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Sample records for protein c inhibitor

  1. Structural investigation of protein kinase C inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Barak, D; Shibata, M; Rein, R

    1991-01-01

    The phospholipid and Ca2+ dependent protein kinase (PKC) plays an essential role in a variety of cellular events. Inhibition of PKC was shown to arrest growth in tumor cell cultures making it a target for possible antitumor therapy. Calphostins are potent inhibitors of PKC with high affinity for the enzyme regulatory site. Structural characteristics of calphostins, which confer the inhibitory activity, are investigated by comparing their optimized structures with the existing models for PKC activation. The resulting model of inhibitory activity assumes interaction with two out of the three electrostatic interaction sites postulated for activators. The model shows two sites of hydrophobic interaction and enables the inhibitory activity of gossypol to be accounted for.

  2. Structural investigation of protein kinase C inhibitors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barak, D.; Shibata, M.; Rein, R.

    1991-01-01

    The phospholipid and Ca2+ dependent protein kinase (PKC) plays an essential role in a variety of cellular events. Inhibition of PKC was shown to arrest growth in tumor cell cultures making it a target for possible antitumor therapy. Calphostins are potent inhibitors of PKC with high affinity for the enzyme regulatory site. Structural characteristics of calphostins, which confer the inhibitory activity, are investigated by comparing their optimized structures with the existing models for PKC activation. The resulting model of inhibitory activity assumes interaction with two out of the three electrostatic interaction sites postulated for activators. The model shows two sites of hydrophobic interaction and enables the inhibitory activity of gossypol to be accounted for.

  3. Novel protein kinase C inhibitors: alpha-terthiophene derivatives.

    PubMed

    Kim, D S; Ashendel, C L; Zhou, Q; Chang, C T; Lee, E S; Chang, C J

    1998-10-06

    A series of alpha-terthiophene derivatives were prepared and their protein kinase C inhibitory activity were evaluated. The aldehyde derivatives were most potent inhibitors (IC50 < 1 microM). alpha-Terthiophene monoaldehyde was inactive in the inhibitions of protein kinase A, mitogen activated protein kinase and protein tyrosine kinase.

  4. Novel protein kinase C inhibitors: synthesis and PKC inhibition of beta-substituted polythiophene derivatives.

    PubMed

    Xu, W C; Zhou, Q; Ashendel, C L; Chang, C T; Chang, C J

    1999-08-02

    A series of beta-substituted polythiophene derivatives was synthesized through palladium-catalyzed coupling reaction. Their structure-protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitory activity relationship was studied. The carboxaldehyde and hydroxymethyl derivatives of alpha-terthiophene were potent PKC inhibitors (IC50 = 10(-7) M).

  5. Novel, potent and selective inhibitors of protein kinase C show oral anti-inflammatory activity.

    PubMed

    Nixon, J S; Bishop, J; Bradshaw, D; Davis, P D; Hill, C H; Elliott, L H; Kumar, H; Lawton, G; Lewis, E J; Mulqueen, M

    1991-01-01

    Clarification of the precise role of protein kinase C (PKC) in cellular functional responses has been hampered by a lack of potent, selective inhibitors. The structural lead provided by staurosporine, a potent but non-selective protein kinase (PK) inhibitor, was used to derive a series of bis(indolyl)maleimides of which the most potent, Ro 31-8425 (I50: PKC = 8 nM) showed 350-fold selectivity for PKC over cAMP-dependent protein kinase. Ro 31-8425 antagonised cellular processes triggered by phorbol esters (potent, specific PKC activators) and inhibited the allogeneic mixed lymphocyte reaction, suggesting a role for PKC in T-cell activation. Methylation of the primary amine in Ro 31-8425 produced an analogue. Ro 31-8830 which, when administered orally, produced a dose-dependent inhibition of a phorbol ester-induced paw oedema in mice (minimum effective dose = 15 mg/kg). Ro 31-8830 also selectively inhibited the secondary inflammation in a developing adjuvant arthritis model in the rat. The results presented here suggest that these selective inhibitors of PKC may have therapeutic value in the treatment of T-cell-mediated autoimmune diseases.

  6. Protein Kinase C Inhibitors Sensitize GNAQ Mutant Uveal Melanoma Cells to Ionizing Radiation

    PubMed Central

    Cerne, Jasmina Ziva; Hartig, Sean Michael; Hamilton, Mark Patrick; Chew, Sue Anne; Mitsiades, Nicholas; Poulaki, Vassiliki; McGuire, Sean Eric

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. Uveal melanoma (UM) tumors require large doses of radiation therapy (RT) to achieve tumor ablation, which frequently results in damage to adjacent normal tissues, leading to vision-threatening complications. Approximately 50% of UM patients present with activating somatic mutations in the gene encoding for G protein αq-subunit (GNAQ), which lead to constitutive activation of downstream pathways, including protein kinase C (PKC). In this study, we investigated the impact of small-molecule PKC inhibitors bisindolylmaleimide I (BIM) and sotrastaurin (AEB071), combined with ionizing radiation (IR), on survival in melanoma cell lines. Methods. Cellular radiosensitivity was determined by using a combination of proliferation, viability, and clonogenic assays. Cell-cycle effects were measured by flow cytometry. Transcriptomic and proteomic profiling were performed by quantitative real-time PCR, reverse-phase protein array analysis, and immunofluorescence. Results. We found that the PKC inhibitors combined with IR significantly decreased the viability, proliferation, and clonogenic potential of GNAQmt, but not GNAQwt/BRAFmt cells, compared with IR alone. Combined treatment increased the antiproliferative and proapoptotic effects of IR in GNAQmt cells through delayed DNA-damage resolution and enhanced induction of proteins involved in cell-cycle arrest, cell-growth arrest, and apoptosis. Conclusions. Our preclinical results suggest that combined modality treatment may allow for reductions in the total RT dose and/or fraction size, which may lead to better functional organ preservation in the treatment of primary GNAQmt UM. These findings suggest future clinical trials combining PKC inhibitors with RT in GNAQmt UM warrant consideration. PMID:24595385

  7. Elucidating the structural chemistry of glycosaminoglycan recognition by protein C inhibitor.

    PubMed Central

    Kuhn, L A; Griffin, J H; Fisher, C L; Greengard, J S; Bouma, B N; España, F; Tainer, J A

    1990-01-01

    Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) including heparin accelerate the inhibition of serine proteases by serine protease inhibitors (serpins), an essential process in regulating blood coagulation. to analyze the molecular basis for GAG recognition by the plasma serpin protein C inhibitor (PCI; also known as plasminogen activator inhibitor 3), we have constructed a complete, energy-minimized, three-dimensional model of PCI by using the structure of homologous alpha 1-antitrypsin as a template. Sequence analysis, hydrogen-bonding environment, and shape complementarity suggested that the N-terminal residues of PCI, which are not homologous to those of alpha 1-antitrypsin, form an amphipathic alpha-helix, here designated A+ since it precedes the alpha 1-antitrypsin A helix. Electrostatic calculations revealed a single, highly positive surface region arising from both the A+ and H helices, suggesting that this two-helix motif is required for GAG binding by PCI. The dominant role of electrostatic interactions in PCI-heparin binding was confirmed by the strong ionic strength dependence of heparin stimulation. The involvement of the A+ helix in heparin binding was verified by demonstrating that an anti-PCI antibody that specifically binds the A+ peptide blocks heparin binding. Images PMID:2172989

  8. Interaction of protein C inhibitor with the type II transmembrane serine protease enteropeptidase.

    PubMed

    Prohaska, Thomas A; Wahlmüller, Felix C; Furtmüller, Margareta; Geiger, Margarethe

    2012-01-01

    The serine protease inhibitor protein C inhibitor (PCI) is expressed in many human tissues and exhibits broad protease reactivity. PCI binds glycosaminoglycans and certain phospholipids, which modulate its inhibitory activity. Enteropeptidase (EP) is a type II transmembrane serine protease mainly found on the brush border membrane of epithelial cells in the duodenum, where it activates trypsinogen to initiate the digestion of food proteins. Some active EP is also present in duodenal fluid and has been made responsible for causing pancreatitis in case of duodeno-pancreatic reflux. Together with its substrate trypsinogen, EP is furthermore present in the epidermis and in some cancer cells. In this report, we show that PCI inhibited EP with an apparent 2nd order rate constant of 4.48 × 10(4) M(-1) s(-1). Low molecular weight (LMWH) and unfractionated heparin (UFH) slightly reduced the inhibitory effect of PCI. The SI (stoichiometry of inhibition) value for the inhibition of EP by PCI was 10.8 in the absence and 17.9 in the presence of UFH (10 U/ml). By inhibiting trypsin, chymotrypsin, and additionally EP, PCI might play a role in the protection of the pancreas from autodigestion. Furthermore the interaction of PCI with EP may influence the regulation of epithelial differentiation.

  9. Differential effects of protein kinase C inhibitors on chemokine production in human synovial fibroblasts.

    PubMed Central

    Jordan, N. J.; Watson, M. L.; Yoshimura, T.; Westwick, J.

    1996-01-01

    1. Rheumatoid arthritis is associated with the accumulation and activation of selected populations of inflammatory cells within the arthritic joint. One putative signal for this process is the production, by resident cells, of a group of inflammatory mediators known as the chemokines. 2. The chemokines interleukin-8 (IL-8), monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1) and RANTES (regulated on activation normal T-cell expressed and presumably secreted) are target-cell specific chemoattractants produced by synovial fibroblasts in response to stimulation with interleukin-1 alpha (IL-1 alpha) or tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF alpha). The signalling pathways involved in their production are not well defined. We therefore used four different protein kinase C inhibitors to investigate the role of this kinase in the regulation of chemokine mRNA and protein expression in human cultured synovial fibroblasts. 3. The non-selective PKC inhibitor, staurosporine (1-300 nM) significantly increased the production of IL-1 alpha-induced IL-8 mRNA and protein. A specific PKC inhibitor, chelerythrine chloride (0.1-3 microM), also caused a small concentration-dependent increase in IL-8 mRNA and protein production. In contrast, 3-[1-[3-(amidinothio)propyl]-3-indoly]-4-(1-methyl-3-indolyl )- 1H-pyrrole-2,5-dione methanesulphonate (Ro 31-8220) and 2[1-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)-1H-indol-3-yl]-3-(1H-indol-3- yl)-maleimide (GF 109203X), two selective PKC inhibitors of the substituted bisindolylmaleimide family had a concentration-dependent biphasic effect on IL-1 alpha or TNF alpha-induced chemokine expression. At low concentrations they caused a stimulation in chemokine production, which was especially evident at the mRNA level. At higher concentrations both inhibited IL-1 alpha or TNF alpha-induced chemokine mRNA and protein production. Ro 31-8220 was 10 fold more potent than GF 109203X, with an IC50 of 1.6 +/- 0.08 microM (mean +/- s.e.mean, n = 4) for IL-1 alpha induced IL-8 production. Ro 31

  10. Virtual screening of protein kinase C inhibitors from natural product library to modulate general anaesthetic effects.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Junhui; Zhou, Chuixian

    2015-01-01

    Protein kinase C (PKC) plays a key role in neurotransmission in the central nervous system, and targeting PKC domain is considered as a strategy to modulate the anaesthetic effects. In this study, we described a synthetic pipeline to perform high-throughput virtual screening against a large library of 3D structural natural products released recently in order to discover those potential PKC modulators. A total of 100 natural products with top scores were raised, from which 12 promising candidates were tested to determine their inhibitory potencies against PKC. As might be expected, the promiscuous kinase inhibitor staurosporine showed a high PKC inhibitory activity (IC50 = 64 nM), and other two tested compounds, i.e. fisetin and tetrahydropapaverine, were also highly potent with their activities at nanomolar level (IC50 = 370 and 190, respectively).

  11. Protein Kinase C Inhibitors as Modulators of Vascular Function and Their Application in Vascular Disease

    PubMed Central

    Khalil, Raouf A.

    2013-01-01

    Blood pressure (BP) is regulated by multiple neuronal, hormonal, renal and vascular control mechanisms. Changes in signaling mechanisms in the endothelium, vascular smooth muscle (VSM) and extracellular matrix cause alterations in vascular tone and blood vessel remodeling and may lead to persistent increases in vascular resistance and hypertension (HTN). In VSM, activation of surface receptors by vasoconstrictor stimuli causes an increase in intracellular free Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i), which forms a complex with calmodulin, activates myosin light chain (MLC) kinase and leads to MLC phosphorylation, actin-myosin interaction and VSM contraction. Vasoconstrictor agonists could also increase the production of diacylglycerol which activates protein kinase C (PKC). PKC is a family of Ca2+-dependent and Ca2+-independent isozymes that have different distributions in various blood vessels, and undergo translocation from the cytosol to the plasma membrane, cytoskeleton or the nucleus during cell activation. In VSM, PKC translocation to the cell surface may trigger a cascade of biochemical events leading to activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and MAPK kinase (MEK), a pathway that ultimately increases the myofilament force sensitivity to [Ca2+]i, and enhances actin-myosin interaction and VSM contraction. PKC translocation to the nucleus may induce transactivation of various genes and promote VSM growth and proliferation. PKC could also affect endothelium-derived relaxing and contracting factors as well as matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) in the extracellular matrix further affecting vascular reactivity and remodeling. In addition to vasoactive factors, reactive oxygen species, inflammatory cytokines and other metabolic factors could affect PKC activity. Increased PKC expression and activity have been observed in vascular disease and in certain forms of experimental and human HTN. Targeting of vascular PKC using PKC inhibitors may function in concert with

  12. Enzastaurin (LY317615), a Protein Kinase C Beta Selective Inhibitor, Enhances Antiangiogenic Effect of Radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Willey, Christopher D.; Xiao Dakai; Tu Tianxiang; Kim, Kwang Woon; Moretti, Luigi; Niermann, Kenneth J.; Tawtawy, Mohammed N.; Quarles, Chad C. Ph.D.; Lu Bo

    2010-08-01

    Purpose: Angiogenesis has generated interest in oncology because of its important role in cancer growth and progression, particularly when combined with cytotoxic therapies, such as radiotherapy. Among the numerous pathways influencing vascular growth and stability, inhibition of protein kinase B(Akt) or protein kinase C(PKC) can influence tumor blood vessels within tumor microvasculature. Therefore, we wanted to determine whether PKC inhibition could sensitize lung tumors to radiation. Methods and Materials: The combination of the selective PKC{beta} inhibitor Enzastaurin (ENZ, LY317615) and ionizing radiation were used in cell culture and a mouse model of lung cancer. Lung cancer cell lines and human umbilical vascular endothelial cells (HUVEC) were examined using immunoblotting, cytotoxic assays including cell proliferation and clonogenic assays, and Matrigel endothelial tubule formation. In vivo, H460 lung cancer xenografts were examined for tumor vasculature and proliferation using immunohistochemistry. Results: ENZ effectively radiosensitizes HUVEC within in vitro models. Furthermore, concurrent ENZ treatment of lung cancer xenografts enhanced radiation-induced destruction of tumor vasculature and proliferation by IHC. However, tumor growth delay was not enhanced with combination treatment compared with either treatment alone. Analysis of downstream effectors revealed that HUVEC and the lung cancer cell lines differed in their response to ENZ and radiation such that only HUVEC demonstrate phosphorylated S6 suppression, which is downstream of mTOR. When ENZ was combined with the mTOR inhibitor, rapamycin, in H460 lung cancer cells, radiosensitization was observed. Conclusion: PKC appears to be crucial for angiogenesis, and its inhibition by ENZ has potential to enhance radiotherapy in vivo.

  13. New functional assays to selectively quantify the activated protein C- and tissue factor pathway inhibitor-cofactor activities of protein S in plasma.

    PubMed

    Alshaikh, N A; Rosing, J; Thomassen, M C L G D; Castoldi, E; Simioni, P; Hackeng, T M

    2017-02-17

    Essentials Protein S is a cofactor of activated protein C (APC) and tissue factor pathway inhibitor (TFPI). There are no assays to quantify separate APC and TFPI cofactor activities of protein S in plasma. We developed assays to measure the APC- and TFPI-cofactor activities of protein S in plasma. The assays were sensitive to protein S deficiency, and not affected by the Factor V Leiden mutation.

  14. Structure-based lead discovery for protein kinase C zeta inhibitor design by exploiting kinase-inhibitor complex crystal structure data and potential therapeutics for preterm labour.

    PubMed

    Shao, Qing-Chun; Zhang, Cui-Juan; Li, Jie

    2014-10-14

    The protein kinase C (PKC) is a family of serine/threonine kinases with a broad range of cellular targets. Members of the PKC family participate at the diverse biological events involved in cellular proliferation, differentiation and survival. The PKC isoform zeta (PKCζ) is an atypical member that has recently been found to play an essential role in promoting human uterine contractility and thus been raised as a new target for treating preterm labour and other tocolytic diseases. In this study, an integrative protocol was described to graft hundreds of inhibitor ligands from their complex crystal structures with cognate kinases into the active pocket of PKCζ and, based on the modeled structures, to evaluate the binding strength of these inhibitors to the non-cognate PKCζ receptor by using a consensus scoring strategy. A total of 32 inhibitors with top score were compiled, and eight out of them were tested for inhibitory potency against PKCζ. Consequently, five compounds, i.e. CDK6 inhibitor fisetin, PIM1 inhibitor myricetin, CDK9 inhibitor flavopiridol and PknB inhibitor mitoxantrone as well as the promiscuous kinase inhibitor staurosporine showed high or moderate inhibitory activity on PKCζ, with IC50 values of 58 ± 9, 1.7 ± 0.4, 108 ± 17, 280 ± 47 and 0.019 ± 0.004 μM, respectively, while other three compounds, including two marketed drugs dasatinib and sunitinib as well as the Rho inhibitor fasudil, have not been detected to possess observable activity. Next, based on the modeled structure data we modified three flavonoid kinase inhibitors, i.e. fisetin, myricetin and flavopiridol, to generate a number of more potential molecular entities, two of which were found to have a moderately improved activity as compared to their parent compounds.

  15. Vanadium oxoanions and cAMP-dependent protein kinase: an anti-substrate inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Pluskey, S; Mahroof-Tahir, M; Crans, D C; Lawrence, D S

    1997-01-15

    Vanadium oxoions have been shown to elicit a wide range of effects in biological systems, including an increase in the quantity of phosphorylated proteins. This response has been attributed to the inhibition of protein phosphatases, the indirect activation of protein kinases via stimulation of enzymes at early steps in signal transduction pathways and/or the direct activation of protein kinases. We have evaluated the latter possibility by exploring the effects of vanadate, decavanadate and vanadyl cation species on the activity of the cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA), a serine/threonine kinase. Vanadate, in the form of monomer, dimer, tetramer and pentamer species, neither inhibits nor activates PKA. In marked contrast, decavandate is a competitive inhibitor (Ki = 1.8 +/- 0.1 mM) of kemptide (Leu-Arg-Arg-Ala-Ser-Leu-Gly), a peptide-based substrate. This inhibition pattern is especially surprising, since the negatively charged decavanadate would not be predicted to bind to the region of the active site of the enzyme that accommodates the positively charged kemptide substrate. Our studies suggest that decavanadate can associate with kemptide in solution, which would prevent kemptide from interacting with the enzyme. Vanadium(IV) also inhibits the PKA-catalysed phosphorylation of kemptide, but with an IC50 of 366 +/- 10 microM. However, in this case V4+ appears to bind to the Mg(2+)-binding site, since it can substitute for Mg2+. In the absence of Mg2+, the optimal concentration of vanadium(IV) for the PKA-catalysed phosphorylation of kemptide is 100 microM, with concentrations above 100 microM being markedly inhibitory. However, even at the optimal 100 microM V4+ concentration, the Vmax and K(m) values (for kemptide) are significantly less favourable than those obtained in the presence of 100 microM Mg2+. In summary, we have found that oxovanadium ions can directly alter the activity of the serine/threonine-specific PKA.

  16. Vanadium oxoanions and cAMP-dependent protein kinase: an anti-substrate inhibitor.

    PubMed Central

    Pluskey, S; Mahroof-Tahir, M; Crans, D C; Lawrence, D S

    1997-01-01

    Vanadium oxoions have been shown to elicit a wide range of effects in biological systems, including an increase in the quantity of phosphorylated proteins. This response has been attributed to the inhibition of protein phosphatases, the indirect activation of protein kinases via stimulation of enzymes at early steps in signal transduction pathways and/or the direct activation of protein kinases. We have evaluated the latter possibility by exploring the effects of vanadate, decavanadate and vanadyl cation species on the activity of the cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA), a serine/threonine kinase. Vanadate, in the form of monomer, dimer, tetramer and pentamer species, neither inhibits nor activates PKA. In marked contrast, decavandate is a competitive inhibitor (Ki = 1.8 +/- 0.1 mM) of kemptide (Leu-Arg-Arg-Ala-Ser-Leu-Gly), a peptide-based substrate. This inhibition pattern is especially surprising, since the negatively charged decavanadate would not be predicted to bind to the region of the active site of the enzyme that accommodates the positively charged kemptide substrate. Our studies suggest that decavanadate can associate with kemptide in solution, which would prevent kemptide from interacting with the enzyme. Vanadium(IV) also inhibits the PKA-catalysed phosphorylation of kemptide, but with an IC50 of 366 +/- 10 microM. However, in this case V4+ appears to bind to the Mg(2+)-binding site, since it can substitute for Mg2+. In the absence of Mg2+, the optimal concentration of vanadium(IV) for the PKA-catalysed phosphorylation of kemptide is 100 microM, with concentrations above 100 microM being markedly inhibitory. However, even at the optimal 100 microM V4+ concentration, the Vmax and K(m) values (for kemptide) are significantly less favourable than those obtained in the presence of 100 microM Mg2+. In summary, we have found that oxovanadium ions can directly alter the activity of the serine/threonine-specific PKA. PMID:9020863

  17. Pharmacoinformatics approach for investigation of alternative potential hepatitis C virus nonstructural protein 5B inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Mirza, Muhammad Usman; Ghori, Noor-Ul-Huda; Ikram, Nazia; Adil, Abdur Rehman; Manzoor, Sadia

    2015-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is one of the major viruses affecting the world today. It is a highly variable virus, having a rapid reproduction and evolution rate. The variability of genomes is due to hasty replication catalyzed by nonstructural protein 5B (NS5B) which is also a potential target site for the development of anti-HCV agents. Recently, the US Food and Drug Administration approved sofosbuvir as a novel oral NS5B inhibitor for the treatment of HCV. Unfortunately, it is much highlighted for its pricing issues. Hence, there is an urgent need to scrutinize alternate therapies against HCV that are available at affordable price and do not have associated side effects. Such a need is crucial especially in underdeveloped countries. The search for various new bioactive compounds from plants is a key part of pharmaceutical research. In the current study, we applied a pharmacoinformatics-based approach for the identification of active plant-derived compounds against NS5B. The results were compared to docking results of sofosbuvir. The lead compounds with high-binding ligands were further analyzed for pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic parameters based on in silico absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion, and toxicity (ADMET) profile. The results showed the potential alternative lead compounds that can be developed into commercial drugs having high binding energy and promising ADMET properties. PMID:25848219

  18. The dipeptidyl peptidase IV inhibitors vildagliptin and K-579 inhibit a phospholipase C: a case of promiscuous scaffolds in proteins

    PubMed Central

    Dutta, Mouparna; Ghosh, Anindya S.; Oda, Masataka; Venkatramani, Ravindra; Rao, Basuthkar J.; Dandekar, Abhaya M.; Goñi, Félix M.

    2015-01-01

    The long term side effects of any newly introduced drug is a subject of intense research, and often raging controversies. One such example is the dipeptidyl peptidase-IV (DPP4) inhibitor used for treating type 2 diabetes, which is inconclusively implicated in increased susceptibility to acute pancreatitis. Previously, based on a computational analysis of the spatial and electrostatic properties of active site residues, we have demonstrated that phosphoinositide-specific phospholipase C (PI-PLC) from Bacillus cereus is a prolyl peptidase using in vivo experiments. In the current work, we first report the inhibition of the native activity of PI-PLC by two DPP4 inhibitors - vildagliptin (LAF-237) and K-579. While vildagliptin inhibited PI-PLC at micromolar concentrations, K-579 was a potent inhibitor even at nanomolar concentrations. Subsequently, we queried a comprehensive, non-redundant set of 5000 human proteins (50% similarity cutoff) with known structures using serine protease (SPASE) motifs derived from trypsin and DPP4. A pancreatic lipase and a gastric lipase are among the proteins that are identified as proteins having promiscuous SPASE scaffolds that could interact with DPP4 inhibitors. The presence of such scaffolds in human lipases is expected since they share the same catalytic mechanism with PI-PLC. However our methodology also detects other proteins, often with a completely different enzymatic mechanism, that have significantly congruent domains with the SPASE motifs. The reported elevated levels of serum lipase, although contested, could be rationalized by inhibition of lipases reported here. In an effort to further our understanding of the spatial and electrostatic basis of DPP4 inhibitors, we have also done a comprehensive analysis of all 76 known DPP4 structures liganded to inhibitors till date. Also, the methodology presented here can be easily adopted for other drugs, and provide the first line of filtering in the identification of pathways that

  19. The dipeptidyl peptidase IV inhibitors vildagliptin and K-579 inhibit a phospholipase C: a case of promiscuous scaffolds in proteins.

    PubMed

    Chakraborty, Sandeep; Rendón-Ramírez, Adela; Ásgeirsson, Bjarni; Dutta, Mouparna; Ghosh, Anindya S; Oda, Masataka; Venkatramani, Ravindra; Rao, Basuthkar J; Dandekar, Abhaya M; Goñi, Félix M

    2013-01-01

    The long term side effects of any newly introduced drug is a subject of intense research, and often raging controversies. One such example is the dipeptidyl peptidase-IV (DPP4) inhibitor used for treating type 2 diabetes, which is inconclusively implicated in increased susceptibility to acute pancreatitis. Previously, based on a computational analysis of the spatial and electrostatic properties of active site residues, we have demonstrated that phosphoinositide-specific phospholipase C (PI-PLC) from Bacillus cereus is a prolyl peptidase using in vivo experiments. In the current work, we first report the inhibition of the native activity of PI-PLC by two DPP4 inhibitors - vildagliptin (LAF-237) and K-579. While vildagliptin inhibited PI-PLC at micromolar concentrations, K-579 was a potent inhibitor even at nanomolar concentrations. Subsequently, we queried a comprehensive, non-redundant set of 5000 human proteins (50% similarity cutoff) with known structures using serine protease (SPASE) motifs derived from trypsin and DPP4. A pancreatic lipase and a gastric lipase are among the proteins that are identified as proteins having promiscuous SPASE scaffolds that could interact with DPP4 inhibitors. The presence of such scaffolds in human lipases is expected since they share the same catalytic mechanism with PI-PLC. However our methodology also detects other proteins, often with a completely different enzymatic mechanism, that have significantly congruent domains with the SPASE motifs. The reported elevated levels of serum lipase, although contested, could be rationalized by inhibition of lipases reported here. In an effort to further our understanding of the spatial and electrostatic basis of DPP4 inhibitors, we have also done a comprehensive analysis of all 76 known DPP4 structures liganded to inhibitors till date. Also, the methodology presented here can be easily adopted for other drugs, and provide the first line of filtering in the identification of pathways that

  20. Elucidating the Mechanism of Gain of Toxic Function From Mutant C1 Inhibitor Proteins in Hereditary Angioedema

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-10-01

    AD______________ AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-14-1-0506 TITLE: Elucidating the Mechanism of Gain of Toxic Function From Mutant C1 Inhibitor Proteins...REPORT TYPE Annual 3. DATES COVERED 30 Sept 2014 – 29 Sept 2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Elucidating the Mechanism of Gain of Toxic Function From Mutant ...Unlimited 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT HAE is autosomal dominant. Cells, heterozygous for the SERPING1 mutation, express both mutant and WT

  1. Suppression of complement regulatory protein C1 inhibitor in vascular endothelial activation by inhibiting vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 action

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Haimou; Qin, Gangjian; Liang, Gang; Li, Jinan; Chiu, Isaac; Barrington, Robert A.; Liu, Dongxu . E-mail: dxliu001@yahoo.com

    2007-07-13

    Increased expression of adhesion molecules by activated endothelium is a critical feature of vascular inflammation associated with the several diseases such as endotoxin shock and sepsis/septic shock. Our data demonstrated complement regulatory protein C1 inhibitor (C1INH) prevents endothelial cell injury. We hypothesized that C1INH has the ability of an anti-endothelial activation associated with suppression of expression of adhesion molecule(s). C1INH blocked leukocyte adhesion to endothelial cell monolayer in both static assay and flow conditions. In inflammatory condition, C1INH reduced vascular cell adhesion molecule (VCAM-1) expression associated with its cytoplasmic mRNA destabilization and nuclear transcription level. Studies exploring the underlying mechanism of C1INH-mediated suppression in VCAM-1 expression were related to reduction of NF-{kappa}B activation and nuclear translocation in an I{kappa}B{alpha}-dependent manner. The inhibitory effects were associated with reduction of inhibitor I{kappa}B kinase activity and stabilization of the NF-{kappa}B inhibitor I{kappa}B. These findings indicate a novel role for C1INH in inhibition of vascular endothelial activation. These observations could provide the basis for new therapeutic application of C1INH to target inflammatory processes in different pathologic situations.

  2. Steady-state concentrations of mRNA encoding two inhibitors of protein kinase C in ovine luteal tissue.

    PubMed

    Juengel, J L; Melner, M H; Clapper, J A; Turzillo, A M; Moss, G E; Nett, T M; Niswender, G D

    1998-07-01

    Prostaglandin F2 alpha (PGF2 alpha) decreases secretion of progesterone from the corpus luteum in domestic ruminants. However, it is less effective during the early part of the oestrous cycle (Louis et al., 1973) and at the time of maternal recognition of pregnancy (Silvia and Niswender, 1984; Lacroix and Kann, 1986). Decreased luteal responsiveness may be due to failure of PGF2 alpha to activate fully its normal second messenger system, protein kinase C (PKC). Alternatively, increased resistance of the corpus luteum to PGF2 alpha might be attributable to greater concentrations of recently identified biological inhibitors of PKC. These possibilities were addressed by measuring steady-state concentrations of mRNA encoding PGF2 alpha receptor and two inhibitors of PKC, protein kinase C inhibitor-1 (PKCI-1) and kinase C inhibitor protein-1 (KCIP-1, brain 14-3-3 protein), in corpora lutea collected from ewes on days 4, 10 and 15 of the oestrous cycle (n = 5 per day) and day 15 of pregnancy (n = 7). There were no differences in mean concentrations of mRNA encoding PGF2 alpha receptor among the groups. However, concentrations of mRNA encoding both inhibitors of PKC were higher (P < 0.01) on day 4 of the oestrous cycle compared with the other groups. Treatment of ewes with a luteolytic dose of PGF2 alpha, which activates PKC, did not change concentrations of mRNA encoding either PKCI-1 or KCIP-I up to 24 h later. Luteal expression of mRNA encoding the PKC inhibitors and PGF2 alpha receptor was also examined in ewes treated with oestradiol in vivo for 16 h in the midluteal phase. High concentrations of oestradiol in serum (20 and 70 pg ml-1) did not influence quantities of any of the mRNAs examined. Therefore, an increase in PKC inhibitors may be involved in resistance of the corpus luteum to PGF2 alpha during the early part of the oestrous cycle but does not appear to mediate the increased resistance of the corpus luteum to PGF2 alpha during maternal recognition of

  3. Irreversible inhibitors of the 3C protease of Coxsackie virus through templated assembly of protein-binding fragments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becker, Daniel; Kaczmarska, Zuzanna; Arkona, Christoph; Schulz, Robert; Tauber, Carolin; Wolber, Gerhard; Hilgenfeld, Rolf; Coll, Miquel; Rademann, Jörg

    2016-09-01

    Small-molecule fragments binding to biomacromolecules can be starting points for the development of drugs, but are often difficult to detect due to low affinities. Here we present a strategy that identifies protein-binding fragments through their potential to induce the target-guided formation of covalently bound, irreversible enzyme inhibitors. A protein-binding nucleophile reacts reversibly with a bis-electrophilic warhead, thereby positioning the second electrophile in close proximity of the active site of a viral protease, resulting in the covalent de-activation of the enzyme. The concept is implemented for Coxsackie virus B3 3C protease, a pharmacological target against enteroviral infections. Using an aldehyde-epoxide as bis-electrophile, active fragment combinations are validated through measuring the protein inactivation rate and by detecting covalent protein modification in mass spectrometry. The structure of one enzyme-inhibitor complex is determined by X-ray crystallography. The presented warhead activation assay provides potent non-peptidic, broad-spectrum inhibitors of enteroviral proteases.

  4. Irreversible inhibitors of the 3C protease of Coxsackie virus through templated assembly of protein-binding fragments

    PubMed Central

    Becker, Daniel; Kaczmarska, Zuzanna; Arkona, Christoph; Schulz, Robert; Tauber, Carolin; Wolber, Gerhard; Hilgenfeld, Rolf; Coll, Miquel; Rademann, Jörg

    2016-01-01

    Small-molecule fragments binding to biomacromolecules can be starting points for the development of drugs, but are often difficult to detect due to low affinities. Here we present a strategy that identifies protein-binding fragments through their potential to induce the target-guided formation of covalently bound, irreversible enzyme inhibitors. A protein-binding nucleophile reacts reversibly with a bis-electrophilic warhead, thereby positioning the second electrophile in close proximity of the active site of a viral protease, resulting in the covalent de-activation of the enzyme. The concept is implemented for Coxsackie virus B3 3C protease, a pharmacological target against enteroviral infections. Using an aldehyde-epoxide as bis-electrophile, active fragment combinations are validated through measuring the protein inactivation rate and by detecting covalent protein modification in mass spectrometry. The structure of one enzyme–inhibitor complex is determined by X-ray crystallography. The presented warhead activation assay provides potent non-peptidic, broad-spectrum inhibitors of enteroviral proteases. PMID:27677239

  5. Irreversible inhibitors of the 3C protease of Coxsackie virus through templated assembly of protein-binding fragments.

    PubMed

    Becker, Daniel; Kaczmarska, Zuzanna; Arkona, Christoph; Schulz, Robert; Tauber, Carolin; Wolber, Gerhard; Hilgenfeld, Rolf; Coll, Miquel; Rademann, Jörg

    2016-09-28

    Small-molecule fragments binding to biomacromolecules can be starting points for the development of drugs, but are often difficult to detect due to low affinities. Here we present a strategy that identifies protein-binding fragments through their potential to induce the target-guided formation of covalently bound, irreversible enzyme inhibitors. A protein-binding nucleophile reacts reversibly with a bis-electrophilic warhead, thereby positioning the second electrophile in close proximity of the active site of a viral protease, resulting in the covalent de-activation of the enzyme. The concept is implemented for Coxsackie virus B3 3C protease, a pharmacological target against enteroviral infections. Using an aldehyde-epoxide as bis-electrophile, active fragment combinations are validated through measuring the protein inactivation rate and by detecting covalent protein modification in mass spectrometry. The structure of one enzyme-inhibitor complex is determined by X-ray crystallography. The presented warhead activation assay provides potent non-peptidic, broad-spectrum inhibitors of enteroviral proteases.

  6. Screening of a Library of FDA-Approved Drugs Identifies Several Enterovirus Replication Inhibitors That Target Viral Protein 2C

    PubMed Central

    Ulferts, Rachel; de Boer, S. Matthijn; van der Linden, Lonneke; Bauer, Lisa; Lyoo, Hey Rhyoung; Maté, Maria J.; Lichière, Julie; Canard, Bruno; Lelieveld, Daphne; Omta, Wienand; Egan, David; Coutard, Bruno

    2016-01-01

    Enteroviruses (EVs) represent many important pathogens of humans. Unfortunately, no antiviral compounds currently exist to treat infections with these viruses. We screened the Prestwick Chemical Library, a library of approved drugs, for inhibitors of coxsackievirus B3, identified pirlindole as a potent novel inhibitor, and confirmed the inhibitory action of dibucaine, zuclopenthixol, fluoxetine, and formoterol. Upon testing of viruses of several EV species, we found that dibucaine and pirlindole inhibited EV-B and EV-D and that dibucaine also inhibited EV-A, but none of them inhibited EV-C or rhinoviruses (RVs). In contrast, formoterol inhibited all enteroviruses and rhinoviruses tested. All compounds acted through the inhibition of genome replication. Mutations in the coding sequence of the coxsackievirus B3 (CV-B3) 2C protein conferred resistance to dibucaine, pirlindole, and zuclopenthixol but not formoterol, suggesting that 2C is the target for this set of compounds. Importantly, dibucaine bound to CV-B3 protein 2C in vitro, whereas binding to a 2C protein carrying the resistance mutations was reduced, providing an explanation for how resistance is acquired. PMID:26856848

  7. Development of in vitro PIK3C3/VPS34 complex protein assay for autophagy-specific inhibitor screening.

    PubMed

    Kim, Tae-Mi; Baek, Jong-Hyuk; Kim, Jeong Hee; Oh, Myung Sook; Kim, Joungmok

    2015-07-01

    Autophagy is an important catabolic program to respond to a variety of cellular stresses by forming a double membrane vesicle, autophagosome. Autophagy plays key roles in various cellular functions. Accordingly, dysregulation of autophagy is closely associated with diseases such as diabetes, neurodegenerative diseases, cardiomyopathy, and cancer. In this sense, autophagy is emerging as an important therapeutic target for disease control. Among the autophagy machineries, PIK3C3/VPS34 complex functions as an autophagy-triggering kinase to recruit the subsequent autophagy protein machineries on the phagophore membrane. Accumulating evidence showing that inhibition of PIK3C3/VPS34 complex successfully inhibits autophagy makes the complex an attractive target for developing autophagy inhibitors. However, one concern about PIK3C3/VPS34 complex is that many different PIK3C3/VPS34 complexes have distinct cellular functions. In this study, we have developed an in vitro PIK3C3/VPS34 complex monitoring assay for autophagy inhibitor screening in a high-throughput assay format instead of targeting the catalytic activity of the PIK3C3/VPS34 complex, which shuts down all PIK3C3/VPS34 complexes. We performed in vitro reconstitution of an essential autophagy-promoting PIK3C3/VPS34 complex, Vps34-Beclin1-ATG14L complex, in a microwell plate (96-well format) and successfully monitored the complex formation in many different conditions. This PIK3C3/VPS34 complex protein assay would provide a reliable tool for the screening of autophagy-specific inhibitors.

  8. Inhibitory effect of presenilin inhibitor LY411575 on maturation of hepatitis C virus core protein, production of the viral particle and expression of host proteins involved in pathogenicity.

    PubMed

    Otoguro, Teruhime; Tanaka, Tomohisa; Kasai, Hirotake; Yamashita, Atsuya; Moriishi, Kohji

    2016-11-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) core protein is responsible for the formation of infectious viral particles and induction of pathogenicity. The C-terminal transmembrane region of the immature core protein is cleaved by signal peptide peptidase (SPP) for maturation of the core protein. SPP belongs to the family of presenilin-like aspartic proteases. Some presenilin inhibitors are expected to suppress HCV infection and production; however, this anti-HCV effect has not been investigated in detail. In this study, presenilin inhibitors were screened to identify anti-HCV compounds. Of the 13 presenilin inhibitors tested, LY411575 was the most potent inhibitor of SPP-dependent cleavage of HCV core protein. Production of intracellular core protein and supernatant infectious viral particles from HCV-infected cells was significantly impaired by LY411575 in a dose-dependent manner (half maximum inhibitory concentration = 0.27 μM, cytotoxic concentration of the extracts to cause death to 50% of viable cells > 10 μM). No effect of LY411575 on intracellular HCV RNA in the subgenomic replicon cells was detected. LY411575 synergistically promoted daclatasvir-dependent inhibition of viral production, but not that of viral replication. Furthermore, LY411575 inhibited HCV-related production of reactive oxygen species and expression of NADPH oxidases and vascular endothelial growth factor. Taken together, our data suggest that LY411575 suppresses HCV propagation through SPP inhibition and impairs host gene expressions related to HCV pathogenicity.

  9. A Novel Interaction between Complement Inhibitor C4b-binding Protein and Plasminogen That Enhances Plasminogen Activation*

    PubMed Central

    Agarwal, Vaibhav; Talens, Simone; Grandits, Alexander M.; Blom, Anna M.

    2015-01-01

    The complement, coagulation, and fibrinolytic systems are crucial for the maintenance of tissue homeostasis. To date numerous interactions and cross-talks have been identified between these cascades. In line with this, here we propose a novel, hitherto unknown interaction between the complement inhibitor C4b-binding protein (C4BP) and plasminogen of the fibrinolytic pathway. Binding of C4BP to Streptococcus pneumoniae is a known virulence mechanism of this pathogen and it was increased in the presence of plasminogen. Interestingly, the acute phase variant of C4BP lacking the β-chain and protein S binds plasminogen much stronger than the main isoform containing the β-chain and protein S. Indeed, the complement control protein (CCP) 8 domain of C4BP, which would otherwise be sterically hindered by the β-chain, primarily mediates this interaction. Moreover, the lysine-binding sites in plasminogen kringle domains facilitate the C4BP-plasminogen interaction. Furthermore, C4BP readily forms complexes with plasminogen in fluid phase and such complexes are present in human serum and plasma. Importantly, whereas the presence of plasminogen did not affect the factor I cofactor activity of C4BP, the activation of plasminogen by urokinase-type plasminogen activator to active plasmin was significantly augmented in the presence of C4BP. Taken together, our data demonstrate a novel interaction between two proteins of the complement and fibrinolytic system. Most complexes might be formed during the acute phase of inflammation and have an effect on the homeostasis at the site of injury or acute inflammation. PMID:26067271

  10. C1-transport in gastric micorsomes. An ATP-dependent influx sensitive to membrane potential and to protein kinase inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Soumarmon, A; Abastado, M; Bonfils, S; Lewin, M J

    1980-12-25

    Uptakes of radioactive C1- or 1- by gastric microsomal vesicles were stimulated 2- to 8-fold by AtP. The sensitivity of those uptakes to a C1- in equilibrium OH- ionophore and to osmotic swelling suggested they were due to transport rather than to binding. The ATP effect was labile, but dithiothreitol and methanol improved its stability. The stimulation of anion transport required magnesium; GTP and UTP were less potent than ATP whereas ADP and AMP had no effect. The apparent Km for ATP was estimated to be 2 X 10(-4) M at 22 degrees C. The rate of the ATP-dependent transport showed saturation-type kinetics, with half-maximal uptake at 10 mM for I- and 15 mM for C1-. Nonradioactive C1-, I-, and SCN- competed with 125I- uptake while SO42- did not. K+ valinomycin increased the ATP-dependent C1- uptake. The thermostable inhibitor of cAMP-dependent protein kinases inhibited the effect of ATP. These results suggest the existence of an anion conductance, permeant to C1-, I-, and SCN- and nonpermeant to SO42-, which could be linked to a cAMP-dependent protein kinase.

  11. Bisindolylmaleimide protein-kinase-C inhibitors delay the decline in DNA synthesis in mouse hair follicle organ cultures.

    PubMed

    Harmon, C S; Nevins, T D; Ducote, J; Lutz, D

    1997-01-01

    We have used a series of bisindolylmaleimide selective protein-kinase C (PKC) inhibitors to investigate the role of this enzyme in the regulation of cell proliferation in mouse hair follicle organ cultures. Mouse whisker follicles were isolated by microdissection, and rates of DNA synthesis during culture were determined from 3H-thymidine incorporation. The bisindolylmaleimides Ro 31-7549, Ro 31-8161, Ro 31-8425 and Ro 31-8830 inhibit isolated brain PKC with IC50 values of 8-80 nM, are > 60-fold less potent against protein kinase A, and inhibit PKC-mediated protein phosphorylation in platelets with IC50 values in the range 0.25-4.4 microM. These PKC inhibitors were found to increase levels of mouse hair follicle DNA synthesis, with EC50 values in the range 1-4 microM and maximal levels in the range 151-197% of control. Ro 31-7549 had an IC50 value 50-fold lower than that of minoxidil, while the maximal level of DNA synthesis for the PKC inhibitor was 86% higher. Incubation of mouse hair follicles with Ro 31-7549 resulted in a delay of approximately 24 h in the onset of decline in follicular DNA synthesis rates. Ro 31-6045 and Ro 31-7208, bisindolylmaleimides without activity in the platelet PKC assay, did not affect mouse hair follicle DNA synthesis rates. Taken together, these findings show that PKC mediates, at least in part, the rapid loss of proliferative activity that occurs in mouse whisker follicles in culture, and provide further evidence that PKC plays a role as a negative proliferative signal in hair follicles.

  12. Design, synthesis, and biological evaluation of substrate-competitive inhibitors of C-terminal Binding Protein (CtBP).

    PubMed

    Korwar, Sudha; Morris, Benjamin L; Parikh, Hardik I; Coover, Robert A; Doughty, Tyler W; Love, Ian M; Hilbert, Brendan J; Royer, William E; Kellogg, Glen E; Grossman, Steven R; Ellis, Keith C

    2016-06-15

    C-terminal Binding Protein (CtBP) is a transcriptional co-regulator that downregulates the expression of many tumor-suppressor genes. Utilizing a crystal structure of CtBP with its substrate 4-methylthio-2-oxobutyric acid (MTOB) and NAD(+) as a guide, we have designed, synthesized, and tested a series of small molecule inhibitors of CtBP. From our first round of compounds, we identified 2-(hydroxyimino)-3-phenylpropanoic acid as a potent CtBP inhibitor (IC50=0.24μM). A structure-activity relationship study of this compound further identified the 4-chloro- (IC50=0.18μM) and 3-chloro- (IC50=0.17μM) analogues as additional potent CtBP inhibitors. Evaluation of the hydroxyimine analogues in a short-term cell growth/viability assay showed that the 4-chloro- and 3-chloro-analogues are 2-fold and 4-fold more potent, respectively, than the MTOB control. A functional cellular assay using a CtBP-specific transcriptional readout revealed that the 4-chloro- and 3-chloro-hydroxyimine analogues were able to block CtBP transcriptional repression activity. This data suggests that substrate-competitive inhibition of CtBP dehydrogenase activity is a potential mechanism to reactivate tumor-suppressor gene expression as a therapeutic strategy for cancer.

  13. Sensitivity of Roberts Syndrome Cells to gamma radiation, mitomycin C, and protein synthesis inhibitors

    SciTech Connect

    Van Den Berg, D.J.; Francke, U. )

    1993-07-01

    Roberts syndrome (RS) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder characterized by pre- and postnatal growth retardation, limb reduction abnormalities, and craniofacial anomalies. Mitotic chromosomes from RS individuals display repulsion of heterochromatin regions or centromere splitting, leading to a railroad-track appearance of mitotic chromosomes. Abnormalities in metaphase duration, anaphase progression, nuclear morphology, and increased frequency of micronucleation have been reported in RS cells. Cells from RS heterozygotes are normal in these respects, and in vitro complementation of the defects in somatic cell hybrids has been reported. Therefore, in preparation for the isolation of cDNAs that complement the RS defect, the authors investigated various drug treatments to identify an agent that specifically involves the growth of RS cells. Based on the cytogenetic and cell biologic findings, they chose agents that increase micronucleation or inhibit protein synthesis. They found that RS cells are hypersensitive to gamma radiation, mitomycin C, G418 and hygromycin B, but not to colcemid or streptonigrin when compared to normal cells. DNA content and cell viability analysis confirmed that the sensitivity to gamma irradiation was primarily due to increased cell death.

  14. Identification of a Tetrahydroquinoline Analog as a Pharmacological Inhibitor of the cAMP-binding Protein Epac*

    PubMed Central

    Courilleau, Delphine; Bisserier, Malik; Jullian, Jean-Christophe; Lucas, Alexandre; Bouyssou, Pascal; Fischmeister, Rodolphe; Blondeau, Jean-Paul; Lezoualc'h, Frank

    2012-01-01

    The cAMP-binding protein Epac is a therapeutic target for the treatment of various diseases such as cardiac hypertrophy and tumor invasion. This points out the importance to develop Epac inhibitors to better understand the involvement of these cAMP sensors in physiology and pathophysiology. Here, we have developed a functional fluorescence-based high-throughput assay with a Z′ value around 0.7 for screening Epac-specific antagonists. We identified an Epac1 inhibitor compound named CE3F4 that blocked Epac1 guanine nucleotide exchange activity toward its effector Rap1 both in cell-free systems and in intact cells. CE3F4 is a tetrahydroquinoline analog that fails to influence protein kinase A holoenzyme activity. CE3F4 inhibited neither the interaction of Rap1 with Epac1 nor directly the GDP exchange on Rap1. The kinetics of inhibition by CE3F4 indicated that this compound did not compete for binding of agonists to Epac1 and suggested an uncompetitive inhibition mechanism with respect to Epac1 agonists. A structure-activity study showed that the formyl group on position 1 and the bromine atom on position 5 of the tetrahydroquinoline skeleton were important for CE3F4 to exert its inhibitory activity. Finally, CE3F4 inhibited Rap1 activation in living cultured cells, following Epac activation by either 8-(4-chlorophenylthio)-2′-O-methyl-cAMP, an Epac-selective agonist, or isoprenaline, a non-selective β-adrenergic receptor agonist. Our study shows that CE3F4 and related compounds may serve as a basis for the development of new therapeutic drugs. PMID:23139415

  15. The NTR module: domains of netrins, secreted frizzled related proteins, and type I procollagen C-proteinase enhancer protein are homologous with tissue inhibitors of metalloproteases.

    PubMed Central

    Bányai, L.; Patthy, L.

    1999-01-01

    Using homology search, structure prediction, and structural characterization methods we show that the C-terminal domains of (1) netrins, (2) complement proteins C3, C4, C5, (3) secreted frizzled-related proteins, and (4) type I procollagen C-proteinase enhancer proteins (PCOLCEs) are homologous with the N-terminal domains of (5) tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs). The proteins harboring this netrin module (NTR module) fulfill diverse biological roles ranging from axon guidance, regulation of Wnt signaling, to the control of the activity of metalloproteases. With the exception of TIMPs, it is not known at present what role the NTR modules play in these processes. In view of the fact that the NTR modules of TIMPs are involved in the inhibition of matrixin-type metalloproteases and that the NTR module of PCOLCEs is involved in the control of the activity of the astacin-type metalloprotease BMP1, it seems possible that interaction with metzincins could be a shared property of NTR modules and could be critical for the biological roles of the host proteins. PMID:10452607

  16. H-7, a protein kinase C inhibitor, inhibits spontaneous tone and spasmogenic responses in normal and sensitized guinea pig trachea.

    PubMed

    de Diego, A; Cortijo, J; Villagrasa, V; Perpina, M; Morcillo, E J

    1995-12-01

    1. H-7, a protein kinase C inhibitor, fully inhibited the spontaneous and stimulated (KCl 20 mM or histamine 0.5 mM) tone of trachea from normal and sensitized guinea pig. 2. H-7 depressed the concentration-contraction curves to KCl, histamine or 5-hydroxytryptamine in epithelium-denuded, indomethacin-treated, trachea from normal and sensitized guinea pigs while responses to CaCl2 (in Ca2+ -free, K+ -depolarized tissues) and acetylcholine were not affected. 3. H-7 (100 microM did not depress Ca2+ (20 microM-induced contraction of Triton X-100 skinned trachea. 4. These results suggest the involvement of PKC in the maintenance of spontaneous tone and spasmogenic responses of guinea pig trachea.

  17. Myricitrin, a nitric oxide and protein kinase C inhibitor, exerts antipsychotic-like effects in animal models.

    PubMed

    Pereira, M; Siba, I P; Chioca, L R; Correia, D; Vital, M A B F; Pizzolatti, M G; Santos, A R S; Andreatini, R

    2011-08-15

    Myricitrin is a nitric oxide (NO) and protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitor that has central nervous system activity, including anxiolytic-like action. Nitric oxide inhibitors blocked the behavioral effects of apomorphine, suggesting an antipsychotic-like effect. Furthermore, PKC inhibition reduced psychotic symptoms in acute mania patients and blocked amphetamine-induced hyperlocomotion, suggesting a potential antipsychotic-like effect. The present study evaluated the effects of myricitrin in animal models that assess antipsychotic-like effects (apomorphine-induced stereotypy and climbing and the paw test) and extrapyramidal side effects (catalepsy test and paw test). Olanzapine was used as a positive control. 7-Nitroindazole (7-NI), a NOS inhibitor, and l-arginine, a NO precursor, were used to evaluate nitrergic modulation, and tamoxifen was used to test the effect of PKC inhibition. In mice, myricitrin dose-dependently and olanzapine blocked the stereotypy and climbing induced by apomorphine at doses that did not induce catalepsy. 7-Nitroindazole also blocked apomorphine-induced stereotypy and climbing, which were reversed by l-arginine pretreatment. l-arginine only attenuated the effects of myricitrin on apomorphine's effects. Tamoxifen also blocked apomorphine-induced stereotypy and climbing. In the paw test in rats, myricitrin and olanzapine increased hindlimb retraction time at doses that did not affect forelimb reaction time, whereas haloperidol affected both parameters at the same dose. Myricitrin did not induce catalepsy in the bar test. Tamoxifen did not affect hindlimb retraction time or forelimb retraction time, whereas 7-NI significantly increased hindlimb reaction time. Thus, myricitrin exhibited an antipsychotic-like profile at doses that did not induce catalepsy, and this effect may be related to nitrergic action.

  18. Selective Inhibitors of Protein Methyltransferases

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Mounting evidence suggests that protein methyltransferases (PMTs), which catalyze methylation of histone and nonhistone proteins, play a crucial role in diverse biological processes and human diseases. In particular, PMTs have been recognized as major players in regulating gene expression and chromatin state. PMTs are divided into two categories: protein lysine methyltransferases (PKMTs) and protein arginine methyltransferases (PRMTs). There has been a steadily growing interest in these enzymes as potential therapeutic targets and therefore discovery of PMT inhibitors has also been pursued increasingly over the past decade. Here, we present a perspective on selective, small-molecule inhibitors of PMTs with an emphasis on their discovery, characterization, and applicability as chemical tools for deciphering the target PMTs’ physiological functions and involvement in human diseases. We highlight the current state of PMT inhibitors and discuss future directions and opportunities for PMT inhibitor discovery. PMID:25406853

  19. Topical application of a protein kinase C inhibitor reduces skin and hair pigmentation.

    PubMed

    Park, Hee-Young; Lee, Jin; González, Salvador; Middelkamp-Hup, Maritza A; Kapasi, Sameer; Peterson, Shaun; Gilchrest, Barbara A

    2004-01-01

    To determine whether inhibition of PKC-beta activity decreases pigmentation, paired cultures of primary human melanocytes were first pretreated with bisindolylmaleimide (Bis), a selective PKC inhibitor, or vehicle alone for 30 min, and then treated with TPA for an additional 90 min to activate PKC in the presence of Bis. Bis blocked the expected induction of tyrosinase activity by activation of PKC. Addition of a peptide corresponding to amino acids 501-511 of tyrosinase containing its PKC-beta phosphorylation site, a presumptive PKC-beta pseudosubstrate, gave similar results. To determine whether Bis reduces pigmentation in vivo, the backs of four shaved and depilated pigmented guinea pigs were UV irradiated with a solar simulator for 2 wk excluding weekends. Compared to vehicle alone, Bis (300 microM), applied twice daily to paired sites for various periods encompassing the irradiation period, decreased tanning. Bis also, although less strikingly, reduced basal epidermal melanin when topically applied twice daily, 5 d per wk, for 3 wk to shaved and depilated unirradiated skin. Moreover, topical application of Bis (100 microM) once daily for 9 d to the freshly depilated backs of 8-wk-old mice markedly lightened the color of regrowing hair. These results demonstrate that inhibiting PKC activity in vivo selectively blocks tanning and reduces basal pigmentation in the epidermis and in anagen hair shafts.

  20. Discovery of a novel class of targeted kinase inhibitors that blocks protein kinase C signaling and ameliorates retinal vascular leakage in a diabetic rat model.

    PubMed

    Grant, Stephan; Tran, Phong; Zhang, Qin; Zou, Aihua; Dinh, Dac; Jensen, Jordan; Zhou, Sue; Kang, Xiaolin; Zachwieja, Joseph; Lippincott, John; Liu, Kevin; Johnson, Sarah Ludlum; Scales, Stephanie; Yin, Chunfeng; Nukui, Seiji; Stoner, Chad; Prasanna, Ganesh; Lafontaine, Jennifer; Wells, Peter; Li, Hui

    2010-02-10

    Protein kinase C (PKC) family members such as PKCbetaII may become activated in the hyperglycemic state associated with diabetes. Preclinical and clinical data implicate aberrant PKC activity in the development of diabetic microvasculature abnormalities. Based on this potential etiological role for PKC in diabetic complications, several therapeutic PKC inhibitors have been investigated in clinical trials for the treatment of diabetic patients. In this report, we present the discovery and preclinical evaluation of a novel class of 3-amino-pyrrolo[3,4-c]pyrazole derivatives as inhibitors of PKC that are structurally distinct from the prototypical indolocarbazole and bisindolylmaleimide PKC inhibitors. From this pyrrolo-pyrazole series, several compounds were identified from biochemical assays as potent, ATP-competitive inhibitors of PKC activity with high specificity for PKC over other protein kinases. These compounds were also found to block PKC signaling activity in multiple cellular functional assays. PF-04577806, a representative from this series, inhibited PKC activity in retinal lysates from diabetic rats stimulated with phorbol myristate acetate. When orally administered, PF-04577806 showed good exposure in the retina of diabetic Long-Evans rats and ameliorated retinal vascular leakage in a streptozotocin-induced diabetic rat model. These novel PKC inhibitors represent a promising new class of targeted protein kinase inhibitors with potential as therapeutic agents for the treatment of patients with diabetic microvascular complications.

  1. Crystal structures and mutagenesis of PPP-family ser/thr protein phosphatases elucidate the selectivity of cantharidin and novel norcantharidin-based inhibitors of PP5C.

    PubMed

    Chattopadhyay, Debasish; Swingle, Mark R; Salter, Edward A; Wood, Eric; D'Arcy, Brandon; Zivanov, Catherine; Abney, Kevin; Musiyenko, Alla; Rusin, Scott F; Kettenbach, Arminja; Yet, Larry; Schroeder, Chad E; Golden, Jennifer E; Dunham, Wade H; Gingras, Anne-Claude; Banerjee, Surajit; Forbes, David; Wierzbicki, Andrzej; Honkanen, Richard E

    2016-06-01

    Cantharidin is a natural toxin and an active constituent in a traditional Chinese medicine used to treat tumors. Cantharidin acts as a semi-selective inhibitor of PPP-family ser/thr protein phosphatases. Despite sharing a common catalytic mechanism and marked structural similarity with PP1C, PP2AC and PP5C, human PP4C was found to be insensitive to the inhibitory activity of cantharidin. To explore the molecular basis for this selectivity, we synthesized and tested novel C5/C6-derivatives designed from quantum-based modeling of the interactions revealed in the co-crystal structures of PP5C in complex with cantharidin. Structure-activity relationship studies and analysis of high-resolution (1.25Å) PP5C-inhibitor co-crystal structures reveal close contacts between the inhibitor bridgehead oxygen and both a catalytic metal ion and a non-catalytic phenylalanine residue, the latter of which is substituted by tryptophan in PP4C. Quantum chemistry calculations predicted that steric clashes with the bulkier tryptophan side chain in PP4C would force all cantharidin-based inhibitors into an unfavorable binding mode, disrupting the strong coordination of active site metal ions observed in the PP5C co-crystal structures, thereby rendering PP4C insensitive to the inhibitors. This prediction was confirmed by inhibition studies employing native human PP4C. Mutation of PP5C (F446W) and PP1C (F257W), to mimic the PP4C active site, resulted in markedly suppressed sensitivity to cantharidin. These observations provide insight into the structural basis for the natural selectivity of cantharidin and provide an avenue for PP4C deselection. The novel crystal structures also provide insight into interactions that provide increased selectivity of the C5/C6 modifications for PP5C versus other PPP-family phosphatases.

  2. Effects of the selective protein kinase C inhibitor, Ro 31-7549, on the proliferation of cultured mouse epidermal keratinocytes.

    PubMed

    Bollag, W B; Ducote, J; Harmon, C S

    1993-03-01

    We have investigated the effects of Ro 31-7549, a selective protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitor, on DNA synthesis and proliferation in two primary mouse epidermal keratinocyte culture systems. In differentiating keratinocytes incubated in medium containing 10% serum and high calcium (approximately 0.5 mM), Ro 31-7549 blocked the inhibitory effect of the phorbol ester 12-0-tetradecanoyl-13-acetate (TPA) (a PKC activator) on keratinocyte DNA synthesis at 24 h [50% maximal response concentration (EC50) = 1 microM], consistent with inhibition of PKC-mediated differentiation. Continuous treatment of the differentiative culture system with the PKC inhibitor resulted in a marked (fourfold) stimulation of [3H]thymidine incorporation at day 7 of exposure, with an EC50 of 0.25 microM. The potencies of these effects of Ro 31-7549 are comparable to that reported for inhibition of TPA-induced platelet 47-kD protein phosphorylation [50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) = 4.4 microM]. The time course of [3H]thymidine incorporation indicated that Ro 31-7549 did not directly stimulate DNA synthesis but instead prevented the loss of proliferative capacity associated with continued culture in this medium. Maximal stimulation (2.6 times) of DNA synthesis was observed on day 4, whereas DNA synthesis at day 1 was unaffected. In a highly proliferative culture system using serum-free medium containing 25 microM calcium, TPA dose-dependently inhibited proliferation with an IC50 of approximately 0.3 mM. This antiproliferative effect of TPA was largely reversed by 0.1 microM Ro 31-7549. In the proliferative culture system, 0.75 microM Ro 31-7549 also essentially reversed the inhibition of proliferation caused by switching to high (1.0 mM) calcium. These results suggest that the loss of proliferative capacity in differentiating epidermal keratinocyte cultures may be mediated, at least in part, by PKC.

  3. Subtilisin protein inhibitor from potato tubers.

    PubMed

    Revina, T A; Speranskaya, A S; Kladnitskaya, G V; Shevelev, A B; Valueva, T A

    2004-10-01

    A protein with molecular weight of 21 kD denoted as PKSI has been isolated from potato tubers (Solanum tuberosum L., cv. Istrinskii). The isolation procedure includes precipitation with (NH4)2SO4, gel chromatography on Sephadex G-75, and ion-exchange chromatography on CM-Sepharose CL-6B. The protein effectively inhibits the activity of subtilisin Carlsberg (Ki = 1.67 +/- 0.2 nM) by stoichiometric complexing with the enzyme at the molar ratio of 1 : 1. The inhibitor has no effect on trypsin, chymotrypsin, and the cysteine proteinase papain. The N-terminal sequence of the protein consists of 19 amino acid residues and is highly homologous to sequences of the known inhibitors from group C of the subfamily of potato Kunitz-type proteinase inhibitors (PKPIs-C). By cloning PCR products from the genomic DNA of potato, a gene denoted as PKPI-C2 was isolated and sequenced. The N-terminal sequence (residues from 15 to 33) of the protein encoded by the PKPI-C2 gene is identical to the N-terminal sequence (residues from 1 to 19) of the isolated protein PKSI. Thus, the inhibitor PKSI is very likely encoded by this gene.

  4. Metabolism of the c-Fos/activator protein-1 inhibitor T-5224 by multiple human UDP-glucuronosyltransferase isoforms.

    PubMed

    Uchihashi, Shinsuke; Fukumoto, Hiroyuki; Onoda, Makoto; Hayakawa, Hiroyoshi; Ikushiro, Shin-ichi; Sakaki, Toshiyuki

    2011-05-01

    We developed 3-{5-[4-(cyclopentyloxy)-2-hydroxybenzoyl]-2-[(3-hydroxy-1,2-benzisoxazol-6-yl)methoxy]phenyl} propionic acid (T-5224) as a novel inhibitor of the c-Fos/activator protein-1 for rheumatoid arthritis therapy. We predicted the metabolism of T-5224 in humans by using human liver microsomes (HLM), human intestinal microsomes (HIM), recombinant human cytochrome P450 (P450), and UDP-glucuronosyltransferases (UGTs). T-5224 was converted to its acyl O-glucuronide (G2) by UGT1A1 and UGT1A3 and to its hydroxyl O-glucuronide (G3) by several UGTs, but it was not metabolized by the P450s. A comparison of the intrinsic clearances (CL(int)) between HLM and HIM suggested that the glucuronidation of T-5224 occurs predominantly in the liver. UGT1A1 showed a higher k(cat)/K(m) value than UGT1A3 for G2 formation, but a lower k(cat)/K(m) value than UGT1A3 for G3 formation. A high correlation was observed between G2 formation activity and UGT1A1-specific activity (β-estradiol 3-glucuronidation) in seven individual HLM. A high correlation was also observed between G2 formation activity and UGT1A1 content in the HLM. These results strongly suggest that UGT1A1 is responsible for G2 formation in human liver. In contrast, no such correlation was observed with G3 formation, suggesting that multiple UGT isoforms, including UGT1A1 and UGT1A3, are involved in G3 formation. G2 is also observed in rat and monkey liver microsomes as a major metabolite of T-5224, suggesting that G2 is not a human-specific metabolite. In this study, we obtained useful information on the metabolism of T-5224 for its clinical use.

  5. Regulation of the activity of protein kinases by endogenous heat stable protein inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Szmigielski, A

    1985-01-01

    Protein kinase activities are regulated by endogenous thermostable protein inhibitors. Type I inhibitor is a protein of MW 22,000-24,000 which inhibits specifically cyclic AMP-(cAMP) dependent protein kinase (APK) as a competitive inhibitor of catalytic subunits of the enzyme. Type I inhibitor activity changes inversely according to the activation of adenylate cyclase and the changes in cAMP content in tissues. It seems that type I inhibitor serves as a factor preventing spontaneous cAMP-dependent phosphorylation in unstimulated cell. The other thermostable protein which inhibits APK activity has been found in Sertoli cell-enriched testis (testis inhibitor). Physiological role of the testis inhibitor is unknown. Type II inhibitor is a protein of MW 15,000 which blocks phosphorylation mediated by cAMP and cyclic GMP (cGMP) dependent (APK and GPK) and cyclic nucleotide independent protein kinases as a competitive inhibitor of substrate proteins. Activity of this inhibitor specifically changes in reciprocal manner to the changes in cGMP content. It seems that type II inhibitor serves as a factor preventing the phosphorylation catalyzed by GPK when cGMP content is low. Stimulation of guanylate cyclase and activation of GPK is followed by a decrease of type II inhibitor activity. This change in relationship between activities of GPK and type II inhibitor allows for effective phosphorylation catalyzed by this enzyme when cGMP content is increased.

  6. Anti-neuroinflammatory efficacy of the aldose reductase inhibitor FMHM via phospholipase C/protein kinase C-dependent NF-κB and MAPK pathways

    SciTech Connect

    Zeng, Ke-Wu; Li, Jun; Dong, Xin; Wang, Ying-Hong; Ma, Zhi-Zhong; Jiang, Yong; Jin, Hong-Wei; Tu, Peng-Fei

    2013-11-15

    Aldose reductase (AR) has a key role in several inflammatory diseases: diabetes, cancer and cardiovascular diseases. Therefore, AR inhibition seems to be a useful strategy for anti-inflammation therapy. In the central nervous system (CNS), microglial over-activation is considered to be a central event in neuroinflammation. However, the effects of AR inhibition in CNS inflammation and its underlying mechanism of action remain unknown. In the present study, we found that FMHM (a naturally derived AR inhibitor from the roots of Polygala tricornis Gagnep.) showed potent anti-neuroinflammatory effects in vivo and in vitro by inhibiting microglial activation and expression of inflammatory mediators. Mechanistic studies showed that FMHM suppressed the activity of AR-dependent phospholipase C/protein kinase C signaling, which further resulted in downstream inactivation of the IκB kinase/IκB/nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) inflammatory pathway. Therefore, AR inhibition-dependent NF-κB inactivation negatively regulated the transcription and expression of various inflammatory genes. AR inhibition by FMHM exerted neuroprotective effects in lipopolysaccharide-induced neuron–microglia co-cultures. These findings suggested that AR is a potential target for neuroinflammation inhibition and that FMHM could be an effective agent for treating or preventing neuroinflammatory diseases. - Highlights: • FMHM is a natural-derived aldose reductase (AR) inhibitor. • FMHM inhibits various neuroinflammatory mediator productions in vitro and in vivo. • FMHM inhibits neuroinflammation via aldose reductase/PLC/PKC-dependent NF-κB pathway. • FMHM inhibits neuroinflammation via aldose reductase/PLC/PKC-dependent MAPK pathway. • FMHM protects neurons against inflammatory injury in microglia-neuron co-cultures.

  7. Hereditary angioedema with normal C1 inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Bork, Konrad

    2013-11-01

    Until recently it was assumed that hereditary angioedema was a disease that results exclusively from a genetic deficiency of the C1 inhibitor. In 2000, families with hereditary angioedema, normal C1 inhibitor activity, and protein in plasma were described. Since then, numerous patients and families with that condition have been reported. Most of the patients were women. In many of the affected women, oral contraceptives, hormone replacement therapy containing estrogens, and pregnancies triggered the clinical symptoms. In some families mutations in the coagulation factor XII (Hageman factor) gene were detected.

  8. Acquisition of complement inhibitor serine protease factor I and its cofactors C4b-binding protein and factor H by Prevotella intermedia.

    PubMed

    Malm, Sven; Jusko, Monika; Eick, Sigrun; Potempa, Jan; Riesbeck, Kristian; Blom, Anna M

    2012-01-01

    Infection with the Gram-negative pathogen Prevotella intermedia gives rise to periodontitis and a growing number of studies implies an association of P. intermedia with rheumatoid arthritis. The serine protease Factor I (FI) is the central inhibitor of complement degrading complement components C3b and C4b in the presence of cofactors such as C4b-binding protein (C4BP) and Factor H (FH). Yet, the significance of complement inhibitor acquisition in P. intermedia infection and FI binding by Gram-negative pathogens has not been addressed. Here we show that P. intermedia isolates bound purified FI as well as FI directly from heat-inactivated human serum. FI bound to bacteria retained its serine protease activity as shown in degradation experiments with (125)I-labeled C4b. Since FI requires cofactors for its activity we also investigated the binding of purified cofactors C4BP and FH and found acquisition of both proteins, which retained their activity in FI mediated degradation of C3b and C4b. We propose that FI binding by P. intermedia represents a new mechanism contributing to complement evasion by a Gram-negative bacterial pathogen associated with chronic diseases.

  9. Specificity of a protein phosphatase inhibitor from rabbit skeletal muscle.

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, P; Nimmo, G A; Antoniw, J F

    1977-01-01

    A hear-stable protein, which is a specific inhibitor of protein phosphatase-III, was purified 700-fold from skeletal muscle by a procedure that involved heat-treatment at 95 degrees C, chromatography on DEAE-cellulose and gel filtration on Sephadex G-100. The final step completely resolved the protein phosphatase inhibitor from the protein inhibitor of cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase. The phosphorylase phosphatase, beta-phosphorylase kinase phosphatase, glycogen synthase phosphatase-1 and glycogen synthase phosphatase-2 activities of protein phosphatase-III [Antoniw, J. F., Nimmo, H. G., Yeaman, S. J. & Cohen, P.(1977) Biochem.J. 162, 423-433] were inhibited in a very similar manner by the protein phosphatase inhibitor and at least 95% inhibition was observed at high concentrations of inhibitor. The two forms of protein phosphatase-III, termed IIIA and IIIB, were equally susceptible to the protein phosphatase inhibitor. The protein phosphatase inhibitor was at least 200 times less effective in inhibiting the activity of protein phosphatase-I and protein phosphatase-II. The high degree of specificity of the inhibitor for protein phosphatase-III was used to show that 90% of the phosphorylase phosphatase and glycogen synthase phosphatase activities measured in muscle extracts are catalysed by protein phosphatase-III. Protein phosphatase-III was tightly associated with the protein-glycogen complex that can be isolated from skeletal muscle, whereas the protein phosphatase inhibitor and protein phosphatase-II were not. The results provide further evidence that the enzyme that catalyses the dephosphorylation of the alpha-subunit of phosphorylase kinase (protein phosphatase-II) and the enzyme that catalyses the dephosphorylation of the beta-subunit of phosphorylase kinase (protein phosphatase-III) are distinct. The results suggest that the protein phosphatase inhibitor may be a useful probe for differentiating different classes of protein phosphatases in mammalian

  10. A high throughput system for the evaluation of protein kinase C inhibitors based on Elk1 transcriptional activation in human astrocytoma cells.

    PubMed

    Sharif, T R; Sharif, M

    1999-02-01

    Protein kinase C (PKC) designates a family of kinases that regulate many essential functions including cell growth and differentiation. The tight regulation of PKC activity is crucial for maintaining normal cellular proliferation and excessive activity leads to abnormal or uncontrolled cell growth. Recent reports indicate that malignant glioma cell lines express 100 to 1000-fold higher PKC activity when compared to non-neoplastic astrocytes. This high activity correlates well with the proliferation of tumor cells in vitro. We recently reported on the anti-proliferative properties of selective PKC inhibitors on the growth of U-373MG human astrocytoma cell line, and their ability to block mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase pathway activated by substance P (SP) neuropeptide receptor signaling via a PKC-dependent mechanism. Therefore, inhibiting PKC activity by selective PKC inhibitors may present a promising approach for improving astroglial brain tumor therapy. For this purpose, we constructed a high throughput model cell system to evaluate the efficacy of PKC inhibitors. This system is based on the measurement of light production in U-373MG cells stably transfected with the luciferase reporter gene whose expression depends on the transcriptional activation of GAL4-Elk1 fusion protein by enzyme components of the MAP kinase pathway and the upstream activation of PKC (PKC activation-->MAP kinases-->GAL4-Elk1 phosphorylation-->luciferase expression-->luciferase activity). In brief, we have demonstrated that the PKC activator 12-O-tetradecanoyl phorbol 13-acetate (TPA)-induced luciferase activity in this cell system is mediated via the MAP kinase pathway and can be blocked in the presence of MEK1 selective inhibitors (PD 098059 or U0126). We also demonstrated that TPA-induced luciferase activity in U-373MG stable clones can be blocked by PKC inhibitors (CGP 41251, Go 6976, and GF 109203X) in a concentration dependent manner. In contrast, epidermal growth factor (EGF

  11. High Affinity Small Protein Inhibitors of Human Chymotrypsin C (CTRC) Selected by Phage Display Reveal Unusual Preference for P4′ Acidic Residues*

    PubMed Central

    Szabó, András; Héja, Dávid; Szakács, Dávid; Zboray, Katalin; Kékesi, Katalin A.; Radisky, Evette S.; Sahin-Tóth, Miklós; Pál, Gábor

    2011-01-01

    Human chymotrypsin C (CTRC) is a pancreatic protease that participates in the regulation of intestinal digestive enzyme activity. Other chymotrypsins and elastases are inactive on the regulatory sites cleaved by CTRC, suggesting that CTRC recognizes unique sequence patterns. To characterize the molecular determinants underlying CTRC specificity, we selected high affinity substrate-like small protein inhibitors against CTRC from a phage library displaying variants of SGPI-2, a natural chymotrypsin inhibitor from Schistocerca gregaria. On the basis of the sequence pattern selected, we designed eight inhibitor variants in which amino acid residues in the reactive loop at P1 (Met or Leu), P2′ (Leu or Asp), and P4′ (Glu, Asp, or Ala) were varied. Binding experiments with CTRC revealed that (i) inhibitors with Leu at P1 bind 10-fold stronger than those with P1 Met; (ii) Asp at P2′ (versus Leu) decreases affinity but increases selectivity, and (iii) Glu or Asp at P4′ (versus Ala) increase affinity 10-fold. The highest affinity SGPI-2 variant (KD 20 pm) bound to CTRC 575-fold tighter than the parent molecule. The most selective inhibitor variant exhibited a KD of 110 pm and a selectivity ranging from 225- to 112,664-fold against other human chymotrypsins and elastases. Homology modeling and mutagenesis identified a cluster of basic amino acid residues (Lys51, Arg56, and Arg80) on the surface of human CTRC that interact with the P4′ acidic residue of the inhibitor. The acidic preference of CTRC at P4′ is unique among pancreatic proteases and might contribute to the high specificity of CTRC-mediated digestive enzyme regulation. PMID:21515688

  12. The inhibitor of apoptosis protein fusion c-IAP2.MALT1 stimulates NF-kappaB activation independently of TRAF1 AND TRAF2.

    PubMed

    Varfolomeev, Eugene; Wayson, Sarah M; Dixit, Vishva M; Fairbrother, Wayne J; Vucic, Domagoj

    2006-09-29

    The inhibitors of apoptosis (IAPs) are a family of cell death inhibitors found in viruses and metazoans. All members of the IAP family have at least one baculovirus IAP repeat (BIR) motif that is essential for their anti-apoptotic activity. The t(11, 18)(q21;q21) translocation fuses the BIR domains of c-IAP2 with the paracaspase/MALT1 (mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue) protein, a critical mediator of T cell receptor-stimulated activation of NF-kappaB. The c-IAP2.MALT1 fusion protein constitutively activates the NF-kappaB pathway, and this is considered critical to malignant B cell transformation and lymphoma progression. The BIR domains of c-IAP1 and c-IAP2 interact with tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factors 1 and 2 (TRAF1 and TRAF2). Here we investigated the importance of TRAF1 and TRAF2 for c-IAP2.MALT1-stimulated NF-kappaB activation. We identified a novel epitope within the BIR1 domains of c-IAP1 and c-IAP2 that is crucial for their physical interaction with TRAF1 and TRAF2. The c-IAP2.MALT1 fusion protein associates with TRAF1 and TRAF2 using the same binding site. We explored the functional relevance of this interaction and established that binding to TRAF1 and TRAF2 is not required for c-IAP2.MALT1-stimulated NF-kappaB activation. Furthermore, gene ablation of TRAF2 or combined down-regulation of TRAF1 and TRAF2 did not affect c-IAP2.MALT1-stimulated signaling. However, TRAF1/2-binding mutants of c-IAP2.MALT1 still oligomerize and activate NF-kappaB, suggesting that oligomerization might be important for signaling of the fusion protein. Therefore, the t(11, 18)(q21;q21) translocation creating the c-IAP2.MALT1 fusion protein activates NF-kappaB and contributes to human malignancy in the absence of signaling adaptors that might otherwise regulate its activity.

  13. The selective protein kinase C inhibitor, Ro-31-8220, inhibits mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphatase-1 (MKP-1) expression, induces c-Jun expression, and activates Jun N-terminal kinase.

    PubMed

    Beltman, J; McCormick, F; Cook, S J

    1996-10-25

    The role of protein kinase C (PKC) in inflammation, mitogenesis, and differentiation has been deduced in part through the use of a variety of PKC inhibitors. Two widely used inhibitors are the structurally related compounds GF109203X and Ro-31-8220, both of which potently inhibit PKC activity and are believed to be highly selective. While using GF109203X and Ro-31-8220 to address the role of PKC in immediate early gene expression, we observed striking differential effects by each of these two compounds. Growth factors induce the expression of the immediate early gene products MAP kinase phosphatase-1 (MKP-1), c-Fos and c-Jun. Ro-31-8220 inhibits growth factor-stimulated expression of MKP-1 and c-Fos but strongly stimulated c-Jun expression, even in the absence of growth factors. GF109203X displays none of these properties. These data suggest that Ro-31-8220 may have other pharmacological actions in addition to PKC inhibition. Indeed, Ro-31-8220 strongly stimulates the stress-activated protein kinase, JNK1. Furthermore, Ro-31-8220 apparently activates JNK in a PKC-independent manner. Neither the down-regulation of PKC by phorbol esters nor the inhibition of PKC by GF109203X affected the ability of Ro-31-8220 to activate JNK1. These data suggest that, in addition to potently inhibiting PKC, Ro-31-8220 exhibits novel pharmacological properties which are independent of its ability to inhibit PKC.

  14. Pepper pathogenesis-related protein 4c is a plasma membrane-localized cysteine protease inhibitor that is required for plant cell death and defense signaling.

    PubMed

    Kim, Nak Hyun; Hwang, Byung Kook

    2015-01-01

    Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria (Xcv) type III effector AvrBsT triggers programmed cell death (PCD) and activates the hypersensitive response (HR) in plants. Here, we isolated and identified the plasma membrane localized pathogenesis-related (PR) protein 4c gene (CaPR4c) from pepper (Capsicum annuum) leaves undergoing AvrBsT-triggered HR cell death. CaPR4c encodes a protein with a signal peptide and a Barwin domain. Recombinant CaPR4c protein expressed in Escherichia coli exhibited cysteine protease-inhibitor activity and ribonuclease (RNase) activity. Subcellular localization analyses revealed that CaPR4c localized to the plasma membrane in plant cells. CaPR4c expression was rapidly and specifically induced by avirulent Xcv (avrBsT) infection. Transient expression of CaPR4c caused HR cell death in pepper leaves, which was accompanied by enhanced accumulation of H2 O2 and significant induction of some defense-response genes. Deletion of the signal peptide from CaPR4c abolished the induction of HR cell death, indicating a requirement for plasma membrane localization of CaPR4c for HR cell death. CaPR4c silencing in pepper disrupted both basal and AvrBsT-triggered resistance responses, and enabled Xcv proliferation in infected leaves. H2 O2 accumulation, cell-death induction, and defense-response gene expression were distinctly reduced in CaPR4c-silenced pepper. CaPR4c overexpression in transgenic Arabidopsis plants conferred greater resistance against infection by Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato and Hyaloperonospora arabidopsidis. These results collectively suggest that CaPR4c plays an important role in plant cell death and defense signaling.

  15. Protein farnesyltransferase inhibitors and progeria.

    PubMed

    Meta, Margarita; Yang, Shao H; Bergo, Martin O; Fong, Loren G; Young, Stephen G

    2006-10-01

    Genetic mutations that lead to an accumulation of farnesyl-prelamin A cause progeroid syndromes, including Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome. It seemed possible that the farnesylated form of prelamin A might be toxic to mammalian cells, accounting for all the disease phenotypes that are characteristic of progeria. This concept led to the hypothesis that protein farnesyltransferase inhibitors (FTIs) might ameliorate the disease phenotypes of progeria in mouse models. Thus far, two different mouse models of progeria have been examined. In both models, FTIs improved progeria-like disease phenotypes. Here, prelamin A post-translational processing is discussed and several mutations underlying human progeroid syndromes are described. In addition, recent data showing that FTIs ameliorate disease phenotypes in a pair of mouse models of progeria are discussed.

  16. Selective peptide inhibitors of antiapoptotic cellular and viral Bcl-2 proteins lead to cytochrome c release during latent Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus infection.

    PubMed

    Burrer, Christine M; Foight, Glenna W; Keating, Amy E; Chan, Gary C

    2016-01-04

    Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) is associated with B-cell lymphomas including primary effusion lymphoma and multicentric Castleman's disease. KSHV establishes latency within B cells by modulating or mimicking the antiapoptotic Bcl-2 family of proteins to promote cell survival. Our previous BH3 profiling analysis, a functional assay that assesses the contribution of Bcl-2 proteins towards cellular survival, identified two Bcl-2 proteins, cellular Mcl-1 and viral KsBcl-2, as potential regulators of mitochondria polarization within a latently infected B-cell line, Bcbl-1. In this study, we used two novel peptide inhibitors identified in a peptide library screen that selectively bind KsBcl-2 (KL6-7_Y4eK) or KsBcl-2 and Mcl-1 (MS1) in order to decipher the relative contribution of Mcl-1 and KsBcl-2 in maintaining mitochondrial membrane potential. We found treatment with KL6-7_Y4eK and MS1 stimulated a similar amount of cytochrome c release from mitochondria isolated from Bcbl-1 cells, indicating that inhibition of KsBcl-2 alone is sufficient for mitochondrial outer membrane permiabilzation (MOMP) and thus apoptosis during a latent B cell infection. In turn, this study also identified and provides a proof-of-concept for the further development of novel KsBcl-2 inhibitors for the treatment of KSHV-associated B-cell lymphomas via the targeting of latently infected B cells.

  17. Unmasking Heavily O-Glycosylated Serum Proteins Using Perchloric Acid: Identification of Serum Proteoglycan 4 and Protease C1 Inhibitor as Molecular Indicators for Screening of Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Cheng-Siang; Taib, Nur Aishah Mohd; Ashrafzadeh, Ali; Fadzli, Farhana; Harun, Faizah; Rahmat, Kartini; Hoong, See Mee; Abdul-Rahman, Puteri Shafinaz; Hashim, Onn Haji

    2016-01-01

    Heavily glycosylated mucin glycopeptides such as CA 27.29 and CA 15–3 are currently being used as biomarkers for detection and monitoring of breast cancer. However, they are not well detected at the early stages of the cancer. In the present study, perchloric acid (PCA) was used to enhance detection of mucin-type O-glycosylated proteins in the serum in an attempt to identify new biomarkers for early stage breast cancer. Sensitivity and specificity of an earlier developed sandwich enzyme-linked lectin assay were significantly improved with the use of serum PCA isolates. When a pilot case-control study was performed using the serum PCA isolates of normal participants (n = 105) and patients with stage 0 (n = 31) and stage I (n = 48) breast cancer, higher levels of total O-glycosylated proteins in sera of both groups of early stage breast cancer patients compared to the normal control women were demonstrated. Further analysis by gel-based proteomics detected significant inverse altered abundance of proteoglycan 4 and plasma protease C1 inhibitor in both the early stages of breast cancer patients compared to the controls. Our data suggests that the ratio of serum proteoglycan 4 to protease C1 inhibitor may be used for screening of early breast cancer although this requires further validation in clinically representative populations. PMID:26890881

  18. Surface-plasmon-resonance-based biosensor with immobilized bisubstrate analog inhibitor for the determination of affinities of ATP- and protein-competitive ligands of cAMP-dependent protein kinase.

    PubMed

    Viht, Kaido; Schweinsberg, Sonja; Lust, Marje; Vaasa, Angela; Raidaru, Gerda; Lavogina, Darja; Uri, Asko; Herberg, Friedrich W

    2007-03-15

    Interactions between adenosine-oligoarginine conjugates (ARC), bisubstrate analog inhibitors of protein kinases, and catalytic subunits of cAMP-dependent protein kinase (cAPK Calpha) were characterized with surface-plasmon-resonance-based biosensors. ARC-704 bound to the immobilized kinase with subnanomolar affinity. The immobilization of ARC-704 to the chip surface via streptavidin-biotin complex yielded a high-affinity surface (K(D)=16nM). The bisubstrate character of ARC-704 was demonstrated with various ligands targeted to ATP-binding pocket (ATP and inhibitors H89 and H1152P) and protein-substrate-binding domain of Calpha (RIIalpha and GST-PKIalpha) in competition assays. The experiments performed on surfaces with different immobilization levels of ARC-704 produced similar results. The closeness of the obtained affinities of the tested compounds to the inhibitory potencies and affinities of the compounds measured with other methods demonstrates the applicability of the chip with the immobilized biligand inhibitor for the characterization of both ATP- and substrate protein-competitive ligands of basophilic protein kinases.

  19. A classical PKA inhibitor increases the oncolytic effect of M1 virus via activation of exchange protein directly activated by cAMP 1

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Haipeng; Xiao, Xiao; Tan, Yaqian; Cai, Jing; Zhu, Wenbo; Xing, Fan; Hu, Jun; Yan, Guangmei

    2016-01-01

    Oncolytic virotherapy is an emerging and promising treatment modality that uses replicating viruses as selective antitumor agents. Here, we report that a classical protein kinase A (PKA) inhibitor, H89, synergizes with oncolytic virus M1 in various cancer cells through activation of Epac1 (exchange protein directly activated by cAMP 1). H89 substantially increases viral replication in refractory cancer cells, leading to unresolvable Endoplasmic Reticulum stress, and cell apoptosis. Microarray analysis indicates that H89 blunts antiviral response in refractory cancer cells through retarding the nuclear translocation of NF-κB. Importantly, in vivo studies show significant antitumor effects during M1/H89 combination treatment. Overall, this study reveals a previously unappreciated role for H89 and demonstrates that activation of the Epac1 activity can improve the responsiveness of biotherapeutic agents for cancer. PMID:27374176

  20. Identification of inhibitors of α2β1 integrin, members of C-lectin type proteins, in Echis sochureki venom

    SciTech Connect

    Jakubowski, Piotr; Calvete, Juan J.; Eble, Johannes A.; Lazarovici, Philip; Marcinkiewicz, Cezary

    2013-05-15

    Snake venom antagonists of α2β1 integrin have been identified as members of a C-lectin type family of proteins (CLP). In the present study, we characterized three new CLPs isolated from Echis sochureki venom, which interact with this integrin. These proteins were purified using a combination of gel filtration, ion exchange chromatography and reverse phase HPLC. Sochicetin-A and sochicetin-B potently inhibited adhesion of cells expressing α2β1 integrin and binding of isolated α2β1 ectodomain to collagen I, as well as bound to recombinant GST-α2A domain in ELISA, whereas activity of sochicetin-C in these assays was approximately two orders of magnitude lower. Structurally, sochicetin-B and sochicetin-C are typical heterodimeric αβ CLPs, whereas sochicetin-A exhibits a trimer of its subunits (αβ){sub 3} in the quaternary structure. Immobilized sochicetins supported adhesion of glioma cell lines, LN18 and LBC3, whereas in a soluble form they partially inhibited adhesion of these cells to collagen I. Glioma cells spread very poorly on sochicetin-A, showing no cytoskeleton rearrangement typical for adhesion to collagen I or fibronectin. Adhesion on CLP does not involve focal adhesion elements, such as vinculin. Sochicetin-A also inhibited collagen-induced platelet aggregation, similar to other CLPs' action on the blood coagulation system. - Highlights: • Isolation of three novel snake venom CLPs inhibiting α2β1 integrin • Reporting hexameric CLP, sochicetin-A with anti-collagen receptor activity • CLPs antagonize the interaction of glioma cells with collagen matrix. • Sochicetin-A does not support glioma cell spreading.

  1. Uncleaved BAP31 in association with A4 protein at the endoplasmic reticulum is an inhibitor of Fas-initiated release of cytochrome c from mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Wang, Bing; Nguyen, Mai; Breckenridge, David G; Stojanovic, Marina; Clemons, Paul A; Kuppig, Stephan; Shore, Gordon C

    2003-04-18

    BAP31 is a polytopic integral protein of the endoplasmic reticulum membrane and, like BID, is a preferred substrate of caspase-8. Upon Fas/CD95 stimulation, BAP31 is cleaved within its cytosolic domain, generating proapoptotic p20 BAP31. In human KB epithelial cells expressing the caspase-resistant mutant crBAP31, Fas stimulation resulted in cleavage of BID and insertion of BAX into mitochondrial membrane, but subsequent oligomerization of BAX and BAK, egress of cytochrome c to the cytosol, and apoptosis were impaired. Bap31-null mouse cells expressing crBAP31 cannot generate the endogenous p20 BAP31 cleavage product, yet crBAP31 conferred resistance to cellular condensation and cytochrome c release in response to activation of ectopic FKBPcasp8 by FK1012z. Full-length BAP31, therefore, is a direct inhibitor of these caspase-8-initiated events, acting independently of its ability to sequester p20, with which it interacts. Employing a novel split ubiquitin yeast two-hybrid screen for BAP31-interacting membrane proteins, the putative ion channel protein of the endoplasmic reticulum, A4, was detected and identified as a constitutive binding partner of BAP31 in human cells. Ectopic A4 that was introduced into A4-deficient cells cooperated with crBAP31 to resist Fas-induced egress of cytochrome c from mitochondria and cytoplasmic apoptosis.

  2. Inhibitory effects of C-type natriuretic peptide on the differentiation of cardiac fibroblasts, and secretion of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1

    PubMed Central

    LI, ZHI-QIANG; LIU, YING-LONG; LI, GANG; LI, BIN; LIU, YANG; LI, XIAO-FENG; LIU, AI-JUN

    2015-01-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the effect of C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP) on the function of cardiac fibroblasts (CFs). Western blotting was used to investigate the expression of myofibroblast marker proteins: α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA), extra domain-A fibronectin, collagen I and collagen III, and the activity of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2). Immunofluorescence was used to examine the morphological changes; a transwell assay was used to analyze migration, and reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction and ELISA were employed to determine the mRNA expression and protein secretion of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1). The results demonstrated that CNP significantly reduced the protein expression of α-SMA, fibronectin, collagen I and collagen III, and suppressed the migratory ability of CFs. Additionally, the mRNA and protein expression of MCP-1 and PAI-1 was inhibited under the CNP treatment; and this effect was mediated by the inhibition of the ERK1/2 activity. In conclusion, CNP inhibited cardiac fibroblast differentiation and migration, and reduced the secretion of MCP-1 and PAI-1, which demonstrates novel mechanisms to explain the antifibrotic effect of CNP. PMID:25352084

  3. C1 inhibitor: quantification and purification.

    PubMed

    Varga, Lilian; Dobó, József

    2014-01-01

    C1 inhibitor is a multipotent serpin capable of inhibiting the classical and the lectin pathways of complement, the fibrinolytic system, and contact/kinin system of coagulation. Deficiency of C1 inhibitor manifest as hereditary angioedema (HAE), an autosomal dominant hereditary disease. Measuring the C1 inhibitor level is of vital importance for the diagnosis of HAE and also for monitoring patients receiving C1 inhibitor for therapy. Determination of the antigenic C1 inhibitor level by the radial immunodiffusion (RID) technique is described in detail in this chapter. The presented purification method of plasma C1 inhibitor is primarily based on its high carbohydrate content and its affinity to the lectin jacalin.

  4. KU135, a Novel Novobiocin-Derived C-Terminal Inhibitor of the 90-kDa Heat Shock Protein, Exerts Potent Antiproliferative Effects in Human Leukemic Cells

    PubMed Central

    Shelton, Shary N.; Shawgo, Mary E.; Matthews, Shawna B.; Lu, Yuanming; Donnelly, Alison C.; Szabla, Kristen; Tanol, Mehmet; Vielhauer, George A.; Rajewski, Roger A.; Matts, Robert L.; Blagg, Brian S. J.

    2009-01-01

    The 90-kDa heat shock protein (Hsp90) assists in the proper folding of numerous mutated or overexpressed signal transduction proteins that are involved in cancer. Consequently, there is considerable interest in developing chemotherapeutic drugs that specifically disrupt the function of Hsp90. Here, we investigated the extent to which a novel novobiocin-derived C-terminal Hsp90 inhibitor, designated KU135, induced antiproliferative effects in Jurkat T-lymphocytes. The results indicated that KU135 bound directly to Hsp90, caused the degradation of known Hsp90 client proteins, and induced more potent antiproliferative effects than the established N-terminal Hsp90 inhibitor 17-allylamino-demethoxygeldanamycin (17-AAG). Closer examination of the cellular response to KU135 and 17-AAG revealed that only 17-AAG induced a strong up-regulation of Hsp70 and Hsp90. In addition, KU135 caused wild-type cells to undergo G2/M arrest, whereas cells treated with 17-AAG accumulated in G1. Furthermore, KU135 but not 17-AAG was found to be a potent inducer of mitochondria-mediated apoptosis as evidenced, in part, by the fact that cell death was inhibited to a similar extent by Bcl-2/Bcl-xL overexpression or the depletion of apoptotic protease-activating factor-1 (Apaf-1). Together, these data suggest that KU135 inhibits cell proliferation by regulating signaling pathways that are mechanistically different from those targeted by 17-AAG and as such represents a novel opportunity for Hsp90 inhibition. PMID:19741006

  5. The phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase inhibitor, wortmannin, inhibits insulin-induced activation of phosphatidylcholine hydrolysis and associated protein kinase C translocation in rat adipocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Standaert, M L; Avignon, A; Yamada, K; Bandyopadhyay, G; Farese, R V

    1996-01-01

    We questioned whether phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI 3-kinase) and protein kinase C (PKC) function as interrelated signalling mechanisms during insulin action in rat adipocytes. Insulin rapidly activated a phospholipase D that hydrolyses phosphatidylcholine (PC), and this activation was accompanied by increases in diacylglycerol and translocative activation of PKC-alpha and PKC-beta in the plasma membrane. Wortmannin, an apparently specific PI 3-kinase inhibitor, inhibited insulin-stimulated, phospholipase D-dependent PC hydrolysis and subsequent translocation of PKC-alpha and PKC-beta to the plasma membrane. Wortmannin did not inhibit PKC directly in vitro, or the PKC-dependent effects of phorbol esters on glucose transport in intact adipocytes. The PKC inhibitor RO 31-8220 did not inhibit PI 3-kinase directly or its activation in situ by insulin, but inhibited both insulin-stimulated and phorbol ester-stimulated glucose transport. Our findings suggest that insulin acts through PI 3-kinase to activate a PC-specific phospholipase D and causes the translocative activation of PKC-alpha and PKC-beta in plasma membranes of rat adipocytes. PMID:8611143

  6. Design, synthesis, and investigation of protein kinase C inhibitors: total syntheses of (+)-calphostin D, (+)-phleichrome, cercosporin, and new photoactive perylenequinones.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Barbara J; Dey, Sangeeta; Johnson, Steven W; Kozlowski, Marisa C

    2009-07-08

    The total syntheses of the PKC inhibitors (+)-calphostin D, (+)-phleichrome, cercosporin, and 10 novel perylenequinones are detailed. The highly convergent and flexible strategy developed employed an enantioselective oxidative biaryl coupling and a double cuprate epoxide opening, allowing the selective syntheses of all the possible stereoisomers in pure form. In addition, this strategy permitted rapid access to a broad range of analogues, including those not accessible from the natural products. These compounds provided a powerful means for evaluation of the perylenequinone structural features necessary to PKC activity. Simpler analogues were discovered with superior PKC inhibitory properties and superior photopotentiation in cancer cell lines relative to the more complex natural products.

  7. Diphenylpyrazoles as Replication Protein A inhibitors

    DOE PAGES

    Waterson, Alex G.; Kennedy, J. Phillip; Patrone, James D.; ...

    2014-11-11

    Replication Protein A is the primary eukaryotic ssDNA binding protein that has a central role in initiating the cellular response to DNA damage. RPA recruits multiple proteins to sites of DNA damage via the N-terminal domain of the 70 kDa subunit (RPA70N). Here we describe the optimization of a diphenylpyrazole carboxylic acid series of inhibitors of these RPA–protein interactions. Lastly, we evaluated substituents on the aromatic rings as well as the type and geometry of the linkers used to combine fragments, ultimately leading to submicromolar inhibitors of RPA70N protein–protein interactions.

  8. 21 CFR 866.5250 - Complement C2 inhibitor (inactivator) immunological test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... the reagents used to measure by immunochemical techniques the complement C1 inhibitor (a plasma protein) in serum. Complement C1 inhibitor occurs normally in plasma and blocks the action of the...

  9. 21 CFR 866.5250 - Complement C2 inhibitor (inactivator) immunological test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... the reagents used to measure by immunochemical techniques the complement C1 inhibitor (a plasma protein) in serum. Complement C1 inhibitor occurs normally in plasma and blocks the action of the...

  10. 21 CFR 866.5250 - Complement C2 inhibitor (inactivator) immunological test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... the reagents used to measure by immunochemical techniques the complement C1 inhibitor (a plasma protein) in serum. Complement C1 inhibitor occurs normally in plasma and blocks the action of the...

  11. 21 CFR 866.5250 - Complement C 2 inhibitor (inactivator) immunological test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... the reagents used to measure by immunochemical techniques the complement C1 inhibitor (a plasma protein) in serum. Complement C1 inhibitor occurs normally in plasma and blocks the action of the...

  12. 21 CFR 866.5250 - Complement C 2 inhibitor (inactivator) immunological test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... the reagents used to measure by immunochemical techniques the complement C1 inhibitor (a plasma protein) in serum. Complement C1 inhibitor occurs normally in plasma and blocks the action of the...

  13. Hepatitis C Virus NS3 Inhibitors: Current and Future Perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Akimitsu, Nobuyoshi

    2013-01-01

    Currently, hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is considered a serious health-care problem all over the world. A good number of direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) against HCV infection are in clinical progress including NS3-4A protease inhibitors, RNA-dependent RNA polymerase inhibitors, and NS5A inhibitors as well as host targeted inhibitors. Two NS3-4A protease inhibitors (telaprevir and boceprevir) have been recently approved for the treatment of hepatitis C in combination with standard of care (pegylated interferon plus ribavirin). The new therapy has significantly improved sustained virologic response (SVR); however, the adverse effects associated with this therapy are still the main concern. In addition to the emergence of viral resistance, other targets must be continually developed. One such underdeveloped target is the helicase portion of the HCV NS3 protein. This review article summarizes our current understanding of HCV treatment, particularly with those of NS3 inhibitors. PMID:24282816

  14. Stimulation of cleavage of membrane proteins by calmodulin inhibitors.

    PubMed Central

    Díaz-Rodríguez, E; Esparís-Ogando, A; Montero, J C; Yuste, L; Pandiella, A

    2000-01-01

    The ectodomain of several membrane-bound proteins can be shed by proteolytic cleavage. The activity of the proteases involved in shedding is highly regulated by several intracellular second messenger pathways, such as protein kinase C (PKC) and intracellular Ca(2+). Recently, the shedding of the adhesion molecule L-selectin has been shown to be regulated by the interaction of calmodulin (CaM) with the cytosolic tail of L-selectin. Prevention of CaM-L-selectin interaction by CaM inhibitors or mutation of a CaM binding site in L-selectin induced L-selectin ectodomain shedding. Whether this action of CaM inhibitors also affects other membrane-bound proteins is not known. In the present paper we show that CaM inhibitors also stimulate the cleavage of several other transmembrane proteins, such as the membrane-bound growth factor precursors pro-transforming growth factor-alpha and pro-neuregulin-alpha2c, the receptor tyrosine kinase, TrkA, and the beta-amyloid precursor protein. Cleavage induced by CaM inhibitors was a rapid event, and resulted from the activation of a mechanism that was independent of PKC or intracellular Ca(2+) increases, but was highly sensitive to hydroxamic acid-based metalloprotease inhibitors. Mutational analysis of the intracellular domain of the TrkA receptor indicated that CaM inhibitors may stimulate membrane-protein ectodomain cleavage by mechanisms independent of CaM-substrate interaction. PMID:10677354

  15. Anxiety and depression with neurogenesis defects in exchange protein directly activated by cAMP 2-deficient mice are ameliorated by a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, Prozac

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, L; Ma, S L; Yeung, P K K; Wong, Y H; Tsim, K W K; So, K F; Lam, L C W; Chung, S K

    2016-01-01

    Intracellular cAMP and serotonin are important modulators of anxiety and depression. Fluoxetine, a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) also known as Prozac, is widely used against depression, potentially by activating cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) and increasing brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) through protein kinase A (PKA). However, the role of Epac1 and Epac2 (Rap guanine nucleotide exchange factors, RAPGEF3 and RAPGEF4, respectively) as potential downstream targets of SSRI/cAMP in mood regulations is not yet clear. Here, we investigated the phenotypes of Epac1 (Epac1−/−) or Epac2 (Epac2−/−) knockout mice by comparing them with their wild-type counterparts. Surprisingly, Epac2−/− mice exhibited a wide range of mood disorders, including anxiety and depression with learning and memory deficits in contextual and cued fear-conditioning tests without affecting Epac1 expression or PKA activity. Interestingly, rs17746510, one of the three single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in RAPGEF4 associated with cognitive decline in Chinese Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients, was significantly correlated with apathy and mood disturbance, whereas no significant association was observed between RAPGEF3 SNPs and the risk of AD or neuropsychiatric inventory scores. To further determine the detailed role of Epac2 in SSRI/serotonin/cAMP-involved mood disorders, we treated Epac2−/− mice with a SSRI, Prozac. The alteration in open field behavior and impaired hippocampal cell proliferation in Epac2−/− mice were alleviated by Prozac. Taken together, Epac2 gene polymorphism is a putative risk factor for mood disorders in AD patients in part by affecting the hippocampal neurogenesis. PMID:27598965

  16. Anxiety and depression with neurogenesis defects in exchange protein directly activated by cAMP 2-deficient mice are ameliorated by a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, Prozac.

    PubMed

    Zhou, L; Ma, S L; Yeung, P K K; Wong, Y H; Tsim, K W K; So, K F; Lam, L C W; Chung, S K

    2016-09-06

    Intracellular cAMP and serotonin are important modulators of anxiety and depression. Fluoxetine, a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) also known as Prozac, is widely used against depression, potentially by activating cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) and increasing brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) through protein kinase A (PKA). However, the role of Epac1 and Epac2 (Rap guanine nucleotide exchange factors, RAPGEF3 and RAPGEF4, respectively) as potential downstream targets of SSRI/cAMP in mood regulations is not yet clear. Here, we investigated the phenotypes of Epac1 (Epac1(-/-)) or Epac2 (Epac2(-/-)) knockout mice by comparing them with their wild-type counterparts. Surprisingly, Epac2(-/-) mice exhibited a wide range of mood disorders, including anxiety and depression with learning and memory deficits in contextual and cued fear-conditioning tests without affecting Epac1 expression or PKA activity. Interestingly, rs17746510, one of the three single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in RAPGEF4 associated with cognitive decline in Chinese Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients, was significantly correlated with apathy and mood disturbance, whereas no significant association was observed between RAPGEF3 SNPs and the risk of AD or neuropsychiatric inventory scores. To further determine the detailed role of Epac2 in SSRI/serotonin/cAMP-involved mood disorders, we treated Epac2(-/-) mice with a SSRI, Prozac. The alteration in open field behavior and impaired hippocampal cell proliferation in Epac2(-/-) mice were alleviated by Prozac. Taken together, Epac2 gene polymorphism is a putative risk factor for mood disorders in AD patients in part by affecting the hippocampal neurogenesis.

  17. Development of the C-Terminal Inhibitors of Heat Shock Protein 90 in the Treatment of Prostate Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-10-01

    has applications for other disease states such as Alzheimers but toxicity through inhibition is something desirable for cancer studies. Therefore...remains limited2, 3. Prostate cancer remains a heterogeneous disease with multiple contributing pathways, and future treatment strategies...protein expression (Figure 2B) while Hsp90 expression was moderately increased following 72 hours F-4 treament . HIF-1α appeared to be more sensitive

  18. Protein-Inhibitor Interaction Studies Using NMR

    PubMed Central

    Ishima, Rieko

    2015-01-01

    Solution-state NMR has been widely applied to determine the three-dimensional structure, dynamics, and molecular interactions of proteins. The designs of experiments used in protein NMR differ from those used for small-molecule NMR, primarily because the information available prior to an experiment, such as molecular mass and knowledge of the primary structure, is unique for proteins compared to small molecules. In this review article, protein NMR for structural biology is introduced with comparisons to small-molecule NMR, such as descriptions of labeling strategies and the effects of molecular dynamics on relaxation. Next, applications for protein NMR are reviewed, especially practical aspects for protein-observed ligand-protein interaction studies. Overall, the following topics are described: (1) characteristics of protein NMR, (2) methods to detect protein-ligand interactions by NMR, and (3) practical aspects of carrying out protein-observed inhibitor-protein interaction studies. PMID:26361636

  19. Solution structure analysis of the conformational changes that occur upon the binding of the protein kinase inhibitor peptide to the catalytic subunit of the cAMP dependent protein kinase

    SciTech Connect

    Mitchell, R.D.; Walsh, D.A.; Olah, G.A.; Sosnick, T.R.; Trewhella, J.

    1994-10-01

    Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and small-angle x-ray scattering experiments have been used to examine both the secondary structure content and overall conformation, respectively, of the catalytic subunit of the cAMP-dependent protein kinase and to characterize the structural change that occurs upon binding of the protein kinase inhibitor peptide, PKI(5-22)amide. While the secondary structure of the enzyme is unaltered by the binding of PKI(5-22)amide, a large overall conformational change occurs resulting in a compaction of the enzyme that is characterized by a 2{angstrom} decrease in radius of gyration, Rg, and an 11{angstrom} decrease in the maximum linear dimension, d{sub max}. We have modeled the conformational change as a simple rotation of the upper and lower lobes of the kinase by 39{degrees} about a molecular hinge defined by Glyl25, resulting in a closure of the cleft between the two lobes of the kinase. These data are evaluated with respect to recent x-ray crystallographic studies of the cAMP-dependent protein kinase, CDK2 protein kinase, and the MAP kinase ERK2. In addition, the implications that these findings have for the remainder of the protein kinase family are discussed.

  20. Reviving Antibiotics: Efflux Pump Inhibitors That Interact with AcrA, a Membrane Fusion Protein of the AcrAB-TolC Multidrug Efflux Pump

    SciTech Connect

    Abdali, Narges; Parks, Jerry M.; Haynes, Keith M.; Chaney, Julie L.; Green, Adam T.; Wolloscheck, David; Walker, John K.; Rybenkov, Valentin V.; Baudry, Jerome; Smith, Jeremy C.; Zgurskaya, Helen I.

    2016-10-21

    Antibiotic resistance is a major threat to human welfare. Inhibitors of multidrug efflux pumps (EPIs) are promising alternative therapeutics that could revive activities of antibiotics and reduce bacterial virulence. Identification of new druggable sites for inhibition is critical for developing effective EPIs, especially in light of constantly emerging resistance. We describe new EPIs that interact with and possibly inhibit the function of periplasmic membrane fusion proteins, critical components of efflux pumps that are responsible for the activation of the transporter and the recruitment of the outer-membrane channel. The discovered EPIs bind to AcrA, a component of the prototypical AcrAB-TolC pump, change its structure in vivo, inhibit efflux of fluorescent probes and potentiate the activities of antibiotics in Escherichia coli cells. These findings expand the chemical and mechanistic diversity of EPIs, suggest the mechanism for regulation of the efflux pump assembly and activity, and provide a promising path for reviving the activities of antibiotics in resistant bacteria.

  1. Reviving Antibiotics: Efflux Pump Inhibitors That Interact with AcrA, a Membrane Fusion Protein of the AcrAB-TolC Multidrug Efflux Pump

    DOE PAGES

    Abdali, Narges; Parks, Jerry M.; Haynes, Keith M.; ...

    2016-10-21

    Antibiotic resistance is a major threat to human welfare. Inhibitors of multidrug efflux pumps (EPIs) are promising alternative therapeutics that could revive activities of antibiotics and reduce bacterial virulence. Identification of new druggable sites for inhibition is critical for developing effective EPIs, especially in light of constantly emerging resistance. We describe new EPIs that interact with and possibly inhibit the function of periplasmic membrane fusion proteins, critical components of efflux pumps that are responsible for the activation of the transporter and the recruitment of the outer-membrane channel. The discovered EPIs bind to AcrA, a component of the prototypical AcrAB-TolC pump,more » change its structure in vivo, inhibit efflux of fluorescent probes and potentiate the activities of antibiotics in Escherichia coli cells. These findings expand the chemical and mechanistic diversity of EPIs, suggest the mechanism for regulation of the efflux pump assembly and activity, and provide a promising path for reviving the activities of antibiotics in resistant bacteria.« less

  2. Inhibition of development of experimental abdominal aortic aneurysm by c-jun N-terminal protein kinase inhibitor combined with lysyl oxidase gene modified smooth muscle progenitor cells.

    PubMed

    Chen, Feng; Zhang, ZhenDong; Zhu, XianHua

    2015-11-05

    Chronic inflammation, imbalance between the extracellular matrix synthesis and degradation, and loss of vascular smooth muscle cells (SMCs) contribute to the development of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA). The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of the therapy with periaortic incubation of c-Jun N-terminal protein kinase inhibitor SP600125 infused from an osmotic pump and subadventitial injection of lysyl oxidase (LOX) gene modified autologous smooth muscle progenitor cells (SPCs) on treatment of AAA in a rabbit model. Obvious dilation of the abdominal aorta in the control group was caused by periaortic incubation of calcium chloride and elastase. But the progression of aortic dilation was significantly decreased after the treatment with SP600125 and LOX gene modified SPCs compared to the treatment with phosphate-buffered saline. This therapy could inhibit matrix metalloproteinases expression, enhance elastin synthesis, improve preservation of elastic laminar integrity, benefit SPCs survival and restore SMCs population. It seemed that this method might provide a novel therapeutic strategy to treat AAA.

  3. Protein synthesis inhibitor from potato tuber

    SciTech Connect

    Romaen, R. )

    1989-04-01

    A protein fraction capable of inhibit in vitro protein synthesis was found in potato tubers in fresh and wounded tissue. Inhibitor activity from fresh tissue decays with wounding. Inhibition activity was detected absorbed to ribsomal fraction and cytosol of potato tuber tissue by a partially reconstituted in vitro system from potato tuber and wheat germ. Adsorbed ribosomal fraction was more suitable of purification. This fraction was washed from ribosomes with 0.3M KCl, concentrated with ammonium sulfate precipitation and purified through sephadex G100 and sephadex G-75 columns chromatography. After 61 fold purification adsorbed protein fraction can inhibit germination of maize, wheat and sesame seeds, as well as {sup 3}H-leucine incorporation into protein by imbibed maize embryos. Inhibition activity was lost by temperature, alkali and protease-K hydrolysis. Preliminar analysis could not show presence of reductor sugars. Physiological role of this inhibitor in relation to rest and active tissue remains to be studied.

  4. Design of HIV-1 Protease Inhibitors with C3-Substituted Hexahydrocyclopentafuranyl Urethanes as P2-Ligands: Synthesis, Biological Evaluation, and Protein-Ligand X-ray Crystal Structure

    SciTech Connect

    Ghosh, Arun K; Chapsal, Bruno D; Parham, Garth L; Steffey, Melinda; Agniswamy, Johnson; Wang, Yuan-Fang; Amano, Masayuki; Weber, Irene T; Mitsuya, Hiroaki

    2011-11-07

    We report the design, synthesis, biological evaluation, and the X-ray crystal structure of a novel inhibitor bound to the HIV-1 protease. Various C3-functionalized cyclopentanyltetrahydrofurans (Cp-THF) were designed to interact with the flap Gly48 carbonyl or amide NH in the S2-subsite of the HIV-1 protease. We investigated the potential of those functionalized ligands in combination with hydroxyethylsulfonamide isosteres. Inhibitor 26 containing a 3-(R)-hydroxyl group on the Cp-THF core displayed the most potent enzyme inhibitory and antiviral activity. Our studies revealed a preference for the 3-(R)-configuration over the corresponding 3-(S)-derivative. Inhibitor 26 exhibited potent activity against a panel of multidrug-resistant HIV-1 variants. A high resolution X-ray structure of 26-bound HIV-1 protease revealed important molecular insight into the ligand-binding site interactions.

  5. Visible-Light-Triggered Activation of a Protein Kinase Inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Danielle; Li, Jason W; Branda, Neil R

    2017-02-20

    A photoresponsive small molecule undergoes a ring-opening reaction when exposed to visible light and becomes an active inhibitor of the enzyme protein kinase C. This "turning on" of enzyme inhibition with light puts control into the hands of the user, creating the opportunity to regulate when and where enzyme catalysis takes place.

  6. Small Molecule Inhibitors of Protein Arginine Methyltransferases

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Hao; Qian, Kun; Ho, Meng-Chiao; Zheng, Y. George

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Arginine methylation is an abundant posttranslational modification occurring in mammalian cells and catalyzed by protein arginine methyltransferases (PRMTs). Misregulation and aberrant expression of PRMTs are associated with various disease states, notably cancer. PRMTs are prominent therapeutic targets in drug discovery. Areas covered The authors provide an updated review of the research on the development of chemical modulators for PRMTs. Great efforts are seen in screening and designing potent and selective PRMT inhibitors, and a number of micromolar and submicromolar inhibitors have been obtained for key PRMT enzymes such as PRMT1, CARM1, and PRMT5. The authors provide a focus on their chemical structures, mechanism of action, and pharmacological activities. Pros and cons of each type of inhibitors are also discussed. Expert opinion Several key challenging issues exist in PRMT inhibitor discovery. Structural mechanisms of many PRMT inhibitors remain unclear. There lacks consistency in potency data due to divergence of assay methods and conditions. Physiologically relevant cellular assays are warranted. Substantial engagements are needed to investigate pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics of the new PRMT inhibitors in pertinent disease models. Discovery and evaluation of potent, isoform-selective, cell-permeable and in vivo-active PRMT modulators will continue to be an active arena of research in years ahead. PMID:26789238

  7. Admission levels of C-reactive protein and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 in patients with acute myocardial infarction with and without cardiogenic shock or heart failure on admission.

    PubMed

    Akkus, Mehmet Necdet; Polat, Gurbuz; Yurtdas, Mustafa; Akcay, Burak; Ercetin, Neslihan; Cicek, Dilek; Doven, Oben; Sucu, Nehir

    2009-01-01

    Scarce data exist on the relationship of C-reactive protein (CRP) or plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) to the occurrence of heart failure (HF) or cardiogenic shock (CS) after acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and on the relationship between these biomarkers and mortality in CS patients. Thus, we compared high-sensitivity CRP and PAI-1 antigen plasma levels on admission among 3 age- and gender-matched AMI patients groups (consisting of 60 patients with CS, 60 with HF, and 60 without HF on admission), after determining that PAI-1 levels did not vary significantly diurnally in these groups by comparing the data among subgroups which were divided according to admission time within the groups. For CS patients, we also conducted regression analyses to examine the relations of these biomarkers to mortality. CRP levels both in CS (P < 0.001) and HF (P < 0.05) patients were significantly higher compared to those without HF, PAI-1 levels in CS patients were significantly higher compared to both those with (P < 0.05) and without HF (P > 0.01), and CRP and PAI-1 were independent predictors of in-hospital (Odds ratio [OR] = 6.12, 95% confidence intervals [95%CI] = 1.47-25.54 and OR = 5.92, 95%CI = 1.31-26.77, respectively) and 1-year mortality (OR = 5.53, 95%CI = 1.21-25.17 and OR = 5.48, 95%CI = 1.09-27.52, respectively) in CS patients. In conclusion, at admission, CRP is associated with the occurrence of CS and HF and PAI-1 is associated with the occurrence of CS after AMI, and they are of prognostic value in CS complicating AMI.

  8. A Kinase Inhibitor Screen Reveals Protein Kinase C-dependent Endocytic Recycling of ErbB2 in Breast Cancer Cells*

    PubMed Central

    Bailey, Tameka A.; Luan, Haitao; Tom, Eric; Bielecki, Timothy Alan; Mohapatra, Bhopal; Ahmad, Gulzar; George, Manju; Kelly, David L.; Natarajan, Amarnath; Raja, Srikumar M.; Band, Vimla; Band, Hamid

    2014-01-01

    ErbB2 overexpression drives oncogenesis in 20–30% cases of breast cancer. Oncogenic potential of ErbB2 is linked to inefficient endocytic traffic into lysosomes and preferential recycling. However, regulation of ErbB2 recycling is incompletely understood. We used a high-content immunofluorescence imaging-based kinase inhibitor screen on SKBR-3 breast cancer cells to identify kinases whose inhibition alters the clearance of cell surface ErbB2 induced by Hsp90 inhibitor 17-AAG. Less ErbB2 clearance was observed with broad-spectrum PKC inhibitor Ro 31-8220. A similar effect was observed with Go 6976, a selective inhibitor of classical Ca2+-dependent PKCs (α, β1, βII, and γ). PKC activation by PMA promoted surface ErbB2 clearance but without degradation, and ErbB2 was observed to move into a juxtanuclear compartment where it colocalized with PKC-α and PKC-δ together with the endocytic recycling regulator Arf6. PKC-α knockdown impaired the juxtanuclear localization of ErbB2. ErbB2 transit to the recycling compartment was also impaired upon PKC-δ knockdown. PMA-induced Erk phosphorylation was reduced by ErbB2 inhibitor lapatinib, as well as by knockdown of PKC-δ but not that of PKC-α. Our results suggest that activation of PKC-α and -δ mediates a novel positive feedback loop by promoting ErbB2 entry into the endocytic recycling compartment, consistent with reported positive roles for these PKCs in ErbB2-mediated tumorigenesis. As the endocytic recycling compartment/pericentrion has emerged as a PKC-dependent signaling hub for G-protein-coupled receptors, our findings raise the possibility that oncogenesis by ErbB2 involves previously unexplored PKC-dependent endosomal signaling. PMID:25225290

  9. Protein C blood test

    MedlinePlus

    ... a normal substance in the body that prevents blood clotting. A blood test can be done to see ... history of blood clots. Protein C helps control blood clotting. A lack of this protein or problem with ...

  10. Tau protein and tau aggregation inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Bulic, Bruno; Pickhardt, Marcus; Mandelkow, Eva-Maria; Mandelkow, Eckhard

    2010-01-01

    Alzheimer disease is characterized by pathological aggregation of two proteins, tau and Abeta-amyloid, both of which are considered to be toxic to neurons. In this review we summarize recent advances on small molecule inhibitors of protein aggregation with emphasis on tau, with activities mediated by the direct interference of self-assembly. The inhibitors can be clustered in several compound classes according to their chemical structure, with subsequent description of the structure-activity relationships, showing that hydrophobic interactions are prevailing. The description is extended to the pharmacological profile of the compounds in order to evaluate their drug-likeness, with special attention to toxicity and bioavailability. The collected data indicate that following the improvements of the in vitro inhibitory potencies, the consideration of the in vivo pharmacokinetics is an absolute prerequisite for the development of compounds suitable for a transfer from bench to bedside.

  11. Effect of Tamoxifen and Brain-Penetrant Protein Kinase C and c-Jun N-Terminal Kinase Inhibitors on Tolerance to Opioid-Induced Respiratory Depression in Mice.

    PubMed

    Withey, Sarah L; Hill, Rob; Lyndon, Abigail; Dewey, William L; Kelly, Eamonn; Henderson, Graeme

    2017-04-01

    Respiratory depression is the major cause of death in opioid overdose. We have previously shown that prolonged treatment of mice with morphine induces profound tolerance to the respiratory-depressant effects of the drug (Hill et al., 2016). The aim of the present study was to investigate whether tolerance to opioid-induced respiratory depression is mediated by protein kinase C (PKC) and/or c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK). We found that although mice treated for up to 6 days with morphine developed tolerance, as measured by the reduced responsiveness to an acute challenge dose of morphine, administration of the brain-penetrant PKC inhibitors tamoxifen and calphostin C restored the ability of acute morphine to produce respiratory depression in morphine-treated mice. Importantly, reversal of opioid tolerance was dependent on the nature of the opioid ligand used to induce tolerance, as these PKC inhibitors did not reverse tolerance induced by prolonged treatment of mice with methadone nor did they reverse the protection to acute morphine-induced respiratory depression afforded by prolonged treatment with buprenorphine. We found no evidence for the involvement of JNK in morphine-induced tolerance to respiratory depression. These results indicate that PKC represents a major mechanism underlying morphine tolerance, that the mechanism of opioid tolerance to respiratory depression is ligand-dependent, and that coadministration of drugs with PKC-inhibitory activity and morphine (as well as heroin, largely metabolized to morphine in the body) may render individuals more susceptible to overdose death by reversing tolerance to the effects of morphine.

  12. Human Plasma Protein C

    PubMed Central

    Kisiel, Walter

    1979-01-01

    Protein C is a vitamin K-dependent protein, which exists in bovine plasma as a precursor of a serine protease. In this study, protein C was isolated to homogeneity from human plasma by barium citrate adsorption and elution, ammonium sulfate fractionation, DEAE-Sephadex chromatography, dextran sulfate agarose chromatography, and preparative polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Human protein C (Mr = 62,000) contains 23% carbohydrate and is composed of a light chain (Mr = 21,000) and a heavy chain (Mr = 41,000) held together by a disulfide bond(s). The light chain has an amino-terminal sequence of Ala-Asn-Ser-Phe-Leu- and the heavy chain has an aminoterminal sequence of Asp-Pro-Glu-Asp-Gln. The residues that are identical to bovine protein C are underlined. Incubation of human protein C with human α-thrombin at an enzyme to substrate weight ratio of 1:50 resulted in the formation of activated protein C, an enzyme with serine amidase activity. In the activation reaction, the apparent molecular weight of the heavy chain decreased from 41,000 to 40,000 as determined by gel electrophoresis in the presence of sodium dodecyl sulfate. No apparent change in the molecular weight of the light chain was observed in the activation process. The heavy chain of human activated protein C also contains the active-site serine residue as evidenced by its ability to react with radiolabeled diisopropyl fluorophosphate. Human activated protein C markedly prolongs the kaolin-cephalin clotting time of human plasma, but not that of bovine plasma. The amidolytic and anticoagulant activities of human activated protein C were completely obviated by prior incubation of the enzyme with diisopropyl fluorophosphate. These results indicate that human protein C, like its bovine counterpart, exists in plasma as a zymogen and is converted to a serine protease by limited proteolysis with attendant anticoagulant activity. Images PMID:468991

  13. Correction of metabolic abnormalities in a rodent model of obesity, metabolic syndrome, and type 2 diabetes mellitus by inhibitors of hepatic protein kinase C-ι.

    PubMed

    Sajan, Mini P; Nimal, Sonali; Mastorides, Stephen; Acevedo-Duncan, Mildred; Kahn, C Ronald; Fields, Alan P; Braun, Ursula; Leitges, Michael; Farese, Robert V

    2012-04-01

    Excessive activity of hepatic atypical protein kinase (aPKC) is proposed to play a critical role in mediating lipid and carbohydrate abnormalities in obesity, the metabolic syndrome, and type 2 diabetes mellitus. In previous studies of rodent models of obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus, adenoviral-mediated expression of kinase-inactive aPKC rapidly reversed or markedly improved most if not all metabolic abnormalities. Here, we examined effects of 2 newly developed small-molecule PKC-ι/λ inhibitors. We used the mouse model of heterozygous muscle-specific knockout of PKC-λ, in which partial deficiency of muscle PKC-λ impairs glucose transport in muscle and thereby causes glucose intolerance and hyperinsulinemia, which, via hepatic aPKC activation, leads to abdominal obesity, hepatosteatosis, hypertriglyceridemia, and hypercholesterolemia. One inhibitor, 1H-imidazole-4-carboxamide, 5-amino-1-[2,3-dihydroxy-4-[(phosphonooxy)methyl]cyclopentyl-[1R-(1a,2b,3b,4a)], binds to the substrate-binding site of PKC-λ/ι, but not other PKCs. The other inhibitor, aurothiomalate, binds to cysteine residues in the PB1-binding domains of aPKC-λ/ι/ζ and inhibits scaffolding. Treatment with either inhibitor for 7 days inhibited aPKC, but not Akt, in liver and concomitantly improved insulin signaling to Akt and aPKC in muscle and adipocytes. Moreover, both inhibitors diminished excessive expression of hepatic, aPKC-dependent lipogenic, proinflammatory, and gluconeogenic factors; and this was accompanied by reversal or marked improvements in hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, abdominal obesity, hepatosteatosis, hypertriglyceridemia, and hypercholesterolemia. Our findings highlight the pathogenetic importance of insulin signaling to hepatic PKC-ι in obesity, the metabolic syndrome, and type 2 diabetes mellitus and suggest that 1H-imidazole-4-carboxamide, 5-amino-1-[2,3-dihydroxy-4-[(phosphonooxy)methyl]cyclopentyl-[1R-(1a,2b,3b,4a)] and aurothiomalate or similar agents that

  14. Peptide aldehyde inhibitors of hepatitis A virus 3C proteinase.

    PubMed

    Malcolm, B A; Lowe, C; Shechosky, S; McKay, R T; Yang, C C; Shah, V J; Simon, R J; Vederas, J C; Santi, D V

    1995-06-27

    Picornaviral 3C proteinases are a group of closely related thiol proteinases responsible for processing of the viral polyprotein into its component proteins. These proteinases adopt a chymotrypsin-like fold [Allaire et al. (1994) Nature 369, 72-77; Matthews et al. (1994) Cell 77, 761-771] and a display an active-site configuration like those of the serine proteinases. Peptide-aldehydes based on the preferred peptide substrates for hepatitis A virus (HAV) 3C proteinase were synthesized by reduction of a thioester precursor. Acetyl-Leu-Ala-Ala-(N,N'-dimethylglutaminal) was found to be a reversible, slow-binding inhibitor for HAV 3C with a Ki* of (4.2 +/- 0.8) x 10(-8) M. This inhibitor showed 50-fold less activity against the highly homologous human rhinovirus (strain 14) 3C proteinase, whose peptide substrate specificity is slightly different, suggesting a high degree of selectivity. NMR spectrometry of the adduct of the 13C-labeled inhibitor with the HAV-3C proteinase indicate that a thiohemiacetal is formed between the enzyme and the aldehyde carbon as previously noted for peptide-aldehyde inhibitors of papain [Lewis & Wolfenden (1977) Biochemistry 16,4890-4894; Gamcsik et al. (1983) J. Am. Chem. Soc. 105, 6324-6325]. The adduct can also be observed by electrospray mass spectrometry.

  15. Pro-oncogenic Roles of HLXB9 Protein in Insulinoma Cells through Interaction with Nono Protein and Down-regulation of the c-Met Inhibitor Cblb (Casitas B-lineage Lymphoma b).

    PubMed

    Desai, Shruti S; Kharade, Sampada S; Parekh, Vaishali I; Iyer, Sucharitha; Agarwal, Sunita K

    2015-10-16

    Pancreatic islet β-cells that lack the MEN1-encoded protein menin develop into tumors. Such tumors express the phosphorylated isoform of the β-cell differentiation transcription factor HLXB9. It is not known how phospho-HLXB9 acts as an oncogenic factor in insulin-secreting β-cell tumors (insulinomas). In this study we investigated the binding partners and target genes of phospho-HLXB9 in mouse insulinoma MIN6 β-cells. Co-immunoprecipitation coupled with mass spectrometry showed a significant association of phospho-HLXB9 with the survival factor p54nrb/Nono (54-kDa nuclear RNA-binding protein, non-POU-domain-containing octamer). Endogenous phospho-HLXB9 co-localized with endogenous Nono in the nucleus. Overexpression of HLXB9 decreased the level of overexpressed Nono but not endogenous Nono. Anti-phospho-HLXB9 chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by deep sequencing (ChIP-Seq) identified the c-Met inhibitor, Cblb, as a direct phospho-HLXB9 target gene. Phospho-HLXB9 occupied the promoter of Cblb and reduced the expression of Cblb mRNA. Cblb overexpression or HLXB9 knockdown decreased c-Met protein and reduced cell migration. Also, increased phospho-HLXB9 coincided with reduced Cblb and increased c-Met in insulinomas of two mouse models of menin loss. These data provide mechanistic insights into the role of phospho-HLXB9 as a pro-oncogenic factor by interacting with a survival factor and by promoting the oncogenic c-Met pathway. These mechanisms have therapeutic implications for reducing β-cell proliferation in insulinomas by inhibiting phospho-HLXB9 or its interaction with Nono and modulating the expression of its direct (Cblb) or indirect (c-Met) targets. Our data also implicate the use of pro-oncogenic activities of phospho-HLXB9 in β-cell expansion strategies to alleviate β-cell loss in diabetes.

  16. The Specific Protein Kinase R (PKR) Inhibitor C16 Protects Neonatal Hypoxia-Ischemia Brain Damages by Inhibiting Neuroinflammation in a Neonatal Rat Model

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Jinglei; Tan, Yongchang; Li, Yinjiao; Luo, Yan

    2016-01-01

    Background Brain injuries induced by hypoxia-ischemia in neonates contribute to increased mortality and lifelong neurological dysfunction. The specific PKR inhibitor C16 has been previously demonstrated to exert a neuroprotective role in adult brain injuries. However, there is no recent study available concerning its protective role in hypoxia-ischemia-induced immature brain damage. Therefore, we investigated whether C16 protects against neonatal hypoxia-ischemia injuries in a neonatal rat model. Material/Methods Postnatal day 7 (P7) rats were used to establish classical hypoxia-ischemia animal models, and C16 postconditioning with 100 ug/kg was performed immediately after hypoxia. Western blot analysis was performed to quantify the phosphorylation of the PKR at 0 h, 3 h, 6 h, 12 h, 24 h, and phosphorylation of NF-κB 24h after hypoxia exposure. The TTC stain for infarction area and TUNEL stain for apoptotic cells were assayed 24 h after the brain hypoxia. Gene expression of IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α was performed at 3 h, 6 h, 12 h, and 24 h. Results The level of PKR autophosphorylation was increased dramatically, especially at 3 h (C16 group vs. HI group, P<0.01). Intraperitoneal C16 administration reduced the infarct volume and apoptosis ratio after this insult (C16 group vs. HI group<0.01), and C16 reduced proinflammatory cytokines mRNA expression, partly through inhibiting NF-κB activation (C16 group vs. HI group<0.05). Conclusions C16 can protect immature rats against hypoxia-ischemia-induced brain damage by modulating neuroinflammation. PMID:28008894

  17. INHIBITOR OF APOPTOSIS PROTEINS AS INTRACELLULAR SIGNALING INTERMEDIATES

    PubMed Central

    Kocab, Andrew J.; Duckett, Colin S.

    2015-01-01

    The inhibitor of apoptosis (IAP) proteins have often been considered inhibitors of cell death due to early studies describing their ability to directly bind and inhibit caspases, the primary factors that implement apoptosis. However, a greater understanding is evolving for the vital roles played by the IAPs as transduction intermediates in a diverse set of signaling cascades that have been associated with functions ranging from the innate immune response to cell migration to cell cycle regulation. In this review, we discuss the functions of the IAPs in signaling, focusing primarily on the cellular IAP (c-IAP) proteins. The c-IAPs are important components in the TNF receptor superfamily signaling cascades, which include the activation of the NF-κB transcription factor family. Since these receptors can modulate cell proliferation and cell death, the roles of the c-IAPs in these pathways provide additional means of controlling cellular fate beyond simply inhibiting caspase activity. Additionally, IAP binding proteins, such as Smac and caspases, which have been described as having cell death-independent roles, may impact c-IAP activity in intracellular signaling. Collectively, the multifaceted functions and complex regulation of the c-IAPs illustrate the importance of the c-IAPs as intracellular signaling intermediates. PMID:26462035

  18. Inhibitor of apoptosis proteins as intracellular signaling intermediates.

    PubMed

    Kocab, Andrew J; Duckett, Colin S

    2016-01-01

    Inhibitor of apoptosis (IAP) proteins have often been considered inhibitors of cell death due to early reports that described their ability to directly bind and inhibit caspases, the primary factors that implement apoptosis. However, a greater understanding is evolving regarding the vital roles played by IAPs as transduction intermediates in a diverse set of signaling cascades associated with functions ranging from the innate immune response to cell migration to cell-cycle regulation. In this review, we discuss the functions of IAPs in signaling, focusing primarily on the cellular IAP (c-IAP) proteins. The c-IAPs are important components in tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily signaling cascades, which include activation of the NF-κB transcription factor family. As these receptors modulate cell proliferation and cell death, the involvement of the c-IAPs in these pathways provides an additional means of controlling cellular fate beyond simply inhibiting caspase activity. Additionally, IAP-binding proteins, such as Smac and caspases, which have been described as having cell death-independent roles, may affect c-IAP activity in intracellular signaling. Collectively, the multi-faceted functions and complex regulation of the c-IAPs illustrate their importance as intracellular signaling intermediates.

  19. Interaction of Protein Inhibitor of Activated STAT (PIAS) Proteins with the TATA-binding Protein, TBP*

    PubMed Central

    Prigge, Justin R.; Schmidt, Edward E.

    2007-01-01

    Transcription activators often recruit promoter-targeted assembly of a pre-initiation complex; many repressors antagonize recruitment. These activities can involve direct interactions with proteins in the pre-initiation complex. We used an optimized yeast two-hybrid system to screen mouse pregnancy-associated libraries for proteins that interact with TATA-binding protein (TBP). Screens revealed an interaction between TBP and a single member of the zinc finger family of transcription factors, ZFP523. Two members of the protein inhibitor of activated STAT (PIAS) family, PIAS1 and PIAS3, also interacted with TBP in screens. Endogenous PIAS1 and TBP co-immunoprecipitated from nuclear extracts, suggesting the interaction occurred in vivo. In vitro-translated PIAS1 and TBP coimmunopreciptated, which indicated that other nuclear proteins were not required for the interaction. Deletion analysis mapped the PIAS-interacting domain of TBP to the conserved TBPCORE and the TBP-interacting domain on PIAS1 to a 39-amino acid C-terminal region. Mammals issue seven known PIAS proteins from four pias genes, pias1, pias3, piasx, and piasy, each with different cell type-specific expression patterns; the TBP-interacting domain reported here is the only part of the PIAS C-terminal region shared by all seven PIAS proteins. Direct analyses indicated that PIASx and PIASy also interacted with TBP. Our results suggest that all PIAS proteins might mediate situation-specific regulatory signaling at the TBP interface and that previously unknown levels of complexity could exist in the gene regulatory interplay between TBP, PIAS proteins, ZFP523, and other transcription factors. PMID:16522640

  20. Physical mapping of four serpin genes: alpha 1-antitrypsin, alpha 1-antichymotrypsin, corticosteroid-binding globulin, and protein C inhibitor, within a 280-kb region on chromosome I4q32.1.

    PubMed Central

    Billingsley, G D; Walter, M A; Hammond, G L; Cox, D W

    1993-01-01

    Alpha 1-antitrypsin (alpha 1AT; protease inhibitor [PI] locus), alpha 1-antichymotrypsin (alpha 1ACT; AACT locus), corticosteroid-binding globulin (CBG; CBG locus), and protein C inhibitor (PCI; PCI locus) are members of the serine protease inhibitor (serpin) superfamily. A noncoding PI-like (PIL) gene has been located 12 kb 3' of the PI gene. The PI, PIL, and AACT loci have been localized to 14q32.1, the CBG locus has been localized to 14q31-14q32.1, and PCI has been mapped to chromosome 14. Genetic linkage analysis suggests tight linkage between PI and AACT. We have used pulsed-field gel electrophoresis to generate a physical map linking these five serpin genes. The order of the genetic loci is AACT/PCI-PI-PIL-CBG, with a maximum distance of about 220 kb between the AACT/PCI and PI genes. These genes form a PI cluster at 14q32.1, similar to that of the homologous genes on murine chromosome l2. The close proximity of these genes has implications for disease-association studies. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:8381582

  1. De novo protein synthesis is required for lytic cycle reactivation of Epstein-Barr virus, but not Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus, in response to histone deacetylase inhibitors and protein kinase C agonists.

    PubMed

    Ye, Jianjiang; Gradoville, Lyndle; Daigle, Derek; Miller, George

    2007-09-01

    The oncogenic human gammaherpesviruses, Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV), are latent in cultured lymphoma cells. We asked whether reactivation from latency of either virus requires de novo protein synthesis. Using Northern blotting and quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR, we measured the kinetics of expression of the lytic cycle activator genes and determined whether abundance of mRNAs encoding these genes from either virus was reduced by treatment with cycloheximide (CHX), an inhibitor of protein synthesis. CHX blocked expression of mRNAs of EBV BZLF1 and BRLF1, the two EBV lytic cycle activator genes, when HH514-16 Burkitt lymphoma cells were treated with histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors, sodium butyrate or trichostatin A, or a DNA methyltransferase inhibitor, 5-Aza-2'-deoxycytidine. CHX also inhibited EBV lytic cycle activation in B95-8 marmoset lymphoblastoid cells by phorbol ester phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (TPA). EBV lytic cycle induction became resistant to CHX between 4 and 6 h after application of the inducing stimulus. KSHV lytic cycle activation, as assessed by ORF50 mRNA expression, was rapidly induced by the HDAC inhibitors, sodium butyrate and trichostatin A, in HH-B2 primary effusion lymphoma cells. In HH-B2 cells, CHX did not inhibit, but enhanced, expression of the KSHV lytic cycle activator gene, ORF50. In BC-1, a primary effusion lymphoma cell line that is dually infected with EBV and KSHV, CHX blocked EBV BRLF1 lytic gene expression induced by TPA and sodium butyrate; KSHV ORF50 mRNA induced simultaneously in the same cells by the same inducing stimuli was resistant to CHX. The experiments show, for the cell lines and inducing agents studied, that the EBV BZLF1 and BRLF1 genes do not behave with "immediate-early" kinetics upon reactivation from latency. KSHV ORF50 is a true "immediate-early" gene. Our results indicate that the mechanism by which HDAC inhibitors and TPA induce lytic cycle

  2. C1 inhibitor functional deficiency in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE).

    PubMed Central

    Jazwinska, E C; Gatenby, P A; Dunckley, H; Serjeantson, S W

    1993-01-01

    C1 inhibitor (C1-inh) was assayed in eight SLE patients presenting with consistently low levels of intact C4. C1-inh antigenic levels were normal in all patients; however, the function of the C1-inh tested against C1s and C1r was variable and outside the normal functional range in seven of the eight patients. The molecular weight of patients' C1-inh protein was 105 kD, corresponding to the size of the intact molecule. The C1-inh gene was analysed in all patients. Restriction fragments generated with TaqI, PstI and HgiAI gave no indication of a major C1-inh gene rearrangement. Direct genomic sequencing of exon VIII revealed three polymorphic point mutations, but there were no changes from the normal gene in or around the reactive-centre residue of C1-inh. Furthermore, we found no evidence for a C1-inh autoantibody in patients which could affect normal C1-inh function in vitro. These results indicate that the etiology of C1-inh dysfunction in SLE is heterogeneous and distinct from that reported in either hereditary or acquired angioedema. PMID:8485912

  3. Calyculins and Related Marine Natural Products as Serine-Threonine Protein Phosphatase PP1 and PP2A Inhibitors and Total Syntheses of Calyculin A, B, and C

    PubMed Central

    Fagerholm, Annika E.; Habrant, Damien; Koskinen, Ari M. P.

    2010-01-01

    Calyculins, highly cytotoxic polyketides, originally isolated from the marine sponge Discodermia calyx by Fusetani and co-workers, belong to the lithistid sponges group. These molecules have become interesting targets for cell biologists and synthetic organic chemists. The serine/threonine protein phosphatases play an essential role in the cellular signalling, metabolism, and cell cycle control. Calyculins express potent protein phosphatase 1 and 2A inhibitory activity, and have therefore become valuable tools for cellular biologists studying intracellular processes and their control by reversible phosphorylation. Calyculins might also play an important role in the development of several diseases such as cancer, neurodegenerative diseases, and type 2-diabetes mellitus. The fascinating structures of calyculins have inspired various groups of synthetic organic chemists to develop total syntheses of the most abundant calyculins A and C. However, with fifteen chiral centres, a cyano-capped tetraene unit, a phosphate-bearing spiroketal, an anti, anti, anti dipropionate segment, an α-chiral oxazole, and a trihydroxylated γ-amino acid, calyculins reach versatility that only few natural products can surpass, and truly challenge modern chemists’ asymmetric synthesis skills. PMID:20161975

  4. Characterization of C1 inhibitor binding to neutrophils.

    PubMed Central

    Chang, N S; Boackle, R J; Leu, R W

    1991-01-01

    In a previous study we have isolated neutrophil membrane proteins that non-covalently bind to native C1-INH (105,000 MW) and a non-functional, degraded C1-INH (88,000 MW; C1-INH-88). To further characterize the binding nature, we have designed a novel kinetic C1 titration assay which enables not only a quantification of the removal of fluid-phase C1-INH by neutrophils, but also a concomitant measure of residual C1-INH function. Native C1-INH, when adsorbed to EDTA-pretreated neutrophils, lost its function in the inhibition of fluid-phase C1. The non-functional C1-INH-88, which is probably devoid of a reactive centre, was found to block the binding of native C1-INH to neutrophils. Pretreatment of neutrophils with serine esterase inhibitors did not abrogate binding capacity of the cells for C1-INH, whereas the binding affinity for C1-INH was lost when the cells were pretreated with trypsin. An array of human peripheral blood leucocytes and several lymphoid cell lines has surface binding sites for C1-INH, but not on human erythrocytes and U937 cells. Binding was further confirmed using (i) C1-INH-microsphere beads to neutrophils, in which the binding was blocked when pretreating neutrophils with excess C1-INH or with trypsin, and (ii) radiolabelled C1-INH to neutrophils, which was competitively blocked by unlabelled non-functional C1-INH-88. Desialylation of C1-INH significantly reduced its binding affinity for neutrophils, indicating that the membrane receptor sites on neutrophils could be specific for the binding of sialic acid residues on C1-INH. Overall, our studies indicate that neutrophils or other leucocytes possess specific surface binding sites for the sialic acid-containing portion of C1-INH. PMID:2045131

  5. Interfacial inhibitors of protein-nucleic acid interactions.

    PubMed

    Pommier, Yves; Marchand, Christophe

    2005-07-01

    This essay develops the paradigm of "Interfacial Inhibitors" (Pommier and Cherfils, TiPS, 2005, 28: 136) for inhibitory drugs beside orthosteric (competitive or non-competitive) and allosteric inhibitors. Interfacial inhibitors bind with high selectivity to a binding site involving two or more macromolecules within macromolecular complexes undergoing conformational changes. Interfacial binding traps (generally reversibly) a transition state of the complex, resulting in kinetic inactivation. The exemplary case of interfacial inhibitor of protein-DNA interface is camptothecin and its clinical derivatives. We will also provide examples generalizing the interfacial inhibitor concept to inhibitors of topoisomerase II (anthracyclines, ellipticines, epipodophyllotoxins), gyrase (quinolones, ciprofloxacin, norfloxacin), RNA polymerases (alpha-amanitin and actinomycin D), and ribosomes (antibiotics such as streptomycin, hygromycin B, tetracycline, kirromycin, fusidic acid, thiostrepton, and possibly cycloheximide). We discuss the implications of the interfacial inhibitor concept for drug discovery.

  6. Chemical inhibitors of c-Met receptor tyrosine kinase stimulate osteoblast differentiation and bone regeneration.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jung-Woo; Nam Lee, Mi; Jeong, Byung-Chul; Oh, Sin-Hye; Kook, Min-Suk; Koh, Jeong-Tae

    2017-03-16

    The c-Met receptor tyrosine kinase and its ligand, hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), have been recently introduced to negatively regulate bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-induced osteogenesis. However, the effect of chemical inhibitors of c-Met receptor on osteoblast differentiation process has not been examined, especially the applicability of c-Met chemical inhibitors on in vivo bone regeneration. In this study, we demonstrated that chemical inhibitors of c-Met receptor tyrosine kinase, SYN1143 and SGX523, could potentiate the differentiation of precursor cells to osteoblasts and stimulate regeneration in calvarial bone defects of mice. Treatment with SYN1143 or SGX523 inhibited HGF-induced c-Met phosphorylation in MC3T3-E1 and C3H10T1/2 cells. Cell proliferation of MC3T3-E1 or C3H10T1/2 was not significantly affected by the concentrations of these inhibitors. Co-treatment with chemical inhibitor of c-Met and osteogenic inducing media enhanced osteoblast-specific genes expression and calcium nodule formation accompanied by increased Runx2 expression via c-Met receptor-dependent but Erk-Smad signaling independent pathway. Notably, the administration of these c-Met inhibitors significantly repaired critical-sized calvarial bone defects. Collectively, our results suggest that chemical inhibitors of c-Met receptor tyrosine kinase might be used as novel therapeutics to induce bone regeneration.

  7. Data in support of a central role of plasminogen activator inhibitor-2 polymorphism in recurrent cardiovascular disease risk in the setting of high HDL cholesterol and C-reactive protein using Bayesian network modeling.

    PubMed

    Corsetti, James P; Salzman, Peter; Ryan, Dan; Moss, Arthur J; Zareba, Wojciech; Sparks, Charles E

    2016-09-01

    Data is presented that was utilized as the basis for Bayesian network modeling of influence pathways focusing on the central role of a polymorphism of plasminogen activator inhibitor-2 (PAI-2) on recurrent cardiovascular disease risk in patients with high levels of HDL cholesterol and C-reactive protein (CRP) as a marker of inflammation, "Influences on Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor-2 Polymorphism-Associated Recurrent Cardiovascular Disease Risk in Patients with High HDL Cholesterol and Inflammation" (Corsetti et al., 2016; [1]). The data consist of occurrence of recurrent coronary events in 166 post myocardial infarction patients along with 1. clinical data on gender, race, age, and body mass index; 2. blood level data on 17 biomarkers; and 3. genotype data on 53 presumptive CVD-related single nucleotide polymorphisms. Additionally, a flow diagram of the Bayesian modeling procedure is presented along with Bayesian network subgraphs (root nodes to outcome events) utilized as the data from which PAI-2 associated influence pathways were derived (Corsetti et al., 2016; [1]).

  8. Albumin-conjugated C34 Peptide HIV-1 Fusion Inhibitor

    PubMed Central

    Stoddart, Cheryl A.; Nault, Geneviève; Galkina, Sofiya A.; Thibaudeau, Karen; Bakis, Peter; Bousquet-Gagnon, Nathalie; Robitaille, Martin; Bellomo, Maryanne; Paradis, Véronique; Liscourt, Patricia; Lobach, Alexandra; Rivard, Marie-Ève; Ptak, Roger G.; Mankowski, Marie K.; Bridon, Dominique; Quraishi, Omar

    2008-01-01

    Entry inhibitors of human immunodeficiency virus, type 1 (HIV-1) have been the focus of much recent research. C34, a potent fusion inhibitor derived from the HR2 region of gp41, was engineered into a 1:1 human serum albumin conjugate through stable covalent attachment of a maleimido-C34 analog onto cysteine 34 of albumin. This bioconjugate, PC-1505, was designed to require less frequent dosing and less peptide than T-20 and was assessed for its antifusogenic activity both in vitro and in vivo in the SCID-hu Thy/Liv mouse model. PC-1505 was essentially equipotent to the original C34 peptide and to T-20 in vitro. In HIV-1-infected SCID-hu Thy/Liv mice, T-20 lost activity with infrequent dosing, whereas the antiviral potency of PC-1505 was sustained, and PC-1505 was active against T-20-resistant (“DIV”) virus with a G36D substitution in gp41. The in vivo results are the direct result of a significantly improved pharmacokinetic profile for the C34 peptide following albumin conjugation. Contrary to previous reports that the gp41 NHR trimer is poorly accessible to C34 fused to protein cargoes of increasing size (Hamburger, A. E., Kim, S., Welch, B. D., and Kay, M. S. (2005) J. Biol. Chem. 280, 12567–12572), these results are the first demonstration of the capacity for a large, endogenous serum protein to gain unobstructed access to the transient gp41 intermediates that exist during the HIV fusion process, and it supports further development of albumin conjugation as a promising approach to inhibit HIV-1 entry. PMID:18809675

  9. HIV-associated thromboembolic phenomenon due to protein C deficiency.

    PubMed

    Goyal, Anmol; Shah, Ira

    2014-01-01

    HIV-infected individuals are at a high risk of developing arterial and venous thromboembolism. Opportunistic infections, protease inhibitors, low CD4 count, antiphospholipid antibodies, protein S, and protein C deficiencies are some important risk factors associated with it. However, thromboembolic phenomenon due to protein C deficiency has been rarely reported. We report a case of a 12-year-old girl with facial palsy due to middle cerebral artery infarct because of HIV infection and associated protein C deficiency.

  10. Targeting inhibitors of apoptosis proteins (IAPs) for new breast cancer therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shaomeng; Bai, Longchuan; Lu, Jianfeng; Liu, Liu; Yang, Chao-Yie; Sun, Haiying

    2012-12-01

    Apoptosis resistance is a hallmark of human cancer. Research in the last two decades has identified key regulators of apoptosis, including inhibitor of apoptosis proteins (IAPs). These critical apoptosis regulators have been targeted for the development of new cancer therapeutics. In this article, we will discuss three members of IAP proteins, namely XIAP, cIAP1 and cIAP2, as cancer therapeutic targets and the progress made in developing new cancer therapeutic agents to target these IAP proteins.

  11. Towards a green hydrate inhibitor: imaging antifreeze proteins on clathrates.

    PubMed

    Gordienko, Raimond; Ohno, Hiroshi; Singh, Vinay K; Jia, Zongchao; Ripmeester, John A; Walker, Virginia K

    2010-02-11

    The formation of hydrate plugs in oil and gas pipelines is a serious industrial problem and recently there has been an increased interest in the use of alternative hydrate inhibitors as substitutes for thermodynamic inhibitors like methanol. We show here that antifreeze proteins (AFPs) possess the ability to modify structure II (sII) tetrahydrofuran (THF) hydrate crystal morphologies by adhering to the hydrate surface and inhibiting growth in a similar fashion to the kinetic inhibitor poly-N-vinylpyrrolidone (PVP). The effects of AFPs on the formation and growth rate of high-pressure sII gas mix hydrate demonstrated that AFPs are superior hydrate inhibitors compared to PVP. These results indicate that AFPs may be suitable for the study of new inhibitor systems and represent an important step towards the development of biologically-based hydrate inhibitors.

  12. Towards a Green Hydrate Inhibitor: Imaging Antifreeze Proteins on Clathrates

    PubMed Central

    Gordienko, Raimond; Ohno, Hiroshi; Singh, Vinay K.; Jia, Zongchao; Ripmeester, John A.; Walker, Virginia K.

    2010-01-01

    The formation of hydrate plugs in oil and gas pipelines is a serious industrial problem and recently there has been an increased interest in the use of alternative hydrate inhibitors as substitutes for thermodynamic inhibitors like methanol. We show here that antifreeze proteins (AFPs) possess the ability to modify structure II (sII) tetrahydrofuran (THF) hydrate crystal morphologies by adhering to the hydrate surface and inhibiting growth in a similar fashion to the kinetic inhibitor poly-N-vinylpyrrolidone (PVP). The effects of AFPs on the formation and growth rate of high-pressure sII gas mix hydrate demonstrated that AFPs are superior hydrate inhibitors compared to PVP. These results indicate that AFPs may be suitable for the study of new inhibitor systems and represent an important step towards the development of biologically-based hydrate inhibitors. PMID:20161789

  13. Human inhibitor of the first component of complement, C1: characterization of cDNA clones and localization of the gene to chromosome 11.

    PubMed Central

    Davis, A E; Whitehead, A S; Harrison, R A; Dauphinais, A; Bruns, G A; Cicardi, M; Rosen, F S

    1986-01-01

    C1 inhibitor is a heavily glycosylated plasma protein that regulates the activity of the first component of complement (C1) by inactivation of the serine protease subcomponents, C1r and C1s. C1 inhibitor cDNA clones have been isolated, and one of these (pC1INH1, 950 base pairs) has been partially sequenced. Sequence analysis demonstrates that the C1 inhibitor is a member of the serpin "superfamily" of protease inhibitors. In the region sequenced, C1 inhibitor has 22% identity with antithrombin III, 26% with alpha 1-antitrypsin and alpha 1-antichymotrypsin, and 18% with human angiotensinogen. C1 inhibitor has a larger amino-terminal extension than do the other plasma protease inhibitors. In addition, inspection of residues that are invariant among the other protease inhibitors shows that C1 inhibitor differs at 14 of 41 of these positions. Thus, it appears that C1 inhibitor diverged from the group relatively early in evolution, although probably after the divergence of angiotensinogen. Southern blot analysis of BamHI-digested DNA from normal individuals and from rodent-human somatic cell hybrid cell lines (that contain a limited but varied human chromosome complement) was used to localize the human C1 inhibitor gene to chromosome 11. Images PMID:3458172

  14. Diarylthiophenes as inhibitors of the pore-forming protein perforin

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Christian K.; Huttunen, Kristiina M.; Denny, William A.; Jaiswal, Jagdish K.; Ciccone, Annette; Browne, Kylie A.; Trapani, Joseph A.; Spicer, Julie A.

    2016-01-01

    Evolution from a furan-containing high-throughput screen (HTS) hit (1) resulted in isobenzofuran-1(3H)-one (2) as a potent inhibitor of the function of both isolated perforin protein and perforin delivered in situ by intact KHYG-1 NK cells. In the current study, structure–activity relationship (SAR) development towards a novel series of diarylthiophene analogues has continued through the use of substituted-benzene and -pyridyl moieties as bioisosteres for 2-thioxoimidazolidin-4-one (A) on a thiophene (B) -isobenzofuranone (C) scaffold. The resulting compounds were tested for their ability to inhibit perforin lytic activity in vitro. Carboxamide (23) shows a 4-fold increase over (2) in lytic activity against isolated perforin and provides good rationale for continued development within this class. PMID:26711151

  15. Overcoming Resistance to Inhibitors of the Akt Protein Kinase by Modulation of the Pim Kinase Pathway

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-10-01

    kinase . This grant proposal will explore the resistance to small molecule AKT protein kinase inhibitors mediated by the... molecule AKT protein kinase inhibitors is potentially mediated by the Pim-1 protein kinase , and that unique Pim protein kinase inhibitors that can in...application is essential for the development of this combined chemotherapeutic strategy. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Small Molecule AKT Inhibitors ,

  16. Development of a selective inhibitor of Protein Arginine Deiminase 2.

    PubMed

    Muth, Aaron; Subramanian, Venkataraman; Beaumont, Edward; Nagar, Mitesh; Kerry, Philip; McEwan, Paul; Srinath, Hema; Clancy, Kathleen Wanda; Parelkar, Sangram S; Thompson, Paul R

    2017-03-22

    Protein arginine deiminase 2 (PAD2) plays a key role in the onset and progression of multiple sclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis and breast cancer. To date, no PAD2-selective inhibitor has been developed. Such a compound will be critical for elucidating the biological roles of this isozyme and may ultimately be useful for treating specific diseases in which PAD2 activity is dysregulated. To achieve this goal, we synthesized a series of benzimidazole-based derivatives of Cl-amidine, hypothesizing that this scaffold would allow access to a series of PAD2-selective inhibitors with enhanced cellular efficacy. Herein, we demonstrate that substitutions at both the N-terminus and C-terminus of Cl-amidine result in >100-fold increases in PAD2 potency and selectivity (30a, 41a, and 49a) as well as cellular efficacy 30a. Notably, these compounds use the far less reactive fluoroacetamidine warhead. In total, we predict that 30a will be a critical tool for understanding cellular PAD2 function and sets the stage for treating diseases in which PAD2 activity is dysregulated.

  17. Exploring NMR ensembles of calcium binding proteins: Perspectives to design inhibitors of protein-protein interactions

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Disrupting protein-protein interactions by small organic molecules is nowadays a promising strategy employed to block protein targets involved in different pathologies. However, structural changes occurring at the binding interfaces make difficult drug discovery processes using structure-based drug design/virtual screening approaches. Here we focused on two homologous calcium binding proteins, calmodulin and human centrin 2, involved in different cellular functions via protein-protein interactions, and known to undergo important conformational changes upon ligand binding. Results In order to find suitable protein conformations of calmodulin and centrin for further structure-based drug design/virtual screening, we performed in silico structural/energetic analysis and molecular docking of terphenyl (a mimicking alpha-helical molecule known to inhibit protein-protein interactions of calmodulin) into X-ray and NMR ensembles of calmodulin and centrin. We employed several scoring methods in order to find the best protein conformations. Our results show that docking on NMR structures of calmodulin and centrin can be very helpful to take into account conformational changes occurring at protein-protein interfaces. Conclusions NMR structures of protein-protein complexes nowadays available could efficiently be exploited for further structure-based drug design/virtual screening processes employed to design small molecule inhibitors of protein-protein interactions. PMID:21569443

  18. Detailed Structural Characterization of Unbound Protein Phosphatase 1 Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Dancheck, Barbara; Nairn, Angus C.; Peti, Wolfgang

    2009-01-01

    Protein Phosphatase 1 (PP1) is an essential and ubiquitous serine/threonine protein phosphatase that is regulated by more than 100 known inhibitor and targeting proteins. It is currently unclear how protein inhibitors distinctly and specifically regulate PP1 to enable rapid responses to cellular alterations. We demonstrate that two PP1 inhibitors, I-2 and DARPP-32, belong to the class of intrinsically unstructured proteins (IUPs). We show that both inhibitors have distinct preferences for transient local and long range structure. These preferences are likely their structural signature for their interaction with PP1. Furthermore, we show that upon phosphorylation of Thr34 in DARPP-32, which turns DARPP-32 into a potent inhibitor of PP1, neither local nor long range structure of DARPP-32 is altered. Therefore, our data suggests a role for these transient 3-dimensional topologies in binding mechanisms that enable extensive contacts with PP1's invariant surfaces. Together, these interactions enable potent and selective inhibition of PP1. PMID:18954090

  19. Protein inhibitor of activated STAT3 inhibits adipogenic gene expression

    SciTech Connect

    Deng Jianbei; Hua Kunjie; Caveney, Erica J.; Takahashi, Nobuyuki; Harp, Joyce B. . E-mail: jharp@unc.edu

    2006-01-20

    Protein inhibitor of activated STAT3 (PIAS3), a cytokine-induced repressor of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) and a modulator of a broad array of nuclear proteins, is expressed in white adipose tissue, but its role in adipogenesis is not known. Here, we determined that PIAS3 was constitutively expressed in 3T3-L1 cells at all stages of adipogenesis. However, it translocated from the nucleus to the cytoplasm 4 days after induction of differentiation by isobutylmethylxanthine, dexamethasone, and insulin (MDI). In ob/ob mice, PIAS3 expression was increased in white adipose tissue depots compared to lean mice and was found in the cytoplasm of adipocytes. Overexpression of PIAS3 in differentiating preadipocytes, which localized primarily to the nucleus, inhibited mRNA level gene expression of adipogenic transcription factors C/EBP{alpha} and PPAR{gamma}, as well as their downstream target genes aP2 and adiponectin. PIAS3 also inhibited C/EBP{alpha} promoter activation mediated specifically by insulin, but not dexamethasone or isobutylmethylxanthine. Taken together, these data suggest that PIAS3 may play an inhibitory role in adipogenesis by modulating insulin-activated transcriptional activation events. Increased PIAS3 expression in adipose tissue may play a role in the metabolic disturbances of obesity.

  20. Hereditary and acquired C1-inhibitor-dependent angioedema: from pathophysiology to treatment.

    PubMed

    Zeerleder, Sacha; Levi, Marcel

    2016-01-01

    Uncontrolled generation of bradykinin (BK) due to insufficient levels of protease inhibitors controlling contact phase (CP) activation, increased activity of CP proteins, and/or inadequate degradation of BK into inactive peptides increases vascular permeability via BK-receptor 2 (BKR2) and results in subcutaneous and submucosal edema formation. Hereditary and acquired angioedema due to C1-inhibitor deficiency (C1-INH-HAE and -AAE) are diseases characterized by serious and potentially fatal attacks of subcutaneous and submucosal edemas of upper airways, facial structures, abdomen, and extremities, due to inadequate control of BK generation. A decreased activity of C1-inhibitor is the hallmark of C1-INH-HAE (types 1 and 2) due to a mutation in the C1-inhibitor gene, whereas the deficiency in C1-inhibitor in C1-INH-AAE is the result of autoimmune phenomena. In HAE with normal C1-inhibitor, a significant percentage of patients have an increased activity of factor XIIa due to a FXII mutation (FXII-HAE). Treatment of C1-inhibitor-dependent angioedema focuses on restoring control of BK generation by inhibition of CP proteases by correcting the balance between CP inhibitors and BK breakdown or by inhibition of BK-mediated effects at the BKR2 on endothelial cells. This review will address the pathophysiology, clinical picture, diagnosis and available treatment in C1-inhibitor-dependent angioedema focusing on BK-release and its regulation. Key Messages Inadequate control of bradykinin formation results in the formation of characteristic subcutaneous and submucosal edemas of the skin, upper airways, facial structures, abdomen and extremities as seen in hereditary and acquired C1-inhibitor-dependent angioedema. Diagnosis of hereditary and acquired C1-inhibitor-dependent angioedema may be troublesome as illustrated by the fact that there is a significant delay in diagnosis; a certain grade of suspicion is therefore crucial for quick diagnosis. Submucosal edema formation in

  1. HIV proteinase inhibitors target the Ddi1-like protein of Leishmania parasites

    PubMed Central

    White, Rhian E.; Powell, David J.; Berry, Colin

    2011-01-01

    HIV proteinase inhibitors reduce the levels of Leishmania parasites in vivo and in vitro, but their biochemical target is unknown. We have identified an ortholog of the yeast Ddi1 protein as the only member of the aspartic proteinase family in Leishmania parasites, and in this study we investigate this protein as a potential target for the drugs. To date, no enzyme assay has been developed for the Ddi1 proteins, but Saccharomyces cerevisiae lacking the DDI1 gene secrete high levels of protein into the medium. We developed an assay in which these knockout yeast were functionally complemented to low secretion by introduction of genes encoding Ddi1 orthologs from Leishmania major or humans. Plasmid alone controls gave no complementation. Treatment of the Ddi1 transformants with HIV proteinase inhibitors showed differential effects dependent on the origin of the Ddi1. Dose responses allowed calculation of IC50 values; e.g., for nelfinavir, of 3.4 μM (human Ddi1) and 0.44 μM (Leishmania Ddi1). IC50 values with Leishmania constructs mirror the potency of inhibitors against parasites. Our results show that Ddi1 proteins are targets of HIV proteinase inhibitors and indicates the Leishmania Ddi1 as the likely target for these drugs and a potential target for antiparasitic therapy.—White, R. E., Powell, D. J., Berry, C. HIV proteinase inhibitors target the Ddi1-Like protein of Leishmania parasites. PMID:21266539

  2. Comparing protein VEGF inhibitors: In vitro biological studies

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, Lanlan; Liang, Xiao Huan; Ferrara, Napoleone

    2011-05-06

    Highlights: {yields} VEGF is a mediator of angiogenesis. {yields} VEGF inhibitors have clinical applications in cancer and eye disorders. {yields} Five protein VEGF inhibitors were compared for their ability to inhibit. {yields} VEGF-induced activities in cultured endothelial cells. -- Abstract: VEGF inhibitors are widely used as a therapy for tumors and intravascular neovascular disorders, but limited and conflicting data regarding their relative biological potencies are available. The purpose of the study is to compare different protein VEGF inhibitors for their ability to inhibit VEGF-stimulated activities. We tested ranibizumab, the full-length variant of ranibizumab (Mab Y0317), bevacizumab, the VEGF-TrapR1R2 and Flt(1-3)-IgG in bioassays measuring VEGF-stimulated proliferation of bovine retinal microvascular endothelial cells or chemotaxis of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC). The inhibitors were also compared for their ability to inhibit MAP kinase activation in HUVECs following VEGF addition. Ranibizumab, VEGF-TrapR1R2 and Flt(1-3)-IgG had very similar potencies in the bioassays tested. Bevacizumab was over 10-fold less potent than these molecules. Mab Y0317 was over 30-fold more potent than bevacizumab. The findings reported in this manuscript describe important intrinsic characteristics of several VEGF inhibitors that may be useful to design and interpret preclinical or clinical studies.

  3. A novel transmembrane Ser/Thr kinase complexes with protein phosphatase-1 and inhibitor-2.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hong; Brautigan, David L

    2002-12-20

    Protein kinases and protein phosphatases exert coordinated control over many essential cellular processes. Here, we describe the cloning and characterization of a novel human transmembrane protein KPI-2 (Kinase/Phosphatase/Inhibitor-2) that was identified by yeast two-hybrid using protein phosphatase inhibitor-2 (Inh2) as bait. KPI-2 mRNA was predominantly expressed in skeletal muscle. KPI-2 is a 1503-residue protein with two predicted transmembrane helices at the N terminus, a kinase domain, followed by a C-terminal domain. The transmembrane helices were sufficient for targeting proteins to the membrane. KPI-2 kinase domain has about 60% identity with its closest relative, a tyrosine kinase. However, it only exhibited serine/threonine kinase activity in autophosphorylation reactions or with added substrates. KPI-2 kinase domain phosphorylated protein phosphatase-1 (PP1C) at Thr(320), which attenuated PP1C activity. KPI-2 C-terminal domain directly associated with PP1C, and this required a VTF motif. Inh2 associated with KPI-2 C-terminal domain with and without PP1C. Thus, KPI-2 is a kinase with sites to associate with PP1C and Inh2 to form a regulatory complex that is localized to membranes.

  4. Purine inhibitors of protein kinases, G proteins and polymerases

    DOEpatents

    Gray, Nathanael S.; Schultz, Peter; Kim, Sung-Hou; Meijer, Laurent

    2001-07-03

    The present invention relates to purine analogs that inhibit, inter alia, protein kinases, G-proteins and polymerases. In addition, the present invention relates to methods of using such purine analogs to inhibit protein kinases, G-proteins, polymerases and other cellular processes and to treat cellular proliferative diseases.

  5. Protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B inhibitors isolated from Artemisia roxburghiana.

    PubMed

    Shah, Muhammad Raza; Ishtiaq; Hizbullah, Syed Muhammad; Habtemariam, Solomon; Zarrelli, Armando; Muhammad, Akhtar; Collina, Simona; Khan, Inamulllah

    2016-08-01

    Artemisia roxburghiana is used in traditional medicine for treating various diseases including diabetes. The present study was designed to evaluate the antidiabetic potential of active constituents by using protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) as a validated target for management of diabetes. Various compounds were isolated as active principles from the crude methanolic extract of aerial parts of A. roxburghiana. All compounds were screened for PTP1B inhibitory activity. Molecular docking simulations were performed to investigate the mechanism behind PTP1B inhibition of the isolated compound and positive control, ursolic acid. Betulinic acid, betulin and taraxeryl acetate were the active PTP1B principles with IC50 values 3.49 ± 0.02, 4.17 ± 0.03 and 87.52 ± 0.03 µM, respectively. Molecular docking studies showed significant molecular interactions of the triterpene inhibitors with Gly220, Cys215, Gly218 and Asp48 inside the active site of PTP1B. The antidiabetic activity of A. roxburghiana could be attributed due to PTP1B inhibition by its triterpene constituents, betulin, betulinic acid and taraxeryl acetate. Computational insights of this study revealed that the C-3 and C-17 positions of the compounds needs extensive optimization for the development of new lead compounds.

  6. Eliminating anti-nutritional plant food proteins: the case of seed protease inhibitors in pea.

    PubMed

    Clemente, Alfonso; Arques, Maria C; Dalmais, Marion; Le Signor, Christine; Chinoy, Catherine; Olias, Raquel; Rayner, Tracey; Isaac, Peter G; Lawson, David M; Bendahmane, Abdelhafid; Domoney, Claire

    2015-01-01

    Several classes of seed proteins limit the utilisation of plant proteins in human and farm animal diets, while plant foods have much to offer to the sustainable intensification of food/feed production and to human health. Reduction or removal of these proteins could greatly enhance seed protein quality and various strategies have been used to try to achieve this with limited success. We investigated whether seed protease inhibitor mutations could be exploited to enhance seed quality, availing of induced mutant and natural Pisum germplasm collections to identify mutants, whilst acquiring an understanding of the impact of mutations on activity. A mutant (TILLING) resource developed in Pisum sativum L. (pea) and a large germplasm collection representing Pisum diversity were investigated as sources of mutations that reduce or abolish the activity of the major protease inhibitor (Bowman-Birk) class of seed protein. Of three missense mutations, predicted to affect activity of the mature trypsin / chymotrypsin inhibitor TI1 protein, a C77Y substitution in the mature mutant inhibitor abolished inhibitor activity, consistent with an absolute requirement for the disulphide bond C77-C92 for function in the native inhibitor. Two further classes of mutation (S85F, E109K) resulted in less dramatic changes to isoform or overall inhibitory activity. The alternative strategy to reduce anti-nutrients, by targeted screening of Pisum germplasm, successfully identified a single accession (Pisum elatius) as a double null mutant for the two closely linked genes encoding the TI1 and TI2 seed protease inhibitors. The P. elatius mutant has extremely low seed protease inhibitory activity and introgression of the mutation into cultivated germplasm has been achieved. The study provides new insights into structure-function relationships for protease inhibitors which impact on pea seed quality. The induced and natural germplasm variants identified provide immediate potential for either halving

  7. Eliminating Anti-Nutritional Plant Food Proteins: The Case of Seed Protease Inhibitors in Pea

    PubMed Central

    Clemente, Alfonso; Arques, Maria C.; Dalmais, Marion; Le Signor, Christine; Chinoy, Catherine; Olias, Raquel; Rayner, Tracey; Isaac, Peter G.; Lawson, David M.; Bendahmane, Abdelhafid; Domoney, Claire

    2015-01-01

    Several classes of seed proteins limit the utilisation of plant proteins in human and farm animal diets, while plant foods have much to offer to the sustainable intensification of food/feed production and to human health. Reduction or removal of these proteins could greatly enhance seed protein quality and various strategies have been used to try to achieve this with limited success. We investigated whether seed protease inhibitor mutations could be exploited to enhance seed quality, availing of induced mutant and natural Pisum germplasm collections to identify mutants, whilst acquiring an understanding of the impact of mutations on activity. A mutant (TILLING) resource developed in Pisum sativum L. (pea) and a large germplasm collection representing Pisum diversity were investigated as sources of mutations that reduce or abolish the activity of the major protease inhibitor (Bowman-Birk) class of seed protein. Of three missense mutations, predicted to affect activity of the mature trypsin / chymotrypsin inhibitor TI1 protein, a C77Y substitution in the mature mutant inhibitor abolished inhibitor activity, consistent with an absolute requirement for the disulphide bond C77-C92 for function in the native inhibitor. Two further classes of mutation (S85F, E109K) resulted in less dramatic changes to isoform or overall inhibitory activity. The alternative strategy to reduce anti-nutrients, by targeted screening of Pisum germplasm, successfully identified a single accession (Pisum elatius) as a double null mutant for the two closely linked genes encoding the TI1 and TI2 seed protease inhibitors. The P. elatius mutant has extremely low seed protease inhibitory activity and introgression of the mutation into cultivated germplasm has been achieved. The study provides new insights into structure-function relationships for protease inhibitors which impact on pea seed quality. The induced and natural germplasm variants identified provide immediate potential for either halving

  8. Purine inhibitors of protein kinases, G proteins and polymerases

    DOEpatents

    Gray, Nathanael S.; Schultz, Peter; Kim, Sung-Hou; Meijer, Laurent

    2004-10-12

    The present invention relates to 2-N-substituted 6-(4-methoxybenzylamino)-9-isopropylpurines that inhibit, inter alia, protein kinases, G-proteins and polymerases. In addition, the present invention relates to methods of using such 2-N-substituted 6-(4-methoxybenzylamino)-9-isopropylpurines to inhibit protein kinases, G-proteins, polymerases and other cellular processes and to treat cellular proliferative diseases.

  9. Combination of thrombin-antithrombin complex, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1, and protein C activity for early identification of severe coagulopathy in initial phase of sepsis: a prospective observational study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Current criteria for early diagnosis of coagulopathy in sepsis are limited. We postulated that coagulopathy is already complicated with sepsis in the initial phase, and severe coagulopathy or disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) becomes overt after progressive consumption of platelet and coagulation factors. To determine early diagnostic markers for severe coagulopathy, we evaluated plasma biomarkers for association with subsequent development of overt DIC in patients with sepsis. Methods A single-center, prospective observational study was conducted in an adult ICU at a university hospital. Plasma samples were obtained from patients with sepsis at ICU admission. Fourteen biomarkers including global markers (platelet count, prothrombin time, activated partial thromboplastin time, fibrinogen and fibrin degradation product (FDP)); markers of thrombin generation (thrombin-antithrombin complex (TAT) and soluble fibrin); markers of anticoagulants (protein C (PC) and antithrombin); markers of fibrinolysis (plasminogen, α2-plasmin inhibitor (PI), plasmin-α2-PI complex, and plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI)-1); and a marker of endothelial activation (soluble E-selectin) were assayed. Patients who had overt DIC at baseline were excluded, and the remaining patients were followed for development of overt DIC in 5 days, and for mortality in 28 days. Results A total of 77 patients were enrolled, and 37 developed overt DIC within the following 5 days. Most patients demonstrated hemostatic abnormalities at baseline with 98.7% TAT, 97.4% FDP and 88.3% PC. Most hemostatic biomarkers at baseline were significantly associated with subsequent development of overt DIC. Notably, TAT, PAI-1 and PC discriminated well between patients with and without developing overt DIC (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC), 0.77 (95% confidence interval, 0.64 to 0.86); 0.87 (0.78 to 0.92); 0.85 (0.76 to 0.91), respectively), and using the three

  10. Targeting Protein-Protein Interactions with Trimeric Ligands: High Affinity Inhibitors of the MAGUK Protein Family

    PubMed Central

    Nissen, Klaus B.; Haugaard-Kedström, Linda M.; Wilbek, Theis S.; Nielsen, Line S.; Åberg, Emma; Kristensen, Anders S.; Bach, Anders; Jemth, Per; Strømgaard, Kristian

    2015-01-01

    PDZ domains in general, and those of PSD-95 in particular, are emerging as promising drug targets for diseases such as ischemic stroke. We have previously shown that dimeric ligands that simultaneously target PDZ1 and PDZ2 of PSD-95 are highly potent inhibitors of PSD-95. However, PSD-95 and the related MAGUK proteins contain three consecutive PDZ domains, hence we envisioned that targeting all three PDZ domains simultaneously would lead to more potent and potentially more specific interactions with the MAGUK proteins. Here we describe the design, synthesis and characterization of a series of trimeric ligands targeting all three PDZ domains of PSD-95 and the related MAGUK proteins, PSD-93, SAP-97 and SAP-102. Using our dimeric ligands targeting the PDZ1-2 tandem as starting point, we designed novel trimeric ligands by introducing a PDZ3-binding peptide moiety via a cysteine-derivatized NPEG linker. The trimeric ligands generally displayed increased affinities compared to the dimeric ligands in fluorescence polarization binding experiments and optimized trimeric ligands showed low nanomolar inhibition towards the four MAGUK proteins, thus being the most potent inhibitors described. Kinetic experiments using stopped-flow spectrometry showed that the increase in affinity is caused by a decrease in the dissociation rate of the trimeric ligand as compared to the dimeric ligands, likely reflecting the lower probability of simultaneous dissociation of all three PDZ ligands. Thus, we have provided novel inhibitors of the MAGUK proteins with exceptionally high affinity, which can be used to further elucidate the therapeutic potential of these proteins. PMID:25658767

  11. Targeting protein-protein interactions with trimeric ligands: high affinity inhibitors of the MAGUK protein family.

    PubMed

    Nissen, Klaus B; Haugaard-Kedström, Linda M; Wilbek, Theis S; Nielsen, Line S; Åberg, Emma; Kristensen, Anders S; Bach, Anders; Jemth, Per; Strømgaard, Kristian

    2015-01-01

    PDZ domains in general, and those of PSD-95 in particular, are emerging as promising drug targets for diseases such as ischemic stroke. We have previously shown that dimeric ligands that simultaneously target PDZ1 and PDZ2 of PSD-95 are highly potent inhibitors of PSD-95. However, PSD-95 and the related MAGUK proteins contain three consecutive PDZ domains, hence we envisioned that targeting all three PDZ domains simultaneously would lead to more potent and potentially more specific interactions with the MAGUK proteins. Here we describe the design, synthesis and characterization of a series of trimeric ligands targeting all three PDZ domains of PSD-95 and the related MAGUK proteins, PSD-93, SAP-97 and SAP-102. Using our dimeric ligands targeting the PDZ1-2 tandem as starting point, we designed novel trimeric ligands by introducing a PDZ3-binding peptide moiety via a cysteine-derivatized NPEG linker. The trimeric ligands generally displayed increased affinities compared to the dimeric ligands in fluorescence polarization binding experiments and optimized trimeric ligands showed low nanomolar inhibition towards the four MAGUK proteins, thus being the most potent inhibitors described. Kinetic experiments using stopped-flow spectrometry showed that the increase in affinity is caused by a decrease in the dissociation rate of the trimeric ligand as compared to the dimeric ligands, likely reflecting the lower probability of simultaneous dissociation of all three PDZ ligands. Thus, we have provided novel inhibitors of the MAGUK proteins with exceptionally high affinity, which can be used to further elucidate the therapeutic potential of these proteins.

  12. Discovery of 14-3-3 protein-protein interaction inhibitors that sensitize multidrug-resistant cancer cells to doxorubicin and the Akt inhibitor GSK690693.

    PubMed

    Mori, Mattia; Vignaroli, Giulia; Cau, Ylenia; Dinić, Jelena; Hill, Richard; Rossi, Matteo; Colecchia, David; Pešić, Milica; Link, Wolfgang; Chiariello, Mario; Ottmann, Christian; Botta, Maurizio

    2014-05-01

    14-3-3 is a family of highly conserved adapter proteins that is attracting much interest among medicinal chemists. Small-molecule inhibitors of 14-3-3 protein-protein interactions (PPIs) are in high demand, both as tools to increase our understanding of 14-3-3 actions in human diseases and as leads to develop innovative therapeutic agents. Herein we present the discovery of novel 14-3-3 PPI inhibitors through a multidisciplinary strategy combining molecular modeling, organic synthesis, image-based high-content analysis of reporter cells, and in vitro assays using cancer cells. Notably, the two most active compounds promoted the translocation of c-Abl and FOXO pro-apoptotic factors into the nucleus and sensitized multidrug-resistant cancer cells to apoptotic inducers such as doxorubicin and the pan-Akt inhibitor GSK690693, thus becoming valuable lead candidates for further optimization. Our results emphasize the possible role of 14-3-3 PPI inhibitors in anticancer combination therapies.

  13. Potent stimulation of large-conductance Ca2+-activated K+ channels by rottlerin, an inhibitor of protein kinase C-delta, in pituitary tumor (GH3) cells and in cortical neuronal (HCN-1A) cells.

    PubMed

    Wu, Sheng-Nan; Wang, Ya-Jean; Lin, Ming-Wei

    2007-03-01

    The effects of rottlerin, a known inhibitor of protein kinase C-delta activation, on ion currents were investigated in pituitary tumor (GH3) cells. Rottlerin (0.3-100 microM) increased the amplitude of Ca2+-activated K+ current (I K(Ca)) in a concentration-dependent manner with an EC50 value of 1.7 microM. In intracellular perfusion with rottlerin (1 microM) or staurosporine (10 microM), phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate-induced inhibition of I K(Ca) in these cells was abolished. In cell-attached mode, rottlerin applied on the extracellular side of the membrane caused activation of large-conductance Ca2+-activated K+ (BK(Ca)) channels, and a further application of BAPTA-AM (10 microM) to the bath had no effect on rottlerin-stimulated channel activity. When cells were exposed to rottlerin, the activation curve of these channels was shifted to less positive potential with no change in the slope factor. Rottlerin increased BK(Ca)-channel activity in outside-out patches. Its change in kinetic behavior of BK(Ca) channels is primarily due to an increase in mean open time. With the aid of minimal kinetic scheme, a quantitative description of rottlerin stimulation on BK(Ca) channels in GH3 cells was also provided. Under current-clamp configuration, rottlerin (1 microM) decreased the firing of action potentials. I K(Ca) elicited by simulated action potential waveforms was enhanced by this compound. In human cortical HCN-1A cells, rottlerin (1 microM) could also interact with the BK(Ca) channel to stimulate I K(Ca). Therefore, rottlerin may directly activate BK(Ca) channels in neurons or endocrine cells.

  14. The Pepper Extracellular Xyloglucan-Specific Endo-β-1,4-Glucanase Inhibitor Protein Gene, CaXEGIP1, Is Required for Plant Cell Death and Defense Responses1[C][W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Hyong Woo; Kim, Nak Hyun; Lee, Yeon Kyeong; Hwang, Byung Kook

    2013-01-01

    Plants produce various proteinaceous inhibitors to protect themselves against microbial pathogen attack. A xyloglucan-specific endo-β-1,4-glucanase inhibitor1 gene, CaXEGIP1, was isolated and functionally characterized in pepper (Capsicum annuum) plants. CaXEGIP1 was rapidly and strongly induced in pepper leaves infected with avirulent Xanthomonas campestris pv vesicatoria, and purified CaXEGIP1 protein significantly inhibited the hydrolytic activity of the glycoside hydrolase74 family xyloglucan-specific endo-β-1,4-glucanase from Clostridium thermocellum. Soluble-modified green fluorescent protein-tagged CaXEGIP1 proteins were mainly localized to the apoplast of onion (Allium cepa) epidermal cells. Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated overexpression of CaXEGIP1 triggered pathogen-independent, spontaneous cell death in pepper and Nicotiana benthamiana leaves. CaXEGIP1 silencing in pepper conferred enhanced susceptibility to virulent and avirulent X. campestris pv vesicatoria, accompanied by a compromised hypersensitive response and lowered expression of defense-related genes. Overexpression of dexamethasone:CaXEGIP1 in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) enhanced resistance to Hyaloperonospora arabidopsidis infection. Comparative histochemical and proteomic analyses revealed that CaXEGIP1 overexpression induced a spontaneous cell death response and also increased the expression of some defense-related proteins in transgenic Arabidopsis leaves. This response was also accompanied by cell wall thickening and darkening. Together, these results suggest that pathogen-inducible CaXEGIP1 positively regulates cell death-mediated defense responses in plants. PMID:23093361

  15. Anchor-based classification and type-C inhibitors for tyrosine kinases

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Kai-Cheng; Sung, Tzu-Ying; Lin, Chih-Ta; Chiu, Yi-Yuan; Hsu, John T.-A.; Hung, Hui-Chen; Sun, Chung-Ming; Barve, Indrajeet; Chen, Wen-Liang; Huang, Wen-Chien; Huang, Chin-Ting; Chen, Chun-Hwa; Yang, Jinn-Moon

    2015-01-01

    Tyrosine kinases regulate various biological processes and are drug targets for cancers. At present, the design of selective and anti-resistant inhibitors of kinases is an emergent task. Here, we inferred specific site-moiety maps containing two specific anchors to uncover a new binding pocket in the C-terminal hinge region by docking 4,680 kinase inhibitors into 51 protein kinases, and this finding provides an opportunity for the development of kinase inhibitors with high selectivity and anti-drug resistance. We present an anchor-based classification for tyrosine kinases and discover two type-C inhibitors, namely rosmarinic acid (RA) and EGCG, which occupy two and one specific anchors, respectively, by screening 118,759 natural compounds. Our profiling reveals that RA and EGCG selectively inhibit 3% (EGFR and SYK) and 14% of 64 kinases, respectively. According to the guide of our anchor model, we synthesized three RA derivatives with better potency. These type-C inhibitors are able to maintain activities for drug-resistant EGFR and decrease the invasion ability of breast cancer cells. Our results show that the type-C inhibitors occupying a new pocket are promising for cancer treatments due to their kinase selectivity and anti-drug resistance. PMID:26077136

  16. Modulation of the epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) by bacterial metalloproteases and protease inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Butterworth, Michael B; Zhang, Liang; Liu, Xiaoning; Shanks, Robert M; Thibodeau, Patrick H

    2014-01-01

    The serralysin family of metalloproteases is associated with the virulence of multiple gram-negative human pathogens, including Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Serratia marcescens. The serralysin proteases share highly conserved catalytic domains and show evolutionary similarity to the mammalian matrix metalloproteases. Our previous studies demonstrated that alkaline protease (AP) from Pseudomonas aeruginosa is capable of activating the epithelial sodium channel (ENaC), leading to an increase in sodium absorption in airway epithelia. The serralysin proteases are often co-expressed with endogenous, intracellular or periplasmic inhibitors, which putatively protect the bacterium from unwanted or unregulated protease activities. To evaluate the potential use of these small protein inhibitors in regulating the serralysin induced activation of ENaC, proteases from Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Serratia marcescens were purified for characterization along with a high affinity inhibitor from Pseudomonas. Both proteases showed activity against in vitro substrates and could be blocked by near stoichiometric concentrations of the inhibitor. In addition, both proteases were capable of activating ENaC when added to the apical surfaces of multiple epithelial cells with similar slow activation kinetics. The high-affinity periplasmic inhibitor from Pseudomonas effectively blocked this activation. These data suggest that multiple metalloproteases are capable of activating ENaC. Further, the endogenous, periplasmic bacterial inhibitors may be useful for modulating the downstream effects of the serralysin virulence factors under physiological conditions.

  17. Small Molecule Inhibitors Targeting Activator Protein 1 (AP-1)

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Activator protein 1 (AP-1) is a pivotal transcription factor that regulates a wide range of cellular processes including proliferation, apoptosis, differentiation, survival, cell migration, and transformation. Accumulating evidence supports that AP-1 plays an important role in several severe disorders including cancer, fibrosis, and organ injury, as well as inflammatory disorders such as asthma, psoriasis, and rheumatoid arthritis. AP-1 has emerged as an actively pursued drug discovery target over the past decade. Excitingly, a selective AP-1 inhibitor T-5224 (51) has been investigated in phase II human clinical trials. Nevertheless, no effective AP-1 inhibitors have yet been approved for clinical use. Despite significant advances achieved in understanding AP-1 biology and function, as well as the identification of small molecules modulating AP-1 associated signaling pathways, medicinal chemistry efforts remain an urgent need to yield selective and efficacious AP-1 inhibitors as a viable therapeutic strategy for human diseases. PMID:24831826

  18. A Novel Inhibitor of the Obesity-Related Protein FTO.

    PubMed

    Qiao, Yan; Zhou, Bin; Zhang, Meizi; Liu, Weijia; Han, Zhifu; Song, Chuanjun; Yu, Wenquan; Yang, Qinghua; Wang, Ruiyong; Wang, Shaomin; Shi, Shuai; Zhao, Renbin; Chai, Jijie; Chang, Junbiao

    2016-03-15

    Fe(II) and α-ketoglutarate-dependent fat mass and obesity associated protein (FTO)-dependent demethylation of m⁶A is important for regulation of mRNA splicing and adipogenesis. Developing FTO-specific inhibitors can help probe the biology of FTO and unravel novel therapeutic targets for treatment of obesity or obesity-associated diseases. In the present paper, we have identified that 4-chloro-6-(6'-chloro-7'-hydroxy-2',4',4'-trimethyl-chroman-2'-yl)benzene-1,3-diol (CHTB) is an inhibitor of FTO. The crystal structure of CHTB complexed with human FTO reveals that the novel small molecule binds to FTO in a specific manner. The identification of the novel small molecule offers opportunities for further development of more selective and potent FTO inhibitors.

  19. Small molecule inhibitors targeting activator protein 1 (AP-1).

    PubMed

    Ye, Na; Ding, Ye; Wild, Christopher; Shen, Qiang; Zhou, Jia

    2014-08-28

    Activator protein 1 (AP-1) is a pivotal transcription factor that regulates a wide range of cellular processes including proliferation, apoptosis, differentiation, survival, cell migration, and transformation. Accumulating evidence supports that AP-1 plays an important role in several severe disorders including cancer, fibrosis, and organ injury, as well as inflammatory disorders such as asthma, psoriasis, and rheumatoid arthritis. AP-1 has emerged as an actively pursued drug discovery target over the past decade. Excitingly, a selective AP-1 inhibitor T-5224 (51) has been investigated in phase II human clinical trials. Nevertheless, no effective AP-1 inhibitors have yet been approved for clinical use. Despite significant advances achieved in understanding AP-1 biology and function, as well as the identification of small molecules modulating AP-1 associated signaling pathways, medicinal chemistry efforts remain an urgent need to yield selective and efficacious AP-1 inhibitors as a viable therapeutic strategy for human diseases.

  20. Bacithrocins A, B and C, novel thrombin inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Kamiyama, T; Umino, T; Nakamura, Y; Itezono, Y; Sawairi, S; Satoh, T; Yokose, K

    1994-09-01

    Novel thrombin inhibitors, bacithrocins A, B and C, have been isolated from the culture broth of Bacillus laterosporus Laubach NR 2988. The structures of these inhibitors have been determined to be N-acyl-L-phenylalanyl-DL-arginal by the 2D-NMR experiments on their oxidation products and by amino acid analysis. Bacithrocin A inhibits thrombin, factor Xa and trypsin with IC50s of 48, 13 and 0.65 microM, respectively, which are similar to those of bacithrocins B and C. Bacithrocins prolong the clotting time induced by thrombin and factor Xa.

  1. The food colorant erythrosine is a promiscuous protein-protein interaction inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Ganesan, Lakshmi; Margolles-Clark, Emilio; Song, Yun; Buchwald, Peter

    2011-03-15

    Following our observation that erythrosine B (FD&C Red No. 3) is a relatively potent inhibitor of the TNF-R-TNFα and CD40-CD154 protein-protein interactions, we investigated whether this inhibitory activity extends to any other protein-protein interactions (PPI) as well as whether any other approved food colors possess such inhibitory activity. We found erythrosine, a poly-iodinated xanthene dye, to be a non-specific promiscuous inhibitor of a number of PPIs within the tumor necrosis factor superfamily (TNF-R-TNFα, CD40-CD154, BAFF-R-BAFF, RANK-RANKL, OX40-OX40L, 4-1BB-4-1BBL) as well as outside of it (EGF-R-EGF) with a remarkably consistent median inhibitory concentration (IC(50)) in the 2-20 μM (approximately 2-20mg/L) range. In agreement with this, erythrosine also showed cellular effects including clear cytotoxic effects around this concentration range (IC₅₀≈50 μM). Among the seven FDA-approved food colorants, only erythrosine showed consistent PPI inhibitory activity in the sub-100 μM range, which might also explain (at least partially) why it also has the lowest approved acceptable daily intake (ADI) (0.1 mg/kg body weight/day). Among a number of xanthene structural analogs of erythrosine tested for activity, rose Bengal, a food colorant approved in Japan, showed similar, maybe even more pronounced, promiscuous inhibitory activity, whereas fluorescein was inactive and gallein, phloxine, and eosin were somewhat active in some of the assays.

  2. High-throughput screening assay of hepatitis C virus helicase inhibitors using fluorescence-quenching phenomenon

    SciTech Connect

    Tani, Hidenori; Akimitsu, Nobuyoshi; Fujita, Osamu; Matsuda, Yasuyoshi; Miyata, Ryo; Tsuneda, Satoshi; Igarashi, Masayuki; Sekiguchi, Yuji; Noda, Naohiro

    2009-02-20

    We have developed a novel high-throughput screening assay of hepatitis C virus (HCV) nonstructural protein 3 (NS3) helicase inhibitors using the fluorescence-quenching phenomenon via photoinduced electron transfer between fluorescent dyes and guanine bases. We prepared double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) with a 5'-fluorescent-dye (BODIPY FL)-labeled strand hybridized with a complementary strand, the 3'-end of which has guanine bases. When dsDNA is unwound by helicase, the dye emits fluorescence owing to its release from the guanine bases. Our results demonstrate that this assay is suitable for quantitative assay of HCV NS3 helicase activity and useful for high-throughput screening for inhibitors. Furthermore, we applied this assay to the screening for NS3 helicase inhibitors from cell extracts of microorganisms, and found several cell extracts containing potential inhibitors.

  3. Hypervalent Organochalcogenanes as Inhibitors of Protein Tyrosine Phosphatases

    PubMed Central

    Piovan, Leandro; Wu, Li; Zhang, Zhong-Yin; Andrade, Leandro H.

    2011-01-01

    A series of organochalcogenanes was synthesized and evaluated as protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs) inhibitors. The results indicate that organochalcogenanes inactivate the PTPs in a time- and concentration-dependent fashion, most likely through covalent modification of the active site sulfur-moiety by the chalcogen atom. Consequently, organochalcogenanes represent a new class of mechanism-based probes to modulate the PTP-mediated cellular processes. PMID:21240419

  4. Identification and characterization of alpha-I-proteinase inhibitor from common carp sarcoplasmic proteins.

    PubMed

    Siriangkanakun, Siriphon; Li-Chan, Eunice C Y; Yongsawadigul, Jirawat

    2016-02-01

    Purification of proteinase inhibitor from common carp (Cyprinus carpio) sarcoplasmic proteins resulted in 2.8% yield with purification fold of 111. Two inhibitors, namely inhibitor I and II, exhibited molecular mass of 47 and 52 kDa, respectively, based on non-reducing sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Both inhibitors I and II were identified to be alpha-1-proteinase inhibitor (α1-PI) based on LC-MS/MS. They were glycoproteins and molecular mass after peptide-N-glycosidase F treatment was 38 and 45 kDa, respectively. The N-glycosylation sites of both inhibitors were determined to be at N214 and N226. The inhibitors specifically inhibited trypsin. The common carp α1-PI showed high thermal stability with denaturation temperatures of 65.43 and 73.31 °C, which were slightly less than those of ovomucoid. High stability toward NaCl was also evident up to 3M. The common carp α1-PI effectively reduced autolytic degradation of bigeye snapper surimi at the concentration as low as 0.025%.

  5. C-5a-substituted validamine type glycosidase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Schalli, Michael; Wolfsgruber, Andreas; Gonzalez Santana, Andres; Tysoe, Christina; Fischer, Roland; Stütz, Arnold E; Thonhofer, Martin; Withers, Stephen G

    2017-02-22

    A series of N-alkyl derivatives of the D-galactosidase inhibitor 1,4-di-epi-validamine featuring lipophilic substituents at position C-5a was prepared and screened for their glycosidase inhibitory properties. Products turned out selective for β-galactosidases as well as β-glucosidases.

  6. Biomimicry of surfactant protein C.

    PubMed

    Brown, Nathan J; Johansson, Jan; Barron, Annelise E

    2008-10-01

    Since the widespread use of exogenous lung surfactant to treat neonatal respiratory distress syndrome, premature infant survival and respiratory morbidity have dramatically improved. Despite the effectiveness of the animal-derived surfactant preparations, there still remain some concerns and difficulties associated with their use. This has prompted investigation into the creation of synthetic surfactant preparations. However, to date, no clinically used synthetic formulation is as effective as the natural material. This is largely because the previous synthetic formulations lacked analogues of the hydrophobic proteins of the lung surfactant system, SP-B and SP-C, which are critical functional constituents. As a result, recent investigation has turned toward the development of a new generation of synthetic, biomimetic surfactants that contain synthetic phospholipids along with a mimic of the hydrophobic protein portion of lung surfactant. In this Account, we detail our efforts in creating accurate mimics of SP-C for use in a synthetic surfactant replacement therapy. Despite SP-C's seemingly simple structure, the predominantly helical protein is extraordinarily challenging to work with given its extreme hydrophobicity and structural instability, which greatly complicates the creation of an effective SP-C analogue. Drawing inspiration from Nature, two promising biomimetic approaches have led to the creation of rationally designed biopolymers that recapitulate many of SP-C's molecular features. The first approach utilizes detailed SP-C structure-activity relationships and amino acid folding propensities to create a peptide-based analogue, SP-C33. In SP-C33, the problematic and metastable polyvaline helix is replaced with a structurally stable polyleucine helix and includes a well-placed positive charge to prevent aggregation. SP-C33 is structurally stable and eliminates the association propensity of the native protein. The second approach follows the same design

  7. 4-Quinolone-3-carboxylic acids as cell-permeable inhibitors of protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B.

    PubMed

    Zhi, Ying; Gao, Li-Xin; Jin, Yi; Tang, Chun-Lan; Li, Jing-Ya; Li, Jia; Long, Ya-Qiu

    2014-07-15

    Protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B is a negative regulator in the insulin and leptin signaling pathways, and has emerged as an attractive target for the treatment of type 2 diabetes and obesity. However, the essential pharmacophore of charged phosphotyrosine or its mimetic confer low selectivity and poor cell permeability. Starting from our previously reported aryl diketoacid-based PTP1B inhibitors, a drug-like scaffold of 4-quinolone-3-carboxylic acid was introduced for the first time as a novel surrogate of phosphotyrosine. An optimal combination of hydrophobic groups installed at C-6, N-1 and C-3 positions of the quinolone motif afforded potent PTP1B inhibitors with low micromolar IC50 values. These 4-quinolone-3-carboxylate based PTP1B inhibitors displayed a 2-10 fold selectivity over a panel of PTP's. Furthermore, the bidentate inhibitors of 4-quinolone-3-carboxylic acids conjugated with aryl diketoacid or salicylic acid were cell permeable and enhanced insulin signaling in CHO/hIR cells. The kinetic studies and molecular modeling suggest that the 4-quinolone-3-carboxylates act as competitive inhibitors by binding to the PTP1B active site in the WPD loop closed conformation. Taken together, our study shows that the 4-quinolone-3-carboxylic acid derivatives exhibit improved pharmacological properties over previously described PTB1B inhibitors and warrant further preclinical studies.

  8. Uncovering Molecular Bases Underlying Bone Morphogenetic Protein Receptor Inhibitor Selectivity

    PubMed Central

    Alsamarah, Abdelaziz; LaCuran, Alecander E.; Oelschlaeger, Peter; Hao, Jijun; Luo, Yun

    2015-01-01

    Abnormal alteration of bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling is implicated in many types of diseases including cancer and heterotopic ossifications. Hence, small molecules targeting BMP type I receptors (BMPRI) to interrupt BMP signaling are believed to be an effective approach to treat these diseases. However, lack of understanding of the molecular determinants responsible for the binding selectivity of current BMP inhibitors has been a big hindrance to the development of BMP inhibitors for clinical use. To address this issue, we carried out in silico experiments to test whether computational methods can reproduce and explain the high selectivity of a small molecule BMP inhibitor DMH1 on BMPRI kinase ALK2 vs. the closely related TGF-β type I receptor kinase ALK5 and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor type 2 (VEGFR2) tyrosine kinase. We found that, while the rigid docking method used here gave nearly identical binding affinity scores among the three kinases; free energy perturbation coupled with Hamiltonian replica-exchange molecular dynamics (FEP/H-REMD) simulations reproduced the absolute binding free energies in excellent agreement with experimental data. Furthermore, the binding poses identified by FEP/H-REMD led to a quantitative analysis of physical/chemical determinants governing DMH1 selectivity. The current work illustrates that small changes in the binding site residue type (e.g. pre-hinge region in ALK2 vs. ALK5) or side chain orientation (e.g. Tyr219 in caALK2 vs. wtALK2), as well as a subtle structural modification on the ligand (e.g. DMH1 vs. LDN193189) will cause distinct binding profiles and selectivity among BMP inhibitors. Therefore, the current computational approach represents a new way of investigating BMP inhibitors. Our results provide critical information for designing exclusively selective BMP inhibitors for the development of effective pharmacotherapy for diseases caused by aberrant BMP signaling. PMID:26133550

  9. Structures of Cryptococcus neoformans protein farnesyltransferase reveal strategies for developing inhibitors that target fungal pathogens.

    PubMed

    Hast, Michael A; Nichols, Connie B; Armstrong, Stephanie M; Kelly, Shannon M; Hellinga, Homme W; Alspaugh, J Andrew; Beese, Lorena S

    2011-10-07

    Cryptococcus neoformans is a fungal pathogen that causes life-threatening infections in immunocompromised individuals, including AIDS patients and transplant recipients. Few antifungals can treat C. neoformans infections, and drug resistance is increasing. Protein farnesyltransferase (FTase) catalyzes post-translational lipidation of key signal transduction proteins and is essential in C. neoformans. We present a multidisciplinary study validating C. neoformans FTase (CnFTase) as a drug target, showing that several anticancer FTase inhibitors with disparate scaffolds can inhibit C. neoformans and suggesting structure-based strategies for further optimization of these leads. Structural studies are an essential element for species-specific inhibitor development strategies by revealing similarities and differences between pathogen and host orthologs that can be exploited. We, therefore, present eight crystal structures of CnFTase that define the enzymatic reaction cycle, basis of ligand selection, and structurally divergent regions of the active site. Crystal structures of clinically important anticancer FTase inhibitors in complex with CnFTase reveal opportunities for optimization of selectivity for the fungal enzyme by modifying functional groups that interact with structurally diverse regions. A substrate-induced conformational change in CnFTase is observed as part of the reaction cycle, a feature that is mechanistically distinct from human FTase. Our combined structural and functional studies provide a framework for developing FTase inhibitors to treat invasive fungal infections.

  10. Structures of Cryptococcus neoformans Protein Farnesyltransferase Reveal Strategies for Developing Inhibitors That Target Fungal Pathogens

    SciTech Connect

    Hast, Michael A.; Nichols, Connie B.; Armstrong, Stephanie M.; Kelly, Shannon M.; Hellinga, Homme W.; Alspaugh, J. Andrew; Beese, Lorena S.

    2012-09-17

    Cryptococcus neoformans is a fungal pathogen that causes life-threatening infections in immunocompromised individuals, including AIDS patients and transplant recipients. Few antifungals can treat C. neoformans infections, and drug resistance is increasing. Protein farnesyltransferase (FTase) catalyzes post-translational lipidation of key signal transduction proteins and is essential in C. neoformans. We present a multidisciplinary study validating C. neoformans FTase (CnFTase) as a drug target, showing that several anticancer FTase inhibitors with disparate scaffolds can inhibit C. neoformans and suggesting structure-based strategies for further optimization of these leads. Structural studies are an essential element for species-specific inhibitor development strategies by revealing similarities and differences between pathogen and host orthologs that can be exploited. We, therefore, present eight crystal structures of CnFTase that define the enzymatic reaction cycle, basis of ligand selection, and structurally divergent regions of the active site. Crystal structures of clinically important anticancer FTase inhibitors in complex with CnFTase reveal opportunities for optimization of selectivity for the fungal enzyme by modifying functional groups that interact with structurally diverse regions. A substrate-induced conformational change in CnFTase is observed as part of the reaction cycle, a feature that is mechanistically distinct from human FTase. Our combined structural and functional studies provide a framework for developing FTase inhibitors to treat invasive fungal infections.

  11. Potent triazolothione inhibitor of heat-shock protein-90.

    PubMed

    Feldman, Richard I; Mintzer, Bob; Zhu, Daguang; Wu, James M; Biroc, Sandra L; Yuan, Shendong; Emayan, Kumar; Chang, Zheng; Chen, Deborah; Arnaiz, Damian O; Bryant, Judi; Ge, Xue Snow; Whitlow, Marc; Adler, Marc; Polokoff, Mark A; Li, Wei-Wei; Ferrer, Mike; Sato, Takashi; Gu, Jian-Ming; Shen, Jun; Tseng, Jih-Lie; Dinter, Harald; Buckman, Brad

    2009-07-01

    Heat-shock protein-90 is an attractive target for anticancer drugs, as heat-shock protein-90 blockers such as the ansamycin 17-(allylamino)-17-demethoxygeldanamycin greatly reduce the expression of many signaling molecules that are disregulated in cancer cells and are key drivers of tumor growth and metastasis. While 17-(allylamino)-17-demethoxygeldanamycin has shown promise in clinical trials, this compound class has significant template-related drawbacks. In this paper, we describe a new, potent non-ansamycin small-molecule inhibitor of heat-shock protein-90, BX-2819, containing resorcinol and triazolothione rings. Structural studies demonstrate binding of BX-2819 to the ADP/ATP-binding pocket of heat-shock protein-90. The compound blocked expression of heat-shock protein-90 client proteins in cancer cell lines and inhibited cell growth with a potency similar to 17-(allylamino)-17-demethoxygeldanamycin. In a panel of four cancer cell lines, BX-2819 blocked growth with an average IC(50) value of 32 nM (range of 7-72 nM). Efficacy studies demonstrated that treatment with BX-2819 significantly inhibited the growth of NCI-N87 and HT-29 tumors in nude mice, consistent with pharmacodynamic studies showing inhibition of heat-shock protein-90 client protein expression in tumors for greater than 16 h after dosing. These data support further studies to assess the potential of BX-2819 and related analogs for the treatment of cancer.

  12. Flunitrazepam rapidly reduces GABAA receptor subunit protein expression via a protein kinase C-dependent mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Johnston, Jonathan D; Price, Sally A; Bristow, David R

    1998-01-01

    Acute flunitrazepam (1 μM) exposure for 1 h reduced GABAA receptor α1 (22±4%, mean±s.e.mean) and β2/3 (21±4%) subunit protein levels in cultured rat cerebellar granule cells. This rapid decrease in subunit proteins was completely prevented by bisindolymaleimide 1 (1 μM), an inhibitor of protein kinase C, but not by N-[2-((p-bromocinnamyl)amino)ethyl]-5-isoquinolinesulfonamide (H-89, 4.8 μM), an inhibitor of protein kinases A and G. These results suggest the existence of a benzodiazepine-induced mechanism to rapidly alter GABAA receptor protein expression, that appears to be dependent on protein kinase C activity. PMID:9723942

  13. Prediction of HIV-1 protease inhibitor resistance using a protein-inhibitor flexible docking approach.

    PubMed

    Jenwitheesuk, Ekachai; Samudrala, Ram

    2005-01-01

    Emergence of drug resistance remains one of the most challenging issues in the treatment of HIV-1 infection. Here we focus on resistance to HIV-1 protease inhibitors (PIs) at a molecular level, which can be analysed genotypically or phenotypically. Genotypic assays are based on the analysis of mutations associated with reduced drug susceptibility, but are problematic because of the numerous mutations and mutational patterns that confer drug resistance. Phenotypic resistance or susceptibility can be experimentally evaluated by measuring the amount of free drug bound to HIV-1 protease molecules, but this procedure is expensive and time-consuming. To overcome these problems, we have developed a docking protocol that takes protein-inhibitor flexibility into account to predict phenotypic drug resistance. For six FDA-approved Pls and a total of 1792 HIV-1 protease sequence mutants, we used a combination of inhibitor flexible docking and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations to calculate protein-inhibitor binding energies. Prediction results were expressed as fold changes of the calculated inhibitory constant (Ki), and the samples predicted to have fold-increase in calculated Ki above the fixed cut-off were defined as drug resistant. Our combined docking and MD protocol achieved accuracies ranging from 72-83% in predicting resistance/susceptibility for five of the six drugs evaluated. Evaluating the method only on samples where our predictions concurred with established knowledge-based methods resulted in increased accuracies of 83-94% for the six drugs. The results suggest that a physics-based approach, which is readily applicable to any novel PI and/or mutant, can be used judiciously with knowledge-based approaches that require experimental training data to devise accurate models of HIV-1 Pl resistance prediction.

  14. Protein-Protein Interaction Inhibitors of BRCA1 Discovered Using Small Molecule Microarrays.

    PubMed

    Na, Zhenkun; Pan, Sijun; Uttamchandani, Mahesh; Yao, Shao Q

    2017-01-01

    Microarray screening technology has transformed the life sciences arena over the last decade. The platform is widely used in the area of mapping interaction networks, to molecular fingerprinting and small molecular inhibitor discovery. The technique has significantly impacted both basic and applied research. The microarray platform can likewise enable high-throughput screening and discovery of protein-protein interaction (PPI) inhibitors. Herein we demonstrate the application of microarray-guided PPI inhibitor discovery, using human BRCA1 as an example. Mutations in BRCA1 have been implicated in ~50 % of hereditary breast cancers. By targeting the (BRCT)2 domain, we showed compound 15a and its prodrug 15b inhibited BRCA1 activities in tumor cells. Unlike previously reported peptide-based PPI inhibitors of BRCA1, the compounds identified could be directly administered to tumor cells, thus making them useful in targeting BRCA1/PARP-related pathways involved in DNA damage and repair response, for cancer therapy.

  15. Pyrrolopyridine inhibitors of mitogen-activated protein kinase-activated protein kinase 2 (MK-2).

    PubMed

    Anderson, David R; Meyers, Marvin J; Vernier, William F; Mahoney, Matthew W; Kurumbail, Ravi G; Caspers, Nicole; Poda, Gennadiy I; Schindler, John F; Reitz, David B; Mourey, Robert J

    2007-05-31

    A new class of potent kinase inhibitors selective for mitogen-activated protein kinase-activated protein kinase 2 (MAPKAP-K2 or MK-2) for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis has been prepared and evaluated. These inhibitors have IC50 values as low as 10 nM against the target and have good selectivity profiles against a number of kinases including CDK2, ERK, JNK, and p38. These MK-2 inhibitors have been shown to suppress TNFalpha production in U397 cells and to be efficacious in an acute inflammation model. The structure-activity relationships of this series, the selectivity for MK-2 and their activity in both in vitro and in vivo models are discussed. The observed selectivity is discussed with the aid of an MK-2/inhibitor crystal structure.

  16. Protein synthesis inhibitors prevent both spontaneous and hormone-dependent maturation of isolated mouse oocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Downs, S.M. )

    1990-11-01

    The present study was carried out to examine the role of protein synthesis in mouse oocyte maturation in vitro. In the first part of this study, the effects of cycloheximide (CX) were tested on spontaneous meiotic maturation when oocytes were cultured in inhibitor-free medium. CX reversibly suppressed maturation of oocytes as long as maturation was either initially prevented by the phosphodiesterase inhibitor, 3-isobutyl-1-methyl-xanthine (IBMX), or delayed by follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH). In the second part of this study, the actions of protein synthesis inhibitors were tested on hormone-induced maturation. CEO were maintained in meiotic arrest for 21-22 h with hypoxanthine, and germinal vesicle breakdown (GVB) was induced with follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH). Three different protein synthesis inhibitors (CX, emetine (EM), and puromycin (PUR)) each prevented the stimulatory action of FSH on GVB in a dose-dependent fashion. This was accompanied by a dose-dependent suppression of 3H-leucine incorporation by oocyte-cumulus cell complexes. The action of these inhibitors on FSH- and epidermal growth factor (EGF)-induced GVB was next compared. All three drugs lowered the frequency of GVB in the FSH-treated groups, below even that of the controls (drug + hypoxanthine); the drugs maintained meiotic arrest at the control frequencies in the EGF-treated groups. Puromycin aminonucleoside, an analog of PUR with no inhibitory action on protein synthesis, had no effect. The three inhibitors also suppressed the stimulatory action of FSH on oocyte maturation when meiotic arrest was maintained with the cAMP analog, dbcAMP.

  17. Nanomolar Inhibitors of AmpC [beta]-Lactamase

    SciTech Connect

    Morandi, Federica; Caselli, Emilia; Morandi, Stefania; Focia, Pamela J.; Blazquez, Jesus; Shoichet, Brian K.; Prati, Fabio

    2010-03-08

    {beta}-lactamases are the most widespread resistance mechanism to {beta}-lactam antibiotics, such as the penicillins and the cephalosporins. In an effort to combat these enzymes, a combination of stereoselective organic synthesis, enzymology, microbiology, and X-ray crystallography was used to design and evaluate new carboxyphenyl-glycylboronic acid transition-state analogue inhibitors of the class C {beta}-lactamase AmpC. The new compounds improve inhibition by over 2 orders of magnitude compared to analogous glycylboronic acids, with K{sub i} values as low as 1 nM. On the basis of the differential binding of different analogues, the introduced carboxylate alone contributes about 2.1 kcal/mol in affinity. This carboxylate corresponds to the ubiquitous C3(4)' carboxylate of {beta}-lactams, and this energy represents the first thermodynamic measurement of the importance of this group in molecular recognition by class C {beta}-lactamases. The structures of AmpC in complex with two of these inhibitors were determined by X-ray crystallography at 1.72 and 1.83 {angstrom} resolution. These structures suggest a structural basis for the high affinity of the new compounds and provide templates for further design. The highest affinity inhibitor was 5 orders of magnitude more selective for AmpC than for characteristic serine proteases, such as chymotrypsin. This inhibitor reversed the resistance of clinical pathogens to the third generation cephalosporin ceftazidime; it may serve as a lead compound for drug discovery to combat bacterial resistance to {beta}-lactam antibiotics.

  18. Distinct folding pathways of two homologous disulfide proteins: bovine pancreatic trypsin inhibitor and tick anticoagulant peptide.

    PubMed

    Chang, Jui-Yoa

    2011-01-01

    The folding pathways of disulfide proteins vary substantially (Arolas et al., Trends Biochem Sci 31: 292-301, 2006). The diversity is mainly manifested by (a) the extent of heterogeneity of folding intermediates, (b) the extent of presence of native-like intermediates, and (c) the variation of folding kinetics. Even among structurally similar proteins, the difference can be enormous. This is demonstrated in this concise review with two structurally homologous kunitz-type protease inhibitors, bovine pancreatic trypsin inhibitor and tick anticoagulant peptide, as well as a group of cystine knot proteins. The diversity of their folding mechanisms is illustrated with two different folding techniques: (a) the conventional method of disulfide oxidation (oxidative folding), and (b) the novel method of disulfide scrambling (Chang, J Biol Chem 277: 120-126, 2002). This review also highlights the convergence of folding models concluded form the conventional conformational folding and those obtained by oxidative folding.

  19. A retroviral-derived peptide phosphorylates protein kinase D/protein kinase Cmu involving phospholipase C and protein kinase C.

    PubMed

    Luangwedchakarn, Voravich; Day, Noorbibi K; Hitchcock, Remi; Brown, Pam G; Lerner, Danica L; Rucker, Rajivi P; Cianciolo, George J; Good, Robert A; Haraguchi, Soichi

    2003-05-01

    CKS-17, a synthetic peptide representing a unique amino acid motif which is highly conserved in retroviral transmembrane proteins and other immunoregulatory proteins, induces selective immunomodulatory functions, both in vitro and in vivo, and activates intracellular signaling molecules such as cAMP and extracellular signal-regulated kinases. In the present study, using Jurkat T-cells, we report that CKS-17 phosphorylates protein kinase D (PKD)/protein kinase C (PKC) mu. Total cell extracts from CKS-17-stimulated Jurkat cells were immunoblotted with an anti-phospho-PKCmu antibody. The results show that CKS-17 significantly phosphorylates PKD/PKCmu in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Treatment of cells with the PKC inhibitors GF 109203X and Ro 31-8220, which do not act directly on PKD/PKCmu, attenuates CKS-17-induced phosphorylation of PKD/PKCmu. In contrast, the selective protein kinase A inhibitor H-89 does not reverse the action of CKS-17. Furthermore, a phospholipase C (PLC) selective inhibitor, U-73122, completely blocks the phosphorylation of PKD/PKCmu by CKS-17 while a negative control U-73343 does not. In addition, substitution of lysine for arginine residues in the CKS-17 sequence completely abrogates the ability of CKS-17 to phosphorylate PKD/PKCmu. These results clearly indicate that CKS-17 phosphorylates PKD/PKCmu through a PLC- and PKC-dependent mechanism and that arginine residues play an essential role in this activity of CKS-17, presenting a novel modality of the retroviral peptide CKS-17 and molecular interaction of this compound with target cells.

  20. Effects of a new microbial α-amylase inhibitor protein on Helicoverpa armigera larvae.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Fanrong; Wang, Xiaojing; Cui, Jinjie; Ma, Yan; Li, Qiannan

    2013-03-06

    A new microbial α-amylase inhibitor gene was cloned and characterized. The encoded, recombinant, α-amylase inhibitor protein was induced and expressed by isopropyl β-d-1-thiogalactopyranoside (IPTG) in Escherichia coli M15 cells. The effects of the α-amylase inhibitor protein on Helicoverpa armigera larvae were studied. Compared to the control, the weight of H. armigera larvae fed the diet with recombinant α-amylase inhibitor protein added at a concentration of 20 μg/g was reduced by 49.8%. The total soluble protein of H. armigera larvae fed the diet with the α-amylase inhibitor protein added was also reduced by 36.8% compared to the control. The recombinant α-amylase inhibitor protein showed inhibition activity against α-amylase of H. armigera. These results suggested that this α-amylase inhibitor protein may be a promising bioinsecticide candidate for controlling H. armigera.

  1. Optimization of rhodanine scaffold for the development of protein-protein interaction inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Ferro, Stefania; De Luca, Laura; Agharbaoui, Fatima Ezzahra; Christ, Frauke; Debyser, Zeger; Gitto, Rosaria

    2015-07-01

    Searching for novel protein-protein interactions inhibitors (PPIs) herein we describe the identification of a new series of rhodanine derivatives. The selection was performed by means virtual-screening, docking studies, Molecular Dynamic (MD) simulations and synthetic approaches. All the new obtained compounds were tested in order to evaluate their ability to inhibit the interaction between the HIV-1 integrase (IN) enzyme and the nuclear protein lens epithelium growth factor LEDGF/p75.

  2. Protease-inhibitor interaction predictions: Lessons on the complexity of protein-protein interactions.

    PubMed

    Fortelny, Nikolaus; Butler, Georgina S; Overall, Christopher Mark; Pavlidis, Paul

    2017-04-06

    Protein interactions shape proteome function and thus biology. Identification of protein interactions is a major goal in molecular biology, but biochemical methods, although improving, remain limited in coverage and accuracy. Whereas computational predictions can guide biochemical experiments, low validation rates of predictions remain a major limitation. Here, we investigated computational methods in the prediction of a specific type of interaction, the inhibitory interactions between proteases and their inhibitors. Proteases generate thousands of proteoforms that dynamically shape the functional state of proteomes. Despite the important regulatory role of proteases, knowledge of their inhibitors remains largely incomplete with the vast majority of proteases lacking an annotated inhibitor. To link inhibitors to their target proteases on a large scale, we applied computational methods to predict inhibitory interactions between proteases and their inhibitors based on complementary data including coexpression, phylogenetic similarity, structural information, co-annotation, and colocalization, and also surveyed general protein interaction networks for potential inhibitory interactions. In testing nine predicted interactions biochemically, we validated the inhibition of kallikrein 5 by serpin B12. Despite the use of a wide array of complementary data, we found a high false positive rate of computational predictions in biochemical follow-up. Based on a protease-specific definition of true negatives derived from the biochemical classification of proteases and inhibitors, we analyzed prediction accuracy of individual features. Thereby we identified feature-specific limitations, which also affected general protein interaction prediction methods. Interestingly, proteases were often not coexpressed with most of their functional inhibitors, contrary to what is commonly assumed and extrapolated predominantly from cell culture experiments. Predictions of inhibitory interactions

  3. An in vivo platform for identifying inhibitors of protein aggregation

    PubMed Central

    Mahood, Rachel A.; Jackson, Matthew P.; Revill, Charlotte H.; Foster, Richard J.; Smith, D. Alastair; Ashcroft, Alison E.; Brockwell, David J.; Radford, Sheena E.

    2015-01-01

    Protein aggregation underlies an array of human diseases, yet only one small molecule therapeutic has been successfully developed to date. Here, we introduce an in vivo system, based on a β-lactamase tripartite fusion construct, capable of identifying aggregation-prone sequences in the periplasm of Escherichia coli and inhibitors that prevent their aberrant self-assembly. We demonstrate the power of the system using a range of proteins, from small unstructured peptides (islet amyloid polypeptide and amyloid β) to larger, folded immunoglobulin domains. Configured in a 48-well format, the split β-lactamase sensor readily differentiates between aggregation-prone and soluble sequences. Performing the assay in the presence of 109 compounds enabled a rank ordering of inhibition and revealed a new inhibitor of IAPP aggregation. This platform can be applied to both amyloidogenic and other aggregation-prone systems, independent of sequence or size, and can identify small molecules or other factors able to ameliorate or inhibit protein aggregation. PMID:26656088

  4. Phosphorylation of the BRCA1 C Terminus (BRCT) Repeat Inhibitor of hTERT (BRIT1) Protein Coordinates TopBP1 Protein Recruitment and Amplifies Ataxia Telangiectasia-mutated and Rad3-related (ATR) Signaling*

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Bo; Wang, Edward; Dai, Hui; Shen, Jianfeng; Hsieh, Hui-Ju; Lu, Xiongbin; Peng, Guang

    2014-01-01

    The ataxia telangiectasia-mutated and Rad3-related (ATR) kinase functions as a central node in the DNA damage response signaling network. The mechanisms by which ATR activity is amplified and/or maintained are not understood. Here we demonstrate that BRIT1/microcephalin (MCPH1), a human disease-related protein, is dispensable for the initiation but essential for the amplification of ATR signaling. BRIT1 interacts with and recruits topoisomerase-binding protein 1 (TopBP1), a key activator of ATR signaling, to the sites of DNA damage. Notably, replication stress-induced ataxia telangiectasia-mutated or ATR-dependent BRIT1 phosphorylation at Ser-322 facilitates efficient TopBP1 recruitment. These results reveal a mechanism that ensures the continuation of ATR-initiated DNA damage signaling. Our study uncovers a previously unknown regulatory axis of ATR signaling in maintaining genomic integrity, which may provide mechanistic insights into the perturbation of ATR signaling in human diseases such as neurodevelopmental defects and cancer. PMID:25301947

  5. Therapeutic management of hereditary angioedema due to C1 inhibitor deficiency.

    PubMed

    Zanichelli, Andrea; Mansi, Marta; Periti, Giulia; Cicardi, Marco

    2013-05-01

    Hereditary angioedema (HAE) due to C1 inhibitor (C1-INH) deficiency is a rare genetic disease characterized by recurrent swellings of the subcutaneous and submucosal tissues that can manifest as cutaneous edema, abdominal pain and laryngeal edema with airway obstruction. These symptoms have a significant impact on patients' quality of life. The reduction in C1-INH function leads to uncontrolled activation of the contact system and generation of bradykinin, the mediator of increased vascular permeability and edema formation. In the past, few treatment options were available; however, several new therapies with proven efficacy have recently become available to treat and prevent HAE attacks, such as plasma-derived and recombinant C1-INHs that replace the deficient protein, bradykinin receptor antagonist (icatibant) that blocks bradykinin activity and kallikrein inhibitor (ecallantide) that prevents bradykinin release. Such therapies can improve disease outcome. This article reviews the therapeutic management of HAE, which involves the treatment of acute attacks and prophylaxis.

  6. Peptidomimetics as protein arginine deiminase 4 (PAD4) inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Trabocchi, Andrea; Pala, Nicolino; Krimmelbein, Ilga; Menchi, Gloria; Guarna, Antonio; Sechi, Mario; Dreker, Tobias; Scozzafava, Andrea; Supuran, Claudiu T; Carta, Fabrizio

    2015-06-01

    The protein arginine deiminase 4 (PAD4) is a calcium-dependent enzyme, which catalyses the irreversible conversion of peptidyl-arginines into peptidyl-citrullines and plays an important role in several diseases such as in the rheumatoid arthritis, multiple sclerosis, Alzheimer's disease, Creutzfeldt-Jacob's disease and cancer. In this study, we report the inhibition profiles and computational docking toward the PAD4 enzyme of a series of 1,2,3-triazole peptidomimetic-based derivatives incorporating the β-phenylalanine and guanidine scaffolds. Several effective, low micromolar PAD4 inhibitors are reported in this study.

  7. Recent Developments of C-Aryl Glucoside SGLT2 Inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yang; Liu, Zhao-Peng

    2016-01-01

    Sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) is almost exclusively expressed in the proximal renal tubules. It is responsible for about 90% of the glucose reabsorption from tubular fluid. Selective inhibition of SGLT2 is expected to favor in the normalization of plasma glucose levels in T2DM patients through the prevention of renal glucose reabsorption and the promotion of glucose excretion from urine. Selective SGLT2 inhibitors have the merits to minimize the gastrointestinal side effects associated with SGLT1 inhibition, and selective SGLT2 inhibition may have a low risk of hypoglycemia. Since the C-aryl glucosides are metabolically more stable than the O-glucosides, numerous efforts have been made in the development of potent and selective C-aryl glucoside SGLT2 inhibitors, and a number of them are now used as anti-diabetes drugs in clinic or at various stages of clinical developments. Based on their structural features, in this review, these SGLT2 inhibitors are classified as three types: the phenyl/arylmethylphenyl C-glucosides, with an emphasis on the modifications on the proximal and/or the distal phenyl ring, and the spacer; the heteroarylmethylphenyl Cglucosides, with a replacement of the distal phenyl ring by a heterocycle like pyridazine, pyrimidine, thiophene and benzothiophene, thiazole, 1,3,4-thiadiazole, and triazolopyridinone; and the glucose-modified Caryl glucosides, including the glucose C-1 derived O-spiroketals, C-4 gem-difluoro analogues, C-5 and C-6 modified derivatives, dioxa-bicyclo[3.2.1]octane bridged ketals, the thioglucosides, and carbasugars. The structure-activity relationships (SARs) of each type along with their inhibitory potency against human SGLT2 and selectivity over human SGLT1 are discussed.

  8. Specific inhibition of AGC protein kinases by antibodies against C-terminal epitopes.

    PubMed

    Traincard, François; Giacomoni, Véronique; Veron, Michel

    2004-08-13

    The sequences contributing to the catalytic site of protein kinases are not all comprised within the highly conserved catalytic core. Thus, in mammalian cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA), the C-terminal sequence participates in substrate binding. Using synthetic peptides mimicking the FxxF motif present at most C-termini of AGC kinases, we have raised highly specific antibodies which are potent and specific inhibitors of the catalytic activity of the cognate protein kinase. Taking into account the structure of PKA, these results point to the potential of the C-terminal region of protein kinases as a target for designing specific protein kinase inhibitors.

  9. [Properties of a nitrite reductase inhibitor protein from Pseudomonas aeruginosa].

    PubMed

    Karapetian, A V; Nalbandian, R M

    1993-08-01

    The amino acid composition and major physico-chemical properties of the "nonblue" copper protein isolated earlier from Pseudomonas aeruginosa have been determined. It has been found that the azurin oxidase, cytochrome c551 oxidase and superoxide dismutase activities of the enzyme are inhibited by this protein. The inhibition seems to be due to the protein interaction with the electron-accepting center of nitrite reductase.

  10. Protein flexibility oriented virtual screening strategy for JAK2 inhibitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiong, Xiao; Yuan, Haoliang; Zhang, Yanmin; Xu, Jinxing; Ran, Ting; Liu, Haichun; Lu, Shuai; Xu, Anyang; Li, Hongmei; Jiang, Yulei; Lu, Tao; Chen, Yadong

    2015-10-01

    JAK2 has been considered as an important target for the development of anti-cancer agents. In this study, considering the flexibility of its binding site, an integrated strategy combining Bayesian categorization modeling and ensemble docking was established. Four representative crystal structures were selected for ensemble docking by the hierarchical clustering of 34 crystal structures according to the volume overlaps of each structure. A retrospective virtual screening was performed to validate this integrated strategy. As the preliminary filtration, the Bayesian model enhanced the ratio of actives by reducing the large amount of decoys. After docking the remaining compounds, the comparison between the ensemble and individual results showed that the enrichment of ensemble docking improved significantly. The results of analysis on conformational changes of two top ranked active inhibitors when docking into different proteins indicated that compounds with flexible conformations well fitted the different binding site shapes were more likely to be potential JAK2 inhibitors. This high efficient strategy will facilitate virtual screening for novel JAK2 inhibitors and could be even applied in drug discovery against other targets.

  11. C1 inhibitor-mediated myocardial protection from chronic intermittent hypoxia-induced injury

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Jinrong; Guo, Furong; Chen, Cheng; Yu, Xiaoman; Hu, Ke; Li, Mingjiang

    2016-01-01

    The optimal treatment for chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH)-induced cardiovascular injuries has yet to be determined. The aim of the current study was to explore the potential protective effect and mechanism of a C1 inhibitor in CIH in the myocardium. The present study used a rat model of CIH in which complement regulatory protein, known as C1 inhibitor (C1INH), was administered to the rats in the intervention groups. Cardiomyocyte apoptosis was detected by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling. The expression of proteins associated with the apoptotic pathway, such as B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2), Bax and caspase-3 were detected by western blot analysis. The expression of complement C3 protein and RNA were also analyzed. C1INH was observed to improve the cardiac function in rats with CIH. Myocardial myeloperoxidase activity, a marker of neutrophil infiltration, was significantly decreased in the C1INH intervention group compared with the CIH control group, and cardiomyocyte apoptosis was significantly attenuated (P<0.05). Western blotting and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analysis indicated that the protein expression levels of Bcl-2 were decreased and those of Bax were increased in the CIH group compared with the normal control group, but the protein expression levels of Bcl-2 were increased and those of Bax were decreased in the C1INH intervention group, as compared with the CIH group. Furthermore, the CIH-induced expression and synthesis of complement C3 in the myocardium were also reduced in the C1INH intervention group. C1INH, in addition to inhibiting complement activation and inflammation, preserved cardiac function in CIH-mediated myocardial cell injury through an anti-apoptotic mechanism. PMID:27698713

  12. NFκB-regulation of c-FLIP promotes TNFα-mediated RAF inhibitor resistance in melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Shao, Yongping; Le, Kaitlyn; Cheng, Hanyin; Aplin, Andrew E.

    2015-01-01

    Targeted inhibitors elicit heterogeneous clinical responses in genetically stratified groups of patients. While most studies focus on tumor intrinsic properties, factors in the tumor microenvironment were recently found to modulate the response to inhibitors. Here, we show that in cutaneous BRAF V600E melanoma, the cytokine TNFα blocks RAF-inhibitor-induced apoptosis via activation of nuclear factor κB (NFκB). Several NFκB-dependent factors are up-regulated following TNFα and RAF inhibitor treatment. Of these factors, we show that death receptor inhibitor cellular caspase 8 (FLICE)-like inhibitory protein (c-FLIP) is required for TNFα-induced protection against RAF inhibitor. Overexpression of c-FLIP_S or c-FLIP_L isoform decreased RAF inhibitor-induced apoptosis in the absence of TNFα. Importantly, targeting NFκB enhances response to RAF inhibitor in vitro and in vivo. Together, our results show mechanistic evidence for cytokine-mediated resistance to RAF inhibitor and provide a preclinical rationale for the strategy of co-targeting the RAF-MEK-ERK1/2 pathway and the TNFα/NFκB axis to treat mutant BRAF melanomas. PMID:25751672

  13. Plant Protein Inhibitors of Enzymes: Their Role in Animal Nutrition and Plant Defence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, Michael

    1981-01-01

    Current information and research related to plant protein inhibitors of enzymes are reviewed, including potential uses of the inhibitors for medical treatment and for breeding plant varieties with greater resistance to insects. (DC)

  14. Identification of brain-specific angiogenesis inhibitor 2 as an interaction partner of glutaminase interacting protein

    SciTech Connect

    Zencir, Sevil; Ovee, Mohiuddin; Dobson, Melanie J.; Banerjee, Monimoy; Topcu, Zeki; Mohanty, Smita

    2011-08-12

    Highlights: {yields} Brain-specific angiogenesis inhibitor 2 (BAI2) is a new partner protein for GIP. {yields} BAI2 interaction with GIP was revealed by yeast two-hybrid assay. {yields} Binding of BAI2 to GIP was characterized by NMR, CD and fluorescence. {yields} BAI2 and GIP binding was mediated through the C-terminus of BAI2. -- Abstract: The vast majority of physiological processes in living cells are mediated by protein-protein interactions often specified by particular protein sequence motifs. PDZ domains, composed of 80-100 amino acid residues, are an important class of interaction motif. Among the PDZ-containing proteins, glutaminase interacting protein (GIP), also known as Tax Interacting Protein TIP-1, is unique in being composed almost exclusively of a single PDZ domain. GIP has important roles in cellular signaling, protein scaffolding and modulation of tumor growth and interacts with a number of physiological partner proteins, including Glutaminase L, {beta}-Catenin, FAS, HTLV-1 Tax, HPV16 E6, Rhotekin and Kir 2.3. To identify the network of proteins that interact with GIP, a human fetal brain cDNA library was screened using a yeast two-hybrid assay with GIP as bait. We identified brain-specific angiogenesis inhibitor 2 (BAI2), a member of the adhesion-G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), as a new partner of GIP. BAI2 is expressed primarily in neurons, further expanding GIP cellular functions. The interaction between GIP and the carboxy-terminus of BAI2 was characterized using fluorescence, circular dichroism (CD) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy assays. These biophysical analyses support the interaction identified in the yeast two-hybrid assay. This is the first study reporting BAI2 as an interaction partner of GIP.

  15. The specificities of protein kinase inhibitors: an update.

    PubMed Central

    Bain, Jenny; McLauchlan, Hilary; Elliott, Matthew; Cohen, Philip

    2003-01-01

    We have previously examined the specificities of 28 commercially available compounds, reported to be relatively selective inhibitors of particular serine/threonine-specific protein kinases [Davies, Reddy, Caivano and Cohen (2000) Biochem. J. 351, 95-105]. In the present study, we have extended this analysis to a further 14 compounds. Of these, indirubin-3'-monoxime, SP 600125, KT 5823 and ML-9 were found to inhibit a number of protein kinases and conclusions drawn from their use in cell-based assays are likely to be erroneous. Kenpaullone, Alsterpaullone, Purvalanol, Roscovitine, pyrazolopyrimidine 1 (PP1), PP2 and ML-7 were more specific, but still inhibited two or more protein kinases with similar potency. Our results suggest that the combined use of Roscovitine and Kenpaullone may be useful for identifying substrates and physiological roles of cyclin-dependent protein kinases, whereas the combined use of Kenpaullone and LiCl may be useful for identifying substrates and physiological roles of glycogen synthase kinase 3. The combined use of SU 6656 and either PP1 or PP2 may be useful for identifying substrates of Src family members. Epigallocatechin 3-gallate, one of the main polyphenolic constituents of tea, inhibited two of the 28 protein kinases in the panel, dual-specificity, tyrosine-phosphorylated and regulated kinase 1A (DYRK1A; IC(50)=0.33 microM) and p38-regulated/activated kinase (PRAK; IC(50)=1.0 microM). PMID:12534346

  16. Structure-based discovery of LpxC inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jing; Chan, Audrey; Lippa, Blaise; Cross, Jason B; Liu, Christopher; Yin, Ning; Romero, Jan Antoinette C; Lawrence, Jonathan; Heney, Ryan; Herradura, Prudencio; Goss, Jennifer; Clark, Cynthia; Abel, Cassandra; Zhang, Yanzhi; Poutsiaka, Katherine M; Epie, Felix; Conrad, Mary; Mahamoon, Azard; Nguyen, Kien; Chavan, Ajit; Clark, Edward; Li, Tong-Chuan; Cheng, Robert K; Wood, Michael; Andersen, Ole A; Brooks, Mark; Kwong, Jason; Barker, John; Parr, Ian Barrie; Gu, Yugui; Ryan, M Dominic; Coleman, Scott; Metcalf, Chester A

    2017-04-15

    The emergence and spread of multidrug-resistant (MDR) Gram negative bacteria presents a serious threat for public health. Novel antimicrobials that could overcome the resistance problems are urgently needed. UDP-3-O-(R-3-hydroxymyristol)-N-acetylglucosamine deacetylase (LpxC) is a cytosolic zinc-based deacetylase that catalyzes the first committed step in the biosynthesis of lipid A, which is essential for the survival of Gram-negative bacteria. Our efforts toward the discovery of novel LpxC inhibitors are presented herein.

  17. Primary Structure of a Trypsin Inhibitor (Copaifera langsdorffii Trypsin Inhibitor-1) Obtained from C. langsdorffii Seeds

    PubMed Central

    Silva, José A.; Pompeu, Dávia G.; Smolka, Marcus B.; Gozzo, Fabio C.; Comar, Moacyr; Eberlin, Marcos N.; Marangoni, Sérgio

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the aim was to determine the complete sequence of the Copaifera langsdorffii trypsin inhibitor (CTI)-1 using 2-dimensional (2D)-PAGE, matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF), and quadrupole time-of-flight (QTOF) spectrometry. Spots A (CTI-1) and F (CTI-2) were submitted to enzymatic digestions with trypsin, SV8, and clostripain. The accurate mass of the peptide obtained from each digest was determined by mass spectrometry (MS) using MALDI-TOF. The most abundant peptides were purified and sequenced in a liquid chromatograph connected to an electrospray ionization-QTOF MS. When the purified trypsin inhibitor was submitted to 2D electrophoresis, different spots were observed, suggesting that the protein is composed of 2 subunits with microheterogeneity. Isoelectric points of 8.0, 8.5, and 9.0 were determined for the 11 kDa subunit and of 4.7, 4.6, and 4.3 for the 9 kDa subunit. The primary structure of CTI-1, determined from the mass of the peptide of the enzymatic digestions and the sequence obtained by MS, indicated 180 shared amino acid residues and a high degree of similarity with other Kunitz (KTI)-type inhibitors. The peptide also contained an Arg residue at the reactive site position. Its 3-dimensional structure revealed that this is because the structural discrepancies do not affect the canonical conformation of the reactive loop of the peptide. Results demonstrate that a detailed investigation of the structural particularities of CTI-1 could provide a better understanding of the mechanism of action of these proteins, as well as clarify its biologic function in the seeds. CTI-1 belongs to the KTI family and is composed of 2 polypeptide chains and only 1 disulfide bridge. PMID:26207098

  18. Carcinogenic Aspects of Protein Phosphatase 1 and 2A Inhibitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujiki, Hirota; Suganuma, Masami

    Okadaic acid is functionally a potent tumor promoter working through inhibition of protein phosphatases 1 and 2A (PP1 and PP2A), resulting in sustained phosphorylation of proteins in cells. The mechanism of tumor promotion with oka-daic acid is thus completely different from that of the classic tumor promoter phorbol ester. Other potent inhibitors of PP1 and PP2A - such as dinophysistoxin-1, calyculins A-H, microcystin-LR and its derivatives, and nodularin - were isolated from marine organisms, and their structural features including the crystal structure of the PP1-inhibitor complex, tumor promoting activities, and biochemical and biological effects, are here reviewed. The compounds induced tumor promoting activity in three different organs, including mouse skin, rat glandular stomach and rat liver, initiated with three different carcinogens. The results indicate that inhibition of PP1 and PP2A is a general mechanism of tumor promotion applicable to various organs. This study supports the concept of endogenous tumor promoters in human cancer development.

  19. Dimeric Macrocyclic Antagonists of Inhibitor of Apoptosis Proteins for the Treatment of Cancer

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    A series of dimeric macrocyclic compounds were prepared and evaluated as antagonists for inhibitor of apoptosis proteins. The most potent analogue 11, which binds to XIAP and c-IAP proteins with high affinity and induces caspase-3 activation and ultimately cell apoptosis, inhibits growth of human melanoma and colorectal cell lines at low nanomolar concentrations. Furthermore, compound 11 demonstrated significant antitumor activity in the A875 human melanoma xenograft model at doses as low as 2 mg/kg on a q3d schedule. PMID:26191364

  20. Overcoming Chemical, Biological, and Computational Challenges in the Development of Inhibitors Targeting Protein-Protein Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Laraia, Luca; McKenzie, Grahame; Spring, David R.; Venkitaraman, Ashok R.; Huggins, David J.

    2015-01-01

    Protein-protein interactions (PPIs) underlie the majority of biological processes, signaling, and disease. Approaches to modulate PPIs with small molecules have therefore attracted increasing interest over the past decade. However, there are a number of challenges inherent in developing small-molecule PPI inhibitors that have prevented these approaches from reaching their full potential. From target validation to small-molecule screening and lead optimization, identifying therapeutically relevant PPIs that can be successfully modulated by small molecules is not a simple task. Following the recent review by Arkin et al., which summarized the lessons learnt from prior successes, we focus in this article on the specific challenges of developing PPI inhibitors and detail the recent advances in chemistry, biology, and computation that facilitate overcoming them. We conclude by providing a perspective on the field and outlining four innovations that we see as key enabling steps for successful development of small-molecule inhibitors targeting PPIs. PMID:26091166

  1. Overcoming Chemical, Biological, and Computational Challenges in the Development of Inhibitors Targeting Protein-Protein Interactions.

    PubMed

    Laraia, Luca; McKenzie, Grahame; Spring, David R; Venkitaraman, Ashok R; Huggins, David J

    2015-06-18

    Protein-protein interactions (PPIs) underlie the majority of biological processes, signaling, and disease. Approaches to modulate PPIs with small molecules have therefore attracted increasing interest over the past decade. However, there are a number of challenges inherent in developing small-molecule PPI inhibitors that have prevented these approaches from reaching their full potential. From target validation to small-molecule screening and lead optimization, identifying therapeutically relevant PPIs that can be successfully modulated by small molecules is not a simple task. Following the recent review by Arkin et al., which summarized the lessons learnt from prior successes, we focus in this article on the specific challenges of developing PPI inhibitors and detail the recent advances in chemistry, biology, and computation that facilitate overcoming them. We conclude by providing a perspective on the field and outlining four innovations that we see as key enabling steps for successful development of small-molecule inhibitors targeting PPIs.

  2. Recombinant replacement therapy for hereditary angioedema due to C1 inhibitor deficiency.

    PubMed

    Moldovan, Dumitru; Bernstein, Jonathan A; Cicardi, Marco

    2015-01-01

    Hereditary angioedema is a rare genetic condition transmitted as an autosomal dominant trait and characterized most commonly by the production of either inadequate or nonfunctioning C1 esterase inhibitor (C1-INH), a blood protein that regulates proteases in the complement, fibrinolytic and contact systems. Patients with hereditary angioedema suffer from episodic, unpredictable manifestations of edema affecting multiple anatomical locations, including the GI tract, facial tissue, the upper airway, oropharynx, urogenital region and/or the arms and legs. A rational approach to treatment is replacement of C1-INH protein, to normalize the levels of C1-INH activity and halt the progression of the biochemical activation processes underlying the edema formation. Ruconest is a highly purified recombinant human C1-INH. This article will focus on the results of ten clinical studies demonstrating the efficacy and safety of Ruconest(®) (Pharming Group NV, Leiden, the Netherlands), which is now approved for use in Europe, Israel and the USA.

  3. Anticancer activity of BIM-46174, a new inhibitor of the heterotrimeric Galpha/Gbetagamma protein complex.

    PubMed

    Prévost, Grégoire P; Lonchampt, Marie O; Holbeck, Susan; Attoub, Samir; Zaharevitz, Daniel; Alley, Mike; Wright, John; Brezak, Marie C; Coulomb, Hélène; Savola, Ann; Huchet, Marion; Chaumeron, Sophie; Nguyen, Quang-Dé; Forgez, Patricia; Bruyneel, Erik; Bracke, Mark; Ferrandis, Eric; Roubert, Pierre; Demarquay, Danièle; Gespach, Christian; Kasprzyk, Philip G

    2006-09-15

    A large number of hormones and local agonists activating guanine-binding protein-coupled receptors (GPCR) play a major role in cancer progression. Here, we characterize the new imidazo-pyrazine derivative BIM-46174, which acts as a selective inhibitor of heterotrimeric G-protein complex. BIM-46174 prevents the heterotrimeric G-protein signaling linked to several GPCRs mediating (a) cyclic AMP generation (Galphas), (b) calcium release (Galphaq), and (c) cancer cell invasion by Wnt-2 frizzled receptors and high-affinity neurotensin receptors (Galphao/i and Galphaq). BIM-46174 inhibits the growth of a large panel of human cancer cell lines, including anticancer drug-resistant cells. Exposure of cancer cells to BIM-46174 leads to caspase-3-dependent apoptosis and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase cleavage. National Cancer Institute COMPARE analysis for BIM-46174 supports its novel pharmacologic profile compared with 12,000 anticancer agents. The growth rate of human tumor xenografts in athymic mice is significantly reduced after administration of BIM-46174 combined with either cisplatin, farnesyltransferase inhibitor, or topoisomerase inhibitors. Our data validate the feasibility of targeting heterotrimeric G-protein functions downstream the GPCRs to improve anticancer chemotherapy.

  4. Discovery and optimization of antibacterial AccC inhibitors

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, Cliff C.; Shipps, Jr., Gerald W.; Yang, Zhiwei; Sun, Binyuan; Kawahata, Noriyuki; Soucy, Kyle A.; Soriano, Aileen; Orth, Peter; Xiao, Li; Mann, Paul; Black, Todd

    2010-09-17

    The biotin carboxylase (AccC) is part of the multi-component bacterial acetyl coenzyme-A carboxylase (ACCase) and is essential for pathogen survival. We describe herein the affinity optimization of an initial hit to give 2-(2-chlorobenzylamino)-1-(cyclohexylmethyl)-1H-benzo[d]imidazole-5-carboxamide (1), which was identified using our proprietary Automated Ligand Identification System (ALIS). The X-ray co-crystal structure of 1 was solved and revealed several key interactions and opportunities for further optimization in the ATP site of AccC. Structure Based Drug Design (SBDD) and parallel synthetic approaches resulted in a novel series of AccC inhibitors, exemplified by (R)-2-(2-chlorobenzylamino)-1-(2,3-dihydro-1H-inden-1-yl)-1H-imidazo[4,5-b]pyridine-5-carboxamide (40). This compound is a potent and selective inhibitor of bacterial AccC with an IC{sub 50} of 20 nM and a MIC of 0.8 {micro}g/mL against a sensitized strain of Escherichia coli (HS294 E. coli).

  5. Development of a Capillary Electrophoresis Platform for Identifying Inhibitors of Protein-Protein Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Rauch, Jennifer N.; Nie, Jing; Buchholz, Tonia J.; Gestwicki, Jason E.; Kennedy, Robert T.

    2013-01-01

    Methods for identifying chemical inhibitors of protein-protein interactions (PPIs) are often prone to discovery of false positives, particularly those caused by molecules that induce protein aggregation. Thus, there is interest in developing new platforms that might allow earlier identification of these problematic compounds. Capillary electrophoresis (CE) has been evaluated as a method to screen for PPI inhibitors using the challenging system of Hsp70 interacting with its co-chaperone Bag3. In the method, Hsp70 is labeled with a fluorophore, mixed with Bag3, and the resulting bound and free Hsp70 separated and detected by CE with laser-induced fluorescence detection. The method used a chemically modified CE capillary to prevent protein adsorption. Inhibitors of the Hsp70-Bag3 interaction were detected by observing a reduction in the bound to free ratio. The method was used to screen a library of 3,443 compounds and results compared to those from a flow cytometry protein interaction assay. CE was found to produce a lower hit rate with more compounds that reconfirmed in subsequent testing suggesting greater specificity. This finding was attributed to use of electropherograms to detect artifacts such as aggregators and to differences in protein modifications required to perform the different assays. Increases in throughput are required to make the CE method suitable for primary screens but at the current stage of development it is attractive as a secondary screen to test hits found by higher throughput methods. PMID:24060167

  6. Development of a capillary electrophoresis platform for identifying inhibitors of protein-protein interactions.

    PubMed

    Rauch, Jennifer N; Nie, Jing; Buchholz, Tonia J; Gestwicki, Jason E; Kennedy, Robert T

    2013-10-15

    Methods for identifying chemical inhibitors of protein-protein interactions (PPIs) are often prone to discovery of false positives, particularly those caused by molecules that induce protein aggregation. Thus, there is interest in developing new platforms that might allow earlier identification of these problematic compounds. Capillary electrophoresis (CE) has been evaluated as a method to screen for PPI inhibitors using the challenging system of Hsp70 interacting with its co-chaperone Bag3. In the method, Hsp70 is labeled with a fluorophore, mixed with Bag3, and the resulting bound and free Hsp70 are separated and detected by CE with laser-induced fluorescence detection. The method used a chemically modified CE capillary to prevent protein adsorption. Inhibitors of the Hsp70-Bag3 interaction were detected by observing a reduction in the bound-to-free ratio. The method was used to screen a library of 3443 compounds, and the results were compared to those from a flow cytometry protein interaction assay. CE was found to produce a lower hit rate with more compounds that were reconfirmed in subsequent testing, suggesting greater specificity. This finding was attributed to the use of electropherograms to detect artifacts such as aggregators and to differences in protein modifications required to perform the different assays. Increases in throughput are required to make the CE method suitable for primary screens, but at the current stage of development it is attractive as a secondary screen to test hits found by higher-throughput methods.

  7. Protein synthesis inhibitors attenuate water flow in vasopressin-stimulated toad urinary bladder

    SciTech Connect

    Hoch, B.S.; Ast, M.B.; Fusco, M.J.; Jacoby, M.; Levine, S.D. )

    1988-01-01

    Vasopressin stimulates the introduction of aggregated particles, which may represent pathways for water flow, into the luminal membrane of toad urinary bladder. It is not known whether water transport pathways are degraded on removal from membrane or whether they are recycled. The authors examined the effect of the protein synthesis inhibitors cycloheximide and puromycin using repeated 30-min cycles of vasopressin followed by washout of vasopressin, all in the presence of an osmotic gradient, a protocol that maximizes aggregate turnover. High dose cycloheximide inhibited flow immediately. Low dose cycloheximide did not affect initial flow. In the absence of vasopressin, inhibition did not develop. Despite the inhibition of flow in vasopressin-treated tissues, the cAMP-dependent protein kinase ratio was elevated in cycloheximide-treated tissues, suggesting modulation at a distal site in the stimulatory cascade. ({sup 14}C)urea permeability was not inhibited by cycloheximide. Puromycin also inhibited water flow by the fourth challenge with vasopressin. The data suggest that protein synthesis inhibitors attenuate flow at a site that is distal to cAMP-dependent protein kinase. However, the reversal of inhibition in MIX-treated tissues suggests that the water pathway can be fully manifested given suitable stimulation. They conclude that either large stores of the transport system are available or that the transport system is extensively recycled on retrieval from the membrane.

  8. c-Abl Inhibitors Enable Insights into the Pathophysiology and Neuroprotection in Parkinson’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Lindholm, Dan; Pham, Dan D.; Cascone, Annunziata; Eriksson, Ove; Wennerberg, Krister; Saarma, Mart

    2016-01-01

    Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder causing movement disabilities and several non-motor symptoms in afflicted patients. Recent studies in animal models of PD and analyses of brain specimen from PD patients revealed an increase in the level and activity of the non-receptor tyrosine kinase Abelson (c-Abl) in dopaminergic neurons with phosphorylation of protein substrates, such as α-synuclein and the E3 ubiquitin ligase, Parkin. Most significantly inhibition of c-Abl kinase activity by small molecular compounds used in the clinic to treat human leukemia have shown promising neuroprotective effects in cell and animal models of PD. This has raised hope that similar beneficial outcome may also be observed in the treatment of PD patients by using c-Abl inhibitors. Here we highlight the background for the current optimism, reviewing c-Abl and its relationship to pathophysiological pathways prevailing in PD, as well as discussing issues related to the pharmacology and safety of current c-Abl inhibitors. Clearly more rigorously controlled and well-designed trials are needed before the c-Abl inhibitors can be used in the neuroclinic to possibly benefit an increasing number of PD patients. PMID:27833551

  9. The endogenous caspase-8 inhibitor c-FLIPL regulates ER morphology and crosstalk with mitochondria

    PubMed Central

    Marini, E S; Giampietri, C; Petrungaro, S; Conti, S; Filippini, A; Scorrano, L; Ziparo, E

    2015-01-01

    Components of the death receptor-mediated pathways like caspase-8 have been identified in complexes at intracellular membranes to spatially restrict the processing of local targets. In this study, we report that the long isoform of the cellular FLICE-inhibitory protein (c-FLIPL), a well-known inhibitor of the extrinsic cell death initiator caspase-8, localizes at the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and mitochondria-associated membranes (MAMs). ER morphology was disrupted and ER Ca2+-release as well as ER-mitochondria tethering was decreased in c-FLIP−/− mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs). Mechanistically, c-FLIP ablation resulted in enhanced basal caspase-8 activation and in caspase-mediated processing of the ER-shaping protein reticulon-4 (RTN4) that was corrected by re-introduction of c-FLIPL and caspase inhibition, resulting in the recovery of a normal ER morphology and ER-mitochondria juxtaposition. Thus, the caspase-8 inhibitor c-FLIPL emerges as a component of the MAMs signaling platforms, where caspases appear to regulate ER morphology and ER-mitochondria crosstalk by impinging on ER-shaping proteins like the RTN4. PMID:25501600

  10. Geminivirus C3 Protein: Replication Enhancement and Protein Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Settlage, Sharon B.; See, Renee G.; Hanley-Bowdoin, Linda

    2005-01-01

    Most dicot-infecting geminiviruses encode a replication enhancer protein (C3, AL3, or REn) that is required for optimal replication of their small, single-stranded DNA genomes. C3 interacts with C1, the essential viral replication protein that initiates rolling circle replication. C3 also homo-oligomerizes and interacts with at least two host-encoded proteins, proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and the retinoblastoma-related protein (pRBR). It has been proposed that protein interactions contribute to C3 function. Using the C3 protein of Tomato yellow leaf curl virus, we examined the impact of mutations to amino acids that are conserved across the C3 protein family on replication enhancement and protein interactions. Surprisingly, many of the mutations did not affect replication enhancement activity of C3 in tobacco protoplasts. Other mutations either enhanced or were detrimental to C3 replication activity. Analysis of mutated proteins in yeast two-hybrid assays indicated that mutations that inactivate C3 replication enhancement activity also reduce or inactivate C3 oligomerization and interaction with C1 and PCNA. In contrast, mutated C3 proteins impaired for pRBR binding are fully functional in replication assays. Hydrophobic residues in the middle of the C3 protein were implicated in C3 interaction with itself, C1, and PCNA, while polar resides at both the N and C termini of the protein are important for C3-pRBR interaction. These experiments established the importance of C3-C3, C3-C1, and C3-PCNA interactions in geminivirus replication. While C3-pRBR interaction is not required for viral replication in cycling cells, it may play a role during infection of differentiated cells in intact plants. PMID:16014949

  11. Complement, Kinins, and Hereditary Angioedema: Mechanisms of Plasma Instability when C1 Inhibitor is Absent.

    PubMed

    Kaplan, Allen P; Joseph, Kusumam

    2016-10-01

    Plasma of patients with types I and II hereditary angioedema is unstable if incubated in a plastic (i.e., inert) vessel at 37 °C manifested by progressively increasing formation of bradykinin. There is also a persistent low level of C4 in 95 % of patients even when they are symptomatic. These phenomena are due to the properties of the C1r subcomponent of C1, factor XII, and the bimolecular complex of prekallikrein with high molecular weight kininogen (HK). Purified C1r auto-activates in physiologic buffers, activates C1s, which in turn depletes C4. This occurs when C1 inhibitor is deficient. The complex of prekallikrein-HK acquires an inducible active site not present in prekallikrein which in Tris-type buffers cleaves HK stoichiometrically to release bradykinin, or in phosphate buffer auto-activates to generate kallikrein and bradykinin. Thus immunologic depletion of C1 inhibitor from factor XII-deficient plasma (phosphate is the natural buffer) auto-activates on incubation to release bradykinin. Normal C1 inhibitor prevents this from occurring. During attacks of angioedema, if factor XII auto-activates on surfaces, the initial factor XIIa formed converts prekallikrein to kallikrein, and kallikrein cleaves HK to release bradykinin. Kallikrein also rapidly activates most remaining factor XII to factor XIIa. Additional cleavages convert factor XIIa to factor XIIf and factor XIIf activates C1r enzymatically so that C4 levels approach zero, and C2 is depleted. There is also a possibility that kallikrein is generated first as a result of activation of the prekallikrein-HK complex by heat shock protein 90 released from endothelial cells, followed by kallikrein activation of factor XII.

  12. Targeting inhibitor 2 of protein phosphatase 2A as a therapeutic strategy for prostate cancer treatment

    PubMed Central

    Mukhopadhyay, Archana; Tabanor, Kayann; Chaguturu, Rathnam; Aldrich, Jane V

    2013-01-01

    Inhibitor 2 of protein phosphatase 2A (I2PP2A), a biological inhibitor of the cellular serine/threonine protein phosphatase PP2A, is associated with numerous cellular processes that often lead to the formation and progression of cancer. In this study we hypothesized that targeting the inhibition of I2PP2A’s multiple functions in prostate cancer cells might prevent cancer progression. We have investigated the effect of the small chain C6-ceramide, known to be a bioactive tumor suppressor lipid, on I2PP2A function, thereby affecting c-Myc signaling and histone acetylation in cells. Our data indicated that C6-ceramide treatment of prostate cancer cells induces cell death in PC-3, DU145, and LNCaP cells, but not normal prostate epithelial cells. C6-ceramide was able to disrupt the association between PP2A and I2PP2A. C6-ceramide inhibits I2PP2A’s upregulation of c-Myc and downregulation of histone acetylation in prostate cancer cells. Our data indicated that targeting cancer related signaling pathways through I2PP2A using ceramide as an anti-I2PP2A agent could have beneficial effects as a therapeutic approach to prevent prostate cancer. PMID:24025258

  13. Okadaic acid: the archetypal serine/threonine protein phosphatase inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Dounay, A B; Forsyth, C J

    2002-11-01

    As the first recognized member of the "okadaic acid class" of phosphatase inhibitors, the marine natural product okadaic acid is perhaps the most well-known member of a diverse array of secondary metabolites that have emerged as valuable probes for studying the roles of various cellular protein serine/threonine phosphatases. This review provides a historical perspective on the role that okadaic acid has played in stimulating a broad spectrum of modern scientific research as a result of the natural product's ability to bind to and inhibit important classes of protein serine / threonine phosphatases. The relationships between the structure and biological activities of okadaic acid are briefly reviewed, as well as the structural information regarding the particular cellular receptors protein phosphatases 1 (PP1) and 2A. Laboratory syntheses of okadaic acid and its analogs are thoroughly reviewed. Finally, an interpretation of the critical contacts observed between okadaic acid and PP1 by X-ray crystallography is provided, and specific molecular recognition hypotheses that are testable via the synthesis and assay of non-natural analogs of okadaic acid are suggested.

  14. The AMPK inhibitor compound C is a potent AMPK-independent antiglioma agent.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaona; Chhipa, Rishi Raj; Nakano, Ichiro; Dasgupta, Biplab

    2014-03-01

    AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is an evolutionarily conserved energy sensor important for cell growth, proliferation, survival, and metabolic regulation. Active AMPK inhibits biosynthetic enzymes like mTOR and acetyl CoA carboxylase (required for protein and lipid synthesis, respectively) to ensure that cells maintain essential nutrients and energy during metabolic crisis. Despite our knowledge about this incredibly important kinase, no specific chemical inhibitors are available to examine its function. However, one small molecule known as compound C (also called dorsomorphin) has been widely used in cell-based, biochemical, and in vivo assays as a selective AMPK inhibitor. In nearly all these reports including a recent study in glioma, the biochemical and cellular effects of compound C have been attributed to its inhibitory action toward AMPK. While examining the status of AMPK activation in human gliomas, we observed that glioblastomas express copious amount of active AMPK. Compound C effectively reduced glioma viability in vitro both by inhibiting proliferation and inducing cell death. As expected, compound C inhibited AMPK; however, all the antiproliferative effects of this compound were AMPK independent. Instead, compound C killed glioma cells by multiple mechanisms, including activation of the calpain/cathepsin pathway, inhibition of AKT, mTORC1/C2, cell-cycle block at G2-M, and induction of necroptosis and autophagy. Importantly, normal astrocytes were significantly less susceptible to compound C. In summary, compound C is an extremely potent antiglioma agent but we suggest that caution should be taken in interpreting results when this compound is used as an AMPK inhibitor.

  15. Cell death in leukemia: passenger protein regulation by topoisomerase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Jahnke, Ulrike; Higginbottom, Karen; Newland, Adrian C; Cotter, Finbarr E; Allen, Paul D

    2007-10-05

    Etoposide is a potent inducer of mitotic catastrophe; a type of cell death resulting from aberrant mitosis. It is important in p53 negative cells where p53 dependent apoptosis and events at the G1 and G2 cell cycle checkpoints are compromised. Passenger proteins regulate many aspects of mitosis and siRNA interference or direct inhibition of Aurora B kinase results in mitotic catastrophe. However, there is little available data of clinical relevance in leukaemia models. Here, in p53 negative K562 myeloid leukemia cells, etoposide-induced mitotic catastrophe is shown to be time and/or concentration dependent. Survivin and Aurora remained bound to chromosomes. Survivin and Aurora were also associated with Cdk1 and were shown to form complexes, which in pull down experiments, included INCENP. There was no evidence of Aurora B kinase suppression. These data suggests etoposide will complement Aurora B kinase inhibitors currently in clinical trials for cancer.

  16. Genetics Home Reference: protein C deficiency

    MedlinePlus

    ... Management Genetic Testing (1 link) Genetic Testing Registry: Thrombophilia, hereditary, due to protein C deficiency, autosomal dominant ... my area? Other Names for This Condition hereditary thrombophilia due to protein C deficiency PROC deficiency Related ...

  17. C-Reactive Protein (CRP) Test

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home Visit Global Sites Search Help? C-Reactive Protein (CRP) Share this page: Was this page helpful? Also known as: CRP Formal name: C-Reactive Protein Related tests: ESR , Complement , Procalcitonin , ANA , Rheumatoid Factor ...

  18. Design and synthesis of irreversible inhibitors of foot-and-mouth disease virus 3C protease.

    PubMed

    Roqué Rosell, Núria R; Mokhlesi, Ladan; Milton, Nicholas E; Sweeney, Trevor R; Zunszain, Patricia A; Curry, Stephen; Leatherbarrow, Robin J

    2014-01-15

    Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) causes a highly infectious and economically devastating disease of livestock. The FMDV genome is translated as a single polypeptide precursor that is cleaved into functional proteins predominantly by the highly conserved viral 3C protease, making this enzyme an attractive target for antiviral drugs. A peptide corresponding to an optimal substrate has been modified at the C-terminus, by the addition of a warhead, to produce irreversible inhibitors that react as Michael acceptors with the enzyme active site. Further investigation highlighted key structural determinants for inhibition, with a positively charged P2 being particularly important for potency.

  19. Discovery and Characterization of Non-ATP Site Inhibitors of the Mitogen Activated Protein (MAP) Kinases

    SciTech Connect

    Comess, Kenneth M.; Sun, Chaohong; Abad-Zapatero, Cele; Goedken, Eric R.; Gum, Rebecca J.; Borhani, David W.; Argiriadi, Maria; Groebe, Duncan R.; Jia, Yong; Clampit, Jill E.; Haasch, Deanna L.; Smith, Harriet T.; Wang, Sanyi; Song, Danying; Coen, Michael L.; Cloutier, Timothy E.; Tang, Hua; Cheng, Xueheng; Quinn, Christopher; Liu, Bo; Xin, Zhili; Liu, Gang; Fry, Elizabeth H.; Stoll, Vincent; Ng, Teresa I.; Banach, David; Marcotte, Doug; Burns, David J.; Calderwood, David J.; Hajduk, Philip J.

    2012-03-02

    Inhibition of protein kinases has validated therapeutic utility for cancer, with at least seven kinase inhibitor drugs on the market. Protein kinase inhibition also has significant potential for a variety of other diseases, including diabetes, pain, cognition, and chronic inflammatory and immunologic diseases. However, as the vast majority of current approaches to kinase inhibition target the highly conserved ATP-binding site, the use of kinase inhibitors in treating nononcology diseases may require great selectivity for the target kinase. As protein kinases are signal transducers that are involved in binding to a variety of other proteins, targeting alternative, less conserved sites on the protein may provide an avenue for greater selectivity. Here we report an affinity-based, high-throughput screening technique that allows nonbiased interrogation of small molecule libraries for binding to all exposed sites on a protein surface. This approach was used to screen both the c-Jun N-terminal protein kinase Jnk-1 (involved in insulin signaling) and p38{alpha} (involved in the formation of TNF{alpha} and other cytokines). In addition to canonical ATP-site ligands, compounds were identified that bind to novel allosteric sites. The nature, biological relevance, and mode of binding of these ligands were extensively characterized using two-dimensional {sup 1}H/{sup 13}C NMR spectroscopy, protein X-ray crystallography, surface plasmon resonance, and direct enzymatic activity and activation cascade assays. Jnk-1 and p38{alpha} both belong to the MAP kinase family, and the allosteric ligands for both targets bind similarly on a ledge of the protein surface exposed by the MAP insertion present in the CMGC family of protein kinases and distant from the active site. Medicinal chemistry studies resulted in an improved Jnk-1 ligand able to increase adiponectin secretion in human adipocytes and increase insulin-induced protein kinase PKB phosphorylation in human hepatocytes, in

  20. Progress of antibody-based inhibitors of the HGF–cMET axis in cancer therapy

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Ki-Hyun; Kim, Hyori

    2017-01-01

    Dysregulated receptor tyrosine kinase signaling in human cancer cells leads to tumor progression, invasion and metastasis. The receptor tyrosine kinase cMET is frequently overexpressed in cancer tissue, and activation of cMET signaling is related to drug resistance and the processes of carcinogenesis, invasion and metastasis. For that reason, cMET and its ligand, hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), are considered prime targets for the development of anticancer drugs. At least eight anti-cMET and four anti-HGF antibodies have been tested or are being tested in clinical trials. However, to date none of these HGF/cMET inhibitors have shown significant efficacy in clinical trials. Furthermore, no receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors primarily targeting cMET have been approved. Given that neutralization of HGF or cMET does not cause significant adverse effects, inhibition of the HGF/cMET signaling pathway appears to be safe. In this review, we summarized the completed and ongoing clinical trials testing antibody- or protein-based anticancer drugs targeting cMET and HGF. PMID:28336955

  1. Progress of antibody-based inhibitors of the HGF-cMET axis in cancer therapy.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ki-Hyun; Kim, Hyori

    2017-03-24

    Dysregulated receptor tyrosine kinase signaling in human cancer cells leads to tumor progression, invasion and metastasis. The receptor tyrosine kinase cMET is frequently overexpressed in cancer tissue, and activation of cMET signaling is related to drug resistance and the processes of carcinogenesis, invasion and metastasis. For that reason, cMET and its ligand, hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), are considered prime targets for the development of anticancer drugs. At least eight anti-cMET and four anti-HGF antibodies have been tested or are being tested in clinical trials. However, to date none of these HGF/cMET inhibitors have shown significant efficacy in clinical trials. Furthermore, no receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors primarily targeting cMET have been approved. Given that neutralization of HGF or cMET does not cause significant adverse effects, inhibition of the HGF/cMET signaling pathway appears to be safe. In this review, we summarized the completed and ongoing clinical trials testing antibody- or protein-based anticancer drugs targeting cMET and HGF.

  2. Modular mutagenesis of human placental ribonuclease inhibitor, a protein with leucine-rich repeats.

    PubMed Central

    Lee, F S; Vallee, B L

    1990-01-01

    Human placental ribonuclease inhibitor (PRI) is a potent protein inhibitor of pancreatic ribonucleases and the homologous blood vessel-inducing protein angiogenin. Although inhibition by PRI occurs with a 1:1 stoichiometry, its primary structure is composed predominantly of seven internal leucine-rich repeats. These internal repeats were systematically deleted either singly or in combination by "modular" mutagenesis. Deletion of repeat units 3 plus 4 or repeat unit 6 results in mutants that both bind to and inhibit ribonuclease A. Therefore, the angiogenin/ribonuclease binding site in PRI must reside primarily or entirely in repeats 1, 2, 5, or 7, the short N- or C-terminal segments, or a combination of these. Deletion of repeat units 3-5, 5-6, or 5 alone results in mutants that exhibit only binding activity. Hence, the binding site cannot reside exclusively in repeat 5. Other internal deletions or N- or C-terminal deletions of 6-86% of the protein all abolish activity. These results suggest that PRI has a modular structure, with one primary structural repeat constituting one module. The approach taken may be applicable to other proteins with repeat structures. Images PMID:2408043

  3. Protein C deficiency: summary of the 1995 database update.

    PubMed Central

    Reitsma, P H

    1996-01-01

    The coagulation cascade is controlled by several anticoagulant safeguards that avoid excessive clot formation. Disorders of these anticoagulant mechanisms are an important health problem, as they lead to increased risk of thromboembolism. Protein C deficiency is probably the most extensively studied abnormality in natural anticoagulants. Under the auspices of the Subcommittee on Plasma Coagulation Inhibitors of the Scientific and Standardization Committee of the International Society of Thrombosis and Haemostasis a working party of researchers maintains a database of mutations that have been characterized in the protein C gene. The 1995 update of this database comprises 331 entries that describe 160 unique mutational events. Here essential features of the database are reviewed. PMID:8594568

  4. Computationally designed high specificity inhibitors delineate the roles of BCL2 family proteins in cancer

    PubMed Central

    Berger, Stephanie; Procko, Erik; Margineantu, Daciana; Lee, Erinna F; Shen, Betty W; Zelter, Alex; Silva, Daniel-Adriano; Chawla, Kusum; Herold, Marco J; Garnier, Jean-Marc; Johnson, Richard; MacCoss, Michael J; Lessene, Guillaume; Davis, Trisha N; Stayton, Patrick S; Stoddard, Barry L; Fairlie, W Douglas; Hockenbery, David M; Baker, David

    2016-01-01

    Many cancers overexpress one or more of the six human pro-survival BCL2 family proteins to evade apoptosis. To determine which BCL2 protein or proteins block apoptosis in different cancers, we computationally designed three-helix bundle protein inhibitors specific for each BCL2 pro-survival protein. Following in vitro optimization, each inhibitor binds its target with high picomolar to low nanomolar affinity and at least 300-fold specificity. Expression of the designed inhibitors in human cancer cell lines revealed unique dependencies on BCL2 proteins for survival which could not be inferred from other BCL2 profiling methods. Our results show that designed inhibitors can be generated for each member of a closely-knit protein family to probe the importance of specific protein-protein interactions in complex biological processes. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.20352.001 PMID:27805565

  5. Computationally designed high specificity inhibitors delineate the roles of BCL2 family proteins in cancer.

    PubMed

    Berger, Stephanie; Procko, Erik; Margineantu, Daciana; Lee, Erinna F; Shen, Betty W; Zelter, Alex; Silva, Daniel-Adriano; Chawla, Kusum; Herold, Marco J; Garnier, Jean-Marc; Johnson, Richard; MacCoss, Michael J; Lessene, Guillaume; Davis, Trisha N; Stayton, Patrick S; Stoddard, Barry L; Fairlie, W Douglas; Hockenbery, David M; Baker, David

    2016-11-02

    Many cancers overexpress one or more of the six human pro-survival BCL2 family proteins to evade apoptosis. To determine which BCL2 protein or proteins block apoptosis in different cancers, we computationally designed three-helix bundle protein inhibitors specific for each BCL2 pro-survival protein. Following in vitro optimization, each inhibitor binds its target with high picomolar to low nanomolar affinity and at least 300-fold specificity. Expression of the designed inhibitors in human cancer cell lines revealed unique dependencies on BCL2 proteins for survival which could not be inferred from other BCL2 profiling methods. Our results show that designed inhibitors can be generated for each member of a closely-knit protein family to probe the importance of specific protein-protein interactions in complex biological processes.

  6. Scaffold proteins LACK and TRACK as potential drug targets in kinetoplastid parasites: Development of inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Qvit, Nir; Schechtman, Deborah; Pena, Darlene Aparecida; Berti, Denise Aparecida; Soares, Chrislaine Oliveira; Miao, Qianqian; Liang, Liying (Annie); Baron, Lauren A.; Teh-Poot, Christian; Martínez-Vega, Pedro; Ramirez-Sierra, Maria Jesus; Churchill, Eric; Cunningham, Anna D.; Malkovskiy, Andrey V.; Federspiel, Nancy A.; Gozzo, Fabio Cesar; Torrecilhas, Ana Claudia; Manso Alves, Maria Julia; Jardim, Armando; Momar, Ndao; Dumonteil, Eric; Mochly-Rosen, Daria

    2016-01-01

    Parasitic diseases cause ∼500,000 deaths annually and remain a major challenge for therapeutic development. Using a rational design based approach, we developed peptide inhibitors with anti-parasitic activity that were derived from the sequences of parasite scaffold proteins LACK (Leishmania's receptor for activated C-kinase) and TRACK (Trypanosomareceptor for activated C-kinase). We hypothesized that sequences in LACK and TRACK that are conserved in the parasites, but not in the mammalian ortholog, RACK (Receptor for activated C-kinase), may be interaction sites for signaling proteins that are critical for the parasites' viability. One of these peptides exhibited leishmanicidal and trypanocidal activity in culture. Moreover, in infected mice, this peptide was also effective in reducing parasitemia and increasing survival without toxic effects. The identified peptide is a promising new anti-parasitic drug lead, as its unique features may limit toxicity and drug-resistance, thus overcoming central limitations of most anti-parasitic drugs. PMID:27054066

  7. Protein-Directed Dynamic Combinatorial Chemistry: A Guide to Protein Ligand and Inhibitor Discovery.

    PubMed

    Huang, Renjie; Leung, Ivanhoe K H

    2016-07-16

    Protein-directed dynamic combinatorial chemistry is an emerging technique for efficient discovery of novel chemical structures for binding to a target protein. Typically, this method relies on a library of small molecules that react reversibly with each other to generate a combinatorial library. The components in the combinatorial library are at equilibrium with each other under thermodynamic control. When a protein is added to the equilibrium mixture, and if the protein interacts with any components of the combinatorial library, the position of the equilibrium will shift and those components that interact with the protein will be amplified, which can then be identified by a suitable biophysical technique. Such information is useful as a starting point to guide further organic synthesis of novel protein ligands and enzyme inhibitors. This review uses literature examples to discuss the practicalities of applying this method to inhibitor discovery, in particular, the set-up of the combinatorial library, the reversible reactions that may be employed, and the choice of detection methods to screen protein ligands from a mixture of reversibly forming molecules.

  8. C1 inhibitor deficiency: 2014 United Kingdom consensus document.

    PubMed

    Longhurst, H J; Tarzi, M D; Ashworth, F; Bethune, C; Cale, C; Dempster, J; Gompels, M; Jolles, S; Seneviratne, S; Symons, C; Price, A; Edgar, D

    2015-06-01

    C1 inhibitor deficiency is a rare disorder manifesting with recurrent attacks of disabling and potentially life-threatening angioedema. Here we present an updated 2014 United Kingdom consensus document for the management of C1 inhibitor-deficient patients, representing a joint venture between the United Kingdom Primary Immunodeficiency Network and Hereditary Angioedema UK. To develop the consensus, we assembled a multi-disciplinary steering group of clinicians, nurses and a patient representative. This steering group first met in 2012, developing a total of 48 recommendations across 11 themes. The statements were distributed to relevant clinicians and a representative group of patients to be scored for agreement on a Likert scale. All 48 statements achieved a high degree of consensus, indicating strong alignment of opinion. The recommendations have evolved significantly since the 2005 document, with particularly notable developments including an improved evidence base to guide dosing and indications for acute treatment, greater emphasis on home therapy for acute attacks and a strong focus on service organization.

  9. C1 inhibitor deficiency: 2014 United Kingdom consensus document

    PubMed Central

    Longhurst, H J; Tarzi, M D; Ashworth, F; Bethune, C; Cale, C; Dempster, J; Gompels, M; Jolles, S; Seneviratne, S; Symons, C; Price, A; Edgar, D

    2015-01-01

    C1 inhibitor deficiency is a rare disorder manifesting with recurrent attacks of disabling and potentially life-threatening angioedema. Here we present an updated 2014 United Kingdom consensus document for the management of C1 inhibitor-deficient patients, representing a joint venture between the United Kingdom Primary Immunodeficiency Network and Hereditary Angioedema UK. To develop the consensus, we assembled a multi-disciplinary steering group of clinicians, nurses and a patient representative. This steering group first met in 2012, developing a total of 48 recommendations across 11 themes. The statements were distributed to relevant clinicians and a representative group of patients to be scored for agreement on a Likert scale. All 48 statements achieved a high degree of consensus, indicating strong alignment of opinion. The recommendations have evolved significantly since the 2005 document, with particularly notable developments including an improved evidence base to guide dosing and indications for acute treatment, greater emphasis on home therapy for acute attacks and a strong focus on service organization. PMID:25605519

  10. Designing Focused Chemical Libraries Enriched in Protein-Protein Interaction Inhibitors using Machine-Learning Methods

    PubMed Central

    Reynès, Christelle; Host, Hélène; Camproux, Anne-Claude; Laconde, Guillaume; Leroux, Florence; Mazars, Anne; Deprez, Benoit; Fahraeus, Robin; Villoutreix, Bruno O.; Sperandio, Olivier

    2010-01-01

    Protein-protein interactions (PPIs) may represent one of the next major classes of therapeutic targets. So far, only a minute fraction of the estimated 650,000 PPIs that comprise the human interactome are known with a tiny number of complexes being drugged. Such intricate biological systems cannot be cost-efficiently tackled using conventional high-throughput screening methods. Rather, time has come for designing new strategies that will maximize the chance for hit identification through a rationalization of the PPI inhibitor chemical space and the design of PPI-focused compound libraries (global or target-specific). Here, we train machine-learning-based models, mainly decision trees, using a dataset of known PPI inhibitors and of regular drugs in order to determine a global physico-chemical profile for putative PPI inhibitors. This statistical analysis unravels two important molecular descriptors for PPI inhibitors characterizing specific molecular shapes and the presence of a privileged number of aromatic bonds. The best model has been transposed into a computer program, PPI-HitProfiler, that can output from any drug-like compound collection a focused chemical library enriched in putative PPI inhibitors. Our PPI inhibitor profiler is challenged on the experimental screening results of 11 different PPIs among which the p53/MDM2 interaction screened within our own CDithem platform, that in addition to the validation of our concept led to the identification of 4 novel p53/MDM2 inhibitors. Collectively, our tool shows a robust behavior on the 11 experimental datasets by correctly profiling 70% of the experimentally identified hits while removing 52% of the inactive compounds from the initial compound collections. We strongly believe that this new tool can be used as a global PPI inhibitor profiler prior to screening assays to reduce the size of the compound collections to be experimentally screened while keeping most of the true PPI inhibitors. PPI-HitProfiler is

  11. Characterization and Inhibitor Screening of Plateau Zokor Lactate Dehydrogenase C4.

    PubMed

    He, Qinghua; Zhang, Qinglian; Huang, Lin; Ma, Jinhu

    2016-07-01

    Lactate dehydrogenase C4 (LDH-C4) is considered to be a target protein for the development of contraceptives. In this work, the characterization of plateau zokor LDH-C4 and the screening of a series of N-substituted oxamic acids as inhibitors against zokor LDH-C4 were reported. The cDNA of zokor LDH-C gene was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli, from which the protein was purified and further characterized. The protein was a tetramer (LDH-C4) and thermally stable up to 62 °C with a K m of 63.9 μM for pyruvate and with optimal pH values of 7.95 and 10.1 for the forward and backward reactions respectively. Virtual and in vitro screening against zokor LDH-C4 revealed eight N-substituted oxamic acids with IC50s ranging from 198 to 2513 μM, higher than that of oxamic acid (150 μM) and (ethylamino)(oxo)acetic acid (59 μM). The inhibition potencies of N-substituted oxamic acids tested are in the micromolar range, and the increase in the length of substituting chain seems not to increase inhibition potency.

  12. Hydroxyindole Carboxylic Acid-Based Inhibitors for Receptor-Type Protein Tyrosine Protein Phosphatase Beta

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Li-Fan; Zhang, Ruo-Yu; Bai, Yunpeng; Wu, Li; Gunawan, Andrea M.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Aims: Protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs) play an important role in regulating a wide range of cellular processes. Understanding the role of PTPs within these processes has been hampered by a lack of potent and selective PTP inhibitors. Generating potent and selective probes for PTPs remains a significant challenge because of the highly conserved and positively charged PTP active site that also harbors a redox-sensitive Cys residue. Results: We describe a facile method that uses an appropriate hydroxyindole carboxylic acid to anchor the inhibitor to the PTP active site and relies on the secondary binding elements introduced through an amide-focused library to enhance binding affinity for the target PTP and to impart selectivity against off-target phosphatases. Here, we disclose a novel series of hydroxyindole carboxylic acid-based inhibitors for receptor-type tyrosine protein phosphatase beta (RPTPβ), a potential target that is implicated in blood vessel development. The representative RPTPβ inhibitor 8b-1 (L87B44) has an IC50 of 0.38 μM and at least 14-fold selectivity for RPTPβ over a large panel of PTPs. Moreover, 8b-1 also exhibits excellent cellular activity and augments growth factor signaling in HEK293, MDA-MB-468, and human umbilical vein endothelial cells. Innovation: The bicyclic salicylic acid pharmacophore-based focused library approach may provide a potential solution to overcome the bioavailability issue that has plagued the PTP drug discovery field for many years. Conclusion: A novel method is described for the development of bioavailable PTP inhibitors that utilizes bicyclic salicylic acid to anchor the inhibitors to the active site and peripheral site interactions to enhance binding affinity and selectivity. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 20, 2130–2140. PMID:24180557

  13. Cellular inhibitor of apoptosis proteins prevent clearance of hepatitis B virus.

    PubMed

    Ebert, Gregor; Preston, Simon; Allison, Cody; Cooney, James; Toe, Jesse G; Stutz, Michael D; Ojaimi, Samar; Scott, Hamish W; Baschuk, Nikola; Nachbur, Ueli; Torresi, Joseph; Chin, Ruth; Colledge, Danielle; Li, Xin; Warner, Nadia; Revill, Peter; Bowden, Scott; Silke, John; Begley, C Glenn; Pellegrini, Marc

    2015-05-05

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection can result in a spectrum of outcomes from immune-mediated control to disease progression, cirrhosis, and liver cancer. The host molecular pathways that influence and contribute to these outcomes need to be defined. Using an immunocompetent mouse model of chronic HBV infection, we identified some of the host cellular and molecular factors that impact on infection outcomes. Here, we show that cellular inhibitor of apoptosis proteins (cIAPs) attenuate TNF signaling during hepatitis B infection, and they restrict the death of infected hepatocytes, thus allowing viral persistence. Animals with a liver-specific cIAP1 and total cIAP2 deficiency efficiently control HBV infection compared with WT mice. This phenotype was partly recapitulated in mice that were deficient in cIAP2 alone. These results indicate that antagonizing the function of cIAPs may promote the clearance of HBV infection.

  14. Involvement of histone phosphorylation in thymocyte apoptosis by protein phosphatase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Lee, E; Nakatsuma, A; Hiraoka, R; Ishikawa, E; Enomoto, R; Yamauchi, A

    1999-07-01

    Incubation of rat thymocytes with the inhibitors of protein phosphatase such as calyculin A and okadaic acid resulted in an increase in DNA fragmentation. These effects were dependent on the concentration of the inhibitors and the incubation time. Analyses of the fragmented DNA revealed the production of approximately 50 kbp of DNA and a 180 bp DNA ladder. In addition, a laser scanning-microscopic analysis showed that these compounds caused nuclear condensation. Thus, these results demonstrated that protein phosphatase inhibitors induced thymocyte apoptosis. The inhibitors of protein phosphatase increased the phosphorylation of proteins of approximately 15 kDa. The phosphorylation of proteins preceded the DNA fragmentation induced by these inhibitors. Judging from acetic acid-urea-Triton X-100 gel electrophoresis, the phosphorylated proteins were histone H1 and H2A/H3. Therefore, these results suggest that phosphorylation of histones triggers the DNA fragmentation of thymocytes undergoing apoptosis.

  15. Fluorescent biosensors for high throughput screening of protein kinase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Prével, Camille; Pellerano, Morgan; Van, Thi Nhu Ngoc; Morris, May C

    2014-02-01

    High throughput screening assays aim to identify small molecules that interfere with protein function, activity, or conformation, which can serve as effective tools for chemical biology studies of targets involved in physiological processes or pathways of interest or disease models, as well as templates for development of therapeutics in medicinal chemistry. Fluorescent biosensors constitute attractive and powerful tools for drug discovery programs, from high throughput screening assays, to postscreen characterization of hits, optimization of lead compounds, and preclinical evaluation of candidate drugs. They provide a means of screening for inhibitors that selectively target enzymatic activity, conformation, and/or function in vitro. Moreover, fluorescent biosensors constitute useful tools for cell- and image-based, multiplex and multiparametric, high-content screening. Application of fluorescence-based sensors to screen large and complex libraries of compounds in vitro, in cell-based formats or whole organisms requires several levels of optimization to establish robust and reproducible assays. In this review, we describe the different fluorescent biosensor technologies which have been applied to high throughput screens, and discuss the prerequisite criteria underlying their successful application. Special emphasis is placed on protein kinase biosensors, since these enzymes constitute one of the most important classes of therapeutic targets in drug discovery.

  16. Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Protein Kinase Inhibitor Pyrrol Derivate

    PubMed Central

    Yena, Maryna S.; Kotlyar, Iryna P.; Ogloblya, Olexandr V.; Rybalchenko, Volodymyr K.

    2016-01-01

    In our previous studies we showed antitumor and anti-inflammatory activities of protein kinases inhibitor pyrrol derivate 1-(4-Cl-benzyl)-3-Cl-4-(CF3-fenylamino)-1H-pyrrol-2,5-dione (MI-1) on rat colon cancer model. Therefore anti-inflammatory effect of MI-1 on rat acetic acid induced ulcerative colitis (UC) model was aimed to be discovered. The anti-inflammatory effects of MI-1 (2.7 mg/kg daily) compared to reference drug Prednisolone (0.7 mg/kg daily) after 14-day usage were evaluated on macro- and light microscopy levels and expressed in 21-grade scale. Redox status of bowel mucosa was also estimated. It was shown that in UC group the grade of total injury (GTI) was equal to 9.6 (GTIcontrol = 0). Increase of malonic dialdehyde (MDA) by 89% and protein carbonyl groups (PCG) by 60% and decrease of superoxide dismutase (SOD) by 40% were also observed. Prednisolone decreased GTI to 3 and leveled SOD activity, but MDA and PCG remained higher than control ones by 52% and 42%, respectively. MI-1 restored colon mucosa integrity and decreased mucosa inflammation down to GTI = 0.5 and leveled PCG and SOD. Thus, MI-1 possessed anti-inflammatory properties, which were more expressed that Prednisolone ones, as well as normalized mucosa redox balance, and so has a prospect for correction of inflammatory processes. PMID:28101521

  17. A web server for predicting inhibitors against bacterial target GlmU protein

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The emergence of drug resistant tuberculosis poses a serious concern globally and researchers are in rigorous search for new drugs to fight against these dreadful bacteria. Recently, the bacterial GlmU protein, involved in peptidoglycan, lipopolysaccharide and techoic acid synthesis, has been identified as an important drug target. A unique C-terminal disordered tail, essential for survival and the absence of gene in host makes GlmU a suitable target for inhibitor design. Results This study describes the models developed for predicting inhibitory activity (IC50) of chemical compounds against GlmU protein using QSAR and docking techniques. These models were trained on 84 diverse compounds (GlmU inhibitors) taken from PubChem BioAssay (AID 1376). These inhibitors were docked in the active site of the C-terminal domain of GlmU protein (2OI6) using the AutoDock. A QSAR model was developed using docking energies as descriptors and achieved maximum correlation of 0.35/0.12 (r/r2) between actual and predicted pIC50. Secondly, QSAR models were developed using molecular descriptors calculated using various software packages and achieved maximum correlation of 0.77/0.60 (r/r2). Finally, hybrid models were developed using various types of descriptors and achieved high correlation of 0.83/0.70 (r/r2) between predicted and actual pIC50. It was observed that some molecular descriptors used in this study had high correlation with pIC50. We screened chemical libraries using models developed in this study and predicted 40 potential GlmU inhibitors. These inhibitors could be used to develop drugs against Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Conclusion These results demonstrate that docking energies can be used as descriptors for developing QSAR models. The current work suggests that docking energies based descriptors could be used along with commonly used molecular descriptors for predicting inhibitory activity (IC50) of molecules against GlmU. Based on this study an open source

  18. Companion Protease Inhibitors for the In Situ Protection of Recombinant Proteins in Plants.

    PubMed

    Robert, Stéphanie; Jutras, Philippe V; Khalf, Moustafa; D'Aoust, Marc-André; Goulet, Marie-Claire; Sainsbury, Frank; Michaud, Dominique

    2016-01-01

    We previously described a procedure for the use of plant protease inhibitors as "companion" accessory proteins to prevent unwanted proteolysis of clinically useful recombinant proteins in leaf crude protein extracts (Benchabane et al. Methods Mol Biol 483:265-273, 2009). Here we describe the use of these inhibitors for the protection of recombinant proteins in planta, before their extraction from leaf tissues. A procedure is first described involving inhibitors co-expressed along-and co-migrating-with the protein of interest in host plant cells. An alternative, single transgene scheme is then described involving translational fusions of the recombinant protein and companion inhibitor. These approaches may allow for a significant improvement of protein steady-state levels in leaves, comparable to yield improvements observed with protease-deficient strains of less complex protein expression hosts such as E. coli or yeasts.

  19. CYP17 inhibitors--abiraterone, C17,20-lyase inhibitors and multi-targeting agents.

    PubMed

    Yin, Lina; Hu, Qingzhong

    2014-01-01

    As the first in class steroid 17α-hydroxylase/C17,20-lyase (CYP17) inhibitor, abiraterone acetate (of which the active metabolite is abiraterone) has been shown to improve overall survival in patients with castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC)--in those who are chemotherapy-naive and those previously treated with docetaxel. Furthermore, the clinical success of abiraterone demonstrated that CRPC, which has previously been regarded as an androgen-independent disease, is still driven, at least in part, by androgens. More importantly, abiraterone is a 'promiscuous' drug that interacts with a number of targets, which dictate its clinical benefits and adverse effects profile. Besides CYP17 inhibition, abiraterone acts as an antagonist to the androgen receptor and inhibits 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase--two effects that potentially contribute to its antitumour effects. However, the inhibition of the 17α-hydroxylase activity of CYP17, CYP11B1 and a panel of hepatic CYP enzymes leads to adverse effects and toxicities that include secondary mineralocorticoid excess. Abiraterone is also associated with increased incidence of cardiac disorders. Under such circumstances, development of new CYP17 inhibitors as an additional line of defence is urgently needed. To achieve enhanced clinical benefits, new strategies are being explored that include selective inhibition of the C17,20-lyase activity of CYP17 and multi-targeting strategies that affect androgen synthesis and signalling at different points. Some of these strategies-including the drugs orteronel, VT-464 and galeterone--are supported by preclinical data and are being explored in the clinic.

  20. Structure and evolution of the Ivy protein family, unexpected lysozyme inhibitors in Gram-negative bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Abergel, Chantal; Monchois, Vincent; Byrne, Deborah; Chenivesse, Sabine; Lembo, Frédérique; Lazzaroni, Jean-Claude; Claverie, Jean-Michel

    2007-01-01

    Part of an ancestral bactericidal system, vertebrate C-type lysozyme targets the peptidoglycan moiety of bacterial cell walls. We report the crystal structure of a protein inhibitor of C-type lysozyme, the Escherichia coli Ivy protein, alone and in complex with hen egg white lysozyme. Ivy exhibits a novel fold in which a protruding five-residue loop appears essential to its inhibitory effect. This feature guided the identification of Ivy orthologues in other Gram-negative bacteria. The structure of the evolutionary distant Pseudomonas aeruginosa Ivy orthologue was also determined in complex with hen egg white lysozyme, and its antilysozyme activity was confirmed. Ivy expression protects porous cell-wall E. coli mutants from the lytic effect of lysozyme, suggesting that it is a response against the permeabilizing effects of the innate vertebrate immune system. As such, Ivy acts as a virulence factor for a number of Gram-negative bacteria-infecting vertebrates. PMID:17405861

  1. Discovery of Protein–Protein Interaction Inhibitors of Replication Protein A

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Replication protein A (RPA) is a ssDNA binding protein that is essential for DNA replication and repair. The initiation of the DNA damage response by RPA is mediated by protein–protein interactions involving the N-terminal domain of the 70 kDa subunit with partner proteins. Inhibition of these interactions increases sensitivity toward DNA damage and replication stress and may therefore be a potential strategy for cancer drug discovery. Toward this end, we have discovered two lead series of compounds, derived from hits obtained from a fragment-based screen, that bind to RPA70N with low micromolar affinity and inhibit the binding of an ATRIP-derived peptide to RPA. These compounds may offer a promising starting point for the discovery of clinically useful RPA inhibitors. PMID:23914285

  2. p53 modulates the AMPK inhibitor compound C induced apoptosis in human skin cancer cells

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Shi-Wei; Wu, Chun-Ying; Wang, Yen-Ting; Kao, Jun-Kai; Lin, Chi-Chen; Chang, Chia-Che; Mu, Szu-Wei; Chen, Yu-Yu; Chiu, Husan-Wen; Chang, Chuan-Hsun; Liang, Shu-Mei; Chen, Yi-Ju; Huang, Jau-Ling; Shieh, Jeng-Jer

    2013-02-15

    Compound C, a well-known inhibitor of the intracellular energy sensor AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), has been reported to cause apoptotic cell death in myeloma, breast cancer cells and glioma cells. In this study, we have demonstrated that compound C not only induced autophagy in all tested skin cancer cell lines but also caused more apoptosis in p53 wildtype skin cancer cells than in p53-mutant skin cancer cells. Compound C can induce upregulation, phosphorylation and nuclear translocalization of the p53 protein and upregulate expression of p53 target genes in wildtype p53-expressing skin basal cell carcinoma (BCC) cells. The changes of p53 status were dependent on DNA damage which was caused by compound C induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and associated with activated ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM) protein. Using the wildtype p53-expressing BCC cells versus stable p53-knockdown BCC sublines, we present evidence that p53-knockdown cancer cells were much less sensitive to compound C treatment with significant G2/M cell cycle arrest and attenuated the compound C-induced apoptosis but not autophagy. The compound C induced G2/M arrest in p53-knockdown BCC cells was associated with the sustained inactive Tyr15 phosphor-Cdc2 expression. Overall, our results established that compound C-induced apoptosis in skin cancer cells was dependent on the cell's p53 status. - Highlights: ► Compound C caused more apoptosis in p53 wildtype than p53-mutant skin cancer cells. ► Compound C can upregulate p53 expression and induce p53 activation. ► Compound C induced p53 effects were dependent on ROS induced DNA damage pathway. ► p53-knockdown attenuated compound C-induced apoptosis but not autophagy. ► Compound C-induced apoptosis in skin cancer cells was dependent on p53 status.

  3. Receptor tyrosine kinase (c-Kit) inhibitors: a potential therapeutic target in cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Abbaspour Babaei, Maryam; Kamalidehghan, Behnam; Saleem, Mohammad; Huri, Hasniza Zaman; Ahmadipour, Fatemeh

    2016-01-01

    c-Kit, a receptor tyrosine kinase, is involved in intracellular signaling, and the mutated form of c-Kit plays a crucial role in occurrence of some cancers. The function of c-Kit has led to the concept that inhibiting c-Kit kinase activity can be a target for cancer therapy. The promising results of inhibition of c-Kit for treatment of cancers have been observed in some cancers such as gastrointestinal stromal tumor, acute myeloid leukemia, melanoma, and other tumors, and these results have encouraged attempts toward improvement of using c-Kit as a capable target for cancer therapy. This paper presents the findings of previous studies regarding c-Kit as a receptor tyrosine kinase and an oncogene, as well as its gene targets and signaling pathways in normal and cancer cells. The c-Kit gene location, protein structure, and the role of c-Kit in normal cell have been discussed. Comprehending the molecular mechanism underlying c-Kit-mediated tumorogenesis is consequently essential and may lead to the identification of future novel drug targets. The potential mechanisms by which c-Kit induces cellular transformation have been described. This study aims to elucidate the function of c-Kit for future cancer therapy. In addition, it has c-Kit inhibitor drug properties and their functions have been listed in tables and demonstrated in schematic pictures. This review also has collected previous studies that targeted c-Kit as a novel strategy for cancer therapy. This paper further emphasizes the advantages of this approach, as well as the limitations that must be addressed in the future. Finally, although c-Kit is an attractive target for cancer therapy, based on the outcomes of treatment of patients with c-Kit inhibitors, it is unlikely that Kit inhibitors alone can lead to cure. It seems that c-Kit mutations alone are not sufficient for tumorogenesis, but do play a crucial role in cancer occurrence. PMID:27536065

  4. Screening for Small Molecule Inhibitors of Statin-Induced APP C-terminal Toxic Fragment Production.

    PubMed

    Poksay, Karen S; Sheffler, Douglas J; Spilman, Patricia; Campagna, Jesus; Jagodzinska, Barbara; Descamps, Olivier; Gorostiza, Olivia; Matalis, Alex; Mullenix, Michael; Bredesen, Dale E; Cosford, Nicholas D P; John, Varghese

    2017-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by neuronal and synaptic loss. One process that could contribute to this loss is the intracellular caspase cleavage of the amyloid precursor protein (APP) resulting in release of the toxic C-terminal 31-amino acid peptide APP-C31 along with the production of APPΔC31, full-length APP minus the C-terminal 31 amino acids. We previously found that a mutation in APP that prevents this caspase cleavage ameliorated synaptic loss and cognitive impairment in a murine AD model. Thus, inhibition of this cleavage is a reasonable target for new therapeutic development. In order to identify small molecules that inhibit the generation of APP-C31, we first used an APPΔC31 cleavage site-specific antibody to develop an AlphaLISA to screen several chemical compound libraries for the level of N-terminal fragment production. This antibody was also used to develop an ELISA for validation studies. In both high throughput screening (HTS) and validation testing, the ability of compounds to inhibit simvastatin- (HTS) or cerivastatin- (validation studies) induced caspase cleavage at the APP-D720 cleavage site was determined in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells stably transfected with wildtype (wt) human APP (CHO-7W). Several compounds, as well as control pan-caspase inhibitor Q-VD-OPh, inhibited APPΔC31 production (measured fragment) and rescued cell death in a dose-dependent manner. The effective compounds fell into several classes including SERCA inhibitors, inhibitors of Wnt signaling, and calcium channel antagonists. Further studies are underway to evaluate the efficacy of lead compounds - identified here using cells and tissues expressing wt human APP - in mouse models of AD expressing mutated human APP, as well as to identify additional compounds and determine the mechanisms by which they exert their effects.

  5. Screening for Small Molecule Inhibitors of Statin-Induced APP C-terminal Toxic Fragment Production

    PubMed Central

    Poksay, Karen S.; Sheffler, Douglas J.; Spilman, Patricia; Campagna, Jesus; Jagodzinska, Barbara; Descamps, Olivier; Gorostiza, Olivia; Matalis, Alex; Mullenix, Michael; Bredesen, Dale E.; Cosford, Nicholas D. P.; John, Varghese

    2017-01-01

    Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is characterized by neuronal and synaptic loss. One process that could contribute to this loss is the intracellular caspase cleavage of the amyloid precursor protein (APP) resulting in release of the toxic C-terminal 31-amino acid peptide APP-C31 along with the production of APPΔC31, full-length APP minus the C-terminal 31 amino acids. We previously found that a mutation in APP that prevents this caspase cleavage ameliorated synaptic loss and cognitive impairment in a murine AD model. Thus, inhibition of this cleavage is a reasonable target for new therapeutic development. In order to identify small molecules that inhibit the generation of APP-C31, we first used an APPΔC31 cleavage site-specific antibody to develop an AlphaLISA to screen several chemical compound libraries for the level of N-terminal fragment production. This antibody was also used to develop an ELISA for validation studies. In both high throughput screening (HTS) and validation testing, the ability of compounds to inhibit simvastatin- (HTS) or cerivastatin- (validation studies) induced caspase cleavage at the APP-D720 cleavage site was determined in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells stably transfected with wildtype (wt) human APP (CHO-7W). Several compounds, as well as control pan-caspase inhibitor Q-VD-OPh, inhibited APPΔC31 production (measured fragment) and rescued cell death in a dose-dependent manner. The effective compounds fell into several classes including SERCA inhibitors, inhibitors of Wnt signaling, and calcium channel antagonists. Further studies are underway to evaluate the efficacy of lead compounds – identified here using cells and tissues expressing wt human APP – in mouse models of AD expressing mutated human APP, as well as to identify additional compounds and determine the mechanisms by which they exert their effects. PMID:28261092

  6. Oligo-aspartic acid conjugates with benzo[c][2,6]naphthyridine-8-carboxylic acid scaffold as picomolar inhibitors of CK2.

    PubMed

    Vahter, Jürgen; Viht, Kaido; Uri, Asko; Enkvist, Erki

    2017-02-28

    Structurally diverse inhibitors of the protein kinase CK2 are required for regulation of this ubiquitous protein to establish biological roles of the enzyme which catalyzes the phosphorylation of a vast number of substrate proteins. In this article we disclose a series of new bisubstrate inhibitors of CK2 that are structurally represented by the oligo(l-Asp) peptide conjugates of benzo[c][2,6]naphthyridine-8-carboxylic acid. This fragment originated from CX-4945, the first in class inhibitor taken to clinical trials. The most potent conjugates possessed two-digit picomolar affinity and clear selectivity for CK2α in a panel of 140 protein kinases. Labeling of the inhibitors with a fluorescent dye yielded probes for a fluorescence anisotropy-based binding/displacement assay which can be used for analysis of CK2 and precise determination of affinity of the highly potent (tight-binding) CK2-targeting inhibitors.

  7. Characterization of a ranavirus inhibitor of the antiviral protein kinase PKR

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Ranaviruses (family Iridoviridae) are important pathogens of lower vertebrates. However, little is known about how they circumvent the immune response of their hosts. Many ranaviruses contain a predicted protein, designated vIF2α, which shows homology with the eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2α. In analogy to distantly related proteins found in poxviruses vIF2α might act as an inhibitor of the antiviral protein kinase PKR. Results We have characterized the function of vIF2α from Rana catesbeiana virus Z (RCV-Z). Multiple sequence alignments and secondary structure prediction revealed homology of vIF2α with eIF2α throughout the S1-, helical- and C-terminal domains. Genetic and biochemical analyses showed that vIF2α blocked the toxic effects of human and zebrafish PKR in a heterologous yeast system. Rather than complementing eIF2α function, vIF2α acted in a manner comparable to the vaccinia virus (VACV) K3L protein (K3), a pseudosubstrate inhibitor of PKR. Both vIF2α and K3 inhibited human PKR-mediated eIF2α phosphorylation, but not PKR autophosphorylation on Thr446. In contrast the E3L protein (E3), another poxvirus inhibitor of PKR, inhibited both Thr446 and eIF2α Ser51 phosphorylation. Interestingly, phosphorylation of eIF2α by zebrafish PKR was inhibited by vIF2α and E3, but not by K3. Effective inhibition of PKR activity coincided with increased PKR expression levels, indicative of relieved autoinhibition of PKR expression. Experiments with vIF2α deletion constructs, showed that both the N-terminal and helical domains were sufficient for inhibition of PKR, whereas the C-terminal domain was dispensable. Conclusions Our results show that RCV-Z vIF2α is a functional inhibitor of human and zebrafish PKR, and probably functions in similar fashion as VACV K3. This constitutes an important step in understanding the interaction of ranaviruses and the host innate immune system. PMID:21418572

  8. Rational Design of Protein C Activators

    PubMed Central

    Barranco-Medina, Sergio; Murphy, Mary; Pelc, Leslie; Chen, Zhiwei; Di Cera, Enrico; Pozzi, Nicola

    2017-01-01

    In addition to its procoagulant and proinflammatory functions mediated by cleavage of fibrinogen and PAR1, the trypsin-like protease thrombin activates the anticoagulant protein C in a reaction that requires the cofactor thrombomodulin and the endothelial protein C receptor. Once in the circulation, activated protein C functions as an anticoagulant, anti-inflammatory and regenerative factor. Hence, availability of a protein C activator would afford a therapeutic for patients suffering from thrombotic disorders and a diagnostic tool for monitoring the level of protein C in plasma. Here, we present a fusion protein where thrombin and the EGF456 domain of thrombomodulin are connected through a peptide linker. The fusion protein recapitulates the functional and structural properties of the thrombin-thrombomodulin complex, prolongs the clotting time by generating pharmacological quantities of activated protein C and effectively diagnoses protein C deficiency in human plasma. Notably, these functions do not require exogenous thrombomodulin, unlike other anticoagulant thrombin derivatives engineered to date. These features make the fusion protein an innovative step toward the development of protein C activators of clinical and diagnostic relevance. PMID:28294177

  9. The EED protein-protein interaction inhibitor A-395 inactivates the PRC2 complex.

    PubMed

    He, Yupeng; Selvaraju, Sujatha; Curtin, Michael L; Jakob, Clarissa G; Zhu, Haizhong; Comess, Kenneth M; Shaw, Bailin; The, Juliana; Lima-Fernandes, Evelyne; Szewczyk, Magdalena M; Cheng, Dong; Klinge, Kelly L; Li, Huan-Qiu; Pliushchev, Marina; Algire, Mikkel A; Maag, David; Guo, Jun; Dietrich, Justin; Panchal, Sanjay C; Petros, Andrew M; Sweis, Ramzi F; Torrent, Maricel; Bigelow, Lance J; Senisterra, Guillermo; Li, Fengling; Kennedy, Steven; Wu, Qin; Osterling, Donald J; Lindley, David J; Gao, Wenqing; Galasinski, Scott; Barsyte-Lovejoy, Dalia; Vedadi, Masoud; Buchanan, Fritz G; Arrowsmith, Cheryl H; Chiang, Gary G; Sun, Chaohong; Pappano, William N

    2017-04-01

    Polycomb repressive complex 2 (PRC2) is a regulator of epigenetic states required for development and homeostasis. PRC2 trimethylates histone H3 at lysine 27 (H3K27me3), which leads to gene silencing, and is dysregulated in many cancers. The embryonic ectoderm development (EED) protein is an essential subunit of PRC2 that has both a scaffolding function and an H3K27me3-binding function. Here we report the identification of A-395, a potent antagonist of the H3K27me3 binding functions of EED. Structural studies demonstrate that A-395 binds to EED in the H3K27me3-binding pocket, thereby preventing allosteric activation of the catalytic activity of PRC2. Phenotypic effects observed in vitro and in vivo are similar to those of known PRC2 enzymatic inhibitors; however, A-395 retains potent activity against cell lines resistant to the catalytic inhibitors. A-395 represents a first-in-class antagonist of PRC2 protein-protein interactions (PPI) for use as a chemical probe to investigate the roles of EED-containing protein complexes.

  10. Pathway illuminated: visualizing protein kinase C signaling.

    PubMed

    Violin, Jonathan D; Newton, Alexandra C

    2003-12-01

    Protein kinase C has been at the center of cell signaling since the discovery 25 years ago that it transduces signals that promote phospholipid hydrolysis. In recent years, the use of genetically encoded fluorescent reporters has enabled studies of the regulation of protein kinase C signaling in living cells. Advances in imaging techniques have unveiled unprecedented detail of the signal processing mechanics of protein kinase C, from the second messengers calcium and diacylglycerol that regulate protein kinase C activity, to the locations and kinetics of different protein kinase C isozymes, to the spatial and temporal dynamics of substrate phosphorylation by this key enzyme. This review discusses how fluorescence imaging studies have illuminated the fidelity with which protein kinase C transduces rapidly changing extracellular information into intracellular phosphorylation signals.

  11. Molecular Basis for Complement Recognition and Inhibition Determined by Crystallographic Studies of the Staphylococcal Complement Inhibitor (SCIN) Bound to C3c and C3b

    SciTech Connect

    Garcia, Brandon L.; Ramyar, Kasra X.; Tzekou, Apostolia; Ricklin, Daniel; McWhorter, William J.; Lambris, John D.; Geisbrecht, Brian V.

    2010-10-22

    The human complement system plays an essential role in innate and adaptive immunity by marking and eliminating microbial intruders. Activation of complement on foreign surfaces results in proteolytic cleavage of complement component 3 (C3) into the potent opsonin C3b, which triggers a variety of immune responses and participates in a self-amplification loop mediated by a multi-protein assembly known as the C3 convertase. The human pathogen Staphylococcus aureus has evolved a sophisticated and potent complement evasion strategy, which is predicated upon an arsenal of potent inhibitory proteins. One of these, the staphylococcal complement inhibitor (SCIN), acts at the level of the C3 convertase (C3bBb) and impairs downstream complement function by trapping the convertase in a stable but inactive state. Previously, we have shown that SCIN binds C3b directly and competitively inhibits binding of human factor H and, to a lesser degree, that of factor B to C3b. Here, we report the co-crystal structures of SCIN bound to C3b and C3c at 7.5 and 3.5 {angstrom} limiting resolution, respectively, and show that SCIN binds a critical functional area on C3b. Most significantly, the SCIN binding site sterically occludes the binding sites of both factor H and factor B. Our results give insight into SCIN binding to activated derivatives of C3, explain how SCIN can recognize C3b in the absence of other complement components, and provide a structural basis for the competitive C3b-binding properties of SCIN. In the future, this may suggest templates for the design of novel complement inhibitors based upon the SCIN structure.

  12. Protein kinase C activation inhibits eosinophil degranulation through stimulation of intracellular cAMP production.

    PubMed

    Ezeamuzie, Charles I; Taslim, Najla

    2004-11-01

    The mechanism of inhibition of eosinophil degranulation by protein kinase C (PKC) was investigated in complement C5a (C5a)-stimulated degranulation of highly purified human eosinophils using the specific PKC activator - phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA). C5a-induced release of eosinophil peroxidase and eosinophil cationic protein was potently inhibited in a concentration-dependent manner by PMA (IC(50): 3 and 5 nM, respectively). The inhibition by PMA, but not histamine, was significantly reversed by the specific, but isoform nonselective, PKC inhibitor Ro 31-8220 (1 microM). In the presence of phosphodiesterase inhibitor rolipram (5 microM), PMA stimulated a pronounced concentration-dependent increase in intracellular cAMP, with a potency 400 times that of histamine (EC(50): 55 nM vs 22.5 microM). The inactive PMA analogue, 4alpha-PMA, had no such effect. The cAMP production by PMA, but not histamine, was significantly reversed by Ro 31-8220 (1 microM) and the selective inhibitor of the novel PKCdelta, rottlerin (1-3 microM), but not the selective inhibitor of the classical PKC isoforms, Gö 6976 (0.01-0.1 microM). Western blot analysis revealed the presence of six PKC isoforms (alpha, betaI, betaII, delta, iota and zeta) in isolated eosinophils. Chelation of internal or external calcium had no effect on PMA-induced cAMP response, but abolished that induced by histamine. There was a good correlation between increase in intracellular cAMP and inhibition of degranulation. These results show, for the first time, that in human eosinophils, PMA, via activation of PKCdelta isoform, can stimulate cAMP production, and that this may be the basis for its potent anti-degranulatory effect.

  13. Protein kinase C activation inhibits eosinophil degranulation through stimulation of intracellular cAMP production

    PubMed Central

    Ezeamuzie, Charles I; Taslim, Najla

    2004-01-01

    The mechanism of inhibition of eosinophil degranulation by protein kinase C (PKC) was investigated in complement C5a (C5a)-stimulated degranulation of highly purified human eosinophils using the specific PKC activator – phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA). C5a-induced release of eosinophil peroxidase and eosinophil cationic protein was potently inhibited in a concentration-dependent manner by PMA (IC50: 3 and 5 nM, respectively). The inhibition by PMA, but not histamine, was significantly reversed by the specific, but isoform nonselective, PKC inhibitor Ro 31-8220 (1 μM). In the presence of phosphodiesterase inhibitor rolipram (5 μM), PMA stimulated a pronounced concentration-dependent increase in intracellular cAMP, with a potency 400 times that of histamine (EC50: 55 nM vs 22.5 μM). The inactive PMA analogue, 4α-PMA, had no such effect. The cAMP production by PMA, but not histamine, was significantly reversed by Ro 31-8220 (1 μM) and the selective inhibitor of the novel PKCδ, rottlerin (1–3 μM), but not the selective inhibitor of the classical PKC isoforms, Gö 6976 (0.01–0.1 μM). Western blot analysis revealed the presence of six PKC isoforms (α, βI, βII, δ, ι and ζ) in isolated eosinophils. Chelation of internal or external calcium had no effect on PMA-induced cAMP response, but abolished that induced by histamine. There was a good correlation between increase in intracellular cAMP and inhibition of degranulation. These results show, for the first time, that in human eosinophils, PMA, via activation of PKCδ isoform, can stimulate cAMP production, and that this may be the basis for its potent anti-degranulatory effect. PMID:15504748

  14. Macrocyclic Hepatitis C Virus NS3/4A Protease Inhibitors: An Overview of Medicinal Chemistry.

    PubMed

    Pillaiyar, Thanigaimalai; Namasivayam, Vigneshwaran; Manickam, Manoj

    2016-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a causative agent of hepatitis C infectious disease that primarily affects the liver, ranging in severity from a mild illness lasting a few weeks to a lifelong illness. The 9.6 kb RNA genome of HCV encodes approximately 3000 amino acid polyprotein that must be processed by host and viral proteases into both structural (S) and non-structural (NS) proteins, respectively. Targeting the serine protease NS3 with an activating factor NS4A, i.e., NS3/4A has been considered as one of the most attractive targets for the development of anti-HCV therapy. Although there is no vaccine available, antiviral medicines cure approximately 90% of the persons with hepatitis C infection. On the other hand, efficacy of these medications can be hampered due to the rapid drug and cross resistances. To date, all developed HCV NS3/4A inhibitors are mainly peptide-based compounds derived from the cleavage products of substrate. Specifically macrocyclic peptidomimetics have rapidly emerged as a classical NS3/4A protease inhibitors for treating the HCV infection. This review highlights the development of macrocyclic anti-HCV NS3/4A protease, as well as clinically important inhibitors developed from linear peptides, discovered during the last 12 years (2003-2015) from all sources, including laboratory synthetic methods, virtual screening and structure-based molecular docking studies. We emphasize the rationale behind the design, study of structure-activity relationships, and mechanism of inhibitions and cellular effect of the macrocyclic inhibitors.

  15. Osthole induces lung cancer cell apoptosis through inhibition of inhibitor of apoptosis family proteins

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Xiao-Man; Zhang, Man-Li; Zhang, Yi; Zhao, Li

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, we investigated the effects and mechanisms of Osthole on the apoptosis of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells and its synergistic effect with Embelin. Our results revealed that treatment with both Osthole and Embelin inhibited cell proliferation. Notably, combination treatment of Osthole and Embelin inhibited cell proliferation more significantly compared with monotherapy. In addition, morphological analysis and Annexin V/propidium iodide analysis revealed that the combination of Osthole and Embelin enhanced their effect on cell apoptosis. We further examined the effect of Osthole on the expression of inhibitor of apoptosis protein (IAP) family proteins. That treatment of A549 lung cancer cells with various concentrations of Osthole was observed to decrease the protein expression of X-chromosome-encoded IAP, c-IAP1, c-IAP2 and Survivin, and increase Smac expression in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, it was noted that Osthole or Embelin alone increased the expression of BAX, caspase-3, caspase-9, cleaved caspase-3 and cleaved caspase-9, and decreased Bcl-2 levels following treatment. Osthole and Embelin combination treatment had a synergistic effect on the regulation of these proteins. In conclusion, our study demonstrated that Osthole inhibited proliferation and induced the apoptosis of lung cancer cells via IAP family proteins in a dose-dependent manner. Osthole enhances the antitumor effect of Embelin, indicating that combination of Osthole and Embelin has potential clinical significance in the treatment of NSCLC. PMID:27895730

  16. Arabidopsis Bax Inhibitor-1 inhibits cell death induced by pokeweed antiviral protein in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Çakır, Birsen; Tumer, Nilgun E.

    2015-01-01

    Apoptosis is an active form of programmed cell death (PCD) that plays critical roles in the development, differentiation and resistance to pathogens in multicellular organisms. Ribosome inactivating proteins (RIPs) are able to induce apoptotic cell death in mammalian cells. In this study, using yeast as a model system, we showed that yeast cells expressing pokeweed antiviral protein (PAP), a single-chain ribosome-inactivating protein, exhibit apoptotic-like features, such as nuclear fragmentation and ROS production. We studied the interaction between PAP and AtBI-1 (Arabidopsis thaliana Bax Inhibitor-1), a plant anti-apoptotic protein, which inhibits Bax induced cell death. Cells expressing PAP and AtBI-1 were able to survive on galactose media compared to PAP alone, indicating a reduction in the cytotoxicity of PAP in yeast. However, PAP was able to depurinate the ribosomes and to inhibit total translation in the presence of AtBI-1. A C-terminally deleted AtBI-1 was able to reduce the cytotoxicity of PAP. Since anti-apoptotic proteins form heterodimers to inhibit the biological activity of their partners, we used a co-immunoprecipitation assay to examine the binding of AtBI-1 to PAP. Both full length and C-terminal deleted AtBI-1 were capable of binding to PAP. These findings indicate that PAP induces cell death in yeast and AtBI-1 inhibits cell death induced by PAP without affecting ribosome depurination and translation inhibition. PMID:28357275

  17. Synthetic silvestrol analogues as potent and selective protein synthesis inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Liu, Tao; Nair, Somarajan J; Lescarbeau, André; Belani, Jitendra; Peluso, Stéphane; Conley, James; Tillotson, Bonnie; O'Hearn, Patrick; Smith, Sherri; Slocum, Kelly; West, Kip; Helble, Joseph; Douglas, Mark; Bahadoor, Adilah; Ali, Janid; McGovern, Karen; Fritz, Christian; Palombella, Vito J; Wylie, Andrew; Castro, Alfredo C; Tremblay, Martin R

    2012-10-25

    Misregulation of protein translation plays a critical role in human cancer pathogenesis at many levels. Silvestrol, a cyclopenta[b]benzofuran natural product, blocks translation at the initiation step by interfering with assembly of the eIF4F translation complex. Silvestrol has a complex chemical structure whose functional group requirements have not been systematically investigated. Moreover, silvestrol has limited development potential due to poor druglike properties. Herein, we sought to develop a practical synthesis of key intermediates of silvestrol and explore structure-activity relationships around the C6 position. The ability of silvestrol and analogues to selectively inhibit the translation of proteins with high requirement on the translation-initiation machinery (i.e., complex 5'-untranslated region UTR) relative to simple 5'UTR was determined by a cellular reporter assay. Simplified analogues of silvestrol such as compounds 74 and 76 were shown to have similar cytotoxic potency and better ADME characteristics relative to those of silvestrol.

  18. Flexibility of the Thrombin-activatable Fibrinolysis Inhibitor Pro-domain Enables Productive Binding of Protein Substrates*

    PubMed Central

    Valnickova, Zuzana; Sanglas, Laura; Arolas, Joan L.; Petersen, Steen V.; Schar, Christine; Otzen, Daniel; Aviles, Francesc X.; Gomis-Rüth, F. Xavier; Enghild, Jan J.

    2010-01-01

    We have previously reported that thrombin-activatable fibrinolysis inhibitor (TAFI) exhibits intrinsic proteolytic activity toward large peptides. The structural basis for this observation was clarified by the crystal structures of human and bovine TAFI. These structures evinced a significant rotation of the pro-domain away from the catalytic moiety when compared with other pro-carboxypeptidases, thus enabling access of large peptide substrates to the active site cleft. Here, we further investigated the flexible nature of the pro-domain and demonstrated that TAFI forms productive complexes with protein carboxypeptidase inhibitors from potato, leech, and tick (PCI, LCI, and TCI, respectively). We determined the crystal structure of the bovine TAFI-TCI complex, revealing that the pro-domain was completely displaced from the position observed in the TAFI structure. It protruded into the bulk solvent and was disordered, whereas TCI occupied the position previously held by the pro-domain. The authentic nature of the presently studied TAFI-inhibitor complexes was supported by the trimming of the C-terminal residues from the three inhibitors upon complex formation. This finding suggests that the inhibitors interact with the active site of TAFI in a substrate-like manner. Taken together, these data show for the first time that TAFI is able to form a bona fide complex with protein carboxypeptidase inhibitors. This underlines the unusually flexible nature of the pro-domain and implies a possible mechanism for regulation of TAFI intrinsic proteolytic activity in vivo. PMID:20880845

  19. Small molecule inhibitors of PSD95-nNOS protein-protein interactions as novel analgesics

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Wan-Hung; Xu, Zhili; Ashpole, Nicole M.; Hudmon, Andy; Kulkarni, Pushkar M.; Thakur, Ganesh A.; Lai, Yvonne Y.; Hohmann, Andrea G.

    2015-01-01

    Aberrant increases in NMDA receptor (NMDAR) signaling contributes to central nervous system sensitization and chronic pain by activating neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) and generating nitric oxide (NO). Because the scaffolding protein postsynaptic density 95kDA (PSD95) tethers nNOS to NMDARs, the PSD95-nNOS complex represents a therapeutic target. Small molecule inhibitors IC87201 (EC5O: 23.94 µM) and ZL006 (EC50: 12.88 µM) directly inhibited binding of purified PSD95 and nNOS proteins in AlphaScreen without altering binding of PSD95 to ErbB4. Both PSD95-nNOS inhibitors suppressed glutamate-induced cell death with efficacy comparable to MK-801. IC87201 and ZL006 preferentially suppressed phase 2A pain behavior in the formalin test and suppressed allodynia induced by intraplantar complete Freund’s adjuvant administration. IC87201 and ZL006 suppressed mechanical and cold allodynia induced by the chemotherapeutic agent paclitaxel (ED50s: 2.47 and 0.93 mg/kg i.p. for IC87201 and ZL006, respectively). Efficacy of PSD95-nNOS disruptors was similar to MK-801. Motor ataxic effects were induced by MK-801 but not by ZL006 or IC87201. Finally, MK-801 produced hyperalgesia in the tail-flick test whereas IC87201 and ZL006 did not alter basal nociceptive thresholds. Our studies establish the utility of using AlphaScreen and purified protein pairs to establish and quantify disruption of protein-protein interactions. Our results demonstrate previously unrecognized antinociceptive efficacy of ZL006 and establish, using two small molecules, a broad application for PSD95-nNOS inhibitors in treating neuropathic and inflammatory pain. Collectively, our results demonstrate that disrupting PSD95-nNOS protein-protein interactions is effective in attenuating pathological pain without producing unwanted side effects (i.e. motor ataxia) associated with NMDAR antagonists. PMID:26071110

  20. Constrained Cyclic Peptides as Immunomodulatory Inhibitors of the CD2:CD58 Protein-Protein Interaction.

    PubMed

    Sable, Rushikesh; Durek, Thomas; Taneja, Veena; Craik, David J; Pallerla, Sandeep; Gauthier, Ted; Jois, Seetharama

    2016-08-19

    The interaction between the cell-cell adhesion proteins CD2 and CD58 plays a crucial role in lymphocyte recruitment to inflammatory sites, and inhibitors of this interaction have potential as immunomodulatory drugs in autoimmune diseases. Peptides from the CD2 adhesion domain were designed to inhibit CD2:CD58 interactions. To improve the stability of the peptides, β-sheet epitopes from the CD2 region implicated in CD58 recognition were grafted into the cyclic peptide frameworks of sunflower trypsin inhibitor and rhesus theta defensin. The designed multicyclic peptides were evaluated for their ability to modulate cell-cell interactions in three different cell adhesion assays, with one candidate, SFTI-a, showing potent activity in the nanomolar range (IC50: 51 nM). This peptide also suppresses the immune responses in T cells obtained from mice that exhibit the autoimmune disease rheumatoid arthritis. SFTI-a was resistant to thermal denaturation, as judged by circular dichroism spectroscopy and mass spectrometry, and had a half-life of ∼24 h in human serum. Binding of this peptide to CD58 was predicted by molecular docking studies and experimentally confirmed by surface plasmon resonance experiments. Our results suggest that cyclic peptides from natural sources are promising scaffolds for modulating protein-protein interactions that are typically difficult to target with small-molecule compounds.

  1. IAPs on the move: role of inhibitors of apoptosis proteins in cell migration.

    PubMed

    Oberoi-Khanuja, T K; Murali, A; Rajalingam, K

    2013-09-05

    Inhibitors of Apoptosis Proteins (IAPs) are a class of highly conserved proteins predominantly known for the regulation of caspases and immune signaling. However, recent evidence suggests a crucial role for these molecules in the regulation of tumor cell shape and migration by controlling MAPK, NF-κB and Rho GTPases. IAPs directly control Rho GTPases, thus regulating cell shape and migration. For instance, XIAP and cIAP1 function as the direct E3 ubiquitin ligases of Rac1 and target it for proteasomal degradation. IAPs are differentially expressed in tumor cells and have been targeted by several cancer therapeutic drugs that are currently in clinical trials. Here, we summarize the current knowledge on the role of IAPs in the regulation of cell migration and discuss the possible implications of these observations in regulating tumor cell metastases.

  2. [Molecular cloning and analysis of cDNA sequences encoding serine proteinase and Kunitz type inhibitor in venom gland of Vipera nikolskii viper].

    PubMed

    Ramazanova, A S; Fil'kin, S Iu; Starkov, V G; Utkin, Iu N

    2011-01-01

    Serine proteinases and Kunitz type inhibitors are widely represented in venoms of snakes from different genera. During the study of the venoms from snakes inhabiting Russia we have cloned cDNAs encoding new proteins belonging to these protein families. Thus, a new serine proteinase called nikobin was identified in the venom gland of Vipera nikolskii viper. By amino acid sequence deduced from the cDNA sequence, nikobin differs from serine proteinases identified in other snake species. Nikobin amino acid sequence contains 15 unique substitutions. This is the first serine proteinase of viper from Vipera genus for which a complete amino acid sequence established. The cDNA encoding Kunitz type inhibitor was also cloned. The deduced amino acid sequence of inhibitor is homologous to those of other proteins from that snakes of Vipera genus. However there are several unusual amino acid substitutions that might result in the change of biological activity of inhibitor.

  3. Phosphonate derivatives of tetraazamacrocycles as new inhibitors of protein tyrosine phosphatases.

    PubMed

    Kobzar, Oleksandr L; Shevchuk, Michael V; Lyashenko, Alesya N; Tanchuk, Vsevolod Yu; Romanenko, Vadim D; Kobelev, Sergei M; Averin, Alexei D; Beletskaya, Irina P; Vovk, Andriy I; Kukhar, Valery P

    2015-07-21

    α,α-Difluoro-β-ketophosphonated derivatives of tetraazamacrocycles were synthesized and found to be potential inhibitors of protein tyrosine phosphatases. N-Substituted conjugates of cyclam and cyclen with bioisosteric phosphonate groups displayed good activities toward T-cell protein tyrosine phosphatase with IC50 values in the micromolar to nanomolar range and showed selectivity over PTP1B, CD45, SHP2, and PTPβ. Kinetic studies indicated that the inhibitors can occupy the region of the active site of TC-PTP. This study demonstrates a new approach which employs tetraazamacrocycles as a molecular platform for designing inhibitors of protein tyrosine phosphatases.

  4. Development of α-glucosidase inhibitors by room temperature C-C cross couplings of quinazolinones.

    PubMed

    Garlapati, Ramesh; Pottabathini, Narender; Gurram, Venkateshwarlu; Kasani, Kumara Swamy; Gundla, Rambabu; Thulluri, Chiranjeevi; Machiraju, Pavan Kumar; Chaudhary, Avinash B; Addepally, Uma; Dayam, Raveendra; Chunduri, Venkata Rao; Patro, Balaram

    2013-08-07

    Novel quinazolinone based α-glucosidase inhibitors have been developed. For this purpose a virtual screening model has been generated and validated utilizing acarbose as a α-glucosidase inhibitor. Homology modeling, docking, and virtual screening were successfully employed to discover a set of structurally diverse compounds active against α-glucosidase. A search of a 3D database containing 22,500 small molecules using the structure based virtual model yielded ten possible candidates. All ten candidates were N-3-pyridyl-2-cyclopropyl quinazolinone-4-one derivatives, varying at the 6 position. This position was modified by Suzuki-Miyaura cross coupling with aryl, heteroaryl, and alkyl boronic acids. A catalyst screen was performed, and using the best optimal conditions, a series of twenty five compounds was synthesized. Notably, the C-C cross coupling reactions of the 6-bromo-2-cyclopropyl-3-(pyridyl-3-ylmethyl)quinazolin-4(3H)-one precursor have been accomplished at room temperature. A comparison of the relative reactivities of 6-bromo and 6-chloro-2,3-disubstituted quinazolinones with phenyl boronic acid was conducted. An investigation of pre-catalyst loading for the reaction of the 6-bromo-2-cyclopropyl-3-(pyridyl-3-ylmethyl)quinazolin-4(3H)-one substrate was also carried out. Finally, we submitted our compounds to biological assays against α-glucosidase inhibitors. Of these, three hits (compounds 4a, 4t and 4r) were potentially active as α-glucosidase inhibitors and showed activity with IC50 values <20 μM. Based on structural novelty and desirable drug-like properties, 4a was selected for structure-activity relationship study, and thirteen analogs were synthesized. Nine out of thirteen analogs acted as α-glucosidase inhibitors with IC50 values <10 μM. These lead compounds have desirable physicochemical properties and are excellent candidates for further optimization.

  5. Structure-based design of isoquinoline-5-sulfonamide inhibitors of protein kinase B.

    PubMed

    Collins, Ian; Caldwell, John; Fonseca, Tatiana; Donald, Alastair; Bavetsias, Vassilios; Hunter, Lisa-Jane K; Garrett, Michelle D; Rowlands, Martin G; Aherne, G Wynne; Davies, Thomas G; Berdini, Valerio; Woodhead, Steven J; Davis, Deborah; Seavers, Lisa C A; Wyatt, Paul G; Workman, Paul; McDonald, Edward

    2006-02-15

    Structure-based drug design of novel isoquinoline-5-sulfonamide inhibitors of PKB as potential antitumour agents was investigated. Constrained pyrrolidine analogues that mimicked the bound conformation of linear prototypes were identified and investigated by co-crystal structure determinations with the related protein PKA. Detailed variation in the binding modes between inhibitors with similar overall conformations was observed. Potent PKB inhibitors from this series inhibited GSK3beta phosphorylation in cellular assays, consistent with inhibition of PKB kinase activity in cells.

  6. Association of Tenebrio molitor L. alpha-amylase with two protein inhibitors--one monomeric, one dimeric--from wheat flour. Differential scanning calorimetric comparison of heat stabilities.

    PubMed

    Silano, V; Zahnley, J C

    1978-03-28

    Thermal stabilization resulting from protein . protein association between two protein inhibitors (coded as 0.19, a dimer, and 0.28, a monomer) from wheat flour and the alpha-amylase from Tenebrio molitor L. (yellow mealworm) larvae was investigated by differential scanning calorimetry (heating rate 10 degrees C/min). Thermograms (plots of heat flow vs. temperature) for the two inhibitors showed broad endothermic peaks with the same extrema (denaturation temperatures) at 93 degrees C, and equal, small enthalpies of denaturation (2 cal/g). The amylase produced a sharp endotherm at 70.5 degrees C, but a larger enthalpy change on denaturation (6 cal/g). The amylase . inhibitor complexes differed in thermal stability, but both showed significant stabilization relative to free enzyme. The complex formed with monomeric inhibitor 0.28 showed a higher denaturation temperature (85.0 degrees C) than that formed with dimeric inhibitor 0.19 (80.5 degrees C). This order of stabilization agrees with the relative affinities of the inhibitors for the amylase. These thermograms are consistent with previous results which indicated that 1 mol of amylase binds 1 mol of inhibitor 0.19.

  7. Comparison of newly developed anti-bone morphogenetic protein 4 llama-derived antibodies with commercially available BMP4 inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Calpe, Silvia; Correia, Ana C. P.; Sancho-Serra, Maria del Carmen; Krishnadath, Kausilia K.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Due to improved understanding of the role of bone morphogenetic protein 4 (BMP4) in an increasing number of diseases, the development of selective inhibitors of BMP4 is an attractive therapeutic option. The currently available BMP4 inhibitors are not suitable as therapeutics because of their low specificity and low effectiveness. Here, we compared newly generated anti-BMP4 llama-derived antibodies (VHHs) with 3 different types of commercially available BMP4 inhibitors, natural antagonists, small molecule BMPR inhibitors and conventional anti-BMP4 monoclonal antibodies. We found that the anti-BMP4 VHHs were as effective as the natural antagonist or small molecule inhibitors, but had higher specificity. We also showed that commercial anti-BMP4 antibodies were inferior in terms of both specificity and effectiveness. These findings might result from the fact that the VHHs C4C4 and C8C8 target a small region within the BMPR1 epitope of BMP4, whereas the commercial antibodies target other areas of the BMP4 molecule. Our results show that the newly developed anti-BMP4 VHHs are promising antibodies with better specificity and effectivity for inhibition of BMP4, making them an attractive tool for research and for therapeutic applications. PMID:26967714

  8. Purification and characterization of two potent heat-stable protein inhibitors of protein phosphatase 2A from bovine kidney.

    PubMed

    Li, M; Guo, H; Damuni, Z

    1995-02-14

    Two heat-stable protein inhibitors of protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A), tentatively designated I1PP2A and I2PP2A, have been purified to apparent homogeneity from extracts of bovine kidney. The purified preparations of I1PP2A exhibited an apparent M(r) approximately 30,000 and 250,000 as determined by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and gel permeation chromatography on Sephacryl S-300, respectively. In contrast, the purified preparations of I2PP2A exhibited an apparent M(r) approximately 20,000 and 80,000 as determined by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and gel permeation chromatography on Sephacryl S-200, respectively. The purified preparations of I1PP2A and I2PP2A inhibited PP2A with 32P-labeled myelin basic protein, 32P-labeled histone H1, 32P-labeled pyruvate dehydrogenase complex, 32P-labeled phosphorylase, and protamine kinase as substrates. By contrast, I1PP2A and I2PP2A exhibited little effect, if any, on the activity of PP2A with 32P-labeled casein, and did not prevent the autodephosphorylation of PP2A in incubations with the autophosphorylation-activated protein kinase [Guo, H., & Damuni, Z. (1993) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 90, 2500-2504]. The purified preparations of I1PP2A and I2PP2A had little effect, if any, on the activities of protein phosphatase 1, protein phosphatase 2B, protein phosphatase 2C, and pyruvate dehydrogenase phosphatase. With 32P-labeled MBP as a substrate, kinetic analysis according to Henderson showed that I1PP2A and I2PP2A were noncompetitive and displayed a Ki of about 30 and 25 nM, respectively. Following cleavage with Staphylococcus aureus V8 protease, I1PP2A and I2PP2A displayed distinct peptide patterns, indicating that these inhibitor proteins are the products of distinct genes. The N-terminal amino acid sequences of the purified preparations indicate that I1PP2A and I2PP2A are novel proteins.

  9. Effect of hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA reductase inhibitors on low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, interleukin-6, and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein in end-stage renal disease.

    PubMed

    Soliemani, Alireza; Nikoueinejad, Hassan; Tabatabaizade, Mashallah; Mianehsaz, Elaheh; Tamadon, Mohamadreza

    2011-01-01

    INTRODUCTION. This study was conducted to determine the effect of statins on the serum levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDLC), and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (HSCPR). MATERIALS AND METHODS. This randomized clinical trial was carried out on 95 hemodialysis patients divided into three groups of atorvastatin, 10 mg; simvastatin, 20 mg; and lovastatin, 40 mg, daily, administered for 2 months. Levels of serum HSCRP, IL-6, and LDLC were all measured before and after the study period. RESULTS. At baseline, 59% of the hemodialysis patients presented with elevated HSCRP, 46.3% them had increased IL-6, and 26.3% had an increased LDLC level. The three drugs were capable to lower the level of HSCRP, among which atorvastatin had the highest effect size (41.8% reduction, P = .001). Lovastatin stood in the next (37.6% reduction, P = .02), while HSCRP reduction was not significant in the simvastatin group (25% reduction, P = .14). Neither of the drugs significantly reduced IL-6 levels. Effects of atorvastatin and simvastatin on the LDLC levels were significant, while lovastatin had a marginal effect. CONCLUSIONS. Use of statins resulted in CRP reduction in patients on hemodialysis. Atorvastatin was much more effective than lovastatin, while CRP reduction was not significant by simvastatin. However, simvastatin had the greatest impact on LDLC. None of these drugs could reduce IL-6 levels within 2 months.

  10. Hepatitis C virus infection protein network.

    PubMed

    de Chassey, B; Navratil, V; Tafforeau, L; Hiet, M S; Aublin-Gex, A; Agaugué, S; Meiffren, G; Pradezynski, F; Faria, B F; Chantier, T; Le Breton, M; Pellet, J; Davoust, N; Mangeot, P E; Chaboud, A; Penin, F; Jacob, Y; Vidalain, P O; Vidal, M; André, P; Rabourdin-Combe, C; Lotteau, V

    2008-01-01

    A proteome-wide mapping of interactions between hepatitis C virus (HCV) and human proteins was performed to provide a comprehensive view of the cellular infection. A total of 314 protein-protein interactions between HCV and human proteins was identified by yeast two-hybrid and 170 by literature mining. Integration of this data set into a reconstructed human interactome showed that cellular proteins interacting with HCV are enriched in highly central and interconnected proteins. A global analysis on the basis of functional annotation highlighted the enrichment of cellular pathways targeted by HCV. A network of proteins associated with frequent clinical disorders of chronically infected patients was constructed by connecting the insulin, Jak/STAT and TGFbeta pathways with cellular proteins targeted by HCV. CORE protein appeared as a major perturbator of this network. Focal adhesion was identified as a new function affected by HCV, mainly by NS3 and NS5A proteins.

  11. Involvement of protein kinase C, phospholipase C, and protein tyrosine kinase pathways in oxygen radical generation by asbestos-stimulated alveolar macrophage.

    PubMed

    Lim, Y; Kim, S H; Kim, K A; Oh, M W; Lee, K H

    1997-09-01

    Although asbestos stimulates oxygen radical generation in alveolar macrophages, the exact mechanism is still not clear. The purpose of this study was to compare the ability of three asbestos fibers (amosite, chrysotile, and crocidolite) to generate oxygen radicals in macrophages and examine the mechanism of this action. All asbestos fibers were able to induce chemiluminescence but chrysotile induced maximal chemiluminescence at higher concentrations than amosite and crocidolite. Protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitors (sphingosine and staurosporine) suppressed the ability of asbestos to induce oxygen radical generation. Phospholipase C (PLC) inhibitors (U73122 and neomycin) and protein tyrosine kinase (PTK) inhibitors (erbstatin and genistein) decreased oxygen radical generation of asbestos-stimulated alveolar macrophages. Oxygen radical generation was not suppressed by an adenylate cyclase activator (forskolin), a protein kinase A inhibitor (H-8), and a protein serine-threonine phosphatase inhibitor (okadaic acid). PLC and PTK inhibitors suppressed the increment of phosphoinositide turnover by amosite. These results suggest that asbestos fibers induce the generation of oxygen radicals through PTK, PLC, and PKC pathways in a dose-response pattern.

  12. Structural studies of a baboon (Papio sp.) plasma protein inhibitor of cholesteryl ester transferase.

    PubMed

    Buchko, G W; Rozek, A; Kanda, P; Kennedy, M A; Cushley, R J

    2000-08-01

    A 38-residue protein associated with cholesteryl ester transfer inhibition has been identified in baboons (Papio sp.). The cholesteryl ester transfer inhibitor protein (CETIP) corresponds to the N-terminus of baboon apoC-I. Relative to CETIP, baboon apoC-I is a weak inhibitor of baboon cholesteryl ester transferase (CET). To study the structural features responsible for CET inhibition, CETIP was synthesized by solid-phase methods. Using sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) to model the lipoprotein environment, the solution structure of CETIP was probed by optical and 1H NMR spectroscopy. Circular dichroism data show that the protein lacks a well-defined structure in water but, upon the addition of SDS, becomes helical (56%). A small blue shift of 8 nm was observed in the intrinsic tryptophan fluorescence of CETIP in the presence of saturating amounts of SDS, suggesting that tryptophan-23 is not buried deeply in the lipid environment. The helical nature of CETIP in the presence of SDS was confirmed by upfield 1Halpha secondary shifts and an average solution structure determined by distance geometry/simulated annealing calculations using 476 NOE-based distance restraints. The backbone (N-Calpha-C=O) root-mean-square deviation of an ensemble of 17 out of 25 calculated structures superimposed on the average structure was 1.06+0.30 A using residues V4-P35 and 0.51+/-0.17 A using residues A7-S32. Although the side-chain orientations fit the basic description of a class A amphipathic helix, both intramolecular salt bridge formation and "snorkeling" of basic side chains toward the polar face play minor, if any, roles in stabilizing the lipid-bound amphipathic structure. Conformational features of the calculated structures for CETIP are discussed relative to models of CETIP inhibition of cholesteryl ester transferase.

  13. Development of Noviomimetics as C-Terminal Hsp90 Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    KU-32 and KU-596 are novobiocin-derived, C-terminal heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) modulators that induce Hsp70 levels and manifest neuroprotective activity. However, the synthetically complex noviose sugar requires 10 steps to prepare, which makes translational development difficult. In this study, we developed a series of “noviomimetic” analogues of KU-596, which contain noviose surrogates that can be easily prepared, while maintaining the ability to induce Hsp70 levels. Both sugar and sugar analogues were designed, synthesized, and evaluated in a luciferase reporter assay, which identified compound 37, a benzyl containing noviomimetic, as the most potent inducer of Hsp70. PMID:26819668

  14. Surfing the Protein-Protein Interaction Surface Using Docking Methods: Application to the Design of PPI Inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Sable, Rushikesh; Jois, Seetharama

    2015-06-23

    Blocking protein-protein interactions (PPI) using small molecules or peptides modulates biochemical pathways and has therapeutic significance. PPI inhibition for designing drug-like molecules is a new area that has been explored extensively during the last decade. Considering the number of available PPI inhibitor databases and the limited number of 3D structures available for proteins, docking and scoring methods play a major role in designing PPI inhibitors as well as stabilizers. Docking methods are used in the design of PPI inhibitors at several stages of finding a lead compound, including modeling the protein complex, screening for hot spots on the protein-protein interaction interface and screening small molecules or peptides that bind to the PPI interface. There are three major challenges to the use of docking on the relatively flat surfaces of PPI. In this review we will provide some examples of the use of docking in PPI inhibitor design as well as its limitations. The combination of experimental and docking methods with improved scoring function has thus far resulted in few success stories of PPI inhibitors for therapeutic purposes. Docking algorithms used for PPI are in the early stages, however, and as more data are available docking will become a highly promising area in the design of PPI inhibitors or stabilizers.

  15. Resistance of human glioblastoma multiforme cells to growth factor inhibitors is overcome by blockade of inhibitor of apoptosis proteins

    PubMed Central

    Ziegler, David S.; Wright, Renee D.; Kesari, Santosh; Lemieux, Madeleine E.; Tran, Mary A.; Jain, Monish; Zawel, Leigh; Kung, Andrew L.

    2008-01-01

    Multiple receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs), including PDGFR, have been validated as therapeutic targets in glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), yet inhibitors of RTKs have had limited clinical success. As various antiapoptotic mechanisms render GBM cells resistant to chemo- and radiotherapy, we hypothesized that these antiapoptotic mechanisms also confer resistance to RTK inhibition. We found that in vitro inhibition of PDGFR in human GBM cells initiated the intrinsic pathway of apoptosis, as evidenced by mitochondrial outer membrane permeabilization, but downstream caspase activation was blocked by inhibitor of apoptosis proteins (IAPs). Consistent with this, inhibition of PDGFR combined with small molecule inactivation of IAPs induced apoptosis in human GBM cells in vitro and had synergistic antitumor effects in orthotopic mouse models of GBM and in primary human GBM neurospheres. These results demonstrate that concomitant inhibition of IAPs can overcome resistance to RTK inhibitors in human malignant GBM cells, and suggest that blockade of IAPs has the potential to improve treatment outcomes in patients with GBM. PMID:18677408

  16. cDNA cloning and heterologous expression of a wheat proteinase inhibitor of subtilisin and chymotrypsin (WSCI) that interferes with digestive enzymes of insect pests.

    PubMed

    Di Gennaro, Simone; Ficca, Anna G; Panichi, Daniela; Poerio, Elia

    2005-04-01

    A cDNA encoding the proteinase inhibitor WSCI (wheat subtilisin/chymotrypsin inhibitor) was isolated by RT-PCR. Degenerate oligonucleotide primers were designed based on the amino acid sequence of WSCI and on the nucleotide sequence of the two homologous inhibitors (CI-2A and CI-2B) isolated from barley. For large-scale production, wsci cDNA was cloned into the E. coli vector pGEX-2T. The fusion protein GST-WSCI was efficiently produced in the bacterial expression system and, as the native inhibitor, was capable of inhibiting bacterial subtilisin, mammalian chymotrypsins and chymotrypsin-like activities present in crude extracts of a number of insect larvae ( Helicoverpa armigera , Plodia interpunctella and Tenebrio molitor ). The recombinant protein produced was also able to interfere with chymotrypsin-like activity isolated from immature wheat caryopses. These findings support a physiological role for this inhibitor during grain maturation.

  17. cGMP-Dependent Protein Kinases and cGMP Phosphodiesterases in Nitric Oxide and cGMP Action

    PubMed Central

    Busch, Jennifer L.; Corbin, Jackie D.

    2010-01-01

    To date, studies suggest that biological signaling by nitric oxide (NO) is primarily mediated by cGMP, which is synthesized by NO-activated guanylyl cyclases and broken down by cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases (PDEs). Effects of cGMP occur through three main groups of cellular targets: cGMP-dependent protein kinases (PKGs), cGMP-gated cation channels, and PDEs. cGMP binding activates PKG, which phosphorylates serines and threonines on many cellular proteins, frequently resulting in changes in activity or function, subcellular localization, or regulatory features. The proteins that are so modified by PKG commonly regulate calcium homeostasis, calcium sensitivity of cellular proteins, platelet activation and adhesion, smooth muscle contraction, cardiac function, gene expression, feedback of the NO-signaling pathway, and other processes. Current therapies that have successfully targeted the NO-signaling pathway include nitrovasodilators (nitroglycerin), PDE5 inhibitors [sildenafil (Viagra and Revatio), vardenafil (Levitra), and tadalafil (Cialis and Adcirca)] for treatment of a number of vascular diseases including angina pectoris, erectile dysfunction, and pulmonary hypertension; the PDE3 inhibitors [cilostazol (Pletal) and milrinone (Primacor)] are used for treatment of intermittent claudication and acute heart failure, respectively. Potential for use of these medications in the treatment of other maladies continues to emerge. PMID:20716671

  18. Tumor promotion by depleting cells of protein kinase C delta.

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Z; Hornia, A; Jiang, Y W; Zang, Q; Ohno, S; Foster, D A

    1997-01-01

    Tumor-promoting phorbol esters activate, but then deplete cells of, protein kinase C (PKC) with prolonged treatment. It is not known whether phorbol ester-induced tumor promotion is due to activation or depletion of PKC. In rat fibroblasts overexpressing the c-Src proto-oncogene, the phorbol ester 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) induced anchorage-independent growth and other transformation-related phenotypes. The appearance of transformed phenotypes induced by TPA in these cells correlated not with activation but rather with depletion of expressed PKC isoforms. Consistent with this observation, PKC inhibitors also induced transformed phenotypes in c-Src-overexpressing cells. Bryostatin 1, which inhibited the TPA-induced down-regulation of the PKCdelta isoform specifically, blocked the tumor-promoting effects of TPA, implicating PKCdelta as the target of the tumor-promoting phorbol esters. Consistent with this hypothesis, expression of a dominant negative PKCdelta mutant in cells expressing c-Src caused transformation of these cells, and rottlerin, a protein kinase inhibitor with specificity for PKCdelta, like TPA, caused transformation of c-Src-overexpressing cells. These data suggest that the tumor-promoting effect of phorbol esters is due to depletion of PKCdelta, which has an apparent tumor suppressor function. PMID:9154841

  19. A cotton gene encoding a polygalacturonase inhibitor-like protein is specifically expressed in petals.

    PubMed

    Shi, Haiyan; Zhu, Li; Zhou, Ying; Li, Gang; Chen, Liang; Li, Xuebao

    2009-04-01

    A cDNA encoding a polygalacturonase-inhibitor-like protein (PGIP) was isolated from cotton flower cDNA library. The cDNA, designated GhPS1 (GenBank accession No. ABO47744), encodes a protein with 370 amino acids that shares high similarity with the known plant PGIPs. Fluorescent microscopy indicated that GhPS1 protein localizes on the cell membranes as well as in cytoplasm. Real-time quantitative RT-PCR and Northern blot analyses showed that GhPS1 was specifically expressed in cotton petals. Furthermore, the GhPS1 expression was gradually up-regulated in petal development, and its transcripts were accumulated to the highest level in the petals at anthesis. However, its expression level was declined rapidly in senesced petals after flowering. At low temperature, the GhPS1 gene expression was gradually decreased to very low level in petals. Collectively, our results suggest that GhPS1 gene might be involved in cotton petal development and senescence, and in response to cold stress.

  20. The tumor-suppressive reagent taurolidine is an inhibitor of protein biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Braumann, Chris; Henke, Wolfgang; Jacobi, Christoph A; Dubiel, Wolfgang

    2004-11-01

    Taurolidine has been successfully used as a disinfectant and to prevent the spreading and growth of tumor cells after surgical excision. However, the underlying mechanisms regarding its effects remain obscure. Here, we show that taurolidine treatment reduces endogenous levels of IkappaBalpha, p105, c-Jun, p53 and p27 in a dose-dependent manner in colon adenocarcinoma cells, which can be in part due to massive cell death. Because expression of tested proteins was affected by taurolidine, its influence on protein expression was studied. In the coupled transcription/translation system, taurolidine inhibited c-Jun expression with an IC50 value of 1.4 mM. There was no or little effect on transcription. In contrast, translation of c-Jun or p53 mRNA was completely inhibited by taurolidine. To determine which step of translation was affected, prominent complexes occurring in the course of translation were analyzed by density gradient centrifugation. In the presence of taurolidine, no preinitiation translation complex was assembled. Taurolidine also suppressed protein expression in bacteria. Based on our data, we conclude that taurolidine blocks a fundamental early phase of translation, which might explain its effects as a disinfectant and inhibitor of tumor growth.

  1. Anticancer osmium complex inhibitors of the HIF-1α and p300 protein-protein interaction

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Chao; Wang, Wanhe; Li, Guo-Dong; Zhong, Hai-Jing; Dong, Zhen-Zhen; Wong, Chun-Yuen; Kwong, Daniel W. J.; Ma, Dik-Lung; Leung, Chung-Hang

    2017-01-01

    The hypoxia inducible factor (HIF) pathway has been considered to be an attractive anti-cancer target. One strategy to inhibit HIF activity is through the disruption of the HIF-1α–p300 protein-protein interaction. We report herein the identification of an osmium(II) complex as the first metal-based inhibitor of the HIF-1α–p300 interaction. We evaluated the effect of complex 1 on HIF-1α signaling pathway in vitro and in cellulo by using the dual luciferase reporter assay, co-immunoprecipitation assay, and immunoblot assay. Complex 1 exhibited a dose-dependent inhibition of HRE-driven luciferase activity, with an IC50 value of 1.22 μM. Complex 1 interfered with the HIF-1α–p300 interaction as revealed by a dose-dependent reduction of p300 co-precipitated with HIF-1α as the concentration of complex 1 was increased. Complex 1 repressed the phosphorylation of SRC, AKT and STAT3, and had no discernible effect on the activity of NF-κB. We anticipate that complex 1 could be utilized as a promising scaffold for the further development of more potent HIF-1α inhibitors for anti-cancer treatment. PMID:28225008

  2. A Cell-Permeable Inhibitor to Trap Gαq Proteins in the Empty Pocket Conformation

    PubMed Central

    Schmitz, Anna-Lena; Schrage, Ramona; Gaffal, Evelyn; Charpentier, Thomas H.; Wiest, Johannes; Hiltensperger, Georg; Morschel, Julia; Hennen, Stephanie; Häußler, Daniela; Horn, Velten; Wenzel, Daniela; Grundmann, Manuel; Büllesbach, Katrin M.; Schröder, Ralf; Brewitz, H. Henning; Schmidt, Johannes; Gomeza, Jesús; Galés, Céline; Fleischmann, Bernd K.; Tüting, Thomas; Imhof, Diana; Tietze, Daniel; Gütschow, Michael; Holzgrabe, Ulrike; Sondek, John; Harden, T. Kendall; Mohr, Klaus; Kostenis, Evi

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY In spite of the crucial role of heterotrimeric G proteins as molecular switches transmitting signals from G protein-coupled receptors, their selective manipulation with small molecule, cell-permeable inhibitors still remains an unmet challenge. Here, we report that the small molecule BIM-46187, previously classified as pan-G protein inhibitor, preferentially silences Gαq signaling in a cellular context-dependent manner. Investigations into its mode of action reveal that BIM traps Gαq in the empty pocket conformation by permitting GDP exit but interdicting GTP entry, a molecular mechanism not yet assigned to any other small molecule Gα inhibitor to date. Our data show that Gα proteins may be “frozen” pharmacologically in an intermediate conformation along their activation pathway and propose a pharmacological strategy to specifically silence Gα subclasses with cell-permeable inhibitors. PMID:25036778

  3. Influence of ACE I/D Polymorphism on Circulating Levels of Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor 1, D-Dimer, Ultrasensitive C-Reactive Protein and Transforming Growth Factor β1 in Patients Undergoing Hemodialysis

    PubMed Central

    de Carvalho, Sara Santos; Simões e Silva, Ana Cristina; Sabino, Adriano de Paula; Evangelista, Fernanda Cristina Gontijo; Gomes, Karina Braga; Dusse, Luci Maria SantAna; Rios, Danyelle Romana Alves

    2016-01-01

    Background There is substantial evidence that chronic renal and cardiovascular diseases are associated with coagulation disorders, endothelial dysfunction, inflammation and fibrosis. Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Insertion/Deletion polymorphism (ACE I/D polymorphism) has also be linked to cardiovascular diseases. Therefore, this study aimed to compare plasma levels of ultrassensible C-reactive protein (usCRP), PAI-1, D-dimer and TGF-β1 in patients undergoing HD with different ACE I/D polymorphisms. Methods The study was performed in 138 patients at ESRD under hemodialysis therapy for more than six months. The patients were divided into three groups according to the genotype. Genomic DNA was extracted from blood cells (leukocytes). ACE I/D polymorphism was investigated by single polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Plasma levels of D-dimer, PAI-1 and TGF-β1 were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and the determination of plasma levels of usCRP was performed by immunonephelometry. Data were analyzed by the software SigmaStat 2.03. Results Clinical characteristics were similar in patients with these three ACE I/D polymorphisms, except for interdialytic weight gain. I allele could be associated with higher interdialytic weight gain (P = 0.017). Patients genotyped as DD and as ID had significantly higher levels of PAI-1 than those with II genotype. Other laboratory parameters did not significantly differ among the three subgroups (P = 0.033). Despite not reaching statistical significance, plasma levels of usCRP were higher in patients carrying the D allele. Conclusion ACE I/D polymorphisms could be associated with changes in the regulation of sodium, fibrinolytic system, and possibly, inflammation. Our data showed that high levels of PAI-1 are detected when D allele is present, whereas greater interdialytic gain is associated with the presence of I allele. However, further studies with different experimental designs are necessary to elucidate the

  4. Hepatitis C virus infection protein network

    PubMed Central

    de Chassey, B; Navratil, V; Tafforeau, L; Hiet, M S; Aublin-Gex, A; Agaugué, S; Meiffren, G; Pradezynski, F; Faria, B F; Chantier, T; Le Breton, M; Pellet, J; Davoust, N; Mangeot, P E; Chaboud, A; Penin, F; Jacob, Y; Vidalain, P O; Vidal, M; André, P; Rabourdin-Combe, C; Lotteau, V

    2008-01-01

    A proteome-wide mapping of interactions between hepatitis C virus (HCV) and human proteins was performed to provide a comprehensive view of the cellular infection. A total of 314 protein–protein interactions between HCV and human proteins was identified by yeast two-hybrid and 170 by literature mining. Integration of this data set into a reconstructed human interactome showed that cellular proteins interacting with HCV are enriched in highly central and interconnected proteins. A global analysis on the basis of functional annotation highlighted the enrichment of cellular pathways targeted by HCV. A network of proteins associated with frequent clinical disorders of chronically infected patients was constructed by connecting the insulin, Jak/STAT and TGFβ pathways with cellular proteins targeted by HCV. CORE protein appeared as a major perturbator of this network. Focal adhesion was identified as a new function affected by HCV, mainly by NS3 and NS5A proteins. PMID:18985028

  5. Bis-ANS as a specific inhibitor for microtubule-associated protein induced assembly of tubulin.

    PubMed

    Mazumdar, M; Parrack, P K; Mukhopadhyay, K; Bhattacharyya, B

    1992-07-21

    5,5'-Bis[8-(phenylamino)-1-naphthalenesulfonate] (bis-ANS), the fluorescent probe which binds to tubulin, inhibits its assembly into microtubules [Horowitz et al. (1984) J. Biol. Chem. 259, 14647-14650]. The results described in this paper demonstrate that bis-ANS is quite distinct from other well-known microtubule inhibitors in its specificity of action. The inhibitory potentials of bis-ANS and its three structural analogues ANS, Prodan [6-propionyl-2-(dimethylamino)naphthalene], and NSA (naphthalenesulfonic acid) have been compared. It is found that they can be arranged in the following order according to their polymerization inhibitory potentials: bis-ANS approximately equal to Prodan much greater than ANS greater than NSA. Interestingly, the naphthalene nucleus is sufficient to cause inhibition of polymerization. Detailed experiments were carried out to examine the mode of assembly inhibition by aminonaphthalenes at the molecular level, using bis-ANS as a representative. It was found that there was little or no effect of bis-ANS on the assembly of tubulin when polymerization was induced by assembly promoters like taxol, DMSO, or glutamate, or on the assembly of subtilisin-digested protein (tubulin S), for all of which half-maximal inhibition could not be achieved even at 120 microM bis-ANS. On the contrary, bis-ANS acts as an inhibitor in the case of MAP- (MAP2 and tau) and poly(L-lysine)-induced assembly of tubulin, with half-maximal inhibitory concentrations ranging from 1.5 to 7.6 microM. Our results place bis-ANS as a novel inhibitor, which seems to specifically inhibit C-termini-mediated assembly. Of all assembly inhibitors known so far, none exhibits such selection.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  6. Tetrahydrobenzothiophene inhibitors of hepatitis C virus NS5B polymerase.

    PubMed

    Laporte, M G; Lessen, T A; Leister, L; Cebzanov, D; Amparo, E; Faust, C; Ortlip, D; Bailey, T R; Nitz, T J; Chunduru, S K; Young, D C; Burns, C J

    2006-01-01

    A novel series of selective HCV NS5B RNA dependent RNA polymerase inhibitors has been disclosed. These compounds contain an appropriately substituted tetrahydrobenzothiophene scaffold. This communication will detail the SAR and activities of this series.

  7. Identification of C3b-Binding Small-Molecule Complement Inhibitors Using Cheminformatics.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Brandon L; Skaff, D Andrew; Chatterjee, Arindam; Hanning, Anders; Walker, John K; Wyckoff, Gerald J; Geisbrecht, Brian V

    2017-03-15

    The complement system is an elegantly regulated biochemical cascade formed by the collective molecular recognition properties and proteolytic activities of more than two dozen membrane-bound or serum proteins. Complement plays diverse roles in human physiology, such as acting as a sentry against invading microorganisms, priming of the adaptive immune response, and removal of immune complexes. However, dysregulation of complement can serve as a trigger for a wide range of human diseases, which include autoimmune, inflammatory, and degenerative conditions. Despite several potential advantages of modulating complement with small-molecule inhibitors, small-molecule drugs are highly underrepresented in the current complement-directed therapeutics pipeline. In this study, we have employed a cheminformatics drug discovery approach based on the extensive structural and functional knowledge available for the central proteolytic fragment of the cascade, C3b. Using parallel in silico screening methodologies, we identified 45 small molecules that putatively bind C3b near ligand-guided functional hot spots. Surface plasmon resonance experiments resulted in the validation of seven dose-dependent C3b-binding compounds. Competition-based biochemical assays demonstrated the ability of several C3b-binding compounds to interfere with binding of the original C3b ligand that guided their discovery. In vitro assays of complement function identified a single complement inhibitory compound, termed cmp-5, and mechanistic studies of the cmp-5 inhibitory mode revealed it acts at the level of C5 activation. This study has led to the identification of a promising new class of C3b-binding small-molecule complement inhibitors and, to our knowledge, provides the first demonstration of cheminformatics-based, complement-directed drug discovery.

  8. Crystallographic identification of a noncompetitive inhibitor binding site on the hepatitis C virus NS5B RNA polymerase enzyme.

    PubMed

    Love, Robert A; Parge, Hans E; Yu, Xiu; Hickey, Michael J; Diehl, Wade; Gao, Jingjin; Wriggers, Hilary; Ekker, Anne; Wang, Liann; Thomson, James A; Dragovich, Peter S; Fuhrman, Shella A

    2003-07-01

    The virus-encoded nonstructural protein 5B (NS5B) of hepatitis C virus (HCV) is an RNA-dependent RNA polymerase and is absolutely required for replication of the virus. NS5B exhibits significant differences from cellular polymerases and therefore has become an attractive target for anti-HCV therapy. Using a high-throughput screen, we discovered a novel NS5B inhibitor that binds to the enzyme noncompetitively with respect to nucleotide substrates. Here we report the crystal structure of NS5B complexed with this small molecule inhibitor. Unexpectedly, the inhibitor is bound within a narrow cleft on the protein's surface in the "thumb" domain, about 30 A from the enzyme's catalytic center. The interaction between this inhibitor and NS5B occurs without dramatic changes to the structure of the protein, and sequence analysis suggests that the binding site is conserved across known HCV genotypes. Possible mechanisms of inhibition include perturbation of protein dynamics, interference with RNA binding, and disruption of enzyme oligomerization.

  9. Hereditary angioedema with normal C1 inhibitor: clinical characteristics and treatment response with plasma-derived human C1 inhibitor concentrate (Berinert(®)) in a French cohort.

    PubMed

    Bouillet, Laurence; Boccon-Gibod, Isabelle; Gompel, Anne; Floccard, Bernard; Martin, Ludovic; Blanchard-Delaunay, Claire; Launay, David; Fain, Olivier

    2017-03-01

    Hereditary angioedema (HAE) is a rare genetic disorder characterised by episodes of swelling without urticaria. Berinert® (CSL Behring) is a plasma-derived human C1 inhibitor (C1-INH) concentrate, approved for the treatment of HAE with C1-INH deficiency (C1-INH-HAE), however, it is often used off-label in Europe to treat HAE with normal C1-INH.

  10. Hereditary angioedema in a Jordanian family with a novel missense mutation in the C1-inhibitor N-terminal domain.

    PubMed

    Jaradat, Saied A; Caccia, Sonia; Rawashdeh, Rifaat; Melhem, Motasem; Al-Hawamdeh, Ali; Carzaniga, Thomas; Haddad, Hazem

    2016-03-01

    Hereditary angioedema due to C1-inhibitor deficiency (C1-INH-HAE) is an autosomal dominant disease caused by mutations in the SERPING1 gene. A Jordanian family, including 14 individuals with C1-INH-HAE clinical symptoms, was studied. In the propositus and his parents, SERPING1 had four mutations leading to amino acid substitutions. Two are known polymorphic variants (c.167T>C; p.Val34Ala and c.1438G>A; p.Val458Met), the others are newly described. One (c.203C>T; p.Thr46Ile) is located in the N-terminal domain of the C1-inhibitor protein and segregates with angioedema symptoms in the family. The other (c.800C>T; p.Ala245Val) belongs to the serpin domain, and derives from the unaffected father. DNA from additional 24 family members were screened for c.203C>T mutation in the target gene. All individuals heterozygous for the c.203C>T mutation had antigenic and functional plasma levels of C1-inhibitor below 50% of normal, confirming the diagnosis of type I C1-INH-HAE. Angioedema symptoms were present in 14 of 16 subjects carrier for the c.203T allele. Among these subjects, those carrying the c.800T variation had more severe and frequent symptoms than subjects without this mutation. This family-based study provides the first evidence that multiple amino acid substitutions in SERPING1 could influence C1-INH-HAE phenotype.

  11. Preclinical Characterization of BMS-791325, an Allosteric Inhibitor of Hepatitis C Virus NS5B Polymerase

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Mengping; Gentles, Robert G.; Ding, Min; Voss, Stacey; Pelosi, Lenore A.; Wang, Ying-Kai; Rigat, Karen L.; Mosure, Kathleen W.; Bender, John A.; Knipe, Jay O.; Colonno, Richard; Meanwell, Nicholas A.; Kadow, John F.; Santone, Kenneth S.; Roberts, Susan B.; Gao, Min

    2014-01-01

    BMS-791325 is an allosteric inhibitor that binds to thumb site 1 of the hepatitis C virus (HCV) NS5B RNA-dependent RNA polymerase. BMS-791325 inhibits recombinant NS5B proteins from HCV genotypes 1, 3, 4, and 5 at 50% inhibitory concentrations (IC50) below 28 nM. In cell culture, BMS-791325 inhibited replication of HCV subgenomic replicons representing genotypes 1a and 1b at 50% effective concentrations (EC50s) of 3 nM and 6 nM, respectively, with similar (3 to 18 nM) values for genotypes 3a, 4a, and 5a. Potency against genotype 6a showed more variability (9 to 125 nM), and activity was weaker against genotype 2 (EC50, 87 to 925 nM). Specificity was demonstrated by the absence of activity (EC50s of >4 μM) against a panel of mammalian viruses, and cytotoxic concentrations (50%) were >3,000-fold above the HCV EC50. Resistance substitutions selected by BMS-791325 in genotype 1 replicons mostly mapped to a single site, NS5B amino acid 495 (P495A/S/L/T). Additive or synergistic activity was observed in combination studies using BMS-791325 with alfa interferon plus ribavirin, inhibitors of NS3 protease or NS5A, and other classes of NS5B inhibitor (palm site 2-binding or nucleoside analogs). Plasma and liver exposures in vivo in several animal species indicated that BMS-791325 has a hepatotropic disposition (liver-to-plasma ratios ranging from 1.6- to 60-fold across species). Twenty-four hours postdose, liver exposures across all species tested were ≥10-fold above the inhibitor EC50s observed with HCV genotype 1 replicons. These findings support the evaluation of BMS-791325 in combination regimens for the treatment of HCV. Phase 3 studies are ongoing. PMID:24733465

  12. Modulation of human c-mpl gene expression by thrombopoietin through protein kinase C.

    PubMed

    Sunohara, M; Morikawa, S; Sato, T; Sato, I; Sato, T; Fuse, A

    2003-01-01

    The c-Mpl, thrombopoietin (TPO) receptor specificially controls megakaryocytic growth and differentiation. TPO increased the c-mpl promoter activity determined by a transient expression system using a vector containing the luciferase gene as a reporter in the human megakaryoblastic cell line CMK. The maximal promoter activity of c-mpl was obtained 24 hr after pretreatment with TPO for 3 hr and then declined with time. This increase was completely abolished by protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitors (GF109203, calphostin C and H7). Phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) treatment led to an increase in c-mpl promoter activity. These results demonstrate that the promoter activity of c-mpl is modulated by transcription through a PKC-dependent pathway.

  13. Synthesis and evaluation of potential inhibitors of human and Escherichia coli histidine triad nucleotide binding proteins.

    PubMed

    Bardaweel, Sanaa K; Ghosh, Brahma; Wagner, Carston R

    2012-01-01

    Based on recent substrate specificity studies, a series of ribonucleotide based esters and carbamates were synthesized and screened as inhibitors of the phosphoramidases and acyl-AMP hydrolases, Escherichia coli Histidine Triad Nucleotide Binding Protein (ecHinT) and human Histidine Triad Nucleotide Binding Protein 1 (hHint1). Using our established phosphoramidase assay, K(i) values were determined. All compounds exhibited non-competitive inhibition profiles. The carbamate based inhibitors were shown to successfully suppress the Hint1-associated phenotype in E. coli, suggesting that they are permeable intracellular inhibitors of ecHinT.

  14. Novel pyridazinone inhibitors for vascular adhesion protein-1 (VAP-1): old target-new inhibition mode.

    PubMed

    Bligt-Lindén, Eva; Pihlavisto, Marjo; Szatmári, István; Otwinowski, Zbyszek; Smith, David J; Lázár, László; Fülöp, Ferenc; Salminen, Tiina A

    2013-12-27

    Vascular adhesion protein-1 (VAP-1) is a primary amine oxidase and a drug target for inflammatory and vascular diseases. Despite extensive attempts to develop potent, specific, and reversible inhibitors of its enzyme activity, the task has proven challenging. Here we report the synthesis, inhibitory activity, and molecular binding mode of novel pyridazinone inhibitors, which show specificity for VAP-1 over monoamine and diamine oxidases. The crystal structures of three inhibitor-VAP-1 complexes show that these compounds bind reversibly into a unique binding site in the active site channel. Although they are good inhibitors of human VAP-1, they do not inhibit rodent VAP-1 well. To investigate this further, we used homology modeling and structural comparison to identify amino acid differences, which explain the species-specific binding properties. Our results prove the potency and specificity of these new inhibitors, and the detailed characterization of their binding mode is of importance for further development of VAP-1 inhibitors.

  15. Purification and partial characterization of a protein proteinanse inhibitor isolated from eggplant exocarp.

    PubMed

    Kanamori, M; Ibuki, F; Tashiro, M; Yamada, M; Miyoshi, M

    1976-08-09

    A protein proteinase inhibitor was isolated and purified from eggplant exocarp by heat treatment, ammomium sulfate fractionation, column chromatography on DEAE-cellulose, and gel filtration on Sephadex G-25 and G-50. The final purified preparation of the inhibitor was found homogeneous by electrophoretic analysis. The inhibitor showed strong and stoichiometric inhibition on trypsin whereas it showed weak inhibition on alpha-chymotrypsin. It displayed no inhibiting characteristics on pepsin. The molecular weight of the inhibitor was estimated to be approximately 6000. This finding, with the trypsin inhibition data, suggested that the inhibitor combined trypsin in the molar ratio of 1:1. The amino acid analysis indicated that the inhibitor is rich in half-cystine, glycine and aspartic acid, and contains no tryptophan, histidine, methionine or valine.

  16. Novel Pyridazinone Inhibitors for Vascular Adhesion Protein-1 (VAP-1): Old target – New Inhibition Mode

    PubMed Central

    Bligt-Lindén, Eva; Pihlavisto, Marjo; Szatmári, István; Otwinowski, Zbyszek; Smith, David J.; Lázár, László; Fülöp, Ferenc; Salminen, Tiina A.

    2014-01-01

    Vascular adhesion protein-1 (VAP-1) is a primary amine oxidase and a drug target for inflammatory and vascular diseases. Despite extensive attempts to develop potent, specific and reversible inhibitors of its enzyme activity, the task has proven challenging. Here we report the synthesis, inhibitory activity and molecular binding mode of novel pyridazinone inhibitors, which show specificity for VAP-1 over monoamine and diamine oxidases. The crystal structures of three inhibitor-VAP-1 complexes show that these compounds bind reversibly into a unique binding site in the active site channel. Though they are good inhibitors of human VAP-1, they do not inhibit rodent VAP-1 well. To investigate this further, we used homology modeling and structural comparison to identify amino acid differences, which explain the species-specific binding properties. Our results prove the potency and specificity of these new inhibitors and the detailed characterization of their binding mode is of importance for further development of VAP-1 inhibitors. PMID:24304424

  17. Proposal of Dual Inhibitor Targeting ATPase Domains of Topoisomerase II and Heat Shock Protein 90

    PubMed Central

    Jun, Kyu-Yeon; Kwon, Youngjoo

    2016-01-01

    There is a conserved ATPase domain in topoisomerase II (topo II) and heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) which belong to the GHKL (gyrase, Hsp90, histidine kinase, and MutL) family. The inhibitors that target each of topo II and Hsp90 are intensively studied as anti-cancer drugs since they play very important roles in cell proliferation and survival. Therefore the development of dual targeting anti-cancer drugs for topo II and Hsp90 is suggested to be a promising area. The topo II and Hsp90 inhibitors, known to bind to their ATP binding site, were searched. All the inhibitors investigated were docked to both topo II and Hsp90. Four candidate compounds as possible dual inhibitors were selected by analyzing the molecular docking study. The pharmacophore model of dual inhibitors for topo II and Hsp90 were generated and the design of novel dual inhibitor was proposed. PMID:27582553

  18. Protein kinase C and the antiviral effect of human interferon.

    PubMed

    Cernescu, C; Constantinescu, S N; Baltă, F; Popescu, L M; Cajal, N

    1989-01-01

    Protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitors: Hidaka's compounds H-7 (10 microM) and H-8 (20 microM), palmitoyl-carnitine (10 microM) and phloretin (50 microM), did not modify the antiviral effect of human natural or recombinant interferon alpha and of natural interferon beta. The tumor promoter 12-o-tetradecanoyl-phorbol-13-acetate (TPA) (200 nM), known as activator of PKC induced an antiviral state when tested on human embryo fibroblasts challenged with the vesicular stomatitis virus. The battery of PKC inhibitors used inhibited the antiviral effect induced by TPA. Palmitoyl-carnitine (10 microM) exerted a toxic effect that was reversed by interferon treatment (2,000 IU/ml interferon alpha). These results suggest that PKC, possibly activated by interferon-receptor interaction, is not essential for inducing the antiviral effect of interferon, but, probably, mediates the antiviral effect of TPA.

  19. Consensus Induced Fit Docking (cIFD): methodology, validation, and application to the discovery of novel Crm1 inhibitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalid, Ori; Toledo Warshaviak, Dora; Shechter, Sharon; Sherman, Woody; Shacham, Sharon

    2012-11-01

    We present the Consensus Induced Fit Docking (cIFD) approach for adapting a protein binding site to accommodate multiple diverse ligands for virtual screening. This novel approach results in a single binding site structure that can bind diverse chemotypes and is thus highly useful for efficient structure-based virtual screening. We first describe the cIFD method and its validation on three targets that were previously shown to be challenging for docking programs (COX-2, estrogen receptor, and HIV reverse transcriptase). We then demonstrate the application of cIFD to the challenging discovery of irreversible Crm1 inhibitors. We report the identification of 33 novel Crm1 inhibitors, which resulted from the testing of 402 purchased compounds selected from a screening set containing 261,680 compounds. This corresponds to a hit rate of 8.2 %. The novel Crm1 inhibitors reveal diverse chemical structures, validating the utility of the cIFD method in a real-world drug discovery project. This approach offers a pragmatic way to implicitly account for protein flexibility without the additional computational costs of ensemble docking or including full protein flexibility during virtual screening.

  20. Regulation of cardiac C-protein phosphorylation

    SciTech Connect

    Titus, F.L.

    1985-01-01

    Molecular mechanisms of cardiac sympathetic and parasympathetic responses were addressed by studying subcellular changes in protein phosphorylation, cAMP-dependent protein kinase activity and protein phosphatase activity in frog hearts. B-adrenergic agonists increased and muscarinic cholinergic agonists decreased (/sup 32/P)phosphate incorporation into C-protein, a thick filament component. Regulation of protein phosphatase activity by Iso and methacholine (MCh) was assayed using extracts of drug treated frog hearts and (/sup 32/P)phospho-C-protein as substrate. Total phosphatase activity decreased 21% in extracts from hearts perfused with 0.1 ..mu..M Iso and 17% in hearts exposed to Iso plus 1 ..mu..M methacholine. This decrease reflected decreased phosphatase-2A activity. No changes in total phosphatase activity were measurable in broken cells treated with Iso or MCh. The results suggest adrenergic stimulation changes contractile activity in frog hearts by activating cAMP-dependent protein kinase associated with particulate cellular elements and inactivating soluble protein phosphatase-2A. This is the first demonstration of coordinated regulation of these enzymes by B-adrenergic agonists favoring phosphorylation of effector proteins. Coordinated regulation by methacholine in the presence of Iso was not observed.

  1. Proliferation related acidic leucine-rich protein PAL31 functions as a caspase-3 inhibitor

    SciTech Connect

    Sun Weiyong; Kimura, Hiromichi; Shiota, Kunio . E-mail: ashiota@mail.ecc.u-tokyo.ac.jp

    2006-04-14

    Proliferation related acidic leucine-rich protein PAL31 (PAL31) is expressed in proliferating cells and consists of 272 amino acids with a tandem structure of leucine-rich repeats in the N-terminus and a highly acidic region with a putative nuclear localization signal in the C-terminus. We previously reported that PAL31 is required for cell cycle progression. In the present study, we found that the antisense oligonucleotide of PAL31 induced apoptosis to the transfected Nb2 cells. Stable transfectants, in which PAL31 was regulated by an inducible promoter, were generated to gain further insight into the signaling role of PAL31 in the regulation of apoptosis. Expression of PAL31 resulted in the marked rescue of Rat1 cells from etoposide and UV radiation-induced apoptosis and the cytoprotection was correlated with the levels of PAL31 protein. Thus, cytoprotection from apoptosis is a physiological function of PAL31. PAL31 can suppress caspase-3 activity but not cytochrome c release in vitro, indicating that PAL31 is a direct caspase-3 inhibitor. In conclusion, PAL31 is a multifunctional protein working as a cell cycle progression factor as well as a cell survival factor.

  2. Pharmacokinetic/Pharmacodynamic predictors of clinical potency for hepatitis C virus nonnucleoside polymerase and protease inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Micaela B; Morcos, Peter N; Le Pogam, Sophie; Ou, Ying; Frank, Karl; Lave, Thierry; Smith, Patrick

    2012-06-01

    This analysis was conducted to determine whether the hepatitis C virus (HCV) viral kinetics (VK) model can predict viral load (VL) decreases for nonnucleoside polymerase inhibitors (NNPolIs) and protease inhibitors (PIs) after 3-day monotherapy studies of patients infected with genotype 1 chronic HCV. This analysis includes data for 8 NNPolIs and 14 PIs, including VL decreases from 3-day monotherapy, total plasma trough concentrations on day 3 (C(min)), replicon data (50% effective concentration [EC(50)] and protein-shifted EC(50) [EC(50,PS)]), and for PIs, liver-to-plasma ratios (LPRs) measured in vivo in preclinical species. VK model simulations suggested that achieving additional log(10) VL decreases greater than one required 10-fold increases in the C(min). NNPolI and PI data further supported this result. The VK model was successfully used to predict VL decreases in 3-day monotherapy for NNPolIs based on the EC(50,PS) and the day 3 C(min). For PIs, however, predicting VL decreases using the same model and the EC(50,PS) and day 3 C(min) was not successful; a model including LPR values and the EC(50) instead of the EC(50,PS) provided a better prediction of VL decrease. These results are useful for designing phase 1 monotherapy studies for NNPolIs and PIs by clarifying factors driving VL decreases, such as the day 3 C(min) and the EC(50,PS) for NNPolIs or the EC(50) and LPR for PIs. This work provides a framework for understanding the pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic relationship for other HCV drug classes. The availability of mechanistic data on processes driving the target concentration, such as liver uptake transporters, should help to improve the predictive power of the approach.

  3. Terminal complement complexes and C1/C1 inhibitor complexes in autoimmune thyroid disease.

    PubMed Central

    Weetman, A P; Cohen, S B; Oleesky, D A; Morgan, B P

    1989-01-01

    The potential role of complement activation and the membrane attack complex in the pathogenesis of Graves' disease and Hashimoto's thyroiditis has been investigated by measuring serum concentrations of the C1r-C1s-C1 inhibitor complex (C1/C1-inh) and the terminal complement complex (TCC), and by studying the binding to thyroid tissue of monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies against TCC neoantigens. Serum C1/C1-inh and TCC concentrations were significantly increased in 29 patients with untreated Graves' disease compared with 47 healthy subjects (P less than 0.001 for both), and decreased significantly after carbimazole treatment in 18 of these patients for whom post-treatment samples were available (P less than 0.01 and P less than 0.02, respectively). The serum TCC concentration, but not that of C1/C1-inh, was also significantly increased in 15 patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis compared with the 47 healthy subjects (P less than 0.001). TCCs were identified by immunohistochemical staining around the thyroid follicles in thyroidectomy specimens from patients with Graves' disease (six out of six) and Hashimoto's thyroiditis (two out of two); normal thyroid tissue from two subjects showed no staining. These results suggest a role for complement, in particular the membrane attack complex in the pathogenesis of autoimmune thyroid disease. Images Fig. 3 PMID:2766576

  4. Structural basis for the inhibition of mammalian and insect alpha-amylases by plant protein inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Payan, Françoise

    2004-02-12

    Alpha-amylases are ubiquitous proteins which play an important role in the carbohydrate metabolism of microorganisms, animals and plants. Living organisms use protein inhibitors as a major tool to regulate the glycolytic activity of alpha-amylases. Most of the inhibitors for which three-dimensional (3-D) structures are available are directed against mammalian and insect alpha-amylases, interacting with the active sites in a substrate-like manner. In this review, we discuss the detailed inhibitory mechanism of these enzymes in light of the recent determination of the 3-D structures of pig pancreatic, human pancreatic, and yellow mealworm alpha-amylases in complex with plant protein inhibitors. In most cases, the mechanism of inhibition occurs through the direct blockage of the active center at several subsites of the enzyme. Inhibitors exhibiting "dual" activity against mammalian and insect alpha-amylases establish contacts of the same type in alternative ways.

  5. Bisubstrate fluorescent probes and biosensors in binding assays for HTS of protein kinase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Uri, Asko; Lust, Marje; Vaasa, Angela; Lavogina, Darja; Viht, Kaido; Enkvist, Erki

    2010-03-01

    Conjugates of adenosine mimics and d-arginine-rich peptides (ARCs) are potent inhibitors of protein kinases (PKs) from the AGC group. Labeling ARCs with fluorescent dyes or immobilizing on chip surfaces gives fluorescent probes (ARC-Photo) and biosensors that can be used for high-throughput screening (HTS) of inhibitors of protein kinases. The bisubstrate character (simultaneous association with both binding sites of the kinase) and high affinity of ARCs allow ARC-based probes and sensors to be used for characterization of inhibitors targeted to either binding site of the kinase with affinities in whole nanomolar to micromolar range. The ability to penetrate cell plasma membrane and bind to the target kinase fused with a fluorescent protein leads to the possibility to use ARC-Photo probes for high content screening (HCS) of inhibitors in cellular milieu with detection of intensity of Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) between two fluorophores.

  6. Pharmacokinetics of activated protein C in guinea pigs

    SciTech Connect

    Berger, H. Jr.; Kirstein, C.G.; Orthner, C.L. )

    1991-05-15

    Protein C is a vitamin K-dependent zymogen of the serine protease, activated protein C (APC), an important regulatory enzyme in hemostasis. In view of the potential of human APC as an anticoagulant and profibrinolytic agent, the pharmacokinetics and tissue distribution of APC were studied in guinea pigs. The plasma elimination of a trace dose of {sup 125}I-APC was biphasic following an initial rapid elimination of approximately 15% of the injected dose within 1 to 2 minutes. This rapid removal of {sup 125}I-APC from the circulation was found to be a result of an association with the liver regardless of the route of injection. Essentially identical results were obtained with active site-blocked forms of APC generated with either diisopropylfluorophosphate or D-phenylalanyl-L-prolyl-L-arginine chloromethyl ketone, which indicates that the active site was not essential for the liver association. Accumulation of all three forms of APC in the liver peaked at 30 minutes and then declined as increasing amounts of degraded radiolabeled material appeared in the gastrointestinal tract and urine. Removal of the gamma-carboxyglutamic acid (gla) domain of diisopropylphosphoryl-APC resulted in a 50% reduction in the association with liver and an accumulation in the kidneys. Protein C and protein S were cleared from the circulation at rates approximately one-half and one-fourth, respectively, that of APC. Both in vitro and in vivo, APC was found to form complexes with protease inhibitors present in guinea pig plasma. Complex formation resulted in a more rapid disappearance of the enzymatic activity of APC than elimination of the protein moiety. These findings indicate two distinct mechanisms for the elimination of APC. One mechanism involves reaction with plasma protease inhibitors and subsequent elimination by specific hepatic receptors. (Abstract Truncated)

  7. Cancerous inhibitor of protein phosphatase 2A determines bortezomib-induced apoptosis in leukemia cells

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Chun-Yu; Shiau, Chung-Wai; Kuo, Hsin-Yu; Huang, Hsiang-Po; Chen, Ming-Huang; Tzeng, Cheng-Hwai; Chen, Kuen-Feng

    2013-01-01

    The multiple cellular targets affected by proteasome inhibition implicate a potential role for bortezomib, a first-in-class proteasome inhibitor, in enhancing antitumor activities in hematologic malignancies. Here, we examined the antitumor activity and drug targets of bortezomib in leukemia cells. Human leukemia cell lines were used for in vitro studies. Drug efficacy was evaluated by apoptosis assays and associated molecular events assessed by Western Blot. Gene silencing was performed by small interference RNA. Drug was tested in vivo in xenograft models of human leukemia cell lines and in primary leukemia cells. Clinical samples were assessed by immunohistochemical staining. Bortezomib differentially induced apoptosis in leukemia cells that was independent of its proteasome inhibition. Cancerous inhibitor of protein phosphatase 2A, a cellular inhibitor of protein phosphatase 2A, mediated the apoptotic effect of bortezomib. Bortezomib increased protein phosphatase 2A activity in sensitive leukemia cells (HL-60 and KG-1), but not in resistant cells (MOLT-3 and K562). Bortezomib’s downregulation of cancerous inhibitor of protein phosphatase 2A and phospho-Akt correlated with its drug sensitivity. Furthermore, cancerous inhibitor of protein phosphatase 2A negatively regulated protein phosphatase 2A activity. Ectopic expression of CIP2A up-regulated phospho-Akt and protected HL-60 cells from bortezomib-induced apoptosis, whereas silencing CIP2A overcame the resistance to bortezomib-induced apoptosis in MOLT3 and K562 cells. Importantly, bortezomib exerted in vivo antitumor activity in HL-60 xenografted tumors and induced cell death in some primary leukemic cells. Cancerous inhibitor of protein phosphatase 2A was expressed in leukemic blasts from bone marrow samples. Cancerous inhibitor of protein phosphatase 2A plays a major role in mediating bortezomib-induced apoptosis in leukemia cells. PMID:22983581

  8. Development of natural product-derived receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors based on conservation of protein domain fold.

    PubMed

    Kissau, Lars; Stahl, Petra; Mazitschek, Ralph; Giannis, Athannasios; Waldmann, Herbert

    2003-07-03

    Receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) such as Tie-2, IGF1R, Her-2/Neu, EGFR, and VEGFR1-3 play crucial roles in the control of cell growth and differentiation. Inhibition of such RTKs has become a major focus of current anticancer drug development, and therefore the discovery of new classes of inhibitors for these signal-transducing proteins is of prime importance. We have recently proposed a novel concept for improving the hit-finding process by employing natural products as biologically validated starting points in structural space for compound library development. In this concept, natural products are regarded as evolutionary chosen ligands for protein domains which are structurally conserved yet genetically mobile. Here we report on the discovery of novel and highly selective VEGFR-2 and -3, Tie-2, and IGF1R inhibitors derived from the naturally occurring Her-2/Neu kinase inhibitor nakijiquinone C and developed on the basis of this concept. Based on the structure of the natural product, a small library (74 members) was synthesized and investigated for inhibition of kinases with highly similar ATP-binding domains. The library yielded inhibitors with IC(50)s in the low micromolar range with high frequency (7 out of 74). In particular, four inhibitors of Tie-2 were found, a kinase critically involved in the formation of new blood vessels from preexisting ones (angiogenesis) and believed to be a new promising target in antitumor therapy. These results support the "domain concept". To advance the development of improved inhibitors, extensive molecular modeling studies were undertaken, including the construction of new homology models for VEGFR-2 and Tie-2. These studies revealed residues in the kinase structure which are crucial to the development of tailor-made receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors.

  9. Protein digestion in cereal aphids (Sitobion avenae) as a target for plant defence by endogenous proteinase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Pyati, Prashant; Bandani, Ali R; Fitches, Elaine; Gatehouse, John A

    2011-07-01

    Gut extracts from cereal aphids (Sitobion avenae) showed significant levels of proteolytic activity, which was inhibited by reagents specific for cysteine proteases and chymotrypsin-like proteases. Gut tissue contained cDNAs encoding cathepsin B-like cysteine proteinases, similar to those identified in the closely related pea aphid (Acyrthosiphon pisum). Analysis of honeydew (liquid excreta) from cereal aphids fed on diet containing ovalbumin showed that digestion of ingested proteins occurred in vivo. Protein could partially substitute for free amino acids in diet, although it could not support complete development. Recombinant wheat proteinase inhibitors (PIs) fed in diet were antimetabolic to cereal aphids, even when normal levels of free amino acids were present. PIs inhibited proteolysis by aphid gut extracts in vitro, and digestion of protein fed to aphids in vivo. Wheat subtilisin/chymotrypsin inhibitor, which was found to inhibit serine and cysteine proteinases, was more effective in both inhibitory and antimetabolic activity than wheat cystatin, which inhibited cysteine proteases only. Digestion of ingested protein is unlikely to contribute significantly to nutritional requirements when aphids are feeding on phloem, and the antimetabolic activity of dietary proteinase inhibitors is suggested to result from effects on proteinases involved in degradation of endogenous proteins.

  10. Prevention of Hereditary Angioedema Attacks with a Subcutaneous C1 Inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Longhurst, Hilary; Cicardi, Marco; Craig, Timothy; Bork, Konrad; Grattan, Clive; Baker, James; Li, Huamin H; Reshef, Avner; Bonner, James; Bernstein, Jonathan A; Anderson, John; Lumry, William R; Farkas, Henriette; Katelaris, Constance H; Sussman, Gordon L; Jacobs, Joshua; Riedl, Marc; Manning, Michael E; Hebert, Jacques; Keith, Paul K; Kivity, Shmuel; Neri, Sergio; Levy, Donald S; Baeza, Maria L; Nathan, Robert; Schwartz, Lawrence B; Caballero, Teresa; Yang, William; Crisan, Ioana; Hernandez, María D; Hussain, Iftikhar; Tarzi, Michael; Ritchie, Bruce; Králíčková, Pavlina; Guilarte, Mar; Rehman, Syed M; Banerji, Aleena; Gower, Richard G; Bensen-Kennedy, Debra; Edelman, Jonathan; Feuersenger, Henrike; Lawo, John-Philip; Machnig, Thomas; Pawaskar, Dipti; Pragst, Ingo; Zuraw, Bruce L

    2017-03-23

    Background Hereditary angioedema is a disabling, potentially fatal condition caused by deficiency (type I) or dysfunction (type II) of the C1 inhibitor protein. In a phase 2 trial, the use of CSL830, a nanofiltered C1 inhibitor preparation that is suitable for subcutaneous injection, resulted in functional levels of C1 inhibitor activity that would be expected to provide effective prophylaxis of attacks. Methods We conducted an international, prospective, multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, dose-ranging, phase 3 trial to evaluate the efficacy and safety of self-administered subcutaneous CSL830 in patients with type I or type II hereditary angioedema who had had four or more attacks in a consecutive 2-month period within 3 months before screening. We randomly assigned the patients to one of four treatment sequences in a crossover design, each involving two 16-week treatment periods: either 40 IU or 60 IU of CSL830 per kilogram of body weight twice weekly followed by placebo, or vice versa. The primary efficacy end point was the number of attacks of angioedema. Secondary efficacy end points were the proportion of patients who had a response (≥50% reduction in the number of attacks with CSL830 as compared with placebo) and the number of times that rescue medication was used. Results Of the 90 patients who underwent randomization, 79 completed the trial. Both doses of CSL830, as compared with placebo, reduced the rate of attacks of hereditary angioedema (mean difference with 40 IU, -2.42 attacks per month; 95% confidence interval [CI], -3.38 to -1.46; and mean difference with 60 IU, -3.51 attacks per month; 95% CI, -4.21 to -2.81; P<0.001 for both comparisons). Response rates were 76% (95% CI, 62 to 87) in the 40-IU group and 90% (95% CI, 77 to 96) in the 60-IU group. The need for rescue medication was reduced from 5.55 uses per month in the placebo group to 1.13 uses per month in the 40-IU group and from 3.89 uses in the placebo group to 0

  11. Peptide inhibitors of the Keap1-Nrf2 protein-protein interaction.

    PubMed

    Hancock, Rowena; Bertrand, Hélène C; Tsujita, Tadayuki; Naz, Shama; El-Bakry, Ayman; Laoruchupong, Jitnueng; Hayes, John D; Wells, Geoff

    2012-01-15

    Disruption of the interaction between the ubiquitination facilitator protein Keap1 and the cap'n'collar basic-region leucine-zipper transcription factor Nrf2 is a potential strategy to enhance expression of antioxidant and free radical detoxification gene products regulated by Nrf2. Agents that disrupt this protein-protein interaction may be useful pharmacological probes and future cancer-chemopreventive agents. We describe the structure-activity relationships for a series of peptides based upon regions of the Nrf2 Neh2 domain, of varying length and sequence, that interact with the Keap1 Kelch domain and disrupt the interaction with Nrf2. We have also investigated sequestosome-1 (p62) and prothymosin-α sequences that have been reported to interact with Keap1. To achieve this we have developed a high-throughput fluorescence polarization (FP) assay to screen inhibitors. In addition to screening synthetic peptides, we have used a phage display library approach to identify putative peptide ligands with non-native sequence motifs. Candidate peptides from the phage display library screening protocol were evaluated in the FP assay to quantify their binding activity. Hybrid peptides based upon the Nrf2 "ETGE" motif and the sequestosome-1 "Keap1-interaction region" have superior binding activity compared to either native peptide alone.

  12. Identification of Small Molecule Inhibitors of Human Cytochrome c Oxidase That Target Chemoresistant Glioma Cells.

    PubMed

    Oliva, Claudia R; Markert, Tahireh; Ross, Larry J; White, E Lucile; Rasmussen, Lynn; Zhang, Wei; Everts, Maaike; Moellering, Douglas R; Bailey, Shannon M; Suto, Mark J; Griguer, Corinne E

    2016-11-11

    The enzyme cytochrome c oxidase (CcO) or complex IV (EC 1.9.3.1) is a large transmembrane protein complex that serves as the last enzyme in the respiratory electron transport chain of eukaryotic mitochondria. CcO promotes the switch from glycolytic to oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) metabolism and has been associated with increased self-renewal characteristics in gliomas. Increased CcO activity in tumors has been associated with tumor progression after chemotherapy failure, and patients with primary glioblastoma multiforme and high tumor CcO activity have worse clinical outcomes than those with low tumor CcO activity. Therefore, CcO is an attractive target for cancer therapy. We report here the characterization of a CcO inhibitor (ADDA 5) that was identified using a high throughput screening paradigm. ADDA 5 demonstrated specificity for CcO, with no inhibition of other mitochondrial complexes or other relevant enzymes, and biochemical characterization showed that this compound is a non-competitive inhibitor of cytochrome c When tested in cellular assays, ADDA 5 dose-dependently inhibited the proliferation of chemosensitive and chemoresistant glioma cells but did not display toxicity against non-cancer cells. Furthermore, treatment with ADDA 5 led to significant inhibition of tumor growth in flank xenograft mouse models. Importantly, ADDA 5 inhibited CcO activity and blocked cell proliferation and neurosphere formation in cultures of glioma stem cells, the cells implicated in tumor recurrence and resistance to therapy in patients with glioblastoma. In summary, we have identified ADDA 5 as a lead CcO inhibitor for further optimization as a novel approach for the treatment of glioblastoma and related cancers.

  13. Prokaryote-derived protein inhibitors of peptidases: a sketchy occurrence and mostly unknown function

    PubMed Central

    Kantyka, Tomasz; Rawlings, Neil D.; Potempa, Jan

    2010-01-01

    In metazoan organisms protein inhibitors of peptidases are important factors essential for regulation of proteolytic activity. In vertebrates genes encoding peptidase inhibitors constitute up to 1% of genes reflecting a need for tight and specific control of proteolysis especially in extracellular body fluids. In stark contrast unicellular organisms, both prokaryotic and eukaryotic consistently contain only few, if any, genes coding for putative peptidase inhibitors. This may seem perplexing in the light of the fact that these organisms produce large numbers of proteases of different catalytic classes with the genes constituting up to 6% of the total gene count with the average being about 3%. Apparently, however, a unicellular life-style is fully compatible with other mechanisms of regulation of proteolysis and does not require protein inhibitors to control their intracellular and extracellular proteolytic activity. So in prokaryotes occurrence of genes encoding different types of peptidase inhibitors is infrequent and often scattered among phylogenetically distinct orders or even phyla of microbiota. Genes encoding proteins homologous to alpha-2-macroglobulin (family I39), serine carboxypeptidase Y inhibitor (family I51), alpha-1-peptidase inhibitor (family I4) and ecotin (family I11) are the most frequently represented in Bacteria. Although several of these gene products were shown to possess inhibitory activity, with an exception of ecotin and staphostatins, the biological function of microbial inhibitors is unclear. In this review we present distribution of protein inhibitors from different families among prokaryotes, describe their mode of action and hypothesize on their role in microbial physiology and interactions with hosts and environment. PMID:20558234

  14. Ficolin-2 inhibitors are present in sera after prolonged storage at −80 °C

    PubMed Central

    Geno, Kimball Aaron; Kennedy, Richard E.; Sawyer, Patricia; Brown, Cynthia J.

    2016-01-01

    Ficolins can activate the lectin pathway of the complement system that provides innate immune protection against pathogens, marks host cellular debris for clearance, and promotes inflammation. Baseline inflammation increases with aging in a phenomenon known as “inflammaging.” Although IL-6 and C-reactive protein are known to increase with age, contributions of many complement factors, including ficolins, to inflammaging have been little studied. Ficolin-2 is abundant in human serum and can recognize many target structures; therefore, ficolin-2 has potential to contribute to inflammaging. We hypothesized that inflammaging would alter ficolin-2 levels among older adults and examined 360 archived sera collected from older individuals. We found that these sera had apparently reduced ficolin-2 levels and that 84.2% of archived sera exhibited ficolin-2 inhibitors, which suppressed apparent amounts of ficolin-2 detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Fresh serum samples were obtained from donors whose archived sera showed inhibitors, but the fresh sera did not have ficolin-2 inhibitors. Ficolin-2 inhibitors were present in other long-stored sera from younger persons. Furthermore, noninhibiting samples and fresh sera from older adults had apparently normal amounts of ficolin-2. Thus, ficolin-2 inhibitors may arise as an artifact of long-term storage of serum at −80 °C. PMID:27896034

  15. Nonstructural protein 5B of hepatitis C virus.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jong-Ho; Nam, In Young; Myung, Heejoon

    2006-06-30

    Since its identification in 1989, hepatitis C virus has been the subject of extensive research. The biology of the virus and the development of antiviral drugs are closely related. The RNA polymerase activity of nonstructural protein 5B was first demonstrated in 1996. NS5B is believed to localize to the perinuclear region, forming a replicase complex with other viral proteins. It has a typical polymerase structure with thumb, palm, and finger domains encircling the active site. A de novo replication initiation mechanism has been suggested. To date, many small molecule inhibitors are known including nucleoside analogues, non-nucleoside analogues, and pyrophosphate mimics. NS5B interacts with other viral proteins such as core, NS3, 4A, 4B, and 5A. The helicase activity of NS3 seems necessary for RNA strand unwinding during replication, with other nonstructural proteins performing modulatory roles. Cellular proteins interacting with NS5B include VAMP-associated proteins, heIF4AII, hPLIC1, nucleolin, PRK2, a-actinin, and p68 helicase. The interactions of NS5B with these proteins might play roles in cellular trafficking, signal transduction, and RNA polymerization, as well as the regulation of replication/translation processes.

  16. Exploiting Protein Conformational Change to Optimize Adenosine-Derived Inhibitors of HSP70

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    HSP70 is a molecular chaperone and a key component of the heat-shock response. Because of its proposed importance in oncology, this protein has become a popular target for drug discovery, efforts which have as yet brought little success. This study demonstrates that adenosine-derived HSP70 inhibitors potentially bind to the protein with a novel mechanism of action, the stabilization by desolvation of an intramolecular salt-bridge which induces a conformational change in the protein, leading to high affinity ligands. We also demonstrate that through the application of this mechanism, adenosine-derived HSP70 inhibitors can be optimized in a rational manner. PMID:27119979

  17. Effect of a protein synthetic inhibitor on in vivo estimates of protein synthesis in dogs

    SciTech Connect

    Schwenk, W.F.; Rubanyi, E.; Haymond, M.W.

    1987-05-01

    In vivo estimates of nonoxidative leucine disappearance have frequently been used as estimates of leucine incorporation into protein. To attempt to assess this extrapolation to protein synthesis, seven overnight fasted dogs received primed 4-h infusions of emetine, an alkaloid known to inhibit protein synthesis at the translational level. Protein metabolism was studied using infusions of (1-/sup 14/C)leucine and ..cap alpha..-(4,5-/sup 3/H)ketoisocaproate (KIC) and the steady-state specific activities of the leucine moiety (e.g., (/sup 14/C)KIC and (/sup 3/H)leucine) reciprocal to the infused isotopes as estimates of intracellular leucine specific activities. Plasma leucine and KIC concentrations increased, as did leucine oxidation. Estimates of nonoxidative leucine disappearance decreased by approx. 70%, and estimates of the endogenous leucine rate of appearance decreased by approx. 40% using either the /sup 14/C or /sup 3/H data. They conclude that, although in vivo estimates of leucine metabolism are not quantitative, rapid changes in whole-body estimates of protein synthesis can be predicted during infusion of labeled leucine.

  18. C-6 aryl substituted 4-quinolone-3-carboxylic acids as inhibitors of hepatitis C virus.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yue-Lei; Zacharias, Jeana; Vince, Robert; Geraghty, Robert J; Wang, Zhengqiang

    2012-08-01

    Quinolone-3-carboxylic acid represents a highly privileged chemotype in medicinal chemistry and has been extensively explored as antibiotics and antivirals targeting human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) integrase (IN). Herein we describe the synthesis and anti-hepatitis C virus (HCV) profile of a series of C-6 aryl substituted 4-quinlone-3-carboxylic acid analogues. Significant inhibition was observed with a few analogues at low micromolar range against HCV replicon in cell culture and a reduction in replicon RNA was confirmed through an RT-qPCR assay. Interestingly, evaluation of analogues as inhibitors of NS5B in a biochemical assay yielded only modest inhibitory activities, suggesting that a different mechanism of action could operate in cell culture.

  19. Computational design of a protein-based enzyme inhibitor

    PubMed Central

    Procko, Erik; Hedman, Rickard; Hamilton, Keith; Seetharaman, Jayaraman; Fleishman, Sarel J.; Su, Min; Aramini, James; Kornhaber, Gregory; Hunt, John F.; Tong, Liang; Montelione, Gaetano T.; Baker, David

    2013-01-01

    While there has been considerable progress in designing protein-protein interactions, the design of proteins that bind polar surfaces is an unmet challenge. We describe the computational design of a protein that binds the acidic active site of hen egg lysozyme and inhibits the enzyme. The design process starts with two polar amino acids that fit deep into the enzyme active site, identifies a protein scaffold that supports these residues and is complementary in shape to the lysozyme active site region, and finally optimizes the surrounding contact surface for high affinity binding. Following affinity maturation, a protein designed using this method bound lysozyme with low nanomolar affinity, and a combination of NMR studies, crystallography and knockout mutagenesis confirmed the designed binding surface and orientation. Saturation mutagenesis with selection and deep sequencing demonstrated that specific designed interactions extending well beyond the centrally grafted polar residues are critical for high affinity binding. PMID:23827138

  20. Computational design of a protein-based enzyme inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Procko, Erik; Hedman, Rickard; Hamilton, Keith; Seetharaman, Jayaraman; Fleishman, Sarel J; Su, Min; Aramini, James; Kornhaber, Gregory; Hunt, John F; Tong, Liang; Montelione, Gaetano T; Baker, David

    2013-09-23

    While there has been considerable progress in designing protein-protein interactions, the design of proteins that bind polar surfaces is an unmet challenge. We describe the computational design of a protein that binds the acidic active site of hen egg lysozyme and inhibits the enzyme. The design process starts with two polar amino acids that fit deep into the enzyme active site, identifies a protein scaffold that supports these residues and is complementary in shape to the lysozyme active-site region, and finally optimizes the surrounding contact surface for high-affinity binding. Following affinity maturation, a protein designed using this method bound lysozyme with low nanomolar affinity, and a combination of NMR studies, crystallography, and knockout mutagenesis confirmed the designed binding surface and orientation. Saturation mutagenesis with selection and deep sequencing demonstrated that specific designed interactions extending well beyond the centrally grafted polar residues are critical for high-affinity binding.

  1. Chemoproteomics-Enabled Discovery of a Potent and Selective Inhibitor of the DNA Repair Protein MGMT.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chao; Abegg, Daniel; Hoch, Dominic G; Adibekian, Alexander

    2016-02-18

    We present a novel chemical scaffold for cysteine-reactive covalent inhibitors. Chloromethyl triazoles (CMTs) are readily accessed in only two chemical steps, thus enabling the rapid optimization of the pharmacological properties of these inhibitors. We demonstrate the tunability of the CMTs towards a specific biological target by synthesizing AA-CW236 as the first potent non-pseudosubstrate inhibitor of the O(6) -alkylguanine DNA methyltransferase (MGMT), a protein of major clinical significance for the treatment of several severe cancer forms. Using quantitative proteomics profiling techniques, we show that AA-CW236 exhibits a high degree of selectivity towards MGMT. Finally, we validate the effectiveness of our MGMT inhibitor in combination with the DNA alkylating drug temozolomide in breast and colon cancer cells by fluorescence imaging and a cell-viability assay. Our results may open a new avenue towards the development of a clinically approved MGMT inhibitor.

  2. Inhibition of the 20S proteosome by a protein proteinase inhibitor: evidence that a natural serine proteinase inhibitor can inhibit a threonine proteinase.

    PubMed

    Yabe, Kimihiko; Koide, Takehiko

    2009-02-01

    The 20S proteasome (20S) is an intracellular threonine proteinase (Mr 750,000) that plays important roles in many cellular regulations. Several synthetic peptide inhibitors and bacteria-derived inhibitors such as lactacystin and epoxomicin have been identified as potent proteasome inhibitors. However, essentially no protein proteinase inhibitor has been characterized. By examining several small size protein proteinase inhibitors, we found that a well-known serine proteinase inhibitor from bovine pancreas, basic pancreatic trypsin inhibitor (BPTI), inhibits the 20S in vitro and ex vivo. Inhibition of the 20S by BPTI was time- and concentration-dependent, and stoichiometric. To inhibit the 20S activity, BPTI needs to enter into the interior of the 20S molecule. The molar ratio of BPTI to the 20S in the complex was estimated as approximately six BPTI to one 20S, thereby two sets of three peptidase activities (trypsin-like, chymotrypsin-like and caspase-like) of the 20S were all inhibited. These results indicate that an entrance hole to the 20S formed by seven alpha-subunits is sufficiently large for BPTI to enter. This report is essentially the initial description of the inhibition of a threonine proteinase by a protein serine proteinase inhibitor, suggesting a common mechanism of inhibition between serine and threonine proteinases by a natural protein proteinase inhibitor.

  3. Hepatitis C virus NS5A inhibitors and drug resistance mutations.

    PubMed

    Nakamoto, Shingo; Kanda, Tatsuo; Wu, Shuang; Shirasawa, Hiroshi; Yokosuka, Osamu

    2014-03-21

    Some direct-acting antiviral agents for hepatitis C virus (HCV), such as telaprevir and boceprevir have been available since 2011. It was reported that HCV NS5A is associated with interferon signaling related to HCV replication and hepatocarcinogenesis. HCV NS5A inhibitors efficiently inhibited HCV replication in vitro. Human studies showed that dual, triple and quad regimens with HCV NS5A inhibitors, such as daclatasvir and ledipasvir, in combination with other direct-acting antiviral agents against other regions of HCV with or without peginterferon/ribavirin, could efficiently inhibit HCV replication according to HCV genotypes. These combinations might be a powerful tool for "difficult-to-treat" HCV-infected patients. "First generation" HCV NS5A inhibitors such as daclatasvir, ledipasvir and ABT-267, which are now in phase III clinical trials, could result in resistance mutations. "Second generation" NS5A inhibitors such as GS-5816, ACH-3102, and MK-8742, have displayed improvements in the genetic barrier while maintaining potency. HCV NS5A inhibitors are safe at low concentrations, which make them attractive for use despite low genetic barriers, although, in fact, HCV NS5A inhibitors should be used with HCV NS3/4A inhibitors, HCV NS5B inhibitors or peginterferon plus ribavirin. This review article describes HCV NS5A inhibitor resistance mutations and recommends that HCV NS5A inhibitors be used in combination regimens potent enough to prevent the emergence of resistant variants.

  4. Discovery of a Potent Inhibitor of Replication Protein A Protein-Protein Interactions Using a Fragment-Linking Approach

    SciTech Connect

    Frank, Andreas O.; Feldkamp, Michael D.; Kennedy, J. Phillip; Waterson, Alex G.; Pelz, Nicholas F.; Patrone, James D.; Vangamudi, Bhavatarini; Camper, DeMarco V.; Rossanese, Olivia W.; Chazin, Walter J.; Fesik, Stephen W.

    2013-10-22

    Replication protein A (RPA), the major eukaryotic single-stranded DNA (ssDNA)-binding protein, is involved in nearly all cellular DNA transactions. The RPA N-terminal domain (RPA70N) is a recruitment site for proteins involved in DNA-damage response and repair. Selective inhibition of these protein–protein interactions has the potential to inhibit the DNA-damage response and to sensitize cancer cells to DNA-damaging agents without affecting other functions of RPA. To discover a potent, selective inhibitor of the RPA70N protein–protein interactions to test this hypothesis, we used NMR spectroscopy to identify fragment hits that bind to two adjacent sites in the basic cleft of RPA70N. High-resolution X-ray crystal structures of RPA70N–ligand complexes revealed how these fragments bind to RPA and guided the design of linked compounds that simultaneously occupy both sites. We have synthesized linked molecules that bind to RPA70N with submicromolar affinity and minimal disruption of RPA’s interaction with ssDNA.

  5. Structural Basis for Binding and Selectivity of Antimalarial and Anticancer Ethylenediamine Inhibitors to Protein Farnesyltransferase

    SciTech Connect

    Hast, Michael A.; Fletcher, Steven; Cummings, Christopher G.; Pusateri, Erin E.; Blaskovich, Michelle A.; Rivas, Kasey; Gelb, Michael H.; Voorhis, Wesley C.Van; Sebti, Said M.; Hamilton, Andrew D.; Beese, Lorena S. ); ); ); )

    2009-03-20

    Protein farnesyltransferase (FTase) catalyzes an essential posttranslational lipid modification of more than 60 proteins involved in intracellular signal transduction networks. FTase inhibitors have emerged as a significant target for development of anticancer therapeutics and, more recently, for the treatment of parasitic diseases caused by protozoan pathogens, including malaria (Plasmodium falciparum). We present the X-ray crystallographic structures of complexes of mammalian FTase with five inhibitors based on an ethylenediamine scaffold, two of which exhibit over 1000-fold selective inhibition of P. falciparum FTase. These structures reveal the dominant determinants in both the inhibitor and enzyme that control binding and selectivity. Comparison to a homology model constructed for the P. falciparum FTase suggests opportunities for further improving selectivity of a new generation of antimalarial inhibitors.

  6. Secretion of soluble complement inhibitors factor H and factor H-like protein (FHL-1) by ovarian tumour cells.

    PubMed

    Junnikkala, S; Hakulinen, J; Jarva, H; Manuelian, T; Bjørge, L; Bützow, R; Zipfel, P F; Meri, S

    2002-11-04

    We observed that the soluble complement regulators factor H and factor H-like protein were abundantly present in ascites samples as well as in primary tumours of patients with ovarian cancer. RT-PCR and immunoblotting analyses showed that the two complement inhibitors were constitutively produced by the ovarian tumour cell lines SK-OV-3 and Caov-3, but not PA-1 or SW626 cells. The amounts of factor H-like protein secreted were equal to those of factor H. This is exceptional, because e.g. in normal human serum the concentration of factor H-like protein is below 1/10th of that of factor H. In ascites samples the mean level of factor H-like protein (130+/-55 microg ml(-1)) was 5.5-fold higher than in normal human serum (24+/-3 microg ml(-1)). Ovarian tumour cells thus preferentially synthesise factor H-like protein, the alternatively spliced short variant of factor H. The tumour cells were found to bind both (125)I-labelled factor H and recombinant factor H-like protein to their surfaces. Surprisingly, the culture supernatants of all of the ovarian tumour cell lines studied, including those of PA-1 and SW626 that did not produce factor H/factor H-like protein, promoted factor I-mediated cleavage of C3b to inactive iC3b. Subsequently, the PA-1 and SW626 cell lines were found to secrete a soluble form of the membrane cofactor protein (CD46). Thus, our studies reveal two novel complement resistance mechanisms of ovarian tumour cells: (i) production of factor H-like protein and factor H and (ii) secretion of soluble membrane cofactor protein. Secretion of soluble complement inhibitors could protect ovarian tumour cells against humoral immune attack and pose an obstacle for therapy with monoclonal antibodies.

  7. Protein kinase C alpha-dependent phosphorylation of Golgi proteins.

    PubMed

    Radau, B; Otto, A; Müller, E C; Westermann, P

    2000-07-01

    Golgi-enriched membranes were phosphorylated in order to understand the mechanism for protein kinase C (PKC) regulation of exocytic vesicle formation at the trans-Golgi network. Two of the main PKC substrates were identified as MARCKS and Mac-MARCKS by two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) and mass spectrometric sequencing. Annexin IV and profilin I, two other Golgi-associated proteins--although known as in vitro PKC substrates--were not phosphorylated in the Golgi-bound state.

  8. Imbalance in chemical space: How to facilitate the identification of protein-protein interaction inhibitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuenemann, Mélaine A.; Labbé, Céline M.; Cerdan, Adrien H.; Sperandio, Olivier

    2016-04-01

    Protein-protein interactions (PPIs) play vital roles in life and provide new opportunities for therapeutic interventions. In this large data analysis, 3,300 inhibitors of PPIs (iPPIs) were compared to 17 reference datasets of collectively ~566,000 compounds (including natural compounds, existing drugs, active compounds on conventional targets, etc.) using a chemoinformatics approach. Using this procedure, we showed that comparable classes of PPI targets can be formed using either the similarity of their ligands or the shared properties of their binding cavities, constituting a proof-of-concept that not only can binding pockets be used to group PPI targets, but that these pockets certainly condition the properties of their corresponding ligands. These results demonstrate that matching regions in both chemical space and target space can be found. Such identified classes of targets could lead to the design of PPI-class-specific chemical libraries and therefore facilitate the development of iPPIs to the stage of drug candidates.

  9. Senescence in isolated carnation petals : effects of indoleacetic Acid and inhibitors of protein synthesis.

    PubMed

    Wulster, G; Sacalis, J; Janes, H W

    1982-10-01

    Indoleacetic acid induces senescence in isolated carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus, cv. White Sim) petals, increasing the duration and amount of ethylene production. This effect is inhibited by Actinomycin D, an inhibitor of RNA synthesis, and cycloheximide, a translational inhibitor of protein synthesis. The ability of petals to respond to indoleacetic acid appears to be a function of physiological age. Indoleacetic acid is capable of enhancing ethylene evolution and senescence only in specific portions of the petal.

  10. Crystal structures of bovine chymotrypsin and trypsin complexed to the inhibitor domain of Alzheimer's amyloid beta-protein precursor (APPI) and basic pancreatic trypsin inhibitor (BPTI): engineering of inhibitors with altered specificities.

    PubMed Central

    Scheidig, A. J.; Hynes, T. R.; Pelletier, L. A.; Wells, J. A.; Kossiakoff, A. A.

    1997-01-01

    The crystal structures of the inhibitor domain of Alzheimer's amyloid beta-protein precursor (APPI) complexed to bovine chymotrypsin (C-APPI) and trypsin (T-APPI) and basic pancreatic trypsin inhibitor (BPTI) bound to chymotrypsin (C-BPTI) have been solved and analyzed at 2.1 A, 1.8 A, and 2.6 A resolution, respectively. APPI and BPTI belong to the Kunitz family of inhibitors, which is characterized by a distinctive tertiary fold with three conserved disulfide bonds. At the specificity-determining site of these inhibitors (P1), residue 15(I)4 is an arginine in APPI and a lysine in BPTI, residue types that are counter to the chymotryptic hydrophobic specificity. In the chymotrypsin complexes, the Arg and Lys P1 side chains of the inhibitors adopt conformations that bend away from the bottom of the binding pocket to interact productively with elements of the binding pocket other than those observed for specificity-matched P1 side chains. The stereochemistry of the nucleophilic hydroxyl of Ser 195 in chymotrypsin relative to the scissile P1 bond of the inhibitors is identical to that observed for these groups in the trypsin-APPI complex, where Arg 15(I) is an optimal side chain for tryptic specificity. To further evaluate the diversity of sequences that can be accommodated by one of these inhibitors, APPI, we used phage display to randomly mutate residues 11, 13, 15, 17, and 19, which are major binding determinants. Inhibitors variants were selected that bound to either trypsin or chymotrypsin. As expected, trypsin specificity was principally directed by having a basic side chain at P1 (position 15); however, the P1 residues that were selected for chymotrypsin binding were His and Asn, rather than the expected large hydrophobic types. This can be rationalized by modeling these hydrophilic side chains to have similar H-bonding interactions to those observed in the structures of the described complexes. The specificity, or lack thereof, for the other individual subsites

  11. Targeting the disordered C-terminus of PTP1B with an allosteric inhibitor

    PubMed Central

    Krishnan, Navasona; Koveal, Dorothy; Miller, Daniel H.; Xue, Bin; Akshinthala, Sai Dipikaa; Kragelj, Jaka; Jensen, Malene Ringkjøbing; Gauss, Carla-Maria; Page, Rebecca; Blackledge, Martin; Muthuswamy, Senthil K.; Peti, Wolfgang; Tonks, Nicholas K.

    2014-01-01

    PTP1B, a validated therapeutic target for diabetes and obesity, plays a critical positive role in HER2 signaling in breast tumorigenesis. Efforts to develop therapeutic inhibitors of PTP1B have been frustrated by the chemical properties of the active site. We defined a novel mechanism of allosteric inhibition that targets the C-terminal, non-catalytic segment of PTP1B. We present the first ensemble structure of PTP1B containing this intrinsically disordered segment, within which we identified a binding site for the small molecule inhibitor, MSI-1436. We demonstrate binding to a second site close to the catalytic domain, with cooperative effects between the two sites locking PTP1B in an inactive state. MSI-1436 antagonized HER2 signaling, inhibited tumorigenesis in xenografts and abrogated metastasis in the NDL2 mouse model of breast cancer, validating inhibition of PTP1B as a therapeutic strategy in breast cancer. This new approach to inhibition of PTP1B emphasizes the potential of disordered segments of proteins as specific binding sites for therapeutic small molecules. PMID:24845231

  12. Effects of selected sulfhydryl inhibitors on nonhistone chromosomal proteins of HeLa cells.

    PubMed

    Knock, F E; Stein, G S; Davis, J; Galt, R M; Oester, Y T; Sylvester, R

    1975-01-01

    Effects of the SH inhibitor sodium iodoacetate, alone and with adjuncts menadiol diphosphate, sodium malonate, sodium fluoride and heparin, on incorporation of tryptophane-3 H into nonhistone chromosomal proteins of HeLa cells were examined. The drugs block incorporation of tryptophane-3 H into nonhistone chromosomal proteins far more than incorporation of leucine-3 H into total cellular proteins. Drug effects on thymidine phosphorylation and DNA synthesis in HeLa cells exceed corresponding effects on fibroblasts from normal healing wounds.

  13. Role of inter-alpha-inhibitor and its related proteins in urolithiasis. Purification of an inter-alpha-inhibitor related protein from the bovine kidney.

    PubMed

    Atmani, F; Khan, S R

    1999-01-01

    Urine contains several macromolecules that inhibit calcium oxalate (CaOx) crystallization. Among them is bikunin, the light chain of most of the inter-alpha-inhibitor (IalphaI) family of glycoproteins. This study aimed to verify whether bikunin and other members of the IalphaI family are synthesized in the kidneys or derived exclusively from the plasma. Proteins extracted from homogenized bovine kidney were applied successively to three chromatographic steps on DEAE-Sephacel, Sephacryl S-300, and Mono Q column. The inhibitory activity was assayed using a CaOx crystallization system. The presence of IalphaI-related proteins was determined by electrophoresis and Western blotting. The results showed that kidney extract contained a 125-kDa protein that cross-reacted with anti-IalphaI antibodies. This protein inhibited CaOx crystallization efficiently. According to its molecular weight and immunoreaction with anti-IalphaI antibody, the 125-kDa protein could be pre-alpha-inhibitor. The latter is known to encompass a heavy chain and bikunin, which may explain its inhibitory activity against CaOx crystallization. Consequently, we hypothesize that kidneys may produce some IalphaI-related proteins that are involved in the inhibition of stone formation.

  14. Differential protein stability of EGFR mutants determines responsiveness to tyrosine kinase inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Ray, Paramita; Tan, Yee Sun; Somnay, Vishal; Mehta, Ranjit; Sitto, Merna; Ahsan, Aarif; Nyati, Shyam; Naughton, John P.; Bridges, Alexander; Zhao, Lili; Rehemtulla, Alnawaz; Lawrence, Theodore S.; Ray, Dipankar; Nyati, Mukesh K.

    2016-01-01

    Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients carrying specific EGFR kinase activating mutations (L858R, delE746-A750) respond well to tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs). However, drug resistance develops within a year. In about 50% of such patients, acquired drug resistance is attributed to the enrichment of a constitutively active point mutation within the EGFR kinase domain (T790M). To date, differential drug-binding and altered ATP affinities by EGFR mutants have been shown to be responsible for differential TKI response. As it has been reported that EGFR stability plays a role in the survival of EGFR driven cancers, we hypothesized that differential TKI-induced receptor degradation between the sensitive L858R and delE746-A750 and the resistant T790M may also play a role in drug responsiveness. To explore this, we have utilized an EGFR-null CHO overexpression system as well as NSCLC cell lines expressing various EGFR mutants and determined the effects of erlotinib treatment. We found that erlotinib inhibits EGFR phosphorylation in both TKI sensitive and resistant cells, but the protein half-lives of L858R and delE746-A750 were significantly shorter than L858R/T790M. Third generation EGFR kinase inhibitor (AZD9291) inhibits the growth of L858R/T790M-EGFR driven cells and also induces EGFR degradation. Erlotinib treatment induced polyubiquitination and proteasomal degradation, primarily in a c-CBL-independent manner, in TKI sensitive L858R and delE746-A750 mutants when compared to the L858R/T790M mutant, which correlated with drug sensitivity. These data suggest an additional mechanism of TKI resistance, and we postulate that agents that degrade L858R/T790M-EGFR protein may overcome TKI resistance. PMID:27612423

  15. Purification of the araC protein.

    PubMed

    Wilcox, G; Clemetson, K J; Santi, D V; Englesberg, E

    1971-09-01

    The araC gene product, a regulatory protein required for expression of the L-arabinose operon, has been purified by affinity chromatography on Sepharose 4B to which 4-aminophenyl-beta-D-6-deoxygalactopyranoside (an anti-inducer of the L-arabinose operon) had been covalently attached by means of a 4-aminophenylbutanamido side chain. Evidence is presented showing that the protein binds specifically to ara DNA.

  16. Luteoloside Acts as 3C Protease Inhibitor of Enterovirus 71 In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Zeyu; Ding, Yue; Ke, Zhipeng; Cao, Liang; Li, Na; Ding, Gang; Wang, Zhenzhong; Xiao, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Luteoloside is a member of the flavonoids family that exhibits several bioactivities including anti-microbial and anti-cancer activities. However, the antiviral activity of luteoloside against enterovirus 71 (EV71) and the potential mechanism(s) responsible for this effect remain unknown. In this study, the antiviral potency of luteoloside against EV71 and its inhibitory effects on 3C protease activity were evaluated. First, we investigated the cytotoxicity of luteoloside against rhabdomyosarcoma (RD) cells, which was the cell line selected for an in vitro infection model. In a subsequent antiviral assay, the cytopathic effect of EV71 was significantly and dose-dependently relieved by the administration of luteoloside (EC50 = 0.43 mM, selection index = 5.3). Using a plaque reduction assay, we administered luteoloside at various time points and found that the compound reduced EV71 viability in RD cells rather than increasing defensive mobilization or viral absorption. Moreover, biochemical studies focused on VP1 (a key structural protein of EV71) mRNA transcript and protein levels also revealed the inhibitory effects of luteoloside on the EV71 viral yield. Finally, we performed inhibition assays using luteoloside to evaluate its effect on recombinant 3C protease activity. Our results demonstrated that luteoloside blocked 3C protease enzymatic activity in a dose-dependent manner (IC50 = 0.36 mM) that was similar to the effect of rutin, which is a well-known C3 protease inhibitor. Collectively, the results from this study indicate that luteoloside can block 3C protease activity and subsequently inhibit EV71 production in vitro. PMID:26870944

  17. Discovery of amido-benzisoxazoles as potent c-Kit inhibitors

    SciTech Connect

    Kunz, Roxanne K.; Rumfelt, Shannon; Chen, Ning; Zhang, Dawei; Tasker, Andrew S.; Bürli, Roland; Hungate, Randall; Yu, Violeta; Nguyen, Yen; Whittington, Douglas A.; Meagher, Kristin L.; Plant, Matthew; Tudor, Yanyan; Schrag, Michael; Xu, Yang; Ng, Gordon Y.; Hu, Essa

    2010-01-12

    Deregulation of the receptor tyrosine kinase c-Kit is associated with an increasing number of human diseases, including certain cancers and mast cell diseases. Interference of c-Kit signaling with multi-kinase inhibitors has been shown clinically to successfully treat gastrointestinal stromal tumors and mastocytosis. Targeted therapy of c-Kit activity may provide therapeutic advantages against off-target effects for non-oncology applications. A new structural class of c-Kit inhibitors is described, including in vitro c-Kit potency, kinase selectivity, and the observed binding mode.

  18. Identification of intracellular receptor proteins for activated protein kinase C.

    PubMed Central

    Mochly-Rosen, D; Khaner, H; Lopez, J

    1991-01-01

    Protein kinase C (PKC) translocates from the cytosol to the particulate fraction on activation. This activation-induced translocation of PKC is thought to reflect PKC binding to the membrane lipids. However, immunological and biochemical data suggest that PKC may bind to proteins in the cytoskeletal elements in the particulate fraction and in the nuclei. Here we describe evidence for the presence of intracellular receptor proteins that bind activated PKC. Several proteins from the detergent-insoluble material of the particulate fraction bound PKC in the presence of phosphatidylserine and calcium; binding was further increased with the addition of diacylglycerol. Binding of PKC to two of these proteins was concentration-dependent, saturable, and specific, suggesting that these binding proteins are receptors for activated C-kinase, termed here "RACKs." PKC binds to RACKs via a site on PKC distinct from the substrate binding site. We suggest that binding to RACKs may play a role in activation-induced translocation of PKC. Images PMID:1850844

  19. Characterization of. alpha. -amylase-inhibitor, a lectin-like protein in the seeds of Phaseolus vulgaris

    SciTech Connect

    Moreno, J.; Altabella, T.; Chrispeels, M.J. )

    1990-03-01

    The common bean, Phaseolus vulgaris, contains a glycoprotein that inhibits the activity of mammalian and insect {alpha}-amylases but not of plant {alpha}-amylases. It is therefore classified as an antifeedant or seed defense protein. In P. vulgaris cv Greensleeves, {alpha}-amylase inhibitor ({alpha}Al) is present in embryonic axes and cotyledons, but not in other organs of the plant. The protein is synthesized during the same time period that phaseolin and phytohemagglutinin are made and also accumulates in the protein storage vacuoles (protein bodies). All the glycoforms have complex glycans that are resistant to removal by endoglycosidase H, indicating transport of the protein through the Golgi apparatus. The two different polypeptides correspond to the N-terminal and C-terminal halves of a lectin-like protein encoded by an already identified gene or a gene closely related to it. The primary translation product of {alpha}Al is a polypeptide of M{sub r} 28,000. Immunologically cross-reacting glycopolypeptides of M{sub r} 30,000 to 35,000 are present in the endoplasmic reticulum, while the smaller polypeptides (M{sub r} 15,000-19,000) accumulate in protein storage vacuoles (protein bodies). Together these data indicate that {alpha}Al is a typical bean lectin-type protein that is synthesized on the rough endoplasmic reticulum, modified in the Golgi, and transported to the protein storage vacuoles.

  20. Intranasal delivery of FSD-C10, a novel Rho kinase inhibitor, exhibits therapeutic potential in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis.

    PubMed

    Li, Yan-Hua; Yu, Jie-Zhong; Liu, Chun-Yun; Zhang, Hui; Zhang, Hai-Fei; Yang, Wan-Fang; Li, Jun-Lian; Feng, Qian-Jin; Feng, Ling; Zhang, Guang-Xian; Xiao, Bao-Guo; Ma, Cun-Gen

    2014-10-01

    Viewing multiple sclerosis (MS) as both neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration has major implications for therapy, with neuroprotection and neurorepair needed in addition to controlling neuroinflammation in the central nervous system (CNS). While Fasudil, an inhibitor of Rho kinase (ROCK), is known to suppress experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), an animal model of MS, it relies on multiple, short-term injections, with a narrow safety window. In this study, we explored the therapeutic effect of a novel ROCK inhibitor FSD-C10, a Fasudil derivative, on EAE. An important advantage of this derivative is that it can be used via non-injection routes; intranasal delivery is the preferred route because of its efficient CNS delivery and the much lower dose compared with oral delivery. Our results showed that intranasal delivery of FSD-C10 effectively ameliorated the clinical severity of EAE and CNS inflammatory infiltration and promoted neuroprotection. FSD-C10 effectively induced CNS production of the immunoregulatory cytokine interleukin-10 and boosted expression of nerve growth factor and brain-derived neurotrophic factor proteins, while inhibiting activation of p-nuclear factor-κB/p65 on astrocytes and production of multiple pro-inflammatory cytokines. In addition, FSD-C10 treatment effectively induced CD4(+) CD25(+) , CD4(+) FOXP3(+) regulatory T cells. Together, our results demonstrate that intranasal delivery of the novel ROCK inhibitor FSD-C10 has therapeutic potential in EAE, through mechanisms that possibly involve both inhibiting CNS inflammation and promoting neuroprotection.

  1. Activation of fat cell adenylate cyclase by protein kinase C

    SciTech Connect

    Naghshineh, S.; Noguchi, M.; Huang, K.P.; Londos, C.

    1986-05-01

    Purified protein kinase C (C-kinase) from guinea pig pancreas and rat brain stimulated adenylate cyclase activity in purified rat adipocyte membranes. Cyclase stimulation occurred over 100 to 1000 mU/ml of C-kinase activity, required greater than 10 ..mu..M calcium, proceeded without a lag, was not readily reversible, and required no exogenous phospholipid. Moreover, C-kinase inhibitors, such as chlorpromazine and palmitoyl carnitine, inhibited selectively adenylate cyclase which was activated by C-kinase and calcium. Depending on assay conditions, 10 nM 12-0-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) either enhanced or was required for kinase action on cyclase. Also, TPA plus calcium promoted the quantitative association of C-kinase with membranes. Adenylate cyclase activation by C-kinase was seen both in the presence and absence of exogenous GTP, indicating that the kinase effect does not result from an action on the GTP-binding, inhibitory regulatory component (N/sub i/) of the cyclase system. Moreover, the kinase effect was seen in the presence of non-phosphorylating ATP analogs, such as AppNHp and AppCH/sub 2/p, suggesting that the effects of C-kinase described herein may result from association with, rather than phosphorylation of, adenylate cyclase.

  2. Hemin as a generic and potent protein misfolding inhibitor

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Yanqin; Carver, John A.; Ho, Lam H.; Elias, Abigail K.; Musgrave, Ian F.; Pukala, Tara L.

    2014-11-14

    Highlights: • Hemin prevents Aβ42, α-synuclein and RCM-κ-casein forming amyloid fibrils. • Hemin inhibits the β-sheet structure formation of Aβ42. • Hemin reduces the cell toxicity caused by fibrillar Aβ42. • Hemin dissociates partially formed Aβ42 fibrils. • Hemin prevents amorphous aggregation by ADH, catalase and γs-crystallin. - Abstract: Protein misfolding causes serious biological malfunction, resulting in diseases including Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease and cataract. Molecules which inhibit protein misfolding are a promising avenue to explore as therapeutics for the treatment of these diseases. In the present study, thioflavin T fluorescence and transmission electron microscopy experiments demonstrated that hemin prevents amyloid fibril formation of kappa-casein, amyloid beta peptide and α-synuclein by blocking β-sheet structure assembly which is essential in fibril aggregation. Further, inhibition of fibril formation by hemin significantly reduces the cytotoxicity caused by fibrillar amyloid beta peptide in vitro. Interestingly, hemin degrades partially formed amyloid fibrils and prevents further aggregation to mature fibrils. Light scattering assay results revealed that hemin also prevents protein amorphous aggregation of alcohol dehydrogenase, catalase and γs-crystallin. In summary, hemin is a potent agent which generically stabilises proteins against aggregation, and has potential as a key molecule for the development of therapeutics for protein misfolding diseases.

  3. Angiogenic inhibitor protein fractions derived from shark cartilage.

    PubMed

    Bargahi, Afshar; Rabbani-Chadegani, Azra

    2008-02-01

    Development of therapies based on the growth inhibition of new blood vessels is among the most intensively studied approaches to the treatment of cancer and other angiogenesis-related diseases. Shark cartilage has been proven to have inhibitory effects on the endothelial cell angiogenesis, metastasis, cell adhesion and MMP (matrix metalloprotease) activity. In the present study, we have used a chromatography-based procedure for the isolation and partial purification of a shark cartilage protein fraction containing anti-angiogenesis activity. Proteins were extracted in 4 M guanidinium chloride, followed by sequential anion- and cation-exchange column chromatography. Angiogenesis assays were performed using the rat aortic ring and chick CAM (chorioallantoic membrane) assay models. The results show that the final fraction contains two proteins with molecular masses of 14.7 and 16 kDa. The protein fraction is able to block microvessel sprouting in the collagen-embedded rat aortic ring assay in vitro and inhibition of capillary sprouting in the CAM assay in vivo. It is suggested that these are partially purified anti-angiogenesis proteins, which have further biotechnological or biomedical applications.

  4. BI-97C1, an Optically Pure Apogossypol Derivative as Pan-Active Inhibitor of Anti-apoptotic B-cell lymphoma/leukemia-2 (Bcl-2) Family Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Jun; Stebbins, John L.; Kitada, Shinichi; Dash, Rupesh; Placzek, William; Rega, Michele F.; Wu, Bainan; Cellitti, Jason; Zhai, Dayong; Yang, Li; Dahl, Russell; Fisher, Paul B.; Reed, John C.; Pellecchia, Maurizio

    2010-01-01

    In our continued attempts to identify novel and effective pan-Bcl-2 antagonists, we have recently reported a series of compound 2 (Apogossypol) derivatives, resulting in the chiral compound 4 (8r). We report here on synthesis and evaluation on its optically pure individual isomers. Compound 11 (BI-97C1), the most potent diastereoisomer of compound 4, inhibits the binding of BH3 peptides to Bcl-XL, Bcl-2, Mcl-1 and Bfl-1 with IC50 values of 0.31, 0.32, 0.20 and 0.62 μM, respectively. The compound also potently inhibits cell growth of human prostate cancer, lung cancer and lymphoma cell lines with EC50 values of 0.13, 0.56 and 0.049 μM, respectively and shows little cytotoxicity against bax−/−bak−/− cells. Compound 11 displays in vivo efficacy in transgenic mice models and also demonstrated superior single-agent antitumor efficacy in a prostate cancer mouse xenograft model. Therefore, compound 11 represents a potential drug lead for the development of novel apoptosis-based therapies against cancer. PMID:20443627

  5. Structural Basis of Protein Kinase C Isoform Function

    PubMed Central

    STEINBERG, SUSAN F.

    2010-01-01

    Protein kinase C (PKC) isoforms comprise a family of lipid-activated enzymes that have been implicated in a wide range of cellular functions. PKCs are modular enzymes comprised of a regulatory domain (that contains the membrane-targeting motifs that respond to lipid cofactors, and in the case of some PKCs calcium) and a relatively conserved catalytic domain that binds ATP and substrates. These enzymes are coexpressed and respond to similar stimulatory agonists in many cell types. However, there is growing evidence that individual PKC isoforms subserve unique (and in some cases opposing) functions in cells, at least in part as a result of isoform-specific subcellular compartmentalization patterns, protein-protein interactions, and posttranslational modifications that influence catalytic function. This review focuses on the structural basis for differences in lipid cofactor responsiveness for individual PKC isoforms, the regulatory phosphorylations that control the normal maturation, activation, signaling function, and downregulation of these enzymes, and the intra-/intermolecular interactions that control PKC isoform activation and subcellular targeting in cells. A detailed understanding of the unique molecular features that underlie isoform-specific posttranslational modification patterns, protein-protein interactions, and subcellular targeting (i.e., that impart functional specificity) should provide the basis for the design of novel PKC isoform-specific activator or inhibitor compounds that can achieve therapeutically useful changes in PKC signaling in cells. PMID:18923184

  6. Natural phospholipase A(2) myotoxin inhibitor proteins from snakes, mammals and plants.

    PubMed

    Lizano, Sergio; Domont, Gilberto; Perales, Jonas

    2003-12-15

    A renewed interest in the phenomenon of inter- and intra-species resistance towards the toxicity of snake venoms, coupled with the search for new strategies for treatment of snake envenomations, has prompted the discovery of proteins which neutralize the major toxic components of these venoms. Among these emerging groups of proteins are inhibitors of toxic phospholipases A2 (PLA2s), many of which exhibit a wide range of toxic effects including muscle-tissue damage, neurotoxicity, and inflammation. These proteins have been isolated from both venomous and non-venomous snakes, mammals, and most recently from medicinal plant extracts. The snake blood-derived inhibitors have been grouped into three major classes, alpha, beta, and gamma, based on common structural motifs found in other proteins with diverse physiological properties. In mammals, DM64, an anti-myotoxic protein isolated from opossum serum, belongs to the immunoglobulin super gene family and is homologous to human alpha1B-glycoprotein and DM43, a metalloproteinase inhibitor from the same organism. In plants, a short note is made of WSG, a newly described anti-toxic-PLA2 glycoprotein isolated from Withania somnifera (Ashwaganda), a medicinal plant whose aqueous extracts neutralize the PLA2 activity of the Naja naja venom. The implications of these new groups of PLA2 toxin inhibitors in the context of our current understanding of snake biology as well as in the development of novel therapeutic reagents in the treatment of snake envenomations worldwide are discussed.

  7. Inhibitors of cholesterol biosynthesis increase hepatic low-density lipoprotein receptor protein degradation.

    PubMed

    Ness, G C; Zhao, Z; Lopez, D

    1996-01-15

    Inhibitors of cholesterol biosynthesis are believed to lower serum cholesterol levels by enhancing the removal of serum low-density lipoprotein (LDL) by increasing hepatic LDL receptor function. Thus, the effects of several different inhibitors of cholesterol biosynthesis were examined for their effects on the expression of the hepatic LDL receptor in rats. We found that administration of inhibitors of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase such as lovastatin, pravastatin, fluvastatin, and rivastatin resulted in increased hepatic LDL receptor mRNA levels. Surprisingly, these agents failed to increase levels of immunoreactive LDL receptor protein in rat liver even when the dose and length of treatment were increased. Treatment of rats with zaragozic acid A, an inhibitor of squalene synthase, caused even greater increases in hepatic LDL receptor mRNA levels, but did not increase levels of immunoreactive protein. Further investigation revealed that the rate of degradation of the hepatic LDL receptor was increased in rats given inhibitors of cholesterol biosynthesis. The greatest increase in the rate of degradation was seen in animals treated with zaragozic acid A which caused the largest increase in hepatic LDL receptor mRNA levels. In contrast, hepatic LDL receptor protein was stabilized in cholesterol-fed rats. It appears that increased potential for LDL receptor protein synthesis, reflected in increased mRNA levels, is offset by a corresponding increase in the rate of receptor protein degradation resulting in constant steady-state levels of hepatic LDL receptor protein. These findings are suggestive of increased cycling of the hepatic LDL receptor. This postulated mechanism can provide for enhanced hepatic uptake of lipoproteins without increasing steady-state levels of LDL receptor protein.

  8. Heavy metal ions are potent inhibitors of protein folding

    SciTech Connect

    Sharma, Sandeep K.; Goloubinoff, Pierre; Christen, Philipp

    2008-07-25

    Environmental and occupational exposure to heavy metals such as cadmium, mercury and lead results in severe health hazards including prenatal and developmental defects. The deleterious effects of heavy metal ions have hitherto been attributed to their interactions with specific, particularly susceptible native proteins. Here, we report an as yet undescribed mode of heavy metal toxicity. Cd{sup 2+}, Hg{sup 2+} and Pb{sup 2+} proved to inhibit very efficiently the spontaneous refolding of chemically denatured proteins by forming high-affinity multidentate complexes with thiol and other functional groups (IC{sub 50} in the nanomolar range). With similar efficacy, the heavy metal ions inhibited the chaperone-assisted refolding of chemically denatured and heat-denatured proteins. Thus, the toxic effects of heavy metal ions may result as well from their interaction with the more readily accessible functional groups of proteins in nascent and other non-native form. The toxic scope of heavy metals seems to be substantially larger than assumed so far.

  9. The endothelial protein C receptor and malaria.

    PubMed

    van der Poll, Tom

    2013-08-01

    In this issue of Blood, Moxon et al provide novel insight into the pathogenesis of cerebral malaria, linking loss of the endothelial protein C receptor (EPCR) on brain vessels, caused by cytoadherent infected erythrocytes, with localized coagulation, inflammation, and disruption of endothelial barrier function.

  10. Structure-Based Design of Inhibitors of Protein–Protein Interactions: Mimicking Peptide Binding Epitopes

    PubMed Central

    Pelay-Gimeno, Marta; Glas, Adrian; Koch, Oliver; Grossmann, Tom N

    2015-01-01

    Protein–protein interactions (PPIs) are involved at all levels of cellular organization, thus making the development of PPI inhibitors extremely valuable. The identification of selective inhibitors is challenging because of the shallow and extended nature of PPI interfaces. Inhibitors can be obtained by mimicking peptide binding epitopes in their bioactive conformation. For this purpose, several strategies have been evolved to enable a projection of side chain functionalities in analogy to peptide secondary structures, thereby yielding molecules that are generally referred to as peptidomimetics. Herein, we introduce a new classification of peptidomimetics (classes A–D) that enables a clear assignment of available approaches. Based on this classification, the Review summarizes strategies that have been applied for the structure-based design of PPI inhibitors through stabilizing or mimicking turns, β-sheets, and helices. PMID:26119925

  11. Molecular dynamics of protein kinase-inhibitor complexes: a valid structural information.

    PubMed

    Caballero, Julio; Alzate-Morales, Jans H

    2012-01-01

    Protein kinases (PKs) are key components of protein phosphorylation based signaling networks in eukaryotic cells. They have been identified as being implicated in many diseases. High-resolution X-ray crystallographic data exist for many PKs and, in many cases, these structures are co-complexed with inhibitors. Although this valuable information confirms the precise structure of PKs and their complexes, it ignores the dynamic movements of the structures which are relevant to explain the affinities and selectivity of the ligands, to characterize the thermodynamics of the solvated complexes, and to derive predictive models. Atomistic molecular dynamics (MD) simulations present a convenient way to study PK-inhibitor complexes and have been increasingly used in recent years in structure-based drug design. MD is a very useful computational method and a great counterpart for experimentalists, which helps them to derive important additional molecular information. That enables them to follow and understand structure and dynamics of protein-ligand systems with extreme molecular detail on scales where motion of individual atoms can be tracked. MD can be used to sample dynamic molecular processes, and can be complemented with more advanced computational methods (e.g., free energy calculations, structure-activity relationship analysis). This review focuses on the most commonly applications to study PK-inhibitor complexes using MD simulations. Our aim is that researchers working in the design of PK inhibitors be aware of the benefits of this powerful tool in the design of potent and selective PK inhibitors.

  12. HSC90 is required for nascent hepatitis C virus core protein stability in yeast cells.

    PubMed

    Kubota, Naoko; Inayoshi, Yasutaka; Satoh, Naoko; Fukuda, Takashi; Iwai, Kenta; Tomoda, Hiroshi; Kohara, Michinori; Kataoka, Kazuhiro; Shimamoto, Akira; Furuichi, Yasuhiro; Nomoto, Akio; Naganuma, Akira; Kuge, Shusuke

    2012-07-30

    Hepatitis C virus core protein (Core) contributes to HCV pathogenicity. Here, we demonstrate that Core impairs growth in budding yeast. We identify HSP90 inhibitors as compounds that reduce intracellular Core protein level and restore yeast growth. Our results suggest that HSC90 (Hsc82) may function in the protection of the nascent Core polypeptide against degradation in yeast and the C-terminal region of Core corresponding to the organelle-interaction domain was responsible for Hsc82-dependent stability. The yeast system may be utilized to select compounds that can direct the C-terminal region to reduce the stability of Core protein.

  13. Scaffold protein enigma homolog 1 overcomes the repression of myogenesis activation by inhibitor of DNA binding 2.

    PubMed

    Nakatani, Miyuki; Ito, Jumpei; Koyama, Riko; Iijima, Masumi; Yoshimoto, Nobuo; Niimi, Tomoaki; Kuroda, Shun'ichi; Maturana, Andrés D

    2016-05-27

    Enigma Homolog 1 (ENH1) is a scaffold protein for signaling proteins and transcription factors. Previously, we reported that ENH1 overexpression promotes the differentiation of C2C12 myoblasts. However, the molecular mechanism underlying the role of ENH1 in the C2C12 cells differentiation remains elusive. ENH1 was shown to inhibit the proliferation of neuroblastoma cells by sequestering Inhibitor of DNA binding protein 2 (Id2) in the cytosol. Id2 is a repressor of basic Helix-Loop-Helix transcription factors activity and prevents myogenesis. Here, we found that ENH1 overcome the Id2 repression of C2C12 cells myogenic differentiation and that ENH1 overexpression promotes mice satellite cells activation, the first step toward myogenic differentiation. In addition, we show that ENH1 interacted with Id2 in C2C12 cells and mice satellite cells. Collectively, our results suggest that ENH1 plays an important role in the activation of myogenesis through the repression of Id2 activity.

  14. Identification and Structure-Function Analysis of Subfamily Selective G Protein-Coupled Receptor Kinase Inhibitors

    SciTech Connect

    Homan, Kristoff T.; Larimore, Kelly M.; Elkins, Jonathan M.; Szklarz, Marta; Knapp, Stefan; Tesmer, John J.G.

    2015-02-13

    Selective inhibitors of individual subfamilies of G protein-coupled receptor kinases (GRKs) would serve as useful chemical probes as well as leads for therapeutic applications ranging from heart failure to Parkinson’s disease. To identify such inhibitors, differential scanning fluorimetry was used to screen a collection of known protein kinase inhibitors that could increase the melting points of the two most ubiquitously expressed GRKs: GRK2 and GRK5. Enzymatic assays on 14 of the most stabilizing hits revealed that three exhibit nanomolar potency of inhibition for individual GRKs, some of which exhibiting orders of magnitude selectivity. Most of the identified compounds can be clustered into two chemical classes: indazole/dihydropyrimidine-containing compounds that are selective for GRK2 and pyrrolopyrimidine-containing compounds that potently inhibit GRK1 and GRK5 but with more modest selectivity. The two most potent inhibitors representing each class, GSK180736A and GSK2163632A, were cocrystallized with GRK2 and GRK1, and their atomic structures were determined to 2.6 and 1.85 Å spacings, respectively. GSK180736A, developed as a Rho-associated, coiled-coil-containing protein kinase inhibitor, binds to GRK2 in a manner analogous to that of paroxetine, whereas GSK2163632A, developed as an insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor inhibitor, occupies a novel region of the GRK active site cleft that could likely be exploited to achieve more selectivity. However, neither compound inhibits GRKs more potently than their initial targets. This data provides the foundation for future efforts to rationally design even more potent and selective GRK inhibitors.

  15. Development of a High-Throughput Screening Assay to Identify Inhibitors of the Lipid Kinase PIP5K1C.

    PubMed

    Wright, Brittany D; Simpson, Catherine; Stashko, Michael; Kireev, Dmitri; Hull-Ryde, Emily A; Zylka, Mark J; Janzen, William P

    2015-06-01

    Phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate 5-kinases (PIP5Ks) regulate a variety of cellular processes, including signaling through G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), endocytosis, exocytosis, and cell migration. These lipid kinases synthesize phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2) from phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate [PI(4)P]. Because small-molecule inhibitors of these lipid kinases did not exist, molecular and genetic approaches were predominantly used to study PIP5K1 regulation of these cellular processes. Moreover, standard radioisotope-based lipid kinase assays cannot be easily adapted for high-throughput screening. Here, we report a novel, high-throughput, microfluidic mobility shift assay to identify inhibitors of PIP5K1C. This assay uses fluorescently labeled phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate as the substrate and recombinant human PIP5K1C. Our assay exhibited high reproducibility, had a calculated adenosine triphosphate Michaelis constant (Km) of 15 µM, performed with z' values >0.7, and was used to screen a kinase-focused library of ~4700 compounds. From this screen, we identified several potent inhibitors of PIP5K1C, including UNC3230, a compound that we recently found can reduce nociceptive sensitization in animal models of chronic pain. This novel assay will allow continued drug discovery efforts for PIP5K1C and can be adapted easily to screen additional lipid kinases.

  16. Development of a high-throughput screening assay to identify inhibitors of the lipid kinase PIP5K1C

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Brittany D.; Simpson, Catherine; Stashko, Michael; Kireev, Dmitri; Hull-Ryde, Emily A.; Zylka, Mark J.; Janzen, William P.

    2015-01-01

    Phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate 5-kinases (PIP5Ks) regulate a variety of cellular processes including signaling through G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), endocytosis, exocytosis, and cell migration. These lipid kinases synthesize phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2) from phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate [PI(4)P]. Since small molecule inhibitors of these lipid kinases did not exist, molecular and genetic approaches were predominantly used to study PIP5K1 regulation of these cellular processes. Moreover, standard radioisotope-based lipid kinase assays cannot be easily adapted for high-throughput screening. Here, we report a novel high-throughput microfluidic mobility shift assay to identify inhibitors of PIP5K1C. This assay utilizes fluorescently labeled phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate as the substrate and recombinant human PIP5K1C. Our assay exhibited high reproducibility, had a calculated ATP Km of 15 µM, performed with z’ values >0.7, and was used to screen a kinase-focused library of ~4,700 compounds. From this screen, we identified several potent inhibitors of PIP5K1C, including UNC3230, a compound that we recently found can reduce nociceptive sensitization in animal models of chronic pain. This novel assay will allow continued drug discovery efforts for PIP5K1C and can be easily adapted to screen additional lipid kinases. PMID:25534829

  17. Fragment-based discovery of potent inhibitors of the anti-apoptotic MCL-1 protein.

    PubMed

    Petros, Andrew M; Swann, Steven L; Song, Danying; Swinger, Kerren; Park, Chang; Zhang, Haichao; Wendt, Michael D; Kunzer, Aaron R; Souers, Andrew J; Sun, Chaohong

    2014-03-15

    Apoptosis is regulated by the BCL-2 family of proteins, which is comprised of both pro-death and pro-survival members. Evasion of apoptosis is a hallmark of malignant cells. One way in which cancer cells achieve this evasion is thru overexpression of the pro-survival members of the BCL-2 family. Overexpression of MCL-1, a pro-survival protein, has been shown to be a resistance factor for Navitoclax, a potent inhibitor of BCL-2 and BCL-XL. Here we describe the use of fragment screening methods and structural biology to drive the discovery of novel MCL-1 inhibitors from two distinct structural classes. Specifically, cores derived from a biphenyl sulfonamide and salicylic acid were uncovered in an NMR-based fragment screen and elaborated using high throughput analog synthesis. This culminated in the discovery of selective and potent inhibitors of MCL-1 that may serve as promising leads for medicinal chemistry optimization efforts.

  18. Efficacy and Safety of a Microsomal Triglyceride Transfer Protein Inhibitor in Homozygous Familial Hypercholesterolemia

    PubMed Central

    Cuchel, M; Meagher, EA; du Toit, Theron H.; Blom, DJ; Marais, AD; Hegele, RA; Averna, M; Sirtori, C; Shah, PK; Gaudet, D; Stefanutti, C; Vigna, GB; Du Plessis, AME; Propert, Kathleen J.; Sasiela, WJ; Bloedon, LT; Rader, DJ

    2015-01-01

    Background Patients with homozygous familial hypercholesterolemia (HoFH) respond inadequately to existing drugs. We conducted a phase 3 study to assess the efficacy and safety of the microsomal triglyceride transfer protein inhibitor lomitapide in adults with HoFH. Methods Twenty-nine subjects enrolled into a single-arm, open-label study and maintained current lipid lowering therapy from six weeks before baseline through at least week 26. Lomitapide dose was escalated based on safety and tolerability from 5 mg to a maximum of 60 mg/day. The primary endpoint was mean percent change from baseline in LDL-C at week 26, after which patients remained on lomitapide through week 78 for safety assessment. Findings Twenty-three subjects completed weeks 26 and 78. The median dose of lomitapide was 40 mg/day. LDL-C was reduced by 50% from baseline at week 26 (4·3 ± 2·5 mmol/L vs. 8·7 ± 2·9 mmol/L, p<0.0001). Eight subjects achieved LDL-C <2·6 mmol/L at this time point. LDL-C was reduced by 44% at week 56 and 38% at week 78 (p<0.0001 for both). Gastrointestinal symptoms were the most common adverse event. Four patients had aminotransaminase > 5× ULN that resolved after dose reduction or temporary interruption of lomitapide. No subject permanently discontinued treatment due to liver abnormalities. Liver fat content assessed by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMRS; n=20) was 1·0 ± 1·3 % at baseline, 8·6 ± 8·1% at week 26 and remained stable up to week 78 (8·3± 5·3%). Interpretation These data demonstrate that lomitapide had a robust and durable efficacy in lowering LDL-C in patients with HoFH with an acceptable safety and tolerability profile. PMID:23122768

  19. Neurite outgrowth of NG108-15 cells induced by heat shock protein 90 inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Jin, Erika; Sano, Mamoru

    2008-12-01

    We previously reported that radicicol (Rad) and geldanamycin (Geld), heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) inhibitors, potentiate neurite growth of cultured sensory neurons from chick embryo. We now show that the antibiotics induce neurite growth in NG108-15 cells. Treatment of the cells with these drugs caused transient decrease in protein levels of Raf1, ERK1/2, phosphorylated ERK1/2, Akt1, and CDK4. The neurite growth of NG108-15 induced by the inhibitors was blocked by actynomycin D, but the neurite growth stimulated by dbcAMP in the cells was not affected. The neurite growth could be due to a change in the synthesis of some specific protein(s) and is speculated to be due to the transient downregulation of particular-signaling molecules stabilized by Hsp90.

  20. Purification of storage granule protein-23. A novel protein identified by phage display technology and interaction with type I plasminogen activator inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Lang, I M; Chuang, T L; Barbas, C F; Schleef, R R

    1996-11-22

    Type 1 plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI-1) is a key regulator of the fibrinolytic cascade that is stored in a rapidly releasable form within platelet alpha-granules. To identify proteins that may participate in the targeting or storage of this potent inhibitor, this report investigates the applicability of utilizing filamentous bacteriophages to display proteins expressed by cells containing a regulated secretory pathway and their enrichment based upon an interaction with PAI-1. For this purpose, RNA was extracted from AtT-20 cells (i.e. a classical model cell system for intracellular protein sorting), reverse transcribed, amplified using polymerase chain reaction primers containing internal restriction sites, and cloned into the phagemid pCOMB3H for expression as fusion constructs with the bacteriophage gene III protein. Escherichia coli was transformed with the phagemids and infected with VCSM13 helper phage, and the resulting AtT-20 cDNA-bacteriophage library was enriched by panning against solid- and solution-phase PAI-1. The enriched cDNA library was subcloned into a prokaryotic expression vector system that replaces the gene III protein with a decapeptide tag for immunologic quantitation. One novel cDNA clone (i.e. A-61), which preferentially recognized solution-phase PAI-1 and reacted positively with antibodies derived from a rabbit immunized with alpha-granules, was subcloned into the prokaryotic expression vector pTrcHis to create a construct containing an N-terminal six-histidine purification tag. This construct was expressed in E. coli, purified by nickel-chelate chromatography followed by preparative SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, and utilized for the generation of polyclonal antibodies. Immunoblotting analysis employing antibodies against the purified A-61 construct revealed a 23-kDa protein present in the regulated secretory pathway of AtT-20 cells. The 23-kDa molecule was purified from media conditioned by AtT-20 cells by ion exchange

  1. Secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor (SLPI) might contaminate murine monoclonal antibodies after purification on protein G.

    PubMed

    Schenk, Jörg A; Fettke, Joerg; Lenz, Christine; Albers, Katharina; Mallwitz, Frank; Gajovic-Eichelmann, Nenad; Ehrentreich-Förster, Eva; Kusch, Emely; Sellrie, Frank

    2012-03-31

    The large scale production of a monoclonal anti-progesterone antibody in serum free medium followed by affinity chromatography on protein G lead to a contamination of the antibody sample with a protein of about 14 kDa. This protein was identified by mass spectrometry as secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor (SLPI). This SLPI contamination lead to a failure of the fiber-optic based competitive fluorescence assay to detect progesterone in milk. Purification of the monoclonal antibody using protein A columns circumvented this problem.

  2. Chalcone-based Selective Inhibitors of a C4 Plant Key Enzyme as Novel Potential Herbicides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, G. T. T.; Erlenkamp, G.; Jäck, O.; Küberl, A.; Bott, M.; Fiorani, F.; Gohlke, H.; Groth, G.

    2016-06-01

    Weeds are a challenge for global food production due to their rapidly evolving resistance against herbicides. We have identified chalcones as selective inhibitors of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC), a key enzyme for carbon fixation and biomass increase in the C4 photosynthetic pathway of many of the world’s most damaging weeds. In contrast, many of the most important crop plants use C3 photosynthesis. Here, we show that 2‧,3‧,4‧,3,4-Pentahydroxychalcone (IC50 = 600 nM) and 2‧,3‧,4‧-Trihydroxychalcone (IC50 = 4.2 μM) are potent inhibitors of C4 PEPC but do not affect C3 PEPC at a same concentration range (selectivity factor: 15–45). Binding and modeling studies indicate that the active compounds bind at the same site as malate/aspartate, the natural feedback inhibitors of the C4 pathway. At the whole plant level, both substances showed pronounced growth-inhibitory effects on the C4 weed Amaranthus retroflexus, while there were no measurable effects on oilseed rape, a C3 plant. Growth of selected soil bacteria was not affected by these substances. Our chalcone compounds are the most potent and selective C4 PEPC inhibitors known to date. They offer a novel approach to combat C4 weeds based on a hitherto unexplored mode of allosteric inhibition of a C4 plant key enzyme.

  3. Chalcone-based Selective Inhibitors of a C4 Plant Key Enzyme as Novel Potential Herbicides

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, G. T. T.; Erlenkamp, G.; Jäck, O.; Küberl, A.; Bott, M.; Fiorani, F.; Gohlke, H.; Groth, G.

    2016-01-01

    Weeds are a challenge for global food production due to their rapidly evolving resistance against herbicides. We have identified chalcones as selective inhibitors of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC), a key enzyme for carbon fixation and biomass increase in the C4 photosynthetic pathway of many of the world’s most damaging weeds. In contrast, many of the most important crop plants use C3 photosynthesis. Here, we show that 2′,3′,4′,3,4-Pentahydroxychalcone (IC50 = 600 nM) and 2′,3′,4′-Trihydroxychalcone (IC50 = 4.2 μM) are potent inhibitors of C4 PEPC but do not affect C3 PEPC at a same concentration range (selectivity factor: 15–45). Binding and modeling studies indicate that the active compounds bind at the same site as malate/aspartate, the natural feedback inhibitors of the C4 pathway. At the whole plant level, both substances showed pronounced growth-inhibitory effects on the C4 weed Amaranthus retroflexus, while there were no measurable effects on oilseed rape, a C3 plant. Growth of selected soil bacteria was not affected by these substances. Our chalcone compounds are the most potent and selective C4 PEPC inhibitors known to date. They offer a novel approach to combat C4 weeds based on a hitherto unexplored mode of allosteric inhibition of a C4 plant key enzyme. PMID:27263468

  4. Targeting Mycobacterium tuberculosis Biotin Protein Ligase (MtBPL) with Nucleoside-Based Bisubstrate Adenylation Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Petrelli, Riccardo; De la Mora-Rey, Teresa; Tiwari, Divya; Liu, Feng; Dawadi, Surrendra; Nandakumar, Madhumitha; Rhee, Kyu Y.; Schnappinger, Dirk; Finzel, Barry C.; Aldrich, Courtney C.

    2015-01-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) responsible for both latent and symptomatic tuberculosis (TB) remains the second leading cause of mortality among infectious diseases worldwide. Mycobacterial biotin protein ligase (MtBPL) is an essential enzyme in Mtb and regulates lipid metabolism through the post-translational biotinylation of acyl coenzyme A carboxylases. We report the synthesis and evaluation of a systematic series of potent nucleoside-based inhibitors of MtBPL that contain modifications to the ribofuranosyl ring of the nucleoside. All compounds were characterized by isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) and shown to bind potently with KD's below 2 nM. Additionally, we obtained high-resolution co-crystal structures for a majority of the compounds. Despite fairly uniform biochemical potency, the whole-cell Mtb activity varied greatly with minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) ranging from 0.78 to >100 μM. Cellular accumulation studies showed a nearly 10-fold enhanced accumulation of a C-2′-α analog over the corresponding C-2′-β analog, consistent with their differential whole-cell activity. PMID:26299766

  5. DRAGON, a GPI-anchored membrane protein, inhibits BMP signaling in C2C12 myoblasts.

    PubMed

    Kanomata, Kazuhiro; Kokabu, Shoichiro; Nojima, Junya; Fukuda, Toru; Katagiri, Takenobu

    2009-06-01

    Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) induce osteoblastic differentiation of myoblasts via binding to cell surface receptors. Repulsive guidance molecules (RGMs) have been identified as BMP co-receptors. We report here that DRAGON/RGMb, a member of the RGM family, suppressed BMP signaling in C2C12 myoblasts via a novel mechanism. All RGMs were expressed in C2C12 cells that were differentiated into myocytes and osteoblastic cells, but RGMc was not detected in immature cells. In C2C12 cells, only DRAGON suppressed ALP and Id1 promoter activities induced by BMP-4 or by constitutively activated BMP type I receptors. This inhibition by DRAGON was dependent on the secretory form of the von Willbrand factor type D domain. DRAGON even suppressed BMP signaling induced by constitutively activated Smad1. Over-expression of neogenin did not alter the inhibitory capacity of DRAGON. Taken together, these findings indicate that DRAGON may be an inhibitor of BMP signaling in C2C12 myoblasts. We also suggest that a novel molecule(s) expressed on the cell membrane may mediate the signal transduction of DRAGON in order to suppress BMP signaling in C2C12 myoblasts.

  6. Interaction proteins of invertase and invertase inhibitor in cold-stored potato tubers suggested a protein complex underlying post-translational regulation of invertase.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yuan; Liu, Jun; Liu, Xun; Ou, Yongbin; Li, Meng; Zhang, Huiling; Song, Botao; Xie, Conghua

    2013-12-01

    The activity of vacuolar invertase (VI) is vital to potato cold-induced sweetening (CIS). A post-translational regulation of VI activity has been proposed which involves invertase inhibitor (VIH), but the mechanism for the interaction between VI and VIH has not been fully understood. To identify the potential partners of VI and VIH, two cDNA libraries were respectively constructed from CIS-resistant wild potato species Solanum berthaultii and CIS-sensitive potato cultivar AC035-01 for the yeast two-hybrid analysis. The StvacINV1 (one of the potato VIs) and StInvInh2B (one of the potato VIHs), previously identified to be associated with potato CIS, were used as baits to screen the two libraries. Through positive selection and sequencing, 27 potential target proteins of StvacINV1 and eight of StInvInh2B were clarified. The Kunitz-type protein inhibitors were captured by StvacINV1 in both libraries and the interaction between them was confirmed by bimolecular fluorescence complementation assay in tobacco cells, reinforcing a fundamental interaction between VI and VIH. Notably, a sucrose non-fermenting-1-related protein kinase 1 was captured by both the baits, suggesting that a protein complex could be necessary for fine turning of the invertase activity. The target proteins clarified in present research provide a route to elucidate the mechanism by which the VI activity can be subtly modulated.

  7. Discovery of Benzisoxazoles as Potent Inhibitors of Chaperone Heat Shock Protein 90

    SciTech Connect

    Gopalsamy, Ariamala; Shi, Mengxiao; Golas, Jennifer; Vogan, Erik; Jacob, Jaison; Johnson, Mark; Lee, Frederick; Nilakantan, Ramaswamy; Petersen, Roseann; Svenson, Kristin; Chopra, Rajiv; Tam, May S.; Wen, Yingxia; Ellingboe, John; Arndt, Kim; Boschelli, Frank

    2008-08-11

    Heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) is a molecular chaperone that is responsible for activating many signaling proteins and is a promising target in tumor biology. We have identified small-molecule benzisoxazole derivatives as Hsp90 inhibitors. Crystallographic studies show that these compounds bind in the ATP binding pocket interacting with the Asp93. Structure based optimization led to the identification of potent analogues, such as 13, with good biochemical profiles.

  8. COMPARATIVE PATHOGENESIS OF HALOACETIC ACID AND PROTEIN KINASE INHIBITOR EMBRYOTOXICITY IN MOUSE WHOLE EMBRYO CULTURE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Comparative pathogenesis of haloacetic acid and protein kinase inhibitor embryotoxicity in mouse whole embryo culture.

    Ward KW, Rogers EH, Hunter ES 3rd.

    Curriculum in Toxicology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, 27599-7270, USA.

    Haloacetic acids ...

  9. The antibiotic micrococcin is a potent inhibitor of growth and protein synthesis in the malaria parasite.

    PubMed

    Rogers, M J; Cundliffe, E; McCutchan, T F

    1998-03-01

    The antibiotic micrococcin is a potent growth inhibitor of the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum, with a 50% inhibitory concentration of 35 nM. This is comparable to or less than the corresponding levels of commonly used antimalarial drugs. Micrococcin, like thiostrepton, putatively targets protein synthesis in the plastid-like organelle of the parasite.

  10. Dual roles of F123 in protein homodimerization and inhibitor binding to biotin protein ligase from Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Soares da Costa, Tatiana P; Yap, Min Y; Perugini, Matthew A; Wallace, John C; Abell, Andrew D; Wilce, Matthew C J; Polyak, Steven W; Booker, Grant W

    2014-01-01

    Protein biotinylation is catalysed by biotin protein ligase (BPL). The most characterized BPL is from Escherichia coli where it functions as both a biotin ligase and a homodimeric transcriptional repressor. Here we investigated another bifunctional BPL from the clinically important Staphylococcus aureus (SaBPL). Unliganded SaBPL (apo) exists in a dimer-monomer equilibrium at low micromolar concentrations - a stark contrast to E. coli BPL (EcBPL) that is monomeric under the same conditions. EMSA and SAXS analysis demonstrated that dimeric apo SaBPL adopted a conformation that was competent to bind DNA and necessary for it to function as a transcription factor. The SaBPL dimer-monomer dissociation constant was 5.8-fold tighter when binding the inhibitor biotin acetylene, but unchanged with biotin. F123, located in the dimer interface, was critical for homodimerization. Inhibition studies together with surface plasmon resonance analyses revealed a strong correlation between inhibitor potency and slow dissociation kinetics. A 24-fold difference in Ki values for these two enzymes was explained by differences in enzyme:inhibitor dissociation rates. Substitution of F123 in SaBPL and its equivalent in EcBPL altered both inhibitor potency and dissociation. Hence, F123 in SaBPL has novel roles in both protein dimerization and ligand-binding that have not been reported in EcBPL.

  11. Design and synthesis of lactam-thiophene carboxylic acids as potent hepatitis C virus polymerase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Barnes-Seeman, David; Boiselle, Carri; Capacci-Daniel, Christina; Chopra, Rajiv; Hoffmaster, Keith; Jones, Christopher T; Kato, Mitsunori; Lin, Kai; Ma, Sue; Pan, Guoyu; Shu, Lei; Wang, Jianling; Whiteman, Leah; Xu, Mei; Zheng, Rui; Fu, Jiping

    2014-08-15

    Herein we report the successful incorporation of a lactam as an amide replacement in the design of hepatitis C virus NS5B Site II thiophene carboxylic acid inhibitors. Optimizing potency in a replicon assay and minimizing potential risk for CYP3A4 induction led to the discovery of inhibitor 22a. This lead compound has a favorable pharmacokinetic profile in rats and dogs.

  12. C-Glucopyranosyl-1,2,4-triazoles As New Potent Inhibitors of Glycogen Phosphorylase

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Glycogen phosphorylase inhibitors are considered as potential antidiabetic agents. 3-(β-d-Glucopyranosyl)-5-substituted-1,2,4-triazoles were prepared by acylation of O-perbenzoylated N1-tosyl-C-β-d-glucopyranosyl formamidrazone and subsequent removal of the protecting groups. The best inhibitor was 3-(β-d-glucopyranosyl)-5-(2-naphthyl)-1,2,4-triazole (Ki = 0.41 μM against rabbit muscle glycogen phosphorylase b). PMID:24900719

  13. Proline-Based Macrocyclic Inhibitors of the Hepatitis C Virus: Stereoselective Synthesis and Biological Activity

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Kevin X.; Njoroge, F. George; Vibulbhan, Bancha; Prongay, Andrew; Pichardo, John; Madison, Vincent; Buevich, Alexei; Chan, Tze-Ming

    2008-06-30

    Macrocyclization through a Mitsunobu reaction was used to synthesize a 17-membered macrocycle. The bicyclic acetal core was prepared completely diastereoselectively. The macrocyclic peptidomimetic surrogate of the P2-P3 dipeptide moiety was designed to function as a hepatitis C virus (HCV) NS3 serine protease inhibitor, and the pentapeptide {alpha}-ketoamides derived from the macrocycle were shown to be potent HCV inhibitors.

  14. AutoGrow: A Novel Algorithm for Protein Inhibitor Design

    PubMed Central

    Durrant, Jacob; Amaro, Rommie E.; McCammon, J. Andrew

    2009-01-01

    Due in part to the increasing availability of crystallographic protein structures as well as rapid improvements in computing power, the past few decades have seen an explosion in the field of computer-based rational drug design. Several algorithms have been developed to identify or generate potential ligands in silico by optimizing the ligand-receptor hydrogen bond, electrostatic, and hydrophobic interactions. We here present AutoGrow, a novel computer-aided drug design algorithm that combines the strengths of both fragment-based growing and docking algorithms. To validate AutoGrow, we recreate three crystallographically resolved ligands from their constituent fragments. PMID:19207419

  15. Marine Natural Products as Breast Cancer Resistance Protein Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Cherigo, Lilia; Lopez, Dioxelis; Martinez-Luis, Sergio

    2015-01-01

    Breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP) is a protein belonging to the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter superfamily that has clinical relevance due to its multi-drug resistance properties in cancer. BCRP can be associated with clinical cancer drug resistance, in particular acute myelogenous or acute lymphocytic leukemias. The overexpression of BCRP contributes to the resistance of several chemotherapeutic drugs, such as topotecan, methotrexate, mitoxantrone, doxorubicin and daunorubicin. The Food and Drugs Administration has already recognized that BCRP is clinically one of the most important drug transporters, mainly because it leads to a reduction of clinical efficacy of various anticancer drugs through its ATP-dependent drug efflux pump function as well as its apparent participation in drug resistance. This review article aims to summarize the different research findings on marine natural products with BCRP inhibiting activity. In this sense, the potential modulation of physiological targets of BCRP by natural or synthetic compounds offers a great possibility for the discovery of new drugs and valuable research tools to recognize the function of the complex ABC-transporters. PMID:25854646

  16. Estimation of inhibitory quotient using a comparative equilibrium dialysis assay for prediction of viral response to hepatitis C virus inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Mo, H; Yang, C; Wang, K; Wang, Y; Huang, M; Murray, B; Qi, X; Sun, S-C; Deshpande, M; Rhodes, G; Miller, M D

    2011-05-01

    The relationship of inhibitory quotient (IQ) with the virologic response to specific inhibitors of human hepatitis C virus (HCV) and the best method to correct for serum protein binding in calculating IQ have not been addressed. A common method is to determine a fold shift by comparing the EC(50) values determined in cell culture in the absence and presence of human serum (fold shift in EC(50) ), but this method has a number of disadvantages. In the present study, the fold shifts in drug concentrations between 100% human plasma (HP) and cell culture medium (CCM) were directly measured using a modified comparative equilibrium dialysis (CED) assay for three HCV protease inhibitors (PIs) and for a novel HCV inhibitor GS-9132. The fold shift values in drug concentration between the HP and CCM (CED ratio) were ∼1 for SCH-503034, VX-950 and GS-9132 and 13 for BILN-2061. These values were ∼3-10-fold lower than the fold shift values calculated from the EC(50) assay for all inhibitors except BILN-2061. Using the CED values, a consistent pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic relationship was observed for the four HCV inhibitors analysed. Specifically, an approximate 1 log(10) reduction in HCV RNA was achieved with an IQ close to 1, while 2-3 and greater log(10) reductions in HCV RNA were achieved with IQ values of 3-5 and greater, respectively. Thus, use of CED to define IQ provides a predictive and quantitative approach for the assessment of the in vivo potency of HCV PIs and GS-9132. This method provides a framework for the evaluation of other classes of drugs that are bound by serum proteins but require the presence of serum for in vitro evaluation.

  17. Design and synthesis of 3,3'-biscoumarin-based c-Met inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jimin; Ai, Jing; Liu, Sheng; Peng, Xia; Yu, Linqian; Geng, Meiyu; Nan, Fajun

    2014-06-14

    A library of biscoumarin-based c-Met inhibitors was synthesized, based on optimization of 3,3'-biscoumarin hit 3, which was identified as a non-ATP competitive inhibitor of c-Met from a diverse library of coumarin derivatives. Among these compounds, 38 and 40 not only showed potent enzyme activities with IC50 values of 107 nM and 30 nM, respectively, but also inhibited c-Met phosphorylation in BaF3/TPR-Met and EBC-1 cells.

  18. Design, Synthesis and Biological Evaluation of Biphenylamide Derivatives as Hsp90 C-terminal Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Huiping; Garg, Gaurav; Zhao, Jinbo; Moroni, Elisabetta; Girgis, Antwan; Franco, Lucas S.; Singh, Swapnil; Colombo, Giorgio; Blagg, Brian S. J.

    2015-01-01

    Modulation of Hsp90 C-terminal function represents a promising therapeutic approach for the treatment of cancer and neurodegenerative diseases. Current drug discovery efforts toward Hsp90 C-terminal inhibition focus on novobiocin, an antibiotic that was transformed into an Hsp90 inhibitor. Based on structural information obtained during the development of novobiocin derivatives and molecular docking studies, scaffolds containing a biphenyl moiety in lieu of the coumarin ring present in novobiocin were identified as new Hsp90 C-terminal inhibitors. Structure-activity relationship studies produced new derivatives that inhibit the proliferation of breast cancer cell lines at nanomolar concentrations, which corresponded directly with Hsp90 inhibition. PMID:25462258

  19. A class of selective antibacterials derived from a protein kinase inhibitor pharmacophore.

    PubMed

    Miller, J Richard; Dunham, Steve; Mochalkin, Igor; Banotai, Craig; Bowman, Matthew; Buist, Susan; Dunkle, Bill; Hanna, Debra; Harwood, H James; Huband, Michael D; Karnovsky, Alla; Kuhn, Michael; Limberakis, Chris; Liu, Jia Y; Mehrens, Shawn; Mueller, W Thomas; Narasimhan, Lakshmi; Ogden, Adam; Ohren, Jeff; Prasad, J V N Vara; Shelly, John A; Skerlos, Laura; Sulavik, Mark; Thomas, V Hayden; VanderRoest, Steve; Wang, LiAnn; Wang, Zhigang; Whitton, Amy; Zhu, Tong; Stover, C Kendall

    2009-02-10

    As the need for novel antibiotic classes to combat bacterial drug resistance increases, the paucity of leads resulting from target-based antibacterial screening of pharmaceutical compound libraries is of major concern. One explanation for this lack of success is that antibacterial screening efforts have not leveraged the eukaryotic bias resulting from more extensive chemistry efforts targeting eukaryotic gene families such as G protein-coupled receptors and protein kinases. Consistent with a focus on antibacterial target space resembling these eukaryotic targets, we used whole-cell screening to identify a series of antibacterial pyridopyrimidines derived from a protein kinase inhibitor pharmacophore. In bacteria, the pyridopyrimidines target the ATP-binding site of biotin carboxylase (BC), which catalyzes the first enzymatic step of fatty acid biosynthesis. These inhibitors are effective in vitro and in vivo against fastidious gram-negative pathogens including Haemophilus influenzae. Although the BC active site has architectural similarity to those of eukaryotic protein kinases, inhibitor binding to the BC ATP-binding site is distinct from the protein kinase-binding mode, such that the inhibitors are selective for bacterial BC. In summary, we have discovered a promising class of potent antibacterials with a previously undescribed mechanism of action. In consideration of the eukaryotic bias of pharmaceutical libraries, our findings also suggest that pursuit of a novel inhibitor leads for antibacterial targets with active-site structural similarity to known human targets will likely be more fruitful than the traditional focus on unique bacterial target space, particularly when structure-based and computational methodologies are applied to ensure bacterial selectivity.

  20. A class of selective antibacterials derived from a protein kinase inhibitor pharmacophore

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, J. Richard; Dunham, Steve; Mochalkin, Igor; Banotai, Craig; Bowman, Matthew; Buist, Susan; Dunkle, Bill; Hanna, Debra; Harwood, H. James; Huband, Michael D.; Karnovsky, Alla; Kuhn, Michael; Limberakis, Chris; Liu, Jia Y.; Mehrens, Shawn; Mueller, W. Thomas; Narasimhan, Lakshmi; Ogden, Adam; Ohren, Jeff; Prasad, J.V.N. Vara; Shelly, John A.; Skerlos, Laura; Sulavik, Mark; Thomas, V. Hayden; VanderRoest, Steve; Wang, LiAnn; Wang, Zhigang; Whitton, Amy; Zhu, Tong; Stover, C. Kendall

    2009-06-25

    As the need for novel antibiotic classes to combat bacterial drug resistance increases, the paucity of leads resulting from target-based antibacterial screening of pharmaceutical compound libraries is of major concern. One explanation for this lack of success is that antibacterial screening efforts have not leveraged the eukaryotic bias resulting from more extensive chemistry efforts targeting eukaryotic gene families such as G protein-coupled receptors and protein kinases. Consistent with a focus on antibacterial target space resembling these eukaryotic targets, we used whole-cell screening to identify a series of antibacterial pyridopyrimidines derived from a protein kinase inhibitor pharmacophore. In bacteria, the pyridopyrimidines target the ATP-binding site of biotin carboxylase (BC), which catalyzes the first enzymatic step of fatty acid biosynthesis. These inhibitors are effective in vitro and in vivo against fastidious Gram-negative pathogens including Haemophilus influenzae. Although the BC active site has architectural similarity to those of eukaryotic protein kinases, inhibitor binding to the BC ATP-binding site is distinct from the protein kinase-binding mode, such that the inhibitors are selective for bacterial BC. In summary, we have discovered a promising class of potent antibacterials with a previously undescribed mechanism of action. In consideration of the eukaryotic bias of pharmaceutical libraries, our findings also suggest that pursuit of a novel inhibitor leads for antibacterial targets with active-site structural similarity to known human targets will likely be more fruitful than the traditional focus on unique bacterial target space, particularly when structure-based and computational methodologies are applied to ensure bacterial selectivity.

  1. Targeting inhibitor of apoptosis proteins in combination with dacarbazine or TRAIL in melanoma cells.

    PubMed

    Engesæter, Birgit O; Sathermugathevan, Menaka; Hellenes, Tina; Engebråten, Olav; Holm, Ruth; Flørenes, Vivi Ann; Mælandsmo, Gunhild M

    2011-07-01

    Melanoma is a highly aggressive malignant tumor with an exceptional ability to develop resistance and no curative therapy is available for patients with distant metastatic disease. The inhibitor of apoptosis protein (IAP) family has been related to therapy resistance in cancer. We examined the importance of the IAPs in the resistance to the commonly used chemotherapeutic agent dacarbazine (DTIC) and the apoptosis inducer TRAIL (TNF-related apoptosis inducing ligand) in malignant melanoma. The data presented show that the expression of IAPs is universal, concomitant and generally high in melanoma cell lines and in patient samples. Depleting IAP expression by siRNA tended to reduce cell viability, with XIAP reduction being the most efficient in all four cell lines examined (FEMX-1, LOX, SKMEL-28 and WM115). The combined treatment of XIAP siRNA and DTIC showed a weak improvement in two of four cell lines, while all four cell lines showed enhanced sensitivity towards TRAIL (AdhCMV-TRAIL) after XIAP depletion. In addition, cIAP-1, cIAP-2 and survivin down-regulation sensitized to TRAIL treatment in several of the cell lines. Cells exposed to TRAIL and XIAP siRNA showed increased DNA-fragmentation and cleavage of Bid, procaspase-8, -9, -7 and -3 and PARP, and change in the balance between pro- and anti-apoptotic proteins, indicating an enhanced level of apoptosis. Furthermore, the combined treatment reduced the ability of melanoma cells to engraft and form tumors in mice, actualizing the combination for future therapy of malignant melanoma.

  2. Inhibitors of apoptosis proteins in experimental benign prostatic hyperplasia: effects of serenoa repens, selenium and lycopene

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The apoptosis machinery is a promising target against benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). Inhibitors of apoptosis proteins (IAPs) modulate apoptosis by direct inhibition of caspases. Serenoa Repens (SeR) may be combined with other natural compounds such as Lycopene (Ly) and Selenium (Se) to maximize its therapeutic activity in BPH. We investigated the effects of SeR, Se and Ly, alone or in association, on the expression of four IAPs, cIAP-1, cIAP-2, NAIP and survivin in rats with experimental testosterone-dependent BPH. Moreover, caspase-3, interleukin-6 (IL-6) and prostate specific membrane antigen (PSMA) have been evaluated. Rats were administered, daily, with testosterone propionate (3 mg/kg/sc) or its vehicle for 14 days. Testosterone injected animals (BPH) were randomized to receive vehicle, SeR (25 mg/kg/sc), Se (3 mg/kg/sc), Ly (1 mg/kg/sc) or the SeR-Se-Ly association for 14 days. Animals were sacrificed and prostate removed for analysis. Results BPH animals treated with vehicle showed unchanged expression of cIAP-1 and cIAP-2 and increased expression of NAIP, survivin, caspase-3, IL-6 and PSMA levels when compared with sham animals. Immunofluorescence studies confirmed the enhanced expression of NAIP and survivin with a characteristic pattern of cellular localization. SeR-Se-Ly association showed the highest efficacy in reawakening apoptosis; additionally, this therapeutic cocktail significantly reduced IL-6 and PSMA levels. The administration of SeR, Se and Ly significantly blunted prostate overweight and growth; moreover, the SeR-Se-Ly association was most effective in reducing prostate enlargement and growth by 43.3% in treated animals. Conclusions The results indicate that IAPs may represent interesting targets for drug therapy of BPH. PMID:24606563

  3. Advances in the clinical development of heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) inhibitors in cancers

    PubMed Central

    Jhaveri, Komal; Taldone, Tony; Modi, Shanu; Chiosis, Gabriela

    2011-01-01

    Hsp90 is an ATP dependent molecular chaperone protein which integrates multiple oncogenic pathways. As such, Hsp90 inhibition is a promising anti-cancer strategy. Several inhibitors that act on Hsp90 by binding to its N-terminal ATP pocket have entered clinical evaluation. Robust pre-clinical data suggested anti-tumor activity in multiple cancer types. Clinically, encouraging results have been demonstrated in melanoma, acute myeloid leukemia, castrate refractory prostate cancer, non-small cell lung carcinoma and multiple myeloma. In breast cancer, proof-of-concept was demonstrated by first generation Hsp90 inhibitors in combination with trastuzumab mainly in human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) + metastatic breast cancer. There are a multitude of second generation Hsp90 inhibitors currently under investigation. To date, however, there is no FDA approved Hsp90 inhibitor nor standardized assay to ascertain Hsp90 inhibition. This review summarizes the current status of both first and second generation Hsp90 inhibitors based on their chemical classification and stage of clinical development. It also discusses the pharmacodynamic assays currently implemented in clinic as well as other novel strategies aimed at enhancing the effectiveness of Hsp90 inhibitors. Ultimately, these efforts will aid in maximizing the full potential of this class of agents. PMID:22062686

  4. Peptiderive server: derive peptide inhibitors from protein–protein interactions

    PubMed Central

    Sedan, Yuval; Marcu, Orly; Lyskov, Sergey; Schueler-Furman, Ora

    2016-01-01

    The Rosetta Peptiderive protocol identifies, in a given structure of a protein–protein interaction, the linear polypeptide segment suggested to contribute most to binding energy. Interactions that feature a ‘hot segment’, a linear peptide with significant binding energy compared to that of the complex, may be amenable for inhibition and the peptide sequence and structure derived from the interaction provide a starting point for rational drug design. Here we present a web server for Peptiderive, which is incorporated within the ROSIE web interface for Rosetta protocols. A new feature of the protocol also evaluates whether derived peptides are good candidates for cyclization. Fast computation times and clear visualization allow users to quickly assess the interaction of interest. The Peptiderive server is available for free use at http://rosie.rosettacommons.org/peptiderive. PMID:27141963

  5. Effects of C1 inhibitor on tissue damage in a porcine model of controlled hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Dalle Lucca, Jurandir J; Li, Yansong; Simovic, Milomir; Pusateri, Anthony E; Falabella, Michael; Dubick, Michael A; Tsokos, George C

    2012-07-01

    Activation of the complement system has been associated with tissue injury after hemorrhage and resuscitation in animals. We investigated whether administration of recombinant human C1-esterase inhibitor (rhC1-INH), a regulator of complement and contact activation systems, reduces tissue damage and cytokine release and improves metabolic acidosis in a porcine model of hemorrhagic shock. Male Yorkshire swine were assigned to experimental groups and subjected to controlled, isobaric hemorrhage to a target mean arterial pressure of 35 mmHg. Hypotension was maintained for 20 min followed by a bolus intravenous injection of rhC1-INH or vehicle; animals were then observed for 3 h. Blood chemistry and physiologic parameters were recorded. Lung and small intestine tissue samples were subjected to histopathologic evaluation and immunohistochemistry to determine the extent of injury and deposition of complement proteins. Cytokine levels and quantitative assessment of renal and hepatic function were measured via enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and chemistry analyzer, respectively. Pharmacokinetics of rhC1-INH revealed dose proportionality for maximum concentration, half-life, and the time span in which the functional C1-INH level was greater than 1 IU/mL. Recombinant human C1-INH significantly reduced renal, intestinal, and lung tissue damage in a dose-dependent manner (100 and 250 IU/kg). In addition, rhC1-INH (250 IU/kg) markedly improved hemorrhage-induced metabolic acidosis and circulating tumor necrosis factor α. The tissue-protective effects of rhC1-INH appear to be related to its ability to reduce tissue complement activation and deposition. Recombinant human C1-INH decreased tissue complement activation and deposition in hemorrhaged animals, improved metabolic acidosis, reduced circulating tumor necrosis factor α, and attenuated tissue damage in this model. The observed beneficial effects of rhC1-INH treatment on tissue injury 20 min into severe hypotension

  6. The N-terminal octapeptide acts as a dimerization inhibitor of SARS coronavirus 3C-like proteinase.

    PubMed

    Wei, Ping; Fan, Keqiang; Chen, Hao; Ma, Liang; Huang, Changkang; Tan, Lei; Xi, Dong; Li, Chunmei; Liu, Ying; Cao, Aoneng; Lai, Luhua

    2006-01-20

    The 3C-like proteinase of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) coronavirus has been proposed to be a key target for structural-based drug design against SARS. Accurate determination of the dimer dissociation constant and the role of the N-finger (residues 1-7) will provide more insights into the enzyme catalytic mechanism of SARS 3CL proteinase. The dimer dissociation constant of the wild-type protein was determined to be 14.0microM by analytical ultracentrifugation method. The N-finger fragment of the enzyme plays an important role in enzyme dimerization as shown in the crystal structure. Key residues in the N-finger have been studied by site-directed mutagenesis, enzyme assay, and analytical ultracentrifugation. A single mutation of M6A was found to be critical to maintain the dimer structure of the enzyme. The N-terminal octapeptide N8 and its mutants were also synthesized and tested for their potency as dimerization inhibitors. Peptide cleavage assay confirms that peptide N8 is a dimerization inhibitor with a K(i) of 2.20mM. The comparison of the inhibitory activities of N8 and its mutants indicates that the hydrophobic interaction of Met-6 and the electrostatic interaction of Arg-4 contribute most for inhibitor binding. This study describes the first example of inhibitors targeting the dimeric interface of SARS 3CL proteinase, providing a novel strategy for drug design against SARS and other coronaviruses.

  7. The protein C pathway and sepsis.

    PubMed

    Della Valle, Patrizia; Pavani, Giulia; D'Angelo, Armando

    2012-03-01

    After the discovery of the key components of the protein C (PC) pathway a beneficial effect on survival of the infusion of activated protein C (APC) in animal models of sepsis was demonstrated, leading to the development of recombinant human activated protein C (rh-APC) as a therapeutic agent. It soon became clear that rather than the anticoagulant and profibrinolytic activities of APC, its anti-inflammatory and cytoprotective properties played a major role in the treatment of patients with severe sepsis. Such properties affect the response to inflammation of endothelial cells and leukocytes and are exerted through binding of APC to at least five receptors with intracellular signaling. The main APC protective mechanism involves binding of the Gla-domain to the endothelial protein C receptor (EPCR) and cleavage of protease activated receptor 1 (PAR-1), eliciting suppression of proinflammatory cytokines synthesis and of intracellular proapoptotic pathways and activation of endothelial barrier properties. However, thrombin cleaves PAR-1 with much higher catalytic efficiency, followed by pro-inflammatory, pro-apoptotic and barrier disruptive intracellular signaling, and it is unclear how APC can exert a protective activity through the cleavage of PAR-1 when thrombin is also present in the same environment. Interestingly, in endothelial cell cultures, PAR-1 cleavage by thrombin results in anti-inflammatory and barrier protective signaling provided occupation of EPCR by the PC gla-domain, raising the possibility that the beneficial effects of rh-APC might be recapitulated in vivo by administration of h-PC zymogen to patients with severe sepsis. Recent reports of h-PC infusion in animal models of sepsis support this hypothesis.

  8. Analysing the Effect of Mutation on Protein Function and Discovering Potential Inhibitors of CDK4: Molecular Modelling and Dynamics Studies

    PubMed Central

    N, Nagasundaram; Zhu, Hailong; Liu, Jiming; V, Karthick; C, George Priya Doss; Chakraborty, Chiranjib; Chen, Luonan

    2015-01-01

    The cyclin-dependent kinase 4 (CDK4)-cyclin D1 complex plays a crucial role in the transition from the G1 phase to S phase of the cell cycle. Among the CDKs, CDK4 is one of the genes most frequently affected by somatic genetic variations that are associated with various forms of cancer. Thus, because the abnormal function of the CDK4-cyclin D1 protein complex might play a vital role in causing cancer, CDK4 can be considered a genetically validated therapeutic target. In this study, we used a systematic, integrated computational approach to identify deleterious nsSNPs and predict their effects on protein-protein (CDK4-cyclin D1) and protein-ligand (CDK4-flavopiridol) interactions. This analysis resulted in the identification of possible inhibitors of mutant CDK4 proteins that bind the conformations induced by deleterious nsSNPs. Using computational prediction methods, we identified five nsSNPs as highly deleterious: R24C, Y180H, A205T, R210P, and R246C. From molecular docking and molecular dynamic studies, we observed that these deleterious nsSNPs affected CDK4-cyclin D1 and CDK4-flavopiridol interactions. Furthermore, in a virtual screening approach, the drug 5_7_DIHYDROXY_ 2_ (3_4_5_TRI HYDROXYPHENYL) _4H_CHROMEN_ 4_ONE displayed good binding affinity for proteins with the mutations R24C or R246C, the drug diosmin displayed good binding affinity for the protein with the mutation Y180H, and the drug rutin displayed good binding affinity for proteins with the mutations A205T and R210P. Overall, this computational investigation of the CDK4 gene highlights the link between genetic variation and biological phenomena in human cancer and aids in the discovery of molecularly targeted therapies for personalized treatment. PMID:26252490

  9. Analysing the Effect of Mutation on Protein Function and Discovering Potential Inhibitors of CDK4: Molecular Modelling and Dynamics Studies.

    PubMed

    N, Nagasundaram; Zhu, Hailong; Liu, Jiming; V, Karthick; C, George Priya Doss; Chakraborty, Chiranjib; Chen, Luonan

    2015-01-01

    The cyclin-dependent kinase 4 (CDK4)-cyclin D1 complex plays a crucial role in the transition from the G1 phase to S phase of the cell cycle. Among the CDKs, CDK4 is one of the genes most frequently affected by somatic genetic variations that are associated with various forms of cancer. Thus, because the abnormal function of the CDK4-cyclin D1 protein complex might play a vital role in causing cancer, CDK4 can be considered a genetically validated therapeutic target. In this study, we used a systematic, integrated computational approach to identify deleterious nsSNPs and predict their effects on protein-protein (CDK4-cyclin D1) and protein-ligand (CDK4-flavopiridol) interactions. This analysis resulted in the identification of possible inhibitors of mutant CDK4 proteins that bind the conformations induced by deleterious nsSNPs. Using computational prediction methods, we identified five nsSNPs as highly deleterious: R24C, Y180H, A205T, R210P, and R246C. From molecular docking and molecular dynamic studies, we observed that these deleterious nsSNPs affected CDK4-cyclin D1 and CDK4-flavopiridol interactions. Furthermore, in a virtual screening approach, the drug 5_7_DIHYDROXY_ 2_ (3_4_5_TRI HYDROXYPHENYL) _4H_CHROMEN_ 4_ONE displayed good binding affinity for proteins with the mutations R24C or R246C, the drug diosmin displayed good binding affinity for the protein with the mutation Y180H, and the drug rutin displayed good binding affinity for proteins with the mutations A205T and R210P. Overall, this computational investigation of the CDK4 gene highlights the link between genetic variation and biological phenomena in human cancer and aids in the discovery of molecularly targeted therapies for personalized treatment.

  10. Chromatographic resolution of altered forms of protein kinase C

    SciTech Connect

    Ashendel, C.L.; Minor, P.L.; Baudoin, P.A.; Carlos, M.

    1987-05-01

    Rapid chromatographic resolution of protein kinase C (PKC) in extracts of rat brain on DEAE-cellulose yielded two major peaks of activity. These fractions bound phorbol esters with identical affinity and specificity and had similar ratios of PKC to phorbol ester-binding activities. Chicken egg yolk antibodies raised to PKC in the first fraction reacted with 74 to 76 kilodalton peptides in the second fraction. Chromatography of each fraction on hydroxylapatite yielded similar distributions of three PKC isozymes. Rechromatography of the DEAE-cellulose fractions on DEAE-cellulose confirmed that these forms of PKC were not rapidly interconvertible. Results of experiments in which extracts or fractions were incubated with MgATP and phosphatase inhibitors were consistent with elution of dephospho-PKC in the first fraction while the second fraction contained phospho-PKC. If confirmed, this suggests that a substantial fraction of PKC in rat and mouse tissues exists in the phosphorylated form.

  11. Nandrolone, an anabolic steroid, stabilizes Numb protein through inhibition of mdm2 in C2C12 myoblasts.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xin-Hua; Yao, Shen; Levine, Alice C; Kirschenbaum, Alexander; Pan, Jiangping; Wu, Yong; Qin, Weiping; Collier, Lauren; Bauman, William A; Cardozo, Christopher P

    2012-01-01

    Nandrolone, an anabolic steroid, slows denervation atrophy of rat muscle, prevents denervation-induced nuclear accumulation of intracellular domain of the Notch receptor, and elevates expression of Numb. Numb acts as an inhibitor of Notch signaling and promotes myogenic differentiation of satellite cells. Turnover of Numb is regulated by mdm2, an E3 ubiquitin ligase. With these considerations in mind, we investigated the effects of nandrolone on the expression of Numb and mdm2 proteins and determined the effect of mdm2 on nandrolone-induced alterations in Numb protein in C2C12 myoblasts. When C2C12 cells were cultured in a medium favoring differentiation (Dulbecco modified Eagle medium containing 2% horse serum), nandrolone up-regulated Numb protein levels in a time-dependent manner and prolonged Numb protein half-life from 10 to 18 hours. In contrast, nandrolone reduced the expression of mdm2 protein. To determine whether the decreased mdm2 expression induced by nandrolone was responsible for the increased levels and prolonged half-life of Numb protein in this cell line, mdm2-small interfering RNA (siRNA) was employed to inhibit mdm2 expression. Compared to cells transfected with scrambled siRNA (negative control), transfection with mdm2-siRNA increased basal Numb protein expression but abolished the further increase in Numb protein levels by nandrolone. In addition, transfection of mdm2-siRNA mimicked the effect of nandrolone to prolong the half-life of Numb protein. Moreover, when C2C12 cells were forced to overexpress mdm2, there was a significant decline in the expression of both basal and inducible Numb protein. Our data suggest that nandrolone, by a novel mechanism for this agent in a muscle cell type, increases Numb protein levels in C2C12 myoblasts by stabilizing Numb protein against degradation, at least in part, via suppression of mdm2 expression.

  12. cGMP-selective phosphodiesterase inhibitors stimulate mitochondrial biogenesis and promote recovery from acute kidney injury.

    PubMed

    Whitaker, Ryan M; Wills, Lauren P; Stallons, L Jay; Schnellmann, Rick G

    2013-12-01

    Recent studies demonstrate that mitochondrial dysfunction is a mediator of acute kidney injury (AKI). Consequently, restoration of mitochondrial function after AKI may be key to the recovery of renal function. Mitochondrial function can be restored through the generation of new, functional mitochondria in a process called mitochondrial biogenesis (MB). Despite its potential therapeutic significance, very few pharmacological agents have been identified to induce MB. To examine the efficacy of phosphodiesterase (PDE) inhibitors (PDE3: cAMP and cGMP activity; and PDE4: cAMP activity) in stimulating MB, primary cultures of renal proximal tubular cells (RPTCs) were treated with a panel of inhibitors for 24 hours. PDE3, but not PDE4, inhibitors increased the FCCP-uncoupled oxygen consumption rate (OCR), a marker of MB. Exposure of RPTCs to the PDE3 inhibitors, cilostamide and trequinsin, for 24 hours increased peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator-1α, and multiple mitochondrial electron transport chain genes. Cilostamide and trequinsin also increased mRNA expression of mitochondrial genes and mitochondrial DNA copy number in mice renal cortex. Consistent with these experiments, 8-Br-cGMP increased FCCP-uncoupled OCR and mitochondrial gene expression, whereas 8-Br-cAMP had no effect. The cGMP-specific PDE5 inhibitor sildenafil also induced MB in RPTCs and in vivo in mouse renal cortex. Treatment of mice with sildenafil after folic acid-induced AKI promoted restoration of MB and renal recovery. These data provide strong evidence that specific PDE inhibitors that increase cGMP are inducers of MB in vitro and in vivo, and suggest their potential efficacy in AKI and other diseases characterized by mitochondrial dysfunction and suppressed MB.

  13. Rational tailoring of substrate and inhibitor affinity via ATRP polymer-based protein engineering.

    PubMed

    Murata, Hironobu; Cummings, Chad S; Koepsel, Richard R; Russell, Alan J

    2014-07-14

    Atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP)-based protein engineering of chymotrypsin with a cationic polymer was used to tune the substrate specificity and inhibitor binding. Poly(quaternary ammonium) was grown from the surface of the enzyme using ATRP after covalent attachment of a protein reactive, water-soluble ATRP-initiator. This "grafting from" conjugation approach generated a high density of cationic ammonium ions around the biocatalytic core. Modification increased the surface area of the protein over 40-fold, and the density of modification on the protein surface was approximately one chain per 4 nm(2). After modification, bioactivity was increased at low pH relative to the activity of the native enzyme. In addition, the affinity of the enzyme for a peptide substrate was increased over a wide pH range. The massively cationic chymotrypsin, which included up to 2000 additional positive charges per molecule of enzyme, was also more stable at extremes of temperature and pH. Most interestingly, we were able to rationally control the binding of two oppositely charged polypeptide protease inhibitors, aprotinin and the Bowman-Birk trypsin-chymotrypsin inhibitor from Glycine max, to the cationic derivative of chymotrypsin. This study expands upon our efforts to use polymer-based protein engineering to predictably engineer enzyme properties without the need for molecular biology.

  14. Binding of natural and synthetic inhibitors to human heat shock protein 90 and their clinical application.

    PubMed

    Petrikaitė, Vilma; Matulis, Daumantas

    2011-01-01

    This review describes the recent progress in the field of heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) inhibitor design. Hsp90 is a heat shock protein with a molecular weight of approximately 90 kDa. Hsp90 is considered a good anticancer target because its inhibition leads to inactivation of its numerous client proteins participating in various signaling and other processes involved in cancer progression. Numerous Hsp90 inhibitors-leads currently tested in clinical trials are presented in this review. Furthermore, this review emphasizes the application of biophysical binding assays in the development of Hsp90 inhibitors. The binding of designed lead compounds to various Hsp90 constructs is measured by isothermal titration calorimetry and thermal shift assay. These assays provide a detailed energetic insight of the binding reaction, including the enthalpy, entropy, heat capacity, and the Gibbs free energy. A detailed description of the binding energetics helps to extend our knowledge of structure-activity relationships in the design of more potent inhibitors. The most active compounds are then tested for their absorption, distribution, metabolism, elimination, toxicity, and activity against cancer cell lines.

  15. Synthesis and biological evaluation of analogues of AKT (protein kinase B) inhibitor-IV.

    PubMed

    Sun, Qi; Wu, Runzhi; Cai, Sutang; Lin, Yuan; Sellers, Llewlyn; Sakamoto, Kaori; He, Biao; Peterson, Blake R

    2011-03-10

    Inhibitors of the PI3-kinase/AKT (protein kinase B) pathway are under investigation as anticancer and antiviral agents. The benzimidazole derivative AKT inhibitor-IV (ChemBridge 5233705) affects this pathway and exhibits potent anticancer and antiviral activity. To probe its biological activity, we synthesized AKT inhibitor-IV and 21 analogues using a novel six-step route based on ZrCl(4)-catalyzed cyclization of 1,2-arylenediamines with α,β-unsaturated aldehydes. We examined effects on viability of HeLa carcinoma cells, viability of normal human cells (NHBE), replication of recombinant parainfluenza virus 5 (PIV5) in HeLa cells, and replication of the intracellular bacterium Mycobacterium fortuitum in HeLa cells. Replacement of the benzimidazole N-ethyl substitutent of AKT inhibitor-IV with N-hexyl and N-dodecyl groups enhanced antiviral activity and cytotoxicity against the cancer cell line, but these compounds showed substantially lower toxicity (from 6-fold to >20-fold) against NHBE cells and no effect on M. fortuitum, suggesting inhibition of one or more host protein(s) required for proliferation of cancer cells and PIV5. The key structural elements identified here may facilitate identification of targets of this highly biologically active scaffold.

  16. Protein kinase C -dependent regulation of synaptosomal glutamate uptake under conditions of hypergravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borisova, Tatiana; Krisanova, Natalia; Borisov, Arseniy; Sivko, Roman

    Glutamate is not only the main excitatory neurotransmitter in the mammalian CNS, but also a potent neurotoxin. Excessive concentration of ambient glutamate over activates glutamate receptors and causes neurotoxicity. Uptake of glutamate from the extracellular space into nerve cells was mediated by sodium-dependent glutamate transporters located in the plasma membrane. It was shown that the activity of glutamate transporters in rat brain nerve terminals was decreased after hypergravity (centrifugation of rats in special containers at 10 G for 1 hour). This decrease may result from the reduction in the number of glutamate transporters expressed in the plasma membrane of nerve terminals after hypergravity that was regulated by protein kinase C. The possibility of the involvement of protein kinase C in the regulation of the activity of glutamate transporters was assessed under conditions of hypergravity. The effect of protein kinase C inhibitor GF 109 203X on synaptosomal L-[14C]glutamate uptake was analysed. It was shown that the inhibitor decreased L-[14C]glutamate uptake by 15 % in control but did not influence it after hypergravity. In control, the initial velocity of L-[14C]glutamate uptake in the presence of the inhibitor decreased from 2.5 ± 0.2 nmol x min-1 x mg-1 of proteins to 2.17 ± 0.1 nmol x min-1 x mg-1 of proteins, whereas after hypergravity this value lowered from 2.05 ± 0.1 nmol x min-1 x mg-1 of proteins to 2.04 ± 0.1 nmol x min-1 x mg-1 of proteins. Thus, protein kinase C -dependent alteration in the cell surface expression of glutamate transporters may be one of the causes of a decrease in the activity of glutamate transporters after hypergravity.

  17. Cellular Activity of New Small Molecule Protein Arginine Deiminase 3 (PAD3) Inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Jamali, Haya; Khan, Hasan A; Tjin, Caroline C; Ellman, Jonathan A

    2016-09-08

    The protein arginine deiminases (PADs) catalyze the post-translational deimination of arginine side chains. Multiple PAD isozymes have been characterized, and abnormal PAD activity has been associated with several human disease states. PAD3 has been characterized as a modulator of cell growth via apoptosis inducing factor and has been implicated in the neurodegenerative response to spinal cord injury. Here, we describe the design, synthesis, and evaluation of conformationally constrained versions of the potent and selective PAD3 inhibitor 2. The cell activity of representative inhibitors in this series was also demonstrated for the first time by rescue of thapsigargin-induced cell death in PAD3-expressing HEK293T cells.

  18. Evaluation of Molecular Inhibitors of the c-Myc Oncoprotein

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-02-01

    cell lung cancer cells transfected with herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase gene containing Myc-Max response elements. Cancer Res 1996; 56:354–8. 12...I, Perkins RS, Bennett R, Feidler KL, Dunn SP, Krueger LJ. c-Myc inhibition negatively impacts lymphoma growth. J Pediatr Surg 2006;41:207–11. 17. Mo

  19. Key Structures and Interactions for Binding of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Protein Kinase B Inhibitors from Molecular Dynamics Simulation.

    PubMed

    Punkvang, Auradee; Kamsri, Pharit; Saparpakorn, Patchreenart; Hannongbua, Supa; Wolschann, Peter; Irle, Stephan; Pungpo, Pornpan

    2015-07-01

    Substituted aminopyrimidine inhibitors have recently been introduced as antituberculosis agents. These inhibitors show impressive activity against protein kinase B, a Ser/Thr protein kinase that is essential for cell growth of M. tuberculosis. However, up to now, X-ray structures of the protein kinase B enzyme complexes with the substituted aminopyrimidine inhibitors are currently unavailable. Consequently, structural details of their binding modes are questionable, prohibiting the structural-based design of more potent protein kinase B inhibitors in the future. Here, molecular dynamics simulations, in conjunction with molecular mechanics/Poisson-Boltzmann surface area binding free-energy analysis, were employed to gain insight into the complex structures of the protein kinase B inhibitors and their binding energetics. The complex structures obtained by the molecular dynamics simulations show binding free energies in good agreement with experiment. The detailed analysis of molecular dynamics results shows that Glu93, Val95, and Leu17 are key residues responsible to the binding of the protein kinase B inhibitors. The aminopyrazole group and the pyrimidine core are the crucial moieties of substituted aminopyrimidine inhibitors for interaction with the key residues. Our results provide a structural concept that can be used as a guide for the future design of protein kinase B inhibitors with highly increased antagonistic activity.

  20. Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors-induced angioedema treated by C1 esterase inhibitor concentrate (Berinert®): about one case and review of the therapeutic arsenal.

    PubMed

    Lipski, Samuel Michael; Casimir, Georges; Vanlommel, Martine; Jeanmaire, Mathieu; Dolhen, Pierre

    2015-02-01

    C1 esterase inhibitor (Berinert®) is generally used to treat severe attack of hereditary angioedema. We describe here the case of a patient who presented with a severe angioedema induced by angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) endangering her life. It could be successfully treated with that medicine.

  1. Increased spinal release of excitatory amino acids following intradermal injection of capsaicin is reduced by a protein kinase G inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Sluka, K A; Willis, W D

    1998-07-06

    Second messengers have been shown to play a role in the release of neurotransmitters presynaptically in several brain regions and cell types. This study was designed to test the hypothesis that the increased release of aspartate and glutamate that occurs after injection of capsaicin is dependent on activation of the cAMP and the cGMP transduction cascades. A microdialysis fiber was implanted into the dorsal horn of the spinal cord for collection of extracellular fluid and for administration of drugs to the spinal cord. Dialysate samples were collected before and after injection of capsaicin and after infusion of inhibitors of protein kinase G (PKG; KT5823) or protein kinase A (PKA; H89). KT5823, H89, or artificial cerebrospinal fluid (ACSF; control) were administered after injection of capsaicin to reduce the increased release of aspartate and glutamate. At the time of injection of capsaicin, there is an increase in release of aspartate (191+/-21%) and glutamate (194+/-14%). This increased release is maintained through 2.5 h for both glutamate and aspartate at approximately 125% to 150%. The increase in aspartate and glutamate concentrations that occurs after capsaicin injection was reduced back to baseline after spinal infusion of the PKG inhibitor, KT5823. Blockade of PKA had no effect on the increased release of aspartate and glutamate. Thus, the current data support a role for the cGMP-PKG pathway in the control of neurotransmitter release in vivo.

  2. Synthesis, Structure, and SAR of Tetrahydropyran-Based LpxC Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    In the search for novel Gram-negative agents, we performed a comprehensive search of the AstraZeneca collection and identified a tetrahydropyran-based matrix metalloprotease (MMP) inhibitor that demonstrated nanomolar inhibition of UDP-3-O-(acyl)-N-acetylglucosamine deacetylase (LpxC). Crystallographic studies in Aquifex aeolicus LpxC indicated the tetrahydropyran engaged in the same hydrogen bonds and van der Waals interactions as other known inhibitors. Systematic optimization of three locales on the scaffold provided compounds with improved Gram-negative activity. However, the optimization of LpxC activity was not accompanied by reduced inhibition of MMPs. Comparison of the crystal structure of the native product, UDP-3-O-(acyl)-glucosamine, in Aquifex aeolicus to the structure of a tetrahydropyran-based inhibitor indicates pathways for future optimization. PMID:25408833

  3. A SIRT2-selective inhibitor promotes c-Myc oncoprotein degradation and exhibits broad anticancer activity

    PubMed Central

    Jing, Hui; Hu, Jing; He, Bin; Negron Abril, Yashira L.; Stupinski, Jack; Weiser, Keren; Carbonaro, Marisa; Chiang, Ying-Ling; Southard, Teresa; Giannakakou, Paraskevi; Weiss, Robert S.; Lin, Hening

    2016-01-01

    Summary Targeting sirtuins for cancer treatment has been a topic of debate due to conflicting reports and lack of potent and specific inhibitors. We have developed a thiomyristoyl lysine compound, TM, as a potent SIRT2-specific inhibitor with broad anticancer effect in various human cancer cells and mouse models of breast cancer. Mechanistically, SIRT2 inhibition promotes c-Myc ubiquitination and degradation. The anticancer effect of TM correlates with its ability to decrease c-Myc level. TM had limited effects on non-cancerous cells and tumor-free mice, suggesting that cancer cells have an increased dependency on SIRT2 that can be exploited for therapeutic benefit. Our studies demonstrate that SIRT2-selective inhibitors are promising anticancer agents and may represent a general strategy to target certain c-Myc-driven cancers. PMID:26977881

  4. Amyloid precursor protein selective gamma-secretase inhibitors for treatment of Alzheimer's disease

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Inhibition of gamma-secretase presents a direct target for lowering Aβ production in the brain as a therapy for Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, gamma-secretase is known to process multiple substrates in addition to amyloid precursor protein (APP), most notably Notch, which has limited clinical development of inhibitors targeting this enzyme. It has been postulated that APP substrate selective inhibitors of gamma-secretase would be preferable to non-selective inhibitors from a safety perspective for AD therapy. Methods In vitro assays monitoring inhibitor potencies at APP γ-site cleavage (equivalent to Aβ40), and Notch ε-site cleavage, in conjunction with a single cell assay to simultaneously monitor selectivity for inhibition of Aβ production vs. Notch signaling were developed to discover APP selective gamma-secretase inhibitors. In vivo efficacy for acute reduction of brain Aβ was determined in the PDAPP transgene model of AD, as well as in wild-type FVB strain mice. In vivo selectivity was determined following seven days x twice per day (b.i.d.) treatment with 15 mg/kg/dose to 1,000 mg/kg/dose ELN475516, and monitoring brain Aβ reduction vs. Notch signaling endpoints in periphery. Results The APP selective gamma-secretase inhibitors ELN318463 and ELN475516 reported here behave as classic gamma-secretase inhibitors, demonstrate 75- to 120-fold selectivity for inhibiting Aβ production compared with Notch signaling in cells, and displace an active site directed inhibitor at very high concentrations only in the presence of substrate. ELN318463 demonstrated discordant efficacy for reduction of brain Aβ in the PDAPP compared with wild-type FVB, not observed with ELN475516. Improved in vivo safety of ELN475516 was demonstrated in the 7d repeat dose study in wild-type mice, where a 33% reduction of brain Aβ was observed in mice terminated three hours post last dose at the lowest dose of inhibitor tested. No overt in-life or post

  5. Bovine Pancreatic Trypsin Inhibitor-Trypsin Complex as a Detection System for Recombinant Proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borjigin, Jimo; Nathans, Jeremy

    1993-01-01

    Bovine pancreatic trypsin inhibitor (BPTI) binds to trypsin and anhydrotrypsin (an enzymatically inactive derivative of trypsin) with affinities of 6 x 10-14 and 1.1 x 10-13 M, respectively. We have taken advantage of the high affinity and specificity of this binding reaction to develop a protein tagging system in which biotinylated trypsin or biotinylated anhydrotrypsin is used as the reagent to detect recombinant fusion proteins into which BPTI has been inserted. Two proteins, opsin and growth hormone, were used as targets for insertional mutagenesis with BPTI. In each case, both domains of the fusion protein appear to be correctly folded. The fusion proteins can be specifically and efficiently detected by biotinylated trypsin or biotinylated anhydrotrypsin, as demonstrated by staining of transfected cells, protein blotting, affinity purification, and a mobility shift assay in SDS/polyacrylamide gels.

  6. Effect of a cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor on postexercise muscle protein synthesis in humans

    PubMed Central

    Burd, Nicholas A.; Dickinson, Jared M.; LeMoine, Jennifer K.; Carroll, Chad C.; Sullivan, Bridget E.; Haus, Jacob M.; Jemiolo, Bozena; Trappe, Scott W.; Hughes, Gordon M.; Sanders, Charles E.

    2010-01-01

    Nonselective blockade of the cyclooxygenase (COX) enzymes in skeletal muscle eliminates the normal increase in muscle protein synthesis following resistance exercise. The current study tested the hypothesis that this COX-mediated increase in postexercise muscle protein synthesis is regulated specifically by the COX-2 isoform. Sixteen males (23 ± 1 yr) were randomly assigned to one of two groups that received three doses of either a selective COX-2 inhibitor (celecoxib; 200 mg/dose, 600 mg total) or a placebo in double-blind fashion during the 24 h following a single bout of knee extensor resistance exercise. At rest and 24 h postexercise, skeletal muscle protein fractional synthesis rate (FSR) was measured using a primed constant infusion of [2H5]phenylalanine coupled with muscle biopsies of the vastus lateralis, and measurements were made of mRNA and protein expression of COX-1 and COX-2. Mixed muscle protein FSR in response to exercise (P < 0.05) was not suppressed by the COX-2 inhibitor (0.056 ± 0.004 to 0.108 ± 0.014%/h) compared with placebo (0.074 ± 0.004 to 0.091 ± 0.005%/h), nor was there any difference (P > 0.05) between the placebo and COX-2 inhibitor postexercise when controlling for resting FSR. The COX-2 inhibitor did not influence COX-1 mRNA, COX-1 protein, or COX-2 protein levels, whereas it did increase (P < 0.05) COX-2 mRNA (3.0 ± 0.9-fold) compared with placebo (1.3 ± 0.3-fold). It appears that the elimination of the postexercise muscle protein synthesis response by nonselective COX inhibitors is not solely due to COX-2 isoform blockade. Furthermore, the current data suggest that the COX-1 enzyme is likely the main isoform responsible for the COX-mediated increase in muscle protein synthesis following resistance exercise in humans. PMID:19934404

  7. Extracellular production of riboflavin-binding protein, a potential bitter inhibitor, by Brevibacillus choshinensis.

    PubMed

    Maehashi, Kenji; Matano, Mami; Saito, Makiko; Udaka, Shigezo

    2010-05-01

    Riboflavin-binding protein (RBP) is a glycophosphoprotein found in hen eggs. We previously identified the extraordinary characteristic of RBP in reducing bitterness. For a more detailed study on the mode of action and industrial application of this characteristic, we investigated the microbial production of recombinant RBP (rRBP). We constructed a chicken RBP gene expression vector by inserting the RBP cDNA in pNCMO2, the Escherichia coli-Brevibacillus choshinensis shuttle vector. B. choshinensis HPD31 transformants produced 0.8g/l of processed and unglycosylated RBP in a soluble form in the culture supernatant. However, the expressed RBP was partially dimerized and monomeric RBP was purified by two step anion-exchange and gel-filtration chromatographies. The purified rRBP elicited bitterness reduction against quinine and caffeine, although it largely lost its riboflavin-binding ability. These results indicated that glycosylation and riboflavin-binding ability are not essential for the bitterness reduction of RBP. In addition, we assessed the usefulness of the Brevibacillus system for the expression and secretion of RBP as a new type of bitterness inhibitor.

  8. Insights into the activity of maturation inhibitor PF-46396 on HIV-1 clade C

    PubMed Central

    Ghimire, Dibya; Timilsina, Uddhav; Srivastava, Tryambak Pratap; Gaur, Ritu

    2017-01-01

    HIV maturation inhibitors are an emerging class of anti-retroviral compounds that inhibit the viral protease-mediated cleavage of the Gag, CA-SP1 (capsid-spacer peptide 1) peptide to mature CA. The first-in-class maturation inhibitor bevirimat (BVM) displayed potent activity against HIV-1 clade B but was ineffective against other HIV-1 clades including clade C. Another pyridone-based maturation inhibitor, PF-46396 displayed potent activity against HIV-1 clade B. In this study, we aimed at determining the activity of PF-46396 against HIV-1 clade C. We employed various biochemical and virological assays to demonstrate that PF-46396 is effective against HIV-1 clade C. We observed a dose dependent accumulation of CA-SP1 intermediate in presence of the compound. We carried out mutagenesis in the CA- SP1 region of HIV-1 clade C Gag and observed that the mutations conferred resistance against the compound. Many mutations inhibited Gag processing thereby reducing virus release in the absence of the compound. However, presence of PF-46396 rescued these defects and enhanced virus release, replication capacity and infectivity of HIV-1 clade C. These results put together identify PF-46396 as a broadly active maturation inhibitor against HIV-1 clade B and C and help in rational designing of novel analogs with reduced toxicity and increased efficacy for its potential use in clinics. PMID:28252110

  9. Discovery and Biological Evaluation of Novel Dual EGFR/c-Met Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Activating mutations in the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) have been identified in a subset of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), which is one of the leading cancer types worldwide. Application of EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors leads to acquired resistance by secondary EGFR mutations or by amplification of the hepatocyte growth factor receptor (c-Met) gene. Although several EGFR and c-Met inhibitors have been reported, potent dual EGFR/c-Met inhibitors, which can overcome this latter resistance mechanism, have hitherto not been published and have not reached clinical trials. In the present study we have identified dual EGFR/c-Met inhibitors and designed novel N-[4-(quinolin-4-yloxy)-phenyl]-biarylsulfonamide derivatives, which inhibit the c-Met receptor and both the wild-type and the activating mutant EGFR kinases in nanomolar range. We have demonstrated by Western blot analysis that compound 10 inhibits EGFR and c-Met phosphorylation at cellular level and effectively inhibits viability of the NSCLC cell lines. PMID:24900830

  10. Discovery and Biological Evaluation of Novel Dual EGFR/c-Met Inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Szokol, Bálint; Gyulavári, Pál; Kurkó, Ibolya; Baska, Ferenc; Szántai-Kis, Csaba; Greff, Zoltán; Orfi, Zoltán; Peták, István; Pénzes, Kinga; Torka, Robert; Ullrich, Axel; Orfi, László; Vántus, Tibor; Kéri, György

    2014-04-10

    Activating mutations in the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) have been identified in a subset of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), which is one of the leading cancer types worldwide. Application of EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors leads to acquired resistance by secondary EGFR mutations or by amplification of the hepatocyte growth factor receptor (c-Met) gene. Although several EGFR and c-Met inhibitors have been reported, potent dual EGFR/c-Met inhibitors, which can overcome this latter resistance mechanism, have hitherto not been published and have not reached clinical trials. In the present study we have identified dual EGFR/c-Met inhibitors and designed novel N-[4-(quinolin-4-yloxy)-phenyl]-biarylsulfonamide derivatives, which inhibit the c-Met receptor and both the wild-type and the activating mutant EGFR kinases in nanomolar range. We have demonstrated by Western blot analysis that compound 10 inhibits EGFR and c-Met phosphorylation at cellular level and effectively inhibits viability of the NSCLC cell lines.

  11. Studies on pyrrolopyrimidines as selective inhibitors of multidrug-resistance-associated protein in multidrug resistance.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shouming; Folkes, Adrian; Chuckowree, Irina; Cockcroft, Xiaoling; Sohal, Sukhjit; Miller, Warren; Milton, John; Wren, Stephen P; Vicker, Nigel; Depledge, Paul; Scott, John; Smith, Lyndsay; Jones, Hazel; Mistry, Prakash; Faint, Richard; Thompson, Deanne; Cocks, Simon

    2004-03-11

    Multidrug resistance mediated by P-glycoprotein (Pgp) or multidrug-resistance-associated protein (MRP) remains a major obstacle for successful treatment of cancer. Inhibition of Pgp and MRP transport is important for high efficacy of anticancer drugs. While several Pgp inhibitors have entered clinical trials, the development of specific MRP1 inhibitors is still in its infancy. In our screening program, we have identified a pyrrolopyrimidine (4) as a novel and selective MRP1 inhibitor. Subsequent SAR work on the 4-position of the template revealed the phenethylpiperazine side chain as a potent replacement of the benzylthio group of the lead molecule. Introduction of groups at the 2-position seems to have no detrimental effect on activity. Modifications to the nitrile group at the 7-position resulted in the identification of analogues with groups, such as amides, with superior pharmacokinetic profiles. In vivo efficacy has been demonstrated by xenograft studies on selected compounds.

  12. Toxoplasma gondii calcium-dependent protein kinase 1 is a target for selective kinase inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Ojo, Kayode K; Larson, Eric T; Keyloun, Katelyn R; Castaneda, Lisa J; DeRocher, Amy E; Inampudi, Krishna K; Kim, Jessica E; Arakaki, Tracy L; Murphy, Ryan C; Zhang, Li; Napuli, Alberto J; Maly, Dustin J; Verlinde, Christophe LMJ; Buckner, Frederick S; Parsons, Marilyn; Hol, Wim GJ; Merritt, Ethan A; Van Voorhis, Wesley C

    2010-01-01

    New drugs are needed to treat toxoplasmosis. Toxoplasma gondii calcium-dependent protein kinases (TgCDPKs) are attractive targets because they are absent in mammals. We show that TgCDPK1 is inhibited by low nanomolar levels of bumped kinase inhibitors (BKIs), compounds designed to be inactive against mammalian kinases. Cocrystal structures of TgCDPK1 with BKIs confirm that the structural basis for selectivity is due to the unique glycine gatekeeper residue in the ATP-binding site at residue 128. We show that BKIs interfere with an early step in T. gondii infection of human cells in culture. Furthermore, we show that TgCDPK1 is the in vivo target of BKIs because T. gondii cells expressing a glycine to methionine gatekeeper mutant enzyme show significantly decreased sensitivity to this class of selective kinase inhibitors. Thus, design of selective TgCDPK1 inhibitors with low host toxicity may be achievable. PMID:20436472

  13. An Aminopyridazine Inhibitor of Death Associated Protein Kinase Attenuates Hypoxia-Ischemia Induced Brain Damage

    SciTech Connect

    Velentza, A.V.; Wainwright, M.S.; Zasadzki, M.; Mirzoeva, S.; Haiech, J.; Focia, P.J.; Egli, M.; Watterson, D.M.

    2010-03-08

    Death associated protein kinase (DAPK) is a calcium and calmodulin regulated enzyme that functions early in eukaryotic programmed cell death, or apoptosis. To validate DAPK as a potential drug discovery target for acute brain injury, the first small molecule DAPK inhibitor was synthesized and tested in vivo. A single injection of the aminopyridazine-based inhibitor administered 6 h after injury attenuated brain tissue or neuronal biomarker loss measured, respectively, 1 week and 3 days later. Because aminopyridazine is a privileged structure in neuropharmacology, we determined the high-resolution crystal structure of a binary complex between the kinase domain and a molecular fragment of the DAPK inhibitor. The co-crystal structure describes a structural basis for interaction and provides a firm foundation for structure-assisted design of lead compounds with appropriate molecular properties for future drug development.

  14. Retaspimycin hydrochloride (IPI-504): a novel heat shock protein inhibitor as an anticancer agent.

    PubMed

    Hanson, Britt Erika; Vesole, David H

    2009-09-01

    Heat shock proteins are vital to cell survival under conditions of stress. They bind client proteins to assist in protein stabilization, translocation of polypeptides across cell membranes and recovery of proteins from aggregates. Heat shock protein inhibitors are a diverse group of novel agents that have been demonstrated to have pro-apoptotic effects on malignant cells through inhibition of ATP binding on the ATP/ADP-binding pocket of the heat shock protein. Initial development of heat shock protein 90 inhibitors, geldanamycin and 17-AAG, were limited by hepatotoxicity and the need for solvent carrying agents. In contrast, retaspimycin, or IPI-504, a derivative of geldanamycin and 17-AAG, is highly soluble in water and generally well tolerated. In Phase I/II trials, retaspimycin has shown activity in NSCLC and gastrointestinal stromal tumor. The most promising activity was observed in gastrointestinal stromal tumors. Phase I/II trials are currently underway to evaluate the dosing schedules and activity of IPI-504 in breast cancer. Given the in vitro activity in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, mantle cell lymphoma, melanoma, leukemia and pancreatic cancer, current and future trials are of clinical interest. This article reviews IPI-504 and its utility in a wide variety of cancer phenotypes.

  15. Transcriptional upregulation of the human MRP2 gene expression by serine/threonine protein kinase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Pułaski, L; Szemraj, J; Uchiumi, T; Kuwano, M; Bartosz, G

    2005-01-01

    Transcriptional regulation by cellular signalling pathways of multidrug resistance proteins that pump anticancer drugs out of cells is one of key issues in the development of the multidrug resistance phenotype. In our study, we have used the reporter gene approach as well as determination of mRNA levels in two cancer cell lines of human origin, MCF-7 and A549, to study the regulation of multidrug resistance proteins 2 and 3 (MRP2 AND MRP3) by serine/threonine protein kinases. Since a prototypic PKC inducer, PMA, caused a marked upregulation of transcription from both human MRP2 and MRP3 promoters, a role for PKC isoforms in positive control of expression of these proteins could be postulated. Interestingly, broad-spectrum serine-threonine protein kinase inhibitors which also inhibit PKC, staurosporine and H-7, stimulated expression from the MRP2 promoter instead of inhibiting it. This effect was not seen for MRP3. MRP2 induction by staurosporine and H-7 was shown to have phenotypic consequences in whole cells, rendering them more resistant to etoposide and increasing their ability to export calcein through the plasma membrane. These results point to the involvement of serine/threonine protein kinases in negative regulation of the human MRP2 gene and to the necessity of testing novel anti-cancer drugs acting as protein kinase inhibitors with regard to their potential ability to induce multidrug resistance.

  16. Small molecule inhibitor of c-Met (PHA665752) suppresses the growth of ovarian cancer cells and reverses cisplatin resistance.

    PubMed

    Li, Enze; Hu, Zheng; Sun, Yi; Zhou, Qi; Yang, Bin; Zhang, Zhiguo; Cao, Wenwu

    2016-06-01

    c-Met as a tyrosine-kinase receptor plays a major role in tumorigenesis, invasion, and metastatic spread of human tumors, including ovarian cancer. Expressing high levels of c-Met proteins is often associated with resistance to chemotherapy and an adverse prognosis. In this study, we have determined the effect of PHA665752, a small molecule inhibitor of c-Met proteins, with and without cisplatin and the role of c-Met in several ovarian cancer cell lines having high c-Met expression. The methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium (MTT) assay was used to detect cell proliferation, and apoptosis was evaluated by flow cytometry. Western blotting was carried out to determine protein expression levels. Gene silencing was used to detect the influence of c-Met gene silence on the resistance to cisplatin. Compared to more sensitive ovarian cancer cell lines SKOV3 and 3AO, we found that the expression of c-Met was significantly increased in SKOV3(DDP), OVCAR3, and OV-90 ovarian cancer cell lines, which were resistant to cisplatin. Our data indicated that cisplatin sustained activated phosphor-Met in SKOV3(DDP), OVCAR3, and OV-90 cell lines. We also observed a significant transient activation of c-Met phosphorylation in SKOV3 and 3AO cells. Treatment with PHA665752 inhibited c-Met expression inhibited cell growth, induced apoptosis, and enhanced cisplatin-induced proliferation inhibition and apoptosis in c-Met over-expressed cell lines. In addition, blocking c-Met expression with small interfering RNA (siRNA) overcame the resistance of cancer cells to cisplatin. Thus, blocking c-Met expression presents a promising therapeutic approach for ovarian cancer.

  17. A novel inhibitor of apoptosis protein (IAP)-interacting protein, Vestigial-like (Vgl)-4, counteracts apoptosis-inhibitory function of IAPs by nuclear sequestration.

    PubMed

    Jin, Hyung-Seung; Park, Hyung-Sun; Shin, Jun-Ha; Kim, Dong-Hwan; Jun, Sung-Hun; Lee, Chang-Jun; Lee, Tae H

    2011-09-02

    The inhibitors of apoptosis proteins (IAP), which include cIAP1, cIAP2 and XIAP, suppress apoptosis through the inhibition of caspases, and the activity of IAPs is regulated by a variety of IAP-binding proteins. Herein, we report the identification of a Vestigial-like 4 (Vgl-4), which functions as a transcription cofactor in cardiac myocytes, as a new IAP binding protein. Vgl-4 is expressed predominantly in the nucleus and its overexpression triggers a relocalization of IAPs from the cytoplasm to the nucleus. cIAP1/2-interacting protein TRAF2 (TNF receptor-associated factor 2) prevented the Vgl-4-driven nuclear localization of cIAP2. Accordingly, the forced relocation of IAPs to the nucleus by Vgl-4 significantly reduced their ability to prevent Bax- and TNFα-induced apoptosis, which can be recovered by co-expression with TRAF2. Our results suggest that Vgl-4 may play a role in the apoptotic pathways by regulating translocation of IAPs between different cell compartments.

  18. Enhanced detection of lipid transfer inhibitor protein activity by an assay involving only low density lipoprotein.

    PubMed

    Morton, R E; Greene, D J

    1994-11-01

    Lipid transfer inhibitor protein (LTIP) activity has been typically quantitated by its ability to suppress lipid transfer protein-mediated lipid movement between low density lipoprotein (LDL) and high density lipoprotein (HDL). In an attempt to establish an LTIP activity assay that is more sensitive, we have exploited the reported preference of the inhibitor protein to interact with LDL. A lipid transfer assay was established that involves LDL as both the donor and the acceptor; LDL in one of these two pools was biotinylated to facilitate its removal with immobilized avidin. Compared to the standard LDL to HDL assay, LTIP inhibited lipid transfer from radiolabeled LDL to biotin-LDL 7-fold more. In the absence of LTIP, lipid transfer activity was the same in both assays. An added benefit of this assay was the near linearity (up to 85%) of the inhibitory response, in contrast to the highly curvilinear response of LTIP in LDL to HDL transfer assays. The high sensitivity of the LDL to biotin-LDL transfer assay in measuring LTIP activity could not be duplicated by other transfer assays including assays containing only HDL (HDL to biotin-HDL), assays between liposomes and LDL, or assays between LDL and HDL where the concentration of lipoproteins was reduced 10-fold. Thus, LTIP activity is most effectively measured in homologous lipid transfer assays involving only LDL (and its biotin derivative). This increased sensitivity to LTIP suggests that the inhibitor binds more avidly to the LDL surface than does lipid transfer protein.

  19. Characterization of a Serine Hydrolase Targeted by Acyl-protein Thioesterase Inhibitors in Toxoplasma gondii

    PubMed Central

    Kemp, Louise E.; Rusch, Marion; Adibekian, Alexander; Bullen, Hayley E.; Graindorge, Arnault; Freymond, Céline; Rottmann, Matthias; Braun-Breton, Catherine; Baumeister, Stefan; Porfetye, Arthur T.; Vetter, Ingrid R.; Hedberg, Christian; Soldati-Favre, Dominique

    2013-01-01

    In eukaryotic organisms, cysteine palmitoylation is an important reversible modification that impacts protein targeting, folding, stability, and interactions with partners. Evidence suggests that protein palmitoylation contributes to key biological processes in Apicomplexa with the recent palmitome of the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum reporting over 400 substrates that are modified with palmitate by a broad range of protein S-acyl transferases. Dynamic palmitoylation cycles require the action of an acyl-protein thioesterase (APT) that cleaves palmitate from substrates and conveys reversibility to this posttranslational modification. In this work, we identified candidates for APT activity in Toxoplasma gondii. Treatment of parasites with low micromolar concentrations of β-lactone- or triazole urea-based inhibitors that target human APT1 showed varied detrimental effects at multiple steps of the parasite lytic cycle. The use of an activity-based probe in combination with these inhibitors revealed the existence of several serine hydrolases that are targeted by APT1 inhibitors. The active serine hydrolase, TgASH1, identified as the homologue closest to human APT1 and APT2, was characterized further. Biochemical analysis of TgASH1 indicated that this enzyme cleaves substrates with a specificity similar to APTs, and homology modeling points toward an APT-like enzyme. TgASH1 is dispensable for parasite survival, which indicates that the severe effects observed with the β-lactone inhibitors are caused by the inhibition of non-TgASH1 targets. Other ASH candidates for APT activity were functionally characterized, and one of them was found to be resistant to gene disruption due to the potential essential nature of the protein. PMID:23913689

  20. Small molecule inhibitors reveal Niemann-Pick C1 is essential for ebolavirus infection

    PubMed Central

    Côté, Marceline; Misasi, John; Ren, Tao; Bruchez, Anna; Lee, Kyungae; Filone, Claire Marie; Hensley, Lisa; Li, Qi; Ory, Daniel; Chandran, Kartik; Cunningham, James

    2011-01-01

    Summary Ebolavirus (EboV) is a highly pathogenic enveloped virus that causes outbreaks of zoonotic infection in Africa. The clinical symptoms are manifestations of the massive production of pro-inflammatory cytokines in response to infection1 and in many outbreaks, mortality exceeds 75%. The unpredictable onset, ease of transmission, rapid progression of disease, high mortality and lack of effective vaccine or therapy have created a high level of public concern about EboV2. Here we report the identification of a novel benzylpiperazine adamantane diamide-derived compound that inhibits EboV infection. Using mutant cell lines and informative derivatives of the lead compound, we show that the target of the inhibitor is the endosomal membrane protein Niemann-Pick C1 (NPC1). We find that NPC1 is essential for infection, that it binds to the virus glycoprotein (GP), and that the anti-viral compounds interfere with GP binding to NPC1. Combined with the results of previous studies of GP structure and function, our findings support a model of EboV infection in which cleavage of the GP1 subunit by endosomal cathepsin proteases removes heavily glycosylated domains to expose the N-terminal domain3–7, which is a ligand for NPC1 and regulates membrane fusion by the GP2 subunit8. Thus, NPC1 is essential for EboV entry and a target for anti-viral therapy. PMID:21866101

  1. Identification of Hydroxyanthraquinones as Novel Inhibitors of Hepatitis C Virus NS3 Helicase

    PubMed Central

    Furuta, Atsushi; Tsubuki, Masayoshi; Endoh, Miduki; Miyamoto, Tatsuki; Tanaka, Junichi; Abdus Salam, Kazi; Akimitsu, Nobuyoshi; Tani, Hidenori; Yamashita, Atsuya; Moriishi, Kohji; Nakakoshi, Masamichi; Sekiguchi, Yuji; Tsuneda, Satoshi; Noda, Naohiro

    2015-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is an important etiological agent of severe liver diseases, including cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. The HCV genome encodes nonstructural protein 3 (NS3) helicase, which is a potential anti-HCV drug target because its enzymatic activity is essential for viral replication. Some anthracyclines are known to be NS3 helicase inhibitors and have a hydroxyanthraquinone moiety in their structures; mitoxantrone, a hydroxyanthraquinone analogue, is also known to inhibit NS3 helicase. Therefore, we hypothesized that the hydroxyanthraquinone moiety alone could also inhibit NS3 helicase. Here, we performed a structure–activity relationship study on a series of hydroxyanthraquinones by using a fluorescence-based helicase assay. Hydroxyanthraquinones inhibited NS3 helicase with IC50 values in the micromolar range. The inhibitory activity varied depending on the number and position of the phenolic hydroxyl groups, and among different hydroxyanthraquinones examined, 1,4,5,8-tetrahydroxyanthraquinone strongly inhibited NS3 helicase with an IC50 value of 6 µM. Furthermore, hypericin and sennidin A, which both have two hydroxyanthraquinone-like moieties, were found to exert even stronger inhibition with IC50 values of 3 and 0.8 µM, respectively. These results indicate that the hydroxyanthraquinone moiety can inhibit NS3 helicase and suggest that several key chemical structures are important for the inhibition. PMID:26262613

  2. Purification of human ceruloplasmin as a by-product of C1-inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Kouoh Elombo, F; Radosevich, M; Poulle, M; Descamps, J; Chtourou, S; Burnouf, T; Catteau, J P; Bernier, J L; Cotelle, N

    2000-12-01

    Human ceruloplasmin (Cp) has been purified from cryoprecipitate-poor plasma as a by-product of the C1-inhibitor production chain. Highly purified Cp was obtained by subsequent ion-exchange chromatography on sulfate-Fractogel EMD and TMAE-Fractogel EMD. Treatments for viral safety included application of the solvent-detergent method and two nanofiltration steps using 35- and 15-nm pore size filters at the end of the process. Overall antigen yield was 95 (+/-5) %. Purified human ceruloplasmin was studied by electron spin resonance (ESR) to characterize its different types of copper complexes and to check its antioxidant properties. We distinguished three types of complexes: one type-2 Cu(II) with g// = 2.25 and A// = 180 G and two type-I Cu(II) exhibiting different narrow hyperfine splitting (A// = 72 G and A// = 90 G) with close g// (2.20 and 2.21). Purified Cp has a specific activity of 24.5+/-0.2 mU/mg of proteins. This process provides a method for Cp purification that could be easily integrated into modern plasma fractionation.

  3. 3D-QSAR and molecular docking studies on designing inhibitors of the hepatitis C virus NS5B polymerase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Wenlian; Si, Hongzong; Li, Yang; Ge, Cuizhu; Song, Fucheng; Ma, Xiuting; Duan, Yunbo; Zhai, Honglin

    2016-08-01

    Viral hepatitis C infection is one of the main causes of the hepatitis after blood transfusion and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a global health threat. The HCV NS5B polymerase, an RNA dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) and an essential role in the replication of the virus, has no functional equivalent in mammalian cells. So the research and development of efficient NS5B polymerase inhibitors provides a great strategy for antiviral therapy against HCV. A combined three-dimensional quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) modeling was accomplished to profoundly understand the structure-activity correlation of a train of indole-based inhibitors of the HCV NS5B polymerase to against HCV. A comparative molecular similarity indices analysis (COMSIA) model as the foundation of the maximum common substructure alignment was developed. The optimum model exhibited statistically significant results: the cross-validated correlation coefficient q2 was 0.627 and non-cross-validated r2 value was 0.943. In addition, the results of internal validations of bootstrapping and Y-randomization confirmed the rationality and good predictive ability of the model, as well as external validation (the external predictive correlation coefficient rext2 = 0.629). The information obtained from the COMSIA contour maps enables the interpretation of their structure-activity relationship. Furthermore, the molecular docking study of the compounds for 3TYV as the protein target revealed important interactions between active compounds and amino acids, and several new potential inhibitors with higher activity predicted were designed basis on our analyses and supported by the simulation of molecular docking. Meanwhile, the OSIRIS Property Explorer was introduced to help select more satisfactory compounds. The satisfactory results from this study may lay a reliable theoretical base for drug development of hepatitis C virus NS5B polymerase inhibitors.

  4. Berberine exerts anti-adipogenic activity through up-regulation of C/EBP inhibitors, CHOP and DEC2.

    PubMed

    Pham, Truc P T; Kwon, Jeongho; Shin, Jaekyoon

    2011-09-23

    Berberine exerts an anti-adipogenic activity that is associated with the down-regulation of C/EBPα and PPARγ. Stimulation of AMP-activated kinase (AMPK) caused by inhibition of mitochondrial respiration has been suggested to underlie such molecular regulation. In the present study, we show that berberine up-regulated the expression of two different sets of C/EBP inhibitors, CHOP and DEC2, while down-modulating C/EBPα, PPARγ and other adipogenic markers and effectors in differentiating 3T3-L1 preadipocytes and mature adipocytes. Data also suggested that the berberine-induced up-regulation of CHOP and DEC2 was attributable to selective activation of an unfolded protein response (UPR) and modified extracellular environment, respectively. As a result, the anti-adipogenic activity of berberine was diminished remarkably by adjusting the differentiation culture media and limitedly but consistently by knockdown of CHOP expression. Together, up-regulation of C/EBP inhibitors appears to underlie the berberine-induced repression of C/EBPα and PPARγ and, so, the inhibition of adipogenesis.

  5. Overview of hereditary angioedema caused by C1-inhibitor deficiency: assessment and clinical management.

    PubMed

    Bork, K; Davis-Lorton, M

    2013-02-01

    Hereditary angioedema due to C1-inhibitor deficiency (HAE-C1-INH) is a rare, autosomal-dominant disease. HAE-C1-INH is characterized by recurrent attacks of marked, diffuse, nonpitting and nonpruritic skin swellings, painful abdominal attacks, and laryngeal edema. The extremities and the gastrointestinal tract are most commonly affected. Swelling of the upper respiratory mucosa poses the greatest risk because death from asphyxiation can result from laryngealedema. HAE-C1-INH attacks are variable, unpredictable, and may be induced by a variety of stimuli, including stress or physical trauma. Because the clinical presentation of HAE-C1-INH is similar to other types of angioedema, the condition may be a challenge to diagnose. Accurate identification of HAE-C1-INH is critical in order to avoid asphyxiation by laryngeal edema and to improve the burden of disease. Based on an understanding of the underlying pathophysiology of IHAE-C1-INH, drugs targeted specifically to the disease, such as C1-inhibitor therapy, bradykinin B2-receptor antagonists, and kallikrein-inhibitors, have become available for both treatment and prevention of angioedema attacks. This article reviews the clinical features, differential diagnosis, and current approaches to management of HAE-C1-INH.

  6. Molecular Mechanism of Selectivity among G Protein-Coupled Receptor Kinase 2 Inhibitors

    SciTech Connect

    Thal, David M.; Yeow, Raymond Y.; Schoenau, Christian; Huber, Jochen; Tesmer, John J.G.

    2012-07-11

    G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are key regulators of cell physiology and control processes ranging from glucose homeostasis to contractility of the heart. A major mechanism for the desensitization of activated GPCRs is their phosphorylation by GPCR kinases (GRKs). Overexpression of GRK2 is strongly linked to heart failure, and GRK2 has long been considered a pharmaceutical target for the treatment of cardiovascular disease. Several lead compounds developed by Takeda Pharmaceuticals show high selectivity for GRK2 and therapeutic potential for the treatment of heart failure. To understand how these drugs achieve their selectivity, we determined crystal structures of the bovine GRK2-G{beta}{gamma} complex in the presence of two of these inhibitors. Comparison with the apoGRK2-G{beta}{gamma} structure demonstrates that the compounds bind in the kinase active site in a manner similar to that of the AGC kinase inhibitor balanol. Both balanol and the Takeda compounds induce a slight closure of the kinase domain, the degree of which correlates with the potencies of the inhibitors. Based on our crystal structures and homology modeling, we identified five amino acids surrounding the inhibitor binding site that we hypothesized could contribute to inhibitor selectivity. However, our results indicate that these residues are not major determinants of selectivity among GRK subfamilies. Rather, selectivity is achieved by the stabilization of a unique inactive conformation of the GRK2 kinase domain.

  7. Proteasome inhibitor MG-132 lowers gastric adenocarcinoma TMK1 cell proliferation via bone morphogenetic protein signaling

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, William Ka Kei; Sung, Joseph Jao Yiu; Yu Le; Cho, C.H.

    2008-06-27

    Proteasome inhibitor is a novel class of cancer therapeutics, of which the mechanism of action is not fully understood. It is reported that proteasome inhibitor enhances bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling in osteoblasts to stimulate bone formation. BMP signaling is also an important tumor-suppressing pathway in gastric carcinogenesis. We therefore sought to determine the anti-mitogenic effect of proteasome inhibition in relation to BMP signaling in gastric cancer cells. Results showed that proteasome inhibitor MG-132 significantly suppressed the proliferation and the colony-forming ability of gastric cancer TMK1 cells. In this connection, MG-132 activated BMP signaling, manifested as an increase in Smad1/5/8 phosphorylation and up-regulation of p21{sup Waf1/Cip1} mRNA and protein expression. Knockdown of BMP receptor II by RNA interference abolished Smad1/5/8 phosphorylation, p21{sup Waf1/Cip1} induction, and the inhibition of cell proliferation induced by MG-132. Further analysis revealed that MG-132 up-regulated the expression of BMP1 and BMP4 and suppressed the expression of Smad6. Knockdown of Smad6 also mimicked the effect of MG-132 on BMP signaling. Collectively, these findings suggest that inhibition of proteasome suppresses gastric cancer cell proliferation via activation of BMP signaling. This discovery may open up a novel therapeutic avenue to proteasome inhibitors for the management of gastric cancer.

  8. C-Peptide Levels Predict the Effectiveness of Dipeptidyl Peptidase-4 Inhibitor Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Demir, Sevin; Sargin, Mehmet

    2016-01-01

    Background. Our aim was to define the conditions that affect therapeutic success when dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitor is added to metformin monotherapy. Materials and Methods. We reviewed the medical records of 56 patients who had received DPP-4 inhibitor as an add-on to metformin monotherapy and evaluated their response in the first year of therapy. Fasting blood glucose (FBG), HbA1c, C-peptide, and weight of the patients were recorded at 3-month intervals during the first year of treatment. Results. Patients who added DPP-4 inhibitor to metformin monotherapy had significant weight loss (P = 0.004) and FBG and HbA1c levels were significantly lowered during the first 6 months (both P < 0.001). Baseline levels of C-peptide were predictive for success of the treatment (P = 0.02), even after correction for confounding factors, for example, age, gender, or BMI (P = 0.03). Duration of diabetes was not a predictor of response to treatment (P = 0.60). Conclusion. Our study demonstrates that in patients having inadequate glycemic control, the addition of a DPP-4 inhibitor as a second oral agent to metformin monotherapy provides better glycemic control, protects β-cell reserves, and does not cause weight gain. These effects depend on baseline C-peptide levels. PMID:27882332

  9. Inhibitors of c-Jun N-terminal kinases: JuNK no more?

    PubMed

    Bogoyevitch, Marie A; Arthur, Peter G

    2008-01-01

    The c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNKs) have been the subject of intense interest since their discovery in the early 1990s. Major research programs have been directed to the screening and/or design of JNK-selective inhibitors and testing their potential as drugs. We begin this review by considering the first commercially-available JNK ATP-competitive inhibitor, SP600125. We focus on recent studies that have evaluated the actions of SP600125 in lung, brain, kidney and liver following exposure to a range of stress insults including ischemia/reperfusion. In many but not all cases, SP600125 administration has proved beneficial. JNK activation can also follow infection, and we next consider recent examples that demonstrate the benefits of SP600125 administration in viral infection. Additional ATP-competitive JNK inhibitors have now been described following high throughput screening of small molecule libraries, but information on their use in biological systems remains limited and thus these inhibitors will require further evaluation. Peptide substrate-competitive ATP-non-competitive inhibitors of JNK have also now been described, and we discuss the recent advances in the use of JNK inhibitory peptides in the treatment of neuronal death, diabetes and viral infection. We conclude by raising a number of questions that should be considered in the quest for JNK-specific inhibitors.

  10. Expression of Raf kinase inhibitor protein is downregulated in response to Newcastle disease virus infection to promote viral replication.

    PubMed

    Yin, Renfu; Liu, Xinxin; Bi, Yuhai; Xie, Guangyao; Zhang, Pingze; Meng, Xin; Ai, Lili; Xu, Rongyi; Sun, Yuzhang; Stoeger, Tobias; Ding, Zhuang

    2015-09-01

    Newcastle disease virus (NDV) causes a severe and economically significant disease affecting almost the entire poultry industry worldwide. However, factors that affect NDV replication in host cells are poorly understood. Raf kinase inhibitory protein (RKIP) is a physiological inhibitor of c-RAF kinase and NF-κB signalling, known for their functions in the control of immune response as well as tumour invasion and metastasis. In the present study, we investigated the consequences of overexpression of host RKIP during viral infection. We demonstrate that NDV infection represses RKIP expression thereby promoting virus replication. Experimental upregulation of RKIP in turn acts as a potential antiviral defence mechanism in host cells that restricts NDV replication by repressing the activation of Raf/MEK/ERK and IκBα/NF-κB signalling pathways. Our results not only extend the concept of linking NDV-host interactions, but also reveal RKIP as a new class of protein-kinase-inhibitor protein that affects NDV replication with therapeutic potential.

  11. Exocytosis of polyubiquitinated proteins in bortezomib-resistant leukemia cells: a role for MARCKS in acquired resistance to proteasome inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Franke, Niels E.; Kaspers, Gertjan L.; Assaraf, Yehuda G.; van Meerloo, Johan; Niewerth, Denise; Kessler, Floortje L.; Poddighe, Pino J.; Kole, Jeroen; Smeets, Serge J.; Ylstra, Bauke; Bi, Chonglei; Chng, Wee Joo; Horton, Terzah M.; Menezes, Rene X.; Musters, Renée J.P.; Zweegman, Sonja; Jansen, Gerrit; Cloos, Jacqueline

    2016-01-01

    PSMB5 mutations and upregulation of the β5 subunit of the proteasome represent key determinants of acquired resistance to the proteasome inhibitor bortezomib (BTZ) in leukemic cells in vitro. We here undertook a multi-modality (DNA, mRNA, miRNA) array-based analysis of human CCRF-CEM leukemia cells and BTZ-resistant subclones to determine whether or not complementary mechanisms contribute to BTZ resistance. These studies revealed signatures of markedly reduced expression of proteolytic stress related genes in drug resistant cells over a broad range of BTZ concentrations along with a high upregulation of myristoylated alanine-rich C-kinase substrate (MARCKS) gene expression. MARCKS upregulation was confirmed on protein level and also observed in other BTZ-resistant tumor cell lines as well as in leukemia cells with acquired resistance to other proteasome inhibitors. Moreover, when MARCKS protein expression was demonstrated in specimens derived from therapy-refractory pediatric leukemia patients (n = 44), higher MARCKS protein expression trended (p = 0.073) towards a dismal response to BTZ-containing chemotherapy. Mechanistically, we show a BTZ concentration-dependent association of MARCKS protein levels with the emergence of ubiquitin-containing vesicles in BTZ-resistant CEM cells. These vesicles were found to be extruded and taken up in co-cultures with proteasome-proficient acceptor cells. Consistent with these observations, MARCKS protein associated with ubiquitin-containing vesicles was also more prominent in clinical leukemic specimen with ex vivo BTZ resistance compared to BTZ-sensitive leukemia cells. Collectively, we propose a role for MARCKS in a novel mechanism of BTZ resistance via exocytosis of ubiquitinated proteins in BTZ-resistant cells leading to quenching of proteolytic stress. PMID:27542283

  12. On-Chip Peptide Mass Spectrometry Imaging for Protein Kinase Inhibitor Screening.

    PubMed

    Cho, Young-Lai; Kim, Young-Pil; Son, Jin Gyeong; Son, Miyoung; Lee, Tae Geol

    2017-01-03

    Protein kinases are enzymes that are important targets for drug discovery because of their involvement in regulating the essential cellular processes. For this reason, the changes in protein kinase activity induced by each drug candidate (the inhibitor in this case) need to be accurately determined. Here, an on-chip secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) imaging technique of the peptides was developed for determining protein kinase activity and inhibitor screening without a matrix. In our method, cysteine-tethered peptides adsorbed onto a gold surface produced changes in the relative peak intensities of the phosphorylated and unphosphorylated substrate peptides, which were quantitatively dependent on protein kinase activity. Using mass spectrometry imaging of multiple compartments on the gold surface in the presence of a peptide substrate, we screened 13,727 inhibitors, of which seven were initially found to have inhibitor efficiencies that surpassed 50%. Of these, we were able to identify a new breakpoint cluster region-abelson (BCR-ABL)(T315I) kinase inhibitor, henceforth referred to as KR135861. KR135861 showed no cytotoxicity and was subsequently confirmed to be superior to imatinib, a commercial drug marketed as Gleevec. Moreover, KR135861 exhibited a greater inhibitory effect on the BCR-ABL(T315I) tyrosine kinase, with an IC50 value as low as 1.3 μM. In in vitro experiments, KR135861 reduced the viability of both Ba/F3 cells expressing wild-type BCR-ABL and BCR-ABL(T315I), in contrast to imatinib's inhibitory effects only on Ba/F3 cells expressing wild-type BCR-ABL. Due to the surface sensitivity and selectivity of SIMS imaging, it is anticipated that our approach will make it easier to validate the small modifications of a substrate in relation to enzyme activity as well as for drug discovery. This mass spectrometry imaging analysis enables efficient screening for protein kinase inhibitors, thus permitting high-throughput drug screening with high accuracy

  13. Inhibition of formation of filopodia after axotomy by inhibitors of protein tyrosine kinases.

    PubMed

    Goldberg, D J; Wu, D Y

    1995-08-01

    The activity of motile protrusions of the growth cone--filopodia, veils, and lamellipodia--is essential for directed growth of a neuronal process. The regulation of the formation of these protrusions is not well understood. Numerous filopodia and veils or lamellipodia form within minutes of transection of an Aplysia axon in culture, as the initial components of growth cones of regenerating neurites. Axotomy, therefore, provides a robust and reliable protocol for analyzing the formation of these protrusions. We evaluated the involvement of protein phosphorylation in the regulation of protrusive activity. Of the inhibitors of protein kinases assayed, only the inhibitors of protein tyrosine kinases--genistein, lavendustin A, herbimycin A, and erbstatin analogue--suppressed the formation of protrusions, as assessed by high magnification video microscopy. These drugs did not work by preventing resealing of the axon, as evident from visual inspection and by the unimpaired effectiveness of genistein or lavendustin in preventing formation of filopodia when applied after resealing. Inhibition of protein tyrosine kinases not only prevented the formation of actin-based protrusions, but also caused deterioration of the actin network underlying the protrusive area of preexisting growth cones. Consistent with an involvement of protein tyrosine phosphorylation in the generation of protrusive structures, immunocytochemistry revealed that aggregates of phosphotyrosine appeared at the margins of the axon, from which protrusions emerge shortly after axotomy. These results suggest a role for protein tyrosine phosphorylation in the formation and maintenance of actin-based protrusive structures.

  14. Targeting protein neddylation with an NEDD8-activating enzyme inhibitor MLN4924 induced apoptosis or senescence in human lymphoma cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yanchun; Luo, Zhongguang; Pan, Yongfu; Wang, Weige; Zhou, Xiaoyan; Jeong, Lak Shin; Chu, Yiwei; Liu, Jie; Jia, Lijun

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies indicate that post-translational protein neddylation is required for the maintenance of cell viability in several lymphoma cell lines, while inhibition of the neddylation pathway with an NEDD8-activating enzyme (NAE) inhibitor MLN4924 induces apoptosis in lymphoma cells. However, the mechanism by which neddylation inhibition induces apoptosis in lymphoma cells has not been fully elucidated. Moreover, it is unknown whether neddylation inhibition triggers non-apoptotic cell-killing responses, such as cell senescence, in lymphoma cells. Here, we report that MLN4924 specifically inhibited protein neddylation, inactivated cullin-RING E3 ligase (CRL), the best-known neddylation substrate, and induced the accumulation of tumor-suppressive CRL substrates in lymphoma cells. Moreover, MLN4924 potently suppressed the growth of lymphoma cells by inducing G2 cell-cycle arrest, followed by apoptosis or senescence in a cell line-dependent manner. MLN4924-induced apoptosis was mediated by intrinsic apoptotic signaling with substantial up-regulation of pro-apoptotic Bik and Noxa as well as down-regulation of anti-apoptotic XIAP, c-IAP1 and c-IAP2, while senescence induction upon neddylation inhibition seemed dependent on the expression of tumor suppressor p21/p27. Together, these findings expand our understanding on how lymphoma cells respond to neddylation inhibition and support the development of neddylation inhibitors (e.g. MLN4924) for the treatment of lymphoma.

  15. RAF kinase inhibitor-independent constitutive activation of Yes-associated protein 1 promotes tumor progression in thyroid cancer

    PubMed Central

    Lee, S E; Lee, J U; Lee, M H; Ryu, M J; Kim, S J; Kim, Y K; Choi, M J; Kim, K S; Kim, J M; Kim, J W; Koh, Y W; Lim, D-S; Jo, Y S; Shong, M

    2013-01-01

    The transcription coactivator Yes-associated protein 1 (YAP1) is regulated by the Hippo tumor suppressor pathway. However, the role of YAP1 in thyroid cancer, which is frequently associated with the BRAFV600E mutation, remains unknown. This study aimed to investigate the role of YAP1 in thyroid cancer. YAP1 was overexpressed in papillary (PTC) and anaplastic thyroid cancer, and nuclear YAP1 was more frequently detected in BRAFV600E (+) PTC. In the thyroid cancer cell lines TPC-1 and HTH7, which do not have the BRAFV600E mutation, YAP1 was cytosolic and inactive at high cell densities. In contrast, YAP1 was retained in the nucleus and its target genes were expressed in the thyroid cancer cells 8505C and K1, which harbor the BRAFV600E mutation, regardless of cell density. Furthermore, the nuclear activation of YAP1 in 8505C was not inhibited by RAF or MEK inhibitor. In vitro experiments, YAP1 silencing or overexpression affected migratory capacities of 8505C and TPC-1 cells. YAP1 knockdown resulted in marked decrease of tumor volume, invasion and distant metastasis in orthotopic tumor xenograft mouse models using the 8505C thyroid cancer cell line. Taken together, YAP1 is involved in the tumor progression of thyroid cancer and YAP1-mediated effects might not be affected by the currently used RAF kinase inhibitors. PMID:23857250

  16. Isomeric Mono-, Di-, and Tri-Bromobenzo-1H-Triazoles as Inhibitors of Human Protein Kinase CK2α

    PubMed Central

    Wąsik, Romualda; Wińska, Patrycja; Poznański, Jarosław; Shugar, David

    2012-01-01

    To further clarify the role of the individual bromine atoms of 4,5,6,7-tetrabromotriazole (TBBt), a relatively selective inhibitor of protein kinase CK2, we have examined the inhibition (IC50) of human CK2α by the two mono-, the four di-, and the two tri- bromobenzotriazoles relative to that of TBBt. Halogenation of the central vicinal C(5)/C(6) atoms proved to be a key factor in enhancing inhibitory activity, in that 5,6-di-Br2Bt and 4,5,6-Br3Bt were almost as effective inhibitors as TBBt, notwithstanding their marked differences in pKa for dissociation of the triazole proton. The decrease in pKa on halogenation of the peripheral C(4)/C(7) atoms virtually nullifies the gain due to hydrophobic interactions, and does not lead to a decrease in IC50. Molecular modeling of structures of complexes of the ligands with the enzyme, as well as QSAR analysis, pointed to a balance of hydrophobic and electrostatic interactions as a discriminator of inhibitory activity. The role of halogen bonding remains debatable, as originally noted for the crystal structure of TBBt with CK2α (pdb1j91). Finally we direct attention to the promising applicability of our series of well-defined halogenated benzotriazoles to studies on inhibition of kinases other than CK2. PMID:23155426

  17. Synthesis and Evaluation of Quinazolines as Inhibitors of the Bacterial Cell Division Protein FtsZ.

    PubMed

    Nepomuceno, Gabriella M; Chan, Katie M; Huynh, Valerie; Martin, Kevin S; Moore, Jared T; O'Brien, Terrence E; Pollo, Luiz A E; Sarabia, Francisco J; Tadeus, Clarissa; Yao, Zi; Anderson, David E; Ames, James B; Shaw, Jared T

    2015-03-12

    The bacterial cell division protein FtsZ is one of many potential targets for the development of novel antibiotics. Recently, zantrin Z3 was shown to be a cross-species inhibitor of FtsZ; however, its specific interactions with the protein are still unknown. Herein we report the synthesis of analogues that contain a more tractable core structure and an analogue with single-digit micromolar inhibition of FtsZ's GTPase activity, which represents the most potent inhibitor of Escherichia coli FtsZ reported to date. In addition, the zantrin Z3 core has been converted to two potential photo-cross-linking reagents for proteomic studies that could shed light on the molecular interactions between FtsZ and molecules related to zantrin Z3.

  18. Synthesis and Evaluation of Quinazolines as Inhibitors of the Bacterial Cell Division Protein FtsZ

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The bacterial cell division protein FtsZ is one of many potential targets for the development of novel antibiotics. Recently, zantrin Z3 was shown to be a cross-species inhibitor of FtsZ; however, its specific interactions with the protein are still unknown. Herein we report the synthesis of analogues that contain a more tractable core structure and an analogue with single-digit micromolar inhibition of FtsZ’s GTPase activity, which represents the most potent inhibitor of Escherichia coli FtsZ reported to date. In addition, the zantrin Z3 core has been converted to two potential photo-cross-linking reagents for proteomic studies that could shed light on the molecular interactions between FtsZ and molecules related to zantrin Z3. PMID:25815151

  19. Benzodiazepines and benzotriazepines as protein interaction inhibitors targeting bromodomains of the BET family

    PubMed Central

    Filippakopoulos, Panagis; Picaud, Sarah; Fedorov, Oleg; Keller, Marco; Wrobel, Matthias; Morgenstern, Olaf; Bracher, Franz; Knapp, Stefan

    2012-01-01

    Benzodiazepines are psychoactive drugs with anxiolytic, sedative, skeletal muscle relaxant and amnestic properties. Recently triazolo-benzodiazepines have been also described as potent and highly selective protein interaction inhibitors of bromodomain and extra-terminal (BET) proteins, a family of transcriptional co-regulators that play a key role in cancer cell survival and proliferation, but the requirements for high affinity interaction of this compound class with bromodomains has not been described. Here we provide insight into the structure–activity relationship (SAR) and selectivity of this versatile scaffold. In addition, using high resolution crystal structures we compared the binding mode of a series of benzodiazepine (BzD) and related triazolo-benzotriazepines (BzT) derivatives including clinically approved drugs such as alprazolam and midazolam. Our analysis revealed the importance of the 1-methyl triazolo ring system for BET binding and suggests modifications for the development of further high affinity bromodomain inhibitors. PMID:22137933

  20. Protective effect of a protein kinase inhibitor on cellular injury induced by cephaloridine in the porcine kidney cell line LLC-PK(1).

    PubMed

    Kawai, Yoshiko; Kohda, Yuka; Kodawara, Takaaki; Gemba, Munekazu

    2005-08-01

    We investigated the effects of a protein kinase C inhibitor and a tyrosine kinase inhibitor on the cellular injury induced by cephaloridine in an established renal epithelial cell line, LLC-PK(1). Cephaloridine increased the leakage of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) from LLC-PK(1) cells into the medium and also caused an increase in the level of lipid peroxide (index of oxidative stress) in the cells. Treatment of the cells with a hydroxyl radical scavenger, dimethylthiourea (DMTU), inhibited the increases in LDH leakage and lipid peroxidation in LLC-PK(1) cells exposed to cephaloridine. A protein kinase C inhibitor, H-7, and tyrosine kinase inhibitors, genistein and lavendustinA, inhibited the increases in LDH leakage and lipid peroxidation in LLC-PK(1) cells exposed to cephaloridine. These results suggest that a signaling pathway which involves protein kinase C and tyrosine kinase plays a role in the generation of reactive oxygen species in LLC-PK(1) cells damaged by cephaloridine.

  1. Slow conformational dynamics of an endonuclease persist in its complex with its natural protein inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Whittaker, S B; Czisch, M; Wechselberger, R; Kaptein, R; Hemmings, A M; James, R; Kleanthous, C; Moore, G R

    2000-04-01

    The bacterial toxin colicin E9 is secreted by producing Escherichia coli cells with its 9.5 kDa inhibitor protein Im9 bound tightly to its 14.5 kDa C-terminal DNase domain. Double- and triple-resonance NMR spectra of the isolated DNase domain uniformly labeled with 13C/15N bound to unlabeled Im9 contain more signals than expected for a single DNase conformer, consistent with the bound DNase being present in more than one form. The presence of chemical exchange cross peaks in 750 MHz 15N-1H-15N HSQC-NOESY-HSQC spectra for backbone NH groups of Asp20, Lys21, Trp22, Leu23, Lys69, and Asn70 showed that the bound DNase was in dynamic exchange. The rate of exchange from the major to the minor form was determined to be 1.1 +/- 0.2 s(-1) at 298 K. Previous NMR studies have shown that the free DNase interchanges between two conformers with a forward rate constant of 1.61 +/- 0.11 s(-1) at 288 K, and that the bound Im9 is fixed in one conformation. The NMR studies of the bound DNase show that Im9 binds similarly to both conformers of the DNase and that the buried Trp22 is involved in the dynamic process. For the free DNase, all NH groups within a 9 A radius of any point of the Trp22 ring exhibit heterogeneity suggesting that a rearrangement of the position of this side chain is connected with the conformational interchange. The possible functional significance of this feature of the DNase is discussed.

  2. Identification of a human protein-derived HIV-1 fusion inhibitor targeting the gp41 fusion core structure.

    PubMed

    Chao, Lijun; Lu, Lu; Yang, Hengwen; Zhu, Yun; Li, Yuan; Wang, Qian; Yu, Xiaowen; Jiang, Shibo; Chen, Ying-Hua

    2013-01-01

    The HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein (Env) gp41 plays a crucial role in the viral fusion process. The peptides derived from the C-terminal heptad repeat (CHR) of gp41 are potent HIV fusion inhibitors. However, the activity of these anti-HIV-1 peptides in vivo may be attenuated by their induction of anti-gp41 antibodies. Thus, it is essential to identify antiviral peptides or proteins with low, or no, immunogenicity to humans. Here, we found that the C-terminal fragment (aa 462-521) of the human POB1 (the partner of RalBP1), designated C60, is an HIV-1 fusion inhibitor. It bound to N36, the peptide derived from the N-terminal heptad repeat (NHR) of gp41, and to the six-helix bundle (6-HB) formed by N36 and C34, a CHR-peptide, but it did not bind to C34. Unlike the CHR-peptides, C60 did not block gp41 6-HB formation. Rather, results suggest that C60 inhibits HIV-1 fusion by binding to the 6-HB, in particular, the residues in the gp41 NHR domain that are exposed on the surface of 6-HB. Since 6-HB plays a crucial role in the late stage of fusion between the viral envelope and endosomal membrane during the endocytic process of HIV-1, C60 may serve as a host restriction factor to suppress HIV-1 entry into CD4+ T lymphocytes. Taken together, it can be concluded from these results that C60 can be used as a lead for the development of anti-HIV-1 therapeutics or microbicides for the treatment and prevention of HIV-1 infection, as well as a molecular probe to study the fusogenic mechanism of HIV-1.

  3. Characterization of α-Amylase-Inhibitor, a Lectin-Like Protein in the Seeds of Phaseolus vulgaris1

    PubMed Central

    Moreno, Joaquin; Altabella, Teresa; Chrispeels, Maarten J.

    1990-01-01

    The common bean, Phaseolus vulgaris, contains a glycoprotein that inhibits the activity of mammalian and insect α-amylases, but not of plant α-amylases. It is therefore classified as an antifeedant or seed defense protein. In P. vulgaris cv Greensleeves, α-amylase inhibitor (αAl) is present in embryonic axes and cotyledons, but not in other organs of the plant. The protein is synthesized during the same time period that phaseolin and phytohemagglutinin are made and also accumulates in the protein storage vacuoles (protein bodies). Purified αAl can be resolved by SDS-PAGE into five bands (Mr 15,000-19,000), four of which have covalently attached glycans. These bands represent glycoforms of two different polypeptides. All the glycoforms have complex glycans that are resistant to removal by endoglycosidase H, indicating transport of the protein through the Golgi apparatus. The two different polypeptides correspond to the N-terminal and C-terminal halves of a lectin-like protein encoded by an already identified gene or a gene closely related to it (LM Hoffman [1984] J Mol Appl Genet 2: 447-453; J Moreno, MJ Chrispeels [1989] Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 86:7885-7889). The primary translation product of αAl is a polypeptide of Mr 28,000. Immunologically cross-reacting glycopolypeptides of Mr 30,000 to 35,000 are present in the endoplasmic reticulum, while the smaller polypeptides (Mr 15,000-19,000) accumulate in protein storage vacuoles (protein bodies). Together these data indicate that αAl is a typical bean lectin-type protein that is synthesized on the rough endoplasmlc reticulum, modified in the Golgi, and transported to the protein storage vacuoles. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 PMID:16667338

  4. Secreted Aspergillus fumigatus Protease Alp1 Degrades Human Complement Proteins C3, C4, and C5▿

    PubMed Central

    Behnsen, Judith; Lessing, Franziska; Schindler, Susann; Wartenberg, Dirk; Jacobsen, Ilse D.; Thoen, Marcel; Zipfel, Peter F.; Brakhage, Axel A.

    2010-01-01

    The opportunistic human pathogenic fungus Aspergillus fumigatus is a major cause of fungal infections in immunocompromised patients. Innate immunity plays an important role in the defense against infections. The complement system represents an essential part of the innate immune system. This cascade system is activated on the surface of A. fumigatus conidia and hyphae and enhances phagocytosis of conidia. A. fumigatus conidia but not hyphae bind to their surface host complement regulators factor H, FHL-1, and CFHR1, which control complement activation. Here, we show that A. fumigatus hyphae possess an additional endogenous activity to control complement activation. A. fumigatus culture supernatant efficiently cleaved complement components C3, C4, C5, and C1q as well as immunoglobulin G. Secretome analysis and protease inhibitor studies identified the secreted alkaline protease Alp1, which is present in large amounts in the culture supernatant, as the central molecule responsible for this cleavage. An alp1 deletion strain was generated, and the culture supernatant possessed minimal complement-degrading activity. Moreover, protein extract derived from an Escherichia coli strain overproducing Alp1 cleaved C3b, C4b, and C5. Thus, the protease Alp1 is responsible for the observed cleavage and degrades a broad range of different substrates. In summary, we identified a novel mechanism in A. fumigatus that contributes to evasion from the host complement attack. PMID:20498262

  5. Solution structure of a hydrocarbon stapled peptide inhibitor in complex with monomeric C-terminal domain of HIV-1 capsid.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharya, Shibani; Zhang, Hongtao; Debnath, Asim K; Cowburn, David

    2008-06-13

    The human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) capsid protein plays a critical role in virus core particle assembly and is an important target for novel therapeutic strategies. In a previous study, we characterized the binding affinity of a hydrocarbon stapled helical peptide, NYAD-1, for the capsid protein (K(d) approximately 1 mum) and demonstrated its ability to penetrate the cell membrane (Zhang, H., Zhao, Q., Bhattacharya, S., Waheed, A. A., Tong, X., Hong, A., Heck, S., Goger, M., Cowburn, D., Freed, E. O., and Debnath, A. K. (2008) J. Mol. Biol. 378, 565-580). In cell-based assays, NYAD-1 colocalized with the Gag polyprotein during traffic to the plasma membrane and disrupted the formation of mature and immature virus particles in vitro systems. Here, we complement the cellular and biochemical data with structural characterization of the interactions between the capsid and a soluble peptide analogue, NYAD-13. Solution NMR methods were used to determine a high resolution structure of the complex between the inhibitor and a monomeric form of the C-terminal domain of the capsid protein (mCA-CTD). The intermolecular interactions are mediated by the packing of hydrophobic side chains at the buried interface and unperturbed by the presence of the olefinic chain on the solvent-exposed surface of the peptide. The results of the structural analysis provide valuable insight into the determinants for high affinity and selective inhibitors for HIV-1 particle assembly.

  6. Pyridone Methylsulfone Hydroxamate LpxC Inhibitors for the Treatment of Serious Gram-Negative Infections

    SciTech Connect

    Montgomery, Justin I.; Brown, Matthew F.; Reilly, Usa; Price, Loren M.; Abramite, Joseph A.; Arcari, Joel; Barham, Rose; Che, Ye; Chen, Jinshan Michael; Chung, Seung Won; Collantes, Elizabeth M.; Desbonnet, Charlene; Doroski, Matthew; Doty, Jonathan; Engtrakul, Juntyma J.; Harris, Thomas M.; Huband, Michael; Knafels, John D.; Leach, Karen L.; Liu, Shenping; Marfat, Anthony; McAllister, Laura; McElroy, Eric; Menard, Carol A.; Mitton-Fry, Mark; Mullins, Lisa; Noe, Mark C.; O’Donnell, John; Oliver, Robert; Penzien, Joseph; Plummer, Mark; Shanmugasundaram, Veerabahu; Thoma, Christy; Tomaras, Andrew P.; Uccello, Daniel P.; Vaz, Alfin; Wishka, Donn G.

    2012-11-09

    The synthesis and biological activity of a new series of LpxC inhibitors represented by pyridone methylsulfone hydroxamate 2a is presented. Members of this series have improved solubility and free fraction when compared to compounds in the previously described biphenyl methylsulfone hydroxamate series, and they maintain superior Gram-negative antibacterial activity to comparator agents.

  7. Absolute configuration of acremoxanthone C, a potent calmodulin inhibitor from Purpureocillium lilacinum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bioassay-guided fractionation of an extract prepared from the culture medium and mycelium of Purpureocillium lilacinum allowed the isolation of two calmodulin (CaM) inhibitors, namely, acremoxanthone C (1) and acremonidin A (2). The absolute configuration of 1 was established as 2R, 3R, 1'S, 11'S, ...

  8. Applying 89Zr-Transferrin To Study the Pharmacology of Inhibitors to BET Bromodomain Containing Proteins

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Chromatin modifying proteins are attractive drug targets in oncology, given the fundamental reliance of cancer on altered transcriptional activity. Multiple transcription factors can be impacted downstream of primary target inhibition, thus making it challenging to understand the driving mechanism of action of pharmacologic inhibition of chromatin modifying proteins. This in turn makes it difficult to identify biomarkers predictive of response and pharmacodynamic tools to optimize drug dosing. In this report, we show that 89Zr-transferrin, an imaging tool we developed to measure MYC activity in cancer, can be used to identify cancer models that respond to broad spectrum inhibitors of transcription primarily due to MYC inhibition. As a proof of concept, we studied inhibitors of BET bromodomain containing proteins, as they can impart antitumor effects in a MYC dependent or independent fashion. In vitro, we show that transferrin receptor biology is inhibited in multiple MYC positive models of prostate cancer and double hit lymphoma when MYC biology is impacted. Moreover, we show that bromodomain inhibition in one lymphoma model results in transferrin receptor expression changes large enough to be quantified with 89Zr-transferrin and positron emission tomography (PET) in vivo. Collectively, these data further underscore the diagnostic utility of the relationship between MYC and transferrin in oncology, and provide the rationale to incorporate transferrin-based PET into early clinical trials with bromodomain inhibitors for the treatment of solid tumors. PMID:26725682

  9. Identification of natural allosteric inhibitor for Akt1 protein through computational approaches and in vitro evaluation.

    PubMed

    Pragna Lakshmi, T; Kumar, Amit; Vijaykumar, Veena; Natarajan, Sakthivel; Krishna, Ramadas

    2017-03-01

    Akt, a serine/threonine protein kinase, is often hyper activated in breast and prostate cancers, but with poor prognosis. Allosteric inhibitors regulate aberrant kinase activity by stabilizing the protein in inactive conformation. Several natural compounds have been reported as inhibitors for kinases. In this study, to identify potential natural allosteric inhibitor for Akt1, we generated a seven-point pharmacophore model and screened it through natural compound library. Quercetin-7-O-β-d-glucopyranoside or Q7G was found to be the best among selected molecules based on its hydrogen bond occupancy with key allosteric residues, persistent polar contacts and salt bridges that stabilize Akt1 in inactive conformation and minimum binding free energy during molecular dynamics simulation. Q7G induced dose-dependent inhibition of breast cancer cells (MDA MB-231) and arrested them in G1 and sub-G phase. This was associated with down-regulation of anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2, up-regulation of cleaved caspase-3 and PARP. Expression of p-Akt (Ser473) was also down-regulated which might be due to Akt1 inhibition in inactive conformation. We further confirmed the Akt1 and Q7G interaction which was observed to have a dissociation constant (Kd) of 0.246μM. With these computational, biological and thermodynamic studies, we suggest Q7G as a lead molecule and propose for its further optimization.

  10. Regulation of protein kinase C by the cytoskeletal protein calponin.

    PubMed

    Leinweber, B; Parissenti, A M; Gallant, C; Gangopadhyay, S S; Kirwan-Rhude, A; Leavis, P C; Morgan, K G

    2000-12-22

    Previous studies from this laboratory have shown that, upon agonist activation, calponin co-immunoprecipitates and co-localizes with protein kinase Cepsilon (PKCepsilon) in vascular smooth muscle cells. In the present study we demonstrate that calponin binds directly to the regulatory domain of PKC both in overlay assays and, under native conditions, by sedimentation with lipid vesicles. Calponin was found to bind to the C2 region of both PKCepsilon and PKCalpha with possible involvement of C1B. The C2 region of PKCepsilon binds to the calponin repeats with a requirement for the region between amino acids 160 and 182. We have also found that calponin can directly activate PKC autophosphorylation. By using anti-phosphoantibodies to residue Ser-660 of PKCbetaII, we found that calponin, in a lipid-independent manner, increased auto-phosphorylation of PKCalpha, -epsilon, and -betaII severalfold compared with control conditions. Similarly, calponin was found to increase the amount of (32)P-labeled phosphate incorporated into PKC from [gamma-(32)P]ATP. We also observed that calponin addition strongly increased the incorporation of radiolabeled phosphate into an exogenous PKC peptide substrate, suggesting an activation of enzyme activity. Thus, these results raise the possibility that calponin may function in smooth muscle to regulate PKC activity by facilitating the phosphorylation of PKC.

  11. Vaccinia virus protein C4 inhibits NF-κB activation and promotes virus virulence

    PubMed Central

    Ember, Stuart W. J.; Ren, Hongwei; Ferguson, Brian J.

    2012-01-01

    Vaccinia virus (VACV) strain Western Reserve protein C4 has been characterized and its function and contribution to virus virulence assessed. Bioinformatic analysis showed that C4 is conserved in six orthopoxvirus species and shares 43 % amino acid identity with VACV protein C16, a known virulence factor. A recombinant VACV expressing a C-terminally tagged version of C4 showed that, like C16, this 37 kDa protein is expressed early during infection and localizes to both the cytoplasm and the nucleus. Functional assays using a firefly luciferase reporter plasmid under the control of a nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB)-dependent promoter demonstrated that C4 inhibits NF-κB activation at, or downstream of, the inhibitor of kappa kinase (IKK) complex. Consistent with this, C4 inhibited interleukin-1β-induced translocation of p65 into the nucleus. A VACV lacking the C4L gene (vΔC4) showed no significant differences from wild-type virus in growth kinetics or spread in cell culture, but had reduced virulence in a murine intranasal model of infection. vΔC4-infected mice exhibited fewer symptoms, lost less weight and recovered 7 days earlier than animals infected with control viruses expressing C4. Furthermore, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from vΔC4-infected mice had increased cell numbers at day 5 post-infection, which correlated with reduced lung virus titres from this time onward. C4 represents the ninth VACV protein to inhibit NF-κB activation and remarkably, in every case examined, loss of each protein individually caused an alteration in virus virulence, despite the presence of other NF-κB inhibitors. PMID:22791606

  12. Separating the mechanism-based and off-target actions of cholesteryl ester transfer protein inhibitors with CETP gene polymorphisms

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background—Cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) inhibitors raise high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, but torcetrapib, the first-in-class inhibitor tested in a large outcome trial, caused an unexpected blood pressure elevation and increased cardiovascular events. Whether the hypertensive...

  13. Perturbation of the c-Myc-Max protein-protein interaction via synthetic α-helix mimetics.

    PubMed

    Jung, Kwan-Young; Wang, Huabo; Teriete, Peter; Yap, Jeremy L; Chen, Lijia; Lanning, Maryanna E; Hu, Angela; Lambert, Lester J; Holien, Toril; Sundan, Anders; Cosford, Nicholas D P; Prochownik, Edward V; Fletcher, Steven

    2015-04-09

    The rational design of inhibitors of the bHLH-ZIP oncoprotein c-Myc is hampered by a lack of structure in its monomeric state. We describe herein the design of novel, low-molecular-weight, synthetic α-helix mimetics that recognize helical c-Myc in its transcriptionally active coiled-coil structure in association with its obligate bHLH-ZIP partner Max. These compounds perturb the heterodimer's binding to its canonical E-box DNA sequence without causing protein-protein dissociation, heralding a new mechanistic class of "direct" c-Myc inhibitors. In addition to electrophoretic mobility shift assays, this model was corroborated by further biophysical methods, including NMR spectroscopy and surface plasmon resonance. Several compounds demonstrated a 2-fold or greater selectivity for c-Myc-Max heterodimers over Max-Max homodimers with IC50 values as low as 5.6 μM. Finally, these compounds inhibited the proliferation of c-Myc-expressing cell lines in a concentration-dependent manner that correlated with the loss of expression of a c-Myc-dependent reporter plasmid despite the fact that c-Myc-Max heterodimers remained intact.

  14. An update on the diagnosis and management of hereditary angioedema with abnormal C1 inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Davis-Lorton, Mark

    2015-02-01

    Hereditary angioedema (HAE) is a rare genetic disease caused by a deficiency in functional C1-esterase inhibitor characterized by recurrent episodes of angioedema in the absence of associated urticaria. Subcutaneous swellings are experienced by virtually all patients with HAE, and dermatologists are likely to encounter this manifestation, requiring that they be knowledgeable about diagnosis and treatment options. Diagnosis of HAE is often delayed because several of the symptoms can mimic other disease states. Delays in diagnosis can lead to increased inappropriate treatment and decreased patient quality of life. Once a proper diagnosis is made, treatment needs to be targeted to the individual patient and includes on-demand therapy and an option for short- and long-term prophylaxis. On-demand therapy is required for all patients who are diagnosed with HAE and effective options include plasma-derived and recombinant C1 inhibitors, kallikrein inhibitors, and bradykinin B2-receptor antagonists. Options available for prophylaxis include plasma-derived C1 inhibitors, attenuated androgens, and antifibrinolytic agents, although the latter 2 options are associated with significant adverse events. This article reviews the diagnosis and options for effective management of patients with HAE.

  15. Crystal structure of LpxC from Pseudomonas aeruginosa complexed with the potent BB-78485 inhibitor

    SciTech Connect

    Mochalkin, Igor; Knafels, John D.; Lightle, Sandra

    2008-04-02

    The cell wall in Gram-negative bacteria is surrounded by an outer membrane comprised of charged lipopolysaccharide (LPS) molecules that prevent entry of hydrophobic agents into the cell and protect the bacterium from many antibiotics. The hydrophobic anchor of LPS is lipid A, the biosynthesis of which is essential for bacterial growth and viability. UDP-3-O-(R-3-hydroxymyristoyl)-N-acetylglucosamine deacetylase (LpxC) is an essential zinc-dependant enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of UDP-3-O-(R-3-hydroxymyristoyl)-N-acetylglucosamine to UDP-3-O-(R-3-hydroxymyristoyl)glucosamine and acetate in the biosynthesis of lipid A, and for this reason, LpxC is an attractive target for antibacterial drug discovery. Here we disclose a 1.9 A resolution crystal structure of LpxC from Pseudomonas aeruginosa (paLpxC) in a complex with the potent BB-78485 inhibitor. To our knowledge, this is the first crystal structure of LpxC with a small-molecule inhibitor that shows antibacterial activity against a wide range of Gram-negative pathogens. Accordingly, this structure can provide important information for lead optimization and rational design of the effective small-molecule LpxC inhibitors for successful treatment of Gram-negative infections.

  16. C-reactive protein modulates human lung fibroblast migration.

    PubMed

    Kikuchi, Kazuhiko; Kohyama, Tadashi; Yamauchi, Yasuhiro; Kato, Jun; Takami, Kazutaka; Okazaki, Hitoshi; Desaki, Masashi; Nagase, Takahide; Rennard, Stephen I; Takizawa, Hajime

    2009-02-01

    C-reactive protein (CRP) has been classically used as a marker of inflammation. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of CRP on migration of human fetal lung fibroblasts (HFL-1) to human plasma fibronectin (HFn). Using the blindwell chamber technique, CRP inhibited HFL-1 migration in a dose-dependent fashion (at 1 microg/mL, inhibition: 32.5% +/- 7.1%; P < .05). Western blot analysis showed that CRP inhibited the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) activity in the presence of HFn. Moreover, the MAPK inhibitors SB202190 (25 microM) and SB203580 (25 microM) inhibited HFn-induced cell migration, suggesting an important role of p38 MAPK in HFn-induced migration. Taken together, these results suggest that the inhibitory effect of CRP is mediated by blocking MAPK. In summary, this study demonstrates that CRP directly modulates human lung fibroblasts migration. Thus, CRP may contribute to regulation of wound healing and may be endogenous antifibrotic factor acting on lung fibrosis.

  17. A salt-bridge stabilized C-terminal hook is critical for the dimerization of a Bowman Birk inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Vinod; Murugeson, Saravanan; Vithani, Neha; Prakash, Balaji; Gowda, Lalitha R

    2015-01-15

    Legume Bowman-Birk inhibitors (BBIs) that inhibit mammalian proteases exist as dimers in solution. The structural basis governing dimerization of HGI-III (horsegram seed BBI) was investigated. An intra-monomer salt bridge (D76-K71) stabilizes an atypical hook-like conformation at the C-terminus. We postulate that this hook, positions D75 to enable an inter-monomer salt-bridge D75(a)-K24(b), which results in dimerization. We verify this by K71A and D76A mutations of HGI-III. The mutants were both monomers, likely due to destabilization of the C-terminal hook. Dimerization was sustained in a double mutant K71D/D76K that was anticipated to form a similar hook critical for dimerization. Conversely, K24(b) that interacts with D75(a) of the loop is the specificity determining residue that interacts with trypsin to inhibit its activity. The inter-monomer salt bridge D75(a)-K24(b) must be disrupted for the inhibition of trypsin, requiring HGI-III to transition into a monomer. Size exclusion studies and a model of HGI-III-trypsin complex support this notion. Interestingly, isoforms of the inhibitor present in germinated seeds (HGGIs) are monomers; and most strikingly, the C-termini of these inhibitors are truncated with the loss the C-terminal hook critical for dimerization. The tendency of HGI-III to self-associate seems to relate to its physiological function of a storage protein.

  18. 21 CFR 184.1979c - Whey protein concentrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ..._locations.html. (3) The whey protein concentrate shall be derived from milk that has been pasteurized, or... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Whey protein concentrate. 184.1979c Section 184... as GRAS § 184.1979c Whey protein concentrate. (a) Whey protein concentrate is the substance...

  19. Abrogation of TNF-mediated cytotoxicity by space flight involves protein kinase C

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woods, K. M.; Chapes, S. K.; Spooner, B. S. (Principal Investigator)

    1994-01-01

    Experiments conducted on STS-50 indicated that space flight significantly inhibited tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-mediated killing of LM929 cells compared to ground controls. In ground-based studies, activation of protein kinase C (PKC) with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) also inhibited TNF-mediated killing of LM929 cells. Therefore, we used PKC inhibitors to determine if the inhibitory effects of spaceflight on TNF-mediated cytotoxicity involved the activation of PKC. In experiments conducted onboard space shuttle mission STS-54, we saw that in the presence of the protein kinase C inhibitors H7 and H8, TNF-mediated cytotoxicity was restored to levels of those observed in the ground controls. Subsequent experiments done during the STS-57 mission tested the dose response of two protein kinase inhibitors, H7 and HA1004. We again saw that killing was restored in a dose-dependent manner, with inhibitor concentrations known to inhibit PKC being most effective. These data suggest that space flight ameliorates the action of TNF by affecting PKC in target cells.

  20. Computational analysis of calculated physicochemical and ADMET properties of protein-protein interaction inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Lagorce, David; Douguet, Dominique; Miteva, Maria A.; Villoutreix, Bruno O.

    2017-01-01

    The modulation of PPIs by low molecular weight chemical compounds, particularly by orally bioavailable molecules, would be very valuable in numerous disease indications. However, it is known that PPI inhibitors (iPPIs) tend to have properties that are linked to poor Absorption, Distribution, Metabolism, Excretion and Toxicity (ADMET) and in some cases to poor clinical outcomes. Previously reported in silico analyses of iPPIs have essentially focused on physicochemical properties but several other ADMET parameters would be important to assess. In order to gain new insights into the ADMET properties of iPPIs, computations were carried out on eight datasets collected from several databases. These datasets involve compounds targeting enzymes, GPCRs, ion channels, nuclear receptors, allosteric modulators, oral marketed drugs, oral natural product-derived marketed drugs and iPPIs. Several trends are reported that should assist the design and optimization of future PPI inhibitors, either for drug discovery endeavors or for chemical biology projects.

  1. Novel Inhibitors of Protein-Protein Interaction for Prostate Cancer Therapy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-04-01

    inhibitors; cellular reactive oxygen species; cyclin D1 INTRODUCTION Advanced hormone refractory metastatic prostate cancer (PCa) is the second leading...sufficiently deplete androgen content while limiting the adverse growth effects not related to hormone depletion that occur with the use of 5% stripped...Scientific Publishing Co. Pte.Ltd; 2011. 3. Jorgenson TC, Zhang W, Oberley TD. Redox imbalance and biochemical changes in cancer. Cancer Res 2013;73(20

  2. The Plastidial 2-C-Methyl-d-Erythritol 4-Phosphate Pathway Provides the Isoprenyl Moiety for Protein Geranylgeranylation in Tobacco BY-2 Cells[C][W

    PubMed Central

    Gerber, Esther; Hemmerlin, Andréa; Hartmann, Michael; Heintz, Dimitri; Hartmann, Marie-Andrée; Mutterer, Jérôme; Rodríguez-Concepción, Manuel; Boronat, Albert; Van Dorsselaer, Alain; Rohmer, Michel; Crowell, Dring N.; Bach, Thomas J.

    2009-01-01

    Protein farnesylation and geranylgeranylation are important posttranslational modifications in eukaryotic cells. We visualized in transformed Nicotiana tabacum Bright Yellow-2 (BY-2) cells the geranylgeranylation and plasma membrane localization of GFP-BD-CVIL, which consists of green fluorescent protein (GFP) fused to the C-terminal polybasic domain (BD) and CVIL isoprenylation motif from the Oryza sativa calmodulin, CaM61. Treatment with fosmidomycin (Fos) or oxoclomazone (OC), inhibitors of the plastidial 2-C-methyl-d-erythritol 4-phosphate (MEP) pathway, caused mislocalization of the protein to the nucleus, whereas treatment with mevinolin, an inhibitor of the cytosolic mevalonate pathway, did not. The nuclear localization of GFP-BD-CVIL in the presence of MEP pathway inhibitors was completely reversed by all-trans-geranylgeraniol (GGol). Furthermore, 1-deoxy-d-xylulose (DX) reversed the effects of OC, but not Fos, consistent with the hypothesis that OC blocks 1-deoxy-d-xylulose 5-phosphate synthesis, whereas Fos inhibits its conversion to 2-C-methyl-d-erythritol 4-phosphate. By contrast, GGol and DX did not rescue the nuclear mislocalization of GFP-BD-CVIL in the presence of a protein geranylgeranyltransferase type 1 inhibitor. Thus, the MEP pathway has an essential role in geranylgeranyl diphosphate (GGPP) biosynthesis and protein geranylgeranylation in BY-2 cells. GFP-BD-CVIL is a versatile tool for identifying pharmaceuticals and herbicides that interfere either with GGPP biosynthesis or with protein geranylgeranylation. PMID:19136647

  3. Syntheses, Structures and Antibiotic Activities of LpxC Inhibitors Based on the Diacetylene Scaffold

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Xiaofei; Lee, Chul-Jin; Chen, Xin; Chung, Hak Suk; Zeng, Daina; Raetz, Christian R. H.; Li, Yaoxian; Zhou, Pei; Toone, Eric J.

    2010-01-01

    Compounds inhibiting LpxC in the lipid A biosynthetic pathway are promising leads for novel antibiotics against multidrug-resistant Gram-negative pathogens. We report the syntheses and structural and biochemical characterizations of LpxC inhibitors based on a diphenyl-diacetylene (1,4-diphenyl-1,3-butadiyne) threonylhydroxamate scaffold. These studies provide a molecular interpretation for the differential antibiotic activities of compounds with a substituted distal phenyl ring as well as the absolute stereochemical requirement at the C2, but not C3, position of the threonyl group. PMID:21194954

  4. Design, synthesis, and biological evaluation of novel FAK scaffold inhibitors targeting the FAK–VEGFR3 protein–protein interaction

    PubMed Central

    Kurenova, Elena V.; Magis, Andrew T.; Pandey, Ravindra K.; Cance, William G.

    2015-01-01

    Focal adhesion kinase (FAK) and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 3 (VEGFR3) are tyrosine kinases, which function as key modulators of survival and metastasis signals in cancer cells. Previously, we reported that small molecule chlorpyramine hydrochloride (C4) specifically targets the interaction between FAK and VEGFR3 and exhibits anti-tumor efficacy. In this study, we designed and synthesized a series of 1 (C4) analogs on the basis of structure activity relationship and molecular modeling. The resulting new compounds were evaluated for their binding to the FAT domain of FAK and anti-cancer activity. Amongst all tested analogs, compound 29 augmented anti-proliferative activity in multiple cancer cell lines with stronger binding to the FAT domain of FAK and disrupted the FAK–VEGFR3 interaction. In conclusion, we hope that this work will contribute to further studies of more potent and selective FAK–VEGFR3 protein–protein interaction inhibitors. PMID:24780592

  5. Crystal structure and mutagenesis of a protein phosphatase-1:calcineurin hybrid elucidate the role of the beta12-beta13 loop in inhibitor binding.

    PubMed

    Maynes, Jason T; Perreault, Kathleen R; Cherney, Maia M; Luu, Hue Anh; James, Michael N G; Holmes, Charles F B

    2004-10-08

    Protein phosphatase-1 and protein phosphatase-2B (calcineurin) are eukaryotic serine/threonine phosphatases that share 40% sequence identity in their catalytic subunits. Despite the similarities in sequence, these phosphatases are widely divergent when it comes to inhibition by natural product toxins, such as microcystin-LR and okadaic acid. The most prominent region of non-conserved sequence between these phosphatases corresponds to the beta12-beta13 loop of protein phosphatase-1, and the L7 loop of toxin-resistant calcineurin. In the present study, mutagenesis of residues 273-277 of the beta12-beta13 loop of the protein phosphatase-1 catalytic subunit (PP-1c) to the corresponding residues in calcineurin (312-316), resulted in a chimeric mutant that showed a decrease in sensitivity to microcystin-LR, okadaic acid, and the endogenous PP-1c inhibitor protein inhibitor-2. A crystal structure of the chimeric mutant in complex with okadaic acid was determined to 2.0-A resolution. The beta12-beta13 loop region of the mutant superimposes closely with that of wild-type PP-1c bound to okadaic acid. Systematic mutation of each residue in the beta12-beta13 loop of PP-1c showed that a single amino acid change (C273L) was the most influential in mediating sensitivity of PP-1c to toxins. Taken together, these data indicate that it is an individual amino acid residue substitution and not a change in the overall beta12-beta13 loop conformation of protein phosphatase-1 that contributes to disrupting important interactions with inhibitors such as microcystin-LR and okadaic acid.

  6. New lipid modulating drugs: the role of microsomal transport protein inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Rizzo, Manfredi; Wierzbicki, Anthony S

    2011-01-01

    Microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTP) is involved in the synthesis of very low density lipoprotein in the liver. Its deficiency results in abetalipoproteinemia. MTP inhibitors target the assembly and secretion of apolipoprotein B-containing lipoproteins. These agents may potentially play a role, alone or in combination, in the treatment of hypercholesterolemia or hypertriglyceridaemia. Clinical applications of MTP inhibitors initially focused primarily on high-dose monotherapy in order to produce substantial reductions in LDL-cholesterol levels but these proved to induce significant hepatic steatosis and transaminase elevations. However, likely orphan indications for MTP inhibitors, where a different risk-benefit profile applies, include patients with homozygous familial hypercholesterolemia where statins often show a low response. Development of MTP inhibitors has continued to enter clinical trials at lower doses or in formulations aimed at utilizing their efficacy while avoiding their side effects. These have shown promising results in reducing cholesterol, triglycerides and apolipoprotein B with a far lower incidence of, often, transient side-effects. The clinical efficacy and safety of MTP inhibition in patients with hyperlipidaemia remains to be fully determined and to be proven in both surrogate and clinical endpoint trials but there may be a role for these agents in orphan indications for rarer severe hyperlipidaemias.

  7. Dihydropyrano [2,3-c] pyrazole: Novel in vitro inhibitors of yeast α-glucosidase.

    PubMed

    Kashtoh, Hamdy; Muhammad, Munira Taj; Khan, Jalaluddin J A; Rasheed, Saima; Khan, Ajmal; Perveen, Shahnaz; Javaid, Kulsoom; Atia-Tul-Wahab; Khan, Khalid Mohammed; Choudhary, M Iqbal

    2016-04-01

    Inhibition of α-glucosidase enzyme activity is a reliable approach towards controlling post-prandial hyperglycemia associated risk factors. During the current study, a series of dihydropyrano[2,3-c] pyrazoles (1-35) were synthesized and evaluated for their α-glucosidase inhibitory activity. Compounds 1, 4, 22, 30, and 33 were found to be the potent inhibitors of the yeast α-glucosidase enzyme. Mechanistic studies on most potent compounds reveled that 1, 4, and 30 were non-competitive inhibitors (Ki=9.75±0.07, 46±0.0001, and 69.16±0.01μM, respectively), compound 22 is a competitive inhibitor (Ki=190±0.016μM), while 33 was an uncompetitive inhibitor (Ki=45±0.0014μM) of the enzyme. Finally, the cytotoxicity of potent compounds (i.e. compounds 1, 4, 22, 30, and 33) was also evaluated against mouse fibroblast 3T3 cell line assay, and no toxicity was observed. This study identifies non-cytotoxic novel inhibitors of α-glucosidase enzyme for further investigation as anti-diabetic agents.

  8. Protein inhibitors of serine proteinases: role of backbone structure and dynamics in controlling the hydrolysis constant.

    PubMed

    Song, Jikui; Markley, John L

    2003-05-13

    Standard mechanism protein inhibitors of serine proteinases bind as substrates and are cleaved by cognate proteinases at their reactive sites. The hydrolysis constant for this cleavage reaction at the P(1)-P(1)' peptide bond (K(hyd)) is determined by the relative concentrations at equilibrium of the "intact" (uncleaved, I) and "modified" (reactive site cleaved, I*) forms of the inhibitor. The pH dependence of K(hyd) can be explained in terms of a pH-independent term, K(hyd) degrees, plus the proton dissociation constants of the newly formed amino and carboxylate groups at the cleavage site. Two protein inhibitors that differ from one another by a single residue substitution have been found to have K(hyd) degrees values that differ by a factor of 5 [Ardelt, W., and Laskowski, M., Jr. (1991) J. Mol. Biol. 220, 1041-1052]: turkey ovomucoid third domain (OMTKY3) has K(hyd) degrees = 1.0, and Indian peafowl ovomucoid third domain (OMIPF3), which differs from OMTKY3 by the substitution P(2)'-Tyr(20)His, has K(hyd) degrees = 5.15. What mechanism is responsible for this small difference? Is it structural (enthalpic) or dynamic (entropic)? Does the mutation affect the free energy of the I state, the I* state, or both? We have addressed these questions through NMR investigations of the I and I forms of OMTKY3 and OMIPF3. Information about structure was derived from measurements of NMR chemical shift changes and trans-hydrogen-bond J-couplings; information about dynamics was obtained through measurements of (15)N relaxation rates and (1)H-(15)N heteronuclear NOEs with model-free analysis of the results. Although the I forms of each variant are more dynamic than the corresponding I forms, the study revealed no appreciable difference in the backbone dynamics of either intact inhibitor (OMIPF3 vs OMTKY3) or modified inhibitor (OMIPF3* vs OMTKY3*). Instead, changes in chemical shifts and trans-hydrogen-bond J-couplings suggested that the K(hyd) degrees difference arises from

  9. Syntheses of potent, selective, and orally bioavailable indazole-pyridine series of protein kinase B/Akt inhibitors with reduced hypotension.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Gui-Dong; Gandhi, Viraj B; Gong, Jianchun; Thomas, Sheela; Woods, Keith W; Song, Xiaohong; Li, Tongmei; Diebold, R Bruce; Luo, Yan; Liu, Xuesong; Guan, Ran; Klinghofer, Vered; Johnson, Eric F; Bouska, Jennifer; Olson, Amanda; Marsh, Kennan C; Stoll, Vincent S; Mamo, Mulugeta; Polakowski, James; Campbell, Thomas J; Martin, Ruth L; Gintant, Gary A; Penning, Thomas D; Li, Qun; Rosenberg, Saul H; Giranda, Vincent L

    2007-06-28

    Compound 7 was identified as a potent (IC50 = 14 nM), selective, and orally bioavailable (F = 70% in mouse) inhibitor of protein kinase B/Akt. While promising efficacy was observed in vivo, this compound showed effects on depolarization of Purkinje fibers in an in vitro assay and CV hypotension in vivo. Guided by an X-ray structure of 7 bound to protein kinase A, which has 80% homology with Akt in the kinase domain, our efforts have focused on structure-activity relationship (SAR) studies of the phenyl moiety, in an attempt to address the cardiovascular liability and further improve the Akt potency. A novel and efficient synthetic route toward diversely substituted phenyl derivatives of 7 was developed utilizing a copper-mediated aziridine ring-opening reaction as the key step. To improve the selectivity of these Akt inhibitors over other protein kinases, a nitrogen atom was incorporated into selected phenyl analogues of 7 at the C-6 position of the methyl indazole scaffold. These modifications resulted in the discovery of inhibitor 37c with greater potency (IC50 = 0.6 nM vs Akt), selectivity, and improved cardiovascular safety profile. The SARs, pharmacokinetic profile, and CV safety of selected Akt inhibitors will be discussed.

  10. Interaction of wheat monomeric and dimeric protein inhibitors with alpha-amylase from yellow mealworm (Tenebrio molitor L. larva).

    PubMed

    Buonocore, V; Gramenzi, F; Pace, W; Petrucci, T; Poerio, E; Silano, V

    1980-06-01

    The highly purified alpha-amylase from Tenebrio molitor L. larva (yellow mealworm) reversibly combines with two closely related homogeneous glycoprotein inhibitors, one dimeric (termed 'inhibitor 0.19') and one monomeric (termed 'inhibitor 0.28'), from wheat flour. As established by means of difference spectroscopy and kinetic studies, molar combining ratios for the amylase--inhibitor-0.19 and amylase-inhibitor-0.28 complexes were 1:1 and 1:2 respectively. Two amylase--inhibitor-0.19 complexes with slightly different retention volumes on Bio-Gel P-300 and only one amylase--inhibitor-0.28 complex were observed. Dissociation constants of the amylase--inhibitor-0.19 and amylase--inhibitor-0.28 complexes were 0.85 nM and 0.13 nM respectively. A strong tendency of both complexes to precipitate under an ultracentrifugal field was observed; the minimum molecular weight calculated for the two complexes under such conditions was approx. 95 000. The two complexes showed difference spectra indicating involvement of structurally related or identical tryptophyl side chains in the binding of inhibitors 0.28 and 0.19 to the amylase. A model summarizing the main features of the inhibition of the insect amylase by the two wheat protein inhibitors is proposed.

  11. The concentration of cyclic AMP and the activity of cyclic AMP dependent protein kinase and an inhibitor in the adipose tissue of rats fed lard or glucose diets.

    PubMed

    Jackowski, M M; Tepperman, H M; Tepperman, J

    1978-08-01

    Measurements of tissue cyclic AMP (cAMP) concentration, the activity of cAMP-dependent protein kinase and the level of the enzyme's thermostable, macromolecular inhibitor were made on preparations of rat epididymal fat pad from animals fed high fat or high carbohydrate diets. The cAMP concentration from rats adapted to a high lard diet for 14-15 days was 153 +/- 17.8 pmoles/mg protein as opposed to 76 +/- 6.0 found with high glucose diet. No significant difference in total cAMP-dependent protein kinase activity was observed among rats fed high glucose, high lard or laboratory chow, although the enzyme's activity ratio (-cAMP)(+cAMP) was significantly elevated with lard feeding (0.49 +/- 0.02) as opposed to glucose feeding (0.43 +/- 0.01). Crude preparations from lard and glucose fed animals were equivalent in inhibitory activity when tested with enzyme from chow fed animals. Agarose column chromatography separated holoenzyme and C subunit forms of the protein kinase when 500 mM NaCl was present in the elution buffer. Absence of the salt allowed subunit reassociation to occur. Direct addition of NaCl greater than or equal to 75 mM significantly inhibited protein kinase activity. The results indicate that the adipose tissue of rats fed a high lard diet has a higher concentration of cAMP and an increased protein kinase activity ratio than tissue from rats fed a fat free, high glucose diet. Total cAMP-dependent protein kinase activity and the level of a thermostable macromolecular inhibitor remained unchanged.

  12. The protein synthesis inhibitor anisomycin reduces sex behavior during a critical period after testosterone treatment in male Syrian hamsters.

    PubMed

    Piekarski, David J; Seto, Tiffany; Zucker, Irving

    2012-01-18

    Testosterone (T) is critical for maintaining male sexual behavior (MSB) in rodents, in part by altering protein synthesis in a well-defined neural circuit. The specific timing of protein synthesis essential for expression of MSB has never been investigated. We administered the protein synthesis inhibitor anisomycin (Ani) to castrated male Syrian hamsters treated sc with 100 μg T in an aqueous vehicle once weekly; this T regimen maintains MSB while elevating circulating T concentrations for only a few hours after each injection. Hamsters were injected s.c. with the vehicle or 12.5 mg Ani at one of several times relative to T administration; MSB was assessed once per week, 6 days after the previous T injection, for 5 weeks. Anisomycin administered 6-12 h after T injection significantly reduced the expression of sexual behavior, whereas Ani treatment between 3 h before and 3 h after T injection did not impair MSB. This experiment is the first to assess the specific timing of protein synthesis relative to a T pulse that is required for the expression of MSB. The demarcation of a critical interval for T-induced protein synthesis necessary for maintenance of MSB should facilitate specification of the genomic, proteomic, and biochemical cascades that subserve actions of T on male copulation.

  13. Inhibitors of the Ca{sup 2+}/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase phosphatase family (CaMKP and CaMKP-N)

    SciTech Connect

    Sueyoshi, Noriyuki; Takao, Toshihiko; Nimura, Takaki; Sugiyama, Yasunori; Numano, Takamasa; Shigeri, Yasushi; Taniguchi, Takanobu; Kameshita, Isamu Ishida, Atsuhiko

    2007-11-23

    Ca{sup 2+}/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase phosphatase (CaMKP) and its nuclear isoform CaMKP-N are unique Ser/Thr protein phosphatases that negatively regulate the Ca{sup 2+}/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase (CaMK) cascade by dephosphorylating multifunctional CaMKI, II, and IV. However, the lack of specific inhibitors of these phosphatases has hampered studies on these enzymes in vivo. In an attempt to obtain specific inhibitors, we searched inhibitory compounds and found that Evans Blue and Chicago Sky Blue 6B served as effective inhibitors for CaMKP. These compounds also inhibited CaMKP-N, but inhibited neither protein phosphatase 2C, another member of PPM family phosphatase, nor calcineurin, a typical PPP family phosphatase. The minimum structure required for the inhibition was 1-amino-8-naphthol-4-sulfonic acid. When Neuro2a cells cotransfected with CaMKIV and CaMKP-N were treated with these compounds, the dephosphorylation of CaMKIV was strongly suppressed, suggesting that these compounds could be used as potent inhibitors of CaMKP and CaMKP-N in vivo as well as in vitro.

  14. Inhibitor of Apoptosis Proteins (IAPs) are commonly dysregulated in GIST and can be pharmacologically targeted to enhance the pro-apoptotic activity of imatinib.

    PubMed

    Falkenhorst, Johanna; Grunewald, Susanne; Mühlenberg, Thomas; Marino-Enriquez, Adrian; Reis, Anna-Carina; Corless, Christopher; Heinrich, Michael; Treckmann, Jürgen; Podleska, Lars Erik; Schuler, Martin; Fletcher, Jonathan Alfred; Bauer, Sebastian

    2016-07-05

    Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST) exhibit a strong oncogenic dependency on KIT and KIT inhibitors confer long lasting disease stabilization in the majority of patients. Nonetheless, KIT inhibition alone does not cure GIST as a subset of GIST cells evade apoptosis and eventually develop resistance. Inhibitors of Apoptosis Proteins (IAPs) may confer resistance to drug-induced apoptosis. We observed that the mRNA and protein of IAPs XIAP (BIRC4) and survivin (BIRC5) were highly expressed in primary GIST tumors and cell line models. Amplification of the respective gene loci (BIRC2, BIRC3, BIRC4, BIRC5) was detected in 47% of GIST studied by SNP arrays. Whole exome analyses revealed a mutation of SMAC(DIABLO) in a heavily pretreated patient. Both, survivin (rank 62-92/11.194 tested proteins) and XIAP (rank 106-557/11.194) were found to be essential proteins for survival in a synthetic lethality screen. Expression of XIAP and survivin decreased upon KIT inhibition and may play a role in KIT-regulated pro-survival signaling. SMAC-mimetic treatment with LCL161 and TL32711 reduced cIAP1 and XIAP expression. Survivin inhibitor YM155 lead to transcriptional repression of BIRC5/survivin (YM155) and induced apoptosis. Combinational treatment with KIT inhibitors (imatinib, regorafenib) enhanced the proapoptotic effect. These findings support the combination of KIT inhibition with IAP antagonists in GIST.

  15. A new chitinase-like xylanase inhibitor protein (XIP) from coffee (Coffea arabica) affects Soybean Asian rust (Phakopsora pachyrhizi) spore germination

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Asian rust (Phakopsora pachyrhizi) is a common disease in Brazilian soybean fields and it is difficult to control. To identify a biochemical candidate with potential to combat this disease, a new chitinase-like xylanase inhibitor protein (XIP) from coffee (Coffea arabica) (CaclXIP) leaves was cloned into the pGAPZα-B vector for expression in Pichia pastoris. Results A cDNA encoding a chitinase-like xylanase inhibitor protein (XIP) from coffee (Coffea arabica) (CaclXIP), was isolated from leaves. The amino acid sequence predicts a (β/α)8 topology common to Class III Chitinases (glycoside hydrolase family 18 proteins; GH18), and shares similarity with other GH18 members, although it lacks the glutamic acid residue essential for catalysis, which is replaced by glutamine. CaclXIP was expressed as a recombinant protein in Pichia pastoris. Enzymatic assay showed that purified recombinant CaclXIP had only residual chitinolytic activity. However, it inhibited xylanases from Acrophialophora nainiana by approx. 60% when present at 12:1 (w/w) enzyme:inhibitor ratio. Additionally, CaclXIP at 1.5 μg/μL inhibited the germination of spores of Phakopsora pachyrhizi by 45%. Conclusions Our data suggests that CaclXIP belongs to a class of naturally inactive chitinases that have evolved to act in plant cell defence as xylanase inhibitors. Its role on inhibiting germination of fungal spores makes it an eligible candidate gene for the control of Asian rust. PMID:21299880

  16. Examination of the Addictive and Behavioral Properties of Fatty Acid-Binding Protein Inhibitor SBFI26

    PubMed Central

    Thanos, Panayotis K.; Clavin, Brendan H.; Hamilton, John; O’Rourke, Joseph R.; Maher, Thomas; Koumas, Christopher; Miao, Erick; Lankop, Jessenia; Elhage, Aya; Haj-Dahmane, Samir; Deutsch, Dale; Kaczocha, Martin

    2016-01-01

    The therapeutic properties of cannabinoids have been well demonstrated but are overshadowed by such adverse effects as cognitive and motor dysfunction, as well as their potential for addiction. Recent research on the natural lipid ligands of cannabinoid receptors, also known as endocannabinoids, has shed light on the mechanisms of intracellular transport of the endocannabinoid anandamide by fatty acid-binding proteins (FABPs) and subsequent catabolism by fatty acid amide hydrolase. These findings facilitated the recent development of SBFI26, a pharmacological inhibitor of epidermal- and brain-specific FABP5 and FABP7, which effectively increases anandamide signaling. The goal of this study was to examine this compound for any possible rewarding and addictive properties as well as effects on locomotor activity, working/recognition memory, and propensity for sociability and preference for social novelty (SN) given its recently reported anti-inflammatory and analgesic properties. Male C57BL mice were split into four treatment groups and conditioned with 5.0, 20.0, 40.0 mg/kg SBFI26, or vehicle during a conditioned place preference (CPP) paradigm. Following CPP, mice underwent a battery of behavioral tests [open field, novel object recognition (NOR), social interaction (SI), and SN] paired with acute SBFI26 administration. Results showed that SBFI26 did not produce CPP or conditioned place aversion regardless of dose and did not induce any differences in locomotor and exploratory activity during CPP- or SBFI26-paired open field activity. We also observed no differences between treatment groups in NOR, SI, and SN. In conclusion, as SBFI26 was shown previously by our group to have significant analgesic and anti-inflammatory properties, here we show that it does not pose a risk of dependence or motor and cognitive impairment under the conditions tested. PMID:27092087

  17. Examination of the Addictive and Behavioral Properties of Fatty Acid-Binding Protein Inhibitor SBFI26.

    PubMed

    Thanos, Panayotis K; Clavin, Brendan H; Hamilton, John; O'Rourke, Joseph R; Maher, Thomas; Koumas, Christopher; Miao, Erick; Lankop, Jessenia; Elhage, Aya; Haj-Dahmane, Samir; Deutsch, Dale; Kaczocha, Martin

    2016-01-01

    The therapeutic properties of cannabinoids have been well demonstrated but are overshadowed by such adverse effects as cognitive and motor dysfunction, as well as their potential for addiction. Recent research on the natural lipid ligands of cannabinoid receptors, also known as endocannabinoids, has shed light on the mechanisms of intracellular transport of the endocannabinoid anandamide by fatty acid-binding proteins (FABPs) and subsequent catabolism by fatty acid amide hydrolase. These findings facilitated the recent development of SBFI26, a pharmacological inhibitor of epidermal- and brain-specific FABP5 and FABP7, which effectively increases anandamide signaling. The goal of this study was to examine this compound for any possible rewarding and addictive properties as well as effects on locomotor activity, working/recognition memory, and propensity for sociability and preference for social novelty (SN) given its recently reported anti-inflammatory and analgesic properties. Male C57BL mice were split into four treatment groups and conditioned with 5.0, 20.0, 40.0 mg/kg SBFI26, or vehicle during a conditioned place preference (CPP) paradigm. Following CPP, mice underwent a battery of behavioral tests [open field, novel object recognition (NOR), social interaction (SI), and SN] paired with acute SBFI26 administration. Results showed that SBFI26 did not produce CPP or conditioned place aversion regardless of dose and did not induce any differences in locomotor and exploratory activity during CPP- or SBFI26-paired open field activity. We also observed no differences between treatment groups in NOR, SI, and SN. In conclusion, as SBFI26 was shown previously by our group to have significant analgesic and anti-inflammatory properties, here we show that it does not pose a risk of dependence or motor and cognitive impairment under the conditions tested.

  18. Evaluation of EML4-ALK Fusion Proteins in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Using Small Molecule Inhibitors12

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yongjun; Ye, Xiaofen; Liu, Jinfeng; Zha, Jiping; Pei, Lin

    2011-01-01

    The echinoderm microtubule-associated protein-like 4-anaplastic lymphoma kinase (EML4-ALK) fusion gene resulting from an inversion within chromosome 2p occurs in approximately 5% of non-small cell lung cancer and is mutually exclusive with Ras and EGFR mutations. In this study, we have used a potent and selective ALK small molecule inhibitor, NPV-TAE684, to assess the oncogenic role of EML4-ALK in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). We show here that TAE684 inhibits proliferation and induces cell cycle arrest, apoptosis, and tumor regression in two NSCLC models that harbor EML4-ALK fusions. TAE684 inhibits EML4-ALK activation and its downstream signaling including ERK, AKT, and STAT3. We used microarray analysis to carry out targeted pathway studies of gene expression changes in H2228 NSCLC xenograft model after TAE684 treatment and identified a gene signature of EML4-ALK inhibition. The gene signature represents 1210 known human genes, and the top biologic processes represented by these genes are cell cycle, DNA synthesis, cell proliferation, and cell death. We also compared the effect of TAE684 with PF2341066, a c-Met and ALK small molecule inhibitor currently in clinical trial in cancers harboring ALK fusions, and demonstrated that TAE684 is a much more potent inhibitor of EML4-ALK. Our data demonstrate that EML4-ALK plays an important role in the pathogenesis of a subset of NSCLC and provides insight into the mechanism of EML4-ALK inhibition by a small molecule inhibitor. PMID:21245935

  19. Heat Shock Protein 90 Inhibitors Reduce Trafficking of ATP-gated P2X1 Receptors and Human Platelet Responsiveness*

    PubMed Central

    Lalo, Ulyana; Jones, Sarah; Roberts, Jonathan A.; Mahaut-Smith, Martyn P.; Evans, Richard J.

    2012-01-01

    We have used selective inhibitors to determine whether the molecular chaperone heat shock protein 90 (HSP90) has an effect on both recombinant and native human P2X1 receptors. P2X1 receptor currents in HEK293 cells were reduced by ∼70–85% by the selective HSP90 inhibitor geldanamycin (2 μm, 20 min). This was associated with a speeding in the time course of desensitization as well as a reduction in cell surface expression. Imaging in real time of photoactivatable GFP-tagged P2X receptors showed that they are highly mobile. Geldanamycin almost abolished this movement for P2X1 receptors but had no effect on P2X2 receptor trafficking. P2X1/2 receptor chimeras showed that the intracellular N and C termini were involved in geldanamycin sensitivity. Geldanamycin also inhibited native P2X1 receptor-mediated responses. Platelet P2X1 receptors play an important role in hemostasis, contribute to amplification of signaling to a range of stimuli including collagen, and are novel targets for antithrombotic therapies. Platelet P2X1 receptor-, but not P2Y1 receptor-, mediated increases in intracellular calcium were reduced by 40–45% following HSP90 inhibition with geldanamycin or radicicol. Collagen stimulation leads to ATP release from platelets, and calcium increases to low doses of collagen were also reduced by ∼40% by the HSP90 inhibitors consistent with an effect on P2X1 receptors. These studies suggest that HSP90 inhibitors may be as effective as selective antagonists in regulating platelet P2X1 receptors, and their potential effects on hemostasis should be considered in clinical studies. PMID:22851178

  20. Development of potent ALK inhibitor and its molecular inhibitory mechanism against NSCLC harboring EML4-ALK proteins

    SciTech Connect

    Kang, Chung Hyo; Yun, Jeong In; Lee, Kwangho; Lee, Chong Ock; Lee, Heung Kyoung; Yun, Chang-Soo; Hwang, Jong Yeon; Cho, Sung Yun; Jung, Heejung; Kim, Pilho; Ha, Jae Du; Jeon, Jeong Hee; Choi, Sang Un; Jeong, Hye Gwang; Kim, Hyoung Rae; Park, Chi Hoon

    2015-08-28

    Here, we show the newly synthesized and potent ALK inhibitor having similar scaffold to KRCA-0008, which was reported previously, and its molecular mechanism against cancer cells harboring EML4-ALK fusion protein. Through ALK wild type enzyme assay, we selected two compounds, KRCA-0080 and KRCA-0087, which have trifluoromethyl instead of chloride in R2 position. We characterized these newly synthesized compounds by in vitro and in vivo assays. Enzyme assay shows that KRCA-0080 is more potent against various ALK mutants, including L1196M, G1202R, T1151-L1152insT, and C1156Y, which are seen in crizotinib-resistant patients, than KRCA-0008 is. Cell based assays demonstrate our compounds downregulate the cellular signaling, such as Akt and Erk, by suppressing ALK activity to inhibit the proliferation of the cells harboring EML4-ALK. Interestingly, our compounds induced strong G1/S arrest in H3122 cells leading to the apoptosis, which is proved by PARP-1 cleavage. In vivo H3122 xenograft assay, we found that KRCA-0080 shows significant reduction in tumor size compared to crizotinib and KRCA-0008 by 15–20%. Conclusively, we report a potent ALK inhibitor which shows significant in vivo efficacy as well as excellent inhibitory activity against various ALK mutants. - Highlights: • We synthesized KRCA-0008 derivatives having trifluoromethyl instead of chloride. • KRCA-0080 shows superior activity against several ALK mutants to KRCA-0008. • Cellular assays show our ALK inhibitors suppress only EML4-ALK positive cells. • Our ALK inhibitors induce G1/S arrest to lead apoptosis in H3122 cells. • KRCA-0080 has superior in vivo efficacy to crizotinib and KRCA-0008 by 15–20%.

  1. Protein kinase C activity in boar sperm.

    PubMed

    Teijeiro, J M; Marini, P E; Bragado, M J; Garcia-Marin, L J

    2017-03-01

    Male germ cells undergo different processes within the female reproductive tract to successfully fertilize the oocyte. These processes are triggered by different extracellular stimuli leading to activation of protein phosphorylation. Protein kinase C (PKC) is a key regulatory enzyme in signal transduction mechanisms involved in many cellular processes. Studies in boar sperm demonstrated a role for PKC in the intracellular signaling involved in motility and cellular volume regulation. Experiments using phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) showed increases in the Serine/Threonine phosphorylation of substrates downstream of PKC in boar sperm. In order to gain knowledge about those cellular processes regulated by PKC, we evaluate the effects of PMA on boar sperm motility, lipid organization of plasma membrane, integrity of acrosome membrane and sperm agglutination. Also, we investigate the crosstalk between PKA and PKC intracellular pathways in spermatozoa from this species. The results presented here reveal a participation of PKC in sperm motility regulation and membrane fluidity changes, which is probably associated to acrosome reaction and to agglutination. Also, we show the existence of a hierarchy in the kinases pathway. Previous works on boar sperm suggest a pathway in which PKA is positioned upstream to PKC and this new results support such model.

  2. Activated protein C: biased for translation

    PubMed Central

    Zlokovic, Berislav V.; Mosnier, Laurent O.

    2015-01-01

    The homeostatic blood protease, activated protein C (APC), can function as (1) an antithrombotic on the basis of inactivation of clotting factors Va and VIIIa; (2) a cytoprotective on the basis of endothelial barrier stabilization and anti-inflammatory and antiapoptotic actions; and (3) a regenerative on the basis of stimulation of neurogenesis, angiogenesis, and wound healing. Pharmacologic therapies using recombinant human and murine APCs indicate that APC provides effective acute or chronic therapies for a strikingly diverse range of preclinical injury models. APC reduces the damage caused by the following: ischemia/reperfusion in brain, heart, and kidney; pulmonary, kidney, and gastrointestinal inflammation; sepsis; Ebola virus; diabetes; and total lethal body radiation. For these beneficial effects, APC alters cell signaling networks and gene expression profiles by activating protease-activated receptors 1 and 3. APC’s activation of these G protein–coupled receptors differs completely from thrombin’s activation mechanism due to biased signaling via either G proteins or β-arrestin-2. To reduce APC-associated bleeding risk, APC variants were engineered to lack >90% anticoagulant activity but retain normal cell signaling. Such a neuroprotective variant, 3K3A-APC (Lys191-193Ala), has advanced to clinical trials for ischemic stroke. A rich data set of preclinical knowledge provides a solid foundation for potential translation of APC variants to future novel therapies. PMID:25824691

  3. Fatty Acid Transport Protein-2 inhibitor Grassofermata/CB5 protects cells against lipid accumulation and toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Saini, Nipun; Black, Paul N.; Montefusco, David; DiRusso, Concetta C.

    2015-01-01

    The inhibition of the fatty acid uptake into non-adipose tissues provides an attractive target for prevention of lipotoxicity leading to obesity-associated non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and type 2 diabetes. Fatty acid transport proteins (FATPs) are bifunctional proteins involved in the uptake and activation of fatty acids by esterification with coenzyme A. Here we characterize Grassofermata/CB5, previously identified as a fatty acid uptake inhibitor directed against HsFATP2. The compound was effective in inhibiting the uptake of fatty acids in the low micro-molar range (IC50 8–11μM) and prevented palmitate-mediated lipid accumulation and cell death in cell lines that are models for intestines, liver, muscle and pancreas. In adipocytes, uptake inhibition was less effective (IC50 58μM). Inhibition was specific for long chain fatty acids and was ineffective toward medium chain fatty acids, which are transported by diffusion. Kinetic analysis of Grassofermata-dependent FA transport inhibition verified a non-competitive mechanism. By comparison with Grassofermata, several atypical antipsychotic drugs previously implicated as inhibitors of FA uptake were ineffectual. In mice Grassofermata decreased absorption of 13C-oleate demonstrating its potential as a therapeutic agent. PMID:26284975

  4. Discovery and mechanistic study of a class of protein arginine methylation inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Feng, You; Li, Mingyong; Wang, Binghe; Zheng, Yujun George

    2010-08-26

    Protein arginine methylation regulates multiple biological processes such as chromatin remodeling and RNA splicing. Malfunction of protein arginine methyltransferases (PRMTs) is correlated with many human diseases. Thus, small molecule inhibitors of protein arginine methylation are of great potential for therapeutic development. Herein, we report a type of compound that blocks PRMT1-mediated arginine methylation at micromolar potency through a unique mechanism. Most of the discovered compounds bear naphthalene and sulfonate groups and are structurally different from typical PRMT substrates, for example, histone H4 and glycine- and arginine-rich sequences. To elucidate the molecular basis of inhibition, we conducted a variety of kinetic and biophysical assays. The combined data reveal that this type of naphthyl-sulfo (NS) molecule directly targets the substrates but not PRMTs for the observed inhibition. We also found that suramin effectively inhibited PRMT1 activity. These findings about novel PRMT inhibitors and their unique inhibition mechanism provide a new way for chemical regulation of protein arginine methylation.

  5. Total synthesis and structure-activity relationship studies of a series of selective G protein inhibitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiong, Xiao-Feng; Zhang, Hang; Underwood, Christina R.; Harpsøe, Kasper; Gardella, Thomas J.; Wöldike, Mie F.; Mannstadt, Michael; Gloriam, David E.; Bräuner-Osborne, Hans; Strømgaard, Kristian

    2016-11-01

    G proteins are key mediators of G protein-coupled receptor signalling, which facilitates a plethora of important physiological processes. The cyclic depsipeptides YM-254890 and FR900359 are the only known specific inhibitors of the Gq subfamily of G proteins; however, no synthetic route has been reported previously for these complex natural products and they are not easily isolated from natural sources. Here we report the first total synthesis of YM-254890 and FR900359, as well as of two known analogues, YM-385780 and YM-385781. The versatility of the synthetic approach also enabled the design and synthesis of ten analogues, which provided the first structure-activity relationship study for this class of compounds. Pharmacological characterization of all the compounds at Gq-, Gi- and Gs-mediated signalling provided succinct information on the structural requirements for inhibition, and demonstrated that both YM-254890 and FR900359 are highly potent inhibitors of Gq signalling, with FR900359 being the most potent. These natural products and their analogues represent unique tools for explorative studies of G protein inhibition.

  6. Reduction of Factor VIII Inhibitor Titers During Immune Tolerance Induction With Recombinant Factor VIII-Fc Fusion Protein.

    PubMed

    Groomes, Charles L; Gianferante, David M; Crouch, Gary D; Parekh, Dina S; Scott, David W; Lieuw, Kenneth

    2016-05-01

    The development of inhibitors toward factor VIII (FVIII) is a common and serious complication of hemophilia A (HA) therapy. Patients with hemophilia who develop inhibitors often undergo time- and resource-intensive immune tolerance induction (ITI) protocols. We report a 15-month-old male with severe HA and a high-titer inhibitor that occurred while receiving prophylactic treatment with recombinant FVIII (rFVIII), in whom significant inhibitor titer reduction was achieved with thrice weekly infusions of a new, prolonged half-life rFVIII-Fc fusion protein product (trade name Eloctate). Further studies are warranted to explore the potential of Eloctate in ITI protocols.

  7. A novel inhibitor of apoptosis protein (IAP)-interacting protein, Vestigial-like (Vgl)-4, counteracts apoptosis-inhibitory function of IAPs by nuclear sequestration

    SciTech Connect

    Jin, Hyung-Seung; Park, Hyung-Sun; Shin, Jun-Ha; Kim, Dong-Hwan; Jun, Sung-Hun; Lee, Chang-Jun; Lee, Tae H.

    2011-09-02

    Highlights: {yields} We identified a new IAP binding protein Vgl-4. {yields} Vgl-4 is expressed mainly in the nucleus and triggers a relocalization of IAPs from the cytoplasm to the nucleus. {yields} Vgl-4-mediated IAP nuclear localization was blocked by TRAF2 coexpression. {yields} Vgl-4 suppresses the ability of IAPs to prevent cell death, however TRAF2 can revere the effect of Vgl-4. {yields} Vgl-4 functions as an IAP regulator by binding to IAPs and altering their sub-cellular localization. -- Abstract: The inhibitors of apoptosis proteins (IAP), which include cIAP1, cIAP2 and XIAP, suppress apoptosis through the inhibition of caspases, and the activity of IAPs is regulated by a variety of IAP-binding proteins. Herein, we report the identification of a Vestigial-like 4 (Vgl-4), which functions as a transcription cofactor in cardiac myocytes, as a new IAP binding protein. Vgl-4 is expressed predominantly in the nucleus and its overexpression triggers a relocalization of IAPs from the cytoplasm to the nucleus. cIAP1/2-interacting protein TRAF2 (TNF receptor-associated factor 2) prevented the Vgl-4-driven nuclear localization of cIAP2. Accordingly, the forced relocation of IAPs to the nucleus by Vgl-4 significantly reduced their ability to prevent Bax- and TNF{alpha}-induced apoptosis, which can be recovered by co-expression with TRAF2. Our results suggest that Vgl-4 may play a role in the apoptotic pathways by regulating translocation of IAPs between different cell compartments.

  8. Endothelial protein C receptor-dependent antichemotactic effects of canine protein C.

    PubMed

    Wong, Valerie M; Côté, Olivier; Bienzle, Dorothee; Hayes, M Anthony; Wood, R Darren

    2017-02-01

    OBJECTIVE To determine whether canine protein C (CnPC) had antichemotactic effects on canine neutrophils, whether endothelial protein C receptor (EPCR) was expressed on canine neutrophils, and the role of EPCR in neutrophil chemotaxis. SAMPLE Neutrophils isolated from blood samples from healthy dogs (n = 6) and sick dogs with (2) or without (3) an inflammatory leukogram. PROCEDURES Neutrophils were analyzed by reverse transcriptase PCR assay and flow cytometry for detection of EPCR mRNA and protein expression, respectively. Neutrophils were incubated with CnPC zymogen or canine activated protein C (CnAPC), with or without RCR-379 (an anti-human EPCR antibody). Neutrophils were then allowed to migrate through a filter membrane toward a chemokine. Untreated neutrophils served as positive control samples. Migration was quantified by fluorescence measurement, and chemotaxis index (Chx) values (fluorescence of test sample/fluorescence of positive control sample) were computed. RESULTS The cDNA for EPCR was amplified, and EPCR expression was detected on neutrophil surfaces. Obtained Chx values were significantly higher in cells treated with RCR-379 than in cells treated with CnPC or CnAPC alone. The Chx values for neutrophils treated with RCR-379 were not significantly different from 1, whereas those for neutrophils treated without RCR-379 were significantly less than 1. The effects of RCR-379 on neutrophil migration were independent of concentration or activation status of protein C. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Canine neutrophils expressed EPCR, and inhibition of neutrophil chemotaxis by CnPC and CnAPC depended on EPCR. Interventions with EPCR signaling may have therapeut