomarkers. Sera from 46 patients with primary chronic ITP and 34 healthy blood donors were analysed using a microarray of 755 antibodies. We identified 161 differentially expressed proteins. In addition to oncoproteins and tumour-suppressor proteins, including apoptosis regulator BCL2, breast cancer type 1 susceptibility protein (BRCA1), Fanconi anaemia complementation group C (FANCC) and vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA), we detected six anti-nuclear autoantibodies in a subset of ITP patients: anti-PCNA, anti-SmD, anti-Ro/SSA60, anti-Ro/SSA52, anti-La/SSB and anti-RNPC antibodies. This finding may provide a rational explanation for the association of ITP with malignancies and other autoimmune diseases. While RUNX1mRNA expression in the peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) of patients was significantly downregulated, an accumulation of RUNX1 protein was observed in the platelets of ITP patients. This may indicate dysregulation of RUNX1 expression in PBMC and megakaryocytes and may lead to an imbalanced immune response and impaired thrombopoiesis. In conclusion, we provide novel insights into the pathogenic mechanisms of ITP that warrant further exploration.

  14. Identification of novel biomarkers in chronic immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) by microarray-based serum protein profiling.

    PubMed

    Bal, Gürkan; Futschik, Matthias E; Hartl, Daniela; Ringel, Frauke; Kamhieh-Milz, Julian; Sterzer, Viktor; Hoheisel, Jörg D; Alhamdani, Mohamed S S; Salama, Abdulgabar

    2016-02-01

    The pathological mechanisms underlying the development of immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) are unclear and its diagnosis remains a process of exclusion. Currently, there are no known specific biomarkers for ITP to support differential diagnosis and treatment decisions. Profiling of serum proteins may be valuable for identifying such biomarkers. Sera from 46 patients with primary chronic ITP and 34 healthy blood donors were analysed using a microarray of 755 antibodies. We identified 161 differentially expressed proteins. In addition to oncoproteins and tumour-suppressor proteins, including apoptosis regulator BCL2, breast cancer type 1 susceptibility protein (BRCA1), Fanconi anaemia complementation group C (FANCC) and vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA), we detected six anti-nuclear autoantibodies in a subset of ITP patients: anti-PCNA, anti-SmD, anti-Ro/SSA60, anti-Ro/SSA52, anti-La/SSB and anti-RNPC antibodies. This finding may provide a rational explanation for the association of ITP with malignancies and other autoimmune diseases. While RUNX1mRNA expression in the peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) of patients was significantly downregulated, an accumulation of RUNX1 protein was observed in the platelets of ITP patients. This may indicate dysregulation of RUNX1 expression in PBMC and megakaryocytes and may lead to an imbalanced immune response and impaired thrombopoiesis. In conclusion, we provide novel insights into the pathogenic mechanisms of ITP that warrant further exploration. PMID:26628061

  15. Competitive protein binding assay for piritrexim

    SciTech Connect

    Woolley, J.L. Jr.; Ringstad, J.L.; Sigel, C.W. )

    1989-09-01

    A competitive protein binding assay for piritrexim (PTX, 1) that makes use of a commercially available radioassay kit for methotrexate has been developed. After it is selectively extracted from plasma, PTX competes with ({sup 125}I)methotrexate for binding to dihydrofolate reductase isolated from Lactobacillus casei. Free drug is separated from bound drug by adsorption to dextran-coated charcoal. Piritrexim is measurable over a range of 0.01 to 10.0 micrograms/mL in plasma with a coefficient of variation less than 15%. The limit of sensitivity of the assay is approximately 2 ng/mL. An excellent correlation between this assay and a previously published HPLC method was found.

  16. Mechanical unfolding of ribose binding protein and its comparison with other periplasmic binding proteins.

    PubMed

    Kotamarthi, Hema Chandra; Narayan, Satya; Ainavarapu, Sri Rama Koti

    2014-10-01

    Folding and unfolding studies on large, multidomain proteins are still rare despite their high abundance in genomes of prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Here, we investigate the unfolding properties of a 271 residue, two-domain ribose binding protein (RBP) from the bacterial periplasm using single-molecule force spectroscopy. We observe that RBP predominately unfolds via a two-state pathway with an unfolding force of ∼80 pN and an unfolding contour length of ∼95 nm. Only a small population (∼15%) of RBP follows three-state pathways. The ligand binding neither increases the mechanical stability nor influences the unfolding flux of RBP through different pathways. The kinetic partitioning between two-state and three-state pathways, which has been reported earlier for other periplasmic proteins, is also observed in RBP, albeit to a lesser extent. These results provide important insights into the mechanical stability and unfolding processes of large two-domain proteins and highlight the contrasting features upon ligand binding. Protein structural topology diagrams are used to explain the differences in the mechanical unfolding behavior of RBP with other periplasmic binding proteins.

  17. ChIP-Seq to Analyze the Binding of Replication Proteins to Chromatin.

    PubMed

    Ostrow, A Zachary; Viggiani, Christopher J; Aparicio, Jennifer G; Aparicio, Oscar M

    2015-01-01

    Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) is a widely used method to study interactions between proteins and discrete chromosomal loci in vivo. ChIP was originally developed for in vivo analysis of protein associations with candidate DNA sequences known or suspected to bind the protein of interest. The advent of DNA microarrays enabled the unbiased, genome-scale identification of all DNA sequences enriched by ChIP, providing a genomic map of a protein's chromatin binding. This method, termed ChIP-chip, is broadly applicable and has been particularly valuable in DNA replication studies to map potential replication origins in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and other organisms based on the specific association of certain replication proteins with these chromosomal elements, which are distributed throughout the genome. More recently, high-throughput sequencing (HTS) technologies have replaced microarrays as the preferred method for genomic analysis of ChIP experiments, and this combination is termed ChIP-Seq. We present a detailed ChIP-Seq protocol for S. cerevisiae that can be adapted for different HTS platforms and for different organisms. We also outline general schemes for data analysis; however, HTS data analyses usually must be tailored specifically for individual studies, depending on the experimental design, data characteristics, and the genome being analyzed.

  18. Human complement protein C99 is a calcium binding protein

    SciTech Connect

    Thielens, N.M.; Lohner, K.; Esser, A.F.

    1988-05-15

    Human complement protein C9 is shown to be a metalloprotein that binds 1 mol of Ca/sup 2 +//mol of C9 with a dissociation constant of 3 ..mu..m as measured by equilibrium dialysis. Incubation with EDTA removes the bound calcium, resulting in a apoprotein with decreased thermal stability. This loss in stability leads to aggregation and, therefore, to loss of hemolytic activity upon heating to a few degrees above the physiological temperature. Heat-induced aggregation of apoC9 can be prevented by salts that stabilize proteins according to the Hofmeister series of lyotropic ions, suggesting that the ion in native C9 may ligand with more than one structural element of domain of the protein. Ligand blotting indicates that the calcium binding site is located in the amino-terminal half of the protein. Removal of calcium by inclusion of EDTA in assay mixtures has no effect on the hemolytic activity of C9, and its capacity to bind to C8 in solution, or to small unilamellar lipid vesicles at temperatures at or below the physiological range. Although the precise structural and functional role of the bound calcium is not know, it is clear that it provides thermal stability to C9 and it may have a function in regulation of membrane insertion.

  19. Whole genome protein microarrays for serum profiling of immunodominant antigens of Bacillus anthracis

    PubMed Central

    Kempsell, Karen E.; Kidd, Stephen P.; Lewandowski, Kuiama; Elmore, Michael J.; Charlton, Sue; Yeates, Annemarie; Cuthbertson, Hannah; Hallis, Bassam; Altmann, Daniel M.; Rogers, Mitch; Wattiau, Pierre; Ingram, Rebecca J.; Brooks, Tim; Vipond, Richard

    2015-01-01

    A commercial Bacillus anthracis (Anthrax) whole genome protein microarray has been used to identify immunogenic Anthrax proteins (IAP) using sera from groups of donors with (a) confirmed B. anthracis naturally acquired cutaneous infection, (b) confirmed B. anthracis intravenous drug use-acquired infection, (c) occupational exposure in a wool-sorters factory, (d) humans and rabbits vaccinated with the UK Anthrax protein vaccine and compared to naïve unexposed controls. Anti-IAP responses were observed for both IgG and IgA in the challenged groups; however the anti-IAP IgG response was more evident in the vaccinated group and the anti-IAP IgA response more evident in the B. anthracis-infected groups. Infected individuals appeared somewhat suppressed for their general IgG response, compared with other challenged groups. Immunogenic protein antigens were identified in all groups, some of which were shared between groups whilst others were specific for individual groups. The toxin proteins were immunodominant in all vaccinated, infected or other challenged groups. However, a number of other chromosomally-located and plasmid encoded open reading frame proteins were also recognized by infected or exposed groups in comparison to controls. Some of these antigens e.g., BA4182 are not recognized by vaccinated individuals, suggesting that there are proteins more specifically expressed by live Anthrax spores in vivo that are not currently found in the UK licensed Anthrax Vaccine (AVP). These may perhaps be preferentially expressed during infection and represent expression of alternative pathways in the B. anthracis “infectome.” These may make highly attractive candidates for diagnostic and vaccine biomarker development as they may be more specifically associated with the infectious phase of the pathogen. A number of B. anthracis small hypothetical protein targets have been synthesized, tested in mouse immunogenicity studies and validated in parallel using human sera from

  20. Whole genome protein microarrays for serum profiling of immunodominant antigens of Bacillus anthracis.

    PubMed

    Kempsell, Karen E; Kidd, Stephen P; Lewandowski, Kuiama; Elmore, Michael J; Charlton, Sue; Yeates, Annemarie; Cuthbertson, Hannah; Hallis, Bassam; Altmann, Daniel M; Rogers, Mitch; Wattiau, Pierre; Ingram, Rebecca J; Brooks, Tim; Vipond, Richard

    2015-01-01

    A commercial Bacillus anthracis (Anthrax) whole genome protein microarray has been used to identify immunogenic Anthrax proteins (IAP) using sera from groups of donors with (a) confirmed B. anthracis naturally acquired cutaneous infection, (b) confirmed B. anthracis intravenous drug use-acquired infection, (c) occupational exposure in a wool-sorters factory, (d) humans and rabbits vaccinated with the UK Anthrax protein vaccine and compared to naïve unexposed controls. Anti-IAP responses were observed for both IgG and IgA in the challenged groups; however the anti-IAP IgG response was more evident in the vaccinated group and the anti-IAP IgA response more evident in the B. anthracis-infected groups. Infected individuals appeared somewhat suppressed for their general IgG response, compared with other challenged groups. Immunogenic protein antigens were identified in all groups, some of which were shared between groups whilst others were specific for individual groups. The toxin proteins were immunodominant in all vaccinated, infected or other challenged groups. However, a number of other chromosomally-located and plasmid encoded open reading frame proteins were also recognized by infected or exposed groups in comparison to controls. Some of these antigens e.g., BA4182 are not recognized by vaccinated individuals, suggesting that there are proteins more specifically expressed by live Anthrax spores in vivo that are not currently found in the UK licensed Anthrax Vaccine (AVP). These may perhaps be preferentially expressed during infection and represent expression of alternative pathways in the B. anthracis "infectome." These may make highly attractive candidates for diagnostic and vaccine biomarker development as they may be more specifically associated with the infectious phase of the pathogen. A number of B. anthracis small hypothetical protein targets have been synthesized, tested in mouse immunogenicity studies and validated in parallel using human sera from the

  1. Systematic identification of arsenic-binding proteins reveals that hexokinase-2 is inhibited by arsenic.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hai-Nan; Yang, Lina; Ling, Jian-Ya; Czajkowsky, Daniel M; Wang, Jing-Fang; Zhang, Xiao-Wei; Zhou, Yi-Ming; Ge, Feng; Yang, Ming-Kun; Xiong, Qian; Guo, Shu-Juan; Le, Huang-Ying; Wu, Song-Fang; Yan, Wei; Liu, Bingya; Zhu, Heng; Chen, Zhu; Tao, Sheng-Ce

    2015-12-01

    Arsenic is highly effective for treating acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) and has shown significant promise against many other tumors. However, although its mechanistic effects in APL are established, its broader anticancer mode of action is not understood. In this study, using a human proteome microarray, we identified 360 proteins that specifically bind arsenic. Among the most highly enriched proteins in this set are those in the glycolysis pathway, including the rate-limiting enzyme in glycolysis, hexokinase-1. Detailed biochemical and metabolomics analyses of the highly homologous hexokinase-2 (HK2), which is overexpressed in many cancers, revealed significant inhibition by arsenic. Furthermore, overexpression of HK2 rescued cells from arsenic-induced apoptosis. Our results thus strongly implicate glycolysis, and HK2 in particular, as a key target of arsenic. Moreover, the arsenic-binding proteins identified in this work are expected to serve as a valuable resource for the development of synergistic antitumor therapeutic strategies.

  2. Systematic identification of arsenic-binding proteins reveals that hexokinase-2 is inhibited by arsenic

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Hai-nan; Yang, Lina; Ling, Jian-ya; Czajkowsky, Daniel M.; Wang, Jing-Fang; Zhang, Xiao-Wei; Zhou, Yi-Ming; Ge, Feng; Yang, Ming-kun; Xiong, Qian; Guo, Shu-Juan; Le, Huang-Ying; Wu, Song-Fang; Yan, Wei; Liu, Bingya; Zhu, Heng; Chen, Zhu; Tao, Sheng-ce

    2015-01-01

    Arsenic is highly effective for treating acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) and has shown significant promise against many other tumors. However, although its mechanistic effects in APL are established, its broader anticancer mode of action is not understood. In this study, using a human proteome microarray, we identified 360 proteins that specifically bind arsenic. Among the most highly enriched proteins in this set are those in the glycolysis pathway, including the rate-limiting enzyme in glycolysis, hexokinase-1. Detailed biochemical and metabolomics analyses of the highly homologous hexokinase-2 (HK2), which is overexpressed in many cancers, revealed significant inhibition by arsenic. Furthermore, overexpression of HK2 rescued cells from arsenic-induced apoptosis. Our results thus strongly implicate glycolysis, and HK2 in particular, as a key target of arsenic. Moreover, the arsenic-binding proteins identified in this work are expected to serve as a valuable resource for the development of synergistic antitumor therapeutic strategies. PMID:26598702

  3. Landscape of protein-small ligand binding modes.

    PubMed

    Kasahara, Kota; Kinoshita, Kengo

    2016-09-01

    Elucidating the mechanisms of specific small-molecule (ligand) recognition by proteins is a long-standing conundrum. While the structures of these molecules, proteins and ligands, have been extensively studied, protein-ligand interactions, or binding modes, have not been comprehensively analyzed. Although methods for assessing similarities of binding site structures have been extensively developed, the methods for the computational treatment of binding modes have not been well established. Here, we developed a computational method for encoding the information about binding modes as graphs, and assessing their similarities. An all-against-all comparison of 20,040 protein-ligand complexes provided the landscape of the protein-ligand binding modes and its relationships with protein- and chemical spaces. While similar proteins in the same SCOP Family tend to bind relatively similar ligands with similar binding modes, the correlation between ligand and binding similarities was not very high (R(2)  = 0.443). We found many pairs with novel relationships, in which two evolutionally distant proteins recognize dissimilar ligands by similar binding modes (757,474 pairs out of 200,790,780 pairs were categorized into this relationship, in our dataset). In addition, there were an abundance of pairs of homologous proteins binding to similar ligands with different binding modes (68,217 pairs). Our results showed that many interesting relationships between protein-ligand complexes are still hidden in the structure database, and our new method for assessing binding mode similarities is effective to find them. PMID:27327045

  4. Landscape of protein-small ligand binding modes.

    PubMed

    Kasahara, Kota; Kinoshita, Kengo

    2016-09-01

    Elucidating the mechanisms of specific small-molecule (ligand) recognition by proteins is a long-standing conundrum. While the structures of these molecules, proteins and ligands, have been extensively studied, protein-ligand interactions, or binding modes, have not been comprehensively analyzed. Although methods for assessing similarities of binding site structures have been extensively developed, the methods for the computational treatment of binding modes have not been well established. Here, we developed a computational method for encoding the information about binding modes as graphs, and assessing their similarities. An all-against-all comparison of 20,040 protein-ligand complexes provided the landscape of the protein-ligand binding modes and its relationships with protein- and chemical spaces. While similar proteins in the same SCOP Family tend to bind relatively similar ligands with similar binding modes, the correlation between ligand and binding similarities was not very high (R(2)  = 0.443). We found many pairs with novel relationships, in which two evolutionally distant proteins recognize dissimilar ligands by similar binding modes (757,474 pairs out of 200,790,780 pairs were categorized into this relationship, in our dataset). In addition, there were an abundance of pairs of homologous proteins binding to similar ligands with different binding modes (68,217 pairs). Our results showed that many interesting relationships between protein-ligand complexes are still hidden in the structure database, and our new method for assessing binding mode similarities is effective to find them.

  5. Regulation of Pluripotency by RNA Binding Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Julia; Blelloch, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Establishment, maintenance, and exit from pluripotency require precise coordination of a cell’s molecular machinery. Substantial headway has been made in deciphering many aspects of this elaborate system, particularly with respect to epigenetics, transcription, and noncoding RNAs. Less attention has been paid to posttranscriptional regulatory processes such as alternative splicing, RNA processing and modification, nuclear export, regulation of transcript stability, and translation. Here, we introduce the RNA binding proteins that enable the posttranscriptional regulation of gene expression, summarizing current and ongoing research on their roles at different regulatory points and discussing how they help script the fate of pluripotent stem cells. PMID:25192462

  6. Gene encoding herbicide safener binding protein

    DOEpatents

    Walton, Jonathan D.; Scott-Craig, John S.

    1999-01-01

    The cDNA encoding safener binding protein (SafBP), also referred to as SBP1, is set forth in FIG. 5 and SEQ ID No. 1. The deduced amino acid sequence is provided in FIG. 5 and SEQ ID No. 2. Methods of making and using SBP1 and SafBP to alter a plant's sensitivity to certain herbicides or a plant's responsiveness to certain safeners are also provided, as well as expression vectors, transgenic plants or other organisms transfected with said vectors and seeds from said plants.

  7. Plastic protein microarray to investigate the molecular pathways of magnetic nanoparticle-induced nanotoxicity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yingshuai; Li, Xuelian; Bao, Shujuan; Lu, Zhisong; Li, Qing; Li, Chang Ming

    2013-05-01

    Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) (about 15 nm) were synthesized via a hydrothermal method and characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, dynamic light scattering, x-ray diffraction, and vibrating sample magnetometer. The molecular pathways of SPIONs-induced nanotoxicity was further investigated by protein microarrays on a plastic substrate from evaluation of cell viability, reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and cell apoptosis. The experimental results reveal that 50 μg ml-1 or higher levels of SPIONs cause significant loss of cell viability, considerable generation of ROS and cell apoptosis. It is proposed that high level SPIONs could induce cell apoptosis via a mitochondria-mediated intrinsic pathway by activation of caspase 9 and caspase 3, an increase of the Bax/Bcl-2 ratio, and down-regulation of HSP70 and HSP90 survivor factors.

  8. Computational Design of DNA-Binding Proteins.

    PubMed

    Thyme, Summer; Song, Yifan

    2016-01-01

    Predicting the outcome of engineered and naturally occurring sequence perturbations to protein-DNA interfaces requires accurate computational modeling technologies. It has been well established that computational design to accommodate small numbers of DNA target site substitutions is possible. This chapter details the basic method of design used in the Rosetta macromolecular modeling program that has been successfully used to modulate the specificity of DNA-binding proteins. More recently, combining computational design and directed evolution has become a common approach for increasing the success rate of protein engineering projects. The power of such high-throughput screening depends on computational methods producing multiple potential solutions. Therefore, this chapter describes several protocols for increasing the diversity of designed output. Lastly, we describe an approach for building comparative models of protein-DNA complexes in order to utilize information from homologous sequences. These models can be used to explore how nature modulates specificity of protein-DNA interfaces and potentially can even be used as starting templates for further engineering. PMID:27094297

  9. Measuring Binding Affinity of Protein-Ligand Interaction Using Spectrophotometry: Binding of Neutral Red to Riboflavin-Binding Protein

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chenprakhon, Pirom; Sucharitakul, Jeerus; Panijpan, Bhinyo; Chaiyen, Pimchai

    2010-01-01

    The dissociation constant, K[subscript d], of the binding of riboflavin-binding protein (RP) with neutral red (NR) can be determined by titrating RP to a fixed concentration of NR. Upon adding RP to the NR solution, the maximum absorption peak of NR shifts to 545 nm from 450 nm for the free NR. The change of the absorption can be used to determine…

  10. Deciphering signaling pathways in clinical tissues for personalized medicine using protein microarrays.

    PubMed

    Malinowsky, K; Wolff, C; Ergin, B; Berg, D; Becker, K F

    2010-11-01

    The current transition in cancer therapy from general treatment approaches, based mainly on chemotherapy and radiotherapy, to more directed approaches that aim to inhibit specific molecular targets has brought about new challenges for pathology. In the past, classical assignment of pathology consisted of tumor diagnosis and staging for further therapy decisions; nowadays, pathologists are asked to predict possible therapeutic results by detecting and quantifying therapeutic targets in tumors such as the human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2). The best approach to analyze such molecular targets is to provide a tumor-specific protein expression profile prior to therapy. To further elucidate signaling networks underlying cancer development and to identify new targets, it is necessary to implement tools that allow fast, precise, cheap, and simultaneous analysis of many network components while requiring only a small amount of clinical material. Reverse phase protein microarray (RPPA) is a promising technology that meets these requirements while enabling quantitative measurement of proteins. Recently, methods for the extraction of proteins from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissues have become available. In this article, we demonstrate how the use of RPPA to analyze signaling pathways from FFPE tissues may improve quantification of therapeutic targets and diagnostic markers in the near future.

  11. Two hypervariable minisatellite DNA binding proteins.

    PubMed

    Wahls, W P; Swenson, G; Moore, P D

    1991-06-25

    Hypervariable minisatellite DNA sequences are short, tandemly repeated sequences present at numerous loci in eukaryotes. They stimulate intermolecular homologous recombination up to 13-fold in human cells in culture and may be specific sites for the initiation of recombination in the eukaryotic genome (Wahls, W.P., Wallace, L.J., & Moore, P.D. (1990) Cell 60, 95-103). Reported here is the detection and partial purification of two hypervariable minisatellite DNA binding proteins, called Msbp-2 and Msbp-3, present in the nuclear extracts of human HeLa cells. The proteins elute from a gel filtration column with a native mass of 200-250 kDa and have sizes of 77 kDa and 115 kDa respectively. PMID:2062643

  12. Quantitative characterization of conformational-specific protein-DNA binding using a dual-spectral interferometric imaging biosensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xirui; Daaboul, George G.; Spuhler, Philipp S.; Dröge, Peter; Ünlü, M. Selim

    2016-03-01

    DNA-binding proteins play crucial roles in the maintenance and functions of the genome and yet, their specific binding mechanisms are not fully understood. Recently, it was discovered that DNA-binding proteins recognize specific binding sites to carry out their functions through an indirect readout mechanism by recognizing and capturing DNA conformational flexibility and deformation. High-throughput DNA microarray-based methods that provide large-scale protein-DNA binding information have shown effective and comprehensive analysis of protein-DNA binding affinities, but do not provide information of DNA conformational changes in specific protein-DNA complexes. Building on the high-throughput capability of DNA microarrays, we demonstrate a quantitative approach that simultaneously measures the amount of protein binding to DNA and nanometer-scale DNA conformational change induced by protein binding in a microarray format. Both measurements rely on spectral interferometry on a layered substrate using a single optical instrument in two distinct modalities. In the first modality, we quantitate the amount of binding of protein to surface-immobilized DNA in each DNA spot using a label-free spectral reflectivity technique that accurately measures the surface densities of protein and DNA accumulated on the substrate. In the second modality, for each DNA spot, we simultaneously measure DNA conformational change using a fluorescence vertical sectioning technique that determines average axial height of fluorophores tagged to specific nucleotides of the surface-immobilized DNA. The approach presented in this paper, when combined with current high-throughput DNA microarray-based technologies, has the potential to serve as a rapid and simple method for quantitative and large-scale characterization of conformational specific protein-DNA interactions.DNA-binding proteins play crucial roles in the maintenance and functions of the genome and yet, their specific binding mechanisms are

  13. Alternative polyadenylation and RNA-binding proteins.

    PubMed

    Erson-Bensan, Ayse Elif

    2016-08-01

    Our understanding of the extent of microRNA-based gene regulation has expanded in an impressive pace over the past decade. Now, we are beginning to better appreciate the role of 3'-UTR (untranslated region) cis-elements which harbor not only microRNA but also RNA-binding protein (RBP) binding sites that have significant effect on the stability and translational rate of mRNAs. To add further complexity, alternative polyadenylation (APA) emerges as a widespread mechanism to regulate gene expression by producing shorter or longer mRNA isoforms that differ in the length of their 3'-UTRs or even coding sequences. Resulting shorter mRNA isoforms generally lack cis-elements where trans-acting factors bind, and hence are differentially regulated compared with the longer isoforms. This review focuses on the RBPs involved in APA regulation and their action mechanisms on APA-generated isoforms. A better understanding of the complex interactions between APA and RBPs is promising for mechanistic and clinical implications including biomarker discovery and new therapeutic approaches. PMID:27208003

  14. Expression and purification of recombinant proteins in Escherichia coli tagged with the metal-binding protein CusF.

    PubMed

    Cantu-Bustos, J Enrique; Vargas-Cortez, Teresa; Morones-Ramirez, Jose Ruben; Balderas-Renteria, Isaias; Galbraith, David W; McEvoy, Megan M; Zarate, Xristo

    2016-05-01

    Production of recombinant proteins in Escherichia coli has been improved considerably through the use of fusion proteins, because they increase protein solubility and facilitate purification via affinity chromatography. In this article, we propose the use of CusF as a new fusion partner for expression and purification of recombinant proteins in E. coli. Using a cell-free protein expression system, based on the E. coli S30 extract, Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP) was expressed with a series of different N-terminal tags, immobilized on self-assembled protein microarrays, and its fluorescence quantified. GFP tagged with CusF showed the highest fluorescence intensity, and this was greater than the intensities from corresponding GFP constructs that contained MBP or GST tags. Analysis of protein production in vivo showed that CusF produces large amounts of soluble protein with low levels of inclusion bodies. Furthermore, fusion proteins can be exported to the cellular periplasm, if CusF contains the signal sequence. Taking advantage of its ability to bind copper ions, recombinant proteins can be purified with readily available IMAC resins charged with this metal ion, producing pure proteins after purification and tag removal. We therefore recommend the use of CusF as a viable alternative to MBP or GST as a fusion protein/affinity tag for the production of soluble recombinant proteins in E. coli. PMID:26805756

  15. Expression and purification of recombinant proteins in Escherichia coli tagged with the metal-binding protein CusF.

    PubMed

    Cantu-Bustos, J Enrique; Vargas-Cortez, Teresa; Morones-Ramirez, Jose Ruben; Balderas-Renteria, Isaias; Galbraith, David W; McEvoy, Megan M; Zarate, Xristo

    2016-05-01

    Production of recombinant proteins in Escherichia coli has been improved considerably through the use of fusion proteins, because they increase protein solubility and facilitate purification via affinity chromatography. In this article, we propose the use of CusF as a new fusion partner for expression and purification of recombinant proteins in E. coli. Using a cell-free protein expression system, based on the E. coli S30 extract, Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP) was expressed with a series of different N-terminal tags, immobilized on self-assembled protein microarrays, and its fluorescence quantified. GFP tagged with CusF showed the highest fluorescence intensity, and this was greater than the intensities from corresponding GFP constructs that contained MBP or GST tags. Analysis of protein production in vivo showed that CusF produces large amounts of soluble protein with low levels of inclusion bodies. Furthermore, fusion proteins can be exported to the cellular periplasm, if CusF contains the signal sequence. Taking advantage of its ability to bind copper ions, recombinant proteins can be purified with readily available IMAC resins charged with this metal ion, producing pure proteins after purification and tag removal. We therefore recommend the use of CusF as a viable alternative to MBP or GST as a fusion protein/affinity tag for the production of soluble recombinant proteins in E. coli.

  16. Identification of Seroreactive Proteins of Leptospira interrogans Serovar Copenhageni Using a High-Density Protein Microarray Approach

    PubMed Central

    Lessa-Aquino, Carolina; Borges Rodrigues, Camila; Pablo, Jozelyn; Sasaki, Rie; Jasinskas, Algis; Liang, Li; Wunder, Elsio A.; Ribeiro, Guilherme S.; Vigil, Adam; Galler, Ricardo; Molina, Douglas; Liang, Xiaowu; Reis, Mitermayer G.; Ko, Albert I.; Medeiros, Marco Alberto; Felgner, Philip L.

    2013-01-01

    Background Leptospirosis is a widespread zoonotic disease worldwide. The lack of an adequate laboratory test is a major barrier for diagnosis, especially during the early stages of illness, when antibiotic therapy is most effective. Therefore, there is a critical need for an efficient diagnostic test for this life threatening disease. Methodology In order to identify new targets that could be used as diagnostic makers for leptopirosis, we constructed a protein microarray chip comprising 61% of Leptospira interrogans proteome and investigated the IgG response from 274 individuals, including 80 acute-phase, 80 convalescent-phase patients and 114 healthy control subjects from regions with endemic, high endemic, and no endemic transmission of leptospirosis. A nitrocellulose line blot assay was performed to validate the accuracy of the protein microarray results. Principal findings We found 16 antigens that can discriminate between acute cases and healthy individuals from a region with high endemic transmission of leptospirosis, and 18 antigens that distinguish convalescent cases. Some of the antigens identified in this study, such as LipL32, the non-identical domains of the Lig proteins, GroEL, and Loa22 are already known to be recognized by sera from human patients, thus serving as proof-of-concept for the serodiagnostic antigen discovery approach. Several novel antigens were identified, including the hypothetical protein LIC10215 which showed good sensitivity and specificity rates for both acute- and convalescent-phase patients. Conclusions Our study is the first large-scale evaluation of immunodominant antigens associated with naturally acquired leptospiral infection, and novel as well as known serodiagnostic leptospiral antigens that are recognized by antibodies in the sera of leptospirosis cases were identified. The novel antigens identified here may have potential use in both the development of new tests and the improvement of currently available assays for

  17. Comparison of the Folding Mechanism of Highly Homologous Proteins in the Lipid-binding Protein Family

    EPA Science Inventory

    The folding mechanism of two closely related proteins in the intracellular lipid binding protein family, human bile acid binding protein (hBABP) and rat bile acid binding protein (rBABP) were examined. These proteins are 77% identical (93% similar) in sequence Both of these singl...

  18. Sensitive immunoassay detection of multiple environmental chemicals on protein microarrays using DNA/dye conjugate as a fluorescent label

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Indirect competitive immunoassays were developed on protein microarrays for the sensitive and simultaneous detection of multiple environmental chemicals in one sample. In this assay, a DNA/SYTOX Orange conjugate was employed as antibody labels to increase the fluorescence signal and sensitivity. Ep...

  19. ASSESSMENT OF THE SWINE PROTEIN-ANNOTATED OLIGONUCLEOTIDE MICROARRAY AND UTILITY OF THE ARRAYS FOR EQTL AND TRANSCRIPTIONAL PROFILING STUDIES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We have evaluated the new Swine Protein-Annotated Oligonucleotide Microarray (http://www.pigoligoarray.org) by analyzing transcriptional profiles for longissimus dorsi muscle (LD), Bronchial lymph node (BLN) and Lung. Four LD samples were used to assess the stringency of hybridization conditions com...

  20. Microcontact printing trapping air: A versatile tool for protein microarray fabrication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filipponi, Luisa; Nicolau, Dan V.

    2006-01-01

    The present work introduces a new method for the fabrication of protein micro-patterns, microcontact printing trapping air. The method is based on microcontact printing, a well-established soft-lithographic technique for printing bioactive protein patterns. Usually, the stamp used is made of poly(dimethylsiloxane) obtained by replicating a lithographically microfabricated silicon master. In microcontact printing, the dimensions of the features in the stamp are critical, since the high compressibility of poly(dimethylsiloxane) causes high aspect ratio features to collapse, leading to the printing of undesired areas. In most cases, this is an unwanted effect, which interferes with the printing quality. In this work we used a poly(dimethylsiloxane)stamp bearing an array of micro-posts which, when placed over a flat surface, collapses with consequent formation of an air gap around the entire array. This effect is linked to the distance between the posts that form the array and can be exploited for the fabrication of protein microarrays having a remarkably low background noise for fluorescence detection.

  1. Helical Defects in MicroRNA Influence Protein Binding by TAR RNA Binding Protein

    PubMed Central

    Acevedo, Roderico; Orench-Rivera, Nichole; Quarles, Kaycee A.; Showalter, Scott A.

    2015-01-01

    Background MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are critical post-transcriptional regulators of gene expression. Their precursors have a globally A-form helical geometry, which prevents most proteins from identifying their nucleotide sequence. This suggests the hypothesis that local structural features (e.g., bulges, internal loops) play a central role in specific double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) selection from cellular RNA pools by dsRNA binding domain (dsRBD) containing proteins. Furthermore, the processing enzymes in the miRNA maturation pathway require tandem-dsRBD cofactor proteins for optimal function, suggesting that dsRBDs play a key role in the molecular mechanism for precise positioning of the RNA within these multi-protein complexes. Here, we focus on the tandem-dsRBDs of TRBP, which have been shown to bind dsRNA tightly. Methodology/Principal Findings We present a combination of dsRNA binding assays demonstrating that TRBP binds dsRNA in an RNA-length dependent manner. Moreover, circular dichroism data shows that the number of dsRBD moieties bound to RNA at saturation is different for a tandem-dsRBD construct than for constructs with only one dsRBD per polypeptide, revealing another reason for the selective pressure to maintain multiple domains within a polypeptide chain. Finally, we show that helical defects in precursor miRNA alter the apparent dsRNA size, demonstrating that imperfections in RNA structure influence the strength of TRBP binding. Conclusion/Significance We conclude that TRBP is responsible for recognizing structural imperfections in miRNA precursors, in the sense that TRBP is unable to bind imperfections efficiently and thus is positioned around them. We propose that once positioned around structural defects, TRBP assists Dicer and the rest of the RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC) in providing efficient and homogenous conversion of substrate precursor miRNA into mature miRNA downstream. PMID:25608000

  2. Roles for RNA-binding proteins in development and disease.

    PubMed

    Brinegar, Amy E; Cooper, Thomas A

    2016-09-15

    RNA-binding protein activities are highly regulated through protein levels, intracellular localization, and post-translation modifications. During development, mRNA processing of specific gene sets is regulated through manipulation of functional RNA-binding protein activities. The impact of altered RNA-binding protein activities also affects human diseases in which there are either a gain-of-function or loss-of-function causes pathogenesis. We will discuss RNA-binding proteins and their normal developmental RNA metabolism and contrast how their function is disrupted in disease. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled SI:RNA Metabolism in Disease.

  3. Calcyclin Binding Protein/Siah-1 Interacting Protein Is a Hsp90 Binding Chaperone

    PubMed Central

    Góral, Agnieszka; Bieganowski, Paweł; Prus, Wiktor; Krzemień-Ojak, Łucja; Kądziołka, Beata; Fabczak, Hanna; Filipek, Anna

    2016-01-01

    The Hsp90 chaperone activity is tightly regulated by interaction with many co-chaperones. Since CacyBP/SIP shares some sequence homology with a known Hsp90 co-chaperone, Sgt1, in this work we performed a set of experiments in order to verify whether CacyBP/SIP can interact with Hsp90. By applying the immunoprecipitation assay we have found that CacyBP/SIP binds to Hsp90 and that the middle (M) domain of Hsp90 is responsible for this binding. Furthermore, the proximity ligation assay (PLA) performed on HEp-2 cells has shown that the CacyBP/SIP-Hsp90 complexes are mainly localized in the cytoplasm of these cells. Using purified proteins and applying an ELISA we have shown that Hsp90 interacts directly with CacyBP/SIP and that the latter protein does not compete with Sgt1 for the binding to Hsp90. Moreover, inhibitors of Hsp90 do not perturb CacyBP/SIP-Hsp90 binding. Luciferase renaturation assay and citrate synthase aggregation assay with the use of recombinant proteins have revealed that CacyBP/SIP exhibits chaperone properties. Also, CacyBP/SIP-3xFLAG expression in HEp-2 cells results in the appearance of more basic Hsp90 forms in 2D electrophoresis, which may indicate that CacyBP/SIP dephosphorylates Hsp90. Altogether, the obtained results suggest that CacyBP/SIP is involved in regulation of the Hsp90 chaperone machinery. PMID:27249023

  4. Latent TGF-β-binding proteins

    PubMed Central

    Robertson, Ian B.; Horiguchi, Masahito; Zilberberg, Lior; Dabovic, Branka; Hadjiolova, Krassimira; Rifkin, Daniel B.

    2016-01-01

    The LTBPs (or latent transforming growth factor β binding proteins) are important components of the extracellular matrix (ECM) that interact with fibrillin microfibrils and have a number of different roles in microfibril biology. There are four LTBPs isoforms in the human genome (LTBP-1, -2, -3, and -4), all of which appear to associate with fibrillin and the biology of each isoform is reviewed here. The LTBPs were first identified as forming latent complexes with TGFβ by covalently binding the TGFβ propeptide (LAP) via disulfide bonds in the endoplasmic reticulum. LAP in turn is cleaved from the mature TGFβ precursor in the trans golgi network but LAP and TGFβ remain strongly bound through non-covalent interactions. LAP, TGFβ, and LTBP together form the large latent complex (LLC). LTBPs were originally thought to primarily play a role in maintaining TGFβ latency and targeting the latent growth factor to the extracellular matrix (ECM), but it has also been shown that LTBP-1 participates in TGFβ activation by integrins and may also regulate activation by proteases and other factors. LTBP-3 appears to have a role in skeletal formation including tooth development. As well as having important functions in TGFβ regulation, TGFβ-independent activities have recently been identified for LTBP-2 and LTBP-4 in stabilizing microfibril bundles and regulating elastic fiber assembly. PMID:25960419

  5. Characterizing the morphology of protein binding patches.

    PubMed

    Malod-Dognin, Noël; Bansal, Achin; Cazals, Frédéric

    2012-12-01

    Let the patch of a partner in a protein complex be the collection of atoms accounting for the interaction. To improve our understanding of the structure-function relationship, we present a patch model decoupling the topological and geometric properties. While the geometry is classically encoded by the atomic positions, the topology is recorded in a graph encoding the relative position of concentric shells partitioning the interface atoms. The topological-geometric duality provides the basis of a generic dynamic programming-based algorithm comparing patches at the shell level, which may favor topological or geometric features. On the biological side, we address four questions, using 249 cocrystallized heterodimers organized in biological families. First, we dissect the morphology of binding patches and show that Nature enjoyed the topological and geometric degrees of freedom independently while retaining a finite set of qualitatively distinct topological signatures. Second, we argue that our shell-based comparison is effective to perform atomic-level comparisons and show that topological similarity is a less stringent than geometric similarity. We also use the topological versus geometric duality to exhibit topo-rigid patches, whose topology (but not geometry) remains stable upon docking. Third, we use our comparison algorithms to infer specificity-related information amidst a database of complexes. Finally, we exhibit a descriptor outperforming its contenders to predict the binding affinities of the affinity benchmark. The softwares developed with this article are availablefrom http://team.inria.fr/abs/vorpatch_compatch/.

  6. Genome wide binding (ChIP-Seq) of murine Bapx1 and Sox9 proteins in vivo and in vitro.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, Sumantra; Kraus, Petra; Sivakamasundari, V; Yap, Sook Peng; Kumar, Vibhor; Prabhakar, Shyam; Lufkin, Thomas

    2016-12-01

    This work pertains to GEO submission GSE36672, in vivo and in vitro genome wide binding (ChIP-Seq) of Bapx1/Nkx3.2 and Sox9 proteins. We have previously shown that data from a genome wide binding assay combined with transcriptional profiling is an insightful means to divulge the mechanisms directing cell type specification and the generation of tissues and subsequent organs [1]. Our earlier work identified the role of the DNA-binding homeodomain containing protein Bapx1/Nkx3.2 in midgestation murine embryos. Microarray analysis of EGFP-tagged cells (both wildtype and null) was integrated using ChIP-Seq analysis of Bapx1/Nkx3.2 and Sox9 DNA-binding proteins in living tissue. PMID:27672560

  7. Genome wide binding (ChIP-Seq) of murine Bapx1 and Sox9 proteins in vivo and in vitro.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, Sumantra; Kraus, Petra; Sivakamasundari, V; Yap, Sook Peng; Kumar, Vibhor; Prabhakar, Shyam; Lufkin, Thomas

    2016-12-01

    This work pertains to GEO submission GSE36672, in vivo and in vitro genome wide binding (ChIP-Seq) of Bapx1/Nkx3.2 and Sox9 proteins. We have previously shown that data from a genome wide binding assay combined with transcriptional profiling is an insightful means to divulge the mechanisms directing cell type specification and the generation of tissues and subsequent organs [1]. Our earlier work identified the role of the DNA-binding homeodomain containing protein Bapx1/Nkx3.2 in midgestation murine embryos. Microarray analysis of EGFP-tagged cells (both wildtype and null) was integrated using ChIP-Seq analysis of Bapx1/Nkx3.2 and Sox9 DNA-binding proteins in living tissue.

  8. A Combinatorial Protein Microarray for Probing Materials Interaction with Pancreatic Islet Cell Populations

    PubMed Central

    Delalat, Bahman; Rojas-Canales, Darling M.; Rasi Ghaemi, Soraya; Waibel, Michaela; Harding, Frances J.; Penko, Daniella; Drogemuller, Christopher J.; Loudovaris, Thomas; Coates, Patrick T. H.; Voelcker, Nicolas H.

    2016-01-01

    Pancreatic islet transplantation has become a recognized therapy for insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. During isolation from pancreatic tissue, the islet microenvironment is disrupted. The extracellular matrix (ECM) within this space not only provides structural support, but also actively signals to regulate islet survival and function. In addition, the ECM is responsible for growth factor presentation and sequestration. By designing biomaterials that recapture elements of the native islet environment, losses in islet function and number can potentially be reduced. Cell microarrays are a high throughput screening tool able to recreate a multitude of cellular niches on a single chip. Here, we present a screening methodology for identifying components that might promote islet survival. Automated fluorescence microscopy is used to rapidly identify islet derived cell interaction with ECM proteins and immobilized growth factors printed on arrays. MIN6 mouse insulinoma cells, mouse islets and, finally, human islets are progressively screened. We demonstrate the capability of the platform to identify ECM and growth factor protein candidates that support islet viability and function and reveal synergies in cell response. PMID:27600088

  9. A Combinatorial Protein Microarray for Probing Materials Interaction with Pancreatic Islet Cell Populations.

    PubMed

    Delalat, Bahman; Rojas-Canales, Darling M; Rasi Ghaemi, Soraya; Waibel, Michaela; Harding, Frances J; Penko, Daniella; Drogemuller, Christopher J; Loudovaris, Thomas; Coates, Patrick T H; Voelcker, Nicolas H

    2016-01-01

    Pancreatic islet transplantation has become a recognized therapy for insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. During isolation from pancreatic tissue, the islet microenvironment is disrupted. The extracellular matrix (ECM) within this space not only provides structural support, but also actively signals to regulate islet survival and function. In addition, the ECM is responsible for growth factor presentation and sequestration. By designing biomaterials that recapture elements of the native islet environment, losses in islet function and number can potentially be reduced. Cell microarrays are a high throughput screening tool able to recreate a multitude of cellular niches on a single chip. Here, we present a screening methodology for identifying components that might promote islet survival. Automated fluorescence microscopy is used to rapidly identify islet derived cell interaction with ECM proteins and immobilized growth factors printed on arrays. MIN6 mouse insulinoma cells, mouse islets and, finally, human islets are progressively screened. We demonstrate the capability of the platform to identify ECM and growth factor protein candidates that support islet viability and function and reveal synergies in cell response. PMID:27600088

  10. Liver Fatty Acid Binding Protein and Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Atshaves, B.P.; Martin, G.G.; Hostetler, H.A.; McIntosh, A.L.; Kier, A.B.; Schroeder, F.

    2010-01-01

    While low levels of unesterified long chain fatty acids (LCFAs) are normal metabolic intermediates of dietary and endogenous fat, LCFAs are also potent regulators of key receptors/enzymes, and at high levels become toxic detergents within the cell. Elevated levels of LCFAs are associated with diabetes, obesity, and metabolic syndrome. Consequently, mammals evolved fatty acid binding proteins (FABPs) that bind/sequester these potentially toxic free fatty acids in the cytosol and present them for rapid removal in oxidative (mitochondria, peroxisomes) or storage (endoplasmic reticulum, lipid droplets) organelles. Mammals have a large (15 member) family of FABPs with multiple members occurring within a single cell type. The first described FABP, liver-FABP (L-FABP, or FABP1), is expressed in very high levels (2-5% of cytosolic protein) in liver as well as intestine and kidney. Since L-FABP facilitates uptake and metabolism of LCFAs in vitro and in cultured cells, it was expected that abnormal function or loss of L-FABP would reduce hepatic LCFA uptake/oxidation and thereby increase LCFAs available for oxidation in muscle and/or storage in adipose. This prediction was confirmed in vitro with isolated liver slices and cultured primary hepatocytes from L-FABP gene-ablated mice. Despite unaltered food consumption when fed a control diet ad libitum, the L-FABP null mice exhibited age- and sex-dependent weight gain and increased fat tissue mass. The obese phenotype was exacerbated in L-FABP null mice pair-fed a high fat diet. Taken together with other findings, these data suggest that L-FABP could have an important role in preventing age- or diet-induced obesity. PMID:20537520

  11. Protein function annotation by local binding site surface similarity.

    PubMed

    Spitzer, Russell; Cleves, Ann E; Varela, Rocco; Jain, Ajay N

    2014-04-01

    Hundreds of protein crystal structures exist for proteins whose function cannot be confidently determined from sequence similarity. Surflex-PSIM, a previously reported surface-based protein similarity algorithm, provides an alternative method for hypothesizing function for such proteins. The method now supports fully automatic binding site detection and is fast enough to screen comprehensive databases of protein binding sites. The binding site detection methodology was validated on apo/holo cognate protein pairs, correctly identifying 91% of ligand binding sites in holo structures and 88% in apo structures where corresponding sites existed. For correctly detected apo binding sites, the cognate holo site was the most similar binding site 87% of the time. PSIM was used to screen a set of proteins that had poorly characterized functions at the time of crystallization, but were later biochemically annotated. Using a fully automated protocol, this set of 8 proteins was screened against ∼60,000 ligand binding sites from the PDB. PSIM correctly identified functional matches that predated query protein biochemical annotation for five out of the eight query proteins. A panel of 12 currently unannotated proteins was also screened, resulting in a large number of statistically significant binding site matches, some of which suggest likely functions for the poorly characterized proteins.

  12. Detection of secondary binding sites in proteins using fragment screening

    PubMed Central

    Ludlow, R. Frederick; Verdonk, Marcel L.; Saini, Harpreet K.; Tickle, Ian J.; Jhoti, Harren

    2015-01-01

    Proteins need to be tightly regulated as they control biological processes in most normal cellular functions. The precise mechanisms of regulation are rarely completely understood but can involve binding of endogenous ligands and/or partner proteins at specific locations on a protein that can modulate function. Often, these additional secondary binding sites appear separate to the primary binding site, which, for example for an enzyme, may bind a substrate. In previous work, we have uncovered several examples in which secondary binding sites were discovered on proteins using fragment screening approaches. In each case, we were able to establish that the newly identified secondary binding site was biologically relevant as it was able to modulate function by the binding of a small molecule. In this study, we investigate how often secondary binding sites are located on proteins by analyzing 24 protein targets for which we have performed a fragment screen using X-ray crystallography. Our analysis shows that, surprisingly, the majority of proteins contain secondary binding sites based on their ability to bind fragments. Furthermore, sequence analysis of these previously unknown sites indicate high conservation, which suggests that they may have a biological function, perhaps via an allosteric mechanism. Comparing the physicochemical properties of the secondary sites with known primary ligand binding sites also shows broad similarities indicating that many of the secondary sites may be druggable in nature with small molecules that could provide new opportunities to modulate potential therapeutic targets. PMID:26655740

  13. Detection of secondary binding sites in proteins using fragment screening.

    PubMed

    Ludlow, R Frederick; Verdonk, Marcel L; Saini, Harpreet K; Tickle, Ian J; Jhoti, Harren

    2015-12-29

    Proteins need to be tightly regulated as they control biological processes in most normal cellular functions. The precise mechanisms of regulation are rarely completely understood but can involve binding of endogenous ligands and/or partner proteins at specific locations on a protein that can modulate function. Often, these additional secondary binding sites appear separate to the primary binding site, which, for example for an enzyme, may bind a substrate. In previous work, we have uncovered several examples in which secondary binding sites were discovered on proteins using fragment screening approaches. In each case, we were able to establish that the newly identified secondary binding site was biologically relevant as it was able to modulate function by the binding of a small molecule. In this study, we investigate how often secondary binding sites are located on proteins by analyzing 24 protein targets for which we have performed a fragment screen using X-ray crystallography. Our analysis shows that, surprisingly, the majority of proteins contain secondary binding sites based on their ability to bind fragments. Furthermore, sequence analysis of these previously unknown sites indicate high conservation, which suggests that they may have a biological function, perhaps via an allosteric mechanism. Comparing the physicochemical properties of the secondary sites with known primary ligand binding sites also shows broad similarities indicating that many of the secondary sites may be druggable in nature with small molecules that could provide new opportunities to modulate potential therapeutic targets.

  14. Improving Binding Affinity and Selectivity of Computationally Designed Ligand-Binding Proteins Using Experiments.

    PubMed

    Tinberg, Christine E; Khare, Sagar D

    2016-01-01

    The ability to de novo design proteins that can bind small molecules has wide implications for synthetic biology and medicine. Combining computational protein design with the high-throughput screening of mutagenic libraries of computationally designed proteins is emerging as a general approach for creating binding proteins with programmable binding modes, affinities, and selectivities. The computational step enables the creation of a binding site in a protein that otherwise does not (measurably) bind the intended ligand, and targeted mutagenic screening allows for validation and refinement of the computational model as well as provides orders-of-magnitude increases in the binding affinity. Deep sequencing of mutagenic libraries can provide insights into the mutagenic binding landscape and enable further affinity improvements. Moreover, in such a combined computational-experimental approach where the binding mode is preprogrammed and iteratively refined, selectivity can be achieved (and modulated) by the placement of specified amino acid side chain groups around the ligand in defined orientations. Here, we describe the experimental aspects of a combined computational-experimental approach for designing-using the software suite Rosetta-proteins that bind a small molecule of choice and engineering, using fluorescence-activated cell sorting and high-throughput yeast surface display, high affinity and ligand selectivity. We illustrated the utility of this approach by performing the design of a selective digoxigenin (DIG)-binding protein that, after affinity maturation, binds DIG with picomolar affinity and high selectivity over structurally related steroids. PMID:27094290

  15. Minimalistic predictor of protein binding energy: contribution of solvation factor to protein binding.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jeong-Mo; Serohijos, Adrian W R; Murphy, Sean; Lucarelli, Dennis; Lofranco, Leo L; Feldman, Andrew; Shakhnovich, Eugene I

    2015-02-17

    It has long been known that solvation plays an important role in protein-protein interactions. Here, we use a minimalistic solvation-based model for predicting protein binding energy to estimate quantitatively the contribution of the solvation factor in protein binding. The factor is described by a simple linear combination of buried surface areas according to amino-acid types. Even without structural optimization, our minimalistic model demonstrates a predictive power comparable to more complex methods, making the proposed approach the basis for high throughput applications. Application of the model to a proteomic database shows that receptor-substrate complexes involved in signaling have lower affinities than enzyme-inhibitor and antibody-antigen complexes, and they differ by chemical compositions on interfaces. Also, we found that protein complexes with components that come from the same genes generally have lower affinities than complexes formed by proteins from different genes, but in this case the difference originates from different interface areas. The model was implemented in the software PYTHON, and the source code can be found on the Shakhnovich group webpage: http://faculty.chemistry.harvard.edu/shakhnovich/software.

  16. RNA-Binding Proteins in Trichomonas vaginalis: Atypical Multifunctional Proteins.

    PubMed

    Figueroa-Angulo, Elisa E; Calla-Choque, Jaeson S; Mancilla-Olea, Maria Inocente; Arroyo, Rossana

    2015-11-26

    Iron homeostasis is highly regulated in vertebrates through a regulatory system mediated by RNA-protein interactions between the iron regulatory proteins (IRPs) that interact with an iron responsive element (IRE) located in certain mRNAs, dubbed the IRE-IRP regulatory system. Trichomonas vaginalis, the causal agent of trichomoniasis, presents high iron dependency to regulate its growth, metabolism, and virulence properties. Although T. vaginalis lacks IRPs or proteins with aconitase activity, possesses gene expression mechanisms of iron regulation at the transcriptional and posttranscriptional levels. However, only one gene with iron regulation at the transcriptional level has been described. Recently, our research group described an iron posttranscriptional regulatory mechanism in the T. vaginalis tvcp4 and tvcp12 cysteine proteinase mRNAs. The tvcp4 and tvcp12 mRNAs have a stem-loop structure in the 5'-coding region or in the 3'-UTR, respectively that interacts with T. vaginalis multifunctional proteins HSP70, α-Actinin, and Actin under iron starvation condition, causing translation inhibition or mRNA stabilization similar to the previously characterized IRE-IRP system in eukaryotes. Herein, we summarize recent progress and shed some light on atypical RNA-binding proteins that may participate in the iron posttranscriptional regulation in T. vaginalis.

  17. Graph Based Study of Allergen Cross-Reactivity of Plant Lipid Transfer Proteins (LTPs) Using Microarray in a Multicenter Study

    PubMed Central

    Palacín, Arantxa; Gómez-Casado, Cristina; Rivas, Luis A.; Aguirre, Jacobo; Tordesillas, Leticia; Bartra, Joan; Blanco, Carlos; Carrillo, Teresa; Cuesta-Herranz, Javier; de Frutos, Consolación; Álvarez-Eire, Genoveva García; Fernández, Francisco J.; Gamboa, Pedro; Muñoz, Rosa; Sánchez-Monge, Rosa; Sirvent, Sofía; Torres, María J.; Varela-Losada, Susana; Rodríguez, Rosalía; Parro, Victor; Blanca, Miguel; Salcedo, Gabriel; Díaz-Perales, Araceli

    2012-01-01

    The study of cross-reactivity in allergy is key to both understanding. the allergic response of many patients and providing them with a rational treatment In the present study, protein microarrays and a co-sensitization graph approach were used in conjunction with an allergen microarray immunoassay. This enabled us to include a wide number of proteins and a large number of patients, and to study sensitization profiles among members of the LTP family. Fourteen LTPs from the most frequent plant food-induced allergies in the geographical area studied were printed into a microarray specifically designed for this research. 212 patients with fruit allergy and 117 food-tolerant pollen allergic subjects were recruited from seven regions of Spain with different pollen profiles, and their sera were tested with allergen microarray. This approach has proven itself to be a good tool to study cross-reactivity between members of LTP family, and could become a useful strategy to analyze other families of allergens. PMID:23272072

  18. Identification of Tumor-associated Autoantigens for the Diagnosis of Colorectal Cancer in Serum Using High Density Protein Microarrays*

    PubMed Central

    Babel, Ingrid; Barderas, Rodrigo; Díaz-Uriarte, Ramón; Martínez-Torrecuadrada, Jorge Luis; Sánchez-Carbayo, Marta; Casal, J. Ignacio

    2009-01-01

    There is a mounting evidence of the existence of autoantibodies associated to cancer progression. Antibodies are the target of choice for serum screening because of their stability and suitability for sensitive immunoassays. By using commercial protein microarrays containing 8000 human proteins, we examined 20 sera from colorectal cancer (CRC) patients and healthy subjects to identify autoantibody patterns and associated antigens. Forty-three proteins were differentially recognized by tumoral and reference sera (p value <0.04) in the protein microarrays. Five immunoreactive antigens, PIM1, MAPKAPK3, STK4, SRC, and FGFR4, showed the highest prevalence in cancer samples, whereas ACVR2B was more abundant in normal sera. Three of them, PIM1, MAPKAPK3, and ACVR2B, were used for further validation. A significant increase in the expression level of these antigens on CRC cell lines and colonic mucosa was confirmed by immunoblotting and immunohistochemistry on tissue microarrays. A diagnostic ELISA based on the combination of MAPKAPK3 and ACVR2B proteins yielded specificity and sensitivity values of 73.9 and 83.3% (area under the curve, 0.85), respectively, for CRC discrimination after using an independent sample set containing 94 sera representative of different stages of progression and control subjects. In summary, these studies confirmed the presence of specific autoantibodies for CRC and revealed new individual markers of disease (PIM1, MAPKAPK3, and ACVR2B) with the potential to diagnose CRC with higher specificity and sensitivity than previously reported serum biomarkers. PMID:19638618

  19. Discovery of binding proteins for a protein target using protein-protein docking-based virtual screening.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Changsheng; Tang, Bo; Wang, Qian; Lai, Luhua

    2014-10-01

    Target structure-based virtual screening, which employs protein-small molecule docking to identify potential ligands, has been widely used in small-molecule drug discovery. In the present study, we used a protein-protein docking program to identify proteins that bind to a specific target protein. In the testing phase, an all-to-all protein-protein docking run on a large dataset was performed. The three-dimensional rigid docking program SDOCK was used to examine protein-protein docking on all protein pairs in the dataset. Both the binding affinity and features of the binding energy landscape were considered in the scoring function in order to distinguish positive binding pairs from negative binding pairs. Thus, the lowest docking score, the average Z-score, and convergency of the low-score solutions were incorporated in the analysis. The hybrid scoring function was optimized in the all-to-all docking test. The docking method and the hybrid scoring function were then used to screen for proteins that bind to tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα), which is a well-known therapeutic target for rheumatoid arthritis and other autoimmune diseases. A protein library containing 677 proteins was used for the screen. Proteins with scores among the top 20% were further examined. Sixteen proteins from the top-ranking 67 proteins were selected for experimental study. Two of these proteins showed significant binding to TNFα in an in vitro binding study. The results of the present study demonstrate the power and potential application of protein-protein docking for the discovery of novel binding proteins for specific protein targets.

  20. A Protein Microarray for the Rapid Screening of Patients Suspected of Infection with Various Food-Borne Helminthiases

    PubMed Central

    Ai, Lin; Chen, Jun-Hu; Chen, Shao-Hong; Zhang, Yong-Nian; Cai, Yu-Chun; Zhu, Xing-Quan; Zhou, Xiao-Nong

    2012-01-01

    Background Food-borne helminthiases (FBHs) have become increasingly important due to frequent occurrence and worldwide distribution. There is increasing demand for developing more sensitive, high-throughput techniques for the simultaneous detection of multiple parasitic diseases due to limitations in differential clinical diagnosis of FBHs with similar symptoms. These infections are difficult to diagnose correctly by conventional diagnostic approaches including serological approaches. Methodology/Principal Findings In this study, antigens obtained from 5 parasite species, namely Cysticercus cellulosae, Angiostrongylus cantonensis, Paragonimus westermani, Trichinella spiralis and Spirometra sp., were semi-purified after immunoblotting. Sera from 365 human cases of helminthiasis and 80 healthy individuals were assayed with semi-purified antigens by both a protein microarray and the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The sensitivity, specificity and simplicity of each test for the end-user were evaluated. The specificity of the tests ranged from 97.0% (95% confidence interval (CI): 95.3–98.7%) to 100.0% (95% CI: 100.0%) in the protein microarray and from 97.7% (95% CI: 96.2–99.2%) to 100.0% (95% CI: 100.0%) in ELISA. The sensitivity varied from 85.7% (95% CI: 75.1–96.3%) to 92.1% (95% CI: 83.5–100.0%) in the protein microarray, while the corresponding values for ELISA were 82.0% (95% CI: 71.4–92.6%) to 92.1% (95% CI: 83.5–100.0%). Furthermore, the Youden index spanned from 0.83 to 0.92 in the protein microarray and from 0.80 to 0.92 in ELISA. For each parasite, the Youden index from the protein microarray was often slightly higher than the one from ELISA even though the same antigen was used. Conclusions/Significance The protein microarray platform is a convenient, versatile, high-throughput method that can easily be adapted to massive FBH screening. PMID:23209851

  1. Heterochromatin Protein 1 Binding Protein 3 Expression as a Candidate Marker of Intrinsic 5-Fluorouracil Resistance

    PubMed Central

    HADAC, JAMIE N.; MILLER, DEVON D.; GRIMES, IAN C.; CLIPSON, LINDA; NEWTON, MICHAEL A.; SCHELMAN, WILLIAM R.; HALBERG, RICHARD B.

    2016-01-01

    Background Despite receiving post-operative 5-fluorouracil (5-FU)-based chemotherapy, approximately 50% of patients with stage IIIC colon cancer experience recurrence. Currently, no molecular signature can predict response to 5-FU. Materials and Methods Mouse models of colon cancer have been developed and characterized. Individual tumors in these mice can be longitudinally monitored and assessed to identify differences between those that are responsive and those that are resistant to therapy. Gene expression was analyzed in serial biopsies that were collected before and after treatment with 5-FU. Colon tumors had heterogeneous responses to treatment with 5-FU. Microarray analysis of pretreatment biopsies revealed that Hp1bp3, a gene encoding heterochromatin protein 1 binding protein 3, was differentially expressed between sensitive and resistant tumors. Conclusion Using mouse models of human colorectal cancer, Hp1bp3 was identified as a candidate marker of intrinsic 5-FU resistance and may represent a potential biomarker for patient stratification or a target of clinical importance. PMID:26976970

  2. Laser trapping and patterning of protein microcrystals: Toward highly integrated protein microarrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hosokawa, Yoichiroh; Matsumura, Satoshi; Masuhara, Hiroshi; Ikeda, Keiko; Shimo-oka, Ai; Mori, Hajime

    2004-09-01

    Some insect virus infections occlude into a crystalline matrix consisting of a protein named polyhedrin. The shape of the matrix is a cubic polyhedron of the size of a few micrometers. Recently it was shown that these polyhedra could immobilize various functional proteins within them. Therefore, the polyhedron is interesting as an element in a protein chip. In this work, individual polyhedra were arrayed and bonded under a microscope by focused laser beams, with the aim of fabricating a highly integrated protein chip. The polyhedron was trapped and transferred to a suitable position on a polymer substrate by optical trapping with a 1064nmNd3+:YAG (YAG, yttrium aluminum garnet) laser. To bond the polyhedron on the substrate, the polymer surface was mechanically and chemically modified by multiphoton absorption of a 120fs, 800nm femtosecond Ti: sapphire laser, which results in strong adhesion of the polyhedron to the substrate. The arraying and bonding of polyhedra were successful, to a precision of about 1μm, with this procedure. The biological activity of polyhedra after these laser irradiations was confirmed by the fluorescence of green fluorescent protein occluded in the polyhedrin matrix.

  3. Bacterial periplasmic sialic acid-binding proteins exhibit a conserved binding site

    SciTech Connect

    Gangi Setty, Thanuja; Cho, Christine; Govindappa, Sowmya; Apicella, Michael A.; Ramaswamy, S.

    2014-07-01

    Structure–function studies of sialic acid-binding proteins from F. nucleatum, P. multocida, V. cholerae and H. influenzae reveal a conserved network of hydrogen bonds involved in conformational change on ligand binding. Sialic acids are a family of related nine-carbon sugar acids that play important roles in both eukaryotes and prokaryotes. These sialic acids are incorporated/decorated onto lipooligosaccharides as terminal sugars in multiple bacteria to evade the host immune system. Many pathogenic bacteria scavenge sialic acids from their host and use them for molecular mimicry. The first step of this process is the transport of sialic acid to the cytoplasm, which often takes place using a tripartite ATP-independent transport system consisting of a periplasmic binding protein and a membrane transporter. In this paper, the structural characterization of periplasmic binding proteins from the pathogenic bacteria Fusobacterium nucleatum, Pasteurella multocida and Vibrio cholerae and their thermodynamic characterization are reported. The binding affinities of several mutations in the Neu5Ac binding site of the Haemophilus influenzae protein are also reported. The structure and the thermodynamics of the binding of sugars suggest that all of these proteins have a very well conserved binding pocket and similar binding affinities. A significant conformational change occurs when these proteins bind the sugar. While the C1 carboxylate has been identified as the primary binding site, a second conserved hydrogen-bonding network is involved in the initiation and stabilization of the conformational states.

  4. Topological Analyses of Protein-Ligand Binding: a Network Approach.

    PubMed

    Costanzi, Stefano

    2016-01-01

    Proteins can be conveniently represented as networks of interacting residues, thus allowing the study of several network parameters that can shed light onto several of their structural and functional aspects. With respect to the binding of ligands, which are central for the function of many proteins, network analysis may constitute a possible route to assist the identification of binding sites. As the bulk of this review illustrates, this has generally been easier for enzymes than for non-enzyme proteins, perhaps due to the different topological nature of the binding sites of the former over those of the latter. The article also illustrates how network representations of binding sites can be used to search PDB structures in order to identify proteins that bind similar molecules and, lastly, how codifying proteins as networks can assist the analysis of the conformational changes consequent to ligand binding.

  5. Detection of hybridization of protein microarrays using an oblique-incidence reflectivity difference method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Heng; Wen, Juan; Wang, Xu; Yuan, Kun; Lu, Huibin; Zhou, Yueliang; Jin, Kui-Juan; Yang, Guozhen; Li, Wei; Ruan, Kangcheng

    2010-07-01

    Mouse-Immunoglobulin G (mouse-IgG) with different concentrations in a range from 1000 to 0.0128 μg/mL and a specific hybridization with goat anti-mouse IgG were detected successfully by using an oblique-incidence reflectivity difference (OI-RD) method. Two detection signals, consisting of an imaginary part (Im{Δp-Δs}) and a real part (Re{Δp-Δs}) of OI-RD, were obtained simultaneously. The detection results of hybridization by OI-RD were in accord with that of traditional fluorescent scans. In particular, we label-freely detected the washed mouse-IgG microarray with a series of concentrations and acquired a linear correlation between OI-RD intensities and the protein concentrations in logarithmic coordinates. The detection sensitivity of OI-RD can reach 14 fg. These experimental results suggest that the OI-RD method has potential applications in proteomics and clinical diagnosis.

  6. Minisatellite binding protein Msbp-1 is a sequence-specific single-stranded DNA-binding protein.

    PubMed Central

    Collick, A; Dunn, M G; Jeffreys, A J

    1991-01-01

    Msbp-1 is a minisatellite-specific DNA-binding protein. Using synthetic binding substrates, we now show that Msbp-1 binds not to double-stranded DNA, but exclusively to single-stranded DNA. Binding is specific to the guanine-rich strand of the minisatellite duplex, interactions with the cytosine-rich strand being undetectable by southwestern analysis. Furthermore, the binding site required for successful DNA-protein interactions appears to be two or more minisatellite repeat units. We have also isolated, by whole-genome PCR and cloning, one Msbp-1 binding site from the human genome. Again, the binding strand of this molecule contains a repetitive G-rich structure equivalent to that of a small minisatellite. These observations are discussed with respect to other single-stranded DNA-binding proteins known to play a role in recombination processes. Images PMID:1754375

  7. Conformity of RNAs that interact with tetranucleotide loop binding proteins.

    PubMed Central

    Zwieb, C

    1992-01-01

    A group of RNA binding proteins, termed tetraloop binding proteins, includes ribosomal protein S15 and protein SRP19 of signal recognition particle. They are primary RNA binding proteins, recognize RNA tetranucleotide loops with a GNAR consensus motif, and require a helical region located adjacent to the tetraloop. Closely related RNA structures that fit these criteria appear in helix 6 of SRP RNA, in helices 22 and 23A of 16 S ribosomal RNA, and, as a pseudoknot, in the regulatory region of the rpsO gene. Images PMID:1329024

  8. A β-hairpin-binding protein for three different disease-related amyloidogenic proteins.

    PubMed

    Shaykhalishahi, Hamed; Mirecka, Ewa A; Gauhar, Aziz; Grüning, Clara S R; Willbold, Dieter; Härd, Torleif; Stoldt, Matthias; Hoyer, Wolfgang

    2015-02-01

    Amyloidogenic proteins share a propensity to convert to the β-structure-rich amyloid state that is associated with the progression of several protein-misfolding disorders. Here we show that a single engineered β-hairpin-binding protein, the β-wrapin AS10, binds monomers of three different amyloidogenic proteins, that is, amyloid-β peptide, α-synuclein, and islet amyloid polypeptide, with sub-micromolar affinity. AS10 binding inhibits the aggregation and toxicity of all three proteins. The results demonstrate common conformational preferences and related binding sites in a subset of the amyloidogenic proteins. These commonalities enable the generation of multispecific monomer-binding agents.

  9. Calmodulin Binding Proteins and Alzheimer’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    O’Day, Danton H.; Eshak, Kristeen; Myre, Michael A.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The small, calcium-sensor protein, calmodulin, is ubiquitously expressed and central to cell function in all cell types. Here the literature linking calmodulin to Alzheimer’s disease is reviewed. Several experimentally-verified calmodulin-binding proteins are involved in the formation of amyloid-β plaques including amyloid-β protein precursor, β-secretase, presenilin-1, and ADAM10. Many others possess potential calmodulin-binding domains that remain to be verified. Three calmodulin binding proteins are associated with the formation of neurofibrillary tangles: two kinases (CaMKII, CDK5) and one protein phosphatase (PP2B or calcineurin). Many of the genes recently identified by genome wide association studies and other studies encode proteins that contain putative calmodulin-binding domains but only a couple (e.g., APOE, BIN1) have been experimentally confirmed as calmodulin binding proteins. At least two receptors involved in calcium metabolism and linked to Alzheimer’s disease (mAchR; NMDAR) have also been identified as calmodulin-binding proteins. In addition to this, many proteins that are involved in other cellular events intimately associated with Alzheimer’s disease including calcium channel function, cholesterol metabolism, neuroinflammation, endocytosis, cell cycle events, and apoptosis have been tentatively or experimentally verified as calmodulin binding proteins. The use of calmodulin as a potential biomarker and as a therapeutic target is discussed. PMID:25812852

  10. Protein Binding: Do We Ever Learn?▿

    PubMed Central

    Zeitlinger, Markus A.; Derendorf, Hartmut; Mouton, Johan W.; Cars, Otto; Craig, William A.; Andes, David; Theuretzbacher, Ursula

    2011-01-01

    Although the influence of protein binding (PB) on antibacterial activity has been reported for many antibiotics and over many years, there is currently no standardization for pharmacodynamic models that account for the impact of protein binding of antimicrobial agents in vitro. This might explain the somewhat contradictory results obtained from different studies. Simple in vitro models which compare the MIC obtained in protein-free standard medium versus a protein-rich medium are prone to methodological pitfalls and may lead to flawed conclusions. Within in vitro test systems, a range of test conditions, including source of protein, concentration of the tested antibiotic, temperature, pH, electrolytes, and supplements may influence the impact of protein binding. As new antibiotics with a high degree of protein binding are in clinical development, attention and action directed toward the optimization and standardization of testing the impact of protein binding on the activity of antibiotics in vitro become even more urgent. In addition, the quantitative relationship between the effects of protein binding in vitro and in vivo needs to be established, since the physiological conditions differ. General recommendations for testing the impact of protein binding in vitro are suggested. PMID:21537013

  11. Actin binding proteins, spermatid transport and spermiation.

    PubMed

    Qian, Xiaojing; Mruk, Dolores D; Cheng, Yan-Ho; Tang, Elizabeth I; Han, Daishu; Lee, Will M; Wong, Elissa W P; Cheng, C Yan

    2014-06-01

    The transport of germ cells across the seminiferous epithelium is composed of a series of cellular events during the epithelial cycle essential to the completion of spermatogenesis. Without the timely transport of spermatids during spermiogenesis, spermatozoa that are transformed from step 19 spermatids in the rat testis fail to reach the luminal edge of the apical compartment and enter the tubule lumen at spermiation, thereby arriving the epididymis for further maturation. Step 19 spermatids and/or sperms that remain in the epithelium beyond stage VIII of the epithelial cycle will be removed by the Sertoli cell via phagocytosis to form phagosomes and be degraded by lysosomes, leading to subfertility and/or infertility. However, the biology of spermatid transport, in particular the final events that lead to spermiation remain elusive. Based on recent data in the field, we critically evaluate the biology of spermiation herein by focusing on the actin binding proteins (ABPs) that regulate the organization of actin microfilaments at the Sertoli-spermatid interface, which is crucial for spermatid transport during this event. The hypothesis we put forth herein also highlights some specific areas of research that can be pursued by investigators in the years to come.

  12. Odorant-Binding Protein: Localization to Nasal Glands and Secretions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pevsner, Jonathan; Sklar, Pamela B.; Snyder, Solomon H.

    1986-07-01

    An odorant-binding protein (OBP) was isolated from bovine olfactory and respiratory mucosa. We have produced polyclonal antisera to this protein and report its immunohistochemical localization to mucus-secreting glands of the olfactory and respiratory mucosa. Although OBP was originally isolated as a pyrazine binding protein, both rat and bovine OBP also bind the odorants [3H]methyldihydrojasmonate and 3,7-dimethyl-octan-1-ol as well as 2-isobutyl-3-[3H]methoxypyrazine. We detect substantial odorant-binding activity attributable to OBP in secreted rat nasal mucus and tears but not in saliva, suggesting a role for OBP in transporting or concentrating odorants.

  13. Therapeutic and analytical applications of arsenic binding to proteins.

    PubMed

    Chen, Beibei; Liu, Qingqing; Popowich, Aleksandra; Shen, Shengwen; Yan, Xiaowen; Zhang, Qi; Li, Xing-Fang; Weinfeld, Michael; Cullen, William R; Le, X Chris

    2015-01-01

    Arsenic binding to proteins plays a pivotal role in the health effects of arsenic. Further knowledge of arsenic binding to proteins will advance the development of bioanalytical techniques and therapeutic drugs. This review summarizes recent work on arsenic-based drugs, imaging of cellular events, capture and purification of arsenic-binding proteins, and biosensing of arsenic. Binding of arsenic to the promyelocytic leukemia fusion oncoprotein (PML-RARα) is a plausible mode of action leading to the successful treatment of acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL). Identification of other oncoproteins critical to other cancers and the development of various arsenicals and targeted delivery systems are promising approaches to the treatment of other types of cancers. Techniques for capture, purification, and identification of arsenic-binding proteins make use of specific binding between trivalent arsenicals and the thiols in proteins. Biarsenical probes, such as FlAsH-EDT2 and ReAsH-EDT2, coupled with tetracysteine tags that are genetically incorporated into the target proteins, are used for site-specific fluorescence labelling and imaging of the target proteins in living cells. These allow protein dynamics and protein-protein interactions to be studied. Arsenic affinity chromatography is useful for purification of thiol-containing proteins, and its combination with mass spectrometry provides a targeted proteomic approach for studying the interactions between arsenicals and proteins in cells. Arsenic biosensors evolved from the knowledge of arsenic resistance and arsenic binding to proteins in bacteria, and have now been developed into analytical techniques that are suitable for the detection of arsenic in the field. Examples in the four areas, arsenic-based drugs, imaging of cellular events, purification of specific proteins, and arsenic biosensors, demonstrate important therapeutic and analytical applications of arsenic protein binding. PMID:25356501

  14. Determination of specific antibody responses to the six species of ebola and Marburg viruses by multiplexed protein microarrays.

    PubMed

    Kamata, Teddy; Natesan, Mohan; Warfield, Kelly; Aman, M Javad; Ulrich, Robert G

    2014-12-01

    Infectious hemorrhagic fevers caused by the Marburg and Ebola filoviruses result in human mortality rates of up to 90%, and there are no effective vaccines or therapeutics available for clinical use. The highly infectious and lethal nature of these viruses highlights the need for reliable and sensitive diagnostic methods. We assembled a protein microarray displaying nucleoprotein (NP), virion protein 40 (VP40), and glycoprotein (GP) antigens from isolates representing the six species of filoviruses for use as a surveillance and diagnostic platform. Using the microarrays, we examined serum antibody responses of rhesus macaques vaccinated with trivalent (GP, NP, and VP40) virus-like particles (VLP) prior to infection with the Marburg virus (MARV) (i.e., Marburg marburgvirus) or the Zaire virus (ZEBOV) (i.e., Zaire ebolavirus). The microarray-based assay detected a significant increase in antigen-specific IgG resulting from immunization, while a greater level of antibody responses resulted from challenge of the vaccinated animals with ZEBOV or MARV. Further, while antibody cross-reactivities were observed among NPs and VP40s of Ebola viruses, antibody recognition of GPs was very specific. The performance of mucin-like domain fragments of GP (GP mucin) expressed in Escherichia coli was compared to that of GP ectodomains produced in eukaryotic cells. Based on results with ZEBOV and MARV proteins, antibody recognition of GP mucins that were deficient in posttranslational modifications was comparable to that of the eukaryotic cell-expressed GP ectodomains in assay performance. We conclude that the described protein microarray may translate into a sensitive assay for diagnosis and serological surveillance of infections caused by multiple species of filoviruses.

  15. Differentially Expressed RNA from Public Microarray Data Identifies Serum Protein Biomarkers for Cross-Organ Transplant Rejection and Other Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Rong; Sigdel, Tara K.; Li, Li; Kambham, Neeraja; Dudley, Joel T.; Hsieh, Szu-chuan; Klassen, R. Bryan; Chen, Amery; Caohuu, Tuyen; Morgan, Alexander A.; Valantine, Hannah A.; Khush, Kiran K.; Sarwal, Minnie M.; Butte, Atul J.

    2010-01-01

    Serum proteins are routinely used to diagnose diseases, but are hard to find due to low sensitivity in screening the serum proteome. Public repositories of microarray data, such as the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO), contain RNA expression profiles for more than 16,000 biological conditions, covering more than 30% of United States mortality. We hypothesized that genes coding for serum- and urine-detectable proteins, and showing differential expression of RNA in disease-damaged tissues would make ideal diagnostic protein biomarkers for those diseases. We showed that predicted protein biomarkers are significantly enriched for known diagnostic protein biomarkers in 22 diseases, with enrichment significantly higher in diseases for which at least three datasets are available. We then used this strategy to search for new biomarkers indicating acute rejection (AR) across different types of transplanted solid organs. We integrated three biopsy-based microarray studies of AR from pediatric renal, adult renal and adult cardiac transplantation and identified 45 genes upregulated in all three. From this set, we chose 10 proteins for serum ELISA assays in 39 renal transplant patients, and discovered three that were significantly higher in AR. Interestingly, all three proteins were also significantly higher during AR in the 63 cardiac transplant recipients studied. Our best marker, serum PECAM1, identified renal AR with 89% sensitivity and 75% specificity, and also showed increased expression in AR by immunohistochemistry in renal, hepatic and cardiac transplant biopsies. Our results demonstrate that integrating gene expression microarray measurements from disease samples and even publicly-available data sets can be a powerful, fast, and cost-effective strategy for the discovery of new diagnostic serum protein biomarkers. PMID:20885780

  16. RNA binding protein and binding site useful for expression of recombinant molecules

    DOEpatents

    Mayfield, Stephen P.

    2006-10-17

    The present invention relates to a gene expression system in eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells, preferably plant cells and intact plants. In particular, the invention relates to an expression system having a RB47 binding site upstream of a translation initiation site for regulation of translation mediated by binding of RB47 protein, a member of the poly(A) binding protein family. Regulation is further effected by RB60, a protein disulfide isomerase. The expression system is capable of functioning in the nuclear/cytoplasm of cells and in the chloroplast of plants. Translation regulation of a desired molecule is enhanced approximately 100 fold over that obtained without RB47 binding site activation.

  17. RNA binding protein and binding site useful for expression of recombinant molecules

    DOEpatents

    Mayfield, Stephen

    2000-01-01

    The present invention relates to a gene expression system in eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells, preferably plant cells and intact plants. In particular, the invention relates to an expression system having a RB47 binding site upstream of a translation initiation site for regulation of translation mediated by binding of RB47 protein, a member of the poly(A) binding protein family. Regulation is further effected by RB60, a protein disulfide isomerase. The expression system is capable of functioning in the nuclear/cytoplasm of cells and in the chloroplast of plants. Translation regulation of a desired molecule is enhanced approximately 100 fold over that obtained without RB47 binding site activation.

  18. Immobilized purified folate-binding protein: binding characteristics and use for quantifying folate in erythrocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Hansen, S.I.; Holm, J.; Nexo, E.

    1987-08-01

    Purified folate-binding protein from cow's milk was immobilized on monodisperse polymer particles (Dynospheres) activated by rho-toluenesulfonyl chloride. Leakage from the spheres was less than 0.1%, and the binding properties were similar to those of the soluble protein with regard to dissociation, pH optimum for binding pteroylglutamic acid, and specificity for binding various folate derivatives. We used the immobilized folate-binding protein as binding protein in an isotope-dilution assay for quantifying folate in erythrocytes. The detection limit was 50 nmol/L and the CV over a six-month period was 2.3% (means = 1.25 mumol/L, n = 15). The reference interval, for folate measured in erythrocytes of 43 blood donors, was 0.4-1.5 mumol/L.

  19. Affinity Purification of Sequence-Specific DNA Binding Proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kadonaga, James T.; Tjian, Robert

    1986-08-01

    We describe a method for affinity purification of sequence-specific DNA binding proteins that is fast and effective. Complementary chemically synthesized oligodeoxynucleotides that contain a recognition site for a sequence-specific DNA binding protein are annealed and ligated to give oligomers. This DNA is then covalently coupled to Sepharose CL-2B with cyanogen bromide to yield the affinity resin. A partially purified protein fraction is combined with competitor DNA and subsequently passed through the DNA-Sepharose resin. The desired sequence-specific DNA binding protein is purified because it preferentially binds to the recognition sites in the affinity resin rather than to the nonspecific competitor DNA in solution. For example, a protein fraction that is enriched for transcription factor Sp1 can be further purified 500- to 1000-fold by two sequential affinity chromatography steps to give Sp1 of an estimated 90% homogeneity with 30% yield. In addition, the use of tandem affinity columns containing different protein binding sites allows the simultaneous purification of multiple DNA binding proteins from the same extract. This method provides a means for the purification of rare sequence-specific DNA binding proteins, such as Sp1 and CAAT-binding transcription factor.

  20. Characterization of the DNA binding properties of polyomavirus capsid protein

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, D.; Cai, X.; Consigli, R. A.; Spooner, B. S. (Principal Investigator)

    1993-01-01

    The DNA binding properties of the polyomavirus structural proteins VP1, VP2, and VP3 were studied by Southwestern analysis. The major viral structural protein VP1 and host-contributed histone proteins of polyomavirus virions were shown to exhibit DNA binding activity, but the minor capsid proteins VP2 and VP3 failed to bind DNA. The N-terminal first five amino acids (Ala-1 to Lys-5) were identified as the VP1 DNA binding domain by genetic and biochemical approaches. Wild-type VP1 expressed in Escherichia coli (RK1448) exhibited DNA binding activity, but the N-terminal truncated VP1 mutants (lacking Ala-1 to Lys-5 and Ala-1 to Cys-11) failed to bind DNA. The synthetic peptide (Ala-1 to Cys-11) was also shown to have an affinity for DNA binding. Site-directed mutagenesis of the VP1 gene showed that the point mutations at Pro-2, Lys-3, and Arg-4 on the VP1 molecule did not affect DNA binding properties but that the point mutation at Lys-5 drastically reduced DNA binding affinity. The N-terminal (Ala-1 to Lys-5) region of VP1 was found to be essential and specific for DNA binding, while the DNA appears to be non-sequence specific. The DNA binding domain and the nuclear localization signal are located in the same N-terminal region.

  1. Clinical relevance of drug binding to plasma proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ascenzi, Paolo; Fanali, Gabriella; Fasano, Mauro; Pallottini, Valentina; Trezza, Viviana

    2014-12-01

    Binding to plasma proteins highly influences drug efficacy, distribution, and disposition. Serum albumin, the most abundant protein in plasma, is a monomeric multi-domain macromolecule that displays an extraordinary ligand binding capacity, providing a depot and carrier for many endogenous and exogenous compounds, such as fatty acids and most acidic drugs. α-1-Acid glycoprotein, the second main plasma protein, is a glycoprotein physiologically involved in the acute phase reaction and is the main carrier for basic and neutral drugs. High- and low-density lipoproteins play a limited role in drug binding and are natural drug delivery system only for few lipophilic drugs or lipid-based formulations. Several factors influence drug binding to plasma proteins, such as pathological conditions, concurrent administration of drugs, sex, and age. Any of these factors, in turn, influences drug efficacy and toxicity. Here, biochemical, biomedical, and biotechnological aspects of drug binding to plasma proteins are reviewed.

  2. A protocol for the systematic and quantitative measurement of protein-lipid interactions using the liposome-microarray-based assay.

    PubMed

    Saliba, Antoine-Emmanuel; Vonkova, Ivana; Deghou, Samy; Ceschia, Stefano; Tischer, Christian; Kugler, Karl G; Bork, Peer; Ellenberg, Jan; Gavin, Anne-Claude

    2016-06-01

    Lipids organize the activity of the cell's proteome through a complex network of interactions. The assembly of comprehensive atlases embracing all protein-lipid interactions is an important challenge that requires innovative methods. We recently developed a liposome-microarray-based assay (LiMA) that integrates liposomes, microfluidics and fluorescence microscopy and which is capable of measuring protein recruitment to membranes in a quantitative and high-throughput manner. Compared with previous assays that are labor-intensive and difficult to scale up, LiMA improves the protein-lipid interaction assay throughput by at least three orders of magnitude. Here we provide a step-by-step LiMA protocol that includes the following: (i) the serial and generic production of the liposome microarray; (ii) its integration into a microfluidic format; (iii) the measurement of fluorescently labeled protein (either purified proteins or from cell lysate) recruitment to liposomal membranes using high-throughput microscopy; (iv) automated image analysis pipelines to quantify protein-lipid interactions; and (v) data quality analysis. In addition, we discuss the experimental design, including the relevant quality controls. Overall, the protocol-including device preparation, assay and data analysis-takes 6-8 d. This protocol paves the way for protein-lipid interaction screens to be performed on the proteome and lipidome scales. PMID:27149326

  3. The prostate cancer immunome: In silico functional analysis of antigenic proteins from microarray profiling with IgG.

    PubMed

    Luna-Coronell, Johana A; Vierlinger, Klemens; Gamperl, Magdalena; Hofbauer, Johann; Berger, Ingrid; Weinhäusel, Andreas

    2016-04-01

    The study of the immunome of prostate cancer (PCa) and characterization of autoantibody signature from differentially reactive antigens can uncover disease stage proteins, reveal enriched networks and even expose aberrant cellular mechanisms during the disease process. By conducting plasma IgG profiling on protein microarrays presenting 5449 unique human proteins expressed in 15 417 E. coli human cDNA expression clones, we elucidated 471 (21 higher reactive in PCa) differentially reactive antigens in 50 PCa versus 49 patients with benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH) at initial diagnosis. Functional analyzes show that the immune-profile of PCa compared to BPH control samples is significantly enriched in features targeting Cellular assembly, Cell death and pathways involved in Cell cycle, translation, and assembly of proteins as EIF2 signaling, PCa related genes as AXIN1 and TP53, and ribosomal proteins (e.g. RPS10). An overlap of 61 (out of 471) DIRAGs with the published 1545 antigens from the SEREX database has been found, however those were higher reactive in BPH. Clinical relevance is shown when antibody-reactivities against eight proteins were significantly (p < 0.001) correlated with Gleason-score. Herewith we provide a biological and pathophysiological characterization of the immunological layer of cancerous (PCa) versus benign (BPH) disease, derived from antibody profiling on protein microarrays. PMID:27089054

  4. A protocol for the systematic and quantitative measurement of protein-lipid interactions using the liposome-microarray-based assay.

    PubMed

    Saliba, Antoine-Emmanuel; Vonkova, Ivana; Deghou, Samy; Ceschia, Stefano; Tischer, Christian; Kugler, Karl G; Bork, Peer; Ellenberg, Jan; Gavin, Anne-Claude

    2016-06-01

    Lipids organize the activity of the cell's proteome through a complex network of interactions. The assembly of comprehensive atlases embracing all protein-lipid interactions is an important challenge that requires innovative methods. We recently developed a liposome-microarray-based assay (LiMA) that integrates liposomes, microfluidics and fluorescence microscopy and which is capable of measuring protein recruitment to membranes in a quantitative and high-throughput manner. Compared with previous assays that are labor-intensive and difficult to scale up, LiMA improves the protein-lipid interaction assay throughput by at least three orders of magnitude. Here we provide a step-by-step LiMA protocol that includes the following: (i) the serial and generic production of the liposome microarray; (ii) its integration into a microfluidic format; (iii) the measurement of fluorescently labeled protein (either purified proteins or from cell lysate) recruitment to liposomal membranes using high-throughput microscopy; (iv) automated image analysis pipelines to quantify protein-lipid interactions; and (v) data quality analysis. In addition, we discuss the experimental design, including the relevant quality controls. Overall, the protocol-including device preparation, assay and data analysis-takes 6-8 d. This protocol paves the way for protein-lipid interaction screens to be performed on the proteome and lipidome scales.

  5. Global discovery of protein kinases and other nucleotide-binding proteins by mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Yongsheng; Wang, Yinsheng

    2016-09-01

    Nucleotide-binding proteins, such as protein kinases, ATPases and GTP-binding proteins, are among the most important families of proteins that are involved in a number of pivotal cellular processes. However, global study of the structure, function, and expression level of nucleotide-binding proteins as well as protein-nucleotide interactions can hardly be achieved with the use of conventional approaches owing to enormous diversity of the nucleotide-binding protein family. Recent advances in mass spectrometry (MS) instrumentation, coupled with a variety of nucleotide-binding protein enrichment methods, rendered MS-based proteomics a powerful tool for the comprehensive characterizations of the nucleotide-binding proteome, especially the kinome. Here, we review the recent developments in the use of mass spectrometry, together with general and widely used affinity enrichment approaches, for the proteome-wide capture, identification and quantification of nucleotide-binding proteins, including protein kinases, ATPases, GTPases, and other nucleotide-binding proteins. The working principles, advantages, and limitations of each enrichment platform in identifying nucleotide-binding proteins as well as profiling protein-nucleotide interactions are summarized. The perspectives in developing novel MS-based nucleotide-binding protein detection platform are also discussed. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Mass Spec Rev 35:601-619, 2016.

  6. Design of protein-interaction specificity affords selective bZIP-binding peptides

    PubMed Central

    Grigoryan, Gevorg; Reinke, Aaron W.; Keating, Amy E.

    2009-01-01

    Interaction specificity is a required feature of biological networks and a necessary characteristic of protein or small-molecule reagents and therapeutics. The ability to alter or inhibit protein interactions selectively would advance basic and applied molecular science. Assessing or modelling interaction specificity requires treating multiple competing complexes, which presents computational and experimental challenges. Here we present a computational framework for designing protein interaction specificity and use it to identify specific peptide partners for human bZIP transcription factors. Protein microarrays were used to characterize designed, synthetic ligands for all but one of 20 bZIP families. The bZIP proteins share strong sequence and structural similarities and thus are challenging targets to bind specifically. Yet many of the designs, including examples that bind the oncoproteins cJun, cFos and cMaf, were selective for their targets over all 19 other families. Collectively, the designs exhibit a wide range of novel interaction profiles, demonstrating that human bZIPs have only sparsely sampled the possible interaction space accessible to them. Our computational method provides a way to systematically analyze tradeoffs between stability and specificity and is suitable for use with many types of structure-scoring functions; thus it may prove broadly useful as a tool for protein design. PMID:19370028

  7. Search for Amyloid-Binding Proteins by Affinity Chromatography

    PubMed Central

    Calero, Miguel; Rostagno, Agueda; Ghiso, Jorge

    2013-01-01

    ‘Amyloid binging proteins’ is a generic term used to designate proteins that interact with different forms of amyloidogenic peptides or proteins and that, as a result, may modulate their physiological and pathological functions by altering solubility, transport, clearance, degradation, and fibril formation. We describe a simple affinity chromatography protocol to isolate and characterize amyloid-binding proteins based on the use of sequential elution steps that may provide further information on the type of binding interaction. As an example, we depict the application of this protocol to the study of Alzheimer’s amyloid β (Aβ) peptide-binding proteins derived from human plasma. Biochemical analysis of the proteins eluted under different conditions identified serum amyloid P component (SAP) and apolipoprotein J (clusterin) as the main plasma Aβ-binding proteins while various apolipoproteins (apoA-IV, apoE, and apoA-I), as well as albumin (HSA) and fibulin were identified as minor contributors. PMID:22528093

  8. Phosphorylation of platelet actin-binding protein during platelet activation

    SciTech Connect

    Carroll, R.C.; Gerrard, J.M.

    1982-03-01

    In this study we have followed the 32P-labeling of actin-binding protein as a function of platelet activation. Utilizing polyacrylamide-sodium dodecyl sulfate gel electrophoresis to resolve total platelet protein samples, we found 2 to 3-fold labeling increases in actin-binding protein 30 to 60 sec after thrombin stimulation. Somewhat larger increases were observed for 40,000 and 20,000 apparent molecular weight peptides. The actin-binding protein was identified on the gels by coelectrophoresis with purified actin-binding protein, its presence in cytoskeletal cores prepared by detergent extraction of activated 32P-labeled platelets, and by direct immunoprecipitation with antibodies against guinea pig vas deferens filamin (actin-binding protein). In addition, these cytoskeletal cores indicated that the 32P-labeled actin-binding protein was closely associated with the activated platelet's cytoskeleton. Following the 32P-labeling of actin-binding protein over an 8-min time course revealed that in aggregating platelet samples rapid dephosphorylation to almost initial levels occurred between 3 and 5 min. A similar curve was obtained for the 20,000 apparent molecular weight peptide. However, rapid dephosphorylation was not observed if platelet aggregation was prevented by chelating external calcium or by using thrombasthenic platelets lacking the aggregation response. Thus, cell-cell contact would seem to be crucial in initiating the rapid dephosphorylation response.

  9. Concentration-dependent Cu(II) binding to prion protein

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hodak, Miroslav; Lu, Wenchang; Bernholc, Jerry

    2008-03-01

    The prion protein plays a causative role in several neurodegenerative diseases, including mad cow disease in cattle and Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in humans. The normal function of the prion protein is unknown, but it has been linked to its ability to bind copper ions. Experimental evidence suggests that copper can be bound in three distinct modes depending on its concentration, but only one of those binding modes has been fully characterized experimentally. Using a newly developed hybrid DFT/DFT method [1], which combines Kohn-Sham DFT with orbital-free DFT, we have examined all the binding modes and obtained their detailed binding geometries and copper ion binding energies. Our results also provide explanation for experiments, which have found that when the copper concentration increases the copper binding mode changes, surprisingly, from a stronger to a weaker one. Overall, our results indicate that prion protein can function as a copper buffer. 1. Hodak, Lu, Bernholc, JCP, in press.

  10. Cooperative binding modes of Cu(II) in prion protein

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hodak, Miroslav; Chisnell, Robin; Lu, Wenchang; Bernholc, Jerry

    2007-03-01

    The misfolding of the prion protein, PrP, is responsible for a group of neurodegenerative diseases including mad cow disease and Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. It is known that the PrP can efficiently bind copper ions; four high-affinity binding sites located in the octarepeat region of PrP are now well known. Recent experiments suggest that at low copper concentrations new binding modes, in which one copper ion is shared between two or more binding sites, are possible. Using our hybrid Thomas-Fermi/DFT computational scheme, which is well suited for simulations of biomolecules in solution, we investigate the geometries and energetics of two, three and four binding sites cooperatively binding one copper ion. These geometries are then used as inputs for classical molecular dynamics simulations. We find that copper binding affects the secondary structure of the PrP and that it stabilizes the unstructured (unfolded) part of the protein.

  11. Leukocyte protease binding to nucleic acids promotes nuclear localization and cleavage of nucleic acid binding proteins.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Marshall P; Whangbo, Jennifer; McCrossan, Geoffrey; Deutsch, Aaron J; Martinod, Kimberly; Walch, Michael; Lieberman, Judy

    2014-06-01

    Killer lymphocyte granzyme (Gzm) serine proteases induce apoptosis of pathogen-infected cells and tumor cells. Many known Gzm substrates are nucleic acid binding proteins, and the Gzms accumulate in the target cell nucleus by an unknown mechanism. In this study, we show that human Gzms bind to DNA and RNA with nanomolar affinity. Gzms cleave their substrates most efficiently when both are bound to nucleic acids. RNase treatment of cell lysates reduces Gzm cleavage of RNA binding protein targets, whereas adding RNA to recombinant RNA binding protein substrates increases in vitro cleavage. Binding to nucleic acids also influences Gzm trafficking within target cells. Preincubation with competitor DNA and DNase treatment both reduce Gzm nuclear localization. The Gzms are closely related to neutrophil proteases, including neutrophil elastase (NE) and cathepsin G. During neutrophil activation, NE translocates to the nucleus to initiate DNA extrusion into neutrophil extracellular traps, which bind NE and cathepsin G. These myeloid cell proteases, but not digestive serine proteases, also bind DNA strongly and localize to nuclei and neutrophil extracellular traps in a DNA-dependent manner. Thus, high-affinity nucleic acid binding is a conserved and functionally important property specific to leukocyte serine proteases. Furthermore, nucleic acid binding provides an elegant and simple mechanism to confer specificity of these proteases for cleavage of nucleic acid binding protein substrates that play essential roles in cellular gene expression and cell proliferation.

  12. Bacterial periplasmic sialic acid-binding proteins exhibit a conserved binding site

    PubMed Central

    Gangi Setty, Thanuja; Cho, Christine; Govindappa, Sowmya; Apicella, Michael A.; Ramaswamy, S.

    2014-01-01

    Sialic acids are a family of related nine-carbon sugar acids that play important roles in both eukaryotes and prokaryotes. These sialic acids are incorporated/decorated onto lipooligosaccharides as terminal sugars in multiple bacteria to evade the host immune system. Many pathogenic bacteria scavenge sialic acids from their host and use them for molecular mimicry. The first step of this process is the transport of sialic acid to the cytoplasm, which often takes place using a tripartite ATP-independent transport system consisting of a periplasmic binding protein and a membrane transporter. In this paper, the structural characterization of periplasmic binding proteins from the pathogenic bacteria Fusobacterium nucleatum, Pasteurella multocida and Vibrio cholerae and their thermodynamic characterization are reported. The binding affinities of several mutations in the Neu5Ac binding site of the Haemophilus influenzae protein are also reported. The structure and the thermodynamics of the binding of sugars suggest that all of these proteins have a very well conserved binding pocket and similar binding affinities. A significant conformational change occurs when these proteins bind the sugar. While the C1 carboxylate has been identified as the primary binding site, a second conserved hydrogen-bonding network is involved in the initiation and stabilization of the conformational states. PMID:25004958

  13. Stereoselective binding of chiral drugs to plasma proteins

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Qi; Wang, Lu; Zhou, Hui; Jiang, Hui-di; Yu, Lu-shan; Zeng, Su

    2013-01-01

    Chiral drugs show distinct biochemical and pharmacological behaviors in the human body. The binding of chiral drugs to plasma proteins usually exhibits stereoselectivity, which has a far-reaching influence on their pharmacological activities and pharmacokinetic profiles. In this review, the stereoselective binding of chiral drugs to human serum albumin (HSA), α1-acid glycoprotein (AGP) and lipoprotein, three most important proteins in human plasma, are detailed. Furthermore, the application of AGP variants and recombinant fragments of HSA for studying enantiomer binding properties is also discussed. Apart from the stereoselectivity of enantiomer-protein binding, enantiomer-enantiomer interactions that may induce allosteric effects are also described. Additionally, the techniques and methods used to determine drug-protein binding parameters are briefly reviewed. PMID:23852086

  14. A microarray of ubiquitylated proteins for profiling deubiquitylase activity reveals the critical roles of both chain and substrate.

    PubMed

    Loch, Christian M; Strickler, James E

    2012-11-01

    Substrate ubiquitylation is a reversible process critical to cellular homeostasis that is often dysregulated in many human pathologies including cancer and neurodegeneration. Elucidating the mechanistic details of this pathway could unlock a large store of information useful to the design of diagnostic and therapeutic interventions. Proteomic approaches to the questions at hand have generally utilized mass spectrometry (MS), which has been successful in identifying both ubiquitylation substrates and profiling pan-cellular chain linkages, but is generally unable to connect the two. Interacting partners of the deubiquitylating enzymes (DUBs) have also been reported by MS, although substrates of catalytically competent DUBs generally cannot be. Where they have been used towards the study of ubiquitylation, protein microarrays have usually functioned as platforms for the identification of substrates for specific E3 ubiquitin ligases. Here, we report on the first use of protein microarrays to identify substrates of DUBs, and in so doing demonstrate the first example of microarray proteomics involving multiple (i.e., distinct, sequential and opposing) enzymatic activities. This technique demonstrates the selectivity of DUBs for both substrate and type (mono- versus poly-) of ubiquitylation. This work shows that the vast majority of DUBs are monoubiquitylated in vitro, and are incapable of removing this modification from themselves. This work also underscores the critical role of utilizing both ubiquitin chains and substrates when attempting to characterize DUBs. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Ubiquitin Drug Discovery and Diagnostics.

  15. The RNA-binding protein Gemin5 binds directly to the ribosome and regulates global translation

    PubMed Central

    Francisco-Velilla, Rosario; Fernandez-Chamorro, Javier; Ramajo, Jorge; Martinez-Salas, Encarnación

    2016-01-01

    RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) play crucial roles in all organisms. The protein Gemin5 harbors two functional domains. The N-terminal domain binds to snRNAs targeting them for snRNPs assembly, while the C-terminal domain binds to IRES elements through a non-canonical RNA-binding site. Here we report a comprehensive view of the Gemin5 interactome; most partners copurified with the N-terminal domain via RNA bridges. Notably, Gemin5 sediments with the subcellular ribosome fraction, and His-Gemin5 binds to ribosome particles via its N-terminal domain. The interaction with the ribosome was lost in F381A and Y474A Gemin5 mutants, but not in W14A and Y15A. Moreover, the ribosomal proteins L3 and L4 bind directly with Gemin5, and conversely, Gemin5 mutants impairing the binding to the ribosome are defective in the interaction with L3 and L4. The overall polysome profile was affected by Gemin5 depletion or overexpression, concomitant to an increase or a decrease, respectively, of global protein synthesis. Gemin5, and G5-Nter as well, were detected on the polysome fractions. These results reveal the ribosome-binding capacity of the N-ter moiety, enabling Gemin5 to control global protein synthesis. Our study uncovers a crosstalk between this protein and the ribosome, and provides support for the view that Gemin5 may control translation elongation. PMID:27507887

  16. Identification and evaluation of metastasis-related proteins, oxysterol binding protein-like 5 and calumenin, in lung tumors.

    PubMed

    Nagano, Kazuya; Imai, Sunao; Zhao, Xiluli; Yamashita, Takuya; Yoshioka, Yasuo; Abe, Yasuhiro; Mukai, Yohei; Kamada, Haruhiko; Nakagawa, Shinsaku; Tsutsumi, Yasuo; Tsunoda, Shin-Ichi

    2015-07-01

    Metastasis is an important prognosis factor in lung cancer, therefore, it is imperative to identify target molecules and elucidate molecular mechanism of metastasis for developing new therapeutics and diagnosis methods. We searched for metastasis-related proteins by utilizing a novel antibody proteome technology developed in our laboratory that facilitated efficient screening of useful target proteins. Two-dimensional differential in-gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE) analysis identified sixteen proteins, which were highly expressed in metastatic lung cancer cells, as protein candidates. Monoclonal single-chain variable fragments (scFvs) binding to candidates were isolated from a scFv-displaying phage library by affinity selection. Tissue microarray analysis of scFvs binding to candidates revealed that oxysterol binding protein-like 5 (OSBPL5) and calumenin (CALU) were expressed at a significantly higher levels in the lung tissues of metastasis-positive cases than that in the metastasis-negative cases (OSBPL5; p=0.0156, CALU; p=0.0055). Furthermore, 80% of OSBPL5 and CALU double-positive cases were positive for lymph node metastasis. Consistent with these observations, overexpression of OSBPL5 and CALU promoted invasiveness of lung cancer cells. Conversely, knockdown of these proteins using respective siRNAs reversed the invasiveness of the lung cancer cells. Moreover, these proteins were expressed in lung tumor tissues, but not in normal lung tissues. In conclusion, OSBPL5 and CALU are related to metastatic potential of lung cancer cells, and they could be useful targets for cancer diagnosis and also for development of drugs against metastasis.

  17. Salt modulates the stability and lipid binding affinity of the adipocyte lipid-binding proteins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schoeffler, Allyn J.; Ruiz, Carmen R.; Joubert, Allison M.; Yang, Xuemei; LiCata, Vince J.

    2003-01-01

    Adipocyte lipid-binding protein (ALBP or aP2) is an intracellular fatty acid-binding protein that is found in adipocytes and macrophages and binds a large variety of intracellular lipids with high affinity. Although intracellular lipids are frequently charged, biochemical studies of lipid-binding proteins and their interactions often focus most heavily on the hydrophobic aspects of these proteins and their interactions. In this study, we have characterized the effects of KCl on the stability and lipid binding properties of ALBP. We find that added salt dramatically stabilizes ALBP, increasing its Delta G of unfolding by 3-5 kcal/mol. At 37 degrees C salt can more than double the stability of the protein. At the same time, salt inhibits the binding of the fluorescent lipid 1-anilinonaphthalene-8-sulfonate (ANS) to the protein and induces direct displacement of the lipid from the protein. Thermodynamic linkage analysis of the salt inhibition of ANS binding shows a nearly 1:1 reciprocal linkage: i.e. one ion is released from ALBP when ANS binds, and vice versa. Kinetic experiments show that salt reduces the rate of association between ANS and ALBP while simultaneously increasing the dissociation rate of ANS from the protein. We depict and discuss the thermodynamic linkages among stability, lipid binding, and salt effects for ALBP, including the use of these linkages to calculate the affinity of ANS for the denatured state of ALBP and its dependence on salt concentration. We also discuss the potential molecular origins and potential intracellular consequences of the demonstrated salt linkages to stability and lipid binding in ALBP.

  18. Guardian of Genetic Messenger-RNA-Binding Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Anji, Antje; Kumari, Meena

    2016-01-01

    RNA in cells is always associated with RNA-binding proteins that regulate all aspects of RNA metabolism including RNA splicing, export from the nucleus, RNA localization, mRNA turn-over as well as translation. Given their diverse functions, cells express a variety of RNA-binding proteins, which play important roles in the pathologies of a number of diseases. In this review we focus on the effect of alcohol on different RNA-binding proteins and their possible contribution to alcohol-related disorders, and discuss the role of these proteins in the development of neurological diseases and cancer. We further discuss the conventional methods and newer techniques that are employed to identify RNA-binding proteins. PMID:26751491

  19. Exploiting bioorthogonal chemistry to elucidate protein-lipid binding interactions and other biological roles of phospholipids.

    PubMed

    Best, Michael D; Rowland, Meng M; Bostic, Heidi E

    2011-09-20

    Lipids play critical roles in a litany of physiological and pathophysiological events, often through the regulation of protein function. These activities are generally difficult to characterize, however, because the membrane environment in which lipids operate is very complex. Moreover, lipids have a diverse range of biological functions, including the recruitment of proteins to membrane surfaces, actions as small-molecule ligands, and covalent protein modification through lipidation. Advancements in the development of bioorthogonal reactions have facilitated the study of lipid activities by providing the ability to selectively label probes bearing bioorthogonal tags within complex biological samples. In this Account, we discuss recent efforts to harness the beneficial properties of bioorthogonal labeling strategies in elucidating lipid function. Initially, we summarize strategies for the design and synthesis of lipid probes bearing bioorthogonal tags. This discussion includes issues to be considered when deciding where to incorporate the tag, particularly the presentation within a membrane environment. We then present examples of the application of these probes to the study of lipid activities, with a particular emphasis on the elucidation of protein-lipid binding interactions. One such application involves the development of lipid and membrane microarray analysis as a high-throughput platform for characterizing protein-binding interactions. Here we discuss separate strategies for binding analysis involving the immobilization of either whole liposomes or simplified isolated lipid structures. In addition, we present the different strategies that have been used to derivatize membrane surfaces via bioorthogonal reactions, either by using this chemistry to produce functionalized lipid scaffolds that can be incorporated into membranes or through direct modification of intact membrane surfaces. We then provide an overview of the development of lipid activity probes to

  20. [Double-stranded DNA microarray: principal, techniques and applications].

    PubMed

    Pan, Yan; Wang, Jin-Ke

    2013-03-01

    Double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) microarray, also known as protein binding microarray (PBM), is an important technique that can be used to assay the interaction of DNA-binding protein (such as transcription factor, TF) with vast amount of DNA molecules in high-throughput format. This technique immobilizes large amount of various dsDNA molecules on the surface of a solid support (such as glass slide) for detecting the binding interaction of a DNA-binding protein with all of the immobilized dsDNA molecules, and thus determining the DNA-binding affinity, specificity and preference of TFs. In recent years, this technique has demonstrated its valuable applications in several aspects, including rapidly characterizing DNA-binding specificity of large number of TFs, building DNA-binding profiles of TFs, identifying DNA-binding sites and target genes of TFs, discriminating the subtle DNA-binding preferences of members and their dimmers of a TF family, and examining the effects of a cofactor on the DNA-binding specificity of TFs. This paper reviews the principal, techniques, and applications of dsDNA microarray.

  1. Identification of AOSC-binding proteins in neurons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Ming; Nie, Qin; Xin, Xianliang; Geng, Meiyu

    2008-11-01

    Acidic oligosaccharide sugar chain (AOSC), a D-mannuronic acid oligosaccharide, derived from brown algae polysaccharide, has been completed Phase I clinical trial in China as an anti-Alzheimer’s Disease (AD) drug candidate. The identification of AOSC-binding protein(s) in neurons is very important for understanding its action mechanism. To determine the binding protein(s) of AOSC in neurons mediating its anti-AD activities, confocal microscopy, affinity chromatography, and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analysis were used. Confocal microscopy analysis shows that AOSC binds to SH-SY5Y cells in concentration-, time-, and temperature-dependent fashions. The AOSC binding proteins were purified by affinity chromatography and identified by LC-MS/MS analysis. The results showed that there are 349 proteins binding AOSC, including clathrin, adaptor protein-2 (AP-2) and amyloid precursor protein (APP). These results suggest that the binding/entrance of AOSC to neurons is probably responsible for anti-AD activities.

  2. Echinococcus granulosus fatty acid binding proteins subcellular localization.

    PubMed

    Alvite, Gabriela; Esteves, Adriana

    2016-05-01

    Two fatty acid binding proteins, EgFABP1 and EgFABP2, were isolated from the parasitic platyhelminth Echinococcus granulosus. These proteins bind fatty acids and have particular relevance in flatworms since de novo fatty acids synthesis is absent. Therefore platyhelminthes depend on the capture and intracellular distribution of host's lipids and fatty acid binding proteins could participate in lipid distribution. To elucidate EgFABP's roles, we investigated their intracellular distribution in the larval stage by a proteomic approach. Our results demonstrated the presence of EgFABP1 isoforms in cytosolic, nuclear, mitochondrial and microsomal fractions, suggesting that these molecules could be involved in several cellular processes.

  3. HTLV-1 Tax Protein Stimulation of DNA Binding of bZIP Proteins by Enhancing Dimerization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, Susanne; Green, Michael R.

    1993-10-01

    The Tax protein of human T cell leukemia virus type-1 (HTLV-I) transcriptionally activates the HTLV-I promoter. This activation requires binding sites for activating transcription factor (ATF) proteins, a family of cellular proteins that contain basic region-leucine zipper (bZIP) DNA binding domains. Data are presented showing that Tax increases the in vitro DNA binding activity of multiple ATF proteins. Tax also stimulated DNA binding by other bZIP proteins, but did not affect DNA binding proteins that lack a bZIP domain. The increase in DNA binding occurred because Tax promotes dimerization of the bZIP domain in the absence of DNA, and the elevated concentration of the bZIP homodimer then facilitates the DNA binding reaction. These results help explain how Tax activates viral transcription and transforms cells.

  4. Protein surface-distribution and protein-protein interactions in the binding of peripheral proteins to charged lipid membranes.

    PubMed Central

    Heimburg, T; Marsh, D

    1995-01-01

    The binding of native cytochrome c to negatively charged lipid dispersions of dioleoyl phosphatidylglycerol has been studied over a wide range of ionic strengths. Not only is the strength of protein binding found to decrease rapidly with increasing ionic strength, but also the binding curves reach an apparent saturation level that decreases rapidly with increasing ionic strength. Analysis of the binding isotherms with a general statistical thermodynamic model that takes into account not only the free energy of the electrostatic double layer, but also the free energy of the surface distribution of the protein, demonstrates that the apparent saturation effects could arise from a competition between the out-of-plane binding reaction and the lateral in-plane interactions between proteins at the surface. It is found that association with nonlocalized sites results in binding isotherms that display the apparent saturation effect to a much more pronounced extent than does the Langmuir adsorption isotherm for binding to localized sites. With the model for nonlocalized sites, the binding isotherms of native cytochrome c can be described adequately by taking into account only the entropy of the surface distribution of the protein, without appreciable enthalpic interactions between the bound proteins. The binding of cytochrome c to dioleoyl phosphatidylglycerol dispersions at a temperature at which the bound protein is denatured on the lipid surface, but is nondenatured when free in solution, has also been studied. The binding curves for the surface-denatured protein differ from those for the native protein in that the apparent saturation at high ionic strength is less pronounced. This indicates the tendency of the denatured protein to aggregate on the lipid surface, and can be described by the binding isotherms for nonlocalized sites only if attractive interactions between the surface-bound proteins are included in addition to the distributional entropic terms. Additionally

  5. Fibronectin-binding protein of Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus.

    PubMed Central

    Lindmark, H; Jacobsson, K; Frykberg, L; Guss, B

    1996-01-01

    By screening a genomic lambda library of Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus, we have cloned and sequenced a gene, termed fnz, encoding a fibronectin (Fn)-binding protein called FNZ. On the basis of the deduced amino acid sequence of FNZ, the mature protein has a molecular mass of approximately 61 kDa. Analysis of FNZ reveals a structural organization similar to that of other cell surface proteins from streptococci and staphylococci. The Fn-binding activity is localized to two domains in the C-terminal part of FNZ. One domain is composed of five repeats, which contain a motif similar to what has earlier been found in other Fn-binding proteins in streptococci and staphylococci. The first and second repeats are separated by a short stretch of amino acids, including the motif LAGESGET, which is an important part of the second Fn-binding domain. This motif is also present in an Fn-binding domain (UR) in protein F of Streptococcus pyogenes. A fusion protein covering the Fn-binding domain of FNZ inhibits the binding of the 29-kDa N-terminal fragment of Fn to cells of various streptococcal species as well as to Staphylococcus aureus. PMID:8926060

  6. Paramagnetic Ligand Tagging To Identify Protein Binding Sites

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Transient biomolecular interactions are the cornerstones of the cellular machinery. The identification of the binding sites for low affinity molecular encounters is essential for the development of high affinity pharmaceuticals from weakly binding leads but is hindered by the lack of robust methodologies for characterization of weakly binding complexes. We introduce a paramagnetic ligand tagging approach that enables localization of low affinity protein–ligand binding clefts by detection and analysis of intermolecular protein NMR pseudocontact shifts, which are invoked by the covalent attachment of a paramagnetic lanthanoid chelating tag to the ligand of interest. The methodology is corroborated by identification of the low millimolar volatile anesthetic interaction site of the calcium sensor protein calmodulin. It presents an efficient route to binding site localization for low affinity complexes and is applicable to rapid screening of protein–ligand systems with varying binding affinity. PMID:26289584

  7. Niobium Uptake and Release by Bacterial Ferric Ion Binding Protein

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Yanbo; Harvey, Ian; Campopiano, Dominic; Sadler, Peter J.

    2010-01-01

    Ferric ion binding proteins (Fbps) transport FeIII across the periplasm and are vital for the virulence of many Gram negative bacteria. Iron(III) is tightly bound in a hinged binding cleft with octahedral coordination geometry involving binding to protein side chains (including tyrosinate residues) together with a synergistic anion such as phosphate. Niobium compounds are of interest for their potential biological activity, which has been little explored. We have studied the binding of cyclopentadienyl and nitrilotriacetato NbV complexes to the Fbp from Neisseria gonorrhoeae by UV-vis spectroscopy, chromatography, ICP-OES, mass spectrometry, and Nb K-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy. These data suggest that NbV binds strongly to Fbp and that a dinuclear NbV centre can be readily accommodated in the interdomain binding cleft. The possibility of designing niobium-based antibiotics which block iron uptake by pathogenic bacteria is discussed. PMID:20445753

  8. Lectin-based protein microarray analysis of differences in serum alpha-2-macroglobulin glycosylation between patients with colorectal cancer and persons without cancer.

    PubMed

    Šunderić, Miloš; Šedivá, Alena; Robajac, Dragana; Miljuš, Goran; Gemeiner, Peter; Nedić, Olgica; Katrlík, Jaroslav

    2016-07-01

    Glycosylation is co- and posttranslational modifications affecting proteins. The glycopattern changes are associated with changes in biological function and are involved in many diseases including cancer. We present the lectin-based protein microarray method enabling determination of differences in protein glycosylation. The method involves isolation of targeted protein from samples by immunoprecipitation, spotting of protein from multiple samples into arrays on a microarray slide, incubation with set of biotinylated lectins, the reaction with fluorescent conjugate of streptavidin, and detection of fluorescent intensities by microarray scanner. Lectin-based protein microarray was applied in investigation of differences in alpha-2-macroglobulin (α2M) glycosylation isolated from sera samples of healthy persons and patients with colorectal cancer (CC). From 14 lectins used in analysis, statistically significant differences (Student's t-test, P < 0.05) between two groups of samples (persons without cancer and CC patients) were found for 5 of them. α2M molecules isolated from sera of CC patients have higher content of α2,6 sialic acid, N-acetylglucosamine and mannose residues, and tri-/tetraantennary complex type high-mannose N-glycans. A novel lectin-based protein microarray developed and described can serve as a suitable analytical technique for sensitive, simple, fast, and high-throughput determination of differences in protein glycosylation isolated from serum or other samples.

  9. Serial Analysis of 38 Proteins during the Progression of Human Breast Tumor in Mice Using an Antibody Colocalization Microarray*

    PubMed Central

    Li, Huiyan; Bergeron, Sébastien; Annis, Matthew G.; Siegel, Peter M.; Juncker, David

    2015-01-01

    Proteins in serum or plasma hold great potential for use in disease diagnosis and monitoring. However, the correlation between tumor burden and protein biomarker concentration has not been established. Here, using an antibody colocalization microarray, the protein concentration in serum was measured and compared with the size of mammary xenograft tumors in 11 individual mice from the time of injection; seven blood samples were collected from each tumor-bearing mouse as well as control mice on a weekly basis. The profiles of 38 proteins detected in sera from these animals were analyzed by clustering, and we identified 10 proteins with the greatest relative increase in serum concentration that correlated with growth of the primary mammary tumor. To evaluate the diagnosis of cancer based on these proteins using either an absolute threshold (i.e. a concentration cutoff) or self-referenced differential threshold based on the increase in concentration before cell injection, receiver operating characteristic curves were produced for 10 proteins with increased concentration, and the area under curve was calculated for each time point based on a single protein or on a panel of proteins, in each case showing a rapid increase of the area under curve. Next, the sensitivity and specificity of individual and optimal protein panels were calculated, showing high accuracy as early as week 2. These results provide a foundation for studies of tumor growth through measuring serial changes of protein concentration in animal models. PMID:25680959

  10. Exchange Kinetics of a Hydrophobic Ligand Binding Protein

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaughn, Jeff; Stone, Martin

    2002-03-01

    Conformational fluctuations of proteins are thought to be important for determining the functional roles in biological activity. In some cases, the rates of these conformational changes may be directly correlated to, for example, the rates of catalysis or ligand binding. We are studying the role of conformational fluctuations in the binding of small volatile hydrophobic pheromones by the mouse major urinary proteins (MUPs). Communication among mice occurs, in part, with the MUP-1 protein. This urinary protein binds pheromones as a way to increase the longevity of the pheromone in an extracellular environment. Of interest is that the crystal structure of MUP-1 with a pheromone ligand shows the ligand to be completely occluded from the solvent with no obvious pathway to enter or exit. This suggests that conformational exchange of the protein may be required for ligand binding and release to occur. We hypothesize that the rate of conformational exchange may be a limiting factor determining the rate of ligand association and dissociation. By careful measurement of the on- and off-rates of ligand binding and the rates of conformational changes of the protein, a more defined picture of the interplay between protein structure and function can be obtained. To this end, heteronuclear saturation transfer, ^15N-exchange and ^15N dynamics experiments have been employed to probe the kinetics of ligand binding to MUP-1.

  11. Estradiol binding to nuclear matrix protein of pig adrenal cortex

    SciTech Connect

    Ungar, F.; Johnson, S.R.; Johnston, J.A.

    1987-05-01

    Binding of TH-estradiol can be shown in vitro after incubation with purified washed nuclei of sow adrenal cortex or with the insoluble nuclear matrix protein isolated from nuclei. The procedure modified after Berezney and Coffey treated washed nuclei sequentially with 1% Triton-X100, DNase, RNase and 2M NaCl to give an insoluble nuclear matrix protein preparation in which most of the phospholipid, DNA, RNA and protein was removed. Reagents were added to 10 mM Tris buffer containing 1 mM phenylmethyl sulfonyl fluoride, dithiothreitol and 0.2 mM or 5.0 mM MgCl2. Each treatment and washes were centrifuged at 4C. Suspensions of nuclei and nuclear matrix protein were incubated at 4C for 24 hrs. with 0.25 to 3.0 ng of TH-estradiol in 0.5 ml 10 mM Tris buffer with 5 mM MgCl2. Scatchard analysis of binding in duplicate or triplicate tubes with or without excess unlabeled estradiol gave specific binding for sow adrenal nuclei and for nuclear matrix protein. Total binding sites varied between 780 to 1380 fmoles/mg protein. Estradiol binding was not shown in the fetal adrenal matrix nor in mitochondria. Noncompetitive controls included progesterone and pregnenolone. Nuclear matrix protein binding of estradiol may have significance in functional or morphological changes of the adrenal cortex in fetal, neonatal, or pubertal development.

  12. General RNA binding proteins render translation cap dependent.

    PubMed Central

    Svitkin, Y V; Ovchinnikov, L P; Dreyfuss, G; Sonenberg, N

    1996-01-01

    Translation in rabbit reticulocyte lysate is relatively independent of the presence of the mRNA m7G cap structure and the cap binding protein, eIF-4E. In addition, initiation occurs frequently at spurious internal sites. Here we show that a critical parameter which contributes to cap-dependent translation is the amount of general RNA binding proteins in the extract. Addition of several general RNA binding proteins, such as hnRNP A1, La autoantigen, pyrimidine tract binding protein (hnRNP I/PTB) and the major core protein of cytoplasmic mRNP (p50), rendered translation in a rabbit reticulocyte lysate cap dependent. These proteins drastically inhibited the translation of an uncapped mRNA, but had no effect on translation of a capped mRNA. Based on these and other results, we suggest that one function of general mRNA binding proteins in the cytoplasm is to promote ribosome binding by a 5' end, cap-mediated mechanism, and prevent spurious initiations at aberrant translation start sites. Images PMID:9003790

  13. Diversity of Cyclic Di-GMP-Binding Proteins and Mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Chou, Shan-Ho; Galperin, Michael Y

    2016-01-01

    Cyclic di-GMP (c-di-GMP) synthetases and hydrolases (GGDEF, EAL, and HD-GYP domains) can be readily identified in bacterial genome sequences by using standard bioinformatic tools. In contrast, identification of c-di-GMP receptors remains a difficult task, and the current list of experimentally characterized c-di-GMP-binding proteins is likely incomplete. Several classes of c-di-GMP-binding proteins have been structurally characterized; for some others, the binding sites have been identified; and for several potential c-di-GMP receptors, the binding sites remain to be determined. We present here a comparative structural analysis of c-di-GMP-protein complexes that aims to discern the common themes in the binding mechanisms that allow c-di-GMP receptors to bind it with (sub)micromolar affinities despite the 1,000-fold excess of GTP. The available structures show that most receptors use their Arg and Asp/Glu residues to bind c-di-GMP monomers, dimers, or tetramers with stacked guanine bases. The only exception is the EAL domains that bind c-di-GMP monomers in an extended conformation. We show that in c-di-GMP-binding signature motifs, Arg residues bind to the O-6 and N-7 atoms at the Hoogsteen edge of the guanine base, while Asp/Glu residues bind the N-1 and N-2 atoms at its Watson-Crick edge. In addition, Arg residues participate in stacking interactions with the guanine bases of c-di-GMP and the aromatic rings of Tyr and Phe residues. This may account for the presence of Arg residues in the active sites of every receptor protein that binds stacked c-di-GMP. We also discuss the implications of these structural data for the improved understanding of the c-di-GMP signaling mechanisms.

  14. Diversity of Cyclic Di-GMP-Binding Proteins and Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Cyclic di-GMP (c-di-GMP) synthetases and hydrolases (GGDEF, EAL, and HD-GYP domains) can be readily identified in bacterial genome sequences by using standard bioinformatic tools. In contrast, identification of c-di-GMP receptors remains a difficult task, and the current list of experimentally characterized c-di-GMP-binding proteins is likely incomplete. Several classes of c-di-GMP-binding proteins have been structurally characterized; for some others, the binding sites have been identified; and for several potential c-di-GMP receptors, the binding sites remain to be determined. We present here a comparative structural analysis of c-di-GMP-protein complexes that aims to discern the common themes in the binding mechanisms that allow c-di-GMP receptors to bind it with (sub)micromolar affinities despite the 1,000-fold excess of GTP. The available structures show that most receptors use their Arg and Asp/Glu residues to bind c-di-GMP monomers, dimers, or tetramers with stacked guanine bases. The only exception is the EAL domains that bind c-di-GMP monomers in an extended conformation. We show that in c-di-GMP-binding signature motifs, Arg residues bind to the O-6 and N-7 atoms at the Hoogsteen edge of the guanine base, while Asp/Glu residues bind the N-1 and N-2 atoms at its Watson-Crick edge. In addition, Arg residues participate in stacking interactions with the guanine bases of c-di-GMP and the aromatic rings of Tyr and Phe residues. This may account for the presence of Arg residues in the active sites of every receptor protein that binds stacked c-di-GMP. We also discuss the implications of these structural data for the improved understanding of the c-di-GMP signaling mechanisms. PMID:26055114

  15. Analysis of Arf GTP-binding Protein Function in Cells

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Lee Ann; Donaldson, Julie G.

    2010-01-01

    This unit describes techniques and approaches that can be used to study the functions of the ADP-ribosylation factor (Arf) GTP-binding proteins in cells. There are 6 mammalian Arfs and many more Arf-like proteins (Arls) and these proteins are conserved in eukaryotes from yeast to man. Like all GTPases, Arfs cycle between GDP-bound, inactive and GTP-bound active conformations, facilitated by guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs) and GTPase activating proteins (GAPs) that catalyze GTP binding and hydrolysis respectively. Here we describe approaches that can be taken to examine the localization and function of Arf and Arl proteins in cells (Protocol 1). We also provide a simple protocol for measuring activation (GTP-binding) of specific Arf proteins in cells using a pull-down assay (Protocol 2). We then discuss approaches that can be taken to assess function of GEFs and GAPs in cells (Protocol 3). PMID:20853342

  16. Identification of multiple salicylic acid-binding proteins using two high throughput screens

    PubMed Central

    Manohar, Murli; Tian, Miaoying; Moreau, Magali; Park, Sang-Wook; Choi, Hyong Woo; Fei, Zhangjun; Friso, Giulia; Asif, Muhammed; Manosalva, Patricia; von Dahl, Caroline C.; Shi, Kai; Ma, Shisong; Dinesh-Kumar, Savithramma P.; O'Doherty, Inish; Schroeder, Frank C.; van Wijk, Klass J.; Klessig, Daniel F.

    2014-01-01

    Salicylic acid (SA) is an important hormone involved in many diverse plant processes, including floral induction, stomatal closure, seed germination, adventitious root initiation, and thermogenesis. It also plays critical functions during responses to abiotic and biotic stresses. The role(s) of SA in signaling disease resistance is by far the best studied process, although it is still only partially understood. To obtain insights into how SA carries out its varied functions, particularly in activating disease resistance, two new high throughput screens were developed to identify novel SA-binding proteins (SABPs). The first utilized crosslinking of the photo-reactive SA analog 4-AzidoSA (4AzSA) to proteins in an Arabidopsis leaf extract, followed by immuno-selection with anti-SA antibodies and then mass spectroscopy-based identification. The second utilized photo-affinity crosslinking of 4AzSA to proteins on a protein microarray (PMA) followed by detection with anti-SA antibodies. To determine whether the candidate SABPs (cSABPs) obtained from these screens were true SABPs, recombinantly-produced proteins were generated and tested for SA-inhibitable crosslinking to 4AzSA, which was monitored by immuno-blot analysis, SA-inhibitable binding of the SA derivative 3-aminoethylSA (3AESA), which was detected by a surface plasmon resonance (SPR) assay, or SA-inhibitable binding of [3H]SA, which was detected by size exclusion chromatography. Based on our criteria that true SABPs must exhibit SA-binding activity in at least two of these assays, nine new SABPs are identified here; nine others were previously reported. Approximately 80 cSABPs await further assessment. In addition, the conflicting reports on whether NPR1 is an SABP were addressed by showing that it bound SA in all three of the above assays. PMID:25628632

  17. Discovery of lung cancer pathways using reverse phase protein microarray and prior-knowledge based Bayesian networks.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dong-Chul; Yang, Chin-Rang; Wang, Xiaoyu; Zhang, Baoju; Wu, Xiaorong; Gao, Jean

    2011-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to infer the signaling pathway related to lung cancer using Reverse Phase Protein Microarray (RPPM), which provides information on post-translational phosphorylation events. The computational inferring of pathways is obtained by performing Bayesian network in combination with prior knowledge from Protein-Protein Interaction (PPI). A clustering based Linear Programming Relaxation is developed for the searching of optimal networks. The PPI prior knowledge is incorporated into a new scoring function definition based on minimum description length (MDL). In the experiment, we first evaluate the algorithm performance with synthetic networks and associated data. Then we show our signaling network inference for lung cancer using RPPM data. Through the study, we expect to derive new signalling pathways and insight on protein regulatory relationships, which are yet to be known for lung cancer study.

  18. Cell-Binding Assays for Determining the Affinity of Protein-Protein Interactions: Technologies and Considerations.

    PubMed

    Hunter, S A; Cochran, J R

    2016-01-01

    Determining the equilibrium-binding affinity (Kd) of two interacting proteins is essential not only for the biochemical study of protein signaling and function but also for the engineering of improved protein and enzyme variants. One common technique for measuring protein-binding affinities uses flow cytometry to analyze ligand binding to proteins presented on the surface of a cell. However, cell-binding assays require specific considerations to accurately quantify the binding affinity of a protein-protein interaction. Here we will cover the basic assumptions in designing a cell-based binding assay, including the relevant equations and theory behind determining binding affinities. Further, two major considerations in measuring binding affinities-time to equilibrium and ligand depletion-will be discussed. As these conditions have the potential to greatly alter the Kd, methods through which to avoid or minimize them will be provided. We then outline detailed protocols for performing direct- and competitive-binding assays against proteins displayed on the surface of yeast or mammalian cells that can be used to derive accurate Kd values. Finally, a comparison of cell-based binding assays to other types of binding assays will be presented. PMID:27586327

  19. A new aspect of serum protein binding of tolbutamide.

    PubMed

    Ayanoğlu, G; Uihlein, M; Grigoleit, H G

    1986-02-01

    Tolbutamide is known to bind highly to serum proteins. Quite different values have, however, been reported for binding, ranging from 80 to 99 percent. In this study, in vivo and in vitro binding of increasing concentrations of tolbutamide to human serum proteins were evaluated. In vitro studies were done serum from three healthy males and for in vivo studies serum samples from eight healthy males who had received 1,000 mg tolbutamide were used. Protein binding was determined by equilibrium dialysis, using DIANORM system. Tolbutamide concentrations were determined by HPLC method of Uihlein and Hack. The results suggest that there is an increase in percent tolbutamide bound with increasing concentrations of tolbutamide. Generally, an inverse relationship between the total concentration of a drug in serum and its bound fraction is observed. Our findings seem to be contrary to this, at least within the concentration range studied. There exist at least two binding sites on albumin with different affinities for tolbutamide and most probably, at low concentrations, the drug binds mainly to the high affinity sites, whereas at higher concentrations additional drug will bind to the lower affinity sites leading to the observed increase in fraction bound with concentration. In conclusion it may be said that serum protein binding is a much more complicated phenomenon than generally stated and that the normal observations are only true for some ideal compounds where only one site of adsorption has to be taken into account.

  20. Conformational thermodynamics of metal-ion binding to a protein

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, Amit; Chakrabarti, J.; Ghosh, Mahua

    2013-08-01

    Conformational changes in proteins induced by metal-ions play extremely important role in various cellular processes and technological applications. Dihedral angles are suitable conformational variables to describe microscopic conformations of a biomacromolecule. Here, we use the histograms of the dihedral angles to study the thermodynamics of conformational changes of a protein upon metal-ion binding. Our method applied to Ca2+ ion binding to an important metalloprotein, Calmodulin, reveals different thermodynamic changes in different metal-binding sites. The ligands coordinating to Ca2+ ions also play different roles in stabilizing the metal-ion coordinated protein-structure. Metal-ion binding induce remarkable thermodynamic changes in distant part of the protein via modification of secondary structural elements.

  1. SIENA: Efficient Compilation of Selective Protein Binding Site Ensembles.

    PubMed

    Bietz, Stefan; Rarey, Matthias

    2016-01-25

    Structural flexibility of proteins has an important influence on molecular recognition and enzymatic function. In modeling, structure ensembles are therefore often applied as a valuable source of alternative protein conformations. However, their usage is often complicated by structural artifacts and inconsistent data annotation. Here, we present SIENA, a new computational approach for the automated assembly and preprocessing of protein binding site ensembles. Starting with an arbitrarily defined binding site in a single protein structure, SIENA searches for alternative conformations of the same or sequentially closely related binding sites. The method is based on an indexed database for identifying perfect k-mer matches and a recently published algorithm for the alignment of protein binding site conformations. Furthermore, SIENA provides a new algorithm for the interaction-based selection of binding site conformations which aims at covering all known ligand-binding geometries. Various experiments highlight that SIENA is able to generate comprehensive and well selected binding site ensembles improving the compatibility to both known and unconsidered ligand molecules. Starting with the whole PDB as data source, the computation time of the whole ensemble generation takes only a few seconds. SIENA is available via a Web service at www.zbh.uni-hamburg.de/siena .

  2. Subcellular distribution of small GTP binding proteins in pancreas: Identification of small GTP binding proteins in the rough endoplasmic reticulum

    SciTech Connect

    Nigam, S.K. )

    1990-02-01

    Subfractionation of a canine pancreatic homogenate was performed by several differential centrifugation steps, which gave rise to fractions with distinct marker profiles. Specific binding of guanosine 5{prime}-({gamma}-({sup 35}S)thio)triphosphate (GTP({gamma}-{sup 35}S)) was assayed in each fraction. Enrichment of GTP({gamma}-{sup 35}S) binding was greatest in the interfacial smooth microsomal fraction, expected to contain Golgi and other smooth vesicles. There was also marked enrichment in the rough microsomal fraction. Electron microscopy and marker protein analysis revealed the rough microsomes (RMs) to be highly purified rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER). The distribution of small (low molecular weight) GTP binding proteins was examined by a ({alpha}-{sup 32}P)GTP blot-overlay assay. Several apparent GTP binding proteins of molecular masses 22-25 kDa were detected in various subcellular fractions. In particular, at least two such proteins were found in the Golgi-enriched and RM fractions, suggesting that these small GTP binding proteins were localized to the Golgi and RER. To more precisely localize these proteins to the RER, native RMs and RMs stripped of ribosomes by puromycin/high salt were subjected to isopycnic centrifugation. The total GTP({gamma}-{sup 35}S) binding, as well as the small GTP binding proteins detected by the ({alpha}-{sup 32}P)GTP blot overlay, distributed into fractions of high sucrose density, as did the RER marker ribophorin I. Consistent with a RER localization, when the RMS were stripped of ribosomes and subjected to isopycnic centrifugation, the total GTP({gamma}-{sup 35}S) binding and the small GTP binding proteins detected in the blot-overlay assay shifted to fractions of lighter sucrose density along with the RER marker.

  3. A Protein Allergen Microarray Detects Specific IgE to Pollen Surface, Cytoplasmic, and Commercial Allergen Extracts

    PubMed Central

    Vigh-Conrad, Katinka A.; Conrad, Donald F.; Preuss, Daphne

    2010-01-01

    Background Current diagnostics for allergies, such as skin prick and radioallergosorbent tests, do not allow for inexpensive, high-throughput screening of patients. Additionally, extracts used in these methods are made from washed pollen that lacks pollen surface materials that may contain allergens. Methodology/Principal Findings We sought to develop a high-throughput assay to rapidly measure allergen-specific IgE in sera and to explore the relative allergenicity of different pollen fractions (i.e. surface, cytoplasmic, commercial extracts). To do this, we generated a protein microarray containing surface, cytoplasmic, and commercial extracts from 22 pollen species, commercial extracts from nine non-pollen allergens, and five recombinant allergenic proteins. Pollen surface and cytoplasmic fractions were prepared by extraction into organic solvents and aqueous buffers, respectively. Arrays were incubated with <25 uL of serum from 176 individuals and bound IgE was detected by indirect immunofluorescence, providing a high-throughput measurement of IgE. We demonstrated that the allergen microarray is a reproducible method to measure allergen-specific IgE in small amounts of sera. Using this tool, we demonstrated that specific IgE clusters according to the phylogeny of the allergen source. We also showed that the pollen surface, which has been largely overlooked in the past, contained potent allergens. Although, as a class, cytoplasmic fractions obtained by our pulverization/precipitation method were comparable to commercial extracts, many individual allergens showed significant differences. Conclusions/Significance These results support the hypothesis that protein microarray technology is a useful tool for both research and in the clinic. It could provide a more efficient and less painful alternative to traditionally used skin prick tests, making it economically feasible to compare allergen sensitivity of different populations, monitor individual responses over time

  4. 21 CFR 866.5765 - Retinol-binding protein immunological test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Retinol-binding protein immunological test system....5765 Retinol-binding protein immunological test system. (a) Identification. A retinol-binding protein... the retinol-binding protein that binds and transports vitamin A in serum and urine. Measurement...

  5. 21 CFR 866.5765 - Retinol-binding protein immunological test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Retinol-binding protein immunological test system....5765 Retinol-binding protein immunological test system. (a) Identification. A retinol-binding protein... the retinol-binding protein that binds and transports vitamin A in serum and urine. Measurement...

  6. 21 CFR 866.5765 - Retinol-binding protein immunological test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Retinol-binding protein immunological test system....5765 Retinol-binding protein immunological test system. (a) Identification. A retinol-binding protein... the retinol-binding protein that binds and transports vitamin A in serum and urine. Measurement...

  7. 21 CFR 866.5765 - Retinol-binding protein immunological test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Retinol-binding protein immunological test system....5765 Retinol-binding protein immunological test system. (a) Identification. A retinol-binding protein... the retinol-binding protein that binds and transports vitamin A in serum and urine. Measurement...

  8. 21 CFR 866.5765 - Retinol-binding protein immunological test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Retinol-binding protein immunological test system....5765 Retinol-binding protein immunological test system. (a) Identification. A retinol-binding protein... the retinol-binding protein that binds and transports vitamin A in serum and urine. Measurement...

  9. Identification of a Highly Conserved Epitope on Avian Influenza Virus Non-Structural Protein 1 Using a Peptide Microarray.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jiashan; Wang, Xiurong; Wen, Xuexia; Bao, Hongmei; Shi, Lin; Tao, Qimeng; Jiang, Yongping; Zeng, Xianying; Xu, Xiaolong; Tian, Guobin; Zheng, Shimin; Chen, Hualan

    2016-01-01

    Avian influenza virus (AIV) non-structural protein 1 (NS1) is a multifunctional protein. It is present at high levels in infected cells and can be used for AIV detection and diagnosis. In this study, we generated monoclonal antibody (MAb) D7 against AIV NS1 protein by immunization of BALB/c mice with purified recombinant NS1 protein expressed in Escherichia coli. Isotype determination revealed that the MAb was IgG1/κ-type subclass. To identify the epitope of the MAb D7, the NS1 protein was truncated into a total of 225 15-mer peptides with 14 amino acid overlaps, which were spotted for a peptide microarray. The results revealed that the MAb D7 recognized the consensus DAPF motif. Furthermore, the AIV NS1 protein with the DAPF motif deletion was transiently expressed in 293T cells and failed to react with MAb D7. Subsequently, the DAPF motif was synthesized with an elongated GSGS linker at both the C- and N-termini. The MAb D7 reacted with the synthesized peptide both in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and dot-blot assays. From these results, we concluded that DAPF motif is the epitope of MAb D7. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a 4-mer epitope on the NS1 protein of AIV that can be recognized by MAb using a peptide microarray, which is able to simplify epitope identification, and that could serve as the basis for immune responses against avian influenza.

  10. Identification of a Highly Conserved Epitope on Avian Influenza Virus Non-Structural Protein 1 Using a Peptide Microarray

    PubMed Central

    Wen, Xuexia; Bao, Hongmei; Shi, Lin; Tao, Qimeng; Jiang, Yongping; Zeng, Xianying; Xu, Xiaolong; Tian, Guobin; Zheng, Shimin; Chen, Hualan

    2016-01-01

    Avian influenza virus (AIV) non-structural protein 1 (NS1) is a multifunctional protein. It is present at high levels in infected cells and can be used for AIV detection and diagnosis. In this study, we generated monoclonal antibody (MAb) D7 against AIV NS1 protein by immunization of BALB/c mice with purified recombinant NS1 protein expressed in Escherichia coli. Isotype determination revealed that the MAb was IgG1/κ-type subclass. To identify the epitope of the MAb D7, the NS1 protein was truncated into a total of 225 15-mer peptides with 14 amino acid overlaps, which were spotted for a peptide microarray. The results revealed that the MAb D7 recognized the consensus DAPF motif. Furthermore, the AIV NS1 protein with the DAPF motif deletion was transiently expressed in 293T cells and failed to react with MAb D7. Subsequently, the DAPF motif was synthesized with an elongated GSGS linker at both the C- and N-termini. The MAb D7 reacted with the synthesized peptide both in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and dot-blot assays. From these results, we concluded that DAPF motif is the epitope of MAb D7. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a 4-mer epitope on the NS1 protein of AIV that can be recognized by MAb using a peptide microarray, which is able to simplify epitope identification, and that could serve as the basis for immune responses against avian influenza. PMID:26938453

  11. Targeting of nucleotide-binding proteins by HAMLET--a conserved tumor cell death mechanism.

    PubMed

    Ho, J C S; Nadeem, A; Rydström, A; Puthia, M; Svanborg, C

    2016-02-18

    HAMLET (Human Alpha-lactalbumin Made LEthal to Tumor cells) kills tumor cells broadly suggesting that conserved survival pathways are perturbed. We now identify nucleotide-binding proteins as HAMLET binding partners, accounting for about 35% of all HAMLET targets in a protein microarray comprising 8000 human proteins. Target kinases were present in all branches of the Kinome tree, including 26 tyrosine kinases, 10 tyrosine kinase-like kinases, 13 homologs of yeast sterile kinases, 4 casein kinase 1 kinases, 15 containing PKA, PKG, PKC family kinases, 15 calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinases and 13 kinases from CDK, MAPK, GSK3, CLK families. HAMLET acted as a broad kinase inhibitor in vitro, as defined in a screen of 347 wild-type, 93 mutant, 19 atypical and 17 lipid kinases. Inhibition of phosphorylation was also detected in extracts from HAMLET-treated lung carcinoma cells. In addition, HAMLET recognized 24 Ras family proteins and bound to Ras, RasL11B and Rap1B on the cytoplasmic face of the plasma membrane. Direct cellular interactions between HAMLET and activated Ras family members including Braf were confirmed by co-immunoprecipitation. As a consequence, oncogenic Ras and Braf activity was inhibited and HAMLET and Braf inhibitors synergistically increased tumor cell death in response to HAMLET. Unlike most small molecule kinase inhibitors, HAMLET showed selectivity for tumor cells in vitro and in vivo. The results identify nucleotide-binding proteins as HAMLET targets and suggest that dysregulation of the ATPase/kinase/GTPase machinery contributes to cell death, following the initial, selective recognition of HAMLET by tumor cells. The findings thus provide a molecular basis for the conserved tumoricidal effect of HAMLET, through dysregulation of kinases and oncogenic GTPases, to which tumor cells are addicted.

  12. Nonstructural 5A Protein of Hepatitis C Virus Regulates Soluble Resistance-Related Calcium-Binding Protein Activity for Viral Propagation

    PubMed Central

    Tran, Giao V. Q.; Luong, Trang T. D.; Park, Eun-Mee; Kim, Jong-Wook; Choi, Jae-Woong; Park, Chorong; Lim, Yun-Sook

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a major cause of chronic liver disease and is highly dependent on cellular proteins for virus propagation. To identify the cellular factors involved in HCV propagation, we recently performed protein microarray assays using the HCV nonstructural 5A (NS5A) protein as a probe. Of 90 cellular protein candidates, we selected the soluble resistance-related calcium-binding protein (sorcin) for further characterization. Sorcin is a calcium-binding protein and is highly expressed in certain cancer cells. We verified that NS5A interacted with sorcin through domain I of NS5A, and phosphorylation of the threonine residue 155 of sorcin played a crucial role in protein interaction. Small interfering RNA (siRNA)-mediated knockdown of sorcin impaired HCV propagation. Silencing of sorcin expression resulted in a decrease of HCV assembly without affecting HCV RNA and protein levels. We further demonstrated that polo-like kinase 1 (PLK1)-mediated phosphorylation of sorcin was increased by NS5A. We showed that both phosphorylation and calcium-binding activity of sorcin were required for HCV propagation. These data indicate that HCV modulates sorcin activity via NS5A protein for its own propagation. IMPORTANCE Sorcin is a calcium-binding protein and regulates intracellular calcium homeostasis. HCV NS5A interacts with sorcin, and phosphorylation of sorcin is required for protein interaction. Gene silencing of sorcin impaired HCV propagation at the assembly step of the HCV life cycle. Sorcin is phosphorylated by PLK1 via protein interaction. We showed that sorcin interacted with both NS5A and PLK1, and PLK1-mediated phosphorylation of sorcin was increased by NS5A. Moreover, calcium-binding activity of sorcin played a crucial role in HCV propagation. These data provide evidence that HCV regulates host calcium metabolism for virus propagation, and thus manipulation of sorcin activity may represent a novel therapeutic target for HCV. PMID:26719254

  13. Protein-DNA binding in high-resolution

    PubMed Central

    Mahony, Shaun; Pugh, B. Franklin

    2015-01-01

    Recent advances in experimental and computational methodologies are enabling ultra-high resolution genome-wide profiles of protein-DNA binding events. For example, the ChIP-exo protocol precisely characterizes protein-DNA crosslinking patterns by combining chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) with 5′ → 3′ exonuclease digestion. Similarly, deeply sequenced chromatin accessibility assays (e.g. DNase-seq and ATACseq) enable the detection of protected footprints at protein-DNA binding sites. With these techniques and others, we have the potential to characterize the individual nucleotides that interact with transcription factors, nucleosomes, RNA polymerases, and other regulatory proteins in a particular cellular context. In this review, we explain the experimental assays and computational analysis methods that enable high-resolution profiling of protein-DNA binding events. We discuss the challenges and opportunities associated with such approaches. PMID:26038153

  14. Discovery and validation of an INflammatory PROtein-driven GAstric cancer Signature (INPROGAS) using antibody microarray-based oncoproteomics

    PubMed Central

    Puig-Costa, Manuel; Codina-Cazador, Antonio; Cortés-Pastoret, Elisabet; Oliveras-Ferraros, Cristina; Cufí, Sílvia; Flaquer, Sílvia; Llopis-Puigmarti, Francesca; Pujol-Amado, Eulalia; Corominas-Faja, Bruna; Cuyàs, Elisabet; Ortiz, Rosa; Lopez-Bonet, Eugeni; Queralt, Bernardo; Guardeño, Raquel; Martin-Castillo, Begoña; Roig, Josep; Joven, Jorge; Menendez, Javier A.

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to improve gastric cancer (GC) diagnosis by identifying and validating an INflammatory PROtein-driven GAstric cancer Signature (hereafter INPROGAS) using low-cost affinity proteomics. The detection of 120 cytokines, 43 angiogenic factors, 41 growth factors, 40 inflammatory factors and 10 metalloproteinases was performed using commercially available human antibody microarray-based arrays. We identified 21 inflammation-related proteins (INPROGAS) with significant differences in expression between GC tissues and normal gastric mucosa in a discovery cohort of matched pairs (n=10) of tumor/normal gastric tissues. Ingenuity pathway analysis confirmed the “inflammatory response”, “cellular movement” and “immune cell trafficking” as the most overrepresented biofunctions within INPROGAS. Using an expanded independent validation cohort (n = 22), INPROGAS classified gastric samples as “GC” or “non-GC” with a sensitivity of 82% (95% CI 59-94) and a specificity of 73% (95% CI 49-89). The positive predictive value and negative predictive value in this validation cohort were 75% (95% CI 53-90) and 80% (95% CI 56-94), respectively. The positive predictive value and negative predictive value in this validation cohort were 75% (95% CI 53-90) and 80% (95% CI 56-94), respectively. Antibody microarray analyses of the GC-associated inflammatory proteome identified a 21-protein INPROGAS that accurately discriminated GC from noncancerous gastric mucosa. PMID:24722433

  15. Differential expression of extracellular matrix proteins in senescent and young human fibroblasts: a comparative proteomics and microarray study.

    PubMed

    Yang, Kyeong Eun; Kwon, Joseph; Rhim, Ji-Heon; Choi, Jong Soon; Kim, Seung Il; Lee, Seung-Hoon; Park, Junsoo; Jang, Ik-Soon

    2011-07-01

    The extracellular matrix (ECM) provides an essential structural framework for cell attachment, proliferation, and differentiation, and undergoes progressive changes during senescence. To investigate changes in protein expression in the extracellular matrix between young and senescent fibroblasts, we compared proteomic data (LTQ-FT) with cDNA microarray results. The peptide counts from the proteomics analysis were used to evaluate the level of ECM protein expression by young cells and senescent cells, and ECM protein expression data were compared with the microarray data. After completing the comparative analysis, we grouped the genes into four categories. Class I included genes with increased expression levels in both analyses, while class IV contained genes with reduced expression in both analyses. Class II and Class III contained genes with an inconsistent expression pattern. Finally, we validated the comparative analysis results by examining the expression level of the specific gene from each category using Western blot analysis and semiquantitative RT-PCR. Our results demonstrate that comparative analysis can be used to identify differentially expressed genes.

  16. A Conserved Myc Protein Domain, MBIV, Regulates DNA Binding, Apoptosis, Transformation, and G2 Arrest†

    PubMed Central

    Cowling, Victoria H.; Chandriani, Sanjay; Whitfield, Michael L.; Cole, Michael D.

    2006-01-01

    The myc family of oncogenes is well conserved throughout evolution. Here we present the characterization of a domain conserved in c-, N-, and L-Myc from fish to humans, N-Myc317-337, designated Myc box IV (MBIV). A deletion of this domain leads to a defect in Myc-induced apoptosis and in some transformation assays but not in cell proliferation. Unlike other Myc mutants, MycΔMBIV is not a simple loss-of-function mutant because it is hyperactive for G2 arrest in primary cells. Microarray analysis of genes regulated by N-MycΔMBIV reveals that it is weakened for transactivation and repression but not nearly as defective as N-MycΔMBII. Although the mutated region is not part of the previously defined DNA binding domain, we find that N-MycΔMBIV has a significantly lower affinity for DNA than the wild-type protein in vitro. Furthermore, chromatin immunoprecipitation shows reduced binding of N-MycΔMBIV to some target genes in vivo, which correlates with the defect in transactivation. Thus, this conserved domain has an unexpected role in Myc DNA binding activity. These data also provide a novel separation of Myc functions linked to the modulation of DNA binding activity. PMID:16705173

  17. Discodermolide interferes with the binding of tau protein to microtubules.

    PubMed

    Kar, Santwana; Florence, Gordon J; Paterson, Ian; Amos, Linda A

    2003-03-27

    We investigated whether discodermolide, a novel antimitotic agent, affects the binding to microtubules of tau protein repeat motifs. Like taxol, the new drug reduces the proportion of tau that pellets with microtubules. Despite their differing structures, discodermolide, taxol and tau repeats all bind to a site on beta-tubulin that lies within the microtubule lumen and is crucial in controlling microtubule assembly. Low concentrations of tau still bind strongly to the outer surfaces of preformed microtubules when the acidic C-terminal regions of at least six tubulin dimers are available for interaction with each tau molecule; otherwise binding is very weak.

  18. Pulmonary surfactant protein A (SP-A) specifically binds dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine

    SciTech Connect

    Kuroki, Y.; Akino, T. )

    1991-02-15

    Phospholipids are the major components of pulmonary surfactant. Dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine is believed to be especially essential for the surfactant function of reducing the surface tension at the air-liquid interface. Surfactant protein A (SP-A) with a reduced denatured molecular mass of 26-38 kDa, characterized by a collagen-like structure and N-linked glycosylation, interacts strongly with a mixture of surfactant-like phospholipids. In the present study the direct binding of SP-A to phospholipids on a thin layer chromatogram was visualized using 125I-SP-A as a probe, so that the phospholipid specificities of SP-A binding and the structural requirements of SP-A and phospholipids for the binding could be examined. Although 125I-SP-A bound phosphatidylcholine and sphingomyeline, it was especially strong in binding dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine, but failed to bind phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylinositol, phosphatidylethanolamine, and phosphatidylserine. Labeled SP-A also exhibited strong binding to distearoylphosphatidylcholine, but weak binding to dimyristoyl-, 1-palmitoyl-2-linoleoyl-, and dilinoleoylphosphatidylcholine. Unlabeled SP-A readily competed with labeled SP-A for phospholipid binding. SP-A strongly bound dipalmitoylglycerol produced by phospholipase C treatment of dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine, but not palmitic acid. This protein also failed to bind lysophosphatidylcholine produced by phospholipase A2 treatment of dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine. 125I-SP-A shows almost no binding to dipalmitoylphosphatidylglycerol and dipalmitoylphosphatidylethanolamine. The addition of 10 mM EGTA into the binding buffer reduced much of the 125I-SP-A binding to phospholipids. Excess deglycosylated SP-A competed with labeled SP-A for binding to dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine, but the excess collagenase-resistant fragment of SP-A failed.

  19. Wild-Type p53 Binds to the TATA-Binding Protein and Represses Transcription

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seto, Edward; Usheva, Anny; Zambetti, Gerard P.; Momand, Jamil; Horikoshi, Nobuo; Weinmann, Roberto; Levine, Arnold J.; Shenk, Thomas

    1992-12-01

    p53 activates transcription of genes with a p53 response element, and it can repress genes lacking the element. Here we demonstrate that wild-type but not mutant p53 inhibits transcription in a HeLa nuclear extract from minimal promoters. Wild-type but not mutant p53 binds to human TATA-binding protein (TBP). p53 does not bind to yeast TBP, and it cannot inhibit transcription in a HeLa extract where yeast TBP substitutes for human TBP. These results suggest a model in which p53 binds to TBP and interferes with transcriptional initiation.

  20. Binding Mechanisms of Intrinsically Disordered Proteins: Theory, Simulation, and Experiment.

    PubMed

    Mollica, Luca; Bessa, Luiza M; Hanoulle, Xavier; Jensen, Malene Ringkjøbing; Blackledge, Martin; Schneider, Robert

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, protein science has been revolutionized by the discovery of intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs). In contrast to the classical paradigm that a given protein sequence corresponds to a defined structure and an associated function, we now know that proteins can be functional in the absence of a stable three-dimensional structure. In many cases, disordered proteins or protein regions become structured, at least locally, upon interacting with their physiological partners. Many, sometimes conflicting, hypotheses have been put forward regarding the interaction mechanisms of IDPs and the potential advantages of disorder for protein-protein interactions. Whether disorder may increase, as proposed, e.g., in the "fly-casting" hypothesis, or decrease binding rates, increase or decrease binding specificity, or what role pre-formed structure might play in interactions involving IDPs (conformational selection vs. induced fit), are subjects of intense debate. Experimentally, these questions remain difficult to address. Here, we review experimental studies of binding mechanisms of IDPs using NMR spectroscopy and transient kinetic techniques, as well as the underlying theoretical concepts and numerical methods that can be applied to describe these interactions at the atomic level. The available literature suggests that the kinetic and thermodynamic parameters characterizing interactions involving IDPs can vary widely and that there may be no single common mechanism that can explain the different binding modes observed experimentally. Rather, disordered proteins appear to make combined use of features such as pre-formed structure and flexibility, depending on the individual system and the functional context.

  1. Binding Mechanisms of Intrinsically Disordered Proteins: Theory, Simulation, and Experiment

    PubMed Central

    Mollica, Luca; Bessa, Luiza M.; Hanoulle, Xavier; Jensen, Malene Ringkjøbing; Blackledge, Martin; Schneider, Robert

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, protein science has been revolutionized by the discovery of intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs). In contrast to the classical paradigm that a given protein sequence corresponds to a defined structure and an associated function, we now know that proteins can be functional in the absence of a stable three-dimensional structure. In many cases, disordered proteins or protein regions become structured, at least locally, upon interacting with their physiological partners. Many, sometimes conflicting, hypotheses have been put forward regarding the interaction mechanisms of IDPs and the potential advantages of disorder for protein-protein interactions. Whether disorder may increase, as proposed, e.g., in the “fly-casting” hypothesis, or decrease binding rates, increase or decrease binding specificity, or what role pre-formed structure might play in interactions involving IDPs (conformational selection vs. induced fit), are subjects of intense debate. Experimentally, these questions remain difficult to address. Here, we review experimental studies of binding mechanisms of IDPs using NMR spectroscopy and transient kinetic techniques, as well as the underlying theoretical concepts and numerical methods that can be applied to describe these interactions at the atomic level. The available literature suggests that the kinetic and thermodynamic parameters characterizing interactions involving IDPs can vary widely and that there may be no single common mechanism that can explain the different binding modes observed experimentally. Rather, disordered proteins appear to make combined use of features such as pre-formed structure and flexibility, depending on the individual system and the functional context. PMID:27668217

  2. Binding Mechanisms of Intrinsically Disordered Proteins: Theory, Simulation, and Experiment.

    PubMed

    Mollica, Luca; Bessa, Luiza M; Hanoulle, Xavier; Jensen, Malene Ringkjøbing; Blackledge, Martin; Schneider, Robert

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, protein science has been revolutionized by the discovery of intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs). In contrast to the classical paradigm that a given protein sequence corresponds to a defined structure and an associated function, we now know that proteins can be functional in the absence of a stable three-dimensional structure. In many cases, disordered proteins or protein regions become structured, at least locally, upon interacting with their physiological partners. Many, sometimes conflicting, hypotheses have been put forward regarding the interaction mechanisms of IDPs and the potential advantages of disorder for protein-protein interactions. Whether disorder may increase, as proposed, e.g., in the "fly-casting" hypothesis, or decrease binding rates, increase or decrease binding specificity, or what role pre-formed structure might play in interactions involving IDPs (conformational selection vs. induced fit), are subjects of intense debate. Experimentally, these questions remain difficult to address. Here, we review experimental studies of binding mechanisms of IDPs using NMR spectroscopy and transient kinetic techniques, as well as the underlying theoretical concepts and numerical methods that can be applied to describe these interactions at the atomic level. The available literature suggests that the kinetic and thermodynamic parameters characterizing interactions involving IDPs can vary widely and that there may be no single common mechanism that can explain the different binding modes observed experimentally. Rather, disordered proteins appear to make combined use of features such as pre-formed structure and flexibility, depending on the individual system and the functional context. PMID:27668217

  3. Binding Mechanisms of Intrinsically Disordered Proteins: Theory, Simulation, and Experiment

    PubMed Central

    Mollica, Luca; Bessa, Luiza M.; Hanoulle, Xavier; Jensen, Malene Ringkjøbing; Blackledge, Martin; Schneider, Robert

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, protein science has been revolutionized by the discovery of intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs). In contrast to the classical paradigm that a given protein sequence corresponds to a defined structure and an associated function, we now know that proteins can be functional in the absence of a stable three-dimensional structure. In many cases, disordered proteins or protein regions become structured, at least locally, upon interacting with their physiological partners. Many, sometimes conflicting, hypotheses have been put forward regarding the interaction mechanisms of IDPs and the potential advantages of disorder for protein-protein interactions. Whether disorder may increase, as proposed, e.g., in the “fly-casting” hypothesis, or decrease binding rates, increase or decrease binding specificity, or what role pre-formed structure might play in interactions involving IDPs (conformational selection vs. induced fit), are subjects of intense debate. Experimentally, these questions remain difficult to address. Here, we review experimental studies of binding mechanisms of IDPs using NMR spectroscopy and transient kinetic techniques, as well as the underlying theoretical concepts and numerical methods that can be applied to describe these interactions at the atomic level. The available literature suggests that the kinetic and thermodynamic parameters characterizing interactions involving IDPs can vary widely and that there may be no single common mechanism that can explain the different binding modes observed experimentally. Rather, disordered proteins appear to make combined use of features such as pre-formed structure and flexibility, depending on the individual system and the functional context.

  4. Binding of complement inhibitor C4b-binding protein to a highly virulent Streptococcus pyogenes M1 strain is mediated by protein H and enhances adhesion to and invasion of endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Ermert, David; Weckel, Antonin; Agarwal, Vaibhav; Frick, Inga-Maria; Björck, Lars; Blom, Anna M

    2013-11-01

    Streptococcus pyogenes AP1, a strain of the highly virulent M1 serotype, uses exclusively protein H to bind the complement inhibitor C4b-binding protein (C4BP). We found a strong correlation between the ability of AP1 and its isogenic mutants lacking protein H to inhibit opsonization with complement C3b and binding of C4BP. C4BP bound to immobilized protein H or AP1 bacteria retained its cofactor activity for degradation of (125)I-C4b. Furthermore, C4b deposited from serum onto AP1 bacterial surfaces was processed into C4c/C4d fragments, which did not occur on strains unable to bind C4BP. Recombinant C4BP mutants, which (i) lack certain CCP domains or (ii) have mutations in single aa as well as (iii) mutants with additional aa between different CCP domains were used to determine that the binding is mainly mediated by a patch of positively charged amino acid residues at the interface of domains CCP1 and CCP2. Using recombinant protein H fragments, we narrowed down the binding site to the N-terminal domain A. With a peptide microarray, we identified one single 18-amino acid-long peptide comprising residues 92-109, which specifically bound C4BP. Biacore was used to determine KD = 6 × 10(-7) M between protein H and a single subunit of C4BP. C4BP binding also correlated with elevated levels of adhesion and invasion to endothelial cells. Taken together, we identified the molecular basis of C4BP-protein H interaction and found that it is not only important for decreased opsonization but also for invasion of endothelial cells by S. pyogenes.

  5. GTP-binding proteins in rat liver nuclear envelopes.

    PubMed Central

    Rubins, J B; Benditt, J O; Dickey, B F; Riedel, N

    1990-01-01

    Nuclear transport as well as reassembly of the nuclear envelope (NE) after completion of mitosis are processes that have been shown to require GTP and ATP. To study the presence and localization of GTP-binding proteins in the NE, we have combined complementary techniques of [alpha-32P]GTP binding to Western-blotted proteins and UV crosslinking of [alpha-32P]GTP with well-established procedures for NE subfractionation. GTP binding to blotted NE proteins revealed five low molecular mass GTP-binding proteins of 26, 25, 24.5, 24, and 23 kDa, and [alpha-32P]GTP photoaffinity labeling revealed major proteins with apparent molecular masses of 140, 53, 47, 33, and 31 kDa. All GTP-binding proteins appear to localize preferentially to the inner nuclear membrane, possibly to the interface between inner nuclear membrane and lamina. Despite the evolutionary conservation between the NE and the rough endoplasmic reticulum, the GTP-binding proteins identified differed between these two compartments. Most notably, the 68- and 30-kDa GTP-binding subunits of the signal recognition particle receptor, which photolabeled with [alpha-32P]GTP in the rough endoplasmic reticulum fraction, were totally excluded from the NE fraction. Conversely, a major 53-kDa photolabeled protein in the NE was absent from rough endoplasmic reticulum. Whereas Western-blotted NE proteins bound GTP specifically, all [alpha-32P]GTP photolabeled proteins could be blocked by competition with ATP, although with a competition profile that differed from that obtained with GTP. In comparative crosslinking studies with [alpha-32P]ATP, we have identified three specific ATP-binding proteins with molecular masses of 160, 78, and 74 kDa. The localization of GTP- and ATP-binding proteins within the NE appears appropriate for their involvement in nuclear transport and in the GTP-dependent fusion of nuclear membrane vesicles required for reassembly of the nucleus after mitosis. Images PMID:2119502

  6. Structural Perspectives on the Evolutionary Expansion of Unique Protein-Protein Binding Sites.

    PubMed

    Goncearenco, Alexander; Shaytan, Alexey K; Shoemaker, Benjamin A; Panchenko, Anna R

    2015-09-15

    Structures of protein complexes provide atomistic insights into protein interactions. Human proteins represent a quarter of all structures in the Protein Data Bank; however, available protein complexes cover less than 10% of the human proteome. Although it is theoretically possible to infer interactions in human proteins based on structures of homologous protein complexes, it is still unclear to what extent protein interactions and binding sites are conserved, and whether protein complexes from remotely related species can be used to infer interactions and binding sites. We considered biological units of protein complexes and clustered protein-protein binding sites into similarity groups based on their structure and sequence, which allowed us to identify unique binding sites. We showed that the growth rate of the number of unique binding sites in the Protein Data Bank was much slower than the growth rate of the number of structural complexes. Next, we investigated the evolutionary roots of unique binding sites and identified the major phyletic branches with the largest expansion in the number of novel binding sites. We found that many binding sites could be traced to the universal common ancestor of all cellular organisms, whereas relatively few binding sites emerged at the major evolutionary branching points. We analyzed the physicochemical properties of unique binding sites and found that the most ancient sites were the largest in size, involved many salt bridges, and were the most compact and least planar. In contrast, binding sites that appeared more recently in the evolution of eukaryotes were characterized by a larger fraction of polar and aromatic residues, and were less compact and more planar, possibly due to their more transient nature and roles in signaling processes.

  7. Metal-binding proteins as metal pollution indicators

    SciTech Connect

    Hennig, H.F.

    1986-03-01

    The fact that metal-binding proteins are a consequence of elevated metal concentration in organisms is well known. What has been overlooked is that the presence of these proteins provides a unique opportunity to reformulate the criteria of metal pollution. The detoxification effect of metal-binding proteins in animals from polluted areas has been cited, but there have been only very few studies relating metal-binding proteins to pollution. This lack is due partly to the design of most experiments, which were aimed at isolation of metal-binding proteins and hence were of too short duration to allow for correlation to adverse physiological effects on the organism. In this study metal-binding proteins were isolated and characterized from five different marine animals (rock lobster, Jasus lalandii; hermit crab, Diogenes brevirostris; sandshrimp, Palaemon pacificus; black mussel, Choromytilus meridionalis; and limpet, Patella granularis). These animals were kept under identical metal-enriched conditions, hence eliminating differences in method and seasons. The study animals belonged to different phyla; varied in size, mass, age, behavior, food requirements and life stages; and accumulated metals at different rates. It is possible to link unseasonal moulting in crustacea, a known physiological effect due to a metal-enriched environment, to the production of the metal-binding protein without evidence of obvious metal body burden. Thus a new concept of pollution is defined: the presence of metal-binding proteins confirms toxic metal pollution. This concept was then tested under field conditions in the whelk Bullia digitalis and in metal-enriched grass.

  8. Review: the liver bile acid-binding proteins.

    PubMed

    Monaco, Hugo L

    2009-12-01

    The liver bile acid-binding proteins, L-BABPs, formerly called the liver "basic" fatty acid-binding proteins, are a subfamily of the fatty acid-binding proteins, FABPs. All the members of this protein group share the same fold: a 10 stranded beta barrel in which two short helices are inserted in between the first and the second strand of antiparallel beta sheet. The barrel encloses the ligand binding cavity of the protein while the two helices are believed to be involved in ligand accessibility to the binding site. The L-BABP subfamily has been found to be present in the liver of several vertebrates: fish, amphibians, reptiles, and birds but not in mammals. The members of the FABP family present in mammals that appear to be more closely related to the L-BABPs are the liver FABPs and the ileal BABPs, both very extensively studied. Several L-BABP X-ray structures are available and chicken L-BABP has also been studied using NMR spectroscopy. The stoichiometry of ligand binding for bile acids, first determined by X-ray crystallography for the chicken liver protein, is of two cholates per protein molecule with the only exception of zebrafish L-BABP which, due to the presence of a disulfide bridge, has a stoichiometry of 1:1. The stoichiometry of ligand binding for fatty acids, determined with several different techniques, is 1:1. An unanswered question of great relevance is the identity of the protein that in mammals performs the function that in other vertebrates is carried out by the L-BABPS.

  9. Using evolutionary and structural information to predict DNA-binding sites on DNA-binding proteins.

    PubMed

    Kuznetsov, Igor B; Gou, Zhenkun; Li, Run; Hwang, Seungwoo

    2006-07-01

    Proteins that interact with DNA are involved in a number of fundamental biological activities such as DNA replication, transcription, and repair. A reliable identification of DNA-binding sites in DNA-binding proteins is important for functional annotation, site-directed mutagenesis, and modeling protein-DNA interactions. We apply Support Vector Machine (SVM), a supervised pattern recognition method, to predict DNA-binding sites in DNA-binding proteins using the following features: amino acid sequence, profile of evolutionary conservation of sequence positions, and low-resolution structural information. We use a rigorous statistical approach to study the performance of predictors that utilize different combinations of features and how this performance is affected by structural and sequence properties of proteins. Our results indicate that an SVM predictor based on a properly scaled profile of evolutionary conservation in the form of a position specific scoring matrix (PSSM) significantly outperforms a PSSM-based neural network predictor. The highest accuracy is achieved by SVM predictor that combines the profile of evolutionary conservation with low-resolution structural information. Our results also show that knowledge-based predictors of DNA-binding sites perform significantly better on proteins from mainly-alpha structural class and that the performance of these predictors is significantly correlated with certain structural and sequence properties of proteins. These observations suggest that it may be possible to assign a reliability index to the overall accuracy of the prediction of DNA-binding sites in any given protein using its sequence and structural properties. A web-server implementation of the predictors is freely available online at http://lcg.rit.albany.edu/dp-bind/.

  10. Detecting O2 binding sites in protein cavities

    PubMed Central

    Kitahara, Ryo; Yoshimura, Yuichi; Xue, Mengjun; Kameda, Tomoshi; Mulder, Frans A. A.

    2016-01-01

    Internal cavities are important elements in protein structure, dynamics, stability and function. Here we use NMR spectroscopy to investigate the binding of molecular oxygen (O2) to cavities in a well-studied model for ligand binding, the L99A mutant of T4 lysozyme. On increasing the O2 concentration to 8.9 mM, changes in 1H, 15N, and 13C chemical shifts and signal broadening were observed specifically for backbone amide and side chain methyl groups located around the two hydrophobic cavities of the protein. O2-induced longitudinal relaxation enhancements for amide and methyl protons could be adequately accounted for by paramagnetic dipolar relaxation. These data provide the first experimental demonstration that O2 binds specifically to the hydrophobic, and not the hydrophilic cavities, in a protein. Molecular dynamics simulations visualized the rotational and translational motions of O2 in the cavities, as well as the binding and egress of O2, suggesting that the channel consisting of helices D, E, G, H, and J could be the potential gateway for ligand binding to the protein. Due to strong paramagnetic relaxation effects, O2 gas-pressure NMR measurements can detect hydrophobic cavities when populated to as little as 1%, and thereby provide a general and highly sensitive method for detecting oxygen binding in proteins. PMID:26830762

  11. Binding profile of spiramycin to oviducal proteins of laying hens.

    PubMed

    Furusawa, N

    2000-12-01

    In vitro protein binding of spiramycin (SP) in the plasma and oviducts of laying hens was studied. The data for SP were compared with those for oxytetracycline (OTC), sulphadimidine (SDD), sulphamonomethoxine (SMM) and sulphaquinoxaline (SQ). The two oviduct segments, magnum (M) and isthmus plus shell gland (IS), were collected. The soluble (cell sap) fractions from the magnum (M-S9) and the isthmus plus shell gland (IS-S9) were used as samples. Plasma protein binding was highest for SQ (81.4%) (P < 0.01), and lowest for SDD (30.9%) (P < 0.01). No M-S9 protein binding of OTC was found. The IS-S9 protein binding of SP (60.4%) was very much higher than those of OTC (0.8%), SDD (4.1%), SMM (4.0%) and SQ (12.3%) (P < 0.01). Biological half-lives of these drugs in egg albumen were directly correlated to the extent of their binding to IS proteins. Of plasma, M-S9 and IS-S9, variation in SP concentration in the ranges from 1 to 20 micrograms/ml did not alter the binding properties of the drug. PMID:11199206

  12. Preoperative overnight parenteral nutrition (TPN) improves skeletal muscle protein metabolism indicated by microarray algorithm analyses in a randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Iresjö, Britt-Marie; Engström, Cecilia; Lundholm, Kent

    2016-06-01

    Loss of muscle mass is associated with increased risk of morbidity and mortality in hospitalized patients. Uncertainties of treatment efficiency by short-term artificial nutrition remain, specifically improvement of protein balance in skeletal muscles. In this study, algorithmic microarray analysis was applied to map cellular changes related to muscle protein metabolism in human skeletal muscle tissue during provision of overnight preoperative total parenteral nutrition (TPN). Twenty-two patients (11/group) scheduled for upper GI surgery due to malignant or benign disease received a continuous peripheral all-in-one TPN infusion (30 kcal/kg/day, 0.16 gN/kg/day) or saline infusion for 12 h prior operation. Biopsies from the rectus abdominis muscle were taken at the start of operation for isolation of muscle RNA RNA expression microarray analyses were performed with Agilent Sureprint G3, 8 × 60K arrays using one-color labeling. 447 mRNAs were differently expressed between study and control patients (P < 0.1). mRNAs related to ribosomal biogenesis, mRNA processing, and translation were upregulated during overnight nutrition; particularly anabolic signaling S6K1 (P < 0.01-0.1). Transcripts of genes associated with lysosomal degradation showed consistently lower expression during TPN while mRNAs for ubiquitin-mediated degradation of proteins as well as transcripts related to intracellular signaling pathways, PI3 kinase/MAPkinase, were either increased or decreased. In conclusion, muscle mRNA alterations during overnight standard TPN infusions at constant rate altered mRNAs associated with mTOR signaling; increased initiation of protein translation; and suppressed autophagy/lysosomal degradation of proteins. This indicates that overnight preoperative parenteral nutrition is effective to promote muscle protein metabolism. PMID:27273879

  13. Preoperative overnight parenteral nutrition (TPN) improves skeletal muscle protein metabolism indicated by microarray algorithm analyses in a randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Iresjö, Britt-Marie; Engström, Cecilia; Lundholm, Kent

    2016-06-01

    Loss of muscle mass is associated with increased risk of morbidity and mortality in hospitalized patients. Uncertainties of treatment efficiency by short-term artificial nutrition remain, specifically improvement of protein balance in skeletal muscles. In this study, algorithmic microarray analysis was applied to map cellular changes related to muscle protein metabolism in human skeletal muscle tissue during provision of overnight preoperative total parenteral nutrition (TPN). Twenty-two patients (11/group) scheduled for upper GI surgery due to malignant or benign disease received a continuous peripheral all-in-one TPN infusion (30 kcal/kg/day, 0.16 gN/kg/day) or saline infusion for 12 h prior operation. Biopsies from the rectus abdominis muscle were taken at the start of operation for isolation of muscle RNA RNA expression microarray analyses were performed with Agilent Sureprint G3, 8 × 60K arrays using one-color labeling. 447 mRNAs were differently expressed between study and control patients (P < 0.1). mRNAs related to ribosomal biogenesis, mRNA processing, and translation were upregulated during overnight nutrition; particularly anabolic signaling S6K1 (P < 0.01-0.1). Transcripts of genes associated with lysosomal degradation showed consistently lower expression during TPN while mRNAs for ubiquitin-mediated degradation of proteins as well as transcripts related to intracellular signaling pathways, PI3 kinase/MAPkinase, were either increased or decreased. In conclusion, muscle mRNA alterations during overnight standard TPN infusions at constant rate altered mRNAs associated with mTOR signaling; increased initiation of protein translation; and suppressed autophagy/lysosomal degradation of proteins. This indicates that overnight preoperative parenteral nutrition is effective to promote muscle protein metabolism.

  14. Perturbation Approaches for Exploring Protein Binding Site Flexibility to Predict Transient Binding Pockets.

    PubMed

    Kokh, Daria B; Czodrowski, Paul; Rippmann, Friedrich; Wade, Rebecca C

    2016-08-01

    Simulations of the long-time scale motions of a ligand binding pocket in a protein may open up new perspectives for the design of compounds with steric or chemical properties differing from those of known binders. However, slow motions of proteins are difficult to access using standard molecular dynamics (MD) simulations and are thus usually neglected in computational drug design. Here, we introduce two nonequilibrium MD approaches to identify conformational changes of a binding site and detect transient pockets associated with these motions. The methods proposed are based on the rotamerically induced perturbation (RIP) MD approach, which employs perturbation of side-chain torsional motion for initiating large-scale protein movement. The first approach, Langevin-RIP (L-RIP), entails a series of short Langevin MD simulations, each starting with perturbation of one of the side-chains lining the binding site of interest. L-RIP provides extensive sampling of conformational changes of the binding site. In less than 1 ns of MD simulation with L-RIP, we observed distortions of the α-helix in the ATP binding site of HSP90 and flipping of the DFG loop in Src kinase. In the second approach, RIPlig, a perturbation is applied to a pseudoligand placed in different parts of a binding pocket, which enables flexible regions of the binding site to be identified in a small number of 10 ps MD simulations. The methods were evaluated for four test proteins displaying different types and degrees of binding site flexibility. Both methods reveal all transient pocket regions in less than a total of 10 ns of simulations, even though many of these regions remained closed in 100 ns conventional MD. The proposed methods provide computationally efficient tools to explore binding site flexibility and can aid in the functional characterization of protein pockets, and the identification of transient pockets for ligand design. PMID:27399277

  15. Perturbation Approaches for Exploring Protein Binding Site Flexibility to Predict Transient Binding Pockets.

    PubMed

    Kokh, Daria B; Czodrowski, Paul; Rippmann, Friedrich; Wade, Rebecca C

    2016-08-01

    Simulations of the long-time scale motions of a ligand binding pocket in a protein may open up new perspectives for the design of compounds with steric or chemical properties differing from those of known binders. However, slow motions of proteins are difficult to access using standard molecular dynamics (MD) simulations and are thus usually neglected in computational drug design. Here, we introduce two nonequilibrium MD approaches to identify conformational changes of a binding site and detect transient pockets associated with these motions. The methods proposed are based on the rotamerically induced perturbation (RIP) MD approach, which employs perturbation of side-chain torsional motion for initiating large-scale protein movement. The first approach, Langevin-RIP (L-RIP), entails a series of short Langevin MD simulations, each starting with perturbation of one of the side-chains lining the binding site of interest. L-RIP provides extensive sampling of conformational changes of the binding site. In less than 1 ns of MD simulation with L-RIP, we observed distortions of the α-helix in the ATP binding site of HSP90 and flipping of the DFG loop in Src kinase. In the second approach, RIPlig, a perturbation is applied to a pseudoligand placed in different parts of a binding pocket, which enables flexible regions of the binding site to be identified in a small number of 10 ps MD simulations. The methods were evaluated for four test proteins displaying different types and degrees of binding site flexibility. Both methods reveal all transient pocket regions in less than a total of 10 ns of simulations, even though many of these regions remained closed in 100 ns conventional MD. The proposed methods provide computationally efficient tools to explore binding site flexibility and can aid in the functional characterization of protein pockets, and the identification of transient pockets for ligand design.

  16. Assessing Energetic Contributions to Binding from a Disordered Region in a Protein-Protein Interaction

    SciTech Connect

    S Cho; C Swaminathan; D Bonsor; M Kerzic; R Guan; J Yang; C Kieke; P Anderson; D Kranz; et al.

    2011-12-31

    Many functional proteins are at least partially disordered prior to binding. Although the structural transitions upon binding of disordered protein regions can influence the affinity and specificity of protein complexes, their precise energetic contributions to binding are unknown. Here, we use a model protein-protein interaction system in which a locally disordered region has been modified by directed evolution to quantitatively assess the thermodynamic and structural contributions to binding of disorder-to-order transitions. Through X-ray structure determination of the protein binding partners before and after complex formation and isothermal titration calorimetry of the interactions, we observe a correlation between protein ordering and binding affinity for complexes along this affinity maturation pathway. Additionally, we show that discrepancies between observed and calculated heat capacities based on buried surface area changes in the protein complexes can be explained largely by heat capacity changes that would result solely from folding the locally disordered region. Previously developed algorithms for predicting binding energies of protein-protein interactions, however, are unable to correctly model the energetic contributions of the structural transitions in our model system. While this highlights the shortcomings of current computational methods in modeling conformational flexibility, it suggests that the experimental methods used here could provide training sets of molecular interactions for improving these algorithms and further rationalizing molecular recognition in protein-protein interactions.

  17. TALE proteins bind to both active and inactive chromatin.

    PubMed

    Scott, James N F; Kupinski, Adam P; Kirkham, Christopher M; Tuma, Roman; Boyes, Joan

    2014-02-15

    TALE (transcription activator-like effector) proteins can be tailored to bind to any DNA sequence of choice and thus are of immense utility for genome editing and the specific delivery of transcription activators. However, to perform these functions, they need to occupy their sites in chromatin. In the present study, we have systematically assessed TALE binding to chromatin substrates and find that in vitro TALEs bind to their target site on nucleosomes at the more accessible entry/exit sites, but not at the nucleosome dyad. We show further that in vivo TALEs bind to transcriptionally repressed chromatin and that transcription increases binding by only 2-fold. These data therefore imply that TALEs are likely to bind to their target in vivo even at inactive loci.

  18. cDNA Microarrays as a Tool for Identification of Biomineralization Proteins in the Coccolithophorid Emiliania huxleyi (Haptophyta)

    PubMed Central

    Quinn, Patrick; Bowers, Robert M.; Zhang, Xiaoyu; Wahlund, Thomas M.; Fanelli, Michael A.; Olszova, Daniela; Read, Betsy A.

    2006-01-01

    Marine unicellular coccolithophore algae produce species-specific calcite scales otherwise known as coccoliths. While the coccoliths and their elaborate architecture have attracted the attention of investigators from various scientific disciplines, our knowledge of the underpinnings of the process of biomineralization in this alga is still in its infancy. The processes of calcification and coccolithogenesis are highly regulated and likely to be complex, requiring coordinated expression of many genes and pathways. In this study, we have employed cDNA microarrays to investigate changes in gene expression associated with biomineralization in the most abundant coccolithophorid, Emiliania huxleyi. Expression profiling of cultures grown under calcifying and noncalcifying conditions has been carried out using cDNA microarrays corresponding to approximately 2,300 expressed sequence tags. A total of 127 significantly up- or down-regulated transcripts were identified using a P value of 0.01 and a change of >2.0-fold. Real-time reverse transcriptase PCR was used to test the overall validity of the microarray data, as well as the relevance of many of the proteins predicted to be associated with biomineralization, including a novel gamma-class carbonic anhydrase (A. R. Soto, H. Zheng, D. Shoemaker, J. Rodriguez, B. A. Read, and T. M. Wahlund, Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 72:5500-5511, 2006). Differentially regulated genes include those related to cellular metabolism, ion channels, transport proteins, vesicular trafficking, and cell signaling. The putative function of the vast majority of candidate transcripts could not be defined. Nonetheless, the data described herein represent profiles of the transcription changes associated with biomineralization-related pathways in E. huxleyi and have identified novel and potentially useful targets for more detailed analysis. PMID:16885305

  19. Characterization of EhCaBP, a calcium-binding protein of Entamoeba histolytica and its binding proteins.

    PubMed

    Yadava, N; Chandok, M R; Prasad, J; Bhattacharya, S; Sopory, S K; Bhattacharya, A

    1997-01-01

    A novel calcium-binding protein (EhCaBP) has been recently identified and characterized from the protozoan parasite Entamoeba histolytica. In order to decipher the function of this protein, a few basic properties were investigated and compared with the ubiquitous Ca(2+)-signal transducing protein calmodulin (CaM). Indirect immunofluorescence and immunoprecipitation analyses using specific antibodies against EhCaBP suggest that it is a soluble cytoplasmic protein with no major post-translational modification. EhCaBP did not stimulate cAMP-phosphodiesterase activity, differentiating it from all known CaMs. Affinity chromatography of [35S]methionine-labelled proteins of E. histolytica trophozoites using EhCaBP-sepharose column showed Ca(2+)-dependent binding of a group of proteins. Radiolabelled proteins from the same extract also bound to CaM-sepharose. However, the proteins bound to the two columns were different as revealed by sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. At least one of the EhCaBP-binding proteins became phosphorylated as revealed by in vivo phosphorylation analysis. The binding-proteins could not be detected in E. invadens (a species that is pathogenic in reptiles) and E. moshkovskii (which is found in the human gut but is not pathogenic), two species in which EhCaBP-like protein has not been found. Two distinct Ca(2+)-dependent protein kinases, which get activated by EhCaBP and CaM respectively, were detected in E. histolytica. These kinases require different levels of Ca2+ for their maximal activities. Affinity chromatography also showed the binding of protein kinase(s) to EhCaBP in a Ca(2+)-dependent manner. Our data suggest that there may be novel Ca(2+)-signal transduction pathway in E. histolytica mediated by EhCaBP.

  20. Theoretical studies of binding of mannose-binding protein to monosaccharides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aida-Hyugaji, Sachiko; Takano, Keiko; Takada, Toshikazu; Hosoya, Haruo; Kojima, Naoya; Mizuochi, Tsuguo; Inoue, Yasushi

    2004-11-01

    Binding properties of mannose-binding protein (MBP) to monosaccharides are discussed based on ab initio molecular orbital calculations for cluster models constructed. The calculated binding energies indicate that MBP has an affinity for N-acetyl- D-glucosamine, D-mannose, L-fucose, and D-glucose rather than D-galactose and N-acetyl- D-galactosamine, which is consistent with the biochemical experimental results. Electrostatic potential surfaces at the binding site of four monosaccharides having binding properties matched well with that of MBP. A vacant frontier orbital was found to be localized around the binding site of MBP, suggesting that MBP-monosaccharide interaction may occur through electrostatic and orbital interactions.

  1. A multi-parametric microarray for protein profiling: simultaneous analysis of 8 different cytochromes via differentially element tagged antibodies and laser ablation ICP-MS.

    PubMed

    Waentig, Larissa; Techritz, Sandra; Jakubowski, Norbert; Roos, Peter H

    2013-11-01

    The paper presents a new multi-parametric protein microarray embracing the multi-analyte capabilities of laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS). The combination of high throughput reverse phase protein microarrays with element tagged antibodies and LA-ICP-MS makes it possible to detect and quantify many proteins or biomarkers in multiple samples simultaneously. A proof of concept experiment is performed for the analysis of cytochromes particularly of cytochrome P450 enzymes, which play an important role in the metabolism of xenobiotics such as toxicants and drugs. With the aid of the LA-ICP-MS based multi-parametric reverse phase protein microarray it was possible to analyse 8 cytochromes in 14 different proteomes in one run. The methodology shows excellent detection limits in the lower amol range and a very good linearity of R(2) ≥ 0.9996 which is a prerequisite for the development of further quantification strategies.

  2. Detection of GTP-binding proteins in barley aleurone protoplasts.

    PubMed

    Wang, M; Sedee, N J; Heidekamp, F; Snaar-Jagalska, B E

    1993-08-30

    We report the existence of several families of GTP-binding proteins in barley aleurone protoplasts. Partial purified plasma membrane proteins were separated by SDS-PAGE, transferred to a nitrocellulose filter and incubated with either antisera raised against a highly conserved animal G protein alpha subunit peptide/or Ras protein, or with [alpha-32P]GTP. Two sets of proteins of M(r) = 32-36 kDa and 22-24 kDa were strongly recognized by the antisera. Binding of [alpha-32P]GTP was detected on Western blots with proteins of M(r) = 22-24 kDa and 16 kDa. Binding was inhibited by 10(-7)-10(-6) M GTP gamma S, GTP or GDP; binding was not affected by 10(-6)-10(-5) M ATP gamma S or ADP. The kinetics, specificity and the effects of phytohormones in a [35S]GTP gamma S binding assay were also studied in isolated plasma membranes of barley aleurone protoplasts.

  3. Detergent activation of the binding protein in the folate radioassay

    SciTech Connect

    Hansen, S.I.; Holm, J.; Lyngbye, J.

    1982-01-01

    A minor cow's whey protein associated with ..beta..-lactoglobulin is used as binding protein in the competitive radioassay for serum and erythrocyte folate. Seeking to optimize the assay, we tested the performance of binder solutions of increasing purity. The folate binding protein was isolated from cow's whey by means of CM-Sepharose CL-6B cation-exchange chromatography, and further purified on a methotrexate-AH-Sepharose 4B affinity matrix. In contrast to ..beta..-lactoglobulin, the purified protein did not bind folate unless the detergents cetyltrimethylammonium (10 mmol/Ll) or Triton X-100 (1 g/L) were present. Such detergent activation was not needed in the presence of serum. There seems to be a striking analogy between these phenomena and the well-known reactivation of certain purified membrane-derived enzymes by surfactants (lipids/detergents).

  4. Architectural repertoire of ligand-binding pockets on protein surfaces.

    PubMed

    Weisel, Martin; Kriegl, Jan M; Schneider, Gisbert

    2010-03-01

    Knowledge of the three-dimensional structure of ligand binding sites in proteins provides valuable information for computer-assisted drug design. We present a method for the automated extraction and classification of ligand binding site topologies, in which protein surface cavities are represented as branched frameworks. The procedure employs a growing neural gas approach for pocket topology assignment and pocket framework generation. We assessed the structural diversity of 623 known ligand binding site topologies based on framework cluster analysis. At a resolution of 5 A only 23 structurally distinct topology groups were formed; this suggests an overall limited structural diversity of ligand-accommodating protein cavities. Higher resolution allowed for identification of protein-family specific pocket features. Pocket frameworks highlight potentially preferred modes of ligand-receptor interactions and will help facilitate the identification of druggable subpockets suitable for ligand affinity and selectivity optimization. PMID:20069621

  5. Liver takes up retinol-binding protein from plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Gjoen, T.; Bjerkelund, T.; Blomhoff, H.K.; Norum, K.R.; Berg, T.; Blomhoff, R.

    1987-08-15

    Retinol is transported in plasma bound to a specific transport protein, retinol-binding protein. We prepared /sup 125/I-tyramine cellobiose-labeled rat retinol-binding protein and studied its tissue uptake 1, 5, and 24 h after intravenous injection into rats. The liver was the organ containing most radioactivity at all time points studied. After 5 and 24 h, 30 and 22% of the injected dose were recovered in liver, respectively. After separating the liver into parenchymal and nonparenchymal cells in the 5-h group, we found that both cell fractions contained approximately the same amount of radioactivity (per gram of liver). Most of the retinol-binding protein radioactivity in the nonparenchymal cell fraction was in the stellate cells. The implication of these results for a possible transfer mechanism for retinol between parenchymal and stellate cells is discussed.

  6. Studying the protein expression in human B lymphoblastoid cells exposed to 1.8-GHz (GSM) radiofrequency radiation (RFR) with protein microarray

    SciTech Connect

    Zhijian, Chen; Xiaoxue, Li; Wei, Zheng; Yezhen, Lu; Jianlin, Lou; Deqiang, Lu; Shijie, Chen; Lifen, Jin; Jiliang, He

    2013-03-29

    Highlights: ► Protein microarray shows the differential expression of 27 proteins induced by RFR. ► RPA32 related to DNA repair is down-regulated in Western blot. ► p73 related to cell genome stability and apoptosis is up-regulated in Western blot. -- Abstract: In the present study, the protein microarray was used to investigate the protein expression in human B-cell lymphoblastoid cells intermittently exposed to 1.8-GHz GSM radiofrequency radiation (RFR) at the specific absorption rate (SAR) of 2.0 W/kg for 24 h. The differential expression of 27 proteins was found, which were related to DNA damage repair, apoptosis, oncogenesis, cell cycle and proliferation (ratio >1.5-fold, P < 0.05). The results validated with Western blot assay indicated that the expression of RPA32 was significantly down-regulated (P < 0.05) while the expression of p73 was significantly up-regulated in RFR exposure group (P < 0.05). Because of the crucial roles of those proteins in DNA repair and cell apoptosis, the results of present investigation may explain the biological effects of RFR on DNA damage/repair and cell apoptosis.

  7. Studies of Fibronectin-Binding Proteins of Streptococcus equi

    PubMed Central

    Lannergård, Jonas; Flock, Margareta; Johansson, Staffan; Flock, Jan-Ingmar; Guss, Bengt

    2005-01-01

    Streptococcus equi subsp. equi is the causative agent of strangles, a disease of the upper respiratory tract in horses. The initiation of S. equi subsp. equi infection is likely to involve cell surface-anchored molecules mediating bacterial adhesion to the epithelium of the host. The present study describes the cloning and characterization of FNEB, a fibronectin-binding protein with cell wall-anchoring motifs. FNEB can thus be predicted as cell surface located, contrary to the two previously characterized fibronectin-binding proteins in S. equi subsp. equi, FNE and SFS. Assays of antibody titers in horses and in experimentally infected mice indicate that the protein is immunogenic and expressed in vivo during S. equi subsp. equi infection. Using Western ligand blotting, it was shown that FNEB binds to the N-terminal 29-kDa fragment of fibronectin, while SFS and FNE both bind to the adjacent 40-kDa fragment. S. equi subsp. equi is known to bind fibronectin to a much lower degree than the closely related S. equi subsp. zooepidemicus, but the binding is primarily directed to the 29-kDa fragment. Inhibition studies using S. equi subsp. equi cells indicate that FNEB mediates cellular binding to fibronectin in this species. PMID:16239519

  8. Tissue microarray analysis reveals a tight correlation between protein expression pattern and progression of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Xue, Li-yan; Hu, Nan; Song, Yong-mei; Zou, Shuang-mei; Shou, Jian-zhong; Qian, Lu-xia; Ren, Li-qun; Lin, Dong-mei; Tong, Tong; He, Zu-gen; Zhan, Qi-min; Taylor, Philip R; Lu, Ning

    2006-01-01

    Background The development of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) progresses a multistage process, collectively known as precursor lesions, also called dysplasia (DYS) and carcinoma in situ (CIS), subsequent invasive lesions and final metastasis. In this study, we are interested in investigating the expression of a variety of functional classes of proteins in ESCC and its precursor lesions and characterizing the correlation of these proteins with ESCC malignant progression. Methods Fas, FADD, caspase 8, CDC25B, fascin, CK14, CK4, annexin I, laminin-5γ2 and SPARC were analyzed using immunohistochemistry on tissue microarray containing 205 ESCC and 173 adjacent precursor lesions as well as corresponding normal mucosa. To confirm the immunohistochemical results, three proteins, fascin, CK14 and laminin-5γ2, which were overexpressed in ESCC on tissue microarray, were detected in 12 ESCC cell lines by Western blot assay. Results In ESCC and its precursor lesions, FADD, CDC25B, fascin, CK14, laminin-5γ2 and SPARC were overexpressed, while Fas, caspase 8, CK4 and annexin I were underexpressed. The abnormalities of these proteins could be classified into different groups in relation to the stages of ESCC development. They were "early" corresponding to mild and moderate DYS with overexpression of fascin, FADD and CDC25B and underexpression of Fas, caspase 8, CK4 and annexin I, "intermediate" to severe DYS and CIS with overexpression of FADD and CK14, and "late" to invasive lesions (ESCC) and to advanced pTNM stage ESCC lesions with overexpression of CK14, laminin-5γ2 and SPARC. Conclusion Analyzing the protein expression patterns of Fas, FADD, caspase 8, CDC25B, fascin, CK14, CK4, annexin I, laminin-5γ2 and SPARC would be valuable to develop rational strategies for early detection of lesions at risk in advance as well as for prevention and treatment of ESCC. PMID:17187659

  9. CAG trinucleotide RNA repeats interact with RNA-binding proteins.

    PubMed Central

    McLaughlin, B. A.; Spencer, C.; Eberwine, J.

    1996-01-01

    Genes associated with several neurological diseases are characterized by the presence of an abnormally long trinucleotide repeat sequence. By way of example, Huntington's disease (HD), is characterized by selective neuronal degeneration associated with the expansion of a polyglutamine-encoding CAG tract. Normally, this CAG tract is comprised of 11-34 repeats, but in HD it is expanded to > 37 repeats in affected individuals. The mechanism by which CAG repeats cause neuronal degeneration is unknown, but it has been speculated that the expansion primarily causes abnormal protein functioning, which in turn causes HD pathology. Other mechanisms, however, have not been ruled out. Interactions between RNA and RNA-binding proteins have previously been shown to play a role in the expression of several eukaryotic genes. Herein, we report the association of cytoplasmic proteins with normal length and extended CAG repeats, using gel shift and UV crosslinking assays. Cytoplasmic protein extracts from several rat brain regions, including the striatum and cortex, sites of neuronal degeneration in HD, contain a 63-kD RNA-binding protein that specifically interacts with these CAG-repeat sequences. These protein-RNA interactions are dependent on the length of the CAG repeat, with longer repeats binding substantially more protein. Two CAG repeat-binding proteins are present in human cortex and striatum; one comigrates with the rat protein at 63 kD, while the other migrates at 49 kD. These data suggest mechanisms by which RNA-binding proteins may be involved in the pathological course of trinucleotide repeat-associated neurological diseases. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:8751857

  10. Computational design of a PAK1 binding protein.

    PubMed

    Jha, Ramesh K; Leaver-Fay, Andrew; Yin, Shuangye; Wu, Yibing; Butterfoss, Glenn L; Szyperski, Thomas; Dokholyan, Nikolay V; Kuhlman, Brian

    2010-07-01

    We describe a computational protocol, called DDMI, for redesigning scaffold proteins to bind to a specified region on a target protein. The DDMI protocol is implemented within the Rosetta molecular modeling program and uses rigid-body docking, sequence design, and gradient-based minimization of backbone and side-chain torsion angles to design low-energy interfaces between the scaffold and target protein. Iterative rounds of sequence design and conformational optimization were needed to produce models that have calculated binding energies that are similar to binding energies calculated for native complexes. We also show that additional conformation sampling with molecular dynamics can be iterated with sequence design to further lower the computed energy of the designed complexes. To experimentally test the DDMI protocol, we redesigned the human hyperplastic discs protein to bind to the kinase domain of p21-activated kinase 1 (PAK1). Six designs were experimentally characterized. Two of the designs aggregated and were not characterized further. Of the remaining four designs, three bound to the PAK1 with affinities tighter than 350 muM. The tightest binding design, named Spider Roll, bound with an affinity of 100 muM. NMR-based structure prediction of Spider Roll based on backbone and (13)C(beta) chemical shifts using the program CS-ROSETTA indicated that the architecture of human hyperplastic discs protein is preserved. Mutagenesis studies confirmed that Spider Roll binds the target patch on PAK1. Additionally, Spider Roll binds to full-length PAK1 in its activated state but does not bind PAK1 when it forms an auto-inhibited conformation that blocks the Spider Roll target site. Subsequent NMR characterization of the binding of Spider Roll to PAK1 revealed a comparably small binding 'on-rate' constant (<10(5) M(-1) s(-1)). The ability to rationally design the site of novel protein-protein interactions is an important step towards creating new proteins that are useful

  11. CLIPZ: a database and analysis environment for experimentally determined binding sites of RNA-binding proteins.

    PubMed

    Khorshid, Mohsen; Rodak, Christoph; Zavolan, Mihaela

    2011-01-01

    The stability, localization and translation rate of mRNAs are regulated by a multitude of RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) that find their targets directly or with the help of guide RNAs. Among the experimental methods for mapping RBP binding sites, cross-linking and immunoprecipitation (CLIP) coupled with deep sequencing provides transcriptome-wide coverage as well as high resolution. However, partly due to their vast volume, the data that were so far generated in CLIP experiments have not been put in a form that enables fast and interactive exploration of binding sites. To address this need, we have developed the CLIPZ database and analysis environment. Binding site data for RBPs such as Argonaute 1-4, Insulin-like growth factor II mRNA-binding protein 1-3, TNRC6 proteins A-C, Pumilio 2, Quaking and Polypyrimidine tract binding protein can be visualized at the level of the genome and of individual transcripts. Individual users can upload their own sequence data sets while being able to limit the access to these data to specific users, and analyses of the public and private data sets can be performed interactively. CLIPZ, available at http://www.clipz.unibas.ch, aims to provide an open access repository of information for post-transcriptional regulatory elements.

  12. CLIPZ: a database and analysis environment for experimentally determined binding sites of RNA-binding proteins

    PubMed Central

    Khorshid, Mohsen; Rodak, Christoph; Zavolan, Mihaela

    2011-01-01

    The stability, localization and translation rate of mRNAs are regulated by a multitude of RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) that find their targets directly or with the help of guide RNAs. Among the experimental methods for mapping RBP binding sites, cross-linking and immunoprecipitation (CLIP) coupled with deep sequencing provides transcriptome-wide coverage as well as high resolution. However, partly due to their vast volume, the data that were so far generated in CLIP experiments have not been put in a form that enables fast and interactive exploration of binding sites. To address this need, we have developed the CLIPZ database and analysis environment. Binding site data for RBPs such as Argonaute 1-4, Insulin-like growth factor II mRNA-binding protein 1-3, TNRC6 proteins A-C, Pumilio 2, Quaking and Polypyrimidine tract binding protein can be visualized at the level of the genome and of individual transcripts. Individual users can upload their own sequence data sets while being able to limit the access to these data to specific users, and analyses of the public and private data sets can be performed interactively. CLIPZ, available at http://www.clipz.unibas.ch, aims to provide an open access repository of information for post-transcriptional regulatory elements. PMID:21087992

  13. Affinity labeling of GTP-binding proteins in cellular extracts.

    PubMed

    Löw, A; Faulhammer, H G; Sprinzl, M

    1992-05-25

    GTP-binding proteins in cellular extracts from Escherichia coli, Thermus thermophilus, yeast, wheat germ or calf thymus were identified using in situ periodate-oxidized [alpha-32P]GTP as affinity label. Site-specific reaction of individual GTP-binding proteins was achieved by cross-linking the protein-bound 2',3'-dialdehyde derivative of GTP with the single lysine residue of the conserved NKXD sequence through Schiff's base formation and subsequent cyanoborohydride reduction. Labeled GTP-binding proteins from prokaryotic or eukaryotic cell homogenates were separated by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and visualized by autoradiography. In addition cross-linking of [alpha-32P]GTP with GTP-binding proteins was demonstrated in model systems using different purified GTPases, human c-H-ras p21, transducin from bovine retina, polypeptide elongation factor Tu (EF-Tu) from T. thermophilus and initiation factor 2 (IF2) from T. thermophilus. The described affinity labeling technique can serve as an analytical method for the identification of GTPases belonging to the classes of ras-proteins, elongation and initiation factors, and heterotrimeric signal transducing G-proteins. PMID:1592117

  14. Binding-protein-dependent lactose transport in Agrobacterium radiobacter.

    PubMed

    Greenwood, J A; Cornish, A; Jones, C W

    1990-04-01

    Agrobacterium radiobacter NCIB 11883 was grown in lactose-limited continuous culture at a dilution rate of 0.045/h. Washed cells transported [14C]lactose and [methyl-14C]beta-D-thiogalactoside, a nonmetabolisable analog of lactose, at similar rates and with similar affinities (Km for transport, less than 1 microM). Transport was inhibited to various extents by the uncoupling agent carbonyl cyanide p-trifluoromethoxyphenylhydrazone, by unlabeled beta-galactosides and D-galactose, and by osmotic shock. The accumulation ratio for methyl-beta-D-thiogalactoside was greater than or equal to 4,100. An abundant protein (molecular weight, 41,000) was purified from osmotic-shock fluid and shown by equilibrium dialysis to bind lactose and methyl-beta-D-thiogalactoside, the former with very high affinity (binding constant, 0.14 microM). The N-terminal amino acid sequence of this lactose-binding protein exhibited some homology with several other sugar-binding proteins from bacteria. Antiserum raised against the lactose-binding protein did not cross-react with two glucose-binding proteins from A. radiobacter or with extracts of other bacteria grown under lactose limitation. Lactose transport and beta-galactosidase were induced in batch cultures by lactose, melibiose [O-alpha-D-galactoside-(1----6)alpha-D-glucose], and isopropyl-beta-D-thiogalactoside and were subject to catabolite repression by glucose, galactose, and succinate which was not alleviated by cyclic AMP. We conclude that lactose is transported into A. radiobacter via a binding protein-dependent active transport system (in contrast to the H+ symport and phosphotransferase systems found in other bacteria) and that the expression of this transport system is closely linked to that of beta-galactosidase.

  15. PRBP: Prediction of RNA-Binding Proteins Using a Random Forest Algorithm Combined with an RNA-Binding Residue Predictor.

    PubMed

    Ma, Xin; Guo, Jing; Xiao, Ke; Sun, Xiao

    2015-01-01

    The prediction of RNA-binding proteins is an incredibly challenging problem in computational biology. Although great progress has been made using various machine learning approaches with numerous features, the problem is still far from being solved. In this study, we attempt to predict RNA-binding proteins directly from amino acid sequences. A novel approach, PRBP predicts RNA-binding proteins using the information of predicted RNA-binding residues in conjunction with a random forest based method. For a given protein, we first predict its RNA-binding residues and then judge whether the protein binds RNA or not based on information from that prediction. If the protein cannot be identified by the information associated with its predicted RNA-binding residues, then a novel random forest predictor is used to determine if the query protein is a RNA-binding protein. We incorporated features of evolutionary information combined with physicochemical features (EIPP) and amino acid composition feature to establish the random forest predictor. Feature analysis showed that EIPP contributed the most to the prediction of RNA-binding proteins. The results also showed that the information from the RNA-binding residue prediction improved the overall performance of our RNA-binding protein prediction. It is anticipated that the PRBP method will become a useful tool for identifying RNA-binding proteins. A PRBP Web server implementation is freely available at http://www.cbi.seu.edu.cn/PRBP/.

  16. Calmodulin and calmodulin binding proteins in amphibian rod outer segments

    SciTech Connect

    Nagao, S.; Yamazaki, A.; Bitensky, M.W.

    1987-03-24

    The calmodulin (CaM) content of fully intact frog rod outer segments (ROS) has been measured using radioimmunoassay. The molar ratio between rhodopsin and total CaM in ROS is 800:1. In the absence of Ca/sup 2 +/, the ROS membrane fraction contains only 4% of total ROS CaM. In contrast, in the presence of Ca/sup 2 +/, 15% of total ROS CaM is found in the membrane fraction. For half-maximal binding of CaM to CaM-depleted ROS membranes, 3 x 10/sup -7/ M Ca/sup 2 +/ is required. This CaM binding is inhibited by trifluoperazine. CaM binding proteins in the ROS membrane fraction are identified by using two different methods: the overlay method and the use of 3,3'-dithiobis(sulfosuccinimidyl propionate) (DTSSP), a bifunctional cross-linking reagent. Ca/sup 2 +/-dependent CaM binding proteins with apparent molecular weights of 240,000, 140,000, 53,000, and 47,000 are detected in the ROS membrane fraction by the overlay method. Anomalous, Ca/sup 2 +/-independent CaM binding to rhodopsin is also detected with this method, and this CaM binding is inhibited by the presence of Ca/sup 2 +/. With the bifunctional cross-linking reagent, DTSSP, three discrete proteins with molecular weights of 240,000, 53,000, and 47,000 are detected in the native ROS membrane fraction. CaM binding to rhodopsin is not detected with this method. These data suggest that both the Ca/sup 2 +/-independent binding of CaM to rhodopsin and the Ca/sup 2 +/-dependent binding of CaM to the M/sub r/ 140,000 protein represent binding of CaM to a site(s) which is (are) exposed only after denaturation. Ca/sup 2 +/-dependent CaM binding in the cytoplasmic fraction is also evaluated with the overlay method. These data suggest that CaM and its binding proteins participate in the regulation of Ca/sup 2 +/-sensitive processes primarily on the ROS disk membranes.

  17. Specific binding of gibberellic acid by cytokinin-specific binding proteins: a new aspect of plant hormone-binding proteins with the PR-10 fold.

    PubMed

    Ruszkowski, Milosz; Sliwiak, Joanna; Ciesielska, Agnieszka; Barciszewski, Jakub; Sikorski, Michal; Jaskolski, Mariusz

    2014-07-01

    Pathogenesis-related proteins of class 10 (PR-10) are a family of plant proteins with the same fold characterized by a large hydrophobic cavity that allows them to bind various ligands, such as phytohormones. A subfamily with only ~20% sequence identity but with a conserved canonical PR-10 fold have previously been recognized as Cytokinin-Specific Binding Proteins (CSBPs), although structurally the binding mode of trans-zeatin (a cytokinin phytohormone) was found to be quite diversified. Here, it is shown that two CSBP orthologues from Medicago truncatula and Vigna radiata bind gibberellic acid (GA3), which is an entirely different phytohormone, in a conserved and highly specific manner. In both cases a single GA3 molecule is found in the internal cavity of the protein. The structural data derived from high-resolution crystal structures are corroborated by isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC), which reveals a much stronger interaction with GA3 than with trans-zeatin and pH dependence of the binding profile. As a conclusion, it is postulated that the CSBP subfamily of plant PR-10 proteins should be more properly linked with general phytohormone-binding properties and termed phytohormone-binding proteins (PhBP).

  18. A DNA-binding protein factor recognizes two binding domains within the octopine synthase enhancer element.

    PubMed Central

    Tokuhisa, J G; Singh, K; Dennis, E S; Peacock, W J

    1990-01-01

    A protein that binds to the enhancing element of the octopine synthase gene has been identified in nuclear extracts from maize cell suspension cultures. Two protein-DNA complexes are distinguishable by electrophoretic mobility in gel retardation assays. Footprint analyses of these low and high molecular weight complexes show, respectively, half and complete protection of the ocs-element DNA from cleavage by methidiumpropyl-EDTA.FE(II). Two lines of evidence indicate that the element has two recognition sites, each of which can bind identical protein units. Elements that are mutated in one or the other half and form only the low molecular weight complex interfere with the formation of both the low and high molecular weight complexes by the wild-type element. Protein isolated from a complex with only one binding site occupied can bind to the wild-type ocs-element and generate complexes with protein occupying one or both binding sites. Occupation of both sites of the ocs-element is a prerequisite for transcriptional enhancement. PMID:2152113

  19. Lactation-induced cadmium-binding proteins

    SciTech Connect

    Bhattacharyya, M.H.; Solaiman, D.; Garvey, J.S.; Miyazaki, W.Y.

    1987-01-01

    Previously we have demonstrated an increase during midlactation in /sup 109/Cd adsorption and increased retention by the duodenum, kidney, and mammary tissue of mouse dams receiving environmental levels of cadmium//sup 109/Cd via drinking water, with little change in /sup 109/Cd retention in liver and jejunum compared to nonpregnant controls. Results are reported here of a study of cadmium deposition during midlactation as associated with induction of metallothionein (MT). A cadmium/hemoglobin (Cd/Hb) assay and radioimmunoassay for MT which measures heat-stable cadmium binding capacity in tissues was used to determine MT concentrations in fractions of kidney, liver, duodenum, and jejunum from female mice. Both assays demonstrated clear lactation-induced increases in MT concentrations in liver, kidney, and duodenum, with MT concentrations falling rapidly to control levels after weaning. 4 refs., 1 tab.

  20. Evaluation of silica nanoparticle binding to major human blood proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hata, Katsutomo; Higashisaka, Kazuma; Nagano, Kazuya; Mukai, Yohei; Kamada, Haruhiko; Tsunoda, Shin-ichi; Yoshioka, Yasuo; Tsutsumi, Yasuo

    2014-12-01

    Nanomaterials are used for various biomedical applications because they are often more effective than conventional materials. Recently, however, it has become clear that the protein corona that forms on the surface of nanomaterials when they make contact with biological fluids, such as blood, influences the pharmacokinetics and biological responses induced by the nanomaterials. Therefore, when evaluating nanomaterial safety and efficacy, it is important to analyze the interaction between nanomaterials and proteins in biological fluids and to evaluate the effects of the protein corona. Here, we evaluated the interaction of silica nanoparticles, a commonly used nanomaterial, with the human blood proteins albumin, transferrin, fibrinogen, and IgG. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis analysis showed that the amount of albumin, transferrin, and IgG binding to the silica particles increased as the particle size decreased under conditions where the silica particle mass remained the same. However, under conditions in which the specific surface area remained constant, there were no differences in the binding of human plasma proteins to the silica particles tested, suggesting that the binding of silica particles with human plasma proteins is dependent on the specific surface area of the silica particles. Furthermore, the amount of albumin, transferrin, and IgG binding to silica nanoparticles with a diameter of 70 nm (nSP70) and a functional amino group was lower than that with unmodified nSP70, although there was no difference in the binding between nSP70 with the surface modification of a carboxyl functional group and nSP70. These results suggest that the characteristics of nanomaterials are important for binding with human blood proteins; this information may contribute to the development of safe and effective nanomaterials.

  1. Transduction proteins of olfactory receptor cells: identification of guanine nucleotide binding proteins and protein kinase C

    SciTech Connect

    Anholt, R.R.H.; Mumby, S.M.; Stoffers, D.A.; Girard, P.R.; Kuo, J.F.; Snyder, S.H.

    1987-02-10

    The authors have analyzed guanine nucleotide binding proteins (G-proteins) in the olfactory epithelium of Rana catesbeiana using subunit-specific antisera. The olfactory epithelium contained the ..cap alpha.. subunits of three G-proteins, migrating on polyacrylamide gels in SDS with apparent molecular weights of 45,000, 42,000, and 40,000, corresponding to G/sub s/, G/sub i/, and G/sub o/, respectively. A single ..beta.. subunit with an apparent molecular weight of 36,000 was detected. An antiserum against the ..cap alpha.. subunit of retinal transducin failed to detect immunoreactive proteins in olfactory cilia detached from the epithelium. The olfactory cilia appeared to be enriched in immunoreactive G/sub s..cap alpha../ relative to G/sub ichemically bond/ and G/sub ochemically bond/ when compared to membranes prepared from the olfactory epithelium after detachment of the cilia. Bound antibody was detected by autoradiography after incubation with (/sup 125/I)protein. Immunohistochemical studies using an antiserum against the ..beta.. subunit of G-proteins revealed intense staining of the ciliary surface of the olfactory epithelium and of the axon bundles in the lamina propria. In contrast, an antiserum against a common sequence of the ..cap alpha.. subunits preferentially stained the cell membranes of the olfactory receptor cells and the acinar cells of Bowman's glands and the deep submucosal glands. In addition to G-proteins, they have identified protein kinase C in olfactory cilia via a protein kinase C specific antiserum and via phorbol ester binding. However, in contrast to the G-proteins, protein kinase C occurred also in cilia isolated from respiratory epithelium.

  2. Metal binding proteins, recombinant host cells and methods

    DOEpatents

    Summers, Anne O.; Caguiat, Jonathan J.

    2004-06-15

    The present disclosure provides artificial heavy metal binding proteins termed chelons by the inventors. These chelons bind cadmium and/or mercuric ions with relatively high affinity. Also disclosed are coding sequences, recombinant DNA molecules and recombinant host cells comprising those recombinant DNA molecules for expression of the chelon proteins. In the recombinant host cells or transgenic plants, the chelons can be used to bind heavy metals taken up from contaminated soil, groundwater or irrigation water and to concentrate and sequester those ions. Recombinant enteric bacteria can be used within the gastrointestinal tracts of animals or humans exposed to toxic metal ions such as mercury and/or cadmium, where the chelon recombinantly expressed in chosen in accordance with the ion to be rededicated. Alternatively, the chelons can be immobilized to solid supports to bind and concentrate heavy metals from a contaminated aqueous medium including biological fluids.

  3. RNA-binding region of Macrobrachium rosenbergii nodavirus capsid protein.

    PubMed

    Goh, Zee Hong; Mohd, Nur Azmina Syakirin; Tan, Soon Guan; Bhassu, Subha; Tan, Wen Siang

    2014-09-01

    White tail disease (WTD) kills prawn larvae and causes drastic losses to the freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) industry. The main causative agent of WTD is Macrobrachium rosenbergii nodavirus (MrNV). The N-terminal end of the MrNV capsid protein is very rich in positively charged amino acids and is postulated to interact with RNA molecules. N-terminal and internal deletion mutagenesis revealed that the RNA-binding region is located at positions 20-29, where 80 % of amino acids are positively charged. Substitution of all these positively charged residues with alanine abolished the RNA binding. Mutants without the RNA-binding region still assembled into virus-like particles, suggesting that this region is not a part of the capsid assembly domain. This paper is, to the best of our knowledge, the first to report the specific RNA-binding region of MrNV capsid protein. PMID:24878641

  4. Organic solvents identify specific ligand binding sites on protein surfaces.

    PubMed

    Liepinsh, E; Otting, G

    1997-03-01

    Enzymes frequently recognize substrates and pharmaceutical drugs through specific binding interactions in deep pockets on the protein surface. We show how the specificity-determining substrate binding site of hen egg-white lysozyme (HEWL) can be readily identified in aqueous solution by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy using small organic solvent molecules as detection probes. Exchange of magnetization between the 1H nuclei of the protein and the ligands through dipole-dipole interactions is observed which allows the modeling of their position and orientation at the binding site. Combined with site-specific binding constants measured by titration experiments with different organic solvents, the method can provide important information for rational drug design. In addition, the lifetime of nonspecific interactions of HEWL with organic solvents is shown to be in the sub-nanosecond time range. PMID:9062927

  5. RNA-binding region of Macrobrachium rosenbergii nodavirus capsid protein.

    PubMed

    Goh, Zee Hong; Mohd, Nur Azmina Syakirin; Tan, Soon Guan; Bhassu, Subha; Tan, Wen Siang

    2014-09-01

    White tail disease (WTD) kills prawn larvae and causes drastic losses to the freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) industry. The main causative agent of WTD is Macrobrachium rosenbergii nodavirus (MrNV). The N-terminal end of the MrNV capsid protein is very rich in positively charged amino acids and is postulated to interact with RNA molecules. N-terminal and internal deletion mutagenesis revealed that the RNA-binding region is located at positions 20-29, where 80 % of amino acids are positively charged. Substitution of all these positively charged residues with alanine abolished the RNA binding. Mutants without the RNA-binding region still assembled into virus-like particles, suggesting that this region is not a part of the capsid assembly domain. This paper is, to the best of our knowledge, the first to report the specific RNA-binding region of MrNV capsid protein.

  6. The human mannose-binding protein functions as an opsonin

    PubMed Central

    1989-01-01

    The human mannose-binding protein (MBP) is a multimeric serum protein that is divided into three domains: a cysteine-rich NH2-terminal domain that stabilizes the alpha-helix of the second collagen-like domain, and a third COOH-terminal carbohydrate binding region. The function of MBP is unknown, although a role in host defense is suggested by its ability to bind yeast mannans. In this report we show that native and recombinant human MBP can serve in an opsonic role in serum and thereby enhance clearance of mannose rich pathogens by phagocytes. MBP binds to wild-type virulent Salmonella montevideo that express a mannose-rich O- polysaccharide. Interaction of MBP with these organisms results in attachment, uptake, and killing of the opsonized bacteria by phagocytes. These results demonstrate that MBP plays a role in first line host defense against certain pathogenic organisms. PMID:2469767

  7. Characterization of the cellulose-binding domain of the Clostridium cellulovorans cellulose-binding protein A.

    PubMed Central

    Goldstein, M A; Takagi, M; Hashida, S; Shoseyov, O; Doi, R H; Segel, I H

    1993-01-01

    Cellulose-binding protein A (CbpA), a component of the cellulase complex of Clostridium cellulovorans, contains a unique sequence which has been demonstrated to be a cellulose-binding domain (CBD). The DNA coding for this putative CBD was subcloned into pET-8c, an Escherichia coli expression vector. The protein produced under the direction of the recombinant plasmid, pET-CBD, had a high affinity for crystalline cellulose. Affinity-purified CBD protein was used in equilibrium binding experiments to characterize the interaction of the protein with various polysaccharides. It was found that the binding capacity of highly crystalline cellulose samples (e.g., cotton) was greater than that of samples of low crystallinity (e.g., fibrous cellulose). At saturating CBD concentration, about 6.4 mumol of protein was bound by 1 g of cotton. Under the same conditions, fibrous cellulose bound only 0.2 mumol of CBD per g. The measured dissociation constant was in the 1 microM range for all cellulose samples. The results suggest that the CBD binds specifically to crystalline cellulose. Chitin, which has a crystal structure similar to that of cellulose, also was bound by the CBD. The presence of high levels of cellobiose or carboxymethyl cellulose in the assay mixture had no effect on the binding of CBD protein to crystalline cellulose. This result suggests that the CBD recognition site is larger than a simple cellobiose unit or more complex than a repeating cellobiose moiety. This CBD is of particular interest because it is the first CBD from a completely sequenced nonenzymatic protein shown to be an independently functional domain. Images PMID:8376323

  8. A new zinc binding fold underlines the versatility of zinc binding modules in protein evolution.

    PubMed

    Sharpe, Belinda K; Matthews, Jacqueline M; Kwan, Ann H Y; Newton, Anthea; Gell, David A; Crossley, Merlin; Mackay, Joel P

    2002-05-01

    Many different zinc binding modules have been identified. Their abundance and variety suggests that the formation of zinc binding folds might be relatively common. We have determined the structure of CH1(1), a 27-residue peptide derived from the first cysteine/histidine-rich region (CH1) of CREB binding protein (CBP). This peptide forms a highly ordered zinc-dependent fold that is distinct from known folds. The structure differs from a subsequently determined structure of a larger region from the CH3 region of CBP, and the CH1(1) fold probably represents a nonphysiologically active form. Despite this, the fold is thermostable and tolerant to both multiple alanine mutations and changes in the zinc-ligand spacing. Our data support the idea that zinc binding domains may arise frequently. Additionally, such structures may prove useful as scaffolds for protein design, given their stability and robustness.

  9. Protein D of Haemophilus influenzae is not a universal immunoglobulin D-binding protein.

    PubMed Central

    Sasaki, K; Munson, R S

    1993-01-01

    Haemophilus influenzae type b and nontypeable H. influenzae have been reported to bind human immunoglobulin D (IgD). IgD myeloma sera from five patients were tested for the ability of IgD to bind to H. influenzae. Serotype b strains bound human IgD in four of the five sera tested. IgD in the fifth serum bound strongly to type b strain MinnA but poorly to other type b strains. Additionally, IgD binding was not observed when nontypeable strains were tested. The gene for protein D, the putative IgD-binding protein, was cloned from the IgD-binding H. influenzae type b strain MinnA and expressed in Escherichia coli. IgD binding to E. coli expressing protein D was not demonstrable. Recombinant protein D was purified, and antisera were generated in rabbits. Using these rabbit sera, we detected protein D in nontypeable as well as serotype b strains by Western blotting (immunoblotting). In contrast, IgD myeloma protein 4490, which was previously reported to bind to protein D by Ruan and coworkers (M. Ruan, M. Akkoyunlu, A. Grubb, and A. Forsgren, J. Immunol. 145:3379-3384), bound strongly to both type b and nontypeable H. influenzae as well as to E. coli expressing protein D. Thus, IgD binding is a general property of H. influenzae type b strains but not a general property of nontypeable strains, although both type b and nontypeable strains produce protein D. With the exception of IgD myeloma protein 4490 binding, we have no evidence for a role of protein D in IgD binding to H. influenzae. Images PMID:8514409

  10. Small-molecule microarrays as tools in ligand discovery

    PubMed Central

    Vegas, Arturo J.; Fuller, Jason H.; Koehler, Angela N.

    2009-01-01

    Small molecules that bind and modulate specific protein targets are increasingly used as tools to decipher protein function in a cellular context. Identifying specific small-molecule probes for each protein in the proteome will require miniaturized assays that permit screening large collections of compounds against large numbers of proteins in a highly parallel fashion. Simple and general binding assays involving small-molecule microarrays can be used to identify probes for nearly any protein in the proteome. The assay may be used to identify ligands for proteins in the absence of knowledge about structure or function. In this tutorial review, we introduce small-molecule microarrays (SMMs) as tools for ligand discovery; discuss methods for manufacturing SMMs, including both non-covalent and covalent attachment strategies; and provide examples of ligand discovery involving SMMs. PMID:18568164

  11. Characterization of adenosine binding proteins in human placental membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Hutchison, K.A.

    1989-01-01

    We have characterized two adenosine binding proteins in human placenta. In membranes, one site is detected with ({sup 3}H) -N-ethylcarboxamidoadenosine (({sup 3}H)NECA). This site is similar to the adenosine A{sub 2} receptor. We call this site the adenosine A{sub 2}-like binding site. In detergent extracts, the second site is detected and has the characteristics of an adenosine A{sub 1} receptor. The soluble adenosine A{sub 2}-like binding site cannot be detected without a rapid assay. Binding to the adenosine A{sub 1} receptor with ({sup 3}H)-2-chloroadenosine and ({sup 3}H)NECA is time dependent, saturable, and reversible. Equilibrium displacement analysis with adenosine agonists reveals an A{sub 1} specificity: 2-chloroadenosine > R-phenylisopropyladenosine > 5{prime}-N-ethylcarboxamidoadenosine. The antagonist potency order is 1,3-diethyl-8-phenylxanthine > isobutylmethylxanthine > theophylline. Competition analysis of membranes with the A,-selective ligands ({sup 3}H)-cyclohexyladenosine ({sup 3}H) cylopentylxanthine revealed adenosine A{sub 1} agonist and antagonist potency orders. We have purified the adenosine A{sub 2}-like binding site. The adenosine A{sub 2}-like binding site is an ubiquitous major cellular protein. It is glycosylated, highly asymmetric, and acidic. The native protein is an homodimer with a subunit molecular mass of 98 kDa. The sedimentation coefficient and partial specific volume of the binding complex are 6.9 s and 0.698 ml/g, respectively. The Stokes' radius is 70 {Angstrom}. The native molecular mass of the detergent-protein complex is 230 kDa. The adenosine A{sub 2}-like binding site has an agonist potency order of 5'-N-ethylcarboxamidoadenosine > 2-chloroadenosine >> R-phenylisopropyladenosine and an antagonist potency order of isobutylmethylxanthine > theophylline >> 1,3-diethyl-8-phenylxanthine.

  12. Predicting the Binding Patterns of Hub Proteins: A Study Using Yeast Protein Interaction Networks

    PubMed Central

    Andorf, Carson M.; Honavar, Vasant; Sen, Taner Z.

    2013-01-01

    Background Protein-protein interactions are critical to elucidating the role played by individual proteins in important biological pathways. Of particular interest are hub proteins that can interact with large numbers of partners and often play essential roles in cellular control. Depending on the number of binding sites, protein hubs can be classified at a structural level as singlish-interface hubs (SIH) with one or two binding sites, or multiple-interface hubs (MIH) with three or more binding sites. In terms of kinetics, hub proteins can be classified as date hubs (i.e., interact with different partners at different times or locations) or party hubs (i.e., simultaneously interact with multiple partners). Methodology Our approach works in 3 phases: Phase I classifies if a protein is likely to bind with another protein. Phase II determines if a protein-binding (PB) protein is a hub. Phase III classifies PB proteins as singlish-interface versus multiple-interface hubs and date versus party hubs. At each stage, we use sequence-based predictors trained using several standard machine learning techniques. Conclusions Our method is able to predict whether a protein is a protein-binding protein with an accuracy of 94% and a correlation coefficient of 0.87; identify hubs from non-hubs with 100% accuracy for 30% of the data; distinguish date hubs/party hubs with 69% accuracy and area under ROC curve of 0.68; and SIH/MIH with 89% accuracy and area under ROC curve of 0.84. Because our method is based on sequence information alone, it can be used even in settings where reliable protein-protein interaction data or structures of protein-protein complexes are unavailable to obtain useful insights into the functional and evolutionary characteristics of proteins and their interactions. Availability We provide a web server for our three-phase approach: http://hybsvm.gdcb.iastate.edu. PMID:23431393

  13. Extensive Association of Functionally and Cytotopically Related mRNAs with Puf Family RNA-Binding Proteins in Yeast

    PubMed Central

    2004-01-01

    Genes encoding RNA-binding proteins are diverse and abundant in eukaryotic genomes. Although some have been shown to have roles in post-transcriptional regulation of the expression of specific genes, few of these proteins have been studied systematically. We have used an affinity tag to isolate each of the five members of the Puf family of RNA-binding proteins in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and DNA microarrays to comprehensively identify the associated mRNAs. Distinct groups of 40–220 different mRNAs with striking common themes in the functions and subcellular localization of the proteins they encode are associated with each of the five Puf proteins: Puf3p binds nearly exclusively to cytoplasmic mRNAs that encode mitochondrial proteins; Puf1p and Puf2p interact preferentially with mRNAs encoding membrane-associated proteins; Puf4p preferentially binds mRNAs encoding nucleolar ribosomal RNA-processing factors; and Puf5p is associated with mRNAs encoding chromatin modifiers and components of the spindle pole body. We identified distinct sequence motifs in the 3′-untranslated regions of the mRNAs bound by Puf3p, Puf4p, and Puf5p. Three-hybrid assays confirmed the role of these motifs in specific RNA–protein interactions in vivo. The results suggest that combinatorial tagging of transcripts by specific RNA-binding proteins may be a general mechanism for coordinated control of the localization, translation, and decay of mRNAs and thus an integral part of the global gene expression program. PMID:15024427

  14. Quantifying Aptamer-Protein Binding via Thermofluorimetric Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Juan; Kim, Joonyul; Easley, Christopher J.

    2015-01-01

    Effective aptamer-based protein assays require coupling to a quantitative reporter of aptamer-protein binding. Typically, this involves a direct optical or electrochemical readout of DNA hybridization or an amplification step coupled to the readout. However, method development is often hampered by the multiplicity of aptamer-target binding mechanisms, which can interfere with the hybridization step. As a simpler and more generalizable readout of aptamer-protein binding, we report that thermofluorimetric analysis (TFA) can be used to quantitatively assay protein levels. Sub-nanomolar detection (0.74 nM) of platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) with its corresponding aptamer is shown as a test case. In the presence of various DNA intercalating dyes, protein-bound aptamers exhibit a change in fluorescence intensity compared to the intercalated, unbound aptamer. This allows thermal resolution of bound and unbound aptamers using fluorescence melting analysis (−dF/dT curves). Remarkably, the homogeneous optical method allows subtraction of autofluorescence in human serum, giving PDGF detection limits of 1.8 and 10.7 nM in serum diluted 1:7 and 1:3, respectively. We have thus demonstrated that bound and unbound aptamers can be thermally resolved in a homogeneous format using a simple qPCR instrument—even in human serum. The simplicity of this approach provides an important step toward a robust, generalizable readout of aptamer-protein binding. PMID:26366207

  15. Retinoblastoma-binding protein 1 has an interdigitated double Tudor domain with DNA binding activity.

    PubMed

    Gong, Weibin; Wang, Jinfeng; Perrett, Sarah; Feng, Yingang

    2014-02-21

    Retinoblastoma-binding protein 1 (RBBP1) is a tumor and leukemia suppressor that binds both methylated histone tails and DNA. Our previous studies indicated that RBBP1 possesses a Tudor domain, which cannot bind histone marks. In order to clarify the function of the Tudor domain, the solution structure of the RBBP1 Tudor domain was determined by NMR and is presented here. Although the proteins are unrelated, the RBBP1 Tudor domain forms an interdigitated double Tudor structure similar to the Tudor domain of JMJD2A, which is an epigenetic mark reader. This indicates the functional diversity of Tudor domains. The RBBP1 Tudor domain structure has a significant area of positively charged surface, which reveals a capability of the RBBP1 Tudor domain to bind nucleic acids. NMR titration and isothermal titration calorimetry experiments indicate that the RBBP1 Tudor domain binds both double- and single-stranded DNA with an affinity of 10-100 μM; no apparent DNA sequence specificity was detected. The DNA binding mode and key interaction residues were analyzed in detail based on a model structure of the Tudor domain-dsDNA complex, built by HADDOCK docking using the NMR data. Electrostatic interactions mediate the binding of the Tudor domain with DNA, which is consistent with NMR experiments performed at high salt concentration. The DNA-binding residues are conserved in Tudor domains of the RBBP1 protein family, resulting in conservation of the DNA-binding function in the RBBP1 Tudor domains. Our results provide further insights into the structure and function of RBBP1.

  16. Profiling Protein Kinases and Other ATP Binding Proteins in Arabidopsis Using Acyl-ATP Probes*

    PubMed Central

    Villamor, Joji Grace; Kaschani, Farnusch; Colby, Tom; Oeljeklaus, Julian; Zhao, David; Kaiser, Markus; Patricelli, Matthew P.; van der Hoorn, Renier A. L.

    2013-01-01

    Many protein activities are driven by ATP binding and hydrolysis. Here, we explore the ATP binding proteome of the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana using acyl-ATP (AcATP)1 probes. These probes target ATP binding sites and covalently label lysine residues in the ATP binding pocket. Gel-based profiling using biotinylated AcATP showed that labeling is dependent on pH and divalent ions and can be competed by nucleotides. The vast majority of these AcATP-labeled proteins are known ATP binding proteins. Our search for labeled peptides upon in-gel digest led to the discovery that the biotin moiety of the labeled peptides is oxidized. The in-gel analysis displayed kinase domains of two receptor-like kinases (RLKs) at a lower than expected molecular weight, indicating that these RLKs lost the extracellular domain, possibly as a result of receptor shedding. Analysis of modified peptides using a gel-free platform identified 242 different labeling sites for AcATP in the Arabidopsis proteome. Examination of each individual labeling site revealed a preference of labeling in ATP binding pockets for a broad diversity of ATP binding proteins. Of these, 24 labeled peptides were from a diverse range of protein kinases, including RLKs, mitogen-activated protein kinases, and calcium-dependent kinases. A significant portion of the labeling sites could not be assigned to known nucleotide binding sites. However, the fact that labeling could be competed with ATP indicates that these labeling sites might represent previously uncharacterized nucleotide binding sites. A plot of spectral counts against expression levels illustrates the high specificity of AcATP probes for protein kinases and known ATP binding proteins. This work introduces profiling of ATP binding activities of a large diversity of proteins in plant proteomes. The data have been deposited in ProteomeXchange with the identifier PXD000188. PMID:23722185

  17. A general approach to visualize protein binding and DNA conformation without protein labelling.

    PubMed

    Song, Dan; Graham, Thomas G W; Loparo, Joseph J

    2016-03-08

    Single-molecule manipulation methods, such as magnetic tweezers and flow stretching, generally use the measurement of changes in DNA extension as a proxy for examining interactions between a DNA-binding protein and its substrate. These approaches are unable to directly measure protein-DNA association without fluorescently labelling the protein, which can be challenging. Here we address this limitation by developing a new approach that visualizes unlabelled protein binding on DNA with changes in DNA conformation in a relatively high-throughput manner. Protein binding to DNA molecules sparsely labelled with Cy3 results in an increase in fluorescence intensity due to protein-induced fluorescence enhancement (PIFE), whereas DNA length is monitored under flow of buffer through a microfluidic flow cell. Given that our assay uses unlabelled protein, it is not limited to the low protein concentrations normally required for single-molecule fluorescence imaging and should be broadly applicable to studying protein-DNA interactions.

  18. Flexible Linker Modulates Glycosaminoglycan Affinity of Decorin Binding Protein A.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Ashli; Sepuru, Krishna Mohan; Feng, Wei; Rajarathnam, Krishna; Wang, Xu

    2015-08-18

    Decorin binding protein A (DBPA) is a glycosaminoglycan (GAG)-binding adhesin found on the surface of the bacterium Borrelia burgdorferi (B. burgdorferi), the causative agent of Lyme disease. DBPA facilitates bacterial adherence to extracellular matrices of human tissues and is crucial during the early stage of the infection process. Interestingly, DBPA from different strains (B31, N40, and PBr) show significant differences in GAG affinities, but the structural basis for the differences is not clear. In this study, we show that GAG affinity of N40 DBPA is modulated in part by flexible segments that control access to the GAG binding site, such that shortening of the linker leads to higher GAG affinity when analyzed using ELISA, gel mobility shift assay, solution NMR, and isothermal titration calorimetry. Our observation that GAG affinity differences among different B. burgdorferi strains can be attributed to a flexible linker domain regulating access to the GAG-binding domain is novel. It also provides a rare example of how neutral amino acids and dynamic segments in GAG binding proteins can have a large influence on GAG affinity and provides insights into why the number of basic amino acids in the GAG-binding site may not be the only factor determining GAG affinity of proteins. PMID:26223367

  19. Escherchia coli ribose binding protein based bioreporters revisited

    PubMed Central

    Reimer, Artur; Yagur-Kroll, Sharon; Belkin, Shimshon; Roy, Shantanu; van der Meer, Jan Roelof

    2014-01-01

    Bioreporter bacteria, i.e., strains engineered to respond to chemical exposure by production of reporter proteins, have attracted wide interest because of their potential to offer cheap and simple alternative analytics for specified compounds or conditions. Bioreporter construction has mostly exploited the natural variation of sensory proteins, but it has been proposed that computational design of new substrate binding properties could lead to completely novel detection specificities at very low affinities. Here we reconstruct a bioreporter system based on the native Escherichia coli ribose binding protein RbsB and one of its computationally designed variants, reported to be capable of binding 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT). Our results show in vivo reporter induction at 50 nM ribose, and a 125 nM affinity constant for in vitro ribose binding to RbsB. In contrast, the purified published TNT-binding variant did not bind TNT nor did TNT cause induction of the E. coli reporter system. PMID:25005019

  20. Grafting odorant binding proteins on diamond bio-MEMS.

    PubMed

    Manai, R; Scorsone, E; Rousseau, L; Ghassemi, F; Possas Abreu, M; Lissorgues, G; Tremillon, N; Ginisty, H; Arnault, J-C; Tuccori, E; Bernabei, M; Cali, K; Persaud, K C; Bergonzo, P

    2014-10-15

    Odorant binding proteins (OBPs) are small soluble proteins found in olfactory systems that are capable of binding several types of odorant molecules. Cantilevers based on polycrystalline diamond surfaces are very promising as chemical transducers. Here two methods were investigated for chemically grafting porcine OBPs on polycrystalline diamond surfaces for biosensor development. The first approach resulted in random orientation of the immobilized proteins over the surface. The second approach based on complexing a histidine-tag located on the protein with nickel allowed control of the proteins' orientation. Evidence confirming protein grafting was obtained using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, fluorescence imaging and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The chemical sensing performances of these OBP modified transducers were assessed. The second grafting method led to typically 20% more sensitive sensors, as a result of better access of ligands to the proteins active sites and also perhaps a better yield of protein immobilization. This new grafting method appears to be highly promising for further investigation of the ligand binding properties of OBPs in general and for the development of arrays of non-specific biosensors for artificial olfaction applications.

  1. RNA binding proteins in neurodegeneration: Seq and you shall receive

    PubMed Central

    Nussbacher, Julia K.; Batra, Ranjan; Lagier-Tourenne, Clotilde; Yeo, Gene W.

    2015-01-01

    As critical players in gene regulation, RNA binding proteins are taking center stage in our understanding of cellular function and disease. In our era of bench-top sequencers and unprecedented computational power, biological questions can be addressed in a systematic, genome-wide manner. Development of high-throughput sequencing methodologies provides unparalleled potential to discover new mechanisms of disease-associated perturbations of RNA homeostasis. Complementary to candidate single-gene studies, these innovative technologies may elicit the discovery of unexpected mechanisms, and allow us to determine the widespread influence of the multifunctional RNA binding proteins on their targets. As disruption of RNA processing is increasingly implicated in neurological diseases, these approaches will continue to provide insights into the roles of RNA binding proteins in disease pathogenesis. PMID:25765321

  2. Differential plasma protein binding to metal oxide nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Zhou J.; Mortimer, Gysell; Schiller, Tara; Musumeci, Anthony; Martin, Darren; Minchin, Rodney F.

    2009-11-01

    Nanoparticles rapidly interact with the proteins present in biological fluids, such as blood. The proteins that are adsorbed onto the surface potentially dictate the biokinetics of the nanomaterials and their fate in vivo. Using nanoparticles with different sizes and surface characteristics, studies have reported the effects of physicochemical properties on the composition of adsorbed plasma proteins. However, to date, few studies have been conducted focusing on the nanoparticles that are commonly exposed to the general public, such as the metal oxides. Using previously established ultracentrifugation approaches, two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry, the current study investigated the binding of human plasma proteins to commercially available titanium dioxide, silicon dioxide and zinc oxide nanoparticles. We found that, despite these particles having similar surface charges in buffer, they bound different plasma proteins. For TiO2, the shape of the nanoparticles was also an important determinant of protein binding. Agglomeration in water was observed for all of the nanoparticles and both TiO2 and ZnO further agglomerated in biological media. This led to an increase in the amount and number of different proteins bound to these nanoparticles. Proteins with important biological functions were identified, including immunoglobulins, lipoproteins, acute-phase proteins and proteins involved in complement pathways and coagulation. These results provide important insights into which human plasma proteins bind to particular metal oxide nanoparticles. Because protein absorption to nanoparticles may determine their interaction with cells and tissues in vivo, understanding how and why plasma proteins are adsorbed to these particles may be important for understanding their biological responses.

  3. SVM based prediction of RNA-binding proteins using binding residues and evolutionary information.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Manish; Gromiha, M Michael; Raghava, Gajendra P S

    2011-01-01

    RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) play crucial role in transcription and gene-regulation. This paper describes a support vector machine (SVM) based method for discriminating and classifying RNA-binding and non-binding proteins using sequence features. With the threshold of 30% interacting residues, RNA-binding amino acid prediction method PPRINT achieved the Matthews correlation coefficient (MCC) of 0.32. BLAST and PSI-BLAST identified RBPs with the coverage of 32.63 and 33.16%, respectively, at the e-value of 1e-4. The SVM models developed with amino acid, dipeptide and four-part amino acid compositions showed the MCC of 0.60, 0.46, and 0.53, respectively. This is the first study in which evolutionary information in form of position specific scoring matrix (PSSM) profile has been successfully used for predicting RBPs. We achieved the maximum MCC of 0.62 using SVM model based on PSSM called PSSM-400. Finally, we developed different hybrid approaches and achieved maximum MCC of 0.66. We also developed a method for predicting three subclasses of RNA binding proteins (e.g., rRNA, tRNA, mRNA binding proteins). The performance of the method was also evaluated on an independent dataset of 69 RBPs and 100 non-RBPs (NBPs). An additional benchmarking was also performed using gene ontology (GO) based annotation. Based on the hybrid approach a web-server RNApred has been developed for predicting RNA binding proteins from amino acid sequences (http://www.imtech.res.in/raghava/rnapred/).

  4. BindUP: a web server for non-homology-based prediction of DNA and RNA binding proteins.

    PubMed

    Paz, Inbal; Kligun, Efrat; Bengad, Barak; Mandel-Gutfreund, Yael

    2016-07-01

    Gene expression is a multi-step process involving many layers of regulation. The main regulators of the pathway are DNA and RNA binding proteins. While over the years, a large number of DNA and RNA binding proteins have been identified and extensively studied, it is still expected that many other proteins, some with yet another known function, are awaiting to be discovered. Here we present a new web server, BindUP, freely accessible through the website http://bindup.technion.ac.il/, for predicting DNA and RNA binding proteins using a non-homology-based approach. Our method is based on the electrostatic features of the protein surface and other general properties of the protein. BindUP predicts nucleic acid binding function given the proteins three-dimensional structure or a structural model. Additionally, BindUP provides information on the largest electrostatic surface patches, visualized on the server. The server was tested on several datasets of DNA and RNA binding proteins, including proteins which do not possess DNA or RNA binding domains and have no similarity to known nucleic acid binding proteins, achieving very high accuracy. BindUP is applicable in either single or batch modes and can be applied for testing hundreds of proteins simultaneously in a highly efficient manner.

  5. BindUP: a web server for non-homology-based prediction of DNA and RNA binding proteins

    PubMed Central

    Paz, Inbal; Kligun, Efrat; Bengad, Barak; Mandel-Gutfreund, Yael

    2016-01-01

    Gene expression is a multi-step process involving many layers of regulation. The main regulators of the pathway are DNA and RNA binding proteins. While over the years, a large number of DNA and RNA binding proteins have been identified and extensively studied, it is still expected that many other proteins, some with yet another known function, are awaiting to be discovered. Here we present a new web server, BindUP, freely accessible through the website http://bindup.technion.ac.il/, for predicting DNA and RNA binding proteins using a non-homology-based approach. Our method is based on the electrostatic features of the protein surface and other general properties of the protein. BindUP predicts nucleic acid binding function given the proteins three-dimensional structure or a structural model. Additionally, BindUP provides information on the largest electrostatic surface patches, visualized on the server. The server was tested on several datasets of DNA and RNA binding proteins, including proteins which do not possess DNA or RNA binding domains and have no similarity to known nucleic acid binding proteins, achieving very high accuracy. BindUP is applicable in either single or batch modes and can be applied for testing hundreds of proteins simultaneously in a highly efficient manner. PMID:27198220

  6. Can cofactor-binding sites in proteins be flexible? Desulfovibrio desulfuricans flavodoxin binds FMN dimer.

    PubMed

    Muralidhara, B K; Wittung-Stafshede, Pernilla

    2003-11-11

    Flavodoxins catalyze redox reactions using the isoalloxazine moiety of the flavin mononucleotide (FMN) cofactor stacked between two aromatic residues located in two peptide loops. At high FMN concentrations that favor stacked FMN dimers in solution, isothermal titration calorimetric studies show that these dimers bind strongly to apo-flavodoxin from Desulfovibrio desulfuricans (30 degrees C, 20 mM Hepes, pH 7, K(D) = 5.8 microM). Upon increasing the temperature so the FMN dimers dissociate (as shown by (1)H NMR), only one-to-one (FMN-to-protein) binding is observed. Calorimetric titrations result in one-to-one binding also in the presence of phosphate or sulfate (30 degrees C, 13 mM anion, pH 7, K(D) = 0.4 microM). FMN remains dimeric in the presence of phosphate and sulfate, suggesting that specific binding of a divalent anion to the phosphate-binding site triggers ordering of the peptide loops so only one isoalloxazine can fit. Although the physiological relevance of FMN and other nucleotides as dimers has not been explored, our study shows that high-affinity binding to proteins of such dimers can occur in vitro. This emphasizes that the cofactor-binding site in flavodoxin is more flexible than previously expected. PMID:14596623

  7. Coenzyme Q10-Binding/Transfer Protein Saposin B also Binds gamma-Tocopherol.

    PubMed

    Jin, Guangzhi; Horinouchi, Ryo; Sagawa, Tomofumi; Orimo, Nobutsune; Kubo, Hiroshi; Yoshimura, Shinichi; Fujisawa, Akio; Kashiba, Misato; Yamamoto, Yorihiro

    2008-09-01

    gamma-Tocopherol, the major form of dietary vitamin E, is absorbed in the intestine and is secreted in chylomicrons, which are then transferred to liver lysosomes. Most gamma-tocopherol is transferred to liver microsomes and is catabolized by cytochrome p450. Due to the hydrophobicity of gamma-tocopherol, a binding and transfer protein is plausible, but none have yet been isolated and characterized. We recently found that a ubiquitous cytosolic protein, saposin B, binds and transfers coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10), which is an essential factor for ATP production and an important antioxidant. Here, we report that saposin B also binds gamma-tocopherol, but not alpha-tocopherol, as efficiently as CoQ10 at pH 7.4. At acidic pH, saposin B binds gamma-tocopherol preferentially to CoQ10 and alpha-tocopherol. Furthermore, we confirmed that saposin B selectively binds gamma-tocopherol instead of CoQ10 and alpha-tocopherol at every pH between 5.4 and 8.0 when all three lipids are competing for binding. We detected gamma-tocopherol in human saposin B monoclonal antibody-induced immunoprecipitates from human urine, although the amount of gamma-tocopherol was much smaller than that of CoQ10. These results suggest that saposin B binds and transports gamma-tocopherol in human cells.

  8. Holo- And Apo- Structures of Bacterial Periplasmic Heme Binding Proteins

    SciTech Connect

    Ho, W.W.; Li, H.; Eakanunkul, S.; Tong, Y.; Wilks, A.; Guo, M.; Poulos, T.L.

    2009-06-01

    An essential component of heme transport in Gram-negative bacterial pathogens is the periplasmic protein that shuttles heme between outer and inner membranes. We have solved the first crystal structures of two such proteins, ShuT from Shigella dysenteriae and PhuT from Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Both share a common architecture typical of Class III periplasmic binding proteins. The heme binds in a narrow cleft between the N- and C-terminal binding domains and is coordinated by a Tyr residue. A comparison of the heme-free (apo) and -bound (holo) structures indicates little change in structure other than minor alterations in the heme pocket and movement of the Tyr heme ligand from an 'in' position where it can coordinate the heme iron to an 'out' orientation where it points away from the heme pocket. The detailed architecture of the heme pocket is quite different in ShuT and PhuT. Although Arg{sup 228} in PhuT H-bonds with a heme propionate, in ShuT a peptide loop partially takes up the space occupied by Arg{sup 228}, and there is no Lys or Arg H-bonding with the heme propionates. A comparison of PhuT/ShuT with the vitamin B{sub 12}-binding protein BtuF and the hydroxamic-type siderophore-binding protein FhuD, the only two other structurally characterized Class III periplasmic binding proteins, demonstrates that PhuT/ShuT more closely resembles BtuF, which reflects the closer similarity in ligands, heme and B{sub 12}, compared with ligands for FhuD, a peptide siderophore.

  9. Solvation structure of ice-binding antifreeze proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen-Goos, Hendrik; Wettlaufer, John

    2009-03-01

    Antifreeze proteins (AFPs) can be found in organisms which survive at subzero temperatures. They were first discovered in polar fishes since the 1950's [1] and have been isolated meanwhile also from insects, plants, and bacteria. While AFPs shift the freezing point of water below the bulk melting point and hence can prevent recrystallization; the effect is non-colligative and there is a pronounced hysteresis between freezing and melting. For many AFPs it is generally accepted that they function through an irreversible binding to the ice-water interface which leads to a piecewise convex growth front with a lower nonequilibrium freezing point due to the Kelvin effect. Recent molecular dynamics simulations of the AFP from Choristoneura fumiferana reveal that the solvation structures of water at ice-binding and non-ice-binding faces of the protein are crucial for understanding how the AFP binds to the ice surface and how it is protected from being overgrown [2]. We use density functional theory of classical fluids in order to assess the microscopic solvent structure in the vicinity of protein faces with different surface properties. With our method, binding energies of different protein faces to the water-ice-interface can be computed efficiently in a simplified model. [1] Y. Yeh and R.E. Feeney, Chem. Rev. 96, 601 (1996). [2] D.R. Nutt and J.C. Smith, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 130, 13066 (2008).

  10. Reprogramming cellular events by poly(ADP-ribose)-binding proteins

    PubMed Central

    Pic, Émilie; Ethier, Chantal; Dawson, Ted M.; Dawson, Valina L.; Masson, Jean-Yves; Poirier, Guy G.; Gagné, Jean-Philippe

    2013-01-01

    Poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation is a posttranslational modification catalyzed by the poly(ADP-ribose) polymerases (PARPs). These enzymes covalently modify glutamic, aspartic and lysine amino acid side chains of acceptor proteins by the sequential addition of ADP-ribose (ADPr) units. The poly(ADP-ribose) (pADPr) polymers formed alter the physico-chemical characteristics of the substrate with functional consequences on its biological activities. Recently, non-covalent binding to pADPr has emerged as a key mechanism to modulate and coordinate several intracellular pathways including the DNA damage response, protein stability and cell death. In this review, we describe the basis of non-covalent binding to pADPr that has led to the emerging concept of pADPr-responsive signaling pathways. This review emphasizes the structural elements and the modular strategies developed by pADPr-binding proteins to exert a fine-tuned control of a variety of pathways. Poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation reactions are highly regulated processes, both spatially and temporally, for which at least four specialized pADPr-binding modules accommodate different pADPr structures and reprogram protein functions. In this review, we highlight the role of well-characterized and newly discovered pADPr-binding modules in a diverse set of physiological functions. PMID:23268355

  11. MutaBind estimates and interprets the effects of sequence variants on protein-protein interactions.

    PubMed

    Li, Minghui; Simonetti, Franco L; Goncearenco, Alexander; Panchenko, Anna R

    2016-07-01

    Proteins engage in highly selective interactions with their macromolecular partners. Sequence variants that alter protein binding affinity may cause significant perturbations or complete abolishment of function, potentially leading to diseases. There exists a persistent need to develop a mechanistic understanding of impacts of variants on proteins. To address this need we introduce a new computational method MutaBind to evaluate the effects of sequence variants and disease mutations on protein interactions and calculate the quantitative changes in binding affinity. The MutaBind method uses molecular mechanics force fields, statistical potentials and fast side-chain optimization algorithms. The MutaBind server maps mutations on a structural protein complex, calculates the associated changes in binding affinity, determines the deleterious effect of a mutation, estimates the confidence of this prediction and produces a mutant structural model for download. MutaBind can be applied to a large number of problems, including determination of potential driver mutations in cancer and other diseases, elucidation of the effects of sequence variants on protein fitness in evolution and protein design. MutaBind is available at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/projects/mutabind/. PMID:27150810

  12. Disulfide bridge regulates ligand-binding site selectivity in liver bile acid-binding proteins.

    PubMed

    Cogliati, Clelia; Tomaselli, Simona; Assfalg, Michael; Pedò, Massimo; Ferranti, Pasquale; Zetta, Lucia; Molinari, Henriette; Ragona, Laura

    2009-10-01

    Bile acid-binding proteins (BABPs) are cytosolic lipid chaperones that play central roles in driving bile flow, as well as in the adaptation to various pathological conditions, contributing to the maintenance of bile acid homeostasis and functional distribution within the cell. Understanding the mode of binding of bile acids with their cytoplasmic transporters is a key issue in providing a model for the mechanism of their transfer from the cytoplasm to the nucleus, for delivery to nuclear receptors. A number of factors have been shown to modulate bile salt selectivity, stoichiometry, and affinity of binding to BABPs, e.g. chemistry of the ligand, protein plasticity and, possibly, the formation of disulfide bridges. Here, the effects of the presence of a naturally occurring disulfide bridge on liver BABP ligand-binding properties and backbone dynamics have been investigated by NMR. Interestingly, the disulfide bridge does not modify the protein-binding stoichiometry, but has a key role in modulating recognition at both sites, inducing site selectivity for glycocholic and glycochenodeoxycholic acid. Protein conformational changes following the introduction of a disulfide bridge are small and located around the inner binding site, whereas significant changes in backbone motions are observed for several residues distributed over the entire protein, both in the apo form and in the holo form. Site selectivity appears, therefore, to be dependent on protein mobility rather than being governed by steric factors. The detected properties further establish a parallelism with the behaviour of human ileal BABP, substantiating the proposal that BABPs have parallel functions in hepatocytes and enterocytes. PMID:19754879

  13. Disulfide bridge regulates ligand-binding site selectivity in liver bile acid-binding proteins.

    PubMed

    Cogliati, Clelia; Tomaselli, Simona; Assfalg, Michael; Pedò, Massimo; Ferranti, Pasquale; Zetta, Lucia; Molinari, Henriette; Ragona, Laura

    2009-10-01

    Bile acid-binding proteins (BABPs) are cytosolic lipid chaperones that play central roles in driving bile flow, as well as in the adaptation to various pathological conditions, contributing to the maintenance of bile acid homeostasis and functional distribution within the cell. Understanding the mode of binding of bile acids with their cytoplasmic transporters is a key issue in providing a model for the mechanism of their transfer from the cytoplasm to the nucleus, for delivery to nuclear receptors. A number of factors have been shown to modulate bile salt selectivity, stoichiometry, and affinity of binding to BABPs, e.g. chemistry of the ligand, protein plasticity and, possibly, the formation of disulfide bridges. Here, the effects of the presence of a naturally occurring disulfide bridge on liver BABP ligand-binding properties and backbone dynamics have been investigated by NMR. Interestingly, the disulfide bridge does not modify the protein-binding stoichiometry, but has a key role in modulating recognition at both sites, inducing site selectivity for glycocholic and glycochenodeoxycholic acid. Protein conformational changes following the introduction of a disulfide bridge are small and located around the inner binding site, whereas significant changes in backbone motions are observed for several residues distributed over the entire protein, both in the apo form and in the holo form. Site selectivity appears, therefore, to be dependent on protein mobility rather than being governed by steric factors. The detected properties further establish a parallelism with the behaviour of human ileal BABP, substantiating the proposal that BABPs have parallel functions in hepatocytes and enterocytes.

  14. Behind the scenes of vitamin D binding protein: more than vitamin D binding.

    PubMed

    Delanghe, Joris R; Speeckaert, Reinhart; Speeckaert, Marijn M

    2015-10-01

    Although being discovered in 1959, the number of published papers in recent years reveals that vitamin D binding protein (DBP), a member of the albuminoid superfamily, is a hot research topic. Besides the three major phenotypes (DBP1F, DBP1S and DBP2), more than 120 unique variants have been described of this polymorphic protein. The presence of DBP has been demonstrated in different body fluids (serum, urine, breast milk, ascitic fluid, cerebrospinal fluid, saliva and seminal fluid) and organs (brain, heart, lungs, kidneys, placenta, spleen, testes and uterus). Although the major function is binding, solubilization and transport of vitamin D and its metabolites, the name of this glycoprotein hides numerous other important biological functions. In this review, we will focus on the analytical aspects of the determination of DBP and discuss in detail the multifunctional capacity [actin scavenging, binding of fatty acids, chemotaxis, binding of endotoxins, influence on T cell response and influence of vitamin D binding protein-macrophage activating factor (DBP-MAF) on bone metabolism and cancer] of this abundant plasma protein. PMID:26522461

  15. Use of reverse phase protein microarrays and reference standard development for molecular network analysis of metastatic ovarian carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Sheehan, Katherine M; Calvert, Valerie S; Kay, Elaine W; Lu, Yiling; Fishman, David; Espina, Virginia; Aquino, Joy; Speer, Runa; Araujo, Robyn; Mills, Gordon B; Liotta, Lance A; Petricoin, Emanuel F; Wulfkuhle, Julia D

    2005-04-01

    Cancer can be defined as a deregulation or hyperactivity in the ongoing network of intracellular and extracellular signaling events. Reverse phase protein microarray technology may offer a new opportunity to measure and profile these signaling pathways, providing data on post-translational phosphorylation events not obtainable by gene microarray analysis. Treatment of ovarian epithelial carcinoma almost always takes place in a metastatic setting since unfortunately the disease is often not detected until later stages. Thus, in addition to elucidation of the molecular network within a tumor specimen, critical questions are to what extent do signaling changes occur upon metastasis and are there common pathway elements that arise in the metastatic microenvironment. For individualized combinatorial therapy, ideal therapeutic selection based on proteomic mapping of phosphorylation end points may require evaluation of the patient's metastatic tissue. Extending these findings to the bedside will require the development of optimized protocols and reference standards. We have developed a reference standard based on a mixture of phosphorylated peptides to begin to address this challenge.

  16. Function analysis of proteins encoded by ORFs 1 to 8 of porcine circovirus-like virus P1 by microarray assay.

    PubMed

    Wen, Libin; Wang, Fengzhi; Zhang, Dan; He, Kongwang

    2015-12-01

    Porcine circovirus-like agent P1 is a newly discovered virus containing a single-strand circular genome. The genome of P1 is a DNA molecule of 648 nucleotides which contains eight open reading frames (ORFs) that probably encode potential proteins or polypeptides. Thus it is very important to clarify these proteins' function. Here we provide the methods and analysis of microarray data in detail to characterize the transcriptome profile of P1 with and without the ORF. The relevant microarray data sets have been deposited in Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database under accession number GSE71945. PMID:26697373

  17. DNA Microarrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, C.; Gidrol, X.

    Genomics has revolutionised biological and biomedical research. This revolution was predictable on the basis of its two driving forces: the ever increasing availability of genome sequences and the development of new technology able to exploit them. Up until now, technical limitations meant that molecular biology could only analyse one or two parameters per experiment, providing relatively little information compared with the great complexity of the systems under investigation. This gene by gene approach is inadequate to understand biological systems containing several thousand genes. It is essential to have an overall view of the DNA, RNA, and relevant proteins. A simple inventory of the genome is not sufficient to understand the functions of the genes, or indeed the way that cells and organisms work. For this purpose, functional studies based on whole genomes are needed. Among these new large-scale methods of molecular analysis, DNA microarrays provide a way of studying the genome and the transcriptome. The idea of integrating a large amount of data derived from a support with very small area has led biologists to call these chips, borrowing the term from the microelectronics industry. At the beginning of the 1990s, the development of DNA chips on nylon membranes [1, 2], then on glass [3] and silicon [4] supports, made it possible for the first time to carry out simultaneous measurements of the equilibrium concentration of all the messenger RNA (mRNA) or transcribed RNA in a cell. These microarrays offer a wide range of applications, in both fundamental and clinical research, providing a method for genome-wide characterisation of changes occurring within a cell or tissue, as for example in polymorphism studies, detection of mutations, and quantitative assays of gene copies. With regard to the transcriptome, it provides a way of characterising differentially expressed genes, profiling given biological states, and identifying regulatory channels.

  18. Development of a single nucleotide polymorphism genotyping microarray platform for the identification of bovine milk protein genetic polymorphisms.

    PubMed

    Chessa, S; Chiatti, F; Ceriotti, G; Caroli, A; Consolandi, C; Pagnacco, G; Castiglioni, B

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this study was to develop and validate a fast method for typing the main mutations of bovine milk protein genes by using microarray technology. An approach based on the ligation detection reaction (LDR) and a universal array (UA) was used. Polymorphisms in both the coding and noncoding sequences of alpha(S1)-casein, beta-casein, kappa-casein, and beta-lactoglobulin genes were considered because of their well-known effects on milk composition and cheese production. A total of 22 polymorphic sites, corresponding to 21 different variants, were included in the diagnostic microarray. First, a multiplex PCR was developed to amplify all the DNA target sequences simultaneously. Second, the LDR-UA assay was implemented. The method was validated by analyzing 100 Italian Friesian DNA samples, which were also genotyped by conventional methods both at the protein level by means of milk isoelectrofocusing and at the molecular level using PCR-RFLP and PCR-single strand conformation polymorphism techniques. The genotypes obtained using the LDR-UA approach were in full agreement with those obtained by the conventional analyses. An important result of the LDR-UA assay was a more accurate genotyping of the different milk protein alleles than was found with conventional typing methods. At the kappa-casein gene, in fact, 4 samples were heterozygous (3 reference samples and 1 validation sample) for an allele coding for Thr(136) and Ala(148). This variant, which can be considered as the wild type of the genus Bos, is not usually identifiable by the conventional typing methods used. The multiplex PCR-LDR-UA approach developed provides for an accurate, inexpensive, and high-throughput assay that does not exhibit false positive or false negative signals, thus making it highly suitable for animal genotyping.

  19. Quantitative analysis of pheromone-binding protein specificity

    PubMed Central

    Katti, S.; Lokhande, N.; González, D.; Cassill, A.; Renthal, R.

    2012-01-01

    Many pheromones have very low water solubility, posing experimental difficulties for quantitative binding measurements. A new method is presented for determining thermodynamically valid dissociation constants for ligands binding to pheromone-binding proteins (OBPs), using β-cyclodextrin as a solubilizer and transfer agent. The method is applied to LUSH, a Drosophila OBP that binds the pheromone 11-cis vaccenyl acetate (cVA). Refolding of LUSH expressed in E. coli was assessed by measuring N-phenyl-1-naphthylamine (NPN) binding and Förster resonance energy transfer between LUSH tryptophan 123 (W123) and NPN. Binding of cVA was measured from quenching of W123 fluorescence as a function of cVA concentration. The equilibrium constant for transfer of cVA between β-cyclodextrin and LUSH was determined from a linked equilibria model. This constant, multiplied by the β-cyclodextrin-cVA dissociation constant, gives the LUSH-cVA dissociation constant: ~100 nM. It was also found that other ligands quench W123 fluorescence. The LUSH-ligand dissociation constants were determined to be ~200 nM for the silk moth pheromone bombykol and ~90 nM for methyl oleate. The results indicate that the ligand-binding cavity of LUSH can accommodate a variety ligands with strong binding interactions. Implications of this for the pheromone receptor model proposed by Laughlin et al. (Cell 133: 1255–65, 2008) are discussed. PMID:23121132

  20. Binding of C-reactive protein to human lymphocytes. I. Requirement for a binding specificity.

    PubMed

    James, K; Hansen, B; Gewurz, H

    1981-12-01

    Our laboratory previously reported that C-reactive protein (CRP) binds selectively to T lymphocytes and inhibits certain of their reactivities in vitro. However, these findings could not be repeated using more highly purified CRP preparations even under a variety of experimental conditions. Purified CRP alone did not bind to peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL); however, in the presence of a ligand such as pneumococcal C-polysaccharide (CPS), CRP binding was readily detectable both by immunofluorescence and by a radioassay established for this purpose. The optimal concentration of CRP, ratio of CRP:CPS, and time and temperature for reactivity were determined using both assays. A markedly enhanced rate of binding was observed after pre-equilibration of CRP with calcium. A small percentage (mean 3.0%; range 0.5 to 8.0%) of PBL bound complexed CRP, and saturation was reached with 200 microgram CRP/ml. Reactivity of CRP with a multimeric form of phosphocholine (PC) (KLH-PC44) led to binding comparable to that observed with CPS, whereas monomeric PC inhibited the binding. Thus, in the presence of a multimeric binding specificity, CRP binds to a small fraction of peripheral blood lymphocytes, which are characterized in the accompanying paper.

  1. Binding-regulated click ligation for selective detection of proteins.

    PubMed

    Cao, Ya; Han, Peng; Wang, Zhuxin; Chen, Weiwei; Shu, Yongqian; Xiang, Yang

    2016-04-15

    Herein, a binding-regulated click ligation (BRCL) strategy for endowing selective detection of proteins is developed with the incorporation of small-molecule ligand and clickable DNA probes. The fundamental principle underlying the strategy is the regulating capability of specific protein-ligand binding against the ligation between clickable DNA probes, which could efficiently combine the detection of particular protein with enormous DNA-based sensing technologies. In this work, the feasibly of the BRCL strategy is first verified through agarose gel electrophoresis and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurements, and then confirmed by transferring it to a nanomaterial-assisted fluorescence assay. Significantly, the BRCL strategy-based assay is able to respond to target protein with desirable selectivity, attributing to the specific recognition between small-molecule ligand and its target. Further experiments validate the general applicability of the sensing method by tailoring the ligand toward different proteins (i.e., avidin and folate receptor), and demonstrate its usability in complex biological samples. To our knowledge, this work pioneers the practice of click chemistry in probing specific small-molecule ligand-protein binding, and therefore may pave a new way for selective detection of proteins.

  2. Drug-drug plasma protein binding interactions of ivacaftor.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Elena K; Huang, Johnny X; Carbone, Vincenzo; Baker, Mark; Azad, Mohammad A K; Cooper, Matthew A; Li, Jian; Velkov, Tony

    2015-06-01

    Ivacaftor is a novel cystic fibrosis (CF) transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) potentiator that improves the pulmonary function for patients with CF bearing a G551D CFTR-protein mutation. Because ivacaftor is highly bound (>97%) to plasma proteins, there is the strong possibility that co-administered CF drugs may compete for the same plasma protein binding sites and impact the free drug concentration. This, in turn, could lead to drastic changes in the in vivo efficacy of ivacaftor and therapeutic outcomes. This biochemical study compares the binding affinity of ivacaftor and co-administered CF drugs for human serum albumin (HSA) and α1 -acid glycoprotein (AGP) using surface plasmon resonance and fluorimetric binding assays that measure the displacement of site-selective probes. Because of their ability to strongly compete for the ivacaftor binding sites on HSA and AGP, drug-drug interactions between ivacaftor are to be expected with ducosate, montelukast, ibuprofen, dicloxacillin, omeprazole, and loratadine. The significance of these plasma protein drug-drug interactions is also interpreted in terms of molecular docking simulations. This in vitro study provides valuable insights into the plasma protein drug-drug interactions of ivacaftor with co-administered CF drugs. The data may prove useful in future clinical trials for a staggered treatment that aims to maximize the effective free drug concentration and clinical efficacy of ivacaftor. PMID:25707701

  3. Structural and functional analysis of fatty acid-binding proteins

    PubMed Central

    Storch, Judith; McDermott, Lindsay

    2009-01-01

    The mammalian FA-binding proteins (FABPs) bind long-chain FA with high affinity. The large number of FABP types is suggestive of distinct functions in specific tissues. Multiple experimental approaches have shown that individual FABPs possess both unique and overlapping functions, some of which are based on specific elements in the protein structure. Although FA binding affinities for all FABPs tend to correlate directly with FA hydrophobicity, structure-function studies indicate that subtle three-dimensional changes that occur upon ligand binding may promote specific protein-protein or protein-membrane interactions that ultimately determine the function of each FABP. The conformational changes are focused in the FABP helical/portal domain, a region that was identified by in vitro studies to be vital for the FA transport properties of the FABPs. Thus, the FABPs modulate intracellular lipid homeostasis by regulating FA transport in the nuclear and extra-nuclear compartments of the cell; in so doing, they also impact systemic energy homeostasis. PMID:19017610

  4. The RNA-binding protein repertoire of Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Marondedze, Claudius; Thomas, Ludivine; Serrano, Natalia L.; Lilley, Kathryn S.; Gehring, Chris

    2016-01-01

    RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) have essential roles in determining the fate of RNA from synthesis to decay and have been studied on a protein-by-protein basis, or computationally based on a number of well-characterised RNA-binding domains. Recently, high-throughput methods enabled the capture of mammalian RNA-binding proteomes. To gain insight into the role of Arabidopsis thaliana RBPs at the systems level, we have employed interactome capture techniques using cells from different ecotypes grown in cultures and leaves. In vivo UV-crosslinking of RNA to RBPs, oligo(dT) capture and mass spectrometry yielded 1,145 different proteins including 550 RBPs that either belong to the functional category ‘RNA-binding’, have known RNA-binding domains or have orthologs identified in mammals, C. elegans, or S. cerevisiae in addition to 595 novel candidate RBPs. We noted specific subsets of RBPs in cultured cells and leaves and a comparison of Arabidopsis, mammalian, C. elegans, and S. cerevisiae RBPs reveals a common set of proteins with a role in intermediate metabolism, as well as distinct differences suggesting that RBPs are also species and tissue specific. This study provides a foundation for studies that will advance our understanding of the biological significance of RBPs in plant developmental and stimulus specific responses. PMID:27405932

  5. Carotenoid-binding proteins; accessories to carotenoid function.

    PubMed

    Pilbrow, Jodi; Garama, Daniel; Carne, Alan

    2012-01-01

    Understanding of the widespread biological importance of carotenoids is increasing. Accompanying this is the developing recognition that the interaction of carotenoids with other molecules, such as proteins, is also essential. Here the significance of carotenoid-protein interactions with respect to biological function is reviewed for three well characterised carotenoprotein complexes; crustacyanin, the orange carotenoid protein and glutathione-S-transferase P1. In addition a preliminary report is made on the recent partial purification of an echinenone-binding protein extracted from a New Zealand sea urchin, Evechinus chloroticus. PMID:22428138

  6. Carotenoid-binding proteins; accessories to carotenoid function.

    PubMed

    Pilbrow, Jodi; Garama, Daniel; Carne, Alan

    2012-01-01

    Understanding of the widespread biological importance of carotenoids is increasing. Accompanying this is the developing recognition that the interaction of carotenoids with other molecules, such as proteins, is also essential. Here the significance of carotenoid-protein interactions with respect to biological function is reviewed for three well characterised carotenoprotein complexes; crustacyanin, the orange carotenoid protein and glutathione-S-transferase P1. In addition a preliminary report is made on the recent partial purification of an echinenone-binding protein extracted from a New Zealand sea urchin, Evechinus chloroticus.

  7. Stable, ligand-doped, poly(bis-SorbPC) lipid bilayer arrays for protein binding and detection.

    PubMed

    Joubert, James R; Smith, Kathryn A; Johnson, Erin; Keogh, John P; Wysocki, Vicki H; Gale, Bruce K; Conboy, John C; Saavedra, S Scott

    2009-06-01

    A continuous-flow microspotter was used to generate planar arrays of stabilized bilayers composed of the polymerizable lipid bis-SorbPC and dopant lipids bearing ligands for proteins. Fluorescence microscopy was used to determine the uniformity of the bilayers and to detect protein binding. After UV-initiated polymerization, poly(lipid) bilayer microarrays were air-stable. Cholera toxin subunit b (CTb) bound to an array of poly(lipid) bilayers doped with GM(1), and the extent of binding was correlated to the mole percentage of GM(1) in each spot. A poly(lipid) bilayer array composed of spots doped with GM(1) and spots doped with biotin-DOPE specifically bound CTb and streptavidin to the respective spots from a dissolved mixture of the two proteins. Poly(bis-SorbPC)/GM(1) arrays retained specific CTb binding capacity after multiple regenerations with a protein denaturing solution and also after exposure to air. In addition, these arrays are stable in vacuum, which allows the use of MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry to detect specifically bound CTb. This work demonstrates the considerable potential of poly(lipid) bilayer arrays for high-throughput binding assays and lipidomics studies. PMID:20355927

  8. Binding of IKe gene 5 protein to polynucleotides. Fluorescence binding experiments of IKe gene 5 protein and mutual cooperativity of IKe and M13 gene 5 proteins.

    PubMed

    de Jong, E A; Harmsen, B J; Konings, R N; Hilbers, C W

    1987-04-01

    Fluorescence studies of the binding of IKe gene 5 protein to various polynucleotides were performed to obtain insight into the question as to what extent the binding characteristics of the gene 5 proteins of the IKe and M13 phages resemble and/or differ from each other. The fluorescence of IKe gene 5 protein is quenched 60% upon binding to most polynucleotides. At moderate salt concentrations, i.e., below 1 M salt, the binding stoichiometry is 4.0 +/- 0.5 nucleotides per IKe gene 5 protein monomer. The affinity of the protein for homopolynucleotides depends strongly on sugar and base type; in order of increasing affinities we find poly(rC) less than poly(dA) less than poly(rA) less than poly(dI) less than poly(rU) less than poly(dU) less than poly(dT). For most polynucleotides studied, the affinity depends linearly on the salt concentration: [d log (Kint omega)]/(d log [M+]) = -3. The binding is highly cooperative. The cooperativity parameter omega, as deduced from protein titration curves, is 300 +/- 150 and appears independent of the type of polynucleotide studied. Estimation of this binding parameter from salt titrations of gene 5 protein-polynucleotide complexes results in systematically higher values. A comparison of the binding data of the IKe and M13 gene 5 proteins shows that the fluorescence quenching, stoichiometry, order of binding affinities, and cooperativity in the binding are similar for both proteins. From this it is concluded that at least the DNA binding grooves of both proteins must show a close resemblance.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  9. Fluorescence turn-on detection of a protein through the displaced single-stranded DNA binding protein binding to a molecular beacon.

    PubMed

    Tang, Dan; Liao, Dongli; Zhu, Qiankun; Wang, Fangyuan; Jiao, Huping; Zhang, Yujing; Yu, Cong

    2011-05-21

    A new approach has been developed for the highly sensitive and selective sensing of a protein. Lysozyme binding to its aptamer prevents SSB protein binding, and the subsequent binding of the free SSB protein to a molecular beacon results in a turn-on fluorescence signal, which can be used for lysozyme quantification.

  10. Primary structure and binding activity of the hnRNP U protein: binding RNA through RGG box.

    PubMed Central

    Kiledjian, M; Dreyfuss, G

    1992-01-01

    Heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoproteins (hnRNPs) are thought to influence the structure of hnRNA and participate in the processing of hnRNA to mRNA. The hnRNP U protein is an abundant nucleoplasmic phosphoprotein that is the largest of the major hnRNP proteins (120 kDa by SDS-PAGE). HnRNP U binds pre-mRNA in vivo and binds both RNA and ssDNA in vitro. Here we describe the cloning and sequencing of a cDNA encoding the hnRNP U protein, the determination of its amino acid sequence and the delineation of a region in this protein that confers RNA binding. The predicted amino acid sequence of hnRNP U contains 806 amino acids (88,939 Daltons), and shows no extensive homology to any known proteins. The N-terminus is rich in acidic residues and the C-terminus is glycine-rich. In addition, a glutamine-rich stretch, a putative NTP binding site and a putative nuclear localization signal are present. It could not be defined from the sequence what segment of the protein confers its RNA binding activity. We identified an RNA binding activity within the C-terminal glycine-rich 112 amino acids. This region, designated U protein glycine-rich RNA binding region (U-gly), can by itself bind RNA. Furthermore, fusion of U-gly to a heterologous bacterial protein (maltose binding protein) converts this fusion protein into an RNA binding protein. A 26 amino acid peptide within U-gly is necessary for the RNA binding activity of the U protein. Interestingly, this peptide contains a cluster of RGG repeats with characteristic spacing and this motif is found also in several other RNA binding proteins. We have termed this region the RGG box and propose that it is an RNA binding motif and a predictor of RNA binding activity. Images PMID:1628625

  11. Ag@SiO2-entrapped hydrogel microarray: a new platform for a metal-enhanced fluorescence-based protein assay.

    PubMed

    Jang, Eunji; Kim, Minsu; Koh, Won-Gun

    2015-05-21

    We developed a novel protein-based bioassay platform utilizing metal-enhanced fluorescence (MEF), which is a hydrogel microarray entrapping silica-coated silver nanoparticles (Ag@SiO2). As a model system, different concentrations of glucose were detected using a fluorescence method by sequential bienzymatic reaction of hydrogel-entrapped glucose oxidase (GOX) and peroxidase (POD) inside a hydrogel microarray. Microarrays based on poly(ethylene glycol)(PEG) hydrogels were prepared by photopatterning a solution containing PEG diacrylate (PEG-DA), photoinitiator, enzymes, and Ag@SiO2. The resulting hydrogel microarrays were able to entrap both enzymes and Ag@SiO2 without leaching and deactivation problems. The presence of Ag@SiO2 within the hydrogel microarray enhanced the fluorescence signal, and the extent of the enhancement was dependent on the thickness of silica shells and the amount of Ag@SiO2. Optimal MEF effects were achieved when the thickness of the silica shell was 17.5 nm, and 0.5 mg mL(-1) of Ag@SiO2 was incorporated into the assay systems. Compared with the standard hydrogel microarray-based assay performed without Ag@SiO2, more than a 4-fold fluorescence enhancement was observed in a glucose concentration range between 10(-3) mM and 10.0 mM using hydrogel microarray entrapping Ag@SiO2, which led to significant improvements in the sensitivity and the limit of detection (LOD). The hydrogel microarray system presented in this study could be successfully combined with a microfluidic device as an initial step to create an MEF-based micro-total-analysis-system (μ-TAS).

  12. Novel folate binding protein-1 interactions in embryonic orofacial tissue

    PubMed Central

    Pisano, M. Michele; Bhattacherjee, Vasker; Wong, Leeyean; Finnell, Richard H.; Greene, Robert M.

    2010-01-01

    Aim To identify proteins with which FolBp1 may interact within lipid rafts in tissue derived from embryonic orofacial tissue. Methods A yeast two-hybrid screen of a cDNA library, derived from orofacial tissue from gestational day 11 to 13 mouse embryos, was conducted. Key Findings Using the full-length FolBp1 protein as bait, two proteins that bind FolBp1 were identified, Bat2d, and a fibronectin type III-containing domain protein. Results were confirmed by glutathione S-transferase pull-down assays. Significance As a component of membrane lipid raft protein complexes, these binding proteins may represent “helper” or chaperone proteins that associate with FolBp1 in order to facilitate the transport of folate across the plasma membrane. The protein-protein interactions detected, while limited in number, may be critical in mediating the role of FolBp1 in folate transport, particularly in the developing embryo. PMID:20045418

  13. Use of native gels to measure protein binding to SSB.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Jin; Mikawa, Tsutomu

    2012-01-01

    We describe a procedure to detect protein binding to SSB by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis under non-denaturing conditions. As an example, we show the interaction of Thermus thermophilus (Tth) SSB with its cognate RecO protein. The interaction is detected as decay of the band corresponding to SSB by addition of RecO. We also demonstrate analysis of the RecO-RecR interaction as another example of this method. PMID:22976186

  14. Complement component 1, q subcomponent binding protein is a marker for proliferation in breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Jane Scully, Olivia; Yu, Yingnan; Salim, Agus; Aye Thike, Aye; Wai-Cheong Yip, George; Hun Baeg, Gyeong; Tan, Puay-Hoon; Matsumoto, Ken

    2015-01-01

    Complement component 1, q subcomponent binding protein (C1QBP), is a multi-compartmental protein with higher mRNA expression reported in breast cancer tissues. This study evaluated the association between immunohistochemical expression of the C1QBP protein in breast cancer tissue microarrays (TMAs) and clinicopathological parameters, in particular tumor size. In addition, an in vitro study was conducted to substantiate the breast cancer TMA findings. Breast cancer TMAs were constructed from pathological specimens of patients diagnosed with invasive ductal carcinoma. C1QBP protein and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) immunohistochemical analyses were subsequently performed in the TMAs. C1QBP immunostaining was detected in 131 out of 132 samples examined. The C1QBP protein was predominantly localized in the cytoplasm of the breast cancer cells. Univariate analysis revealed that a higher C1QBP protein expression was significantly associated with older patients (P = 0.001) and increased tumor size (P = 0.002). Multivariate analysis showed that C1QBP is an independent predictor of tumor size in progesterone-positive tumors. Furthermore, C1QBP was also significantly correlated with expression of PCNA, a known marker of proliferation. Inhibition of C1QBP expression was performed by transfecting C1QBP siRNA into T47D breast cancer cells, a progesterone receptor-positive breast cancer cell line. C1QBP gene expression was analyzed by real-time RT-PCR, and protein expression by Western blot. Cell proliferation assays were also performed by commercially available assays. Down-regulation of C1QBP expression significantly decreased cell proliferation and growth in T47D cells. Taken together, our findings suggest that the C1QBP protein could be a potential proliferative marker in breast cancer. PMID:25573962

  15. Tritium NMR spectroscopy of ligand binding to maltose-binding protein

    SciTech Connect

    Gehring, K.; Williams, P.G.; Pelton, J.G.; Morimoto, H.; Wemmer, D.E. )

    1991-06-04

    Tritium-labeled {alpha}- and {beta}-maltodextrins have been used to study their complexes with maltose-binding protein (MBP), a 40-kDa bacterial protein. Five substrates, from maltose to maltohexaose, were labeled at their reducing ends and their binding studied. Tritium NMR specctroscopy of the labeled sugars showed large upfield chamical shift changes upon binding and strong anomeric specficity. At 10{degrees}C, MBP bound {alpha}-maltose with 2.7 {plus minus} 0.5-fold higher affinity than {beta}-maltose, and, for longer maltodextrins, the ratio of affinities was even larger. The maximum chemical shift change was 2.2 ppm, suggesting that the reducing end of bound {alpha}-maltodextrin makes close contact with an aromatic residue in the MBP-binding site. Experiments with maltotriose (and longer maltodextrins) also revealed the presence of two bound {beta}-maltotriose resonances in rapid exchange. The authors interpret these two resonances as arising from two distinct sugar-protein complexes. In one complex, the {beta}-maltodextrin is bound by its reducing end, and, in the other complex, the {beta}-maltodextrin is bound by the middle glucose residue(s). This interpretation also suggests how MBP is able to bind both linear and circular maltodextrins.

  16. A reverse-phase protein microarray-based screen identifies host signaling dynamics upon Burkholderia spp. infection

    PubMed Central

    Chiang, Chih-Yuan; Uzoma, Ijeoma; Lane, Douglas J.; Memišević, Vesna; Alem, Farhang; Yao, Kuan; Kota, Krishna P.; Bavari, Sina; Wallqvist, Anders; Hakami, Ramin M.; Panchal, Rekha G.

    2015-01-01

    Burkholderia is a diverse genus of gram-negative bacteria that causes high mortality rate in humans, equines and cattle. The lack of effective therapeutic treatments poses serious public health threats. Developing insights toward host-Burkholderia spp. interaction is critical for understanding the pathogenesis of infection as well as identifying therapeutic targets for drug development. Reverse-phase protein microarray technology was previously proven to identify and characterize novel biomarkers and molecular signatures associated with infectious disease and cancer. In the present study, this technology was utilized to interrogate changes in host protein expression and phosphorylation events in macrophages infected with a collection of geographically diverse strains of Burkholderia spp. The expression or phosphorylation state of 25 proteins was altered during Burkholderia spp. infections of which eight proteins were selected for further characterization by immunoblotting. Increased phosphorylation of AMPK-α1, Src, and GSK3β suggested the importance of their roles in regulating Burkholderia spp. mediated innate immune response. Modulating the inflammatory response by perturbing their activities may provide therapeutic routes for future treatments. PMID:26284031

  17. A reverse-phase protein microarray-based screen identifies host signaling dynamics upon Burkholderia spp. infection.

    PubMed

    Chiang, Chih-Yuan; Uzoma, Ijeoma; Lane, Douglas J; Memišević, Vesna; Alem, Farhang; Yao, Kuan; Kota, Krishna P; Bavari, Sina; Wallqvist, Anders; Hakami, Ramin M; Panchal, Rekha G

    2015-01-01

    Burkholderia is a diverse genus of gram-negative bacteria that causes high mortality rate in humans, equines and cattle. The lack of effective therapeutic treatments poses serious public health threats. Developing insights toward host-Burkholderia spp. interaction is critical for understanding the pathogenesis of infection as well as identifying therapeutic targets for drug development. Reverse-phase protein microarray technology was previously proven to identify and characterize novel biomarkers and molecular signatures associated with infectious disease and cancer. In the present study, this technology was utilized to interrogate changes in host protein expression and phosphorylation events in macrophages infected with a collection of geographically diverse strains of Burkholderia spp. The expression or phosphorylation state of 25 proteins was altered during Burkholderia spp. infections of which eight proteins were selected for further characterization by immunoblotting. Increased phosphorylation of AMPK-α1, Src, and GSK3β suggested the importance of their roles in regulating Burkholderia spp. mediated innate immune response. Modulating the inflammatory response by perturbing their activities may provide therapeutic routes for future treatments. PMID:26284031

  18. Microarray Analysis in Glioblastomas

    PubMed Central

    Bhawe, Kaumudi M.; Aghi, Manish K.

    2016-01-01

    Microarray analysis in glioblastomas is done using either cell lines or patient samples as starting material. A survey of the current literature points to transcript-based microarrays and immunohistochemistry (IHC)-based tissue microarrays as being the preferred methods of choice in cancers of neurological origin. Microarray analysis may be carried out for various purposes including the following: To correlate gene expression signatures of glioblastoma cell lines or tumors with response to chemotherapy (DeLay et al., Clin Cancer Res 18(10):2930–2942, 2012)To correlate gene expression patterns with biological features like proliferation or invasiveness of the glioblastoma cells (Jiang et al., PLoS One 8(6):e66008, 2013)To discover new tumor classificatory systems based on gene expression signature, and to correlate therapeutic response and prognosis with these signatures (Huse et al., Annu Rev Med 64(1):59–70, 2013; Verhaak et al., Cancer Cell 17(1):98–110, 2010) While investigators can sometimes use archived tumor gene expression data available from repositories such as the NCBI Gene Expression Omnibus to answer their questions, new arrays must often be run to adequately answer specific questions. Here, we provide a detailed description of microarray methodologies, how to select the appropriate methodology for a given question, and analytical strategies that can be used. Experimental methodology for protein microarrays is outside the scope of this chapter, but basic sample preparation techniques for transcript-based microarrays are included here. PMID:26113463

  19. Microarray Analysis in Glioblastomas.

    PubMed

    Bhawe, Kaumudi M; Aghi, Manish K

    2016-01-01

    Microarray analysis in glioblastomas is done using either cell lines or patient samples as starting material. A survey of the current literature points to transcript-based microarrays and immunohistochemistry (IHC)-based tissue microarrays as being the preferred methods of choice in cancers of neurological origin. Microarray analysis may be carried out for various purposes including the following: i. To correlate gene expression signatures of glioblastoma cell lines or tumors with response to chemotherapy (DeLay et al., Clin Cancer Res 18(10):2930-2942, 2012). ii. To correlate gene expression patterns with biological features like proliferation or invasiveness of the glioblastoma cells (Jiang et al., PLoS One 8(6):e66008, 2013). iii. To discover new tumor classificatory systems based on gene expression signature, and to correlate therapeutic response and prognosis with these signatures (Huse et al., Annu Rev Med 64(1):59-70, 2013; Verhaak et al., Cancer Cell 17(1):98-110, 2010). While investigators can sometimes use archived tumor gene expression data available from repositories such as the NCBI Gene Expression Omnibus to answer their questions, new arrays must often be run to adequately answer specific questions. Here, we provide a detailed description of microarray methodologies, how to select the appropriate methodology for a given question, and analytical strategies that can be used. Experimental methodology for protein microarrays is outside the scope of this chapter, but basic sample preparation techniques for transcript-based microarrays are included here. PMID:26113463

  20. Development and Optimization of a Thrombin Sandwich Aptamer Microarray

    PubMed Central

    Meneghello, Anna; Sosic, Alice; Antognoli, Agnese; Cretaio, Erica; Gatto, Barbara

    2012-01-01

    A sandwich microarray employing two distinct aptamers for human thrombin has been optimized for the detection of subnanomolar concentrations of the protein. The aptamer microarray demonstrates high specificity for thrombin, proving that a two-site binding assay with the TBA1 aptamer as capture layer and the TBA2 aptamer as detection layer can ensure great specificity at times and conditions compatible with standard routine analysis of biological samples. Aptamer microarray sensitivity was evaluated directly by fluorescent analysis employing Cy5-labeled TBA2 and indirectly by the use of TBA2-biotin followed by detection with fluorescent streptavidin. Sub-nanomolar LODs were reached in all cases and in the presence of serum, demonstrating that the optimized aptamer microarray can identify thrombin by a low-cost, sensitive and specific method.

  1. Capacitance-modulated transistor detects odorant binding protein chiral interactions.

    PubMed

    Mulla, Mohammad Yusuf; Tuccori, Elena; Magliulo, Maria; Lattanzi, Gianluca; Palazzo, Gerardo; Persaud, Krishna; Torsi, Luisa

    2015-01-01

    Peripheral events in olfaction involve odorant binding proteins (OBPs) whose role in the recognition of different volatile chemicals is yet unclear. Here we report on the sensitive and quantitative measurement of the weak interactions associated with neutral enantiomers differentially binding to OBPs immobilized through a self-assembled monolayer to the gate of an organic bio-electronic transistor. The transduction is remarkably sensitive as the transistor output current is governed by the small capacitance of the protein layer undergoing minute changes as the ligand-protein complex is formed. Accurate determination of the free-energy balances and of the capacitance changes associated with the binding process allows derivation of the free-energy components as well as of the occurrence of conformational events associated with OBP ligand binding. Capacitance-modulated transistors open a new pathway for the study of ultra-weak molecular interactions in surface-bound protein-ligand complexes through an approach that combines bio-chemical and electronic thermodynamic parameters. PMID:25591754

  2. RNA–protein binding kinetics in an automated microfluidic reactor

    PubMed Central

    Ridgeway, William K.; Seitaridou, Effrosyni; Phillips, Rob; Williamson, James R.

    2009-01-01

    Microfluidic chips can automate biochemical assays on the nanoliter scale, which is of considerable utility for RNA–protein binding reactions that would otherwise require large quantities of proteins. Unfortunately, complex reactions involving multiple reactants cannot be prepared in current microfluidic mixer designs, nor is investigation of long-time scale reactions possible. Here, a microfluidic ‘Riboreactor’ has been designed and constructed to facilitate the study of kinetics of RNA–protein complex formation over long time scales. With computer automation, the reactor can prepare binding reactions from any combination of eight reagents, and is optimized to monitor long reaction times. By integrating a two-photon microscope into the microfluidic platform, 5-nl reactions can be observed for longer than 1000 s with single-molecule sensitivity and negligible photobleaching. Using the Riboreactor, RNA–protein binding reactions with a fragment of the bacterial 30S ribosome were prepared in a fully automated fashion and binding rates were consistent with rates obtained from conventional assays. The microfluidic chip successfully combines automation, low sample consumption, ultra-sensitive fluorescence detection and a high degree of reproducibility. The chip should be able to probe complex reaction networks describing the assembly of large multicomponent RNPs such as the ribosome. PMID:19759214

  3. Methods of use of cellulose binding domain proteins

    DOEpatents

    Shoseyov, O.; Shpiegl, I.; Goldstein, M.A.; Doi, R.H.

    1997-09-23

    A cellulose binding domain (CBD) having a high affinity for crystalline cellulose and chitin is disclosed, along with methods for the molecular cloning and recombinant production. Fusion products comprising the CBD and a second protein are likewise described. A wide range of applications are contemplated for both the CBD and the fusion products, including drug delivery, affinity separations, and diagnostic techniques. 16 figs.

  4. RNA-protein binding kinetics in an automated microfluidic reactor.

    PubMed

    Ridgeway, William K; Seitaridou, Effrosyni; Phillips, Rob; Williamson, James R

    2009-11-01

    Microfluidic chips can automate biochemical assays on the nanoliter scale, which is of considerable utility for RNA-protein binding reactions that would otherwise require large quantities of proteins. Unfortunately, complex reactions involving multiple reactants cannot be prepared in current microfluidic mixer designs, nor is investigation of long-time scale reactions possible. Here, a microfluidic 'Riboreactor' has been designed and constructed to facilitate the study of kinetics of RNA-protein complex formation over long time scales. With computer automation, the reactor can prepare binding reactions from any combination of eight reagents, and is optimized to monitor long reaction times. By integrating a two-photon microscope into the microfluidic platform, 5-nl reactions can be observed for longer than 1000 s with single-molecule sensitivity and negligible photobleaching. Using the Riboreactor, RNA-protein binding reactions with a fragment of the bacterial 30S ribosome were prepared in a fully automated fashion and binding rates were consistent with rates obtained from conventional assays. The microfluidic chip successfully combines automation, low sample consumption, ultra-sensitive fluorescence detection and a high degree of reproducibility. The chip should be able to probe complex reaction networks describing the assembly of large multicomponent RNPs such as the ribosome.

  5. Methods of use of cellulose binding domain proteins

    DOEpatents

    Shoseyov, Oded; Shpiegl, Itai; Goldstein, Marc A.; Doi, Roy H.

    1997-01-01

    A cellulose binding domain (CBD) having a high affinity for crystalline cellulose and chitin is disclosed, along with methods for the molecular cloning and recombinant production thereof. Fusion products comprising the CBD and a second protein are likewise described. A wide range of applications are contemplated for both the CBD and the fusion products, including drug delivery, affinity separations, and diagnostic techniques.

  6. Primary sequence analysis of Clostridium cellulovorans cellulose binding protein A.

    PubMed Central

    Shoseyov, O; Takagi, M; Goldstein, M A; Doi, R H

    1992-01-01

    The cbpA gene for the Clostridium cellulovorans cellulose binding protein (CbpA), which is part of the multisubunit cellulase complex, has been cloned and sequenced. When cbpA was expressed in Escherichia coli, proteins capable of binding to crystalline cellulose and of interacting with anti-CbpA were observed. The cbpA gene consists of 5544 base pairs and encodes a protein containing 1848 amino acids with a molecular mass of 189,036 Da. The open reading frame is preceded by a Gram-positive-type ribosome binding site. A signal peptide sequence of 28 amino acids is present at its N terminus. The encoded protein is highly hydrophobic with extremely high levels of threonine and valine residues. There are two types of putative cellulose binding domains of approximately 100 amino acids that are slightly hydrophilic and eight conserved, highly hydrophobic beta-sheet regions of approximately 140 amino acids. These latter hydrophobic regions may be the CbpA domains that interact with the different enzymatic subunits of the cellulase complex. Images PMID:1565642

  7. Capacitance-modulated transistor detects odorant binding protein chiral interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mulla, Mohammad Yusuf; Tuccori, Elena; Magliulo, Maria; Lattanzi, Gianluca; Palazzo, Gerardo; Persaud, Krishna; Torsi, Luisa

    2015-01-01

    Peripheral events in olfaction involve odorant binding proteins (OBPs) whose role in the recognition of different volatile chemicals is yet unclear. Here we report on the sensitive and quantitative measurement of the weak interactions associated with neutral enantiomers differentially binding to OBPs immobilized through a self-assembled monolayer to the gate of an organic bio-electronic transistor. The transduction is remarkably sensitive as the transistor output current is governed by the small capacitance of the protein layer undergoing minute changes as the ligand-protein complex is formed. Accurate determination of the free-energy balances and of the capacitance changes associated with the binding process allows derivation of the free-energy components as well as of the occurrence of conformational events associated with OBP ligand binding. Capacitance-modulated transistors open a new pathway for the study of ultra-weak molecular interactions in surface-bound protein-ligand complexes through an approach that combines bio-chemical and electronic thermodynamic parameters.

  8. Structural analysis of ibuprofen binding to human adipocyte fatty-acid binding protein (FABP4)

    PubMed Central

    González, Javier M.; Fisher, S. Zoë

    2015-01-01

    Inhibition of human adipocyte fatty-acid binding protein (FABP4) has been proposed as a treatment for type 2 diabetes, fatty liver disease and atherosclerosis. However, FABP4 displays a naturally low selectivity towards hydrophobic ligands, leading to the possibility of side effects arising from cross-inhibition of other FABP isoforms. In a search for structural determinants of ligand-binding selectivity, the binding of FABP4 towards a group of small molecules structurally related to the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug ibuprofen was analyzed through X-ray crystallography. Several specific hydrophobic interactions are shown to enhance the binding affinities of these compounds, whereas an aromatic edge-to-face interaction is proposed to determine the conformation of bound ligands, highlighting the importance of aromatic interactions in hydrophobic environments. PMID:25664790

  9. Structural analysis of ibuprofen binding to human adipocyte fatty-acid binding protein (FABP4).

    PubMed

    González, Javier M; Fisher, S Zoë

    2015-02-01

    Inhibition of human adipocyte fatty-acid binding protein (FABP4) has been proposed as a treatment for type 2 diabetes, fatty liver disease and atherosclerosis. However, FABP4 displays a naturally low selectivity towards hydrophobic ligands, leading to the possibility of side effects arising from cross-inhibition of other FABP isoforms. In a search for structural determinants of ligand-binding selectivity, the binding of FABP4 towards a group of small molecules structurally related to the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug ibuprofen was analyzed through X-ray crystallography. Several specific hydrophobic interactions are shown to enhance the binding affinities of these compounds, whereas an aromatic edge-to-face interaction is proposed to determine the conformation of bound ligands, highlighting the importance of aromatic interactions in hydrophobic environments.