Science.gov

Sample records for protein complex connectivity

  1. Characterization of known protein complexes using k-connectivity and other topological measures

    PubMed Central

    Gallagher, Suzanne R; Goldberg, Debra S

    2015-01-01

    Many protein complexes are densely packed, so proteins within complexes often interact with several other proteins in the complex. Steric constraints prevent most proteins from simultaneously binding more than a handful of other proteins, regardless of the number of proteins in the complex. Because of this, as complex size increases, several measures of the complex decrease within protein-protein interaction networks. However, k-connectivity, the number of vertices or edges that need to be removed in order to disconnect a graph, may be consistently high for protein complexes. The property of k-connectivity has been little used previously in the investigation of protein-protein interactions. To understand the discriminative power of k-connectivity and other topological measures for identifying unknown protein complexes, we characterized these properties in known Saccharomyces cerevisiae protein complexes in networks generated both from highly accurate X-ray crystallography experiments which give an accurate model of each complex, and also as the complexes appear in high-throughput yeast 2-hybrid studies in which new complexes may be discovered. We also computed these properties for appropriate random subgraphs.We found that clustering coefficient, mutual clustering coefficient, and k-connectivity are better indicators of known protein complexes than edge density, degree, or betweenness. This suggests new directions for future protein complex-finding algorithms. PMID:26913183

  2. Proteins Connecting the Nuclear Pore Complex with the Nuclear Interior

    PubMed Central

    Strambio-de-Castillia, Caterina; Blobel, Günter; Rout, Michael P.

    1999-01-01

    While much has been learned in recent years about the movement of soluble transport factors across the nuclear pore complex (NPC), comparatively little is known about intranuclear trafficking. We isolated the previously identified Saccharomyces protein Mlp1p (myosin-like protein) by an assay designed to find nuclear envelope (NE) associated proteins that are not nucleoporins. We localized both Mlp1p and a closely related protein that we termed Mlp2p to filamentous structures stretching from the nucleoplasmic face of the NE into the nucleoplasm, similar to the homologous vertebrate and Drosophila Tpr proteins. Mlp1p can be imported into the nucleus by virtue of a nuclear localization sequence (NLS) within its COOH-terminal domain. Overexpression experiments indicate that Mlp1p can form large structures within the nucleus which exclude chromatin but appear highly permeable to proteins. Remarkably, cells harboring a double deletion of MLP1 and MLP2 were viable, although they showed a slower net rate of active nuclear import and faster passive efflux of a reporter protein. Our data indicate that the Tpr homologues are not merely NPC-associated proteins but that they can be part of NPC-independent, peripheral intranuclear structures. In addition, we suggest that the Tpr filaments could provide chromatin-free conduits or tracks to guide the efficient translocation of macromolecules between the nucleoplasm and the NPC. PMID:10085285

  3. A novel protein complex identification algorithm based on Connected Affinity Clique Extension (CACE).

    PubMed

    Li, Peng; He, Tingting; Hu, Xiaohua; Zhao, Junmin; Shen, Xianjun; Zhang, Ming; Wang, Yan

    2014-06-01

    A novel algorithm based on Connected Affinity Clique Extension (CACE) for mining overlapping functional modules in protein interaction network is proposed in this paper. In this approach, the value of protein connected affinity which is inferred from protein complexes is interpreted as the reliability and possibility of interaction. The protein interaction network is constructed as a weighted graph, and the weight is dependent on the connected affinity coefficient. The experimental results of our CACE in two test data sets show that the CACE can detect the functional modules much more effectively and accurately when compared with other state-of-art algorithms CPM and IPC-MCE.

  4. Determining Protein Complex Connectivity Using a Probabilistic Deletion Network Derived from Quantitative Proteomics

    PubMed Central

    Sardiu, Mihaela E.; Gilmore, Joshua M.; Carrozza, Michael J.; Li, Bing; Workman, Jerry L.; Florens, Laurence; Washburn, Michael P.

    2009-01-01

    Protein complexes are key molecular machines executing a variety of essential cellular processes. Despite the availability of genome-wide protein-protein interaction studies, determining the connectivity between proteins within a complex remains a major challenge. Here we demonstrate a method that is able to predict the relationship of proteins within a stable protein complex. We employed a combination of computational approaches and a systematic collection of quantitative proteomics data from wild-type and deletion strain purifications to build a quantitative deletion-interaction network map and subsequently convert the resulting data into an interdependency-interaction model of a complex. We applied this approach to a data set generated from components of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae Rpd3 histone deacetylase complexes, which consists of two distinct small and large complexes that are held together by a module consisting of Rpd3, Sin3 and Ume1. The resulting representation reveals new protein-protein interactions and new submodule relationships, providing novel information for mapping the functional organization of a complex. PMID:19806189

  5. Protein domain connectivity and essentiality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da F. Costa, L.; Rodrigues, F. A.; Travieso, G.

    2006-10-01

    Protein-protein interactions can be properly modeled as scale-free complex networks, while the lethality of proteins has been correlated with the node degrees, therefore defining a lethality-centrality rule. In this work the authors revisit this relevant problem by focusing attention not on proteins as a whole, but on their functional domains, which are ultimately responsible for their binding potential. Four networks are considered: the original protein-protein interaction network, its randomized version, and two domain networks assuming different lethality hypotheses. By using formal statistical analysis, they show that the correlation between connectivity and essentiality is higher for domains than for proteins.

  6. Mining Temporal Protein Complex Based on the Dynamic PIN Weighted with Connected Affinity and Gene Co-Expression.

    PubMed

    Shen, Xianjun; Yi, Li; Jiang, Xingpeng; He, Tingting; Hu, Xiaohua; Yang, Jincai

    2016-01-01

    The identification of temporal protein complexes would make great contribution to our knowledge of the dynamic organization characteristics in protein interaction networks (PINs). Recent studies have focused on integrating gene expression data into static PIN to construct dynamic PIN which reveals the dynamic evolutionary procedure of protein interactions, but they fail in practice for recognizing the active time points of proteins with low or high expression levels. We construct a Time-Evolving PIN (TEPIN) with a novel method called Deviation Degree, which is designed to identify the active time points of proteins based on the deviation degree of their own expression values. Owing to the differences between protein interactions, moreover, we weight TEPIN with connected affinity and gene co-expression to quantify the degree of these interactions. To validate the efficiencies of our methods, ClusterONE, CAMSE and MCL algorithms are applied on the TEPIN, DPIN (a dynamic PIN constructed with state-of-the-art three-sigma method) and SPIN (the original static PIN) to detect temporal protein complexes. Each algorithm on our TEPIN outperforms that on other networks in terms of match degree, sensitivity, specificity, F-measure and function enrichment etc. In conclusion, our Deviation Degree method successfully eliminates the disadvantages which exist in the previous state-of-the-art dynamic PIN construction methods. Moreover, the biological nature of protein interactions can be well described in our weighted network. Weighted TEPIN is a useful approach for detecting temporal protein complexes and revealing the dynamic protein assembly process for cellular organization.

  7. Two alternative binding mechanisms connect the protein translocation Sec71-Sec72 complex with heat shock proteins.

    PubMed

    Tripathi, Arati; Mandon, Elisabet C; Gilmore, Reid; Rapoport, Tom A

    2017-05-12

    The biosynthesis of many eukaryotic proteins requires accurate targeting to and translocation across the endoplasmic reticulum membrane. Post-translational protein translocation in yeast requires both the Sec61 translocation channel, and a complex of four additional proteins: Sec63, Sec62, Sec71, and Sec72. The structure and function of these proteins are largely unknown. This pathway also requires the cytosolic Hsp70 protein Ssa1, but whether Ssa1 associates with the translocation machinery to target protein substrates to the membrane is unclear. Here, we use a combined structural and biochemical approach to explore the role of Sec71-Sec72 subcomplex in post-translational protein translocation. To this end, we report a crystal structure of the Sec71-Sec72 complex, which revealed that Sec72 contains a tetratricopeptide repeat (TPR) domain that is anchored to the endoplasmic reticulum membrane by Sec71. We also determined the crystal structure of this TPR domain with a C-terminal peptide derived from Ssa1, which suggests how Sec72 interacts with full-length Ssa1. Surprisingly, Ssb1, a cytoplasmic Hsp70 that binds ribosome-associated nascent polypeptide chains, also binds to the TPR domain of Sec72, even though it lacks the TPR-binding C-terminal residues of Ssa1. We demonstrate that Ssb1 binds through its ATPase domain to the TPR domain, an interaction that leads to inhibition of nucleotide exchange. Taken together, our results suggest that translocation substrates can be recruited to the Sec71-Sec72 complex either post-translationally through Ssa1 or co-translationally through Ssb1. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  8. Heterochromatin protein 1 (HP1) connects the FACT histone chaperone complex to the phosphorylated CTD of RNA polymerase II

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, So Hee; Florens, Laurence; Swanson, Selene K.; Washburn, Michael P.; Abmayr, Susan M.; Workman, Jerry L.

    2010-01-01

    Heterochromatin protein 1 (HP1) is well known as a silencing protein found at pericentric heterochromatin. Most eukaryotes have at least three isoforms of HP1 that play differential roles in heterochromatin and euchromatin. In addition to its role in heterochromatin, HP1 proteins have been shown to function in transcription elongation. To gain insights into the transcription functions of HP1, we sought to identify novel HP1-interacting proteins. Biochemical and proteomic approaches revealed that HP1 interacts with the histone chaperone complex FACT (facilitates chromatin transcription). HP1c interacts with the SSRP1 (structure-specific recognition protein 1) subunit and the intact FACT complex. Moreover, HP1c guides the recruitment of FACT to active genes and links FACT to active forms of RNA polymerase II. The absence of HP1c partially impairs the recruitment of FACT into heat-shock loci and causes a defect in heat-shock gene expression. Thus, HP1c functions to recruit the FACT complex to RNA polymerase II. PMID:20889714

  9. The VASCULATURE COMPLEXITY AND CONNECTIVITY Gene Encodes a Plant-Specific Protein Required for Embryo Provasculature Development1[C][W][OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Roschzttardtz, Hannetz; Paez-Valencia, Julio; Dittakavi, Tejaswi; Jali, Sathya; Reyes, Francisca C.; Baisa, Gary; Anne, Pauline; Gissot, Lionel; Palauqui, Jean-Christophe; Masson, Patrick H.; Bednarek, Sebastian Y.; Otegui, Marisa S.

    2014-01-01

    The molecular mechanisms by which vascular tissues acquire their identities are largely unknown. Here, we report on the identification and characterization of VASCULATURE COMPLEXITY AND CONNECTIVITY (VCC), a member of a 15-member, plant-specific gene family in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) that encodes proteins of unknown function with four predicted transmembrane domains. Homozygous vcc mutants displayed cotyledon vein networks of reduced complexity and disconnected veins. Similar disconnections or gaps were observed in the provasculature of vcc embryos, indicating that defects in vein connectivity appear early in mutant embryo development. Consistently, the overexpression of VCC leads to an unusually high proportion of cotyledons with high-complexity vein networks. Neither auxin distribution nor the polar localization of the auxin efflux carrier were affected in vcc mutant embryos. Expression of VCC was detected in developing embryos and procambial, cambial, and vascular cells of cotyledons, leaves, roots, hypocotyls, and anthers. To evaluate possible genetic interactions with other genes that control vasculature patterning in embryos, we generated a double mutant for VCC and OCTOPUS (OPS). The vcc ops double mutant embryos showed a complete loss of high-complexity vascular networks in cotyledons and a drastic increase in both provascular and vascular disconnections. In addition, VCC and OPS interact physically, suggesting that VCC and OPS are part of a complex that controls cotyledon vascular complexity. PMID:25149602

  10. Protein Complexes in Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Caufield, J. Harry; Abreu, Marco; Wimble, Christopher; Uetz, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Large-scale analyses of protein complexes have recently become available for Escherichia coli and Mycoplasma pneumoniae, yielding 443 and 116 heteromultimeric soluble protein complexes, respectively. We have coupled the results of these mass spectrometry-characterized protein complexes with the 285 “gold standard” protein complexes identified by EcoCyc. A comparison with databases of gene orthology, conservation, and essentiality identified proteins conserved or lost in complexes of other species. For instance, of 285 “gold standard” protein complexes in E. coli, less than 10% are fully conserved among a set of 7 distantly-related bacterial “model” species. Complex conservation follows one of three models: well-conserved complexes, complexes with a conserved core, and complexes with partial conservation but no conserved core. Expanding the comparison to 894 distinct bacterial genomes illustrates fractional conservation and the limits of co-conservation among components of protein complexes: just 14 out of 285 model protein complexes are perfectly conserved across 95% of the genomes used, yet we predict more than 180 may be partially conserved across at least half of the genomes. No clear relationship between gene essentiality and protein complex conservation is observed, as even poorly conserved complexes contain a significant number of essential proteins. Finally, we identify 183 complexes containing well-conserved components and uncharacterized proteins which will be interesting targets for future experimental studies. PMID:25723151

  11. Refining the Structural Model of a Heterohexameric Protein Complex: Surface Induced Dissociation and Ion Mobility Provide Key Connectivity and Topology Information

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Toyocamycin nitrile hydratase (TNH) is a protein hexamer that catalyzes the hydration of toyocamycin to produce sangivamycin. The structure of hexameric TNH and the arrangement of subunits within the complex, however, have not been solved by NMR or X-ray crystallography. Native mass spectrometry (MS) clearly shows that TNH is composed of two copies each of the α, β, and γ subunits. Previous surface induced dissociation (SID) tandem mass spectrometry on a quadrupole time-of-flight (QTOF) platform suggests that the TNH hexamer is a dimer composed of two αβγ trimers; furthermore, the results suggest that α–β interact most strongly (Blackwell et al. Anal. Chem. 2011, 83, 2862–286521417466). Here, multiple complementary MS based approaches and homology modeling have been applied to refine the structure of TNH. Solution-phase organic solvent disruption coupled with native MS agrees with the previous SID results. By coupling surface induced dissociation with ion mobility mass spectrometry (SID/IM), further information on the intersubunit contacts and relative interfacial strengths are obtained. The results show that TNH is a dimer of αβγ trimers, that within the trimer the α, β subunits bind most strongly, and that the primary contact between the two trimers is through a γ–γ interface. Collisional cross sections (CCSs) measured from IM experiments are used as constraints for postulating the arrangement of the subunits represented by coarse-grained spheres. Covalent labeling (surface mapping) together with protein complex homology modeling and docking of trimers to form hexamer are utilized with all the above information to propose the likely quaternary structure of TNH, with chemical cross-linking providing cross-links consistent with the proposed structure. The novel feature of this approach is the use of SID-MS with ion mobility to define complete connectivity and relative interfacial areas of a heterohexameric protein complex, providing much more

  12. Pigment-protein complexes

    SciTech Connect

    Siegelman, H W

    1980-01-01

    The photosynthetically-active pigment protein complexes of procaryotes and eucaryotes include chlorophyll proteins, carotenochlorophyll proteins, and biliproteins. They are either integral components or attached to photosynthetic membranes. Detergents are frequently required to solubilize the pigment-protein complexes. The membrane localization and detergent solubilization strongly suggest that the pigment-protein complexes are bound to the membranes by hydrophobic interactions. Hydrophobic interactions of proteins are characterized by an increase in entropy. Their bonding energy is directly related to temperature and ionic strength. Hydrophobic-interaction chromatography, a relatively new separation procedure, can furnish an important method for the purification of pigment-protein complexes. Phycobilisome purification and properties provide an example of the need to maintain hydrophobic interactions to preserve structure and function.

  13. Connected Worlds: Connecting the public with complex environmental systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uzzo, S. M.; Chen, R. S.; Downs, R. R.

    2016-12-01

    Among the most important concepts in environmental science learning is the structure and dynamics of coupled human and natural systems (CHANS). But the fundamental epistemology for understanding CHANS requires systems thinking, interdisciplinarity, and complexity. Although the Next Generation Science Standards mandate connecting ideas across disciplines and systems, traditional approaches to education do not provide more than superficial understanding of this concept. Informal science learning institutions have a key role in bridging gaps between the reductive nature of classroom learning and contemporary data-driven science. The New York Hall of Science, in partnership with Design I/O and Columbia University's Center for International Earth Science Information Network, has developed an approach to immerse visitors in complex human nature interactions and provide opportunities for those of all ages to elicit and notice environmental consequences of their actions. Connected Worlds is a nearly 1,000 m2 immersive, playful environment in which students learn about complexity and interconnectedness in ecosystems and how ecosystems might respond to human intervention. It engages students through direct interactions with fanciful flora and fauna within and among six biomes: desert, rainforest, grassland, mountain valley, reservoir, and wetlands, which are interconnected through stocks and flows of water. Through gestures and the manipulation of a dynamic water system, Connected Worlds enables students, teachers, and parents to experience how the ecosystems of planet Earth are connected and to observe relationships between the behavior of Earth's inhabitants and our shared world. It is also a cyberlearning platform to study how visitors notice and scaffold their understanding of complex environmental processes and the responses of these processes to human intervention, to help inform the improvement of education practices in complex environmental science.

  14. Making the Chromosome-Gene-Protein Connection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulvihill, Charlotte

    1996-01-01

    Presents an exercise that demonstrates the chromosome-gene-protein connection using sickle-cell anemia, a genetic disease with a well-characterized molecular basis. Involves connecting changes in DNA to protein outcomes and tying them into the next generation by meiosis and gamete formation with genetic crosses. Motivates students to integrate…

  15. Making the Chromosome-Gene-Protein Connection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulvihill, Charlotte

    1996-01-01

    Presents an exercise that demonstrates the chromosome-gene-protein connection using sickle-cell anemia, a genetic disease with a well-characterized molecular basis. Involves connecting changes in DNA to protein outcomes and tying them into the next generation by meiosis and gamete formation with genetic crosses. Motivates students to integrate…

  16. Complexity, Connections, and Soul-Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bloch, Deborah P.

    2008-01-01

    Organizational theory and personal behaviors are both shaped by contemporary thinking and theories regarding spirituality, history, and the order, shape, and direction of modern culture. Complexity theory, discussed in this article, offers some helpful insights into appreciating the relationships and connections often overlooked in today's…

  17. Temporal connectivity in a prairie pothole complex

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Leibowitz, S.G.; Vining, K.C.

    2003-01-01

    A number of studies have noted the occurrence of intermittent surface-water connections between depressional wetlands in general and prairie potholes in particular. Yet, the ecological implications of such connections remain largely unexplored. In 1995, we observed spillage into and out of a North Dakota wetland during two field visits. Between May 3 and May 26, there was a positive relationship between specific conductance and water level at this site, suggesting an external source of dissolved ions. We estimated that specific conductance may have increased at the site by as much as 614 ??S cm-1 due to spillage from the upslope wetland. Based on a spatial analysis that compared National Wetlands Inventory maps with 1996 color infrared imagery, we estimated that 28% of the area's wetlands had a temporary surface water connection to at least one other wetland at that time, including one complex of 14 interconnected wetlands. These results indicate that the connectivity observed in 1995 was not confined to the two wetlands nor to that single year. The degree of connectivity we observed would be expected to occur during the wetter portions of the region's 20-year wet-dry cycle. We hypothesize that intermittent surface-water connections between wetlands occur throughout the prairie pothole region. Given patterns in relief and precipitation, these connections most likely would have occurred in the eastern portion of the prairie pothole region. However, wetland drainage may have altered historical patterns. The implication of these spatial and temporal trends is that surface-water connections between depressional wetlands should be viewed as a probability event that has some distribution over time and space. We refer to connections that are impermanent, temporally discontinuous, or sporadic as temporal connectivity. The most intriguing feature of these temporary connections may be that they could affect biodiversity or population dynamics through transport of individuals

  18. Criticality and Connectivity in Macromolecular Charge Complexation

    SciTech Connect

    Qin, Jian; de Pablo, Juan J.

    2016-11-04

    We examine the role of molecular connectivity and architecture on the complexation of ionic macromolecules (polyelectrolytes) of finite size. A unified framework is developed and applied to evaluate the electrostatic correlation free energy for point-like, rod-like, and coil-like molecules. That framework is generalized to molecules of variable fractal dimensions, including dendrimers. Analytical expressions for the free energy, correlation length, and osmotic pressure are derived, thereby enabling consideration of the effects of charge connectivity, fractal dimension, and backbone stiffness on the complexation behavior of a wide range of polyelectrolytes. Results are presented for regions in the immediate vicinity of the critical region and far from it. A transparent and explicit expression for the coexistence curve is derived in order to facilitate analysis of experimentally observed phase diagrams.

  19. Proteins : paradigms of complexity /

    SciTech Connect

    Frauenfelder, Hans,

    2001-01-01

    Proteins are the working machines of living systems. Directed by the DNA, of the order of a few hundred building blocks, selected from twenty different amino acids, are covalently linked into a linear polypeptide chain. In the proper environment, the chain folds into the working protein, often a globule of linear dimensions of a few nanometers. The biologist considers proteins units from which living systems are built. Many physical scientists look at them as systems in which the laws of complexity can be studied better than anywhere else. Some of the results of such studies will be sketched.

  20. Interaction graph mining for protein complexes using local clique merging.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiao-Li; Tan, Soon-Heng; Foo, Chuan-Sheng; Ng, See-Kiong

    2005-01-01

    While recent technological advances have made available large datasets of experimentally-detected pairwise protein-protein interactions, there is still a lack of experimentally-determined protein complex data. To make up for this lack of protein complex data, we explore the mining of existing protein interaction graphs for protein complexes. This paper proposes a novel graph mining algorithm to detect the dense neighborhoods (highly connected regions) in an interaction graph which may correspond to protein complexes. Our algorithm first locates local cliques for each graph vertex (protein) and then merge the detected local cliques according to their affinity to form maximal dense regions. We present experimental results with yeast protein interaction data to demonstrate the effectiveness of our proposed method. Compared with other existing techniques, our predicted complexes can match or overlap significantly better with the known protein complexes in the MIPS benchmark database. Novel protein complexes were also predicted to help biologists in their search for new protein complexes.

  1. Length, protein protein interactions, and complexity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Taison; Frenkel, Daan; Gupta, Vishal; Deem, Michael W.

    2005-05-01

    The evolutionary reason for the increase in gene length from archaea to prokaryotes to eukaryotes observed in large-scale genome sequencing efforts has been unclear. We propose here that the increasing complexity of protein-protein interactions has driven the selection of longer proteins, as they are more able to distinguish among a larger number of distinct interactions due to their greater average surface area. Annotated protein sequences available from the SWISS-PROT database were analyzed for 13 eukaryotes, eight bacteria, and two archaea species. The number of subcellular locations to which each protein is associated is used as a measure of the number of interactions to which a protein participates. Two databases of yeast protein-protein interactions were used as another measure of the number of interactions to which each S. cerevisiae protein participates. Protein length is shown to correlate with both number of subcellular locations to which a protein is associated and number of interactions as measured by yeast two-hybrid experiments. Protein length is also shown to correlate with the probability that the protein is encoded by an essential gene. Interestingly, average protein length and number of subcellular locations are not significantly different between all human proteins and protein targets of known, marketed drugs. Increased protein length appears to be a significant mechanism by which the increasing complexity of protein-protein interaction networks is accommodated within the natural evolution of species. Consideration of protein length may be a valuable tool in drug design, one that predicts different strategies for inhibiting interactions in aberrant and normal pathways.

  2. Proteins, fluctuations and complexity

    SciTech Connect

    Frauenfelder, Hans; Chen, Guo; Fenimore, Paul W

    2008-01-01

    Glasses, supercooled liquids, and proteins share common properties, in particular the existence of two different types of fluctuations, {alpha} and {beta}. While the effect of the {alpha} fluctuations on proteins has been known for a few years, the effect of {beta} fluctuations has not been understood. By comparing neutron scattering data on the protein myoglobin with the {beta} fluctuations in the hydration shell measured by dielectric spectroscopy we show that the internal protein motions are slaved to these fluctuations. We also show that there is no 'dynamic transition' in proteins near 200 K. The rapid increase in the mean square displacement with temperature in many neutron scattering experiments is quantitatively predicted by the {beta} fluctuations in the hydration shell.

  3. Connection of Protein Transport and Organelle Contact Sites in Mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Ellenrieder, Lars; Rampelt, Heike; Becker, Thomas

    2017-07-07

    Mitochondrial biogenesis and function depend on the intensive exchange of molecules with other cellular compartments. The mitochondrial outer membrane plays a central role in this communication process. It is equipped with a number of specific protein machineries that enable the transport of proteins and metabolites. Furthermore, the outer membrane forms molecular contact sites with other cell organelles like the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), thus integrating mitochondrial function in cellular physiology. The best-studied mitochondrial organelle contact site, the ER-mitochondria encounter structure (ERMES) has been linked to many vital processes including mitochondrial division, inheritance, mitophagy, and phospholipid transport. Strikingly, ER-mitochondria contact sites are closely connected to outer membrane protein translocases. The translocase of the outer mitochondrial membrane (TOM) represents the general mitochondrial entry gate for precursor proteins that are synthesized on cytosolic ribosomes. The outer membrane also harbors the sorting and assembly machinery (SAM) that mediates membrane insertion of β-barrel proteins. Both of these essential protein translocases are functionally linked to ER-mitochondria contact sites. First, the SAM complex associates with an ERMES core component to promote assembly of the TOM complex. Second, several TOM components have been co-opted as ER-mitochondria tethers. We propose that protein import and organelle contact sites are linked to coordinate processes important for mitochondrial biogenesis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Humic acid protein complexation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, W. F.; Koopal, L. K.; Weng, L. P.; van Riemsdijk, W. H.; Norde, W.

    2008-04-01

    Interactions of purified Aldrich humic acid (PAHA) with lysozyme (LSZ) are investigated. In solution LSZ is moderately positively and PAHA negatively charged at the investigated pH values. The proton binding of PAHA and of LSZ is determined by potentiometric proton titrations at various KCl concentrations. It is also measured for two mixtures of PAHA-LSZ and compared with theoretically calculated proton binding assuming no mutual interaction. The charge adaptation due to PAHA-LSZ interaction is relatively small and only significant at low and high pH. Next to the proton binding, the mass ratio PAHA/LSZ at the iso-electric point (IEP) of the complex at given solution conditions is measured together with the pH using the Mütek particle charge detector. From the pH changes the charge adaptation due to the interaction can be found. Also these measurements show that the net charge adaptation is weak for PAHA-LSZ complexes at their IEP. PAHA/LSZ mass ratios in the complexes at the IEP are measured at pH 5 and 7. At pH 5 and 50 mmol/L KCl the charge of the complex is compensated for 30-40% by K +; at pH 7, where LSZ has a rather low positive charge, this is 45-55%. At pH 5 and 5 mmol/L KCl the PAHA/LSZ mass ratio at the IEP of the complex depends on the order of addition. When LSZ is added to PAHA about 25% K + is included in the complex, but no K + is incorporated when PAHA is added to LSZ. The flocculation behavior of the complexes is also different. After LSZ addition to PAHA slow precipitation occurs (6-24 h) in the IEP, but after addition of PAHA to LSZ no precipitation can be seen after 12 h. Clearly, PAHA/LSZ complexation and the colloidal stability of PAHA-LSZ aggregates depend on the order of addition. Some implications of the observed behavior are discussed.

  5. Food web complexity and stability across habitat connectivity gradients.

    PubMed

    LeCraw, Robin M; Kratina, Pavel; Srivastava, Diane S

    2014-12-01

    The effects of habitat connectivity on food webs have been studied both empirically and theoretically, yet the question of whether empirical results support theoretical predictions for any food web metric other than species richness has received little attention. Our synthesis brings together theory and empirical evidence for how habitat connectivity affects both food web stability and complexity. Food web stability is often predicted to be greatest at intermediate levels of connectivity, representing a compromise between the stabilizing effects of dispersal via rescue effects and prey switching, and the destabilizing effects of dispersal via regional synchronization of population dynamics. Empirical studies of food web stability generally support both this pattern and underlying mechanisms. Food chain length has been predicted to have both increasing and unimodal relationships with connectivity as a result of predators being constrained by the patch occupancy of their prey. Although both patterns have been documented empirically, the underlying mechanisms may differ from those predicted by models. In terms of other measures of food web complexity, habitat connectivity has been empirically found to generally increase link density but either reduce or have no effect on connectance, whereas a unimodal relationship is expected. In general, there is growing concordance between empirical patterns and theoretical predictions for some effects of habitat connectivity on food webs, but many predictions remain to be tested over a full connectivity gradient, and empirical metrics of complexity are rarely modeled. Closing these gaps will allow a deeper understanding of how natural and anthropogenic changes in connectivity can affect real food webs.

  6. Modeling complexes of modeled proteins.

    PubMed

    Anishchenko, Ivan; Kundrotas, Petras J; Vakser, Ilya A

    2017-03-01

    Structural characterization of proteins is essential for understanding life processes at the molecular level. However, only a fraction of known proteins have experimentally determined structures. This fraction is even smaller for protein-protein complexes. Thus, structural modeling of protein-protein interactions (docking) primarily has to rely on modeled structures of the individual proteins, which typically are less accurate than the experimentally determined ones. Such "double" modeling is the Grand Challenge of structural reconstruction of the interactome. Yet it remains so far largely untested in a systematic way. We present a comprehensive validation of template-based and free docking on a set of 165 complexes, where each protein model has six levels of structural accuracy, from 1 to 6 Å C(α) RMSD. Many template-based docking predictions fall into acceptable quality category, according to the CAPRI criteria, even for highly inaccurate proteins (5-6 Å RMSD), although the number of such models (and, consequently, the docking success rate) drops significantly for models with RMSD > 4 Å. The results show that the existing docking methodologies can be successfully applied to protein models with a broad range of structural accuracy, and the template-based docking is much less sensitive to inaccuracies of protein models than the free docking. Proteins 2017; 85:470-478. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Connectivity and complex systems in geomorphology: addressing some key challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pöppl, Ronald; Turnbull-Lloyd, Laura; Parsons, Anthony; Bracken, Louise; Keesstra, Saskia; Masselink, Rens

    2016-04-01

    "Connectivity thinking" and related concepts have a long history in geomorphology. Since the beginning of the 21st century connectivity research experienced a huge boom in geomorphology as geomorphologists started to develop new concepts on connectivity to better understand the complexity of geomorphic systems and system response to change. However, progress in the field of connectivity in geomorphology has mostly been developing in a parallel manner, resulting in a multiplicity of definitions, concepts and methodological approaches. Nevertheless, a set of common key challenges amongst the different connectivity concepts and approaches used to understand complex geomorphic systems are also evident. In the course of a theory think tank of the COST Action ES1306 (CONNECTEUR - Connecting European Connectivity Research) the following five different key challenges were detected (Turnbull et al., in prep.): (i) defining the fundamental unit, (ii) distinguishing between structural and functional boundaries, (iii) emergent behavior, (iv) memory effects, (v) measuring connectivity. In this presentation we will a) discuss how these key challenges are addressed and approached in connectivity research in geomorphology, b) evaluate ways in which cross-disciplinary advances may be made by exploring potential for a common toolbox approach to the study of connectivity.

  8. Decreased cerebellar-cerebral connectivity contributes to complex task performance

    PubMed Central

    Knops, André

    2016-01-01

    The cerebellum's role in nonmotor processes is now well accepted, but cerebellar interaction with cerebral targets is not well understood. Complex cognitive tasks activate cerebellar, parietal, and frontal regions, but the effective connectivity between these regions has never been tested. To this end, we used psycho-physiological interactions (PPI) analysis to test connectivity changes of cerebellar and parietal seed regions in complex (2-digit by 1-digit multiplication, e.g., 12 × 3) vs. simple (1-digit by 1-digit multiplication, e.g., 4 × 3) task conditions (“complex − simple”). For cerebellar seed regions (lobule VI, hemisphere and vermis), we found significantly decreased cerebellar-parietal, cerebellar-cingulate, and cerebellar-frontal connectivity in complex multiplication. For parietal seed regions (PFcm, PFop, PFm) we found significantly increased parietal-parietal and parietal-frontal connectivity in complex multiplication. These results suggest that decreased cerebellar-cerebral connectivity contributes to complex task performance. Interestingly, BOLD activity contrasts revealed partially overlapping parietal areas of increased BOLD activity but decreased cerebellar-parietal PPI connectivity. PMID:27334957

  9. PCDq: human protein complex database with quality index which summarizes different levels of evidences of protein complexes predicted from h-invitational protein-protein interactions integrative dataset.

    PubMed

    Kikugawa, Shingo; Nishikata, Kensaku; Murakami, Katsuhiko; Sato, Yoshiharu; Suzuki, Mami; Altaf-Ul-Amin, Md; Kanaya, Shigehiko; Imanishi, Tadashi

    2012-01-01

    Proteins interact with other proteins or biomolecules in complexes to perform cellular functions. Existing protein-protein interaction (PPI) databases and protein complex databases for human proteins are not organized to provide protein complex information or facilitate the discovery of novel subunits. Data integration of PPIs focused specifically on protein complexes, subunits, and their functions. Predicted candidate complexes or subunits are also important for experimental biologists. Based on integrated PPI data and literature, we have developed a human protein complex database with a complex quality index (PCDq), which includes both known and predicted complexes and subunits. We integrated six PPI data (BIND, DIP, MINT, HPRD, IntAct, and GNP_Y2H), and predicted human protein complexes by finding densely connected regions in the PPI networks. They were curated with the literature so that missing proteins were complemented and some complexes were merged, resulting in 1,264 complexes comprising 9,268 proteins with 32,198 PPIs. The evidence level of each subunit was assigned as a categorical variable. This indicated whether it was a known subunit, and a specific function was inferable from sequence or network analysis. To summarize the categories of all the subunits in a complex, we devised a complex quality index (CQI) and assigned it to each complex. We examined the proportion of consistency of Gene Ontology (GO) terms among protein subunits of a complex. Next, we compared the expression profiles of the corresponding genes and found that many proteins in larger complexes tend to be expressed cooperatively at the transcript level. The proportion of duplicated genes in a complex was evaluated. Finally, we identified 78 hypothetical proteins that were annotated as subunits of 82 complexes, which included known complexes. Of these hypothetical proteins, after our prediction had been made, four were reported to be actual subunits of the assigned protein complexes. We

  10. Connectivity independent protein-structure alignment: a hierarchical approach

    PubMed Central

    Kolbeck, Bjoern; May, Patrick; Schmidt-Goenner, Tobias; Steinke, Thomas; Knapp, Ernst-Walter

    2006-01-01

    Background Protein-structure alignment is a fundamental tool to study protein function, evolution and model building. In the last decade several methods for structure alignment were introduced, but most of them ignore that structurally similar proteins can share the same spatial arrangement of secondary structure elements (SSE) but differ in the underlying polypeptide chain connectivity (non-sequential SSE connectivity). Results We perform protein-structure alignment using a two-level hierarchical approach implemented in the program GANGSTA. On the first level, pair contacts and relative orientations between SSEs (i.e. α-helices and β-strands) are maximized with a genetic algorithm (GA). On the second level residue pair contacts from the best SSE alignments are optimized. We have tested the method on visually optimized structure alignments of protein pairs (pairwise mode) and for database scans. For a given protein structure, our method is able to detect significant structural similarity of functionally important folds with non-sequential SSE connectivity. The performance for structure alignments with strictly sequential SSE connectivity is comparable to that of other structure alignment methods. Conclusion As demonstrated for several applications, GANGSTA finds meaningful protein-structure alignments independent of the SSE connectivity. GANGSTA is able to detect structural similarity of protein folds that are assigned to different superfamilies but nevertheless possess similar structures and perform related functions, even if these proteins differ in SSE connectivity. PMID:17118190

  11. Protein sites with more coevolutionary connections tend to evolve slower, while more variable protein families acquire higher coevolutionary connections.

    PubMed

    Mandloi, Sapan; Chakrabarti, Saikat

    2017-01-01

    Background: Amino acid exchanges within proteins sometimes compensate for one another and could therefore be co-evolved. It is essential to investigate the intricate relationship between the extent of coevolution and the evolutionary variability exerted at individual protein sites, as well as the whole protein. Methods: In this study, we have used a reliable set of coevolutionary connections (sites within 10Å spatial distance) and investigated their correlation with the evolutionary diversity within the respective protein sites. Results: Based on our observations, we propose an interesting hypothesis that higher numbers of coevolutionary connections are associated with lesser evolutionary variable protein sites, while higher numbers of the coevolutionary connections can be observed for a protein family that has higher evolutionary variability. Our findings also indicate that highly coevolved sites located in a solvent accessible state tend to be less evolutionary variable. This relationship reverts at the whole protein level where cytoplasmic and extracellular proteins show moderately higher anti-correlation between the number of coevolutionary connections and the average evolutionary conservation of the whole protein. Conclusions: Observations and hypothesis presented in this study provide intriguing insights towards understanding the critical relationship between coevolutionary and evolutionary changes observed within proteins. Our observations encourage further investigation to find out the reasons behind subtle variations in the relationship between coevolutionary connectivity and evolutionary diversity for proteins located at various cellular localizations and/or involved in different molecular-biological functions.

  12. Fish utilisation of wetland nurseries with complex hydrological connectivity.

    PubMed

    Davis, Ben; Johnston, Ross; Baker, Ronald; Sheaves, Marcus

    2012-01-01

    The physical and faunal characteristics of coastal wetlands are driven by dynamics of hydrological connectivity to adjacent habitats. Wetlands on estuary floodplains are particularly dynamic, driven by a complex interplay of tidal marine connections and seasonal freshwater flooding, often with unknown consequences for fish using these habitats. To understand the patterns and subsequent processes driving fish assemblage structure in such wetlands, we examined the nature and diversity of temporal utilisation patterns at a species or genus level over three annual cycles in a tropical Australian estuarine wetland system. Four general patterns of utilisation were apparent based on CPUE and size-structure dynamics: (i) classic nursery utlisation (use by recently settled recruits for their first year) (ii) interrupted peristence (iii) delayed recruitment (iv) facultative wetland residence. Despite the small self-recruiting 'facultative wetland resident' group, wetland occupancy seems largely driven by connectivity to the subtidal estuary channel. Variable connection regimes (i.e. frequency and timing of connections) within and between different wetland units (e.g. individual pools, lagoons, swamps) will therefore interact with the diversity of species recruitment schedules to generate variable wetland assemblages in time and space. In addition, the assemblage structure is heavily modified by freshwater flow, through simultaneously curtailing persistence of the 'interrupted persistence' group, establishing connectivity for freshwater spawned members of both the 'facultative wetland resident' and 'delayed recruitment group', and apparently mediating use of intermediate nursery habitats for marine-spawned members of the 'delayed recruitment' group. The diversity of utilisation pattern and the complexity of associated drivers means assemblage compositions, and therefore ecosystem functioning, is likely to vary among years depending on variations in hydrological connectivity

  13. Fish Utilisation of Wetland Nurseries with Complex Hydrological Connectivity

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Ben; Johnston, Ross; Baker, Ronald; Sheaves, Marcus

    2012-01-01

    The physical and faunal characteristics of coastal wetlands are driven by dynamics of hydrological connectivity to adjacent habitats. Wetlands on estuary floodplains are particularly dynamic, driven by a complex interplay of tidal marine connections and seasonal freshwater flooding, often with unknown consequences for fish using these habitats. To understand the patterns and subsequent processes driving fish assemblage structure in such wetlands, we examined the nature and diversity of temporal utilisation patterns at a species or genus level over three annual cycles in a tropical Australian estuarine wetland system. Four general patterns of utilisation were apparent based on CPUE and size-structure dynamics: (i) classic nursery utlisation (use by recently settled recruits for their first year) (ii) interrupted peristence (iii) delayed recruitment (iv) facultative wetland residence. Despite the small self-recruiting ‘facultative wetland resident’ group, wetland occupancy seems largely driven by connectivity to the subtidal estuary channel. Variable connection regimes (i.e. frequency and timing of connections) within and between different wetland units (e.g. individual pools, lagoons, swamps) will therefore interact with the diversity of species recruitment schedules to generate variable wetland assemblages in time and space. In addition, the assemblage structure is heavily modified by freshwater flow, through simultaneously curtailing persistence of the ’interrupted persistence’ group, establishing connectivity for freshwater spawned members of both the ‘facultative wetland resident’ and ‘delayed recruitment group’, and apparently mediating use of intermediate nursery habitats for marine-spawned members of the ‘delayed recruitment’ group. The diversity of utilisation pattern and the complexity of associated drivers means assemblage compositions, and therefore ecosystem functioning, is likely to vary among years depending on variations in

  14. Path integral in area tensor Regge calculus and complex connections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khatsymovsky, V. M.

    2006-06-01

    Euclidean quantum measure in Regge calculus with independent area tensors is considered using example of the Regge manifold of a simple structure. We go over to integrations along certain contours in the hyperplane of complex connection variables. Discrete connection and curvature on classical solutions of the equations of motion are not, strictly speaking, genuine connection and curvature, but more general quantities and, therefore, these do not appear as arguments of a function to be averaged, but are the integration (dummy) variables. We argue that upon integrating out the latter the resulting measure can be well-defined on physical hypersurface (for the area tensors corresponding to certain edge vectors, i.e. to certain metric) as positive and having exponential cutoff at large areas on condition that we confine ourselves to configurations which do not pass through degenerate metrics.

  15. GECluster: a novel protein complex prediction method.

    PubMed

    Su, Lingtao; Liu, Guixia; Wang, Han; Tian, Yuan; Zhou, Zhihui; Han, Liang; Yan, Lun

    2014-07-04

    Identification of protein complexes is of great importance in the understanding of cellular organization and functions. Traditional computational protein complex prediction methods mainly rely on the topology of protein-protein interaction (PPI) networks but seldom take biological information of proteins (such as Gene Ontology (GO)) into consideration. Meanwhile, the environment relevant analysis of protein complex evolution has been poorly studied, partly due to the lack of high-precision protein complex datasets. In this paper, a combined PPI network is introduced to predict protein complexes which integrate both GO and expression value of relevant protein-coding genes. A novel protein complex prediction method GECluster (Gene Expression Cluster) was proposed based on a seed node expansion strategy, in which a combined PPI network was utilized. GECluster was applied to a training combined PPI network and it predicted more credible complexes than peer methods. The results indicate that using a combined PPI network can efficiently improve protein complex prediction accuracy. In order to study protein complex evolution within cells due to changes in the living environment surrounding cells, GECluster was applied to seven combined PPI networks constructed using the data of a test set including yeast response to stress throughout a wine fermentation process. Our results showed that with the rise of alcohol concentration, protein complexes within yeast cells gradually evolve from one state to another. Besides this, the number of core and attachment proteins within a protein complex both changed significantly.

  16. Protein complex prediction via dense subgraphs and false positive analysis.

    PubMed

    Hernandez, Cecilia; Mella, Carlos; Navarro, Gonzalo; Olivera-Nappa, Alvaro; Araya, Jaime

    2017-01-01

    Many proteins work together with others in groups called complexes in order to achieve a specific function. Discovering protein complexes is important for understanding biological processes and predict protein functions in living organisms. Large-scale and throughput techniques have made possible to compile protein-protein interaction networks (PPI networks), which have been used in several computational approaches for detecting protein complexes. Those predictions might guide future biologic experimental research. Some approaches are topology-based, where highly connected proteins are predicted to be complexes; some propose different clustering algorithms using partitioning, overlaps among clusters for networks modeled with unweighted or weighted graphs; and others use density of clusters and information based on protein functionality. However, some schemes still require much processing time or the quality of their results can be improved. Furthermore, most of the results obtained with computational tools are not accompanied by an analysis of false positives. We propose an effective and efficient mining algorithm for discovering highly connected subgraphs, which is our base for defining protein complexes. Our representation is based on transforming the PPI network into a directed acyclic graph that reduces the number of represented edges and the search space for discovering subgraphs. Our approach considers weighted and unweighted PPI networks. We compare our best alternative using PPI networks from Saccharomyces cerevisiae (yeast) and Homo sapiens (human) with state-of-the-art approaches in terms of clustering, biological metrics and execution times, as well as three gold standards for yeast and two for human. Furthermore, we analyze false positive predicted complexes searching the PDBe (Protein Data Bank in Europe) database in order to identify matching protein complexes that have been purified and structurally characterized. Our analysis shows that more than 50

  17. Purifying protein complexes for mass spectrometry: applications to protein translation.

    PubMed

    Link, Andrew J; Fleischer, Tracey C; Weaver, Connie M; Gerbasi, Vincent R; Jennings, Jennifer L

    2005-03-01

    Proteins control and mediate most of the biological activities in the cell. In most cases, proteins either interact with regulatory proteins or function in large molecular assemblies to carryout biological processes. Understanding the functions of individual proteins requires the identification of these interacting proteins. With its speed and sensitivity, mass spectrometry has become the dominant method for identifying components of protein complexes. This article reviews and discusses various approaches to purify protein complexes and analyze the proteins using mass spectrometry. As examples, methods to isolate and analyze protein complexes responsible for the translation of messenger RNAs into polypeptides are described.

  18. Connectivity and Excluded Volume Effects in Polymeric Complex Coacervates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sing, Charles; Radhakrishna, Mithun

    Oppositely-charged polyelectrolytes in salt solutions can undergo phase separation to form complex coacervates. This charge-driven phase behavior is the basis for emerging motifs in self-assembly. Traditional uses for coacervates are in food and personal care products, while applications in technologies for drug delivery and sensory materials are being developed. One of the primary theories driving understanding of complex coacervates is the Voorn-Overbeek (V-O) theory, which is a precursor to more sophisticated field theories. We present both theory and simulation that provides an alternate picture of coacervates, specifically addressing the limitations of V-O. Our theoretical approach is based on PRISM, which is a liquid-state theory that specifically accounts for connectivity. This is compared with Monte Carlo-based simulations, which likewise provide a molecular picture of coacervation. We demonstrate that a combination of connectivity-based correlations and excluded volume has a profound effect on coacervation phase behavior, suggesting that favorable comparison of V-O to experiment benefits from a cancellation of errors. The influence of connectivity on coacervate phase behavior hints at new opportunities for molecular-based design in electrostatically-driven self-assembly.

  19. Immunoisolation of Protein Complexes from Xenopus

    PubMed Central

    Conlon, Frank L.; Miteva, Yana; Kaltenbrun, Erin; Waldron, Lauren; Greco, Todd M.; Cristea, Ileana M.

    2013-01-01

    The immunoaffinity isolation of protein complexes is an essential technique for the purification and concentration of protein complexes from cells and tissues. In this chapter we present the methodologies for the purification of proteins and protein complexes from Xenopus laev is and Xenopus tropical is. Specific to this protocol are the techniques for the cryolysis of Xenopus cells and tissues, a procedure that limits contamination from yolk proteins while preserving endogenous protein complexes, the methodologies for immunoaffinity purification of proteins using magnetic beads, and the protocols for western blot analysis. In addition, the procedures in this chapter can be extended to use with proteomic analysis of protein complexes as presented in the following chapter. PMID:22956099

  20. Arabidopsis MSI1 connects LHP1 to PRC2 complexes

    PubMed Central

    Derkacheva, Maria; Steinbach, Yvonne; Wildhaber, Thomas; Mozgová, Iva; Mahrez, Walid; Nanni, Paolo; Bischof, Sylvain; Gruissem, Wilhelm; Hennig, Lars

    2013-01-01

    Polycomb group (PcG) proteins form essential epigenetic memory systems for controlling gene expression during development in plants and animals. However, the mechanism of plant PcG protein functions remains poorly understood. Here, we probed the composition and function of plant Polycomb repressive complex 2 (PRC2). This work established the fact that all known plant PRC2 complexes contain MSI1, a homologue of Drosophila p55. While p55 is not essential for the in vitro enzymatic activity of PRC2, plant MSI1 was required for the functions of the EMBRYONIC FLOWER and the VERNALIZATION PRC2 complexes including trimethylation of histone H3 Lys27 (H3K27) at the target chromatin, as well as gene repression and establishment of competence to flower. We found that MSI1 serves to link PRC2 to LIKE HETEROCHROMATIN PROTEIN 1 (LHP1), a protein that binds H3K27me3 in vitro and in vivo and is required for a functional plant PcG system. The LHP1–MSI1 interaction forms a positive feedback loop to recruit PRC2 to chromatin that carries H3K27me3. Consequently, this can provide a mechanism for the faithful inheritance of local epigenetic information through replication. PMID:23778966

  1. Mass Spectrometry of Intact Membrane Protein Complexes

    PubMed Central

    Laganowsky, Arthur; Reading, Eamonn; Hopper, Jonathan T.S.; Robinson, Carol V.

    2014-01-01

    Mass spectrometry of intact soluble protein complexes has emerged as a powerful technique to study the stoichiometry, structure-function and dynamics of protein assemblies. Recent developments have extended this technique to the study of membrane protein complexes where it has already revealed subunit stoichiometries and specific phospholipid interactions. Here, we describe a protocol for mass spectrometry of membrane protein complexes. The protocol begins with preparation of the membrane protein complex enabling not only the direct assessment of stoichiometry, delipidation, and quality of the target complex, but also evaluation of the purification strategy. A detailed list of compatible non-ionic detergents is included, along with a protocol for screening detergents to find an optimal one for mass spectrometry, biochemical and structural studies. This protocol also covers the preparation of lipids for protein-lipid binding studies and includes detailed settings for a Q-ToF mass spectrometer after introduction of complexes from gold-coated nanoflow capillaries. PMID:23471109

  2. Trapping mammalian protein complexes in viral particles

    PubMed Central

    Eyckerman, Sven; Titeca, Kevin; Van Quickelberghe, Emmy; Cloots, Eva; Verhee, Annick; Samyn, Noortje; De Ceuninck, Leentje; Timmerman, Evy; De Sutter, Delphine; Lievens, Sam; Van Calenbergh, Serge; Gevaert, Kris; Tavernier, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Cell lysis is an inevitable step in classical mass spectrometry–based strategies to analyse protein complexes. Complementary lysis conditions, in situ cross-linking strategies and proximal labelling techniques are currently used to reduce lysis effects on the protein complex. We have developed Virotrap, a viral particle sorting approach that obviates the need for cell homogenization and preserves the protein complexes during purification. By fusing a bait protein to the HIV-1 GAG protein, we show that interaction partners become trapped within virus-like particles (VLPs) that bud from mammalian cells. Using an efficient VLP enrichment protocol, Virotrap allows the detection of known binary interactions and MS-based identification of novel protein partners as well. In addition, we show the identification of stimulus-dependent interactions and demonstrate trapping of protein partners for small molecules. Virotrap constitutes an elegant complementary approach to the arsenal of methods to study protein complexes. PMID:27122307

  3. Structural Studies of Protein-Surfactant Complexes

    SciTech Connect

    Chodankar, S. N.; Aswal, V. K.; Wagh, A. G.

    2008-03-17

    The structure of protein-surfactant complexes of two proteins bovine serum albumin (BSA) and lysozyme in presence of anionic surfactant sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) has been studied using small-angle neutron scattering (SANS). It is observed that these two proteins form different complex structures with the surfactant. While BSA protein undergoes unfolding on addition of surfactant, lysozyme does not show any unfolding even up to very high surfactant concentrations. The unfolding of BSA protein is caused by micelle-like aggregation of surfactant molecules in the complex. On the other hand, for lysozyme protein there is only binding of individual surfactant molecules to protein. Lysozyme in presence of higher surfactant concentrations has protein-surfactant complex structure coexisting with pure surfactant micelles.

  4. Predictions of Protein-Protein Interfaces within Membrane Protein Complexes

    PubMed Central

    Asadabadi, Ebrahim Barzegari; Abdolmaleki, Parviz

    2013-01-01

    Background Prediction of interaction sites within the membrane protein complexes using the sequence data is of a great importance, because it would find applications in modification of molecules transport through membrane, signaling pathways and drug targets of many diseases. Nevertheless, it has gained little attention from the protein structural bioinformatics community. Methods In this study, a wide variety of prediction and classification tools were applied to distinguish the residues at the interfaces of membrane proteins from those not in the interfaces. Results The tuned SVM model achieved the high accuracy of 86.95% and the AUC of 0.812 which outperforms the results of the only previous similar study. Nevertheless, prediction performances obtained using most employed models cannot be used in applied fields and needs more effort to improve. Conclusion Considering the variety of the applied tools in this study, the present investigation could be a good starting point to develop more efficient tools to predict the membrane protein interaction site residues. PMID:23919118

  5. Co-translational assembly of protein complexes.

    PubMed

    Wells, Jonathan N; Bergendahl, L Therese; Marsh, Joseph A

    2015-12-01

    The interaction of biological macromolecules is a fundamental attribute of cellular life. Proteins, in particular, often form stable complexes with one another. Although the importance of protein complexes is widely recognized, we still have only a very limited understanding of the mechanisms underlying their assembly within cells. In this article, we review the available evidence for one such mechanism, namely the coupling of protein complex assembly to translation at the polysome. We discuss research showing that co-translational assembly can occur in both prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms and can have important implications for the correct functioning of the complexes that result. Co-translational assembly can occur for both homomeric and heteromeric protein complexes and for both proteins that are translated directly into the cytoplasm and those that are translated into or across membranes. Finally, we discuss the properties of proteins that are most likely to be associated with co-translational assembly.

  6. Proteins as paradigms of complex systems.

    SciTech Connect

    Fenimore, P. W.; Frauenfelder, Hans,; Young, R. D.

    2003-03-26

    The science of complexity has moved to center stage within the past few decades. Complex systems range from glasses to the immune system and the brain. Glasses are too simple to possess all aspects of complexity; brains are too complex to expose common concepts and laws of complexity. Proteins, however, are systems where many concepts and laws of complexity can be explored experimentally, theoretically, and computationally. Such studies have elucidated crucial aspects. The energy landscape has emerged as one central concept; it describes the free energy of a system as a function of temperature and the coordinates of all relevant atoms. A second concept is that of fluctuations. Without fluctuations, proteins would be dead and life impossible. A third concept is slaving. Proteins are not isolated systems; they are embedded in cells and membranes. Slaving arises when the fluctuations in the surroundings of a protein dominate many of the motions of the protein proper.

  7. A Protein Complex Map of Trypanosoma brucei

    PubMed Central

    Mehta, Vaibhav; Najafabadi, Hamed S.; Moshiri, Houtan; Jardim, Armando; Salavati, Reza

    2016-01-01

    The functions of the majority of trypanosomatid-specific proteins are unknown, hindering our understanding of the biology and pathogenesis of Trypanosomatida. While protein-protein interactions are highly informative about protein function, a global map of protein interactions and complexes is still lacking for these important human parasites. Here, benefiting from in-depth biochemical fractionation, we systematically interrogated the co-complex interactions of more than 3354 protein groups in procyclic life stage of Trypanosoma brucei, the protozoan parasite responsible for human African trypanosomiasis. Using a rigorous methodology, our analysis led to identification of 128 high-confidence complexes encompassing 716 protein groups, including 635 protein groups that lacked experimental annotation. These complexes correlate well with known pathways as well as for proteins co-expressed across the T. brucei life cycle, and provide potential functions for a large number of previously uncharacterized proteins. We validated the functions of several novel proteins associated with the RNA-editing machinery, identifying a candidate potentially involved in the mitochondrial post-transcriptional regulation of T. brucei. Our data provide an unprecedented view of the protein complex map of T. brucei, and serve as a reliable resource for further characterization of trypanosomatid proteins. The presented results in this study are available at: www.TrypsNetDB.org. PMID:26991453

  8. A Protein Complex Network of Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Guruharsha, K. G.; Rual, J. -F.; Zhai, B.; Mintseris, J.; Vaidya, P.; Vaidya, N.; Beekman, C.; Wong, C.; Rhee, D. Y.; Cenaj, O.; McKillip, E.; Shah, S.; Stapleton, M.; Wan, K. H.; Yu, C.; Parsa, B.; Carlson, J. W.; Chen, X.; Kapadia, B.; VijayRaghavan, K.; Gygi, S. P.; Celniker, S. E.; Obar, R. A.; Artavanis-Tsakonas, S.

    2011-01-01

    SUMMARY Determining the composition of protein complexes is an essential step towards understanding the cell as an integrated system. Using co-affinity purification coupled to mass spectrometry analysis, we examined protein associations involving nearly five thousand individual, FLAG-HA epitope-tagged Drosophila proteins. Stringent analysis of these data, based on a novel statistical framework to define individual protein-protein interactions, led to the generation of a Drosophila Protein interaction Map (DPiM) encompassing 556 protein complexes. The high quality of DPiM and its usefulness as a paradigm for metazoan proteomes is apparent from the recovery of many known complexes, significant enrichment for shared functional attributes and validation in human cells. DPiM defines potential novel members for several important protein complexes and assigns functional links to 586 protein-coding genes lacking previous experimental annotation. DPiM represents, to our knowledge, the largest metazoan protein complex map and provides a valuable resource for analysis of protein complex evolution. PMID:22036573

  9. Double-layer clustering method to predict protein complexes based on power-law distribution and protein sublocalization.

    PubMed

    Peng, Xiaoqing; Wang, Jianxin; Huan, Jun; Wu, Fang-Xiang

    2016-04-21

    Identifying protein complexes from Protein-protein Interaction Networks (PINs) is fundamental for understanding protein functions and activities in cell. Based on the assumption that protein complexes are highly connected areas in PINs, many algorithms were proposed to identify protein complexes from PINs. However, most of these approaches neglected that not all proteins in complexes are highly connected, and proteins in PINs with different topological properties may form protein complexes in different ways and should be treated differently. In this paper, we proposed a double-layer clustering method based on the power-law distribution (PLCluster). To calculate the centrality scores of nodes, we proposed a Dense-Spread Centrality method. The centrality scores calculated by Dense-Spread Centrality method follow a power-law distribution. Based on the power-law distribution of the centrality scores, PLCluster divides the nodes into two categories: the nodes with very high centrality scores and the nodes with lower centrality scores. Then different strategies are applied to nodes in different categories for detecting protein complexes from the PIN, respectively. Furthermore, the predicted protein complexes, which are inconsistent with the fact that all proteins in a protein complex should be in the same subcellular compartment, are filtered out. Compared with other nine existing methods on a high reliable yeast PIN, PLCluster shows great advantages in terms of the number of known complexes that are identified, Sensitivity, Specificity, f-measure and the number of perfect matches. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Complexity, polymorphism, and connectivity of mouse Vk gene families.

    PubMed

    Kofler, R; Duchosal, M A; Dixon, F J

    1989-01-01

    To define the polymorphism and extent of the mouse immunoglobulin kappa (Igk) gene complex, we have analyzed restriction-enzyme digested genomic DNA from 33 inbred strains of mice with labeled DNA probes corresponding to 16 Vk protein groups (1 of them previously undescribed) and the Jk/Ck region (V, variable; J, joining; C, constant). These probes detected between 1 and 25 distinct restriction enzyme fragments (REF) that appeared in up to eight polymorphic patterns, thus defining eight mouse Igk haplotypes. The investigated portion of the Vk repertoire was estimated to encompass between 60 and 120 discernable Vk gene-containing REFs. In contrast to mouse VH gene families, several Vk gene families defined by these probes appeared to overlap. This observation has implications for Vk gene analyses by nucleic acid hybridization and raises the possibility that the Vk gene complex is a continuum of related sequences.

  11. Troposphere-lower-stratosphere connection in an intermediate complexity model.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruggieri, Paolo; King, Martin; Kucharski, Fred; Buizza, Roberto; Visconti, Guido

    2016-04-01

    The dynamical coupling between the troposphere and the lower stratosphere has been investigated using a low-top, intermediate complexity model provided by the Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics (SPEEDY). The key question that we wanted to address is whether a simple model like SPEEDY can be used to understand troposphere-stratosphere interactions, e.g. forced by changes of sea-ice concentration in polar arctic regions. Three sets of experiments have been performed. Firstly, a potential vorticity perspective has been applied to understand the wave-like forcing of the troposphere on the stratosphere and to provide quantitative information on the sub seasonal variability of the coupling. Then, the zonally asymmetric, near-surface response to a lower-stratospheric forcing has been analysed in a set of forced experiments with an artificial heating imposed in the extra-tropical lower stratosphere. Finally, the lower-stratosphere response sensitivity to tropospheric initial conditions has been examined. Results indicate how SPEEDY captures the physics of the troposphere-stratosphere connection but also show the lack of stratospheric variability. Results also suggest that intermediate-complexity models such as SPEEDY could be used to investigate the effects that surface forcing (e.g. due to sea-ice concentration changes) have on the troposphere and the lower stratosphere.

  12. [Isolation of proteins with complex forming agents].

    PubMed

    Schwenke, K D; Raab, B; Ender, B

    1975-01-01

    Taking vegetable albumins for models, the authors report of the possibilities of isolating proteins (which cannot be precipitated isoelectrically) by using their property of forming complexes with tannin or poly-anions. The precipitation of proteins with dextran sulphate or polyphosphates, which is due to electrostatic interaction, depends on the pH value and the electrolyte content of the solution. Under appropriate experimental conditions, protein yields of 100% are achieved. By means of tannin, the proteins are completely precipitated in a wide range of pH. The protein component of the poly-anion-containing complexes is isolated by precipitation with salt or by thermal coagulation after dissolving of the complexes. The isolation of protein from the tannin complexes is preferably realized by reaction with coffeine.

  13. Structural entanglements in protein complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Yani; Chwastyk, Mateusz; Cieplak, Marek

    2017-06-01

    We consider multi-chain protein native structures and propose a criterion that determines whether two chains in the system are entangled or not. The criterion is based on the behavior observed by pulling at both termini of each chain simultaneously in the two chains. We have identified about 900 entangled systems in the Protein Data Bank and provided a more detailed analysis for several of them. We argue that entanglement enhances the thermodynamic stability of the system but it may have other functions: burying the hydrophobic residues at the interface and increasing the DNA or RNA binding area. We also study the folding and stretching properties of the knotted dimeric proteins MJ0366, YibK, and bacteriophytochrome. These proteins have been studied theoretically in their monomeric versions so far. The dimers are seen to separate on stretching through the tensile mechanism and the characteristic unraveling force depends on the pulling direction.

  14. Complex lasso: new entangled motifs in proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niemyska, Wanda; Dabrowski-Tumanski, Pawel; Kadlof, Michal; Haglund, Ellinor; Sułkowski, Piotr; Sulkowska, Joanna I.

    2016-11-01

    We identify new entangled motifs in proteins that we call complex lassos. Lassos arise in proteins with disulfide bridges (or in proteins with amide linkages), when termini of a protein backbone pierce through an auxiliary surface of minimal area, spanned on a covalent loop. We find that as much as 18% of all proteins with disulfide bridges in a non-redundant subset of PDB form complex lassos, and classify them into six distinct geometric classes, one of which resembles supercoiling known from DNA. Based on biological classification of proteins we find that lassos are much more common in viruses, plants and fungi than in other kingdoms of life. We also discuss how changes in the oxidation/reduction potential may affect the function of proteins with lassos. Lassos and associated surfaces of minimal area provide new, interesting and possessing many potential applications geometric characteristics not only of proteins, but also of other biomolecules.

  15. Complex lasso: new entangled motifs in proteins

    PubMed Central

    Niemyska, Wanda; Dabrowski-Tumanski, Pawel; Kadlof, Michal; Haglund, Ellinor; Sułkowski, Piotr; Sulkowska, Joanna I.

    2016-01-01

    We identify new entangled motifs in proteins that we call complex lassos. Lassos arise in proteins with disulfide bridges (or in proteins with amide linkages), when termini of a protein backbone pierce through an auxiliary surface of minimal area, spanned on a covalent loop. We find that as much as 18% of all proteins with disulfide bridges in a non-redundant subset of PDB form complex lassos, and classify them into six distinct geometric classes, one of which resembles supercoiling known from DNA. Based on biological classification of proteins we find that lassos are much more common in viruses, plants and fungi than in other kingdoms of life. We also discuss how changes in the oxidation/reduction potential may affect the function of proteins with lassos. Lassos and associated surfaces of minimal area provide new, interesting and possessing many potential applications geometric characteristics not only of proteins, but also of other biomolecules. PMID:27874096

  16. Protein Complexes are Central in the Yeast Genetic Landscape

    PubMed Central

    Michaut, Magali; Baryshnikova, Anastasia; Costanzo, Michael; Myers, Chad L.; Andrews, Brenda J.; Boone, Charles; Bader, Gary D.

    2011-01-01

    If perturbing two genes together has a stronger or weaker effect than expected, they are said to genetically interact. Genetic interactions are important because they help map gene function, and functionally related genes have similar genetic interaction patterns. Mapping quantitative (positive and negative) genetic interactions on a global scale has recently become possible. This data clearly shows groups of genes connected by predominantly positive or negative interactions, termed monochromatic groups. These groups often correspond to functional modules, like biological processes or complexes, or connections between modules. However it is not yet known how these patterns globally relate to known functional modules. Here we systematically study the monochromatic nature of known biological processes using the largest quantitative genetic interaction data set available, which includes fitness measurements for ∼5.4 million gene pairs in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We find that only 10% of biological processes, as defined by Gene Ontology annotations, and less than 1% of inter-process connections are monochromatic. Further, we show that protein complexes are responsible for a surprisingly large fraction of these patterns. This suggests that complexes play a central role in shaping the monochromatic landscape of biological processes. Altogether this work shows that both positive and negative monochromatic patterns are found in known biological processes and in their connections and that protein complexes play an important role in these patterns. The monochromatic processes, complexes and connections we find chart a hierarchical and modular map of sensitive and redundant biological systems in the yeast cell that will be useful for gene function prediction and comparison across phenotypes and organisms. Furthermore the analysis methods we develop are applicable to other species for which genetic interactions will progressively become more available. PMID

  17. Eukaryotic LYR Proteins Interact with Mitochondrial Protein Complexes

    PubMed Central

    Angerer, Heike

    2015-01-01

    In eukaryotic cells, mitochondria host ancient essential bioenergetic and biosynthetic pathways. LYR (leucine/tyrosine/arginine) motif proteins (LYRMs) of the Complex1_LYR-like superfamily interact with protein complexes of bacterial origin. Many LYR proteins function as extra subunits (LYRM3 and LYRM6) or novel assembly factors (LYRM7, LYRM8, ACN9 and FMC1) of the oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) core complexes. Structural insights into complex I accessory subunits LYRM6 and LYRM3 have been provided by analyses of EM and X-ray structures of complex I from bovine and the yeast Yarrowia lipolytica, respectively. Combined structural and biochemical studies revealed that LYRM6 resides at the matrix arm close to the ubiquinone reduction site. For LYRM3, a position at the distal proton-pumping membrane arm facing the matrix space is suggested. Both LYRMs are supposed to anchor an acyl-carrier protein (ACPM) independently to complex I. The function of this duplicated protein interaction of ACPM with respiratory complex I is still unknown. Analysis of protein-protein interaction screens, genetic analyses and predicted multi-domain LYRMs offer further clues on an interaction network and adaptor-like function of LYR proteins in mitochondria. PMID:25686363

  18. Protein complex compositions predicted by structural similarity

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Fred P.; Braberg, Hannes; Shen, Min-Yi; Pieper, Ursula; Sali, Andrej; Madhusudhan, M.S.

    2006-01-01

    Proteins function through interactions with other molecules. Thus, the network of physical interactions among proteins is of great interest to both experimental and computational biologists. Here we present structure-based predictions of 3387 binary and 1234 higher order protein complexes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae involving 924 and 195 proteins, respectively. To generate candidate complexes, comparative models of individual proteins were built and combined together using complexes of known structure as templates. These candidate complexes were then assessed using a statistical potential, derived from binary domain interfaces in PIBASE (). The statistical potential discriminated a benchmark set of 100 interface structures from a set of sequence-randomized negative examples with a false positive rate of 3% and a true positive rate of 97%. Moreover, the predicted complexes were also filtered using functional annotation and sub-cellular localization data. The ability of the method to select the correct binding mode among alternates is demonstrated for three camelid VHH domain—porcine α–amylase interactions. We also highlight the prediction of co-complexed domain superfamilies that are not present in template complexes. Through integration with MODBASE, the application of the method to proteomes that are less well characterized than that of S.cerevisiae will contribute to expansion of the structural and functional coverage of protein interaction space. The predicted complexes are deposited in MODBASE (). PMID:16738133

  19. The Claudin Megatrachea Protein Complex*

    PubMed Central

    Jaspers, Martin H. J.; Nolde, Kai; Behr, Matthias; Joo, Seol-hee; Plessmann, Uwe; Nikolov, Miroslav; Urlaub, Henning; Schuh, Reinhard

    2012-01-01

    Claudins are integral transmembrane components of the tight junctions forming trans-epithelial barriers in many organs, such as the nervous system, lung, and epidermis. In Drosophila three claudins have been identified that are required for forming the tight junctions analogous structure, the septate junctions (SJs). The lack of claudins results in a disruption of SJ integrity leading to a breakdown of the trans-epithelial barrier and to disturbed epithelial morphogenesis. However, little is known about claudin partners for transport mechanisms and membrane organization. Here we present a comprehensive analysis of the claudin proteome in Drosophila by combining biochemical and physiological approaches. Using specific antibodies against the claudin Megatrachea for immunoprecipitation and mass spectrometry, we identified 142 proteins associated with Megatrachea in embryos. The Megatrachea interacting proteins were analyzed in vivo by tissue-specific knockdown of the corresponding genes using RNA interference. We identified known and novel putative SJ components, such as the gene product of CG3921. Furthermore, our data suggest that the control of secretion processes specific to SJs and dependent on Sec61p may involve Megatrachea interaction with Sec61 subunits. Also, our findings suggest that clathrin-coated vesicles may regulate Megatrachea turnover at the plasma membrane similar to human claudins. As claudins are conserved both in structure and function, our findings offer novel candidate proteins involved in the claudin interactome of vertebrates and invertebrates. PMID:22930751

  20. The claudin Megatrachea protein complex.

    PubMed

    Jaspers, Martin H J; Nolde, Kai; Behr, Matthias; Joo, Seol-hee; Plessmann, Uwe; Nikolov, Miroslav; Urlaub, Henning; Schuh, Reinhard

    2012-10-26

    Claudins are integral transmembrane components of the tight junctions forming trans-epithelial barriers in many organs, such as the nervous system, lung, and epidermis. In Drosophila three claudins have been identified that are required for forming the tight junctions analogous structure, the septate junctions (SJs). The lack of claudins results in a disruption of SJ integrity leading to a breakdown of the trans-epithelial barrier and to disturbed epithelial morphogenesis. However, little is known about claudin partners for transport mechanisms and membrane organization. Here we present a comprehensive analysis of the claudin proteome in Drosophila by combining biochemical and physiological approaches. Using specific antibodies against the claudin Megatrachea for immunoprecipitation and mass spectrometry, we identified 142 proteins associated with Megatrachea in embryos. The Megatrachea interacting proteins were analyzed in vivo by tissue-specific knockdown of the corresponding genes using RNA interference. We identified known and novel putative SJ components, such as the gene product of CG3921. Furthermore, our data suggest that the control of secretion processes specific to SJs and dependent on Sec61p may involve Megatrachea interaction with Sec61 subunits. Also, our findings suggest that clathrin-coated vesicles may regulate Megatrachea turnover at the plasma membrane similar to human claudins. As claudins are conserved both in structure and function, our findings offer novel candidate proteins involved in the claudin interactome of vertebrates and invertebrates.

  1. Complementary Proteomic Analysis of Protein Complexes

    PubMed Central

    Greco, Todd M.; Miteva, Yana; Conlon, Frank L.; Cristea, Ileana M.

    2013-01-01

    Proteomic characterization of protein complexes leverages the versatile platform of liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry to elucidate molecular and cellular signaling processes underlying the dynamic regulation of macromolecular assemblies. Here, we describe a complementary proteomic approach optimized for immunoisolated protein complexes. As the relative complexity, abundance, and physiochemical properties of proteins can vary significantly between samples, we have provided (1) complementary sample preparation workflows, (2) detailed steps for HPLC and mass spectrometric method development, and (3) a bioinformatic workflow that provides confident peptide/protein identification paired with unbiased functional gene ontology analysis. This protocol can also be extended for characterization of larger complexity samples from whole cell or tissue Xenopus proteomes. PMID:22956100

  2. Protein complexes predictions within protein interaction networks using genetic algorithms.

    PubMed

    Ramadan, Emad; Naef, Ahmed; Ahmed, Moataz

    2016-07-25

    Protein-protein interaction networks are receiving increased attention due to their importance in understanding life at the cellular level. A major challenge in systems biology is to understand the modular structure of such biological networks. Although clustering techniques have been proposed for clustering protein-protein interaction networks, those techniques suffer from some drawbacks. The application of earlier clustering techniques to protein-protein interaction networks in order to predict protein complexes within the networks does not yield good results due to the small-world and power-law properties of these networks. In this paper, we construct a new clustering algorithm for predicting protein complexes through the use of genetic algorithms. We design an objective function for exclusive clustering and overlapping clustering. We assess the quality of our proposed clustering algorithm using two gold-standard data sets. Our algorithm can identify protein complexes that are significantly enriched in the gold-standard data sets. Furthermore, our method surpasses three competing methods: MCL, ClusterOne, and MCODE in terms of the quality of the predicted complexes. The source code and accompanying examples are freely available at http://faculty.kfupm.edu.sa/ics/eramadan/GACluster.zip .

  3. Sampling small-scale and large-scale conformational changes in proteins and molecular complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yun, Mi-Ran; Mousseau, N.; Derreumaux, P.

    2007-03-01

    Sampling of small-scale and large-scale motions is important in various computational tasks, such as protein-protein docking and ligand binding. Here, we report further development and applications of the activation-relaxation technique for internal coordinate space trajectories (ARTIST). This method generates conformational moves of any complexity and size by identifying and crossing well-defined saddle points connecting energy minima. Simulations on two all-atom proteins and three protein complexes containing between 70 and 300 amino acids indicate that ARTIST opens the door to the full treatment of all degrees of freedom in dense systems such as protein-protein complexes.

  4. Complex coacervation of supercharged proteins with polyelectrolytes.

    PubMed

    Obermeyer, Allie C; Mills, Carolyn E; Dong, Xue-Hui; Flores, Romeo J; Olsen, Bradley D

    2016-04-21

    Complexation of proteins with polyelectrolytes or block copolymers can lead to phase separation to generate a coacervate phase or self-assembly of coacervate core micelles. However, many proteins do not coacervate at conditions near neutral pH and physiological ionic strength. Here, protein supercharging is used to systematically explore the effect of protein charge on the complex coacervation with polycations. Four model proteins were anionically supercharged to varying degrees as quantified by mass spectrometry. Proteins phase separated with strong polycations when the ratio of negatively charged residues to positively charged residues on the protein (α) was greater than 1.1-1.2. Efficient partitioning of the protein into the coacervate phase required larger α (1.5-2.0). The preferred charge ratio for coacervation was shifted away from charge symmetry for three of the four model proteins and indicated an excess of positive charge in the coacervate phase. The composition of protein and polymer in the coacervate phase was determined using fluorescently labeled components, revealing that several of the coacervates likely have both induced charging and a macromolecular charge imbalance. The model proteins were also encapsulated in complex coacervate core micelles and micelles formed when the protein charge ratio α was greater than 1.3-1.4. Small angle neutron scattering and transmission electron microscopy showed that the micelles were spherical. The stability of the coacervate phase in both the bulk and micelles improved to increased ionic strength as the net charge on the protein increased. The micelles were also stable to dehydration and elevated temperatures.

  5. Protein encapsulation via polypeptide complex coacervation.

    SciTech Connect

    Black, Katie A.; Priftis, Dimitrios; Perry, Sarah L.; Yip, Jeremy; Byun, William Y.; Tirrell, Matthew

    2014-10-01

    Proteins have gained increasing success as therapeutic agents; however, challenges exist in effective and efficient delivery. In this work, we present a simple and versatile method for encapsulating proteins via complex coacervation with oppositely charged polypeptides, poly(L-lysine) (PLys) and poly(D/L-glutamic acid) (PGlu). A model protein system, bovine serum albumin (BSA), was incorporated efficiently into coacervate droplets via electrostatic interaction up to a maximum loading of one BSA per PLys/PGlu pair and could be released under conditions of decreasing pH. Additionally, encapsulation within complex coacervates did not alter the secondary structure of the protein. Lastly the complex coacervate system was shown to be biocompatible and interact well with cells in vitro. A simple, modular system for encapsulation such as the one presented here may be useful in a range of drug delivery applications.

  6. Identifying protein complexes based on brainstorming strategy.

    PubMed

    Shen, Xianjun; Zhou, Jin; Yi, Li; Hu, Xiaohua; He, Tingting; Yang, Jincai

    2016-11-01

    Protein complexes comprising of interacting proteins in protein-protein interaction network (PPI network) play a central role in driving biological processes within cells. Recently, more and more swarm intelligence based algorithms to detect protein complexes have been emerging, which have become the research hotspot in proteomics field. In this paper, we propose a novel algorithm for identifying protein complexes based on brainstorming strategy (IPC-BSS), which is integrated into the main idea of swarm intelligence optimization and the improved K-means algorithm. Distance between the nodes in PPI network is defined by combining the network topology and gene ontology (GO) information. Inspired by human brainstorming process, IPC-BSS algorithm firstly selects the clustering center nodes, and then they are separately consolidated with the other nodes with short distance to form initial clusters. Finally, we put forward two ways of updating the initial clusters to search optimal results. Experimental results show that our IPC-BSS algorithm outperforms the other classic algorithms on yeast and human PPI networks, and it obtains many predicted protein complexes with biological significance. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Joint Analysis of Band-Specific Functional Connectivity and Signal Complexity in Autism

    PubMed Central

    Ghanbari, Yasser; Bloy, Luke; Edgar, J. Christopher; Blaskey, Lisa; Verma, Ragini

    2013-01-01

    Examination of resting state brain activity using electrophysiological measures like complexity as well as functional connectivity is of growing interest in the study of autism spectrum disorders (ASD). The present paper jointly examined complexity and connectivity to obtain a more detailed characterization of resting state brain activity in ASD. Multi-scale entropy was computed to quantify the signal complexity, and synchronization likelihood was used to evaluate functional connectivity (FC), with node strength values providing a sensor-level measure of connectivity to facilitate comparisons with complexity. Sensor level analysis of complexity and connectivity was performed at different frequency bands computed from resting state MEG from 26 children with ASD and 22 typically developing controls (TD). Analyses revealed band-specific group differences in each measure that agreed with other functional studies in fMRI and EEG: higher complexity in TD than ASD, in frontal regions in the delta band and occipital-parietal regions in the alpha band, and lower complexity in TD than in ASD in delta (parietal regions), theta (central and temporal regions) and gamma (frontal-central boundary regions); increased short-range connectivity in ASD in the frontal lobe in the delta band and long-range connectivity in the temporal, parietal and occipital lobes in the alpha band. Finally, and perhaps most strikingly, group differences between ASD and TD in complexity and FC appear spatially complementary, such that where FC was elevated in ASD, complexity was reduced (and vice versa). The correlation of regional average complexity and connectivity node strength with symptom severity scores of ASD subjects supported the overall complementarity (with opposing sign) of connectivity and complexity measures, pointing to either diminished connectivity leading to elevated entropy due to poor inhibitory regulation or chaotic signals prohibiting effective measure of connectivity. PMID

  8. Clinical Characteristics of Connective Tissue Nevi in Tuberous Sclerosis Complex With Special Emphasis on Shagreen Patches.

    PubMed

    Bongiorno, Michelle A; Nathan, Neera; Oyerinde, Oyetewa; Wang, Ji-An; Lee, Chyi-Chia Richard; Brown, G Thomas; Moss, Joel; Darling, Thomas N

    2017-07-01

    fibers and 24 of 26 stained with Miller elastic stain had decreased elastic fibers. On immunoblot analysis, fibroblasts grown from shagreen patches expressed higher levels of phosphorylated ribosomal protein S6 than paired fibroblasts from normal-appearing skin. Tuberous sclerosis complex-related connective tissue nevi are not limited to the lower back, and occasionally present on the central or upper back, buttocks, or thighs. Elastic fibers are typically decreased. Recognition of these variable presentations can be important for TSC diagnosis.

  9. Proteomics: bases for protein complexity understanding.

    PubMed

    Rotilio, Domenico; Della Corte, Anna; D'Imperio, Marco; Coletta, Walter; Marcone, Simone; Silvestri, Cristian; Giordano, Lucia; Di Michele, Michela; Donati, Maria Benedetta

    2012-03-01

    In the post genomic era we became aware that the genomic sequence and protein functions cannot be correlated. One gene can encode multiple protein functions mainly because of mRNA splice variants, post translational modifications (PTM) and moonlighting functions. To study the whole population of proteins present in a cell to a specific time point and under defined conditions it is necessary to investigate the proteome. Comprehensive analysis of the proteome requires the use of emerging high technologies because of the complexity and wide dynamic range of protein concentrations. Proteomics provides the tools to study protein identification and quantitation, protein-protein interactions, protein modifications and localization. The most widespread strategy for studying global protein expression employs two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2D-PAGE) allowing thousands of proteins to be resolved and their expression quantified. Liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) has emerged as a high throughput technique for protein identification and characterization because of its high sensitivity, precision and accuracy. LC-MS/MS is well suited for accurate quantitation of protein expression levels, post-translational modifications and comparative and absolute quantitative analysis of peptides. Bioinformatic tools are required to elaborate the growing number of proteomic data. Here, we give an overview of the current status of the wide range of technologies that define and characterize the modern proteomics.

  10. Joint Analysis of Band-Specific Functional Connectivity and Signal Complexity in Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ghanbari, Yasser; Bloy, Luke; Edgar, J. Christopher; Blaskey, Lisa; Verma, Ragini; Roberts, Timothy P. L.

    2015-01-01

    Examination of resting state brain activity using electrophysiological measures like complexity as well as functional connectivity is of growing interest in the study of autism spectrum disorders (ASD). The present paper jointly examined complexity and connectivity to obtain a more detailed characterization of resting state brain activity in ASD.…

  11. Joint Analysis of Band-Specific Functional Connectivity and Signal Complexity in Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ghanbari, Yasser; Bloy, Luke; Edgar, J. Christopher; Blaskey, Lisa; Verma, Ragini; Roberts, Timothy P. L.

    2015-01-01

    Examination of resting state brain activity using electrophysiological measures like complexity as well as functional connectivity is of growing interest in the study of autism spectrum disorders (ASD). The present paper jointly examined complexity and connectivity to obtain a more detailed characterization of resting state brain activity in ASD.…

  12. Protein Complex Identification by Integrating Protein-Protein Interaction Evidence from Multiple Sources

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Bo; Lin, Hongfei; Chen, Yang; Yang, Zhihao; Liu, Hongfang

    2013-01-01

    Background Understanding protein complexes is important for understanding the science of cellular organization and function. Many computational methods have been developed to identify protein complexes from experimentally obtained protein-protein interaction (PPI) networks. However, interaction information obtained experimentally can be unreliable and incomplete. Reconstructing these PPI networks with PPI evidences from other sources can improve protein complex identification. Results We combined PPI information from 6 different sources and obtained a reconstructed PPI network for yeast through machine learning. Some popular protein complex identification methods were then applied to detect yeast protein complexes using the new PPI networks. Our evaluation indicates that protein complex identification algorithms using the reconstructed PPI network significantly outperform ones on experimentally verified PPI networks. Conclusions We conclude that incorporating PPI information from other sources can improve the effectiveness of protein complex identification. PMID:24386289

  13. Protein-protein interactions in the synaptonemal complex.

    PubMed Central

    Tarsounas, M; Pearlman, R E; Gasser, P J; Park, M S; Moens, P B

    1997-01-01

    In mammalian systems, an approximately M(r) 30,000 Cor1 protein has been identified as a major component of the meiotic prophase chromosome cores, and a M(r) 125,000 Syn1 protein is present between homologue cores where they are synapsed and form the synaptonemal complex (SC). Immunolocalization of these proteins during meiosis suggests possible homo- and heterotypic interactions between the two as well as possible interactions with yet unrecognized proteins. We used the two-hybrid system in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae to detect possible protein-protein associations. Segments of hamsters Cor1 and Syn1 proteins were tested in various combinations for homo- and heterotypic interactions. In the cause of Cor1, homotypic interactions involve regions capable of coiled-coil formation, observation confirmed by in vitro affinity coprecipitation experiments. The two-hybrid assay detects no interaction of Cor1 protein with central and C-terminal fragments of Syn1 protein and no homotypic interactions involving these fragments of Syn1. Hamster Cor1 and Syn1 proteins both associate with the human ubiquitin-conjugation enzyme Hsubc9 as well as with the hamster Ubc9 homologue. The interactions between SC proteins and the Ubc9 protein may be significant for SC disassembly, which coincides with the repulsion of homologs by late prophase I, and also for the termination of sister centromere cohesiveness at anaphase II. Images PMID:9285814

  14. Discovering functional interdependence relationship in PPI networks for protein complex identification.

    PubMed

    Lam, Winnie W M; Chan, Keith C C

    2012-04-01

    Protein molecules interact with each other in protein complexes to perform many vital functions, and different computational techniques have been developed to identify protein complexes in protein-protein interaction (PPI) networks. These techniques are developed to search for subgraphs of high connectivity in PPI networks under the assumption that the proteins in a protein complex are highly interconnected. While these techniques have been shown to be quite effective, it is also possible that the matching rate between the protein complexes they discover and those that are previously determined experimentally be relatively low and the "false-alarm" rate can be relatively high. This is especially the case when the assumption of proteins in protein complexes being more highly interconnected be relatively invalid. To increase the matching rate and reduce the false-alarm rate, we have developed a technique that can work effectively without having to make this assumption. The name of the technique called protein complex identification by discovering functional interdependence (PCIFI) searches for protein complexes in PPI networks by taking into consideration both the functional interdependence relationship between protein molecules and the network topology of the network. The PCIFI works in several steps. The first step is to construct a multiple-function protein network graph by labeling each vertex with one or more of the molecular functions it performs. The second step is to filter out protein interactions between protein pairs that are not functionally interdependent of each other in the statistical sense. The third step is to make use of an information-theoretic measure to determine the strength of the functional interdependence between all remaining interacting protein pairs. Finally, the last step is to try to form protein complexes based on the measure of the strength of functional interdependence and the connectivity between proteins. For performance evaluation

  15. Quantification of Detergents Complexed with Membrane Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Chaptal, Vincent; Delolme, Frédéric; Kilburg, Arnaud; Magnard, Sandrine; Montigny, Cédric; Picard, Martin; Prier, Charlène; Monticelli, Luca; Bornert, Olivier; Agez, Morgane; Ravaud, Stéphanie; Orelle, Cédric; Wagner, Renaud; Jawhari, Anass; Broutin, Isabelle; Pebay-Peyroula, Eva; Jault, Jean-Michel; Kaback, H. Ronald; le Maire, Marc; Falson, Pierre

    2017-01-01

    Most membrane proteins studies require the use of detergents, but because of the lack of a general, accurate and rapid method to quantify them, many uncertainties remain that hamper proper functional and structural data analyses. To solve this problem, we propose a method based on matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) that allows quantification of pure or mixed detergents in complex with membrane proteins. We validated the method with a wide variety of detergents and membrane proteins. We automated the process, thereby allowing routine quantification for a broad spectrum of usage. As a first illustration, we show how to obtain information of the amount of detergent in complex with a membrane protein, essential for liposome or nanodiscs reconstitutions. Thanks to the method, we also show how to reliably and easily estimate the detergent corona diameter and select the smallest size, critical for favoring protein-protein contacts and triggering/promoting membrane protein crystallization, and to visualize the detergent belt for Cryo-EM studies. PMID:28176812

  16. Peroxisome protein import: a complex journey

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Alison; Hogg, Thomas Lanyon; Warriner, Stuart L.

    2016-01-01

    The import of proteins into peroxisomes possesses many unusual features such as the ability to import folded proteins, and a surprising diversity of targeting signals with differing affinities that can be recognized by the same receptor. As understanding of the structure and function of many components of the protein import machinery has grown, an increasingly complex network of factors affecting each step of the import pathway has emerged. Structural studies have revealed the presence of additional interactions between cargo proteins and the PEX5 receptor that affect import potential, with a subtle network of cargo-induced conformational changes in PEX5 being involved in the import process. Biochemical studies have also indicated an interdependence of receptor–cargo import with release of unloaded receptor from the peroxisome. Here, we provide an update on recent literature concerning mechanisms of protein import into peroxisomes. PMID:27284042

  17. New Anthocyanin-Human Salivary Protein Complexes.

    PubMed

    Ferrer-Gallego, Raúl; Soares, Susana; Mateus, Nuno; Rivas-Gonzalo, Julián; Escribano-Bailón, M Teresa; de Freitas, Victor

    2015-08-04

    The interaction between phenolic compounds and salivary proteins is considered the basis of the poorly understood phenomenon of astringency. Furthermore, this interaction is an important factor in relation to their bioavailability. In this work, interactions between anthocyanin and human salivary protein fraction were studied by mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS and FIA-ESI-MS) and saturation-transfer difference (STD) NMR spectroscopy. Anthocyanins were able to interact with saliva proteins. The dissociation constant (KD) between malvidin 3-glucoside and salivary proline-rich proteins was 1.92 mM for the hemiketal form (pH 3.4) and 1.83 mM for the flavylium cation (pH 1.0). New soluble complexes between these salivary proteins and malvidin 3-glucoside were identified for the first time.

  18. The pain interactome: connecting pain-specific protein interactions.

    PubMed

    Jamieson, Daniel G; Moss, Andrew; Kennedy, Michael; Jones, Sherrie; Nenadic, Goran; Robertson, David L; Sidders, Ben

    2014-11-01

    Understanding the molecular mechanisms associated with disease is a central goal of modern medical research. As such, many thousands of experiments have been published that detail individual molecular events that contribute to a disease. Here we use a semi-automated text mining approach to accurately and exhaustively curate the primary literature for chronic pain states. In so doing, we create a comprehensive network of 1,002 contextualized protein-protein interactions (PPIs) specifically associated with pain. The PPIs form a highly interconnected and coherent structure, and the resulting network provides an alternative to those derived from connecting genes associated with pain using interactions that have not been shown to occur in a painful state. We exploit the contextual data associated with our interactions to analyse subnetworks specific to inflammatory and neuropathic pain, and to various anatomical regions. Here, we identify potential targets for further study and several drug-repurposing opportunities. Finally, the network provides a framework for the interpretation of new data within the field of pain.

  19. Assembly reflects evolution of protein complexes.

    PubMed

    Levy, Emmanuel D; Boeri Erba, Elisabetta; Robinson, Carol V; Teichmann, Sarah A

    2008-06-26

    A homomer is formed by self-interacting copies of a protein unit. This is functionally important, as in allostery, and structurally crucial because mis-assembly of homomers is implicated in disease. Homomers are widespread, with 50-70% of proteins with a known quaternary state assembling into such structures. Despite their prevalence, their role in the evolution of cellular machinery and the potential for their use in the design of new molecular machines, little is known about the mechanisms that drive formation of homomers at the level of evolution and assembly in the cell. Here we present an analysis of over 5,000 unique atomic structures and show that the quaternary structure of homomers is conserved in over 70% of protein pairs sharing as little as 30% sequence identity. Where quaternary structure is not conserved among the members of a protein family, a detailed investigation revealed well-defined evolutionary pathways by which proteins transit between different quaternary structure types. Furthermore, we show by perturbing subunit interfaces within complexes and by mass spectrometry analysis, that the (dis)assembly pathway mimics the evolutionary pathway. These data represent a molecular analogy to Haeckel's evolutionary paradigm of embryonic development, where an intermediate in the assembly of a complex represents a form that appeared in its own evolutionary history. Our model of self-assembly allows reliable prediction of evolution and assembly of a complex solely from its crystal structure.

  20. Hsp70 Protein Complexes as Drug Targets

    PubMed Central

    Assimon, Victoria A.; Gillies, Anne T.; Rauch, Jennifer N.; Gestwicki, Jason E.

    2013-01-01

    Heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) plays critical roles in proteostasis and is an emerging target for multiple diseases. However, competitive inhibition of the enzymatic activity of Hsp70 has proven challenging and, in some cases, may not be the most productive way to redirect Hsp70 function. Another approach is to inhibit Hsp70’s interactions with important co-chaperones, such as J proteins, nucleotide exchange factors (NEFs) and tetratricopeptide repeat (TPR) domain-containing proteins. These co-chaperones normally bind Hsp70 and guide its many diverse cellular activities. Complexes between Hsp70 and co-chaperones have been shown to have specific functions, such as pro-folding, pro-degradation and pro-trafficking. Thus, a promising strategy may be to block protein-protein interactions between Hsp70 and its co-chaperones or to target allosteric sites that disrupt these contacts. Such an approach might shift the balance of Hsp70 complexes and re-shape the proteome and it has the potential to restore healthy proteostasis. In this review, we discuss specific challenges and opportunities related to those goals. By pursuing Hsp70 complexes as drug targets, we might not only develop new leads for therapeutic development, but also discover new chemical probes for use in understanding Hsp70 biology. PMID:22920901

  1. Hsp70 protein complexes as drug targets.

    PubMed

    Assimon, Victoria A; Gillies, Anne T; Rauch, Jennifer N; Gestwicki, Jason E

    2013-01-01

    Heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) plays critical roles in proteostasis and is an emerging target for multiple diseases. However, competitive inhibition of the enzymatic activity of Hsp70 has proven challenging and, in some cases, may not be the most productive way to redirect Hsp70 function. Another approach is to inhibit Hsp70's interactions with important co-chaperones, such as J proteins, nucleotide exchange factors (NEFs) and tetratricopeptide repeat (TPR) domain-containing proteins. These co-chaperones normally bind Hsp70 and guide its many diverse cellular activities. Complexes between Hsp70 and co-chaperones have been shown to have specific functions, including roles in pro-folding, pro-degradation and pro-trafficking pathways. Thus, a promising strategy may be to block protein- protein interactions between Hsp70 and its co-chaperones or to target allosteric sites that disrupt these contacts. Such an approach might shift the balance of Hsp70 complexes and re-shape the proteome and it has the potential to restore healthy proteostasis. In this review, we discuss specific challenges and opportunities related to these goals. By pursuing Hsp70 complexes as drug targets, we might not only develop new leads for therapeutic development, but also discover new chemical probes for use in understanding Hsp70 biology.

  2. Characterization of protein complexes using targeted proteomics.

    PubMed

    Gomez, Yassel Ramos; Gallien, Sebastien; Huerta, Vivian; van Oostrum, Jan; Domon, Bruno; Gonzalez, Luis Javier

    2014-01-01

    Biological systems are not only controlled by the abundance of individual proteins, but also by the formation of complexes and the dynamics of protein-protein interactions. The identification of the components of protein complexes can be obtained by shotgun proteomics using affinity purification coupled to mass spectrometry. Such studies include the analyses of several samples and experimental controls in order to discriminate true specific interactions from unspecific interactions and contaminants. However, shotgun proteomics have limited quantification capabilities for low abundant proteins on large sample sets due to the undersampling and the stochastic precursor ion selection. In this context, targeted proteomics constitutes a powerful analytical tool to systematically detect and quantify peptides in multiple samples, for instance those obtained from affinity purification experiments. Hypothesis-driven strategies have mainly relied on the selected reaction monitoring (SRM) technique performed on triple quadrupole instruments, which enables highly selective and sensitive measurements of peptides, acting as surrogates of the pre-selected proteins, over a wide range of concentrations. More recently, novel quantitative methods based on high resolution instruments, such as the parallel reaction monitoring (PRM) technique implemented on the quadrupole-orbitrap instrument, have arisen and provided alternatives to perform quantitative analyses with enhanced selectivity.The application of targeted proteomics to protein-protein interaction experiments from plasma and other physiological fluid samples and the inclusion of parallel reaction monitoring (PRM), combined with other recent technology developments opens a vast area for clinical application of proteomics. It is anticipated that it will reveal valuable information about specific, individual, responses against drugs, exogenous proteins or pathogens.

  3. Detection of protein complex from protein-protein interaction network using Markov clustering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ochieng, P. J.; Kusuma, W. A.; Haryanto, T.

    2017-05-01

    Detection of complexes, or groups of functionally related proteins, is an important challenge while analysing biological networks. However, existing algorithms to identify protein complexes are insufficient when applied to dense networks of experimentally derived interaction data. Therefore, we introduced a graph clustering method based on Markov clustering algorithm to identify protein complex within highly interconnected protein-protein interaction networks. Protein-protein interaction network was first constructed to develop geometrical network, the network was then partitioned using Markov clustering to detect protein complexes. The interest of the proposed method was illustrated by its application to Human Proteins associated to type II diabetes mellitus. Flow simulation of MCL algorithm was initially performed and topological properties of the resultant network were analysed for detection of the protein complex. The results indicated the proposed method successfully detect an overall of 34 complexes with 11 complexes consisting of overlapping modules and 20 non-overlapping modules. The major complex consisted of 102 proteins and 521 interactions with cluster modularity and density of 0.745 and 0.101 respectively. The comparison analysis revealed MCL out perform AP, MCODE and SCPS algorithms with high clustering coefficient (0.751) network density and modularity index (0.630). This demonstrated MCL was the most reliable and efficient graph clustering algorithm for detection of protein complexes from PPI networks.

  4. Linker of nucleoskeleton and cytoskeleton complex proteins in cardiac structure, function, and disease.

    PubMed

    Stroud, Matthew J; Banerjee, Indroneal; Veevers, Jennifer; Chen, Ju

    2014-01-31

    The linker of nucleoskeleton and cytoskeleton (LINC) complex, composed of proteins within the inner and the outer nuclear membranes, connects the nuclear lamina to the cytoskeleton. The importance of this complex has been highlighted by the discovery of mutations in genes encoding LINC complex proteins, which cause skeletal or cardiac myopathies. Herein, this review summarizes structure, function, and interactions of major components of the LINC complex, highlights how mutations in these proteins may lead to cardiac disease, and outlines future challenges in the field.

  5. Hierarchical organization unveiled by functional connectivity in complex brain networks.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Changsong; Zemanová, Lucia; Zamora, Gorka; Hilgetag, Claus C; Kurths, Jürgen

    2006-12-08

    How do diverse dynamical patterns arise from the topology of complex networks? We study synchronization dynamics in the cortical brain network of the cat, which displays a hierarchically clustered organization, by modeling each node (cortical area) with a subnetwork of interacting excitable neurons. We find that in the biologically plausible regime the dynamics exhibits a hierarchical modular organization, in particular, revealing functional clusters coinciding with the anatomical communities at different scales. Our results provide insights into the relationship between network topology and functional organization of complex brain networks.

  6. The Living Career: Complexity, Chaos, Connections and Career.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bloch, Deborah P.

    The purpose of this paper is to present a theory of career development drawn from current work in the physical and biological sciences, specifically work that is associated with chaos and complexity theories. The paper includes specific suggestions for practice based upon the theory and reflections of career professionals on its use. The theory…

  7. INTERDISCIPLINARY PHYSICS AND RELATED AREAS OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY: Synchronization in Complex Networks with Multiple Connections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Qing-Chu; Fu, Xin-Chu; Sun, Wei-Gang

    2010-01-01

    In this paper a class of networks with multiple connections are discussed. The multiple connections include two different types of links between nodes in complex networks. For this new model, we give a simple generating procedure. Furthermore, we investigate dynamical synchronization behavior in a delayed two-layer network, giving corresponding theoretical analysis and numerical examples.

  8. Connecting Core Percolation and Controllability of Complex Networks

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Tao; Pósfai, Márton

    2014-01-01

    Core percolation is a fundamental structural transition in complex networks related to a wide range of important problems. Recent advances have provided us an analytical framework of core percolation in uncorrelated random networks with arbitrary degree distributions. Here we apply the tools in analysis of network controllability. We confirm analytically that the emergence of the bifurcation in control coincides with the formation of the core and the structure of the core determines the control mode of the network. We also derive the analytical expression related to the controllability robustness by extending the deduction in core percolation. These findings help us better understand the interesting interplay between the structural and dynamical properties of complex networks. PMID:24946797

  9. Thermodynamics of interfacial changes in a protein-protein complex.

    PubMed

    Das, Amit; Chakrabarti, Jaydeb; Ghosh, Mahua

    2014-03-04

    Recent experiments with biomacromolecular complexes suggest that structural modifications at the interfaces are vital for stability of the complexes and the functions of the biomacromolecules. Although several qualitative aspects about such interfaces are known from structural data, quantification of the interfacial changes is lacking. In this work, we study the thermodynamic changes at the interface in the complex between an enzyme, Nuclease A (NucA), and a specific inhibitor protein, NuiA. We calculate the conformational free energy and conformational entropy costs from histograms of the dihedral angles generated from all-atom molecular dynamics simulations on the complex and the free proteins. We extract the conformational thermodynamic parameters for changes in the tertiary structure of NuiA. We show that the binding is dominated by the interfacial changes, where the basic residues of NucA and acidic residues of NuiA are highly ordered and stabilized via strong electrostatic interactions. Our results correlate well with known information from structural studies. The tight interfacial structure is reflected in the significant changes in the structure and dynamics of the water molecules at the enzyme-inhibitor interface. The interfacial water molecules contribute significantly to the entropy loss for the overall complexation.

  10. Connectivity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grush, Mary, Ed.

    2006-01-01

    Connectivity has dramatically changed the landscape of higher education IT. From "on-demand" services for net-gen students and advanced eLearning systems for faculty, to high-performance computing grid resources for researchers, IT now provides more networked services than ever to connect campus constituents to each other and to the world.…

  11. Protein complexes and functional modules in molecular networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spirin, Victor; Mirny, Leonid A.

    2003-10-01

    Proteins, nucleic acids, and small molecules form a dense network of molecular interactions in a cell. Molecules are nodes of this network, and the interactions between them are edges. The architecture of molecular networks can reveal important principles of cellular organization and function, similarly to the way that protein structure tells us about the function and organization of a protein. Computational analysis of molecular networks has been primarily concerned with node degree [Wagner, A. & Fell, D. A. (2001) Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. B 268, 1803-1810; Jeong, H., Tombor, B., Albert, R., Oltvai, Z. N. & Barabasi, A. L. (2000) Nature 407, 651-654] or degree correlation [Maslov, S. & Sneppen, K. (2002) Science 296, 910-913], and hence focused on single/two-body properties of these networks. Here, by analyzing the multibody structure of the network of protein-protein interactions, we discovered molecular modules that are densely connected within themselves but sparsely connected with the rest of the network. Comparison with experimental data and functional annotation of genes showed two types of modules: (i) protein complexes (splicing machinery, transcription factors, etc.) and (ii) dynamic functional units (signaling cascades, cell-cycle regulation, etc.). Discovered modules are highly statistically significant, as is evident from comparison with random graphs, and are robust to noise in the data. Our results provide strong support for the network modularity principle introduced by Hartwell et al. [Hartwell, L. H., Hopfield, J. J., Leibler, S. & Murray, A. W. (1999) Nature 402, C47-C52], suggesting that found modules constitute the "building blocks" of molecular networks.

  12. Protein complexes and functional modules in molecular networks.

    PubMed

    Spirin, Victor; Mirny, Leonid A

    2003-10-14

    Proteins, nucleic acids, and small molecules form a dense network of molecular interactions in a cell. Molecules are nodes of this network, and the interactions between them are edges. The architecture of molecular networks can reveal important principles of cellular organization and function, similarly to the way that protein structure tells us about the function and organization of a protein. Computational analysis of molecular networks has been primarily concerned with node degree [Wagner, A. & Fell, D. A. (2001) Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. B 268, 1803-1810; Jeong, H., Tombor, B., Albert, R., Oltvai, Z. N. & Barabasi, A. L. (2000) Nature 407, 651-654] or degree correlation [Maslov, S. & Sneppen, K. (2002) Science 296, 910-913], and hence focused on single/two-body properties of these networks. Here, by analyzing the multibody structure of the network of protein-protein interactions, we discovered molecular modules that are densely connected within themselves but sparsely connected with the rest of the network. Comparison with experimental data and functional annotation of genes showed two types of modules: (i) protein complexes (splicing machinery, transcription factors, etc.) and (ii) dynamic functional units (signaling cascades, cell-cycle regulation, etc.). Discovered modules are highly statistically significant, as is evident from comparison with random graphs, and are robust to noise in the data. Our results provide strong support for the network modularity principle introduced by Hartwell et al. [Hartwell, L. H., Hopfield, J. J., Leibler, S. & Murray, A. W. (1999) Nature 402, C47-C52], suggesting that found modules constitute the "building blocks" of molecular networks.

  13. Using contrast patterns between true complexes and random subgraphs in PPI networks to predict unknown protein complexes

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Quanzhong; Song, Jiangning; Li, Jinyan

    2016-01-01

    Most protein complex detection methods utilize unsupervised techniques to cluster densely connected nodes in a protein-protein interaction (PPI) network, in spite of the fact that many true complexes are not dense subgraphs. Supervised methods have been proposed recently, but they do not answer why a group of proteins are predicted as a complex, and they have not investigated how to detect new complexes of one species by training the model on the PPI data of another species. We propose a novel supervised method to address these issues. The key idea is to discover emerging patterns (EPs), a type of contrast pattern, which can clearly distinguish true complexes from random subgraphs in a PPI network. An integrative score of EPs is defined to measure how likely a subgraph of proteins can form a complex. New complexes thus can grow from our seed proteins by iteratively updating this score. The performance of our method is tested on eight benchmark PPI datasets and compared with seven unsupervised methods, two supervised and one semi-supervised methods under five standards to assess the quality of the predicted complexes. The results show that in most cases our method achieved a better performance, sometimes significantly. PMID:26868667

  14. Radiation damage to DNA-protein complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spotheim-Maurizot, M.; Davídková, M.

    2011-01-01

    We review here the advances in understanding the effects of ionizing radiations on DNA, proteins and their complexes, resulting from the collaboration of the authors' teams. It concerns the preponderant indirect effect of low LET ionizing radiations, thus the attack of the macromolecules in aqueous solution by the most aggressive product of water radiolysis, the hydroxyl radical. A model of simulation of the reaction of these radicals with the macromolecules (called RADACK) was developed and was used for calculating the probabilities of damage of each constituent of DNA or proteins (nucleotide or amino-acid). The calculations allowed to draw conclusions from electrophoresis, mutagenesis, spectroscopic (fluorescence, circular dichroïsm) and mass spectrometry experiments. Thus we have shown that the extent and location of the lesions are strongly dependent on the 3D structure of the macromolecules, which in turns is modulated by their sequence and by the binding of some ligands. Molecular dynamics simulation completed our studies in showing the consequences of each lesion on the stability and structure of the proteins and their complexes with DNA.

  15. A better prediction of conformational changes of proteins using minimally connected network models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmadi Toussi, Cyrus; Soheilifard, Reza

    2016-12-01

    Elastic network models have recently been used for studying low-frequency collective motions of proteins. These models simplify the complexity that arises from normal mode analysis by considering a simplified potential involving a few parameters. Two common parameters in most of the elastic network models are cutoff radius and force constant. Although the latter has been studied extensively and even elaborate new models were introduced, for the former usually an ad-hoc cutoff radius is considered. Moreover, the quality of the network models is usually assessed by evaluating their prediction against experimental B-factors. In this work, we consider various common elastic network models with different cutoff radii and assess them by their ability to predict conformational changes of proteins in complexes from unbound to bound state. This prediction is performed by perturbing the unbound structure using a number of low-frequency normal modes of its network model to optimally fit the bound structure. We evaluated a dataset of 30 proteins with distinct unbound and bound structures using this criterion. The results showed that, opposed to the common calibration process based on B-factors, a meaningful relationship exists between the quality of the prediction and model parameters. It was shown that the cutoff radius has a major role in this prediction and minimally connected network models, which use the shortest cutoff radius for which the network is stable, give the best results. It was also shown that by considering the first ten normal modes, the conformational changes can be predicted by about 25 percent. Hence, the evaluation process was extended to the case of considering the contribution of all normal modes in the prediction. The results indicated that minimally connected network models are superior, despite their simplicity, when any number of modes are considered in the prediction.

  16. GalaxyRefineComplex: Refinement of protein-protein complex model structures driven by interface repacking.

    PubMed

    Heo, Lim; Lee, Hasup; Seok, Chaok

    2016-08-18

    Protein-protein docking methods have been widely used to gain an atomic-level understanding of protein interactions. However, docking methods that employ low-resolution energy functions are popular because of computational efficiency. Low-resolution docking tends to generate protein complex structures that are not fully optimized. GalaxyRefineComplex takes such low-resolution docking structures and refines them to improve model accuracy in terms of both interface contact and inter-protein orientation. This refinement method allows flexibility at the protein interface and in the overall docking structure to capture conformational changes that occur upon binding. Symmetric refinement is also provided for symmetric homo-complexes. This method was validated by refining models produced by available docking programs, including ZDOCK and M-ZDOCK, and was successfully applied to CAPRI targets in a blind fashion. An example of using the refinement method with an existing docking method for ligand binding mode prediction of a drug target is also presented. A web server that implements the method is freely available at http://galaxy.seoklab.org/refinecomplex.

  17. GalaxyRefineComplex: Refinement of protein-protein complex model structures driven by interface repacking

    PubMed Central

    Heo, Lim; Lee, Hasup; Seok, Chaok

    2016-01-01

    Protein-protein docking methods have been widely used to gain an atomic-level understanding of protein interactions. However, docking methods that employ low-resolution energy functions are popular because of computational efficiency. Low-resolution docking tends to generate protein complex structures that are not fully optimized. GalaxyRefineComplex takes such low-resolution docking structures and refines them to improve model accuracy in terms of both interface contact and inter-protein orientation. This refinement method allows flexibility at the protein interface and in the overall docking structure to capture conformational changes that occur upon binding. Symmetric refinement is also provided for symmetric homo-complexes. This method was validated by refining models produced by available docking programs, including ZDOCK and M-ZDOCK, and was successfully applied to CAPRI targets in a blind fashion. An example of using the refinement method with an existing docking method for ligand binding mode prediction of a drug target is also presented. A web server that implements the method is freely available at http://galaxy.seoklab.org/refinecomplex. PMID:27535582

  18. The emergence of Dutch connectives; how cumulative cognitive complexity explains the order of acquisition.

    PubMed

    Evers-Vermeul, Jacqueline; Sanders, Ted

    2009-09-01

    ABSTRACTBefore they are three years old, most children have started to build coherent discourse. This article focuses on one important linguistic device children have to learn: connectives. The main questions are: Do connectives emerge in a fixed order? And if so, how can this order be explained? In line with Bloom et al. (1980) we propose to explain similarities in the development in terms of cumulative cognitive complexity: complex relations are acquired later than simple ones. Following a cognitive approach to coherence relations, we expect positive relations to be acquired before negatives and additives before temporals and causals. We develop a multidimensional approach to the acquisition process in order to account for the variation among children. Hypotheses were tested by analyzing data from children aged 1 ; 5-5 ; 6 on the emergence of Dutch connectives. The multidimensional approach of cognitive complexity describes both the uniformity and the diversity in the developmental sequences of Dutch-speaking and English-speaking children.

  19. Analysis of DNA-protein complexes induced by chemical carcinogens

    SciTech Connect

    Costa, M. )

    1990-11-01

    DNA-protein complexes induced in intact cells by chromate have been isolated and compared with those formed by other agents such as cis-platinum. Actin has been identified as one of the major proteins that is complexed to the DNA by chromate based upon a number of criteria including, a molecular weight and isoelectric point identical to actin, positive reaction with actin polyclonal antibody, and proteolytic mapping. Chromate and cis-platinum both complex proteins of very similar molecular weight and isoelectric points and these complexes can be disrupted by exposure to chelating or reducing agents. These results suggest that the metal itself is participating in rather than catalyzing the formation of a DNA-protein complex. An antiserum which was raised to chromate-induced DNA-protein complexes reacted primarily with a 97,000 protein that could not be detected by silver staining. Western blots and slot blots were utilized to detect p97 DNA-protein complexes formed by cis-platinum, UV, formaldehyde, and chromate. Other work in this area, involving studying whether DNA-protein complexes are formed in actively transcribed DNA compared with genetically inactive DNA, is discussed. Methods to detect DNA-protein complexes, the stability and repair of these lesions, and characterization of DNA-protein complexes are reviewed. Nuclear matrix proteins have been identified as a major substrate for the formation of DNA-protein complexes and these findings are also reviewed.

  20. Plasticity in Single Axon Glutamatergic Connection to GABAergic Interneurons Regulates Complex Events in the Human Neocortex

    PubMed Central

    Szegedi, Viktor; Paizs, Melinda; Csakvari, Eszter; Molnar, Gabor; Barzo, Pal; Tamas, Gabor; Lamsa, Karri

    2016-01-01

    In the human neocortex, single excitatory pyramidal cells can elicit very large glutamatergic EPSPs (VLEs) in inhibitory GABAergic interneurons capable of triggering their firing with short (3–5 ms) delay. Similar strong excitatory connections between two individual neurons have not been found in nonhuman cortices, suggesting that these synapses are specific to human interneurons. The VLEs are crucial for generating neocortical complex events, observed as single pyramidal cell spike-evoked discharge of cell assemblies in the frontal and temporal cortices. However, long-term plasticity of the VLE connections and how the plasticity modulates neocortical complex events has not been studied. Using triple and dual whole-cell recordings from synaptically connected human neocortical layers 2–3 neurons, we show that VLEs in fast-spiking GABAergic interneurons exhibit robust activity-induced long-term depression (LTD). The LTD by single pyramidal cell 40 Hz spike bursts is specific to connections with VLEs, requires group I metabotropic glutamate receptors, and has a presynaptic mechanism. The LTD of VLE connections alters suprathreshold activation of interneurons in the complex events suppressing the discharge of fast-spiking GABAergic cells. The VLEs triggering the complex events may contribute to cognitive processes in the human neocortex, and their long-term plasticity can alter the discharging cortical cell assemblies by learning. PMID:27828957

  1. Plasticity in Single Axon Glutamatergic Connection to GABAergic Interneurons Regulates Complex Events in the Human Neocortex.

    PubMed

    Szegedi, Viktor; Paizs, Melinda; Csakvari, Eszter; Molnar, Gabor; Barzo, Pal; Tamas, Gabor; Lamsa, Karri

    2016-11-01

    In the human neocortex, single excitatory pyramidal cells can elicit very large glutamatergic EPSPs (VLEs) in inhibitory GABAergic interneurons capable of triggering their firing with short (3-5 ms) delay. Similar strong excitatory connections between two individual neurons have not been found in nonhuman cortices, suggesting that these synapses are specific to human interneurons. The VLEs are crucial for generating neocortical complex events, observed as single pyramidal cell spike-evoked discharge of cell assemblies in the frontal and temporal cortices. However, long-term plasticity of the VLE connections and how the plasticity modulates neocortical complex events has not been studied. Using triple and dual whole-cell recordings from synaptically connected human neocortical layers 2-3 neurons, we show that VLEs in fast-spiking GABAergic interneurons exhibit robust activity-induced long-term depression (LTD). The LTD by single pyramidal cell 40 Hz spike bursts is specific to connections with VLEs, requires group I metabotropic glutamate receptors, and has a presynaptic mechanism. The LTD of VLE connections alters suprathreshold activation of interneurons in the complex events suppressing the discharge of fast-spiking GABAergic cells. The VLEs triggering the complex events may contribute to cognitive processes in the human neocortex, and their long-term plasticity can alter the discharging cortical cell assemblies by learning.

  2. Molecular Dynamics Study of HIV-1 RT-DNA-Nevirapine Complexes Explains NNRTI Inhibition, and Resistance by Connection Mutations

    PubMed Central

    Vijayan, R.S.K.; Arnold, Eddy; Das, Kalyan

    2015-01-01

    HIV-1 reverse transcriptase (RT) is a multifunctional enzyme that is targeted by nucleoside analogs (NRTIs) and nonnucleoside inhibitors (NNRTIs). NNRTIs are allosteric inhibitors of RT, and constitute an integral part of the highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) regimen. Under selective pressure, HIV-1 acquires resistance against NNRTIs primarily by selecting mutations around the NNRTI pocket. Complete RT sequencing of clinical isolates revealed that spatially distal mutations arising in connection and the RNase H domain also confer NNRTI resistance and contribute to NRTI resistance. However, the precise structural mechanism by which the connection domain mutations confer NNRTI resistance is poorly understood. We performed 50-ns MD simulations, followed by essential dynamics, free-energy landscape analyses and network analyses of RT-DNA, RT-DNA-nevirapine, and N348I/T369I mutant RT-DNA-nevirapine complexes. MD simulation studies revealed altered global motions and restricted conformational landscape of RT upon nevirapine binding. Analysis of protein structure network parameters demonstrated a dissortative hub pattern in the RT-DNA complex and an assortative hub pattern in the RT-DNA-nevirapine complex suggesting enhanced rigidity of RT upon nevirapine binding. The connection subdomain mutations N348I/T369I did not induce any significant structural change; rather, these mutations modulate the conformational dynamics and alter the long-range allosteric communication network between the connection subdomain and NNRTI pocket. Insights from the present study provide a structural basis for the biochemical and clinical findings on drug resistance caused by the connection and RNase H mutations. PMID:24174331

  3. On the history of the connectivity index: from the connectivity index to the exact solution of the protein alignment problem.

    PubMed

    Randić, M

    2015-01-01

    We briefly review the history of the connectivity index from 1975 to date. We hope to throw some light on why this unique, by its design, graph theoretical molecular descriptor continues to be of interest in QSAR, having wide use in applications in structure-property and structure-activity studies. We will elaborate on its generalizations and the insights it offered on applications in Multiple Regression Analysis (MRA). Going beyond the connectivity index we will outline several related developments in the development of molecular descriptors used in MRA, including molecular ID numbers (1986), the variable connectivity index (1991), orthogonal regression (1991), irrelevance of co-linearity of descriptors (1997), anti-connectivity (2006), and high discriminatory descriptors characterizing molecular similarity (2015). We will comment on beauty in QSAR and recent progress in searching for similarity of DNA, proteins and the proteome. This review reports on several results which are little known to the structure-property-activity community, the significance of which may surprise those unfamiliar with the application of discrete mathematics to chemistry. It tells the reader many unknown stories about the connectivity index, which may help the reader to better understand the meaning of this index. Readers are not required to be familiar with graph theory.

  4. Connectivity in the human brain dissociates entropy and complexity of auditory inputs.

    PubMed

    Nastase, Samuel A; Iacovella, Vittorio; Davis, Ben; Hasson, Uri

    2015-03-01

    Complex systems are described according to two central dimensions: (a) the randomness of their output, quantified via entropy; and (b) their complexity, which reflects the organization of a system's generators. Whereas some approaches hold that complexity can be reduced to uncertainty or entropy, an axiom of complexity science is that signals with very high or very low entropy are generated by relatively non-complex systems, while complex systems typically generate outputs with entropy peaking between these two extremes. In understanding their environment, individuals would benefit from coding for both input entropy and complexity; entropy indexes uncertainty and can inform probabilistic coding strategies, whereas complexity reflects a concise and abstract representation of the underlying environmental configuration, which can serve independent purposes, e.g., as a template for generalization and rapid comparisons between environments. Using functional neuroimaging, we demonstrate that, in response to passively processed auditory inputs, functional integration patterns in the human brain track both the entropy and complexity of the auditory signal. Connectivity between several brain regions scaled monotonically with input entropy, suggesting sensitivity to uncertainty, whereas connectivity between other regions tracked entropy in a convex manner consistent with sensitivity to input complexity. These findings suggest that the human brain simultaneously tracks the uncertainty of sensory data and effectively models their environmental generators. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. Connectivity in the human brain dissociates entropy and complexity of auditory inputs☆

    PubMed Central

    Nastase, Samuel A.; Iacovella, Vittorio; Davis, Ben; Hasson, Uri

    2015-01-01

    Complex systems are described according to two central dimensions: (a) the randomness of their output, quantified via entropy; and (b) their complexity, which reflects the organization of a system's generators. Whereas some approaches hold that complexity can be reduced to uncertainty or entropy, an axiom of complexity science is that signals with very high or very low entropy are generated by relatively non-complex systems, while complex systems typically generate outputs with entropy peaking between these two extremes. In understanding their environment, individuals would benefit from coding for both input entropy and complexity; entropy indexes uncertainty and can inform probabilistic coding strategies, whereas complexity reflects a concise and abstract representation of the underlying environmental configuration, which can serve independent purposes, e.g., as a template for generalization and rapid comparisons between environments. Using functional neuroimaging, we demonstrate that, in response to passively processed auditory inputs, functional integration patterns in the human brain track both the entropy and complexity of the auditory signal. Connectivity between several brain regions scaled monotonically with input entropy, suggesting sensitivity to uncertainty, whereas connectivity between other regions tracked entropy in a convex manner consistent with sensitivity to input complexity. These findings suggest that the human brain simultaneously tracks the uncertainty of sensory data and effectively models their environmental generators. PMID:25536493

  6. Dockground: A comprehensive data resource for modeling of protein complexes.

    PubMed

    Kundrotas, Petras J; Anishchenko, Ivan; Dauzhenka, Taras; Kotthoff, Ian; Mnevets, Daniil; Copeland, Matthew M; Vakser, Ilya A

    2017-09-10

    Characterization of life processes at the molecular level requires structural details of protein interactions. The number of experimentally determined structures of protein-protein complexes accounts only for a fraction of known protein interactions. This gap in structural description of the interactome has to be bridged by modeling. An essential part of the development of structural modeling/docking techniques for protein interactions is databases of protein-protein complexes. They are necessary for studying protein interfaces, providing a knowledge base for docking algorithms, developing intermolecular potentials, search procedures, and scoring functions. Development of protein-protein docking techniques requires thorough benchmarking of different parts of the docking protocols on carefully curated sets of protein-protein complexes. We present a comprehensive description of the Dockground resource (http://dockground.compbio.ku.edu) for structural modeling of protein interactions, including previously unpublished unbound docking benchmark set 4, and the X-ray docking decoy set 2. The resource offers a variety of interconnected datasets of protein-protein complexes and other data for the development and testing of different aspects of protein docking methodologies. Based on protein-protein complexes extracted from the PDB biounit files, Dockground offers sets of X-ray unbound, simulated unbound, model, and docking decoy structures. All datasets are freely available for download, as a whole or selecting specific structures, through a user-friendly interface on one integrated website. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. © 2017 The Protein Society.

  7. Engineering of complex protein sialylation in plants

    PubMed Central

    Kallolimath, Somanath; Castilho, Alexandra; Strasser, Richard; Grünwald-Gruber, Clemens; Altmann, Friedrich; Strubl, Sebastian; Galuska, Christina Elisabeth; Zlatina, Kristina; Galuska, Sebastian Peter; Werner, Stefan; Thiesler, Hauke; Werneburg, Sebastian; Hildebrandt, Herbert; Gerardy-Schahn, Rita; Steinkellner, Herta

    2016-01-01

    Sialic acids (Sias) are abundant terminal modifications of protein-linked glycans. A unique feature of Sia, compared with other monosaccharides, is the formation of linear homo-polymers, with its most complex form polysialic acid (polySia). Sia and polySia mediate diverse biological functions and have great potential for therapeutic use. However, technological hurdles in producing defined protein sialylation due to the enormous structural diversity render their precise investigation a challenge. Here, we describe a plant-based expression platform that enables the controlled in vivo synthesis of sialylated structures with different interlinkages and degree of polymerization (DP). The approach relies on a combination of stably transformed plants with transient expression modules. By the introduction of multigene vectors carrying the human sialylation pathway into glycosylation-destructed mutants, transgenic plants that sialylate glycoproteins in α2,6- or α2,3-linkage were generated. Moreover, by the transient coexpression of human α2,8-polysialyltransferases, polySia structures with a DP >40 were synthesized in these plants. Importantly, plant-derived polySia are functionally active, as demonstrated by a cell-based cytotoxicity assay and inhibition of microglia activation. This pathway engineering approach enables experimental investigations of defined sialylation and facilitates a rational design of glycan structures with optimized biotechnological functions. PMID:27444013

  8. Modeling protein-protein and protein-peptide complexes: CAPRI 6th edition.

    PubMed

    Lensink, Marc F; Velankar, Sameer; Wodak, Shoshana J

    2017-03-01

    We present the sixth report evaluating the performance of methods for predicting the atomic resolution structures of protein complexes offered as targets to the community-wide initiative on the Critical Assessment of Predicted Interactions (CAPRI). The evaluation is based on a total of 20,670 predicted models for 8 protein-peptide complexes, a novel category of targets in CAPRI, and 12 protein-protein targets in CAPRI prediction Rounds held during the years 2013-2016. For two of the protein-protein targets, the focus was on the prediction of side-chain conformation and positions of interfacial water molecules. Seven of the protein-protein targets were particularly challenging owing to their multicomponent nature, to conformational changes at the binding site, or to a combination of both. Encouragingly, the very large multiprotein complex with the nucleosome was correctly predicted, and correct models were submitted for the protein-peptide targets, but not for some of the challenging protein-protein targets. Models of acceptable quality or better were obtained for 14 of the 20 targets, including medium quality models for 13 targets and high quality models for 8 targets, indicating tangible progress of present-day computational methods in modeling protein complexes with increased accuracy. Our evaluation suggests that the progress stems from better integration of different modeling tools with docking procedures, as well as the use of more sophisticated evolutionary information to score models. Nonetheless, adequate modeling of conformational flexibility in interacting proteins remains an important area with a crucial need for improvement. Proteins 2017; 85:359-377. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. U1-RNP and TLR receptors in the pathogenesis of mixed connective tissue diseasePart I. The U1-RNP complex and its biological significance in the pathogenesis of mixed connective tissue disease.

    PubMed

    Paradowska-Gorycka, Agnieszka

    2015-01-01

    Mixed connective tissue disease (MCTD) is a rare autoimmune syndrome, signified by complex interactions between disease-related phenomena, including inflammation, proliferative vascular arteriopathy, thrombotic events and humoral autoimmune processes. It is still controversial whether MCTD is a distinct clinical entity among systemic connective tissue diseases, although several authors consider that it is distinct and underline characteristic, distinct clinical, serological and immunogenetic features. The putative target of autoimmunity in MCTD is U1-RNP, which is a complex of U1-RNA and small nuclear RNP. Both the U1-RNA component and the specific proteins, particularly U1-70K, engage immune cells and their receptors in a complex network of interactions that ultimately lead to autoimmunity, inflammation, and tissue injury. U1-RNA is capable of inducing manifestations consistent with TLR activation. Stimulation of innate immunity by native RNA molecules with a double-stranded secondary structure may help explain the high prevalence of autoimmunity to RNA binding proteins.

  10. SUMO meets meiosis: an encounter at the synaptonemal complex: SUMO chains and sumoylated proteins suggest that heterogeneous and complex interactions lie at the centre of the synaptonemal complex.

    PubMed

    Watts, Felicity Z; Hoffmann, Eva

    2011-07-01

    Recent discoveries have identified the small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO) as the potential 'missing link' that could explain how the synaptonemal complex (SC) is formed during meiosis. The SC is important for a variety of chromosome interactions during meiosis and appears ladder-like. It is formed when 'axes' of the two homologous chromosomes become connected by the deposition of transverse filaments, forming the steps of the ladder. Although several components of axial and transverse elements have been identified, how the two are connected to form the SC has remained an enigma. Recent discoveries suggest that SUMO modification underlies protein-protein interactions within the SC of budding yeast. The versatility of SUMO in regulating protein-protein interactions adds an exciting new dimension to our understanding of the SC and suggests that SCs are not homogenous structures throughout the nucleus. We propose that this heterogeneity may allow differential regulation of chromosome structure and function.

  11. Developing and Modeling Complex Social Interventions: Introducing the Connecting People Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webber, Martin; Reidy, Hannah; Ansari, David; Stevens, Martin; Morris, David

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Modeling the processes involved in complex social interventions is important in social work practice, as it facilitates their implementation and translation into different contexts. This article reports the process of developing and modeling the connecting people intervention (CPI), a model of practice that supports people with mental…

  12. Developing and Modeling Complex Social Interventions: Introducing the Connecting People Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webber, Martin; Reidy, Hannah; Ansari, David; Stevens, Martin; Morris, David

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Modeling the processes involved in complex social interventions is important in social work practice, as it facilitates their implementation and translation into different contexts. This article reports the process of developing and modeling the connecting people intervention (CPI), a model of practice that supports people with mental…

  13. Detecting overlapping protein complexes by rough-fuzzy clustering in protein-protein interaction networks.

    PubMed

    Wu, Hao; Gao, Lin; Dong, Jihua; Yang, Xiaofei

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we present a novel rough-fuzzy clustering (RFC) method to detect overlapping protein complexes in protein-protein interaction (PPI) networks. RFC focuses on fuzzy relation model rather than graph model by integrating fuzzy sets and rough sets, employs the upper and lower approximations of rough sets to deal with overlapping complexes, and calculates the number of complexes automatically. Fuzzy relation between proteins is established and then transformed into fuzzy equivalence relation. Non-overlapping complexes correspond to equivalence classes satisfying certain equivalence relation. To obtain overlapping complexes, we calculate the similarity between one protein and each complex, and then determine whether the protein belongs to one or multiple complexes by computing the ratio of each similarity to maximum similarity. To validate RFC quantitatively, we test it in Gavin, Collins, Krogan and BioGRID datasets. Experiment results show that there is a good correspondence to reference complexes in MIPS and SGD databases. Then we compare RFC with several previous methods, including ClusterONE, CMC, MCL, GCE, OSLOM and CFinder. Results show the precision, sensitivity and separation are 32.4%, 42.9% and 81.9% higher than mean of the five methods in four weighted networks, and are 0.5%, 11.2% and 66.1% higher than mean of the six methods in five unweighted networks. Our method RFC works well for protein complexes detection and provides a new insight of network division, and it can also be applied to identify overlapping community structure in social networks and LFR benchmark networks.

  14. Detecting Overlapping Protein Complexes by Rough-Fuzzy Clustering in Protein-Protein Interaction Networks

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Hao; Gao, Lin; Dong, Jihua; Yang, Xiaofei

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we present a novel rough-fuzzy clustering (RFC) method to detect overlapping protein complexes in protein-protein interaction (PPI) networks. RFC focuses on fuzzy relation model rather than graph model by integrating fuzzy sets and rough sets, employs the upper and lower approximations of rough sets to deal with overlapping complexes, and calculates the number of complexes automatically. Fuzzy relation between proteins is established and then transformed into fuzzy equivalence relation. Non-overlapping complexes correspond to equivalence classes satisfying certain equivalence relation. To obtain overlapping complexes, we calculate the similarity between one protein and each complex, and then determine whether the protein belongs to one or multiple complexes by computing the ratio of each similarity to maximum similarity. To validate RFC quantitatively, we test it in Gavin, Collins, Krogan and BioGRID datasets. Experiment results show that there is a good correspondence to reference complexes in MIPS and SGD databases. Then we compare RFC with several previous methods, including ClusterONE, CMC, MCL, GCE, OSLOM and CFinder. Results show the precision, sensitivity and separation are 32.4%, 42.9% and 81.9% higher than mean of the five methods in four weighted networks, and are 0.5%, 11.2% and 66.1% higher than mean of the six methods in five unweighted networks. Our method RFC works well for protein complexes detection and provides a new insight of network division, and it can also be applied to identify overlapping community structure in social networks and LFR benchmark networks. PMID:24642838

  15. Cell density signal protein suitable for treatment of connective tissue injuries and defects

    DOEpatents

    Schwarz, Richard I.

    2002-08-13

    Identification, isolation and partial sequencing of a cell density protein produced by fibroblastic cells. The cell density signal protein comprising a 14 amino acid peptide or a fragment, variant, mutant or analog thereof, the deduced cDNA sequence from the 14 amino acid peptide, a recombinant protein, protein and peptide-specific antibodies, and the use of the peptide and peptide-specific antibodies as therapeutic agents for regulation of cell differentiation and proliferation. A method for treatment and repair of connective tissue and tendon injuries, collagen deficiency, and connective tissue defects.

  16. A New Method for Identifying Essential Proteins Based on Network Topology Properties and Protein Complexes

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Chao; Sun, Yongqi; Dong, Yadong

    2016-01-01

    Essential proteins are indispensable to the viability and reproduction of an organism. The identification of essential proteins is necessary not only for understanding the molecular mechanisms of cellular life but also for disease diagnosis, medical treatments and drug design. Many computational methods have been proposed for discovering essential proteins, but the precision of the prediction of essential proteins remains to be improved. In this paper, we propose a new method, LBCC, which is based on the combination of local density, betweenness centrality (BC) and in-degree centrality of complex (IDC). First, we introduce the common centrality measures; second, we propose the densities Den1(v) and Den2(v) of a node v to describe its local properties in the network; and finally, the combined strategy of Den1, Den2, BC and IDC is developed to improve the prediction precision. The experimental results demonstrate that LBCC outperforms traditional topological measures for predicting essential proteins, including degree centrality (DC), BC, subgraph centrality (SC), eigenvector centrality (EC), network centrality (NC), and the local average connectivity-based method (LAC). LBCC also improves the prediction precision by approximately 10 percent on the YMIPS and YMBD datasets compared to the most recently developed method, LIDC. PMID:27529423

  17. Construction of ontology augmented networks for protein complex prediction.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yijia; Lin, Hongfei; Yang, Zhihao; Wang, Jian

    2013-01-01

    Protein complexes are of great importance in understanding the principles of cellular organization and function. The increase in available protein-protein interaction data, gene ontology and other resources make it possible to develop computational methods for protein complex prediction. Most existing methods focus mainly on the topological structure of protein-protein interaction networks, and largely ignore the gene ontology annotation information. In this article, we constructed ontology augmented networks with protein-protein interaction data and gene ontology, which effectively unified the topological structure of protein-protein interaction networks and the similarity of gene ontology annotations into unified distance measures. After constructing ontology augmented networks, a novel method (clustering based on ontology augmented networks) was proposed to predict protein complexes, which was capable of taking into account the topological structure of the protein-protein interaction network, as well as the similarity of gene ontology annotations. Our method was applied to two different yeast protein-protein interaction datasets and predicted many well-known complexes. The experimental results showed that (i) ontology augmented networks and the unified distance measure can effectively combine the structure closeness and gene ontology annotation similarity; (ii) our method is valuable in predicting protein complexes and has higher F1 and accuracy compared to other competing methods.

  18. Identification of Evening Complex Associated Proteins in Arabidopsis by Affinity Purification and Mass Spectrometry*

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Zhouxin; Kay, Steve A.

    2016-01-01

    Many species possess an endogenous circadian clock to synchronize internal physiology with an oscillating external environment. In plants, the circadian clock coordinates growth, metabolism and development over daily and seasonal time scales. Many proteins in the circadian network form oscillating complexes that temporally regulate myriad processes, including signal transduction, transcription, protein degradation and post-translational modification. In Arabidopsis thaliana, a tripartite complex composed of EARLY FLOWERING 4 (ELF4), EARLY FLOWERING 3 (ELF3), and LUX ARRHYTHMO (LUX), named the evening complex, modulates daily rhythms in gene expression and growth through transcriptional regulation. However, little is known about the physical interactions that connect the circadian system to other pathways. We used affinity purification and mass spectrometry (AP-MS) methods to identify proteins that associate with the evening complex in A. thaliana. New connections within the circadian network as well as to light signaling pathways were identified, including linkages between the evening complex, TIMING OF CAB EXPRESSION1 (TOC1), TIME FOR COFFEE (TIC), all phytochromes and TANDEM ZINC KNUCKLE/PLUS3 (TZP). Coupling genetic mutation with affinity purifications tested the roles of phytochrome B (phyB), EARLY FLOWERING 4, and EARLY FLOWERING 3 as nodes connecting the evening complex to clock and light signaling pathways. These experiments establish a hierarchical association between pathways and indicate direct and indirect interactions. Specifically, the results suggested that EARLY FLOWERING 3 and phytochrome B act as hubs connecting the clock and red light signaling pathways. Finally, we characterized a clade of associated nuclear kinases that regulate circadian rhythms, growth, and flowering in A. thaliana. Coupling mass spectrometry and genetics is a powerful method to rapidly and directly identify novel components and connections within and between complex signaling

  19. Connecting Protein Structure to Intermolecular Interactions: A Computer Modeling Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abualia, Mohammed; Schroeder, Lianne; Garcia, Megan; Daubenmire, Patrick L.; Wink, Donald J.; Clark, Ginevra A.

    2016-01-01

    An understanding of protein folding relies on a solid foundation of a number of critical chemical concepts, such as molecular structure, intra-/intermolecular interactions, and relating structure to function. Recent reports show that students struggle on all levels to achieve these understandings and use them in meaningful ways. Further, several…

  20. Connecting Protein Structure to Intermolecular Interactions: A Computer Modeling Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abualia, Mohammed; Schroeder, Lianne; Garcia, Megan; Daubenmire, Patrick L.; Wink, Donald J.; Clark, Ginevra A.

    2016-01-01

    An understanding of protein folding relies on a solid foundation of a number of critical chemical concepts, such as molecular structure, intra-/intermolecular interactions, and relating structure to function. Recent reports show that students struggle on all levels to achieve these understandings and use them in meaningful ways. Further, several…

  1. Modularity in Protein Complex and Drug Interactions Reveals New Polypharmacological Properties

    PubMed Central

    Nacher, Jose C.; Schwartz, Jean-Marc

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies have highlighted the importance of interconnectivity in a large range of molecular and human disease-related systems. Network medicine has emerged as a new paradigm to deal with complex diseases. Connections between protein complexes and key diseases have been suggested for decades. However, it was not until recently that protein complexes were identified and classified in sufficient amounts to carry out a large-scale analysis of the human protein complex system. We here present the first systematic and comprehensive set of relationships between protein complexes and associated drugs and analyzed their topological features. The network structure is characterized by a high modularity, both in the bipartite graph and in its projections, indicating that its topology is highly distinct from a random network and that it contains a rich and heterogeneous internal modular structure. To unravel the relationships between modules of protein complexes, drugs and diseases, we investigated in depth the origins of this modular structure in examples of particular diseases. This analysis unveils new associations between diseases and protein complexes and highlights the potential role of polypharmacological drugs, which target multiple cellular functions to combat complex diseases driven by gain-of-function mutations. PMID:22279562

  2. Fish assemblages, connectivity, and habitat rehabilitation in a diked Great Lakes coastal wetland complex

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kowalski, Kurt P.; Wiley, Michael J.; Wilcox, Douglas A.

    2014-01-01

    Fish and plant assemblages in the highly modified Crane Creek coastal wetland complex of Lake Erie were sampled to characterize their spatial and seasonal patterns and to examine the implications of the hydrologic connection of diked wetland units to Lake Erie. Fyke netting captured 52 species and an abundance of fish in the Lake Erie–connected wetlands, but fewer than half of those species and much lower numbers and total masses of fish were captured in diked wetland units. Although all wetland units were immediately adjacent to Lake Erie, there were also pronounced differences in water quality and wetland vegetation between the hydrologically isolated and lake-connected wetlands. Large seasonal variations in fish assemblage composition and biomass were observed in connected wetland units but not in disconnected units. Reestablishment of hydrologic connectivity in diked wetland units would allow coastal Lake Erie fish to use these vegetated habitats seasonally, although connectivity does appear to pose some risks, such as the expansion of invasive plants and localized reductions in water quality. Periodic isolation and drawdown of the diked units could still be used to mimic intermediate levels of disturbance and manage invasive wetland vegetation.

  3. Separation of membrane protein complexes by native LDS-PAGE.

    PubMed

    Arnold, Janine; Shapiguzov, Alexey; Fucile, Geoffrey; Rochaix, Jean-David; Goldschmidt-Clermont, Michel; Eichacker, Lutz Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Gel electrophoresis has become one of the most important methods for the analysis of proteins and protein complexes in a molecular weight range of 1-10(7) kDa. The separation of membrane protein complexes remained challenging to standardize until the demonstration of Blue Native PAGE in 1991 [1] and Clear Native PAGE in 1994 [2]. We present a robust protocol for high-resolution separation of photosynthetic complexes from Arabidopsis thaliana using lithium dodecyl sulfate as anion in a modified Blue Native PAGE (LDS-PAGE). Here, non-covalently bound chlorophyll is used as a sensitive probe to characterize the assembly/biogenesis of the pigment-protein complexes essential for photosynthesis. The high fluorescence yield recorded from chlorophyll-binding protein complexes can also be used to establish the separation of native protein complexes as an electrophoretic standard.

  4. Discovery of protein complexes with core-attachment structures from Tandem Affinity Purification (TAP) data.

    PubMed

    Wu, Min; Li, Xiao-Li; Kwoh, Chee-Keong; Ng, See-Kiong; Wong, Limsoon

    2012-09-01

    Many cellular functions involve protein complexes that are formed by multiple interacting proteins. Tandem Affinity Purification (TAP) is a popular experimental method for detecting such multi-protein interactions. However, current computational methods that predict protein complexes from TAP data require converting the co-complex relationships in TAP data into binary interactions. The resulting pairwise protein-protein interaction (PPI) network is then mined for densely connected regions that are identified as putative protein complexes. Converting the TAP data into PPI data not only introduces errors but also loses useful information about the underlying multi-protein relationships that can be exploited to detect the internal organization (i.e., core-attachment structures) of protein complexes. In this article, we propose a method called CACHET that detects protein complexes with Core-AttaCHment structures directly from bipartitETAP data. CACHET models the TAP data as a bipartite graph in which the two vertex sets are the baits and the preys, respectively. The edges between the two vertex sets represent bait-prey relationships. CACHET first focuses on detecting high-quality protein-complex cores from the bipartite graph. To minimize the effects of false positive interactions, the bait-prey relationships are indexed with reliability scores. Only non-redundant, reliable bicliques computed from the TAP bipartite graph are regarded as protein-complex cores. CACHET constructs protein complexes by including attachment proteins into the cores. We applied CACHET on large-scale TAP datasets and found that CACHET outperformed existing methods in terms of prediction accuracy (i.e., F-measure and functional homogeneity of predicted complexes). In addition, the protein complexes predicted by CACHET are equipped with core-attachment structures that provide useful biological insights into the inherent functional organization of protein complexes. Our supplementary material can

  5. Subunit connectivity, assembly determinants, and architecture of the yeast exocyst complex

    PubMed Central

    Heider, Margaret R.; Gu, Mingyu; Duffy, Caroline M.; Mirza, Anne M.; Marcotte, Laura L.; Walls, Alexandra C.; Farrall, Nicholas; Hakhverdyan, Zhanna; Field, Mark C.; Rout, Michael P.; Frost, Adam; Munson, Mary

    2016-01-01

    The exocyst is a hetero-octameric complex proposed to serve as the tethering complex for exocytosis, although it remains poorly understood at the molecular level. Here, we purified endogenous exocyst from Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and show that the purified complexes are stable and consist of all eight subunits with equal stoichiometry. Using a combination of biochemical and auxin-induced degradation experiments in yeast, we mapped the subunit connectivity, identified two stable four-subunit modules within the octamer, and demonstrated that several known exocyst binding partners are not necessary for exocyst assembly and stability. Furthermore, we visualized the structure of the yeast complex using negative stain electron microscopy; our results indicate that exocyst exists predominantly as a stable, octameric complex with an elongated architecture that suggests the subunits are contiguous helical bundles packed together into a bundle of long rods. PMID:26656853

  6. Target selection of soluble protein complexes for structural proteomics studies

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Weiping; Yun, Steven; Tam, Bonny; Dalal, Kush; Pio, Frederic F

    2005-01-01

    Background Protein expression in E. coli is the most commonly used system to produce protein for structural studies, because it is fast and inexpensive and can produce large quantity of proteins. However, when proteins from other species such as mammalian are produced in this system, problems of protein expression and solubility arise [1]. Structural genomics project are currently investigating proteomics pipelines that would produce sufficient quantities of recombinant proteins for structural studies of protein complexes. To investigate how the E. coli protein expression system could be used for this purpose, we purified apoptotic binary protein complexes formed between members of the Caspase Associated Recruitment Domain (CARD) family. Results A combinatorial approach to the generation of protein complexes was performed between members of the CARD domain protein family that have the ability to form hetero-dimers between each other. In our method, each gene coding for a specific protein partner is cloned in pET-28b (Novagen) and PGEX2T (Amersham) expression vectors. All combinations of protein complexes are then obtained by reconstituting complexes from purified components in native conditions, after denaturation-renaturation or co-expression. Our study applied to 14 soluble CARD domain proteins revealed that co-expression studies perform better than native and denaturation-renaturation methods. In this study, we confirm existing interactions obtained in vivoin mammalian cells and also predict new interactions. Conclusion The simplicity of this screening method could be easily scaled up to identify soluble protein complexes for structural genomic projects. This study reports informative statistics on the solubility of human protein complexes expressed in E.coli belonging to the human CARD protein family. PMID:15904526

  7. Functional connectivity between posterior hippocampus and retrosplenial complex predicts individual differences in navigational ability.

    PubMed

    Sulpizio, Valentina; Boccia, Maddalena; Guariglia, Cecilia; Galati, Gaspare

    2016-07-01

    Individuals vary widely in their ability to orient and navigate within the environment. Previous neuroimaging research has shown that hippocampus (HC) and scene-responsive regions (retrosplenial complex [RSC] and parahippocampal gyrus/parahippocampal place area [PPA]) were crucial for spatial orienting and navigation. Resting-state functional connectivity and a self-reported questionnaire of navigational ability were used to examine the hypothesis that the pattern of reciprocal connections between these regions reflects individual differences in spatial navigation. It was found that the functional connectivity between the posterior HC and RSC was significantly higher in good than in poor navigators. These results confirmed the crucial role of hippocampal and extra-hippocampal regions in spatial navigation and provided new insight into how spontaneous brain activity may account for individual differences in spatial ability. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Diagnostic and management problems in a complex case of connective tissue disease.

    PubMed

    Yeap, S S; Deighton, C M; Powell, R J; Read, R C; Finch, R G

    1995-12-01

    A 28-year-old Nigerian woman presented with persistent pyrexia, marked pruritus, eosinophilia, myalgias, flitting arthralgias, serositis and massive splenomegaly. Intensive investigation for an infective or neoplastic aetiology proved negative. Empirical treatment for helminthic infections and tuberculosis was unhelpful. Although there were no specific clues to suggest an underlying connective tissue disease, a trial of steriods and azathioprine was introduced, with no obvious response. Her condition deteriorated to a point where it was decided that intravenous immunosuppressive therapy was needed and subsequently, her condition improved remarkably. This patient illustrates the problems in the diagnosis and management of complex disorders, particularly when classical tests for connective tissue diseases are absent. Also, we would like to report that marked pruritus can be associated with connective tissue disease.

  9. Diagnostic and management problems in a complex case of connective tissue disease.

    PubMed Central

    Yeap, S. S.; Deighton, C. M.; Powell, R. J.; Read, R. C.; Finch, R. G.

    1995-01-01

    A 28-year-old Nigerian woman presented with persistent pyrexia, marked pruritis, eosinophilia, myalgias, flitting arthralgias, serositis and massive splenomegaly. Intensive investigation for an infective or neoplastic aetiology proved negative. Empirical treatment for helminthic infections and tuberculosis was unhelpful. Although there were no specific clues to suggest an underlying connective tissue disease, a trial of steriods and azathioprine was introduced, with no obvious response. Her condition deteriorated to a point where it was decided that intravenous immunosuppressive therapy was needed and subsequently, her condition improved remarkably. This patient illustrates the problems in the diagnosis and management of complex disorders, particularly when classical tests for connective tissue diseases are absent. Also, we would like to report that marked pruritis can be associated with connective tissue disease. PMID:8552544

  10. Structure, dynamics, assembly, and evolution of protein complexes.

    PubMed

    Marsh, Joseph A; Teichmann, Sarah A

    2015-01-01

    The assembly of individual proteins into functional complexes is fundamental to nearly all biological processes. In recent decades, many thousands of homomeric and heteromeric protein complex structures have been determined, greatly improving our understanding of the fundamental principles that control symmetric and asymmetric quaternary structure organization. Furthermore, our conception of protein complexes has moved beyond static representations to include dynamic aspects of quaternary structure, including conformational changes upon binding, multistep ordered assembly pathways, and structural fluctuations occurring within fully assembled complexes. Finally, major advances have been made in our understanding of protein complex evolution, both in reconstructing evolutionary histories of specific complexes and in elucidating general mechanisms that explain how quaternary structure tends to evolve. The evolution of quaternary structure occurs via changes in self-assembly state or through the gain or loss of protein subunits, and these processes can be driven by both adaptive and nonadaptive influences.

  11. The relation between structural and functional connectivity patterns in complex brain networks.

    PubMed

    Stam, C J; van Straaten, E C W; Van Dellen, E; Tewarie, P; Gong, G; Hillebrand, A; Meier, J; Van Mieghem, P

    2016-05-01

    An important problem in systems neuroscience is the relation between complex structural and functional brain networks. Here we use simulations of a simple dynamic process based upon the susceptible-infected-susceptible (SIS) model of infection dynamics on an empirical structural brain network to investigate the extent to which the functional interactions between any two brain areas depend upon (i) the presence of a direct structural connection; and (ii) the degree product of the two areas in the structural network. For the structural brain network, we used a 78×78 matrix representing known anatomical connections between brain regions at the level of the AAL atlas (Gong et al., 2009). On this structural network we simulated brain dynamics using a model derived from the study of epidemic processes on networks. Analogous to the SIS model, each vertex/brain region could be in one of two states (inactive/active) with two parameters β and δ determining the transition probabilities. First, the phase transition between the fully inactive and partially active state was investigated as a function of β and δ. Second, the statistical interdependencies between time series of node states were determined (close to and far away from the critical state) with two measures: (i) functional connectivity based upon the correlation coefficient of integrated activation time series; and (ii) effective connectivity based upon conditional co-activation at different time intervals. We find a phase transition between an inactive and a partially active state for a critical ratio τ=β/δ of the transition rates in agreement with the theory of SIS models. Slightly above the critical threshold, node activity increases with degree, also in line with epidemic theory. The functional, but not the effective connectivity matrix closely resembled the underlying structural matrix. Both functional connectivity and, to a lesser extent, effective connectivity were higher for connected as compared to

  12. Fractal analysis of the structural complexity of the connective tissue in human carotid bodies

    PubMed Central

    Guidolin, Diego; Porzionato, Andrea; Tortorella, Cinzia; Macchi, Veronica; De Caro, Raffaele

    2014-01-01

    The carotid body (CB) may undergo different structural changes during perinatal development, aging, or in response to environmental stimuli. In the previous literature, morphometric approaches to evaluate these changes have considered quantitative first order parameters, such as volumes or densities, while changes in spatial disposition and/or complexity of structural components have not yet been considered. In the present study, different strategies for addressing morphological complexity of CB, apart from the overall amount of each tissue component, were evaluated and compared. In particular, we considered the spatial distribution of connective tissue in the carotid bodies of young control subjects, young opiate-related deaths and aged subjects, through analysis of dispersion (Morisita's index), gray level co-occurrence matrix (entropy, angular second moment, variance, correlation), and fractal analysis (fractal dimension, lacunarity). Opiate-related deaths and aged subjects showed a comparable increase in connective tissue with respect to young controls. However, the Morisita's index (p < 0.05), angular second moment (p < 0.05), fractal dimension (p < 0.01), and lacunarity (p < 0.01) permitted to identify significant differences in the disposition of the connective tissue between these two series. A receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was also calculated to evaluate the efficiency of each parameter. The fractal dimension and lacunarity, with areas under the ROC curve of 0.9651 (excellent accuracy) and 0.8835 (good accuracy), respectively, showed the highest discriminatory power. They evidenced higher level of structural complexity in the carotid bodies of opiate-related deaths than old controls, due to more complex branching of intralobular connective tissue. Further analyses will have to consider the suitability of these approaches to address other morphological features of the CB, such as different cell populations, vascularization, and innervation

  13. Fractal analysis of the structural complexity of the connective tissue in human carotid bodies.

    PubMed

    Guidolin, Diego; Porzionato, Andrea; Tortorella, Cinzia; Macchi, Veronica; De Caro, Raffaele

    2014-01-01

    The carotid body (CB) may undergo different structural changes during perinatal development, aging, or in response to environmental stimuli. In the previous literature, morphometric approaches to evaluate these changes have considered quantitative first order parameters, such as volumes or densities, while changes in spatial disposition and/or complexity of structural components have not yet been considered. In the present study, different strategies for addressing morphological complexity of CB, apart from the overall amount of each tissue component, were evaluated and compared. In particular, we considered the spatial distribution of connective tissue in the carotid bodies of young control subjects, young opiate-related deaths and aged subjects, through analysis of dispersion (Morisita's index), gray level co-occurrence matrix (entropy, angular second moment, variance, correlation), and fractal analysis (fractal dimension, lacunarity). Opiate-related deaths and aged subjects showed a comparable increase in connective tissue with respect to young controls. However, the Morisita's index (p < 0.05), angular second moment (p < 0.05), fractal dimension (p < 0.01), and lacunarity (p < 0.01) permitted to identify significant differences in the disposition of the connective tissue between these two series. A receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was also calculated to evaluate the efficiency of each parameter. The fractal dimension and lacunarity, with areas under the ROC curve of 0.9651 (excellent accuracy) and 0.8835 (good accuracy), respectively, showed the highest discriminatory power. They evidenced higher level of structural complexity in the carotid bodies of opiate-related deaths than old controls, due to more complex branching of intralobular connective tissue. Further analyses will have to consider the suitability of these approaches to address other morphological features of the CB, such as different cell populations, vascularization, and innervation.

  14. A new method for predicting essential proteins based on dynamic network topology and complex information.

    PubMed

    Luo, Jiawei; Kuang, Ling

    2014-10-01

    Predicting essential proteins is highly significant because organisms can not survive or develop even if only one of these proteins is missing. Improvements in high-throughput technologies have resulted in a large number of available protein-protein interactions. By taking advantage of these interaction data, researchers have proposed many computational methods to identify essential proteins at the network level. Most of these approaches focus on the topology of a static protein interaction network. However, the protein interaction network changes with time and condition. This important inherent dynamics of the protein interaction network is overlooked by previous methods. In this paper, we introduce a new method named CDLC to predict essential proteins by integrating dynamic local average connectivity and in-degree of proteins in complexes. CDLC is applied to the protein interaction network of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The results show that CDLC outperforms five other methods (Degree Centrality (DC), Local Average Connectivity-based method (LAC), Sum of ECC (SoECC), PeC and Co-Expression Weighted by Clustering coefficient (CoEWC)). In particular, CDLC could improve the prediction precision by more than 45% compared with DC methods. CDLC is also compared with the latest algorithm CEPPK, and a higher precision is achieved by CDLC. CDLC is available as Supplementary materials. The default settings of active threshold and alpha-parameter are 0.8 and 0.1, respectively.

  15. Hysteresis as a Marker for Complex, Overlapping Landscapes in Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Andrews, Benjamin T.; Capraro, Dominique T.; Sulkowska, Joanna I.; Onuchic, José N.; Jennings, Patricia A.

    2013-01-01

    Topologically complex proteins fold by multiple routes as a result of hard-to-fold regions of the proteins. Oftentimes these regions are introduced into the protein scaffold for function and increase frustration in the otherwise smooth-funneled landscape. Interestingly, while functional regions add complexity to folding landscapes, they may also contribute to a unique behavior referred to as hysteresis. While hysteresis is predicted to be rare, it is observed in various proteins, including proteins containing a unique peptide cyclization to form a fluorescent chromophore as well as proteins containing a knotted topology in their native fold. Here, hysteresis is demonstrated to be a consequence of the decoupling of unfolding events from the isomerization or hula-twist of a chromophore in one protein and the untying of the knot in a second protein system. The question now is- can hysteresis be a marker for the interplay of landscapes where complex folding and functional regions overlap? PMID:23525263

  16. Design and characterization of complex protein films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bui, Holt P.

    Once a biomaterial is implanted into biological system, a layer of protein is immediately deposited on the surface of that material. The newly formed protein film will dictate how the implanted material will interact with the surrounding biological environment and lead to either the acceptance or rejection of the biomaterial. One method to enhance performance involves the activation the surface of the biomaterial with one or more proteins to direct specific interactions with the host environment. The focus of my dissertation was to develop and characterize model biomaterials surfaces that are activated with one or more proteins to help understand how the protein films may affect biological processes and a biomaterial's performance. One model system consisted of a patterned film of two proteins on a gold surface. Characterization of this protein pattern indicated that patterning protein films with a focused ion beam produced protein patterns with high biological contrast and high spatial control. The second model protein film involved the adsorption of fibronectin on surfaces with different surface energies. The characterization of the adsorbed fibronectin films suggest that fibronectin adsorbed on a hydrophilic surface is in an orientation that projects hydrophilic amino acid residues towards surface of the protein and dehydration causes reorientation to project hydrophobic amino acids towards the surface. In contrast, fibronectin is adsorbed onto a hydrophobic surface in a manner that resulted in dehydration and denaturation during the adsorption process. The last model protein film studied in this work consisted of fibronectin patterned in a manner so that the film consisted of spatially controlled domains of fibronectin adsorbed onto a hydrophilic surface as well as a hydrophobic surface. Lateral characterization of this pattern demonstrated a difference in secondary structure of fibronectin adsorbed on the two domains with varying surface energies.

  17. A proteomic strategy for global analysis of plant protein complexes.

    PubMed

    Aryal, Uma K; Xiong, Yi; McBride, Zachary; Kihara, Daisuke; Xie, Jun; Hall, Mark C; Szymanski, Daniel B

    2014-10-01

    Global analyses of protein complex assembly, composition, and location are needed to fully understand how cells coordinate diverse metabolic, mechanical, and developmental activities. The most common methods for proteome-wide analysis of protein complexes rely on affinity purification-mass spectrometry or yeast two-hybrid approaches. These methods are time consuming and are not suitable for many plant species that are refractory to transformation or genome-wide cloning of open reading frames. Here, we describe the proof of concept for a method allowing simultaneous global analysis of endogenous protein complexes that begins with intact leaves and combines chromatographic separation of extracts from subcellular fractions with quantitative label-free protein abundance profiling by liquid chromatography-coupled mass spectrometry. Applying this approach to the crude cytosolic fraction of Arabidopsis thaliana leaves using size exclusion chromatography, we identified hundreds of cytosolic proteins that appeared to exist as components of stable protein complexes. The reliability of the method was validated by protein immunoblot analysis and comparisons with published size exclusion chromatography data and the masses of known complexes. The method can be implemented with appropriate instrumentation, is applicable to any biological system, and has the potential to be further developed to characterize the composition of protein complexes and measure the dynamics of protein complex localization and assembly under different conditions.

  18. Outer nuclear membrane protein Kuduk modulates the LINC complex and nuclear envelope architecture.

    PubMed

    Ding, Zhao-Ying; Wang, Ying-Hsuan; Huang, Yu-Cheng; Lee, Myong-Chol; Tseng, Min-Jen; Chi, Ya-Hui; Huang, Min-Lang

    2017-09-04

    Linker of nucleoskeleton and cytoskeleton (LINC) complexes spanning the nuclear envelope (NE) contribute to nucleocytoskeletal force transduction. A few NE proteins have been found to regulate the LINC complex. In this study, we identify one, Kuduk (Kud), which can reside at the outer nuclear membrane and is required for the development of Drosophila melanogaster ovarian follicles and NE morphology of myonuclei. Kud associates with LINC complex components in an evolutionarily conserved manner. Loss of Kud increases the level but impairs functioning of the LINC complex. Overexpression of Kud suppresses NE targeting of cytoskeleton-free LINC complexes. Thus, Kud acts as a quality control mechanism for LINC-mediated nucleocytoskeletal connections. Genetic data indicate that Kud also functions independently of the LINC complex. Overexpression of the human orthologue TMEM258 in Drosophila proved functional conservation. These findings expand our understanding of the regulation of LINC complexes and NE architecture. © 2017 Ding et al.

  19. Global landscape of protein complexes in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Krogan, Nevan J; Cagney, Gerard; Yu, Haiyuan; Zhong, Gouqing; Guo, Xinghua; Ignatchenko, Alexandr; Li, Joyce; Pu, Shuye; Datta, Nira; Tikuisis, Aaron P; Punna, Thanuja; Peregrín-Alvarez, José M; Shales, Michael; Zhang, Xin; Davey, Michael; Robinson, Mark D; Paccanaro, Alberto; Bray, James E; Sheung, Anthony; Beattie, Bryan; Richards, Dawn P; Canadien, Veronica; Lalev, Atanas; Mena, Frank; Wong, Peter; Starostine, Andrei; Canete, Myra M; Vlasblom, James; Wu, Samuel; Orsi, Chris; Collins, Sean R; Chandran, Shamanta; Haw, Robin; Rilstone, Jennifer J; Gandi, Kiran; Thompson, Natalie J; Musso, Gabe; St Onge, Peter; Ghanny, Shaun; Lam, Mandy H Y; Butland, Gareth; Altaf-Ul, Amin M; Kanaya, Shigehiko; Shilatifard, Ali; O'Shea, Erin; Weissman, Jonathan S; Ingles, C James; Hughes, Timothy R; Parkinson, John; Gerstein, Mark; Wodak, Shoshana J; Emili, Andrew; Greenblatt, Jack F

    2006-03-30

    Identification of protein-protein interactions often provides insight into protein function, and many cellular processes are performed by stable protein complexes. We used tandem affinity purification to process 4,562 different tagged proteins of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Each preparation was analysed by both matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry and liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry to increase coverage and accuracy. Machine learning was used to integrate the mass spectrometry scores and assign probabilities to the protein-protein interactions. Among 4,087 different proteins identified with high confidence by mass spectrometry from 2,357 successful purifications, our core data set (median precision of 0.69) comprises 7,123 protein-protein interactions involving 2,708 proteins. A Markov clustering algorithm organized these interactions into 547 protein complexes averaging 4.9 subunits per complex, about half of them absent from the MIPS database, as well as 429 additional interactions between pairs of complexes. The data (all of which are available online) will help future studies on individual proteins as well as functional genomics and systems biology.

  20. The Effect of Different Force Applications on the Protein-Protein Complex Barnase-Barstar

    PubMed Central

    Neumann, Jan; Gottschalk, Kay-Eberhard

    2009-01-01

    Steered molecular dynamics simulations are a tool to examine the energy landscape of protein-protein complexes by applying external forces. Here, we analyze the influence of the velocity and geometry of the probing forces on a protein complex using this tool. With steered molecular dynamics, we probe the stability of the protein-protein complex Barnase-Barstar. The individual proteins are mechanically labile. The Barnase-Barstar binding site is more stable than the folds of the individual proteins. By using different force protocols, we observe a variety of responses of the system to the applied tension. PMID:19751674

  1. Recording information on protein complexes in an information management system.

    PubMed

    Savitsky, Marc; Diprose, Jonathan M; Morris, Chris; Griffiths, Susanne L; Daniel, Edward; Lin, Bill; Daenke, Susan; Bishop, Benjamin; Siebold, Christian; Wilson, Keith S; Blake, Richard; Stuart, David I; Esnouf, Robert M

    2011-08-01

    The Protein Information Management System (PiMS) is a laboratory information management system (LIMS) designed for use with the production of proteins in a research environment. The software is distributed under the CCP4 licence, and so is available free of charge to academic laboratories. Like most LIMS, the underlying PiMS data model originally had no support for protein-protein complexes. To support the SPINE2-Complexes project the developers have extended PiMS to meet these requirements. The modifications to PiMS, described here, include data model changes, additional protocols, some user interface changes and functionality to detect when an experiment may have formed a complex. Example data are shown for the production of a crystal of a protein complex. Integration with SPINE2-Complexes Target Tracker application is also described.

  2. Principles of assembly reveal a periodic table of protein complexes.

    PubMed

    Ahnert, Sebastian E; Marsh, Joseph A; Hernández, Helena; Robinson, Carol V; Teichmann, Sarah A

    2015-12-11

    Structural insights into protein complexes have had a broad impact on our understanding of biological function and evolution. In this work, we sought a comprehensive understanding of the general principles underlying quaternary structure organization in protein complexes. We first examined the fundamental steps by which protein complexes can assemble, using experimental and structure-based characterization of assembly pathways. Most assembly transitions can be classified into three basic types, which can then be used to exhaustively enumerate a large set of possible quaternary structure topologies. These topologies, which include the vast majority of observed protein complex structures, enable a natural organization of protein complexes into a periodic table. On the basis of this table, we can accurately predict the expected frequencies of quaternary structure topologies, including those not yet observed. These results have important implications for quaternary structure prediction, modeling, and engineering. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  3. Multi-LZerD: Multiple protein docking for asymmetric complexes

    PubMed Central

    Esquivel-Rodríguez, Juan; Yang, Yifeng David; Kihara, Daisuke

    2012-01-01

    The tertiary structures of protein complexes provide a crucial insight about the molecular mechanisms that regulate their functions and assembly. However, solving protein complex structures by experimental methods is often more difficult than single protein structures. Here, we have developed a novel computational multiple protein docking algorithm, Multi-LZerD, that builds models of multimeric complexes by effectively reusing pairwise docking predictions of component proteins. A genetic algorithm is applied to explore the conformational space followed by a structure refinement procedure. Benchmark on eleven hetero-multimeric complexes resulted in near native conformations for all but one of them (a root mean square deviation smaller than 2.5Å). We also show that our method copes with unbound docking cases well, outperforming the methodology that can be directly compared to our approach. Multi-LZerD was able to predict near native structures for multimeric complexes of various topologies. PMID:22488467

  4. Connecting two proteins using a fusion alpha helix stabilized by a chemical cross linker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeong, Woo Hyeon; Lee, Haerim; Song, Dong Hyun; Eom, Jae-Hoon; Kim, Sun Chang; Lee, Hee-Seung; Lee, Hayyoung; Lee, Jie-Oh

    2016-03-01

    Building a sophisticated protein nano-assembly requires a method for linking protein components in a predictable and stable structure. Most of the cross linkers available have flexible spacers. Because of this, the linked hybrids have significant structural flexibility and the relative structure between their two components is largely unpredictable. Here we describe a method of connecting two proteins via a `fusion α helix' formed by joining two pre-existing helices into a single extended helix. Because simple ligation of two helices does not guarantee the formation of a continuous helix, we used EY-CBS, a synthetic cross linker that has been shown to react selectively with cysteines in α-helices, to stabilize the connecting helix. Formation and stabilization of the fusion helix was confirmed by determining the crystal structures of the fusion proteins with and without bound EY-CBS. Our method should be widely applicable for linking protein building blocks to generate predictable structures.

  5. Connecting two proteins using a fusion alpha helix stabilized by a chemical cross linker

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Woo Hyeon; Lee, Haerim; Song, Dong Hyun; Eom, Jae-Hoon; Kim, Sun Chang; Lee, Hee-Seung; Lee, Hayyoung; Lee, Jie-Oh

    2016-01-01

    Building a sophisticated protein nano-assembly requires a method for linking protein components in a predictable and stable structure. Most of the cross linkers available have flexible spacers. Because of this, the linked hybrids have significant structural flexibility and the relative structure between their two components is largely unpredictable. Here we describe a method of connecting two proteins via a ‘fusion α helix' formed by joining two pre-existing helices into a single extended helix. Because simple ligation of two helices does not guarantee the formation of a continuous helix, we used EY-CBS, a synthetic cross linker that has been shown to react selectively with cysteines in α-helices, to stabilize the connecting helix. Formation and stabilization of the fusion helix was confirmed by determining the crystal structures of the fusion proteins with and without bound EY-CBS. Our method should be widely applicable for linking protein building blocks to generate predictable structures. PMID:26980593

  6. Luminogenic "clickable" lanthanide complexes for protein labeling.

    PubMed

    Candelon, Nicolas; Hădade, Niculina D; Matache, Mihaela; Canet, Jean-Louis; Cisnetti, Federico; Funeriu, Daniel P; Nauton, Lionel; Gautier, Arnaud

    2013-10-14

    Development of lanthanide-based luminescent "switch-on" systems via azide-alkyne [3+2] cycloaddition is described. We used these for non-specific protein labeling and as tags for specific and selective activity-based protein labeling.

  7. Conservation and Variability of Synaptonemal Complex Proteins in Phylogenesis of Eukaryotes

    PubMed Central

    Grishaeva, Tatiana M.; Bogdanov, Yuri F.

    2014-01-01

    The problems of the origin and evolution of meiosis include the enigmatic variability of the synaptonemal complexes (SCs) which, being morphology similar, consist of different proteins in different eukaryotic phyla. Using bioinformatics methods, we monitored all available eukaryotic proteomes to find proteins similar to known SC proteins of model organisms. We found proteins similar to SC lateral element (LE) proteins and possessing the HORMA domain in the majority of the eukaryotic taxa and assume them the most ancient among all SC proteins. Vertebrate LE proteins SYCP2, SYCP3, and SC65 proved to have related proteins in many invertebrate taxa. Proteins of SC central space are most evolutionarily variable. It means that different protein-protein interactions can exist to connect LEs. Proteins similar to the known SC proteins were not found in Euglenophyta, Chrysophyta, Charophyta, Xanthophyta, Dinoflagellata, and primitive Coelomata. We conclude that different proteins whose common feature is the presence of domains with a certain conformation are involved in the formation of the SC in different eukaryotic phyla. This permits a targeted search for orthologs of the SC proteins using phylogenetic trees. Here we consider example of phylogenetic trees for protozoans, fungi, algae, mosses, and flowering plants. PMID:25147749

  8. Conservation and variability of synaptonemal complex proteins in phylogenesis of eukaryotes.

    PubMed

    Grishaeva, Tatiana M; Bogdanov, Yuri F

    2014-01-01

    The problems of the origin and evolution of meiosis include the enigmatic variability of the synaptonemal complexes (SCs) which, being morphology similar, consist of different proteins in different eukaryotic phyla. Using bioinformatics methods, we monitored all available eukaryotic proteomes to find proteins similar to known SC proteins of model organisms. We found proteins similar to SC lateral element (LE) proteins and possessing the HORMA domain in the majority of the eukaryotic taxa and assume them the most ancient among all SC proteins. Vertebrate LE proteins SYCP2, SYCP3, and SC65 proved to have related proteins in many invertebrate taxa. Proteins of SC central space are most evolutionarily variable. It means that different protein-protein interactions can exist to connect LEs. Proteins similar to the known SC proteins were not found in Euglenophyta, Chrysophyta, Charophyta, Xanthophyta, Dinoflagellata, and primitive Coelomata. We conclude that different proteins whose common feature is the presence of domains with a certain conformation are involved in the formation of the SC in different eukaryotic phyla. This permits a targeted search for orthologs of the SC proteins using phylogenetic trees. Here we consider example of phylogenetic trees for protozoans, fungi, algae, mosses, and flowering plants.

  9. Native Mass Spectrometry of Photosynthetic Pigment-Protein Complexes

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Hao; Cui, Weidong; Gross, Michael L.; Blankenship, Robert E.

    2013-01-01

    Native mass spectrometry, or as is sometimes called “native electrospray (ESI)” allows proteins in their native or near-native protein in solution to be introduced into gas phase and interrogated by MS. This approach is now a powerful tool to investigate protein complexes. This article reviews the background of native MS of protein complexes and describes its strengths, taking photosynthetic pigment-protein complexes as examples. Native MS can be utilized in combination with other MS-based approaches to obtain complementary information to that provided by tools such as X-ray crystallography and NMR spectroscopy to understand the structure-function relationships of protein complexes. When additional information beyond that provided by native MS is required, other MS-based strategies can be successfully applied to augment the results of native MS. PMID:23337874

  10. Advances in protein complex analysis using mass spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Gingras, Anne-Claude; Aebersold, Ruedi; Raught, Brian

    2005-01-01

    Proteins often function as components of larger complexes to perform a specific function, and formation of these complexes may be regulated. For example, intracellular signalling events often require transient and/or regulated protein–protein interactions for propagation, and protein binding to a specific DNA sequence, RNA molecule or metabolite is often regulated to modulate a particular cellular function. Thus, characterizing protein complexes can offer important insights into protein function. This review describes recent important advances in mass spectrometry (MS)-based techniques for the analysis of protein complexes. Following brief descriptions of how proteins are identified using MS, and general protein complex purification approaches, we address two of the most important issues in these types of studies: specificity and background protein contaminants. Two basic strategies for increasing specificity and decreasing background are presented: whereas (1) tandem affinity purification (TAP) of tagged proteins of interest can dramatically improve the signal-to-noise ratio via the generation of cleaner samples, (2) stable isotopic labelling of proteins may be used to discriminate between contaminants and bona fide binding partners using quantitative MS techniques. Examples, as well as advantages and disadvantages of each approach, are presented. PMID:15611014

  11. Multiscale Model for the Assembly Kinetics of Protein Complexes.

    PubMed

    Xie, Zhong-Ru; Chen, Jiawen; Wu, Yinghao

    2016-02-04

    The assembly of proteins into high-order complexes is a general mechanism for these biomolecules to implement their versatile functions in cells. Natural evolution has developed various assembling pathways for specific protein complexes to maintain their stability and proper activities. Previous studies have provided numerous examples of the misassembly of protein complexes leading to severe biological consequences. Although the research focusing on protein complexes has started to move beyond the static representation of quaternary structures to the dynamic aspect of their assembly, the current understanding of the assembly mechanism of protein complexes is still largely limited. To tackle this problem, we developed a new multiscale modeling framework. This framework combines a lower-resolution rigid-body-based simulation with a higher-resolution Cα-based simulation method so that protein complexes can be assembled with both structural details and computational efficiency. We applied this model to a homotrimer and a heterotetramer as simple test systems. Consistent with experimental observations, our simulations indicated very different kinetics between protein oligomerization and dimerization. The formation of protein oligomers is a multistep process that is much slower than dimerization but thermodynamically more stable. Moreover, we showed that even the same protein quaternary structure can have very diverse assembly pathways under different binding constants between subunits, which is important for regulating the functions of protein complexes. Finally, we revealed that the binding between subunits in a complex can be synergistically strengthened during assembly without considering allosteric regulation or conformational changes. Therefore, our model provides a useful tool to understand the general principles of protein complex assembly.

  12. Protein-protein interactions in complex cosolvent solutions.

    PubMed

    Javid, Nadeem; Vogtt, Karsten; Krywka, Chris; Tolan, Metin; Winter, Roland

    2007-04-02

    The effects of various kosmotropic and chaotropic cosolvents and salts on the intermolecular interaction potential of positively charged lysozyme is evaluated at varying protein concentrations by using synchrotron small-angle X-ray scattering in combination with liquid-state theoretical approaches. The experimentally derived static structure factors S(Q) obtained without and with added cosolvents and salts are analysed with a statistical mechanical model based on the Derjaguin-Landau-Verwey-Overbeek (DLVO) potential, which accounts for repulsive and attractive interactions between the protein molecules. Different cosolvents and salts influence the interactions between protein molecules differently as a result of changes in the hydration level or solvation, in charge screening, specific adsorption of the additives at the protein surface, or increased hydrophobic interactions. Intermolecular interaction effects are significant above protein concentrations of 1 wt %, and with increasing protein concentration, the repulsive nature of the intermolecular pair potential V(r) increases markedly. Kosmotropic cosolvents like glycerol and sucrose exhibit strong concentration-dependent effects on the interaction potential, leading to an increase of repulsive forces between the protein molecules at low to medium high osmolyte concentrations. Addition of trifluoroethanol exhibits a multiphasic effect on V(r) when changing its concentration. Salts like sodium chloride and potassium sulfate exhibit strong concentration-dependent changes of the interaction potential due to charge screening of the positively charged protein molecules. Guanidinium chloride (GdmCl) at low concentrations exhibits a similar charge-screening effect, resulting in increased attractive interactions between the protein molecules. At higher GdmCl concentrations, V(r) becomes more repulsive in nature due to the presence of high concentrations of Gdm(+) ions binding to the protein molecules. Our findings also

  13. The WASP-WAVE protein network: connecting the membrane to the cytoskeleton.

    PubMed

    Takenawa, Tadaomi; Suetsugu, Shiro

    2007-01-01

    Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein (WASP) and WASP-family verprolin-homologous protein (WAVE) family proteins are scaffolds that link upstream signals to the activation of the ARP2/3 complex, leading to a burst of actin polymerization. ARP2/3-complex-mediated actin polymerization is crucial for the reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton at the cell cortex for processes such as cell movement, vesicular trafficking and pathogen infection. Large families of membrane-binding proteins were recently found to interact with WASP and WAVE family proteins, therefore providing a new layer of membrane-dependent regulation of actin polymerization.

  14. Identifying protein complexes in protein-protein interaction networks by using clique seeds and graph entropy.

    PubMed

    Chen, Bolin; Shi, Jinhong; Zhang, Shenggui; Wu, Fang-Xiang

    2013-01-01

    The identification of protein complexes plays a key role in understanding major cellular processes and biological functions. Various computational algorithms have been proposed to identify protein complexes from protein-protein interaction (PPI) networks. In this paper, we first introduce a new seed-selection strategy for seed-growth style algorithms. Cliques rather than individual vertices are employed as initial seeds. After that, a result-modification approach is proposed based on this seed-selection strategy. Predictions generated by higher order clique seeds are employed to modify results that are generated by lower order ones. The performance of this seed-selection strategy and the result-modification approach are tested by using the entropy-based algorithm, which is currently the best seed-growth style algorithm to detect protein complexes from PPI networks. In addition, we investigate four pairs of strategies for this algorithm in order to improve its accuracy. The numerical experiments are conducted on a Saccharomyces cerevisiae PPI network. The group of best predictions consists of 1711 clusters, with the average f-score at 0.68 after removing all similar and redundant clusters. We conclude that higher order clique seeds can generate predictions with higher accuracy and that our improved entropy-based algorithm outputs more reasonable predictions than the original one.

  15. Measurement of protein-ligand complex formation.

    PubMed

    Lowe, Peter N; Vaughan, Cara K; Daviter, Tina

    2013-01-01

    Experimental approaches to detect, measure, and quantify protein-ligand binding, along with their theoretical bases, are described. A range of methods for detection of protein-ligand interactions is summarized. Specific protocols are provided for a nonequilibrium procedure pull-down assay, for an equilibrium direct binding method and its modification into a competition-based measurement and for steady-state measurements based on the effects of ligands on enzyme catalysis.

  16. Abnormal EEG Complexity and Functional Connectivity of Brain in Patients with Acute Thalamic Ischemic Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Shuang; Guo, Jie; Meng, Jiayuan; Wang, Zhijun; Yao, Yang; Yang, Jiajia; Qi, Hongzhi; Ming, Dong

    2016-01-01

    Ischemic thalamus stroke has become a serious cardiovascular and cerebral disease in recent years. To date the existing researches mostly concentrated on the power spectral density (PSD) in several frequency bands. In this paper, we investigated the nonlinear features of EEG and brain functional connectivity in patients with acute thalamic ischemic stroke and healthy subjects. Electroencephalography (EEG) in resting condition with eyes closed was recorded for 12 stroke patients and 11 healthy subjects as control group. Lempel-Ziv complexity (LZC), Sample Entropy (SampEn), and brain network using partial directed coherence (PDC) were calculated for feature extraction. Results showed that patients had increased mean LZC and SampEn than the controls, which implied the stroke group has higher EEG complexity. For the brain network, the stroke group displayed a trend of weaker cortical connectivity, which suggests a functional impairment of information transmission in cortical connections in stroke patients. These findings suggest that nonlinear analysis and brain network could provide essential information for better understanding the brain dysfunction in the stroke and assisting monitoring or prognostication of stroke evolution. PMID:27403202

  17. Arabidopsis G-protein interactome reveals connections to cell wall carbohydrates and morphogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Klopffleisch, Karsten; Phan, Nguyen; Augustin, Kelsey; Bayne, Robert S; Booker, Katherine S; Botella, Jose R; Carpita, Nicholas C; Carr, Tyrell; Chen, Jin-Gui; Cooke, Thomas Ryan; Frick-Cheng, Arwen; Friedman, Erin J; Fulk, Brandon; Hahn, Michael G; Jiang, Kun; Jorda, Lucia; Kruppe, Lydia; Liu, Chenggang; Lorek, Justine; McCann, Maureen C; Molina, Antonio; Moriyama, Etsuko N; Mukhtar, M Shahid; Mudgil, Yashwanti; Pattathil, Sivakumar; Schwarz, John; Seta, Steven; Tan, Matthew; Temp, Ulrike; Trusov, Yuri; Urano, Daisuke; Welter, Bastian; Yang, Jing; Panstruga, Ralph; Uhrig, Joachim F; Jones, Alan M

    2011-01-01

    The heterotrimeric G-protein complex is minimally composed of Gα, Gβ, and Gγ subunits. In the classic scenario, the G-protein complex is the nexus in signaling from the plasma membrane, where the heterotrimeric G-protein associates with heptahelical G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), to cytoplasmic target proteins called effectors. Although a number of effectors are known in metazoans and fungi, none of these are predicted to exist in their canonical forms in plants. To identify ab initio plant G-protein effectors and scaffold proteins, we screened a set of proteins from the G-protein complex using two-hybrid complementation in yeast. After deep and exhaustive interrogation, we detected 544 interactions between 434 proteins, of which 68 highly interconnected proteins form the core G-protein interactome. Within this core, over half of the interactions comprising two-thirds of the nodes were retested and validated as genuine in planta. Co-expression analysis in combination with phenotyping of loss-of-function mutations in a set of core interactome genes revealed a novel role for G-proteins in regulating cell wall modification. PMID:21952135

  18. Arabidopsis G-protein interactome reveals connections to cell wall carbohydrates and morphogenesis

    SciTech Connect

    Klopffleisch, Karsten; Phan, Nguyen; Chen, Jay; Panstruga, Ralph; Uhrig, Joachim; Jones, Alan M

    2011-01-01

    The heterotrimeric G-protein complex is minimally composed of G{alpha}, G{beta}, and G{gamma} subunits. In the classic scenario, the G-protein complex is the nexus in signaling from the plasma membrane, where the heterotrimeric G-protein associates with heptahelical G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), to cytoplasmic target proteins called effectors. Although a number of effectors are known in metazoans and fungi, none of these are predicted to exist in their canonical forms in plants. To identify ab initio plant G-protein effectors and scaffold proteins, we screened a set of proteins from the G-protein complex using two-hybrid complementation in yeast. After deep and exhaustive interrogation, we detected 544 interactions between 434 proteins, of which 68 highly interconnected proteins form the core G-protein interactome. Within this core, over half of the interactions comprising two-thirds of the nodes were retested and validated as genuine in planta. Co-expression analysis in combination with phenotyping of loss-of-function mutations in a set of core interactome genes revealed a novel role for G-proteins in regulating cell wall modification.

  19. Recording information on protein complexes in an information management system

    PubMed Central

    Savitsky, Marc; Diprose, Jonathan M.; Morris, Chris; Griffiths, Susanne L.; Daniel, Edward; Lin, Bill; Daenke, Susan; Bishop, Benjamin; Siebold, Christian; Wilson, Keith S.; Blake, Richard; Stuart, David I.; Esnouf, Robert M.

    2011-01-01

    The Protein Information Management System (PiMS) is a laboratory information management system (LIMS) designed for use with the production of proteins in a research environment. The software is distributed under the CCP4 licence, and so is available free of charge to academic laboratories. Like most LIMS, the underlying PiMS data model originally had no support for protein–protein complexes. To support the SPINE2-Complexes project the developers have extended PiMS to meet these requirements. The modifications to PiMS, described here, include data model changes, additional protocols, some user interface changes and functionality to detect when an experiment may have formed a complex. Example data are shown for the production of a crystal of a protein complex. Integration with SPINE2-Complexes Target Tracker application is also described. PMID:21605682

  20. Trauma adapted family connections: reducing developmental and complex trauma symptomatology to prevent child abuse and neglect.

    PubMed

    Collins, Kathryn S; Strieder, Frederick H; DePanfilis, Diane; Tabor, Maureen; Freeman, Pamela A Clarkson; Linde, Linnea; Greenberg, Patty

    2011-01-01

    Families living in urban poverty, enduring chronic and complex traumatic stress, and having difficulty meeting their children's basic needs have significant child maltreatment risk factors. There is a paucity of family focused, trauma-informed evidence-based interventions aimed to alleviate trauma symptomatology, strengthen family functioning, and prevent child abuse and neglect. Trauma Adapted Family Connections (TA-FC) is a manualized trauma-focused practice rooted in the principles of Family Connections (FC), an evidence supported preventive intervention developed to address the glaring gap in services for this specific, growing, and underserved population. This paper describes the science based development of TA-FC, its phases and essential components, which are based on theories of attachment, neglect, trauma, and family interaction within a comprehensive community-based family focused intervention framework.

  1. Complex reflection groups, logarithmic connections and bi-flat F-manifolds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arsie, Alessandro; Lorenzoni, Paolo

    2017-10-01

    We show that bi-flat F-manifolds can be interpreted as natural geometrical structures encoding the almost duality for Frobenius manifolds without metric. Using this framework, we extend Dubrovin's duality between orbit spaces of Coxeter groups and Veselov's ěe -systems, to the orbit spaces of exceptional well-generated complex reflection groups of rank 2 and 3. On the Veselov's ěe -systems side, we provide a generalization of the notion of ěe -systems that gives rise to a dual connection which coincides with a Dunkl-Kohno-type connection associated with such groups. In particular, this allows us to treat on the same ground several different examples including Coxeter and Shephard groups. Remarkably, as a by-product of our results, we prove that in some examples, basic flat invariants are not uniquely defined. As far as we know, such a phenomenon has never been pointed out before.

  2. Conservation of Telomere protein complexes: Shuffling through Evolution

    PubMed Central

    Linger, Benjamin R.; Price, Carolyn M.

    2009-01-01

    The rapid evolution of telomere proteins has hindered identification of orthologs from diverse species and created the impression that certain groups of eukaryotes have largely non-overlapping sets of telomere proteins. However, the recent identification of additional telomere proteins from various model organisms has dispelled this notion by expanding our understanding of the composition, architecture and range of telomere protein complexes present in individual species. It is now apparent that versions of the budding yeast CST complex and mammalian shelterin are present in multiple phyla. While the precise subunit composition and architecture of these complexes vary between species, the general function is often conserved. Despite the overall conservation of telomere protein complexes, there is still considerable species specific variation, with some organisms having lost a particular subunit or even an entire complex. In some cases, complex components appear to have migrated between the telomere and the telomerase RNP. Finally, gene duplication has created telomere protein paralogs with novel functions. While one paralog may be part of a conserved telomere protein complex and have the expected function, the other paralog may serve in a completely different aspect of telomere biology. PMID:19839711

  3. Accumulation of small protein molecules in a macroscopic complex coacervate.

    PubMed

    Lindhoud, Saskia; Claessens, Mireille M A E

    2016-01-14

    To obtain insight into the accumulation of proteins into macroscopic complex coacervate phases, the lysozyme concentration in complex coacervates containing the cationic polyelectrolyte poly-(N,N dimethylaminoethyl methacrylate) and the anionic polyelectrolyte polyacrylic acid was investigated as a function of the mixing ratio, protein concentration and ionic strength. Maximal protein enrichment of the complex coacervate phase was observed to require the presence of all three macromolecules. Under optimized conditions the protein concentrations in the complex coacervate were as high as 200 g L(-1). Such high concentrations are comparable to the protein concentration in the cytosol, suggesting that these interesting liquid phases may serve a suitable model system for the phase behavior of the cytosol and genesis and function of membrane-less organelles. The high stability of the complexes and the salt dependent uptake of protein suggest that complex coacervates may provide a way to store hydrated proteins at high concentrations and might therefore be of interest in the formulation of high protein foods.

  4. The retromer complex - endosomal protein recycling and beyond.

    PubMed

    Seaman, Matthew N J

    2012-10-15

    The retromer complex is a vital element of the endosomal protein sorting machinery that is conserved across all eukaryotes. Retromer is most closely associated with the endosome-to-Golgi retrieval pathway and is necessary to maintain an active pool of hydrolase receptors in the trans-Golgi network. Recent progress in studies of retromer have identified new retromer-interacting proteins, including the WASH complex and cargo such as the Wntless/MIG-14 protein, which now extends the role of retromer beyond the endosome-to-Golgi pathway and has revealed that retromer is required for aspects of endosome-to-plasma membrane sorting and regulation of signalling events. The interactions between the retromer complex and other macromolecular protein complexes now show how endosomal protein sorting is coordinated with actin assembly and movement along microtubules, and place retromer squarely at the centre of a complex set of protein machinery that governs endosomal protein sorting. Dysregulation of retromer-mediated endosomal protein sorting leads to various pathologies, including neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer disease and spastic paraplegia and the mechanisms underlying these pathologies are starting to be understood. In this Commentary, I will highlight recent advances in the understanding of retromer-mediated endosomal protein sorting and discuss how retromer contributes to a diverse set of physiological processes.

  5. [Biological Role of Oligomerny Matriksny of Protein of the Cartilage in Exchange Processes Connecting Tissue].

    PubMed

    Belova, Yu S

    2015-01-01

    In the review the literary data on studying of biological role of a oligomerny matriksny of protein of the cartilage in exchange processes connecting tissue at people and animals are provided, and also results of own researches on definition of a oligomerny matriksny of protein of the cartilage as a modern marker of a metabolism of an articulate cartilage at children from undifferentiated displaziy conjunctive tissue are briefly described.

  6. Mass Spectrometry of Protein Complexes: From Origins to Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehmood, Shahid; Allison, Timothy M.; Robinson, Carol V.

    2015-04-01

    Now routine is the ability to investigate soluble and membrane protein complexes in the gas phase of a mass spectrometer while preserving folded structure and ligand-binding properties. Several recent transformative developments have occurred to arrive at this point. These include advances in mass spectrometry instrumentation, particularly with respect to resolution; the ability to study intact membrane protein complexes released from detergent micelles; and the use of protein unfolding in the gas phase to obtain stability parameters. Together, these discoveries are providing unprecedented information on the compositional heterogeneity of biomacromolecules, the unfolding trajectories of multidomain proteins, and the stability imparted by ligand binding to both soluble and membrane-embedded protein complexes. We review these recent breakthroughs, highlighting the challenges that had to be overcome and the physicochemical insight that can now be gained from studying proteins and their assemblies in the gas phase.

  7. Operon Gene Order Is Optimized for Ordered Protein Complex Assembly.

    PubMed

    Wells, Jonathan N; Bergendahl, L Therese; Marsh, Joseph A

    2016-02-02

    The assembly of heteromeric protein complexes is an inherently stochastic process in which multiple genes are expressed separately into proteins, which must then somehow find each other within the cell. Here, we considered one of the ways by which prokaryotic organisms have attempted to maximize the efficiency of protein complex assembly: the organization of subunit-encoding genes into operons. Using structure-based assembly predictions, we show that operon gene order has been optimized to match the order in which protein subunits assemble. Exceptions to this are almost entirely highly expressed proteins for which assembly is less stochastic and for which precisely ordered translation offers less benefit. Overall, these results show that ordered protein complex assembly pathways are of significant biological importance and represent a major evolutionary constraint on operon gene organization.

  8. [Functional connectivity and complex networks in focal epilepsy. Pathophysiology and therapeutic implications].

    PubMed

    Pastor, Jesús; Sola, Rafael G; Vega-Zelaya, Lorena; Garnes, Óscar; Ortega, Guillermo J

    2014-05-01

    The traditional surgical approach to treat drug-resistant focal epileptic patients is in the resection or disconnection of the epileptic focus. However, a significant minority of patients continue to experience seizures after surgery, which shows the incomplete level of knowledge that currently we have of this pathology. This paper introduces some concepts of functional connectivity and complex networks methodology with its application to the study of neurophysiological recordings from patients suffering from drug-resistant focal epilepsy. In order to fully understand the new developments in the area of complex networks and its applications to the study of epilepsy, we will here review fundamental concepts in complex networks methodology, synchronization and functional connectivity. Some of the most recent published works dealing with focal epilepsy viewed under this new perspective will be revised and commented. We think that a wider perspective in the study of epilepsy, such as the one reviewed in this work, will allow epileptologists to consider surgical alternatives in the usual treatment of focal epilepsy at those currently performed in most medical centers around the world. Combining the traditional knowledge with new insights provided by network theory will certainly fill many of the gaps we have today in the fragmented understanding of epilepsy.

  9. An update on the connections of the ventral mesencephalic dopaminergic complex

    PubMed Central

    Yetnikoff, Leora; Lavezzi, Heather N.; Reichard, Rhett A.; Zahm, Daniel S.

    2014-01-01

    This review covers the intrinsic organization and afferent and efferent connections of the midbrain dopaminergic complex, comprising the substantia nigra, ventral tegmental area and retrorubral field, which house, respectively, the A9, A10 and A8 groups of nigrostriatal, mesolimbic and mesocortical dopaminergic neurons. In addition, A10dc (dorsal, caudal) and A10rv (rostroventral) extensions into, respectively, the ventrolateral periaqueductal gray and supramammillary nucleus are discussed. Associated intrinsic and extrinsic connections of the midbrain dopaminergic complex that utilize gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), glutamate and neuropeptides and various co-expressed combinations of these compounds are considered in conjunction with the dopamine-containing systems. A framework is provided for understanding the organization of masssive afferent systems descending and ascending to the midbrain dopaminergic complex from the telencephalon and brainstem, respectively. Within the context of this framework, the basal ganglia direct and indirect output pathways are treated in some detail. Findings from rodent brain are briefly compared with those from primates, including human. Recent literature is emphasized, including traditional experimental neuroanatomical and modern gene transfer and optogenetic studies. An attempt was made to provide sufficient background and cite a representative sampling of earlier primary papers and reviews so that people new to the field may find this to be a relatively comprehensive treatment of the subject. PMID:24735820

  10. Proteomic comparison of etioplast and chloroplast protein complexes.

    PubMed

    Plöscher, Matthias; Reisinger, Veronika; Eichacker, Lutz A

    2011-08-12

    Angiosperms grown in darkness develop etioplasts during skotomorphogenesis. It is well known that etioplasts accumulate large quantities of protochlorophyllideoxidoreductase, are devoid of chlorophyll and are the site to assemble the photosynthetic machinery during photomorphogenesis. Proteomic investigation of the membrane protein complexes by Native PAGE, in combination with CyDye labelling and mass spectrometric analysis revealed that etioplasts and chloroplasts share a number of membrane protein complexes characteristic for electron transport, chlorophyll and protein synthesis as well as fatty acid biosynthesis. The complex regulatory function in both developmental states is discussed. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Disulfide Connectivity Prediction Based on Modelled Protein 3D Structural Information and Random Forest Regression.

    PubMed

    Yu, Dong-Jun; Li, Yang; Hu, Jun; Yang, Xibei; Yang, Jing-Yu; Shen, Hong-Bin

    2015-01-01

    Disulfide connectivity is an important protein structural characteristic. Accurately predicting disulfide connectivity solely from protein sequence helps to improve the intrinsic understanding of protein structure and function, especially in the post-genome era where large volume of sequenced proteins without being functional annotated is quickly accumulated. In this study, a new feature extracted from the predicted protein 3D structural information is proposed and integrated with traditional features to form discriminative features. Based on the extracted features, a random forest regression model is performed to predict protein disulfide connectivity. We compare the proposed method with popular existing predictors by performing both cross-validation and independent validation tests on benchmark datasets. The experimental results demonstrate the superiority of the proposed method over existing predictors. We believe the superiority of the proposed method benefits from both the good discriminative capability of the newly developed features and the powerful modelling capability of the random forest. The web server implementation, called TargetDisulfide, and the benchmark datasets are freely available at: http://csbio.njust.edu.cn/bioinf/TargetDisulfide for academic use.

  12. Important amino acid residues involved in folding and binding of protein-protein complexes.

    PubMed

    Kulandaisamy, A; Lathi, V; ViswaPoorani, K; Yugandhar, K; Gromiha, M Michael

    2017-01-01

    Protein-protein interactions perform diverse functions in living organism. The integrative analysis of binding and stabilizing residues will provide insights on the functions of protein-protein complexes. In this work, we constructed a non-redundant dataset of 261 protein-protein complexes and identified binding site residues, stabilizing residues and common to both binding and stabilizing, termed as "key residues". We found that 6.1% of residues are involved in binding and 6.8% of residues are important for folding and stability. Among them, only 2% are involved in both folding and binding, which shows the importance and specific roles played by these residues. The key residues have been analyzed based on protein function, binding affinity, rigid and flexible complexes, amino acid preference and structure based parameters. We found that high affinity complexes have more key residues than low affinity complexes. In addition, key residues are enriched with the combination of specific hydrophobic and charged/polar residues. Atomic contacts between interacting proteins have distinct preferences of polar-polar, nonpolar-nonpolar and polar-nonpolar contacts in different functional classes of protein-protein complexes. Further, the influence of sequence and structural parameters such as surrounding hydrophobicity, solvent accessibility, secondary structure, long-range order and conservation score has been discussed. The analysis can be used to comprehend the interplay between stability and binding in protein-protein complexes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Strategies for crystallization of large membrane protein complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshikawa, Shinya; Shinzawa-Itoh, Kyoko; Ueda, Hidefumi; Tsukihara, Tomitake; Fukumoto, Yoshihisa; Kubota, Tomomi; Kawamoto, Masahide; Fukuyama, Keiichi; Matsubara, Hiroshi

    1992-08-01

    Crystalline cytochrome c oxidase and ubiquinol: cytochrome c oxidoreductase which diffracted X-rays at 7-8A˚resolution were obtained from bovine heart mitochondria. The methods for the purification and crystallization of these enzymes indicate that large membrane protein complexes are easier to purify and crystallize than smaller homologous membrane protein complexes, because the former have more hydrophilic surface than the latter. Bulky and polydispersed detergents such as Brij-35 and Tween 20 attached to the isolated complex are not always obstructive to crystallization if they are effective for stabilizing the complexes.

  14. Computational approaches for detecting protein complexes from protein interaction networks: a survey

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Most proteins form macromolecular complexes to perform their biological functions. However, experimentally determined protein complex data, especially of those involving more than two protein partners, are relatively limited in the current state-of-the-art high-throughput experimental techniques. Nevertheless, many techniques (such as yeast-two-hybrid) have enabled systematic screening of pairwise protein-protein interactions en masse. Thus computational approaches for detecting protein complexes from protein interaction data are useful complements to the limited experimental methods. They can be used together with the experimental methods for mapping the interactions of proteins to understand how different proteins are organized into higher-level substructures to perform various cellular functions. Results Given the abundance of pairwise protein interaction data from high-throughput genome-wide experimental screenings, a protein interaction network can be constructed from protein interaction data by considering individual proteins as the nodes, and the existence of a physical interaction between a pair of proteins as a link. This binary protein interaction graph can then be used for detecting protein complexes using graph clustering techniques. In this paper, we review and evaluate the state-of-the-art techniques for computational detection of protein complexes, and discuss some promising research directions in this field. Conclusions Experimental results with yeast protein interaction data show that the interaction subgraphs discovered by various computational methods matched well with actual protein complexes. In addition, the computational approaches have also improved in performance over the years. Further improvements could be achieved if the quality of the underlying protein interaction data can be considered adequately to minimize the undesirable effects from the irrelevant and noisy sources, and the various biological evidences can be better

  15. Protein Complex Production in Alternative Prokaryotic Hosts.

    PubMed

    Gómez, Sara; López-Estepa, Miguel; Fernández, Francisco J; Vega, M Cristina

    2016-01-01

    Research for multiprotein expression in nonconventional bacterial and archaeal expression systems aims to exploit particular properties of "alternative" prokaryotic hosts that might make them more efficient than E. coli for particular applications, especially in those areas where more conventional bacterial hosts traditionally do not perform well. Currently, a wide range of products with clinical or industrial application have to be isolated from their native source, often microorganisms whose growth present numerous problems owing to very slow growth phenotypes or because they are unculturable under laboratory conditions. In those cases, transfer of the gene pathway responsible for synthesizing the product of interest into a suitable recombinant host becomes an attractive alternative solution. Despite many efforts dedicated to improving E. coli systems due to low cost, ease of use, and its dominant position as a ubiquitous expression host model, many alternative prokaryotic systems have been developed for heterologous protein expression mostly for biotechnological applications. Continuous research has led to improvements in expression yield through these non-conventional models, including Pseudomonas, Streptomyces and Mycobacterium as alternative bacterial expression hosts. Advantageous properties shared by these systems include low costs, high levels of secreted protein products and their safety of use, with non-pathogenic strains been commercialized. In addition, the use of extremophilic and halotolerant archaea as expression hosts has to be considered as a potential tool for the production of mammalian membrane proteins such as GPCRs.

  16. Unwinding protein complexes in ALTernative telomere maintenance.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharyya, Saumitri; Sandy, April; Groden, Joanna

    2010-01-01

    Telomeres are composed of specialized chromatin that includes DNA repair/recombination proteins, telomere DNA-binding proteins and a number of three dimensional nucleic acid structures including G-quartets and D-loops. A number of studies suggest that the BLM and WRN recQ-like helicases play important roles in recombination-mediated mechanisms of telomere elongation or Alternative Lengthening of Telomeres (ALT), processes that maintain/elongate telomeres in the absence of telomerase. BLM and WRN localize within ALT-associated nuclear bodies in telomerase-negative immortalized cell lines and interact with the telomere-specific proteins POT1, TRF1 and TRF2. Helicase activity is modulated by these interactions. BLM functions in DNA double-strand break repair processes such as non-homologous end joining, homologous recombination-mediated repair, resolution of stalled replication forks and synthesis-dependent strand annealing, although its precise functions at the telomeres are speculative. WRN also functions in DNA replication, recombination and repair, and in addition to its helicase domain, includes an exonuclease domain not found in other recQ-like helicases. The biochemical properties of BLM and WRN are, therefore, important in biological processes other than DNA replication, recombination and repair. In this review, we discuss some previous and recent findings of human rec-Q-like helicases and their role in telomere elongation during ALT processes.

  17. Nanoparticle-protein complexes mimicking corona formation in ocular environment.

    PubMed

    Jo, Dong Hyun; Kim, Jin Hyoung; Son, Jin Gyeong; Dan, Ki Soon; Song, Sang Hoon; Lee, Tae Geol; Kim, Jeong Hun

    2016-12-01

    Nanoparticles adsorb biomolecules to form corona upon entering the biological environment. In this study, tissue-specific corona formation is provided as a way of controlling protein interaction with nanoparticles in vivo. In the vitreous, the composition of the corona was determined by the electrostatic and hydrophobic properties of the associated proteins, regardless of the material (gold and silica) or size (20- and 100-nm diameter) of the nanoparticles. To control protein adsorption, we pre-incubate 20-nm gold nanoparticles with 5 selectively enriched proteins from the corona, formed in the vitreous, to produce nanoparticle-protein complexes. Compared to bare nanoparticles, nanoparticle-protein complexes demonstrate improved binding to vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in the vitreous. Furthermore, nanoparticle-protein complexes retain in vitro anti-angiogenic properties of bare nanoparticles. In particular, priming the nanoparticles (gold and silica) with tissue-specific corona proteins allows nanoparticle-protein complexes to exert better in vivo therapeutic effects by higher binding to VEGF than bare nanoparticles. These results suggest that controlled corona formation that mimics in vivo processes may be useful in the therapeutic use of nanomaterials in local environment.

  18. Sizing Large Proteins and Protein Complexes by Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry and Ion Mobility

    PubMed Central

    Kaddis, Catherine S.; Lomeli, Shirley H.; Yin, Sheng; Berhane, Beniam; Apostol, Marcin I.; Kickhoefer, Valerie A.; Rome, Leonard H.; Loo, Joseph A.

    2009-01-01

    Mass spectrometry (MS) and ion mobility with electrospray ionization (ESI) have the capability to measure and detect large noncovalent protein-ligand and protein-protein complexes. Using an ion mobility method termed GEMMA (Gas-Phase Electrophoretic Mobility Molecular Analysis), protein particles representing a range of sizes can be separated by their electrophoretic mobility in air. Highly charged particles produced from a protein complex solution using electrospray can be manipulated to produce singly charged ions which can be separated and quantified by their electrophoretic mobility. Results from ESI-GEMMA analysis from our laboratory and others were compared to other experimental and theoretically determined parameters, such as molecular mass and cryoelectron microscopy and x-ray crystal structure dimensions. There is a strong correlation between the electrophoretic mobility diameter determined from GEMMA analysis and the molecular mass for protein complexes up to 12 MDa, including the 93 kDa enolase dimer, the 480 kDa ferritin 24-mer complex, the 4.6 MDa cowpea chlorotic mottle virus (CCMV), and the 9 MDa MVP-vault assembly. ESI-GEMMA is used to differentiate a number of similarly sized vault complexes that are composed of different N-terminal protein tags on the MVP subunit. The average effective density of the proteins and protein complexes studied was 0.6 g/cm3. Moreover, there is evidence that proteins and protein complexes collapse or become more compact in the gas phase in the absence of water. PMID:17434746

  19. Connectivity, small islands and large distances: the Cellana strigilis limpet complex in the Southern Ocean.

    PubMed

    Reisser, Céline M O; Wood, Ann R; Bell, James J; Gardner, Jonathan P A

    2011-08-01

    The Southern Ocean contains some of the most isolated islands on Earth, and fundamental questions remain regarding their colonization and the connectivity of their coastal biotas. Here, we conduct a genetic investigation into the Cellana strigilis (limpet) complex that was originally classified based on morphological characters into six subspecies, five of which are endemic to the New Zealand (NZ) subantarctic and Chatham islands (44-52°S). Previous genetic analyses of C. strigilis from six of the seven island groups revealed two lineages with little or no within-lineage variation. We analysed C. strigilis samples from all seven island groups using two mitochondrial (COI and 16S), one nuclear (ATPase β) and 58 loci from four randomly amplified polymorphic DNA markers (RAPDs) and confirmed the existence of two distinct lineages. The pronounced genetic structuring within each lineage and the presence of private haplotypes in individual islands are the result of little genetic connectivity and therefore very high self-recruitment. This study supports the significance of the subantarctic islands as refugia during the last glacial maximum and adds to the knowledge of contemporary population connectivity among coastal populations of remote islands in large oceans and the distance barrier to gene flow that exists in the sea (despite its continuous medium) for most taxa.

  20. Complex network analysis of brain functional connectivity under a multi-step cognitive task

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Shi-Min; Chen, Wei; Liu, Dong-Bai; Tang, Ming; Chen, Xun

    2017-01-01

    Functional brain network has been widely studied to understand the relationship between brain organization and behavior. In this paper, we aim to explore the functional connectivity of brain network under a multi-step cognitive task involving consecutive behaviors, and further understand the effect of behaviors on the brain organization. The functional brain networks are constructed based on a high spatial and temporal resolution fMRI dataset and analyzed via complex network based approach. We find that at voxel level the functional brain network shows robust small-worldness and scale-free characteristics, while its assortativity and rich-club organization are slightly restricted to the order of behaviors performed. More interestingly, the functional connectivity of brain network in activated ROIs strongly correlates with behaviors and is obviously restricted to the order of behaviors performed. These empirical results suggest that the brain organization has the generic properties of small-worldness and scale-free characteristics, and its diverse functional connectivity emerging from activated ROIs is strongly driven by these behavioral activities via the plasticity of brain.

  1. Development of realtime connected element interferometry at the Goldstone Deep Space Communications Complex

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edwards, C. D.

    1990-01-01

    Connected-element interferometry (CEI) has the potential to provide high-accuracy angular spacecraft tracking on short baselines by making use of the very precise phase delay observable. Within the Goldstone Deep Space Communications Complex (DSCC), one of three tracking complexes in the NASA Deep Space Network, baselines of up to 21 km in length are available. Analysis of data from a series of short-baseline phase-delay interferometry experiments are presented to demonstrate the potential tracking accuracy on these baselines. Repeated differential observations of pairs of angularly close extragalactic radio sources were made to simulate differential spacecraft-quasar measurements. Fiber-optic data links and a correlation processor are currently being developed and installed at Goldstone for a demonstration of real-time CEI in 1990.

  2. Structural study of coacervation in protein-polyelectrolyte complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chodankar, S.; Aswal, V. K.; Kohlbrecher, J.; Vavrin, R.; Wagh, A. G.

    2008-09-01

    Coacervation is a dense liquid-liquid phase separation and herein we report coacervation of protein bovine serum albumin (BSA) in the presence of polyelectrolyte sodium polystyrene sulfonate (NaPSS) under varying solution conditions. Small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) measurements have been performed on above protein-polyelectrolyte complexes to study the structural evolution of the process that leads to coacervation and the phase separated coacervate as a function of solution pH , protein-polyelectrolyte ratio and ionic strength. SANS study prior to phase separation on the BSA-NaPSS complex shows a fractal structure representing a necklace model of protein macromolecules randomly distributed along the polystyrene sulfonate chain. The fractal dimension of the complex decreases as pH is shifted away from the isoelectric point (˜4.7) of BSA protein, which indicates the decrease in the compactness of the complex structure due to increase in the charge repulsion between the protein macromolecules bound to the polyelectrolyte. Concentration-dependence studies of the polyelectrolyte in the complex suggest coexistence of two populations of polyelectrolytes, first one fully saturated with proteins and another one free from proteins. Coacervation phase has been obtained through the turbidity measurement by varying pH of the aqueous solution containing protein and polyelectrolyte from neutral to acidic regime to get them to where the two components are oppositely charged. The spontaneous formation of coacervates is observed for pH values less than 4. SANS study on coacervates shows two length scales related to complex aggregations (mesh size and overall extent of the complex) hierarchically branched to form a larger network. The mesh size represents the distance between cross-linked points in the primary complex, which decreases with increase in ionic strength and remains the same on varying the protein-polyelectrolyte ratio. On the other hand, the overall extent of the

  3. Toll-like receptor signalling through macromolecular protein complexes.

    PubMed

    Bryant, Clare E; Symmons, Martyn; Gay, Nicholas J

    2015-02-01

    The molecular mechanisms by which pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) signal are increasingly well understood. Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) signals through two separate pairs of adaptor proteins Mal/MyD88 and Tram/Trif. Structural studies have revealed a common theme for PRR signalling in that their signalling proteins form large macromolecular complexes which are thought to form the active signalling complex. The first of these to be characterised was the MyD88 signalling complex Myddosome. Many questions remain unanswered however. In particular it is unclear whether these signalling complexes form within the living cell, how many of each signalling protein is within the intracellular Myddosome and whether the stoichiometry can vary in a ligand-dependent manner. In this review we will discuss what is known about the macromolecular complexes thought to be important for TLR4 signalling. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. From quantitative protein complex analysis to disease mechanism.

    PubMed

    Texier, Y; Kinkl, N; Boldt, K; Ueffing, M

    2012-12-15

    Interest in the field of cilia biology and cilia-associated diseases - ciliopathies - has strongly increased over the last few years. Proteomic technologies, especially protein complex analysis by affinity purification-based methods, have been used to decipher various basic but also disease-associated mechanisms. This review focusses on some selected recent studies using affinity purification-based protein complex analysis, thereby exemplifying the great possibilities this technology offers.

  5. Connected Component Labeling algorithm for very complex and high-resolution images on an FPGA platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwenk, Kurt; Huber, Felix

    2015-10-01

    Connected Component Labeling (CCL) is a basic algorithm in image processing and an essential step in nearly every application dealing with object detection. It groups together pixels belonging to the same connected component (e.g. object). Special architectures such as ASICs, FPGAs and GPUs were utilised for achieving high data throughput, primarily for video processing. In this article, the FPGA implementation of a CCL method is presented, which was specially designed to process high resolution images with complex structure at high speed, generating a label mask. In general, CCL is a dynamic task and therefore not well suited for parallelisation, which is needed to achieve high processing speed with an FPGA. Facing this issue, most of the FPGA CCL implementations are restricted to low or medium resolution images (≤ 2048 ∗ 2048 pixels) with lower complexity, where the fastest implementations do not create a label mask. Instead, they extract object features like size and position directly, which can be realized with high performance and perfectly suits the need for many video applications. Since these restrictions are incompatible with the requirements to label high resolution images with highly complex structures and the need for generating a label mask, a new approach was required. The CCL method presented in this work is based on a two-pass CCL algorithm, which was modified with respect to low memory consumption and suitability for an FPGA implementation. Nevertheless, since not all parts of CCL can be parallelised, a stop-and-go high-performance pipeline processing CCL module was designed. The algorithm, the performance and the hardware requirements of a prototype implementation are presented. Furthermore, a clock-accurate runtime analysis is shown, which illustrates the dependency between processing speed and image complexity in detail. Finally, the performance of the FPGA implementation is compared with that of a software implementation on modern embedded

  6. Mass Spectrometry of Protein-Ligand Complexes: Enhanced Gas Phase Stability of Ribonuclease-Nucleotide Complexes

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Sheng; Xie, Yongming; Loo, Joseph A.

    2008-01-01

    Noncovalent protein-ligand complexes are readily detected by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS). Ligand binding stoichiometry can be determined easily by the ESI-MS method. The ability to detect noncovalent protein-ligand complexes depends, however, on the stability of the complexes in the gas phase environment. Solution binding affinities may or may not be accurate predictors of their stability in vacuo. Complexes composed of cytidine nucleotides bound to ribonuclease A (RNase A) and ribonuclease S (RNase S) were detected by ESI-MS and were further analyzed by MS/MS. RNase A and RNase S share similar structures and biological activity. Subtilisin-cleavage of RNase A yields an S-peptide and an S-protein; the S-peptide and S-protein interact through hydrophobic interactions with a solution binding constant in the nanomolar range to generate an active RNase S. Cytidine nucleotides bind to the ribonucleases through electrostatic interactions with a solution binding constant in the micromolar range. Collisionally activated dissociation (CAD) of the 1:1 RNase A-CDP and CTP complexes yields cleavage of the covalent phosphate bonds of the nucleotide ligands, releasing CMP from the complex. CAD of the RNase S-CDP and CTP complexes dissociates the S-peptide from the remaining S-protein/nucleotide complex; further dissociation of the S-protein/nucleotide complex fragments a covalent phosphate bond of the nucleotide with subsequent release of CMP. Despite a solution binding constant favoring the S-protein/S-peptide complex, CDP/CTP remains electrostatically bound to the S-protein in the gas phase dissociation experiment. This study highlights the intrinsic stability of electrostatic interactions in the gas phase and the significant differences in solution and gas phase stabilities of noncovalent complexes that can result. PMID:18565758

  7. First complexomic study of alkane-binding protein complexes in the yeast Yarrowia lipolytica.

    PubMed

    Lasserre, Jean-Paul; Nicaud, Jean-Marc; Pagot, Yves; Joubert-Caron, Raymonde; Caron, Michel; Hardouin, Julie

    2010-02-15

    The yeast Yarrowia lipolytica uses hydrophobic substrates, such as alkanes, fatty acids and oils, for its growth. It has developed a strategy for the use of such substrates, involving the production of hydrophobic binding structures called protrusions on the cell surface. These protrusions are resemble channels connecting the cell wall to the inside of the cell, and are probably involved in transport mechanisms that we do not yet fully understand. The complete genome of the haploid Y. lipolytica strain E150 (CLIB99) was sequenced in 2004 by the Génolevures Consortium. The availability of a complete genome sequence for this species has made it possible to carry out proteomic and other investigations, leading to the characterization of lipid bodies (LB) in terms of (i) their lipid composition, (ii) the major LB proteins, as identified by mass spectrometry, and (iii) differences in protein or lipid composition as a function of the carbon source used. Functional analyses would provide insight into the biological processes associated with these bodies and 2D BN/SDS-PAGE is a highly suitable method for the analysis of protein complexes. This report provides a first description of the analysis and identification of hydrophobic binding protein complexes in Y. lipolytica. For this purpose, we used 2D BN/SDS-PAGE for the separation of protein complexes and HPLC-chip-MS for protein identification. We separated and identified 40 protein complexes (11 heteromultimeric and 29 homomultimeric), providing insight into their function. This study represents a major step forward, as most previous studies identified proteins either on the basis of sequence similarity to proteins from other organisms (44% of the proteins identified in this study) or by prediction (50% of proteins identified in this study) alone. (c) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Dystrophin complex functions as a scaffold for signalling proteins.

    PubMed

    Constantin, Bruno

    2014-02-01

    Dystrophin is a 427kDa sub-membrane cytoskeletal protein, associated with the inner surface membrane and incorporated in a large macromolecular complex of proteins, the dystrophin-associated protein complex (DAPC). In addition to dystrophin the DAPC is composed of dystroglycans, sarcoglycans, sarcospan, dystrobrevins and syntrophin. This complex is thought to play a structural role in ensuring membrane stability and force transduction during muscle contraction. The multiple binding sites and domains present in the DAPC confer the scaffold of various signalling and channel proteins, which may implicate the DAPC in regulation of signalling processes. The DAPC is thought for instance to anchor a variety of signalling molecules near their sites of action. The dystroglycan complex may participate in the transduction of extracellular-mediated signals to the muscle cytoskeleton, and β-dystroglycan was shown to be involved in MAPK and Rac1 small GTPase signalling. More generally, dystroglycan is view as a cell surface receptor for extracellular matrix proteins. The adaptor proteins syntrophin contribute to recruit and regulate various signalling proteins such as ion channels, into a macromolecular complex. Although dystrophin and dystroglycan can be directly involved in signalling pathways, syntrophins play a central role in organizing signalplex anchored to the dystrophin scaffold. The dystrophin associated complex, can bind up to four syntrophin through binding domains of dystrophin and dystrobrevin, allowing the scaffold of multiple signalling proteins in close proximity. Multiple interactions mediated by PH and PDZ domains of syntrophin also contribute to build a complete signalplex which may include ion channels, such as voltage-gated sodium channels or TRPC cation channels, together with, trimeric G protein, G protein-coupled receptor, plasma membrane calcium pump, and NOS, to enable efficient and regulated signal transduction and ion transport. This article is part

  9. Dissection of the one-MegaDalton JAZ1 protein complex.

    PubMed

    Geerinck, Jan; Pauwels, Laurens; De Jaeger, Geert; Goossens, Alain

    2010-08-01

    Jasmonates (JAs) comprise a class of plant-specific hormones that mediate a large variety of processes involved in plant growth, development and defense. Perception of jasmonoyl-isoleucine (JA-Ile), the bioactive amino acid conjugate of JA, initiates the expression of JA-responsive genes through the degradation of the jasmonate ZIM domain (JAZ) repressor proteins and the subsequent release of the transcriptional activator MYC2. By using a tandem affinity purification based approach, we demonstrated that the Groucho/Tup1-type co-repressor TOPLESS (TPL) and TPL-related proteins are connected to the JAZ proteins via an adaptor protein, designated Novel Interactor of JAZ (NINJA). Both NINJA and TPL were shown to function as negative regulators of JA signaling. Here, we provide additional data, demonstrating that JAZ1 incorporates into high-molecular weight (HMW) protein complexes of > 1 MDa and speculate about their composition.

  10. Dissection of the one-MegaDalton JAZ1 protein complex

    PubMed Central

    Geerinck, Jan; Pauwels, Laurens; De Jaeger, Geert

    2010-01-01

    Jasmonates (JAs) comprise a class of plant-specific hormones that mediate a large variety of processes involved in plant growth, development and defense. Perception of jasmonoyl-isoleucine (JA-Ile), the bioactive amino acid conjugate of JA, initiates the expression of JA-responsive genes through the degradation of the jasmonate ZIM domain (JAZ) repressor proteins and the subsequent release of the transcriptional activator MYC2. By using a tandem affinity purification based approach, we demonstrated that the Groucho/Tup1-type co-repressor TOPLESS (TPL) and TPL-related proteins are connected to the JAZ proteins via an adaptor protein, designated Novel Interactor of JAZ (NINJA). Both NINJA and TPL were shown to function as negative regulators of JA signaling. Here, we provide additional data, demonstrating that JAZ1 incorporates into high-molecular weight (HMW) protein complexes of >1 MDa and speculate about their composition. PMID:20671423

  11. Shaping the midwifery profession in Nepal - Uncovering actors' connections using a Complex Adaptive Systems framework.

    PubMed

    Bogren, Malin Upper; Berg, Marie; Edgren, Lars; van Teijlingen, Edwin; Wigert, Helena

    2016-12-01

    To explore how actors connect in a system aiming at promoting the establishment of a midwifery profession in Nepal. A qualitative explorative study based on the framework of Complex Adaptive Systems. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 17 key people representing eight different organisations (actors) promoting the development of the midwifery profession. The actors' connections can be described with a complex set of facilitators for and barriers to promoting the establishment of a midwifery profession. The identified facilitators for this establishment in Nepal are (1) a common goal and (2) a desire to collaborate, whilst the barriers are (1) different political interests and priorities, (2) competing interests of the nursing profession and societal views, (3) divergent academic opinions on a midwifery profession, and (4) insufficient communication. The results also showed that Nepalese society cannot distinguish between nursing and midwifery and that the public support for a midwifery profession was hence minimal. The move of midwifery from an occupation to a profession in Nepal is an on-going, challenging process. The study indicates the importance of understanding the motivations of, and barriers perceived by, actors that can promote or obstruct the establishment of the midwifery profession. It also points to the importance of informing the wider public about the role and responsibility of an autonomous midwifery profession. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Using light scattering to determine the stoichiometry of protein complexes.

    PubMed

    Mogridge, Jeremy

    2015-01-01

    The stoichiometry of a protein complex can be calculated from an accurate measurement of the complex's molecular weight. Multiangle laser light scattering in combination with size exclusion chromatography and interferometric refractometry provides a powerful means for determining the molecular weights of proteins and protein complexes. In contrast to conventional size exclusion chromatography and analytical centrifugation, measurements do not rely on the use of molecular weight standards and are not affected by the shape of the proteins. The technique is based on the direct relationship between the amount of light scattered by a protein in solution, and the product of its concentration and molecular weight. A typical experimental configuration includes a size exclusion column to fractionate the sample, a light scattering detector to measure scattered light, and an interferometric refractometer to measure protein concentration. The determination of the molecular weight of an anthrax toxin complex will be used to illustrate how multiangle laser light scattering can be used to determine the stoichiometry of protein complexes.

  13. Global terrestrial water storage connectivity revealed using complex climate network analyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, A. Y.; Chen, J.; Donges, J.

    2015-07-01

    Terrestrial water storage (TWS) exerts a key control in global water, energy, and biogeochemical cycles. Although certain causal relationship exists between precipitation and TWS, the latter quantity also reflects impacts of anthropogenic activities. Thus, quantification of the spatial patterns of TWS will not only help to understand feedbacks between climate dynamics and the hydrologic cycle, but also provide new insights and model calibration constraints for improving the current land surface models. This work is the first attempt to quantify the spatial connectivity of TWS using the complex network theory, which has received broad attention in the climate modeling community in recent years. Complex networks of TWS anomalies are built using two global TWS data sets, a remote sensing product that is obtained from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellite mission, and a model-generated data set from the global land data assimilation system's NOAH model (GLDAS-NOAH). Both data sets have 1° × 1° grid resolutions and cover most global land areas except for permafrost regions. TWS networks are built by first quantifying pairwise correlation among all valid TWS anomaly time series, and then applying a cutoff threshold derived from the edge-density function to retain only the most important features in the network. Basinwise network connectivity maps are used to illuminate connectivity of individual river basins with other regions. The constructed network degree centrality maps show the TWS anomaly hotspots around the globe and the patterns are consistent with recent GRACE studies. Parallel analyses of networks constructed using the two data sets reveal that the GLDAS-NOAH model captures many of the spatial patterns shown by GRACE, although significant discrepancies exist in some regions. Thus, our results provide further measures for constraining the current land surface models, especially in data sparse regions.

  14. Human Polymerase-Associated Factor complex (PAFc) connects the Super Elongation Complex (SEC) to RNA polymerase II on chromatin.

    PubMed

    He, Nanhai; Chan, Caleb K; Sobhian, Bijan; Chou, Seemay; Xue, Yuhua; Liu, Min; Alber, Tom; Benkirane, Monsef; Zhou, Qiang

    2011-09-06

    The Super Elongation Complex (SEC), containing transcription elongation activators/coactivators P-TEFb, ELL2, AFF4/1, ENL, and AF9, is recruited by HIV-1 Tat and mixed lineage leukemia (MLL) proteins to activate the expression of HIV-1 and MLL-target genes, respectively. In the absence of Tat and MLL, however, it is unclear how SEC is targeted to RNA polymerase (Pol) II to stimulate elongation in general. Furthermore, although ENL and AF9 can bind the H3K79 methyltransferase Dot1L, it is unclear whether these bindings are required for SEC-mediated transcription. Here, we show that the homologous ENL and AF9 exist in separate SECs with similar but nonidentical functions. ENL/AF9 contacts the scaffolding protein AFF4 that uses separate domains to recruit different subunits into SEC. ENL/AF9 also exists outside SEC when bound to Dot1L, which is found to inhibit SEC function. The YEATS domain of ENL/AF9 targets SEC to Pol II on chromatin through contacting the human Polymerase-Associated Factor complex (PAFc) complex. This finding explains the YEATS domain's dispensability for leukemogenesis when ENL/AF9 is translocated to MLL, whose interactions with PAFc and DNA likely substitute for the PAFc/chromatin-targeting function of the YEATS domain.

  15. Comprehensive inventory of protein complexes in the Protein Data Bank from consistent classification of interfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Bordner, Andrew J.; Gorin, Andrey A.

    2008-05-12

    Here, protein-protein interactions are ubiquitous and essential for cellular processes. High-resolution X-ray crystallographic structures of protein complexes can elucidate the details of their function and provide a basis for many computational and experimental approaches. Here we demonstrate that existing annotations of protein complexes, including those provided by the Protein Data Bank (PDB) itself, contain a significant fraction of incorrect annotations. Results: We have developed a method for identifying protein complexes in the PDB X-ray structures by a four step procedure: (1) comprehensively collecting all protein-protein interfaces; (2) clustering similar protein-protein interfaces together; (3) estimating the probability that each cluster is relevant based on a diverse set of properties; and (4) finally combining these scores for each entry in order to predict the complex structure. Unlike previous annotation methods, consistent prediction of complexes with identical or almost identical protein content is insured. The resulting clusters of biologically relevant interfaces provide a reliable catalog of evolutionary conserved protein-protein interactions.

  16. Comprehensive inventory of protein complexes in the Protein Data Bank from consistent classification of interfaces

    DOE PAGES

    Bordner, Andrew J.; Gorin, Andrey A.

    2008-05-12

    Here, protein-protein interactions are ubiquitous and essential for cellular processes. High-resolution X-ray crystallographic structures of protein complexes can elucidate the details of their function and provide a basis for many computational and experimental approaches. Here we demonstrate that existing annotations of protein complexes, including those provided by the Protein Data Bank (PDB) itself, contain a significant fraction of incorrect annotations. Results: We have developed a method for identifying protein complexes in the PDB X-ray structures by a four step procedure: (1) comprehensively collecting all protein-protein interfaces; (2) clustering similar protein-protein interfaces together; (3) estimating the probability that each cluster ismore » relevant based on a diverse set of properties; and (4) finally combining these scores for each entry in order to predict the complex structure. Unlike previous annotation methods, consistent prediction of complexes with identical or almost identical protein content is insured. The resulting clusters of biologically relevant interfaces provide a reliable catalog of evolutionary conserved protein-protein interactions.« less

  17. Applying bimolecular fluorescence complementation to screen and purify aquaporin protein:protein complexes

    PubMed Central

    Sjöhamn, Jennie; Båth, Petra; Neutze, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Protein:protein interactions play key functional roles in the molecular machinery of the cell. A major challenge for structural biology is to gain high‐resolution structural insight into how membrane protein function is regulated by protein:protein interactions. To this end we present a method to express, detect, and purify stable membrane protein complexes that are suitable for further structural characterization. Our approach utilizes bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC), whereby each protein of an interaction pair is fused to nonfluorescent fragments of yellow fluorescent protein (YFP) that combine and mature as the complex is formed. YFP thus facilitates the visualization of protein:protein interactions in vivo, stabilizes the assembled complex, and provides a fluorescent marker during purification. This technique is validated by observing the formation of stable homotetramers of human aquaporin 0 (AQP0). The method's broader applicability is demonstrated by visualizing the interactions of AQP0 and human aquaporin 1 (AQP1) with the cytoplasmic regulatory protein calmodulin (CaM). The dependence of the AQP0‐CaM complex on the AQP0 C‐terminus is also demonstrated since the C‐terminal truncated construct provides a negative control. This screening approach may therefore facilitate the production and purification of membrane protein:protein complexes for later structural studies by X‐ray crystallography or single particle electron microscopy. PMID:27643892

  18. Adenosine deaminase complexing protein in cancer studies.

    PubMed

    Ten Kate, J; Dinjens, W N; Meera Khan, P; Bosman, F T

    1986-01-01

    ADCP is a dimeric glycoprotein of about 200KD, for which the physiological role is still obscure. This protein occurs mainly in a membrane bound form in various human tissues. In this paper we review the current literature on ADCP in cancer studies. Soluble ADCP was described to be consistently decreased or absent in cancers of lung, liver, kidney and colon. These findings could not be confirmed by immunohistochemical and quantitative biochemical studies in a series of colorectal-, prostatic-, and renal carcinomas. Only in a third of these tumors a decrease could be demonstrated, whereas in the other cases unaltered or even increased amounts were observed. However, in virally transformed human fibroblasts a consistent decrease or complete absence of ADCP was seen, while primary fibroblasts were found to contain high amounts of this protein. Recently, the use of ADCP as a differentiation marker in colonic cancer has been advocated. Furthermore the presence of ADCP in the serum of renal adenocarcinoma patients was found to be indicative of a better chance of five year survival. These studies suggest that ADCP may be a differentiation marker useful for immunohistochemical characterization of colonic and renal carcinomas as well as a serum marker useful for follow-up studies of these types of cancer, analogous to CEA. Finally, ADCP has been found to be selectively expressed by certain T-cell subsets and henceforth may be useful in the studies on leukemias.

  19. Conservation of complex knotting and slipknotting patterns in proteins.

    PubMed

    Sułkowska, Joanna I; Rawdon, Eric J; Millett, Kenneth C; Onuchic, Jose N; Stasiak, Andrzej

    2012-06-26

    While analyzing all available protein structures for the presence of knots and slipknots, we detected a strict conservation of complex knotting patterns within and between several protein families despite their large sequence divergence. Because protein folding pathways leading to knotted native protein structures are slower and less efficient than those leading to unknotted proteins with similar size and sequence, the strict conservation of the knotting patterns indicates an important physiological role of knots and slipknots in these proteins. Although little is known about the functional role of knots, recent studies have demonstrated a protein-stabilizing ability of knots and slipknots. Some of the conserved knotting patterns occur in proteins forming transmembrane channels where the slipknot loop seems to strap together the transmembrane helices forming the channel.

  20. Biochemical isolation of Argonaute protein complexes by Ago-APP

    PubMed Central

    Hauptmann, Judith; Schraivogel, Daniel; Bruckmann, Astrid; Manickavel, Sudhir; Jakob, Leonhard; Eichner, Norbert; Pfaff, Janina; Urban, Marc; Sprunck, Stefanie; Hafner, Markus; Tuschl, Thomas; Deutzmann, Rainer; Meister, Gunter

    2015-01-01

    During microRNA (miRNA)-guided gene silencing, Argonaute (Ago) proteins interact with a member of the TNRC6/GW protein family. Here we used a short GW protein-derived peptide fused to GST and demonstrate that it binds to Ago proteins with high affinity. This allows for the simultaneous isolation of all Ago protein complexes expressed in diverse species to identify associated proteins, small RNAs, or target mRNAs. We refer to our method as “Ago protein Affinity Purification by Peptides“ (Ago-APP). Furthermore, expression of this peptide competes for endogenous TNRC6 proteins, leading to global inhibition of miRNA function in mammalian cells. PMID:26351695

  1. The La protein-RNA complex surfaces.

    PubMed

    Maraia, Richard J; Bayfield, Mark A

    2006-01-20

    A recent issue of Molecular Cell reported that the typical nucleic acid binding surfaces of the RRM and winged-helix motifs, although present in the RNA binding protein La, are not used to engage its best-characterized ligand, 3' UUU-OH. Instead, La uses edgewise and backsides of these motifs for UUU-OH recognition, leaving open their typical surfaces for other potential interactions. These observations provide a framework for appreciating the various activities attributed to this ubiquitous nuclear phosphoprotein, which include its principal function, snRNA 3' end protection, in addition to mRNA-related and RNA chaperone-like activities, as well as DNA and chromatin-associated activity.

  2. Anharmonic activations in proteins and peptide model systems and their connection with supercooled water thermodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schirò, G.; Cupane, A.

    2016-05-01

    Proteins, the nano-machines of living systems, are highly dynamic molecules. The time-scale of functionally relevant motions spans over a very broad range, from femtoseconds to several seconds. In particular, the pico- to nanoseconds region is characterized by side-chain and backbone anharmonic fluctuations that are responsible for many biological tasks like ligand binding, substrate recognition and enzymatic activity. Neutron scattering on hydrated protein powders reveals two main activations of anharmonic dynamics, characterized by different onset temperature and amplitude. Here we review our work on synthetic polypeptides, native proteins, and single amino acids to identify the physical origin of the two onsets -one involving water-independent local dynamics of methyl groups and, to a minor extent, of aromatic side-chains, and the other one, known as "protein dynamical transition", concerning large scale functional protein fluctuations, most likely induced by a crossover in the structure and dynamics of hydration water connected with the second critical point hypothesis.

  3. Protein Complex Production from the Drug Discovery Standpoint.

    PubMed

    Moarefi, Ismail

    2016-01-01

    Small molecule drug discovery critically depends on the availability of meaningful in vitro assays to guide medicinal chemistry programs that are aimed at optimizing drug potency and selectivity. As it becomes increasingly evident, most disease relevant drug targets do not act as a single protein. In the body, they are instead generally found in complex with protein cofactors that are highly relevant for their correct function and regulation. This review highlights selected examples of the increasing trend to use biologically relevant protein complexes for rational drug discovery to reduce costly late phase attritions due to lack of efficacy or toxicity.

  4. Luminescent iridium(III) complexes as novel protein staining agents.

    PubMed

    Jia, Junli; Fei, Hao; Zhou, Ming

    2012-05-01

    This article reports a new class of luminescent metal complexes, biscyclometalated iridium(III) complexes with an ancillary bathophenanthroline disulfonate ligand, for staining protein bands that are separated by electrophoresis. The performances of these novel staining agents have been studied in comparison with tris(bathophenanthroline disulfonate) ruthenium(II) tetrasodium salt (i.e. RuBPS) using a commercially available imaging system. The staining agents showed different limits of detection, linear dynamic ranges, and protein-to-protein variations. The overall performances of all three stains were found to be better than or equivalent to RuBPS under the experimental conditions.

  5. Proteins associated with RNase E in a multicomponent ribonucleolytic complex.

    PubMed Central

    Miczak, A; Kaberdin, V R; Wei, C L; Lin-Chao, S

    1996-01-01

    The Escherichia coli endoribonuclease RNase E is essential for RNA processing and degradation. Earlier work provided evidence that RNase E exists intracellularly as part of a multicomponent complex and that one of the components of this complex is a 3'-to-5' exoribonuclease, polynucleotide phosphorylase (EC 2.7.7.8). To isolate and identify other components of the RNase E complex, FLAG-epitope-tagged RNase E (FLAG-Rne) fusion protein was purified on a monoclonal antibody-conjugated agarose column. The FLAG-Rne fusion protein, eluted by competition with the synthetic FLAG peptide, was found to be associated with other proteins. N-terminal sequencing of these proteins revealed the presence in the RNase E complex not only of polynucleotide phosphorylase but also of DnaK, RNA helicase, and enolase (EC 4.2.1.11). Another protein associated only with epitope-tagged temperature-sensitive (Rne-3071) mutant RNase E but not with the wild-type enzyme is GroEL. The FLAG-Rne complex has RNase E activity in vivo and in vitro. The relative amount of proteins associated with wild-type and Rne-3071 expressed at an elevated temperature differed. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 PMID:8632981

  6. Characterization of Native Protein Complexes and Protein Isoform Variation Using Size-fractionation-based Quantitative Proteomics*

    PubMed Central

    Kirkwood, Kathryn J.; Ahmad, Yasmeen; Larance, Mark; Lamond, Angus I.

    2013-01-01

    Proteins form a diverse array of complexes that mediate cellular function and regulation. A largely unexplored feature of such protein complexes is the selective participation of specific protein isoforms and/or post-translationally modified forms. In this study, we combined native size-exclusion chromatography (SEC) with high-throughput proteomic analysis to characterize soluble protein complexes isolated from human osteosarcoma (U2OS) cells. Using this approach, we have identified over 71,500 peptides and 1,600 phosphosites, corresponding to over 8,000 proteins, distributed across 40 SEC fractions. This represents >50% of the predicted U2OS cell proteome, identified with a mean peptide sequence coverage of 27% per protein. Three biological replicates were performed, allowing statistical evaluation of the data and demonstrating a high degree of reproducibility in the SEC fractionation procedure. Specific proteins were detected interacting with multiple independent complexes, as typified by the separation of distinct complexes for the MRFAP1-MORF4L1-MRGBP interaction network. The data also revealed protein isoforms and post-translational modifications that selectively associated with distinct subsets of protein complexes. Surprisingly, there was clear enrichment for specific Gene Ontology terms associated with differential size classes of protein complexes. This study demonstrates that combined SEC/MS analysis can be used for the system-wide annotation of protein complexes and to predict potential isoform-specific interactions. All of these SEC data on the native separation of protein complexes have been integrated within the Encyclopedia of Proteome Dynamics, an online, multidimensional data-sharing resource available to the community. PMID:24043423

  7. The Role of Mitochondria in Cellular Iron–Sulfur Protein Biogenesis: Mechanisms, Connected Processes, and Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Stehling, Oliver; Lill, Roland

    2013-01-01

    Iron–sulfur (Fe/S) clusters belong to the most ancient protein cofactors in life, and fulfill functions in electron transport, enzyme catalysis, homeostatic regulation, and sulfur activation. The synthesis of Fe/S clusters and their insertion into apoproteins requires almost 30 proteins in the mitochondria and cytosol of eukaryotic cells. This review summarizes our current biochemical knowledge of mitochondrial Fe/S protein maturation. Because this pathway is essential for various extramitochondrial processes, we then explain how mitochondria contribute to the mechanism of cytosolic and nuclear Fe/S protein biogenesis, and to other connected processes including nuclear DNA replication and repair, telomere maintenance, and transcription. We next describe how the efficiency of mitochondria to assemble Fe/S proteins is used to regulate cellular iron homeostasis. Finally, we briefly summarize a number of mitochondrial “Fe/S diseases” in which various biogenesis components are functionally impaired owing to genetic mutations. The thorough understanding of the diverse biochemical disease phenotypes helps with testing the current working model for the molecular mechanism of Fe/S protein biogenesis and its connected processes. PMID:23906713

  8. Linking structural features of protein complexes and biological function

    PubMed Central

    Sowmya, Gopichandran; Breen, Edmond J; Ranganathan, Shoba

    2015-01-01

    Protein–protein interaction (PPI) establishes the central basis for complex cellular networks in a biological cell. Association of proteins with other proteins occurs at varying affinities, yet with a high degree of specificity. PPIs lead to diverse functionality such as catalysis, regulation, signaling, immunity, and inhibition, playing a crucial role in functional genomics. The molecular principle of such interactions is often elusive in nature. Therefore, a comprehensive analysis of known protein complexes from the Protein Data Bank (PDB) is essential for the characterization of structural interface features to determine structure–function relationship. Thus, we analyzed a nonredundant dataset of 278 heterodimer protein complexes, categorized into major functional classes, for distinguishing features. Interestingly, our analysis has identified five key features (interface area, interface polar residue abundance, hydrogen bonds, solvation free energy gain from interface formation, and binding energy) that are discriminatory among the functional classes using Kruskal-Wallis rank sum test. Significant correlations between these PPI interface features amongst functional categories are also documented. Salt bridges correlate with interface area in regulator-inhibitors (r = 0.75). These representative features have implications for the prediction of potential function of novel protein complexes. The results provide molecular insights for better understanding of PPIs and their relation to biological functions. PMID:26131659

  9. Identification of Essential Proteins Based on a New Combination of Local Interaction Density and Protein Complexes

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Jiawei; Qi, Yi

    2015-01-01

    Background Computational approaches aided by computer science have been used to predict essential proteins and are faster than expensive, time-consuming, laborious experimental approaches. However, the performance of such approaches is still poor, making practical applications of computational approaches difficult in some fields. Hence, the development of more suitable and efficient computing methods is necessary for identification of essential proteins. Method In this paper, we propose a new method for predicting essential proteins in a protein interaction network, local interaction density combined with protein complexes (LIDC), based on statistical analyses of essential proteins and protein complexes. First, we introduce a new local topological centrality, local interaction density (LID), of the yeast PPI network; second, we discuss a new integration strategy for multiple bioinformatics. The LIDC method was then developed through a combination of LID and protein complex information based on our new integration strategy. The purpose of LIDC is discovery of important features of essential proteins with their neighbors in real protein complexes, thereby improving the efficiency of identification. Results Experimental results based on three different PPI(protein-protein interaction) networks of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Escherichia coli showed that LIDC outperformed classical topological centrality measures and some recent combinational methods. Moreover, when predicting MIPS datasets, the better improvement of performance obtained by LIDC is over all nine reference methods (i.e., DC, BC, NC, LID, PeC, CoEWC, WDC, ION, and UC). Conclusions LIDC is more effective for the prediction of essential proteins than other recently developed methods. PMID:26125187

  10. Capillary Isoelectric Focusing-Mass Spectrometry of Proteins and Protein Complexes

    SciTech Connect

    Martinovic, Suzana; Pasa-Tolic, Liljiana; Smith, Richard D.

    2004-10-01

    Complex proteome samples require efficient separation and detection methods in order to characterize their protein components. On-line combination of capillary isoelectric focusing (CIEF) with electrospray ionization (ESI) mass spectrometry (MS) is shown as an effective method to analyze complex protein mixtures. Our experience with several microorganisms allowed us to establish successful experimental protocol. Here we use the example of E. coli whole cell lysate for the CIEF separation and MS detection on the intact protein level. The protocol was further adapted for the analysis of the mixture of non-covalent complexes on the intact complex level.

  11. Protein complex analysis: From raw protein lists to protein interaction networks.

    PubMed

    Meysman, Pieter; Titeca, Kevin; Eyckerman, Sven; Tavernier, Jan; Goethals, Bart; Martens, Lennart; Valkenborg, Dirk; Laukens, Kris

    2017-09-01

    The elucidation of molecular interaction networks is one of the pivotal challenges in the study of biology. Affinity purification-mass spectrometry and other co-complex methods have become widely employed experimental techniques to identify protein complexes. These techniques typically suffer from a high number of false negatives and false positive contaminants due to technical shortcomings and purification biases. To support a diverse range of experimental designs and approaches, a large number of computational methods have been proposed to filter, infer and validate protein interaction networks from experimental pull-down MS data. Nevertheless, this expansion of available methods complicates the selection of the most optimal ones to support systems biology-driven knowledge extraction. In this review, we give an overview of the most commonly used computational methods to process and interpret co-complex results, and we discuss the issues and unsolved problems that still exist within the field. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Mass Spec Rev 36:600-614, 2017. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Global landscape of HIV-human protein complexes.

    PubMed

    Jäger, Stefanie; Cimermancic, Peter; Gulbahce, Natali; Johnson, Jeffrey R; McGovern, Kathryn E; Clarke, Starlynn C; Shales, Michael; Mercenne, Gaelle; Pache, Lars; Li, Kathy; Hernandez, Hilda; Jang, Gwendolyn M; Roth, Shoshannah L; Akiva, Eyal; Marlett, John; Stephens, Melanie; D'Orso, Iván; Fernandes, Jason; Fahey, Marie; Mahon, Cathal; O'Donoghue, Anthony J; Todorovic, Aleksandar; Morris, John H; Maltby, David A; Alber, Tom; Cagney, Gerard; Bushman, Frederic D; Young, John A; Chanda, Sumit K; Sundquist, Wesley I; Kortemme, Tanja; Hernandez, Ryan D; Craik, Charles S; Burlingame, Alma; Sali, Andrej; Frankel, Alan D; Krogan, Nevan J

    2011-12-21

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) has a small genome and therefore relies heavily on the host cellular machinery to replicate. Identifying which host proteins and complexes come into physical contact with the viral proteins is crucial for a comprehensive understanding of how HIV rewires the host's cellular machinery during the course of infection. Here we report the use of affinity tagging and purification mass spectrometry to determine systematically the physical interactions of all 18 HIV-1 proteins and polyproteins with host proteins in two different human cell lines (HEK293 and Jurkat). Using a quantitative scoring system that we call MiST, we identified with high confidence 497 HIV-human protein-protein interactions involving 435 individual human proteins, with ∼40% of the interactions being identified in both cell types. We found that the host proteins hijacked by HIV, especially those found interacting in both cell types, are highly conserved across primates. We uncovered a number of host complexes targeted by viral proteins, including the finding that HIV protease cleaves eIF3d, a subunit of eukaryotic translation initiation factor 3. This host protein is one of eleven identified in this analysis that act to inhibit HIV replication. This data set facilitates a more comprehensive and detailed understanding of how the host machinery is manipulated during the course of HIV infection.

  13. Connectivity between the western and eastern limbs of the Bushveld Complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cawthorn, R. G.; Webb, S. J.

    2001-01-01

    The mafic layered rocks of the Bushveld Complex are 6-8 km thick and crop out over an area of 65,000 km 2. Previous interpretations of the Bouguer gravity anomalies suggested that the intrusion consisted of two totally separate bodies. However, the mafic sequences in these arcuate western and eastern limbs are remarkably similar, with at least six petrologically distinctive layers and sequences being recognisable in both limbs. Such similarity of sequences in two totally discrete bodies 200-300 km apart is petrologically implausible, and it is suggested that they formed within a single lopolithic intrusion. All previous Bouguer gravity models failed to consider the isostatic response of the crust to emplacement of this huge mass of mafic magma. Isostatic adjustment as a result of this intrusion would have caused the base of the crust to be depressed by as much as 6 km. With this revised whole crustal model, it becomes possible to construct a gravity model, consistent with observed data, which includes a 6 km-thick sequence of mafic rocks connecting the western and eastern limbs of the Bushveld Complex. The exact depth at which the mafic rocks of the Bushveld Complex lie in the centre of the structure cannot be constrained by the gravity data. Such a first-order model is an approximation, because there have been subsequent deformation and structural readjustments in the crust, some of them probably related to the emplacement of the Bushveld Complex. Specifically, the observed geometry of the rocks around the Crocodile River, Dennilton, Marble Hall and Malope Domes suggests that major upwarping of the crust occurred on a variety of scales, triggered by emplacement of the Bushveld Complex.

  14. Negative Ions Enhance Survival of Membrane Protein Complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liko, Idlir; Hopper, Jonathan T. S.; Allison, Timothy M.; Benesch, Justin L. P.; Robinson, Carol V.

    2016-06-01

    Membrane protein complexes are commonly introduced to the mass spectrometer solubilized in detergent micelles. The collisional activation used to remove the detergent, however, often causes protein unfolding and dissociation. As in the case for soluble proteins, electrospray in the positive ion mode is most commonly used for the study of membrane proteins. Here we show several distinct advantages of employing the negative ion mode. Negative polarity can yield lower average charge states for membrane proteins solubilized in saccharide detergents, with enhanced peak resolution and reduced adduct formation. Most importantly, we demonstrate that negative ion mode electrospray ionization (ESI) minimizes subunit dissociation in the gas phase, allowing access to biologically relevant oligomeric states. Together, these properties mean that intact membrane protein ions can be generated in a greater range of solubilizing detergents. The formation of negative ions, therefore, greatly expands the possibilities of using mass spectrometry on this intractable class of protein.

  15. Protein/polysaccharide complexes and coacervates in food systems.

    PubMed

    Schmitt, Christophe; Turgeon, Sylvie L

    2011-09-14

    Since the pioneering work of Bungenberg de Jong and co-workers on gelatin-acacia gum complex coacervation in the 1920-40s, protein/polysaccharide complexes and coacervates have received increasing research interest in order to broaden the possible food applications. This review focuses on the main research streams followed in this field during the last 12 years regarding: i) the parameters influencing the formation of complexes and coacervates in protein-polysaccharide systems; ii) the characterization of the kinetics of phase separation and multi-scale structure of the complexes and coacervates; and iii) the investigation of the functional properties of complexes and coacervates in food applications. This latter section encompasses various technological aspects, namely: the viscosifying and gelling ability, the foaming and emulsifying ability and finally, the stabilization and release of bioactives or sensitive compounds. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Global terrestrial water storage connectivity revealed using complex climate network analyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, A. Y.; Chen, J.; Donges, J.

    2015-04-01

    Terrestrial water storage (TWS) exerts a key control in global water, energy, and biogeochemical cycles. Although certain causal relationships exist between precipitation and TWS, the latter also reflects impacts of anthropogenic activities. Thus, quantification of the spatial patterns of TWS will not only help to understand feedbacks between climate dynamics and hydrologic cycle, but also provide new model calibration constraints for improving the current land surface models. In this work, the connectivity of TWS is quantified using the climate network theory, which has received broad attention in the climate modeling community in recent years. Complex networks of TWS anomalies are built using two global TWS datasets, a remote-sensing product that is obtained from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellite mission, and a model-generated dataset from the global land data assimilation system's NOAH model (GLDAS-NOAH). Both datasets have 1 ° × 1 ° resolutions and cover most global land areas except for permafrost regions. TWS networks are built by first quantifying pairwise correlation among all valid TWS anomaly time series, and then applying a statistical cutoff threshold to retain only the most important features in the network. Basinwise network connectivity maps are used to illuminate connectivity of individual river basins with other regions. The constructed network degree centrality maps show TWS hotspots around the globe and the patterns are consistent with recent GRACE studies. Parallel analyses of networks constructed using the two datasets indicate that the GLDAS-NOAH model captures many of the spatial patterns shown by GRACE, although significant discrepancies exist in some regions. Thus, our results provide important insights for constraining land surface models, especially in data sparse regions.

  17. Assembly of Neuronal Connectivity by Neurotrophic Factors and Leucine-Rich Repeat Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Ledda, Fernanda; Paratcha, Gustavo

    2016-01-01

    Proper function of the nervous system critically relies on sophisticated neuronal networks interconnected in a highly specific pattern. The architecture of these connections arises from sequential developmental steps such as axonal growth and guidance, dendrite development, target determination, synapse formation and plasticity. Leucine-rich repeat (LRR) transmembrane proteins have been involved in cell-type specific signaling pathways that underlie these developmental processes. The members of this superfamily of proteins execute their functions acting as trans-synaptic cell adhesion molecules involved in target specificity and synapse formation or working in cis as cell-intrinsic modulators of neurotrophic factor receptor trafficking and signaling. In this review, we will focus on novel physiological mechanisms through which LRR proteins regulate neurotrophic factor receptor signaling, highlighting the importance of these modulatory events for proper axonal extension and guidance, tissue innervation and dendrite morphogenesis. Additionally, we discuss few examples linking this set of LRR proteins to neurodevelopmental and psychiatric disorders. PMID:27555809

  18. Chimeric Protein Complexes in Hybrid Species Generate Novel Phenotypes

    PubMed Central

    Piatkowska, Elzbieta M.; Naseeb, Samina; Knight, David; Delneri, Daniela

    2013-01-01

    Hybridization between species is an important mechanism for the origin of novel lineages and adaptation to new environments. Increased allelic variation and modification of the transcriptional network are the two recognized forces currently deemed to be responsible for the phenotypic properties seen in hybrids. However, since the majority of the biological functions in a cell are carried out by protein complexes, inter-specific protein assemblies therefore represent another important source of natural variation upon which evolutionary forces can act. Here we studied the composition of six protein complexes in two different Saccharomyces “sensu stricto” hybrids, to understand whether chimeric interactions can be freely formed in the cell in spite of species-specific co-evolutionary forces, and whether the different types of complexes cause a change in hybrid fitness. The protein assemblies were isolated from the hybrids via affinity chromatography and identified via mass spectrometry. We found evidence of spontaneous chimericity for four of the six protein assemblies tested and we showed that different types of complexes can cause a variety of phenotypes in selected environments. In the case of TRP2/TRP3 complex, the effect of such chimeric formation resulted in the fitness advantage of the hybrid in an environment lacking tryptophan, while only one type of parental combination of the MBF complex allowed the hybrid to grow under respiratory conditions. These phenotypes were dependent on both genetic and environmental backgrounds. This study provides empirical evidence that chimeric protein complexes can freely assemble in cells and reveals a new mechanism to generate phenotypic novelty and plasticity in hybrids to complement the genomic innovation resulting from gene duplication. The ability to exchange orthologous members has also important implications for the adaptation and subsequent genome evolution of the hybrids in terms of pattern of gene loss. PMID

  19. Synaptic vesicle membrane proteins interact to form a multimeric complex

    PubMed Central

    1992-01-01

    Potential interactions between membrane components of rat brain synaptic vesicles were analyzed by detergent solubilization followed by size fractionation or immunoprecipitation. The behavior of six synaptic vesicle membrane proteins as well as a plasma membrane protein was monitored by Western blotting. Solubilization of synaptic vesicle membranes in CHAPS resulted in the recovery of a large protein complex that included SV2, p65, p38, vesicle-associated membrane protein, and the vacuolar proton pump. Solubilization in octylglucoside resulted in the preservation of interactions between SV2, p38, and rab3A, while solubilization of synaptic vesicles with Triton X-100 resulted in two predominant interactions, one involving p65 and SV2, and the other involving p38 and vesicle-associated membrane protein. The multicomponent complex preserved with CHAPS solubilization was partially reconstituted following octylglucoside solubilization and subsequent dialysis against CHAPS. Reduction of the CHAPS concentration by gel filtration chromatography resulted in increased recovery of the multicomponent complex. Examination of the large complex isolated from CHAPS-solubilized vesicles by negative stain EM revealed structures with multiple globular domains, some of which were specifically labeled with gold-conjugated antibodies directed against p65 and SV2. The protein interactions defined in this report are likely to underlie aspects of neurotransmitter secretion, membrane traffic, and the spatial organization of vesicles within the nerve terminal. PMID:1730776

  20. Machine Learning Approaches for Predicting Protein Complex Similarity.

    PubMed

    Farhoodi, Roshanak; Akbal-Delibas, Bahar; Haspel, Nurit

    2017-01-01

    Discriminating native-like structures from false positives with high accuracy is one of the biggest challenges in protein-protein docking. While there is an agreement on the existence of a relationship between various favorable intermolecular interactions (e.g., Van der Waals, electrostatic, and desolvation forces) and the similarity of a conformation to its native structure, the precise nature of this relationship is not known. Existing protein-protein docking methods typically formulate this relationship as a weighted sum of selected terms and calibrate their weights by using a training set to evaluate and rank candidate complexes. Despite improvements in the predictive power of recent docking methods, producing a large number of false positives by even state-of-the-art methods often leads to failure in predicting the correct binding of many complexes. With the aid of machine learning methods, we tested several approaches that not only rank candidate structures relative to each other but also predict how similar each candidate is to the native conformation. We trained a two-layer neural network, a multilayer neural network, and a network of Restricted Boltzmann Machines against extensive data sets of unbound complexes generated by RosettaDock and PyDock. We validated these methods with a set of refinement candidate structures. We were able to predict the root mean squared deviations (RMSDs) of protein complexes with a very small, often less than 1.5 Å, error margin when trained with structures that have RMSD values of up to 7 Å. In our most recent experiments with the protein samples having RMSD values up to 27 Å, the average prediction error was still relatively small, attesting to the potential of our approach in predicting the correct binding of protein-protein complexes.

  1. Energy based approach for understanding the recognition mechanism in protein-protein complexes.

    PubMed

    Gromiha, M Michael; Yokota, Kiyonobu; Fukui, Kazuhiko

    2009-12-01

    Protein-protein interactions play an essential role in the regulation of various cellular processes. Understanding the recognition mechanism of protein-protein complexes is a challenging task in molecular and computational biology. In this work, we have developed an energy based approach for identifying the binding sites and important residues for binding in protein-protein complexes. The new approach is different from the traditional distance based contacts in which the repulsive interactions are treated as binding sites as well as the contacts within a specific cutoff have been treated in the same way. We found that the residues and residue-pairs with charged and aromatic side chains are important for binding. These residues influence to form cation-, electrostatic and aromatic interactions. Our observation has been verified with the experimental binding specificity of protein-protein complexes and found good agreement with experiments. Based on these results we have proposed a novel mechanism for the recognition of protein-protein complexes: the charged and aromatic residues in receptor and ligand initiate recognition by making suitable interactions between them; the neighboring hydrophobic residues assist the stability of complex along with other hydrogen bonding partners by the polar residues. Further, the propensity of residues in the binding sites of receptors and ligands, atomic contributions and the influence on secondary structure will be discussed.

  2. Aberrant Functional Connectivity of the Amygdala Complexes in PTSD during Conscious and Subconscious Processing of Trauma-Related Stimuli.

    PubMed

    Rabellino, Daniela; Densmore, Maria; Frewen, Paul A; Théberge, Jean; McKinnon, Margaret C; Lanius, Ruth A

    2016-01-01

    Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is characterized by altered functional connectivity of the amygdala complexes at rest. However, amygdala complex connectivity during conscious and subconscious threat processing remains to be elucidated. Here, we investigate specific connectivity of the centromedial amygdala (CMA) and basolateral amygdala (BLA) during conscious and subconscious processing of trauma-related words among individuals with PTSD (n = 26) as compared to non-trauma-exposed controls (n = 20). Psycho-physiological interaction analyses were performed using the right and left amygdala complexes as regions of interest during conscious and subconscious trauma word processing. These analyses revealed a differential, context-dependent responses by each amygdala seed during trauma processing in PTSD. Specifically, relative to controls, during subconscious processing, individuals with PTSD demonstrated increased connectivity of the CMA with the superior frontal gyrus, accompanied by a pattern of decreased connectivity between the BLA and the superior colliculus. During conscious processing, relative to controls, individuals with PTSD showed increased connectivity between the CMA and the pulvinar. These findings demonstrate alterations in amygdala subregion functional connectivity in PTSD and highlight the disruption of the innate alarm network during both conscious and subconscious trauma processing in this disorder.

  3. Aberrant Functional Connectivity of the Amygdala Complexes in PTSD during Conscious and Subconscious Processing of Trauma-Related Stimuli

    PubMed Central

    Rabellino, Daniela; Densmore, Maria; Frewen, Paul A.; Théberge, Jean; McKinnon, Margaret C.; Lanius, Ruth A.

    2016-01-01

    Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is characterized by altered functional connectivity of the amygdala complexes at rest. However, amygdala complex connectivity during conscious and subconscious threat processing remains to be elucidated. Here, we investigate specific connectivity of the centromedial amygdala (CMA) and basolateral amygdala (BLA) during conscious and subconscious processing of trauma-related words among individuals with PTSD (n = 26) as compared to non-trauma-exposed controls (n = 20). Psycho-physiological interaction analyses were performed using the right and left amygdala complexes as regions of interest during conscious and subconscious trauma word processing. These analyses revealed a differential, context-dependent responses by each amygdala seed during trauma processing in PTSD. Specifically, relative to controls, during subconscious processing, individuals with PTSD demonstrated increased connectivity of the CMA with the superior frontal gyrus, accompanied by a pattern of decreased connectivity between the BLA and the superior colliculus. During conscious processing, relative to controls, individuals with PTSD showed increased connectivity between the CMA and the pulvinar. These findings demonstrate alterations in amygdala subregion functional connectivity in PTSD and highlight the disruption of the innate alarm network during both conscious and subconscious trauma processing in this disorder. PMID:27631496

  4. Predicting highly-connected hubs in protein interaction networks by QSAR and biological data descriptors

    PubMed Central

    Hsing, Michael; Byler, Kendall; Cherkasov, Artem

    2009-01-01

    Hub proteins (those engaged in most physical interactions in a protein interaction network (PIN) have recently gained much research interest due to their essential role in mediating cellular processes and their potential therapeutic value. It is straightforward to identify hubs if the underlying PIN is experimentally determined; however, theoretical hub prediction remains a very challenging task, as physicochemical properties that differentiate hubs from less connected proteins remain mostly uncharacterized. To adequately distinguish hubs from non-hub proteins we have utilized over 1300 protein descriptors, some of which represent QSAR (quantitative structure-activity relationship) parameters, and some reflect sequence-derived characteristics of proteins including domain composition and functional annotations. Those protein descriptors, together with available protein interaction data have been processed by a machine learning method (boosting trees) and resulted in the development of hub classifiers that are capable of predicting highly interacting proteins for four model organisms: Escherichia coli, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Drosophila melanogaster and Homo sapiens. More importantly, through the analyses of the most relevant protein descriptors, we are able to demonstrate that hub proteins not only share certain common physicochemical and structural characteristics that make them different from non-hub counterparts, but they also exhibit species-specific characteristics that should be taken into account when analyzing different PINs. The developed prediction models can be used for determining highly interacting proteins in the four studied species to assist future proteomics experiments and PIN analyses. Availability The source code and executable program of the hub classifier are available for download at: http://www.cnbi2.ca/hub-analysis/ PMID:20198194

  5. Dietary Protein and the Health-Nutrition-Agriculture Connection in India.

    PubMed

    Minocha, Sumedha; Thomas, Tinku; Kurpad, Anura V

    2017-07-01

    The connection between the production, availability, and consumption of high-quality food is becoming very important in developing countries. The requirement of protein is linked to its quality, or its digestibility and ability to meet human indispensable amino acid requirements. This requirement is particularly relevant in India, where commonly consumed cereal-based diets and cereal-based food subsidy programs offer low-quality protein and therefore pose a risk of quality protein deficiency. The production of and access to sustainable sources of high-quality protein will be important parts of mitigating risks to human health. Although milk production has risen in India, its consumption by the poor remains low. On the other hand, leguminous grain production, which has greater climate resilience and soil improvement properties, has fallen, yet this can help resource-poor farmers increase their intake of quality food. Nonetheless, concerns about the nutritional quality of plant protein exist and may be more relevant in settings where environmental enteric dysfunction already affects nutrient absorption. With the use of nationally representative household protein consumption data in India, the percentage of the population at risk of quality protein deficiency was found to vary between 4% and 26% among different age groups and between the urban or rural sector. Mitigating these risks requires a greater intake of high-quality proteins, such as pulses and milk, and that food subsidy policies move beyond cereals and become more quality conscious. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  6. Probing protein disorder and complexity at single-molecule resolution.

    PubMed

    Lee, Taehyung; Moran-Gutierrez, Crystal R; Deniz, Ashok A

    2015-01-01

    A substantial fraction of the human proteome encodes disordered proteins. Protein disorder is associated with a variety of cellular functions and misfunction, and is therefore of clear import to biological systems. However, disorder lends itself to conformational flexibility and heterogeneity, rendering proteins which feature prominent disorder difficult to study using conventional structural biology methods. Here we discuss a few examples of how single-molecule methods are providing new insight into the biophysics and complexity of these proteins by avoiding ensemble averaging, thereby providing direct information about the complex distributions and dynamics of this important class of proteins. Examples of note include characterization of isolated IDPs in solution as collapsed and dynamic species, detailed insight into complex IDP folding landscapes, and new information about how tunable regulation of structure-mediated binding cooperativity and consequent function can be achieved through protein disorder. With these exciting advances in view, we conclude with a discussion of a few complementary and emerging single-molecule efforts of particular promise, including complementary and enhanced methodologies for studying disorder in proteins, and experiments to investigate the potential role for IDP-induced phase separation as a critical functional element in biological systems. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. β-Barrel membrane protein assembly by the Bam complex.

    PubMed

    Hagan, Christine L; Silhavy, Thomas J; Kahne, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    β-barrel membrane proteins perform important functions in the outer membranes (OMs) of Gram-negative bacteria and of the mitochondria and chloroplasts of eukaryotes. The protein complexes that assemble these proteins in their respective membranes have been identified and shown to contain a component that has been conserved from bacteria to humans. β-barrel proteins are handled differently from α-helical membrane proteins in the cell in order to efficiently transport them to their final locations in unfolded but folding-competent states. The mechanism by which the assembly complex then binds, folds, and inserts β-barrels into the membrane is not well understood, but recent structural, biochemical, and genetic studies have begun to elucidate elements of how the complex provides a facilitated pathway for β-barrel assembly. Ultimately, studies of the mechanism of β-barrel assembly and comparison to the better-understood process of α-helical membrane protein assembly will reveal whether there are general principles that guide the folding and insertion of all membrane proteins.

  8. Protein-complex structure completion using IPCAS (Iterative Protein Crystal structure Automatic Solution).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Weizhe; Zhang, Hongmin; Zhang, Tao; Fan, Haifu; Hao, Quan

    2015-07-01

    Protein complexes are essential components in many cellular processes. In this study, a procedure to determine the protein-complex structure from a partial molecular-replacement (MR) solution is demonstrated using a direct-method-aided dual-space iterative phasing and model-building program suite, IPCAS (Iterative Protein Crystal structure Automatic Solution). The IPCAS iteration procedure involves (i) real-space model building and refinement, (ii) direct-method-aided reciprocal-space phase refinement and (iii) phase improvement through density modification. The procedure has been tested with four protein complexes, including two previously unknown structures. It was possible to use IPCAS to build the whole complex structure from one or less than one subunit once the molecular-replacement method was able to give a partial solution. In the most challenging case, IPCAS was able to extend to the full length starting from less than 30% of the complex structure, while conventional model-building procedures were unsuccessful.

  9. Emergence of Complexity in Protein Functions and Metabolic Networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pohorille, Andzej

    2009-01-01

    In modern organisms proteins perform a majority of cellular functions, such as chemical catalysis, energy transduction and transport of material across cell walls. Although great strides have been made towards understanding protein evolution, a meaningful extrapolation from contemporary proteins to their earliest ancestors is virtually impossible. In an alternative approach, the origin of water-soluble proteins was probed through the synthesis of very large libraries of random amino acid sequences and subsequently subjecting them to in vitro evolution. In combination with computer modeling and simulations, these experiments allow us to address a number of fundamental questions about the origins of proteins. Can functionality emerge from random sequences of proteins? How did the initial repertoire of functional proteins diversify to facilitate new functions? Did this diversification proceed primarily through drawing novel functionalities from random sequences or through evolution of already existing proto-enzymes? Did protein evolution start from a pool of proteins defined by a frozen accident and other collections of proteins could start a different evolutionary pathway? Although we do not have definitive answers to these questions, important clues have been uncovered. Considerable progress has been also achieved in understanding the origins of membrane proteins. We will address this issue in the example of ion channels - proteins that mediate transport of ions across cell walls. Remarkably, despite overall complexity of these proteins in contemporary cells, their structural motifs are quite simple, with -helices being most common. By combining results of experimental and computer simulation studies on synthetic models and simple, natural channels, I will show that, even though architectures of membrane proteins are not nearly as diverse as those of water-soluble proteins, they are sufficiently flexible to adapt readily to the functional demands arising during

  10. Re-visiting protein-centric two-tier classification of existing DNA-protein complexes

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Precise DNA-protein interactions play most important and vital role in maintaining the normal physiological functioning of the cell, as it controls many high fidelity cellular processes. Detailed study of the nature of these interactions has paved the way for understanding the mechanisms behind the biological processes in which they are involved. Earlier in 2000, a systematic classification of DNA-protein complexes based on the structural analysis of the proteins was proposed at two tiers, namely groups and families. With the advancement in the number and resolution of structures of DNA-protein complexes deposited in the Protein Data Bank, it is important to revisit the existing classification. Results On the basis of the sequence analysis of DNA binding proteins, we have built upon the protein centric, two-tier classification of DNA-protein complexes by adding new members to existing families and making new families and groups. While classifying the new complexes, we also realised the emergence of new groups and families. The new group observed was where β-propeller was seen to interact with DNA. There were 34 SCOP folds which were observed to be present in the complexes of both old and new classifications, whereas 28 folds are present exclusively in the new complexes. Some new families noticed were NarL transcription factor, Z-α DNA binding proteins, Forkhead transcription factor, AP2 protein, Methyl CpG binding protein etc. Conclusions Our results suggest that with the increasing number of availability of DNA-protein complexes in Protein Data Bank, the number of families in the classification increased by approximately three fold. The folds present exclusively in newly classified complexes is suggestive of inclusion of proteins with new function in new classification, the most populated of which are the folds responsible for DNA damage repair. The proposed re-visited classification can be used to perform genome-wide surveys in the genomes of

  11. Re-visiting protein-centric two-tier classification of existing DNA-protein complexes.

    PubMed

    Malhotra, Sony; Sowdhamini, Ramanathan

    2012-07-16

    Precise DNA-protein interactions play most important and vital role in maintaining the normal physiological functioning of the cell, as it controls many high fidelity cellular processes. Detailed study of the nature of these interactions has paved the way for understanding the mechanisms behind the biological processes in which they are involved. Earlier in 2000, a systematic classification of DNA-protein complexes based on the structural analysis of the proteins was proposed at two tiers, namely groups and families. With the advancement in the number and resolution of structures of DNA-protein complexes deposited in the Protein Data Bank, it is important to revisit the existing classification. On the basis of the sequence analysis of DNA binding proteins, we have built upon the protein centric, two-tier classification of DNA-protein complexes by adding new members to existing families and making new families and groups. While classifying the new complexes, we also realised the emergence of new groups and families. The new group observed was where β-propeller was seen to interact with DNA. There were 34 SCOP folds which were observed to be present in the complexes of both old and new classifications, whereas 28 folds are present exclusively in the new complexes. Some new families noticed were NarL transcription factor, Z-α DNA binding proteins, Forkhead transcription factor, AP2 protein, Methyl CpG binding protein etc. Our results suggest that with the increasing number of availability of DNA-protein complexes in Protein Data Bank, the number of families in the classification increased by approximately three fold. The folds present exclusively in newly classified complexes is suggestive of inclusion of proteins with new function in new classification, the most populated of which are the folds responsible for DNA damage repair. The proposed re-visited classification can be used to perform genome-wide surveys in the genomes of interest for the presence of DNA

  12. Affinity purification of protein complexes for analysis by multidimensional protein identification technology.

    PubMed

    Banks, Charles A S; Kong, Stephanie E; Washburn, Michael P

    2012-12-01

    Characterizing protein complexes and identifying their subunits promote our understanding of the machinery involved in many in vivo processes. Proteomic studies can identify a protein's binding partners, and this can provide insight into how protein complexes function and how they are regulated. In addition, the composition of a protein complex within an organism can be investigated as a function of time, as a function of location, or during the response of an organism to a change in environment. There are many ways to isolate a complex and identify its constituents. This review will focus on complex isolation using affinity purification and will address issues that biochemists should bear in mind as they isolate protein complexes for mass spectrometric analysis by multidimensional protein identification technology (MudPIT)(1). Protein complex analysis by mass spectrometry frequently involves the collaborative efforts of biochemists or biologists who purify protein complexes and proteomic specialists who analyze the samples - for fruitful collaborations it can be helpful for these specialized groups to be acquainted with basic principles of their collaborator's discipline. With this in mind, we first review the variety of affinity purification methods which might be considered for preparing complexes for analysis, and then provide brief primers on the principles of MudPIT mass spectrometry and data analysis. From this foundation, we then discuss how these techniques are integrated and optimized and suggest salient points to consider when preparing purified samples for protein identification, performing mass spectrometry runs, and analyzing the resulting data. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Synthetic RNA-protein complex shaped like an equilateral triangle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohno, Hirohisa; Kobayashi, Tetsuhiro; Kabata, Rinko; Endo, Kei; Iwasa, Takuma; Yoshimura, Shige H.; Takeyasu, Kunio; Inoue, Tan; Saito, Hirohide

    2011-02-01

    Synthetic nanostructures consisting of biomacromolecules such as nucleic acids have been constructed using bottom-up approaches. In particular, Watson-Crick base pairing has been used to construct a variety of two- and three-dimensional DNA nanostructures. Here, we show that RNA and the ribosomal protein L7Ae can form a nanostructure shaped like an equilateral triangle that consists of three proteins bound to an RNA scaffold. The construction of the complex relies on the proteins binding to kink-turn (K-turn) motifs in the RNA, which allows the RNA to bend by ~60° at three positions to form a triangle. Functional RNA-protein complexes constructed with this approach could have applications in nanomedicine and synthetic biology.

  14. Structural and evolutionary versatility in protein complexes with uneven stoichiometry.

    PubMed

    Marsh, Joseph A; Rees, Holly A; Ahnert, Sebastian E; Teichmann, Sarah A

    2015-03-16

    Proteins assemble into complexes with diverse quaternary structures. Although most heteromeric complexes of known structure have even stoichiometry, a significant minority have uneven stoichiometry--that is, differing numbers of each subunit type. To adopt this uneven stoichiometry, sequence-identical subunits must be asymmetric with respect to each other, forming different interactions within the complex. Here we first investigate the occurrence of uneven stoichiometry, demonstrating that it is common in vitro and is likely to be common in vivo. Next, we elucidate the structural determinants of uneven stoichiometry, identifying six different mechanisms by which it can be achieved. Finally, we study the frequency of uneven stoichiometry across evolution, observing a significant enrichment in bacteria compared with eukaryotes. We show that this arises due to a general increased tendency for bacterial proteins to self-assemble and form homomeric interactions, even within the context of a heteromeric complex.

  15. Subcellular localization of RNA degrading proteins and protein complexes in prokaryotes.

    PubMed

    Evguenieva-Hackenberg, Elena; Roppelt, Verena; Lassek, Christian; Klug, Gabriele

    2011-01-01

    The archaeal exosome is a prokaryotic protein complex with RNA processing and degrading activities. Recently it was shown that the exosome is localized at the periphery of the cell in the thermoacidophilic archaeon Sulfolobus solfataricus. This localization is most likely mediated by the archaeal DnaG protein and depends on (direct or indirect) hydrophobic interactions with the membrane. A localization of RNA degrading proteins and protein complexes was also demonstrated in several bacteria. In bacteria a subcellular localization was also shown for substrates of these proteins and protein complexes, i.e. chromosomally encoded mRNAs and a small RNA. Thus, despite the missing compartmentalization, a spatial organization of RNA processing and degradation exists in prokaryotic cells. Recent data suggest that the spatial organization contributes to the temporal regulation of these processes.

  16. Subcellular localization of RNA degrading proteins and protein complexes in prokaryotes

    PubMed Central

    Roppelt, Verena; Lassek, Christian; Klug, Gabriele

    2011-01-01

    The archaeal exosome is a prokaryotic protein complex with RNA processing and degrading activities. Recently it was shown that the exosome is localized at the periphery of the cell in the thermoacidophilic archaeon Sulfolobus solfataricus. This localization is most likely mediated by the archaeal DnaG protein and depends on (direct or indirect) hydrophobic interactions with the membrane. A localization of RNA degrading proteins and protein complexes was also demonstrated in several bacteria. In bacteria a subcellular localization was also shown for substrates of these proteins and protein complexes, i.e., chromosomally encoded mRNAs and a small RNA. Thus, despite the missing compartmentalization, a spatial organization of RNA processing and degradation exists in prokaryotic cells. Recent data suggest that the spatial organization contributes to the temporal regulation of these processes. PMID:21289488

  17. Molecular dynamics simulations of a membrane protein/amphipol complex.

    PubMed

    Perlmutter, Jason D; Popot, Jean-Luc; Sachs, Jonathan N

    2014-10-01

    Amphipathic polymers known as "amphipols" provide a highly stabilizing environment for handling membrane proteins in aqueous solutions. A8-35, an amphipol with a polyacrylate backbone and hydrophobic grafts, has been extensively characterized and widely employed for structural and functional studies of membrane proteins using biochemical and biophysical approaches. Given the sensitivity of membrane proteins to their environment, it is important to examine what effects amphipols may have on the structure and dynamics of the proteins they complex. Here we present the first molecular dynamics study of an amphipol-stabilized membrane protein, using Escherichia coli OmpX as a model. We begin by describing the structure of the complexes formed by supplementing OmpX with increasing amounts of A8-35, in order to determine how the amphipol interacts with the transmembrane and extramembrane surfaces of the protein. We then compare the dynamics of the protein in either A8-35, a detergent, or a lipid bilayer. We find that protein dynamics on all accessible length scales is restrained by A8-35, which provides a basis to understanding some of the stabilizing and functional effects of amphipols that have been experimentally observed.

  18. Biclustering Protein Complex Interactions with a Biclique FindingAlgorithm

    SciTech Connect

    Ding, Chris; Zhang, Anne Ya; Holbrook, Stephen

    2006-12-01

    Biclustering has many applications in text mining, web clickstream mining, and bioinformatics. When data entries are binary, the tightest biclusters become bicliques. We propose a flexible and highly efficient algorithm to compute bicliques. We first generalize the Motzkin-Straus formalism for computing the maximal clique from L{sub 1} constraint to L{sub p} constraint, which enables us to provide a generalized Motzkin-Straus formalism for computing maximal-edge bicliques. By adjusting parameters, the algorithm can favor biclusters with more rows less columns, or vice verse, thus increasing the flexibility of the targeted biclusters. We then propose an algorithm to solve the generalized Motzkin-Straus optimization problem. The algorithm is provably convergent and has a computational complexity of O(|E|) where |E| is the number of edges. It relies on a matrix vector multiplication and runs efficiently on most current computer architectures. Using this algorithm, we bicluster the yeast protein complex interaction network. We find that biclustering protein complexes at the protein level does not clearly reflect the functional linkage among protein complexes in many cases, while biclustering at protein domain level can reveal many underlying linkages. We show several new biologically significant results.

  19. Architecture and function of IFT complex proteins in ciliogenesis.

    PubMed

    Taschner, Michael; Bhogaraju, Sagar; Lorentzen, Esben

    2012-02-01

    Cilia and flagella (interchangeable terms) are evolutionarily conserved organelles found on many different types of eukaryotic cells where they fulfill important functions in motility, sensory reception and signaling. The process of Intraflagellar Transport (IFT) is of central importance for both the assembly and maintenance of cilia, as it delivers building blocks from their site of synthesis in the cell body to the ciliary assembly site at the tip of the cilium. A key player in this process is the multi-subunit IFT-complex, which acts as an adapter between the motor proteins required for movement and the ciliary cargo proteins. Since the discovery of IFT more than 15 years ago, considerable effort has gone into the purification and characterization of the IFT complex proteins. Even though this has led to very interesting findings and has greatly improved our knowledge of the IFT process, we still know very little about the overall architecture of the IFT complex and the specific functions of the various subunits. In this review we will give an update on the knowledge of the structure and function of individual IFT proteins, and the way these proteins interact to form the complex that facilitates IFT.

  20. Deciphering preferential interactions within supramolecular protein complexes: the proteasome case

    PubMed Central

    Fabre, Bertrand; Lambour, Thomas; Garrigues, Luc; Amalric, François; Vigneron, Nathalie; Menneteau, Thomas; Stella, Alexandre; Monsarrat, Bernard; Van den Eynde, Benoît; Burlet-Schiltz, Odile; Bousquet-Dubouch, Marie-Pierre

    2015-01-01

    In eukaryotic cells, intracellular protein breakdown is mainly performed by the ubiquitin–proteasome system. Proteasomes are supramolecular protein complexes formed by the association of multiple sub-complexes and interacting proteins. Therefore, they exhibit a very high heterogeneity whose function is still not well understood. Here, using a newly developed method based on the combination of affinity purification and protein correlation profiling associated with high-resolution mass spectrometry, we comprehensively characterized proteasome heterogeneity and identified previously unknown preferential associations within proteasome sub-complexes. In particular, we showed for the first time that the two main proteasome subtypes, standard proteasome and immunoproteasome, interact with a different subset of important regulators. This trend was observed in very diverse human cell types and was confirmed by changing the relative proportions of both 20S proteasome forms using interferon-γ. The new method developed here constitutes an innovative and powerful strategy that could be broadly applied for unraveling the dynamic and heterogeneous nature of other biologically relevant supramolecular protein complexes. PMID:25561571

  1. Conformal Nanopatterning of Extracellular Matrix Proteins onto Topographically Complex Surfaces

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Yan; Jallerat, Quentin; Szymanski, John M.

    2015-01-01

    We report a method for conformal nanopatterning of extracellular matrix proteins onto engineered surfaces independent of underlying microtopography. This enables fibronectin, laminin, and other proteins to be applied to biomaterial surfaces in complex geometries inaccessible using traditional soft lithography techniques. Engineering combinatorial surfaces that integrate topographical and biochemical micropatterns enhances control of the biotic-abiotic interface, used here to understand cardiomyocyte response to competing physical and chemical cues in the microenvironment. PMID:25506720

  2. Covalently Connected Polymer-Protein Nanostructures Fabricated by a Reactive Self-Assembly Approach.

    PubMed

    Ju, Yuanyuan; Xing, Cheng; Wu, Dongxia; Wu, Yunfang; Wang, Lianyong; Zhao, Hanying

    2017-03-08

    The synthesis of polymer-protein nanostructures opens up a new avenue for the development of new biomaterials. In this research, covalently connected polymer-protein nanostructures were fabricated through a reactive self-assembly approach. Poly(tert-butyl methacrylate-co-pyridyl disulfide methacrylamide) (PtBMA-co-PPDSMA) was synthesized by reversible addition fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) polymerization. Covalently connected nanostructures (CCNs) with hydrophobic polymer cores and hydrophilic protein coronae were prepared by adding solutions of PtBMA-co-PPDSMA/DMF to aqueous solutions of bovine serum albumin (BSA). The thiol-disulfide exchange reaction between pyridyl disulfide groups on the polymer chains and thiol groups on the protein molecules plays a key role in the fabrication of CCNs. The self-assembly process was investigated by dynamic light scattering (DLS) and stopped-flow techniques. DLS results indicated that the sizes of the CCNs were determined by the initial polymer concentration, the BSA concentration, and the average number of thiol groups on BSA molecules. TEM and sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis were used to analyze the nanostructures. Far-UV circular dichroism results demonstrated that the original folded conformations of BSA molecules were basically maintained in the reactive self-assembly process. Compared with native BSA, the secondary structure and conformation change of coronal BSA induced by urea or thermal treatment were remarkably suppressed. The cytotoxicity assays demonstrated that the CCNs were essentially nontoxic to Hela and COS-7 cells.

  3. Recombinant Expression, Purification, and Functional Characterisation of Connective Tissue Growth Factor and Nephroblastoma-Overexpressed Protein

    PubMed Central

    Bohr, Wilhelm; Kupper, Michael; Hoffmann, Kurt; Weiskirchen, Ralf

    2010-01-01

    The CCN family of proteins, especially its prominent member, the Connective tissue growth factor (CTGF/CCN2) has been identified as a possible biomarker for the diagnosis of fibrotic diseases. As a downstream mediator of TGF-β1 signalling, it is involved in tissue scarring, stimulates interstitial deposition of extracellular matrix proteins, and promotes proliferation of several cell types. Another member of this family, the Nephroblastoma-Overexpressed protein (NOV/CCN3), has growth-inhibiting properties. First reports further suggest that these two CCN family members act opposite to each other in regulating extracellular matrix protein expression and reciprocally influence their own expression when over-expressed. We have established stable HEK and Flp-In-293 clones as productive sources for recombinant human CCN2/CTGF. In addition, we generated an adenoviral vector for recombinant expression of rat NOV and established protocols to purify large quantities of these CCN proteins. The identity of purified human CCN2/CTGF and rat CCN3/NOV was proven by In-gel digest followed by ESI-TOF/MS mass spectrometry. The biological activity of purified proteins was demonstrated using a Smad3-sensitive reporter gene and BrdU proliferation assay in permanent cell line EA•hy 926 cells. We further demonstrate for the first time that both recombinant CCN proteins are N-glycosylated. PMID:21209863

  4. Heat capacity changes in carbohydrates and protein-carbohydrate complexes.

    PubMed

    Chavelas, Eneas A; García-Hernández, Enrique

    2009-05-13

    Carbohydrates are crucial for living cells, playing myriads of functional roles that range from being structural or energy-storage devices to molecular labels that, through non-covalent interaction with proteins, impart exquisite selectivity in processes such as molecular trafficking and cellular recognition. The molecular bases that govern the recognition between carbohydrates and proteins have not been fully understood yet. In the present study, we have obtained a surface-area-based model for the formation heat capacity of protein-carbohydrate complexes, which includes separate terms for the contributions of the two molecular types. The carbohydrate model, which was calibrated using carbohydrate dissolution data, indicates that the heat capacity contribution of a given group surface depends on its position in the saccharide molecule, a picture that is consistent with previous experimental and theoretical studies showing that the high abundance of hydroxy groups in carbohydrates yields particular solvation properties. This model was used to estimate the carbohydrate's contribution in the formation of a protein-carbohydrate complex, which in turn was used to obtain the heat capacity change associated with the protein's binding site. The model is able to account for protein-carbohydrate complexes that cannot be explained using a previous model that only considered the overall contribution of polar and apolar groups, while allowing a more detailed dissection of the elementary contributions that give rise to the formation heat capacity effects of these adducts.

  5. Single-protein study of photoresistance of pigment-protein complex in lipid bilayer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uchiyama, Daisuke; Hoshino, Hajime; Otomo, Kohei; Kato, Taro; Onda, Ken-ichi; Watanabe, Akira; Oikawa, Hiroyuki; Fujiyoshi, Satoru; Matsushita, Michio; Nango, Mamoru; Watanabe, Natsuko; Sumino, Ayumi; Dewa, Takehisa

    2011-07-01

    Photoresistance of a pigment-binding membrane protein, light-harvesting 2 (LH2) complex from the photosynthetic bacterium, Rhodopseudomonas acidophila, was investigated by fluorescence of single LH2 complexes at a temperature of 296 K. Before irreversibly stopping fluorescence, a single LH2 complex in phospholipid bilayer of dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine (DMPC) emitted on average 4 times more fluorescence photons than a complex in detergent micelle of octylglucopyranoside (OG). Fluorescence-excitation spectrum of single LH2 complexes taken at 5 K showed that the LH2 complex is structurally less perturbed in DMPC bilayer than in OG micelle, suggesting that structural instability reduces photoresistance of LH2.

  6. Alternate dissociation pathways identified in charge-reduced protein complex ions.

    PubMed

    Pagel, Kevin; Hyung, Suk-Joon; Ruotolo, Brandon T; Robinson, Carol V

    2010-06-15

    Tandem mass spectrometry (MS) of large protein complexes has proven to be capable of assessing the stoichiometry, connectivity, and structural details of multiprotein assemblies. While the utility of tandem MS is without question, a deeper understanding of the mechanism of protein complex dissociation will undoubtedly drive the technology into new areas of enhanced utility and information content. We present here the systematic analysis of the charge state dependent decay of the noncovalently associated complex of human transthyretin, generated by collision-induced dissociation (CID). A crown ether based charge reduction approach was applied to generate intact transthyretin tetramers with charge states ranging from 15+ to 7+. These nine charge states were subsequently analyzed by means of tandem MS and ion mobility spectrometry. Three different charge-dependent mechanistic regimes were identified: (1) common asymmetric dissociation involving ejection of unfolded monomers, (2) expulsion of folded monomers from the intact tetramer, and (3) release of C-terminal peptide fragments from the intact complex. Taken together, the results presented highlight the potential of charge state modulation as a method for directing the course of gas-phase dissociation and unfolding of protein complexes.

  7. Predicting protein complexes from weighted protein-protein interaction graphs with a novel unsupervised methodology: Evolutionary enhanced Markov clustering.

    PubMed

    Theofilatos, Konstantinos; Pavlopoulou, Niki; Papasavvas, Christoforos; Likothanassis, Spiros; Dimitrakopoulos, Christos; Georgopoulos, Efstratios; Moschopoulos, Charalampos; Mavroudi, Seferina

    2015-03-01

    Proteins are considered to be the most important individual components of biological systems and they combine to form physical protein complexes which are responsible for certain molecular functions. Despite the large availability of protein-protein interaction (PPI) information, not much information is available about protein complexes. Experimental methods are limited in terms of time, efficiency, cost and performance constraints. Existing computational methods have provided encouraging preliminary results, but they phase certain disadvantages as they require parameter tuning, some of them cannot handle weighted PPI data and others do not allow a protein to participate in more than one protein complex. In the present paper, we propose a new fully unsupervised methodology for predicting protein complexes from weighted PPI graphs. The proposed methodology is called evolutionary enhanced Markov clustering (EE-MC) and it is a hybrid combination of an adaptive evolutionary algorithm and a state-of-the-art clustering algorithm named enhanced Markov clustering. EE-MC was compared with state-of-the-art methodologies when applied to datasets from the human and the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae organisms. Using public available datasets, EE-MC outperformed existing methodologies (in some datasets the separation metric was increased by 10-20%). Moreover, when applied to new human datasets its performance was encouraging in the prediction of protein complexes which consist of proteins with high functional similarity. In specific, 5737 protein complexes were predicted and 72.58% of them are enriched for at least one gene ontology (GO) function term. EE-MC is by design able to overcome intrinsic limitations of existing methodologies such as their inability to handle weighted PPI networks, their constraint to assign every protein in exactly one cluster and the difficulties they face concerning the parameter tuning. This fact was experimentally validated and moreover, new

  8. Low temperature spectroscopy of proteins. Part II: Experiments with single protein complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berlin, Yuri; Burin, Alexander; Friedrich, Josef; Köhler, Jürgen

    2007-03-01

    In this part of the review we describe aspects of the physics of proteins at low temperature as they are reflected in the spectra of individual pigment-protein complexes. The focus of this review is on the spectral diffusion of chromophores that are naturally embedded in light-harvesting complexes from purple bacteria. From the spectral diffusion behaviour we can deduce details about the organisation of the energy landscape of the protein and discuss the implications for the motions of the protein in conformational phase space.

  9. ATAD3 proteins: brokers of a mitochondria-endoplasmic reticulum connection in mammalian cells.

    PubMed

    Baudier, Jacques

    2017-09-20

    In yeast, a sequence of physical and genetic interactions termed the endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-mitochondria organizing network (ERMIONE) controls mitochondria-ER interactions and mitochondrial biogenesis. Several functions that characterize ERMIONE complexes are conserved in mammalian cells, suggesting that a similar tethering complex must exist in metazoans. Recent studies have identified a new family of nuclear-encoded ATPases associated with diverse cellular activities (AAA+-ATPase) mitochondrial membrane proteins specific to multicellular eukaryotes, called the ATPase family AAA domain-containing protein 3 (ATAD3) proteins (ATAD3A and ATAD3B). These proteins are crucial for normal mitochondrial-ER interactions and lie at the heart of processes underlying mitochondrial biogenesis. ATAD3A orthologues have been studied in flies, worms, and mammals, highlighting the widespread importance of this gene during embryonic development and in adulthood. ATAD3A is a downstream effector of target of rapamycin (TOR) signalling in Drosophila and exhibits typical features of proteins from the ERMIONE-like complex in metazoans. In humans, mutations in the ATAD3A gene represent a new link between altered mitochondrial-ER interaction and recognizable neurological syndromes. The primate-specific ATAD3B protein is a biomarker of pluripotent embryonic stem cells. Through negative regulation of ATAD3A function, ATAD3B supports mitochondrial stemness properties. © 2017 Cambridge Philosophical Society.

  10. Exocyst Complex Protein Expression in the Human Placenta

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez, I.M.; Ackerman, W.E.; Vandre, D.D.; Robinson, J.M.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Protein production and secretion are essential to syncytiotrophoblast function and are associated with cytotrophoblast cell fusion and differentiation. Syncytiotrophoblast hormone secretion is a crucial determinant of maternal-fetal health, and can be misregulated in pathological pregnancies. Although, polarized secretion is a key component of placental function, the mechanisms underlying this process are poorly understood. Objective While the octameric exocyst complex is classically regarded as a master regulator of secretion in various mammalian systems, its expression in the placenta remained unexplored. We hypothesized that the syncytiotrophoblast would express all exocyst complex components and effector proteins requisite for vesicle-mediated secretion more abundantly than cytotrophoblasts in tissue specimens. Methods A two-tiered immunobiological approach was utilized to characterize exocyst and ancillary proteins in normal, term human placentas. Exocyst protein expression and localization was documented in tissue homogenates via immunoblotting and immunofluorescence labeling of placental sections. Results The eight exocyst proteins, EXOC1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, and 8, were found in the human placenta. In addition, RAB11, an important exocyst complex modulator, was also expressed. Exocyst and Rab protein expression appeared to be regulated during trophoblast differentiation, as the syncytiotrophoblast expressed these proteins with little, if any, expression in cytotrophoblast cells. Additionally, exocyst proteins were localized at or near the syncytiotrophoblast apical membrane, the major site of placental secretion Discussion/Conclusion Our findings highlight exocyst protein expression as novel indicators of trophoblast differentiation. The exocyst’s regulated localization within the syncytiotrophoblast in conjunction with its well known functions suggests a possible role in placental polarized secretion PMID:24856041

  11. Exocyst complex protein expression in the human placenta.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, I M; Ackerman, W E; Vandre, D D; Robinson, J M

    2014-07-01

    Protein production and secretion are essential to syncytiotrophoblast function and are associated with cytotrophoblast cell fusion and differentiation. Syncytiotrophoblast hormone secretion is a crucial determinant of maternal-fetal health, and can be misregulated in pathological pregnancies. Although, polarized secretion is a key component of placental function, the mechanisms underlying this process are poorly understood. While the octameric exocyst complex is classically regarded as a master regulator of secretion in various mammalian systems, its expression in the placenta remained unexplored. We hypothesized that the syncytiotrophoblast would express all exocyst complex components and effector proteins requisite for vesicle-mediated secretion more abundantly than cytotrophoblasts in tissue specimens. A two-tiered immunobiological approach was utilized to characterize exocyst and ancillary proteins in normal, term human placentas. Exocyst protein expression and localization was documented in tissue homogenates via immunoblotting and immunofluorescence labeling of placental sections. The eight exocyst proteins, EXOC1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, and 8, were found in the human placenta. In addition, RAB11, an important exocyst complex modulator, was also expressed. Exocyst and Rab protein expression appeared to be regulated during trophoblast differentiation, as the syncytiotrophoblast expressed these proteins with little, if any, expression in cytotrophoblast cells. Additionally, exocyst proteins were localized at or near the syncytiotrophoblast apical membrane, the major site of placental secretion. Our findings highlight exocyst protein expression as novel indicators of trophoblast differentiation. The exocyst's regulated localization within the syncytiotrophoblast in conjunction with its well known functions suggests a possible role in placental polarized secretion. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Investigating the subsurface connection beneath Cerro Negro volcano and the El Hoyo Complex, Nicaragua

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venugopal, Swetha; Moune, Séverine; Williams-Jones, Glyn

    2016-10-01

    Cerro Negro, the youngest volcano along the Central American Volcanic Belt (CAVB), is a polygenetic cinder cone with relatively frequent basaltic eruptions. The neighbouring El Hoyo complex, of which Las Pilas is the dominant edifice, is a much larger and older complex with milder and less frequent eruptions. Previous studies have suggested a deep link beneath these two closely spaced volcanoes (McKnight, 1995; MacQueen, 2013). Melt inclusions were collected from various tephra samples in order to determine whether a connection exists and to delineate the features of this link. Major, volatile, and trace elemental compositions reveal a distinct geochemical continuum with Cerro Negro defining the primitive endmember and El Hoyo representing the evolved endmember. Magmatic conditions at the time of melt inclusion entrapment were estimated with major and volatile contents: 2.4 kbar and 1170 °C for Cerro Negro melts and 1.3 kbar and 1130 °C for El Hoyo melts with an overall oxygen fugacity at the NNO buffer. Trace element contents are distinct and suggest Cerro Negro magmas fractionally crystallise while El Hoyo magmas are a mix between primitive Cerro Negro melts and residual and evolved El Hoyo magma. Modelling of end member compositions with alphaMELTS confirms the unique nature of El Hoyo magmas as resulting from incremental mixing between Cerro Negro and residual evolved magma at 4 km depth. Combining all available literature data, this study presents a model of the interconnected subsurface plumbing system. This model considers the modern day analogue of the Lemptégy cinder cones in Massif Central, France and incorporates structurally controlled dykes. The main implications of this study are the classification of Cerro Negro as the newest conduit within the El Hoyo Complex as well as the potential re-activation of the El Hoyo edifice.

  13. Corolla Is a Novel Protein That Contributes to the Architecture of the Synaptonemal Complex of Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Collins, Kimberly A.; Unruh, Jay R.; Slaughter, Brian D.; Yu, Zulin; Lake, Cathleen M.; Nielsen, Rachel J.; Box, Kimberly S.; Miller, Danny E.; Blumenstiel, Justin P.; Perera, Anoja G.; Malanowski, Kathryn E.; Hawley, R. Scott

    2014-01-01

    In most organisms the synaptonemal complex (SC) connects paired homologs along their entire length during much of meiotic prophase. To better understand the structure of the SC, we aim to identify its components and to determine how each of these components contributes to SC function. Here, we report the identification of a novel SC component in Drosophila melanogaster female oocytes, which we have named Corolla. Using structured illumination microscopy, we demonstrate that Corolla is a component of the central region of the SC. Consistent with its localization, we show by yeast two-hybrid analysis that Corolla strongly interacts with Cona, a central element protein, demonstrating the first direct interaction between two inner-synaptonemal complex proteins in Drosophila. These observations help provide a more complete model of SC structure and function in Drosophila females. PMID:24913682

  14. Emerging functions of multi-protein complex Mediator with special emphasis on plants.

    PubMed

    Malik, Naveen; Agarwal, Pinky; Tyagi, Akhilesh

    2017-10-01

    Mediator is a multi-subunit protein complex which is involved in transcriptional regulation in yeast and other eukaryotes. As a co-activator, it connects information from transcriptional activators/repressors to transcriptional machinery including RNA polymerase II and general transcription factors. It is not only involved in transcription initiation but also has important roles to play in transcription elongation and termination. Functional attributes of different Mediator subunits have been largely defined in yeast and mammalian systems earlier, while such studies in plants have gained momentum recently. Mediator regulates various processes related to plant development and is also involved in biotic and abiotic stress response. Thus, plant Mediator, like yeast and mammalian Mediator complex, is indispensable for plant growth and survival. Interaction of its multiple subunits with other regulatory proteins and their ectopic expression or knockdown in model plant like Arabidopsis and certain crop plants are paving the way to biochemical analysis and unravel molecular mechanisms of action of Mediator in plants.

  15. Electrophoretic separation of proteins via complexation with a polyelectrolyte

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baskin, E. M.; Shklovskii, B. I.; Zilberstein, G. V.

    2003-01-01

    We suggest to augment standard isoelectric focusing for separation of proteins in a gradient of pH by a similar focusing in the presence of a strongly charged polyelectrolyte (PE). Proteins which have the same isoelectric point but different “hidden” charges of both signs in this point make complexes with PE, which focus in different pH. This is a result of charge inversion of such proteins by adsorbed PE molecules, which is sensitive to the hidden charge. Hence, the hidden charge is a new separation parameter.

  16. The Dissociative Subtype of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: Unique Resting-State Functional Connectivity of Basolateral and Centromedial Amygdala Complexes.

    PubMed

    Nicholson, Andrew A; Densmore, Maria; Frewen, Paul A; Théberge, Jean; Neufeld, Richard Wj; McKinnon, Margaret C; Lanius, Ruth A

    2015-09-01

    Previous studies point towards differential connectivity patterns among basolateral (BLA) and centromedial (CMA) amygdala regions in patients with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) as compared with controls. Here we describe the first study to compare directly connectivity patterns of the BLA and CMA complexes between PTSD patients with and without the dissociative subtype (PTSD+DS and PTSD-DS, respectively). Amygdala connectivity to regulatory prefrontal regions and parietal regions involved in consciousness and proprioception were expected to differ between these two groups based on differential limbic regulation and behavioral symptoms. PTSD patients (n=49) with (n=13) and without (n=36) the dissociative subtype and age-matched healthy controls (n=40) underwent resting-state fMRI. Bilateral BLA and CMA connectivity patterns were compared using a seed-based approach via SPM Anatomy Toolbox. Among patients with PTSD, the PTSD+DS group exhibited greater amygdala functional connectivity to prefrontal regions involved in emotion regulation (bilateral BLA and left CMA to the middle frontal gyrus and bilateral CMA to the medial frontal gyrus) as compared with the PTSD-DS group. In addition, the PTSD+DS group showed greater amygdala connectivity to regions involved in consciousness, awareness, and proprioception-implicated in depersonalization and derealization (left BLA to superior parietal lobe and cerebellar culmen; left CMA to dorsal posterior cingulate and precuneus). Differences in amygdala complex connectivity to specific brain regions parallel the unique symptom profiles of the PTSD subgroups and point towards unique biological markers of the dissociative subtype of PTSD.

  17. Identifying true protein complex constituents in interaction proteomics: the example of the DMXL2 protein complex.

    PubMed

    Li, Ka Wan; Chen, Ning; Klemmer, Patricia; Koopmans, Frank; Karupothula, Ramesh; Smit, August B

    2012-08-01

    A typical high-sensitivity antibody affinity purification-mass spectrometry experiment easily identifies hundreds of protein interactors. However, most of these are non-valid resulting from multiple causes other than interaction with the bait protein. To discriminate true interactors from off-target recognition, we propose to differentially include an (peptide) antigen during the antibody incubation in the immuno-precipitation experiment. This contrasts the specific antibody-bait protein interactions, versus all other off-target protein interactions. To exemplify the power of the approach, we studied the DMXL2 interactome. From the initial six immuno-precipitations, we identified about 600 proteins. When filtering for interactors present in all anti-DMXL2 antibody immuno-precipitation experiments, absent in the bead controls, and competed off by the peptide antigen, this hit list is reduced to ten proteins, including known and novel interactors of DMXL2. Together, our approach enables the use of a wide range of available antibodies in large-scale protein interaction proteomics, while gaining specificity of the interactions. © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Unwrapping of DNA-protein complexes under external stretching.

    PubMed

    Sakaue, Takahiro; Löwen, Hartmut

    2004-08-01

    A DNA-protein complex modeled by a semiflexible chain and an attractive spherical core is studied in the situation when an external stretching force is acting on one end monomer of the chain while the other end monomer is kept fixed in space. Without a stretching force, the chain is wrapped around the core. By applying an external stretching force, unwrapping of the complex is induced. We study the statics and dynamics of the unwrapping process by computer simulations and simple phenomenological theory. We find two different scenarios depending on the chain stiffness: For a flexible chain, the extension of the complex scales linearly with the external force applied. The sphere-chain complex is disordered; i.e., there is no clear winding of the chain around the sphere. For a stiff chain, on the other hand, the complex structure is ordered, which is reminiscent of nucleosome. There is a clear winding number, and the unwrapping process under external stretching is discontinuous with jumps of the distance-force curve. This is associated with discrete unwinding processes of the complex. Our predictions are of relevance for experiments, which measure force-extension curves of DNA-protein complexes, such as nucleosome, using optical tweezers.

  19. Cardiac mitochondrial matrix and respiratory complex protein phosphorylation

    PubMed Central

    Covian, Raul

    2012-01-01

    It has become appreciated over the last several years that protein phosphorylation within the cardiac mitochondrial matrix and respiratory complexes is extensive. Given the importance of oxidative phosphorylation and the balance of energy metabolism in the heart, the potential regulatory effect of these classical signaling events on mitochondrial function is of interest. However, the functional impact of protein phosphorylation and the kinase/phosphatase system responsible for it are relatively unknown. Exceptions include the well-characterized pyruvate dehydrogenase and branched chain α-ketoacid dehydrogenase regulatory system. The first task of this review is to update the current status of protein phosphorylation detection primarily in the matrix and evaluate evidence linking these events with enzymatic function or protein processing. To manage the scope of this effort, we have focused on the pathways involved in energy metabolism. The high sensitivity of modern methods of detecting protein phosphorylation and the low specificity of many kinases suggests that detection of protein phosphorylation sites without information on the mole fraction of phosphorylation is difficult to interpret, especially in metabolic enzymes, and is likely irrelevant to function. However, several systems including protein translocation, adenine nucleotide translocase, cytochrome c, and complex IV protein phosphorylation have been well correlated with enzymatic function along with the classical dehydrogenase systems. The second task is to review the current understanding of the kinase/phosphatase system within the matrix. Though it is clear that protein phosphorylation occurs within the matrix, based on 32P incorporation and quantitative mass spectrometry measures, the kinase/phosphatase system responsible for this process is ill-defined. An argument is presented that remnants of the much more labile bacterial protein phosphoryl transfer system may be present in the matrix and that the

  20. Protein corona - from molecular adsorption to physiological complexity.

    PubMed

    Treuel, Lennart; Docter, Dominic; Maskos, Michael; Stauber, Roland H

    2015-01-01

    In biological environments, nanoparticles are enshrouded by a layer of biomolecules, predominantly proteins, mediating its subsequent interactions with cells. Detecting this protein corona, understanding its formation with regards to nanoparticle (NP) and protein properties, and elucidating its biological implications were central aims of bio-related nano-research throughout the past years. Here, we discuss the mechanistic parameters that are involved in the protein corona formation and the consequences of this corona formation for both, the particle, and the protein. We review consequences of corona formation for colloidal stability and discuss the role of functional groups and NP surface functionalities in shaping NP-protein interactions. We also elaborate the recent advances demonstrating the strong involvement of Coulomb-type interactions between NPs and charged patches on the protein surface. Moreover, we discuss novel aspects related to the complexity of the protein corona forming under physiological conditions in full serum. Specifically, we address the relation between particle size and corona composition and the latest findings that help to shed light on temporal evolution of the full serum corona for the first time. Finally, we discuss the most recent advances regarding the molecular-scale mechanistic role of the protein corona in cellular uptake of NPs.

  1. Protein corona – from molecular adsorption to physiological complexity

    PubMed Central

    Docter, Dominic; Maskos, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Summary In biological environments, nanoparticles are enshrouded by a layer of biomolecules, predominantly proteins, mediating its subsequent interactions with cells. Detecting this protein corona, understanding its formation with regards to nanoparticle (NP) and protein properties, and elucidating its biological implications were central aims of bio-related nano-research throughout the past years. Here, we discuss the mechanistic parameters that are involved in the protein corona formation and the consequences of this corona formation for both, the particle, and the protein. We review consequences of corona formation for colloidal stability and discuss the role of functional groups and NP surface functionalities in shaping NP–protein interactions. We also elaborate the recent advances demonstrating the strong involvement of Coulomb-type interactions between NPs and charged patches on the protein surface. Moreover, we discuss novel aspects related to the complexity of the protein corona forming under physiological conditions in full serum. Specifically, we address the relation between particle size and corona composition and the latest findings that help to shed light on temporal evolution of the full serum corona for the first time. Finally, we discuss the most recent advances regarding the molecular-scale mechanistic role of the protein corona in cellular uptake of NPs. PMID:25977856

  2. Immunoprecipitation and Characterization of Membrane Protein Complexes from Yeast

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parra-Belky, Karlett; McCulloch, Kathryn; Wick, Nicole; Shircliff, Rebecca; Croft, Nicolas; Margalef, Katrina; Brown, Jamie; Crabill, Todd; Jankord, Ryan; Waldo, Eric

    2005-01-01

    In this undergraduate biochemistry laboratory experiment, the vacuolar ATPase protein complex is purified from yeast cell extracts by doing immunoprecipitations under nondenaturing conditions. Immunoprecipitations are performed using monoclonal antibodies to facilitate data interpretation, and subunits are separated on the basis of their molecular…

  3. Immunoprecipitation and Characterization of Membrane Protein Complexes from Yeast

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parra-Belky, Karlett; McCulloch, Kathryn; Wick, Nicole; Shircliff, Rebecca; Croft, Nicolas; Margalef, Katrina; Brown, Jamie; Crabill, Todd; Jankord, Ryan; Waldo, Eric

    2005-01-01

    In this undergraduate biochemistry laboratory experiment, the vacuolar ATPase protein complex is purified from yeast cell extracts by doing immunoprecipitations under nondenaturing conditions. Immunoprecipitations are performed using monoclonal antibodies to facilitate data interpretation, and subunits are separated on the basis of their molecular…

  4. Encapsulation of active ingredients in polysaccharide-protein complex coacervates.

    PubMed

    Devi, Nirmala; Sarmah, Mandip; Khatun, Bably; Maji, Tarun K

    2017-01-01

    Polysaccharide-protein complex coacervates are amongst the leading pair of biopolymer systems that has been used over the past decades for encapsulation of numerous active ingredients. Complex coacervation of polysaccharides and proteins has received increasing research interest for the practical application in encapsulation industry since the pioneering work of complex coacervation by Bungenburg de Jong and co-workers on the system of gelatin-acacia, a protein-polysaccharide system. Because of the versatility and numerous potential applications of these systems essentially in the fields of food, pharmaceutical, cosmetics and agriculture, there has been intense interest in recent years for both fundamental and applied studies. Precisely, the designing of the micronscale and nanoscale capsules for encapsulation and control over their properties for practical applications garners renewed interest. This review discusses on the overview of polysaccharide-protein complex coacervates and their use for the encapsulation of diverse active ingredients, designing and controlling of the capsules for delivery systems and developments in the area. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. The small G-protein MglA connects to the MreB actin cytoskeleton at bacterial focal adhesions

    PubMed Central

    Treuner-Lange, Anke; Macia, Eric; Guzzo, Mathilde; Hot, Edina; Faure, Laura M.; Jakobczak, Beata; Espinosa, Leon; Alcor, Damien; Ducret, Adrien; Keilberg, Daniela; Castaing, Jean Philippe; Lacas Gervais, Sandra; Franco, Michel

    2015-01-01

    In Myxococcus xanthus the gliding motility machinery is assembled at the leading cell pole to form focal adhesions, translocated rearward to propel the cell, and disassembled at the lagging pole. We show that MglA, a Ras-like small G-protein, is an integral part of this machinery. In this function, MglA stimulates the assembly of the motility complex by directly connecting it to the MreB actin cytoskeleton. Because the nucleotide state of MglA is regulated spatially and MglA only binds MreB in the guanosine triphosphate–bound form, the motility complexes are assembled at the leading pole and dispersed at the lagging pole where the guanosine triphosphatase activating protein MglB disrupts the MglA–MreB interaction. Thus, MglA acts as a nucleotide-dependent molecular switch to regulate the motility machinery spatially. The function of MreB in motility is independent of its function in peptidoglycan synthesis, representing a coopted function. Our findings highlight a new function for the MreB cytoskeleton and suggest that G-protein–cytoskeleton interactions are a universally conserved feature. PMID:26169353

  6. Connecting mitochondrial dynamics and life-or-death events via Bcl-2 family proteins.

    PubMed

    Aouacheria, Abdel; Baghdiguian, Stephen; Lamb, Heather M; Huska, Jason D; Pineda, Fernando J; Hardwick, J Marie

    2017-04-28

    The morphology of a population of mitochondria is the result of several interacting dynamical phenomena, including fission, fusion, movement, elimination and biogenesis. Each of these phenomena is controlled by underlying molecular machinery, and when defective can cause disease. New understanding of the relationships between form and function of mitochondria in health and disease is beginning to be unraveled on several fronts. Studies in mammals and model organisms have revealed that mitochondrial morphology, dynamics and function appear to be subject to regulation by the same proteins that regulate apoptotic cell death. One protein family that influences mitochondrial dynamics in both healthy and dying cells is the Bcl-2 protein family. Connecting mitochondrial dynamics with life-death pathway forks may arise from the intersection of Bcl-2 family proteins with the proteins and lipids that determine mitochondrial shape and function. Bcl-2 family proteins also have multifaceted influences on cells and mitochondria, including calcium handling, autophagy and energetics, as well as the subcellular localization of mitochondrial organelles to neuronal synapses. The remarkable range of physical or functional interactions by Bcl-2 family proteins is challenging to assimilate into a cohesive understanding. Most of their effects may be distinct from their direct roles in apoptotic cell death and are particularly apparent in the nervous system. Dual roles in mitochondrial dynamics and cell death extend beyond BCL-2 family proteins. In this review, we discuss many processes that govern mitochondrial structure and function in health and disease, and how Bcl-2 family proteins integrate into some of these processes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. CREB, AP‐1, ternary complex factors and MAP kinases connect transient receptor potential melastatin‐3 (TRPM3) channel stimulation with increased c‐Fos expression

    PubMed Central

    Rubil, Sandra; Rössler, Oliver G.

    2016-01-01

    Background and Purpose The rise in intracellular Ca2+ stimulates the expression of the transcription factor c‐Fos. Depending on the mode of entry of Ca2+ into the cytosol, distinct signal transducers and transcription factors are required. Here, we have analysed the signalling pathway connecting a Ca2+ influx via activation of transient receptor potential melastatin‐3 (TRPM3) channels with enhanced c‐Fos expression. Experimental Approach Transcription of c‐Fos promoter/reporter genes that were integrated into the chromatin via lentiviral gene transfer was analysed in HEK293 cells overexpressing TRPM3. The transcriptional activation potential of c‐Fos was measured using a GAL4‐c‐Fos fusion protein. Key Results The signalling pathway connecting TRPM3 stimulation with enhanced c‐Fos expression requires the activation of MAP kinases. On the transcriptional level, three Ca2+‐responsive elements, the cAMP‐response element and the binding sites for the serum response factor (SRF) and AP‐1, are essential for the TRPM3‐mediated stimulation of the c‐Fos promoter. Ternary complex factors are additionally involved in connecting TRPM3 stimulation with the up‐regulation of c‐Fos expression. Stimulation of TRPM3 channels also increases the transcriptional activation potential of c‐Fos. Conclusions and Implications Signalling molecules involved in connecting TRPM3 with the c‐Fos gene are MAP kinases and the transcription factors CREB, SRF, AP‐1 and ternary complex factors. As c‐Fos constitutes, together with other basic region leucine zipper transcription factors, the AP‐1 transcription factor complex, the results of this study explain TRPM3‐induced activation of AP‐1 and connects TRPM3 with the biological functions regulated by AP‐1. © 2015 The British Pharmacological Society PMID:26493679

  8. RECOVERY ACT - Robust Optimization for Connectivity and Flows in Dynamic Complex Networks

    SciTech Connect

    Balasundaram, Balabhaskar; Butenko, Sergiy; Boginski, Vladimir; Uryasev, Stan

    2013-12-25

    The goal of this project was to study robust connectivity and flow patterns of complex multi-scale systems modeled as networks. Networks provide effective ways to study global, system level properties, as well as local, multi-scale interactions at a component level. Numerous applications from power systems, telecommunication, transportation, biology, social science, and other areas have benefited from novel network-based models and their analysis. Modeling and optimization techniques that employ appropriate measures of risk for identifying robust clusters and resilient network designs in networks subject to uncertain failures were investigated in this collaborative multi-university project. In many practical situations one has to deal with uncertainties associated with possible failures of network components, thereby affecting the overall efficiency and performance of the system (e.g., every node/connection has a probability of partial or complete failure). Some extreme examples include power grid component failures, airline hub failures due to weather, or freeway closures due to emergencies. These are also situations in which people, materials, or other resources need to be managed efficiently. Important practical examples include rerouting flow through power grids, adjusting flight plans, and identifying routes for emergency services and supplies, in the event network elements fail unexpectedly. Solutions that are robust under uncertainty, in addition to being economically efficient, are needed. This project has led to the development of novel models and methodologies that can tackle the optimization problems arising in such situations. A number of new concepts, which have not been previously applied in this setting, were investigated in the framework of the project. The results can potentially help decision-makers to better control and identify robust or risk-averse decisions in such situations. Formulations and optimal solutions of the considered problems need

  9. Combining task-related activation and connectivity analysis of fMRI data reveals complex modulation of brain networks.

    PubMed

    Gerchen, Martin Fungisai; Kirsch, Peter

    2017-08-07

    Task-related effects in functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data are usually analyzed with local activation approaches or integrative connectivity approaches, for example, by psychophysiological interaction (PPI) analysis. While both approaches are often applied to the same data set, a systematic combination of the results with a whole-brain (WB) perspective is rarely conducted and the relationship between task-dependent activation and connectivity effects is relatively unexplored. Here, we combined brain activation and graph theoretical analysis of WB-PPI results in an exemplary episodic memory data set of N = 136 healthy human participants and found regions with congruent as well as incongruent activation and connectivity changes between task and control conditions. A comparison with large-scale resting state networks showed that in congruent as well as incongruent regions task-positively modulated connections were mainly between-network connections, especially with the default mode network, while task-negatively modulated connections were mainly found within resting state networks. Over all regions, the strength of absolute activation effects was associated with the tendency to exhibit task-positive connectivity changes, mainly driven by a strong relationship in negatively activated regions. These results demonstrate that task demands lead to a complex modulation of brain networks and provide evidence that task-evoked activation and connectivity effects reflect separable and complementary information on the macroscale brain level assessed by fMRI. Hum Brain Mapp, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Analysis of Proteins, Protein Complexes, and Organellar Proteomes Using Sheathless Capillary Zone Electrophoresis - Native Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Belov, Arseniy M; Viner, Rosa; Santos, Marcia R; Horn, David M; Bern, Marshall; Karger, Barry L; Ivanov, Alexander R

    2017-09-05

    Native mass spectrometry (MS) is a rapidly advancing field in the analysis of proteins, protein complexes, and macromolecular species of various types. The majority of native MS experiments reported to-date has been conducted using direct infusion of purified analytes into a mass spectrometer. In this study, capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) was coupled online to Orbitrap mass spectrometers using a commercial sheathless interface to enable high-performance separation, identification, and structural characterization of limited amounts of purified proteins and protein complexes, the latter with preserved non-covalent associations under native conditions. The performance of both bare-fused silica and polyacrylamide-coated capillaries was assessed using mixtures of protein standards known to form non-covalent protein-protein and protein-ligand complexes. High-efficiency separation of native complexes is demonstrated using both capillary types, while the polyacrylamide neutral-coated capillary showed better reproducibility and higher efficiency for more complex samples. The platform was then evaluated for the determination of monoclonal antibody aggregation and for analysis of proteomes of limited complexity using a ribosomal isolate from E. coli. Native CZE-MS, using accurate single stage and tandem-MS measurements, enabled identification of proteoforms and non-covalent complexes at femtomole levels. This study demonstrates that native CZE-MS can serve as an orthogonal and complementary technique to conventional native MS methodologies with the advantages of low sample consumption, minimal sample processing and losses, and high throughput and sensitivity. This study presents a novel platform for analysis of ribosomes and other macromolecular complexes and organelles, with the potential for discovery of novel structural features defining cellular phenotypes (e.g., specialized ribosomes). Graphical Abstract ᅟ.

  11. Analysis of Proteins, Protein Complexes, and Organellar Proteomes Using Sheathless Capillary Zone Electrophoresis - Native Mass Spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belov, Arseniy M.; Viner, Rosa; Santos, Marcia R.; Horn, David M.; Bern, Marshall; Karger, Barry L.; Ivanov, Alexander R.

    2017-09-01

    Native mass spectrometry (MS) is a rapidly advancing field in the analysis of proteins, protein complexes, and macromolecular species of various types. The majority of native MS experiments reported to-date has been conducted using direct infusion of purified analytes into a mass spectrometer. In this study, capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) was coupled online to Orbitrap mass spectrometers using a commercial sheathless interface to enable high-performance separation, identification, and structural characterization of limited amounts of purified proteins and protein complexes, the latter with preserved non-covalent associations under native conditions. The performance of both bare-fused silica and polyacrylamide-coated capillaries was assessed using mixtures of protein standards known to form non-covalent protein-protein and protein-ligand complexes. High-efficiency separation of native complexes is demonstrated using both capillary types, while the polyacrylamide neutral-coated capillary showed better reproducibility and higher efficiency for more complex samples. The platform was then evaluated for the determination of monoclonal antibody aggregation and for analysis of proteomes of limited complexity using a ribosomal isolate from E. coli. Native CZE-MS, using accurate single stage and tandem-MS measurements, enabled identification of proteoforms and non-covalent complexes at femtomole levels. This study demonstrates that native CZE-MS can serve as an orthogonal and complementary technique to conventional native MS methodologies with the advantages of low sample consumption, minimal sample processing and losses, and high throughput and sensitivity. This study presents a novel platform for analysis of ribosomes and other macromolecular complexes and organelles, with the potential for discovery of novel structural features defining cellular phenotypes (e.g., specialized ribosomes). [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  12. Silencio/CG9754 connects the Piwi–piRNA complex to the cellular heterochromatin machinery

    PubMed Central

    Sienski, Grzegorz; Batki, Julia; Senti, Kirsten-André; Dönertas, Derya; Tirian, Laszlo; Meixner, Katharina; Brennecke, Julius

    2015-01-01

    The repression of transposable elements in eukaryotes often involves their transcriptional silencing via targeted chromatin modifications. In animal gonads, nuclear Argonaute proteins of the PIWI clade complexed with small guide RNAs (piRNAs) serve as sequence specificity determinants in this process. How binding of nuclear PIWI–piRNA complexes to nascent transcripts orchestrates heterochromatin formation and transcriptional silencing is unknown. Here, we characterize CG9754/Silencio as an essential piRNA pathway factor that is required for Piwi-mediated transcriptional silencing in Drosophila. Ectopic targeting of Silencio to RNA or DNA is sufficient to elicit silencing independently of Piwi and known piRNA pathway factors. Instead, Silencio requires the H3K9 methyltransferase Eggless/SetDB1 for its silencing ability. In agreement with this, SetDB1, but not Su(var)3-9, is required for Piwi-mediated transcriptional silencing genome-wide. Due to its interaction with the target-engaged Piwi–piRNA complex, we suggest that Silencio acts as linker between the sequence specificity factor Piwi and the cellular heterochromatin machinery. PMID:26494711

  13. Silencio/CG9754 connects the Piwi-piRNA complex to the cellular heterochromatin machinery.

    PubMed

    Sienski, Grzegorz; Batki, Julia; Senti, Kirsten-André; Dönertas, Derya; Tirian, Laszlo; Meixner, Katharina; Brennecke, Julius

    2015-11-01

    The repression of transposable elements in eukaryotes often involves their transcriptional silencing via targeted chromatin modifications. In animal gonads, nuclear Argonaute proteins of the PIWI clade complexed with small guide RNAs (piRNAs) serve as sequence specificity determinants in this process. How binding of nuclear PIWI-piRNA complexes to nascent transcripts orchestrates heterochromatin formation and transcriptional silencing is unknown. Here, we characterize CG9754/Silencio as an essential piRNA pathway factor that is required for Piwi-mediated transcriptional silencing in Drosophila. Ectopic targeting of Silencio to RNA or DNA is sufficient to elicit silencing independently of Piwi and known piRNA pathway factors. Instead, Silencio requires the H3K9 methyltransferase Eggless/SetDB1 for its silencing ability. In agreement with this, SetDB1, but not Su(var)3-9, is required for Piwi-mediated transcriptional silencing genome-wide. Due to its interaction with the target-engaged Piwi-piRNA complex, we suggest that Silencio acts as linker between the sequence specificity factor Piwi and the cellular heterochromatin machinery.

  14. Role of protein fluctuation correlations in electron transfer in photosynthetic complexes.

    PubMed

    Nesterov, Alexander I; Berman, Gennady P

    2015-04-01

    We consider the dependence of the electron transfer in photosynthetic complexes on correlation properties of random fluctuations of the protein environment. The electron subsystem is modeled by a finite network of connected electron (exciton) sites. The fluctuations of the protein environment are modeled by random telegraph processes, which act either collectively (correlated) or independently (uncorrelated) on the electron sites. We derived an exact closed system of first-order linear differential equations with constant coefficients, for the average density matrix elements and for their first moments. Under some conditions, we obtained analytic expressions for the electron transfer rates and found the range of parameters for their applicability by comparing with the exact numerical simulations. We also compared the correlated and uncorrelated regimes and demonstrated numerically that the uncorrelated fluctuations of the protein environment can, under some conditions, either increase or decrease the electron transfer rates.

  15. Complexation between dodecyl sulfate surfactant and zein protein in solution.

    PubMed

    Ruso, Juan M; Deo, Namita; Somasundaran, P

    2004-10-12

    Interactions between sodium dodecyl sulfate and zein protein, a model system for the understanding of the effect of surfactants on skin, were investigated using a range of techniques involving UV-vis spectroscopy, TOC (total organic carbon analysis), electrophoresis, and static and dynamic light scattering. Zein protein was solubilized by SDS. The adsorption of SDS onto insoluble protein fraction caused the zeta potential of the complex to become more negative. From these values, we calculated the Gibbs energy of absorption, which decreases when the SDS concentration is raised. Finally the structure of the complex, based on the analysis by static and dynamic light scattering, is proposed to be rod like. Copyright 2004 American Chemical Society

  16. A high-throughput immobilized bead screen for stable proteins and multi-protein complexes

    PubMed Central

    Lockard, Meghan A.; Listwan, Pawel; Pedelacq, Jean-Denis; Cabantous, Stéphanie; Nguyen, Hau B.; Terwilliger, Thomas C.; Waldo, Geoffrey S.

    2011-01-01

    We describe an in vitro colony screen to identify Escherichia coli expressing soluble proteins and stable, assembled multiprotein complexes. Proteins with an N-terminal 6His tag and C-terminal green fluorescent protein (GFP) S11 tag are fluorescently labeled in cells by complementation with a coexpressed GFP 1–10 fragment. After partial colony lysis, the fluorescent soluble proteins or complexes diffuse through a supporting filtration membrane and are captured on Talon® resin metal affinity beads immobilized in agarose. Images of the fluorescent colonies convey total expression and the level of fluorescence bound to the beads indicates how much protein is soluble. Both pieces of information can be used together when selecting clones. After the assay, colonies can be picked and propagated, eliminating the need to make replica plates. We used the method to screen a DNA fragment library of the human protein p85 and preferentially obtained clones expressing the full-length ‘breakpoint cluster region-homology' and NSH2 domains. The assay also distinguished clones expressing stable multi-protein complexes from those that are unstable due to missing subunits. Clones expressing stable, intact heterotrimeric E.coli YheNML complexes were readily identified in libraries dominated by complexes of YheML missing the N subunit. PMID:21642284

  17. A high-throughput immobilized bead screen for stable proteins and multi-protein complexes.

    PubMed

    Lockard, Meghan A; Listwan, Pawel; Pedelacq, Jean-Denis; Cabantous, Stéphanie; Nguyen, Hau B; Terwilliger, Thomas C; Waldo, Geoffrey S

    2011-07-01

    We describe an in vitro colony screen to identify Escherichia coli expressing soluble proteins and stable, assembled multiprotein complexes. Proteins with an N-terminal 6His tag and C-terminal green fluorescent protein (GFP) S11 tag are fluorescently labeled in cells by complementation with a coexpressed GFP 1-10 fragment. After partial colony lysis, the fluorescent soluble proteins or complexes diffuse through a supporting filtration membrane and are captured on Talon(®) resin metal affinity beads immobilized in agarose. Images of the fluorescent colonies convey total expression and the level of fluorescence bound to the beads indicates how much protein is soluble. Both pieces of information can be used together when selecting clones. After the assay, colonies can be picked and propagated, eliminating the need to make replica plates. We used the method to screen a DNA fragment library of the human protein p85 and preferentially obtained clones expressing the full-length 'breakpoint cluster region-homology' and NSH2 domains. The assay also distinguished clones expressing stable multi-protein complexes from those that are unstable due to missing subunits. Clones expressing stable, intact heterotrimeric E.coli YheNML complexes were readily identified in libraries dominated by complexes of YheML missing the N subunit.

  18. Sample preparation for SFM imaging of DNA, proteins, and DNA-protein complexes.

    PubMed

    Ristic, Dejan; Sanchez, Humberto; Wyman, Claire

    2011-01-01

    Direct imaging is invaluable for understanding the mechanism of complex genome transactions where proteins work together to organize, transcribe, replicate, and repair DNA. Scanning (or atomic) force microscopy is an ideal tool for this, providing 3D information on molecular structure at nanometer resolution from defined components. This is a convenient and practical addition to in vitro studies as readily obtainable amounts of purified proteins and DNA are required. The images reveal structural details on the size and location of DNA-bound proteins as well as protein-induced arrangement of the DNA, which are directly correlated in the same complexes. In addition, even from static images, the different forms observed and their relative distributions can be used to deduce the variety and stability of different complexes that are necessarily involved in dynamic processes. Recently available instruments that combine fluorescence with topographic imaging allow the identification of specific molecular components in complex assemblies, which broadens the applications and increases the information obtained from direct imaging of molecular complexes. We describe here basic methods for preparing samples of proteins, DNA, and complexes of the two for topographic imaging and quantitative analysis. We also describe special considerations for combined fluorescence and topographic imaging of molecular complexes.

  19. Network reconstruction based on proteomic data and prior knowledge of protein connectivity using graph theory.

    PubMed

    Stavrakas, Vassilis; Melas, Ioannis N; Sakellaropoulos, Theodore; Alexopoulos, Leonidas G

    2015-01-01

    Modeling of signal transduction pathways is instrumental for understanding cells' function. People have been tackling modeling of signaling pathways in order to accurately represent the signaling events inside cells' biochemical microenvironment in a way meaningful for scientists in a biological field. In this article, we propose a method to interrogate such pathways in order to produce cell-specific signaling models. We integrate available prior knowledge of protein connectivity, in a form of a Prior Knowledge Network (PKN) with phosphoproteomic data to construct predictive models of the protein connectivity of the interrogated cell type. Several computational methodologies focusing on pathways' logic modeling using optimization formulations or machine learning algorithms have been published on this front over the past few years. Here, we introduce a light and fast approach that uses a breadth-first traversal of the graph to identify the shortest pathways and score proteins in the PKN, fitting the dependencies extracted from the experimental design. The pathways are then combined through a heuristic formulation to produce a final topology handling inconsistencies between the PKN and the experimental scenarios. Our results show that the algorithm we developed is efficient and accurate for the construction of medium and large scale signaling networks. We demonstrate the applicability of the proposed approach by interrogating a manually curated interaction graph model of EGF/TNFA stimulation against made up experimental data. To avoid the possibility of erroneous predictions, we performed a cross-validation analysis. Finally, we validate that the introduced approach generates predictive topologies, comparable to the ILP formulation. Overall, an efficient approach based on graph theory is presented herein to interrogate protein-protein interaction networks and to provide meaningful biological insights.

  20. DOCK/PIERR: web server for structure prediction of protein-protein complexes.

    PubMed

    Viswanath, Shruthi; Ravikant, D V S; Elber, Ron

    2014-01-01

    In protein docking we aim to find the structure of the complex formed when two proteins interact. Protein-protein interactions are crucial for cell function. Here we discuss the usage of DOCK/PIERR. In DOCK/PIERR, a uniformly discrete sampling of orientations of one protein with respect to the other, are scored, followed by clustering, refinement, and reranking of structures. The novelty of this method lies in the scoring functions used. These are obtained by examining hundreds of millions of correctly and incorrectly docked structures, using an algorithm based on mathematical programming, with provable convergence properties.

  1. Septal complex of the telencephalon of lizards: III. Efferent connections and general discussion.

    PubMed

    Font, C; Lanuza, E; Martinez-Marcos, A; Hoogland, P V; Martinez-Garcia, F

    1998-11-30

    The projections of the septum of the lizard Podarcis hispanica (Lacertidae) were studied by combining retrograde and anterograde neuroanatomical tracing. The results confirm the classification of septal nuclei into three main divisions. The nuclei composing the central septal division (anterior, lateral, medial, dorsolateral, and ventrolateral nuclei) displayed differential projections to the basal telencephalon, preoptic and anterior hypothalamus, lateral hypothalamic area, dorsal hypothalamus, mammillary complex, dorsomedial anterior thalamus, ventral tegmental area, interpeduncular nucleus, raphe nucleus, torus semicircularis pars laminaris, reptilian A8 nucleus/substantia nigra and central gray. For instance, only the medial septal nucleus projected substantially to the thalamus whereas the anterior septum was the only nucleus projecting to the caudal midbrain including the central gray. The anterior and lateral septal nuclei also differ in the way in which their projection to the preoptic hypothalamus terminated. The midline septal division is composed of the dorsal septal nucleus, nucleus septalis impar and nucleus of the posterior pallial commissure. The latter two nuclei projected to the lateral habenula and, at least the nucleus of the posterior pallial commissure, to the mammillary complex. The dorsal septal nucleus projected to the preoptic and periventricular hypothalamus and the anterior thalamus, but its central part seemed to project to the caudal midbrain (up to the midbrain central gray). Finally, the ventromedial septal division (ventromedial septal nucleus) showed a massive projection to the anterior and the lateral tuberomammillary hypothalamus. Data on the connections of the septum of P. hispanica and Gecko gekko are discussed from a comparative point of view and used for better understanding of the functional anatomy of the tetrapodian septum.

  2. Surface induced dissociation: dissecting noncovalent protein complexes in the gas phase.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Mowei; Wysocki, Vicki H

    2014-04-15

    The quaternary structures of proteins are both important and of interest to chemists, because many proteins exist as complexes in vivo, and probing these structures allows us to better understand their biological functions. Conventional structural biology methods such as X-ray crystallography and nuclear magnetic resonance provide high-resolution information on the structures of protein complexes and are the gold standards in the field. However, other emerging biophysical methods that only provide low-resolution data (e.g. stoichiometry and subunit connectivity) on the structures of the protein complexes are also becoming more important to scientists. Mass spectrometry is one of these approaches that provide lower than atomic structural resolution, but the approach is higher throughput and provides not only better mass information than other techniques but also stoichiometry and topology. Fragile noncovalent interactions within the protein complexes can be preserved in the gas phase of MS under gentle ionization and transfer conditions. Scientists can measure the masses of the complexes with high confidence to reveal the stoichiometry and composition of the proteins. What makes mass spectrometry an even more powerful method is that researchers can further isolate the protein complexes and activate them in the gas phase to release subunits for more structural information. The caveat is that, upon gas-phase activation, the released subunits need to faithfully reflect the native topology so that useful information on the proteins can be extracted from mass spectrometry experiments. Unfortunately, many proteins tend to favor unfolding upon collision with neutral gas (the most common activation method in mass spectrometers). Therefore, this typically results in limited insights on the quaternary structure of the precursor without further manipulation of other experimental factors. Scientists have observed, however, that valuable structural information can be obtained

  3. Comparative Study of Elastic Network Model and Protein Contact Network for Protein Complexes: The Hemoglobin Case.

    PubMed

    Hu, Guang; Di Paola, Luisa; Liang, Zhongjie; Giuliani, Alessandro

    2017-01-01

    The overall topology and interfacial interactions play key roles in understanding structural and functional principles of protein complexes. Elastic Network Model (ENM) and Protein Contact Network (PCN) are two widely used methods for high throughput investigation of structures and interactions within protein complexes. In this work, the comparative analysis of ENM and PCN relative to hemoglobin (Hb) was taken as case study. We examine four types of structural and dynamical paradigms, namely, conformational change between different states of Hbs, modular analysis, allosteric mechanisms studies, and interface characterization of an Hb. The comparative study shows that ENM has an advantage in studying dynamical properties and protein-protein interfaces, while PCN is better for describing protein structures quantitatively both from local and from global levels. We suggest that the integration of ENM and PCN would give a potential but powerful tool in structural systems biology.

  4. Comparative Study of Elastic Network Model and Protein Contact Network for Protein Complexes: The Hemoglobin Case

    PubMed Central

    Di Paola, Luisa; Liang, Zhongjie; Giuliani, Alessandro

    2017-01-01

    The overall topology and interfacial interactions play key roles in understanding structural and functional principles of protein complexes. Elastic Network Model (ENM) and Protein Contact Network (PCN) are two widely used methods for high throughput investigation of structures and interactions within protein complexes. In this work, the comparative analysis of ENM and PCN relative to hemoglobin (Hb) was taken as case study. We examine four types of structural and dynamical paradigms, namely, conformational change between different states of Hbs, modular analysis, allosteric mechanisms studies, and interface characterization of an Hb. The comparative study shows that ENM has an advantage in studying dynamical properties and protein-protein interfaces, while PCN is better for describing protein structures quantitatively both from local and from global levels. We suggest that the integration of ENM and PCN would give a potential but powerful tool in structural systems biology. PMID:28243596

  5. ParA-like protein uses nonspecific chromosomal DNA binding to partition protein complexes.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Mark A J; Wadhams, George H; Hadfield, Katie A; Tickner, Susan; Armitage, Judith P

    2012-04-24

    Recent data have shown that plasmid partitioning Par-like systems are used by some bacterial cells to control localization of protein complexes. Here we demonstrate that one of these homologs, PpfA, uses nonspecific chromosome binding to separate cytoplasmic clusters of chemotaxis proteins upon division. Using fluorescent microscopy and point mutations, we show dynamic chromosome binding and Walker-type ATPase activity are essential for cluster segregation. The N-terminal domain of a cytoplasmic chemoreceptor encoded next to ppfA is also required for segregation, probably functioning as a ParB analog to control PpfA ATPase activity. An orphan ParA involved in segregating protein clusters therefore uses a similar mechanism to plasmid-segregating ParA/B systems and requires a partner protein for function. Given the large number of genomes that encode orphan ParAs, this may be a common mechanism regulating segregation of proteins and protein complexes.

  6. Evolution of DNA replication protein complexes in eukaryotes and Archaea.

    PubMed

    Chia, Nicholas; Cann, Isaac; Olsen, Gary J

    2010-06-02

    The replication of DNA in Archaea and eukaryotes requires several ancillary complexes, including proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), replication factor C (RFC), and the minichromosome maintenance (MCM) complex. Bacterial DNA replication utilizes comparable proteins, but these are distantly related phylogenetically to their archaeal and eukaryotic counterparts at best. While the structures of each of the complexes do not differ significantly between the archaeal and eukaryotic versions thereof, the evolutionary dynamic in the two cases does. The number of subunits in each complex is constant across all taxa. However, they vary subtly with regard to composition. In some taxa the subunits are all identical in sequence, while in others some are homologous rather than identical. In the case of eukaryotes, there is no phylogenetic variation in the makeup of each complex-all appear to derive from a common eukaryotic ancestor. This is not the case in Archaea, where the relationship between the subunits within each complex varies taxon-to-taxon. We have performed a detailed phylogenetic analysis of these relationships in order to better understand the gene duplications and divergences that gave rise to the homologous subunits in Archaea. This domain level difference in evolution suggests that different forces have driven the evolution of DNA replication proteins in each of these two domains. In addition, the phylogenies of all three gene families support the distinctiveness of the proposed archaeal phylum Thaumarchaeota.

  7. Modeling of Protein Binary Complexes Using Structural Mass Spectrometry Data

    SciTech Connect

    Amisha Kamal,J.; Chance, M.

    2008-01-01

    In this article, we describe a general approach to modeling the structure of binary protein complexes using structural mass spectrometry data combined with molecular docking. In the first step, hydroxyl radical mediated oxidative protein footprinting is used to identify residues that experience conformational reorganization due to binding or participate in the binding interface. In the second step, a three-dimensional atomic structure of the complex is derived by computational modeling. Homology modeling approaches are used to define the structures of the individual proteins if footprinting detects significant conformational reorganization as a function of complex formation. A three-dimensional model of the complex is constructed from these binary partners using the ClusPro program, which is composed of docking, energy filtering, and clustering steps. Footprinting data are used to incorporate constraints--positive and/or negative--in the docking step and are also used to decide the type of energy filter--electrostatics or desolvation--in the successive energy-filtering step. By using this approach, we examine the structure of a number of binary complexes of monomeric actin and compare the results to crystallographic data. Based on docking alone, a number of competing models with widely varying structures are observed, one of which is likely to agree with crystallographic data. When the docking steps are guided by footprinting data, accurate models emerge as top scoring. We demonstrate this method with the actin/gelsolin segment-1 complex. We also provide a structural model for the actin/cofilin complex using this approach which does not have a crystal or NMR structure.

  8. Hierarchical organization of functional connectivity in the mouse brain: a complex network approach

    PubMed Central

    Bardella, Giampiero; Bifone, Angelo; Gabrielli, Andrea; Gozzi, Alessandro; Squartini, Tiziano

    2016-01-01

    This paper represents a contribution to the study of the brain functional connectivity from the perspective of complex networks theory. More specifically, we apply graph theoretical analyses to provide evidence of the modular structure of the mouse brain and to shed light on its hierarchical organization. We propose a novel percolation analysis and we apply our approach to the analysis of a resting-state functional MRI data set from 41 mice. This approach reveals a robust hierarchical structure of modules persistent across different subjects. Importantly, we test this approach against a statistical benchmark (or null model) which constrains only the distributions of empirical correlations. Our results unambiguously show that the hierarchical character of the mouse brain modular structure is not trivially encoded into this lower-order constraint. Finally, we investigate the modular structure of the mouse brain by computing the Minimal Spanning Forest, a technique that identifies subnetworks characterized by the strongest internal correlations. This approach represents a faster alternative to other community detection methods and provides a means to rank modules on the basis of the strength of their internal edges. PMID:27534708

  9. Characterization of Mediator Complex and its Associated Proteins from Rice.

    PubMed

    Samanta, Subhasis; Thakur, Jitendra Kumar

    2017-01-01

    The Mediator complex is a multi-protein complex that acts as a molecular bridge conveying transcriptional messages from the cis element-bound transcription factor to the RNA Polymerase II machinery. It is found in all eukaryotes including members of the plant kingdom. Increasing number of reports from plants regarding different Mediator subunits involved in a multitude of processes spanning from plant development to environmental interactions have firmly established it as a central hub of plant regulatory networks. Routine isolation of Mediator complex in a particular species is a necessity because of many reasons. First, composition of the Mediator complex varies from species to species. Second, the composition of the Mediator complex in a particular species is not static under all developmental and environmental conditions. Besides this, at times, Mediator complex is used in in vitro transcription systems. Rice, a staple food crop of the world, is used as a model monocot crop. Realizing the need of a reliable protocol for the isolation of Mediator complex from plants, we describe here the isolation of Mediator complex from rice.

  10. Transmembrane protein 147 (TMEM147) is a novel component of the Nicalin-NOMO protein complex.

    PubMed

    Dettmer, Ulf; Kuhn, Peer-Hendrik; Abou-Ajram, Claudia; Lichtenthaler, Stefan F; Krüger, Marcus; Kremmer, Elisabeth; Haass, Christian; Haffner, Christof

    2010-08-20

    Nicastrin and its relative Nicalin (Nicastrin-like protein) are both members of larger protein complexes, namely gamma-secretase and the Nicalin-NOMO (Nodal modulator) complex. The gamma-secretase complex, which contains Presenilin, APH-1, and PEN-2 in addition to Nicastrin, catalyzes the proteolytic cleavage of the transmembrane domain of various proteins including the beta-amyloid precursor protein and Notch. Nicalin and its binding partner NOMO form a complex that was shown to modulate Nodal signaling in developing zebrafish embryos. Because its experimentally determined native size (200-220 kDa) could not be satisfyingly explained by the molecular masses of Nicalin (60 kDa) and NOMO (130 kDa), we searched in affinity-purified complex preparations for additional components in the low molecular mass range. A approximately 22-kDa protein was isolated and identified by mass spectrometry as transmembrane protein 147 (TMEM147), a novel, highly conserved membrane protein with a putative topology similar to APH-1. Like Nicalin and NOMO, it localizes to the endoplasmic reticulum and is expressed during early zebrafish development. Overexpression and knockdown experiments in cultured cells demonstrate a close relationship between the three proteins and suggest that they are components of the same complex. We present evidence that, similar to gamma-secretase, its assembly is hierarchical starting with the formation of a Nicalin-NOMO intermediate. Nicalin appears to represent the limiting factor regulating the assembly rate by stabilizing the other two components. We conclude that TMEM147 is a novel core component of the Nicalin-NOMO complex, further emphasizing its similarity with gamma-secretase.

  11. Transmembrane Protein 147 (TMEM147) Is a Novel Component of the Nicalin-NOMO Protein Complex*

    PubMed Central

    Dettmer, Ulf; Kuhn, Peer-Hendrik; Abou-Ajram, Claudia; Lichtenthaler, Stefan F.; Krüger, Marcus; Kremmer, Elisabeth; Haass, Christian; Haffner, Christof

    2010-01-01

    Nicastrin and its relative Nicalin (Nicastrin-like protein) are both members of larger protein complexes, namely γ-secretase and the Nicalin-NOMO (Nodal modulator) complex. The γ-secretase complex, which contains Presenilin, APH-1, and PEN-2 in addition to Nicastrin, catalyzes the proteolytic cleavage of the transmembrane domain of various proteins including the β-amyloid precursor protein and Notch. Nicalin and its binding partner NOMO form a complex that was shown to modulate Nodal signaling in developing zebrafish embryos. Because its experimentally determined native size (200–220 kDa) could not be satisfyingly explained by the molecular masses of Nicalin (60 kDa) and NOMO (130 kDa), we searched in affinity-purified complex preparations for additional components in the low molecular mass range. A ∼22-kDa protein was isolated and identified by mass spectrometry as transmembrane protein 147 (TMEM147), a novel, highly conserved membrane protein with a putative topology similar to APH-1. Like Nicalin and NOMO, it localizes to the endoplasmic reticulum and is expressed during early zebrafish development. Overexpression and knockdown experiments in cultured cells demonstrate a close relationship between the three proteins and suggest that they are components of the same complex. We present evidence that, similar to γ-secretase, its assembly is hierarchical starting with the formation of a Nicalin-NOMO intermediate. Nicalin appears to represent the limiting factor regulating the assembly rate by stabilizing the other two components. We conclude that TMEM147 is a novel core component of the Nicalin-NOMO complex, further emphasizing its similarity with γ-secretase. PMID:20538592

  12. Structural Characterization of Native Proteins and Protein Complexes by Electron Ionization Dissociation-Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Li, Huilin; Sheng, Yuewei; McGee, William; Cammarata, Michael; Holden, Dustin; Loo, Joseph A

    2017-03-07

    Mass spectrometry (MS) has played an increasingly important role in the identification and structural and functional characterization of proteins. In particular, the use of tandem mass spectrometry has afforded one of the most versatile methods to acquire structural information for proteins and protein complexes. The unique nature of electron capture dissociation (ECD) for cleaving protein backbone bonds while preserving noncovalent interactions has made it especially suitable for the study of native protein structures. However, the intra- and intermolecular interactions stabilized by hydrogen bonds and salt bridges can hinder the separation of fragments even with preactivation, which has become particularly problematic for the study of large macromolecular proteins and protein complexes. Here, we describe the capabilities of another activation method, 30 eV electron ionization dissociation (EID), for the top-down MS characterization of native protein-ligand and protein-protein complexes. Rich structural information that cannot be delivered by ECD can be generated by EID. EID allowed for the comparison of the gas-phase and the solution-phase structural stability and unfolding process of human carbonic anhydrase I (HCA-I). In addition, the EID fragmentation patterns reflect the structural similarities and differences among apo-, Zn-, and Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutase (SOD1) dimers. In particular, the structural changes due to Cu-binding and a point mutation (G41D) were revealed by EID-MS. The performance of EID was also compared to that of 193 nm ultraviolet photodissociation (UVPD), which allowed us to explore their qualitative similarities and differences as potential valuable tools for the MS study of native proteins and protein complexes.

  13. TIMAP-protein phosphatase 1-complex controls endothelin-1 production via ECE-1 dephosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Boratkó, Anita; Veréb, Zoltán; Petrovski, Goran; Csortos, Csilla

    2016-04-01

    Endothelin induced signaling pathways can affect blood pressure and vascular tone, but the influence of endothelins on tumor cells is also significant. We have detected elevated endothelin-1 secretion from TIMAP (TGF-β inhibited membrane associated protein) depleted vascular endothelial cells. The autocrine signaling activated by the elevated endothelin-1 level through the ETB receptors evoked an angiogenic-like phenotype, the cells assumed an elongated morphology, and enhanced tube formation and wound healing abilities. The depleted protein, TIMAP, is a highly specific and abundant protein in the endothelial cells, and it is a regulatory/targeting subunit for the catalytic subunit of protein phosphatase 1 (PP1c). Protein-protein interaction between the TIMAP-PP1c complex and the endothelin converting enzyme-1 (ECE-1) was detected, the latter of which is a transmembrane protein that produces the biologically active 21-amino acid form of endothelin-1 from proendothelin. The results indicate that silencing of TIMAP induces a reduction in TIMAP-PP1c activity connected to ECE-1. This leads to an increase in the amount of ECE-1 protein in the plasma membrane and a consequent increase in endothelin-1 secretion. Similarly, activation of PKC, the kinase responsible for ECE-1 phosphorylation increased ECE-1 protein level in the membrane fraction of the endothelial cells. The elevated ECE-1 level was mitigated in time in normal cells, but was clearly preserved in TIMAP-depleted cells. Overall, our results indicate that PKC-phosphorylated ECE-1 is a TIMAP-PP1c substrate and this phosphatase complex has an important role in endothelin-1 production of EC through the regulation of ECE-1 activity.

  14. Complex protein nanopatterns over large areas via colloidal lithography.

    PubMed

    Kristensen, Stine H; Pedersen, Gitte A; Ogaki, Ryosuke; Bochenkov, Vladimir; Nejsum, Lene N; Sutherland, Duncan S

    2013-04-01

    The patterning of biomolecules at the nanoscale provides a powerful method to investigate cellular adhesion processes. A novel method for patterning is presented that is based on colloidal monolayer templating combined with multiple and angled deposition steps. Patterns of gold and SiO2 layers are used to generate complex protein nanopatterns over large areas. Simple circular patches or more complex ring structures are produced in addition to hierarchical patterns of smaller patches. The gold regions are modified through alkanethiol chemistry, which enables the preparation of extracellular matrix proteins (vitronectin) or cellular ligands (the extracellular domain of E-cadherin) in the nanopatterns, whereas the selective poly(l-lysine)-poly(ethylene glycol) functionalization of the SiO2 matrix renders it protein repellent. Cell studies, as a proof of principle, demonstrate the potential for using sets of systematically varied samples with simpler or more complex patterns for studies of cellular adhesive behavior and reveal that the local distribution of proteins within a simple patch critically influences cell adhesion. Copyright © 2013 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Molecular Signatures of Membrane Protein Complexes Underlying Muscular Dystrophy*

    PubMed Central

    Turk, Rolf; Hsiao, Jordy J.; Smits, Melinda M.; Ng, Brandon H.; Pospisil, Tyler C.; Jones, Kayla S.; Campbell, Kevin P.; Wright, Michael E.

    2016-01-01

    Mutations in genes encoding components of the sarcolemmal dystrophin-glycoprotein complex (DGC) are responsible for a large number of muscular dystrophies. As such, molecular dissection of the DGC is expected to both reveal pathological mechanisms, and provides a biological framework for validating new DGC components. Establishment of the molecular composition of plasma-membrane protein complexes has been hampered by a lack of suitable biochemical approaches. Here we present an analytical workflow based upon the principles of protein correlation profiling that has enabled us to model the molecular composition of the DGC in mouse skeletal muscle. We also report our analysis of protein complexes in mice harboring mutations in DGC components. Bioinformatic analyses suggested that cell-adhesion pathways were under the transcriptional control of NFκB in DGC mutant mice, which is a finding that is supported by previous studies that showed NFκB-regulated pathways underlie the pathophysiology of DGC-related muscular dystrophies. Moreover, the bioinformatic analyses suggested that inflammatory and compensatory mechanisms were activated in skeletal muscle of DGC mutant mice. Additionally, this proteomic study provides a molecular framework to refine our understanding of the DGC, identification of protein biomarkers of neuromuscular disease, and pharmacological interrogation of the DGC in adult skeletal muscle https://www.mda.org/disease/congenital-muscular-dystrophy/research. PMID:27099343

  16. Exploration of the Dynamic Properties of Protein Complexes Predicted from Spatially Constrained Protein-Protein Interaction Networks

    PubMed Central

    Yen, Eric A.; Tsay, Aaron; Waldispuhl, Jerome; Vogel, Jackie

    2014-01-01

    Protein complexes are not static, but rather highly dynamic with subunits that undergo 1-dimensional diffusion with respect to each other. Interactions within protein complexes are modulated through regulatory inputs that alter interactions and introduce new components and deplete existing components through exchange. While it is clear that the structure and function of any given protein complex is coupled to its dynamical properties, it remains a challenge to predict the possible conformations that complexes can adopt. Protein-fragment Complementation Assays detect physical interactions between protein pairs constrained to ≤8 nm from each other in living cells. This method has been used to build networks composed of 1000s of pair-wise interactions. Significantly, these networks contain a wealth of dynamic information, as the assay is fully reversible and the proteins are expressed in their natural context. In this study, we describe a method that extracts this valuable information in the form of predicted conformations, allowing the user to explore the conformational landscape, to search for structures that correlate with an activity state, and estimate the abundance of conformations in the living cell. The generator is based on a Markov Chain Monte Carlo simulation that uses the interaction dataset as input and is constrained by the physical resolution of the assay. We applied this method to an 18-member protein complex composed of the seven core proteins of the budding yeast Arp2/3 complex and 11 associated regulators and effector proteins. We generated 20,480 output structures and identified conformational states using principle component analysis. We interrogated the conformation landscape and found evidence of symmetry breaking, a mixture of likely active and inactive conformational states and dynamic exchange of the core protein Arc15 between core and regulatory components. Our method provides a novel tool for prediction and visualization of the hidden

  17. Telomere protein complexes and their role in lymphoid malignancies.

    PubMed

    Panero, Julieta; Santos, Patricia Dos; Slavutsky, Irma

    2017-01-01

    Telomeres are highly regulated and dynamic complexes that protect the genomic DNA and prevent the end of linear chromosomes from being misrecognized as a broken DNA. Due to the end replication problem, telomeres of somatic cells shorten with each cell division, inducing cell senescence. Telomerase is a reverse transcriptase capable of compensating telomere attrition by adding telomere repeats to the ends of chromosomes. Human telomeres are associated with the shelterin complex which consists of six telomere-associated proteins that specifically bind to telomeric DNA. Alterations or removal of individual shelterin components would lead to telomere uncapping and telomere dysfunction, resulting in cellular senescence and transformation to a malignant state. Another complex of multifunctional proteins, named non-shelterin complex, is thought to prevent telomere degradation and facilitate telomerase-based telomere elongation. As telomerase is highly expressed in most human tumor cells, it is considered an attractive target for new therapeutic strategies. In this review, we will summarize the characteristics of telomeres and telomerase in lymphoid malignancies and discuss the role of telomere-associated proteins in these entities.

  18. Characterization of the human GARP (Golgi associated retrograde protein) complex

    SciTech Connect

    Liewen, Heike; Meinhold-Heerlein, Ivo; Oliveira, Vasco; Schwarzenbacher, Robert; Luo Guorong; Wadle, Andreas; Jung, Martin; Pfreundschuh, Michael; Stenner-Liewen, Frank . E-mail: stenlie@t-online.de

    2005-05-15

    The Golgi associated retrograde protein complex (GARP) or Vps fifty-three (VFT) complex is part of cellular inter-compartmental transport systems. Here we report the identification of the VFT tethering factor complex and its interactions in mammalian cells. Subcellular fractionation shows that human Vps proteins are found in the smooth membrane/Golgi fraction but not in the cytosol. Immunostaining of human Vps proteins displays a vesicular distribution most concentrated at the perinuclear envelope. Co-staining experiments with endosomal markers imply an endosomal origin of these vesicles. Significant accumulation of VFT complex positive endosomes is found in the vicinity of the Trans Golgi Network area. This is in accordance with a putative role in Golgi associated transport processes. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, GARP is the main effector of the small GTPase Ypt6p and interacts with the SNARE Tlg1p to facilitate membrane fusion. Accordingly, the human homologue of Ypt6p, Rab6, specifically binds hVps52. In human cells, the 'orphan' SNARE Syntaxin 10 is the genuine binding partner of GARP mediated by hVps52. This reveals a previously unknown function of human Syntaxin 10 in membrane docking and fusion events at the Golgi. Taken together, GARP shows significant conservation between various species but diversification and specialization result in important differences in human cells.

  19. Mining connections between chemicals, proteins, and diseases extracted from Medline annotations.

    PubMed

    Baker, Nancy C; Hemminger, Bradley M

    2010-08-01

    The biomedical literature is an important source of information about the biological activity and effects of chemicals. We present an application that extracts terms indicating biological activity of chemicals from Medline records, associates them with chemical name and stores the terms in a repository called ChemoText. We describe the construction of ChemoText and then demonstrate its utility in drug research by employing Swanson's ABC discovery paradigm. We reproduce Swanson's discovery of a connection between magnesium and migraine in a novel approach that uses only proteins as the intermediate B terms. We validate our methods by using a cutoff date and evaluate them by calculating precision and recall. In addition to magnesium, we have identified valproic acid and nitric oxide as chemicals which developed links to migraine. We hypothesize, based on protein annotations, that zinc and retinoic acid may play a role in migraine. The ChemoText repository has promise as a data source for drug discovery.

  20. Connecting the solubility and CCN activation of complex organic aerosols: a theoretical study using solubility distributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riipinen, I.; Rastak, N.; Pandis, S. N.

    2015-06-01

    much information except in some special cases. The connections of these results to the previous observations of the CCN activation and the molecular properties of complex organic mixture aerosols are discussed. The presented results help unravel the mechanistic reasons behind observations of hygroscopic growth and CCN activation of atmospheric secondary organic aerosol (SOA) particles. The proposed solubility distribution framework is a promising tool for modeling the interlinkages between atmospheric aging, volatility and water uptake of atmospheric organic aerosol.

  1. Changes in protein structure at the interface accompanying complex formation.

    PubMed

    Chakravarty, Devlina; Janin, Joël; Robert, Charles H; Chakrabarti, Pinak

    2015-11-01

    Protein interactions are essential in all biological processes. The changes brought about in the structure when a free component forms a complex with another molecule need to be characterized for a proper understanding of molecular recognition as well as for the successful implementation of docking algorithms. Here, unbound (U) and bound (B) forms of protein structures from the Protein-Protein Interaction Affinity Database are compared in order to enumerate the changes that occur at the interface atoms/residues in terms of the solvent-accessible surface area (ASA), secondary structure, temperature factors (B factors) and disorder-to-order transitions. It is found that the interface atoms optimize contacts with the atoms in the partner protein, which leads to an increase in their ASA in the bound interface in the majority (69%) of the proteins when compared with the unbound interface, and this is independent of the root-mean-square deviation between the U and B forms. Changes in secondary structure during the transition indicate a likely extension of helices and strands at the expense of turns and coils. A reduction in flexibility during complex formation is reflected in the decrease in B factors of the interface residues on going from the U form to the B form. There is, however, no distinction in flexibility between the interface and the surface in the monomeric structure, thereby highlighting the potential problem of using B factors for the prediction of binding sites in the unbound form for docking another protein. 16% of the proteins have missing (disordered) residues in the U form which are observed (ordered) in the B form, mostly with an irregular conformation; the data set also shows differences in the composition of interface and non-interface residues in the disordered polypeptide segments as well as differences in their surface burial.

  2. Bacterial protein interaction networks: puzzle stones from solved complex structures add to a clearer picture.

    PubMed

    Terradot, Laurent; Noirot-Gros, Marie-Francoise

    2011-06-01

    Global scale studies of protein-protein interaction (PPI) networks have considerably expanded our view of how proteins act in the cell. In particular, bacterial "interactome" surveys have revealed that proteins can sometimes interact with a large number of protein partners and connect different cellular processes. More targeted, pathway-orientated PPI studies have also helped to propose functions for unknown proteins based on the "guilty by association" principle. However, given the immense repertoire of PPIs generated and the variability of PPI networks, more studies are required to understand the role(s) of these interactions in the cell. With the availability of bioinformatic analysis tools, transcriptomics and co-expression experiments for a given interaction, interactomes are being deciphered. More recently, functional and structural studies have been derived from these PPI networks. In this review, we will give a number of examples of how combining functional and structural studies into PPI networks has contributed to understanding the functions of some of these interactions. We discuss how interactomes now represent a unique opportunity to determine the structures of bacterial protein complexes on a large scale by the integration of multiple technologies. This journal is © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2011

  3. Restoration of thalamo-cortical connectivity after brain injury: recovery of consciousness, complex behavior, or passage of time?

    PubMed

    Crone, Julia S; Bio, Branden J; Vespa, Paul M; Lutkenhoff, Evan S; Monti, Martin M

    2017-08-12

    In 2000, a landmark case report described the concurrent restoration of consciousness and thalamo-frontal connectivity after severe brain injury (Laureys et al., 2000). Being a single case however, this study could not disambiguate whether the result was specific to the restoration of consciousness per se as opposed to the return of complex cognitive function in general or simply the temporal evolution of post-injury pathophysiological events. To test whether the restoration of thalamo-cortical connectivity is specific to consciousness, 20 moderate-to-severe brain injury patients (from a recruited sample of 42) underwent resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging within a week after injury and again six months later. As described in the single case report, we find thalamo-frontal connectivity to be increased at the chronic, compared with the acute, time-point. The increased connectivity was independent of whether patients had already recovered consciousness prior to the first assessment or whether they recovered consciousness in-between the two. Conversely, we did find an association between restoration of thalamo-frontal connectivity and the return of complex cognitive function. While we did replicate the findings of Laureys et al. (2000), our data suggests that the restoration of thalamo-frontal connectivity is not as tightly linked to the reemergence of consciousness per se. However, the degree to which the return of connectivity is linked to the return of complex cognitive function, or to the evolution of other time-dependent post-injury mechanisms, remains to be understood. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Integrating Scientific Content with Context to Connect Educators with the Complexities and Consequences of Climate Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Low, R.; Gosselin, D. C.; Oglesby, R. J.; Larson-Miller, C.; Thomas, J.; Mawalagedara, R.

    2011-12-01

    Over the past three years the Nebraska Earth Systems Education Network has designed professional development opportunities for K-12 and extension educators that integrates scientific content into the context of helping educators connect society with the complexities and consequences of climate change. Our professional development approach uses learner-, knowledge-, assessment-, and community-centered strategies to achieve our long-term goal: collaboration of scientists, educators and learners to foster civic literacy about climate change. Two NASA-funded projects, Global Climate Change Literacy for Educators (GCCE, 2009-2012), and the Educators Climatologists Learning Community (ECLC, 2011-2013), have provided the mechanism to provide teachers with scientifically sound and pedagogically relevant educational materials to improve climate and Earth systems literacy among educators. The primary product of the GCCE program is a 16-week, online, distance-delivered, asynchronous course entitled, Laboratory Earth: Human Dimensions of Climate Change. This course consists of four, four-week modules that integrate climate literacy, Earth Systems concepts, and pedagogy focused on active learning processes, building community, action research, and students' sense of place to promote action at the local level to address the challenges of climate change. Overall, the Community of Inquiry Survey (COI) indicated the course was effective in teaching content, developing a community of learners, and engaging students in experiences designed to develop content knowledge. A pre- and post- course Wilcoxan Signed Ranks Test indicated there was a statistically significant increase in participant's beliefs about their personal science teaching efficacy. Qualitative data from concept maps and content mastery assignments support a positive impact on teachers' content knowledge and classroom practice. Service Learning units seemed tohelp teachers connect course learning to their classroom

  5. From Nonspecific DNA–Protein Encounter Complexes to the Prediction of DNA–Protein Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Mu; Skolnick, Jeffrey

    2009-01-01

    DNA–protein interactions are involved in many essential biological activities. Because there is no simple mapping code between DNA base pairs and protein amino acids, the prediction of DNA–protein interactions is a challenging problem. Here, we present a novel computational approach for predicting DNA-binding protein residues and DNA–protein interaction modes without knowing its specific DNA target sequence. Given the structure of a DNA-binding protein, the method first generates an ensemble of complex structures obtained by rigid-body docking with a nonspecific canonical B-DNA. Representative models are subsequently selected through clustering and ranking by their DNA–protein interfacial energy. Analysis of these encounter complex models suggests that the recognition sites for specific DNA binding are usually favorable interaction sites for the nonspecific DNA probe and that nonspecific DNA–protein interaction modes exhibit some similarity to specific DNA–protein binding modes. Although the method requires as input the knowledge that the protein binds DNA, in benchmark tests, it achieves better performance in identifying DNA-binding sites than three previously established methods, which are based on sophisticated machine-learning techniques. We further apply our method to protein structures predicted through modeling and demonstrate that our method performs satisfactorily on protein models whose root-mean-square Cα deviation from native is up to 5 Å from their native structures. This study provides valuable structural insights into how a specific DNA-binding protein interacts with a nonspecific DNA sequence. The similarity between the specific DNA–protein interaction mode and nonspecific interaction modes may reflect an important sampling step in search of its specific DNA targets by a DNA-binding protein. PMID:19343221

  6. The RCP-Rab11 complex regulates endocytic protein sorting.

    PubMed

    Peden, Andrew A; Schonteich, Eric; Chun, John; Junutula, Jagath R; Scheller, Richard H; Prekeris, Rytis

    2004-08-01

    Rab 11 GTPase is an important regulator of endocytic membrane traffic. Recently, we and others have identified a novel family of Rab11 binding proteins, known as Rab11-family interacting proteins (FIPs). One of the family members, Rab coupling protein (RCP), was identified as a protein binding to both Rab4 and Rab11 GTPases. RCP was therefore suggested to serve a dual function as Rab4 and Rab11 binding protein. In this study, we characterized the cellular functions of RCP and mapped its interactions with Rab4 and Rab11. Our data show that RCP interacts only weakly with Rab4 in vitro and does not play the role of coupling Rab11 and Rab4 in vivo. Furthermore, our data indicate that the RCP-Rab11 complex regulates the sorting of transferrin receptors from the degradative to the recycling pathway. We therefore propose that RCP functions primarily as a Rab11 binding protein that regulates protein sorting in tubular endosomes.

  7. 2D depiction of nonbonding interactions for protein complexes.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Peng; Tian, Feifei; Shang, Zhicai

    2009-04-30

    A program called the 2D-GraLab is described for automatically generating schematic representation of nonbonding interactions across the protein binding interfaces. The input file of this program takes the standard PDB format, and the outputs are two-dimensional PostScript diagrams giving intuitive and informative description of the protein-protein interactions and their energetics properties, including hydrogen bond, salt bridge, van der Waals interaction, hydrophobic contact, pi-pi stacking, disulfide bond, desolvation effect, and loss of conformational entropy. To ensure these interaction information are determined accurately and reliably, methods and standalone programs employed in the 2D-GraLab are all widely used in the chemistry and biology community. The generated diagrams allow intuitive visualization of the interaction mode and binding specificity between two subunits in protein complexes, and by providing information on nonbonding energetics and geometric characteristics, the program offers the possibility of comparing different protein binding profiles in a detailed, objective, and quantitative manner. We expect that this 2D molecular graphics tool could be useful for the experimentalists and theoreticians interested in protein structure and protein engineering.

  8. Evolution of DNA Replication Protein Complexes in Eukaryotes and Archaea

    PubMed Central

    Chia, Nicholas; Cann, Isaac; Olsen, Gary J.

    2010-01-01

    Background The replication of DNA in Archaea and eukaryotes requires several ancillary complexes, including proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), replication factor C (RFC), and the minichromosome maintenance (MCM) complex. Bacterial DNA replication utilizes comparable proteins, but these are distantly related phylogenetically to their archaeal and eukaryotic counterparts at best. Methodology/Principal Findings While the structures of each of the complexes do not differ significantly between the archaeal and eukaryotic versions thereof, the evolutionary dynamic in the two cases does. The number of subunits in each complex is constant across all taxa. However, they vary subtly with regard to composition. In some taxa the subunits are all identical in sequence, while in others some are homologous rather than identical. In the case of eukaryotes, there is no phylogenetic variation in the makeup of each complex—all appear to derive from a common eukaryotic ancestor. This is not the case in Archaea, where the relationship between the subunits within each complex varies taxon-to-taxon. We have performed a detailed phylogenetic analysis of these relationships in order to better understand the gene duplications and divergences that gave rise to the homologous subunits in Archaea. Conclusion/Significance This domain level difference in evolution suggests that different forces have driven the evolution of DNA replication proteins in each of these two domains. In addition, the phylogenies of all three gene families support the distinctiveness of the proposed archaeal phylum Thaumarchaeota. PMID:20532250

  9. Hox Proteins Coordinate Motor Neuron Differentiation and Connectivity Programs through Ret/Gfrα Genes.

    PubMed

    Catela, Catarina; Shin, Maggie M; Lee, David H; Liu, Jeh-Ping; Dasen, Jeremy S

    2016-03-01

    The accuracy of neural circuit assembly relies on the precise spatial and temporal control of synaptic specificity determinants during development. Hox transcription factors govern key aspects of motor neuron (MN) differentiation; however, the terminal effectors of their actions are largely unknown. We show that Hox/Hox cofactor interactions coordinate MN subtype diversification and connectivity through Ret/Gfrα receptor genes. Hox and Meis proteins determine the levels of Ret in MNs and define the intrasegmental profiles of Gfrα1 and Gfrα3 expression. Loss of Ret or Gfrα3 leads to MN specification and innervation defects similar to those observed in Hox mutants, while expression of Ret and Gfrα1 can bypass the requirement for Hox genes during MN pool differentiation. These studies indicate that Hox proteins contribute to neuronal fate and muscle connectivity through controlling the levels and pattern of cell surface receptor expression, consequently gating the ability of MNs to respond to limb-derived instructive cues.

  10. Homology modelling of protein-protein complexes: a simple method and its possibilities and limitations

    PubMed Central

    Launay, Guillaume; Simonson, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    Background Structure-based computational methods are needed to help identify and characterize protein-protein complexes and their function. For individual proteins, the most successful technique is homology modelling. We investigate a simple extension of this technique to protein-protein complexes. We consider a large set of complexes of known structures, involving pairs of single-domain proteins. The complexes are compared with each other to establish their sequence and structural similarities and the relation between the two. Compared to earlier studies, a simpler dataset, a simpler structural alignment procedure, and an additional energy criterion are used. Next, we compare the Xray structures to models obtained by threading the native sequence onto other, homologous complexes. An elementary requirement for a successful energy function is to rank the native structure above any threaded structure. We use the DFIREβ energy function, whose quality and complexity are typical of the models used today. Finally, we compare near-native models to distinctly non-native models. Results If weakly stable complexes are excluded (defined by a binding energy cutoff), as well as a few unusual complexes, a simple homology principle holds: complexes that share more than 35% sequence identity share similar structures and interaction modes; this principle was less clearcut in earlier studies. The energy function was then tested for its ability to identify experimental structures among sets of decoys, produced by a simple threading procedure. On average, the experimental structure is ranked above 92% of the alternate structures. Thus, discrimination of the native structure is good but not perfect. The discrimination of near-native structures is fair. Typically, a single, alternate, non-native binding mode exists that has a native-like energy. Some of the associated failures may correspond to genuine, alternate binding modes and/or native complexes that are artefacts of the crystal

  11. Chemiluminescence enzyme immunoassay using ProteinA-bacterial magnetite complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsunaga, Tadashi; Sato, Rika; Kamiya, Shinji; Tanaka, Tsuyosi; Takeyama, Haruko

    1999-04-01

    Bacterial magnetic particles (BMPs) which have ProteinA expressed on their surface were constructed using magA which is a key gene in BMP biosynthesis in the magnetic bacterium Magnetospirillum sp. AMB-1. Homogenous chemiluminescence enzyme immunoassay using antibody bound ProteinA-BMP complexes was developed for detection of human IgG. A good correlation between the luminescence yield and the concentration of human IgG was obtained in the range of 1-10 3 ng/ml.

  12. Connecting G protein signaling to chemoattractant-mediated cell polarity and cytoskeletal reorganization.

    PubMed

    Liu, Youtao; Lacal, Jesus; Firtel, Richard A; Kortholt, Arjan

    2016-10-07

    The directional movement towards extracellular chemical gradients, a process called chemotaxis, is an important property of cells. Central to eukaryotic chemotaxis is the molecular mechanism by which chemoattractant-mediated activation of G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) induces symmetry breaking in the activated downstream signaling pathways. Studies with mainly Dictyostelium and mammalian neutrophils as experimental systems have shown that chemotaxis is mediated by a complex network of signaling pathways. Recently, several labs have used extensive and efficient proteomic approaches to further unravel this dynamic signaling network. Together these studies showed the critical role of the interplay between heterotrimeric G-protein subunits and monomeric G proteins in regulating cytoskeletal rearrangements during chemotaxis. Here we highlight how these proteomic studies have provided greater insight into the mechanisms by which the heterotrimeric G protein cycle is regulated, how heterotrimeric G proteins-induced symmetry breaking is mediated through small G protein signaling, and how symmetry breaking in G protein signaling subsequently induces cytoskeleton rearrangements and cell migration.

  13. A Bacillus megaterium System for the Production of Recombinant Proteins and Protein Complexes.

    PubMed

    Biedendieck, Rebekka

    2016-01-01

    For many years the Gram-positive bacterium Bacillus megaterium has been used for the production and secretion of recombinant proteins. For this purpose it was systematically optimized. Plasmids with different inducible promoter systems, with different compatible origins, with small tags for protein purification and with various specific signals for protein secretion were combined with genetically improved host strains. Finally, the development of appropriate cultivation conditions for the production strains established this organism as a bacterial cell factory even for large proteins. Along with the overproduction of individual proteins the organism is now also used for the simultaneous coproduction of up to 14 recombinant proteins, multiple subsequently interacting or forming protein complexes. Some of these recombinant strains are successfully used for bioconversion or the biosynthesis of valuable components including vitamins. The titers in the g per liter scale for the intra- and extracellular recombinant protein production prove the high potential of B. megaterium for industrial applications. It is currently further enhanced for the production of recombinant proteins and multi-subunit protein complexes using directed genetic engineering approaches based on transcriptome, proteome, metabolome and fluxome data.

  14. Analysis of nitroxide spin label motion in a protein protein complex using multiple frequency EPR spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, G. F.; Ottignon, L.; Georgiou, T.; Kleanthous, C.; Moore, G. R.; Thomson, A. J.; Oganesyan, V. S.

    2007-04-01

    X- and W-band EPR spectra, at room and low temperatures, are reported for nitroxide spin labels attached to cysteine residues selectively introduced into two proteins, the DNase domain of colicin-E9 and its immunity protein, Im9. The dynamics of each site of attachment on the individual proteins and in the tight DNase-Im9 complex have been analysed by computer simulations of the spectra using a model of Brownian dynamics trajectories for the spin label and protein. Ordering potentials have been introduced to describe mobility of labels restricted by the protein domain. Label mobility varies with position from completely immobilised, to motionally restricted and to freely rotating. Bi-modal dynamics of the spin label have been observed for several sites. We show that W-band spectra are particularly useful for detection of anisotropy of spin label motion. On complex formation significant changes are observed in the dynamics of labels at the binding interface region. This work reveals multi-frequency EPR as a sensitive and valuable tool for detecting conformational changes in protein structure and dynamics especially in protein-protein complexes.

  15. A complex of nuclear proteins mediates SR protein binding to a purine-rich splicing enhancer.

    PubMed Central

    Yeakley, J M; Morfin, J P; Rosenfeld, M G; Fu, X D

    1996-01-01

    A purine-rich splicing enhancer from a constitutive exon has been shown to shift the alternative splicing of calcitonin/CGRP pre-mRNA in vivo. Here, we demonstrate that the native repetitive GAA sequence comprises the optimal enhancer element and specifically binds a saturable complex of proteins required for general splicing in vitro. This complex contains a 37-kDa protein that directly binds the repetitive GAA sequence and SRp40, a member of the SR family of non-snRNP splicing factors. While purified SR proteins do not stably bind the repetitive GAA element, exogenous SR proteins become associated with the GAA element in the presence of nuclear extracts and stimulate GAA-dependent splicing. These results suggest that repetitive GAA sequences enhance splicing by binding a protein complex containing a sequence-specific RNA binding protein and a general splicing activator that, in turn, recruit additional SR proteins. This type of mechanism resembles the tra/tra-2-dependent recruitment of SR proteins to the Drosophila doublesex alternative splicing regulatory element. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:8755518

  16. Disulfide connectivity and reduction in pheromone-binding proteins of the gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Honson, Nicolette S.; Plettner, Erika

    2006-06-01

    Males of the gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar, are attracted by a pheromone released by females. Pheromones are detected by olfactory neurons housed in specialized sensory hairs located on the antennae of the male moth. Once pheromone molecules enter the sensilla lymph, a highly abundant pheromone-binding protein (PBP) transports the molecule to the sensory neuron. The PBPs are members of the insect odorant-binding protein family, with six conserved cysteine residues. In this study, the disulfide bond connectivities of the pheromone-binding proteins PBP1 and PBP2 from the gypsy moth were found to be cysteines 19-54, 50-109, and 97-118 for PBP1, and cysteines 19-54, 50-110, and 97-119 for PBP2, as determined by cyanylation reactions and cyanogen bromide chemical cleavage. We have discovered that the second disulfide linkage is the most easily reduced of the three, and this same linkage is missing among four cysteine-containing insect odorant-binding proteins (OBPs). We are the first to identify the unique steric and electronic properties of this second disulfide linkage.

  17. Disulfide connectivity and reduction in pheromone-binding proteins of the gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar.

    PubMed

    Honson, Nicolette S; Plettner, Erika

    2006-06-01

    Males of the gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar, are attracted by a pheromone released by females. Pheromones are detected by olfactory neurons housed in specialized sensory hairs located on the antennae of the male moth. Once pheromone molecules enter the sensilla lymph, a highly abundant pheromone-binding protein (PBP) transports the molecule to the sensory neuron. The PBPs are members of the insect odorant-binding protein family, with six conserved cysteine residues. In this study, the disulfide bond connectivities of the pheromone-binding proteins PBP1 and PBP2 from the gypsy moth were found to be cysteines 19-54, 50-109, and 97-118 for PBP1, and cysteines 19-54, 50-110, and 97-119 for PBP2, as determined by cyanylation reactions and cyanogen bromide chemical cleavage. We have discovered that the second disulfide linkage is the most easily reduced of the three, and this same linkage is missing among four cysteine-containing insect odorant-binding proteins (OBPs). We are the first to identify the unique steric and electronic properties of this second disulfide linkage.

  18. Protein Complex Affinity Capture from Cryomilled Mammalian Cells.

    PubMed

    LaCava, John; Jiang, Hua; Rout, Michael P

    2016-12-09

    Affinity capture is an effective technique for isolating endogenous protein complexes for further study. When used in conjunction with an antibody, this technique is also frequently referred to as immunoprecipitation. Affinity capture can be applied in a bench-scale and in a high-throughput context. When coupled with protein mass spectrometry, affinity capture has proven to be a workhorse of interactome analysis. Although there are potentially many ways to execute the numerous steps involved, the following protocols implement our favored methods. Two features are distinctive: the use of cryomilled cell powder to produce cell extracts, and antibody-coupled paramagnetic beads as the affinity medium. In many cases, we have obtained superior results to those obtained with more conventional affinity capture practices. Cryomilling avoids numerous problems associated with other forms of cell breakage. It provides efficient breakage of the material, while avoiding denaturation issues associated with heating or foaming. It retains the native protein concentration up to the point of extraction, mitigating macromolecular dissociation. It reduces the time extracted proteins spend in solution, limiting deleterious enzymatic activities, and it may reduce the non-specific adsorption of proteins by the affinity medium. Micron-scale magnetic affinity media have become more commonplace over the last several years, increasingly replacing the traditional agarose- and Sepharose-based media. Primary benefits of magnetic media include typically lower non-specific protein adsorption; no size exclusion limit because protein complex binding occurs on the bead surface rather than within pores; and ease of manipulation and handling using magnets.

  19. Changes in protein structure at the interface accompanying complex formation

    PubMed Central

    Chakravarty, Devlina; Janin, Joël; Robert, Charles H.; Chakrabarti, Pinak

    2015-01-01

    Protein interactions are essential in all biological processes. The changes brought about in the structure when a free component forms a complex with another molecule need to be characterized for a proper understanding of molecular recognition as well as for the successful implementation of docking algorithms. Here, unbound (U) and bound (B) forms of protein structures from the Protein–Protein Interaction Affinity Database are compared in order to enumerate the changes that occur at the interface atoms/residues in terms of the solvent-accessible surface area (ASA), secondary structure, temperature factors (B factors) and disorder-to-order transitions. It is found that the interface atoms optimize contacts with the atoms in the partner protein, which leads to an increase in their ASA in the bound interface in the majority (69%) of the proteins when compared with the unbound interface, and this is independent of the root-mean-square deviation between the U and B forms. Changes in secondary structure during the transition indicate a likely extension of helices and strands at the expense of turns and coils. A reduction in flexibility during complex formation is reflected in the decrease in B factors of the interface residues on going from the U form to the B form. There is, however, no distinction in flexibility between the interface and the surface in the monomeric structure, thereby highlighting the potential problem of using B factors for the prediction of binding sites in the unbound form for docking another protein. 16% of the proteins have missing (disordered) residues in the U form which are observed (ordered) in the B form, mostly with an irregular conformation; the data set also shows differences in the composition of interface and non-interface residues in the disordered polypeptide segments as well as differences in their surface burial. PMID:26594372

  20. Protein Complex Affinity Capture from Cryomilled Mammalian Cells

    PubMed Central

    LaCava, John; Jiang, Hua; Rout, Michael P.

    2016-01-01

    Affinity capture is an effective technique for isolating endogenous protein complexes for further study. When used in conjunction with an antibody, this technique is also frequently referred to as immunoprecipitation. Affinity capture can be applied in a bench-scale and in a high-throughput context. When coupled with protein mass spectrometry, affinity capture has proven to be a workhorse of interactome analysis. Although there are potentially many ways to execute the numerous steps involved, the following protocols implement our favored methods. Two features are distinctive: the use of cryomilled cell powder to produce cell extracts, and antibody-coupled paramagnetic beads as the affinity medium. In many cases, we have obtained superior results to those obtained with more conventional affinity capture practices. Cryomilling avoids numerous problems associated with other forms of cell breakage. It provides efficient breakage of the material, while avoiding denaturation issues associated with heating or foaming. It retains the native protein concentration up to the point of extraction, mitigating macromolecular dissociation. It reduces the time extracted proteins spend in solution, limiting deleterious enzymatic activities, and it may reduce the non-specific adsorption of proteins by the affinity medium. Micron-scale magnetic affinity media have become more commonplace over the last several years, increasingly replacing the traditional agarose- and Sepharose-based media. Primary benefits of magnetic media include typically lower non-specific protein adsorption; no size exclusion limit because protein complex binding occurs on the bead surface rather than within pores; and ease of manipulation and handling using magnets. PMID:28060343

  1. Supercharging Protein Complexes from Aqueous Solution Disrupts their Native Conformations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sterling, Harry J.; Kintzer, Alexander F.; Feld, Geoffrey K.; Cassou, Catherine A.; Krantz, Bryan A.; Williams, Evan R.

    2012-02-01

    The effects of aqueous solution supercharging on the solution- and gas-phase structures of two protein complexes were investigated using traveling-wave ion mobility-mass spectrometry (TWIMS-MS). Low initial concentrations of m-nitrobenzyl alcohol ( m-NBA) in the electrospray ionization (ESI) solution can effectively increase the charge of concanavalin A dimers and tetramers, but at higher m-NBA concentrations, the increases in charge are accompanied by solution-phase dissociation of the dimers and up to a ~22% increase in the collision cross section (CCS) of the tetramers. With just 0.8% m-NBA added to the ESI solution of a ~630 kDa anthrax toxin octamer complex, the average charge is increased by only ~4% compared with the "native" complex, but it is sufficiently destabilized so that extensive gas-phase fragmentation occurs in the relatively high pressure regions of the TWIMS device. Anthrax toxin complexes exist in either a prechannel or a transmembrane channel state. With m-NBA, the prechannel state of the complex has the same CCS/charge ratio in the gas phase as the transmembrane channel state of the same complex formed without m-NBA, yet undergoes extensive dissociation, indicating that destabilization from supercharging occurs in the ESI droplet prior to ion formation and is not a result of Coulombic destabilization in the gas phase as a result of higher charging. These results demonstrate that the supercharging of large protein complexes is the result of conformational changes induced by the reagents in the ESI droplets, where enrichment of the supercharging reagent during droplet evaporation occurs.

  2. Supercharging Protein Complexes from Aqueous Solution Disrupts their Native Conformations

    PubMed Central

    Sterling, Harry J.; Kintzer, Alexander F.; Feld, Geoffrey K.; Cassou, Catherine A.; Krantz, Bryan A.; Williams, Evan R.

    2011-01-01

    The effects of aqueous solution supercharging on the solution- and gas-phase structures of two protein complexes were investigated using traveling-wave ion mobility-mass spectrometry (TWIMS-MS). Low initial concentrations of m-nitrobenzyl alcohol (m-NBA) in the electrospray ionization (ESI) solution can effectively increase the charge of concanavalin A dimers and tetramers, but at higher m-NBA concentrations, the increases in charge are accompanied by solution-phase dissociation of the dimers and up to a ~22% increase in the collision cross section (CCS) of the tetramers. With just 0.8% m-NBA added to the ESI solution of a ~630 kDa anthrax toxin octamer complex, the average charge is increased by only ~4% compared to the “native” complex, but it is sufficiently destabilized so that extensive gas-phase fragmentation occurs in the relatively high pressure regions of the TWIMS device. Anthrax toxin complexes exist in either a pre-channel or a transmembrane channel state. With m-NBA, the prechannel state of the complex has the same CCS/charge ratio in the gas phase as the transmembrane channel state of the same complex formed without m-NBA, yet undergoes extensive dissociation, indicating that destabilization from supercharging occurs in the ESI droplet prior to ion formation and is not a result of coulombic destabilization in the gas phase as a result of higher charging. These results demonstrate that the supercharging of large protein complexes is the result of conformational changes induced by the reagents in the ESI droplets where enrichment of the supercharging reagent during droplet evaporation occurs. PMID:22161509

  3. Membrane protein architects: the role of the BAM complex in outer membrane protein assembly.

    PubMed

    Knowles, Timothy J; Scott-Tucker, Anthony; Overduin, Michael; Henderson, Ian R

    2009-03-01

    The folding of transmembrane proteins into the outer membrane presents formidable challenges to Gram-negative bacteria. These proteins must migrate from the cytoplasm, through the inner membrane and into the periplasm, before being recognized by the beta-barrel assembly machinery, which mediates efficient insertion of folded beta-barrels into the outer membrane. Recent discoveries of component structures and accessory interactions of this complex are yielding insights into how cells fold membrane proteins. Here, we discuss how these structures illuminate the mechanisms responsible for the biogenesis of outer membrane proteins.

  4. Connectivity among sinkholes and complex networks: The case of Ring of Cenotes in northwest Yucatan, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomez-Nicolas, Mariana; Rebolledo-Vieyra, Mario; Huerta-Quintanilla, Rodrigo; Canto-Lugo, Efrain

    2014-05-01

    A 180-km-diameter semicircular alignment of abundant karst sinkholes (locally known as cenotes) in northwestern Yucatán, México, coincides approximately with a concentric ring of the buried Chicxulub structure, a circular feature manifested in Cretaceous and older rocks, that has been identified as the product of the impact of a meteorite. The secondary permeability generated by the fracturing and faulting of the sedimentary sequence in the Chicxulub impact, has favored the karstification process and hence the development of genuine underground rivers that carry water from the continent to the sea. The study of the structure and morphology of the crater has allowed researchers to understand the key role of the crater in the Yucatán hydrogeology. It is generally accepted that the Ring of Cenotes, produced by the gravitational deformation of the Tertiary sedimentary sequence within the crater, controls the groundwater in northern Yucatán. However, today there is not solid evidence about the connectivity among cenotes, which is important because if established, public policies could be designed to manage sanitary infrastructure, septic control, regulation of agricultural and industrial activities and the protection of water that has not been compromised by anthropogenic pollution. All these directly affect more than half a million people whose main source of drinking water lies in the aquifer. In this contribution we investigated a set of 16 cenotes located in the vicinity of a gravimetric anomaly of Chicxulub crater ring, using complex networks to model the interconnectivity among them. Data from a geoelectrical tomography survey, collected with SuperSting R1/IP equipment, with multi-electrodes (72 electrodes), in a dipole-dipole configuration was used as input of our model. Since the total number of cenotes on the ring structure amounts to about 2000, the application of graph theoretic algorithms and Monte Carlo simulation to efficiently investigate network

  5. The connection between prestellar cores and filaments in the Aquila molecular cloud complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Könyves, Vera; André, Philippe

    2015-08-01

    One of the main scientific goals of the Herschel Gould Belt survey (http://gouldbelt-herschel.cea.fr)is to elucidate the physical mechanisms responsible for the formation and evolution of prestellar cores inmolecular clouds. In the ~ 11 deg2 field of Aquila imaged with Herschel/SPIRE-PACS between 70 and 500microns, we have recently identified a complete sample of 651 starless cores, 446 of them aregravitationally-bound candidate prestellar cores that will likely form stars in the future (Könyves et al. 2010and 2015, submitted - see http://gouldbelt-herschel.cea.fr/archives).Our Herschel observations also provide an unprecedented census of filaments in the Aquila cloud andsuggest an intimate connection between these filaments and the formation process of prestellar cores.About 10%-20% of the gas mass is in the form of filaments below Av ~ 7, while as much as ~ 50%-75%of the dense gas mass above Av ~ 7-10 is in the form of filamentary structures.Furthermore, about 90% of the Herschel-identified prestellar cores are located above a background columndensity corresponding to Av ~ 7, and ~ 75% of them lie within the densest filamentary structures withsupercritical masses per unit length > 16 M⊙/pc. In accordance with this, a strong correlation is foundbetween the spatial distribution of prestellar cores and the densest filaments.Comparing the statistics of cores and filaments with the number of young stellar objects identified bySpitzer in the same complex, we also infer a typical timescale ~ 1 Myr for the formation and evolutionof both prestellar cores and filaments.In summary, our Herschel findings in the Aquila cloud support a filamentary paradigm for the early stagesof star formation, where the cores result primarily from the gravitational fragmentation of marginallysupercritical filaments (cf. André et al. 2014, PPVI).

  6. A profile of protein-protein interaction: Crystal structure of a lectin-lectin complex.

    PubMed

    Surya, Sukumaran; Abhilash, Joseph; Geethanandan, Krishnan; Sadasivan, Chittalakkottu; Haridas, Madhathilkovilakathu

    2016-06-01

    Proteins may utilize complex networks of interactions to create/proceed signaling pathways of highly adaptive responses such as programmed cell death. Direct binary interactions study of proteins may help propose models for protein-protein interaction. Towards this goal we applied a combination of thermodynamic kinetics and crystal structure analyses to elucidate the complexity and diversity in such interactions. By determining the heat change on the association of two galactose-specific legume lectins from Butea monosperma (BML) and Spatholobus parviflorus (SPL) belonging to Fabaceae family helped to compute the binding equilibrium. It was extended further by X-ray structural analysis of BML-SPL binary complex. In order to chart the proteins interacting mainly through their interfaces, identification of the nature of forces which stabilized the association of the lectin-lectin complex was examined. Comprehensive analysis of the BMLSPL complex by isothermal titration calorimetry and X-ray crystal structure threw new light on the lectin-lectin interactions suggesting of their use in diverse areas of glycobiology.

  7. Students' Learning with the Connected Chemistry (CC1) Curriculum: Navigating the Complexities of the Particulate World

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levy, Sharona T.; Wilensky, Uri

    2009-01-01

    The focus of this study is students' learning with a Connected Chemistry unit, CC1 (denotes Connected Chemistry, chapter 1), a computer-based environment for learning the topics of gas laws and kinetic molecular theory in chemistry (Levy and Wilensky 2009). An investigation was conducted into high-school students' learning with Connected…

  8. Students' Learning with the Connected Chemistry (CC1) Curriculum: Navigating the Complexities of the Particulate World

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levy, Sharona T.; Wilensky, Uri

    2009-01-01

    The focus of this study is students' learning with a Connected Chemistry unit, CC1 (denotes Connected Chemistry, chapter 1), a computer-based environment for learning the topics of gas laws and kinetic molecular theory in chemistry (Levy and Wilensky 2009). An investigation was conducted into high-school students' learning with Connected…

  9. Gene 5 protein-DNA complex: modeling binding interactions.

    PubMed

    Hutchinson, D L; Barnett, B L; Bobst, A M

    1990-08-01

    A helical (not toroidal) complex consisting of eight gene 5 protein dimers per turn is proposed for the extension of DNA from dimer to dimer using known bond length constraints, postulated protein-nucleic acid interactions (determined from NMR and chemical modification studies), other physical properties of the complex, and data from electron micrographs. The binding channel has been dictated by these known parameters and the relative ease of geometrically fitting these constituents. This channel is different from that previously reported by other modelers. The channel lies underneath the long arm "claw-like" extension of the monomer, so that it rests inside the outer surface of the protein complex. An explanation is proposed for the two binding modes, n = 4 (the predominate mode) and n = 3, based on the weak binding interaction of Tyrosine 34. Also, the site of the less mobile nucleic acid base as reported from ESR studies (S.-C. Kao, E.V. Bobst, G.T. Pauly and A.M. Bobst, J. Biom. Struc. Dyn. 3,261 (1985)) is postulated as involving the fourth nucleotide, and this particular base is stacked between Tyrosine 34 and Phenylalanine 73'.

  10. DMS Footprinting of Structured RNAs and RNA-Protein Complexes

    PubMed Central

    Tijerina, Pilar; Mohr, Sabine; Russell, Rick

    2008-01-01

    We describe a protocol in which dimethyl sulfate (DMS) modification of the base-pairing faces of unpaired adenosine and cytidine nucleotides is used for structural analysis of RNAs and RNA-protein complexes (RNPs). The protocol is optimized for RNAs of small to moderate size (≤500 nucleotides). The RNA or RNP is first exposed to DMS under conditions that promote formation of the folded structure or complex, as well as ‘control’ conditions that do not allow folding or complex formation. The positions and extents of modification are then determined by primer extension, polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE), and quantitative analysis. From changes in the extent of modification upon folding or protein binding (appearance of a ‘footprint’), it is possible to detect local changes in RNA secondary and tertiary structure, as well as the formation of RNA-protein contacts. This protocol takes 1.5–3 days to complete, depending on the type of analysis used. PMID:17948004

  11. Building disease-specific drug-protein connectivity maps from molecular interaction networks and PubMed abstracts.

    PubMed

    Li, Jiao; Zhu, Xiaoyan; Chen, Jake Yue

    2009-07-01

    The recently proposed concept of molecular connectivity maps enables researchers to integrate experimental measurements of genes, proteins, metabolites, and drug compounds under similar biological conditions. The study of these maps provides opportunities for future toxicogenomics and drug discovery applications. We developed a computational framework to build disease-specific drug-protein connectivity maps. We integrated gene/protein and drug connectivity information based on protein interaction networks and literature mining, without requiring gene expression profile information derived from drug perturbation experiments on disease samples. We described the development and application of this computational framework using Alzheimer's Disease (AD) as a primary example in three steps. First, molecular interaction networks were incorporated to reduce bias and improve relevance of AD seed proteins. Second, PubMed abstracts were used to retrieve enriched drug terms that are indirectly associated with AD through molecular mechanistic studies. Third and lastly, a comprehensive AD connectivity map was created by relating enriched drugs and related proteins in literature. We showed that this molecular connectivity map development approach outperformed both curated drug target databases and conventional information retrieval systems. Our initial explorations of the AD connectivity map yielded a new hypothesis that diltiazem and quinidine may be investigated as candidate drugs for AD treatment. Molecular connectivity maps derived computationally can help study molecular signature differences between different classes of drugs in specific disease contexts. To achieve overall good data coverage and quality, a series of statistical methods have been developed to overcome high levels of data noise in biological networks and literature mining results. Further development of computational molecular connectivity maps to cover major disease areas will likely set up a new model for

  12. Rational stabilization of complex proteins: a divide and combine approach

    PubMed Central

    Lamazares, Emilio; Clemente, Isabel; Bueno, Marta; Velázquez-Campoy, Adrián; Sancho, Javier

    2015-01-01

    Increasing the thermostability of proteins is often crucial for their successful use as analytic, synthetic or therapeutic tools. Most rational thermostabilization strategies were developed on small two-state proteins and, unsurprisingly, they tend to fail when applied to the much more abundant, larger, non-fully cooperative proteins. We show that the key to stabilize the latter is to know the regions of lower stability. To prove it, we have engineered apoflavodoxin, a non-fully cooperative protein on which previous thermostabilizing attempts had failed. We use a step-wise combination of structure-based, rationally-designed, stabilizing mutations confined to the less stable structural region, and obtain variants that, according to their van't Hoff to calorimetric enthalpy ratios, exhibit fully-cooperative thermal unfolding with a melting temperature of 75°C, 32 degrees above the lower melting temperature of the non-cooperative wild type protein. The ideas introduced here may also be useful for the thermostabilization of complex proteins through formulation or using specific stabilizing ligands (e.g. pharmacological chaperones). PMID:25774740

  13. RELATION OF PARTICLE SIZE OF C POLYSACCHARIDE COMPLEXES OF GROUP A STREPTOCOCCI TO TOXIC EFFECTS ON CONNECTIVE TISSUE

    PubMed Central

    Roberson, Bob S.; Schwab, John H.; Cromartie, William J.

    1960-01-01

    The component of Group A streptococci which is responsible for the chronic, remittent, multinodular lesion of connective tissue is derived from the cell wall. Further evidence is given to support the essential role of the group-specific C polysaccharide in the production of this lesion. A series of particles containing the group-specific C polysaccharide was prepared, ranging in size from large cell wall fragments to the relatively small hapten. A comparison of the lesion producing capacity of the particles in this spectrum revealed that maximum toxic activity is associated with C polysaccharide complexes of intermediate size. The discussion considers colloidal properties associated with C polysaccharide complexes of a certain size, and the influence particle size has on persistence in tissue, as possible explanations of the relationship between the size of the C polysaccharide complex and its ability to produce the chronic lesion of connective tissue. PMID:13742081

  14. Processing Connectives with a Complex Form-Function Mapping in L2: The Case of French “En Effet”

    PubMed Central

    Zufferey, Sandrine; Gygax, Pascal M.

    2017-01-01

    Discourse connectives are often reported to be difficult for second language learners, yet the causes of these difficulties are still not fully understood. In this paper, we test the ability of German-speaking learners to process and understand a connective with a complex form-function mapping in their L2-French, namely “en effet,” a connective that does not have an exact translation equivalent in their L1-German. We assess learners' competence both in an on-line processing experiment and an off-line judgment task. We argue that one of the interesting specificities of “en effet” is that the two coherence relations that it conveys cannot equally be conveyed implicitly. This case study therefore provides some information about advanced learners' sensitivity to the necessity of explicitly marking a coherence relation by the use of a connective. Our results indicate that advanced learners do not perceive the difference between relations that need and need not be marked by a discourse connective and have not acquired the complex form-function mapping of “en effet.” We argue that these difficulties cannot be attributed to negative transfer effects, but reflect general limitations in proficiency. PMID:28769842

  15. Amphipols and photosynthetic light-harvesting pigment-protein complexes.

    PubMed

    Opačić, Milena; Durand, Grégory; Bosco, Michael; Polidori, Ange; Popot, Jean-Luc

    2014-10-01

    The trimeric light-harvesting complexes II (LHCII) of plants and green algae are pigment-protein complexes involved in light harvesting and photoprotection. Different conformational states have been proposed to be responsible for their different functions. At present, detergent-solubilized LHCII is used as a model for the "light-harvesting conformation", whereas the "quenched conformation" is mimicked by LHCII aggregates. However, none of these conditions seem to perfectly reproduce the properties of LHCII in vivo. In addition, several monomeric LHC complexes are not fully stable in detergent. There is thus a need to find conditions that allow analyzing LHCs in vitro in stable and, hopefully, more native-like conformations. Here, we report a study of LHCII, the major antenna complex of plants, in complex with amphipols. We have trapped trimeric LHCII and monomeric Lhcb1 with either polyanionic or non-ionic amphipols and studied the effect of these polymers on the properties of the complexes. We show that, as compared to detergent solutions, amphipols have a stabilizing effect on LHCII. We also show that the average fluorescence lifetime of LHCII trapped in an anionic amphipol is ~30% shorter than in α-dodecylmaltoside, due to the presence of a conformation with 230-ps lifetime that is not present in detergent solutions.

  16. CISAPS: Complex Informational Spectrum for the Analysis of Protein Sequences.

    PubMed

    Chrysostomou, Charalambos; Seker, Huseyin; Aydin, Nizamettin

    2015-01-01

    Complex informational spectrum analysis for protein sequences (CISAPS) and its web-based server are developed and presented. As recent studies show, only the use of the absolute spectrum in the analysis of protein sequences using the informational spectrum analysis is proven to be insufficient. Therefore, CISAPS is developed to consider and provide results in three forms including absolute, real, and imaginary spectrum. Biologically related features to the analysis of influenza A subtypes as presented as a case study in this study can also appear individually either in the real or imaginary spectrum. As the results presented, protein classes can present similarities or differences according to the features extracted from CISAPS web server. These associations are probable to be related with the protein feature that the specific amino acid index represents. In addition, various technical issues such as zero-padding and windowing that may affect the analysis are also addressed. CISAPS uses an expanded list of 611 unique amino acid indices where each one represents a different property to perform the analysis. This web-based server enables researchers with little knowledge of signal processing methods to apply and include complex informational spectrum analysis to their work.

  17. CISAPS: Complex Informational Spectrum for the Analysis of Protein Sequences

    PubMed Central

    Seker, Huseyin; Aydin, Nizamettin

    2015-01-01

    Complex informational spectrum analysis for protein sequences (CISAPS) and its web-based server are developed and presented. As recent studies show, only the use of the absolute spectrum in the analysis of protein sequences using the informational spectrum analysis is proven to be insufficient. Therefore, CISAPS is developed to consider and provide results in three forms including absolute, real, and imaginary spectrum. Biologically related features to the analysis of influenza A subtypes as presented as a case study in this study can also appear individually either in the real or imaginary spectrum. As the results presented, protein classes can present similarities or differences according to the features extracted from CISAPS web server. These associations are probable to be related with the protein feature that the specific amino acid index represents. In addition, various technical issues such as zero-padding and windowing that may affect the analysis are also addressed. CISAPS uses an expanded list of 611 unique amino acid indices where each one represents a different property to perform the analysis. This web-based server enables researchers with little knowledge of signal processing methods to apply and include complex informational spectrum analysis to their work. PMID:25632276

  18. Radioprotection by polyethylene glycol-protein complexes in mice

    SciTech Connect

    Gray, B.H.; Stull, R.W.

    1983-03-01

    Polyethylene glycol of about 5000 D was activated with cyanuric chloride, and the activated compound was complexed to each of three proteins. Polyethylene glycol-superoxide dismutase and polyethylene glycol-catalase were each radioprotectants when administered prophylactically to female B6CBF1 mice before irradiation. The dose reduction factor for these mice was 1.2 when 5000 units of polyethylene glycol-catalase was administered before /sup 60/Co irradiation. Female B6CBF1 mice administered prophylactic intravenous injections of catalase, polyethylene glycol-albumin, or heat-denatured polyethylene glycol-catalase had survival rates similar to phosphate-buffered saline-injected control mice following /sup 60/Co irradiation. Polyethylene glycol-superoxide dismutase and polyethylene glycol-catalase have radioprotective activity in B6CBF1 mice, which appears to depend in part on enzymatic activities of the complex. However, no radioprotective effect was observed in male C57BL/6 mice injected with each polyethylene glycol-protein complex at either 3 or 24 hr before irradiation. The mechanism for radioprotection by these complexes may depend in part on other factors.

  19. New Markov-Shannon Entropy models to assess connectivity quality in complex networks: from molecular to cellular pathway, Parasite-Host, Neural, Industry, and Legal-Social networks.

    PubMed

    Riera-Fernández, Pablo; Munteanu, Cristian R; Escobar, Manuel; Prado-Prado, Francisco; Martín-Romalde, Raquel; Pereira, David; Villalba, Karen; Duardo-Sánchez, Aliuska; González-Díaz, Humberto

    2012-01-21

    : Metabolic networks (72.3%), Parasite-Host networks (93.3%), CoCoMac brain cortex co-activation network (89.6%), NW Spain fasciolosis spreading network (97.2%), Spanish financial law network (89.9%) and World trade network for Intelligent & Active Food Packaging (92.8%). In order to seek these models, we studied an average of 55,388 pairs of nodes in each model and a total of 332,326 pairs of nodes in all models. Finally, this method was used to solve a more complicated problem. A model was developed to score the connectivity quality in the Drug-Target network of US FDA approved drugs. In this last model the θ(k) values were calculated for three types of molecular networks representing different levels of organization: drug molecular graphs (atom-atom bonds), protein residue networks (amino acid interactions), and drug-target network (compound-protein binding). The overall accuracy of this model was 76.3%. This work opens a new door to the computational reevaluation of network connectivity quality (collation) for complex systems in molecular, biomedical, technological, and legal-social sciences as well as in world trade and industry.

  20. RNA-binding proteins of the NXF (nuclear export factor) family and their connection with the cytoskeleton.

    PubMed

    Mamon, L A; Ginanova, V R; Kliver, S F; Yakimova, A O; Atsapkina, A A; Golubkova, E V

    2017-04-01

    The mutual relationship between mRNA and the cytoskeleton can be seen from two points of view. On the one hand, the cytoskeleton is necessary for mRNA trafficking and anchoring to subcellular domains. On the other hand, cytoskeletal growth and rearrangement require the translation of mRNAs that are connected to the cytoskeleton. β-actin mRNA localization may influence dynamic changes in the actin cytoskeleton. In the cytoplasm, long-lived mRNAs exist in the form of RNP (ribonucleoprotein) complexes, where they interact with RNA-binding proteins, including NXF (Nuclear eXport Factor). Dm NXF1 is an evolutionarily conserved protein in Drosophila melanogaster that has orthologs in different animals. The universal function of nxf1 genes is the nuclear export of different mRNAs in various organisms. In this mini-review, we briefly discuss the evidence demonstrating that Dm NXF1 fulfils not only universal but also specialized cytoplasmic functions. This protein is detected not only in the nucleus but also in the cytoplasm. It is a component of neuronal granules. Dm NXF1 marks nuclear division spindles during early embryogenesis and the dense body on one side of the elongated spermatid nuclei. The characteristic features of sbr mutants (sbr(10) and sbr(5) ) are impairment of chromosome segregation and spindle formation anomalies during female meiosis. sbr(12) mutant sterile males with immobile spermatozoa exhibit disturbances in the axoneme, mitochondrial derivatives and cytokinesis. These data allow us to propose that the Dm NXF1 proteins transport certain mRNAs in neurites and interact with localized mRNAs that are necessary for dynamic changes of the cytoskeleton.

  1. The Dissociative Subtype of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: Unique Resting-State Functional Connectivity of Basolateral and Centromedial Amygdala Complexes

    PubMed Central

    Nicholson, Andrew A; Densmore, Maria; Frewen, Paul A; Théberge, Jean; Neufeld, Richard WJ; McKinnon, Margaret C; Lanius, Ruth A

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies point towards differential connectivity patterns among basolateral (BLA) and centromedial (CMA) amygdala regions in patients with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) as compared with controls. Here we describe the first study to compare directly connectivity patterns of the BLA and CMA complexes between PTSD patients with and without the dissociative subtype (PTSD+DS and PTSD−DS, respectively). Amygdala connectivity to regulatory prefrontal regions and parietal regions involved in consciousness and proprioception were expected to differ between these two groups based on differential limbic regulation and behavioral symptoms. PTSD patients (n=49) with (n=13) and without (n=36) the dissociative subtype and age-matched healthy controls (n=40) underwent resting-state fMRI. Bilateral BLA and CMA connectivity patterns were compared using a seed-based approach via SPM Anatomy Toolbox. Among patients with PTSD, the PTSD+DS group exhibited greater amygdala functional connectivity to prefrontal regions involved in emotion regulation (bilateral BLA and left CMA to the middle frontal gyrus and bilateral CMA to the medial frontal gyrus) as compared with the PTSD−DS group. In addition, the PTSD+DS group showed greater amygdala connectivity to regions involved in consciousness, awareness, and proprioception—implicated in depersonalization and derealization (left BLA to superior parietal lobe and cerebellar culmen; left CMA to dorsal posterior cingulate and precuneus). Differences in amygdala complex connectivity to specific brain regions parallel the unique symptom profiles of the PTSD subgroups and point towards unique biological markers of the dissociative subtype of PTSD. PMID:25790021

  2. Microglomerular Synaptic Complexes in the Sky-Compass Network of the Honeybee Connect Parallel Pathways from the Anterior Optic Tubercle to the Central Complex

    PubMed Central

    Held, Martina; Berz, Annuska; Hensgen, Ronja; Muenz, Thomas S.; Scholl, Christina; Rössler, Wolfgang; Homberg, Uwe; Pfeiffer, Keram

    2016-01-01

    While the ability of honeybees to navigate relying on sky-compass information has been investigated in a large number of behavioral studies, the underlying neuronal system has so far received less attention. The sky-compass pathway has recently been described from its input region, the dorsal rim area (DRA) of the compound eye, to the anterior optic tubercle (AOTU). The aim of this study is to reveal the connection from the AOTU to the central complex (CX). For this purpose, we investigated the anatomy of large microglomerular synaptic complexes in the medial and lateral bulbs (MBUs/LBUs) of the lateral complex (LX). The synaptic complexes are formed by tubercle-lateral accessory lobe neuron 1 (TuLAL1) neurons of the AOTU and GABAergic tangential neurons of the central body’s (CB) lower division (TL neurons). Both TuLAL1 and TL neurons strongly resemble neurons forming these complexes in other insect species. We further investigated the ultrastructure of these synaptic complexes using transmission electron microscopy. We found that single large presynaptic terminals of TuLAL1 neurons enclose many small profiles (SPs) of TL neurons. The synaptic connections between these neurons are established by two types of synapses: divergent dyads and divergent tetrads. Our data support the assumption that these complexes are a highly conserved feature in the insect brain and play an important role in reliable signal transmission within the sky-compass pathway. PMID:27774056

  3. Microglomerular Synaptic Complexes in the Sky-Compass Network of the Honeybee Connect Parallel Pathways from the Anterior Optic Tubercle to the Central Complex.

    PubMed

    Held, Martina; Berz, Annuska; Hensgen, Ronja; Muenz, Thomas S; Scholl, Christina; Rössler, Wolfgang; Homberg, Uwe; Pfeiffer, Keram

    2016-01-01

    While the ability of honeybees to navigate relying on sky-compass information has been investigated in a large number of behavioral studies, the underlying neuronal system has so far received less attention. The sky-compass pathway has recently been described from its input region, the dorsal rim area (DRA) of the compound eye, to the anterior optic tubercle (AOTU). The aim of this study is to reveal the connection from the AOTU to the central complex (CX). For this purpose, we investigated the anatomy of large microglomerular synaptic complexes in the medial and lateral bulbs (MBUs/LBUs) of the lateral complex (LX). The synaptic complexes are formed by tubercle-lateral accessory lobe neuron 1 (TuLAL1) neurons of the AOTU and GABAergic tangential neurons of the central body's (CB) lower division (TL neurons). Both TuLAL1 and TL neurons strongly resemble neurons forming these complexes in other insect species. We further investigated the ultrastructure of these synaptic complexes using transmission electron microscopy. We found that single large presynaptic terminals of TuLAL1 neurons enclose many small profiles (SPs) of TL neurons. The synaptic connections between these neurons are established by two types of synapses: divergent dyads and divergent tetrads. Our data support the assumption that these complexes are a highly conserved feature in the insect brain and play an important role in reliable signal transmission within the sky-compass pathway.

  4. Protein fragment bimolecular fluorescence complementation analyses for the in vivo study of protein-protein interactions and cellular protein complex localizations

    PubMed Central

    Waadt, Rainer; Schlücking, Kathrin; Schroeder, Julian I.; Kudla, Jörg

    2014-01-01

    Summary The analyses of protein-protein interactions is crucial for understanding cellular processes including signal transduction, protein trafficking and movement. Protein fragment complementation assays are based on the reconstitution of protein function when non-active protein fragments are brought together by interacting proteins that were genetically fused to these protein fragments. Bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC) relies on the reconstitution of fluorescent proteins and enables both the analysis of protein-protein interactions and the visualization of protein complex formations in vivo. Transient expression of proteins is a convenient approach to study protein functions in planta or in other organisms, and minimizes the need for time-consuming generation of stably expressing transgenic organisms. Here we describe protocols for BiFC analyses in Nicotiana benthamiana and Arabidopsis thaliana leaves transiently transformed by Agrobacterium infiltration. Further we discuss different BiFC applications and provide examples for proper BiFC analyses in planta. PMID:24057390

  5. Protein-protein interactions in the complex between the enhancer binding protein NIFA and the sensor NIFL from Azotobacter vinelandii.

    PubMed

    Money, T; Barrett, J; Dixon, R; Austin, S

    2001-02-01

    The enhancer binding protein NIFA and the sensor protein NIFL from Azotobacter vinelandii comprise an atypical two-component regulatory system in which signal transduction occurs via complex formation between the two proteins rather than by the phosphotransfer mechanism, which is characteristic of orthodox systems. The inhibitory activity of NIFL towards NIFA is stimulated by ADP binding to the C-terminal domain of NIFL, which bears significant homology to the histidine protein kinase transmitter domains. Adenosine nucleotides, particularly MgADP, also stimulate complex formation between NIFL and NIFA in vitro, allowing isolation of the complex by cochromatography. Using limited proteolysis of the purified proteins, we show here that changes in protease sensitivity of the Q linker regions of both NIFA and NIFL occurred when the complex was formed in the presence of MgADP. The N-terminal domain of NIFA adjacent to the Q linker was also protected by NIFL. Experiments with truncated versions of NIFA demonstrate that the central domain of NIFA is sufficient to cause protection of the Q linker of NIFL, although in this case, stable protein complexes are not detectable by cochromatography.

  6. Protein-Protein Interactions in the Complex between the Enhancer Binding Protein NIFA and the Sensor NIFL from Azotobacter vinelandii

    PubMed Central

    Money, Tracy; Barrett, Jason; Dixon, Ray; Austin, Sara

    2001-01-01

    The enhancer binding protein NIFA and the sensor protein NIFL from Azotobacter vinelandii comprise an atypical two-component regulatory system in which signal transduction occurs via complex formation between the two proteins rather than by the phosphotransfer mechanism, which is characteristic of orthodox systems. The inhibitory activity of NIFL towards NIFA is stimulated by ADP binding to the C-terminal domain of NIFL, which bears significant homology to the histidine protein kinase transmitter domains. Adenosine nucleotides, particularly MgADP, also stimulate complex formation between NIFL and NIFA in vitro, allowing isolation of the complex by cochromatography. Using limited proteolysis of the purified proteins, we show here that changes in protease sensitivity of the Q linker regions of both NIFA and NIFL occurred when the complex was formed in the presence of MgADP. The N-terminal domain of NIFA adjacent to the Q linker was also protected by NIFL. Experiments with truncated versions of NIFA demonstrate that the central domain of NIFA is sufficient to cause protection of the Q linker of NIFL, although in this case, stable protein complexes are not detectable by cochromatography. PMID:11157949

  7. Small-Angle X-Ray Scattering From RNA, Proteins, And Protein Complexes

    SciTech Connect

    Lipfert, Jan; Doniach, Sebastian; /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /Stanford U., Appl. Phys. Dept. /SLAC, SSRL

    2007-09-18

    Small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) is increasingly used to characterize the structure and interactions of biological macromolecules and their complexes in solution. Although still a low-resolution technique, the advent of high-flux synchrotron sources and the development of algorithms for the reconstruction of 3-D electron density maps from 1-D scattering profiles have made possible the generation of useful low-resolution molecular models from SAXS data. Furthermore, SAXS is well suited for the study of unfolded or partially folded conformational ensembles as a function of time or solution conditions. Here, we review recently developed algorithms for 3-D structure modeling and applications to protein complexes. Furthermore, we discuss the emerging use of SAXS as a tool to study membrane protein-detergent complexes. SAXS is proving useful to study the folding of functional RNA molecules, and finally we discuss uses of SAXS to study ensembles of denatured proteins.

  8. Integrating computational methods and experimental data for understanding the recognition mechanism and binding affinity of protein-protein complexes.

    PubMed

    Gromiha, M Michael; Yugandhar, K

    2017-09-01

    Protein-protein interactions perform several functions inside the cell. Understanding the recognition mechanism and binding affinity of protein-protein complexes is a challenging problem in experimental and computational biology. In this review, we focus on two aspects (i) understanding the recognition mechanism and (ii) predicting the binding affinity. The first part deals with computational techniques for identifying the binding site residues and the contribution of important interactions for understanding the recognition mechanism of protein-protein complexes in comparison with experimental observations. The second part is devoted to the methods developed for discriminating high and low affinity complexes, and predicting the binding affinity of protein-protein complexes using three-dimensional structural information and just from the amino acid sequence. The overall view enhances our understanding of the integration of experimental data and computational methods, recognition mechanism of protein-protein complexes and the binding affinity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Physicochemical descriptors to discriminate protein-protein interactions in permanent and transient complexes selected by means of machine learning algorithms.

    PubMed

    Block, Peter; Paern, Juri; Hüllermeier, Eyke; Sanschagrin, Paul; Sotriffer, Christoph A; Klebe, Gerhard

    2006-11-15

    Analyzing protein-protein interactions at the atomic level is critical for our understanding of the principles governing the interactions involved in protein-protein recognition. For this purpose, descriptors explaining the nature of different protein-protein complexes are desirable. In this work, the authors introduced Epic Protein Interface Classification as a framework handling the preparation, processing, and analysis of protein-protein complexes for classification with machine learning algorithms. We applied four different machine learning algorithms: Support Vector Machines, C4.5 Decision Trees, K Nearest Neighbors, and Naïve Bayes algorithm in combination with three feature selection methods, Filter (Relief F), Wrapper, and Genetic Algorithms, to extract discriminating features from the protein-protein complexes. To compare protein-protein complexes to each other, the authors represented the physicochemical characteristics of their interfaces in four different ways, using two different atomic contact vectors, DrugScore pair potential vectors and SFCscore descriptor vectors. We classified two different datasets: (A) 172 protein-protein complexes comprising 96 monomers, forming contacts enforced by the crystallographic packing environment (crystal contacts), and 76 biologically functional homodimer complexes; (B) 345 protein-protein complexes containing 147 permanent complexes and 198 transient complexes. We were able to classify up to 94.8% of the packing enforced/functional and up to 93.6% of the permanent/transient complexes correctly. Furthermore, we were able to extract relevant features from the different protein-protein complexes and introduce an approach for scoring the importance of the extracted features. (c) 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  10. Development of a Split SNAP-CLIP Double Labeling System for Tracking Proteins Following Dissociation from Protein-Protein Complexes in Living Cells.

    PubMed

    Mie, Masayasu; Naoki, Tatsuhiko; Kobatake, Eiry

    2016-08-16

    The split SNAP-tag protein-fragment complementation assay (PCA) is a useful tool for imaging protein-protein interactions (PPIs) in living cells. In contrast to conventional methods employed for imaging PPIs, the split SNAP-tag PCA enables tracking of proteins following dissociation from protein-protein complexes. A limitation of this system, however, is that it only allows for labeling and tracking of one of the proteins forming the protein-protein complex. To track both proteins forming a protein-protein complex, each protein needs to be appropriately labeled. In this study, a split SNAP-CLIP double labeling system is developed and applied for tracking of each protein forming a protein-protein complex. As a proof-of concept, FM protein for PPIs and protein kinase C alpha (PKCα) for translocation are introduced to a split SNAP-CLIP double labeling system. The results show a split SNAP-CLIP double labeling system enables labeling of both proteins in a protein-protein complex and subsequent tracking of each of the proteins following dissociation from the protein-protein complexes in living cells.

  11. PROXiMATE: a database of mutant protein-protein complex thermodynamics and kinetics.

    PubMed

    Jemimah, Sherlyn; Yugandhar, K; Michael Gromiha, M

    2017-09-01

    We have developed PROXiMATE, a database of thermodynamic data for more than 6000 missense mutations in 174 heterodimeric protein-protein complexes, supplemented with interaction network data from STRING database, solvent accessibility, sequence, structural and functional information, experimental conditions and literature information. Additional features include complex structure visualization, search and display options, download options and a provision for users to upload their data. The database is freely available at http://www.iitm.ac.in/bioinfo/PROXiMATE/ . The website is implemented in Python, and supports recent versions of major browsers such as IE10, Firefox, Chrome and Opera. gromiha@iitm.ac.in. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

  12. Optimization and dynamics of protein-protein complexes using B-splines.

    PubMed

    Gillilan, Richard E; Lilien, Ryan H

    2004-10-01

    A moving-grid approach for optimization and dynamics of protein-protein complexes is introduced, which utilizes cubic B-spline interpolation for rapid energy and force evaluation. The method allows for the efficient use of full electrostatic potentials joined smoothly to multipoles at long distance so that multiprotein simulation is possible. Using a recently published benchmark of 58 protein complexes, we examine the performance and quality of the grid approximation, refining cocrystallized complexes to within 0.68 A RMSD of interface atoms, close to the optimum 0.63 A produced by the underlying MMFF94 force field. We quantify the theoretical statistical advantage of using minimization in a stochastic search in the case of two rigid bodies, and contrast it with the underlying cost of conjugate gradient minimization using B-splines. The volumes of conjugate gradient minimization basins of attraction in cocrystallized systems are generally orders of magnitude larger than well volumes based on energy thresholds needed to discriminate native from nonnative states; nonetheless, computational cost is significant. Molecular dynamics using B-splines is doubly efficient due to the combined advantages of rapid force evaluation and large simulation step sizes. Large basins localized around the native state and other possible binding sites are identifiable during simulations of protein-protein motion. In addition to providing increased modeling detail, B-splines offer new algorithmic possibilities that should be valuable in refining docking candidates and studying global complex behavior.

  13. Proteomic analysis of Col11a1-associated protein complexes

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Raquel J.; Mallory, Christopher; McDougal, Owen M.; Oxford, Julia Thom

    2012-01-01

    Cartilage plays an essential role during skeletal development within the growth plate and in articular joint function. Interactions between the collagen fibrils and other extracellular matrix molecules maintain structural integrity of cartilage, orchestrate complex dynamic events during embryonic development, and help to regulate fibrillogenesis. To increase our understanding of these events, affinity chromatography and liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry were used to identify proteins that interact with the collagen fibril surface via the amino terminal domain of collagen alpha 1(XI) a protein domain that is displayed at the surface of heterotypic collagen fibrils of cartilage. Proteins extracted from fetal bovine cartilage using homogenization in high ionic strength buffer were selected based on affinity for the amino terminal noncollagenous domain of collagen alpha 1(XI). Mass spectrometry was used to determine the amino acid sequence of tryptic fragments for protein identification. Extracellular matrix molecules and cellular proteins that were identified as interacting with the amino terminal domain of collagen alpha 1(XI) directly or indirectly, included proteoglycans, collagens, and matricellular molecules, some of which also play a role in fibrillogenesis, while others are known to function in the maintenance of tissue integrity. Characterization of these molecular interactions will provide a more thorough understanding of how the extracellular matrix molecules of cartilage interact and what role collagen XI plays in the process of fibrillogenesis and maintenance of tissue integrity. Such information will aid tissue engineering and cartilage regeneration efforts to treat cartilage tissue damage and degeneration. PMID:22038862

  14. Encounter complexes and dimensionality reduction in protein–protein association

    PubMed Central

    Kozakov, Dima; Li, Keyong; Hall, David R; Beglov, Dmitri; Zheng, Jiefu; Vakili, Pirooz; Schueler-Furman, Ora; Paschalidis, Ioannis Ch; Clore, G Marius; Vajda, Sandor

    2014-01-01

    An outstanding challenge has been to understand the mechanism whereby proteins associate. We report here the results of exhaustively sampling the conformational space in protein–protein association using a physics-based energy function. The agreement between experimental intermolecular paramagnetic relaxation enhancement (PRE) data and the PRE profiles calculated from the docked structures shows that the method captures both specific and non-specific encounter complexes. To explore the energy landscape in the vicinity of the native structure, the nonlinear manifold describing the relative orientation of two solid bodies is projected onto a Euclidean space in which the shape of low energy regions is studied by principal component analysis. Results show that the energy surface is canyon-like, with a smooth funnel within a two dimensional subspace capturing over 75% of the total motion. Thus, proteins tend to associate along preferred pathways, similar to sliding of a protein along DNA in the process of protein-DNA recognition. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.01370.001 PMID:24714491

  15. When is an ecological network complex? Connectance drives degree distribution and emerging network properties

    PubMed Central

    Gravel, Dominique

    2014-01-01

    Connectance and degree distributions are important components of the structure of ecological networks. In this contribution, we use a statistical argument and simple network generating models to show that properties of the degree distribution are driven by network connectance. We discuss the consequences of this finding for (1) the generation of random networks in null-model analyses, and (2) the interpretation of network structure and ecosystem properties in relationship with degree distribution. PMID:24688835

  16. Biodegradation of the chitin-protein complex in crustacean cuticle

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Artur, Stankiewicz B.; Mastalerz, Maria; Hof, C.H.J.; Bierstedt, A.; Flannery, M.B.; Briggs, D.E.G.; Evershed, R.P.

    1998-01-01

    Arthropod cuticles consist predominantly of chitin cross-linked with proteins. While there is some experimental evidence that this chitin-protein complex may resist decay, the chemical changes that occur during degradation have not been investigated in detail. The stomatopod crustacean Neogonodactylus oerstedii was decayed in the laboratory under anoxic conditions. A combination of pyrolysis-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and FTIR revealed extensive chemical changes after just 2 weeks that resulted in a cuticle composition dominated by chitin. Quantitative analysis of amino acids (by HPLC) and chitin showed that the major loss of proteins and chitin occurred between weeks 1 and 2. After 8 weeks tyrosine, tryptophan and valine are the most prominent amino acid moieties, showing their resistance to degradation. The presence of cyclic ketones in the pyrolysates indicates that mucopolysaccharides or other bound non-chitinous carbohydrates are also resistant to decay. There is no evidence of structural degradation of chitin prior to 8 weeks when FTIR revealed a reduction in chitin-specific bands. The chemical changes are paralleled by structural changes in the cuticle, which becomes an increasingly open structure consisting of loose chitinous fibres. The rapid rate of decay in the experiments suggests that where chitin and protein are preserved in fossil cuticles degradation must have been inhibited.Arthropod cuticles consist predominantly of chitin cross-linked with proteins. While there is some experimental evidence that this chitin-protein complex may resist decay, the chemical changes that occur during degradation have not been investigated in detail. The stomatopod crustacean Neogonodactylus oerstedii was decayed in the laboratory under anoxic conditions. A combination of pyrolysis-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and FTIR revealed extensive chemical changes after just 2 weeks that resulted in a cuticle composition dominated by chitin. Quantitative

  17. Spectroscopic analysis of protein Fe-NO complexes.

    PubMed

    Bellota-Antón, César; Munnoch, John; Robb, Kirsty; Adamczyk, Katrin; Candelaresi, Marco; Parker, Anthony W; Dixon, Ray; Hutchings, Matthew I; Hunt, Neil T; Tucker, Nicholas P

    2011-10-01

    The toxic free radical NO (nitric oxide) has diverse biological roles in eukaryotes and bacteria, being involved in signalling, vasodilation, blood clotting and immunity, and as an intermediate in microbial denitrification. The predominant biological mechanism of detecting NO is through the formation of iron nitrosyl complexes, although this is a deleterious process for other iron-containing enzymes. We have previously applied techniques such as UV-visible and EPR spectroscopy to the analysis of protein Fe-NO complex formation in order to study how NO controls the activity of the bacterial transcriptional regulators NorR and NsrR. These studies have analysed NO-dependent biological activity both in vitro and in vivo using diverse biochemical, molecular and spectroscopic methods. Recently, we have applied ultrafast 2D-IR (two-dimensional IR) spectroscopy to the analysis of NO-protein interactions using Mb (myoglobin) and Cc (cytochrome c) as model haem proteins. The ultrafast fluctuations of Cc and Mb show marked differences, indicating altered flexibility of the haem pockets. We have extended this analysis to bacterial catalase enzymes that are known to play a role in the nitrosative stress response by detoxifying peroxynitrite. The first 2D-IR analysis of haem nitrosylation and perspectives for the future are discussed.

  18. Inferring drug-disease associations based on known protein complexes.

    PubMed

    Yu, Liang; Huang, Jianbin; Ma, Zhixin; Zhang, Jing; Zou, Yapeng; Gao, Lin

    2015-01-01

    Inferring drug-disease associations is critical in unveiling disease mechanisms, as well as discovering novel functions of available drugs, or drug repositioning. Previous work is primarily based on drug-gene-disease relationship, which throws away many important information since genes execute their functions through interacting others. To overcome this issue, we propose a novel methodology that discover the drug-disease association based on protein complexes. Firstly, the integrated heterogeneous network consisting of drugs, protein complexes, and disease are constructed, where we assign weights to the drug-disease association by using probability. Then, from the tripartite network, we get the indirect weighted relationships between drugs and diseases. The larger the weight, the higher the reliability of the correlation. We apply our method to mental disorders and hypertension, and validate the result by using comparative toxicogenomics database. Our ranked results can be directly reinforced by existing biomedical literature, suggesting that our proposed method obtains higher specificity and sensitivity. The proposed method offers new insight into drug-disease discovery. Our method is publicly available at http://1.complexdrug.sinaapp.com/Drug_Complex_Disease/Data_Download.html.

  19. Low-Complexity Regions in Plasmodium falciparum Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Pizzi, Elisabetta; Frontali, Clara

    2001-01-01

    Full-sequence data available for Plasmodium falciparum chromosomes 2 and 3 are exploited to perform a statistical analysis of the long tracts of biased amino acid composition that characterize the vast majority of P. falciparum proteins and to make a comparison with similarly defined tracts from other simple eukaryotes. When the relatively minor subset of prevalently hydrophobic segments is discarded from the set of low-complexity segments identified by current segmentation methods in P. falciparum proteins, a good correspondence is found between prevalently hydrophilic low-complexity segments and the species-specific, rapidly diverging insertions detected by multiple-alignment procedures when sequences of bona fide homologs are available. Amino acid preferences are fairly uniform in the set of hydrophilic low-complexity segments identified in the two P. falciparum chromosomes sequenced, as well as in sequenced genes from Plasmodium berghei, but differ from those observed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Dictyostelium discoideum. In the two plasmodial species, amino acid frequencies do not correlate with properties such as hydrophilicity, small volume, or flexibility, which might be expected to characterize residues involved in nonglobular domains but do correlate with A-richness in codons. An effect of phenotypic selection versus neutral drift, however, is suggested by the predominance of asparagine over lysine. PMID:11157785

  20. Defining the molecular interface that connects the Fanconi anemia protein FANCM to the Bloom syndrome dissolvasome.

    PubMed

    Hoadley, Kelly A; Xue, Yutong; Ling, Chen; Takata, Minoru; Wang, Weidong; Keck, James L

    2012-03-20

    The RMI subcomplex (RMI1/RMI2) functions with the BLM helicase and topoisomerase IIIα in a complex called the "dissolvasome," which separates double-Holliday junction DNA structures that can arise during DNA repair. This activity suppresses potentially harmful sister chromatid exchange (SCE) events in wild-type cells but not in cells derived from Bloom syndrome patients with inactivating BLM mutations. The RMI subcomplex also associates with FANCM, a component of the Fanconi anemia (FA) core complex that is important for repair of stalled DNA replication forks. The RMI/FANCM interface appears to help coordinate dissolvasome and FA core complex activities, but its precise role remains poorly understood. Here, we define the structure of the RMI/FANCM interface and investigate its roles in coordinating cellular DNA-repair activities. The X-ray crystal structure of the RMI core complex bound to a well-conserved peptide from FANCM shows that FANCM binds to both RMI proteins through a hydrophobic "knobs-into-holes" packing arrangement. The RMI/FANCM interface is shown to be critical for interaction between the components of the dissolvasome and the FA core complex. FANCM variants that substitute alanine for key interface residues strongly destabilize the complex in solution and lead to increased SCE levels in cells that are similar to those observed in blm- or fancm-deficient cells. This study provides a molecular view of the RMI/FANCM complex and highlights a key interface utilized in coordinating the activities of two critical eukaryotic DNA-damage repair machines.

  1. Pleiotropy constrains the evolution of protein but not regulatory sequences in a transcription regulatory network influencing complex social behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Molodtsova, Daria; Harpur, Brock A.; Kent, Clement F.; Seevananthan, Kajendra; Zayed, Amro

    2014-01-01

    It is increasingly apparent that genes and networks that influence complex behavior are evolutionary conserved, which is paradoxical considering that behavior is labile over evolutionary timescales. How does adaptive change in behavior arise if behavior is controlled by conserved, pleiotropic, and likely evolutionary constrained genes? Pleiotropy and connectedness are known to constrain the general rate of protein evolution, prompting some to suggest that the evolution of complex traits, including behavior, is fuelled by regulatory sequence evolution. However, we seldom have data on the strength of selection on mutations in coding and regulatory sequences, and this hinders our ability to study how pleiotropy influences coding and regulatory sequence evolution. Here we use population genomics to estimate the strength of selection on coding and regulatory mutations for a transcriptional regulatory network that influences complex behavior of honey bees. We found that replacement mutations in highly connected transcription factors and target genes experience significantly stronger negative selection relative to weakly connected transcription factors and targets. Adaptively evolving proteins were significantly more likely to reside at the periphery of the regulatory network, while proteins with signs of negative selection were near the core of the network. Interestingly, connectedness and network structure had minimal influence on the strength of selection on putative regulatory sequences for both transcription factors and their targets. Our study indicates that adaptive evolution of complex behavior can arise because of positive selection on protein-coding mutations in peripheral genes, and on regulatory sequence mutations in both transcription factors and their targets throughout the network. PMID:25566318

  2. High-resolution diffraction from crystals of a membrane-protein complex: bacterial outer membrane protein OmpC complexed with the antibacterial eukaryotic protein lactoferrin

    SciTech Connect

    Sundara Baalaji, N.; Acharya, K. Ravi; Singh, T. P.; Krishnaswamy, S. E-mail: mkukrishna@rediffmail.com

    2005-08-01

    Crystals of the complex formed between the bacterial membrane protein OmpC and the antibacterial protein lactoferrin suitable for high-resolution structure determination have been obtained. The crystals belong to the hexagonal space group P6, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 116.3, c = 152.4 Å. Crystals of the complex formed between the outer membrane protein OmpC from Escherichia coli and the eukaryotic antibacterial protein lactoferrin from Camelus dromedarius (camel) have been obtained using a detergent environment. Initial data processing suggests that the crystals belong to the hexagonal space group P6, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 116.3, c = 152.4 Å, α = β = 90, γ = 120°. This indicated a Matthews coefficient (V{sub M}) of 3.3 Å{sup 3} Da{sup −1}, corresponding to a possible molecular complex involving four molecules of lactoferrin and two porin trimers in the unit cell (4832 amino acids; 533.8 kDa) with 63% solvent content. A complete set of diffraction data was collected to 3 Å resolution at 100 K. Structure determination by molecular replacement is in progress. Structural study of this first surface-exposed membrane-protein complex with an antibacterial protein will provide insights into the mechanism of action of OmpC as well as lactoferrin.

  3. Anticancer osmium complex inhibitors of the HIF-1α and p300 protein-protein interaction

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Chao; Wang, Wanhe; Li, Guo-Dong; Zhong, Hai-Jing; Dong, Zhen-Zhen; Wong, Chun-Yuen; Kwong, Daniel W. J.; Ma, Dik-Lung; Leung, Chung-Hang

    2017-01-01

    The hypoxia inducible factor (HIF) pathway has been considered to be an attractive anti-cancer target. One strategy to inhibit HIF activity is through the disruption of the HIF-1α–p300 protein-protein interaction. We report herein the identification of an osmium(II) complex as the first metal-based inhibitor of the HIF-1α–p300 interaction. We evaluated the effect of complex 1 on HIF-1α signaling pathway in vitro and in cellulo by using the dual luciferase reporter assay, co-immunoprecipitation assay, and immunoblot assay. Complex 1 exhibited a dose-dependent inhibition of HRE-driven luciferase activity, with an IC50 value of 1.22 μM. Complex 1 interfered with the HIF-1α–p300 interaction as revealed by a dose-dependent reduction of p300 co-precipitated with HIF-1α as the concentration of complex 1 was increased. Complex 1 repressed the phosphorylation of SRC, AKT and STAT3, and had no discernible effect on the activity of NF-κB. We anticipate that complex 1 could be utilized as a promising scaffold for the further development of more potent HIF-1α inhibitors for anti-cancer treatment. PMID:28225008

  4. Unique insula subregion resting-state functional connectivity with amygdala complexes in posttraumatic stress disorder and its dissociative subtype.

    PubMed

    Nicholson, Andrew A; Sapru, Iman; Densmore, Maria; Frewen, Paul A; Neufeld, Richard W J; Théberge, Jean; McKinnon, Margaret C; Lanius, Ruth A

    2016-04-30

    The insula and amygdala are implicated in the pathophysiology of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), where both have been shown to be hyper/hypoactive in non-dissociative (PTSD-DS) and dissociative subtype (PTSD+DS) PTSD patients, respectively, during symptom provocation. However, the functional connectivity between individual insula subregions and the amygdala has not been investigated in persons with PTSD, with or without the dissociative subtype. We examined insula subregion (anterior, mid, and posterior) functional connectivity with the bilateral amygdala using a region-of-interest seed-based approach via PickAtlas and SPM8. Resting-state fMRI was conducted with (n=61) PTSD patients (n=44 PTSD-DS; n=17 PTSD+DS), and (n=40) age-matched healthy controls. When compared to controls, the PTSD-DS group displayed increased insula connectivity (bilateral anterior, bilateral mid, and left posterior) to basolateral amygdala clusters in both hemispheres, and the PTSD+DS group displayed increased insula connectivity (bilateral anterior, left mid, and left posterior) to the left basolateral amygdala complex. Moreover, as compared to PTSD-DS, increased insula subregion connectivity (bilateral anterior, left mid, and right posterior) to the left basolateral amygdala was found in PTSD+DS. Depersonalization/derealization symptoms and PTSD symptom severity correlated with insula subregion connectivity to the basolateral amygdala within PTSD patients. This study is an important first step in elucidating patterns of neural connectivity associated with unique symptoms of arousal/interoception, emotional processing, and awareness of bodily states, in PTSD and its dissociative subtype.

  5. Analysis of the interface variability in NMR structure ensembles of protein-protein complexes.

    PubMed

    Calvanese, Luisa; D'Auria, Gabriella; Vangone, Anna; Falcigno, Lucia; Oliva, Romina

    2016-06-01

    NMR structures consist in ensembles of conformers, all satisfying the experimental restraints, which exhibit a certain degree of structural variability. We analyzed here the interface in NMR ensembles of protein-protein heterodimeric complexes and found it to span a wide range of different conservations. The different exhibited conservations do not simply correlate with the size of the systems/interfaces, and are most probably the result of an interplay between different factors, including the quality of experimental data and the intrinsic complex flexibility. In any case, this information is not to be missed when NMR structures of protein-protein complexes are analyzed; especially considering that, as we also show here, the first NMR conformer is usually not the one which best reflects the overall interface. To quantify the interface conservation and to analyze it, we used an approach originally conceived for the analysis and ranking of ensembles of docking models, which has now been extended to directly deal with NMR ensembles. We propose this approach, based on the conservation of the inter-residue contacts at the interface, both for the analysis of the interface in whole ensembles of NMR complexes and for the possible selection of a single conformer as the best representative of the overall interface. In order to make the analyses automatic and fast, we made the protocol available as a web tool at: https://www.molnac.unisa.it/BioTools/consrank/consrank-nmr.html.

  6. Force-induced remodelling of proteins and their complexes

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yun; Radford, Sheena E; Brockwell, David J

    2015-01-01

    Force can drive conformational changes in proteins, as well as modulate their stability and the affinity of their complexes, allowing a mechanical input to be converted into a biochemical output. These properties have been utilised by nature and force is now recognised to be widely used at the cellular level. The effects of force on the biophysical properties of biological systems can be large and varied. As these effects are only apparent in the presence of force, studies on the same proteins using traditional ensemble biophysical methods can yield apparently conflicting results. Where appropriate, therefore, force measurements should be integrated with other experimental approaches to understand the physiological context of the system under study. PMID:25710390

  7. Protein microarrays for highly parallel detection and quantitation of specific proteins and antibodies in complex solutions

    PubMed Central

    Haab, Brian B; Dunham, Maitreya J; Brown, Patrick O

    2001-01-01

    Background: We have developed and tested a method for printing protein microarrays and using these microarrays in a comparative fluorescence assay to measure the abundance of many specific proteins in complex solutions. A robotic device was used to print hundreds of specific antibody or antigen solutions in an array on the surface of derivatized microscope slides. Two complex protein samples, one serving as a standard for comparative quantitation, the other representing an experimental sample in which the protein quantities were to be measured, were labeled by covalent attachment of spectrally resolvable fluorescent dyes. Results: Specific antibody-antigen interactions localized specific components of the complex mixtures to defined cognate spots in the array, where the relative intensity of the fluorescent signal representing the experimental sample and the reference standard provided a measure of each protein's abundance in the experimental sample. To test the specificity, sensitivity and accuracy of this assay, we analyzed the performance of 115 antibody/antigen pairs. 50% of the arrayed antigens and 20% of the arrayed antibodies provided specific and accurate measurements of their cognate ligands at or below concentrations of 0.34 μg/ml and 1.6 μg/ml, respectively. Some of the antibody/antigen pairs allowed detection of the cognate ligands at absolute concentrations below 1 ng/ml, and partial concentrations of 1 part in 106, sensitivities sufficient for measurement of many clinically important proteins in patient blood samples. Conclusions: These results suggest that protein microarrays can provide a practical means to characterize patterns of variation in hundreds of thousands of different proteins in clinical or research applications. PMID:11182887

  8. Complex interaction of dendritic connectivity and hierarchical patch size on biodiversity in river-like landscapes.

    PubMed

    Carrara, Francesco; Rinaldo, Andrea; Giometto, Andrea; Altermatt, Florian

    2014-01-01

    Habitat fragmentation and land use changes are causing major biodiversity losses. Connectivity of the landscape or environmental conditions alone can shape biodiversity patterns. In nature, however, local habitat characteristics are often intrinsically linked to a specific connectivity. Such a link is evident in riverine ecosystems, where hierarchical dendritic structures command related scaling on habitat capacity. We experimentally disentangled the effect of local habitat capacity (i.e., the patch size) and dendritic connectivity on biodiversity in aquatic microcosm metacommunities by suitably arranging patch sizes within river-like networks. Overall, more connected communities that occupy a central position in the network exhibited higher species richness, irrespective of patch size arrangement. High regional evenness in community composition was found only in landscapes preserving geomorphological scaling properties of patch sizes. In these landscapes, some of the rarer species sustained regionally more abundant populations better tracking their own niche requirements compared to landscapes with homogeneous patch size or landscapes with spatially uncorrelated patch size. Our analysis suggests that altering the natural link between dendritic connectivity and patch size strongly affects community composition and population persistence at multiple scales. The experimental results are demonstrating a principle that can be tested in theoretical metacommunity models and eventually be projected to real riverine ecosystems.

  9. Mapping energy transfer channels in fucoxanthin-chlorophyll protein complex.

    PubMed

    Gelzinis, Andrius; Butkus, Vytautas; Songaila, Egidijus; Augulis, Ramūnas; Gall, Andrew; Büchel, Claudia; Robert, Bruno; Abramavicius, Darius; Zigmantas, Donatas; Valkunas, Leonas

    2015-02-01

    Fucoxanthin-chlorophyll protein (FCP) is the key molecular complex performing the light-harvesting function in diatoms, which, being a major group of algae, are responsible for up to one quarter of the total primary production on Earth. These photosynthetic organisms contain an unusually large amount of the carotenoid fucoxanthin, which absorbs the light in the blue-green spectral region and transfers the captured excitation energy to the FCP-bound chlorophylls. Due to the large number of fucoxanthins, the excitation energy transfer cascades in these complexes are particularly tangled. In this work we present the two-color two-dimensional electronic spectroscopy experiments on FCP. Analysis of the data using the modified decay associated spectra permits a detailed mapping of the excitation frequency dependent energy transfer flow with a femtosecond time resolution. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Biochemical characterization of nuclear pore complex protein gp210 oligomers.

    PubMed

    Favreau, C; Bastos, R; Cartaud, J; Courvalin, J C; Mustonen, P

    2001-07-01

    The membrane-spanning glycoprotein gp210 is a major component of the nuclear pore complex. This nucleoporin contains a large cisternal N-terminal domain, a short C-terminal cytoplasmic tail, and a single transmembrane segment. We show here that dimers of native gp210 can be isolated from cell extracts by immunoprecipitation, and from purified rat liver nuclear envelopes by velocity sedimentation and gel filtration. Cross-linking of proteins in isolated membranes prior to solubilization dramatically increases the proportion of dimers. The dimers are SDS-resistant, as previously observed for some integral membrane proteins of cis-Golgi and plasma membrane proteins, including glycophorin A. Larger oligomers of gp210 can also be obtained by gel filtration and denaturing electrophoresis, but unlike the dimers are dissociated by reduction and heating in the presence of SDS. We propose that gp210 is organized into the pore membrane as a large array of gp210 dimers that may constitute a luminal submembranous protein skeleton.

  11. Rediscovery of halogen bonds in protein-ligand complexes.

    PubMed

    Zhou, P; Tian, F; Zou, J; Shang, Z

    2010-04-01

    Although the halogen bond has attracted much interest in chemistry and material science communities, its implications for drug design are just now coming to light. The protein-ligand interactions through short halogen-oxygen/nitrogen/sulfur contacts have been observed in crystal structures for a long time, but only in recent years, with the experimental and theoretical progress in weak biological interactions, especially the pioneering works contributed by Ho and co-workers (Auffinger, P.; Hays, F. A.; Westhof, E.; Ho, P. S. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 2004, 101, 16789-16794), these short contacts involving halogens in biomolecules were rediscovered and re-recognized as halogen bonds to stress their shared similarities with hydrogen bonds in strength and directionality. Crystal structure determinations of protein complexes with halogenated ligands preliminarily unveiled the functionality of halogen bonds in protein-ligand recogni-tion. Database surveys further revealed a considerable number of short halogen-oxygen contacts between proteins and halogenated ligands. Theoretical calculations on model and real systems eventually gave a quantitative pronouncement for the substantial contribution of halogen bonds to ligand binding. All of these works forebode that the halogen bond can be exploited as a new and versatile tool for rational drug design and bio-crystal engineering.

  12. Characterization of a mammalian Golgi-localized protein complex, COG, that is required for normal Golgi morphology and function

    PubMed Central

    Ungar, Daniel; Oka, Toshihiko; Brittle, Elizabeth E.; Vasile, Eliza; Lupashin, Vladimir V.; Chatterton, Jon E.; Heuser, John E.; Krieger, Monty; Waters, M. Gerard

    2002-01-01

    Multiprotein complexes are key determinants of Golgi apparatus structure and its capacity for intracellular transport and glycoprotein modification. Three complexes that have previously been partially characterized include (a) the Golgi transport complex (GTC), identified in an in vitro membrane transport assay, (b) the ldlCp complex, identified in analyses of CHO cell mutants with defects in Golgi-associated glycosylation reactions, and (c) the mammalian Sec34 complex, identified by homology to yeast Sec34p, implicated in vesicular transport. We show that these three complexes are identical and rename them the conserved oligomeric Golgi (COG) complex. The COG complex comprises four previously characterized proteins (Cog1/ldlBp, Cog2/ldlCp, Cog3/Sec34, and Cog5/GTC-90), three homologues of yeast Sec34/35 complex subunits (Cog4, -6, and -8), and a previously unidentified Golgi-associated protein (Cog7). EM of ldlB and ldlC mutants established that COG is required for normal Golgi morphology. “Deep etch” EM of purified COG revealed an ∼37-nm-long structure comprised of two similarly sized globular domains connected by smaller extensions. Consideration of biochemical and genetic data for mammalian COG and its yeast homologue suggests a model for the subunit distribution within this complex, which plays critical roles in Golgi structure and function. PMID:11980916

  13. Structure and function analysis of protein-nucleic acid complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuznetsova, S. A.; Oretskaya, T. S.

    2016-05-01

    The review summarizes published data on the results and achievements in the field of structure and function analysis of protein-nucleic acid complexes by means of main physical and biochemical methods, including X-ray diffraction, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, electron and atomic force microscopy, small-angle X-ray and neutron scattering, footprinting and cross-linking. Special attention is given to combined approaches. The advantages and limitations of each method are considered, and the prospects of their application for wide-scale structural studies in vivo are discussed. The bibliography includes 145 references.

  14. Structure and fractal dimension of protein-detergent complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Sow-Hsin; Teixeira, José

    1986-11-01

    Small-angle neutron-scattering experiments were made on bovine serum albumin (BSA)-lithium dodecyl sulfate (LDS) complexes in buffer solutions. As increasing amounts of LDS are added, the scattering data indicate that BSA molecules are successively transformed into random coil conformations with LDS forming globular micelles randomly decorating the polypeptide backbones. A cross-section formula is developed which successfully fits small-angle neutron-scattering spectra over the entire Q range. The fractal dimension, the micellar size, and the extent of the denatured protein are simultaneously extracted.

  15. Muscle Lim Protein and Myosin Binding Protein C form a complex regulating muscle differentiation.

    PubMed

    Arvanitis, Demetrios A; Vafiadaki, Elizabeth; Papalouka, Vasiliki; Sanoudou, Despina

    2017-08-31

    Muscle Lim Protein (MLP) is a protein with multiple functional roles in striated muscle physiology and pathophysiology. Herein, we demonstrate that MLP directly binds to slow, fast, and cardiac myosin-binding protein C (MyBP-C) during myogenesis, as shown by yeast two-hybrid, and a range of protein-protein interaction assays. The minimal interacting domains involve MLP inter-LIM and MyBP-C C4. The interaction is sensitive to cytosolic Ca(2+) concentrations changes and to MyBP-C phosphorylation by PKA or CaMKII. Confocal microscopy of differentiating myoblasts showed MLP and MyBP-C colocalization during myoblast differentiation. Suppression of the complex formation with recombinant MyBP-C C4 peptide overexpression, inhibited myoblast differentiation by 65%. Suppression of both MLP and MyBP-C expression in myoblasts by siRNA revealed negative synergistic effects on differentiation. The MLP/MyBP-C complex modulates the actin activated myosin II ATPase activity in vitro, which could interfere with sarcomerogenesis and myofilaments assembly during differentiation. Our data demonstrate a critical role of the MLP/MyBP-C complex during early myoblast differentiation. Its absence in muscles with mutations or aberrant expression of MLP or MyBP-C could be directly implicated in the development of cardiac and skeletal myopathies. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  16. Targeting protein–protein interactions in complexes organized by A kinase anchoring proteins

    PubMed Central

    Calejo, Ana I.; Taskén, Kjetil

    2015-01-01

    Cyclic AMP is a ubiquitous intracellular second messenger involved in the regulation of a wide variety of cellular processes, a majority of which act through the cAMP – protein kinase A (PKA) signaling pathway and involve PKA phosphorylation of specific substrates. PKA phosphorylation events are typically spatially restricted and temporally well controlled. A-kinase anchoring proteins (AKAPs) directly bind PKA and recruit it to specific subcellular loci targeting the kinase activity toward particular substrates, and thereby provide discrete spatiotemporal control of downstream phosphorylation events. AKAPs also scaffold other signaling molecules into multi-protein complexes that function as crossroads between different signaling pathways. Targeting AKAP coordinated protein complexes with high-affinity peptidomimetics or small molecules to tease apart distinct protein–protein interactions (PPIs) therefore offers important means to disrupt binding of specific components of the complex to better understand the molecular mechanisms involved in the function of individual signalosomes and their pathophysiological role. Furthermore, development of novel classes of small molecules involved in displacement of AKAP-bound signal molecules is now emerging. Here, we will focus on mechanisms for targeting PPI, disruptors that modulate downstream cAMP signaling and their role, especially in the heart. PMID:26441649

  17. Evidence for a protein-protein complex during iron loading into ferritin by ceruloplasmin.

    PubMed

    Reilly, C A; Sorlie, M; Aust, S D

    1998-06-01

    The formation of a protein-protein complex for the loading of iron into ferritin by ceruloplasmin was investigated. Ferritin stimulated the ferroxidase activity of ceruloplasmin unless the ferritin was fully loaded, in which case it inhibited the ferroxidase activity of ceruloplasmin. The apparent association constant for the interaction of ferritin and ceruloplasmin was 24 nM. Isothermal titration calorimetry indicated that the interaction of ceruloplasmin and ferritin was endothermic, driven by positive changes in entropy. The association constants for complex formation between ferritin and ceruloplasmin were 4.5 +/- 0.7 x 10(5) and 9.5 +/- 0.3 x 10(4) M-1 for the reduced and oxidized forms of ceruloplasmin, respectively. The oxidized form of ceruloplasmin was retained on an affinity column with ferritin immobilized as the ligand and remained bound to the column with mobile phases of increased hydrophobicity, but was eluted with increased ionic strength. The ability of ceruloplasmin to remain bound to the affinity resin was affected by the species from which ceruloplasmin was isolated. Gradient ultracentrifugation also provided evidence that the two proteins were associated, since ferritin promoted migration of ceruloplasmin through the gradient. Including ferrous iron in the gradient resulted in reduction of ceruloplasmin and increased the mobility of ceruloplasmin with ferritin. These data provide evidence that ferritin and ceruloplasmin form a protein-protein complex during iron loading into ferritin, which may limit redox cycling of iron in vivo.

  18. Protein tyrosine phosphatase inhibition by metals and metal complexes.

    PubMed

    Lu, Liping; Zhu, Miaoli

    2014-05-10

    Protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs) play essential roles in controlling cell proliferation, differentiation, communication, and adhesion. The dysregulated activities of PTPs are involved in the pathogenesis of a number of human diseases such as cancer, diabetes, and autoimmune diseases. Many PTPs have emerged as potential new targets for novel drug discovery. PTP inhibitors have attracted much attention. Many PTP inhibitors have been developed. Some of them have been proven to be efficient in lowering blood glucose levels in vivo or inhibiting tumor xenograft growth. Some metal ions and metal complexes potently inhibit PTPs. The metal atoms within metal complexes play an important role in PTP binding, while ligand structures influence the inhibitory potency and selectivity. Some metal complexes can penetrate the cell membrane and selectively bind to their targeting PTPs, enhancing the phosphorylation of the related substrates and influencing cellular metabolism. PTP inhibition is potentially involved in the pathophysiological and toxicological processes of metals and some PTPs may be cellular targets of certain metal-based therapeutic agents. Investigating the structural basis of the interactions between metal complexes and PTPs would facilitate a comprehensive understanding of the structure-activity relationship and accelerate the development of promising metal-based drugs targeting specific PTPs.

  19. Proteomics-Based Analysis of Protein Complexes in Pluripotent Stem Cells and Cancer Biology.

    PubMed

    Sudhir, Putty-Reddy; Chen, Chung-Hsuan

    2016-03-22

    A protein complex consists of two or more proteins that are linked together through protein-protein interactions. The proteins show stable/transient and direct/indirect interactions within the protein complex or between the protein complexes. Protein complexes are involved in regulation of most of the cellular processes and molecular functions. The delineation of protein complexes is important to expand our knowledge on proteins functional roles in physiological and pathological conditions. The genetic yeast-2-hybrid method has been extensively used to characterize protein-protein interactions. Alternatively, a biochemical-based affinity purification coupled with mass spectrometry (AP-MS) approach has been widely used to characterize the protein complexes. In the AP-MS method, a protein complex of a target protein of interest is purified using a specific antibody or an affinity tag (e.g., DYKDDDDK peptide (FLAG) and polyhistidine (His)) and is subsequently analyzed by means of MS. Tandem affinity purification, a two-step purification system, coupled with MS has been widely used mainly to reduce the contaminants. We review here a general principle for AP-MS-based characterization of protein complexes and we explore several protein complexes identified in pluripotent stem cell biology and cancer biology as examples.

  20. Integrative DNA, RNA, and protein evidence connects TREML4 to coronary artery calcification.

    PubMed

    Sen, Shurjo K; Boelte, Kimberly C; Barb, Jennifer J; Joehanes, Roby; Zhao, XiaoQing; Cheng, Qi; Adams, Lila; Teer, Jamie K; Accame, David S; Chowdhury, Soma; Singh, Larry N; Kavousi, Maryam; Peyser, Patricia A; Quigley, Laura; Priel, Debra Long; Lau, Karen; Kuhns, Douglas B; Yoshimura, Teizo; Johnson, Andrew D; Hwang, Shih-Jen; Chen, Marcus Y; Arai, Andrew E; Green, Eric D; Mullikin, James C; Kolodgie, Frank D; O'Donnell, Christopher J; Virmani, Renu; Munson, Peter J; McVicar, Daniel W; Biesecker, Leslie G

    2014-07-03

    Coronary artery calcification (CAC) is a heritable and definitive morphologic marker of atherosclerosis that strongly predicts risk for future cardiovascular events. To search for genes involved in CAC, we used an integrative transcriptomic, genomic, and protein expression strategy by using next-generation DNA sequencing in the discovery phase with follow-up studies using traditional molecular biology and histopathology techniques. RNA sequencing of peripheral blood from a discovery set of CAC cases and controls was used to identify dysregulated genes, which were validated by ClinSeq and Framingham Heart Study data. Only a single gene, TREML4, was upregulated in CAC cases in both studies. Further examination showed that rs2803496 was a TREML4 cis-eQTL and that the minor allele at this locus conferred up to a 6.5-fold increased relative risk of CAC. We characterized human TREML4 and demonstrated by immunohistochemical techniques that it is localized in macrophages surrounding the necrotic core of coronary plaques complicated by calcification (but not in arteries with less advanced disease). Finally, we determined by von Kossa staining that TREML4 colocalizes with areas of microcalcification within coronary plaques. Overall, we present integrative RNA, DNA, and protein evidence implicating TREML4 in coronary artery calcification. Our findings connect multimodal genomics data with a commonly used clinical marker of cardiovascular disease.

  1. Mining connections between chemicals, proteins, and diseases extracted from Medline annotations

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Nancy C.; Hemminger, Bradley M.

    2010-01-01

    The biomedical literature is an important source of information about the biological activity and effects of chemicals. We present an application that extracts terms indicating biological activity of chemicals from Medline records, associates them with chemical name and stores the terms in a repository called ChemoText. We describe the construction of ChemoText and then demonstrate its utility in drug research by employing Swanson’s ABC discovery paradigm. We reproduce Swanson’s discovery of a connection between magnesium and migraine in a novel approach that uses only proteins as the intermediate B terms. We validate our methods by using a cutoff date and evaluate them by calculating precision and recall. In addition to magnesium, we have identified valproic acid and nitric oxide as chemicals which developed links to migraine. We hypothesize, based on protein annotations, that zinc and retinoic acid may play a role in migraine. The ChemoText repository has promise as a data source for drug discovery. PMID:20348023

  2. Integrative DNA, RNA, and Protein Evidence Connects TREML4 to Coronary Artery Calcification

    PubMed Central

    Sen, Shurjo K.; Boelte, Kimberly C.; Barb, Jennifer J.; Joehanes, Roby; Zhao, XiaoQing; Cheng, Qi; Adams, Lila; Teer, Jamie K.; Accame, David S.; Chowdhury, Soma; Singh, Larry N.; Kavousi, Maryam; Peyser, Patricia A.; Quigley, Laura; Priel, Debra Long; Lau, Karen; Kuhns, Douglas B.; Yoshimura, Teizo; Johnson, Andrew D.; Hwang, Shih-Jen; Chen, Marcus Y.; Arai, Andrew E.; Green, Eric D.; Mullikin, James C.; Kolodgie, Frank D.; O’Donnell, Christopher J.; Virmani, Renu; Munson, Peter J.; McVicar, Daniel W.; Biesecker, Leslie G.

    2014-01-01

    Coronary artery calcification (CAC) is a heritable and definitive morphologic marker of atherosclerosis that strongly predicts risk for future cardiovascular events. To search for genes involved in CAC, we used an integrative transcriptomic, genomic, and protein expression strategy by using next-generation DNA sequencing in the discovery phase with follow-up studies using traditional molecular biology and histopathology techniques. RNA sequencing of peripheral blood from a discovery set of CAC cases and controls was used to identify dysregulated genes, which were validated by ClinSeq and Framingham Heart Study data. Only a single gene, TREML4, was upregulated in CAC cases in both studies. Further examination showed that rs2803496 was a TREML4 cis-eQTL and that the minor allele at this locus conferred up to a 6.5-fold increased relative risk of CAC. We characterized human TREML4 and demonstrated by immunohistochemical techniques that it is localized in macrophages surrounding the necrotic core of coronary plaques complicated by calcification (but not in arteries with less advanced disease). Finally, we determined by von Kossa staining that TREML4 colocalizes with areas of microcalcification within coronary plaques. Overall, we present integrative RNA, DNA, and protein evidence implicating TREML4 in coronary artery calcification. Our findings connect multimodal genomics data with a commonly used clinical marker of cardiovascular disease. PMID:24975946

  3. The eleven-nineteen-leukemia protein ENL connects nuclear MLL fusion partners with chromatin.

    PubMed

    Zeisig, Deniz T; Bittner, Claudia B; Zeisig, Bernd B; García-Cuéllar, Maria-Paz; Hess, Jay L; Slany, Robert K

    2005-08-18

    Mixed lineage leukemia (MLL) fusion proteins are derived from translocations at 11q23 that occur in aggressive subtypes of leukemia. As a consequence, MLL is joined to different unrelated proteins to form oncogenic transcription factors. Here we demonstrate a direct interaction between several nuclear MLL fusion partners and present evidence for a role of these proteins in histone binding. In two-hybrid studies, ENL interacted with AF4 and AF5q31 as well as with a fragment of AF10. A structure-function analysis revealed that the AF4/AF5q31/AF10 binding domain in ENL coincided with the C-terminus that is essential for transformation by MLL-ENL. The ENL/AF4 association was corroborated by GST-pulldown experiments and by mutual coprecipitation. Both proteins colocalized in vivo in a nuclear speckled pattern. Moreover, AF4 and ENL coeluted on sizing columns together with the known ENL binding partner Polycomb3, suggesting the presence of a multiprotein complex. The overexpression of ENL alone activated a reporter construct and a mutational screen indicated the conserved YEATS domain as essential for this function. Overlay and pulldown-assays finally showed a specific and YEATS domain-dependent association of ENL with histones H3 and H1. In summary, our studies support a common role for nuclear MLL fusion partners in chromatin biology.

  4. The 14-3-3 protein forms a molecular complex with heat shock protein Hsp60 and cellular prion protein.

    PubMed

    Satoh, Jun-ichi; Onoue, Hiroyuki; Arima, Kunimasa; Yamamura, Takashi

    2005-10-01

    The 14-3-3 protein family consists of acidic 30-kDa proteins composed of 7 isoforms expressed abundantly in neurons and glial cells of the central nervous system (CNS). The 14-3-3 protein identified in the cerebrospinal fluid provides a surrogate marker for premortem diagnosis of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, although an active involvement of 14-3-3 in the pathogenesis of prion diseases remains unknown. By protein overlay and mass spectrometric analysis of protein extract of NTera2-derived differentiated neurons, we identified heat shock protein Hsp60 as a 14-3-3-interacting protein. The 14-3-3zeta and gamma isoforms interacted with Hsp60, suggesting that the interaction is not isoform-specific. Furthermore, the interaction was identified in SK-N-SH neuroblastoma, U-373MG astrocytoma, and HeLa cervical carcinoma cells. The cellular prion protein (PrPC) along with Hsp60 was coimmunoprecipitated with 14-3-3 in the human brain protein extract. By protein overlay, 14-3-3 interacted with both recombinant human Hsp60 and PrPC produced by Escherichia coli, indicating that the molecular interaction is phosphorylation-independent. The 14-3-3-binding domain was located in the N-terminal half (NTF) of Hsp60 spanning amino acid residues 27-287 and the NTF of PrPC spanning amino acid residues 23-137. By immunostaining, the 14-3-3 protein Hsp60 and PrPC were colocalized chiefly in the mitochondria of human neuronal progenitor cells in culture, and were coexpressed most prominently in neurons and reactive astrocytes in the human brain. These observations indicate that the 14-3-3 protein forms a molecular complex with Hsp60 and PrPC in the human CNS under physiological conditions and suggest that this complex might become disintegrated in the pathologic process of prion diseases.

  5. Isolation of Native Soluble and Membrane-Bound Protein Complexes from Yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Tobias; Chan, Anna; Schröter, Thomas; Schwerter, Daniel; Girzalsky, Wolfgang; Erdmann, Ralf

    2017-01-01

    Immunoprecipitation is a traditional approach to isolate single proteins or native protein complexes from a complex sample mixture. The original method makes use of specific antibodies against endogenous proteins or epitope tags, which are first bound to the target protein and then isolated with protein A beads. An advancement of this method is the application of a protein A tag fused to the target protein and the affinity-purification of the tagged protein with human Immunoglobulin G chemically cross-linked to a sepharose matrix. This method will be described exemplified by the purification of protein complexes of the peroxisomal membrane from yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

  6. Enhanced conformational sampling to visualize a free-energy landscape of protein complex formation.

    PubMed

    Iida, Shinji; Nakamura, Haruki; Higo, Junichi

    2016-06-15

    We introduce various, recently developed, generalized ensemble methods, which are useful to sample various molecular configurations emerging in the process of protein-protein or protein-ligand binding. The methods introduced here are those that have been or will be applied to biomolecular binding, where the biomolecules are treated as flexible molecules expressed by an all-atom model in an explicit solvent. Sampling produces an ensemble of conformations (snapshots) that are thermodynamically probable at room temperature. Then, projection of those conformations to an abstract low-dimensional space generates a free-energy landscape. As an example, we show a landscape of homo-dimer formation of an endothelin-1-like molecule computed using a generalized ensemble method. The lowest free-energy cluster at room temperature coincided precisely with the experimentally determined complex structure. Two minor clusters were also found in the landscape, which were largely different from the native complex form. Although those clusters were isolated at room temperature, with rising temperature a pathway emerged linking the lowest and second-lowest free-energy clusters, and a further temperature increment connected all the clusters. This exemplifies that the generalized ensemble method is a powerful tool for computing the free-energy landscape, by which one can discuss the thermodynamic stability of clusters and the temperature dependence of the cluster networks.

  7. Detection of Protein-Protein Interaction Within an RNA-Protein Complex Via Unnatural-Amino-Acid-Mediated Photochemical Crosslinking.

    PubMed

    Yeh, Fu-Lung; Tung, Luh; Chang, Tien-Hsien

    2016-01-01

    Although DExD/H-box proteins are known to unwind RNA duplexes and modulate RNA structures in vitro, it is highly plausible that, in vivo, some may function to remodel RNA-protein complexes. Precisely how the latter is achieved remains a mystery. We investigated this critical issue by using yeast Prp28p, an evolutionarily conserved DExD/H-box splicing factor, as a model system. To probe how Prp28p interacts with spliceosome, we strategically placed p-benzoyl-phenylalanine (BPA), a photoactivatable unnatural amino acid, along the body of Prp28p in vivo. Extracts prepared from these engineered strains were then used to assemble in vitro splicing reactions for BPA-mediated protein-protein crosslinkings. This enabled us, for the first time, to "capture" Prp28p in action. This approach may be applicable to studying the roles of other DExD/H-box proteins functioning in diverse RNA-related pathways, as well as to investigating protein-protein contacts within an RNA-protein complex.

  8. New reagents for increasing ESI multiple charging of proteins and protein complexes.

    PubMed

    Lomeli, Shirley H; Peng, Ivory X; Yin, Sheng; Loo, Rachel R Ogorzalek; Loo, Joseph A

    2010-01-01

    The addition of m-nitrobenzyl alcohol (m-NBA) was shown previously (Lomeli et al., J. Am. Soc. Mass Spectrom. 2009, 20, 593-596) to enhance multiple charging of native proteins and noncovalent protein complexes in electrospray ionization (ESI) mass spectra. Additional new reagents have been found to "supercharge" proteins from nondenaturing solutions; several of these reagents are shown to be more effective than m-NBA for increasing positive charging. Using the myoglobin protein-protoporphyrin IX (heme) complex, the following reagents were shown to increase ESI charging: benzyl alcohol, m-nitroacetophenone, m-nitrobenzonitrile, o-NBA, m-NBA, p-NBA, m-nitrophenyl ethanol, sulfolane (tetramethylene sulfone), and m-(trifluoromethyl)-benzyl alcohol. Based on average charge state, sulfolane displayed a greater charge increase (61%) than m-NBA (21%) for myoglobin in aqueous solutions. The reagents that promote higher ESI charging appear to have low solution-phase basicities and relatively low gas-phase basicities, and are less volatile than water. Another feature of mass spectra from some of the active reagents is that adducts are present on higher charge states, suggesting that a mechanism by which proteins acquire additional charge involves direct interaction with the reagent, in addition to other factors such as surface tension and protein denaturation.

  9. The coat protein complex II, COPII, protein Sec13 directly interacts with presenilin-1

    SciTech Connect

    Nielsen, Anders Lade

    2009-10-23

    Mutations in the human gene encoding presenilin-1, PS1, account for most cases of early-onset familial Alzheimer's disease. PS1 has nine transmembrane domains and a large loop orientated towards the cytoplasm. PS1 locates to cellular compartments as endoplasmic reticulum (ER), Golgi apparatus, vesicular structures, and plasma membrane, and is an integral member of {gamma}-secretase, a protein protease complex with specificity for intra-membranous cleavage of substrates such as {beta}-amyloid precursor protein. Here, an interaction between PS1 and the Sec13 protein is described. Sec13 takes part in coat protein complex II, COPII, vesicular trafficking, nuclear pore function, and ER directed protein sequestering and degradation control. The interaction maps to the N-terminal part of the large hydrophilic PS1 loop and the first of the six WD40-repeats present in Sec13. The identified Sec13 interaction to PS1 is a new candidate interaction for linking PS1 to secretory and protein degrading vesicular circuits.

  10. FoxO proteins mediate hypoxic induction of connective tissue growth factor in endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Samarin, Jana; Wessel, Julia; Cicha, Iwona; Kroening, Sven; Warnecke, Christina; Goppelt-Struebe, Margarete

    2010-02-12

    Hypoxia, a driving force in neovascularization, promotes alterations in gene expression mediated by hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1alpha. Connective tissue growth factor (CTGF, CCN2) is a modulator of endothelial cell growth and migration, but its regulation by hypoxia is poorly understood. Therefore, we analyzed signaling pathways involved in the regulation of CTGF by hypoxia in endothelial cells. Exposure to low oxygen tension or treatment with the hypoxia-mimetic dimethyloxalyl glycine (DMOG) stabilized HIF-1alpha and up-regulated CTGF in human umbilical vein endothelial cells and in a murine microvascular endothelial cell line. Induction of CTGF correlated with a HIF-dependent increase in protein and mRNA levels, and nuclear accumulation of the transcription factor FoxO3a. By contrast, gene expression and cellular localization of FoxO1 were not significantly altered by hypoxia. Expression of CTGF was strongly reduced by siRNA silencing of FoxO1 or FoxO3a. Furthermore, nuclear exclusion of FoxO1/3a transcription factors by inhibition of serine/threonine protein phosphatases by okadaic acid inhibited CTGF expression, providing evidence for both FoxO proteins as regulators of CTGF expression. The DMOG-stimulated induction of CTGF was further increased when endothelial cells were co-incubated with transforming growth factor-beta, an activator of Smad signaling. Activation of RhoA-Rho kinase signaling by the microtubule-disrupting drug combretastatin A4 also enhanced the DMOG-induced CTGF expression, thus placing CTGF induction by hypoxia in a network of interacting signaling pathways. Our findings provide evidence that FoxO1, hypoxia-stimulated expression of FoxO3a and its nuclear accumulation are required for the induction of CTGF by hypoxia in endothelial cells.

  11. Dissecting the function of Atg1 complex in Dictyostelium autophagy reveals a connection with the pentose phosphate pathway enzyme transketolase.

    PubMed

    Mesquita, Ana; Tábara, Luis C; Martinez-Costa, Oscar; Santos-Rodrigo, Natalia; Vincent, Olivier; Escalante, Ricardo

    2015-08-01

    The network of protein-protein interactions of the Dictyostelium discoideum autophagy pathway was investigated by yeast two-hybrid screening of the conserved autophagic proteins Atg1 and Atg8. These analyses confirmed expected interactions described in other organisms and also identified novel interactors that highlight the complexity of autophagy regulation. The Atg1 kinase complex, an essential regulator of autophagy, was investigated in detail here. The composition of the Atg1 complex in D. discoideum is more similar to mammalian cells than to Saccharomyces cerevisiae as, besides Atg13, it contains Atg101, a protein not conserved in this yeast. We found that Atg101 interacts with Atg13 and genetic disruption of these proteins in Dictyostelium leads to an early block in autophagy, although the severity of the developmental phenotype and the degree of autophagic block is higher in Atg13-deficient cells. We have also identified a protein containing zinc-finger B-box and FNIP motifs that interacts with Atg101. Disruption of this protein increases autophagic flux, suggesting that it functions as a negative regulator of Atg101. We also describe the interaction of Atg1 kinase with the pentose phosphate pathway enzyme transketolase (TKT). We found changes in the activity of endogenous TKT activity in strains lacking or overexpressing Atg1, suggesting the presence of an unsuspected regulatory pathway between autophagy and the pentose phosphate pathway in Dictyostelium that seems to be conserved in mammalian cells.

  12. DBD2BS: connecting a DNA-binding protein with its binding sites.

    PubMed

    Chien, Ting-Ying; Lin, Chih-Kang; Lin, Chih-Wei; Weng, Yi-Zhong; Chen, Chien-Yu; Chang, Darby Tien-Hao

    2012-07-01

    By binding to short and highly conserved DNA sequences in genomes, DNA-binding proteins initiate, enhance or repress biological processes. Accurately identifying such binding sites, often represented by position weight matrices (PWMs), is an important step in understanding the control mechanisms of cells. When given coordinates of a DNA-binding domain (DBD) bound with DNA, a potential function can be used to estimate the change of binding affinity after base substitutions, where the changes can be summarized as a PWM. This technique provides an effective alternative when the chromatin immunoprecipitation data are unavailable for PWM inference. To facilitate the procedure of predicting PWMs based on protein-DNA complexes or even structures of the unbound state, the web server, DBD2BS, is presented in this study. The DBD2BS uses an atom-level knowledge-based potential function to predict PWMs characterizing the sequences to which the query DBD structure can bind. For unbound queries, a list of 1066 DBD-DNA complexes (including 1813 protein chains) is compiled for use as templates for synthesizing bound structures. The DBD2BS provides users with an easy-to-use interface for visualizing the PWMs predicted based on different templates and the spatial relationships of the query protein, the DBDs and the DNAs. The DBD2BS is the first attempt to predict PWMs of DBDs from unbound structures rather than from bound ones. This approach increases the number of existing protein structures that can be exploited when analyzing protein-DNA interactions. In a recent study, the authors showed that the kernel adopted by the DBD2BS can generate PWMs consistent with those obtained from the experimental data. The use of DBD2BS to predict PWMs can be incorporated with sequence-based methods to discover binding sites in genome-wide studies. Available at: http://dbd2bs.csie.ntu.edu.tw/, http://dbd2bs.csbb.ntu.edu.tw/, and http://dbd2bs.ee.ncku.edu.tw.

  13. Proteomics-Based Analysis of Protein Complexes in Pluripotent Stem Cells and Cancer Biology

    PubMed Central

    Sudhir, Putty-Reddy; Chen, Chung-Hsuan

    2016-01-01

    A protein complex consists of two or more proteins that are linked together through protein–protein interactions. The proteins show stable/transient and direct/indirect interactions within the protein complex or between the protein complexes. Protein complexes are involved in regulation of most of the cellular processes and molecular functions. The delineation of protein complexes is important to expand our knowledge on proteins functional roles in physiological and pathological conditions. The genetic yeast-2-hybrid method has been extensively used to characterize protein-protein interactions. Alternatively, a biochemical-based affinity purification coupled with mass spectrometry (AP-MS) approach has been widely used to characterize the protein complexes. In the AP-MS method, a protein complex of a target protein of interest is purified using a specific antibody or an affinity tag (e.g., DYKDDDDK peptide (FLAG) and polyhistidine (His)) and is subsequently analyzed by means of MS. Tandem affinity purification, a two-step purification system, coupled with MS has been widely used mainly to reduce the contaminants. We review here a general principle for AP-MS-based characterization of protein complexes and we explore several protein complexes identified in pluripotent stem cell biology and cancer biology as examples. PMID:27011181

  14. A fractal growth model: Exploring the connection pattern of hubs in complex networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Dongyan; Wang, Xingyuan; Huang, Penghe

    2017-04-01

    Fractal is ubiquitous in many real-world networks. Previous researches showed that the strong disassortativity between the hub-nodes on all length scales was the key principle that gave rise to the fractal architecture of networks. Although fractal property emerged in some models, there were few researches about the fractal growth model and quantitative analyses about the strength of the disassortativity for fractal model. In this paper, we proposed a novel inverse renormalization method, named Box-based Preferential Attachment (BPA), to build the fractal growth models in which the Preferential Attachment was performed at box level. The proposed models provided a new framework that demonstrated small-world-fractal transition. Also, we firstly demonstrated the statistical characteristic of connection patterns of the hubs in fractal networks. The experimental results showed that, given proper growing scale and added edges, the proposed models could clearly show pure small-world or pure fractal or both of them. It also showed that the hub connection ratio showed normal distribution in many real-world networks. At last, the comparisons of connection pattern between the proposed models and the biological and technical networks were performed. The results gave useful reference for exploring the growth principle and for modeling the connection patterns for real-world networks.

  15. First and last ancestors: reconstructing evolution of the endomembrane system with ESCRTs, vesicle coat proteins, and nuclear pore complexes.

    PubMed

    Field, Mark C; Dacks, Joel B

    2009-02-01

    The eukaryotic endomembrane system is responsible for the biosynthesis and transport of proteins and lipids, and for the definition of the major subcellular compartments. Recent work indicates that the endomembrane system is ancient, with near modern complexity predating the radiation of the major eukaryotic lineages. The challenge is to look beyond the last eukaryotic common ancestor and to attempt to deduce the evolutionary steps in the rise of membrane-trafficking complexity. Relationships between the endomembrane coatomer complexes and their evolutionary connection to the nuclear pore complex are emerging. These studies, plus the realization of a role for the ESCRT complex as an alternate, but equally ancient, system for membrane deformation are providing insight into the earliest stages of endomembrane evolution.

  16. Protein relaxation in the photodissociation of myoglobin-CO complexes.

    PubMed

    Angeloni, Leonardo; Feis, Alessandro

    2003-07-01

    Laser-induced optoacoustic spectroscopy has been applied to the study of the photodissociation of myoglobin-CO complexes. Time-resolved optoacoustic signals have been measured from aqueous solutions of horse myoglobin-CO complex (hMbCO) at pH 3.5 and 8, and of sperm whale myoglobin-CO complex (swMbCO) at pH 8, in the temperature range 273-300 K. The signal of hMbCO at pH 8 exhibits three components. The first, which is faster than 20 ns and is associated with a reaction enthalpy of 61 kJ mol(-1), corresponds to Fe-CO bond breakage. The second component has a decay time of 80 ns at 293 K and is associated with an exothermic protein relaxation (-13 kJ mol(-1)) and a volume change of -3 ml mol(-1). The relaxation, which involves a state where the photo-dissociated CO is still in a protein docking site, is thermally activated, with an activation enthalpy of 51 kJ mol(-1). The third component has a decay time of 800 ns at 293 K and an activation enthalpy of 39 kJ mol(-1), and is associated with an endothermic process (26 kJ mol(-1)) and an expansion of 19 ml mol(-1). This process is ascribed to the migration of the photodissociated CO to the bulk solvent. At acidic pH, the latter process becomes faster (230 ns) and the volume change decreases. These features are correlated with the presence of an open form of the protein. swMbCO exhibits two components only, due to the overlap of the two fastest processes. The first involves a reaction enthalpy of 49 kJ mol(-1) and a volume contraction of -4.9 ml mol(-1). The second component (900 ns at 293 K, activation enthalpy 45 kJ mol(-1)) is associated with a reaction enthalpy of 38 kJ mol(-1) and a volume expansion of 15.3 ml mol(-1). These experimental findings have been interpreted by means of a new model, which also takes into account both laser flash photolysis results and structural information. The model is based on a two-dimensional scheme which describes both protein relaxation and the CO pathway following

  17. STATIC AND KINETIC SITE-SPECIFIC PROTEIN-DNA PHOTOCROSSLINKING: ANALYSIS OF BACTERIAL TRANSCRIPTION INITIATION COMPLEXES

    PubMed Central

    Naryshkin, Nikolai; Druzhinin, Sergei; Revyakin, Andrei; Kim, Younggyu; Mekler, Vladimir; Ebright, Richard H.

    2009-01-01

    Static site-specific protein-DNA photocrosslinking permits identification of protein-DNA interactions within multiprotein-DNA complexes. Kinetic site-specific protein-DNA photocrosslinking--involving rapid-quench-flow mixing and pulsed-laser irradiation--permits elucidation of pathways and kinetics of formation of protein-DNA interactions within multiprotein-DNA complexes. We present detailed protocols for application of static and kinetic site-specific protein-DNA photocrosslinking to bacterial transcription initiation complexes. PMID:19378179

  18. Small Cofactors May Assist Protein Emergence from RNA World: Clues from RNA-Protein Complexes

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Liang; Ji, Hong-Fang

    2011-01-01

    It is now widely accepted that at an early stage in the evolution of life an RNA world arose, in which RNAs both served as the genetic material and catalyzed diverse biochemical reactions. Then, proteins have gradually replaced RNAs because of their superior catalytic properties in catalysis over time. Therefore, it is important to investigate how primitive functional proteins emerged from RNA world, which can shed light on the evolutionary pathway of life from RNA world to the modern world. In this work, we proposed that the emergence of most primitive functional proteins are assisted by the early primitive nucleotide cofactors, while only a minority are induced directly by RNAs based on the analysis of RNA-protein complexes. Furthermore, the present findings have significant implication for exploring the composition of primitive RNA, i.e., adenine base as principal building blocks. PMID:21789260

  19. Yeast mitochondrial protein-protein interactions reveal diverse complexes and disease-relevant functional relationships.

    PubMed

    Jin, Ke; Musso, Gabriel; Vlasblom, James; Jessulat, Matthew; Deineko, Viktor; Negroni, Jacopo; Mosca, Roberto; Malty, Ramy; Nguyen-Tran, Diem-Hang; Aoki, Hiroyuki; Minic, Zoran; Freywald, Tanya; Phanse, Sadhna; Xiang, Qian; Freywald, Andrew; Aloy, Patrick; Zhang, Zhaolei; Babu, Mohan

    2015-02-06

    Although detailed, focused, and mechanistic analyses of associations among mitochondrial proteins (MPs) have identified their importance in varied biological processes, a systematic understanding of how MPs function in concert both with one another and with extra-mitochondrial proteins remains incomplete. Consequently, many questions regarding the role of mitochondrial dysfunction in the development of human disease remain unanswered. To address this, we compiled all existing mitochondrial physical interaction data for over 1200 experimentally defined yeast MPs and, through bioinformatic analysis, identified hundreds of heteromeric MP complexes having extensive associations both within and outside the mitochondria. We provide support for these complexes through structure prediction analysis, morphological comparisons of deletion strains, and protein co-immunoprecipitation. The integration of these MP complexes with reported genetic interaction data reveals substantial crosstalk between MPs and non-MPs and identifies novel factors in endoplasmic reticulum-mitochondrial organization, membrane structure, and mitochondrial lipid homeostasis. More than one-third of these MP complexes are conserved in humans, with many containing members linked to clinical pathologies, enabling us to identify genes with putative disease function through guilt-by-association. Although still remaining incomplete, existing mitochondrial interaction data suggests that the relevant molecular machinery is modular, yet highly integrated with non-mitochondrial processes.

  20. Protein-Protein Interaction Investigated by Steered Molecular Dynamics: The TCR-pMHC Complex

    PubMed Central

    Cuendet, Michel A.; Michielin, Olivier

    2008-01-01

    We present a novel steered molecular dynamics scheme to induce the dissociation of large protein-protein complexes. We apply this scheme to study the interaction of a T cell receptor (TCR) with a major histocompatibility complex (MHC) presenting a peptide (p). Two TCR-pMHC complexes are considered, which only differ by the mutation of a single amino acid on the peptide; one is a strong agonist that produces T cell activation in vivo, while the other is an antagonist. We investigate the interaction mechanism from a large number of unbinding trajectories by analyzing van der Waals and electrostatic interactions and by computing energy changes in proteins and solvent. In addition, dissociation potentials of mean force are calculated with the Jarzynski identity, using an averaging method developed for our steering scheme. We analyze the convergence of the Jarzynski exponential average, which is hampered by the large amount of dissipative work involved and the complexity of the system. The resulting dissociation free energies largely underestimate experimental values, but the simulations are able to clearly differentiate between wild-type and mutated TCR-pMHC and give insights into the dissociation mechanism. PMID:18621828

  1. Evolution of protein complexity: the blue copper-containing oxidases and related proteins.

    PubMed

    Rydén, L G; Hunt, L T

    1993-01-01

    The blue copper proteins and their relatives have been compared by sequence alignments, by comparison of three-dimensional structures, and by construction of phylogenetic trees. The group contains proteins varying in size from 100 residues to over 2,300 residues in a single chain, containing from zero to nine copper atoms, and with a broad variation in function ranging from electron carrier proteins and oxidases to the blood coagulation factors V and VIII. Difference matrices show the sequence difference to be over 90% for many pairs in the group, yet alignment scores and other evidence suggest that they all evolved from a common ancestor. We have attempted to delineate how this evolution took place and in particular to define the mechanisms by which these proteins acquired an ever-increasing complexity in structure and function. We find evidence for six such mechanisms in this group of proteins: domain enlargement, in which a single domain increases in size from about 100 residues up to 210; domain duplication, which allows for a size increase from about 170 to about 1,000 residues; segment elongation, in which a small segment undergoes multiple successive duplications that can increase the chain size 50-fold; domain recruitment, in which a domain coded elsewhere in the genome is added on to the peptide chain; subunit formation, to form multisubunit proteins; and glycosylation, which in some cases doubles the size of the protein molecule. Size increase allows for the evolution of new catalytic properties, in particular the oxidase function, and for the formation of coagulation factors with multiple interaction sites and regulatory properties. The blood coagulation system is examined as an example in which a system of interacting proteins evolved by successive duplications of larger parts of the genome. The evolution of size, functionality, and diversity is compared with the general question of increase in size and complexity in biology.

  2. CCT complex restricts neuropathogenic protein aggregation via autophagy

    PubMed Central

    Pavel, Mariana; Imarisio, Sara; Menzies, Fiona M.; Jimenez-Sanchez, Maria; Siddiqi, Farah H.; Wu, Xiaoting; Renna, Maurizio; O'Kane, Cahir J.; Crowther, Damian C.; Rubinsztein, David C.

    2016-01-01

    Aberrant protein aggregation is controlled by various chaperones, including CCT (chaperonin containing TCP-1)/TCP-1/TRiC. Mutated CCT4/5 subunits cause sensory neuropathy and CCT5 expression is decreased in Alzheimer's disease. Here, we show that CCT integrity is essential for autophagosome degradation in cells or Drosophila and this phenomenon is orchestrated by the actin cytoskeleton. When autophagic flux is reduced by compromise of individual CCT subunits, various disease-relevant autophagy substrates accumulate and aggregate. The aggregation of proteins like mutant huntingtin, ATXN3 or p62 after CCT2/5/7 depletion is predominantly autophagy dependent, and does not further increase with CCT knockdown in autophagy-defective cells/organisms, implying surprisingly that the effect of loss-of-CCT activity on mutant ATXN3 or huntingtin oligomerization/aggregation is primarily a consequence of autophagy inhibition rather than loss of physiological anti-aggregation activity for these proteins. Thus, our findings reveal an essential partnership between two key components of the proteostasis network and implicate autophagy defects in diseases with compromised CCT complex activity. PMID:27929117

  3. A Repressor Protein Complex Regulates Leaf Growth in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez, Nathalie; Pauwels, Laurens; Baekelandt, Alexandra; De Milde, Liesbeth; Van Leene, Jelle; Besbrugge, Nienke; Heyndrickx, Ken S.; Pérez, Amparo Cuéllar; Durand, Astrid Nagels; De Clercq, Rebecca; Van De Slijke, Eveline; Vanden Bossche, Robin; Eeckhout, Dominique; Gevaert, Kris; Vandepoele, Klaas; De Jaeger, Geert; Goossens, Alain; Inzé, Dirk

    2015-01-01

    Cell number is an important determinant of final organ size. In the leaf, a large proportion of cells are derived from the stomatal lineage. Meristemoids, which are stem cell-like precursor cells, undergo asymmetric divisions, generating several pavement cells adjacent to the two guard cells. However, the mechanism controlling the asymmetric divisions of these stem cells prior to differentiation is not well understood. Here, we characterized PEAPOD (PPD) proteins, the only transcriptional regulators known to negatively regulate meristemoid division. PPD proteins interact with KIX8 and KIX9, which act as adaptor proteins for the corepressor TOPLESS. D3-type cyclin encoding genes were identified among direct targets of PPD2, being negatively regulated by PPDs and KIX8/9. Accordingly, kix8 kix9 mutants phenocopied PPD loss-of-function producing larger leaves resulting from increased meristemoid amplifying divisions. The identified conserved complex might be specific for leaf growth in the second dimension, since it is not present in Poaceae (grasses), which also lack the developmental program it controls. PMID:26232487

  4. Distribution of adenosine deaminase complexing protein (ADCP) in human tissues.

    PubMed

    Dinjens, W N; ten Kate, J; van der Linden, E P; Wijnen, J T; Khan, P M; Bosman, F T

    1989-12-01

    The normal distribution of adenosine deaminase complexing protein (ADCP) in the human body was investigated quantitatively by ADCP-specific radioimmunoassay (RIA) and qualitatively by immunohistochemistry. In these studies we used a specific rabbit anti-human ADCP antiserum. In all 19 investigated tissues, except erythrocytes, ADCP was found by RIA in the soluble and membrane fractions. From all tissues the membrane fractions contained more ADCP (expressed per mg protein) than the soluble fractions. High membrane ADCP concentrations were found in skin, renal cortex, gastrointestinal tract, and prostate. Immunoperoxidase staining confirmed the predominant membrane-associated localization of the protein. In serous sweat glands, convoluted tubules of renal cortex, bile canaliculi, gastrointestinal tract, lung, pancreas, prostate gland, salivary gland, gallbladder, mammary gland, and uterus, ADCP immunoreactivity was found confined to the luminal membranes of the epithelial cells. These data demonstrate that ADCP is present predominantly in exocrine glands and absorptive epithelia. The localization of ADCP at the secretory or absorptive apex of the cells suggests that the function of ADCP is related to the secretory and/or absorptive process.

  5. Identification of productive and futile encounters in an electron transfer protein complex.

    PubMed

    Andrałojć, Witold; Hiruma, Yoshitaka; Liu, Wei-Min; Ravera, Enrico; Nojiri, Masaki; Parigi, Giacomo; Luchinat, Claudio; Ubbink, Marcellus

    2017-03-07

    Well-defined, stereospecific states in protein complexes are often in exchange with an ensemble of more dynamic orientations: the encounter states. The structure of the stereospecific complex between cytochrome P450cam and putidaredoxin was solved recently by X-ray diffraction as well as paramagnetic NMR spectroscopy. Other than the stereospecific complex, the NMR data clearly show the presence of additional states in the complex in solution. In these encounter states, populated for a small percentage of the time, putidaredoxin assumes multiple orientations and samples a large part of the surface of cytochrome P450cam. To characterize the nature of the encounter states, an extensive paramagnetic NMR dataset has been analyzed using the Maximum Occurrence of Regions methodology. The analysis reveals the location and maximal spatial extent of the additional states needed to fully explain the NMR data. Under the assumption of sparsity of the size of the conformational ensemble, several minor states can be located quite precisely. The distribution of these minor states correlates with the electrostatic potential map around cytochrome P450cam. Whereas some minor states are on isolated positively charged patches, others are connected to the stereospecific site via positively charged paths. The existence of electrostatically favorable pathways between the stereospecific interaction site and the different minor states or lack thereof suggests a means to discriminate between productive and futile encounter states.

  6. Connecting the Sequence-Space of Bacterial Signaling Proteins to Phenotypes Using Coevolutionary Landscapes

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, R. R.; Nordesjö, O.; Hayes, R. L.; Levine, H.; Flores, S. C.; Onuchic, J. N.; Morcos, F.

    2016-01-01

    Two-component signaling (TCS) is the primary means by which bacteria sense and respond to the environment. TCS involves two partner proteins working in tandem, which interact to perform cellular functions whereas limiting interactions with non-partners (i.e., cross-talk). We construct a Potts model for TCS that can quantitatively predict how mutating amino acid identities affect the interaction between TCS partners and non-partners. The parameters of this model are inferred directly from protein sequence data. This approach drastically reduces the computational complexity of exploring the sequence-space of TCS proteins. As a stringent test, we compare its predictions to a recent comprehensive mutational study, which characterized the functionality of 204 mutational variants of the PhoQ kinase in Escherichia coli. We find that our best predictions accurately reproduce the amino acid combinations found in experiment, which enable functional signaling with its partner PhoP. These predictions demonstrate the evolutionary pressure to preserve the interaction between TCS partners as well as prevent unwanted cross-talk. Further, we calculate the mutational change in the binding affinity between PhoQ and PhoP, providing an estimate to the amount of destabilization needed to disrupt TCS. PMID:27604223

  7. Protein-Protein Interactions of the Baculovirus Per Os Infectivity Factors in the PIF Complex.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Qin; Shen, Yunwang; Kon, Xiangshuo; Zhang, Jianjia; Feng, Min; Wu, Xiaofeng

    2017-01-28

    After ingestion of occlusion bodies, the occlusion-derived viruses (ODVs) of baculoviruses establish the first round of infection within the larval host midgut cells. Several ODV envelope proteins, called per os infectivity factors (PIFs), have been shown to be essential for oral infection. Eight PIFs have been identified to date, including P74, PIFs1-6, and Ac110. At least six PIFs: P74, PIFs1-4, PIF6, together with three other ODV-specific proteins: Ac5, P95 (Ac83), and Ac108, have been reported to form a complex on the ODV surface. In this study, in order to understand the interactions of these PIFs, the direct protein-protein interactions of the nine components of the Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV) PIF complex were investigated using yeast two-hybrid (Y2H) combined with bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC) assay. Six direct interactions comprising PIF1-PIF2, PIF1-PIF3, PIF1-PIF4, PIF1-P95, PIF2-PIF3, and PIF3-PIF4, were identified in Y2H analysis, and these results were further verified by BiFC. For P74, PIF6, Ac5 and Ac108, no direct interaction was identified. P95 (Ac83) was identified to interact with PIF1 and further Y2H analysis of the truncations and deletion mutants showed that the predicted P95 chitin-binding domain and PIF1 100-200aa were responsible for P95 interaction with PIF1. Furthermore, a summary of the protein-protein interactions of PIFs reported so far, comprising 10 reciprocal interactions and 2 self-interactions, is presented, which will facilitate our understanding of the characteristic of PIF complex.

  8. CircRNA-protein complexes: IMP3 protein component defines subfamily of circRNPs

    PubMed Central

    Schneider, Tim; Hung, Lee-Hsueh; Schreiner, Silke; Starke, Stefan; Eckhof , Heinrich; Rossbach, Oliver; Reich, Stefan; Medenbach, Jan; Bindereif , Albrecht

    2016-01-01

    Circular RNAs (circRNAs) constitute a new class of noncoding RNAs in higher eukaryotes generated from pre-mRNAs by alternative splicing. Here we investigated in mammalian cells the association of circRNAs with proteins. Using glycerol gradient centrifugation, we characterized in cell lysates circRNA-protein complexes (circRNPs) of distinct sizes. By polysome-gradient fractionation we found no evidence for efficient translation of a set of abundant circRNAs in HeLa cells. To identify circRNPs with a specific protein component, we focused on IMP3 (IGF2BP3, insulin-like growth factor 2 binding protein 3), a known tumor marker and RNA-binding protein. Combining RNA-seq analysis of IMP3-co-immunoprecipitated RNA and filtering for circular-junction reads identified a set of IMP3-associated circRNAs, which were validated and characterized. In sum, our data suggest that specific circRNP families exist defined by a common protein component. In addition, this provides a general approach to identify circRNPs with a given protein component. PMID:27510448

  9. The Protein Kingdom Extended: Ordered and Intrinsically Disordered Proteins, Their Folding, Supramolecular Complex Formation, and Aggregation

    PubMed Central

    Turoverov, Konstantin K.; Kuznetsova, Irina M.; Uversky, Vladimir N.

    2010-01-01

    The native state of a protein is usually associated with a compact globular conformation possessing a rigid and highly ordered structure. At the turn of the last century certain studies arose which concluded that many proteins cannot, in principle, form a rigid globular structure in an aqueous environment, but they are still able to fulfill their specific functions — i.e., they are native. The existence of the disordered regions allows these proteins to interact with their numerous binding partners. Such interactions are often accompanied by the formation of complexes that possess a more ordered structure than the original components. The functional diversity of these proteins, combined with the variability of signals related to the various intra-and intercellular processes handled by these proteins and their capability to produce multi-variant and multi-directional responses allow them to form a unique regulatory net in a cell. The abundance of disordered proteins inside the cell is precisely controlled at the synthesis and clearance levels as well as via interaction with specific binding partners and posttranslational modifications. Another recently recognized biologically active state of proteins is the functional amyloid. The formation of such functional amyloids is tightly controlled and therefore differs from the uncontrolled formation of pathogenic amyloids which are associated with the pathogenesis of several conformational diseases, the development of which is likely to be determined by the failures of the cellular regulatory systems rather than by the formation of the proteinaceous deposits and/or by the protofibril toxicity. PMID:20097220

  10. Sensitive single-molecule protein quantification and protein complex detection in a microarray format

    PubMed Central

    Tessler, Lee A.; Mitra, Robi D.

    2012-01-01

    Single-molecule protein analysis provides sensitive protein quantitation with a digital read-out and is promising for studying biological systems and detecting biomarkers clinically. However, current single-molecule platforms rely on the quantification of one protein at a time. Conventional antibody microarrays are scalable to detect many proteins simultaneously, but they rely on less-sensitive and less quantitative quantification by the ensemble averaging of fluorescent molecules. Here we demonstrate a single-molecule protein assay in a microarray format enabled by an ultra-low background surface and single-molecule imaging. The digital read-out provides a highly sensitive, low femtomolar limit of detection and 4 orders of magnitude of dynamic range through the use of hybrid digital-analog quantification. From crude cell lysate, we measured levels of p53 and MDM2 in parallel, proving the concept of a digital antibody microarray for use in proteomic profiling. We also applied the single-molecule microarray to detect the p53-MDM2 protein complex in cell lysate. Our study is promising for development and application of single-molecule protein methods because it represents a technological bridge between single-plex and highly multiplex studies. PMID:22038904

  11. Hierarchical structures made of proteins. The complex architecture of spider webs and their constituent silk proteins.

    PubMed

    Heim, Markus; Römer, Lin; Scheibel, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Biopolymers fulfil a variety of different functions in nature. They conduct various processes inside and outside cells and organisms, with a functionality ranging from storage of information to stabilization, protection, shaping, transport, cellular division, or movement of whole organisms. Within the plethora of biopolymers, the most sophisticated group is of proteinaceous origin: the cytoskeleton of a cell is made of protein filaments that aid in pivotal processes like intracellular transport, movement, and cell division; geckos use a distinct arrangement of keratin-like filaments on their toes which enable them to walk up smooth surfaces, such as walls, and even upside down across ceilings; and spiders spin silks that are extra-corporally used for protection of offspring and construction of complex prey traps. The following tutorial review describes the hierarchical organization of protein fibers, using spider dragline silk as an example. The properties of a dragline silk thread originate from the strictly controlled assembly of the underlying protein chains. The assembly procedure leads to protein fibers showing a complex hierarchical organization comprising three different structural phases. This structural organization is responsible for the outstanding mechanical properties of individual fibers, which out-compete even those of high-performance artificial fibers like Kevlar. Web-weaving spiders produce, in addition to dragline silk, other silks with distinct properties, based on slightly variant constituent proteins--a feature that allows construction of highly sophisticated spider webs with well designed architectures and with optimal mechanical properties for catching prey.

  12. Dissecting the function of Atg1 complex in Dictyostelium autophagy reveals a connection with the pentose phosphate pathway enzyme transketolase

    PubMed Central

    Mesquita, Ana; Tábara, Luis C.; Martinez-Costa, Oscar; Santos-Rodrigo, Natalia; Vincent, Olivier; Escalante, Ricardo

    2015-01-01

    The network of protein–protein interactions of the Dictyostelium discoideum autophagy pathway was investigated by yeast two-hybrid screening of the conserved autophagic proteins Atg1 and Atg8. These analyses confirmed expected interactions described in other organisms and also identified novel interactors that highlight the complexity of autophagy regulation. The Atg1 kinase complex, an essential regulator of autophagy, was investigated in detail here. The composition of the Atg1 complex in D. discoideum is more similar to mammalian cells than to Saccharomyces cerevisiae as, besides Atg13, it contains Atg101, a protein not conserved in this yeast. We found that Atg101 interacts with Atg13 and genetic disruption of these proteins in Dictyostelium leads to an early block in autophagy, although the severity of the developmental phenotype and the degree of autophagic block is higher in Atg13-deficient cells. We have also identified a protein containing zinc-finger B-box and FNIP motifs that interacts with Atg101. Disruption of this protein increases autophagic flux, suggesting that it functions as a negative regulator of Atg101. We also describe the interaction of Atg1 kinase with the pentose phosphate pathway enzyme transketolase (TKT). We found changes in the activity of endogenous TKT activity in strains lacking or overexpressing Atg1, suggesting the presence of an unsuspected regulatory pathway between autophagy and the pentose phosphate pathway in Dictyostelium that seems to be conserved in mammalian cells. PMID:26246495

  13. C1orf163/RESA1 is a novel mitochondrial intermembrane space protein connected to respiratory chain assembly.

    PubMed

    Kozjak-Pavlovic, Vera; Prell, Florian; Thiede, Bernd; Götz, Monika; Wosiek, Dominik; Ott, Christine; Rudel, Thomas

    2014-02-20

    Oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) in mitochondria takes place at the inner membrane, which folds into numerous cristae. The stability of cristae depends, among other things, on the mitochondrial intermembrane space bridging complex. Its components include inner mitochondrial membrane protein mitofilin and outer membrane protein Sam50. We identified a conserved, uncharacterized protein, C1orf163 [SEL1 repeat containing 1 protein (SELRC1)], as one of the proteins significantly reduced after the knockdown of Sam50 and mitofilin. We show that C1orf163 is a mitochondrial soluble intermembrane space protein. Sam50 depletion affects moderately the import and assembly of C1orf163 into two protein complexes of approximately 60kDa and 150kDa. We observe that the knockdown of C1orf163 leads to reduction of levels of proteins belonging to the OXPHOS complexes. The activity of complexes I and IV is reduced in C1orf163-depleted cells, and we observe the strongest defects in the assembly of complex IV. Therefore, we propose C1orf163 to be a novel factor important for the assembly of respiratory chain complexes in human mitochondria and suggest to name it RESA1 (for RESpiratory chain Assembly 1). Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Posing Complex Problems Requiring Multiplicative Thinking Prompts Students to Use Sophisticated Strategies and Build Mathematical Connections

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Downton, Ann; Sullivan, Peter

    2017-01-01

    While the general planning advice offered to mathematics teachers seems to be to start with simple examples and build complexity progressively, the research reported in this article is a contribution to the body of literature that argues the reverse. That is, posing of appropriately complex tasks may actually prompt the use of more sophisticated…

  15. Two-stage single-phase grid-connected photovoltaic system with reduced complexity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Silva, Cintia S.; Motta, Filipe R.; Tofoli, Fernando L.

    2011-06-01

    This article presents a grid-connected photovoltaic (PV) system using the classical DC-DC buck converter, which is responsible for stepping down the resulting voltage from several series-connected panels. Besides, the structure provides high power factor operation by injecting a quasi-sinusoidal current into the grid, with near no displacement in relation to the line voltage at the point of common coupling among the PV system and the loads. A CSI employing thyristors is cascaded with the DC-DC stage so that AC voltage results. The inverter output voltage level is adjusted by using a low-frequency transformer, which also provides galvanic isolation. The proposed system is described as mathematical approach and design guidelines are presented, providing an overview of the topology. An experimental prototype is also implemented, and relevant results to validate the proposal are discussed.

  16. Fluid-dynamic computations on a connection machine - Preliminary timings and complex boundary conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oran, Elaine S.; Boris, Jay P.; Brown, Eugene F.

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes the conversion and application of the explicit, time-dependent, fourth-order, phase-accurate, variable-grid flux-corrected transport module, LCPFCT, to the Connection Machine, a fine-grained SIMD parallel processor. Models developed are as similar to the production Cray codes as possible and include a variety of different realistic boundary conditions. Timing comparisons show that a 16K-processor Connection Machine allows computations at speeds up to a factor of seven faster than obtained on a Cray YMP for a functionally equivalent optimized, three-dimensional code. Test calculations of a two-dimensional exploding shock and a three-dimensional helically perturbed jet are described and discussed briefly.

  17. Molecular Recognition in Complexes of TRF Proteins with Telomeric DNA

    PubMed Central

    Wieczór, Miłosz; Tobiszewski, Adrian; Wityk, Paweł; Tomiczek, Bartłomiej; Czub, Jacek

    2014-01-01

    Telomeres are specialized nucleoprotein assemblies that protect the ends of linear chromosomes. In humans and many other species, telomeres consist of tandem TTAGGG repeats bound by a protein complex known as shelterin that remodels telomeric DNA into a protective loop structure and regulates telomere homeostasis. Shelterin recognizes telomeric repeats through its two major components known as Telomere Repeat-Binding Factors, TRF1 and TRF2. These two homologous proteins are therefore essential for the formation and normal function of telomeres. Indeed, TRF1 and TRF2 are implicated in a plethora of different cellular functions and their depletion leads to telomere dysfunction with chromosomal fusions, followed by apoptotic cell death. More specifically, it was found that TRF1 acts as a negative regulator of telomere length, and TRF2 is involved in stabilizing the loop structure. Consequently, these proteins are of great interest, not only because of their key role in telomere maintenance and stability, but also as potential drug targets. In the current study, we investigated the molecular basis of telomeric sequence recognition by TRF1 and TRF2 and their DNA binding mechanism. We used molecular dynamics (MD) to calculate the free energy profiles for binding of TRFs to telomeric DNA. We found that the predicted binding free energies were in good agreement with experimental data. Further, different molecular determinants of binding, such as binding enthalpies and entropies, the hydrogen bonding pattern and changes in surface area, were analyzed to decompose and examine the overall binding free energies at the structural level. With this approach, we were able to draw conclusions regarding the consecutive stages of sequence-specific association, and propose a novel aspartate-dependent mechanism of sequence recognition. Finally, our work demonstrates the applicability of computational MD-based methods to studying protein-DNA interactions. PMID:24586793

  18. Nanobody-targeted E3-ubiquitin ligase complex degrades nuclear proteins

    PubMed Central

    Ju Shin, Yeong; Kyun Park, Seung; Jung Jung, Yoo; Na Kim, Ye; Sung Kim, Ki; Kyu Park, Ok; Kwon, Seung-Hae; Ho Jeon, Sung; Trinh, Le A.; Fraser, Scott E.; Kee, Yun; Joon Hwang, Byung

    2015-01-01

    Targeted protein degradation is a powerful tool in determining the function of specific proteins or protein complexes. We fused nanobodies to SPOP, an adaptor protein of the Cullin-RING E3 ubiquitin ligase complex, resulting in rapid ubiquitination and subsequent proteasome-dependent degradation of specific nuclear proteins in mammalian cells and zebrafish embryos. This approach is easily modifiable, as substrate specificity is conferred by an antibody domain that can be adapted to target virtually any protein. PMID:26373678

  19. Excitation energy transfer in photosynthetic protein-pigment complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeh, Shu-Hao

    Quantum biology is a relatively new research area which investigates the rules that quantum mechanics plays in biology. One of the most intriguing systems in this field is the coherent excitation energy transport (EET) in photosynthesis. In this document I will discuss the theories that are suitable for describing the photosynthetic EET process and the corresponding numerical results on several photosynthetic protein-pigment complexes (PPCs). In some photosynthetic EET processes, because of the electronic coupling between the chromophores within the system is about the same order of magnitude as system-bath coupling (electron-phonon coupling), a non-perturbative method called hierarchy equation of motion (HEOM) is applied to study the EET dynamics. The first part of this thesis includes brief introduction and derivation to the HEOM approach. The second part of this thesis the HEOM method will be applied to investigate the EET process within the B850 ring of the light harvesting complex 2 (LH2) from purple bacteria, Rhodopseudomonas acidophila. The dynamics of the exciton population and coherence will be analyzed under different initial excitation configurations and temperatures. Finally, how HEOM can be implemented to simulate the two-dimensional electronic spectra of photosynthetic PPCs will be discussed. Two-dimensional electronic spectroscopy is a crucial experimental technique to probe EET dynamics in multi-chromophoric systems. The system we are interested in is the 7-chromophore Fenna-Matthews-Olson (FMO) complex from green sulfur bacteria, Prosthecochloris aestuarii. Recent crystallographic studies report the existence of an additional (eighth) chromophore in some of the FMO monomers. By applying HEOM we are able to calculate the two-dimensional electronic spectra of the 7-site and 8-site FMO complexes and investigate the functionality of the eighth chromophore.

  20. Students' Learning with the Connected Chemistry (CC1) Curriculum: Navigating the Complexities of the Particulate World

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levy, Sharona T.; Wilensky, Uri

    2009-06-01

    The focus of this study is students' learning with a Connected Chemistry unit, CC1 (denotes Connected Chemistry, chapter 1), a computer-based environment for learning the topics of gas laws and kinetic molecular theory in chemistry (Levy and Wilensky 2009). An investigation was conducted into high-school students' learning with Connected Chemistry, based on a conceptual framework that highlights several forms of access to understanding the system (submicro, macro, mathematical, experiential) and bidirectional transitions among these forms, anchored at the common and experienced level, the macro-level. Results show a strong effect size for embedded assessment and a medium effect size regarding pre-post-test questionnaires. Stronger effects are seen for understanding the submicroscopic level and bridging between it and the macroscopic level. More than half the students succeeded in constructing the equations describing the gas laws. Significant shifts were found in students' epistemologies of models: understanding models as representations rather than replicas of reality and as providing multiple perspectives. Students' learning is discussed with respect to the conceptual framework and the benefits of assessment of learning using a fine-tuned profile and further directions for research are proposed.

  1. Novel type of red-shifted chlorophyll a antenna complex from Chromera velia. I. Physiological relevance and functional connection to photosystems.

    PubMed

    Kotabová, Eva; Jarešová, Jana; Kaňa, Radek; Sobotka, Roman; Bína, David; Prášil, Ondřej

    2014-06-01

    Chromera velia is an alveolate alga associated with scleractinian corals. Here we present detailed work on chromatic adaptation in C. velia cultured under either blue or red light. Growth of C. velia under red light induced the accumulation of a light harvesting antenna complex exhibiting unusual spectroscopic properties with red-shifted absorption and atypical 710nm fluorescence emission at room temperature. Due to these characteristic features the complex was designated "Red-shifted Chromera light harvesting complex" (Red-CLH complex). Its detailed biochemical survey is described in the accompanying paper (Bina et al. 2013, this issue). Here, we show that the accumulation of Red-CLH complex under red light represents a slow acclimation process (days) that is reversible with much faster kinetics (hours) under blue light. This chromatic adaptation allows C. velia to maintain all important parameters of photosynthesis constant under both light colors. We further demonstrated that the C. velia Red-CLH complex is assembled from a 17kDa antenna protein and is functionally connected to photosystem II as it shows variability of chlorophyll fluorescence. Red-CLH also serves as an additional locus for non-photochemical quenching. Although overall rates of oxygen evolution and carbon fixation were similar for both blue and red light conditions, the presence of Red-CLH in C. velia cells increases the light harvesting potential of photosystem II, which manifested as a doubled oxygen evolution rate at illumination above 695nm. This data demonstrates a remarkable long-term remodeling of C. velia light-harvesting system according to light quality and suggests physiological significance of 'red' antenna complexes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Transient Protein-Protein Interaction of the SH3-Peptide Complex via Closely Located Multiple Binding Sites

    PubMed Central

    Hahn, Seungsoo; Kim, Dongsup

    2012-01-01

    Protein-protein interactions play an essential role in cellular processes. Certain proteins form stable complexes with their partner proteins, whereas others function by forming transient complexes. The conventional protein-protein interaction model describes an interaction between two proteins under the assumption that a protein binds to its partner protein through a single binding site. In this study, we improved the conventional interaction model by developing a Multiple-Site (MS) model in which a protein binds to its partner protein through closely located multiple binding sites on a surface of the partner protein by transiently docking at each binding site with individual binding free energies. To test this model, we used the protein-protein interaction mediated by Src homology 3 (SH3) domains. SH3 domains recognize their partners via a weak, transient interaction and are therefore promiscuous in nature. Because the MS model requires large amounts of data compared with the conventional interaction model, we used experimental data from the positionally addressable syntheses of peptides on cellulose membranes (SPOT-synthesis) technique. From the analysis of the experimental data, individual binding free energies for each binding site of peptides were extracted. A comparison of the individual binding free energies from the analysis with those from atomistic force fields gave a correlation coefficient of 0.66. Furthermore, application of the MS model to 10 SH3 domains lowers the prediction error by up to 9% compared with the conventional interaction model. This improvement in prediction originates from a more realistic description of complex formation than the conventional interaction model. The results suggested that, in many cases, SH3 domains increased the protein complex population through multiple binding sites of their partner proteins. Our study indicates that the consideration of general complex formation is important for the accurate description of

  3. The Search Engine for Multi-Proteoform Complexes: An Online Tool for the Identification and Stoichiometry Determination of Protein Complexes.

    PubMed

    Skinner, Owen S; Schachner, Luis F; Kelleher, Neil L

    2016-12-08

    Recent advances in top-down mass spectrometry using native electrospray now enable the analysis of intact protein complexes with relatively small sample amounts in an untargeted mode. Here, we describe how to characterize both homo- and heteropolymeric complexes with high molecular specificity using input data produced by tandem mass spectrometry of whole protein assemblies. The tool described is a "search engine for multi-proteoform complexes," (SEMPC) and is available for free online. The output is a list of candidate multi-proteoform complexes and scoring metrics, which are used to define a distinct set of one or more unique protein subunits, their overall stoichiometry in the intact complex, and their pre- and post-translational modifications. Thus, we present an approach for the identification and characterization of intact protein complexes from native mass spectrometry data. © 2016 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  4. Control of synaptic connectivity by a network of Drosophila IgSF cell surface proteins

    PubMed Central

    Nagarkar-Jaiswal, Sonal; Lee, Pei-Tseng; Jeon, Mili; Birnbaum, Michael E.; Bellen, Hugo J.; Garcia, K. Christopher; Zinn, Kai

    2015-01-01

    Summary We have defined a network of interacting Drosophila cell surface proteins in which a 21-member IgSF subfamily, the Dprs, binds to a 9-member subfamily, the DIPs. The structural basis of the Dpr-DIP interaction code appears to be dictated by shape complementarity within the Dpr-DIP binding interface. Each of the 6 dpr and DIP genes examined here is expressed by a unique subset of larval and pupal neurons. In the neuromuscular system, interactions between Dpr11 and DIP-γ affect presynaptic terminal development, trophic factor responses, and neurotransmission. In the visual system, dpr11 is selectively expressed by R7 photoreceptors that use Rh4 opsin (yR7s). Their primary synaptic targets, Dm8 amacrine neurons, express DIP-γ. In dpr11 or DIP-γ mutants, yR7 terminals extend beyond their normal termination zones in layer M6 of the medulla. DIP-γ is also required for Dm8 survival or differentiation. Our findings suggest that Dpr-DIP interactions are important determinants of synaptic connectivity. PMID:26687361

  5. Control of Synaptic Connectivity by a Network of Drosophila IgSF Cell Surface Proteins.

    PubMed

    Carrillo, Robert A; Özkan, Engin; Menon, Kaushiki P; Nagarkar-Jaiswal, Sonal; Lee, Pei-Tseng; Jeon, Mili; Birnbaum, Michael E; Bellen, Hugo J; Garcia, K Christopher; Zinn, Kai

    2015-12-17

    We have defined a network of interacting Drosophila cell surface proteins in which a 21-member IgSF subfamily, the Dprs, binds to a nine-member subfamily, the DIPs. The structural basis of the Dpr-DIP interaction code appears to be dictated by shape complementarity within the Dpr-DIP binding interface. Each of the six dpr and DIP genes examined here is expressed by a unique subset of larval and pupal neurons. In the neuromuscular system, interactions between Dpr11 and DIP-γ affect presynaptic terminal development, trophic factor responses, and neurotransmission. In the visual system, dpr11 is selectively expressed by R7 photoreceptors that use Rh4 opsin (yR7s). Their primary synaptic targets, Dm8 amacrine neurons, express DIP-γ. In dpr11 or DIP-γ mutants, yR7 terminals extend beyond their normal termination zones in layer M6 of the medulla. DIP-γ is also required for Dm8 survival or differentiation. Our findings suggest that Dpr-DIP interactions are important determinants of synaptic connectivity.

  6. DBD2BS: connecting a DNA-binding protein with its binding sites

    PubMed Central

    Chien, Ting-Ying; Lin, Chih-Kang; Lin, Chih-Wei; Weng, Yi-Zhong; Chen, Chien-Yu; Chang, Darby Tien-Hao

    2012-01-01

    By binding to short and highly conserved DNA sequences in genomes, DNA-binding proteins initiate, enhance or repress biological processes. Accurately identifying such binding sites, often represented by position weight matrices (PWMs), is an important step in understanding the control mechanisms of cells. When given coordinates of a DNA-binding domain (DBD) bound with DNA, a potential function can be used to estimate the change of binding affinity after base substitutions, where the changes can be summarized as a PWM. This technique provides an effective alternative when the chromatin immunoprecipitation data are unavailable for PWM inference. To facilitate the procedure of predicting PWMs based on protein–DNA complexes or even structures of the unbound state, the web server, DBD2BS, is presented in this study. The DBD2BS uses an atom-level knowledge-based potential function to predict PWMs characterizing the sequences to which the query DBD structure can bind. For unbound queries, a list of 1066 DBD–DNA complexes (including 1813 protein chains) is compiled for use as templates for synthesizing bound structures. The DBD2BS provides users with an easy-to-use interface for visualizing the PWMs predicted based on different templates and the spatial relationships of the query protein, the DBDs and the DNAs. The DBD2BS is the first attempt to predict PWMs of DBDs from unbound structures rather than from bound ones. This approach increases the number of existing protein structures that can be exploited when analyzing protein–DNA interactions. In a recent study, the authors showed that the kernel adopted by the DBD2BS can generate PWMs consistent with those obtained from the experimental data. The use of DBD2BS to predict PWMs can be incorporated with sequence-based methods to discover binding sites in genome-wide studies. Available at: http://dbd2bs.csie.ntu.edu.tw/, http://dbd2bs.csbb.ntu.edu.tw/, and http://dbd2bs.ee.ncku.edu.tw. PMID:22693214

  7. Heterodimeric protein complex identification by naïve Bayes classifiers

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Protein complexes are basic cellular entities that carry out the functions of their components. It can be found that in databases of protein complexes of yeast like CYC2008, the major type of known protein complexes is heterodimeric complexes. Although a number of methods for trying to predict sets of proteins that form arbitrary types of protein complexes simultaneously have been proposed, it can be found that they often fail to predict heterodimeric complexes. Results In this paper, we have designed several features characterizing heterodimeric protein complexes based on genomic data sets, and proposed a supervised-learning method for the prediction of heterodimeric protein complexes. This method learns the parameters of the features, which are embedded in the naïve Bayes classifier. The log-likelihood ratio derived from the naïve Bayes classifier with the parameter values obtained by maximum likelihood estimation gives the score of a given pair of proteins to predict whether the pair is a heterodimeric complex or not. A five-fold cross-validation shows good performance on yeast. The trained classifiers also show higher predictability than various existing algorithms on yeast data sets with approximate and exact matching criteria. Conclusions Heterodimeric protein complex prediction is a rather harder problem than heteromeric protein complex prediction because heterodimeric protein complex is topologically simpler. However, it turns out that by designing features specialized for heterodimeric protein complexes, predictability of them can be improved. Thus, the design of more sophisticate features for heterodimeric protein complexes as well as the accumulation of more accurate and useful genome-wide data sets will lead to higher predictability of heterodimeric protein complexes. Our tool can be downloaded from http://imi.kyushu-u.ac.jp/~om/. PMID:24299017

  8. Atomistic Simulation of Lignocellulosic Biomass and Associated Cellulosomal Protein Complexes

    SciTech Connect

    Petridis, Loukas; Crowley, Michael F; Smith, Jeremy C

    2010-01-01

    Computer simulations have been performed to obtain an atomic-level understanding of lignocellulose structure and the assembly of its associated cellulosomal protein complexes. First, a CHARMM molecular mechanics force field for lignin is derived and validated by performing a molecular dynamics simulation of a crystal of a lignin fragment molecule and comparing simulation-derived structural features with experimental results. Together with the existing force field for polysaccharides, this work provides the basis for full simulations of lignocellulose. Second, the underlying molecular mechanism governing the assembly of various cellulosomal modules is investigated by performing a novel free-energy calculation of the cohesin-dockerin dissociation. Our calculation indicates a free-energy barrier of ~17 kcal/mol and further reveals a stepwise dissociation pathway involving both the central -sheet interface and its adjacent solvent-exposed loop/turn regions clustered at both ends of the -barrel structure.

  9. Weak conservation of structural features in the interfaces of homologous transient protein-protein complexes.

    PubMed

    Sudha, Govindarajan; Singh, Prashant; Swapna, Lakshmipuram S; Srinivasan, Narayanaswamy

    2015-11-01

    Residue types at the interface of protein-protein complexes (PPCs) are known to be reasonably well conserved. However, we show, using a dataset of known 3-D structures of homologous transient PPCs, that the 3-D location of interfacial residues and their interaction patterns are only moderately and poorly conserved, respectively. Another surprising observation is that a residue at the interface that is conserved is not necessarily in the interface in the homolog. Such differences in homologous complexes are manifested by substitution of the residues that are spatially proximal to the conserved residue and structural differences at the interfaces as well as differences in spatial orientations of the interacting proteins. Conservation of interface location and the interaction pattern at the core of the interfaces is higher than at the periphery of the interface patch. Extents of variability of various structural features reported here for homologous transient PPCs are higher than the variation in homologous permanent homomers. Our findings suggest that straightforward extrapolation of interfacial nature and inter-residue interaction patterns from template to target could lead to serious errors in the modeled complex structure. Understanding the evolution of interfaces provides insights to improve comparative modeling of PPC structures.

  10. Robustness, efficiency, and optimality in the Fenna-Matthews-Olson photosynthetic pigment-protein complex

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, Lewis A.; Habershon, Scott

    2015-09-14

    Pigment-protein complexes (PPCs) play a central role in facilitating excitation energy transfer (EET) from light-harvesting antenna complexes to reaction centres in photosynthetic systems; understanding molecular organisation in these biological networks is key to developing better artificial light-harvesting systems. In this article, we combine quantum-mechanical simulations and a network-based picture of transport to investigate how chromophore organization and protein environment in PPCs impacts on EET efficiency and robustness. In a prototypical PPC model, the Fenna-Matthews-Olson (FMO) complex, we consider the impact on EET efficiency of both disrupting the chromophore network and changing the influence of (local and global) environmental dephasing. Surprisingly, we find a large degree of resilience to changes in both chromophore network and protein environmental dephasing, the extent of which is greater than previously observed; for example, FMO maintains EET when 50% of the constituent chromophores are removed, or when environmental dephasing fluctuations vary over two orders-of-magnitude relative to the in vivo system. We also highlight the fact that the influence of local dephasing can be strongly dependent on the characteristics of the EET network and the initial excitation; for example, initial excitations resulting in rapid coherent decay are generally insensitive to the environment, whereas the incoherent population decay observed following excitation at weakly coupled chromophores demonstrates a more pronounced dependence on dephasing rate as a result of the greater possibility of local exciton trapping. Finally, we show that the FMO electronic Hamiltonian is not particularly optimised for EET; instead, it is just one of many possible chromophore organisations which demonstrate a good level of EET transport efficiency following excitation at different chromophores. Overall, these robustness and efficiency characteristics are attributed to the highly

  11. Robustness, efficiency, and optimality in the Fenna-Matthews-Olson photosynthetic pigment-protein complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, Lewis A.; Habershon, Scott

    2015-09-01

    Pigment-protein complexes (PPCs) play a central role in facilitating excitation energy transfer (EET) from light-harvesting antenna complexes to reaction centres in photosynthetic systems; understanding molecular organisation in these biological networks is key to developing better artificial light-harvesting systems. In this article, we combine quantum-mechanical simulations and a network-based picture of transport to investigate how chromophore organization and protein environment in PPCs impacts on EET efficiency and robustness. In a prototypical PPC model, the Fenna-Matthews-Olson (FMO) complex, we consider the impact on EET efficiency of both disrupting the chromophore network and changing the influence of (local and global) environmental dephasing. Surprisingly, we find a large degree of resilience to changes in both chromophore network and protein environmental dephasing, the extent of which is greater than previously observed; for example, FMO maintains EET when 50% of the constituent chromophores are removed, or when environmental dephasing fluctuations vary over two orders-of-magnitude relative to the in vivo system. We also highlight the fact that the influence of local dephasing can be strongly dependent on the characteristics of the EET network and the initial excitation; for example, initial excitations resulting in rapid coherent decay are generally insensitive to the environment, whereas the incoherent population decay observed following excitation at weakly coupled chromophores demonstrates a more pronounced dependence on dephasing rate as a result of the greater possibility of local exciton trapping. Finally, we show that the FMO electronic Hamiltonian is not particularly optimised for EET; instead, it is just one of many possible chromophore organisations which demonstrate a good level of EET transport efficiency following excitation at different chromophores. Overall, these robustness and efficiency characteristics are attributed to the highly

  12. Structural basis for translational surveillance by the large ribosomal subunit-associated protein quality control complex

    PubMed Central

    Lyumkis, Dmitry; Oliveira dos Passos, Dario; Tahara, Erich B.; Webb, Kristofor; Bennett, Eric J.; Vinterbo, Staal; Potter, Clinton S.; Carragher, Bridget; Joazeiro, Claudio A. P.

    2014-01-01

    All organisms have evolved mechanisms to manage the stalling of ribosomes upon translation of aberrant mRNA. In eukaryotes, the large ribosomal subunit-associated quality control complex (RQC), composed of the listerin/Ltn1 E3 ubiquitin ligase and cofactors, mediates the ubiquitylation and extraction of ribosome-stalled nascent polypeptide chains for proteasomal degradation. How RQC recognizes stalled ribosomes and performs its functions has not been understood. Using single-particle cryoelectron microscopy, we have determined the structure of the RQC complex bound to stalled 60S ribosomal subunits. The structure establishes how Ltn1 associates with the large ribosomal subunit and properly positions its E3-catalytic RING domain to mediate nascent chain ubiquitylation. The structure also reveals that a distinguishing feature of stalled 60S particles is an exposed, nascent chain-conjugated tRNA, and that the Tae2 subunit of RQC, which facilitates Ltn1 binding, is responsible for selective recognition of stalled 60S subunits. RQC components are engaged in interactions across a large span of the 60S subunit surface, connecting the tRNA in the peptidyl transferase center to the distally located nascent chain tunnel exit. This work provides insights into a mechanism linking translation and protein degradation that targets defective proteins immediately after synthesis, while ignoring nascent chains in normally translating ribosomes. PMID:25349383

  13. Structural basis for translational surveillance by the large ribosomal subunit-associated protein quality control complex.

    PubMed

    Lyumkis, Dmitry; Oliveira dos Passos, Dario; Tahara, Erich B; Webb, Kristofor; Bennett, Eric J; Vinterbo, Staal; Potter, Clinton S; Carragher, Bridget; Joazeiro, Claudio A P

    2014-11-11

    All organisms have evolved mechanisms to manage the stalling of ribosomes upon translation of aberrant mRNA. In eukaryotes, the large ribosomal subunit-associated quality control complex (RQC), composed of the listerin/Ltn1 E3 ubiquitin ligase and cofactors, mediates the ubiquitylation and extraction of ribosome-stalled nascent polypeptide chains for proteasomal degradation. How RQC recognizes stalled ribosomes and performs its functions has not been understood. Using single-particle cryoelectron microscopy, we have determined the structure of the RQC complex bound to stalled 60S ribosomal subunits. The structure establishes how Ltn1 associates with the large ribosomal subunit and properly positions its E3-catalytic RING domain to mediate nascent chain ubiquitylation. The structure also reveals that a distinguishing feature of stalled 60S particles is an exposed, nascent chain-conjugated tRNA, and that the Tae2 subunit of RQC, which facilitates Ltn1 binding, is responsible for selective recognition of stalled 60S subunits. RQC components are engaged in interactions across a large span of the 60S subunit surface, connecting the tRNA in the peptidyl transferase center to the distally located nascent chain tunnel exit. This work provides insights into a mechanism linking translation and protein degradation that targets defective proteins immediately after synthesis, while ignoring nascent chains in normally translating ribosomes.

  14. The driving regulators of the connectivity protein network of brain malignancies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tahmassebi, Amirhessam; Pinker-Domenig, Katja; Wengert, Georg; Lobbes, Marc; Stadlbauer, Andreas; Wildburger, Norelle C.; Romero, Francisco J.; Morales, Diego P.; Castillo, Encarnacion; Garcia, Antonio; Botella, Guillermo; Meyer-Bäse, Anke

    2017-05-01

    An important problem in modern therapeutics at the proteomic level remains to identify therapeutic targets in a plentitude of high-throughput data from experiments relevant to a variety of diseases. This paper presents the application of novel modern control concepts, such as pinning controllability and observability applied to the glioma cancer stem cells (GSCs) protein graph network with known and novel association to glioblastoma (GBM). The theoretical frameworks provides us with the minimal number of "driver nodes", which are necessary, and their location to determine the full control over the obtained graph network in order to provide a change in the network's dynamics from an initial state (disease) to a desired state (non-disease). The achieved results will provide biochemists with techniques to identify more metabolic regions and biological pathways for complex diseases, to design and test novel therapeutic solutions.

  15. Superior Colliculus Connections With Visual Thalamus in Gray Squirrels (Sciurus carolinensis): Evidence for Four Subdivisions Within the Pulvinar Complex

    PubMed Central

    Baldwin, Mary K.L.; Wong, Peiyan; Reed, Jamie L.; Kaas, Jon H.

    2013-01-01

    As diurnal rodents with a well-developed visual system, squirrels provide a useful comparison of visual system organization with other highly visual mammals such as tree shrews and primates. Here, we describe the projection pattern of gray squirrel superior colliculus (SC) with the large and well-differentiated pulvinar complex. Our anatomical results support the conclusion that the pulvinar complex of squirrels consists of four distinct nuclei. The caudal (C) nucleus, distinct in cytochrome oxidase (CO), acetylcholinesterase (AChE), and vesicular glutamate transporter-2 (VGluT2) preparations, received widespread projections from the ipsilateral SC, although a crude retinotopic organization was suggested. The caudal nucleus also received weaker projections from the contralateral SC. The caudal nucleus also projects back to the ipsilateral SC. Lateral (RLl) and medial (RLm) parts of the previously defined rostral lateral pulvinar (RL) were architectonically distinct, and each nucleus received its own retinotopic pattern of focused ipsilateral SC projections. The SC did not project to the rostral medial (RM) nucleus of the pulvinar. SC injections also revealed ipsilateral connections with the dorsal and ventral lateral geniculate nuclei, nuclei of the pretectum, and nucleus of the brachium of the inferior colliculus and bilateral connections with the parabigeminal nuclei. Comparisons with other rodents suggest that a variously named caudal nucleus, which relays visual inputs from the SC to temporal visual cortex, is common to all rodents and possibly most mammals. RM and RL divisions of the pulvinar complex also appear to have homologues in other rodents. PMID:21344403

  16. Structural Interface Forms and Their Involvement in Stabilization of Multidomain Proteins or Protein Complexes

    PubMed Central

    Dygut, Jacek; Kalinowska, Barbara; Banach, Mateusz; Piwowar, Monika; Konieczny, Leszek; Roterman, Irena

    2016-01-01

    The presented analysis concerns the inter-domain and inter-protein interface in protein complexes. We propose extending the traditional understanding of the protein domain as a function of local compactness with an additional criterion which refers to the presence of a well-defined hydrophobic core. Interface areas in selected homodimers vary with respect to their contribution to share as well as individual (domain-specific) hydrophobic cores. The basic definition of a protein domain, i.e., a structural unit characterized by tighter packing than its immediate environment, is extended in order to acknowledge the role of a structured hydrophobic core, which includes the interface area. The hydrophobic properties of interfaces vary depending on the status of interacting domains—In this context we can distinguish: (1) Shared hydrophobic cores (spanning the whole dimer); (2) Individual hydrophobic cores present in each monomer irrespective of whether the dimer contains a shared core. Analysis of interfaces in dystrophin and utrophin indicates the presence of an additional quasi-domain with a prominent hydrophobic core, consisting of fragments contributed by both monomers. In addition, we have also attempted to determine the relationship between the type of interface (as categorized above) and the biological function of each complex. This analysis is entirely based on the fuzzy oil drop model. PMID:27763556

  17. Structural Interface Forms and Their Involvement in Stabilization of Multidomain Proteins or Protein Complexes.

    PubMed

    Dygut, Jacek; Kalinowska, Barbara; Banach, Mateusz; Piwowar, Monika; Konieczny, Leszek; Roterman, Irena

    2016-10-18

    The presented analysis concerns the inter-domain and inter-protein interface in protein complexes. We propose extending the traditional understanding of the protein domain as a function of local compactness with an additional criterion which refers to the presence of a well-defined hydrophobic core. Interface areas in selected homodimers vary with respect to their contribution to share as well as individual (domain-specific) hydrophobic cores. The basic definition of a protein domain, i.e., a structural unit characterized by tighter packing than its immediate environment, is extended in order to acknowledge the role of a structured hydrophobic core, which includes the interface area. The hydrophobic properties of interfaces vary depending on the status of interacting domains-In this context we can distinguish: (1) Shared hydrophobic cores (spanning the whole dimer); (2) Individual hydrophobic cores present in each monomer irrespective of whether the dimer contains a shared core. Analysis of interfaces in dystrophin and utrophin indicates the presence of an additional quasi-domain with a prominent hydrophobic core, consisting of fragments contributed by both monomers. In addition, we have also attempted to determine the relationship between the type of interface (as categorized above) and the biological function of each complex. This analysis is entirely based on the fuzzy oil drop model.

  18. The EED protein-protein interaction inhibitor A-395 inactivates the PRC2 complex.

    PubMed

    He, Yupeng; Selvaraju, Sujatha; Curtin, Michael L; Jakob, Clarissa G; Zhu, Haizhong; Comess, Kenneth M; Shaw, Bailin; The, Juliana; Lima-Fernandes, Evelyne; Szewczyk, Magdalena M; Cheng, Dong; Klinge, Kelly L; Li, Huan-Qiu; Pliushchev, Marina; Algire, Mikkel A; Maag, David; Guo, Jun; Dietrich, Justin; Panchal, Sanjay C; Petros, Andrew M; Sweis, Ramzi F; Torrent, Maricel; Bigelow, Lance J; Senisterra, Guillermo; Li, Fengling; Kennedy, Steven; Wu, Qin; Osterling, Donald J; Lindley, David J; Gao, Wenqing; Galasinski, Scott; Barsyte-Lovejoy, Dalia; Vedadi, Masoud; Buchanan, Fritz G; Arrowsmith, Cheryl H; Chiang, Gary G; Sun, Chaohong; Pappano, William N

    2017-04-01

    Polycomb repressive complex 2 (PRC2) is a regulator of epigenetic states required for development and homeostasis. PRC2 trimethylates histone H3 at lysine 27 (H3K27me3), which leads to gene silencing, and is dysregulated in many cancers. The embryonic ectoderm development (EED) protein is an essential subunit of PRC2 that has both a scaffolding function and an H3K27me3-binding function. Here we report the identification of A-395, a potent antagonist of the H3K27me3 binding functions of EED. Structural studies demonstrate that A-395 binds to EED in the H3K27me3-binding pocket, thereby preventing allosteric activation of the catalytic activity of PRC2. Phenotypic effects observed in vitro and in vivo are similar to those of known PRC2 enzymatic inhibitors; however, A-395 retains potent activity against cell lines resistant to the catalytic inhibitors. A-395 represents a first-in-class antagonist of PRC2 protein-protein interactions (PPI) for use as a chemical probe to investigate the roles of EED-containing protein complexes.

  19. Arabidopsis flower development--of protein complexes, targets, and transport.

    PubMed

    Becker, Annette; Ehlers, Katrin

    2016-03-01

    Tremendous progress has been achieved over the past 25 years or more of research on the molecular mechanisms of floral organ identity, patterning, and development. While collections of floral homeotic mutants of Antirrhinum majus laid the foundation already at the beginning of the previous century, it was the genetic analysis of these mutants in A. majus and Arabidopsis thaliana that led to the development of the ABC model of floral organ identity more than 20 years ago. This intuitive model kick-started research focused on the genetic mechanisms regulating flower development, using mainly A. thaliana as a model plant. In recent years, interactions among floral homeotic proteins have been elucidated, and their direct and indirect target genes are known to a large extent. Here, we provide an overview over the advances in understanding the molecular mechanism orchestrating A. thaliana flower development. We focus on floral homeotic protein complexes, their target genes, evidence for their transport in floral primordia, and how these new results advance our view on the processes downstream of floral organ identity, such as organ boundary formation or floral organ patterning.

  20. Retroviral integrase protein and intasome nucleoprotein complex structures

    PubMed Central

    Grawenhoff, Julia; Engelman, Alan N

    2017-01-01

    Retroviral replication proceeds through the integration of a DNA copy of the viral RNA genome into the host cellular genome, a process that is mediated by the viral integrase (IN) protein. IN catalyzes two distinct chemical reactions: 3’-processing, whereby the viral DNA is recessed by a di- or trinucleotide at its 3’-ends, and strand transfer, in which the processed viral DNA ends are inserted into host chromosomal DNA. Although IN has been studied as a recombinant protein since the 1980s, detailed structural understanding of its catalytic functions awaited high resolution structures of functional IN-DNA complexes or intasomes, initially obtained in 2010 for the spumavirus prototype foamy virus (PFV). Since then, two additional retroviral intasome structures, from the α-retrovirus Rous sarcoma virus (RSV) and β-retrovirus mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV), have emerged. Here, we briefly review the history of IN structural biology prior to the intasome era, and then compare the intasome structures of PFV, MMTV and RSV in detail. Whereas the PFV intasome is characterized by a tetrameric assembly of IN around the viral DNA ends, the newer structures harbor octameric IN assemblies. Although the higher order architectures of MMTV and RSV intasomes differ from that of the PFV intasome, they possess remarkably similar intasomal core structures. Thus, retroviral integration machineries have adapted evolutionarily to utilize disparate IN elements to construct convergent intasome core structures for catalytic function. PMID:28289517

  1. Complex coacervation of soybean protein isolate and chitosan.

    PubMed

    Huang, Guo-Qing; Sun, Yan-Ting; Xiao, Jun-Xia; Yang, Jian

    2012-11-15

    The formation of coacervates between soybean protein isolate (SPI) and chitosan was investigated by turbidimetric analysis and coacervate yield determination as a function of pH, temperature, time, ionic strength, total biopolymer concentration (TB(conc)) and protein to polysaccharide ratio (R(SPI/Chitosan)). The interaction between SPI and chitosan yielded a sponge-like coacervate phase and the optimum conditions for their coacervation were pH 6.0-6.5, a temperature of 25 °C, and a R(SPI/Chitosan) ratio of four independently of TB(conc). NaCl inhibited the complexation between the two biopolymers. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) revealed that the coacervates were formed through the electrostatic interaction between the carboxyl groups of SPI (-COO(-)) and the amine groups of chitosan (-NH(3)(+)), however hydrogen bonding was also involved in the coacervation. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) thermograms indicated raised denaturation temperature and network thermal stability of SPI in the coacervates due to SPI-chitosan interactions. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) micrographs revealed that the coacervates had a porous network structure interspaced by heterogeneously sized vacuoles. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Solving structures of protein complexes by molecular replacement with Phaser

    SciTech Connect

    McCoy, Airlie J.

    2007-01-01

    Four case studies in using maximum-likelihood molecular replacement, as implemented in the program Phaser, to solve structures of protein complexes are described. Molecular replacement (MR) generally becomes more difficult as the number of components in the asymmetric unit requiring separate MR models (i.e. the dimensionality of the search) increases. When the proportion of the total scattering contributed by each search component is small, the signal in the search for each component in isolation is weak or non-existent. Maximum-likelihood MR functions enable complex asymmetric units to be built up from individual components with a ‘tree search with pruning’ approach. This method, as implemented in the automated search procedure of the program Phaser, has been very successful in solving many previously intractable MR problems. However, there are a number of cases in which the automated search procedure of Phaser is suboptimal or encounters difficulties. These include cases where there are a large number of copies of the same component in the asymmetric unit or where the components of the asymmetric unit have greatly varying B factors. Two case studies are presented to illustrate how Phaser can be used to best advantage in the standard ‘automated MR’ mode and two case studies are used to show how to modify the automated search strategy for problematic cases.

  3. Cell-surface Attachment of Bacterial Multienzyme Complexes Involves Highly Dynamic Protein-Protein Anchors*

    PubMed Central

    Cameron, Kate; Najmudin, Shabir; Alves, Victor D.; Bayer, Edward A.; Smith, Steven P.; Bule, Pedro; Waller, Helen; Ferreira, Luís M. A.; Gilbert, Harry J.; Fontes, Carlos M. G. A.

    2015-01-01

    Protein-protein interactions play a pivotal role in the assembly of the cellulosome, one of nature's most intricate nanomachines dedicated to the depolymerization of complex carbohydrates. The integration of cellulosomal components usually occurs through the binding of type I dockerin modules located at the C terminus of the enzymes to cohesin modules located in the primary scaffoldin subunit. Cellulosomes are typically recruited to the cell surface via type II cohesin-dockerin interactions established between primary and cell-surface anchoring scaffoldin subunits. In contrast with type II interactions, type I dockerins usually display a dual binding mode that may allow increased conformational flexibility during cellulosome assembly. Acetivibrio cellulolyticus produces a highly complex cellulosome comprising an unusual adaptor scaffoldin, ScaB, which mediates the interaction between the primary scaffoldin, ScaA, through type II cohesin-dockerin interactions and the anchoring scaffoldin, ScaC, via type I cohesin-dockerin interactions. Here, we report the crystal structure of the type I ScaB dockerin in complex with a type I ScaC cohesin in two distinct orientations. The data show that the ScaB dockerin displays structural symmetry, reflected by the presence of two essentially identical binding surfaces. The complex interface is more extensive than those observed in other type I complexes, which results in an ultra-high affinity interaction (Ka ∼1012 m). A subset of ScaB dockerin residues was also identified as modulating the specificity of type I cohesin-dockerin interactions in A. cellulolyticus. This report reveals that recruitment of cellulosomes onto the cell surface may involve dockerins presenting a dual binding mode to incorporate additional flexibility into the quaternary structure of highly populated multienzyme complexes. PMID:25855788

  4. The Chediak-Higashi protein interacts with SNARE complex and signal transduction proteins.

    PubMed Central

    Tchernev, Velizar T.; Mansfield, Traci A.; Giot, Loic; Kumar, A. Madan; Nandabalan, Krishnan; Li, Ying; Mishra, Vishnu S.; Detter, John C.; Rothberg, Jonathan M.; Wallace, Margaret R.; Southwick, Frederick S.; Kingsmore, Stephen F.