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Sample records for protein hydrolysate preparation

  1. Antioxidant Properties of Fish Protein Hydrolysates Prepared from Cod Protein Hydrolysate by Bacillus sp.

    PubMed

    Godinho, I; Pires, C; Pedro, S; Teixeira, B; Mendes, R; Nunes, M L; Batista, I

    2016-03-01

    Fermentative protein hydrolysates (FPH) were prepared with a proteolytic bacterium, Bacillus strain exhibiting high proteolytic activity. Three FPH with 1, 2, and 4 % of cod protein hydrolysate (CPH) and 0.5 % of yeast extract in the culture were prepared. The yields achieved varied between 30 and 58 % based on protein content. A general decrease of leucine, isoleucine, valine, alanine, arginine, threonine, proline, and glutamic acid was observed. All FPHs showed higher reducing power and DPPH radical scavenging activity than CPH, but similar ABTS radical scavenging activity. However, FPHs exhibited lower Cu(+2)-chelating activity than CPH. The ACE inhibitory activity of FPHs was not improved relatively to that recorded in CPH. The fermentative process seems to have potential to obtaining hydrolysates with improved biological activities or even to produce protein hydrolysates from native fish proteins.

  2. Preparation and characterisation of protein hydrolysates from Indian defatted rice bran meal.

    PubMed

    Bandyopadhyay, Kakali; Misra, Gautam; Ghosh, Santinath

    2008-01-01

    Rice bran meal is a very good source of protein along with other micronutrients. Rice bran meal has been utilized to produce protein isolates and respective protein hydrolysates for potential application in various food products. De-oiled rice bran meal, available from Indian rice bran oil extraction plants, was initially screened by passing through an 80-mesh sieve (yield about 70%). A fraction (yield-30%) rich in fibre and silica was initially discarded from the meal. The protein content of the through fraction increased from 20.8% to 24.1% whereas silica content reduced from 3.1% to 0.4%. Rice bran protein isolate (RPI) was prepared by alkaline extraction followed by acidic precipitation at isoelectric point. This protein isolate was hydrolysed by papain at pH 8.0 and at 37 degrees C for 10, 20, 30, 45 and 60 minutes. The peptides produced by partial hydrolysis had been evaluated by determining protein solubility, emulsion activity index (EAI), emulsion stability index (ESI), foam capacity and foam stability (FS). All protein hydrolysates showed better functional properties than the original protein isolate. These improved functional properties of rice bran protein hydrolysates would make it useful for various application especially in food, pharmaceutical and related industries.

  3. Optimization of enzymatic hydrolysis of visceral waste proteins of Catla (Catla catla) for preparing protein hydrolysate using a commercial protease.

    PubMed

    Bhaskar, N; Benila, T; Radha, C; Lalitha, R G

    2008-01-01

    Protein hydrolysate was prepared from visceral waste proteins of Catla (Catla catla), an Indian freshwater major carp. Hydrolysis conditions (viz., time, temperature, pH and enzyme to substrate level) for preparing protein hydrolysates from the fish visceral waste proteins were optimized by response surface methodology (RSM) using a factorial design. Model equation was proposed with regard to the effect of time, temperature, pH and enzyme to substrate level. An enzyme to substrate level of 1.5% (v/w), pH 8.5, temperature of 50 degrees C and a hydrolysis time of 135 min were found to be the optimum conditions to obtain a higher degree of hydrolysis close to 50% using alcalase. The amino acid composition of the protein hydrolysate prepared using the optimized conditions revealed that the protein hydrolysate was similar to FAO/WHO reference protein. The chemical scores computed indicated methionine to be the most limiting amino acid. The protein hydrolysate can well be used to meet the amino acid requirements of juvenile common carp and hence has the potential for application as an ingredient in balanced fish diets.

  4. In-vitro antioxidant and antibacterial properties of fermentatively and enzymatically prepared chicken liver protein hydrolysates.

    PubMed

    Chakka, Ashok Kumar; Elias, Mercy; Jini, R; Sakhare, P Z; Bhaskar, N

    2015-12-01

    Protein hydrolysates were prepared from chicken liver using fermentation and enzymatic hydrolysis. The lactic acid bacteria Pediococcus acidilactici NCIM5368 was employed in the fermentation process and a commercial protease (Alcalase® 2.5) was used in enzymatic hydrolysis. Chicken liver hydrolysates prepared by fermentation (FCLH) and enzymatic hydrolysis (ECLH) revealed appreciable amounts of protein [55.85 and 61.34 %; on dry weight basis, respectively]. Fermentation and enzymatic hydrolysis resulted in 14.3 and 26.12 % of degree of hydrolysis. Total antioxidant activity, reducing power, scavenging of superoxide, 2- diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2, 2-azino-bis-3-ethyl-benzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid (ABTS) radicals were determined for both FCLH & ECLH. FCLH & ECLH showed total antioxidant activity of 0.99 and 1.13 μg AAE mg(-1) proteins, respectively; while, they scavenged 96.14 and 92.76 % of DPPH radicals respectively. FCLH showed higher ABTS radical scavenging activity (32.16 %) than ECLH (19.29 %). Superoxide anion scavenging activity of FCLH & ECLH were found to be 95.02 & 88.94 %, respectively. Residues obtained after both treatments also exhibited antioxidant activities. FCLH reported highest antagonistic activity against Listeria monocytogenes (30 mm); while, ECLH showed antibacterial activity only against Micrococcus luteus (12 mm). Both hydrolysates have the potential to be a protein rich ingredient for use in formulated foods and possible help in reduction of oxidative stress.

  5. Preparation and characterization of whey protein hydrolysates: applications in industrial whey bioconversion processes.

    PubMed

    Perea, A; Ugalde, U; Rodriguez, I; Serra, J L

    1993-05-01

    A whey protein hydrolysate was prepared by incubation of reconstituted whey or a whey protein concentrate with Alcalase 0.6L. The proteolytic degradation of alpha-lactalbumin and beta-lactoglobulin initially resulted in 6-kDa and, later, 2.5-kDa degradation products, quickly followed by the appearance of multiple peptides of 1 kDa or smaller. The hydrolysate showed a steady increase in solubility and a biphasic change in foaming characteristics with decreasing peptide size. At the highest degree of hydrolysis achieved (22%), the majority of the peptides were smaller than 1 kDa and could be efficiently assimilated by the yeast Kluyveromyces marxianus growing in a defined medium.

  6. 21 CFR 102.22 - Protein hydrolysates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... “hydrolyzed milk protein” is not an acceptable name for this ingredient because it is not specific to the ingredient (hydrolysates can be prepared from other milk proteins). The names “hydrolyzed vegetable protein... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Protein hydrolysates. 102.22 Section 102.22...

  7. 21 CFR 102.22 - Protein hydrolysates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... “hydrolyzed milk protein” is not an acceptable name for this ingredient because it is not specific to the ingredient (hydrolysates can be prepared from other milk proteins). The names “hydrolyzed vegetable protein... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Protein hydrolysates. 102.22 Section 102.22...

  8. 21 CFR 102.22 - Protein hydrolysates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... “hydrolyzed milk protein” is not an acceptable name for this ingredient because it is not specific to the ingredient (hydrolysates can be prepared from other milk proteins). The names “hydrolyzed vegetable protein... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Protein hydrolysates. 102.22 Section 102.22...

  9. 21 CFR 102.22 - Protein hydrolysates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... “hydrolyzed milk protein” is not an acceptable name for this ingredient because it is not specific to the ingredient (hydrolysates can be prepared from other milk proteins). The names “hydrolyzed vegetable protein... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Protein hydrolysates. 102.22 Section 102.22...

  10. 21 CFR 102.22 - Protein hydrolysates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... “hydrolyzed milk protein” is not an acceptable name for this ingredient because it is not specific to the ingredient (hydrolysates can be prepared from other milk proteins). The names “hydrolyzed vegetable protein... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Protein hydrolysates. 102.22 Section 102.22...

  11. A simple and convenient method for the preparation of antioxidant peptides from walnut (Juglans regia L.) protein hydrolysates.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ming-Chuan; Yang, Sheng-Jie; Hong, Da; Yang, Jin-Ping; Liu, Min; Lin, Yun; Huang, Chia-Hui; Wang, Chao-Jih

    2016-01-01

    Walnut (Juglans regia L.), that belongs to the Juglandaceae family, is one of the nuts commonly found in Chinese diets. Researchers had obtained peptides from walnut protein hydrolysates, and these peptides exhibited the high antioxidant activities. The objective of this study was to develop a simple and convenient method for a facile and reproducible preparation of antioxidant peptides from walnut protein hydrolysates. Walnut proteins were extracted from walnut kernels using continuous countercurrent extraction process, and were separately hydrolyzed with six types of proteases (neutrase, papain, bromelain, alcalase, pepsin, and pancreatin). Then, hydrolysates were purified by ultrafiltration. The yields and purity of the peptides prepared using neutrase and papain were 16 and 81 % at least, respectively, higher than others, and had low molecular weight, 99 % of which were less than 1500 Da. Furthermore, the bioassay indicated that the two peptides exhibited the high antioxidant activities in the DPPH (IC50 values: 59.40 and 31.02 µg/mL, respectively), ABTS (IC50 values: 80.36 and 62.22 µg/mL, respectively), and superoxide radical scavenging assay (IC50 values: 107.47 and 80.00 µg/mL, respectively). The method combines the advantages of generality, rapidity, simplicity, and is useful for the mass production of walnut peptides.Graphical AbstractPreparation of antioxidant peptides from walnut (Juglans regia L.) protein hydrolysates.

  12. The in vitro antioxidant properties of alcalase hydrolysate prepared from silkie fowl (Gallus gallus) blood protein.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Fu-Yuan; Lai, I-Chun; Lin, Liang-Chuan; Sakata, Ryoichi

    2016-07-01

    Two types of proteins including blood plasma protein and blood cell protein were isolated from silkie fowl (Gallus gallus) blood and hydrolyzed using alcalase for 0, 2, 4 and 6 h. The blood plasma protein hydrolysate (BPH) and blood cell protein hydrolysate (BCH) were analyzed for pH value, peptide content and antioxidative properties. The significantly higher peptide contents were observed in BPH than that of BCH, which showed that blood plasma protein was more suitable to hydrolysis by alcalase than blood cell protein. Both BPH and BCH showed strong 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical-scavenging activity and Fe(2+) chelating ability. BPH at 4 h of hydrolysis (BPH4) demonstrated significantly higher antioxidant capacity than those treated by alcalase in most of the assays. The BPH4 was separated using ultra-filtration and assessment of the fractions and indicated that low molecular weight of peptides (< 3 kDa) possessed greater DPPH scavenging activity, Fe(2+) chelating ability and inhibitory activity of lipid peroxidation. These results show that BPH has the potential to be ingredients in the food industry as a replacement of synthetic antioxidants. © 2015 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  13. Abalone Protein Hydrolysates: Preparation, Angiotensin I Converting Enzyme Inhibition and Cellular Antioxidant Activity.

    PubMed

    Park, Soo Yeon; Je, Jae-Young; Hwang, Joung-Youl; Ahn, Chang-Bum

    2015-09-01

    Abalone protein was hydrolyzed by enzymatic hydrolysis and the optimal enzyme/substrate (E/S) ratios were determined. Abalone protein hydrolysates (APH) produced by Protamex at E/S ratio of 1:100 showed angiotensin I converting enzyme inhibitory activity with IC50 of 0.46 mg/mL, and APH obtained by Flavourzyme at E/S ratio of 1:100 possessed the oxygen radical absorbance capacity value of 457.6 μM trolox equivalent/mg sample. Flavourzyme abalone protein hydrolysates (FAPH) also exhibited H2O2 scavenging activity with IC50 of 0.48 mg/mL and Fe(2+) chelating activity with IC50 of 2.26 mg/mL as well as high reducing power. FAPH significantly (P<0.05) protected H2O2-induced hepatic cell damage in cultured hepatocytes, and the cell viability was restored to 90.27% in the presence of FAPH. FAPH exhibited 46.20% intracellular ROS scavenging activity and 57.89% lipid peroxidation inhibition activity in cultured hepatocytes. Overall, APH may be useful as an ingredient for functional foods.

  14. Abalone Protein Hydrolysates: Preparation, Angiotensin I Converting Enzyme Inhibition and Cellular Antioxidant Activity

    PubMed Central

    Park, Soo Yeon; Je, Jae-Young; Hwang, Joung-Youl; Ahn, Chang-Bum

    2015-01-01

    Abalone protein was hydrolyzed by enzymatic hydrolysis and the optimal enzyme/substrate (E/S) ratios were determined. Abalone protein hydrolysates (APH) produced by Protamex at E/S ratio of 1:100 showed angiotensin I converting enzyme inhibitory activity with IC50 of 0.46 mg/mL, and APH obtained by Flavourzyme at E/S ratio of 1:100 possessed the oxygen radical absorbance capacity value of 457.6 μM trolox equivalent/mg sample. Flavourzyme abalone protein hydrolysates (FAPH) also exhibited H2O2 scavenging activity with IC50 of 0.48 mg/mL and Fe2+ chelating activity with IC50 of 2.26 mg/mL as well as high reducing power. FAPH significantly (P<0.05) protected H2O2-induced hepatic cell damage in cultured hepatocytes, and the cell viability was restored to 90.27% in the presence of FAPH. FAPH exhibited 46.20% intracellular ROS scavenging activity and 57.89% lipid peroxidation inhibition activity in cultured hepatocytes. Overall, APH may be useful as an ingredient for functional foods. PMID:26451354

  15. Preparation and antioxidative properties of a rapeseed ( Brassica napus ) protein hydrolysate and three peptide fractions.

    PubMed

    Xue, Zhaohui; Yu, Wancong; Liu, Zhiwei; Wu, Moucheng; Kou, Xiaohong; Wang, Jiehua

    2009-06-24

    This study investigated the possibility of converting the insoluble rapeseed meal protein into functionally active ingredients for food applications. The rapeseed ( Brassica napus ) meal protein isolates were first digested by Alcalase and Flavourzyme, and the resultant rapeseed crude hydrolysate (RSCH) exhibited a dose-dependent reducing antioxidant power and hydroxyl radical scavenging ability. RSCH could also inhibit the malonyldialdehyde (MDA) generation by 50% in blood serum at 150 mg/mL. RSCH was further separated into three fractions (RSP1, RSP2, and RSP3) by Sephadex gel filtration according to their different molecular weights. The amino acid compositions and antioxidant potentials were assessed for RSP1-3 fractions. All three fractions showed inhibiting effects on superoxide anion generation to various extents. They could also inhibit the autohemolysis of rat red blood cells and MDA formation in rat liver tissue homogenate. The results suggested that rapeseed peptide hydrolysate may be useful as a human food addition as a source of bioactive peptides with antioxidant properties.

  16. Effects of various whey protein hydrolysates on the emulsifying and surface properties of hydrolysed lecithin.

    PubMed

    Scherze, I; Muschiolik, G

    2001-07-01

    Oil-in-water emulsions (30 wt% sunflower oil) containing various concentrations of commercial whey protein hydrolysates (0-4 wt%) and hydrolysed lecithin (0.4-1.8 wt%) were prepared by means of a high pressure homogeniser. The degrees of hydrolysis used ranged from 10 to 27%. The individual and interactive effects of these factors on the particle size distribution, emulsion stability, consistency and interfacial tension were investigated using a three-level factorial design according to the principle of response surface methodology. The properties of the emulsions containing both hydrolysed lecithin and whey protein hydrolysate (WPH) were significantly influenced by the degree of hydrolysis of WPH, the protein content and the second-order interaction between both. Addition of WPH, with a 10-20% degree of hydrolysis, improved the stability of lecithin-stabilised emulsions and slightly decreased the average droplet size, compared to those emulsions with only protein or hydrolysed lecithin. However, when extensively hydrolysed WPH (DH=27%) was mixed with hydrolysed lecithin, rapid coalescence and oiling-off of the emulsion droplets resulted, suggesting competition between the surface active components of this WPH and the hydrolysed lecithin. High amounts of such an extensively hydrolysed WPH, together with low lecithin concentrations, were found to be especially detrimental. The different behaviour of partially and extensively hydrolysed WPH in oil-in-water emulsions containing hydrolysed lecithin, was in good agreement with their interfacial activity, as measured by the drop volume method.

  17. Preparation by enzymolysis and bioactivity of iron complex of fish protein hydrolysate (Fe-FPH) from low value fish

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Shanggui; Huo, Jiancong; Xie, Chao

    2008-08-01

    Preparation of Fe2+ chelate of fish protein hydrolysate (Fe-FPH) obtained from low value fish proteins was introduced and its bioactivity was studied by compound enzymolysis. The optimum conditions for hydrolysate chelating Fe2+ are DH (degree of hydrolysis) at 5%, pH 7.0, 20°C and 15 min chelating time for FM (material not being defatted). Four types of Fe-FPH including CA (deposit after chelating), CB (deposit in 50% of absolute ethanol solution), CC (suspended deposit in 80% of absolute ethanol solution), and CD (bottom deposit in 80% of absolute ethanol solution) were fractionated with absolute ethanol from FM. Structural analysis through infra-red spectrum revealed that Fe2+ was combined strongly with amino-group and carboxyl-group in each chelate and each Fe2+ could form two five-member ring structures. All of the four chelates were shown more significant antioxidative activity and can be used as natural hydrophobic and hydrophilic antioxidant. Among all the chelates, the CB possesses the most effective antioxidative activity at 92% as high as that of a-tocopherol. Among all Fe-FPHs, only CD showed the most effective antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella typhi, and Bacillus subtilis and can be used as natural antibacterial. It provides a more effective way for utilization of low value fish proteins and key information of Fe-FPH as additive in food industry.

  18. Preparation of ferrous chelate of hairtail (Trichiurus haumela) protein hydrolysate (Fe(II)-HPH) and its antibacterial activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Huimin; Zhang, Bin; Yu, Tian; Deng, Shanggui

    The preparation of a ferrous chelate of hairtail (Trichiurus haumela) protein hydrolysate (Fe(II)-HPH) and its antibacterial activity were studied. The optimal conditions of hydrolysis by papain and ferrous chelation were obtained by single-factor experiments and orthogonal test, with the antibacterial activities as the index. In addition, the antibacterial activity of Fe(II)-HPH was evaluated using the Plackett-Burman design. The orthogonal test results showed that Fe(II)-HPH had an antibacterial activity of 98.3% under a temperature of 40 °C at pH 6.5 for an enzymolysis duration of eight hours in the presence of 20,000 U/g of enzyme. The Plackett-Burman design analysis showed that the three most significant factors (P < 0.05) influencing the antibacterial activity of Fe(II)-HPH were pH, the concentration (mg/mL), and presence of magnesium sulfate.

  19. Protein Hydrolysates/Peptides in Animal Nutrition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCalla, Jeff; Waugh, Terry; Lohry, Eric

    The use of protein hydrolysates as an important nutrient for growth and maintenance has been increasing in animal nutrition. Although animal proteins and protein hydrolysates are widely used however, recently vegetable protein hydrolysates are gaining importance. This chapter reviews the use of protein hydrolysates developed by enzyme hydrolysis and by solid state fermentation process in animal nutrition especially for piglets and compares it with the standard products such as plasma and fishmeal.

  20. Influence of Bovine Whey Protein Concentrate and Hydrolysate Preparation Methods on Motility in the Isolated Rat Distal Colon.

    PubMed

    Dalziel, Julie E; Anderson, Rachel C; Bassett, Shalome A; Lloyd-West, Catherine M; Haggarty, Neill W; Roy, Nicole C

    2016-12-14

    Whey protein concentrate (WPC) and hydrolysate (WPH) are protein ingredients used in sports, medical and pediatric formulations. Concentration and hydrolysis methods vary for whey sourced from cheese and casein co-products. The purpose of this research was to investigate the influence of whey processing methods on in vitro gastrointestinal (GI) health indicators for colonic motility, epithelial barrier integrity and immune modulation. WPCs from casein or cheese processing and WPH (11% or 19% degree of hydrolysis, DH) were compared for their effects on motility in a 1 cm section of isolated rat distal colon in an oxygenated tissue bath. Results showed that WPC decreased motility irrespective of whether it was a by-product of lactic acid or mineral acid casein production, or from cheese production. This indicated that regardless of the preparation methodology, the whey protein contained components that modulate aspects of motility within the distal colon. WPH (11% DH) increased contractile frequency by 27% in a delayed manner and WPH (19% DH) had an immediate effect on contractile properties, increasing tension by 65% and frequency by 131%. Increased motility was associated with increased hydrolysis that may be attributed to the abundance of bioactive peptides. Increased frequency of contractions by WPH (19% DH) was inhibited (by 44%) by naloxone, implicating a potential involvement of opioid receptors in modulation of motility. Trans-epithelial electrical resistance and cytokine expression assays revealed that the WPC proteins studied did not alter intestinal barrier integrity or elicit any discernible immune response.

  1. Influence of Bovine Whey Protein Concentrate and Hydrolysate Preparation Methods on Motility in the Isolated Rat Distal Colon

    PubMed Central

    Dalziel, Julie E.; Anderson, Rachel C.; Bassett, Shalome A.; Lloyd-West, Catherine M.; Haggarty, Neill W.; Roy, Nicole C.

    2016-01-01

    Whey protein concentrate (WPC) and hydrolysate (WPH) are protein ingredients used in sports, medical and pediatric formulations. Concentration and hydrolysis methods vary for whey sourced from cheese and casein co-products. The purpose of this research was to investigate the influence of whey processing methods on in vitro gastrointestinal (GI) health indicators for colonic motility, epithelial barrier integrity and immune modulation. WPCs from casein or cheese processing and WPH (11% or 19% degree of hydrolysis, DH) were compared for their effects on motility in a 1 cm section of isolated rat distal colon in an oxygenated tissue bath. Results showed that WPC decreased motility irrespective of whether it was a by-product of lactic acid or mineral acid casein production, or from cheese production. This indicated that regardless of the preparation methodology, the whey protein contained components that modulate aspects of motility within the distal colon. WPH (11% DH) increased contractile frequency by 27% in a delayed manner and WPH (19% DH) had an immediate effect on contractile properties, increasing tension by 65% and frequency by 131%. Increased motility was associated with increased hydrolysis that may be attributed to the abundance of bioactive peptides. Increased frequency of contractions by WPH (19% DH) was inhibited (by 44%) by naloxone, implicating a potential involvement of opioid receptors in modulation of motility. Trans-epithelial electrical resistance and cytokine expression assays revealed that the WPC proteins studied did not alter intestinal barrier integrity or elicit any discernible immune response. PMID:27983629

  2. Trypsin from unicorn leatherjacket (Aluterus monoceros) pyloric caeca: purification and its use for preparation of fish protein hydrolysate with antioxidative activity.

    PubMed

    Zamani, Abbas; Benjakul, Soottawat

    2016-02-01

    Fish proteases, especially trypsin, could be used to prepare fish protein hydrolysates with antioxidative activities. In this study, trypsin from the pyloric caeca of unicorn leatherjacket was purified by ammonium sulfate precipitation and soybean trypsin inhibitor (SBTI)-Sepharose 4B affinity chromatography. Hydrolysate from Indian mackerel protein isolate with different degrees of hydrolysis (20, 30 and 40% DH) was prepared using the purified trypsin, and antioxidative activities (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl and 2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) radical-scavenging activities, ferric-reducing antioxidant power and ferrous-chelating activity) of the hydrolysate were determined. Trypsin was purified 26.43-fold with a yield of 13.43%. The purified trypsin had a molecular weight (MW) of 23.5 kDa and optimal activity at pH 8.0 and 55 °C. It displayed high stability in the pH range of 6.0-11.0 and was thermally stable up to 50 °C. Both SBTI (0.05 mmol L(-1)) and N-p-tosyl-L-lysine-chloromethylketone (5 mmol L(-1)) completely inhibited trypsin activity. Antioxidative activities of the hydrolysate from Indian mackerel protein isolate increased with increasing DH up to 40% (P < 0.05). Based on sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, the hydrolysate with 40% DH had a MW lower than 6.5 kDa. The purified protease from unicorn leatherjacket pyloric caeca was identified as trypsin based on its ability to hydrolyze a specific synthetic substrate and the response to specific trypsin inhibitors. The purified trypsin could hydrolyze Indian mackerel protein isolate, and the resulting hydrolysate exhibited antioxidative activity depending on its DH. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  3. Chelating and radical scavenging activities of soy protein hydrolysates prepared from microbial proteases and their effect on meat lipid peroxidation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lei; Li, Jianrong; Zhou, Kequan

    2010-04-01

    Three commercial microbial proteases, neutral protease from Bacillus subtilis (NP), validase from Aspergillus oryze (Val), and alkaline protease from Bacillus licheniformis (AP), were investigated for producing antioxidant hydrolysates from soy protein. The resulting hydrolysates were fractioned by sequential ultrafiltration and their antioxidant properties were examined. All the 12 hydrolysate fractions showed noticeable oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) but significantly varied from 23.8 to 83.8 micromol Trolox equivalents (TE)/g. The hydrolysates also possessed significantly different 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH()) scavenging activities and transition metal chelating activities. Three fractions with strong antioxidant activities, NP-F1, Val-F1, and AP-F3, were incorporated into ground beef to determine their dose-response on lipid peroxidation during 15-day storage. AP-F3 and NP-F1 but not Val-F1 significantly reduced meat lipid peroxidation by 20.1% and 12.9%, respectively. Our results suggested that the commercial microbial proteases such as B. subtilis and B. licheniformis could be used to produce effective antioxidant hydrolysates from food proteins. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Fractionation and characterization of brewers' spent grain protein hydrolysates.

    PubMed

    Celus, Inge; Brijs, Kristof; Delcour, Jan A

    2009-06-24

    Protein hydrolysates with a low and high degree of hydrolysis were enzymatically produced from brewers' spent grain (BSG), the insoluble residue of barley malt resulting from the manufacture of wort in the production of beer. To that end, BSG protein concentrate (BPC), prepared by alkaline extraction of BSG and subsequent acid precipitation, was enzymatically hydrolyzed with Alcalase during both 1.7 and 120 min. Because these hydrolysates contained many different peptides, fractionation of the hydrolysates with graded ammonium sulfate or ethanol precipitation was performed to obtain fractions homogeneous in terms of molecular weight (MW) and hydrophobicity. The emulsifying and foaming capacities of the resultant fractions were determined. MW distributions and surface hydrophobicities of fractions with protein contents exceeding 75% were investigated to determine relationships between technofunctional and physicochemical properties. It was found that the emulsifying and foaming properties are determined by different physicochemical properties of the proteins or peptides. Neither MW nor hydrophobicity alone determines the emulsifying and foaming properties of protein hydrolysates. BSG protein hydrolysates with good emulsifying properties contained less than 40% of fragments with MW exceeding 14 500. Moreover, these hydrolysates had a high surface hydrophobicity. BSG protein hydrolysates with good foaming properties contained less than 10% of material with MW lower than 1700. Hydrolysates with good foaming properties showed low surface hydrophobicities, except for protein hydrolysates with higher levels of protein fragments with MW exceeding 14 500 than of such fragments with MW in a 1700-14 500 range.

  5. Effects of Soy Protein Hydrolysates Prepared by Varying Subcritical Media on the Physicochemical Properties of Pork Patties.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yun-Kyung; Ko, Bo-Bae; Davaatseren, Munkhtugs; Hong, Geun-Pyo

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of soy protein hydrolysates (SPH) prepared by varying subcritical media on the physicochemical properties of pork patties. For resource of SPH, two different soybean species (Glycine max Merr.) of Daewonkong (DWK) and Saedanbaek (SDB) were selected. SPH was prepared by subcritical processing at 190℃ and 25 MPa under three different of media (water, 20% ethanol and 50% ethanol). Solubility and free amino group content revealed that water was better to yield larger amount of SPH than ethanol/water mixtures, regardless of species. Molecular weight (Mw) distribution of SPH was also similar between two species, while slightly different Mw distribution was obtained by subcritical media. For pork patty application, 50% ethanol treatment showed clear red color comparing to control after 14 d of storage. In addition, ethanol treatment had better oxidative stability than control and water treatment based on thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) analysis. For eating quality, although 20% ethanol treatment in SDB showed slightly higher cooking loss than control, generally addition of SPH did not affect the water-binding properties and hardness of pork patties. Consequently, the present study indicated that 50% ethanol was the best subcritical media to produce SPH possessing antioxidant activity, and the SPH produced from DWK exhibited better antioxidant activity than that produced SDB.

  6. Effects of Soy Protein Hydrolysates Prepared by Varying Subcritical Media on the Physicochemical Properties of Pork Patties

    PubMed Central

    Davaatseren, Munkhtugs

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of soy protein hydrolysates (SPH) prepared by varying subcritical media on the physicochemical properties of pork patties. For resource of SPH, two different soybean species (Glycine max Merr.) of Daewonkong (DWK) and Saedanbaek (SDB) were selected. SPH was prepared by subcritical processing at 190℃ and 25 MPa under three different of media (water, 20% ethanol and 50% ethanol). Solubility and free amino group content revealed that water was better to yield larger amount of SPH than ethanol/water mixtures, regardless of species. Molecular weight (Mw) distribution of SPH was also similar between two species, while slightly different Mw distribution was obtained by subcritical media. For pork patty application, 50% ethanol treatment showed clear red color comparing to control after 14 d of storage. In addition, ethanol treatment had better oxidative stability than control and water treatment based on thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) analysis. For eating quality, although 20% ethanol treatment in SDB showed slightly higher cooking loss than control, generally addition of SPH did not affect the water-binding properties and hardness of pork patties. Consequently, the present study indicated that 50% ethanol was the best subcritical media to produce SPH possessing antioxidant activity, and the SPH produced from DWK exhibited better antioxidant activity than that produced SDB. PMID:27499657

  7. Preparation and Evaluation of the Chelating Nanocomposite Fabricated with Marine Algae Schizochytrium sp. Protein Hydrolysate and Calcium.

    PubMed

    Lin, Jiaping; Cai, Xixi; Tang, Mengru; Wang, Shaoyun

    2015-11-11

    Marine algae have been becoming a popular research topic because of their biological implication. The algae peptide-based metal-chelating complex was investigated in this study. Schizochytrium sp. protein hydrolysate (SPH) possessing high Ca-binding capacity was prepared through stepwise enzymatic hydrolysis to a degree of hydrolysis of 22.46%. The nanocomposites of SPH chelated with calcium ions were fabricated in aqueous solution at pH 6 and 30 °C for 20 min, with the ratio of SPH to calcium 3:1 (w/w). The size distribution showed that the nanocomposite had compact structure with a radius of 68.16 ± 0.50 nm. SPH was rich in acidic amino acids, accounting for 33.55%, which are liable to bind with calcium ions. The molecular mass distribution demonstrated that the molecular mass of SPH was principally concentrated at 180-2000 Da. UV scanning spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy suggested that the primary sites of calcium-binding corresponded to the carboxyl groups, carbonyl groups, and amino groups of SPH. The results of fluorescent spectroscopy, size distribution, atomic force microscope, and (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy suggested that calcium ions chelated with SPH would cause intramolecular and intermolecular folding and aggregating. The SPH-calcium chelate exerted remarkable stability and absorbability under either acidic or basic conditions, which was in favor of calcium absorption in the gastrointestinal tracts of humans. The investigation suggests that SPH-calcium chelate has the potential prospect to be utilized as a nutraceutical supplement to improve bone health in the human body.

  8. Effect of Soy Protein Hydrolysates Prepared by Subcritical Water Processing on the Physicochemical Properties of Pork Patty during Chilled Storage

    PubMed Central

    Min, Sang-Gi

    2015-01-01

    The present study was carried out to investigate the effects of soy protein hydrolysates (SPHs) addition on the quality characteristics of pork patties. The SPHs was prepared by subcritical water process (SWP) at 180℃ without holding time and mixed with the pork patty components at varying concentrations (0-3%), and the patties were stored at 4℃ for 14 d. As quality parameters, instrumental color, thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS), pH, water holding capacity (WHC) and shear force were measured at the end of storage. Regardless of SPHs concentration, the addition of SPHs significantly manifested low L* and high a* values compared to those of untreated control (p<0.05). For b* value, addition of SPHs in the 0.5-1.5% was unaffected, while >2.0% of SPHs caused significantly lower b* than control (p<0.05). The color changes in pork patties with and without SPHs were also identified in visual appearance where the pork patties containing 0.5-2.0% showed bright red color which was comparable to brownish color of control and patties containing >2.5% SPHs. Lipid oxidation was delayed by the addition of 0.5-1.5% SPHs, while it was accelerated by the addition of 3% SPHs. The pH of patties increased with increasing concentration of SPHs, whereas there were no significant differences in WHC and shear force of patties. Consequently, the results indicated that the addition of 0.5-1.5% SPHs had a potential advantage in suppressing oxidative deterioration of fat-containing meat products during chilled storage. PMID:26761879

  9. Applications of Protein Hydrolysates in Biotechnology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasupuleti, Vijai K.; Holmes, Chris; Demain, Arnold L.

    By definition, protein hydrolysates are the products that are obtained after the hydrolysis of proteins and this can be achieved by enzymes, acid or alkali. This broad definition encompasses all the products of protein hydrolysis - peptides, amino acids and minerals present in the protein and acid/alkali used to adjust pH (Pasupuleti 2006). Protein hydrolysates contain variable side chains depending on the enzymes used. These side chains could be carboxyl, amino, imidazole, sulfhydryl, etc. and they may exert specific physiological roles in animal, microbial, insect and plant cells. This introductory chapter reviews the applications of protein hydrolysates in biotechnology. The word biotechnology is so broad and for the purpose of this book, we define it as a set of technologies such as cell culture technology, bioprocessing technology that includes fermentations, genetic engineering technology, microbiology, and so on. This chapter provides introduction and leads to other chapters on manufacturing and applications of protein hydrolysates in biotechnology.

  10. Immunogenicity evaluation of protein hydrolysates for hypoallergenic infant formulae.

    PubMed

    Cordle, C T; Mahmoud, M I; Moore, V

    1991-10-01

    Casein and soy protein were enzymatically hydrolyzed for potential use in a hypoallergenic infant formula. To assess the relative immunoreactivity of the hydrolysates, rabbits were immunized with either the intact proteins or the protein hydrolysates using a vigorous immunization protocol. Serum samples were tested using ELISA methods that quantitated IgG antibody specific for the immunizing protein hydrolysates and the corresponding intact proteins. The results showed that the protein hydrolysates had substantially lower immunogenicity than the parent proteins. Also, antibody specific for the parent protein showed very low cross-reactivity with the hydrolysates. Both of the protein hydrolysates seem to be promising candidates for use in hypoallergenic infant feeding systems.

  11. Characterisation of novel fungal and bacterial protease preparations and evaluation of their ability to hydrolyse meat myofibrillar and connective tissue proteins.

    PubMed

    Ryder, Kate; Ha, Minh; Bekhit, Alaa El-Din; Carne, Alan

    2015-04-01

    The catalytic capability of four commercially available food-grade fungal and bacterial protease preparations (AFP, FPII, F60K and HT) was evaluated over a range of pH, temperature and substrate conditions using esterase and caseinolytic activity assays and time course hydrolysis over 120 and 60 min of myofibrillar and connective tissue proteins, respectively. The protease preparations displayed similar casein hydrolysis kinetics and were active in hydrolysing BODIPY-FL casein to varying extents at postmortem aging meat pH (5.0-6.0). All of the four proteases exhibited selective hydrolytic activity towards meat myofibrillar proteins including myosin and actin. Significant hydrolysis of two meat tenderisation protein markers troponin T and desmin by the four proteases was detected by western blot. The results obtained indicate that the new fungal protease preparations AFP and FPII, bacterial protease preparation HT and the new source of fungal protease preparation F60K have potential for use in meat tenderising applications. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Production of enzymatic protein hydrolysates from freshwater catfish (Clarias batrachus)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seniman, Maizatul Sarah Md; Yusop, Salma Mohamad; Babji, Abdul Salam

    2014-09-01

    Fish protein hydrolysate (FPH) was prepared from freshwater catfish (Clarias batrachus) by using Alcalase® 2.4L and Papain. The effect of hydrolysis time (30, 60, 120, 180 min) with enzyme concentration of 1% (v/w substrate); pH = 8.0, 7.0 was studied to determine the degree of hydrolysis (DH), peptide content, proximate composition and amino acid profile. Results showed that the highest DH of Alcalase and Papain FPH were 58.79% and 53.48% after 180 min at 55°C incubation respectively. The peptide content of both FPH increased as hydrolysis time increases. FPH showed higher crude protein content and lower fat, moisture and ash content compared to raw catfish. The major amino acids of both hydrolysates were Glu, Lys and Asp. Content of essential amino acids of Alcalase and Papain hydrolysates were 44.05% and 43.31% respectively.

  13. 21 CFR 573.200 - Condensed animal protein hydrolysate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Condensed animal protein hydrolysate. 573.200... ANIMALS Food Additive Listing § 573.200 Condensed animal protein hydrolysate. (a) Identity. The condensed animal protein hydrolysate is produced from the meat byproducts scraped from cured (salted) hides taken...

  14. 21 CFR 573.200 - Condensed animal protein hydrolysate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Condensed animal protein hydrolysate. 573.200... ANIMALS Food Additive Listing § 573.200 Condensed animal protein hydrolysate. (a) Identity. The condensed animal protein hydrolysate is produced from the meat byproducts scraped from cured (salted) hides taken...

  15. 21 CFR 573.200 - Condensed animal protein hydrolysate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Condensed animal protein hydrolysate. 573.200... ANIMALS Food Additive Listing § 573.200 Condensed animal protein hydrolysate. (a) Identity. The condensed animal protein hydrolysate is produced from the meat byproducts scraped from cured (salted) hides taken...

  16. 21 CFR 573.200 - Condensed animal protein hydrolysate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Condensed animal protein hydrolysate. 573.200... ANIMALS Food Additive Listing § 573.200 Condensed animal protein hydrolysate. (a) Identity. The condensed animal protein hydrolysate is produced from the meat byproducts scraped from cured (salted) hides taken...

  17. 21 CFR 573.200 - Condensed animal protein hydrolysate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Condensed animal protein hydrolysate. 573.200... ANIMALS Food Additive Listing § 573.200 Condensed animal protein hydrolysate. (a) Identity. The condensed animal protein hydrolysate is produced from the meat byproducts scraped from cured (salted) hides taken...

  18. Preparation of whey protein hydrolysates using a single- and two-stage enzymatic membrane reactor and their immunological and antioxidant properties: characterization by multivariate data analysis.

    PubMed

    Cheison, Seronei Chelulei; Wang, Zhang; Xu, Shi-Ying

    2007-05-16

    An initial 5% (w/v), followed thereafter with replacement aliquots of 3% (w/v), whey protein isolate (WPI) (ca. 86.98% Kjeldahl N x 6.38), was hydrolyzed using Protease N Amano G (IUB 3.4.24.28, Bacillus subtilis) in an enzymatic membrane reactor (EMR) fitted with either a 10 or 3 kDa nominal molecular weight cutoff (NMWCO) tangential flow filter (TFF) membrane. The hydrolysates were desalted by adsorption onto a styrene-based macroporous adsorption resin (MAR) and washed with deionized water to remove the alkali, and the peptides were desorbed with 25, 50, and 95% (v/v) ethyl alcohol. The desalted hydrolysates were analyzed for antibody binding, free radical scavenging, and molecular mass analysis as well as total and free amino acids (FAA). For the first time a quantity called IC50, the concentration of peptides causing 50% inhibition of the available antibody, is introduced to quantify inhibition enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) properties. Principal component analysis (PCA) was used for data reduction. The hydrolysate molecular mass provided the most prominent influence (PC1 = 57.35%), followed by inhibition ELISA (PC2 = 18.90%) and the antioxidant properties (PC3 = 10.43%). Ash was significantly reduced in the desalted fractions; the protein adsorption recoveries were high, whereas desorption with alcohol was prominently influenced by the hydrophobic/ hydrophilic amino acid balance. After hydrolysis, some hydrolysates showed increased ELISA reactivity compared with the native WPI.

  19. Stability of encapsulated beef-like flavourings prepared from enzymatically hydrolysed mushroom proteins with other precursors under conventional and microwave heating.

    PubMed

    Lotfy, Shereen N; Fadel, Hoda H M; El-Ghorab, Ahmed H; Shaheen, Mohamed S

    2015-11-15

    A comparative study was carried out between two beef-like flavourings prepared by conventional and microwave heating (CBF and MBF) of enzymatic hydrolysate of mushroom protein with other flavour precursors. GC-MS analysis of the isolated volatiles revealed that the thiol containing compounds were the predominate in both samples. However, MBF comprised higher concentration of these compounds (13.84 ± 0.06%) than CBF (10.74 ± 0.06%). The effect of microencapsulation with gum Arabic by using spray drying on the odour profile and volatile compounds of the two encapsulated samples (E-CBF and E-MBF) was investigated. The results revealed significant qualitative and quantitative variations in the volatiles of both samples. The highly volatile compounds decreased remarkably in concentration with encapsulation, while the pyrazines, thiazoles and disulphides showed opposite trend. The significant decrease in the thiol containing compounds in E-CBF and E-MBF were attributed to their oxidation to other compounds such as disulphide compounds which showed significant increase in the encapsulated samples. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Octopus vulgaris protein hydrolysates: characterization, antioxidant and functional properties.

    PubMed

    Ben Slama-Ben Salem, Rabeb; Bkhairia, Intidhar; Abdelhedi, Ola; Nasri, Moncef

    2017-05-01

    Composition, functional properties and in vitro antioxidant activities of octopus (Octopus vulgaris) protein hydrolysates (OPHs) were evaluated. OPHs were prepared by treatment with commercial Esperase (OPH-Esp), alkaline protease extract from Zebra blenny (Salaria basilica) (OPH-ZB) and enzyme preparation from Bacillus subtilis A26 (OPH-A26). OPHs showed different degrees of hydrolysis (DH from 17.6 to 21%), and hydrophobic/hydrophilic peptide ratio. The amino acid profiles of OPHs showed a high level of essential amino acids, and Lys was the most abundant amino acid. Enzymatic hydrolysis improved solubility significantly as well as emulsifying and foaming properties of octopus proteins. The emulsifying activity index of OPHs decreased with increasing concentrations. Conversely, the foaming abilities increased as the hydrolysate concentrations increased. For the antioxidant activities, five different in vitro assay systems were investigated. All hydrolysates displayed various degrees and dose dependant antioxidant activities. The highest DPPH scavenging activity and reducing power were achieved by OPH-A26. OPH-Esp displayed the highest ability to prevent the bleaching of β-carotene, whereas OPH-ZB exhibited the highest protection against hydroxyl radical induced DNA breakage. The results suggested that OPHs could be used, as a promising source of functional peptides with antioxidant activities, to formulate functional foods.

  1. Affinity purification of copper chelating peptides from chickpea protein hydrolysates.

    PubMed

    Megías, Cristina; Pedroche, Justo; Yust, Maria M; Girón-Calle, Julio; Alaiz, Manuel; Millan, Francisco; Vioque, Javier

    2007-05-16

    Chickpea protein hydrolysates obtained with alcalase and flavourzyme were used for purification of copper chelating peptides by affinity chromatography using copper immobilized on solid supports. The chelating activity of purified peptides was indirectly measured by the inhibition of beta-carotene oxidation in the presence of copper. Two protein hydrolysates, obtained after 10 and 100 min of hydrolysis, were the most inhibitory of beta-carotene oxidation. Purified copper chelating peptides from these protein hydrolysates contained 19.7 and 35.1% histidine, respectively, in comparison to 2.7 and 2.6% in the protein hydrolysates. Chelating peptides from hydrolysate obtained after 10 min of hydrolysis were the most antioxidative being 8.3 times more antioxidative than the hydrolysate, while chelating peptides purified from protein hydrolysate obtained after 100 min were 3.1 times more antioxidative than its hydrolysate. However, the histidine content was higher in peptides derived from the 100 min hydrolysate (19.7 against 35.1% in 10 min hydrolysate), indicating that this amino acid is not the only factor involved in the antioxidative activity, and other factors such as peptide size or amino acid sequence are also determinant. This manuscript shows that affinity chromatography is a useful procedure for purification of copper chelating peptides. This method can be extended to other metals of interest in nutrition, such as calcium, iron, or zinc. Purified chelating peptides, in addition to their antioxidative properties, may also be useful in food mineral fortification for increasing the bioavailability of these metals.

  2. Safety evaluation of fish protein hydrolysate supplementation in malnourished children.

    PubMed

    Nesse, Knut Olav; Nagalakshmi, A P; Marimuthu, P; Singh, Mamta; Bhetariya, Preetida J; Ho, Manki; Simon, Ryan R

    2014-06-01

    Amizate® is a proprietary protein hydrolysate preparation derived from Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) using endogenous hydrolytic enzymes; it contains mostly free amino acids and short peptides, as well as small amounts of micronutrients (i.e., vitamins and minerals). In this study, the safety of supplementation with fish protein hydrolysate (Amizate®) was examined in 438 malnourished children in a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, and parallel study. The children were between the ages of six to eight and met the Gomez classification for mild or moderate malnutrition. They were randomized to receive one of three interventions for four months, including a chocolate drink (control), or Amizate® (3 or 6g/day) in a chocolate drink. Administration of Amizate® was well-tolerated, with no adverse events reported. Growth (i.e., body weight gain, changes in height, and body mass index) was not negatively impacted by administration of Amizate®, and routine biochemical analysis of blood and urine samples did not reveal any abnormalities that were attributable to the intervention. Findings from this study demonstrate that daily consumption of 3 or 6g of fish protein hydrolysate (Amizate®) was safe and suitable for supplementing the diets of malnourished children.

  3. Effect of different hydrolysates of whey protein on hepatic glutathione content in mice.

    PubMed

    Pacheco, Maria Teresa Bertoldo; Sgarbieri, Valdemiro Carlos

    2005-01-01

    This study was designed to compare the effects of diets prepared with enzymatic hydrolysate of a whey protein concentrate (WPC) by pancreatin, protamex (Novo Nordisk, Bagsvaerd, Denmark), and alcalase proteases on the hepatic glutathione content in mice. The undenatured WPC was produced in a pilot plant by membrane technology (microfiltration/diafiltration) after separation of the casein clot through a conventional process. All three hydrolysates with 20% degree of hydrolysis showed an amino acid profile similar to WPC. Male A/J mice were fed on diets containing 20% WPC or hydrolysates. Commercial casein was used as a reference protein in the biological assays. The glutathione content was determined after liver extraction through high-performance capillary electrophoresis. WPC and its pancreatin and protamex hydrolysates showed higher ability to stimulate liver glutathione synthesis than alcalase hydrolysate. This difference was probably related to an amino acid sequence in the peptides that were formed during hydrolysis of whey proteins. Commercial casein and WPC alcalase hydrolysate produced lower stimulation of liver glutathione synthesis (7.09 and 5.66 micromol/g of wet weight) compared with WPC and pancreatin and protamex hydrolysates (8.72, 8.71, and 8.45 micromol/g of wet weight, respectively). These results indicate that the hydrolysates obtained by treatment with pancreatin and protamex are good sources of peptides with activity to stimulate glutathione synthesis.

  4. Production and characterization of functional properties of protein hydrolysates from egg shell membranes by lactic acid bacteria fermentation.

    PubMed

    Jain, Surangna; Anal, Anil Kumar

    2017-04-01

    This study aimed to ferment the chicken eggshell membrane (ESM) using the lactic acid bacteria, Lactobacillus plantarum for preparation of functional and bioactive protein hydrolysates. Cultivation at an initial pH of 8.0 for 36 h resulted in maximum protein concentration (177.3 mg/g) and degree of hydrolysis (25.1%) of the hydrolysates. Fermentation resulted in the production of hydrolysates that demonstrated excellent solubility (90.7%), good foaming capacity (36.7%) and emulsification activity (94.6 m(2)/g). Additionally, these protein hydrolysates exhibited remarkable bioactive properties for instance reducing power (2.53), protection from DPPH radical (70.5%) and angiotensin I converting enzyme inhibition (49.3%). The fermented protein hydrolysates were also found effective against various foodborne pathogens. The protein hydrolysates obtained by fermentation of ESM can be potentially incorporated in functional foods and nutraceuticals resulting in valorization of the ESM waste.

  5. Antioxidant properties of Australian canola meal protein hydrolysates.

    PubMed

    Alashi, Adeola M; Blanchard, Christopher L; Mailer, Rodney J; Agboola, Samson O; Mawson, A John; He, Rong; Girgih, Abraham; Aluko, Rotimi E

    2014-03-01

    Antioxidant activities of canola protein hydrolysates (CPHs) and peptide fractions prepared using five proteases and ultrafiltration membranes (1, 3, 5, and 10kDa) were investigated. CPHs had similar and adequate quantities of essential amino acids. The effective concentration that scavenged 50% (EC50) of the ABTS(+) was greatest for the <1kDa pancreatin fraction at 10.1μg/ml. CPHs and peptide fractions scavenged DPPH(+) with most of the EC50 values being <1.0mg/ml. Scavenging of superoxide radical was generally weak, except for the <1kDa pepsin peptide fraction that had a value of 51%. All CPHs inhibited linoleic acid oxidation with greater efficiency observed for pepsin hydrolysates. The oxygen radical absorbance capacity of Alcalase, chymotrypsin and pepsin hydrolysates was found to be better than that of glutathione (GSH) (p<0.05). These results show that CPHs have the potential to be used as bioactive ingredients in the formulation of functional foods against oxidative stress.

  6. Storage Stability of Food Protein Hydrolysates-A Review.

    PubMed

    Rao, Qinchun; Klaassen Kamdar, Andre; Labuza, Theodore P

    2016-05-18

    In recent years, mainly due to the specific health benefits associated with (1) the discovery of bioactive peptides in protein hydrolysates, (2) the reduction of protein allergenicity by protein hydrolysis, and (3) the improved protein digestibility and absorption of protein hydrolysates, the utilization of protein hydrolysates in functional foods and beverages has significantly increased. Although the specific health benefits from different hydrolysates are somewhat proven, the delivery and/or stability of these benefits is debatable during distribution, storage, and consumption. In this review, we discuss (1) the quality changes in different food protein hydrolysates during storage; (2) the resulting changes in the structure and texture of three food matrices, i.e., low moisture foods (LMF, aw < 0.6), intermediate moisture foods (IMF, 0.6 ≤ aw < 0.85), and high moisture foods (HMF, aw ≥ 0.85); and (3) the potential solutions to improve storage stability of food protein hydrolysates. In addition, we note there is a great need for evaluation of biofunction availability of bioactive peptides in food protein hydrolysates during storage.

  7. Production of bioactive peptide hydrolysates from deer, sheep and pig plasma using plant and fungal protease preparations.

    PubMed

    Bah, Clara S F; Bekhit, Alaa El-Din A; Carne, Alan; McConnell, Michelle A

    2015-06-01

    Plasma separated from deer, sheep and pig blood, obtained from abattoirs, was hydrolysed using protease preparations from plant (papain and bromelain) and fungal (FP400 and FPII) sources. Antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of the peptide hydrolysates obtained after 1, 2, 4 and 24h of hydrolysis, were investigated. The release of trichloroacetic acid-soluble peptides over the hydrolysis period was monitored using the o-phthaldialdehyde (OPA) assay, while the hydrolysis profiles were visualised using SDS-PAGE. The major plasma proteins in the animal plasmas were identified using MALDI-TOF-TOF MS. Hydrolysates of plasma generated with fungal proteases exhibited higher DPPH radical-scavenging, oxygen radical-scavenging capacity (ORAC) and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) than those generated with plant proteases for all three animal plasmas. No antimicrobial activity was detected in the hydrolysates. The results indicated that proteolytic hydrolysis of animal blood plasmas, using fungal protease preparations in particular, produces hydrolysates with high antioxidant properties.

  8. Chemical composition and immunomodulatory effects of enzymatic protein hydrolysates from common carp (Cyprinus carpio) egg.

    PubMed

    Chalamaiah, M; Hemalatha, R; Jyothirmayi, T; Diwan, Prakash V; Bhaskarachary, K; Vajreswari, A; Ramesh Kumar, R; Dinesh Kumar, B

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this study was to prepare protein hydrolysates from underutilized common carp (Cyprinus carpio) egg and to investigate their immunomodulatory effects in vivo. Common carp (Cyprinus carpio) egg (roe) was hydrolysed by pepsin, trypsin, and Alcalase. Chemical composition (proximate, amino acid, mineral and fatty acid compositions) and molecular mass distribution of the three hydrolysates were determined. The carp egg protein hydrolysates (CEPHs) were evaluated for their immunomodulatory effects in BALB/c mice. CEPHs (0.25, 0.5 and 1 g/kg body weight) were orally administered daily to female BALB/c mice (4-6 wk, 18-20 g) for a period of 45 d. After 45 d, mice were sacrificed and different tissues were collected for the immunologic investigations. The three hydrolysates contained high protein content (64%-73%) with all essential amino acids, and good proportion of ω-3 fatty acids, especially docosahexaenoic acid. Molecular mass analysis of hydrolysates confirmed the conversion of large-molecular-weight roe proteins into peptides of different sizes (5-90 kDa). The three hydrolysates significantly enhanced the proliferation of spleen lymphocytes. Pepsin hydrolysate (0.5 g/kg body weight) significantly increased the splenic natural killer cell cytotoxicity, mucosal immunity (secretory immunoglobulin A) in the gut and level of serum immunoglobulin A. Whereas Alcalase hydrolysate induced significant increases in the percentages of CD4+ and CD8+ cells in spleen. The results demonstrate that CEPHs are able to improve the immune system and further reveal that different CEPHs may exert differential influences on the immune function. These results indicate that CEPHs could be useful for several applications in the health food, pharmaceutical, and nutraceutical industries. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Characterization of flavor of whey protein hydrolysates.

    PubMed

    Leksrisompong, Pattarin P; Miracle, R Evan; Drake, Maryanne

    2010-05-26

    Twenty-two whey protein hydrolysates (WPH) obtained from 8 major global manufacturers were characterized by instrumental analysis and descriptive sensory analysis. Proximate analysis, size exclusion chromatography, and two different degrees of hydrolysis (DH) analytical methods were also conducted. WPH were evaluated by a trained descriptive sensory panel, and volatile compounds were extracted by solid phase microextraction (SPME) followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O). Eleven representative WPH were selected, and 15 aroma active compounds were quantified by GC-MS via the generation of external standard curves. Potato/brothy, malty, and animal flavors and bitter taste were key distinguishing sensory attributes of WPH. Correlations between bitter taste intensity, degree of hydrolysis (using both methods), and concentration of different molecular weight peptides were documented, with high DH samples having high bitter taste intensity and a high concentration of low molecular weight peptides and vice versa. The four aroma-active compounds out of 40 detected by GC-O present at the highest concentration and with consistently high odor activity values in WPH were Strecker derived products, dimethyl sulfide (DMS), 3-methyl butanal, 2-methyl butanal, and methional. Orthonasal thresholds of WPH were lower (p < 0.05) than basic taste thresholds suggesting that aromatics and bitter taste are both crucial to control in WPH food applications.

  10. Protein hydrolysate from visceral waste proteins of Catla (Catla catla): optimization of hydrolysis conditions for a commercial neutral protease.

    PubMed

    Bhaskar, N; Mahendrakar, N S

    2008-07-01

    Protein hydrolysate was prepared from visceral waste proteins of an Indian freshwater major carp, Catla catla. Hydrolysis conditions (viz., time, temperature and enzyme to substrate level) for preparing protein hydrolysates from the fish visceral waste proteins using in situ pH of the visceral mass were optimized by response surface methodology (RSM) by employing a factorial design. The regression coefficient close to 1.0, observed during both experimental and validation runs, indicated the validity of prediction model. An enzyme to substrate level of 1.25 % (v/w), temperature of 55 degrees C and a hydrolysis time of 165 min were found to be the optimum conditions to obtain a higher degree of hydrolysis of >48% using multifect-neutral. The amino acid composition of the protein hydrolysate prepared using the optimized conditions revealed that the protein hydrolysate was similar to FAO/WHO reference protein. The chemical scores computed indicated methionine to be the most limiting amino acid. The protein hydrolysate has the potential for application as an ingredient in balanced fish diets.

  11. Preparation of Antioxidant Enzymatic Hydrolysates from Honeybee-Collected Pollen Using Plant Enzymes

    PubMed Central

    Marinova, Margarita D.; Tchorbanov, Bozhidar P.

    2010-01-01

    Enzymatic hydrolysates of honeybee-collected pollen were prepared using food-grade proteinase and aminopeptidases entirely of plant origin. Bromelain from pineapple stem was applied (8 mAU/g substrate) in the first hydrolysis stage. Aminopeptidase (0.05 U/g substrate) and proline iminopeptidase (0.03 U/g substrate) from cabbage leaves (Brassica oleracea var. capitata), and aminopeptidase (0.2 U/g substrate) from chick-pea cotyledons (Cicer arietinum L.) were involved in the additional hydrolysis of the peptide mixtures. The degree of hydrolysis (DH), total phenolic contents, and protein contents of these hydrolysates were as follows: DH (about 20–28%), total phenolics (15.3–27.2 μg/mg sample powder), and proteins (162.7–242.8 μg/mg sample powder), respectively. The hydrolysates possessed high antiradical scavenging activity determined with DPPH (42–46% inhibition). The prepared hydrolysates of bee-collected flower pollen may be regarded as effective natural and functional dietary food supplements due to their remarkable content of polyphenol substances and significant radical-scavenging capacity with special regard to their nutritional-physiological implications. PMID:21318132

  12. Preparation of gluten free bread enriched with green mussel (Perna canaliculus) protein hydrolysates and characterization of peptides responsible for mussel flavour.

    PubMed

    Vijaykrishnaraj, M; Roopa, B S; Prabhasankar, P

    2016-11-15

    Green mussel protein hydrolysates (GMPH) utilization for the enrichment of gluten-free bread followed by characterization of flavour peptides using chromatography and electronic nose techniques have been done. The degree of hydrolysis was carried out in each protease digest, and the higher degree of hydrolysis was observed in pepsin digestion. Gluten-free (GF) bread was formulated by using buckwheat flour (BWF), rice flour (RF) and chickpea flour (CPF) (70:20:10) and GMPH were added in the range of 0-20% in the GF bread for enrichment with GMPH. Radar plot of the electronic nose analysis showed that the sensors P30/2, T30/1 and T70/2 had a higher response to the GF bread and GMPH. Consequently, the peptide sequence was obtained manually by ESI-MS spectra of GMPH (KGYSSYICDK) and F-II (SSYCIVKICDK). Flavour quality was 97% discriminately comparable to the GMPH and F-II fractions. Mussel flavoured GF bread can be included in the celiac diet. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Physiological Importance and Mechanisms of Protein Hydrolysate Absorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhanghi, Brian M.; Matthews, James C.

    Understanding opportunities to maximize the efficient digestion and assimilation by production animals of plant- and animal-derived protein products is critical for farmers, nutritionists, and feed manufacturers to sustain and expand the affordable production of high quality animal products for human consumption. The challenge to nutritionists is to match gastrointestinal tract load to existing or ­inducible digestive and absorptive capacities. The challenge to feed manufacturers is to develop products that are efficient substrates for digestion, absorption, and/or both events. Ultimately, the efficient absorption of digesta proteins depends on the mediated passage (transport) of protein hydrosylate products as dipeptides and unbound amino acids across the lumen- and blood-facing membranes of intestinal absorptive cells. Data testing the relative efficiency of supplying protein as hydrolysates or specific dipeptides versus as free amino acids, and the response of animals in several physiological states to feeding of protein hydrolysates, are presented and reviewed in this chapter. Next, data describing the transport mechanisms responsible for absorbing protein hydrolysate digestion products, and the known and putative regulation of these mechanisms by their substrates (small peptides) and hormones are presented and reviewed. Several conclusions are drawn regarding the efficient use of protein hydrolysate-based diets for particular physiological states, the economically-practical application of which likely will depend on technological advances in the manufacture of protein hydrolysate products.

  14. Effect of whey and casein protein hydrolysates on rheological, textural and sensory properties of cookies.

    PubMed

    Gani, Adil; Broadway, A A; Ahmad, Mudasir; Ashwar, Bilal Ahmad; Wani, Ali Abas; Wani, Sajad Mohd; Masoodi, F A; Khatkar, Bupinder Singh

    2015-09-01

    Milk proteins were hydrolyzed by papain and their effect on the rheological, textural and sensory properties of cookies were investigated. Water absorption (%) decreased significantly as the amount of milk protein concentrates and hydrolysates increased up to a level of 15 % in the wheat flour. Dough extensibility decreased with inrease in parental proteins and their hydrolysates in wheat flour, significantly. Similarly, the pasting properties also varied significantly in direct proportion to the quantity added in the wheat flour. The colour difference (ΔE) of cookies supplemented with milk protein concentrates and hydrolysates were significantly higher than cookies prepared from control. Physical and sensory characteristics of cookies at 5 % level of supplementation were found to be acceptable. Also the scores assigned by the judges for texture and colour were in good agreement with the measurements derived from the physical tests.

  15. Rheological and Functional Properties of Catfish Skin Protein Hydrolysates

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Catfish skin is an abundant and underutilized resource that can be used as a unique protein source to make fish skin hydrolysates. The objectives of this study were to: isolating soluble and insoluble proteins from hydrolyzed catfish skin and study the chemical and functional properties of the prote...

  16. Chickpea protein hydrolysate as a substitute for serum in cell culture

    PubMed Central

    Vioque, Javier; Pedroche, Justo; Alaiz, Manuel; Yust, María M.; Megías, Cristina; Millán, Francisco

    2008-01-01

    The growth of mammalian cells in vitro requires the use of rich culture media that are prepared by combining serum with specific nutrient formulations. Serum, the most expensive component of culture media, provides a complex mixture of growth factors and nutrients. Protein hydrolysates that can support in vitro cell growth and eliminate or reduce the need to use serum have been obtained from different sources. Here we describe the use of two food grade proteases to produce a chickpea protein hydrolysate that has been added to cell culture medium in order to determine whether it can be used as a substitute for serum. Medium containing the hydrolysate has been tested using two human cells lines: the monocytic THP-1 cell line which grows in suspension, and the epithelial Caco-2 cell line which grows as a monolayer. The chickpea protein hydrolysate was a good substitute for serum in the first case, but did not allow growth of Caco-2 cells. Supplementation of culture media with this inexpensive and safe hydrolysate would greatly reduce the cost of cell culture. PMID:19003183

  17. Lupine protein hydrolysates inhibit enzymes involved in the inflammatory pathway.

    PubMed

    Millán-Linares, María del Carmen; Yust, María del Mar; Alcaide-Hidalgo, Juan María; Millán, Francisco; Pedroche, Justo

    2014-05-15

    Lupine protein hydrolysates (LPHs) were obtained from a lupine protein isolate (LPI) by enzymatic hydrolysis using two proteases, Izyme AL and Alcalase 2.4 L, and their potential anti-inflammatory capacities were studied by determining their in vitro inhibition of the following enzymes that are involved in the inflammatory process: phospholipase A2 (PLA2), cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2), thrombin, and transglutaminase (TG). The strongest inhibitory activities toward PLA2 and TG were found in the hydrolysates obtained by hydrolysis with Izyme and subsequently with Alcalase, with more than 70% inhibition obtained in some cases. All of the hydrolysates tested inhibited more than 60% of the COX-2 activity. In no case did the percentage of thrombin activity inhibition exceed 40%. The best inhibitory activities were found in the LPH obtained after 15 min of hydrolysis with Alcalase and in the LPH obtained after 60 min of hydrolysis with Izyme followed by 15 min of hydrolysis with Alcalase. Enzyme kinetic analyses were conducted to determine the Km and Vmax parameters of these two hydrolysates using the Lineweaver-Burk equation. Both hydrolysates competitively inhibited the thrombin and PLA2 activities. In the case of COX-2 and TG, the inhibition appeared to be the mixed type. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Xylitol production from wheat straw hemicellulosic hydrolysate: hydrolysate detoxification and carbon source used for inoculum preparation

    PubMed Central

    Canilha, Larissa; Carvalho, Walter; Felipe, Maria das Graças Almeida; de Almeida e Silva, João Batista

    2008-01-01

    Wheat straw hemicellulosic hydrolysate was used for xylitol bioproduction. The use of a xylose-containing medium to grow the inoculum did not favor the production of xylitol in the hydrolysate, which was submitted to a previous detoxification treatment with 2.5% activated charcoal for optimized removal of inhibitory compounds. PMID:24031226

  19. Protein Hydrolysates as Hypoallergenic, Flavors and Palatants for Companion Animals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagodawithana, Tilak W.; Nelles, Lynn; Trivedi, Nayan B.

    Early civilizations have relied upon their good sense and experience to develop and improve their food quality. The discovery of soy sauce centuries ago can now be considered one of the earliest protein hydrolysates made by man to improve palatability of foods. Now, it is well known that such savory systems are not just sources for enjoyment but complex semiotic systems that direct the humans to satisfy the body's protein need for their sustenance. Recent developments have resulted in a wide range of cost effective savory flavorings, the best known of which are autolyzed yeast extracts and hydrolyzed vegetable proteins. New technologies have helped researchers to improve the savory characteristics of yeast extracts through the application of Maillard reaction and by generating specific flavor enhancers through the use of enzymes. An interesting parallel exists in the pet food industry, where a similar approach is taken in using animal protein hydrolysates to create palatability enhancers via Maillard reaction scheme. Protein hydrolysates are also utilized extensively as a source of nutrition to the elderly, young children and immuno-compromised patient population. These hydrolysates have an added advantage in having peptides small enough to avoid any chance of an allergenic reaction which sometimes occur with the consumption of larger sized peptides or proteins. Accordingly, protein hydrolysates are required to have an average molecular weight distribution in the range 800-1,500 Da to make them non-allergenic. The technical challenge for scientists involved in food and feed manufacture is to use an appropriate combination of enzymes within the existing economic constraints and other physical factors/limitations, such as heat, pH, and time, to create highly palatable, yet still nutritious and hypoallergenic food formulations.

  20. Rendered-protein hydrolysates for microbial synthesis of cyanophycin biopolymer

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Cyanophycin is a poly(arginyl-aspartate) biopolymer produced and stored intracellularly by bacteria. Cyanophycin has been proposed as a renewable replacement for petrochemical-based industrial products. An abundant source of amino acids and nitrogen such as in the form of protein hydrolysates is n...

  1. Debittering of Protein Hydrolysates by Lactobacillus LBL-4 Aminopeptidase

    PubMed Central

    Tchorbanov, Bozhidar; Marinova, Margarita; Grozeva, Lydia

    2011-01-01

    Yoghurt strain Lactobacillus LBL-4 cultivated for 8–10 h at pH ~6.0 was investigated as a considerable food-grade source of intracellular aminopeptidase. Cell-free extract manifesting >200 AP U/l was obtained from cells harvested from 1 L culture media. Subtilisin-induced hydrolysates of casein, soybean isolate, and Scenedesmus cell protein with degree of hydrolysis 20–22% incubated at 45°C for 10 h by 10 AP U/g peptides caused an enlarging of DH up to 40–42%, 46–48%, and 38–40% respectively. The DH increased rapidly during the first 4 h, but gel chromatography studies on BioGel P-2 showed significant changes occurred during 4–10 h of enzyme action when the DH increased gradually. After the digestion, the remained AP activity can be recovered by ultrafiltration (yield 40–50%). Scenedesmus protein hydrolysate with DH 20% was inoculated by Lactobacillus LBL-4 cells, and after 72 h cultivation the DH reached 32%. The protein hydrolysates (DH above 40%) obtained from casein and soybean isolate (high Q value) demonstrated a negligible bitterness while Scenedesmus protein hydrolysates (low Q value) after both treatments were free of bitterness. PMID:21876793

  2. Rice bran protein hydrolysates exhibit strong in vitro α-amylase, β-glucosidase and ACE-inhibition activities.

    PubMed

    Uraipong, Chatchaporn; Zhao, Jian

    2016-03-15

    The objective of this study was to systematically examine the in vitro health-promotion activities of rice bran protein hydrolysates. Rice bran proteins were fractioned into albumin, globulin, prolamin and glutelin, which were subjected to hydrolysis by four protease preparations, namely Alcalase, Neutrase, Flavourzyme and Protamax, and the inhibitory activities of the hydrolysates against α-amylase, α-glucosidase and angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE), were monitored over a hydrolysis period of 240 min. Active peptides in the hydrolysates were isolated by ultra-filtration and ion-exchange chromatography and the peptide sequences of the active fractions were identified by LC-MS/MS. Hydrolysis of the proteins resulted in significant increases in these bioactivities, which were generally correlated with the degree of protein hydrolysis. In general, the highest bioactivities were found with albumin and glutelin hydrolysates, followed by globulin hydrolysates, while prolamin hydrolysates showed the lowest activities. Of the four enzymes used, Alcalase- and Protamax-catalysed hydrolysates generally had the highest activities while Flavourzyme-produced hydrolysates had the lowest activity. The MW < 3 kDa fraction of the Alcalase-catalysed glutelin hydrolysates had the highest β-glucosidase inhibition activity, which was identified to contain 13 peptides with six to 32 amino acid residues. The α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibitory activities of albumin and glutelin hydrolysates produced by Alcalase and Protamax were comparable in magnitude to those of the standard anti-diabetic drug acarbose, and had the potential to be developed into a dietary or nutraceutical supplement for the management of diabetes. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  3. Balanced intraintestinal nutrition: digestion, absorption and biological value of selected preparations of milk proteins.

    PubMed

    Ziemlański, S; Cieślakowa, D; Kunachowicz, H; Pałaszewska, M

    1978-01-01

    The absorption of an enzymatic hydrolysate of whey proteins, hydrolysates of milk proteins and casein, 7% hydrolysate of bovine blood produced by Polfa under the trade name "Aminokwasy", and a standard mixture of amino acids from isolated small intestine loop of dogs and rats was compared. The composition of amino acids of the initial proteins and hydrolysates obtained from these proteins was determined. The biological value of selected proteins and hydrolysates was assessed determining the mean weight gain, nitrogen content of the body, urinary excretion of urea and creatinine, blood urea level and NPU. No significant differences were found in the absorption of nitrogen from the hydrolysate of milk and whey proteins. The nutritional value of whey protein hydrolysate was, however, slightly higher than that of an analogous hydrolysate of milk proteins. It seems that of all tested proteins whey hydrolysate (free of lactose) is the most suitable source for obtaining preparations for no-residue intraintestinal feeding.

  4. Towards an Understanding of How Protein Hydrolysates Stimulate More Efficient Biosynthesis in Cultured Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siemensma, André; Babcock, James; Wilcox, Chris; Huttinga, Hans

    In the light of the growing demand for high quality plant-derived hydrolysates (i.e., HyPep™ and UltraPep™ series), Sheffield Bio-Science has developed a new hydrolysate platform that addresses the need for animal-free cell culture medium supplements while also minimizing variability concerns. The platform is based upon a novel approach to enzymatic digestion and more refined processing. At the heart of the platform is a rationally designed animal component-free (ACF) enzyme cocktail that includes both proteases and non-proteolytic enzymes (hydrolases) whose activities can also liberate primary components of the polymerized non-protein portion of the raw material. This enzyme system is added during a highly optimized process step that targets specific enzyme-substrate reactions to expand the range of beneficial nutritional factors made available to cells in culture. Such factors are fundamental to improving the bio-performance of the culture system, as they provide not merely growth-promoting peptides and amino acids, but also key carbohydrates, lipids, minerals, and vitamins that improve both rate and quality of protein expression, and serve to improve culture life due to osmo-protectant and anti-apoptotic properties. Also of significant note is that, compared to typical hydrolysates, the production process is greatly reduced and requires fewer steps, intrinsically yielding a better-controlled and therefore more reproducible product. Finally, the more sophisticated approach to enzymatic digestion renders hydrolysates more amenable to sterile filtration, allowing hydrolysate end users to experience streamlined media preparation and bioreactor supplementation activities. Current and future development activities will evolve from a better understanding of the complex interactions within a handful of key biochemical pathways that impact the growth and productivity of industrially relevant organisms. Presented in this chapter are some examples of the efforts that

  5. Physical and oxidative stability of fish oil-in-water emulsions stabilized with fish protein hydrolysates.

    PubMed

    García-Moreno, Pedro J; Guadix, Antonio; Guadix, Emilia M; Jacobsen, Charlotte

    2016-07-15

    The emulsifying and antioxidant properties of fish protein hydrolysates (FPH) for the physical and oxidative stabilization of 5% (by weight) fish oil-in-water emulsions were investigated. Muscle proteins from sardine (Sardina pilchardus) and small-spotted catshark (Scyliorhinus canicula) were hydrolyzed to degrees of hydrolysis (DH) of 3-4-5-6% with subtilisin. Sardine hydrolysates with low DH, 3% and 4%, presented the most effective peptides to physically stabilize emulsions with smaller droplet size. This implied more protein adsorbed at the interface to act as physical barrier against prooxidants. This fact might also be responsible for the higher oxidative stability of these emulsions, as shown by their lowest peroxide value and concentration of volatiles such as 1-penten-3-one and 1-penten-3-ol. Among the hydrolysates prepared from small-spotted catshark only the hydrolysate with DH 3% yielded a physically stable emulsion with low concentration of unsaturated aldehydes. These results show the potential of FPH as alternative protein emulsifiers for the production of oxidatively stable fish oil-in-water emulsions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Supplementation of Pork Patties with Bovine Plasma Protein Hydrolysates Augments Antioxidant Properties and Improves Quality

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Hyun-Woo

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of bovine plasma protein (PP) hydrolysates on the antioxidant and quality properties of pork patties during storage. Pork patties were divided into 4 groups: without butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) and PP hydrolysates (control), 0.02% BHT (T1), 1% PP hydrolysates (T2), and 2% PP hydrolysates (T3). Pork patty supplemented with PP hydrolysates had higher pH values and lower weight loss during cooking than the control patties. Results showed that lightness and hardness both decreased upon the addition of PP hydrolysates. All samples containing BHT and PP hydrolysates had reduced TBARS and peroxide values during storage. In particular, 2% PP hydrolysates were more effective in delaying lipid oxidation than were the other treatments. It was concluded that treatment with 2% PP hydrolysates can enhance the acceptance of pork patty. PMID:27194928

  7. Functional properties of tropical banded cricket (Gryllodes sigillatus) protein hydrolysates.

    PubMed

    Hall, Felicia G; Jones, Owen G; O'Haire, Marguerite E; Liceaga, Andrea M

    2017-06-01

    Recently, the benefits of entomophagy have been widely discussed. Due to western cultures' reluctance, entomophagy practices are leaning more towards incorporating insects into food products. In this study, whole crickets (Gryllodes sigillatus) were hydrolyzed with alcalase at 0.5, 1.5, and 3.0% (w/w) for 30, 60, and 90min. Degree of hydrolysis (DH), amino acid composition, solubility, emulsion and foaming properties were evaluated. Hydrolysis produced peptides with 26-52% DH compared to the control containing no enzyme (5% DH). Protein solubility of hydrolysates improved (p<0.05) over a range of pH's, exhibiting >30% soluble protein at pH 3 and 7 and 50-90% at alkaline pH, compared with the control. Emulsion activity index ranged from 7 to 32m(2)/g, while foamability ranged from 100 to 155% for all hydrolysates. These improved functional properties demonstrate the potential to develop cricket protein hydrolysates as a source of functional alternative protein in food ingredient formulations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Use of Protein Hydrolysates in Industrial Starter Culture Fermentations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ummadi, Madhavi (Soni); Curic-Bawden, Mirjana

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) have been used as starter cultures for fermenting foods long before the importance of microorganisms were recognized. The most important group of LAB are the lactococci, lactobacilli, streptococci, and pediococci. Additionally, bifidobacteria have been included as a probiotic, providing added value to the product. Since the genera involved are so diverse, the nutritional requirements (energy, carbon and nitrogen sources) differ significantly between and within species. Designing an optimum fermentation medium for production of active and vigorous LAB starter cultures and probiotics requires selecting the right raw ingredients, especially protein hydrolysates that can provide adequate nutrients for growth and viability. This chapter attempts to describe the application of various commercial protein hydrolysates used for production of dairy and meat starter cultures, with special emphasis on meeting the nitrogen requirements of industrially important LAB species.

  9. Lipid oxidation and fishy odour in protein hydrolysate derived from Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) protein isolate as influenced by haemoglobin.

    PubMed

    Yarnpakdee, Suthasinee; Benjakul, Soottawat; Kristinsson, Hordur G

    2014-01-30

    Although protein isolates have been proven as a potent raw material for protein hydrolysate preparation, the fishy odour associated with lipid oxidation is still detected. The remaining haemoglobin (Hb) in protein isolates can effectively induce lipid oxidation, leading to the formation of fishy odour in the resulting hydrolysate. The aim of this study was to elucidate the impact of Hb with different forms, oxyhaemoglobin (oxy-Hb) and methaemoglobin (met-Hb), on lipid oxidation and the development of fishy odour during hydrolysis of protein isolates. During hydrolysis of protein isolate up to 120 min, non-haem iron content, peroxide value and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances slightly increased (P < 0.05). When oxy-Hb or met-Hb was incorporated, the marked increases in all parameters were observed, especially within the first 60 min of hydrolysis. The higher increases were obtained with the latter, suggesting that met-Hb was more pro-oxidative than oxy-Hb. However, no differences in degree of hydrolysis of all samples were observed (P > 0.05). The marked increases in the b*, ΔE*, ΔC* values, fishy odour/flavour and volatile compounds were also found in the resulting hydrolysate containing either oxy-Hb or met-Hb. Hb, particularly met-Hb, induced lipid oxidation and the development of a fishy odour/flavour in fish protein hydrolysate. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  10. Study of antioxidant activity of sheep visceral protein hydrolysate: Optimization using response surface methodology.

    PubMed

    Meshginfar, Nasim; Sadeghi-Mahoonak, Alireza; Ziaiifar, Aman Mohammad; Ghorbani, Mohammad; Kashaninejad, Mahdi

    2014-07-01

    The main objective of this experiment was optimal use of none edible protein source to increase nutritional value of production with high biological function, including antioxidant activity. Sheep visceral (stomach and intestine) was used as substrate. Response surface methodology (RSM) was used to optimize hydrolysis conditions for preparing protein hydrolysate from the sheep visceral, using alcalase 2.4 l enzyme. The investigated factors were temperature (43-52 °C), time (90-180 min), and enzyme/substrate ratio [60-90 Anson-unit (AU)/kg protein] to achieve maximum antioxidant activity. Experiments were designed according to the central composite design. Each of the studied variables had a significant effect on responses (P < 0.05). Optimal conditions to achieve antioxidant activity were, temperature (48.27 °C), time (158.78), min and enzyme/substrate ratio (83.35) Anson-unit/kg protein. Under these conditions, antioxidant activity was 68.21%, R2 for model was 0.983. The values indicated the high accuracy of the model to predict the reaction conditions considering different variables. The chemical analysis of protein hydrolysate showed high protein content (83.78%) and low fat content (0.34%). Our results showed that protein hydrolysate of sheep visceral, can be used as a natural antioxidant with high nutritional value.

  11. Bioactivities of fish protein hydrolysates from defatted salmon backbones.

    PubMed

    Slizyte, Rasa; Rommi, Katariina; Mozuraityte, Revilija; Eck, Peter; Five, Kathrine; Rustad, Turid

    2016-09-01

    Bioactivities of bulk fish protein hydrolysates (FPH) from defatted salmon backbones obtained with eight different commercial enzymes and their combinations were tested. All FPH showed antioxidative activity in vitro. DPPH scavenging activity increased, while iron chelating ability decreased with increasing time of hydrolysis. All FPH showed ACE inhibiting effect which depended on type of enzyme and increased with time of hydrolysis. The highest effect was found for FPH produced with Trypsin. Bromelain + Papain hydrolysates reduced the uptake of radiolabelled glucose into CaCo-2 cells, a model of human enterocytes, indicating a potential antidiabetic effect of FPH. FPH obtained by Trypsin, Bromelain + Papain and Protamex showed the highest ACE inhibitory, cellular glucose transporter (GLUT/SGLT) inhibitory and in vitro antioxidative activities, respectively. Correlation was observed between the measured bioactivities, degree of hydrolysis and molecular weight profiles, supporting prolonged hydrolysis to obtain high bioactivities.

  12. Generation, Fractionation, and Characterization of Iron-Chelating Protein Hydrolysate from Palm Kernel Cake Proteins.

    PubMed

    Zarei, Mohammad; Ghanbari, Rahele; Tajabadi, Naser; Abdul-Hamid, Azizah; Bakar, Fatimah Abu; Saari, Nazamid

    2016-02-01

    Palm kernel cake protein was hydrolyzed with different proteases namely papain, bromelain, subtilisin, flavourzyme, trypsin, chymotrypsin, and pepsin to generate different protein hydrolysates. Peptide content and iron-chelating activity of each hydrolysate were evaluated using O-phthaldialdehyde-based spectrophotometric method and ferrozine-based colorimetric assay, respectively. The results revealed a positive correlation between peptide contents and iron-chelating activities of the protein hydrolysates. Protein hydrolysate generated by papain exhibited the highest peptide content of 10.5 mM and highest iron-chelating activity of 64.8% compared with the other hydrolysates. Profiling of the papain-generated hydrolysate by reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography fractionation indicated a direct association between peptide content and iron-chelating activity in most of the fractions. Further fractionation using isoelectric focusing also revealed that protein hydrolysate with basic and neutral isoelectric point (pI) had the highest iron-chelating activity, although a few fractions in the acidic range also exhibited good metal chelating potential. After identification and synthesis of papain-generated peptides, GGIF and YLLLK showed among the highest iron-chelating activities of 56% and 53%, whereas their IC50 were 1.4 and 0.2 μM, respectively. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  13. The Use of Protein Hydrolysates for Weed Control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christians, Nick; Liu, Dianna; Unruh, Jay Bryan

    Corn gluten meal, the protein fraction of corn (Zea mays L.) grain, is commercially used as a natural weed control agent and nitrogen source in horticultural crops and in the turf and ornamental markets. Corn gluten hydrolysate, a water soluble form of gluten meal, has also been proposed for the same purpose, although it could be sprayed on the soil rather than applied in the granular form. Five depeptides, glutaminyl-glutamine (Gln-Gln), glycinyl-alanine (Gly-Ala), alanyl-­glutamine (Ala-Glu), alanyl-asparagine (Ala-Asp), and alaninyl-alanine (Ala-Ala) and a pentapeptide leucine-serine-proline-alanine-glutamine (Leu-Ser-Pro-Ala-Gln) were identified as the active components of the hydrolysate. Microscopic analysis revealed that Ala-Ala acted on some metabolic process rather than directly on the mitotic apparatus. Similar to the chloracetamides and sulfonyl-urea hebicides, Ala-Ala inhibits cell division rather than disrupting of cell division processes. Cellular ultrastructure changes caused by exposure to Ala-Ala implicate Ala-Ala as having membrane-disrupting characteristics similar to several synthetic herbicides. The potential use of the hydrolysate and the peptides as weed controls is discussed.

  14. Characterization and Potential Use of Cuttlefish Skin Gelatin Hydrolysates Prepared by Different Microbial Proteases

    PubMed Central

    Jridi, Mourad; Lassoued, Imen; Nasri, Rim; Ayadi, Mohamed Ali; Nasri, Moncef

    2014-01-01

    Composition, functional properties, and in vitro antioxidant activities of gelatin hydrolysates prepared from cuttlefish skin were investigated. Cuttlefish skin gelatin hydrolysates (CSGHs) were obtained by treatment with crude enzyme preparations from Bacillus licheniformis NH1, Bacillus mojavensis A21, Bacillus subtilis A26, and commercial alcalase. All CSGHs had high protein contents, 74.3–78.3%, and showed excellent solubility (over 90%). CSGH obtained by alcalase demonstrated high antioxidant activities monitored by β-carotene bleaching, DPPH radical scavenging, lipid peroxidation inhibition, and reducing power activity. Its antioxidant activity remained stable or increased in a wide range of pH (1–9), during heating treatment (100°C for 240 min) and after gastrointestinal digestion simulation. In addition, alcalase-CSGH was incorporated into turkey meat sausage to determine its effect on lipid oxidation during 35 days of storage period. At 0.5 mg/g, alcalase-CSGH delayed lipid oxidation monitored by TBARS and conjugated diene up to 10 days compared to vitamin C. The results reveal that CSGHs could be used as food additives possessing both antioxidant activity and functional properties. PMID:25025053

  15. Characterization and potential use of cuttlefish skin gelatin hydrolysates prepared by different microbial proteases.

    PubMed

    Jridi, Mourad; Lassoued, Imen; Nasri, Rim; Ayadi, Mohamed Ali; Nasri, Moncef; Souissi, Nabil

    2014-01-01

    Composition, functional properties, and in vitro antioxidant activities of gelatin hydrolysates prepared from cuttlefish skin were investigated. Cuttlefish skin gelatin hydrolysates (CSGHs) were obtained by treatment with crude enzyme preparations from Bacillus licheniformis NH1, Bacillus mojavensis A21, Bacillus subtilis A26, and commercial alcalase. All CSGHs had high protein contents, 74.3-78.3%, and showed excellent solubility (over 90%). CSGH obtained by alcalase demonstrated high antioxidant activities monitored by β-carotene bleaching, DPPH radical scavenging, lipid peroxidation inhibition, and reducing power activity. Its antioxidant activity remained stable or increased in a wide range of pH (1-9), during heating treatment (100°C for 240 min) and after gastrointestinal digestion simulation. In addition, alcalase-CSGH was incorporated into turkey meat sausage to determine its effect on lipid oxidation during 35 days of storage period. At 0.5 mg/g, alcalase-CSGH delayed lipid oxidation monitored by TBARS and conjugated diene up to 10 days compared to vitamin C. The results reveal that CSGHs could be used as food additives possessing both antioxidant activity and functional properties.

  16. Antioxidant Effect and Functional Properties of Hydrolysates Derived from Egg-White Protein

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Dae-Yeon; Jo, Kyungae; Cho, So Young; Kim, Jin Man; Lim, Kwangsei; Suh, Hyung Joo

    2014-01-01

    This study utilized commercially available proteolytic enzymes to prepare egg-white protein hydrolysates (EPHs) with different degrees of hydrolysis. The antioxidant effect and functionalities of the resultant products were then investigated. Treatment with Neutrase yielded the most α-amino groups (6.52 mg/mL). Alcalase, Flavourzyme, Protamex, and Ficin showed similar degrees of α-amino group liberation (3.19-3.62 mg/mL). Neutrase treatment also resulted in the highest degree of hydrolysis (23.4%). Alcalase and Ficin treatment resulted in similar degrees of hydrolysis. All hydrolysates, except for the Flavourzyme hydrolysate, had greater radical scavenging activity than the control. The Neutrase hydrolysate showed the highest 2,2-azino-bis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) radical scavenging activity (IC50=3.6mg/mL). Therefore, Neutrase was identified as the optimal enzyme for hydrolyzing egg-white protein to yield antioxidant peptides. During Neutrase hydrolysis, the reaction rate was rapid over the first 4 h, and then subsequently declined. The IC50 value was lowest after the first hour (2.99 mg/mL). The emulsifying activity index (EAI) of EPH treated with Neutrase decreased, as the pH decreased. The EPH foaming capacity was maximal at pH 3.6, and decreased at an alkaline pH. Digestion resulted in significantly higher 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and ABTS radical scavenging activity. The active peptides released from egg-white protein showed antioxidative activities on ABTS and DHHP radical. Thus, this approach may be useful for the preparation of potent antioxidant products. PMID:26761178

  17. Comparative Composition and Antioxidant Activity of Peptide Fractions Obtained by Ultrafiltration of Egg Yolk Protein Enzymatic Hydrolysates

    PubMed Central

    Chay Pak Ting, Bertrand P.; Mine, Yoshinori; Juneja, Lekh R.; Okubo, Tsutomu; Gauthier, Sylvie F.; Pouliot, Yves

    2011-01-01

    The objective of the study was to compare the antioxidant activity of two distinct hydrolysates and their peptide fractions prepared by ultrafiltration (UF) using membranes with molecular weight cut-off of 5 and 1 kDa. The hydrolysates were a delipidated egg yolk protein concentrate (EYP) intensively hydrolyzed with a combination of two bacterial proteases, and a phosphoproteins (PPP) extract partially hydrolyzed with trypsin. Antioxidant activity, as determined by the oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) assay, was low for EYP and PPP hydrolysates with values of 613.1 and 489.2 μM TE·g−1 protein, respectively. UF-fractionation of EYP hydrolysate increased slightly the antioxidant activity in permeate fractions (720.5–867.8 μM TE·g−1 protein). However, ORAC values were increased by more than 3-fold in UF-fractions prepared from PPP hydrolysate, which were enriched in peptides with molecular weight lower than 5 kDa. These UF-fractions were characterized by their lower N/P atomic ratio and higher phosphorus content compared to the same UF-fractions obtained from EYP-TH. They also contained high amounts of His, Met, Leu, and Phe, which are recognized as antioxidant amino acids, but also high content in Lys and Arg which both represent target amino acids of trypsin used for the hydrolysis of PPP. PMID:24957729

  18. Structural and Antihypertensive Properties of Enzymatic Hemp Seed Protein Hydrolysates.

    PubMed

    Malomo, Sunday A; Onuh, John O; Girgih, Abraham T; Aluko, Rotimi E

    2015-09-10

    The aim of this work was to produce antihypertensive protein hydrolysates through different forms of enzymatic hydrolysis (2% pepsin, 4% pepsin, 1% alcalase, 2% alcalase, 2% papain, and 2% pepsin + pancreatin) of hemp seed proteins (HSP). The hemp seed protein hydrolysates (HPHs) were tested for in vitro inhibitions of renin and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE), two of the enzymes that regulate human blood pressure. The HPHs were then administered orally (200 mg/kg body weight) to spontaneously hypertensive rats and systolic blood pressure (SBP)-lowering effects measured over a 24 h period. Size exclusion chromatography mainly showed a 300-9560 Da peptide size range for the HPHs, while amino acid composition data had the 2% pepsin HPH with the highest cysteine content. Fluorescence spectroscopy revealed higher fluorescence intensities for the peptides when compared to the unhydrolyzed hemp seed protein. Overall, the 1% alcalase HPH was the most effective (p < 0.05) SBP-reducing agent (-32.5 ± 0.7 mmHg after 4 h), while the pepsin HPHs produced longer-lasting effects (-23.0 ± 1.4 mmHg after 24 h). We conclude that an optimized combination of the fast-acting HPH (1% alcalase) with the longer-lasting HPHs (2% and 4% pepsin) could provide daily effective SBP reductions.

  19. Structural and Antihypertensive Properties of Enzymatic Hemp Seed Protein Hydrolysates

    PubMed Central

    Malomo, Sunday A.; Onuh, John O.; Girgih, Abraham T.; Aluko, Rotimi E.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this work was to produce antihypertensive protein hydrolysates through different forms of enzymatic hydrolysis (2% pepsin, 4% pepsin, 1% alcalase, 2% alcalase, 2% papain, and 2% pepsin + pancreatin) of hemp seed proteins (HSP). The hemp seed protein hydrolysates (HPHs) were tested for in vitro inhibitions of renin and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE), two of the enzymes that regulate human blood pressure. The HPHs were then administered orally (200 mg/kg body weight) to spontaneously hypertensive rats and systolic blood pressure (SBP)-lowering effects measured over a 24 h period. Size exclusion chromatography mainly showed a 300–9560 Da peptide size range for the HPHs, while amino acid composition data had the 2% pepsin HPH with the highest cysteine content. Fluorescence spectroscopy revealed higher fluorescence intensities for the peptides when compared to the unhydrolyzed hemp seed protein. Overall, the 1% alcalase HPH was the most effective (p < 0.05) SBP-reducing agent (−32.5 ± 0.7 mmHg after 4 h), while the pepsin HPHs produced longer-lasting effects (−23.0 ± 1.4 mmHg after 24 h). We conclude that an optimized combination of the fast-acting HPH (1% alcalase) with the longer-lasting HPHs (2% and 4% pepsin) could provide daily effective SBP reductions. PMID:26378569

  20. Mild protein hydrolysation of lactose-free milk further reduces milk-related gastrointestinal symptoms.

    PubMed

    Turpeinen, Anu; Kautiainen, Hanna; Tikkanen, Marja-Leena; Sibakov, Timo; Tossavainen, Olli; Myllyluoma, Eveliina

    2016-05-01

    Gastrointestinal symptoms associated with milk are common. Besides lactose, milk proteins may cause symptoms in sensitive individuals. We have developed a method for mild enzymatic hydrolysation of milk proteins and studied the effects of hydrolysed milk on gastrointestinal symptoms in adults with a self-diagnosed sensitive stomach. In a double blind, randomised placebo-controlled study, 97 subjects consumed protein-hydrolysed lactose-free milk or commercially available lactose-free milk for 10 d. Frequency of gastrointestinal symptoms during the study period was reported and a symptom score was calculated. Rumbling and flatulence decreased significantly in the hydrolysed milk group (P < 0·05). Also, the total symptom score was lower in subjects who consumed hydrolysed milk (P < 0·05). No difference between groups was seen in abdominal pain (P = 0·47) or bloating (P = 0·076). The results suggest that mild enzymatic protein hydrolysation may decrease gastrointestinal symptoms in adults with a sensitive stomach.

  1. Preparation of Egg White Liquid Hydrolysate (ELH) and Its Radical-Scavenging Activity.

    PubMed

    Noh, Dong Ouk; Suh, Hyung Joo

    2015-09-01

    In the present study, an optimum protease was selected to hydrolyze the egg white liquid protein for the antioxidant peptides. Alcalase treatment yielded the highest amount of α-amino groups (15.27 mg/mL), while the control (no enzymatic hydrolysis) showed the lowest amount of α-amino groups (1.53 mg/mL). Alcalase also gave the highest degree of hydrolysis (DH) value (43.2%) and was more efficient for egg white liquid hydrolysis than the other enzymes. The Alcalase hydrolysate had the highest radical-scavenging activity (82.5%) at a concentration of 5.0 mg/mL. The conditions for enzymatic hydrolysis of egg white liquid with Alcalase were selected as substrate : water ratio of 2:1. Five percent Alacalse treatment did not show significant (P>0.05) increases of DH and α-amino nitrogen content after 24 h-hydrolysis. Thirty two hour-hydrolysis with 5% Alcalase is sufficient to make antioxidative egg white liquid hydrolysate from egg white liquid. DPPH and ABTS radical-scavenging activities were significantly (P<0.05) higher after enzymatic digestion. These results suggest that active peptides released from egg-white protein are effective radical-scavengers. Thus, this approach may be useful for the preparation of potent antioxidant products.

  2. Preparation of Egg White Liquid Hydrolysate (ELH) and Its Radical-Scavenging Activity

    PubMed Central

    Noh, Dong Ouk; Suh, Hyung Joo

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, an optimum protease was selected to hydrolyze the egg white liquid protein for the antioxidant peptides. Alcalase treatment yielded the highest amount of α-amino groups (15.27 mg/mL), while the control (no enzymatic hydrolysis) showed the lowest amount of α-amino groups (1.53 mg/mL). Alcalase also gave the highest degree of hydrolysis (DH) value (43.2%) and was more efficient for egg white liquid hydrolysis than the other enzymes. The Alcalase hydrolysate had the highest radical-scavenging activity (82.5%) at a concentration of 5.0 mg/mL. The conditions for enzymatic hydrolysis of egg white liquid with Alcalase were selected as substrate : water ratio of 2:1. Five percent Alacalse treatment did not show significant (P>0.05) increases of DH and α-amino nitrogen content after 24 h-hydrolysis. Thirty two hour-hydrolysis with 5% Alcalase is sufficient to make antioxidative egg white liquid hydrolysate from egg white liquid. DPPH and ABTS radical-scavenging activities were significantly (P<0.05) higher after enzymatic digestion. These results suggest that active peptides released from egg-white protein are effective radical-scavengers. Thus, this approach may be useful for the preparation of potent antioxidant products. PMID:26451355

  3. Antioxidant and Anticancer Activities of Walnut (Juglans regia L.) Protein Hydrolysates Using Different Proteases.

    PubMed

    Jahanbani, Raheleh; Ghaffari, S Mahmood; Salami, Maryam; Vahdati, Kourosh; Sepehri, Houri; Sarvestani, Nazanin Namazi; Sheibani, Nader; Moosavi-Movahedi, Ali Akbar

    2016-12-01

    Walnut (Juglans regia L.) contains approximately 20-25 % protein with abundant essential amino acids. The enzymatic hydrolysate of Persian walnut (Chandler) seed proteins was prepared by incubation with three different proteases, including pancreatic chymotrypsin and trypsin, and a microbial enzyme proteinase K. The hydrolysates were found to possess excellent antioxidant capacities. The peptide fractions scavenged the 2, 2'-anizo-bis-(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) free radicals and inhibited the activity of reactive oxygen species. Walnut protein hydrolysates were also tested, for the first time, against the viability of human breast (MDA-MB231) and colon (HT-29) cancer cell lines. MTT, [3-(4, 5dimethylthiazolyl)-2,5-diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide], assay was used to assess in vitro cancer cell viability upon treatment with the peptide fractions. The peptide fractions showed cell growth inhibition of 63 ± 1.73 % for breast cancer and 51 ± 1.45 % for colon cancer cells. Thus, a direct correlation between antioxidant and anticancer activities of walnut peptide fractions exists and supports their potential therapeutic benefit.

  4. Beneficial effects of protein hydrolysates in exercise and sports nutrition.

    PubMed

    Yuan, J; Jiang, B; Li, K; Shen, W; Tang, J L

    2017-01-01

    Protein hydrolysates (PH) are rich sources of proteins that supply the need of exercising muscles. PHs are enriched in di- and tripeptides and are better than free amino acids or intact proteins when muscle anabolic effect is considered. Digestion, absorption and muscle uptake of amino acids are faster and more efficient when PH is ingested in comparison to the respective intact protein. PHs not only enhance endurance in high intensity exercise regimen, but also help in faster post-exercise recovery of muscle by promoting glycogen synthesis, although the latter effect requires more convincing evidence. PHs have been shown to exhibit insulinotrophic effect as it enhances the secretion of insulin and the hormone, in turn, exerts muscle anabolic effect.

  5. Purification and identification of antioxidant peptides from walnut (Juglans regia L.) protein hydrolysates.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ning; Yang, Hongmei; Sun, Yi; Niu, Jun; Liu, Shuying

    2012-12-01

    Walnut proteins were hydrolyzed separately using three different proteases to obtain antioxidant peptides. The antioxidant activities of the hydrolysates were measured using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) assay. Among hydrolysates, pepsin hydrolysate obtained by 3h exhibited the highest antioxidant activities, which could also quench the hydroxyl radical, chelate ferrous ion, exhibit reducing power and inhibit the lipid peroxidation. Then, 3-h pepsin hydrolysates were purified sequentially by ultrafiltration, gel filtration and RP-HPLC. The sequence of the peptide with the highest antioxidative activity was identified to be Ala-Asp-Ala-Phe (423.23 Da) using RP-HPLC-ESI-MS, which was identified for the first time from walnut protein hydrolysates. Last, the inhibition of the peptide on lipid peroxidation was similar with that of reduced glutathione (GSH). These results indicate that the protein hydrolysates and/or its isolated peptides may be effectively used as food additives.

  6. A novel multi-biofunctional protein from brown rice hydrolysed by endo/endo-exoproteases.

    PubMed

    Selamassakul, Orrapun; Laohakunjit, Natta; Kerdchoechuen, Orapin; Ratanakhanokchai, Khanok

    2016-06-15

    Brown rice, which is a less allergenic food grain and contains essential amino acids, was hydrolysed by bromelain and PROTEASE FP51® to improve its functionalities and taste for food applications. The hydrolysate prepared by bromelain (eb-RPH) had high protein solubility, surface hydrophobicity, low molecular weight peptides, hydrophobic amino acids (leucine, valine and glycine) and flavor amino acids (glutamic acid and aspartic acid). The eb-RPH exhibited higher 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH˙) and 2,2'-azino-bis 3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic (ABTS˙(+)) radical-scavenging activities of 76.62% and 52.96%, respectively, and possessed a better foaming capacity (221.76%) and emulsifying capacity (32.34%) than the hydrolysate prepared by PROTEASE FP51® (ep-RPH) did. The eb-RPH gave the desired taste, which is attributed to volatile flavor compounds (benzaldehyde, benzeneacetaldehyde and 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline) and non-volatile flavor compounds, such as monosodium glutamate, 5'-guanosine monophosphate and 5'-inosine monophosphate (0.07, 0.03 and 0.05 mg mL(-1), respectively). Brown rice peptides generated by bromelain were novel bioactive peptides with multifunctional properties.

  7. Concentration-dependent displacement of cholesterol in micelles by hydrophobic rice bran protein hydrolysates.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Huijuan; Yokoyama, Wallace H; Zhang, Hui

    2012-05-01

    Rice bran, containing about 100-150 g kg(-1) protein, is a by-product of rice milling that has only become an available ingredient in recent years owing to the centralisation of rice milling. Rice bran, but not its protein fraction or hydrolysates, has been shown to have a hypocholesterolaemic effect. Peptides from soy, milk and other foods have been proposed to have hypocholesterolaemic effects based on their ability to lower cholesterol solubility in bile acid/phosphotidyl choline micelles. Rice bran protein hydrolysates (RBPHs) were prepared and investigated for their potential to lower cholesterol concentration in micelles. The RBPHs were produced by digestion using four different peptidases, alcalase 2.4L(®), neutrase 0.8L(®), papaya latex papain and porcine pancreas trypsin, and then fractionated by hydrophobicity using styrene/divinylbeneze resins. Alcalase 2.4L(®) produced the highest degree of hydrolysis, and the resulting hydrolysates had the highest micellar cholesterol inhibition ability in an in vitro hypocholesterolaemic test. The adsorption dynamics of four different macroporous resins, DA201-C, Sepabeads SP207 and SP825 and Diaion HP20, were determined using the Langmuir isotherm model. DA201-C had the highest adsorption capacity with an equilibrium concentration of 220 mg g(-1). The hydrolysates eluted with 25, 50, 75 and 95% (v/v) ethanol lowered the micellar cholesterol concentration by 11.88, 14.76, 19.37 and 7.56% respectively. A hydrophobic fraction of RBPH had the highest inhibitory activity on micellar cholesterol, which suggests that it may have hypocholesterolaemic properties. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  8. Soy protein hydrolysate ameliorates cardiovascular remodeling in rats with L-NAME-induced hypertension.

    PubMed

    Yang, Hsin-Yi; Yang, Suh-Ching; Chen, Shu-Tzu; Chen, Jiun-Rong

    2008-12-01

    Pepsin-digested soy protein hydrolysate has been reported to be responsible for many of the physiological benefits associated with soy protein consumption. In the present study, we investigated the effects of soy protein hydrolysate with angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory potential on the blood pressure and cardiovascular remodeling in rats with N(omega)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester hydrochloride (L-NAME)-induced hypertension. Rats were fed a diet containing L-NAME (50 mg/kg body weight) with or without soy protein hydrolysate (1%, 3% or 5%) for 6 weeks. We found that ingestion of soy protein hydrolysate retarded the development of hypertension during the 6-week experimental period without affecting the amount of food intake. Although there was no difference in plasma ACE activity or tissue nitric oxide levels, ACE activity in the heart of rats consuming soy protein hydrolysate was significantly lower than that of the control group. Moreover, cardiac malonaldehyde and tumor necrosis factor-alpha concentrations were also lower in the soy protein hydrolysate group. No difference in plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 level was found in plasma or cardiovascular tissue. In the histopathological analysis, we also found that soy protein hydrolysate ameliorated inflammation and left ventricle hypertrophy in the heart. These findings suggest that soy protein hydrolysate might not only improve the balance between circulating nitric oxide and renin-angiotensin system but also show beneficial effects on cardiovascular tissue through its ACE inhibitory activity.

  9. Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory and antihypertensive activities of protein hydrolysate from meat of Kacang goat (Capra aegagrus hircus).

    PubMed

    Mirdhayati, Irdha; Hermanianto, Joko; Wijaya, Christofora H; Sajuthi, Dondin; Arihara, Keizo

    2016-08-01

    The meat of Kacang goat has potential for production of a protein hydrolysate. Functional ingredients from protein hydrolysate of Kacang goat meat were determined by the consistency of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory activity and antihypertensive effect. This study examined the potency of Kacang goat protein hydrolysate in ACE inhibition and antihypertensive activity. Protein hydrolysates of Kacang goat meat were prepared using sequential digestion of endo-proteinase and protease complex at several concentrations and hydrolysis times. The highest ACE inhibitory activity resulted from a hydrolysate that was digested for 4 h with 5 g kg(-1) of both enzymes. An ACE inhibitory peptide was purified and a novel peptide found with a sequence of Phe-Gln-Pro-Ser (IC50 value of 27.0 µmol L(-1) ). Both protein hydrolysates and a synthesised peptide (Phe-Gln-Pro-Ser) demonstrated potent antihypertensive activities in spontaneously hypertensive rats. Protein hydrolysate of Kacang goat meat produced by sequential digestion with endo-proteinase and protease complex has great potential as a functional ingredient, particularly as an antihypertensive agent. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  10. Novel bioactive peptides from enzymatic hydrolysate of Sardinelle (Sardinella aurita) muscle proteins hydrolysed by Bacillus subtilis A26 proteases.

    PubMed

    Jemil, Ines; Abdelhedi, Ola; Nasri, Rim; Mora, Leticia; Jridi, Mourad; Aristoy, Maria-Concepción; Toldrá, Fidel; Nasri, Moncef

    2017-10-01

    Sardinelle protein hydrolysate (SPH), prepared by treatment with Bacillus subtilis A26 proteases, was found to exhibit antibacterial, antioxidant and ACE-inhibitory activities. SPH, with a degree of hydrolysis of 4%, was fractionated by size exclusion chromatography on a Sephadex G-25 into five major fractions (F1-F5). F2, which exhibited the highest antibacterial and ACE-inhibitory activities, and F4, which exhibited the highest antibacterial and antioxidant activities, were further fractionated by reverse phase-high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) and then analysed using nano-ESI-LC-MS/MS to identify the sequences of peptides. Eight peptides were identified in the sub-fraction F2-A, nine peptides in the sub-fraction F4-B, and 45 peptides in F4-C. Identified peptides were found to share sequences with previously described bioactive peptides based on Biopep database. The results of this study suggest that SPH is a good source of natural bioactive peptides. Hence, it can be used as a potential ingredient in nutraceutical field. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Recovery of protein hydrolysate and chitosan from black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon) heads: approaching a zero waste process.

    PubMed

    Phuong, Pham Thi Dan; Minh, Nguyen Cong; Cuong, Hoang Ngoc; Van Minh, Nguyen; Han, Nguyen The; Van Hoa, Nguyen; Yen, Ha Thi Hai; Trung, Trang Si

    2017-06-01

    Shrimp heads are considered as a potential source for the recovery of many valuable components such as chitin, protein and carotenoids. In the present study, both protein hydrolysate and chitin/chitosan were recovered using combination of physical, biological and chemical treatments. Shrimp heads were separated from liquid phase by a facile and efficient physical pretreatment. The liquid fraction was then hydrolyzed using formic acid and vacuum concentrated to obtain an astaxanthin-rich protein hydrolysate. The solid fraction was used to produce chitin by deproteination and demineralization. The hydrolysate consisted of a high astaxanthin (192 ppm) and protein (26.3 wt%) content. Chitosan prepared from chitin showed a high degree of deacetylation (85.4%) with low protein (0.25 wt%) and mineral (0.22 wt%) contents. The relative crystalline structure of the chitin and chitosan were 54.7 and 10.4%, respectively. The deacetylation of chitin was confirmed by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy. The present procedure approached to produce maximum valuable components including astaxanthin-rich protein hydrolysate and chitin/chitosan from shrimp head waste.

  12. Nutritional evaluation of caseins and whey proteins and their hydrolysates from Protamex.

    PubMed

    Sindayikengera, Séverin; Xia, Wen-shui

    2006-02-01

    Whey protein concentrate (WPC 80) and sodium caseinate were hydrolyzed by Protamex to 5%, 10%, 15%, and 20% degree of hydrolysis (DH). WPC 80, sodium caseinate and their hydrolysates were then analyzed, compared and evaluated for their nutritional qualities. Their chemical composition, protein solubility, amino acid composition, essential amino acid index (EAA index), biological value (BV), nutritional index (NI), chemical score, enzymic protein efficiency ratio (E-PER) and in vitro protein digestibility (IVPD) were determined. The results indicated that the enzymatic hydrolysis of WPC 80 and sodium caseinate by Protamex improved the solubility and IVPD of their hydrolysates. WPC 80, sodium caseinate and their hydrolysates were high-quality proteins and had a surplus of essential amino acids compared with the FAO/WHO/UNU (1985) reference standard. The nutritive value of WPC 80 and its hydrolysates was superior to that of sodium caseinate and its hydrolysates as indicated by some nutritional parameters such as the amino acid composition, chemical score, EAA index and predicted BV. However, the E-PER was lower for the WPC hydrolysates as compared to unhydrolyzed WPC 80 but sodium caseinate and its hydrolysates did not differ significantly. The nutritional qualities of WPC 80, sodium caseinate and their hydrolysates were good and make them appropriate for food formulations or as nutritional supplements.

  13. Identification of bitter peptides in whey protein hydrolysate.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaowei; Jiang, Deshou; Peterson, Devin G

    2014-06-25

    Bitterness of whey protein hydrolysates (WPH) can negatively affect product quality and limit utilization in food and pharmaceutical applications. Four main bitter peptides were identified in a commercial WPH by means of sensory-guided fractionation techniques that included ultrafiltration and offline two-dimensional reverse phase chromatography. LC-TOF-MS/MS analysis revealed the amino acid sequences of the bitter peptides were YGLF, IPAVF, LLF, and YPFPGPIPN that originated from α-lactalbumin, β-lactoglobulin, serum albumin, and β-casein, respectively. Quantitative LC-MS/MS analysis reported the concentrations of YGLF, IPAVF, LLF, and YPFPGPIPN to be 0.66, 0.58, 1.33, and 2.64 g/kg powder, respectively. Taste recombination analysis of an aqueous model consisting of all four peptides was reported to explain 88% of the bitterness intensity of the 10% WPH solution.

  14. Rice protein hydrolysates stimulate GLP-1 secretion, reduce GLP-1 degradation, and lower the glycemic response in rats.

    PubMed

    Ishikawa, Yuki; Hira, Tohru; Inoue, Daisuke; Harada, Yukikazu; Hashimoto, Hiroyuki; Fujii, Mikio; Kadowaki, Motoni; Hara, Hiroshi

    2015-08-01

    Rice has historically been consumed in Asia as a major source of carbohydrates, however, little is known regarding the functional roles of rice proteins as dietary factors. In the present study, we investigated whether peptides derived from rice proteins could stimulate GLP-1 secretion, which results in reducing glycemia via the incretin effect in normal rats. Hydrolysates were prepared from the protein fraction of rice endosperm or rice bran, and the effects of these hydrolysates on GLP-1 secretion were examined in a murine enteroendocrine cell line GLUTag. Plasma was collected after oral administration of the rice protein hydrolysates, under anesthesia, or during glucose tolerance tests in rats. In anesthetized rats, plasma dipeptidyl peptidase-IV (DPP-IV) activity was measured after ileal administration of the rice protein hydrolysates. GLP-1 secretion from GLUTag cells was potently stimulated by the rice protein hydrolysates, especially by the peptic digest of rice endosperm protein (REPH) and that of rice bran protein (RBPH). Oral administration of REPH or RBPH elevated plasma GLP-1 concentrations, which resulted in the reduction of glycemia under the intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test. In addition, the plasma DPP-IV activity was attenuated after ileal administration of REPH or RBPH, which resulted in a higher ratio of intact (active) GLP-1 to total GLP-1 in the plasma. These results demonstrate that rice proteins exert potent stimulatory effects on GLP-1 secretion, which could contribute to the reduction of postprandial glycemia. The inhibitory effect of these peptides on the plasma DPP-IV activity may potentiate the incretin effect of GLP-1.

  15. Production of Defatted Palm Kernel Cake Protein Hydrolysate as a Valuable Source of Natural Antioxidants

    PubMed Central

    Zarei, Mohammad; Ebrahimpour, Afshin; Abdul-Hamid, Azizah; Anwar, Farooq; Saari, Nazamid

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to produce a valuable protein hydrolysate from palm kernel cake (PKC) for the development of natural antioxidants. Extracted PKC protein was hydrolyzed using different proteases (alcalase, chymotrypsin, papain, pepsin, trypsin, flavourzyme, and bromelain). Subsequently, antioxidant activity and degree of hydrolysis (DH) of each hydrolysate were evaluated using DPPH• radical scavenging activity and O-phthaldialdehyde spectrophotometric assay, respectively. The results revealed a strong correlation between DH and radical scavenging activity of the hydrolysates, where among these, protein hydrolysates produced by papain after 38 h hydrolysis exhibited the highest DH (91 ± 0.1%) and DPPH• radical scavenging activity (73.5 ± 0.25%) compared to the other hydrolysates. In addition, fractionation of the most effective (potent) hydrolysate by reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography indicated a direct association between hydrophobicity and radical scavenging activity of the hydrolysates. Isoelectric focusing tests also revealed that protein hydrolysates with basic and neutral isoelectric point (pI) have the highest radical scavenging activity, although few fractions in the acidic range also exhibited good antioxidant potential. PMID:22942692

  16. Antiproliferative Activity of Walnut (Juglans regia L.) Proteins and Walnut Protein Hydrolysates.

    PubMed

    Carrillo, Wilman; Gómez-Ruiz, José Angel; Ruiz, Ana Lucia; Carvalho, Jõao Ernesto

    2017-09-25

    Proteins from Juglans regia L. were isolated. Then, proteins were hydrolyzed with different enzymes. Antiproliferative activity of proteins and of the protein hydrolysates of J. regia L. were evaluated using the sulforhodamine B method. Glutelin and prolamin proteins presented a high antiproliferative activity against cancer cells PC-3 (prostate) and K-562 (leukemia) with values of 43.9 and 84.4 μg/mL, respectively. The highest inhibitory effect observed was 50% at 0.25 μg/mL concentration in gastrointestinal digestion with pepsin and corolase pp in a dose-dependent manner against cancer cell UACC62 (melanoma). Pepsin hydrolysate showed inhibitory effects against cancer cell UACC62 (melanoma) with a concentration of 71.0 μg/mL. The effects were studied in a dose-dependent manner. The hydrolysate obtained with neutrase enzyme presented inhibitory effects against cancer cell UACC62 (melanoma) at a concentration of 25 μg/mL. Neither proteins nor protein hydrolysates presented cytotoxicity against normal cell assay VERO (epithelial).

  17. Improved Functional Characteristics of Whey Protein Hydrolysates in Food Industry.

    PubMed

    Jeewanthi, Renda Kankanamge Chaturika; Lee, Na-Kyoung; Paik, Hyun-Dong

    2015-01-01

    This review focuses on the enhanced functional characteristics of enzymatic hydrolysates of whey proteins (WPHs) in food applications compared to intact whey proteins (WPs). WPs are applied in foods as whey protein concentrates (WPCs), whey protein isolates (WPIs), and WPHs. WPs are byproducts of cheese production, used in a wide range of food applications due to their nutritional validity, functional activities, and cost effectiveness. Enzymatic hydrolysis yields improved functional and nutritional benefits in contrast to heat denaturation or native applications. WPHs improve solubility over a wide range of pH, create viscosity through water binding, and promote cohesion, adhesion, and elasticity. WPHs form stronger but more flexible edible films than WPC or WPI. WPHs enhance emulsification, bind fat, and facilitate whipping, compared to intact WPs. Extensive hydrolyzed WPHs with proper heat applications are the best emulsifiers and addition of polysaccharides improves the emulsification ability of WPHs. Also, WPHs improve the sensorial properties like color, flavor, and texture but impart a bitter taste in case where extensive hydrolysis (degree of hydrolysis greater than 8%). It is important to consider the type of enzyme, hydrolysis conditions, and WPHs production method based on the nature of food application.

  18. Improved Functional Characteristics of Whey Protein Hydrolysates in Food Industry

    PubMed Central

    Jeewanthi, Renda Kankanamge Chaturika; Lee, Na-Kyoung; Paik, Hyun-Dong

    2015-01-01

    This review focuses on the enhanced functional characteristics of enzymatic hydrolysates of whey proteins (WPHs) in food applications compared to intact whey proteins (WPs). WPs are applied in foods as whey protein concentrates (WPCs), whey protein isolates (WPIs), and WPHs. WPs are byproducts of cheese production, used in a wide range of food applications due to their nutritional validity, functional activities, and cost effectiveness. Enzymatic hydrolysis yields improved functional and nutritional benefits in contrast to heat denaturation or native applications. WPHs improve solubility over a wide range of pH, create viscosity through water binding, and promote cohesion, adhesion, and elasticity. WPHs form stronger but more flexible edible films than WPC or WPI. WPHs enhance emulsification, bind fat, and facilitate whipping, compared to intact WPs. Extensive hydrolyzed WPHs with proper heat applications are the best emulsifiers and addition of polysaccharides improves the emulsification ability of WPHs. Also, WPHs improve the sensorial properties like color, flavor, and texture but impart a bitter taste in case where extensive hydrolysis (degree of hydrolysis greater than 8%). It is important to consider the type of enzyme, hydrolysis conditions, and WPHs production method based on the nature of food application. PMID:26761849

  19. Use of Different Proteases to Obtain Flaxseed Protein Hydrolysates with Antioxidant Activity

    PubMed Central

    Karamać, Magdalena; Kosińska-Cagnazzo, Agnieszka; Kulczyk, Anna

    2016-01-01

    The antioxidant activity of flaxseed protein hydrolysates obtained using five different enzymes was evaluated. Proteins were isolated from flaxseed cake and were separately treated with papain, trypsin, pancreatin, Alcalase and Flavourzyme. The degree of hydrolysis (DH) was determined as the percentage of cleaved peptide bonds using a spectrophotometric method with o-phthaldialdehyde. The distribution of the molecular weights (MW) of the hydrolysis products was profiled using Tricine-sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (Tricine-SDS-PAGE) and size exclusion-high performance liquid chromatography (SE-HPLC) separations. The antioxidant activities of the protein isolate and hydrolysates were probed for their radical scavenging activity using 2,2′-azino-bis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonate) radical cation (ABTS•+) and photochemiluminescence (PCL-ACL) assays, and for their ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and ability to bind Fe2+. The hydrolysates were more effective as antioxidants than the protein isolate in all systems. The PCL-ACL values of the hydrolysates ranged from 7.2 to 35.7 μmol Trolox/g. Both the FRAP and ABTS•+ scavenging activity differed among the hydrolysates to a lower extent, with the ranges of 0.20–0.24 mmol Fe2+/g and 0.17–0.22 mmol Trolox/g, respectively. The highest chelating activity (71.5%) was noted for the pancreatin hydrolysate. In general, the hydrolysates obtained using Alcalase and pancreatin had the highest antioxidant activity, even though their DH (15.4% and 29.3%, respectively) and the MW profiles of the peptides varied substantially. The O2•− scavenging activity and the ability to chelate Fe2+ of the Flavourzyme hydrolysate were lower than those of the Alcalase and pancreatin hydrolysates. Papain was the least effective in releasing the peptides with antioxidant activity. The study showed that the type of enzyme used for flaxseed protein hydrolysis determines the antioxidant activity of

  20. Use of Different Proteases to Obtain Flaxseed Protein Hydrolysates with Antioxidant Activity.

    PubMed

    Karamać, Magdalena; Kosińska-Cagnazzo, Agnieszka; Kulczyk, Anna

    2016-06-29

    The antioxidant activity of flaxseed protein hydrolysates obtained using five different enzymes was evaluated. Proteins were isolated from flaxseed cake and were separately treated with papain, trypsin, pancreatin, Alcalase and Flavourzyme. The degree of hydrolysis (DH) was determined as the percentage of cleaved peptide bonds using a spectrophotometric method with o-phthaldialdehyde. The distribution of the molecular weights (MW) of the hydrolysis products was profiled using Tricine-sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (Tricine-SDS-PAGE) and size exclusion-high performance liquid chromatography (SE-HPLC) separations. The antioxidant activities of the protein isolate and hydrolysates were probed for their radical scavenging activity using 2,2'-azino-bis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonate) radical cation (ABTS(•+)) and photochemiluminescence (PCL-ACL) assays, and for their ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and ability to bind Fe(2+). The hydrolysates were more effective as antioxidants than the protein isolate in all systems. The PCL-ACL values of the hydrolysates ranged from 7.2 to 35.7 μmol Trolox/g. Both the FRAP and ABTS(•+) scavenging activity differed among the hydrolysates to a lower extent, with the ranges of 0.20-0.24 mmol Fe(2+)/g and 0.17-0.22 mmol Trolox/g, respectively. The highest chelating activity (71.5%) was noted for the pancreatin hydrolysate. In general, the hydrolysates obtained using Alcalase and pancreatin had the highest antioxidant activity, even though their DH (15.4% and 29.3%, respectively) and the MW profiles of the peptides varied substantially. The O₂(•-) scavenging activity and the ability to chelate Fe(2+) of the Flavourzyme hydrolysate were lower than those of the Alcalase and pancreatin hydrolysates. Papain was the least effective in releasing the peptides with antioxidant activity. The study showed that the type of enzyme used for flaxseed protein hydrolysis determines the antioxidant activity

  1. Chemical compositions and muddy flavour/odour of protein hydrolysate from Nile tilapia and broadhead catfish mince and protein isolate.

    PubMed

    Yarnpakdee, Suthasinee; Benjakul, Soottawat; Penjamras, Pimpimol; Kristinsson, Hordur G

    2014-01-01

    Chemical compositions and muddy compounds in dorsal and ventral muscles of Nile tilapia and broadhead catfish were comparatively studied. On a dry weight basis, Nile tilapia was rich in protein (93.1-93.8%), whilst broadhead catfish contained protein (55.2-59.5%) and lipid (36.6-42.4%) as the major constituents. Ventral portion had higher lipid or phospholipid contents with coincidentally higher geosmin and/or 2-methylisoborneol (2-MIB) contents. Geosmin was found in mince of Nile tilapia and broadhead catfish at levels of 1.5 and 3.2μg/kg, respectively. Broadhead catfish mince had 2-MIB at level of 0.8μg/kg, but no 2-MIB was detected in Nile tilapia counterpart. When pre-washing and alkaline solubilisation were applied for preparing protein isolate (PI), lipid and phospholipid contents were lowered with concomitant decrease in geosmin and 2-MIB contents. Protein hydrolysate produced from PI had a lighter colour and a lower amount of muddy compounds, compared with that prepared from mince. Therefore, PI from both Nile tilapia and broadhead catfish could serve as the promising proteinaceous material, yielding protein hydrolysate with the negligible muddy odour and flavour.

  2. The immunopotentiating effects of shark-derived protein hydrolysate.

    PubMed

    Mallet, Jean-François; Duarte, Jairo; Vinderola, Gabriel; Anguenot, Raphaël; Beaulieu, Martin; Matar, Chantal

    2014-06-01

    Peptides derived from natural sources can act as immunomodulating agents and prevent infections. The aim of this study was to investigate the immunopotentiating and protective effects of a shark-derived protein hydrolysate (SPH) against an enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli H10407 infection in a murine model. Mice were fed an aqueous solution of SPH for 7 days before being inoculated with an experimental enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli H10407 infection. After euthanasia, small intestines were removed for histological study and the number of IgA and IgG producing cells was determined by direct immunofluorescence. Cytokines were measured in the serum and the intestinal fluid. The oral administration of SPH enhanced the gut barrier function via up-regulation of immunoglobulin A-producing cells and intestinal cytokines production, including interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor-α. The increase of transforming growth factor-β and interleukin-10 contribute to the down-regulation of uncontrolled-inflammatory reaction induced by E. coli infection. From these results, the anti-inflammatory properties of SPH may be caused by regulation and priming mechanisms of the immune system. Enzymatic protein degradation confers immunomodulating and protective potentials to shark proteins and the resulted peptides could be used as an alternative therapy to reduce the risk of bacterial infections and inflammatory-related diseases. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. In vitro antioxidant and antibacterial properties of hydrolysed proteins of delimed tannery fleshings: comparison of acid hydrolysis and fermentation methods.

    PubMed

    Balakrishnan, Bijinu; Prasad, Binod; Rai, Amit Kumar; Velappan, Suresh Puthanveetil; Subbanna, Mahendrakar Namadev; Narayan, Bhaskar

    2011-04-01

    Proteins in delimed tannery fleshings were fermentatively hydrolysed using Enterococcus faecium NCIM5335 and also hydrolysed using mild organic acids (formic acid and propionic acid). The liquor portion containing hydrolysed proteins was spray dried, in both the cases, to obtain a powder. The spray dried powder was evaluated for in vitro antioxidant activities with respect to scavenging different free radicals and antibacterial properties against nine different pathogens. Fermentation and acid hydrolysates scavenged 83 and 75.3% of 2,2-azino-bis-3-ethyl-benzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid (ABTS) radicals, respectively, at a protein concentration of 0.25 mg. Further, fermentation hydrolysate showed higher 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging activity of 59% as compared to 56% scavenging by acid hydrolysate at a protein concentration of 5 mg. Acid hydrolysate exhibited lesser (82.3%) peroxy radical scavenging compared to hydrolysate from fermentation (88.2%) at a protein concentration of 10 mg. However, acid hydrolysate exhibited higher (89.2%) superoxide anion scavenging while its fermentation counterpart showed lower activity (85.4%) at 2.5 mg hydrolysate protein. Well as superoxide anion scavenging properties. All the in vitro antioxidant properties exhibited dose dependency. Fermentation hydrolysate exhibited maximum antagonistic activity against Salmonella typhi FB231, from among host of pathogens evaluated. Both the hydrolysates have potential to be ingredients in animal feeds and can help reduce oxidative stress in the animals.

  4. Assessment of safety and efficiency of nitrogen organic fertilizers from animal-based protein hydrolysates--a laboratory multidisciplinary approach.

    PubMed

    Corte, Laura; Dell'abate, Maria Teresa; Magini, Alessandro; Migliore, Melania; Felici, Barbara; Roscini, Luca; Sardella, Roccaldo; Tancini, Brunella; Emiliani, Carla; Cardinali, Gianluigi; Benedetti, Anna

    2014-01-30

    Protein hydrolysates or hydrolysed proteins (HPs) are high-N organic fertilizers allowing the recovery of by-products (leather meal and fluid hydrolysed proteins) otherwise disposed of as polluting wastes, thus enhancing matter and energy conservation in agricultural systems while decreasing potential pollution. Chemical and biological characteristics of HPs of animal origin were analysed in this work to assess their safety, environmental sustainability and agricultural efficacy as fertilizers. Different HPs obtained by thermal, chemical and enzymatic hydrolytic processes were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, and their safety and efficacy were assessed through bioassays, ecotoxicological tests and soil biochemistry analyses. HPs can be discriminated according to their origin and hydrolysis system by proteomic and metabolomic methods. Three experimental systems, soil microbiota, yeast and plants, were employed to detect possible negative effects exerted by HPs. The results showed that these compounds do not significantly interfere with metabolomic activity or the reproductive system. The absence of toxic and genotoxic effects of the hydrolysates prepared by the three hydrolytic processes suggests that they do not negatively affect eukaryotic cells and soil ecosystems and that they can be used in conventional and organic farming as an important nitrogen source derived from otherwise highly polluting by-products. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  5. Angiotensin-I converting enzyme inhibitory and antioxidant activities of egg protein hydrolysates produced with gastrointestinal and nongastrointestinal enzymes.

    PubMed

    You, Sun-Jong; Wu, Jianping

    2011-08-01

    Egg is a well-known rich source of bioactive peptides. In this study, egg protein (egg white and egg yolk proteins) hydrolysates were produced with gastrointestinal enzymes (pepsin and pancreatin) or nongastrointestinal enzymes (thermolysin and alcalase), and fractionated by ultrafiltration and cation exchange chromatography. Angiotensin-I converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory and antioxidant activities, amino acid composition and molecular weight distribution were studied, and the physicochemical properties were related with the bioactivities. Our results showed that egg protein hydrolysates produced with non-GI enzymes (thermolysin and alcalase) showed significantly higher ACE inhibitory activity, whereas similar or even lower antioxidative activities, than those of hydrolysates produced with GI enzymes. ACE-inhibitory activity significantly correlated with the amino acid composition, especially the proportion of positively charged amino acid, whereas antioxidant activities correlated with the proportion of low molecular weight peptides under 500 Da. Understanding the relationship between the bioactivities and physicochemical properties of the hydrolysates/fractions is important to facilitate the development technologies for preparing fractions with improved bioactivities. © 2011 Institute of Food Technologists®

  6. Factors causing compositional changes in soy protein hydrolysates and effects on cell culture functionality.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Abhishek J; Gruppen, Harry; Maes, Dominick; Boots, Jan-Willem; Wierenga, Peter A

    2013-11-13

    Soy protein hydrolysates significantly enhance cell growth and recombinant protein production in cell cultures. The extent of this enhancement in cell growth and IgG production is known to vary from batch to batch. This can be due to differences in the abundance of different classes of compounds (e.g., peptide content), the quality of these compounds (e.g., glycated peptides), or the presence of specific compounds (e.g., furosine). These quantitative and qualitative differences between batches of hydrolysates result from variation in the seed composition and seed/meal processing. Although a considerable amount of literature is available that describes these factors, this knowledge has not been combined in an overview yet. The aim of this review is to identify the most dominant factors that affect hydrolysate composition and functionality. Although there is a limited influence of variation in the seed composition, the overview shows that the qualitative changes in hydrolysate composition result in the formation of minor compounds (e.g., Maillard reaction products). In pure systems, these compounds have a profound effect on the cell culture functionality. This suggests that the presence of these compounds in soy protein hydrolysates may affect hydrolysate functionality as well. This influence on the functionality can be of direct or indirect nature. For instance, some minor compounds (e.g., Maillard reaction products) are cytotoxic, whereas other compounds (e.g., phytates) suppress protein hydrolysis during hydrolysate production, resulting in altered peptide composition, and, thus, affect the functionality.

  7. Angiotensin-converting enzyme-inhibitory activity in protein hydrolysates from normal and anthracnose disease-damaged Phaseolus vulgaris seeds.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Álvarez, Alan Javier; Carrasco-Castilla, Janet; Dávila-Ortiz, Gloria; Alaiz, Manuel; Girón-Calle, Julio; Vioque-Peña, Javier; Jacinto-Hernández, Carmen; Jiménez-Martínez, Cristian

    2013-03-15

    Bean seeds are an inexpensive source of protein. Anthracnose disease caused by the fungus Colletotrichum lindemuthianum results in serious losses in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) crops worldwide, affecting any above-ground plant part, and protein dysfunction, inducing the synthesis of proteins that allow plants to improve their stress tolerance. The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of beans damaged by anthracnose disease as a source of peptides with angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE-I)-inhibitory activity. Protein concentrates from beans spoiled by anthracnose disease and from regular beans as controls were prepared by alkaline extraction and precipitation at isolelectric pH and hydrolysed using Alcalase 2.4 L. The hydrolysates from spoiled beans had ACE-I-inhibitory activity (IC(50) 0.0191 mg protein mL(-1)) and were very similar to those from control beans in terms of ACE-I inhibition, peptide electrophoretic profile and kinetics of hydrolysis. Thus preparation of hydrolysates using beans affected by anthracnose disease would allow for revalorisation of this otherwise wasted product. The present results suggest the use of spoiled bean seeds, e.g. anthracnose-damaged beans, as an alternative for the isolation of ACE-I-inhibitory peptides to be further introduced as active ingredients in functional foods. © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  8. Whey Protein Concentrate Hydrolysate Prevents Bone Loss in Ovariectomized Rats.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jonggun; Kim, Hyung Kwan; Kim, Saehun; Imm, Ji-Young; Whang, Kwang-Youn

    2015-12-01

    Milk is known as a safe food and contains easily absorbable minerals and proteins, including whey protein, which has demonstrated antiosteoporotic effects on ovariectomized rats. This study evaluated the antiosteoporotic effect of whey protein concentrate hydrolysate (WPCH) digested with fungal protease and whey protein concentrate (WPC). Two experiments were conducted to determine (1) efficacy of WPCH and WPC and (2) dose-dependent impact of WPCH in ovariectomized rats (10 weeks old). In Experiment I, ovariectomized rats (n=45) were allotted into three dietary treatments of 10 g/kg diet of WPC, 10 g/kg diet of WPCH, and a control diet. In Experiment II, ovariectomized rats (n=60) were fed four different diets (0, 10, 20, and 40 g/kg of WPCH). In both experiments, sham-operated rats (n=15) were also fed a control diet containing the same amount of amino acids and minerals as dietary treatments. After 6 weeks, dietary WPCH prevented loss of bone, physical properties, mineral density, and mineral content, and improved breaking strength of femurs, with similar effect to WPC. The bone resorption enzyme activity (tartrate resistance acid phosphatase) in tibia epiphysis decreased in response to WPCH supplementation, while bone formation enzyme activity (alkaline phosphatase) was unaffected by ovariectomy and dietary treatment. Bone properties and strength increased as the dietary WPCH level increased (10 and 20 g/kg), but there was no difference between the 20 and 40 g/kg treatment. WPCH and WPC supplementation ameliorated bone loss induced by ovariectomy in rats.

  9. Whey Protein Concentrate Hydrolysate Prevents Bone Loss in Ovariectomized Rats

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jonggun; Kim, Hyung Kwan; Kim, Saehun; Imm, Ji-Young

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Milk is known as a safe food and contains easily absorbable minerals and proteins, including whey protein, which has demonstrated antiosteoporotic effects on ovariectomized rats. This study evaluated the antiosteoporotic effect of whey protein concentrate hydrolysate (WPCH) digested with fungal protease and whey protein concentrate (WPC). Two experiments were conducted to determine (1) efficacy of WPCH and WPC and (2) dose-dependent impact of WPCH in ovariectomized rats (10 weeks old). In Experiment I, ovariectomized rats (n=45) were allotted into three dietary treatments of 10 g/kg diet of WPC, 10 g/kg diet of WPCH, and a control diet. In Experiment II, ovariectomized rats (n=60) were fed four different diets (0, 10, 20, and 40 g/kg of WPCH). In both experiments, sham-operated rats (n=15) were also fed a control diet containing the same amount of amino acids and minerals as dietary treatments. After 6 weeks, dietary WPCH prevented loss of bone, physical properties, mineral density, and mineral content, and improved breaking strength of femurs, with similar effect to WPC. The bone resorption enzyme activity (tartrate resistance acid phosphatase) in tibia epiphysis decreased in response to WPCH supplementation, while bone formation enzyme activity (alkaline phosphatase) was unaffected by ovariectomy and dietary treatment. Bone properties and strength increased as the dietary WPCH level increased (10 and 20 g/kg), but there was no difference between the 20 and 40 g/kg treatment. WPCH and WPC supplementation ameliorated bone loss induced by ovariectomy in rats. PMID:26367331

  10. Antioxidant activities of rice bran protein hydrolysates in bulk oil and oil-in-water emulsion.

    PubMed

    Cheetangdee, Nopparat; Benjakul, Soottawat

    2015-05-01

    Recently, utilization of natural antioxidants in food processing has been of growing interest, owing to the concerns of health hazards of synthetic agents. Protein hydrolysates are a potent candidate for this purpose. In this work, rice bran protein hydrolysates (RBPH) with various degrees of hydrolysis (DH) were prepared, and their antioxidant activities in soybean oil and oil-in-water (O/W) emulsion were examined. With increasing DH, RBPH showed increasing antioxidant activities, as evidenced by the increases in DPPH radical scavenging activity, reducing power and ferrous chelating activity (P < 0.05). The improved activity was associated with increasing surface hydrophobicity (SoANS). After hydrolysis for 60 min, the content of hydrophobic amino acids was increased. When RBPH with various DH were incorporated into bulk soybean oil and O/W emulsion stored at 37 °C for up to 15 days, lipid oxidation was successfully retarded, especially when DH increased. The efficiency in prevention of oxidation was dose dependent (0-10 g L(-1)), as indicated by the lower peroxide value and thiobarbituric reactive substances. The present work suggests that RBPH might be potently employed as a natural antioxidant in both bulk oil and emulsion models. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  11. Contact urticaria from protein hydrolysates in hair conditioners.

    PubMed

    Niinimäki, A; Niinimäki, M; Mäkinen-Kiljunen, S; Hannuksela, M

    1998-11-01

    Protein hydrolysates (PHs) are added to hair-care products (to "repair" broken hair), soaps, bath gels, creams, etc. From one to 22 PHs used in hair-care products (collagen, keratin, elastin, milk, wheat, almond, and silk) were tested in three patient groups: A) 11 hairdressers with hand dermatitis B) 2160 consecutive adults with suspected allergic respiratory disease subjected to routine skin prick tests C) 28 adults with atopic dermatitis. In group A, all the 22 PHs were tested with scratch and patch tests. In groups B and C, one to three PHs were tested with prick tests. Positive scratch/prick test reactions were seen in 12 patients from three PHs altogether. All were women with atopic dermatitis, and all reacted to at least hydroxypropyl trimonium hydrolyzed collagen (Crotein Q). In three patients, prick and open tests with a hair conditioner containing Crotein Q were performed with positive results. One patient reported contact urticaria on her hands, and two reported acute urticaria on their head, face, and upper body from a hair conditioner containing Crotein Q. In seven of the eight studied sera, specific IgE to Crotein Q was detected. In conclusion, PHs of hair cosmetics can cause contact urticaria, especially in patients with atopic dermatitis.

  12. Antioxidant activities of bambara groundnut (Vigna subterranea) protein hydrolysates and their membrane ultrafiltration fractions.

    PubMed

    Arise, Abimbola K; Alashi, Adeola M; Nwachukwu, Ifeanyi D; Ijabadeniyi, Oluwatosin A; Aluko, Rotimi E; Amonsou, Eric O

    2016-05-18

    In this study, the bambara protein isolate (BPI) was digested with three proteases (alcalase, trypsin and pepsin), to produce bambara protein hydrolysates (BPHs). These hydrolysates were passed through ultrafiltration membranes to obtain peptide fractions of different sizes (<1, 1-3, 3-5 and 5-10 kDa). The hydrolysates and their peptide fractions were investigated for antioxidant activities. The membrane fractions showed that peptides with sizes <3 kDa had significantly (p < 0.05) reduced surface hydrophobicity when compared with peptides >3 kDa. This is in agreement with the result obtained for the ferric reducing power, metal chelating and hydroxyl radical scavenging activities where higher molecular weight peptides exhibited better activity (p < 0.05) when compared to low molecular weight peptide fractions. However, for all the hydrolysates, the low molecular weight peptides were more effective diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavengers but not superoxide radicals when compared to the bigger peptides. In comparison with glutathione (GSH), BPHs and their membrane fractions had better (p < 0.05) reducing power and ability to chelate metal ions except for the pepsin hydrolysate and its membrane fractions that did not show any metal chelating activity. However, the 5-10 kDa pepsin hydrolysate peptide fractions had greater (88%) hydroxyl scavenging activity than GSH, alcalase and trypsin hydrolysates (82%). These findings show the potential use of BPHs and their peptide fraction as antioxidants in reducing food spoilage or management of oxidative stress-related metabolic disorders.

  13. Comparative Study on Biochemical Properties and Antioxidative Activity of Cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis) Protein Hydrolysates Produced by Alcalase and Bacillus licheniformis NH1 Proteases

    PubMed Central

    Balti, Rafik; Bougatef, Ali; El Hadj Ali, Nedra; Ktari, Naourez; Jellouli, Kemel; Nedjar-Arroume, Naima; Dhulster, Pascal; Nasri, Moncef

    2011-01-01

    Antioxidative activities and biochemical properties of protein hydrolysates prepared from cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis) using Alcalase 2.4 L and Bacillus licheniformis NH1 proteases with different degrees of hydrolysis (DH) were determined. For the biochemical properties, hydrolysis by both enzymes increased protein solubility to above 75% over a wide pH range. The antioxidant activities of cuttlefish protein hydrolysates (CPHs) increase with increasing DH. In addition, all CPHs exhibited antioxidative activity in a concentration-dependent manner. NH1-CPHs generally showed greater antioxidative activity than Alcalase protein hydrolysates (P < 0.05) as indicated by the higher 1,1-diphenyl-1-picryhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity and ferrous chelating activity. Both Alcalase and NH1 protein hydrolysates were able to retard lipid peroxidation and β-carotene-linoleic acid oxidation. Alcalase-CPH (DH = 12.5%) and NH1-CPH (DH = 15%) contained 75.36% and 80.11% protein, respectively, with histidine and arginine as the major amino acids, followed by glutamic acid/glutamine, serine, lysine, and leucine. In addition, CPHs have a high percentage of essential amino acids made up 48.85% and 50.04%. Cuttlefish muscle protein hydrolysates had a high nutritional value and could be used as supplement to poorly balanced dietary proteins. PMID:22312455

  14. Purification of chicken breast protein hydrolysate and analysis of its antioxidant activity.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yangying; Pan, Daodong; Guo, Yuxing; Li, Junjiang

    2012-10-01

    Chicken breast protein was hydrolyzed by papain under optimal conditions. The antioxidant activity of the chicken breast protein hydrolysate was then evaluated in vitro and in vivo using different measurements, including reducing power and DPPH radical scavenging assays. The reducing power of the hydrolysate was 0.5 at 2.37 mg/mL. The DPPH radical scavenging assay showed that the EC50 value of the hydrolysate was 1.28 mg/mL. In antioxidant assays in vivo, d-galactose-induced aging mice administrated the fraction peptides of chicken breast protein hydrolysate showed significantly increased antioxidant enzyme activities, while malondialdehyde levels decreased both in serums and livers. Under a transmission electron microscope (TEM), the ultramicrostructure of hepatic tissue was observed and we found that the hydrolysate may play a part in inhibiting oxidative stress in hepatocytes in vivo. Therefore, we concluded that chicken breast protein hydrolysate exhibits significant antioxidant activity. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Antioxidant activities of red tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) protein hydrolysates as influenced by thermolysin and alcalase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daud, Nur'Aliah; Babji, Abdul Salam; Yusop, Salma Mohamad

    2013-11-01

    The hydrolysis process was performed on fish meat from Red Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) by enzymes thermolysin and alcalase under optimum conditions. The hydrolysis was performed from 0 - 4 hours at 37°C. Hydrolysates after 2 hours incubation with thermolysin and alcalase had degree of hydrolysis of 76.29 % and 63.49 %, respectively. The freeze dried protein hydrolysate was tested for peptide content and characterized with respect to amino acid composition. The result of increased peptide content in Red Tilapia (O. Niloticus) hydrolysates obtained was directly proportional to the increase activities of different proteolytic enzymes. The result of amino acid composition showed that the sample used contained abundant Gly, Ala, Asp, Glu, Lys and Leu in residues or peptide sequences. Both enzymatic hydrolysates were tested for anti-oxidant activity with DPPH and ABTS assay. Alcalase yielded higher anti-oxidative activity than Thermolysin hydrolysates after 1 hour incubation, but both enzymes hydrolysates showed a significant decrease of anti-oxidant activity after 2 hours of incubation. Hydrolysates from Red Tilapia may contribute as a health promoting ingredient in functional foods to reduce oxidation stress caused by accumulated free radicals.

  16. Effect of oral protein hydrolysate on glucose control in patients with gestational diabetes.

    PubMed

    Saleh, Langeza; Schrier, Nicole L; Bruins, Maaike J; Steegers, Eric A P; van den Meiracker, Anton H; Visser, Willy

    2017-03-16

    In type 2 diabetic patients, a casein-based protein hydrolysate has been shown to increase plasma insulin and to lower plasma glucose. In the present study, we examined the acute and prolonged effects of protein hydrolysate on postprandial glucose, insulin and C-peptide responses after a standardised breakfast and the effect on daily glucose control in patients with gestational diabetes. In a single-centre randomised double blind placebo controlled design, patients with mild gestational diabetes (no use of insulin or oral antidiabetic agents; n = 26/group) were allocated to receive a protein hydrolysate drink, 8.5 g before breakfast and 8.5 g before dinner or a placebo drink which was identical to the protein hydrolysate drink in appearance and taste, yet lacked carbohydrate, fat or protein, for 8 days. Baseline characteristics including fasting levels of glucose, insulin, C-peptide and insulin-glucose ratio were similar between the groups. Compared to the placebo drink, neither the first dose of the protein hydrolysate drink nor the final dose had effects on 4-h area under the curve for plasma levels of insulin and C-peptide, or the insulin-to-glucose ratio; however, plasma glucose was moderately lower between t = 45, 60 and 75 min. In addition, mean daily capillary glucose levels were lower in the protein hydrolysate group. Two patients in the PH drink group had to be withdrawn because of vomiting after the first dose. In patients with gestational diabetes, a twice-daily dose of 8.5 g of protein hydrolysate of casein had no insulinotropic effects, but did moderately reduce plasma glucose levels, suggesting an increase in insulin sensitivity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  17. Biostimulant action of a plant-derived protein hydrolysate produced through enzymatic hydrolysis.

    PubMed

    Colla, Giuseppe; Rouphael, Youssef; Canaguier, Renaud; Svecova, Eva; Cardarelli, Mariateresa

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the biostimulant action (hormone like activity, nitrogen uptake, and growth stimulation) of a plant-derived protein hydrolysate by means of two laboratory bioassays: a corn (Zea mays L.) coleoptile elongation rate test (Experiment 1), a rooting test on tomato cuttings (Experiment 2); and two greenhouse experiments: a dwarf pea (Pisum sativum L.) growth test (Experiment 3), and a tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) nitrogen uptake trial (Experiment 4). Protein hydrolysate treatments of corn caused an increase in coleoptile elongation rate when compared to the control, in a dose-dependent fashion, with no significant differences between the concentrations 0.75, 1.5, and 3.0 ml/L, and inodole-3-acetic acid treatment. The auxin-like effect of the protein hydrolysate on corn has been also observed in the rooting experiment of tomato cuttings. The shoot, root dry weight, root length, and root area were significantly higher by 21, 35, 24, and 26%, respectively, in tomato treated plants with the protein hydrolysate at 6 ml/L than untreated plants. In Experiment 3, the application of the protein hydrolysate at all doses (0.375, 0.75, 1.5, and 3.0 ml/L) significantly increased the shoot length of the gibberellin-deficient dwarf pea plants by an average value of 33% in comparison with the control treatment. Increasing the concentration of the protein hydrolysate from 0 to 10 ml/L increased the total dry biomass, SPAD index, and leaf nitrogen content by 20.5, 15, and 21.5%, respectively. Thus the application of plant-derived protein hydrolysate containing amino acids and small peptides elicited a hormone-like activity, enhanced nitrogen uptake and consequently crop performances.

  18. Biostimulant action of a plant-derived protein hydrolysate produced through enzymatic hydrolysis

    PubMed Central

    Colla, Giuseppe; Rouphael, Youssef; Canaguier, Renaud; Svecova, Eva; Cardarelli, Mariateresa

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the biostimulant action (hormone like activity, nitrogen uptake, and growth stimulation) of a plant-derived protein hydrolysate by means of two laboratory bioassays: a corn (Zea mays L.) coleoptile elongation rate test (Experiment 1), a rooting test on tomato cuttings (Experiment 2); and two greenhouse experiments: a dwarf pea (Pisum sativum L.) growth test (Experiment 3), and a tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) nitrogen uptake trial (Experiment 4). Protein hydrolysate treatments of corn caused an increase in coleoptile elongation rate when compared to the control, in a dose-dependent fashion, with no significant differences between the concentrations 0.75, 1.5, and 3.0 ml/L, and inodole-3-acetic acid treatment. The auxin-like effect of the protein hydrolysate on corn has been also observed in the rooting experiment of tomato cuttings. The shoot, root dry weight, root length, and root area were significantly higher by 21, 35, 24, and 26%, respectively, in tomato treated plants with the protein hydrolysate at 6 ml/L than untreated plants. In Experiment 3, the application of the protein hydrolysate at all doses (0.375, 0.75, 1.5, and 3.0 ml/L) significantly increased the shoot length of the gibberellin-deficient dwarf pea plants by an average value of 33% in comparison with the control treatment. Increasing the concentration of the protein hydrolysate from 0 to 10 ml/L increased the total dry biomass, SPAD index, and leaf nitrogen content by 20.5, 15, and 21.5%, respectively. Thus the application of plant-derived protein hydrolysate containing amino acids and small peptides elicited a hormone-like activity, enhanced nitrogen uptake and consequently crop performances. PMID:25250039

  19. Protein Hydrolysates and Biopeptides: Production, Biological Activities, and Applications in Foods and Health Benefits. A Review.

    PubMed

    Nasri, M

    In recent years, a great deal of interest has been expressed regarding the production, characterization, and applications of protein hydrolysates and food-derived biopeptides due to their numerous beneficial health effects. In this regard, research is mainly focused on investigating the therapeutic potential of these natural compounds. Based on their amino acids composition, sequences, hydrophobicity, and length, peptides released from food proteins, beyond their nutritional properties, can exhibit various biological activities including antihypertensive, antioxidative, antithrombotic, hypoglycemic, hypocholesterolemic, and antibacterial activities among others. Protein hydrolysates are essentially produced by enzymatic hydrolysis of whole protein sources by appropriate proteolytic enzymes under controlled conditions, followed by posthydrolysis processing to isolate desired and potent bioactive peptides from a complex mixture of active and inactive peptides. Therefore, because of their human health potential and safety profiles, protein hydrolysates and biopeptides may be used as ingredients in functional foods and pharmaceuticals to improve human health and prevent diseases. In this review, we have focused on the major variables influencing the enzymatic process of protein hydrolysates production. The biological properties of protein hydrolysates will be described as well as their applications in foods and health benefits. © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Total solids content and degree of hydrolysis influence proteolytic inactivation kinetics following whey protein hydrolysate manufacture.

    PubMed

    Conesa, Celia; FitzGerald, Richard J

    2013-10-23

    The kinetics and thermodynamics of the thermal inactivation of Corolase PP in two different whey protein concentrate (WPC) hydrolysates with degree of hydrolysis (DH) values of ~10 and 21%, and at different total solids (TS) levels (from 5 to 30% w/v), were studied. Inactivation studies were performed in the temperature range from 60 to 75 °C, and residual enzyme activity was quantified using the azocasein assay. The inactivation kinetics followed a first-order model. Analysis of the activation energy, thermodynamic parameters, and D and z values, demonstrated that the inactivation of Corolase PP was dependent on solution TS. The intestinal enzyme preparation was more heat sensitive at low TS. Moreover, it was also found that the enzyme was more heat sensitive in solutions at higher DH.

  1. Protective ability against oxidative stress of brewers' spent grain protein hydrolysates.

    PubMed

    Vieira, Elsa F; da Silva, Diana Dias; Carmo, Helena; Ferreira, Isabel M P L V O

    2017-08-01

    The protein fraction of Brewers' spent grain (BSG) was used as substrate to obtain hydrolysates with antioxidant activity. Three enzymatic approaches were applied: brewer's spent yeast (BSY) proteases, Neutrase® and Alcalase®, at the same proteolytic activity (1U/mL), using an enzyme/substrate ratio of 10:100 (v/v), at 50°C, 4h. Total Phenolic Content (TPC) and Ferric Ion Reducing Antioxidant Power (FRAP) of hydrolysates and fractions <10kDa and <3kDa were assayed. Additionally, the protective ability of <10kDa fractions against oxidative stress on Caco-2 and HepG2 cells was investigated. Alcalase® hydrolysate presented significantly (p<0.05) higher TPC and FRAP (0.083mgGAE/mgdw; 0.101mgTE/mgdw, respectively) than Neutrase® and BSY hydrolysates. The three BSG protein hydrolysates (fraction <10kDa) exerted protective effect against free-radical induced cytotoxicity in Caco-2 and HepG2 cell lines, but the strongest effect was observed for BSY hydrolysates, therefore, it presents greater potential as functional ingredient.

  2. Physico-chemical properties, antioxidant activities and antihypertensive effects of walnut protein and its hydrolysate.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiuming; Chen, Haixia; Li, Shuqin; Zhou, Jiangchao; Xu, Jiangtao

    2016-05-01

    Some food proteins hydrolysates are found to possess multiple health effects. In this study, walnut protein (WP) was enzymatically hydrolysed by alcalase and trypsin under optimal conditions. The physico-chemical properties, antioxidant and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory activities of WP, alcalase-generated walnut protein hydrolysate (AWPH) and trypsin-generated walnut protein hydrolysate (TWPH) were comparatively studied. Stability properties of the walnut protein hydrolysate (WPH) and the antihypertensive activity in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) were also investigated. The WPH showed higher physico-chemical properties, antioxidant activities, ACE inhibitory activity and stability against thermal treatment and gastrointestinal digestion than WP. The results of antihypertensive effects in SHRs showed that the most potent decrease of AWPH and TWPH in the systolic blood pressure occurred at 4 h (-26 mmHg) and 6 h (-30 mmHg) after administration. The study indicated that the WPH could significantly decrease the systolic blood pressure (P < 0.05). The WPH exhibited high physico-chemical properties, potent inhibitory activities and high stability. TWPH was more effective than AWPH in the detected properties. The results would be helpful for the comprehensive utilisation of the walnut resources. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  3. Growth Stimulatory Effects and Genome-Wide Transcriptional Changes Produced by Protein Hydrolysates in Maize Seedlings

    PubMed Central

    Santi, Chiara; Zamboni, Anita; Varanini, Zeno; Pandolfini, Tiziana

    2017-01-01

    Protein hydrolysates are an emerging class of crop management products utilized for improving nutrient assimilation and mitigating crop stress. They generally consist of a mixture of peptides and free amino acids derived from the hydrolysis of plant or animal sources. The present work was aimed at studying the effects and the action mechanisms of a protein hydrolysate derived from animal residues on maize root growth and physiology in comparison with the effects induced by either free amino acids or inorganic N supply. The application of the protein hydrolysate caused a remarkable enhancement of root growth. In particular, in the protein hydrolysate-treated plants the length and surface area of lateral roots were about 7 and 1.5 times higher than in plants treated with inorganic N or free amino acids, respectively. The root growth promoting effect of the protein hydrolysate was associated with an increased root accumulation of K, Zn, Cu, and Mn when compared with inorganic N and amino acids treatments. A microarray analysis allowed to dissect the transcriptional changes induced by the different treatments demonstrating treatment-specific effects principally on cell wall organization, transport processes, stress responses and hormone metabolism. PMID:28424716

  4. Purification and characterisation of a novel angiotensin-I converting enzyme (ACE)-inhibitory peptide derived from the enzymatic hydrolysate of Enteromorpha clathrata protein.

    PubMed

    Pan, Saikun; Wang, Shujun; Jing, Lingling; Yao, Dongrui

    2016-11-15

    Hydrolysates containing angiotensin-I converting enzyme (ACE)-inhibitory peptide were prepared from Enteromorpha clathrata protein using alcalase. The hydrolysates were fractionated into two molecular-weight ranges (below and above 10kDa) by ultrafiltration. The below-10kDa fraction showed higher ACE-inhibitory activity and was subsequently purified by Sephadex G-15 gel filtration chromatography. The structure of active peptide was identified as Pro-Ala-Phe-Gly by HPLC-Q-TOF-MS and its IC50 value was 35.9μM. The yield of this peptide from E. clathrata protein was 0.82%. Lineweaver-Burk plots demonstrated that the inhibitory kinetic mechanism of this peptide was non-competitive. Stability study revealed that the purified peptide showed resistance against gastrointestinal proteases. Thus, E. clathrata protein hydrolysate treated with alcalase is a beneficial ingredient of nutraceuticals and pharmaceuticals against hypertension and related diseases.

  5. Two novel peptides with angiotensin I converting enzyme inhibitory and antioxidative activities from Scorpaena notata muscle protein hydrolysate.

    PubMed

    Aissaoui, Neyssene; Abidi, Ferid; Hardouin, Julie; Abdelkafi, Zaineb; Marrakchi, Naziha; Jouenne, Thierry; Marzouki, M Nejib

    2017-03-01

    Fish protein hydrolysate was prepared from muscle of small red scorpionfish (Scorpaena notata) by treatment with a protease from the fungus Penicillium digitatum. Protein hydrolysate was found to strongly inhibit the angiotensin I converting enzyme and exhibited high antioxidative activity through 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl free radical scavenging assay. After ultrafiltration, peptides were isolated by a two-step procedure: size exclusion chromatography on a Toyopearl HW-40 followed by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography with a high purification yield of 2.5 mg of peptide per gram of initial protein. Two major peptides were then identified by nanoscale liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (nano-LC-MS/MS), corresponding to the following sequences: Leu-Val-Thr-Gly-Asp-Asp-Lys-Thr-Asn-Leu-Lys (1,204.665 Da) and Asp-Thr-Gly-Ser-Asp-Lys-Lys-Gln-Leu (992.511 Da). These peptides, mainly composed of hydrophilic amino acids, showed high antioxidative and angiotensin I converting enzyme inhibitory activities. These data suggest that the two novel peptides isolated from the muscle hydrolysate of small red scorpionfish can be a beneficial ingredient for functional foods or pharmaceuticals against hypertension and oxidative stress. © 2016 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  6. Almond protein hydrolysate fraction modulates the expression of proinflammatory cytokines and enzymes in activated macrophages.

    PubMed

    Udenigwe, Chibuike C; Je, Jae-Young; Cho, Young-Sook; Yada, Rickey Y

    2013-04-30

    Simulated gastrointestinal treatment of almond proteins with pepsin and pancreatic proteases resulting in 16.6% degree of hydrolysis or 1.33 milliequivalent leucine per g protein yielded a hydrolysate that modulated excessive nitric oxide production in lipopolysaccharide-activated RAW264.7 macrophages. After fractionation, a resulting fraction of molecular size > 5 kDa retained the nitric oxide modulatory effect observed initially in the crude hydrolysate. The high molecular size fraction was found to modulate levels of proinflammatory cytokines, interleukin (IL)-6, IL-1β, and tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α in the activated cells. Immunoblotting analysis indicated that the hydrolysate fraction decreased the expression levels of inflammatory enzyme indicators, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 in the activated cells. RT-PCR analysis showed that treatment of the activated cells with the hydrolysate fraction resulted in the inhibition of relative gene expressions of proinflammatory IL-6, IL-1β, TNF-α, iNOS and COX-2. These results indicate a potential application of almond protein hydrolysates against inflammatory conditions, and will contribute to delineating the possible contributions of proteins to health benefits attributed to almond consumption.

  7. In vitro binding capacity of bile acids by defatted corn protein hydrolysate.

    PubMed

    Kongo-Dia-Moukala, Jauricque Ursulla; Zhang, Hui; Irakoze, Pierre Claver

    2011-02-08

    Defatted corn protein was digested using five different proteases, Alcalase, Trypsin, Neutrase, Protamex and Flavourzyme, in order to produce bile acid binding peptides. Bile acid binding capacity was analyzed in vitro using peptides from different proteases of defatted corn hydrolysate. Some crystalline bile acids like sodium glycocholate, sodium cholate and sodium deoxycholate were individually tested using HPLC to see which enzymes can release more peptides with high bile acid binding capacity. Peptides from Flavourzyme defatted corn hydrolysate exhibited significantly (p < 0.05) stronger bile acid binding capacity than all others hydrolysates tested and all crystalline bile acids tested were highly bound by cholestyramine, a positive control well known as a cholesterol-reducing agent. The bile acid binding capacity of Flavourzyme hydrolysate was almost preserved after gastrointestinal proteases digestion. The molecular weight of Flavourzyme hydrolysate was determined and most of the peptides were found between 500-180 Da. The results showed that Flavourzyme hydrolysate may be used as a potential cholesterol-reducing agent.

  8. In Vitro Binding Capacity of Bile Acids by Defatted Corn Protein Hydrolysate

    PubMed Central

    Kongo-Dia-Moukala, Jauricque Ursulla; Zhang, Hui; Irakoze, Pierre Claver

    2011-01-01

    Defatted corn protein was digested using five different proteases, Alcalase, Trypsin, Neutrase, Protamex and Flavourzyme, in order to produce bile acid binding peptides. Bile acid binding capacity was analyzed in vitro using peptides from different proteases of defatted corn hydrolysate. Some crystalline bile acids like sodium glycocholate, sodium cholate and sodium deoxycholate were individually tested using HPLC to see which enzymes can release more peptides with high bile acid binding capacity. Peptides from Flavourzyme defatted corn hydrolysate exhibited significantly (p < 0.05) stronger bile acid binding capacity than all others hydrolysates tested and all crystalline bile acids tested were highly bound by cholestyramine, a positive control well known as a cholesterol-reducing agent. The bile acid binding capacity of Flavourzyme hydrolysate was almost preserved after gastrointestinal proteases digestion. The molecular weight of Flavourzyme hydrolysate was determined and most of the peptides were found between 500–180 Da. The results showed that Flavourzyme hydrolysate may be used as a potential cholesterol-reducing agent. PMID:21541043

  9. Acid-generated soy protein hydrolysates and their interfacial behavior on model surfaces.

    PubMed

    Arboleda, Julio C; Rojas, Orlando J; Lucia, Lucian A

    2014-11-10

    The present work attempts to provide data to warrant the consideration of soy proteins (SP) as potentially useful biomolecules for practical chemical and surface applications. Despite their sundry properties, SP use has been limited by their high molecular weight. In response to this limitation, we analyze acid hydrolysates of soy proteins (0.1 N HCl, 70 °C) for surface modification. Techniques typical in protein (SDS-PAGE) as well as colloidal (charge demand and electrophoretic mobility) analyses were used to follow the effects of molecular changes that occur upon hydrolysis. Adsorption experiments on hydrophobic (polypropylene) and mineral (aluminum oxide) surfaces were subsequently carried out to further interrogate the surface activity resultant from soy hydrolysis. It was found that during adsorption the hydrolysates tended to form less surface aggregates and adsorbed at faster rates compared with unmodified SP. Overall, the benefits derived from the application of SP hydrolysates are highlighted.

  10. Angiotensin-I-Converting Enzyme Inhibitory Activities and In Vivo Antihypertensive Effects of Sardine Protein Hydrolysate.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jiacheng; Liu, Qianyue; Xue, Bin; Chen, Long; Wang, Yong; Ou, Shiyi; Peng, Xichun

    2016-09-28

    In our previous study, an antihypertensive protein hydrolysate was prepared from sardine. This study aimed to investigate the composition of sardine protein hydrolysate (SPH) and it's in vivo antihypertensive effect. SPH was separated sequentially with ultrafiltration and size exclusion chromatography. Fractions with high angiotensin-I-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory activity were further analyzed with RP-HPLC and amino acids analysis. Then, SPH was individually oral administrated to spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) and normotensive wistar kyoto rats (WKY) for 4 wk. After treatment, the systolic blood pressure (SBP), organ index, oxidative status, serum ACE activity, and serum angiotensin-II (ANG-II) of all the rats were determined. According to the separation and analysis results, 3 main fractions with high ACE-inhibitory activity were obtained with different amino acids composition. The animal experiments results showed that SPH could significantly reduce SBP (P < 0.05 or P < 0.01) within 4 h after a single oral administration. After a chronic oral administration, a steady state of SBP in SHR rats was attained. The heart weight index and left ventricular weight index were significantly reduced (P < 0.05) in SPH-treated SHR rats. The malonyldialdehyde (MDA) levels in organs and serum, serum ACE activity, and serum ANG-II concentration in SPH-treated SHR rats were significantly lowered (P < 0.05 or P < 0.01) as compared to their controls. Meanwhile there was no significant effect (P > 0.05) on those parameters in WKY rats. These results indicate that SPH can decrease blood pressure in SHR rats and not in WKY rats. © 2016 Institute of Food Technologists®

  11. Two novel antioxidant nonapeptides from protein hydrolysate of skate (Raja porosa) muscle.

    PubMed

    Hu, Fa-Yuan; Chi, Chang-Feng; Wang, Bin; Deng, Shang-Gui

    2015-04-03

    In the current study, the preparation conditions of neutrase hydrolysate (SMH) from skate (Raja porosa) muscle protein were optimized using orthogonal L9(3)4 tests, and R values indicated that pH was the most important factor affecting HO· scavenging activity of SMH. Under the optimum conditions of pH 7.0, enzymolysis temperature 60 °C, enzyme/substrate ratio (E/S) 2%, and enzymolysis time 5 h, EC50 of SMH on HO· was 2.14 ± 0.17 mg/mL. Using ultrafiltration, gel filtration chromatography, and RP-HPLC, two novel antioxidant nonapeptides (SP-A and SP-B) were isolated from SMH and their amino acid sequences were found to be APPTAYAQS (SP-A) and NWDMEKIWD (SP-B) with calculated molecular masses of 904.98 Da and 1236.38 Da, respectively. Both showed strong antioxidant activities. SP-A and SP-B exhibited good scavenging activities on HO· (EC50 0.390 and 0.176 mg/mL), DPPH· (EC50 0.614 and 0.289 mg/mL), and O2-· (EC50 0.215 and 0.132 mg/mL) in a dose-dependent manner. SP-B was also effective against lipid peroxidation in the model system. The aromatic (2Trp), acidic (2Asp and Glu), and basic (Lys) amino acid residues within the sequences of SP-B might account for its pronounced antioxidant activity. The results of this study suggested that protein hydrolysate and peptides from skate muscle might be effective as food additives for retarding lipid peroxidation occurring in foodstuffs.

  12. Two Novel Antioxidant Nonapeptides from Protein Hydrolysate of Skate (Raja porosa) Muscle

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Fa-Yuan; Chi, Chang-Feng; Wang, Bin; Deng, Shang-Gui

    2015-01-01

    In the current study, the preparation conditions of neutrase hydrolysate (SMH) from skate (Raja porosa) muscle protein were optimized using orthogonal L9(3)4 tests, and R values indicated that pH was the most important factor affecting HO· scavenging activity of SMH. Under the optimum conditions of pH 7.0, enzymolysis temperature 60 °C, enzyme/substrate ratio (E/S) 2%, and enzymolysis time 5 h, EC50 of SMH on HO· was 2.14 ± 0.17 mg/mL. Using ultrafiltration, gel filtration chromatography, and RP-HPLC, two novel antioxidant nonapeptides (SP-A and SP-B) were isolated from SMH and their amino acid sequences were found to be APPTAYAQS (SP-A) and NWDMEKIWD (SP-B) with calculated molecular masses of 904.98 Da and 1236.38 Da, respectively. Both showed strong antioxidant activities. SP-A and SP-B exhibited good scavenging activities on HO· (EC50 0.390 and 0.176 mg/mL), DPPH· (EC50 0.614 and 0.289 mg/mL), and O2−· (EC50 0.215 and 0.132 mg/mL) in a dose-dependent manner. SP-B was also effective against lipid peroxidation in the model system. The aromatic (2Trp), acidic (2Asp and Glu), and basic (Lys) amino acid residues within the sequences of SP-B might account for its pronounced antioxidant activity. The results of this study suggested that protein hydrolysate and peptides from skate muscle might be effective as food additives for retarding lipid peroxidation occurring in foodstuffs. PMID:25854645

  13. Production and characterization of cowpea protein hydrolysate with optimum nitrogen solubility by enzymatic hydrolysis using pepsin.

    PubMed

    Mune Mune, Martin Alain; Minka, Samuel René

    2017-06-01

    Cowpea is a source of low-cost and good nutritional quality protein for utilization in food formulations in replacement of animal proteins. Therefore it is necessary that cowpea protein exhibits good functionality, particularly protein solubility which affects the other functional properties. The objective of this study was to produce cowpea protein hydrolysate exhibiting optimum solubility by the adequate combination of hydrolysis parameters, namely time, solid/liquid ratio (SLR) and enzyme/substrate ratio (ESR), and to determine its functional properties and molecular characteristics. A Box-Behnken experimental design was used for the experiments, and a second-order polynomial to model the effects of hydrolysis time, SLR and ESR on the degree of hydrolysis and nitrogen solubility index. The optimum hydrolysis conditions of time 208.61 min, SLR 1/15 (w/w) and ESR 2.25% (w/w) yielded a nitrogen solubility of 75.71%. Protein breakdown and the peptide profile following enzymatic hydrolysis were evaluated by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and size exclusion chromatography. Cowpea protein hydrolysate showed higher oil absorption capacity, emulsifying activity and foaming ability compared with the concentrate. The solubility of cowpea protein hydrolysate was adequately optimized by response surface methodology, and the hydrolysate showed adequate functionality for use in food. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  14. Effect of foxtail millet protein hydrolysates on lowering blood pressure in spontaneously hypertensive rats

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of foxtail millet protein hydrolysates on lowering blood pressure in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs). The protein of foxtail millet after extruding or fermenting and the raw foxtail millet was extracted and hydrolyzed by digestive protea...

  15. Maillard reaction products of rice protein hydrolysates with mono-, oligo- and polysaccharides

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Rice protein, a byproduct of rice syrup production, is abundant but, its lack of functionality prevents its wide use as a food ingredient. Maillard reaction products of (MRPs) hydrolysates from the limited hydrolysis of rice protein (LHRP) and various mono-, oligo- and polysaccharides were evaluat...

  16. Antihypertensive and cardioprotective effects of the dipeptide isoleucine-tryptophan and whey protein hydrolysate.

    PubMed

    Martin, M; Kopaliani, I; Jannasch, A; Mund, C; Todorov, V; Henle, T; Deussen, A

    2015-12-01

    Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors are treatment of choice in hypertensive patients. Clinically used inhibitors exhibit a structural similarity to naturally occurring peptides. This study evaluated antihypertensive and cardioprotective effects of ACE-inhibiting peptides derived from food proteins in spontaneously hypertensive rats. Isoleucine-tryptophan (in vitro IC50 for ACE = 0.7 μm), a whey protein hydrolysate containing an augmented fraction of isoleucine-tryptophan, or captopril was given to spontaneously hypertensive rats (n = 60) over 14 weeks. Two further groups, receiving either no supplement (Placebo) or intact whey protein, served as controls. Systolic blood pressure age-dependently increased in the Placebo group, whereas the blood pressure rise was effectively blunted by isoleucine-tryptophan, whey protein hydrolysate and captopril (-42 ± 3, -38 ± 5, -55 ± 4 mm Hg vs. Placebo). At study end, myocardial mass was lower in isoleucine-tryptophan and captopril groups but only partially in the hydrolysate group. Coronary flow reserve (1 μm adenosine) was improved in isoleucine-tryptophan and captopril groups. Plasma ACE activity was significantly decreased in isoleucine-tryptophan, hydrolysate and captopril groups, but in aortic tissue only after isoleucine-tryptophan or captopril treatment. This was associated with lowered expression and activity of matrix metalloproteinase-2. Following isoleucine-tryptophan and captopril treatments, gene expression of renin was significantly increased indicating an active feedback within renin-angiotensin system. Whey protein hydrolysate and isoleucine-tryptophan powerfully inhibit plasma ACE resulting in antihypertensive effects. Moreover, isoleucine-tryptophan blunts tissue ACE activity, reduces matrix metalloproteinase-2 activity and improves coronary flow reserve. Thus, whey protein hydrolysate and particularly isoleucine-tryptophan may serve as innovative food additives with the goal of attenuating

  17. Effect of Peptide Size on Antioxidant Properties of African Yam Bean Seed (Sphenostylis stenocarpa) Protein Hydrolysate Fractions

    PubMed Central

    Ajibola, Comfort F.; Fashakin, Joseph B.; Fagbemi, Tayo N.; Aluko, Rotimi E.

    2011-01-01

    Enzymatic hydrolysate of African yam bean seed protein isolate was prepared by treatment with alcalase. The hydrolysate was further fractionated into peptide sizes of <1, 1–3, 3–5 and 5–10 kDa using membrane ultrafiltration. The protein hydrolysate (APH) and its membrane ultrafiltration fractions were assayed for in vitro antioxidant activities. The <1 kDa peptides exhibited significantly better (p < 0.05) ferric reducing power, diphenyl-1-picryhydradzyl (DPPH) and hydroxyl radical scavenging activities when compared to peptide fractions of higher molecular weights. The high activity of <1 kDa peptides in these antioxidant assay systems may be related to the high levels of total hydrophobic and aromatic amino acids. In comparison to glutathione (GSH), the APH and its membrane fractions had significantly higher (p < 0.05) ability to chelate metal ions. In contrast, GSH had significantly greater (p < 0.05) ferric reducing power and free radical scavenging activities than APH and its membrane fractions. The APH and its membrane fractions effectively inhibited lipid peroxidation, results that were concentration dependent. The activity of APH and its membrane fractions against linoleic acid oxidation was higher when compared to that of GSH but lower than that of butylated hydroxyl toluene (BHT). The results show potential use of APH and its membrane fractions as antioxidants in the management of oxidative stress-related metabolic disorders and in the prevention of lipid oxidation in food products. PMID:22072912

  18. Effect of peptide size on antioxidant properties of African yam bean seed (Sphenostylis stenocarpa) protein hydrolysate fractions.

    PubMed

    Ajibola, Comfort F; Fashakin, Joseph B; Fagbemi, Tayo N; Aluko, Rotimi E

    2011-01-01

    Enzymatic hydrolysate of African yam bean seed protein isolate was prepared by treatment with alcalase. The hydrolysate was further fractionated into peptide sizes of <1, 1-3, 3-5 and 5-10 kDa using membrane ultrafiltration. The protein hydrolysate (APH) and its membrane ultrafiltration fractions were assayed for in vitro antioxidant activities. The <1 kDa peptides exhibited significantly better (p < 0.05) ferric reducing power, diphenyl-1-picryhydradzyl (DPPH) and hydroxyl radical scavenging activities when compared to peptide fractions of higher molecular weights. The high activity of <1 kDa peptides in these antioxidant assay systems may be related to the high levels of total hydrophobic and aromatic amino acids. In comparison to glutathione (GSH), the APH and its membrane fractions had significantly higher (p < 0.05) ability to chelate metal ions. In contrast, GSH had significantly greater (p < 0.05) ferric reducing power and free radical scavenging activities than APH and its membrane fractions. The APH and its membrane fractions effectively inhibited lipid peroxidation, results that were concentration dependent. The activity of APH and its membrane fractions against linoleic acid oxidation was higher when compared to that of GSH but lower than that of butylated hydroxyl toluene (BHT). The results show potential use of APH and its membrane fractions as antioxidants in the management of oxidative stress-related metabolic disorders and in the prevention of lipid oxidation in food products.

  19. Native and Heated Hydrolysates of Milk Proteins and Their Capacity to Inhibit Lipid Peroxidation in the Zebrafish Larvae Model.

    PubMed

    Carrillo, Wilman; Guzmán, Xavier; Vilcacundo, Edgar

    2017-09-14

    Casein and whey proteins with and without heat treatment were obtained of whole milk and four commercial milks in Ecuador, and were hydrolyzed. Then, their capacity to inhibit the lipid peroxidation using the TBARS method was evaluated at concentrations of 0.02, 0.04, 0.2, and, 0.4 mg/mL. Native and heated hydrolysates of milk proteins present high inhibitions of lipid peroxidation with a dose dependent effect both in vivo and in vitro tests. Casein and whey proteins obtained from whole milk were the ones with the highest anti-oxidant activity in vitro and in vivo test. Native casein hydrolysate at 0.4 mg/mL present a value of 55.55% of inhibition of lipid peroxidation and heated casein hydrolysate at 0.4 mg/mL presents a value of 58.00% of inhibition of lipid peroxidation. Native whey protein at 0.4 mg/mL present a value of 34.84% of inhibition of lipid peroxidation, and heated whey protein at 0.4 mg/mL presents a value of 40.86% of inhibition of lipid peroxidation. Native and heated casein hydrolysates were more active than native and heated whey protein hydrolysates. Heat treatments have an effect of increasing the in vitro inhibition of lipid peroxidation of hydrolysates of milk protein. Casein and whey hydrolysates were able to inhibiting lipid peroxidation in the zebrafish larvae model. Native casein hydrolysate obtained of whole milk presents 48.35% of inhibition TBARS in vivo, this activity was higher in heated casein hydrolysate obtained of whole milk with a value of 56.28% of inhibition TBARS in vivo. Native whey protein hydrolysate obtained of whole milk presents 35.30% of inhibition TBARS, and heated whey protein hydrolysate obtained of whole milk was higher, with a value of 43.60% of inhibition TBARS in vivo.

  20. Native and Heated Hydrolysates of Milk Proteins and Their Capacity to Inhibit Lipid Peroxidation in the Zebrafish Larvae Model

    PubMed Central

    Carrillo, Wilman; Guzmán, Xavier; Vilcacundo, Edgar

    2017-01-01

    Casein and whey proteins with and without heat treatment were obtained of whole milk and four commercial milks in Ecuador, and were hydrolyzed. Then, their capacity to inhibit the lipid peroxidation using the TBARS method was evaluated at concentrations of 0.02, 0.04, 0.2, and, 0.4 mg/mL. Native and heated hydrolysates of milk proteins present high inhibitions of lipid peroxidation with a dose dependent effect both in vivo and in vitro tests. Casein and whey proteins obtained from whole milk were the ones with the highest anti-oxidant activity in vitro and in vivo test. Native casein hydrolysate at 0.4 mg/mL present a value of 55.55% of inhibition of lipid peroxidation and heated casein hydrolysate at 0.4 mg/mL presents a value of 58.00% of inhibition of lipid peroxidation. Native whey protein at 0.4 mg/mL present a value of 34.84% of inhibition of lipid peroxidation, and heated whey protein at 0.4 mg/mL presents a value of 40.86% of inhibition of lipid peroxidation. Native and heated casein hydrolysates were more active than native and heated whey protein hydrolysates. Heat treatments have an effect of increasing the in vitro inhibition of lipid peroxidation of hydrolysates of milk protein. Casein and whey hydrolysates were able to inhibiting lipid peroxidation in the zebrafish larvae model. Native casein hydrolysate obtained of whole milk presents 48.35% of inhibition TBARS in vivo, this activity was higher in heated casein hydrolysate obtained of whole milk with a value of 56.28% of inhibition TBARS in vivo. Native whey protein hydrolysate obtained of whole milk presents 35.30% of inhibition TBARS, and heated whey protein hydrolysate obtained of whole milk was higher, with a value of 43.60% of inhibition TBARS in vivo. PMID:28906440

  1. Comparison of solubility of pea protein hydrolysate by three analytical methods.

    PubMed

    Soral-Smietana, M; Amarowicz, R; Swigoń, A; Sijtsma, L

    1999-11-01

    Pea protein hydrolysate was obtained by enzymatic hydrolysis with trypsin. The degree of hydrolysis (DH) was controlled by using the pH-stat method. Solubility of the trypsin-treated hydrolysate was tested at nine different pH values starting from 2 up to 10. Protein determinations were carried out using Kjeldahl, Lowry and modified Lowry methods. The results revealed that samples analysed with either the Kjeldahl or Lowry method gave similar values. However, systematic consistent differences existed for those results obtained by the Kjeldahl and the modified Lowry as well as between those results obtained by the Lowry and the modified Lowry.

  2. Hypocholesterolaemic and antioxidant activities of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) protein hydrolysates.

    PubMed

    Yust, María del Mar; Millán-Linares, María del Carmen; Alcaide-Hidalgo, Juan María; Millán, Francisco; Pedroche, Justo

    2012-07-01

    Some dietary proteins possess biological properties which make them potential ingredients of functional or health-promoting foods. Many of these properties are attributed to bioactive peptides that can be released by controlled hydrolysis using exogenous proteases. The aim of this work was to test the improvement of hypocholesterolaemic and antioxidant activities of chickpea protein isolate by means of hydrolysis with alcalase and flavourzyme. All hydrolysates tested exhibited better hypocholesterolaemic activity when compared with chickpea protein isolate. The highest cholesterol micellar solubility inhibition (50%) was found after 60 min of treatment with alcalase followed by 30 min of hydrolysis with flavourzyme. To test antioxidant activity of chickpea proteins three methods were used: β-carotene bleaching method, reducing power and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical-scavenging effect since antioxidant activity of protein hydrolysates may not be attributed to a single mechanism. Chickpea hydrolysates showed better antioxidant activity in all assays, especially reducing power and DPPH scavenging effect than chickpea protein isolate. The results of this study showed the good potential of chickpea protein hydrolysates as bioactive ingredients. The highest bioactive properties could be obtained by selecting the type of proteases and the hydrolysis time. Copyright © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  3. Affinity purification of copper-chelating peptides from sunflower protein hydrolysates.

    PubMed

    Megías, Cristina; Pedroche, Justo; Yust, Maria M; Girón-Calle, Julio; Alaiz, Manuel; Millan, Francisco; Vioque, Javier

    2007-08-08

    Copper-chelating peptides were purified from sunflower protein hydrolysates by affinity chromatography using immobilized copper. A variety of protein hydrolysates were obtained by incubation with the proteases Alcalase and Flavourzyme for different periods of time. Chelating activity was indirectly determined by measuring the inhibitory effect of hydrolysates on the oxidation of beta-carotene by copper. Copper-binding peptides purified from the two hydrolysates that inhibited oxidation by copper the most contained 25.4 and 42.0% histidine and inhibited beta-carotene oxidation 8 and 3 times more than the original hydrolysates, which had 2.4 and 2.6% histidine, respectively. Thus, histidine content is not the only factor involved in antioxidant activity, and probably other factors such as peptide size and amino acid sequence are also important. This work shows that affinity chromatography can be used for the purification of copper-chelating peptides and probably other metals of nutritional interest such as calcium, iron, and zinc. In addition to their antioxidant potential, chelating peptides are of nutritional interest because they increase bioavailability of minerals.

  4. Production and characterisation of hyaluronidase and elastase inhibitory protein hydrolysates from Venus clam.

    PubMed

    Sutthiwanjampa, Chanutchamon; Kim, Sang Moo

    2015-01-01

    The hydrolysates of fresh and boiled Venus clams with five different proteases for the production of low-molecular protein hydrolysates were optimised by response surface methodology. Alcalase hydrolysates exhibited the strongest hyaluronidase inhibitory activity. The optimum hydrolysis conditions of fresh and boiled clams were< enzyme-to-substrate ratio (E/S), 2.15%; time, 150 min; water-to-substrate ratio (W/S), 83.84 mL g(-1) for fresh clam, and E/S, 2.02%; time, 4.11 h; W/S, 69.74 mL g(-1) for boiled clam. The fresh and boiled clam protein hydrolysates were fractionated by S-200 HR size-exclusion chromatography, which resulted in one (FH1) and two (BH1 and BH2) fractions, respectively. BH1 exhibited the highest hyaluronidase and elastase inhibitory activities with specific activities of 141.15 and 81.36% mL mg(-1), respectively. Therefore, the boiled Venus clam hydrolysate might be developed as a cosmeceutical agent because of its strong hyaluronidase and elastase inhibitory activities.

  5. Effects of rice bran protein hydrolysates on the physicochemical stability of oil-in-water emulsions.

    PubMed

    Cheetangdee, Nopparat

    2014-01-01

    Isolation of proteins from rice bran was studied, comparing alkaline- and carbohydrase-aided extraction. It was found that protein extractability could be effectively improved using carbohydrases (Viscozyme L and α-amylase), especially when mechanical force was incorporated. Then, rice bran protein hydrolysates (RBPH) were prepared at various degrees of hydrolysis (DH), and employed to stabilize soybean O/W emulsion. Improved colloidal stability of the emulsions could be achieved using RBPH, especially at higher DH level, as indicated by an increase in the emulsifying activity index and better long-term dispersibility. The present work novelty suggested the efficiency of RBPH to improve oxidative stability of the emulsions. The most potent antioxidant activity was exhibited by RBPH with DH of 6.4 and 7.6%. With their efficiency to promote physicochemical stability of the emulsions, RBPH might be potently employed as a natural additive in emulsified food products, which is significant to value addition of rice bran for further industrial application.

  6. Fractionation and antioxidant properties of rice bran protein hydrolysates stimulated by in vitro gastrointestinal digestion.

    PubMed

    Phongthai, Suphat; D'Amico, Stefano; Schoenlechner, Regine; Homthawornchoo, Wantida; Rawdkuen, Saroat

    2018-02-01

    Rice bran was used as a starting material to prepare protein concentrate through enzyme-assisted extraction. The hydrolysis of protein concentrate under in vitro gastrointestinal digestion (pepsin-trypsin system) greatly improved the antioxidant properties. Rice bran protein hydrolysate was further fractionated by membrane ultrafiltration (UF, F1: molecular weight (MW) <3kDa, F2: MW 3-5kDa, and F3: MW 5-10kDa). Peptides with smaller MW possessed higher antioxidant activities (P<0.05). UF showed a great efficacy to selectively separate the metal-chelating peptides. Tyrosine and phenylalanine had positive correlations with their DPPH & ABTS radicals scavenging activities and ferric reducing antioxidant power (r>0.831). A major peptide fragment was detected at m/z 1088 by a MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. There is high potential that antioxidative peptides from rice bran might also be produced in the gastrointestinal tract of the human body. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Effect of cooking temperatures on protein hydrolysates and sensory quality in crucian carp (Carassius auratus) soup.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jinjie; Yao, Yanjia; Ye, Xingqian; Fang, Zhongxiang; Chen, Jianchu; Wu, Dan; Liu, Donghong; Hu, Yaqin

    2013-06-01

    Cooking methods have a significant impact on flavour compounds in fish soup. The effects of cooking temperatures (55, 65, 75, 85, 95, and 100 °C) on sensory properties and protein hydrolysates were studied in crucian carp (Carassius auratus) soup. The results showed that the soup prepared at 85 °C had the best sensory quality in color, flavour, amour, and soup pattern. Cooking temperature had significant influence on the hydrolysis of proteins in the soup showed by SDS-PAGE result. The contents of water soluble nitrogen (WSN) and non-protein nitrogen (NPN) increased with the cooking temperature, but the highest contents of total peptides and total free amino acids (FAA) were obtained at the cooking temperature of 85 °C. The highest contents of umami-taste active amino acid and branched-chain amino acids were also observed in the 85 °C sample. In conclusion, a cooking temperature of 85 °C was preferred for more excellent flavor and higher nutritional value of crucian carp soup.

  8. A recyclable protein resource derived from cauliflower by-products: Potential biological activities of protein hydrolysates.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yang; Li, Yuting; Bao, Tao; Zheng, Xiaodong; Chen, Wei; Wang, Jianxu

    2017-04-15

    Cauliflower by-products (CBP) are rich in leaf protein. Every year tons of CBP will lead to environmental pollution. Therefore, this study was conducted to extract leaf protein from CBP and investigate its biological activities. Our results showed that the optimal extraction parameters were: a liquid to solid ratio of 4mL/g, a pH of 11, an ultrasonic extraction lasting 15min, and at an applied power of 175W. Under these optimized conditions, 12.066g of soluble leaf protein (SLP) was obtained from 1000g of CBP and its extraction yield was 53.07%. The obtained SLP was further hydrolysed by Alcalase and the SLP hydrolysate (SLPH) showed a potent angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory activity with an IC50 value of 138.545μg/mL in vitro. In addition, SLPH promoted the glucose consumption and enhanced the glycogen content in HepG2 cells. Overall, our results suggested that CBP may be recycled for designing future functional foods. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. The hypolipidemic effect and antithrombotic activity of Mucuna pruriens protein hydrolysates.

    PubMed

    Herrera Chalé, Francisco; Ruiz Ruiz, Jorge Carlos; Betancur Ancona, David; Acevedo Fernández, Juan José; Segura Campos, Maira Rubi

    2016-01-01

    Hydrolysates and peptide fractions (PF) obtained from M. pruriens protein concentrates with commercial and digestive enzymatic systems were studied for their hypolipidemic and antithrombotic activities. Hydrolysates obtained with Pepsin-Pancreatin (PP) and their peptide fractions inhibited cholesterol micellar solubility with a maximum value of 1.83% in PP. Wistar rats were used to evaluate the hypolipidemic effect of hydrolysates and PF. The higher reductions of cholesterol and triglyceride levels were exhibited by PP and both peptide fractions <1 kDa obtained from PP and Alcalase®-Flavourzyme® hydrolysate (AF) at a dose of 15 mg kg(-1) of animal weight. PF > 10 kDa from both hydrolysates showed the maximum antithrombotic activity with values of 33.33% for PF > 10 kDa from AF and 31.72% for PF > 10 kDa from PP. The results suggest that M. pruriens bioactive peptides with the hypolipidemic effect and antithrombotic activity might be utilized as nutraceuticals.

  10. Regulation of Exacerbated Immune Responses in Human Peripheral Blood Cells by Hydrolysed Egg White Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Lozano-Ojalvo, Daniel; Molina, Elena; López-Fandiño, Rosina

    2016-01-01

    The anti-allergic potential of egg white protein hydrolysates (from ovalbumin, lysozyme and ovomucoid) was evaluated as their ability to hinder cytokine and IgE production by Th2-skewed human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), as well as the release of pro-inflammatory factors and generation of reactive oxygen species from Th1-stimulated peripheral blood leukocytes (PBLs). The binding to IgE of egg allergic patients was determined and the peptides present in the hydrolysates were identified. The hydrolysates with alcalase down-regulated the production of Th2-biased cytokines and the secretion of IgE to the culture media of Th2-skewed PBMCs, and they significantly neutralized oxidative stress in PBLs. The hydrolysates of ovalbumin and ovomucoid with pepsin helped to re-establish the Th1/Th2 balance in Th2-biased PBMCs, while they also inhibited the release of pro-inflammatory mediators and reduced oxidative stress in PBLs treated with inflammatory stimuli. The hydrolysates with alcalase, in addition to equilibrating Th2 differentiation, exhibited a low IgE-binding. Therefore, they would elicit mild allergic reactions while retaining T cell-stimulating abilities, which might correlate with an anti-allergic benefit. PMID:27007699

  11. Effects of protein hydrolysates supplementation in low fish meal diets on growth performance, innate immunity and disease resistance of red sea bream Pagrus major.

    PubMed

    Khosravi, Sanaz; Rahimnejad, Samad; Herault, Mikaël; Fournier, Vincent; Lee, Cho-Rong; Dio Bui, Hien Thi; Jeong, Jun-Bum; Lee, Kyeong-Jun

    2015-08-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the supplemental effects of three different types of protein hydrolysates in a low fish meal (FM) diet on growth performance, feed utilization, intestinal morphology, innate immunity and disease resistance of juvenile red sea bream. A FM-based diet was used as a high fish meal diet (HFM) and a low fish meal (LFM) diet was prepared by replacing 50% of FM by soy protein concentrate. Three other diets were prepared by supplementing shrimp, tilapia or krill hydrolysate to the LFM diet (designated as SH, TH and KH, respectively). Triplicate groups of fish (4.9 ± 0.1 g) were fed one of the test diets to apparent satiation twice daily for 13 weeks and then challenged by Edwardsiella tarda. At the end of the feeding trial, significantly (P < 0.05) higher growth performance was obtained in fish fed HFM and hydrolysate treated groups compared to those fed the LFM diet. Significant improvements in feed conversion and protein efficiency ratios were obtained in fish fed the hydrolysates compared to those fed the LFM diet. Significant enhancement in digestibility of protein was found in fish fed SH and KH diets and dry matter digestibility was increased in the group fed SH diet in comparison to LFM group. Fish fed the LFM diet showed significantly higher glucose level than all the other treatments. Whole-body and dorsal muscle compositions were not significantly influenced by dietary treatments. Histological analysis revealed significant reductions in goblet cell numbers and enterocyte length in the proximal intestine of fish fed the LFM diet. Superoxide dismutase activity and total immunoglobulin level were significantly increased in fish fed the diets containing protein hydrolysates compared to the LFM group. Also, significantly higher lysozyme and antiprotease activities were found in fish fed the hydrolysates and HFM diets compared to those offered LFM diet. Fish fed the LFM diet exhibited the lowest disease resistance against E. tarda

  12. Chlorella Protein Hydrolysate Attenuates Glucose Metabolic Disorder and Fatty Liver in High-fat Diet-induced Obese Mice.

    PubMed

    Noguchi, Naoto; Yanagita, Teruyoshi; Rahman, Shaikh Mizanoor; Ando, Yotaro

    2016-07-01

    Chlorella (Parachlorella beijerinckii) powder is reported to show a preventive effect against metabolic syndromes such as arteriosclerosis, hyperlipidemia, and hypertension. Approximately 60% of the chlorella content is protein. In order to understand the role of chlorella protein, we prepared a chlorella protein hydrolysate (CPH) by protease treatment. Male C57BL/6 mice were divided into three groups: a normal diet group, high-fat diet (HFD) group, and high-fat diet supplemented with CPH (HFD+CPH) group. The CPH administration improved glucose intolerance, insulin sensitivity, and adipose tissue hypertrophy in the high-fat diet-fed mice. In addition, the HFD+CPH group had significantly decreased liver total cholesterol and triglyceride levels compared with those in the HFD group. Furthermore, the HFD+CPH group had a decreased level of monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1) in serum and a lower MCP-1 mRNA expression level in adipose tissue compared with the HFD group. The present study suggests that chlorella protein hydrolysate can prevent a high-fat diet-induced glucose disorder and fatty liver by inhibiting adipocyte hypertrophy and reducing the MCP-1 protein and gene expression.

  13. Protein Hydrolysates from Beta-Conglycinin Enriched Soybean Genotypes Inhibit Lipid Accumulation and Inflammation in Vitro

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Obesity is a worldwide health concern and a well recognized predictor of premature mortality associated with a state of chronic inflammation. The objective was to evaluate the effect of soy protein hydrolysates (SPH) produced from different soybean genotypes by alcalase (SAH) or simulated gastroint...

  14. Drench application of fish-derived protein hydrolysates affects lettuce growth, chlorophyll content, and gas exchange

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The use of biostimulants to enhance crop production has gained considerable momentum because of its contribution to agroecological sustainability. Protein hydrolysates (PHs) are an important group of plant biostimulants that have received increasing attention in recent years due to their positive ef...

  15. Preparation of linear maltodextrins using a hyperthermophilic amylopullulanase with cyclodextrin- and starch-hydrolysing activities.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaolei; Li, Dan

    2015-03-30

    A novel method for the preparation of linear maltodextrins from cyclodextrins and starch was proposed. To accomplish this process, an amylopullulanase from hyperthermophilic archaeon Caldivirga maquilingensis (CMApu) was characterized and used. CMApu with an estimated molecular mass of 62.7 kDa by SDS-PAGE had a maximal pullulan-hydrolysing activity at 100°C and pH 5.0. It could also hydrolyse amylopectin (AP), starch, β-CD and amylose (AM), in a decreasing order of relative activities from 88.96% to 57.17%. TLC and HPAEC analysis revealed that CMApu catalyzed the debranching and degrading reactions to produce linear malto-oligosaccharides (≤ G8-G1) from G8-β-CD and/or normal CDs, amylodextrins (DP6-96) from AM, and amylodextrins (DP1-76) from AP and potato starch. Our results showed that CMApu had a great potential for the industrial preparation of linear maltodextrins from normal starch instead of waxy starch, malto-oligosaccharides or sucrose. And the high optimal temperature of CMApu facilitated the simultaneous gelatinization and hydrolysis of cereal starch.

  16. Protein Hydrolysates from Non-bovine and Plant Sources Replaces Tryptone in Microbiological Media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ranganathan, Yamini; Patel, Shifa; Pasupuleti, Vijai K.; Meganathan, R.

    Tryptone (pancreatic digest of casein) is a common ingredient in laboratory and fermentation media for growing wild-type and genetically modified microorganisms. Many of the commercially manufactured products such as human growth hormone, antibiotics, insulin, etc. are produced by recombinant strains grown on materials derived from bovine sources. With the emergence of Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE) and the consequent increase in Food and Drug Administration (FDA) regulations, elimination of materials of bovine origin from fermentation media is of paramount importance. To achieve this objective, a number of protein hydrolysates derived from non-bovine animal and plant sources were evaluated. Tryptone in Luria-Bertani (LB) broth was replaced with an equal quantity of alternate protein hydrolysates. Four of the six hydrolysates (one animal and three from plants) were found to efficiently replace the tryptone present in LB-medium as measured by growth rate and growth yield of a recombinant Escherichia coli strain. In addition, we have determined plasmid stability, inducibility and activity of the plasmid encoded β-galactosidase in the recombinant strain grown in the presence of various protein hydrolysates.

  17. Antioxidant potential of date (Phoenix dactylifera L.) seed protein hydrolysates and carnosine in food and biological systems.

    PubMed

    Ambigaipalan, Priyatharini; Shahidi, Fereidoon

    2015-01-28

    Date seed protein hydrolysates were evaluated for antioxidant activity as well as solubility and water-holding capacity in food and biological model systems. Date seed protein hydrolysates as well as carnosine exhibited >80% of solubility over a pH range of 2-12. The hydrolysates and carnosine at 0.5% (w/w) were also found to be effective in enhancing water-holding capacity and cooking yield in a fish model system, which was nearly similar to sodium tripolyphosphate (STPP; 0.3%, w/w). Incorporation of hydrolysates (200 ppm) in fish model systems resulted in the highest inhibition (30%) of oxidation in comparison to butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT; 9%). In addition, hydrolysates and carnosine inhibited β-carotene oxidation by 75%. The hydrolysates (0.1 mg/mL) inhibited LDL cholesterol oxidation by 60%, whereas carnosine inhibited oxidation by 80% after 12 h of incubation. Additionally, hydrolysates and carnosine effectively inhibited hydroxyl (6 mg/mL) and peroxyl (0.1 mg/mL) radical-induced DNA scission. Therefore, date seed protein hydrolysates could be used as a potential functional food ingredient for health promotion.

  18. In vitro antioxidant properties of chicken skin enzymatic protein hydrolysates and membrane fractions.

    PubMed

    Onuh, John O; Girgih, Abraham T; Aluko, Rotimi E; Aliani, Michel

    2014-05-01

    Chicken thigh and breast skin proteins were hydrolysed using alcalase or a combination of pepsin and pancreatin (PP), each at concentrations of 1-4%. The chicken skin protein hydrolysates (CSPHs) were then fractionated by membrane ultrafiltration into different molecular weight peptides (<1, 1-3, 3-5 and 5-10kDa) and analysed for antioxidant properties. Results showed that the CSPHs had a significantly (p<0.05) lower scavenging activity against DPPH radicals when compared to reduced glutathione. The chicken breast skin hydrolysates had significantly higher DPPH scavenging activity than the chicken thigh skin hydrolysates. DPPH scavenging and metal ion chelation increased significantly (p<0.05) from 29-40% to 86-89%, respectively with increasing proteolytic enzyme concentration. In contrast, the antioxidant properties decreased as peptide size increased. We conclude that CSPHs and their peptide fractions may be used as ingredients in the formulation of functional foods and nutraceuticals for the control and management of oxidative stress-related diseases.

  19. Whey protein stimulates postprandial muscle protein accretion more effectively than do casein and casein hydrolysate in older men.

    PubMed

    Pennings, Bart; Boirie, Yves; Senden, Joan M G; Gijsen, Annemie P; Kuipers, Harm; van Loon, Luc J C

    2011-05-01

    Sarcopenia has been attributed to a diminished muscle protein synthetic response to food intake. Differences in digestion and absorption kinetics of dietary protein, its amino acid composition, or both have been suggested to modulate postprandial muscle protein accretion. The objective was to compare protein digestion and absorption kinetics and subsequent postprandial muscle protein accretion after ingestion of whey, casein, and casein hydrolysate in healthy older adults. A total of 48 older men aged 74 ± 1 y (mean ± SEM) were randomly assigned to ingest a meal-like amount (20 g) of intrinsically l-[1-(13)C]phenylalanine-labeled whey, casein, or casein hydrolysate. Protein ingestion was combined with continuous intravenous l-[ring-(2)H(5)]phenylalanine infusion to assess in vivo digestion and absorption kinetics of dietary protein. Postprandial mixed muscle protein fractional synthetic rates (FSRs) were calculated from the ingested tracer. The peak appearance rate of dietary protein-derived phenylalanine in the circulation was greater with whey and casein hydrolysate than with casein (P < 0.05). FSR values were higher after whey (0.15 ± 0.02%/h) than after casein (0.08 ± 0.01%/h; P < 0.01) and casein hydrolysate (0.10 ± 0.01%/h; P < 0.05) ingestion. A strong positive correlation (r = 0.66, P < 0.01) was observed between peak plasma leucine concentrations and postprandial FSR values. Whey protein stimulates postprandial muscle protein accretion more effectively than do casein and casein hydrolysate in older men. This effect is attributed to a combination of whey's faster digestion and absorption kinetics and higher leucine content. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00557388.

  20. Effects of soy protein hydrolysates on maize starch retrogradation studied by IR spectra and ESI-MS analysis.

    PubMed

    Lian, Xijun; Zhu, Wei; Wen, Yan; Li, Lin; Zhao, Xiaoshuang

    2013-08-01

    Starch retrogradation is the main cause of quality deterioration of starch-containing foods during storage. The purpose of this study is to find out whether certain soy protein polypeptide in hydrolysates will retard maize starch retrogradation. The results show that all soy protein hydrolysates retard maize starch retrogradation to a certain extent. The IR spectra of hydrolysates and the blends of hydrolysates and maize starch show that the polypeptides might act with reducing end of maize starch during retrogradation. The results of electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry [ESI-MS] show that the polypeptide (m/z 863) is present in all three hydrolysates remarkedly retarding maize starch retrogradation and its relative abundence is also the highest. So the polypeptide containing seven amino acids probably is the key component to significantly inhibit maize starch retrogradation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. WITHDRAWN: Infant formulas containing hydrolysed protein for prevention of allergic disease and food allergy.

    PubMed

    Osborn, David A; Sinn, John Kh; Jones, Lisa J

    2017-05-25

    Allergy is common and may be associated with foods, including cow's milk formula (CMF). Formulas containing hydrolysed proteins have been used to treat infants with allergy. However, it is unclear whether hydrolysed formulas can be advocated for prevention of allergy in infants. To compare effects on allergy and food allergy when infants are fed a hydrolysed formula versus CMF or human breast milk. If hydrolysed formulas are effective, to determine what type of hydrolysed formula is most effective, including extensively or partially hydrolysed formula (EHF/PHF). To determine which infants at low or high risk of allergy and which infants receiving early, short-term or prolonged formula feeding may benefit from hydrolysed formulas. We used the standard search strategy of the Cochrane Neonatal Review Group supplemented by cross referencing of previous reviews and publications (updated August 2016). We searched for randomised and quasi-randomised trials that compared use of a hydrolysed formula versus human milk or CMF. Trials with ≥ 80% follow-up of participants were eligible for inclusion. We independently assessed eligibility of studies for inclusion, methodological quality and data extraction. Primary outcomes included clinical allergy, specific allergy and food allergy. We conducted meta-analysis using a fixed-effect (FE) model. Two studies assessed the effect of three to four days' infant supplementation with an EHF whilst in hospital after birth versus pasteurised human milk feed. Results showed no difference in infant allergy or childhood cow's milk allergy (CMA). No eligible trials compared prolonged hydrolysed formula versus human milk feeding.Two studies assessed the effect of three to four days infant supplementation with an EHF versus a CMF. One large quasi-random study reported a reduction in infant CMA of borderline significance among low-risk infants (risk ratio (RR) 0.62, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.38 to 1.00).Prolonged infant feeding with a

  2. Infant formulas containing hydrolysed protein for prevention of allergic disease and food allergy.

    PubMed

    Osborn, David A; Sinn, John Kh; Jones, Lisa J

    2017-03-15

    Allergy is common and may be associated with foods, including cow's milk formula (CMF). Formulas containing hydrolysed proteins have been used to treat infants with allergy. However, it is unclear whether hydrolysed formulas can be advocated for prevention of allergy in infants. To compare effects on allergy and food allergy when infants are fed a hydrolysed formula versus CMF or human breast milk. If hydrolysed formulas are effective, to determine what type of hydrolysed formula is most effective, including extensively or partially hydrolysed formula (EHF/PHF). To determine which infants at low or high risk of allergy and which infants receiving early, short-term or prolonged formula feeding may benefit from hydrolysed formulas. We used the standard search strategy of the Cochrane Neonatal Review Group supplemented by cross referencing of previous reviews and publications (updated August 2016). We searched for randomised and quasi-randomised trials that compared use of a hydrolysed formula versus human milk or CMF. Trials with ≥ 80% follow-up of participants were eligible for inclusion. We independently assessed eligibility of studies for inclusion, methodological quality and data extraction. Primary outcomes included clinical allergy, specific allergy and food allergy. We conducted meta-analysis using a fixed-effect (FE) model. Two studies assessed the effect of three to four days' infant supplementation with an EHF whilst in hospital after birth versus pasteurised human milk feed. Results showed no difference in infant allergy or childhood cow's milk allergy (CMA). No eligible trials compared prolonged hydrolysed formula versus human milk feeding.Two studies assessed the effect of three to four days' infant supplementation with an EHF versus a CMF. One large quasi-random study reported a reduction in infant CMA of borderline significance among low-risk infants (risk ratio (RR) 0.62, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.38 to 1.00).Prolonged infant feeding with a

  3. Angiotensin I-Converting Enzyme inhibitory and antioxidant activities and surfactant properties of protein hydrolysates as obtained of Amaranthus hypochondriacus L. grain.

    PubMed

    Soriano-Santos, J; Escalona-Buendía, H

    2015-04-01

    Even though some research has been carried out on surfactant properties of amaranth protein hydrolysates, their bio-functionality has not been studied yet. In this work amaranth grain Alb 1 and Glob were hydrolyzed (Alb 1H, Glob H) and foams and emulsions at optimal conditions (t, E/S, pH5) were prepared in order to assess techno-functional properties such as foaming (F) and emulsifying (E) (capacity (C) and stability (S)). FC and EC were much better for Glob H than for Alb H. Angiotensin I-converting enzyme-inhibitory activity was higher for Alb 1H (roughly 50 %) than that of Glob H (roughly 30 %). Scavenging of radicals activity (DPPH· or ABTS· (+) ) of Alb 1H and Glob H, at 2 mg/mL, was similar (approx. 40 %), but lower than Alb 1 (approx. 70 %), which was the best antioxidant. The low reducing power showed that hydrolysates barely donate an electron or hydrogen. Chelating activity on Cu(2+) was lower than that exhibited by Fe(2+,) which was remarkable, approx. 80 % as long as DH% > 10 %, where hydrolysates displayed high solubility (Alb 1H = 85 %, Glob H = 70 %) because of occurrence of 1-10 kDa peptides. Amaranth foams and emulsions prepared with protein hydrolysates have a potential as a nutraceutical food.

  4. Effect of hydrolysed and regular dairy proteins on the texture, colour and microstructure of poultry meat emulsions.

    PubMed

    Barbut, S

    2007-12-01

    1. The effects of 2% whole milk proteins, milk protein's two major components (caseinate and whey) and some of their fractions (beta-lactoglobulin and two hydrolysed whey proteins) were evaluated in a frankfurter-type product made from mechanically deboned chicken meat. 2. Adding caseinate, regular whey protein and the two whey protein hydrolysates (WPH-I and II) significantly reduced cooking loss compared to the control; lowest reduction was obtained with the two hydrolysates. 3. Caseinate and regular whey increased hardness, but WPH-I and II substantially reduced hardness, fracturability and springiness. 4. The more hydrolysed whey (8.5% vs 5.2%; WPH-II vs WPH-I, respectively) caused a greater disruption to texture, which could be explained by the light micrographs showing an interference with meat protein binding. 5. The most cost-effective ingredient tested here was the caseinate.

  5. Inhibitory properties of bambara groundnut protein hydrolysate and peptide fractions against angiotensin-converting enzymes, renin and free radicals.

    PubMed

    Arise, Abimbola K; Alashi, Adeola M; Nwachukwu, Ifeanyi D; Malomo, Sunday A; Aluko, Rotimi E; Amonsou, Eric O

    2017-07-01

    An increased rate of high blood pressure has led to critical human hypertensive conditions in most nations. In the present study, bambara protein hydrolysates (BPHs) obtained using three different proteases (alcalase, trypsin and pepsin) and their peptide fractions (molecular weight: 10, 5, 3 and 1 kDa) were investigated for antihypertensive and antioxidant activities. Alcalase hydrolysate contained the highest amount of low molecular weight (LMW) peptides compared to pepsin and trypsin hydrolysates. LMW peptides fractions (<1 kDa) exhibited the highest inhibitory activity against angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) for all the enzymes hydrolysates. For renin inhibition, alcalase hydrolysate showed the highest inhibition at 59% compared to other hydrolysates and their corresponding membrane fractions. The antioxidant power of bambara protein hydrolysates and peptide fractions was evaluated through the inhibition of linoleic acid peroxidation and ABTS scavenging activity. Among the hydrolysates, alcalase exhibited the highest inhibition of linoleic acid oxidation. Furthermore, all BPHs were able to scavenge ABTS(•+) to a three-fold greater extent compared to the isolate. BPH and LMW peptide fractions could potentially serve as useful ingredients in the formulation of functional foods and nutraceuticals against high blood pressure and oxidative stress. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  6. Production and functional characterisation of antioxidative hydrolysates from corn protein via enzymatic hydrolysis and ultrafiltration.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Kequan; Sun, Shi; Canning, Corene

    2012-12-01

    Corn protein was hydrolysed by three microbial proteases and further separated by sequential ultra-filtration to 12 hydrolysate fractions which were investigated for free radical scavenging capacity and chelating activity. The oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) of the hydrolysates varied significantly between 65.6 and 191.4μmoles Trolox equivalents (TE)/g dried weight with a small peptide fraction (NP-F3) produced by neutral protease (NP) possessing the highest antioxidant activity. The 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH()) scavenging activities of the hydrolysate fractions also varied significantly between 18.4 and 38.7μmoles TE/g. Two fractions (AP-F2 and AP-F3) produced by alkaline protease (AP) showed the strongest activity. However, no significant difference was detected on the chelating activity of the fractions. NP-F3, AP-F2, and AP-F3 were incorporated into ground beef to determine their effects on lipid oxidation during 15-day storage period. NP-F3 was the only fraction that inhibited lipid oxidation at both 250 and 500μg/g levels by as much as 52.9%.

  7. Protein Hydrolysates Are Avoided by Herbivores but Not by Omnivores in Two-Choice Preference Tests

    PubMed Central

    Field, Kristin L.; Bachmanov, Alexander A.; Mennella, Julie A.; Beauchamp, Gary K.; Kimball, Bruce A.

    2009-01-01

    Background The negative sensory properties of casein hydrolysates (HC) often limit their usage in products intended for human consumption, despite HC being nutritious and having many functional benefits. Recent, but taxonomically limited, evidence suggests that other animals also avoid consuming HC when alternatives exist. Methodology/Principal Findings We evaluated ingestive responses of five herbivorous species (guinea pig, mountain beaver, gopher, vole, and rabbit) and five omnivorous species (rat, coyote, house mouse, white-footed mouse, and deer mouse; N = 16–18/species) using solid foods containing 20% HC in a series of two-choice preference tests that used a non-protein, cellulose-based alternative. Individuals were also tested with collagen hydrolysate (gelatin; GE) to determine whether it would induce similar ingestive responses to those induced by HC. Despite HC and GE having very different nutritional and sensory qualities, both hydrolysates produced similar preference score patterns. We found that the herbivores generally avoided the hydrolysates while the omnivores consumed them at similar levels to the cellulose diet or, more rarely, preferred them (HC by the white-footed mouse; GE by the rat). Follow-up preference tests pairing HC and the nutritionally equivalent intact casein (C) were performed on the three mouse species and the guinea pigs. For the mice, mean HC preference scores were lower in the HC v C compared to the HC v Cel tests, indicating that HC's sensory qualities negatively affected its consumption. However, responses were species-specific. For the guinea pigs, repeated exposure to HC or C (4.7-h sessions; N = 10) were found to increase subsequent HC preference scores in an HC v C preference test, which was interpreted in the light of conservative foraging strategies thought to typify herbivores. Conclusions/Significance This is the first empirical study of dietary niche-related taxonomic differences in ingestive responses to

  8. Protein hydrolysates are avoided by herbivores but not by omnivores in two-choice preference tests.

    PubMed

    Field, Kristin L; Bachmanov, Alexander A; Mennella, Julie A; Beauchamp, Gary K; Kimball, Bruce A

    2009-01-01

    The negative sensory properties of casein hydrolysates (HC) often limit their usage in products intended for human consumption, despite HC being nutritious and having many functional benefits. Recent, but taxonomically limited, evidence suggests that other animals also avoid consuming HC when alternatives exist. We evaluated ingestive responses of five herbivorous species (guinea pig, mountain beaver, gopher, vole, and rabbit) and five omnivorous species (rat, coyote, house mouse, white-footed mouse, and deer mouse; N = 16-18/species) using solid foods containing 20% HC in a series of two-choice preference tests that used a non-protein, cellulose-based alternative. Individuals were also tested with collagen hydrolysate (gelatin; GE) to determine whether it would induce similar ingestive responses to those induced by HC. Despite HC and GE having very different nutritional and sensory qualities, both hydrolysates produced similar preference score patterns. We found that the herbivores generally avoided the hydrolysates while the omnivores consumed them at similar levels to the cellulose diet or, more rarely, preferred them (HC by the white-footed mouse; GE by the rat). Follow-up preference tests pairing HC and the nutritionally equivalent intact casein (C) were performed on the three mouse species and the guinea pigs. For the mice, mean HC preference scores were lower in the HC v C compared to the HC v Cel tests, indicating that HC's sensory qualities negatively affected its consumption. However, responses were species-specific. For the guinea pigs, repeated exposure to HC or C (4.7-h sessions; N = 10) were found to increase subsequent HC preference scores in an HC v C preference test, which was interpreted in the light of conservative foraging strategies thought to typify herbivores. This is the first empirical study of dietary niche-related taxonomic differences in ingestive responses to protein hydrolysates using multiple species under comparable conditions. Our

  9. In vitro bioactive properties of intact and enzymatically hydrolysed whey protein: targeting the enteroinsular axis.

    PubMed

    Power-Grant, O; Bruen, C; Brennan, L; Giblin, L; Jakeman, P; FitzGerald, R J

    2015-03-01

    Enzymatically hydrolysed milk proteins have a variety of biofunctional effects some of which may be beneficial in the management of type 2 diabetes mellitus. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of commercially available intact and hydrolysed whey protein ingredients (DH 32, DH 45) on markers of the enteroinsular axis (glucagon like peptide-1 secretion, dipeptidyl peptidase IV inhibition, insulin secretion and antioxidant activity) before and after simulated gastrointestinal digestion (SGID). A whey protein hydrolysate, DH32, significantly enhanced (P < 0.05) insulin secretion from BRIN BD11 β-cells compared to the positive control (16.7 mM glucose and 10 mM Ala). The whey protein hydrolysates inhibited dipeptidyl peptidase IV activity, yielding half maximal inhibitory concentration values (IC50) of 1.5 ± 0.1 and 1.1 ± 0.1 mg mL(-1) for the DH 32 and DH 45, samples respectively, and were significantly more potent than the intact whey (P < 0.05). Enzymatic hydrolysis of whey protein significantly enhanced (P < 0.05) its antioxidant activity compared to intact whey, as measured by the oxygen radical absorbance capacity assay (ORAC). This antioxidant activity was maintained (DH 32, P > 0.05) or enhanced (DH 45, P < 0.05) following SGID. Intact whey stimulated GLP-1 secretion from enteroendocrine cells compared to vehicle control (P < 0.05). This data confirm that whey proteins and peptides can act through multiple targets within the enteroinsular axis and as such may have glucoregulatory potential.

  10. Influence of degree of hydrolysis on functional properties and angiotensin I-converting enzyme-inhibitory activity of protein hydrolysates from cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis) by-products.

    PubMed

    Balti, Rafik; Bougatef, Ali; El-Hadj Ali, Nedra; Zekri, Dorra; Barkia, Ahmed; Nasri, Moncef

    2010-09-01

    In Tunisia the cuttlefish-processing industry generates large amounts of solid wastes. These wastes, which may represent 35% of the original material and constitute an important source of proteins, are discarded without any attempt at recovery. This paper describes some functional properties and the angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE)-inhibitory activity of protein hydrolysates prepared by hydrolysis of cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis) by-products with crude enzyme extract from Bacillus licheniformis NH1. Cuttlefish by-product protein hydrolysates (CPHs) with different degrees of hydrolysis (DH 5, 10 and 13.5%) were prepared. All CPHs contained 750-790 g kg(-1) proteins. Solubility, emulsifying capacity and water-holding capacity increased while fat absorption and foaming capacity decreased with increasing DH. All hydrolysates showed greater fat absorption than the water-soluble fraction from undigested cuttlefish by-product proteins and casein. CPHs were also analysed for their ACE-inhibitory activity. CPH3 (DH 13.5%) displayed the highest ACE inhibition (79%), with an IC(50) value of 1 mg mL(-1). Hydrolysis of cuttlefish by-product proteins with alkaline proteases from B. licheniformis resulted in a product with excellent solubility over a wide pH range and high ACE-inhibitory activity. This study suggests that CPHs could be utilised to develop functional foods for prevention of hypertension. Copyright 2010 Society of Chemical Industry.

  11. Behaviour of formula emulsions containing hydrolysed whey protein and various lecithins.

    PubMed

    Tirok, S; Scherze, I; Muschiolik, G

    2001-07-01

    Formula emulsion systems are used as enteral, sports and health products. In some formulas addition of hydrolysed protein is necessary to guarantee ease of digestion and hypoallergenicity. In the low fat emulsion model an increase in the content of lecithin (phospholipid mixture) was required, in consideration of the advice of the Food and Nutrition Board (USA) for choline supplementation. The individual and interactive effects of whey protein isolate (WPI) or hydrolysate (WPH) (3.7 and 4.9% w/w), unmodified deoiled or hydrolysed lecithin (0.48 or 0.7% w/w) and carbohydrate in the form of maltodextrin with dextrose equivalent (DE) 18.5 or glucose syrup with DE 34 (11% w/w) on the properties of formula emulsions with 4% v/w sunflower oil, were investigated using a full factorial design. The emulsions were characterised by particle size distribution, coalescence stability, creaming rate, and also surface protein and lecithin concentration. WPI-containing emulsions proved to be stable against coalescence and showed only little creaming after 1 and 7 days standing. There was a significant increase in the mean droplet size and a significant deterioration of coalescence and creaming stability when WPH instead of WPI was used as the protein source, due to the lower number of large peptides and lower surface activity of the WPH. Increasing the WPH concentration led to an increase in oil droplet size and further deterioration of the stability of the emulsions. The starch hydrolysate and lecithin also significantly influenced the emulsion properties. Their influence was less strong when the emulsion contained WPI. Under the conditions used WPH-based emulsions were more stable, in terms of creaming and coalescence, when a low level of protein was used in conjunction with hydrolysed lecithin and glucose syrup. Oil droplets in emulsions containing unmodified lecithin in either the continuous or disperse phase and WPH in the continuous phase were very sensitive to coalescence

  12. Protein hydrolysates in animal nutrition: Industrial production, bioactive peptides, and functional significance.

    PubMed

    Hou, Yongqing; Wu, Zhenlong; Dai, Zhaolai; Wang, Genhu; Wu, Guoyao

    2017-01-01

    Recent years have witnessed growing interest in the role of peptides in animal nutrition. Chemical, enzymatic, or microbial hydrolysis of proteins in animal by-products or plant-source feedstuffs before feeding is an attractive means of generating high-quality small or large peptides that have both nutritional and physiological or regulatory functions in livestock, poultry and fish. These peptides may also be formed from ingested proteins in the gastrointestinal tract, but the types of resultant peptides can vary greatly with the physiological conditions of the animals and the composition of the diets. In the small intestine, large peptides are hydrolyzed to small peptides, which are absorbed into enterocytes faster than free amino acids (AAs) to provide a more balanced pattern of AAs in the blood circulation. Some peptides of plant or animal sources also have antimicrobial, antioxidant, antihypertensive, and immunomodulatory activities. Those peptides which confer biological functions beyond their nutritional value are called bioactive peptides. They are usually 2-20 AA residues in length but may consist of >20 AA residues. Inclusion of some (e.g. 2-8%) animal-protein hydrolysates (e.g., porcine intestine, porcine mucosa, salmon viscera, or poultry tissue hydrolysates) or soybean protein hydrolysates in practical corn- and soybean meal-based diets can ensure desirable rates of growth performance and feed efficiency in weanling pigs, young calves, post-hatching poultry, and fish. Thus, protein hydrolysates hold promise in optimizing the nutrition of domestic and companion animals, as well as their health (particularly gut health) and well-being.

  13. Antioxidant and functional properties of protein hydrolysates obtained from squid pen chitosan extraction effluent.

    PubMed

    Shavandi, Amin; Hu, Zhihao; Teh, SueSiang; Zhao, Jenny; Carne, Alan; Bekhit, Adnan; Bekhit, Alaa El-Din A

    2017-07-15

    Squid pens were subjected to alkali hydrolysis to extract chitin and chitosan. Proteins present in the alkaline extraction wastewater were recovered at pH 3, 4, 5 and 6, and were subjected to hydrolysis by trypsin, pepsin and a bacterial protease called HT for 1, 2, 4 and 24h. Hydrolysis of the extracted proteins with either trypsin or HT generated more antioxidant activity than hydrolysis with pepsin. Higher ACE-inhibitory activity was generated in the trypsin and pepsin hydrolysates than in the HT hydrolysate. Squid pen protein recovered from chitosan processing waste alkaline solution can be a potential source of bioactive peptides for addition to foods. The antioxidant and ACE-inhibitory activities of the extracted proteins were initially low and increased upon incubation with the proteases. Pepsin generated significantly lower (P<0.05) antioxidant activities compared to trypsin and HT, while trypsin and pepsin hydrolysates exhibited higher ACE-inhibitory activity than HT (P<0.05). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Optimization of the production of shrimp waste protein hydrolysate using microbial proteases adopting response surface methodology.

    PubMed

    Dey, Satya S; Dora, Krushna Chandra

    2014-01-01

    Protein hydrolysates were produced from shrimp waste mainly comprising head and shell of Penaeus monodon by enzymatic hydrolysis for 90 min using four microbial proteases (Alcalase, Neutrase, Protamex, Flavourzyme) where PR(%) and DH (%) of respective enzymes were compared to select best of the lot. Alcalase, which showed the best result, was used to optimize hydrolysis conditions for shrimp waste hydrolysis by response surface methodology using a central composite design. A model equation was proposed to determine effects of temperature, pH, enzyme/substrate ratio and time on DH where optimum values found to be 59.37 °C, 8.25, 1.84% and 84.42 min. for maximum degree of hydrolysis 33.13% respectively. The model showed a good fit in experimental data because 92.13% of the variability within the range of values studied could be explained by it. The protein hydrolysate obtained contained high protein content (72.3%) and amino acid (529.93 mg/gm) of which essential amino acid and flavour amino acid were was 54.67-55.93% and 39.27-38.32% respectively. Protein efficiency ratio (PER) (2.99) and chemical score (1.05) of hydrolysate was suitable enough to recommend as a functional food additive.

  15. Selective separation and concentration of antihypertensive peptides from rapeseed protein hydrolysate by electrodialysis with ultrafiltration membranes.

    PubMed

    He, Rong; Girgih, Abraham T; Rozoy, Elodie; Bazinet, Laurent; Ju, Xing-Rong; Aluko, Rotimi E

    2016-04-15

    Rapeseed protein isolate was subjected to alcalase digestion to obtain a protein hydrolysate that was separated into peptide fractions using electrodialysis with ultrafiltration membrane (EDUF) technology. The EDUF process (6h duration) led to isolation of three peptide fractions: anionic (recovered in KCl-1 compartment), cationic (recovered in KCl-2 compartment), and those that remained in the feed compartment, which was labeled final rapeseed protein hydrolysate (FRPH). As expected the KCl-1 peptides were enriched in negatively-charged (43.57%) while KCl-2 contained high contents of positively-charged (28.35%) amino acids. All the samples inhibited angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) and renin activities in dose-dependent manner with original rapeseed protein hydrolysate having the least ACE-inhibitory IC50 value of 0.0932±0.0037 mg/mL while FRPH and KCl-2 had least renin-inhibitory IC50 values of 0.47±0.05 and 0.55±0.06 mg/mL, respectively. Six hours after oral administration (100 mg/kg body weight) to spontaneously hypertensive rats, the FRPH produced the maximum systolic blood pressure reduction of -51 mmHg. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Detection of dimethylarginines in protein hydrolysates by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Cheng-Hsilin; Tam, Ming F

    2006-03-01

    We report a method to detect the presence of dimethylarginines on proteins. Peptides with dimethylarginines were hydrolyzed in acid. The hydrolysates were subjected to matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometric analysis using a mixture of alpha-cyano-4-hydroxycinnamic acid and nitrocellulose as matrix. Both asymmetric omega-N(G),N(G)-dimethylarginine and symmetric omega-N(G),N(G')-dimethylarginine give a clear signal at m/z 203. Recombinant Sbp1p modified by Hmt1p in vivo were isolated by affinity chromatography followed by electrophoresis on a polyacrylamide gel and subjected to acid hydrolysis. MALDI-TOF analysis of the acid hydrolysates confirmed the presence of dimethylarginines. The detection limit of the method is estimated at approximately 1pmol of protein.

  17. Antioxidant activity of black bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) protein hydrolysates

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The objective of this work was to study the effect of enzymatic hydrolysis of black bean protein concentrate using different enzymes. Bean proteins were extracted and hydrolyzed over a period of 120 min using the enzymes pepsin or alcalase. The protein hydrolysates’ molecular weight was assayed by e...

  18. Effects of Hydrolysed Whey Proteins on the Techno-Functional Characteristics of Whey Protein-Based Films

    PubMed Central

    Schmid, Markus; Hinz, Lesley-Virgina; Wild, Florian; Noller, Klaus

    2013-01-01

    Pure whey protein isolate (WPI)-based cast films are very brittle due to its strong formation of protein cross-linking of disulphide bonding, hydrogen bonding as well as hydrophobic and electrostatic interactions. However, this strong cross-linking is the reason for its final barrier performance. To overcome film brittleness of whey protein layers, plasticisers like glycerol are used. It reduces intermolecular interactions, increases the mobility of polymer chains and thus film flexibility can be achieved. The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of hydrolysed whey protein isolate (WPI) in whey protein isolate-based cast films on their techno-functional properties. Due to the fact, that the addition of glycerol is necessary but at the same time increases the free volume in the film leading to higher oxygen and water vapour permeability, the glycerol concentration was kept constant. Cast films with different ratios of hydrolysed and not hydrolysed WPI were produced. They were characterised in order to determine the influence of the lower molecular weight caused by the addition of hydrolysed WPI on the techno-functional properties. This study showed that increasing hydrolysed WPI concentrations significantly change the mechanical properties while maintaining the oxygen and water vapour permeability. The tensile and elastic film properties decreased significantly by reducing the average molecular weight whereas the yellowish coloration and the surface tension considerably increased. This study provided new data which put researchers and material developers in a position to tailor the characteristics of whey protein based films according to their intended application and further processing. PMID:28809349

  19. Study of Anti-Fatigue Effect in Rats of Ferrous Chelates Including Hairtail Protein Hydrolysates.

    PubMed

    Huang, Saibo; Lin, Huimin; Deng, Shang-Gui

    2015-12-01

    The ability of ferrous chelates including hairtail protein hydrolysates to prevent and reduce fatigue was studied in rats. After hydrolysis of hairtail surimi with papain, the hairtail protein hydrolysates (HPH) were separated into three groups by range of relative molecular weight using ultrafiltration membrane separation. Hairtail proteins were then chelated with ferrous ions, and the antioxidant activity, the amino acid composition and chelation rate of the three kinds of ferrous chelates including hairtail protein hydrolysates (Fe-HPH) were determined. Among the three groups, the Fe-HPH chelate showing the best conditions was selected for the anti-fatigue animal experiment. For it, experimental rats were randomly divided into seven groups. Group A was designated as the negative control group given distilled water. Group B, the positive control group, was given glutathione. Groups C, D and E were designated as the Fe-HPH chelate treatment groups and given low, medium, and high doses, respectively. Group F was designated as HPH hydrolysate treatment group, and Group G was designated as FeCl₂ treatment group. The different diets were orally administered to rats for 20 days. After that time, rats were subjected to forced swimming training after 1 h of gavage. Rats given Fe-FPH chelate had higher haemoglobin regeneration efficiency (HRE), longer exhaustive swimming time and higher SOD activity. Additionally, Fe-FPH chelate was found to significantly decrease the malondialdehyde content, visibly enhance the GSH-Px activity in liver and reduce blood lactic acid of rats. Fe-HPH chelate revealed an anti-fatigue effect, similar to or better than the positive control substance and superior to HPH or Fe when provided alone.

  20. Study of Anti-Fatigue Effect in Rats of Ferrous Chelates Including Hairtail Protein Hydrolysates

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Saibo; Lin, Huimin; Deng, Shang-gui

    2015-01-01

    The ability of ferrous chelates including hairtail protein hydrolysates to prevent and reduce fatigue was studied in rats. After hydrolysis of hairtail surimi with papain, the hairtail protein hydrolysates (HPH) were separated into three groups by range of relative molecular weight using ultrafiltration membrane separation. Hairtail proteins were then chelated with ferrous ions, and the antioxidant activity, the amino acid composition and chelation rate of the three kinds of ferrous chelates including hairtail protein hydrolysates (Fe-HPH) were determined. Among the three groups, the Fe-HPH chelate showing the best conditions was selected for the anti-fatigue animal experiment. For it, experimental rats were randomly divided into seven groups. Group A was designated as the negative control group given distilled water. Group B, the positive control group, was given glutathione. Groups C, D and E were designated as the Fe-HPH chelate treatment groups and given low, medium, and high doses, respectively. Group F was designated as HPH hydrolysate treatment group, and Group G was designated as FeCl2 treatment group. The different diets were orally administered to rats for 20 days. After that time, rats were subjected to forced swimming training after 1 h of gavage. Rats given Fe-FPH chelate had higher haemoglobin regeneration efficiency (HRE), longer exhaustive swimming time and higher SOD activity. Additionally, Fe-FPH chelate was found to significantly decrease the malondialdehyde content, visibly enhance the GSH-Px activity in liver and reduce blood lactic acid of rats. Fe-HPH chelate revealed an anti-fatigue effect, similar to or better than the positive control substance and superior to HPH or Fe when provided alone. PMID:26633476

  1. Production and characterisation of whey protein hydrolysate having antioxidant activity from cheese whey.

    PubMed

    Athira, Syamala; Mann, Bimlesh; Saini, Prerna; Sharma, Rajan; Kumar, Rajesh; Singh, Ashish Kumar

    2015-11-01

    Cheese whey is a rich by-product in nutritional terms, possessing components with high biological value, excellent functional properties, and an inert flavour profile. In the present study, mozzarella cheese whey was ultra-filtrated to remove lactose and mineral. The retentate was hydrolysed with food-grade enzyme alcalase and the hydrolysis conditions (pH, temperature and time) were optimised for maximum antioxidant activity using response surface methodology. Whey protein hydrolysed for 8 h at pH 9 and 55 °C showed a maximum antioxidant activity of 1.18 ± 0.015 µmol Trolox mg(-1) protein. The antioxidant peptides were further enriched by ultra-filtration through a 3 kDa membrane. Seven peptides - β-Lg f(123-131), β-Lg f(122-131), β-Lg f(124-131), β-Lg f(123-134), β-Lg f(122-131), β-Lg f(96-100) and β-Lg f(94-100) - were identified by LC-MS/MS in the 3 kDa permeate of the hydrolysate. The incorporation of whey protein hydrolysate (WPH) in lemon whey drink (5-10 g L(-1)) increased the antioxidant activity from 76% to 90% as compared to control. Hydrolysis of ultra-filtrated retentate of whey can be an energy- and cost-effective method for the direct production of WPH from whey compared to the industrial production of WPH from whey protein concentrate. This study suggests that WPH with good nutritional and biological properties can be effectively used in health-promoting foods as a biofunctional ingredient. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  2. Effect of pH and pepsin limited hydrolysis on the structure and functional properties of soybean protein hydrolysates.

    PubMed

    Cui, Chun; Zhao, Mouming; Yuan, Boen; Zhang, Yuanhong; Ren, Jiaoyan

    2013-12-01

    Effects of limited enzymatic hydrolysis with pepsin on the functional properties and structure characteristics of soybean proteins were investigated. Hydrolysates with different incubation time (10 to 900 min) were prepared. Results showed that SPI hydrolyzed for 60 min exhibited the best emulsibility and the ability of resisting freezing/thawing. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis proved that pepsin can degrade glycinin but had little effect on the α' subunit of β-conglycinin. The structure unfolding reached the largest extent after incubation for 60 min and the soluble and flexible aggregates were formed. After 120 min, glycinin was degraded totally and β-conglycinin formed insoluble aggregates. Moreover, 2 methods were applied for the deactivation of pepsin to obtain final hydrolysates at pH 2.0 and 7.0, respectively. The structure analysis revealed that the unfolding extent and structure characteristic were different in these 2 conditions. When adjusting the pH value from 2.0 to 7.0, the unfolding protein molecular would reaggregate again at pH 7.0 due to the charge neutralization, and the hydrodynamic diameter and λmax absorbance decreased compared to pH 2.0. Moreover, some of the insoluble aggregates formed at pH 2.0 became soluble at pH 7.0, because of the salt-in phenomenon.

  3. Rice bran protein hydrolysates prevented interleukin-6- and high glucose-induced insulin resistance in HepG2 cells.

    PubMed

    Boonloh, Kampeebhorn; Kukongviriyapan, Upa; Pannangpetch, Patchareewan; Kongyingyoes, Bunkerd; Senggunprai, Laddawan; Prawan, Auemduan; Thawornchinsombut, Supawan; Kukongviriyapan, Veerapol

    2015-02-01

    Rice bran, which is a byproduct of rice milling process, contains various nutrients and biologically active compounds. Rice bran protein hydrolysates have various pharmacological activities such as antidiabetic and antidyslipidemic effects. However, there are limited studies about the mechanisms of rice bran protein hydrolysates (RBP) on insulin resistance and lipid metabolism. RBP used in this study were prepared from Thai Jasmine rice. When HepG2 cells were treated with IL-6, the IRS-1 expression and Akt phosphorylation were suppressed. This effect of IL-6 was prevented by RBP in association with inhibition of STAT3 phosphorylation and SOCS3 expression. RBP could increase the phospho-AMPK levels and inhibit IL-6- or high glucose-induced suppression of AMPK and Akt activation. High glucose-induced dysregulation of the expression of lipogenic genes, including SREBP-1c, FASN and CPT-1, was normalized by RBP treatment. Moreover, impaired glucose utilization in insulin resistant HepG2 cells was significantly alleviated by concurrent treatment with RBP. Our results suggested that RBP suppresses inflammatory cytokine signaling and activates AMPK, and thereby these effects may underlie the insulin sensitizing effect.

  4. Encapsulation of Phaseolus lunatus Protein Hydrolysate with Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitory Activity

    PubMed Central

    Ruiz Ruiz, Jorge Carlos; Segura Campos, Maira Rubí; Betancur Ancona, David Abram; Chel Guerrero, Luis Antonio

    2013-01-01

    The objective of recent research has been to seek alternative therapeutic treatments; for this reason, the use of protein hydrolysates from diverse sources has been studied. A way to guarantee that these treatments reach the site of action is through protection with covers, such as microcapsules. Therefore, proteins from the legume Phaseolus lunatus were hydrolyzed and encapsulated with a blend of Delonix regia carboxymethylated gum/sodium alginate (50 : 50 w/w). Hydrolysis release conditions in a simulated gastrointestinal system were obtained using CaCl2 concentrations as the main factor, indicating that lower CaCl2 concentrations lead to an increased hydrolysis release. Beads obtained with 1.0 mM of CaCl2 exhibited a better hydrolysate release rate under intestinal simulated conditions and the proteins maintained an IC50 of 2.9 mg/mL. Capsules obtained with the blend of Delonix regia carboxymethylated gum/sodium alginate would be used for the controlled delivery of hydrolysates with potential use as nutraceutical or therapeutic agents. PMID:25937975

  5. Enhancement of ACE and prolyl oligopeptidase inhibitory potency of protein hydrolysates from sardine and tuna by-products by simulated gastrointestinal digestion.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Alvarez, Oscar; Batista, Irineu; Ramos, Cristina; Montero, Pilar

    2016-04-01

    This work was focused on the study of the bioactive potential of three fish protein hydrolysates, one of them prepared from industrial sardine by-products (head and viscera) and the others from tuna by-products (head, and muscle and viscera). These protein hydrolysates exhibited moderate ability to inhibit Angiotensin Converting Enzyme or ACE (IC50 between 0.24-1.16 mg dry weight per ml) and prolyl oligopeptidase or PO (IC50 between 3.30-9.57 mg ml(-1)), those obtained from tuna by-products being the most effective. Overall, ACE- and PO-inhibiting activities were enhanced by sequential nanofiltration through 3 and 1 kDa MWCO membranes (IC50 between 0.02-0.16 mg ml(-1) (ACE) and 1.10-4.21 mg ml(-1) (PO)). The inhibitory properties of the hydrolysates were greatly improved by in vitro gastric digestion, and were barely affected by further intestinal digestion. The digested tuna hydrolysates, mainly that from heads, proved to be the best source of PO- and ACE- inhibiting molecules (IC50 = 0.16 mg ml(-1) (ACE) and 1.04 mg ml(-1) (PO)) and could be potential new ingredients in food with interest in the prevention or treatment of cardiovascular and neurological diseases.

  6. Allergenicity of an enzymatic hydrolysate of soybean 2S protein.

    PubMed

    Sung, Dongeun; Ahn, Kang Mo; Lim, Seung-Yong; Oh, Sangsuk

    2014-09-01

    This study was performed to examine how the characteristics of soybean 2S protein influence allergenicity after enzymatic hydrolysis. Soybean 2S protein was extracted and enzymatic hydrolysis was performed using pepsin and chymotrypsin. Allergenicity was observed using soybean-sensitive patients' sera. Only 13.3% (6/45) of soybean-sensitive patients reacted to soybean Kunitz trypsin inhibitor (SKTI), known as the major allergen of soybean 2S protein. After peptic hydrolysis for 90 min at pH 1.2, the intensity of SKTI decreased to 25% but was still visible on SDS-PAGE. Chymotryptic hydrolysis following peptic hydrolysis at pH 8 for 60 min showed a limited hydrolytic effect on soybean 2S protein. Peptic hydrolysis of soybean 2S protein partially reduced the allergenicity of soybean 2S protein, while chymotryptic hydrolysis following peptic hydrolysis increased slightly the allergenicity. Food allergy caused by soybean 2S protein occurred in part of the soybean-sensitive patients. SKTI was partially digested after peptic hydrolysis for 90 min. The allergenicity was decreased with peptic hydrolysis, while subsequent treatment of chymotrypsin increased slightly the allergenicity. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  7. The Effects of Mechanically Deboned Chicken Hydrolysates on the Characteristics of Imitation Crab Stick

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Sang-Keun; Hwang, Jin-Won; Moon, Sungsil; Choi, Yeung-Joon; Kim, Gap-Don; Jung, Eun-Young; Yang, Han-Sul

    2014-01-01

    The effects of adding mechanically deboned chicken (MDC) hydrolysates on the quality characteristics of imitation crab stick (ICS) during storage were investigated. ICS was prepared from Alaska Pollack, chicken breast surimi, and protein hydrolysates enzymatically extracted from MDC. ICS samples were divided into 4 groups: without protein hydrolysate (control), added with 0.5% protein hydrolysate (T1), added with 1.0% protein hydrolysate (T2), and added with 1.5% protein hydrolysate (T3). Results showed that crude protein content did not differ significantly among the ICS samples (p>0.05). ICS sample added with MDC hydrolysates had higher crude fat and ash content but lower moisture content than the control (p<0.05). Lightness was significantly lower in T2 and T3 than in the other groups at 0 and 4 wk of storage. Also, whiteness decreased in the groups contained MDC hydrolysates. Breaking force and jelly strength were higher in samples containing MDC hydrolysates compared to control samples (p<0.05). Additionally, saturated fatty acid contents were lower in the groups containing MDC hydrolysates than in control sample groups (p<0.05). Polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) and essential fatty acids (EFA) were significantly higher in T2 and T3 than the control samples. In particular, all samples containing MDC hydrolysates had reduced thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) values at 4 wk. Free radical scavenging activity also was increased with addition of MDC hydrolysates. PMID:26760938

  8. Isolation and structural elucidation of antioxidant peptides from oyster (Saccostrea cucullata) protein hydrolysate.

    PubMed

    Umayaparvathi, S; Meenakshi, S; Vimalraj, V; Arumugam, M; Balasubramanian, T

    2014-01-01

    Protein derived from the oyster (Saccostrea cucullata) was hydrolyzed using protease from Bacillus cereus SU12 for isolation of antioxidant peptides. The oyster hydrolysate exhibited a strong antioxidant potential in DPPH (85.7±0.37%) followed by Hydrogen peroxide radical scavenging activity (81.6±0.3%), Hydroxyl radical-scavenging activity (79.32±0.6%), Reducing power assay (2.63±0.2 OD at 700nm). Due to the high antioxidant potential, hydrolysate was fractionated in Sephadex G-25 gel filtration chromatography. The active peptide fraction was further purified by UPLC-MS. Totally 7 antioxidant peptides were collected. Among 7 peptides (SCAP 1-7), 3 peptides (SCAP 1, 3 and 7) had highest scavenging ability on DPPH radicals. The amino acid sequence and molecular mass of purified antioxidant peptides (SCAP1, SCAP3 and SCAP7) were determined by Q-TOF ESI mass spectroscopy and structures of the peptides were Leu-Ala-Asn-Ala-Lys (MW=515.29Da), Pro-Ser-Leu-Val-Gly-Arg-Pro-Pro-Val-Gly-Lys-Leu-Thr-Leu (MW=1432.89Da) and Val-Lys-Val-Leu-Leu-Glu-His-Pro-Val-Leu (MW=1145.75Da), respectively. The unique amino acid composition and sequence in the peptides might play an important role in expression of their antioxidant activity. The results of this study suggest that oyster protein hydrolysate is good source of natural antioxidants.

  9. Peptide Analysis and the Bioactivity of Whey Protein Hydrolysates from Cheese Whey with Several Enzymes

    PubMed Central

    Jeewanthi, Renda Kankanamge Chaturika; Kim, Myeong Hee; Lee, Na-Kyoung; Yoon, Yoh Chang; Paik, Hyun-Dong

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was identifying a suitable food grade enzymes to hydrolyze whey protein concentrates (WPCs), to give the highest bioactivity. WPCs from ultrafiltration retentate were adjusted to 35% protein (WPC-35) and hydrolyzed by enzymes, alcalase, α-chymotrypsin, pepsin, protease M, protease S, and trypsin at different hydrolysis times (0, 0.5, 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 h). These 36 types of hydrolysates were analyzed for their prominent peptides β-lactoglobulin (β-Lg) and α-lactalbumin (α-La), to identify the proteolytic activity of each enzyme. Protease S showed the highest proteolytic activity and angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitory activity of IC50, 0.099 mg/mL (91.55%) while trypsin showed the weakest effect. Antihypertensive and antioxidative peptides associated with β-Lg hydrolysates were identified in WPC-35 hydrolysates (WPH-35) that hydrolyzed by the enzymes, trypsin and protease S. WPH-35 treated with protease S in 0.5 h, responded positively to usage as a bioactive component in different applications of pharmaceutical or related industries. PMID:28316472

  10. Peptide Analysis and the Bioactivity of Whey Protein Hydrolysates from Cheese Whey with Several Enzymes.

    PubMed

    Jeewanthi, Renda Kankanamge Chaturika; Kim, Myeong Hee; Lee, Na-Kyoung; Yoon, Yoh Chang; Paik, Hyun-Dong

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was identifying a suitable food grade enzymes to hydrolyze whey protein concentrates (WPCs), to give the highest bioactivity. WPCs from ultrafiltration retentate were adjusted to 35% protein (WPC-35) and hydrolyzed by enzymes, alcalase, α-chymotrypsin, pepsin, protease M, protease S, and trypsin at different hydrolysis times (0, 0.5, 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 h). These 36 types of hydrolysates were analyzed for their prominent peptides β-lactoglobulin (β-Lg) and α-lactalbumin (α-La), to identify the proteolytic activity of each enzyme. Protease S showed the highest proteolytic activity and angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitory activity of IC50, 0.099 mg/mL (91.55%) while trypsin showed the weakest effect. Antihypertensive and antioxidative peptides associated with β-Lg hydrolysates were identified in WPC-35 hydrolysates (WPH-35) that hydrolyzed by the enzymes, trypsin and protease S. WPH-35 treated with protease S in 0.5 h, responded positively to usage as a bioactive component in different applications of pharmaceutical or related industries.

  11. Artificial neural networks to model the production of blood protein hydrolysates for plant fertilisation.

    PubMed

    Gálvez, Raúl Pérez; Carpio, Francisco Javier Espejo; Guadix, Emilia M; Guadix, Antonio

    2016-01-15

    Amino acid-based fertilisers increase the bioavailability of nitrogen in plants and help withstand stress conditions. Additionally, porcine blood protein hydrolysates are able to supply iron, which is involved in chlorophyll synthesis and improves the availability of nutrients in soil. A high degree of hydrolysis is desirable when producing a protein hydrolysate intended for fertilisation, since it assures a high supply of free amino acids. Given the complexity of enzyme reactions, empirical approaches such as artificial neural networks (ANNs) are preferred for modelisation. Porcine blood meal was hydrolysed for 3 h with subtilisin. The time evolution of the degree of hydrolysis was successfully modelled by means of a feedforward ANN comprising 10 neurons in the hidden layer and trained by the Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm. The ANN model described adequately the influence of pH, temperature, enzyme concentration and reaction time upon the degree of hydrolysis, and was used to estimate the optimal operation conditions (pH 6.67, 56.9 °C, enzyme to substrate ratio of 10 g kg(-1) and 3 h of reaction) leading to the maximum degree of hydrolysis (35.12%). ANN modelling was a useful tool to model enzymatic reactions and was successfully employed to optimise the degree of hydrolysis. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  12. Benefits and Limitations of Protein Hydrolysates as Components of Serum-Free Media for Animal Cell Culture Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lobo-Alfonso, Juliet; Price, Paul; Jayme, David

    Increased understanding of influential factors for the cultivation of animal cells, combined with heightened regulatory concern over potential transmission of adventitious contaminants associated with serum and other animal-derived components, has elevated interest in using protein hydrolysates as serum replacements or nutrient supplements. This paper reviews the chemistry and biology of various hydrolysates derived from animal, plant and microbial sources. It provides specific examples of a beneficial selection of plant and yeast hydrolysates as ingredients of serum-free nutrient formulations for bioproduction applications of cultured mammalian and insect cells. Strategies for customizing and optimizing nutrients for specialized applications and general benefits and limitations of protein hydrolysates for biopharmaceutical production are also discussed.

  13. Properties of microalgal enzymatic protein hydrolysates: Biochemical composition, protein distribution and FTIR characteristics.

    PubMed

    Kose, A; Oncel, S S

    2015-06-01

    Chlorella vulgaris SAG 211-12, a green microalga, as model organism was cultivated photomixotrophically using various organic carbon and nitrogen sources at Erlenmeyer scale. The modified medium selected for the experiments was standard BG11 supplemented with 5 g l(-1) glucose and 1 g l(-1) proteose peptone (PP). To evaluate the effects of light/dark cycles, 12:12; 18:6 and 24:0 light/dark cycle conditions were examined on hourly basis. 24:0 continuous illumination condition was chosen to continue 2 l continuous stirred tank photobioreactor (CSTR) experiments under 1 vvm aeration, 120 rpm mixing time, 23 ± 2 °C, and 70 μE m(-2) s(-1) illumination conditions. The results showed significant effect of the culture conditions on the cellular composition. To enhance digestibility of the intact cell; dry biomass was digested with pancreatin enzyme solution and in vitro protein digestibility (IVPD) of crude biomass (UTS), cell debris (CVA) and protein hydrolysates (CVH) was measured. IVPD values of UTS, CVA and CVH were found to be 33-41%, 46-58%, 67-89%; respectively with no significant changes regarding culture conditions (p > 0,05). Results also showed the positive effect of the enzyme treatment for digestion which is a key advantage for nutritional characteristic of the algal biomass.

  14. Fish protein hydrolysates affect cholesterol metabolism in rats fed non-cholesterol and high-cholesterol diets.

    PubMed

    Hosomi, Ryota; Fukunaga, Kenji; Arai, Hirofumi; Kanda, Seiji; Nishiyama, Toshimasa; Yoshida, Munehiro

    2012-03-01

    Fish consumption is well known to provide health benefits in both experimental animals and human subjects. Numerous studies have demonstrated the beneficial effects of various protein hydrolysates on lipid metabolism. In this context, this study examined the effect of fish protein hydrolysates (FPH) on cholesterol metabolism compared with the effect of casein. FPHs were prepared from Alaska pollock meat using papain as a protease. Male Wistar rats were divided into the following four dietary groups of seven rats each: either casein (20%) or FPH (10%) + casein (10%), with or without 0.5% cholesterol and 0.1% sodium cholate. Serum and liver lipid levels, fecal cholesterol and bile acid excretions, and the hepatic expression of genes encoding proteins involved in cholesterol homeostasis were examined. In rats fed the FPH diets compared with casein diets with or without cholesterol and sodium cholate, the indexes of cholesterol metabolism-namely, serum cholesterol, triglyceride, and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol levels-were significantly lower, whereas fecal cholesterol and bile acid excretions were higher. Rats fed the FPH diets compared with casein with cholesterol exhibited a lower liver cholesterol level via an increased liver cholesterol 7α-hydroxylase (CYP7A1) expression level. This study demonstrates that the intake of FPH has hypocholesterolemic effects through the enhancement of fecal cholesterol and bile acid excretions and CYP7A1 expression levels. Therefore, fish peptides prepared by papain digestion might provide health benefits by decreasing the cholesterol content in the blood, which would contribute to the prevention of circulatory system diseases such as arteriosclerosis.

  15. Immunomodulatory potential of a brewers' spent grain protein hydrolysate incorporated into low-fat milk following in vitro gastrointestinal digestion.

    PubMed

    Crowley, Damian; O'Callaghan, Yvonne; McCarthy, Aoife; Connolly, Alan; Piggott, Charles O; FitzGerald, Richard J; O'Brien, Nora M

    2015-01-01

    Brewers' spent grain (BSG) protein rich fraction was previously hydrolysed using Alcalase (U) and three additional fractions were prepared by membrane fractionation; a 5-kDa retentate (U > 5), a 5-kDa permeate (U < 5) and a 3-kDa permeate (U < 3). In the present study, these fractions were added to milk, subjected to simulated gastrointestinal digestion (SGID) and their anti-inflammatory potential was investigated. The digestates caused a significant reduction (p < 0.05) in interleukin-6 (IL-6) production in Concanavalin-A (ConA)-stimulated Jurkat T cells. The samples did not significantly alter the production of IL-6 in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells. IL-2 and interferon-γ (IFN-γ) production in stimulated Jurkat T cells and IL-1β and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) production in stimulated RAW 264.7 cells were not affected in the presence of the digestates. Results show that a SGID milk product supplemented with BSG hydrolysate and its associated ultrafiltered fractions can confer anti-inflammatory effects in Jurkat T cells.

  16. Changes in structural characteristics of antioxidative soy protein hydrolysates resulting from scavenging of hydroxyl radicals.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jing; Xiong, Youling L; McNear, Dave H

    2013-02-01

    Antioxidant activity of soy protein (SP) and its hydrolyzed peptides has been widely reported. During scavenging of radicals, these antioxidative compounds would be oxidatively modified, but their fate is not understood. The objective of this study was to evaluate the structural characteristics of SP hydrolysates (SPHs), compared to intact SP, when used to neutralize hydroxyl radicals (•OH). SPHs with degree of hydrolysis (DH) 1 to 5 were prepared with Alcalase. Antioxidant activity of SPHs was confirmed by lipid oxidation inhibition measured with thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances, ability to scavenge 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) radicals, and ferrous ion chelation capability. Oxidation of SPHs was initiated by reaction with •OH generated from 0.1 mM FeCl(3) , 20 mM H(2) O(2) , and 1.0 mM ascorbate. After oxidative stress, carbonyl content of SPHs increased by 2- to 3-fold and sulfhydryl groups decreased by up to 42% compared to nonoxidized samples (P < 0.05). Methionine, histidine, and lysine residues were significantly reduced as a result of inactivating •OH (P < 0.05). Attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared and circular dichroism spectroscopy suggested the conversion of helical structure to strands and turns. Oxidatively modified SPHs had a lower intrinsic fluorescence intensity but similar solubility when compared to nonoxidized samples. These structural changes due to •OH stress may impact the ingredient interaction and functionality of SPHs in food products. © 2013 Institute of Food Technologists®

  17. A review of meat protein hydrolysates and hypertension.

    PubMed

    Ahhmed, Abdulatef Mrghni; Muguruma, Michio

    2010-09-01

    We tested the hypothesis that meat is a source of peptides that are effective at preventing and reducing chronic lifestyle-related diseases (CLSRDs) such as hypertension. This analysis reflects the importance of empowering hypertensive people in quality versus quantity of life issues, and in offering nutritional treatment options rather than medical alternatives. For both hypertensive and normotensive individuals, chemically based medications may have harmful side effects. Functional food rich in antioxidant vitamins, and proteins or biologically active peptides, can lower blood pressure in persons with essential hypertension, possibly by preventing an underlying cause of the condition. Deficiency in consumption of crucial nutrients such as proteins from meat origins, along with abnormalities in carbohydrate and fat metabolism, may underlie the etiology of the clinical course of hypertension. Food derived from meat rich in nutrients may provide physiologically functional peptides, as well as improve digestion, and the metabolism of carbohydrate and fats, thus lowering blood pressure, and normalizing associated biochemical and histopathological changes. Meat was found to have value, because proteolysis of meat muscle generated a substantial number of multi-amino acid peptides that have nutrafunctional roles, and some of which have strong angiotension-converting enzyme inhibitory activity. This also demonstrates that meat proteins might lead to better nutraceutical therapy that minimizes health problems, and might aid in finding the most effective approaches for meeting the needs of all hypertension patients.

  18. Aggregation of Whey Protein Hydrolysate Using Alcalase 2.4 L

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Chunhong; Liu, Wen; Feng, Zhibiao; Li, Dongmei

    2014-01-01

    Here, we describe peptide aggregation, which is also known as enzymatic protein resynthesis. Whey protein hydrolysate (WPH) is the starting material for assembling peptides. Analyses of the involved amino acids, intrinsic fluorescence, fluorescence phase diagram, secondary structure, turbidity, and surface hydrophobicity were performed to investigate the reaction process. The aggregation mechanism consists of two parts: 1) formation and 2) aggregation of the building blocks that form the ordered secondary β-sheet structure. Constructing the building blocks requires at least one intermediate state, which is formed after 0.5 hours. Non-synergistic changes in the secondary and tertiary structures then allow the intermediate state to emerge. PMID:25290460

  19. Molecular characterization of whey protein hydrolysate fractions with ferrous chelating and enhanced iron solubility capabilities.

    PubMed

    O'Loughlin, Ian B; Kelly, Phil M; Murray, Brian A; FitzGerald, Richard J; Brodkorb, Andre

    2015-03-18

    The ferrous (Fe2+) chelating capabilities of WPI hydrolysate fractions produced via cascade membrane filtration were investigated, specifically 1 kDa permeate (P) and 30 kDa retentate (R) fractions. The 1 kDa-P possessed a Fe2+ chelating capability at 1 g L(-1) equivalent to 84.4 μM EDTA (for 30 kDa-R the value was 8.7 μM EDTA). Fourier transformed infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy was utilized to investigate the structural characteristics of hydrolysates and molecular interactions with Fe2+. Solid-phase extraction was employed to enrich for chelating activity; the most potent chelating fraction was enriched in histidine and lysine. The solubility of ferrous sulfate solutions (10 mM) over a range of pH values was significantly (P<0.05) improved in dispersions of hydrolysate fraction solutions (10 g protein L(-1)). Total iron solubility was improved by 72% in the presence of the 1 kDa-P fraction following simulated gastrointestinal digestion (SGID) compared to control FeSO4·7H2O solutions.

  20. Bile acid binding capacity of fish protein hydrolysates from discard species of the West Mediterranean Sea.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Gálvez, Raúl; García-Moreno, Pedro J; Morales-Medina, Rocío; Guadix, Antonio; Guadix, Emilia M

    2015-04-01

    Fish protein hydrolysates (FPH), produced from the six main discard species from the West Mediterranean Sea (sardine, horse mackerel, axillary seabream, bogue, small-spotted catshark and blue whiting) were tested for their bile acid binding capacity. This capacity is directly linked to the ability to inhibit bile reabsorption in the ileum and therefore to lower cholesterol levels in the bloodstream. From each species, FPH were obtained by three different enzymatic treatments employing two serine endoproteases (subtilisin and trypsin) sequentially or in combination. The results show statistically significant differences among the fish species, attaining interesting average values of bile acid binding capacity for blue whiting (27.32% relative to cholestyramine on an equal protein basis) and horse mackerel (27.42% relative to cholestyramine on an equal protein basis). The enzymatic treatments did not significantly affect the ability of a given species to bind bile acids. These results are similar to other protein sources, such as soy protein or casein, of proven hypocholesterolemic effect. It can be concluded that fish protein hydrolysates from these discard species are suitable as ingredients in the formulation of cholesterol-lowering supplements.

  1. Isolation and identification of antioxidant peptides derived from whey protein enzymatic hydrolysate by consecutive chromatography and Q-TOF MS.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qiu-Xiang; Wu, Hui; Ling, Yu-Fang; Lu, Rong-Rong

    2013-08-01

    To isolate and identify antioxidant peptides from enzymatically hydrolysed whey protein, whey protein isolate was hydrolysed by different protease (trypsin, pepsin, alcalase 2·4L, promatex, flavourzyme, protease N). The hydrolysate generated by alcalase 2·4L had the highest antioxidant activities on 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radicals, superoxide radicals and in a linoleic acid peroxidation system induced by Fe2+. The IC50 values of DPPH and superoxide radical scavenging activities of the hydrolysate decreased significantly (6·89 and 38·88%, respectively) after treatment with macroporous adsorption resin. Seven different peptides showing strong antioxidant activities were isolated from the hydrolysate using consecutive chromatographic methods including gel filtration chromatography and high-performance liquid chromatography. The molecular mass and amino acids sequences of the purified peptides were determined using a Quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometer (Q-TOF MS). One of the antioxidative peptides, Trp-Tyr-Ser-Leu, displayed the highest DPPH radical scavenging activity (IC50=273·63 μm) and superoxide radical scavenging activity (IC50=558·42 μm). These results suggest that hydrolysates from whey proteins are good potential source of natural antioxidants.

  2. Identification and characterization of antioxidant peptides from chickpea protein hydrolysates.

    PubMed

    Torres-Fuentes, Cristina; Contreras, María del Mar; Recio, Isidra; Alaiz, Manuel; Vioque, Javier

    2015-08-01

    Oxidative stress due to the excess of radical oxygen species (ROS) contribute to the development of different diseases. The use of antioxidants may prevent the development of these diseases by counteracting ROS levels. There is an increasing interest in natural antioxidants as they are safer for consumers than synthetic antioxidants. In this work, reducing power, free radical scavenging and cellular antioxidant activities of chickpea peptides fractions have been investigated. Peptide sequences included in fractions with antioxidant activity were identified. Main sequences, ALEPDHR, TETWNPNHPEL, FVPH and SAEHGSLH, corresponded to legumin, the main seed protein. Most peptides contained histidine, which has shown antioxidant activity. Two peptides also included tryptophan and phenylalanine, in which the phenolic group could also serve as hydrogen donor. These results show that legumin is a source of antioxidant peptides of high interest for food and pharmaceutical industries to develop new nutraceuticals and functional foods. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. ACE-inhibitory activity of enzymatic protein hydrolysates from lupin and other legumes.

    PubMed

    Boschin, Giovanna; Scigliuolo, Graziana Maria; Resta, Donatella; Arnoldi, Anna

    2014-02-15

    The objective of this investigation was to compare the angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE)-inhibitory activity of the hydrolysates obtained by pepsin digestion of proteins of some legumes, such as chickpea, common bean, lentil, lupin, pea, and soybean, by using the same experimental procedure. The ACE-inhibitory activity was measured by using the tripeptide hippuryl-histidyl-leucine (HHL), as model peptide, and HPLC-DAD, as analytical method. The peptide mixtures of all legumes were active, with soybean and lupin the most efficient, with IC50 values of 224 and 226 μg/ml, respectively. Considering the promising results obtained with lupin, and aiming to identify the protein(s) that release(s) the peptides responsible for the activity, the peptides obtained from the pepsin digestion of some industrial lupin protein isolates and purified protein fractions were tested. The most active mixture, showing an IC50 value of 138 μg/ml, was obtained hydrolysing a mixture of lupin α+β conglutin.

  4. Plant protein hydrolysates (plant peptones) as substitutes for animal proteins in embryo culture medium.

    PubMed

    George, F; Kerschen, D; Van Nuffel, A; Rees, J F; Donnay, I

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to improve the sanitary quality of in vitro-produced bovine embryos by using plant protein hydrolysates (plant peptones) as substitutes for animal proteins. Peptones were compared with bovine serum albumin (BSA) as the protein source in synthetic oviduct fluid medium and the quality of the resulting embryos was determined. Two batches of peptones (wheat and cotton) were selected on the basis of their anti-oxidant properties. When added to the culture medium, both peptones (at 0.56 mg mL(-1) for cotton peptone and at 0.18 mg mL(-1) for wheat peptone) led to similar developmental and hatching rates compared with 4 mg mL(-1) BSA and embryos were equally resistant to freezing and able to elongate after transfer. Surprisingly, a significant decrease in reduced glutathione (GSH) content was observed when embryos were produced with plant peptone instead of BSA. Supplementation of the culture medium with precursors of GSH (cysteine and beta-mercaptoethanol) significantly increased the GSH content. A shift of the sex ratio towards male embryos was seen for Day 8 embryos cultured with wheat peptone, whereas no shift was observed for embryos cultured in the presence of BSA or polyvinylpyrrolidone. In conclusion, culture with plant peptones enables embryos to be obtained at a similar rate and of similar quality to that seen following the use of BSA. The use of the plant peptones increased the sanitary quality of the embryos and decreased the cost of embryo production.

  5. Calcium-binding capacity of wheat germ protein hydrolysate and characterization of Peptide-calcium complex.

    PubMed

    Liu, Feng-Ru; Wang, Li; Wang, Ren; Chen, Zheng-Xing

    2013-08-07

    This study investigates the ability of various wheat germ protein hydrolysates (WGPHs) to bind calcium and characterizes the peptide-calcium complexes. We demonstrate that the amount of Ca bound depended greatly on the type of enzyme, degree of hydrolysis (DH), amino acid composition, and molecular mass distribution of different hydrolysates. The maximum level of Ca bound (67.5 mg·g(-1)) occurred when Alcalase was used to hydrolyze wheat germ protein at a DH of 21.5%. Peptide fragments exhibiting high calcium-binding capacity had molecular mass <2000 Da. The calcium-binding peptides mainly consisted of Glu, Arg, Asp, and Gly, and the level of Ca bound was related to the hydrophobic amino acid content in WGPHs. UV-visible and Fourier transform infrared spectra demonstrate that amino nitrogen atoms and oxygen atoms on the carboxyl group were involved in complexation. Therefore, wheat germ protein is a promising protein source for the production of calcium-binding peptides and could be utilized as a bioactive ingredient for nutraceutical food production.

  6. Fish viscera protein hydrolysates: Production, potential applications and functional and bioactive properties.

    PubMed

    Villamil, Oscar; Váquiro, Henry; Solanilla, José F

    2017-06-01

    The aquaculture and fishery chain is an important part of the economy of many countries around the world; in recent years it has experienced significant growth that generates more and more quantities of waste, which are mostly discarded, impacting the environment, despite having a useful chemical composition in various industrial sectors. This article presents a review of the agroindustrial potential of fish wastes, especially viscera, as a source for obtaining native protein and hydrolysates, explaining their production process, chemical composition and functional and bioactive properties that are important to the agricultural, cosmetic, pharmaceutical, food and nutraceutical industry.

  7. Poultry feed based on protein hydrolysate derived from chrome-tanned leather solid waste: creating value from waste.

    PubMed

    Chaudhary, Rubina; Pati, Anupama

    2016-04-01

    Leather industry generates huge amount of chrome-containing leather solid waste which creates major environment problems to tanners worldwide. Chrome-tanned leather solid waste is primarily chromium complex of collagen protein. The presence of chromium limits its protein application in animal feed industry. The purified protein hydrolysate with zero chromium could be used in poultry feed. In this study, an attempt has been made to assess performance of poultry with purified protein hydrolysate as a feed derived from chrome-tanned leather waste as partial replacement of soyabean meal as a sole source of protein for growing broiler chickens. Growth study was conducted to evaluate the effect of feeding protein hydrolysate on performance and physiochemical characteristics of meat of broiler chickens. Two experimental diets containing various levels of protein hydrolysate (EI-20 % and EII-30 %) were evaluated. The comparative study was performed as control with soyabean meal. Daily feed intake, body weight gain and feed conversion ratio were measured from day 8 to day 35. At the end of the study, birds were randomly selected and slaughtered to evaluate for physiochemical characteristics of meat. Diet had significant effects on feed intake and body weight gain. Birds fed with 20 and 30 % protein hydrolysate consumed 9.5 and 17.5 % higher amount of feed and gained 6.5 and 16.6 % higher than soyabean meal-fed birds. The current study produced evidence that protein hydrolysate can replace up to 75 % of soyabean meal in broiler diets without affecting either growth performance or meat characteristics.

  8. Metabolomics analysis of soy hydrolysates for the identification of productivity markers of mammalian cells for manufacturing therapeutic proteins.

    PubMed

    Richardson, Jason; Shah, Bhavana; Bondarenko, Pavel V; Bhebe, Prince; Zhang, Zhongqi; Nicklaus, Michele; Kombe, Maua C

    2015-01-01

    Soy hydrolysates are widely used as a nutrient supplement in mammalian cell culture for the production of recombinant proteins. The batch-to-batch variability of a soy hydrolysate often leads to productivity differences. This report describes our metabolomics platform, which includes a battery of LC-MS/MS modes of operation, and advanced data analysis software for automated data processing. The platform was successfully used for screening productivity markers in soy hydrolysates during the production of two therapeutic antibodies in two Chinese hamster ovary cell lines. A total of 123 soy hydrolysate batches were analyzed, from which 62 batches were used in the production runs of cell line #1 and 12 batches were used in the production runs of cell line #2. For cell line #1, out of 19 amino acids, 106 other metabolites and 4,131 peptides identified in the soy hydrolysate batches being used, several nucleosides and short hydrophobic peptides showed negative correlation with antibody titer, while ornithine, citrulline and several amino acids and organic acids correlated positively with titer. For cell line #2, only ornithine and citrulline showed strong positive correlation. When ornithine was spiked into the culture media, both cell lines demonstrated accelerated cell growth, indicating ornithine as a root cause of the performance difference. It is proposed that better soy hydrolysate performance resulted from better bacterial fermentation during the hydrolysate production. A few selected markers were used to predict the performance of other soy hydrolysate batches for cell line #1. The predicted titers agreed with the experimental values with good accuracy. © 2015 American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

  9. Lower weight gain and hepatic lipid content in hamsters fed high fat diets supplemented with white rice protein, brown rice protein, and soy protein and their hydrolysates

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The physiological effects of the hydrolysates from white rice, brown rice, and soy isolate were compared to the original protein source. White rice, brown rice, and soy protein were hydrolyzed with the food grade enzyme, alcalase2.4 L®. Male Syrian hamsters were fed high-fat diets containing eithe...

  10. Whey protein hydrolysates enhance water absorption in the perfused small intestine of anesthetized rats.

    PubMed

    Ito, Kentaro; Yamaguchi, Makoto; Noma, Teruyuki; Yamaji, Taketo; Itoh, Hiroyuki; Oda, Munehiro

    2016-08-01

    We evaluated the effect of whey protein hydrolysates (WPH) on the water absorption rate in the small intestine using a rat small intestine perfusion model. The rate was significantly higher with 5 g/L WPH than with 5 g/L soy protein hydrolysates or physiological saline (p < 0.05). WPH dose-dependently increased the water absorption rate in the range of 1.25-10.0 g/L. WPH showed a significantly higher rate than an amino acid mixture whose composition was equal to that of WPH (p < 0.05). The addition of 4-aminomethylbenzoic acid, an inhibitor of PepT1, significantly suppressed WPH's enhancement of water absorption (p < 0.05). The rate of water absorption was significantly correlated with that of peptides/amino acids absorption in WPH (r = 0.82, p < 0.01). These data suggest that WPH have a high water absorption-promoting effect, to which PepT1 contributes.

  11. Purification and antioxidant properties of octapeptide from salmon byproduct protein hydrolysate by gastrointestinal digestion.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Chang-Bum; Kim, Jeong-Gyun; Je, Jae-Young

    2014-03-15

    Pectoral fin protein from salmon processing byproduct was hydrolyzed using Alcalase, Flavourzyme, Neutrase, pepsin, Protamex, and trypsin, and the peptic hydrolysate showed the highest 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity. Antioxidant peptide was purified using consecutive chromatography. The purified antioxidant peptide was identified to be Phe-Leu-Asn-Glu-Phe-Leu-His-Val with molecular weight of 1018.48 Da by time of flight-mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry (TOF-MS) analysis. The IC50 values against DPPH and 2,2-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline)-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS) cation radical scavenging activity were 486 and 152 μM, respectively, and the octapeptide showed strong ferric reducing power. In addition, the octapeptide showed significant (p<0.05) protection ability against hydroxyl radical-induced DNA damage and hydrogen peroxide-induced hepatic damage in Chang liver cells. Taken together, the pectoral fin protein hydrolysate and/or its active peptides may be useful ingredients in functional food. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Production and antioxidant properties of protein hydrolysate from Rastrelliger kanagurta (Indian mackerel).

    PubMed

    Abdulazeez, Sheriff Sheik; Sundaram, Balasubramanian; Ramamoorthy, Baranitharan; Ponnusamy, Ponmurugan

    2014-09-01

    Fishery waste and by-products are valuable sources of raw material for recovery of antioxidant and bioactive peptides. Due to the increased demand for protein hydrolysates with antioxidative properties by various sectors of consumable food, health care and pharmaceutical industries, the present study focused in the production of fish protein hydrolysate (FPH) by enzymatic digestion from the backbone of Rastrelliger kanagurta (Indian mackerel) and evaluated its antioxidant potential. The observed results of the degree of hydrolysis suggest that the rapid phase of proteolytic cleavage was occurred in the first 60 minutes of incubation and during this period, the rate of hydrolysis was found to be increased with increasing ratio of enzyme to substrate concentration. The result of the antioxidant properties clearly indicates that the 1, 1-diphenyl-2 picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging efficacy of FPH was similar to that of synthetic antioxidants like butylated hydroxyl toluene (BHT). The FPH also exhibited significant reducing power ability and great potential to inhibit lipid peroxidation in equivalence with that of synthetic and natural antioxidants such as BHT and α-tocopherol respectively. The overall findings of the study reveal that, FPH produced by tryptic digestion has considerable amount of bioactive peptides with potent antioxidant properties. The synthesized FPH is a good candidate for further development into a commercial food additive.

  13. Effect of whey protein hydrolysate on performance and recovery of top-class orienteering runners.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Mette; Bangsbo, Jens; Jensen, Jørgen; Bibby, Bo Martin; Madsen, Klavs

    2015-04-01

    This trial aimed to examine the effect of whey protein hydrolysate intake before and after exercise sessions on endurance performance and recovery in elite orienteers during a training camp. Eighteen elite orienteers participated in a randomized controlled intervention trial during a 1-week training camp (13 exercise sessions). Half of the runners (PRO-CHO) ingested a protein drink before (0.3 g kg(-1)) and a protein-carbohydrate drink after (0.3 g protein kg(-1) and 1 g carbohydrate kg(-1)) each exercise session. The others ingested energy and time-matched carbohydrate drinks (CHO). A 4-km run-test with 20 control points was performed before and on the last day of the intervention. Blood and saliva were obtained in the mornings, before and after run-tests, and after the last training session. During the intervention, questionnaires were fulfilled regarding psychological sense of performance capacity and motivation. PRO-CHO and not CHO improved performance in the 4-km run-test (interaction p < .05). An increase in serum creatine kinase was observed during the week, which was greater in CHO than PRO-CHO (interaction p < .01). Lactate dehydrogenase (p < .001) and cortisol (p = .057) increased during the week, but the change did not differ between groups. Reduction in sense of performance capacity during the intervention was greater in CHO (p < .05) than PRO-CHO. In conclusion, ingestion of whey protein hydrolysate before and after each exercise session improves performance and reduces markers of muscle damage during a strenuous 1-week training camp. The results indicate that protein supplementation in conjunction with each exercise session facilitates the recovery from strenuous training in elite orienteers.

  14. Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitory and antioxidative activities and functional characterization of protein hydrolysates of hard-to-cook chickpeas.

    PubMed

    Medina-Godoy, Sergio; Ambriz-Pérez, Dulce L; Fuentes-Gutiérrez, Cindy I; Germán-Báez, Lourdes J; Gutiérrez-Dorado, Roberto; Reyes-Moreno, Cuauhtémoc; Valdez-Ortiz, Angel

    2012-07-01

    The potential use of hard-to-cook (hardened) chickpeas to obtain value-added functional food ingredients was evaluated. For that purpose, some nutraceutical and functional attributes of several chickpea protein hydrolysates (CPHs) prepared from both fresh and hard-to-cook grains were evaluated. All the CPHs prepared from both fresh and hard-to-cook grains, with the enzymes alcalase, pancreatin and papain, showed high angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitory (ACE-I) activity with IC₅₀ values ranging from 0.101 to 37.33 µg mL⁻¹; similarly, high levels of antioxidant activity (around 18.17-95.61 µmol Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity µg⁻¹ CPH) were obtained through both the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl and 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) methods. Regarding functional characterization of the CPHs, oil absorption values ranged from 1.91 to 2.20 mL oil g⁻¹ CPH, with water solubility almost 100% from pH 7 to 10. The high antioxidant and ACE-I activities as well as the good functional properties of the CPH prepared from both fresh and hard-to-cook grains, suggest its use in food formulations with value added in human health. Copyright © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  15. Nutritional value of a rice-hydrolysate formula in infants with cows' milk protein allergy: a randomized pilot study.

    PubMed

    D'Auria, E; Sala, M; Lodi, F; Radaelli, G; Riva, E; Giovannini, M

    2003-01-01

    This study was designed to assess whether a rice-hydrolysate formula allows normal growth and adequate metabolic balance in infants with cows' milk protein allergy. Infants (seven females, nine males; aged 6-14 months) were randomly assigned to receive a rice-hydrolysate formula (n = 8) or a soy formula (control group, n = 8). Standardized growth indices (Z scores) and biochemical parameters were evaluated during a 6-month treatment period. Infants in both groups showed normal growth patterns during the study, and no adverse reactions were seen. Mean plasma biochemical parameters were within the normal ranges, and did not differ between groups. In conclusion, rice-hydrolysate formula may be a nutritionally suitable alternative for infants with cows' milk protein allergy. Larger studies, with satisfactory power, should be undertaken to confirm these findings.

  16. Synthesis and in vitro antioxidant functions of protein hydrolysate from backbones of Rastrelliger kanagurta by proteolytic enzymes

    PubMed Central

    Sheriff, Sheik Abdulazeez; Sundaram, Balasubramanian; Ramamoorthy, Baranitharan; Ponnusamy, Ponmurugan

    2013-01-01

    Every year, a huge quantity of fishery wastes and by-products are generated by fish processing industries. These wastes are either underutilized to produce low market value products or dumped leading to environmental issues. Complete utilization of fishery wastes for recovering value added products would be beneficial to the society and individual. The fish protein hydrolysates and derived peptides of fishery resources are widely used as nutritional supplements, functional ingredients, and flavor enhancers in food, beverage and pharmaceutical industries. Antioxidants from fishery resources have attracted the attention of researchers as they are cheaper in cost, easy to derive, and do not have side effects. Thus the present investigation was designed to produce protein hydrolysate by pepsin and papain digestion from the backbones of Rastrelliger kanagurta (Indian mackerel) and evaluate its antioxidant properties through various in vitro assays. The results reveal that both hydrolysates are potent antioxidants, capable of scavenging 46% and 36% of DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2 picrylhydrazyl) and 58.5% and 37.54% of superoxide radicals respectively. The hydrolysates exhibit significant (p < 0.05) reducing power and lipid peroxidation inhibition. Among the two hydrolysates produced, pepsin derived fraction is superior than papain derived fraction in terms of yield, DH (Degree of hydrolysis), and antioxidant activity. PMID:24596496

  17. [Preparative isolation of hexa-, hepta-, octa-, nona- and decapyrimidine oligonucleotides from hydrolysates of depurinated herring sperm DNA].

    PubMed

    Schott, H

    1984-02-03

    The pyrimidine oligonucleotides (dT)5; (dT)6 and the mixtures of sequence isomers (dC, dT5); (dC2, dT5); (dC3, dT4); (dC4, dT3); (dC4, dT4); (dC3, dT5); (dC2, dT6); (dC4, dT5); (dC3, dT6); (dC2, dT7); (dC5, dT5); (dC4, dT6) and (dC3, dT7) with or without terminal phosphate groups have been isolated on a preparative scale from hydrolysates of depurinated herring sperm DNA by the following procedure. Herring sperm DNA (1 kg) is chemically depurinated and partially hydrolysed to a mixture of pyrimidine nucleotides. The partial hydrolysate is first separated into a low- and a high-molecular-weight pyrimidine nucleotide mixture by column chromatography on DEAE-cellulose. The mixture of high-molecular-weight pyrimidine nucleotides is subsequently fractionated on QAE-Sephadex. Impurities which are not fully removed by column chromatography are separated by paper chromatography. The compositions of the mixtures of sequence isomers are determined from the data of column, paper and homochromatography; from absorption characteristics and by enzymatic degradation.

  18. Stability of whey protein hydrolysate powders: effects of relative humidity and temperature.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Peng; Liu, Dasong; Chen, Xiaoxia; Chen, Yingjia; Labuza, Theodore P

    2014-05-01

    Whey protein hydrolysate (WPH) is now considered as an important and special dairy protein ingredient for its nutritional and functional properties. The objectives of the present study were to investigate the effect of environmental relative humidity (RH) and storage temperature on the physicochemical stability of three WPH powders with hydrolysis degrees (DH) of 5.2%, 8.8% and 14.9%, respectively. The water sorption isotherms of the three WPH powders fitted the Guggenheim-Andersson-DeBoer model well. An increase in water content leaded to a decrease in glass transition temperature (Tg), following a linear Tg vs log water content relationship. Moreover, an increase in DH caused the decrease in Tg at the same water content. Changes in microstructure and colour occurred significantly when the WPH powders were stored at high environmental RH or temperature, especially for those with high DH. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Multifunctional peptides derived from an egg yolk protein hydrolysate: isolation and characterization.

    PubMed

    Zambrowicz, Aleksandra; Pokora, Marta; Setner, Bartosz; Dąbrowska, Anna; Szołtysik, Marek; Babij, Konrad; Szewczuk, Zbigniew; Trziszka, Tadeusz; Lubec, Gert; Chrzanowska, Józefa

    2015-02-01

    An egg yolk protein by-product following ethanol extraction of phospholipids (YP) was hydrolyzed with pepsin to produce and identify novel peptides that revealed antioxidant, ACE inhibitory and antidiabetic (α-glucosidase and DPP-IV inhibitory) activities. The peptic hydrolysate of YP was fractionated by ion-exchange chromatography and reversed-phase high-pressure liquid chromatography. Isolated peptides were identified using mass spectrometry (MALDI-ToF) and the Mascot Search Results database. Four peptides of MW ranging from 1,210.62 to 1,677.88 Da corresponded to the fragments of Apolipoprotein B (YINQMPQKSRE; YINQMPQKSREA), Vitellogenin-2 (VTGRFAGHPAAQ) and Apovitellenin-1 (YIEAVNKVSPRAGQF). These peptides were chemically synthesized and showed antioxidant, ACE inhibitory or/and antidiabetic activities. Peptide YIEAVNKVSPRAGQF exerted the strongest ACE inhibitory activity, with IC50 = 9.4 µg/mL. The peptide YINQMPQKSRE showed the strongest DPPH free radical scavenging and DPP-IV inhibitory activities and its ACE inhibitory activity (IC50) reached 10.1 µg/mL. The peptide VTGRFAGHPAAQ revealed the highest α-glucosidase inhibitory activity (IC50 = 365.4 µg/mL). A novel nutraceutical effect for peptides from an egg yolk hydrolysate was shown.

  20. Fabrication and characterization of the nano-composite of whey protein hydrolysate chelated with calcium.

    PubMed

    Xixi, Cai; Lina, Zhao; Shaoyun, Wang; Pingfan, Rao

    2015-03-01

    The nano-composites of whey protein hydrolysate (WPH) chelated with calcium were fabricated in aqueous solution at 30 °C for 20 min, with the ratio of hydrolysate to calcium 15 : 1 (w/w). UV scanning spectroscopy, fluorescent spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, dynamic light scattering and atomic force microscopy were applied to characterize the structure of the WPH-calcium chelate. The nano-composites showed the successful incorporation of calcium into the WPH, indicating the interaction between calcium and WPH. The chelation of calcium ions to WPH caused molecular folding and aggregation which led to the formation of a WPH-calcium chelate of nanoparticle size, and the principal sites of calcium-binding corresponded to the carboxyl groups and carbonyl groups of WPH. The WPH-calcium chelate demonstrated excellent stability and absorbability under both acidic and basic conditions, which was beneficial for calcium absorption in the gastrointestinal tract of the human body. Moreover, the calcium absorption of the WPH-calcium chelate on Caco-2 cells was significantly higher than those of calcium gluconate and CaCl₂ in vitro, suggesting the possible increase in calcium bioavailability. The findings suggest that the WPH-calcium chelate has the potential in making dietary supplements for improving bone health of the human body.

  1. Purification and identification of adipogenesis inhibitory peptide from black soybean protein hydrolysate.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyun Jeong; Bae, In Young; Ahn, Chang-Won; Lee, Suyong; Lee, Hyeon Gyu

    2007-11-01

    Adipogenesis inhibitory peptide was isolated and identified from black soybean (Rhynchosia volubilis Lour.) hydrolysate. An adipogenesis inhibitor was purified using consecutive methods including: ultrafiltration (MWCO; 3 and 10kDa), gel filtration chromatography (Superdex Peptide 10/300 GL column), and reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (microBondapak C(18) column). Also, the adipogenesis inhibition effect of the purified peptide was measured by observation of droplet of 3T3-L1 adipocyte by Oil Red O staining in the highest active fraction in each step. The peptide was shown to inhibit the differentiation of the 3T3-L1 pre-adipocyte, which was confirmed by morphological study. The adipogenesis inhibitory peptide was purified 71.43-fold from black soybean hydrolysate throughout a five-step purification procedure. The adipogenesis inhibitor was identified to be a tripeptide, Ile-Gln-Asn, having an IC(50) value of 0.014 mg protein/ml. Furthermore, the synthetic tripeptide (Ile-Gln-Asn) exhibited the similar adipogenesis effects to the purified peptide. Thus, these results showed the potential anti-obesity effect of the purified peptide through control of adiposity.

  2. Targeted separation of antibacterial peptide from protein hydrolysate of anchovy cooking wastewater by equilibrium dialysis.

    PubMed

    Tang, Wenting; Zhang, Hui; Wang, Li; Qian, Haifeng; Qi, Xiguang

    2015-02-01

    Anchovy (Engraulis japonicus) cooking wastewater (ACWW) is a by-product resulted from the production of boiled-dried anchovies in the seafood processing industry. In this study, the protein hydrolysate of ACWW (ACWWPH) was found to have antimicrobial activity after enzymatic hydrolysis with Protamex. For the targeted screening of antibacterial peptides, liposomes constructed from Staphylococcus aureus membrane lipids were used in an equilibrium dialysis system. The hydrolysate was further purified by liposome equilibrium dialysis combined with high performance liquid chromatography. The purified antimicrobial peptide (ACWWP1) was determined to be GLSRLFTALK, with a molecular weight of 1104.6622Da. The peptide exhibited no haemolytic activity up to a concentration of 512μg/ml. It displayed a dose-dependent bactericidal effect in reconstituted milk. The change in cell surface hydrophobicity and membrane-permeable action of the purified ACWWP1 may have contributed to the antibacterial effect. This study suggests that liposome equilibrium dialysis can be used for the targeted screening of antimicrobial peptides.

  3. Sm-like protein enhanced tolerance of recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae to inhibitors in hemicellulosic hydrolysate.

    PubMed

    Gao, Lan; Xia, Liming

    2012-11-01

    A current challenge of the cellulosic ethanol industry is to improve the resistance of inhibitors present in biomass hydrolysates. RNA-binding protein gene lsm6 was cloned from industrial Saccharomyces cerevisiae ZU-E8, which is able to conferment glucose and xylose, and transformed into ZU-E8 via expression vector pRS426. The positive transformant ZU-910 with over-expressing lsm6 was identified on the culture plates using high concentration of acetate and re-screened by fermentation test. Fermentation by the recombinants was performed in a medium containing 80 g/L xylose and 2 g/L acetic acid or 20 g/L NH(4)Ac/NaAc. After 96 h shaking-flask fermentation, ZU-910 utilized 90.2% xylose with an ethanol yield of 26.9 g/L, which was 8.5- and 10-fold higher than ZU-E8. Further, in the corn stover hemicellulosic hydrolysate fermentation, both the xylose conversion and ethanol production by ZU-910 was larger by 50% and 40% than ZU-E8. ZU-910 has also enhanced tolerance against furfural and SO(4)(2-).

  4. Pretreatment of flaxseed protein isolate by high hydrostatic pressure: Impacts on protein structure, enzymatic hydrolysis and final hydrolysate antioxidant capacities.

    PubMed

    Perreault, Véronique; Hénaux, Loïc; Bazinet, Laurent; Doyen, Alain

    2017-04-15

    The effect of high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) on flaxseed protein structure and peptide profiles, obtained after protein hydrolysis, was investigated. Isolated flaxseed protein (1%, m/v) was subjected to HHP (600MPa, 5min or 20min at 20°C) prior to hydrolysis with trypsin only and trypsin-pronase. The results demonstrated that HHP treatment induced dissociation of flaxseed proteins and generated higher molecular weight aggregates as a function of processing duration. Fluorescence spectroscopy showed that HHP treatment, as well as processing duration, had an impact on flaxseed protein structure since exposition of hydrophobic amino acid tyrosine was modified. Except for some specific peptides, the concentrations of which were modified, similar peptide profiles were obtained after hydrolysis of pressure-treated proteins using trypsin. Finally, hydrolysates obtained using trypsin-pronase had a greater antioxidant capacity (ORAC) than control samples; these results confirmed that HHP enhanced the generation of antioxidant peptides.

  5. Influence of Amino Acid Compositions and Peptide Profiles on Antioxidant Capacities of Two Protein Hydrolysates from Skipjack Tuna (Katsuwonus pelamis) Dark Muscle

    PubMed Central

    Chi, Chang-Feng; Hu, Fa-Yuan; Wang, Bin; Li, Zhong-Rui; Luo, Hong-Yu

    2015-01-01

    Influence of amino acid compositions and peptide profiles on antioxidant capacities of two protein hydrolysates from skipjack tuna (Katsuwonus pelamis) dark muscle was investigated. Dark muscles from skipjack tuna were hydrolyzed using five separate proteases, including pepsin, trypsin, Neutrase, papain and Alcalase. Two hydrolysates, ATH and NTH, prepared using Alcalase and Neutrase, respectively, showed the strongest antioxidant capacities and were further fractionated using ultrafiltration and gel filtration chromatography. Two fractions, Fr.A3 and Fr.B2, isolated from ATH and NTH, respectively, showed strong radical scavenging activities toward 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radicals (EC50 1.08% ± 0.08% and 0.98% ± 0.07%), hydroxyl radicals (EC50 0.22% ± 0.03% and 0.48% ± 0.05%), and superoxide anion radicals (EC50 1.31% ± 0.11% and 1.56% ± 1.03%) and effectively inhibited lipid peroxidation. Eighteen peptides from Fr.A3 and 13 peptides from Fr.B2 were isolated by reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography, and their amino acid sequences were determined. The elevated antioxidant activity of Fr.A3 might be due to its high content of hydrophobic and aromatic amino acid residues (181.1 and 469.9 residues/1000 residues, respectively), small molecular sizes (3–6 peptides), low molecular weights (524.78 kDa), and amino acid sequences (antioxidant score 6.11). This study confirmed that a smaller molecular size, the presence of hydrophobic and aromatic amino acid residues, and the amino acid sequences were the key factors that determined the antioxidant activities of the proteins, hydrolysates and peptides. The results also demonstrated that the derived hydrolysates and fractions from skipjack tuna (K. pelamis) dark muscles could prevent oxidative reactions and might be useful for food preservation and medicinal purposes. PMID:25923316

  6. The use of radiolabelling techniques to measure substantivity to, and penetration into, hair of protein hydrolysates.

    PubMed

    Jones, R T; Chahal, S P

    1997-10-01

    The use of 14C-labelled amino acids enables the measurement of both the total substantivity to hair and the degree of penetration into the hair shaft of amino acid mixtures derived from complete hydrolysis of proteins. The technique utilizes the fact that direct measurement of 14C radioactivity of the treated hair detects only the surface substantivity. Total substantivity can be determined following solubilization of the hair. Data obtained for wheat amino acids show significant penetration when used to treat hair from a shampoo or conditioner formulation. A similar technique has been investigated for a wheat protein partial hydrolysate using 14CNO for radiolabelling purposes and shows that significant penetration into hair can occur. L'utilisation d'amino-acides marques au 14C permet la mesure a la fois de l'absorption totale par les cheveux et du degre de penetration dans la fibre du cheveu de melanges d'amino-acides obtenus a partir d'une hydrolyse totale de proteines. La technique utilise le fait que la mesure directe de la radioactivite du 14C des cheveux traites ne detecte que l'absorption en surface. L'absorption totale peut etre determinee apres solubilisation des cheveux. Les donnees obtenues a partir d'amino-acides de ble montrent une penetration significative lors d'une utilisation pour traiter des cheveux a partir d'une formulation de shampoing ou d'apres-shampoing. Une technique similaire a ete exploree vis-a-vis d'un hydrolysat partiel d'une proteine de ble utilisant 14CNO a des fins de marquage, et montre qu'une penetration significative dans les cheveux peut avoir lieu.

  7. Promotion of bone growth by dietary soy protein isolate: Comparision with dietary casein, whey hydrolysate and rice protein isolate in growing female rats

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The effects of different dietary protein sources(casein (CAS), soy protein isolate (SPI), whey protein hydrolysate (WPH) and rice protein isolate (RPI)) on bone were studied in intact growing female rats and in ovarectomized (OVX) rats showing sex steroid deficiency-induced bone loss. In addition, S...

  8. Preparation of squid skin collagen hydrolysate as an antihyaluronidase, antityrosinase, and antioxidant agent.

    PubMed

    Nakchum, Ladawan; Kim, Sang Moo

    2016-01-01

    A collagen was isolated from squid skin, a processing waste product. The biofunctional activities of enzymatic squid skin collagen hydrolysates were determined to produce a value-added material. Five low-molecular-mass hydrolysate fractions, F1 (>30 kD), F2 (10-30 kD), F3 (3-10 kD), F4 (1-3 kD), and F5 (<1 kD), were manufactured from its enzymatic hydrolysate by ultrafiltration. Fraction F3 had the strongest antihyaluronidase inhibitory activity. Gly, Val, and Pro were major amino acids in F3, while Met, Tyr, and His were minor ones. The molecular mass of F3 was in the range of 3.4 to 10 kD. F3 exhibited copper chelating ability in a concentration-dependent manner. The ferrous chelating ability of F3 was almost 50% at 200 µg/mL. F3 also inhibited tyrosinase activity by 39.65% at 1 mg/mL. Furthermore, F3 had stronger hydroxyl radical scavenging activity (IC50 = 149.94 µg/mL) than ascorbic acid (IC50 = 212.94 µg/mL). Therefore, the squid collagen hydrolysate can be utilized as a nutraceutical or cosmeceutical agent.

  9. Purification and Identification of Antioxidant Peptides from Protein Hydrolysate of Scalloped Hammerhead (Sphyrna lewini) Cartilage

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xue-Rong; Chi, Chang-Feng; Li, Li; Wang, Bin

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to purify and identify peptides with antioxidant properties from protein hydrolysate of scalloped hammerhead (Sphyrna lewini) cartilage. Cartilaginous proteins of the scalloped hammerhead were extracted by guanidine hydrochloride, and three antioxidant peptides, named enzymolysis peptide of scalloped hammerhead cartilage A (SCPE-A), SCPE-B and SCPE-C, were subsequently isolated from the hydrolysate of the cartilaginous proteins using ultrafiltration and chromatography. The amino acid sequences of SCPE-A, SCPE-B and SCPE-C were identified as Gly-Pro-Glu (GPE), Gly-Ala-Arg-Gly-Pro-Gln (GARGPQ), and Gly-Phe-Thr-Gly-Pro-Pro-Gly-Phe-Asn-Gly (GFTGPPGFNG), with molecular weights of 301.30 Da, 584.64 Da and 950.03 Da, respectively. As per in vitro activity testing, SCPE-A, SCPE-B and SCPE-C exhibited strong scavenging activities on 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radicals (DPPH•) (half elimination ratio (EC50) 2.43, 2.66 and 1.99 mg/mL), hydroxyl radicals (HO•) (EC50 0.28, 0.21 and 0.15 mg/mL), 2,2′-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid radicals (ABTS+•) (EC50 0.24, 0.18 and 0.29 mg/mL), and superoxide anion radicals (O2−•) (EC50 0.10, 0.14 and 0.11 mg/mL). In addition, SCPE-A showed inhibition activity similar to butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) in lipid peroxidation in a linoleic acid model system. The amino acid residues of Gly, Pro and Phe could positively influence the antioxidant activities of GPE, GARGPQ and GFTGPPGFNG. These results suggested that GPE, GARGPQ and GFTGPPGFNG might serve as potential antioxidants and be used as food additives and functional foods. PMID:28257057

  10. Purification and Identification of Antioxidant Peptides from Protein Hydrolysate of Scalloped Hammerhead (Sphyrna lewini) Cartilage.

    PubMed

    Li, Xue-Rong; Chi, Chang-Feng; Li, Li; Wang, Bin

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this study was to purify and identify peptides with antioxidant properties from protein hydrolysate of scalloped hammerhead (Sphyrna lewini) cartilage. Cartilaginous proteins of the scalloped hammerhead were extracted by guanidine hydrochloride, and three antioxidant peptides, named enzymolysis peptide of scalloped hammerhead cartilage A (SCPE-A), SCPE-B and SCPE-C, were subsequently isolated from the hydrolysate of the cartilaginous proteins using ultrafiltration and chromatography. The amino acid sequences of SCPE-A, SCPE-B and SCPE-C were identified as Gly-Pro-Glu (GPE), Gly-Ala-Arg-Gly-Pro-Gln (GARGPQ), and Gly-Phe-Thr-Gly-Pro-Pro-Gly-Phe-Asn-Gly (GFTGPPGFNG), with molecular weights of 301.30 Da, 584.64 Da and 950.03 Da, respectively. As per in vitro activity testing, SCPE-A, SCPE-B and SCPE-C exhibited strong scavenging activities on 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radicals (DPPH•) (half elimination ratio (EC50) 2.43, 2.66 and 1.99 mg/mL), hydroxyl radicals (HO•) (EC50 0.28, 0.21 and 0.15 mg/mL), 2,2'-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid radicals (ABTS⁺•) (EC50 0.24, 0.18 and 0.29 mg/mL), and superoxide anion radicals ( O 2 - •) (EC50 0.10, 0.14 and 0.11 mg/mL). In addition, SCPE-A showed inhibition activity similar to butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) in lipid peroxidation in a linoleic acid model system. The amino acid residues of Gly, Pro and Phe could positively influence the antioxidant activities of GPE, GARGPQ and GFTGPPGFNG. These results suggested that GPE, GARGPQ and GFTGPPGFNG might serve as potential antioxidants and be used as food additives and functional foods.

  11. High hydrostatic pressure pre-treatment of whey proteins enhances whey protein hydrolysate inhibition of oxidative stress and IL-8 secretion in intestinal epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Piccolomini, André F.; Iskandar, Michèle M.; Lands, Larry C.; Kubow, Stan

    2012-01-01

    Background High hyperbaric pressure treatment of whey protein isolate (WPI) causes changes in the protein structure that enhances the anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory effects of WPI. Objective The aim of this study was to compare the anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory effects of pressurized whey protein isolate (pWPI) vs. native WPI (nWPI) hydrolysates in Caco-2 cells exposed to hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). Design Cells were cultured with different concentrations of pWPI or nWPI hydrolysates either 1 h before or 1 h after H2O2. Cell viability, IL-8 secretion, intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), and the medium anti-oxidant capacity (FRAP assay) were measured. Results Prior to and after H2O2 exposure, pWPI and nWPI hydrolysates inhibited IL-8 secretion and ROS generation, and increased FRAP activity in a dose-dependent manner. The maximal inhibition of H2O2-induced IL-8 secretion was greater with 2000 µg mL−1 of pWPI (50%) vs. nWPI (30%) hydrolysates. At the latter concentration, inhibition of H2O2-induced ROS formation reached 76% for pWPI, which was greater than for nWPI hydrolysates (32.5%). Conclusions These results suggest that WPI hydrolysates can alleviate inflammation and oxidative stress in intestinal cells exposed to oxidative injury, which is further enhanced by hyperbaric pressure pre-treatment of WPI. PMID:22723766

  12. Determination of residual 1,3-dichloro-2-propanol in protein hydrolysates by capillary gas chromatography.

    PubMed

    Van Rillaer, W; Beernaert, H

    1989-04-01

    This study describes a method for the quantitative determination of residual 1,3-dichloro-2-propanol in protein hydrolysates. The method is based on a continuous micro-steam distillation solvent extraction technique. The quantitative determination is performed by electron-capture gas chromatography using an "on column" injector and a fused silica capillary CP wax 52 CB column. The absolute detection limit for 1,3-dichloro-2-propanol in soy sauces is 10 pg and recoveries of 75.8% and 82.7% with a standard deviation of 4.0% and 2.5% are obtained for samples fortified in the range of 1 mg/kg and 0.1 mg/kg respectively.

  13. A retrospective analysis of case series using home-prepared and chicken hydrolysate diets in the diagnosis of adverse food reactions in 181 pruritic dogs.

    PubMed

    Loeffler, Anette; Soares-Magalhaes, Ricardo; Bond, Ross; Lloyd, David H

    2006-08-01

    The purpose of this retrospective study was to compare home-prepared and chicken hydrolysate diets in the diagnosis of canine adverse food reactions (AFR). Seventy-two dogs were fed home-prepared diets and 109 were fed hydrolysate. Owners chose the type of diet at presentation, and ingredients of home-prepared diets were selected depending on each dog's dietary history. Ectoparasitic infestations and microbial infections were treated during the trials. Cutaneous and gastrointestinal signs and pruritus scores were recorded before starting the diet, 6 weeks into the trials and after provocation with the original diets. AFR was diagnosed if pruritus resolved during the trial and recurred on dietary provocation. The dropout rate was lower for home-prepared diets although not statistically significant (18.1% home prepared; 24.7% hydrolysate, P=0.377). AFR alone was diagnosed in 10 dogs (17%) using home-prepared diets and in 15 (18.3%) fed the hydrolysate. Gastrointestinal problems were more frequent in dogs with AFR than in dogs without AFR (P=0.001). Another 11 dogs (18.6%) in the home-prepared diet group and 20 (24.4%) in the hydrolysate diet group had AFR concurrent with other pruritic diseases, mainly atopy. The similar frequencies of AFR diagnosis in the two groups (P=0.837 AFR; P=0.416 concurrent AFR) indicate that the chicken hydrolysate diet may be a valuable alternative to home-prepared diets in the diagnosis of canine AFR. Prospective cross-over studies are warranted to confirm these findings.

  14. Novel angiotensin I-converting enzyme inhibitory peptides from enzymatic hydrolysates of goby (Zosterisessor ophiocephalus) muscle proteins.

    PubMed

    Nasri, Rim; Chataigné, Gabrielle; Bougatef, Ali; Chaâbouni, Maha Karra; Dhulster, Pascal; Nasri, Moncef; Nedjar-Arroume, Naima

    2013-10-08

    In recent years, food protein-derived bioactive peptides have received considerable attention because of their numerous health benefits. Amongst bioactive peptides, those with antihypertensive activity are receiving special attention due to their role in cardiovascular diseases. Goby protein hydrolysates (GPHs) prepared by treatment with five different crude bacterial proteases were found to exhibit varying degrees of angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory activity. The hydrolysate generated by the crude protease from Bacillus mojavensis A21, which displayed the highest ACE inhibitory activity, was further fractionated by size exclusion chromatography on a Sephadex G-25 and reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC). The molecular masses and amino acid sequences of five peptides, in sub-fraction F5-2, which exhibited the highest ACE inhibitory activity, were determined using ESI-MS and ESI-MS/MS, respectively. The structures of these peptides were identified as Ala-Arg-Ser, Val-Val-Ala-Pro-Phe-Ala-His-Gly-Thr, Arg-Ser-Thr-Ala, Phe-Tyr-Pro-Pro, Arg-Cys-Ser-Ala-Gly-Val. Further, the sequences of fifteen peptides in the F5-4 sub-fraction, which exhibited high activity, were determined. Therefore, GPHs have a potential as hypotensive nutraceutical ingredients. Peptides find many outlets of application in the biotechnological field, amongst which are pharmaceutical applications. Progression amongst new small molecules deposited like substance medicamentous blows itself. In this context, large pharmaceutical companies invest in peptide research to open therapeutic new prospects. Even if they are used as therapeutic agents for nearly one century in their natural form, the use of peptides remains parsimonious although we experienced a significant development since a few tens of years, in particular thanks to the clarification of the methods of production, chemical in solid or biological phase such as in phage display. Peptides present many

  15. Production of the angiotensin I converting enzyme inhibitory peptides and isolation of four novel peptides from jellyfish (Rhopilema esculentum) protein hydrolysate.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xin; Zhang, Miansong; Shi, Yaping; Qiao, Ruojin; Tang, Wei; Sun, Zhenliang

    2016-07-01

    Angiotensin I converting enzyme (ACE) plays an important role in regulating blood pressure in the human body. ACE inhibitory peptides derived from food proteins could exert antihypertensive effects without side effects. Jellyfish (Rhopilema esculentum) is an important fishery resource suitable for production of ACE inhibitory peptides. The objective of this study was to optimize the hydrolysis conditions for production of protein hydrolysate from R. esculentum (RPH) with ACE inhibitory activity, and to isolate and identify the ACE inhibitory peptides from RPH. Rhopilema esculentum protein was hydrolyzed with Compound proteinase AQ to produce protein hydrolysate with ACE inhibitory activity, and the hydrolysis conditions were optimized using response surface methodology. The optimum parameters for producing peptides with the highest ACE inhibitory activity were as follows: hydrolysis time 3.90 h, hydrolysis temperature 58 °C, enzyme:substrate ratio 2.8% and pH 7.60. Under these conditions, the ACE inhibitory rate reached 32.21%. In addition, four novel ACE inhibitory peptides were isolated, and their amino acids sequences were identified as Val-Gly-Pro-Tyr, Phe-Thr-Tyr-Val-Pro-Gly, Phe-Thr-Tyr-Val-Pro-Gly-Ala and Phe-Gln-Ala-Val-Trp-Ala-Gly, respectively. The IC50 value of the purified peptides for ACE inhibitory activity was 8.40, 23.42, 21.15 and 19.11 µmol L(-1) . These results indicate that the protein hydrolysate prepared from R. esculentum might be a commercial competitive source of ACE inhibitory ingredients to be used in functional foods. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  16. Antioxidant activity of protein hydrolysates from raw and heat-treated yellow string beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.).

    PubMed

    Karaś, Monika; Jakubczyk, Anna; Szymanowska, Urszula; Materska, Małgorzata; Zielińska, Ewelina

    2014-01-01

    Nowadays, legume plants have been considered not only a source of valuable proteins necessary for the proper functioning and growth of the body but also a source of bioactive compounds such as bioactive peptides, that may be beneficial to human health and protect against negative change in food. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of heat treatment on the release of antioxidant peptides obtained by hydrolysis of the yellow string beans protein. The antioxidant properties of the hydrolysates were evaluated through free radical scavenging activities (DPPH and ABTS) and inhibition of iron activities (chelation of Fe2+). The results show that the heat treatment had influence on both increased peptides content and antioxidant activity after pepsin hydrolysis of string bean protein. The peptides content after protein hydrolysis derived from raw and heat treated beans were noted 2.10 and 2.50 mg·ml-1, respectively. The hydrolysates obtained from raw (PHR) and heat treated (PHT) beans showed better antioxidant properties than protein isolates (PIR and PIT). Moreover, the hydrolysates obtained from heat treated beans showed the higher ability to scavenge DPPH• (46.12%) and ABTS+• (92.32%) than obtained from raw beans (38.02% and 88.24%, correspondingly). The IC50 value for Fe2+ chelating ability for pepsin hydrolysates obtained from raw and heat treatment beans were noted 0.81 and 0.19 mg·ml-1, respectively. In conclusion, the results of this study showed that the heat treatment string beans caused increase in the antioxidant activities of peptide-rich hydrolysates.

  17. Effect of Proteolytic Squid Protein Hydrolysate on Textural Quality and Denaturation of Wanieso Lizardfish (Saurida wanieso) Surimi during Frozen Storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hossain, Mohammed Anwar; Khan, Mohammed Abu Ali; Osaka, Kazufumi; Ishihara, Tadashi; Hara, Kenji; Osatomi, Kiyoshi; Nozaki, Yukinori

    Squid protein hydrolysate (SPH) was prepared from 4s quid species, consisted of 84-88% (dry matter of SPH) peptides by protease treatment. The effects of SPH on the textural quality and on the denaturation of wanieso lizardfish saurida wanieso surimi during frozen storage at -25°C were assessed on the basis of gel-forming ability, Ca-ATPase activity, and the amount of unfrozen water which was determined using differential scanning calorimeter (DSC); the effects were compared with those of sodium glutamate. The color of surimi gels were also measured. The whiteness of the surimi gels were slightly reduced by the addition of SPH. The surimi gels with SPH showed a higher gel strength and water holding capacity compared to that of without SPH (control) during frozen storage. The amount of unfrozen water in the surimi increased markedly after being addition of the SPH and reduced moderately during frozen storage, resulting in decreased Ca-ATPase inactivation compared to that in the control. These findings suggest that the interactive groups of SPH constructed bound water in the hydration sphere of protein, and therefore suppressed freeze-denaturation of surimi and maintained its gel functional properties. The effect of SPH was less than that of sodium glutamate.

  18. Protein hydrolysates produced from rock lobster (Jasus edwardsii) Head: emulsifying capacity and food safety.

    PubMed

    He, Shan; Nguyen, Trung T; Su, Peng; Zhang, Wei

    2016-11-01

    Lobster protein hydrolysates (LPH) were produced by an enzymatic process using a proteinase Alcalase, and a chemical process at strong alkaline condition (pH of 14), from rock lobster head (RLH), respectively. The chemical process recovered about 30% more protein than the enzymatic process (84.9% recovery of total protein in RLH by the chemical process and 54.5% recovery of total protein in RLH by the enzymatic process). The emulsifying capacity of LPH produced by the chemical process (69.7 m(2)/g) was significantly higher than the emulsifying capacity of the LPH produced by the enzymatic process (20.7 m(2)/g), and also exceeds the emulsifying capacity of cow gelatine (50.3 m(2)/g), a commercial emulsifier in the food industry. LPH produced by the chemical process possess 30.3% essential amino acids. This content is comparable with the essential amino acid content of fish protein, a commonly recognized food resource for essential amino acid supplement for human. The content of heavy metals, including inorganic arsenic, of LPH is lower than the standard levels regulated by Food Standard Australia and New Zealand (FSANZ). These results demonstrated the potential value of LPH used as a safe emulsifier with significant nutritional value for the food industry.

  19. Lower weight gain and hepatic lipid content in hamsters fed high fat diets supplemented with white rice protein, brown rice protein, soy protein, and their hydrolysates.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Huijuan; Bartley, Glenn E; Mitchell, Cheryl R; Zhang, Hui; Yokoyama, Wallace

    2011-10-26

    The physiological effects of the hydrolysates of white rice protein (WRP), brown rice protein (BRP), and soy protein (SP) hydrolyzed by the food grade enzyme, alcalase2.4 L, were compared to the original protein source. Male Syrian Golden hamsters were fed high-fat diets containing either 20% casein (control) or 20% extracted proteins or their hydrolysates as the protein source for 3 weeks. The brown rice protein hydrolysate (BRPH) diet group reduced weight gain 76% compared with the control. Animals fed the BRPH supplemented diet also had lower final body weight, liver weight, very low density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL-C), and liver cholesterol, and higher fecal fat and bile acid excretion than the control. Expression levels of hepatic genes for lipid oxidation, PPARα, ACOX1, and CPT1, were highest for hamsters fed the BRPH supplemented diet. Expression of CYP7A1, the gene regulating bile acid synthesis, was higher in all test groups. Expression of CYP51, a gene coding for an enzyme involved in cholesterol synthesis, was highest in the BRPH diet group. The results suggest that BRPH includes unique peptides that reduce weight gain and hepatic cholesterol synthesis.

  20. Feeding silk protein hydrolysates to C57BL/KsJ-db/db mice improves blood glucose and lipid profiles.

    PubMed

    Jung, Eun Young; Lee, Hyun-Sun; Lee, Hyun Jung; Kim, Jin-Man; Lee, Kwang-Won; Suh, Hyung Joo

    2010-11-01

    The hypothesis for the research is that hydrolyzed silk protein has an antidiabetic effect by reducing plasma glucose levels. To investigate this potential antidiabetic activity of hydrolyzed silk protein by protease-N (silk protein hydrolysate E5K6) in vivo, male C57BL/KsJ-db/db mice were separated into 3 groups: control group, db/db mice treated with vehicle (distilled water); SP-1 group, db/db mice treated with silk protein hydrolysate E5K6 at 0.1 g/kg body weight; and SP-2 group, db/db mice treated with silk protein hydrolysate E5K6 at 0.2 g/kg body weight. After 4 weeks of treatment, plasma glucose levels were lower in the SP-1 (177.3 ± 20.8 mg/dL) and SP-2 (151.8 ± 9.2 mg/dL) groups as compared to those in the control group (236.0 ± 31.2 mg/dL). Furthermore, blood glycated hemoglobin was significantly reduced in the SP-2 (6.6% ± 0.1%) compared to that in the control mice (7.7% ± 0.1%). The SP-2 group also had significant reductions in plasma concentrations of total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and the atherogenic index by 11%, 27%, and 26%, respectively, compared to the control group. Insulin levels on plasma concentrations were significantly increased in the silk protein hydrolysate E5K6 groups (SP-1, 4.2 ± 1.1 ng/mL; SP-2, 4.8 ± 0.4 ng/mL) compared to those in the control group (2.9 ± 0.9 ng/mL). The silk protein hydrolysate E5K6-treated db/db mice (SP-1, 62.8 ± 1.6 arbitrary units [AU]; SP-2, 63.0 ± 4.0 AU) displayed pancreatic islets with significantly enhanced (P < .05) insulin staining as compared to the intensity of staining of those from the control group (55.8 ± 2.5 AU). The results suggest that silk protein hydrolysate E5K6 has insulin-releasing activity through the induction of β-cell activity in the pancreatic islets.

  1. Immunostimulatory Activity of Protein Hydrolysate from Oviductus Ranae on Macrophage In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Di; Yang, Lubing; Wang, Chenlu; Ma, Sihui; Cui, Li; Huang, Shiyang; Sheng, Xia; Weng, Qiang; Xu, Meiyu

    2014-01-01

    Oviductus Ranae is the dry oviduct of Rana chensinensis, which is also called R. chensinensis oil. Oviductus Ranae is a valuable Chinese crude drug and is recorded in the Pharmacopoeia of the People's Republic of China. The aim of this study was to investigate the immunostimulatory activity of protein hydrolysate of Oviductus Ranae (ORPH) and to assess its possible mechanism. Immunomodulatory activity of ORPH was examined in murine macrophage RAW 264.7 cells. The effect of ORPH on the phagocytic activity of macrophages was determined by the neutral red uptake assay. After treatment with ORPH, NO production levels in the culture supernatant were investigated by Griess assay. The mRNA and protein expressions of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) were detected by RT-PCR and Western blotting. The production of TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 after treatment with ORPH was measured using ELISA assay. In addition, NF-κB levels were also investigated by Western blot. The results showed that ORPH enhanced the phagocytosis of macrophage, increased productions of TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, and NO in RAW 264.7 cells, and upregulated the mRNA and protein expression of iNOS. Besides, NF-κB, levels in RAW 264.7 cells were elevated after ORPH treatment. These findings suggested that ORPH might stimulate macrophage activities by activating the NF-κB pathway. PMID:25610475

  2. Soluble soy protein peptic hydrolysate stimulates adipocyte differentiation in 3T3-L1 cells.

    PubMed

    Goto, Tsuyoshi; Mori, Ayaka; Nagaoka, Satoshi

    2013-08-01

    The molecular mechanisms underlying the potential health benefit effects of soybean proteins on obesity-associated metabolic disorders have not been fully clarified. In this study, we investigated the effects of soluble soybean protein peptic hydrolysate (SPH) on adipocyte differentiation by using 3T3-L1 murine preadipocytes. The addition of SPH increased lipid accumulation during adipocyte differentiation. SPH increased the mRNA expression levels of an adipogenic marker gene and decreased that of a preadipocyte marker gene, suggesting that SPH promotes adipocyte differentiation. SPH induced antidiabetic and antiatherogenic adiponectin mRNA expression and secretion. Moreover, SPH increased the mRNA expression levels of insulin-responsive glucose transporter 4 and insulin-stimulated glucose uptake. The expression levels of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ), a key regulator of adipocyte differentiation, during adipocyte differentiation were up-regulated in 3T3-L1 cells treated with SPH, and lipid accumulation during adipocyte differentiation induced by SPH was inhibited in the presence of a PPARγ antagonist. However, SPH did not exhibit PPARγ ligand activity. These findings indicate that SPH stimulates adipocyte differentiation, at least in part, via the up-regulation of PPARγ expression levels. These effects of SPH might be important for the health benefit effects of soybean proteins on obesity-associated metabolic disorders. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Hepatoprotective and nephroprotective effects of sardinelle (Sardinella aurita) protein hydrolysate against ethanol-induced oxidative stress in rats.

    PubMed

    Kamoun, Zeineb; Kamoun, Alya Sellami; Bougatef, Ali; Kharrat, Rim Marrakchi; Youssfi, Houssem; Boudawara, Tahia; Chakroun, Mouna; Nasri, Moncef; Zeghal, Najiba

    2017-01-01

    Ethanol consumption-induced oxidative stress that is a major etiological factor has been proven to play important roles in organs' injury. In the present study, we investigated the protective effect of fish protein hydrolysate prepared from the heads and viscera of sardinelle (Sardinella aurita) (SPH) against the toxicity of ethanol on the liver and kidney of adult male rats. Animals were divided into four groups of six animals each: group C served as control, group Eth received 30 % ethanol solution at the dose of 3 g/kg body weight, group SPH received only 7.27 mg of SPH/kg body weight, and group Eth-SPH received ethanol and SPH simultaneously at the doses of 30 % and 7.27 mg/kg body weight, respectively. All groups were treated by gavage way for 15 days. Ethanol treatment decreased the defense enzymatic system including superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx), which increased after the co-administration of SPH. Malondialdehyde (MDA) and toxicity biomarker levels such as aspartate transaminase (AST) and alanine transaminase (ALT) and alcaline phosphatase (ALP) and gamma-glutamyl transaminase (GGT) activities were enhanced after chronic ethanol treatment and reduced by co-treatment with SPH. The histological examination of the liver and kidney confirmed biochemical changes in ethanol-treated rats and demonstrated the protective role of SPH.

  4. In vitro study on digestion of pumpkin oil cake protein hydrolysate: evaluation of impact on bioactive properties.

    PubMed

    Vaštag, Zužana; Popović, Ljiljana; Popović, Senka; Peričin-Starčević, Ivana; Krimer-Malešević, Vera

    2013-06-01

    In this work, a simulated gastrointestinal digestion of pumpkin oil cake protein hydrolysate prepared by alcalase (AH) was studied to evaluate the impact of the main gastrointestinal proteases on its antiradical and angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory activity. The in vitro digestion was performed in a model system under optimized reaction conditions, first by pepsin and then with α-chymotrypsin and trypsin, simultaneously. The treatment with the gastrointestinal proteases led to a significant increase of the degree of hydrolysis, up to 55.95 ± 3.1% in the final digest. After the digestion, the 2,2-azinobis3-ethylbenzo-thiazoline-6-sulphonic acid radical cation activity of AH was increased from 7.59 ± 0.1 to 10.25 ± 0.3 mM trolox equivalent antioxidant coefficient/mg (p < 0.05), while the ACE inhibitory activity was not affected, being 74.29 ± 1.25% (IC50 = 0.404 ± 0.014 mg/ml) (p>0.05) in the final digest. These results showed an advantage of AH to increase the antiradical and resist ACE inhibitory activity during digestion by main gastrointestinal proteases, appearing as promising bioactive food ingredient.

  5. Soybean plant growth study conducted using purified protein hydrolysate-based fertilizer made from chrome-tanned leather waste.

    PubMed

    Pati, Anupama; Chaudhary, Rubina

    2015-12-01

    Leather processing discharges enormous amount of chrome containing leather solid waste which creates a major disposal problem. Chrome-tanned leather solid waste is a complex of collagen and chromium. The presence of chromium limits protein application in fertilizer industry. The purified protein hydrolysate with zero chromium could be used as a nitrogen source for fertilizer formulation. In this study, an attempt has been made to employ purified protein hydrolysate derived from chrome-tanned leather shavings (CTLS) in formulation of fertilizer. The formulated fertilizer (1–3 t ha(-1)) is employed as nitrogen source in production of soybean. Plant growth study demonstrates that formulated fertilizer dosage 3 t ha(-1) produced similar effects of commercial fertilizer-treated plants. Application of formulated fertilizer yielded higher seed in plant than commercial fertilizer.

  6. Separation and Characterization of Angiotensin I Converting Enzyme (ACE) Inhibitory Peptides from Saurida elongata Proteins Hydrolysate by IMAC-Ni(2).

    PubMed

    Sun, Lixia; Wu, Shanguang; Zhou, Liqin; Wang, Feng; Lan, Xiongdiao; Sun, Jianhua; Tong, Zhangfa; Liao, Dankui

    2017-02-15

    Lizard fish protein hydrolysates (LFPH) were prepared from Lizard fish (Saurida elongata) proteins possessing powerful angiotensin I converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory activity and the fraction (LFPH-I) with high ACE inhibitory activity was obtained through ultrafiltration. The active Fraction (F2) was isolated from LFPH-I using immobilized metal affinity chromatography (IMAC-Ni(2+)). Analysis of amino acid levels revealed that F2 eluted from IMAC was enriched in Met, His, Tyr, Pro, Ile, and Leu compared to the crude peptide LFPH-I. F2 with the high ACE inhibitory activity (IC50 of 0.116 mg·mL(-1)) was further separated by a reverse-phase column to yield a novel ACE inhibitory peptide with IC50 value of 52 μM. The ACE inhibitory peptide was identified as Arg-Tyr-Arg-Pro, RYRP. The present study demonstrated that IMAC may be a useful tool for the separation of ACE inhibitory peptides from protein hydrolysate.

  7. Separation and Characterization of Angiotensin I Converting Enzyme (ACE) Inhibitory Peptides from Saurida elongata Proteins Hydrolysate by IMAC-Ni2+

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Lixia; Wu, Shanguang; Zhou, Liqin; Wang, Feng; Lan, Xiongdiao; Sun, Jianhua; Tong, Zhangfa; Liao, Dankui

    2017-01-01

    Lizard fish protein hydrolysates (LFPH) were prepared from Lizard fish (Saurida elongata) proteins possessing powerful angiotensin I converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory activity and the fraction (LFPH-I) with high ACE inhibitory activity was obtained through ultrafiltration. The active Fraction (F2) was isolated from LFPH-I using immobilized metal affinity chromatography (IMAC-Ni2+). Analysis of amino acid levels revealed that F2 eluted from IMAC was enriched in Met, His, Tyr, Pro, Ile, and Leu compared to the crude peptide LFPH-I. F2 with the high ACE inhibitory activity (IC50 of 0.116 mg·mL−1) was further separated by a reverse-phase column to yield a novel ACE inhibitory peptide with IC50 value of 52 μM. The ACE inhibitory peptide was identified as Arg-Tyr-Arg-Pro, RYRP. The present study demonstrated that IMAC may be a useful tool for the separation of ACE inhibitory peptides from protein hydrolysate. PMID:28212269

  8. Protein enrichment of an Opuntia ficus-indica cladode hydrolysate by cultivation of Candida utilis and Kluyveromyces marxianus.

    PubMed

    Akanni, Gabriel B; du Preez, James C; Steyn, Laurinda; Kilian, Stephanus G

    2015-03-30

    The cladodes of Opuntia ficus-indica (prickly pear cactus) have a low protein content; for use as a balanced feed, supplementation with other protein sources is therefore desirable. We investigated protein enrichment by cultivation of the yeasts Candida utilis and Kluyveromyces marxianus in an enzymatic hydrolysate of the cladode biomass. Dilute acid pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis of sun-dried cladodes resulted in a hydrolysate containing (per litre) 45.5 g glucose, 6.3 g xylose, 9.1 g galactose, 10.8 g arabinose and 9.6 g fructose. Even though K. marxianus had a much higher growth rate and utilized l-arabinose and d-galactose more completely than C. utilis, its biomass yield coefficient was lower due to ethanol and ethyl acetate production despite aerobic cultivation. Yeast cultivation more than doubled the protein content of the hydrolysate, with an essential amino acid profile superior to sorghum and millet grains. This K. marxianus strain was weakly Crabtree positive. Despite its low biomass yield, its performance compared well with C. utilis. This is the first report showing that the protein content and quality of O. ficus-indica cladode biomass could substantially be improved by yeast cultivation, including a comparative evaluation of C. utilis and K. marxianus. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society of Chemical Industry.

  9. Protein enrichment of an Opuntia ficus-indica cladode hydrolysate by cultivation of Candida utilis and Kluyveromyces marxianus

    PubMed Central

    Akanni, Gabriel B; du Preez, James C; Steyn, Laurinda; Kilian, Stephanus G

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND The cladodes of Opuntia ficus-indica (prickly pear cactus) have a low protein content; for use as a balanced feed, supplementation with other protein sources is therefore desirable. We investigated protein enrichment by cultivation of the yeasts Candida utilis and Kluyveromyces marxianus in an enzymatic hydrolysate of the cladode biomass. RESULTS Dilute acid pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis of sun-dried cladodes resulted in a hydrolysate containing (per litre) 45.5 g glucose, 6.3 g xylose, 9.1 g galactose, 10.8 g arabinose and 9.6 g fructose. Even though K. marxianus had a much higher growth rate and utilized l-arabinose and d-galactose more completely than C. utilis, its biomass yield coefficient was lower due to ethanol and ethyl acetate production despite aerobic cultivation. Yeast cultivation more than doubled the protein content of the hydrolysate, with an essential amino acid profile superior to sorghum and millet grains. CONCLUSIONS This K. marxianus strain was weakly Crabtree positive. Despite its low biomass yield, its performance compared well with C. utilis. This is the first report showing that the protein content and quality of O. ficus-indica cladode biomass could substantially be improved by yeast cultivation, including a comparative evaluation of C. utilis and K. marxianus. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society of Chemical Industry. PMID:25371280

  10. In Vitro Proliferation and Anti-Apoptosis of the Papain-Generated Casein and Soy Protein Hydrolysates towards Osteoblastic Cells (hFOB1.19).

    PubMed

    Pan, Xiao-Wen; Zhao, Xin-Huai

    2015-06-17

    Casein and soy protein were digested by papain to three degrees of hydrolysis (DH) 7.3%-13.3%, to obtain respective six casein and soy protein hydrolysates, aiming to clarify their in vitro proliferation and anti-apoptosis towards a human osteoblastic cell line (hFOB1.19 cells). Six casein and soy protein hydrolysates at five levels (0.01-0.2 mg/mL) mostly showed proliferation as positive 17β-estradiol did, because they conferred the osteoblasts with cell viability of 100%-114% and 104%-123%, respectively. The hydrolysates of higher DH values had stronger proliferation. Casein and soy protein hydrolysates of the highest DH values altered cell cycle progression, and enhanced cell proportion of S-phase from 50.5% to 56.5% and 60.5%. The two also antagonized etoposide- and NaF-induced osteoblast apoptosis. In apoptotic prevention, apoptotic cells were decreased from 31.6% to 22.6% and 15.6% (etoposide treatment), or from 19.5% to 17.7% and 12.4% (NaF treatment), respectively. In apoptotic reversal, soy protein hydrolysate decreased apoptotic cells from 13.3% to 11.7% (etoposide treatment), or from 14.5% to 11.0% (NaF treatment), but casein hydrolysate showed no reversal effect. It is concluded that the hydrolysates of two kinds had estradiol-like action on the osteoblasts, and soy protein hydrolysates had stronger proliferation and anti-apoptosis on the osteoblasts than casein hydrolysates.

  11. Investigation of the anti-glioma activity of Oviductus ranae protein hydrolysate.

    PubMed

    Sui, Xin; Li, Xiao-Hua; Duan, Ming-Hua; Jia, Ai-Ling; Wang, Ye; Liu, Da; Li, Yi-Ping; Qiu, Zhi-Dong

    2016-07-01

    Oviductus Ranae is the dry oviducts of Rana temporaria chensinensis, and it has been reported to have a range of biological activities. This study aimed to investigate the effects of Oviductus Ranae protein hydrolysate (ORPH) on human glioma C6 cell proliferation and apoptosis in vitro and in vivo. Following in vitro treatment, cell viability and colony formation assays showed that ORPH inhibited C6 cell proliferation. In addition, the results of western blotting also demonstrated that ORPH effectively regulated the expression of the apoptosis related proteins, cleaved caspase-3, Bax and Bcl-2, DNA staining and flow cytometry analysis demonstrated that ORPH significantly promoted apoptosis in this cell line, a finding that was confirmed in vivo using terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling. Further investigation demonstrated that ORPH increased apoptosis by modulating the release of inflammatory cytokines and the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/AKT signaling pathway; this was demonstrated using a PI3K/AKT inhibitor (NVP-BEZ235). In summary, the present study suggested that ORPH promoted apoptosis and inhibited glioma cell proliferation by influencing the PI3K/AKT signaling pathway. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. Purification and anti-inflammatory action of tripeptide from salmon pectoral fin byproduct protein hydrolysate.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Chang-Bum; Cho, Young-Sook; Je, Jae-Young

    2015-02-01

    In this study, the anti-inflammatory peptide from salmon pectoral fin byproduct protein hydrolysate by pepsin hydrolysis, was purified and identified using Sephadex G-25 gel permeation chromatography, high performance liquid chromatography and time-of-flight liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (TOF LC/MS/MS). The purified anti-inflammatory peptide was identified to be a tripeptide (PAY). Lipopolysaccharide treatment significantly (p<0.05) stimulated the production of nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) in RAW264.7 cells. However, PAY treatment significantly (p<0.05) inhibited the production of NO by 63.80% and PGE2 by 45.33%. Western blotting analysis revealed that PAY significantly (p<0.05) suppressed the protein expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase-2, which are responsible for the production of NO and PGE2. Additionally, PAY treatment also significantly (p<0.05) attenuated the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, including tumour necrosis factor-α, interleukin-6 and -1β.

  13. Isolation and identification of antioxidative peptides from frog (Hylarana guentheri) protein hydrolysate by consecutive chromatography and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Gu, Min; Ren, Jiaoyan; Sun, Weizheng; You, Lijun; Yang, Bao; Zhao, Mouming

    2014-07-01

    Frog (Hylarana guentheri) proteins were hydrolyzed by papain and Flavourzyme to obtain antioxidative peptides. The antioxidant activities of the frog protein hydrolysates (FPHs) were measured, including 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity (IC50=9.94±0.13 mg/mL), reducing power (0.39±0.01 at 5.0 mg/mL), and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) value (789.15±75.10 μmol Trolox equivalents/g). The hydrolysates were purified by ultrafiltration, ion exchange chromatography, gel filtration chromatography, and reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC). Through analysis of ESI-MS/MS, two dipeptides were identified as Leu/Ile-Lys (259.1607 Da) and Phe-Lys (293.1446 Da), respectively.

  14. Rice bran protein hydrolysates attenuate diabetic nephropathy in diabetic animal model.

    PubMed

    Boonloh, Kampeebhorn; Lee, Eun Soo; Kim, Hong Min; Kwon, Mi Hye; Kim, You Mi; Pannangpetch, Patchareewan; Kongyingyoes, Bunkerd; Kukongviriyapan, Upa; Thawornchinsombut, Supawan; Lee, Eun Young; Kukongviriyapan, Veerapol; Chung, Choon Hee

    2016-12-21

    Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is an important microvascular complication of uncontrolled diabetes. The features of DN include albuminuria, extracellular matrix alterations, and progressive renal insufficiency. Rice bran protein hydrolysates (RBPs) have been reported to have antihyperglycemic, lipid-lowering, and anti-inflammatory effects in diabetic rats. Our study was to investigate the renoprotective effects of RBP in diabetic animals and mesangial cultured cells. Eight-week-old male db/m and db/db mice were orally treated with tap water or RBP (100 or 500 mg/kg/day) for 8 weeks. At the end of the experiment, diabetic nephropathy in kidney tissues was investigated for histological, ultrastructural, and clinical chemistry changes, and biomarkers of angiogenesis, fibrosis, inflammation, and antioxidant in kidney were analyzed by Western blotting. Protection against proangiogenic proteins and induction of cytoprotection by RBP in cultured mesangial cells was evaluated. RBP treatment improved insulin sensitivity, decreased elevated fasting serum glucose levels, and improved serum lipid levels and urinary albumin/creatinine ratios in diabetic mice. RBP ameliorated the decreases in podocyte slit pore numbers, thickening of glomerular basement membranes, and mesangial matrix expansion and suppressed elevation of MCP-1, ICAM-1, HIF-1α, VEGF, TGF-β, p-Smad2/3, and type IV collagen expression. Moreover, RBP restored suppressed antioxidant Nrf2 and HO-1 expression. In cultured mesangial cells, RBP inhibited high glucose-induced angiogenic protein expression and induced the expression of Nrf2 and HO-1. RBP attenuates the progression of diabetic nephropathy and restored renal function by suppressing the expression of proangiogenic and profibrotic proteins, inhibiting proinflammatory mediators, and restoring the antioxidant and cytoprotective system.

  15. A novel hemp seed meal protein hydrolysate reduces oxidative stress factors in spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Girgih, Abraham T; Alashi, Adeola M; He, Rong; Malomo, Sunday A; Raj, Pema; Netticadan, Thomas; Aluko, Rotimi E

    2014-12-01

    This report shows the antioxidant effects of a hemp seed meal protein hydrolysate (HMH) in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). Defatted hemp seed meal was hydrolyzed consecutively with pepsin and pancreatin to yield HMH, which was incorporated into rat feed as a source of antioxidant peptides. Young (8-week old) SHRs were divided into three groups (8 rats/group) and fed diets that contained 0.0%, 0.5% or 1.0% (w/w) HMH for eight weeks; half of the rats were sacrificed for blood collection. After a 4-week washout period, the remaining 20-week old SHRs were fed for an additional four weeks and sacrificed for blood collection. Plasma total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and total peroxides (TPx) levels were determined. Results showed that plasma TAC, CAT and SOD levels decreased in the older 20-week old SHRs when compared to the young SHRs. The presence of HMH in the diets led to significant (p < 0.05) increases in plasma SOD and CAT levels in both young and adult SHR groups; these increases were accompanied by decreases in TPx levels. The results suggest that HMH contained antioxidant peptides that reduced the rate of lipid peroxidation in SHRs with enhanced antioxidant enzyme levels and total antioxidant capacity.

  16. A Novel Hemp Seed Meal Protein Hydrolysate Reduces Oxidative Stress Factors in Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats

    PubMed Central

    Girgih, Abraham T.; Alashi, Adeola M.; He, Rong; Malomo, Sunday A.; Raj, Pema; Netticadan, Thomas; Aluko, Rotimi E.

    2014-01-01

    This report shows the antioxidant effects of a hemp seed meal protein hydrolysate (HMH) in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). Defatted hemp seed meal was hydrolyzed consecutively with pepsin and pancreatin to yield HMH, which was incorporated into rat feed as a source of antioxidant peptides. Young (8-week old) SHRs were divided into three groups (8 rats/group) and fed diets that contained 0.0%, 0.5% or 1.0% (w/w) HMH for eight weeks; half of the rats were sacrificed for blood collection. After a 4-week washout period, the remaining 20-week old SHRs were fed for an additional four weeks and sacrificed for blood collection. Plasma total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and total peroxides (TPx) levels were determined. Results showed that plasma TAC, CAT and SOD levels decreased in the older 20-week old SHRs when compared to the young SHRs. The presence of HMH in the diets led to significant (p < 0.05) increases in plasma SOD and CAT levels in both young and adult SHR groups; these increases were accompanied by decreases in TPx levels. The results suggest that HMH contained antioxidant peptides that reduced the rate of lipid peroxidation in SHRs with enhanced antioxidant enzyme levels and total antioxidant capacity. PMID:25493943

  17. Regulatory effect of porcine plasma protein hydrolysates on pasting and gelatinization action of corn starch.

    PubMed

    Kong, Baohua; Niu, Haili; Sun, Fangda; Han, Jianchun; Liu, Qian

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the regulatory effect of porcine plasma protein hydrolysates (PPPH) on the physicochemical, pasting, and gelatinization properties of corn starch (CS). The results showed that the solubility of CS markedly increased, whereas swelling power and gel penetration force decreased with increased PPPH concentration (P<0.05). Compared with native CS, PPPH significantly lowered peak viscosity, minimum viscosity, final viscosity, and total setback, whereas it increased breakdown and pasting temperature in rapid visco analyzer (RVA) measurement (P<0.05) and obviously enhanced the gelatinization temperature as determined in differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) (P<0.05). Confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) showed that PPPH surrounded the starch granules at room temperature (25°C) and then formed a network with swollen starch granules during gelatinization. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) images indicated that the blocklet sizes of gelatinized CS-PPPH mixtures were smaller and more uniform than native CS. The results proved that pasting and gelatinization abilities of CS can be effectively influenced by adding PPPH. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Properties of sweetened Indian yogurt (mishti dohi) as affected by added tryptic whey protein hydrolysate.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, Alok; Kanawjia, S K; Khetra, Yogesh

    2016-01-01

    Utilization of Indian sweetened yogurt (colloquially termed as Mishti Dohi), as vehicle for ACE inhibition and antioxidant activity, by added tryptic whey protein hydrolysate (TWPH) (@ 1, 2, 3 % v/milk), was attempted. Yogurt with 3 % TWPH exhibited non-significant (p > 0.05) difference for sensory attributes; but for body & texture; and maximum biofunctional properties, electing it for storage study (5 ± 1 °C). Flavor and body & texture scores registered significant (p < 0.05) decline under 14 days storage. ACE inhibition and antioxidant activity of control increased by 47.95 and 13.18 % and of experimental 24.58 and 13.43 %, correspondingly. Acidity rose to 1.18 % LA. Control samples conveyed 18.07 % and experimental of 20.77 % escalation for wheying-off. Tyrosine value was 27.04 μg.mL(-1). Among rheological attributes, firmness, quantified by texture analyzer TA-XT2i, dropped (p < 0.05), due to decrease of gel rigidity whereas work of adhesion revealed non-significant difference (p > 0.05), throughout.

  19. 3-MCPD in food other than soy sauce or hydrolysed vegetable protein (HVP).

    PubMed

    Baer, Ines; de la Calle, Beatriz; Taylor, Philip

    2010-01-01

    This review gives an overview of current knowledge about 3-monochloropropane-1,2-diol (3-MCPD) formation and detection. Although 3-MCPD is often mentioned with regard to soy sauce and acid-hydrolysed vegetable protein (HVP), and much research has been done in that area, the emphasis here is placed on other foods. This contaminant can be found in a great variety of foodstuffs and is difficult to avoid in our daily nutrition. Despite its low concentration in most foods, its carcinogenic properties are of general concern. Its formation is a multivariate problem influenced by factors such as heat, moisture and sugar/lipid content, depending on the type of food and respective processing employed. Understanding the formation of this contaminant in food is fundamental to not only preventing or reducing it, but also developing efficient analytical methods of detecting it. Considering the differences between 3-MCPD-containing foods, and the need to test for the contaminant at different levels of food processing, one would expect a variety of analytical approaches. In this review, an attempt is made to provide an up-to-date list of available analytical methods and to highlight the differences among these techniques. Finally, the emergence of 3-MCPD esters and analytical techniques for them are also discussed here, although they are not the main focus of this review.

  20. Antioxidant activity and oxidative stress protection of duck proteins hydrolysates in SK-N-SH cells.

    PubMed

    Guo, Yuxing; Pan, Daodong; Wu, Zhen; Zhao, Chuanchuan; Cao, Jinxuan

    2013-02-26

    Studies have found that natural antioxidants, which are free-radical scavengers, can reduce the risk of diseases caused by free radicals. This work investigated the antioxidant properties of duck proteins hydrolysates. The free-radical scavenging function of CP-1 (M(r) > 10 kDa), CP-2 (5 kDa < M(r) < 10 kDa) and CP-3 (M(r) < 5 kDa), obtained through ultrafiltration and gel filtration were evaluated. The results showed that the lower molecular weight fraction exhibited a stronger free-radical scavenging ability. The highest free-radical scavenging activity was detected in the fraction of p4 purified from CP-3 using Sephadex G-15 column chromatography. The 50% inhibitory value (IC(50)) of p4 for scavenging radicals of superoxide, hydroxyl and 1,1-diphenyl-2-pycrylhydrazyl (DPPH) were, respectively, 0.97 mg mL(-1), 0.84 mg mL(-1) and 1.84 mg mL(-1). Furthermore, the p4 fraction at a concentration of 10 μg mL(-1) increased cell viability from 84.8% to 94% under antioxidative stress in neuroblastoma SK-N-SH cells.

  1. Antioxidant activity of cod (Gadus morhua) protein hydrolysates: Fractionation and characterisation of peptide fractions.

    PubMed

    Sabeena Farvin, K H; Andersen, Lisa Lystbæk; Otte, Jeanette; Nielsen, Henrik Hauch; Jessen, Flemming; Jacobsen, Charlotte

    2016-08-01

    This study aimed to characterise peptide fractions (>5kDa, 3-5kDa and <3kDa) with antioxidative activity obtained from a cod protein hydrolysate. The free amino acids in all fractions were dominated by Ala, Gly, Glu and Ser. The total amino acid composition had high proportions of Lys, Ala and Glu. The 3-5kDa and <3kDa fractions were further fractionated by size exclusion chromatography. All sub-fractions showed high Fe(2+) chelating activity. The DPPH radical-scavenging activity of the 3-5kDa fraction was exerted mainly by one sub-fraction dominated by peptides with masses below 600Da. The DPPH radical-scavenging activity of the <3kDa fraction was exerted by sub-fractions with low molecular weight. The highest reducing power was found in a sub-fraction containing peptides rich in Arg, Tyr and Phe. Both free amino acids and low molecular weight peptides thus seemed to contribute to the antioxidative activity of the peptide fractions, and Tyr seemed to play a major role in the antioxidant activity.

  2. Whey protein hydrolysate augments tendon and muscle hypertrophy independent of resistance exercise contraction mode.

    PubMed

    Farup, J; Rahbek, S K; Vendelbo, M H; Matzon, A; Hindhede, J; Bejder, A; Ringgard, S; Vissing, K

    2014-10-01

    In a comparative study, we investigated the effects of maximal eccentric or concentric resistance training combined with whey protein or placebo on muscle and tendon hypertrophy. 22 subjects were allocated into either a high-leucine whey protein hydrolysate + carbohydrate group (WHD) or a carbohydrate group (PLA). Subjects completed 12 weeks maximal knee extensor training with one leg using eccentric contractions and the other using concentric contractions. Before and after training cross-sectional area (CSA) of m. quadriceps and patellar tendon CSA was quantified with magnetic resonance imaging and a isometric strength test was used to assess maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) and rate of force development (RFD). Quadriceps CSA increased by 7.3 ± 1.0% (P < 0.001) in WHD and 3.4 ± 0.8% (P < 0.01) in PLA, with a greater increase in WHD compared to PLA (P < 0.01). Proximal patellar tendon CSA increased by 14.9 ± 3.1% (P < 0.001) and 8.1 ± 3.2% (P = 0.054) for WHD and PLA, respectively, with a greater increase in WHD compared to PLA (P < 0.05), with no effect of contraction mode. MVC and RFD increased by 15.6 ± 3.5% (P < 0.001) and 12-63% (P < 0.05), respectively, with no group or contraction mode effects. In conclusion, high-leucine whey protein hydrolysate augments muscle and tendon hypertrophy following 12 weeks of resistance training - irrespective of contraction mode. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Effect of Fish Protein Hydrolysate on Gel-forming Ability, State of Water, and Denaturation of Wanieso Lizardfish Surimi during Frozen Storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, Mohammed Abu Ali; Hossain, Mohammed Anwar; Hara, Kenji; Osatomi, Kiyoshi; Ishihara, Tadashi; Nozaki, Yukinori

    Fish protein hydrolysate (FPH) was prepared from the underutilized residues of 3-marine fish species disposed of by-products processing by protease treatment. The major component of the FPH was hydrolyzed protein (82-86%). The concentration dependent protective effect of FPH (2.5-10.0%, dry weight/wet weight) on the wanieso lizardfish (Saurida wnieso) frozen surimi at -25°C was evaluated by determining gel-forming ability, unfrozen water, and myofibrillar Ca-ATPase activity. The gel-forming ability and total myofibrillar Ca-ATPase activity of the surimi with FPH showed significantly higher values than those of without FPH (control) during frozen storage. The amount of unfrozen water in the frozen surimi with FPH was significantly increased compared to that in the control. The results indicate that FPH stabilized the hydrated water surrounding myofibrils. These findings suggest that the FPH prevent the freeze-induced denaturation of the surimi during frozen storage.

  4. Influence of protein and carbohydrate contents of soy protein hydrolysates on cell density and IgG production in animal cell cultures.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Abhishek J; Wierenga, Peter A; Gruppen, Harry; Boots, Jan-Willem

    2015-01-01

    The variety of compounds present in chemically defined media as well as media supplements makes it difficult to use a mechanistic approach to study the effect of supplement composition on culture functionality. Typical supplements, such as soy protein hydrolysates contain peptides, amino acids, carbohydrates, isoflavones, and saponins. To study the relative contribution of these compound classes, a set of hydrolysates were produced, containing 58-83% proteinaceous material and 5-21% carbohydrates. While the content of the different compounds classes varied, the composition (e.g., peptide profiles, carbohydrate composition) did not vary in hydrolysates. The hydrolysates were supplemented to a chemically defined medium in cell culture, based on equal weight and on equal protein levels. The latter showed that an increase in the carbohydrate concentration significantly (P value < 0.004) increased integral viable cell density (IVCD) (R = 0.7) and decreased total IgG (R = -0.7) and specific IgG production (R = -0.9). The extrapolation of effects of protein concentration showed that an increase in protein concentration increased total and specific IgG production and suppressed IVCD. In addition to proteins and carbohydrates, the functionality of soy protein hydrolysates may be modulated by the presence of other minor compounds. In the current study, the large differences in the balance between total proteins and total carbohydrates in the supplemented media seem to be a main factor influencing the balance between the viable cell density, total IgG, and specific IgG production. © 2015 American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

  5. Roe Protein Hydrolysates of Giant Grouper (Epinephelus lanceolatus) Inhibit Cell Proliferation of Oral Cancer Cells Involving Apoptosis and Oxidative Stress

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Jing-Iong; Tang, Jen-Yang; Liu, Ya-Sin; Wang, Hui-Ru; Lee, Sheng-Yang; Yen, Ching-Yu

    2016-01-01

    Roe protein hydrolysates were reported to have antioxidant property but the anticancer effects were less addressed, especially for oral cancer. In this study, we firstly used the ultrafiltrated roe hydrolysates (URH) derived from giant grouper (Epinephelus lanceolatus) to evaluate the impact of URH on proliferation against oral cancer cells. We found that URH dose-responsively reduced cell viability of two oral cancer cells (Ca9-22 and CAL 27) in terms of ATP assay. Using flow cytometry, URH-induced apoptosis of Ca9-22 cells was validated by morphological features of apoptosis, sub-G1 accumulation, and annexin V staining in dose-responsive manners. URH also induced oxidative stress in Ca9-22 cells in terms of reactive oxygen species (ROS)/superoxide generations and mitochondrial depolarization. Taken together, these data suggest that URH is a potential natural product for antioral cancer therapy. PMID:27195297

  6. Effects of canola proteins and hydrolysates on adipogenic differentiation of C3H10T/2 mesenchymal stem cells.

    PubMed

    Alashi, Adeola M; Blanchard, Christopher L; Mailer, Rodney J; Agboola, Samson O; Mawson, A John; Aluko, Rotimi E; Strappe, Padraig

    2015-10-15

    This study assessed the ability of canola protein isolate (CPI) and enzymatic hydrolysates (CPHs) to inhibit adipogenic differentiation of C3H10T1/2 murine mesenchymal stem cells in vitro. Cell viability was maintained at concentrations of 60 μg/ml of sample. Cells treated with Alcalase hydrolysate demonstrated a higher reduction in anti-adipogenic differentiation through quantitation by oil-red O staining. qPCR analysis showed that CPI and CPH-treated cells significantly inhibited PPARγ expression, a key transcription factor involved in adipocyte differentiation, as evident in an ∼ 60-80% fold reduction of PPARγ mRNA. Immunofluorescence staining for PPARγ protein also showed a reduced expression in some treated cells when compared to differentiated untreated cells. The 50% inhibition concentration (IC50) of CPI, CPHs and their membrane ultrafiltration fractions on pancreatic lipase (PL) activity ranged between 0.75 and 2.5 mg/ml, (p < 0.05) for the hydrolysed and unhydrolysed samples. These findings demonstrate that CPI and CPHs contain bioactive components which can modulate in vitro adipocyte differentiation.

  7. Identification of ace inhibitory cryptides in Tilapia protein hydrolysate by UPLC-MS/MS coupled to database analysis.

    PubMed

    Yesmine, Ben Henda; Antoine, Bonnet; da Silva Ortência Leocádia, Nunes Gonzalez; Rogério, Boscolo Wilson; Ingrid, Arnaudin; Nicolas, Bridiau; Thierry, Maugard; Jean-Marie, Piot; Frédéric, Sannier; Stéphanie, Bordenave-Juchereau

    2017-05-01

    An ultra-performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole-time of flight mass spectrometry method was developed and applied to identify short angiotensin-I-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory cryptides in Tilapia (Oreochromis Niloticus) protein hydrolyzate. A database was created with previously identified ACE-inhibitory di- and tripeptides and the lowest molecular weight fraction of Tilapia hydrolysate was analysed for coincidences. Only VW and VY were identified. Further analysis of collected fractions conducted to the identification of 51 different peptides in major fractions. 19 peptides selected were synthesised and tested for their ACE inhibitory potential. TL, TI, IK, LR, LD, IQ, DI, AILE, ALLE, ALIE and AIIE were identified as new ACE inhibitors. The findings from this study point UPLC-MS/MS combined with the creation of a database as an efficient technique to identify specific short peptides within a complex hydrolysate, in addition with de novo sequencing. This efficient characterisation of bioactive factors like cryptides in protein hydrolysates will extend their use as functional foods. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Inhibition of gelatinized rice starch retrogradation by rice bran protein hydrolysates.

    PubMed

    Niu, Liya; Wu, Leiyan; Xiao, Jianhui

    2017-11-01

    The retrogradation of gelatinized rice starch (GRS) during the shelf life of a product is the biggest barrier related to starch-containing foods. The objective of this study was to produce rice bran protein hydrolysate (RBPH) using proteolytic enzymes (alcalase, flavourzyme, protamex, neutrase, bromelain, papain and trypsin) to suppress the retrogradation of GRS and understand the physical phenomena underlying the reduced retrogradation of GRS by RBPH during short- and long-term storage. Mixtures of GRS incorporated with Protamex-hydrolyzed rice bran protein at 1h (PRBPH-1) at a degree of hydrolysis of 15.1% were still fresh after storage at 4°C for 14 d. The dynamic time sweep results obtained at 4°C for 180min showed that PRBPH-1 reduced the storage modulus to a greater extent, indicating that PRBPH-1 suppressed the short-term retrogradation of GRS. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) clearly showed that PRBPH-1 significantly decreased the retrogradation enthalpy during the 28-d storage at 4°C, and the retrogradation kinetics were analyzed by the Avrami model. In addition, the recrystallization of GRS based on X-ray diffraction spectroscopy was reduced from 15.41% to 4.86% when the GRS: PRBPH-1mass ratio increased from 100:0 to 100:12. Confocal laser scanning microscopy, atomic force microscopy and scanning electron microscopy demonstrated that PRBPH-1 dispersed between GRS molecules to block the formation of hydrogen bonds to inhibit the recrystallization of GRS. These findings suggested that PRBPH-1 inhibited the short- and long-term retrogradation of GRS, and can be potently employed as a natural alternatives for improving the quality and nutrition of starch-containing foods. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Antioxidant and ACE-inhibitory activities of hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) protein hydrolysates produced by the proteases AFP, HT, Pro-G, actinidin and zingibain.

    PubMed

    Teh, Sue-Siang; Bekhit, Alaa El-Din A; Carne, Alan; Birch, John

    2016-07-15

    Hemp protein isolates (HPIs) were hydrolysed by proteases (AFP, HT, ProG, actinidin and zingibain). The enzymatic hydrolysis of HPIs was evaluated through the degree of hydrolysis and SDS-PAGE profiles. The bioactive properties of the resultant hydrolysates (HPHs) were accessed through ORAC, DPPḢ scavenging and ACE-inhibitory activities. The physical properties of the resultant HPHs were evaluated for their particle sizes, zeta potential and surface hydrophobicity. HT had the highest rate of caseinolytic activity at the lowest concentration (0.1 mg mL(-1)) compared to other proteases that required concentration of 100 mg mL(-1) to achieve their maximum rate of caseinolytic activity. This led to the highest degree of hydrolysis of HPIs by HT in the SDS-PAGE profiles. Among all proteases and substrates, HT resulted in the highest bioactivities (ORAC, DPPḢ scavenging and ACE-inhibitory activities) generated from alkali extracted HPI in the shortest time (2 h) compared to the other protease preparations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Angiotensin I-Converting Enzyme (ACE) Inhibitory Activity and ACE Inhibitory Peptides of Salmon (Salmo salar) Protein Hydrolysates Obtained by Human and Porcine Gastrointestinal Enzymes

    PubMed Central

    Darewicz, Małgorzata; Borawska, Justyna; Vegarud, Gerd E.; Minkiewicz, Piotr; Iwaniak, Anna

    2014-01-01

    The objectives of the present study were two-fold: first, to detect whether salmon protein fractions possess angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory properties and whether salmon proteins can release ACE inhibitory peptides during a sequential in vitro hydrolysis (with commercial porcine enzymes) and ex vivo digestion (with human gastrointestinal enzymes). Secondly, to evaluate the ACE inhibitory activity of generated hydrolysates. A two-step ex vivo and in vitro model digestion was performed to simulate the human digestion process. Salmon proteins were degraded more efficiently by porcine enzymes than by human gastrointestinal juices and sarcoplasmic proteins were digested/hydrolyzed more easily than myofibrillar proteins. The ex vivo digested myofibrillar and sarcoplasmic duodenal samples showed IC50 values (concentration required to decrease the ACE activity by 50%) of 1.06 and 2.16 mg/mL, respectively. The in vitro hydrolyzed myofibrillar and sarcoplasmic samples showed IC50 values of 0.91 and 1.04 mg/mL, respectively. Based on the results of in silico studies, it was possible to identify 9 peptides of the ex vivo hydrolysates and 7 peptides of the in vitro hydrolysates of salmon proteins of 11 selected peptides. In both types of salmon hydrolysates, ACE-inhibitory peptides IW, IY, TVY and VW were identified. In the in vitro salmon protein hydrolysates an ACE-inhibitory peptides VPW and VY were also detected, while ACE-inhibitory peptides ALPHA, IVY and IWHHT were identified in the hydrolysates generated with ex vivo digestion. In our studies, we documented ACE inhibitory in vitro effects of salmon protein hydrolysates obtained by human and as well as porcine gastrointestinal enzymes. PMID:25123137

  11. Angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory activity and ACE inhibitory peptides of salmon (Salmo salar) protein hydrolysates obtained by human and porcine gastrointestinal enzymes.

    PubMed

    Darewicz, Małgorzata; Borawska, Justyna; Vegarud, Gerd E; Minkiewicz, Piotr; Iwaniak, Anna

    2014-08-13

    The objectives of the present study were two-fold: first, to detect whether salmon protein fractions possess angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory properties and whether salmon proteins can release ACE inhibitory peptides during a sequential in vitro hydrolysis (with commercial porcine enzymes) and ex vivo digestion (with human gastrointestinal enzymes). Secondly, to evaluate the ACE inhibitory activity of generated hydrolysates. A two-step ex vivo and in vitro model digestion was performed to simulate the human digestion process. Salmon proteins were degraded more efficiently by porcine enzymes than by human gastrointestinal juices and sarcoplasmic proteins were digested/hydrolyzed more easily than myofibrillar proteins. The ex vivo digested myofibrillar and sarcoplasmic duodenal samples showed IC50 values (concentration required to decrease the ACE activity by 50%) of 1.06 and 2.16 mg/mL, respectively. The in vitro hydrolyzed myofibrillar and sarcoplasmic samples showed IC50 values of 0.91 and 1.04 mg/mL, respectively. Based on the results of in silico studies, it was possible to identify 9 peptides of the ex vivo hydrolysates and 7 peptides of the in vitro hydrolysates of salmon proteins of 11 selected peptides. In both types of salmon hydrolysates, ACE-inhibitory peptides IW, IY, TVY and VW were identified. In the in vitro salmon protein hydrolysates an ACE-inhibitory peptides VPW and VY were also detected, while ACE-inhibitory peptides ALPHA, IVY and IWHHT were identified in the hydrolysates generated with ex vivo digestion. In our studies, we documented ACE inhibitory in vitro effects of salmon protein hydrolysates obtained by human and as well as porcine gastrointestinal enzymes.

  12. Fish protein hydrolysates: application in deep-fried food and food safety analysis.

    PubMed

    He, Shan; Franco, Christopher; Zhang, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Four different processes (enzymatic, microwave-intensified enzymatic, chemical, and microwave-intensified chemical) were used to produce fish protein hydrolysates (FPH) from Yellowtail Kingfish for food applications. In this study, the production yield and oil-binding capacity of FPH produced from different processes were evaluated. Microwave intensification significantly increased the production yields of enzymatic process from 42% to 63%. It also increased the production yields of chemical process from 87% to 98%. The chemical process and microwave-intensified chemical process produced the FPH with low oil-binding capacity (8.66 g oil/g FPH and 6.25 g oil/g FPH), whereas the microwave-intensified enzymatic process produced FPH with the highest oil-binding capacity (16.4 g oil/g FPH). The FPH from the 4 processes were applied in the formulation of deep-fried battered fish and deep-fried fish cakes. The fat uptake of deep-fried battered fish can be reduced significantly from about 7% to about 4.5% by replacing 1% (w/w) batter powder with FPH, and the fat uptake of deep-fried fish cakes can be significantly reduced from about 11% to about 1% by replacing 1% (w/w) fish mince with FPH. Food safety tests of the FPH produced by these processes demonstrated that the maximum proportion of FPH that can be safely used in food formulation is 10%, due to its high content of histamine. This study demonstrates the value of FPH to the food industry and bridges the theoretical studies with the commercial applications of FPH.

  13. Shrimp Protein Hydrolysate Modulates the Timing of Proinflammatory Macrophages in Bupivacaine-Injured Skeletal Muscles in Rats.

    PubMed

    Dort, Junio; Leblanc, Nadine; Bryl, Piotr; Fortin, Marie-Gil; Carbonneau, Marie-Elise; Lavigne, Charles; Jacques, Hélène

    2016-01-01

    This study was designed to determine whether marine-derived proteins other than cod could have beneficial effects on inflammation following muscle injury. Macrophage and neutrophil densities were measured from bupivacaine-injured tibialis anterior muscle of rats fed isoenergetic diets containing either shrimp hydrolysate (Shr), casein hydrolysate (CaH), or whole casein (Ca). In this study, Shr reduced ED(1+)-macrophages at day 2 (p = 0.013), day 5 (p = 0.006), and day 14 after injury (p = 0.038) compared with Ca, indicating faster resolution of inflammation in Shr. Except for day 2 after injury where Shr led to lower ED(1+)-macrophages compared with CaH (p = 0.006), both Shr and CaH responded similarly at days 5, 14, and 28 after injury. This findings suggest that beneficial effects of Shr on ED(1+)-cells might be related to generation of anti-inflammatory peptides through the hydrolysis process, in addition to its high content of anti-inflammatory amino acids. However, while increasing myofiber cross-sectional area in noninjured muscles compared with both Ca and CaH, Shr failed to have a positive effect in corresponding injured muscles. These data indicate that shrimp hydrolysate can facilitate resolution of inflammation after muscle injury mainly through modulating proinflammatory macrophage accumulation but have less effect on optimal recovery in terms of muscle mass and fiber size.

  14. Treating cow's milk protein allergy: a double-blind randomized trial comparing two extensively hydrolysed formulas with probiotics.

    PubMed

    Vandenplas, Yvan; Steenhout, Philippe; Planoudis, Yannis; Grathwohl, Dominik

    2013-10-01

    The treatment for cow's milk protein allergy (CMPA) is a diet with an extensive hydrolysate. This study aimed to determine whether a whey (eWH) or casein hydrolysate (eCH) is the best option. Infants with suspected CMPA were treated with an eWH or eCH, and efficacy was assessed with a symptom-based score developed by the authors. Diagnosis of CMPA was based on a positive challenge. If positive, the same eHF/eCH was continued. If negative, a standard starter and follow-up formula were given up to the age of 12 months. An open challenge was performed on 85/116 (73%) infants suspected of CMPA on clinical grounds and was positive in 59/85 (69%). After 1 month, the symptom-based scores in both groups showed significant statistical and clinical reductions, and total and specific IgE and skin prick test results were similar. Both hydrolysates were enriched with probiotics, which were recovered in the gastrointestinal flora. The eWH-Standard Formula sequence led to better growth at the age of 1 year than the other three feeding regimens tested. The eWH and eCH are equally effective. The symptom-based score is a useful tool to evaluate the efficacy of dietary treatment in infants with CMPA. ©2013 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Shrimp Protein Hydrolysate Modulates the Timing of Proinflammatory Macrophages in Bupivacaine-Injured Skeletal Muscles in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Leblanc, Nadine; Bryl, Piotr; Fortin, Marie-Gil; Carbonneau, Marie-Elise; Lavigne, Charles

    2016-01-01

    This study was designed to determine whether marine-derived proteins other than cod could have beneficial effects on inflammation following muscle injury. Macrophage and neutrophil densities were measured from bupivacaine-injured tibialis anterior muscle of rats fed isoenergetic diets containing either shrimp hydrolysate (Shr), casein hydrolysate (CaH), or whole casein (Ca). In this study, Shr reduced ED1+-macrophages at day 2 (p = 0.013), day 5 (p = 0.006), and day 14 after injury (p = 0.038) compared with Ca, indicating faster resolution of inflammation in Shr. Except for day 2 after injury where Shr led to lower ED1+-macrophages compared with CaH (p = 0.006), both Shr and CaH responded similarly at days 5, 14, and 28 after injury. This findings suggest that beneficial effects of Shr on ED1+-cells might be related to generation of anti-inflammatory peptides through the hydrolysis process, in addition to its high content of anti-inflammatory amino acids. However, while increasing myofiber cross-sectional area in noninjured muscles compared with both Ca and CaH, Shr failed to have a positive effect in corresponding injured muscles. These data indicate that shrimp hydrolysate can facilitate resolution of inflammation after muscle injury mainly through modulating proinflammatory macrophage accumulation but have less effect on optimal recovery in terms of muscle mass and fiber size. PMID:27868064

  16. Ingestion of whey hydrolysate, casein, or soy protein isolate: effects on mixed muscle protein synthesis at rest and following resistance exercise in young men.

    PubMed

    Tang, Jason E; Moore, Daniel R; Kujbida, Gregory W; Tarnopolsky, Mark A; Phillips, Stuart M

    2009-09-01

    This study was designed to compare the acute response of mixed muscle protein synthesis (MPS) to rapidly (i.e., whey hydrolysate and soy) and slowly (i.e., micellar casein) digested proteins both at rest and after resistance exercise. Three groups of healthy young men (n = 6 per group) performed a bout of unilateral leg resistance exercise followed by the consumption of a drink containing an equivalent content of essential amino acids (10 g) as either whey hydrolysate, micellar casein, or soy protein isolate. Mixed MPS was determined by a primed constant infusion of l-[ring-(13)C(6)]phenylalanine. Ingestion of whey protein resulted in a larger increase in blood essential amino acid, branched-chain amino acid, and leucine concentrations than either casein or soy (P < 0.05). Mixed MPS at rest (determined in the nonexercised leg) was higher with ingestion of faster proteins (whey = 0.091 +/- 0.015, soy = 0.078 +/- 0.014, casein = 0.047 +/- 0.008%/h); MPS after consumption of whey was approximately 93% greater than casein (P < 0.01) and approximately 18% greater than soy (P = 0.067). A similar result was observed after exercise (whey > soy > casein); MPS following whey consumption was approximately 122% greater than casein (P < 0.01) and 31% greater than soy (P < 0.05). MPS was also greater with soy consumption at rest (64%) and following resistance exercise (69%) compared with casein (both P < 0.01). We conclude that the feeding-induced simulation of MPS in young men is greater after whey hydrolysate or soy protein consumption than casein both at rest and after resistance exercise; moreover, despite both being fast proteins, whey hydrolysate stimulated MPS to a greater degree than soy after resistance exercise. These differences may be related to how quickly the proteins are digested (i.e., fast vs. slow) or possibly to small differences in leucine content of each protein.

  17. Properties of Cast Films Made from Different Ratios of Whey Protein Isolate, Hydrolysed Whey Protein Isolate and Glycerol

    PubMed Central

    Schmid, Markus

    2013-01-01

    Whey protein isolate (WPI)-based cast films are very brittle, due to several chain interactions caused by a large amount of different functional groups. In order to overcome film brittleness, plasticizers, like glycerol, are commonly used. As a result of adding plasticizers, the free volume between the polymer chains increases, leading to higher permeability values. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of partially substituting glycerol by hydrolysed whey protein isolate (h-WPI) in WPI-based cast films on their mechanical, optical and barrier properties. As recently published by the author, it is proven that increasing the h-WPI content in WPI-based films at constant glycerol concentrations significantly increases film flexibility, while maintaining the barrier properties. The present study considered these facts in order to increase the barrier performance, while maintaining film flexibility. Therefore glycerol was partially replaced by h-WPI in WPI-based cast films. The results clearly indicate that partially replacing glycerol by h-WPI reduces the oxygen permeability and the water vapor transmission rate, while the mechanical properties did not change significantly. Thus, film flexibility was maintained, even though the plasticizer concentration was decreased. PMID:28811434

  18. Determination of Free-Form and Peptide Bound Pyrraline in the Commercial Drinks Enriched with Different Protein Hydrolysates

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Zhili; Li, Lin; Qi, Haiping; Zhang, Xia; Xu, Zhenbo; Li, Bing

    2016-01-01

    Pyrraline, a causative factor for the recent epidemics of diabetes and cardiovascular disease, is also employed as an indicator to evaluate heat damage and formation of advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) in foods. Peptide-enriched drinks (PEDs) are broadly consumed worldwide due to rapid rate of absorption and perceived health effects. It can be hypothesized that PED is an important source of pyrraline, especially peptide bound pyrraline (Pep-Pyr). In this study we determined free-form pyrraline (Free-Pyr) and Pep-Pyr in drinks enriched with whey protein hydrolysate (WPH), soy protein hydrolysate (SPH) and collagen protein hydrolysate (CPH). A detection method was developed using ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography with UV-visible detector coupled with tandem mass spectrometry after solid-phase extraction (SPE). The SPE led to excellent recovery rates ranging between 93.2% and 98.5% and a high reproducibility with relative standard deviations (RSD) of <5%. The limits of detection and quantification obtained were 30.4 and 70.3 ng/mL, respectively. Pep-Pyr was identified as the most abundant form (above 96 percent) of total pyrraline, whereas Free-Pyr was present in a small proportion (less than four percent) of total pyrraline. The results indicate that PED is an important extrinsic source of pyrraline, especially Pep-Pyr. As compared with CPH- and SPH-enriched drinks, WPH-enriched drinks contained high content of Pep-Pyr. The Pep-Pyr content is associated with the distribution of peptide lengths and the amino acid compositions of protein in PEDs. PMID:27384561

  19. Antioxidant properties of salmon (Salmo salar L.) protein fraction hydrolysates revealed following their ex vivo digestion and in vitro hydrolysis.

    PubMed

    Borawska, Justyna; Darewicz, Małgorzata; Pliszka, Monika; Vegarud, Gerd E

    2016-06-01

    Salmon (Salmo salar L.) myofibryllar protein (MP) and sarcoplasmic protein (SP) were digested with human gastric and duodenal juices and hydrolysed in vitro with commercial pepsin and Corolase PP. The digestion after duodenal juice/Corolase PP caused almost complete breakdown of peptide bonds in MP and SP. The DPPH(•) scavenging activity of proteins decreased during both ex vivo digestion and in vitro hydrolysis. The highest value of DPPH(•) scavenging activity was shown for the gastric digest of SP (8.88 ± 0.87%). The ABTS(+•) scavenging activity of MP and SP increased during digestion/hydrolysis. The duodenal digest of SP was characterised by the highest value of ABTS(+•) scavenging activity (72.7 ± 1.2%). In turn, the highest value of ferric-reducing power was determined for the gastric digest of SP (84.8 ± 0.2%). Salmon antioxidant peptides Phe-Ile-Lys-Lys, His-Leu, Ile-Tyr, Pro-His-Leu, Pro-Trp, Val-Pro-Trp were identified in both ex vivo digested and in vitro hydrolysed MP and SP. An antioxidant peptide, Val-Tyr, was additionally detected in the in vitro hydrolysate of SP. The results indicate the salmon myofibrillar and sarcoplasmic protein fractions as potential sources of antioxidant peptides that could be released in the gastrointestinal tract but their amino acid sequence and quantification vary. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  20. Ingestion of a protein hydrolysate is accompanied by an accelerated in vivo digestion and absorption rate when compared with its intact protein.

    PubMed

    Koopman, René; Crombach, Nico; Gijsen, Annemie P; Walrand, Stéphane; Fauquant, Jacques; Kies, Arie K; Lemosquet, Sophie; Saris, Wim H M; Boirie, Yves; van Loon, Luc J C

    2009-07-01

    It has been suggested that a protein hydrolysate, as opposed to its intact protein, is more easily digested and absorbed from the gut, which results in greater plasma amino acid availability and a greater muscle protein synthetic response. We aimed to compare dietary protein digestion and absorption kinetics and the subsequent muscle protein synthetic response to the ingestion of a single bolus of protein hydrolysate compared with its intact protein in vivo in humans. Ten elderly men (mean +/- SEM age: 64 +/- 1 y) were randomly assigned to a crossover experiment that involved 2 treatments in which the subjects consumed a 35-g bolus of specifically produced L-[1-(13)C]phenylalanine-labeled intact casein (CAS) or hydrolyzed casein (CASH). Blood and muscle-tissue samples were collected to assess the appearance rate of dietary protein-derived phenylalanine in the circulation and subsequent muscle protein fractional synthetic rate over a 6-h postprandial period. The mean (+/-SEM) exogenous phenylalanine appearance rate was 27 +/- 6% higher after ingestion of CASH than after ingestion of CAS (P < 0.001). Splanchnic extraction was significantly lower in CASH compared with CAS treatment (P < 0.01). Plasma amino acid concentrations increased to a greater extent (25-50%) after the ingestion of CASH than after the ingestion of CAS (P < 0.01). Muscle protein synthesis rates averaged 0.054 +/- 0.004% and 0.068 +/- 0.006%/h in the CAS and CASH treatments, respectively (P = 0.10). Ingestion of a protein hydrolysate, as opposed to its intact protein, accelerates protein digestion and absorption from the gut, augments postprandial amino acid availability, and tends to increase the incorporation rate of dietary amino acids into skeletal muscle protein.

  1. Whey protein hydrolysate enhances HSP90 but does not alter HSP60 and HSP25 in skeletal muscle of rats.

    PubMed

    Moura, Carolina Soares; Lollo, Pablo Christiano Barboza; Morato, Priscila Neder; Nisishima, Luciana Hisayama; Carneiro, Everardo Magalhães; Amaya-Farfan, Jaime

    2014-01-01

    Whey protein hydrolysate (WPH) intake has shown to increase HSP70 expression. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether WPH intake would also influences HSP90, HSP60 and HSP25 expression, as well as associated parameters. Forty-eight male Wistar rats were divided into sedentary (unstressed) and exercised (stressed) groups, and were fed with three different sources of protein: whey protein (WP), whey protein hydrolysate (WPH) and casein (CAS) as a control, based on the AIN93G diet for 3 weeks. WPH intake increased HSP90 expression in both sedentary and exercised animals compared to WP or CAS, however no alteration was found from exercise or diet to HSP60 or HSP25. Co-chaperone Aha1 and p-HSF1 were also increased in the exercised animals fed with WPH in comparison with WP or CAS, consistent with enhanced HSP90 expression. VEGF and p-AKT were increased in the WPH exercised group. No alteration was found in BCKDH, PI3-Kinase (p85), GFAT, OGT or PGC for diet or exercise. The antioxidant system GPx, catalase and SOD showed different responses to diet and exercise. The data indicate that WPH intake enhanced factors related to cell survival, such as HSP90 and VEGF, but does not alter HSP60 or HSP25 in rat skeletal muscle.

  2. Purification and characterisation of a glutamic acid-containing peptide with calcium-binding capacity from whey protein hydrolysate.

    PubMed

    Huang, Shun-Li; Zhao, Li-Na; Cai, Xixi; Wang, Shao-Yun; Huang, Yi-Fan; Hong, Jing; Rao, Ping-Fan

    2015-02-01

    The bioavailability of dietary ionised calcium is affected by intestinal basic environment. Calcium-binding peptides can form complexes with calcium to improve its absorption and bioavailability. The aim of this study was focused on isolation and characterisation of a calcium-binding peptide from whey protein hydrolysates. Whey protein was hydrolysed using Flavourzyme and Protamex with substrate to enzyme ratio of 25:1 (w/w) at 49 °C for 7 h. The calcium-binding peptide was isolated by DEAE anion-exchange chromatography, Sephadex G-25 gel filtration and reversed phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC). A purified peptide of molecular mass 204 Da with strong calcium binding ability was identified on chromatography/electrospray ionisation (LC/ESI) tandem mass spectrum to be Glu-Gly (EG) after analysis and alignment in database. The calcium binding capacity of EG reached 67·81 μg/mg, and the amount increased by 95% compared with whey protein hydrolysate complex. The UV and infrared spectrometer analysis demonstrated that the principal sites of calcium-binding corresponded to the carboxyl groups and carbonyl groups of glutamic acid. In addition, the amino group and peptide amino are also the related groups in the interaction between EG and calcium ion. Meanwhile, the sequestered calcium percentage experiment has proved that EG-Ca is significantly more stable than CaCl2 in human gastrointestinal tract in vitro. The findings suggest that the purified dipeptide has the potential to be used as ion-binding ingredient in dietary supplements.

  3. Production of bioactive peptide hydrolysates from deer, sheep, pig and cattle red blood cell fractions using plant and fungal protease preparations.

    PubMed

    Bah, Clara S F; Carne, Alan; McConnell, Michelle A; Mros, Sonya; Bekhit, Alaa El-Din A

    2016-07-01

    Protease preparations from plant (papain and bromelain) and fungal (FP400 and FPII) sources were used to hydrolyze the red blood cell fractions (RBCFs) separated from deer, sheep, pig, and cattle abattoir-sourced blood. After 1, 2, 4 and 24h of hydrolysis, the antioxidant and antibacterial activities of the peptide hydrolysates obtained were investigated. The increase in trichloroacetic acid-soluble peptides over the hydrolysis period was examined using the o-phthaldialdehyde (OPA) assay and the hydrolysis profiles were illustrated using SDS-PAGE. Papain generated RBCF hydrolysates exhibited higher ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) compared to those generated with bromelain, FP400 and FPII. At certain concentrations, 24h hydrolysates of RBCF using FP400 and FPII were able to inhibit the growth of Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The results indicated that the use of proteases from plant or fungal sources can produce animal blood hydrolysates with antioxidant and antimicrobial activities. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Efficient Absorption of X-Hydroxyproline (Hyp)-Gly after Oral Administration of a Novel Gelatin Hydrolysate Prepared Using Ginger Protease.

    PubMed

    Taga, Yuki; Kusubata, Masashi; Ogawa-Goto, Kiyoko; Hattori, Shunji

    2016-04-13

    Recent studies have reported that oral intake of gelatin hydrolysate has various beneficial effects, such as reduction of joint pain and lowering of blood sugar levels. In this study, we produced a novel gelatin hydrolysate using a cysteine-type ginger protease having unique substrate specificity with preferential peptide cleavage with Pro at the P2 position. Substantial amounts of X-hydroxyproline (Hyp)-Gly-type tripeptides were generated up to 2.5% (w/w) concomitantly with Gly-Pro-Y-type tripeptides (5%; w/w) using ginger powder. The in vivo absorption of the ginger-degraded gelatin hydrolysate was estimated using mice. The plasma levels of collagen-derived oligopeptides, especially X-Hyp-Gly, were significantly high (e.g., 2.3-fold for Glu-Hyp-Gly, p < 0.05) compared with those of the control gelatin hydrolysate, which was prepared using gastrointestinal proteases and did not contain detectable X-Hyp-Gly. This study demonstrated that orally administered X-Hyp-Gly was effectively absorbed into the blood, probably due to the high protease resistance of this type of tripeptide.

  5. The effect of a partially hydrolysed formula based on rice protein in the treatment of infants with cow’s milk protein allergy

    PubMed Central

    Reche, M; Pascual, C; Fiandor, A; Polanco, I; Rivero-Urgell, M; Chifre, R; Johnston, S; Martín-Esteban, M

    2010-01-01

    Reche M, Pascual C, Fiandor A, Polanco I, Rivero-Urgell M, Chifre R, Johnston S, Martín-Esteban M. The effect of a partially hydrolysed formula based on rice protein in the treatment of infants with cow’s milk protein allergy. Pediatr Allergy Immunol 2010: 21: 577–585. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S Infants diagnosed with allergy to cow’s milk protein (CMP) are fed extensively hydrolysed cow’s milk formulas, modified soy formulas or even amino acid-based formulas. Hydrolysed rice protein infant formulas have become available and have been shown to be well tolerated by these infants. A prospective open, randomized clinical study to compare the clinical tolerance of a new hydrolysed rice protein formula (HRPF) with an extensively hydrolysed CMP formula (EHF) in the feeding of infants with IgE-mediated cow’s milk allergy. Ninety-two infants (46 boys and 46 girls, mean age 4.3 months, range 1.1–10.1 months) diagnosed with IgE-mediated cow’s milk allergy were enrolled in the study. Clinical tolerance to the formula products was tested. Clinical evaluation included skin prick tests with whole cow’s milk, soya and rice as well as antigens of CMP (beta-lactoglobulin, alpha-lactalbumin, casein and bovine seroalbumin), HRPF and EHF and specific IgE determinations to CMP using CAP technology. Patients were randomized to receive either an EHF based on CMP or a new HRPF. Follow-up was at 3, 6, 12, 18 and 24 months. Growth parameters were measured at each visit. One infant showed immediate allergic reaction to EHF, but no reaction was shown by any infant in the HRPF group. The number of infants who did not become tolerant to CMP during the study was not statistically different between the two groups. Measurement of IgE levels of infants allergic to CMP during the study showed no significant differences between the two formula groups. Growth parameters were in the normal range and similar between groups. In this study, the HRPF was well tolerated by infants with

  6. Effect of the Protein Hydrolysate from Shrimp Head on Freeze-Induced Denaturation of Fish Myofibrillar Protein

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruttanapornvareesakul, Yaowalux; Hara, Kenji; Osatomi, Kiyoshi; Nozaki, Yukinori; Osako, Kazufumi; Kongpun, Orawan

    Three species of shrimp heads from commercial industry waste were hydrolyzed by enzymatic treatment using protease. Shrimp head protein hydrolysate (SHPH) was added to wanieso lizardfish myofibrils at 5% (dry weight/wet weight) as natural cryoprotectant. The effects of SHPH on the state of water and the freeze denaturation of wanieso lizardfish myotibrils during frozen storage at-25°C were evaluated by determining the amount of unfreezable water and Ca-ATPase activity. Their effects were compared with those of sodium glutamate (Na-Glu) and without additive as the control. The amount of unfreezable water of myofibri1s with SHPH was higher than that of the control throughout the frozen storage for 120 days. Ca-ATPase activity of myofibrils with SHPH decreased slowly compared to that of the control, although the suppressive effects of SHPH were less than that of Na-Glu. The suppressive effects of SHPH were irrespective of shrimp species. Close correlation between the amount of unfreezable water and Ca-ATPase activity was observed. These results suggested that SHPH could prevent the freeze-induced denaturation of fish myofibrils during frozen storage by stabilizing hydration water surrounding myofibrils.

  7. Whey protein hydrolysate and branched-chain amino acids downregulate inflammation-related genes in vascular endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Da Silva, Marine S; Bigo, Cyril; Barbier, Olivier; Rudkowska, Iwona

    2017-02-01

    A recent review of clinical studies reports that dairy products may improve inflammation, a key etiologic cardiovascular disease risk factor. Yet the impact of dairy proteins on inflammatory markers is controversial and could be mediated by a differential impact of whey proteins and caseins. In this study, we hypothesized that whey proteins may have a greater anti-inflammatory effect than caseins. A model of human umbilical vein endothelial cells, with or without TNF-α stimulation, was used to investigate the effect of several dairy protein compounds on inflammation. Specifically, the impact of whey proteins either isolate or hydrolysate, caseins, and their amino acids on expression of TNF, VCAM-1, SOD2, and eNOS was examined. After a 24-hour incubation period, whey protein hydrolysate, leucine, isoleucine, and valine attenuated the TNF-α-induced endothelial inflammation by normalizing TNF and eNOS gene expression. This effect was not observed in unstimulated cells. Oppositely, caseins, a whey protein/casein mixture (1:4 w/w), and glutamine aggravated the TNF-α-induced TNF and SOD2 gene expression. Yet caseins and whey protein/casein mixture decreased VCAM-1 expression in both unstimulated and stimulated human umbilical vein endothelial cells. Measurement of TNF-α in cell supernatants by immunoassay substantiates gene expression data without reaching statistical significance. Taken together, this study showed that whey proteins and their major amino acids normalize TNF-α-induced proinflammatory gene expression in endothelial cells. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. [Complex of zinc with enzymatic hydrolysate of pigspleen protein - in vivo investigation].

    PubMed

    Zorin, S N; Sidorova, Iu S; Zilova, I S; Mazo, V K

    2014-01-01

    Experimental sample of complex zinc with enzymatic hydrolysate of pigspleen protein (Zn-EHPS) was produced in laboratory with ultra- and nanofiltration technologies; its composition was analyzed; male rats Wister (initial body weight 132±2,4 g) were under observation in vivo: rats weregiven zinc-deficient ration (ZDR) "Zinc Deficient Diet, Egg White Base", containing not more than 1,3 mg zinc/kg, and water ad libitum during 18 days. Animals were divided into 3 groups (10 in each): group I was given ZDR and distilled water; group 2 - ZDR and water zinc sulphate solution (ZnSO4) with zinc concentration of 16,3 mcg/ml; group 3 - ZDR and water Zn-EHPS solution with zinc concentration of 16,3 mcg/ml. All rats were daily observed with registration of water consumption. Unconditioned reflex (photophobia) or crossing time from light to darkness on special system before the beginning of experiment was tested out. An increase of body weight (ΔW) during the experiment, unconditioned reflex stability and training to conditioned passive avoidance reflex (CPAR) after paw painful electric stimulation were studied. On 18 day in 16 hours after paw painful electric stimulation alkaline phosphatase activity (AP) and corticosterone concentration in rat blood serum were examined. Insignificant changes in distribution of peptide fractions according its molecular mass and practical complete remove of free metal ions from final product were observed when Zn-EHPS-technology were used. During experiment in all groups correspondently ΔW was 23,87 and 82% (p<0,05); AP activity - 1,70±0,06; 3,10±0,25; 4,19± 0,26 mcmol/l/s (p<0,01); corticosterone concentration - 20,7±7,2; 21,5±6,3; 22,1±16,5 ng/ml (p>0,1) were observed. Significant (p<0,05) worse change of unconditioned reflex (photophobia) in group 1 (ZDR) in comparison with group 2 and group 3 (latent period - LP, s: 50,9±12,0; 18,2±16,0; 16,0±4,2) as well as to initial test (LP, s - 16,8±8,0) was found on the 14th day of the

  9. [Preparative isolation of tri-, tetra-, penta- and hexapyrimidine nucleotides from hydrolysates of depurinated herring sperm DNA (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Schott, H

    1979-04-21

    The pyrimidine nucleotides p(dC)3p, p(dT)3p and p(dT)4p and mixtures of the sequence isomers p(dC3, dT), (dC3, dT)p; p(dC3, dT)p; p(dC2, dT2)p; p(dC, dT3)p; p(dC3, dT2)p; p(dC2, dT3); p(dC2, dT3)p; p(dC, dT4)p; p(dC4, dT2); p(dC3, dT3); p(dC3, dT3)p and p(dC2, dT4)p have been isolated on a preparative scale from hydrolysates of depurinated herring sperm DNA. The DNA hydrolysate is first separated into a high- and a low-molecular weight pyrimidine nucleotide mixture by column chromatography at pH 7.5 on DEAE-cellulose. The high-molecular-weight pyrimidine nucleotide mixture is further separated into four peaks on QAE-Sephadex at pH 7.5. The second peak is re-chromatographed on QAE-Sephadex at pH 3.5. Pyrimidine nucleotides containing predominantly cytidylic acid units may thus be separated from these with predominantly thymidylic acid units. Subsequent separation according to number of phosphate groups at pH 7.5 on QAE-Sephadex yields products of 70--93% purity. In a final separation step, the pyrimidine nucleotides and mixtures of sequence isomers are once again chromatographed on QAE-Sephadex with 7 M urea at pH 7.5. The products thus obtained are generally chromatographically pure. Impurities which are not fully removed by column chromatography are separated by paper chromatography. The structure of the isolated DNA fragments and the composition of the mixtures of sequence isomers are determined from the chromatographic data, absorption characteristics and by enzymatic degradation.

  10. Antioxidative activity and protective effect against ethanol-induced gastric mucosal damage of a potato protein hydrolysate.

    PubMed

    Kudoh, Katsuhiro; Matsumoto, Megumi; Onodera, Shuichi; Takeda, Yasuyuki; Ando, Kouichi; Shiomi, Norio

    2003-12-01

    Antioxidative activity and protective effect against ethanol-induced gastric mucosal damage of potato protein hydrolysate (potato peptides, Po-P) were studied in vitro and in vivo. The Po-P obtained by proteolysis with Amano P and pancreatin inhibited linoleic acid oxidation either by 83%, at its coexistent 0.005% in a ferric thiocyanate assay system or by 32% at its coexistent 0.0002% in a beta-carotene decolorization assay system. Meanwhile Po-P were orally administered to male Wistar rats at doses of 12.5-100 mg/kg of body weight (BW) 30 min prior to ethanol injection. Consequently the ethanol-induced gastric damage was significantly reduced in a dose-dependent manner in the Po-P administered rat. The highest effect was observed in the group dosed with 100 mg Po-P/kg BW; the inhibition ratio was 69.6%. The extent of antioxidation or protection against ethanol-induced gastritis was quite similar to those of the respective peptides from casein, corn protein and ovalbumin, suggesting that the potato protein hydrolysate could serve as a useful food ingredient in practical eating habits.

  11. Short communication: Casein hydrolysate and whey proteins as excipients for cyanocobalamin to increase intestinal absorption in the lactating dairy cow.

    PubMed

    Artegoitia, V M; de Veth, M J; Harte, F; Ouellet, D R; Girard, C L

    2015-11-01

    Bioavailability of vitamin B12 is low in humans and animals. Improving vitamin B12 absorption is important for optimal performance in dairy cows and for increasing vitamin B12 concentrations in milk for human consumption. However, when supplemented in the diet, 80% of synthetic vitamin B12, cyanocobalamin (CN-CBL), is degraded in the rumen of dairy cows and only 25% of the amount escaping destruction in the rumen disappears from the small intestine between the duodenal and ileal cannulas. In pigs, vitamin B12 from milk is more efficiently absorbed than synthetic CN-CBL. The objective of this study was to determine the efficacy of casein hydrolysate and whey proteins as excipients for CN-CBL to increase portal-drained viscera (PDV) flux of the vitamin in lactating dairy cows. Four multiparous lactating Holstein cows (237 ± 17 DIM) equipped with a rumen cannula and catheters in the portal vein and a mesenteric artery were used in a randomized Youden square design. They were fed every 2 h to maintain steady digesta flow. On experimental days, they received a postruminal bolus of (1) CN-CBL alone (0.1 g), (2) CN-CBL (0.1 g) + casein hydrolysate (10 g), or (3) CN-CBL (0.1 g) + whey proteins (10 g). Starting 30 min after the bolus, blood samples were taken simultaneously from the 2 catheters every 15 min during the first 2 h and then every 2 h until 24 h postbolus. Milk yield, DMI, and vitamin B12 portal-arterial difference and PDV flux were analyzed using the MIXED procedure of SAS. Milk yield and DMI were not affected by treatments. The portal-arterial difference of vitamin B12 during the 24-h period following the bolus of vitamin was greater when the vitamin was given in solution with casein hydrolysate (2.9 ± 4.6 pg/mL) than alone (-17.5 ± 5.2 pg/mL) or with whey protein (-13.4 ± 4.2 pg/mL). The treatment effects were similar for the PDV flux. The present results suggest that CN-CBL given with casein hydrolysate increases vitamin B12 absorption as compared with

  12. Novel antioxidative peptides from the protein hydrolysate of oysters (Crassostrea talienwhanensis).

    PubMed

    Wang, Qiukuan; Li, Wei; He, Yunhai; Ren, Dandan; Kow, Felicia; Song, Linlin; Yu, Xingju

    2014-02-15

    The antioxidative activity of hydrolysate peptides from oysters (Crassostrea talienwhanensis) was investigated. After hydrolysis with subtilisin, the yields of the peptides that were soluble in trichloroacetic acid (TCA-soluble) and the antioxidant activities of the resulting hydrolysate were determined using an orthogonal design and a hydroxyl radical scavenging reaction. The hydrolysate was fractionated using Sephadex G-15 gel filtration chromatography, and the two resulting bioactive peptides were subsequently purified by RP-HPLC with a Kromasil C18 (ODS) column. The amino acid sequences were analyzed by nano-ESI-MS/MS. The critical reaction temperature, pH, hydrolysis time and enzyme-to-substrate (E/S) ratio were determined for the optimum hydrolysis with subtilisin, and the E/S ratio was found to be the most critical reaction condition. The amino acid sequences of the peptides (518 and 440 Da) were proline-valine-methionine-glycine-aspartic acid (PVMGA) and glutamine-histidine-glycine-valine (QHGV), respectively. These two novel peptides exhibited high antioxidative actions based on their hydroxyl and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activities. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Effect of salmon protein hydrolysate and spray-dried plasma protein on growth performance of weanling pigs.

    PubMed

    Tucker, J L; Naranjo, V D; Bidner, T D; Southern, L L

    2011-05-01

    Two experiments, each consisting of 2 trials, were conducted to determine the effect of salmon protein hydrolysate (SPH) and spray-dried plasma protein (SDPP) fed during the first week postweaning and their subsequent effect on the growth performance of weanling pigs. Pigs were fed in a 3-phase feeding program with durations of 7 d for phase 1 in both Exp. 1 and 2; 14 or 15 d for phase 2 in Exp. 1 and 2, respectively; and 7 or 8 d for phase 3 in Exp. 1 and 2, respectively. Dietary treatments were fed only during phase 1, whereas the same diet was fed to all pigs in phases 2 and 3. Pigs were blocked by initial BW and sex, and littermates were balanced across treatments. Data from the 2 trials within each experiment were combined and analyzed together; no treatment × trial interactions (P > 0.10) were observed. In Exp. 1, a total of 324 weanling pigs (10 replications of 5 or 6 pigs per pen) with an average initial BW of 6.4 ± 1.3 kg were assigned to 1) a control diet with no SPH or SDPP, 2) 1.5% SPH, 3) 3.0% SPH, 4) 1.5% SDPP, 5) 3.0% SDPP, or 6) 1.5% SPH + 1.5% SDPP. Experiment 2 was similar to Exp. 1, but red blood cells were removed from all diets to reduce diet complexity. In Exp. 2, weanling pigs (n = 320, 14 replications of 5 or 6 pigs per pen) with an average initial BW of 5.4 ± 1.2 kg were assigned to 1) a control diet with no SPH or SDPP, 2) 1.5% SPH, 3) 1.5% SDPP, or 4) 1.5% SPH + 1.5% SDPP. Three batches of SPH were used, and each batch was analyzed for AA composition. In Exp. 1, the inclusion of SDPP or SPH during phase 1 did not affect (P > 0.10) ADG, ADFI, or G:F compared with those of pigs fed the control diet. No carryover effects on growth performance were observed in any of the subsequent phases. Overall, G:F was greater (P = 0.08) in pigs fed the 1.5% diets compared with those fed the 3.0% diets. In Exp. 2, no differences (P > 0.10) were observed in ADG, ADFI, or G:F among pigs fed the SPH or SDPP diets compared with those of pigs fed the

  14. Comparison of the colloidal stability, bioaccessibility and antioxidant activity of corn protein hydrolysate and sodium caseinate stabilized curcumin nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yong-Hui; Yuan, Yang; Yang, Xiao-Quan; Wang, Jin-Mei; Guo, Jian; Lin, Yuan

    2016-07-01

    The aims of this work were to construct corn protein hydrolysate (CPH)-based curcumin nanoparticles (Cur NPs) and to compare the colloidal stability, bioaccessibility and antioxidant activity of the Cur NPs stabilized CPH and sodium caseinate (NaCas) respectively. The results indicated that Cur solubility could be considerably improved after the Cur NPs fabrication. The spectroscopy results demonstrated that the solubilization of Cur should be attributed to its complexation with CPH or NaCas. The Cur NPs exhibited good colloidal stability after 1 week's storage but showed smaller (40 nm) size in CPH than in NaCas (100 nm). After lyophilization, the Cur NPs powders showed good rehydration properties and chemical stability, and compared with NaCas, the size of Cur NPs stabilized by CPH was still smaller. Additionally, the Cur NPs exhibited higher chemical stability against the temperature compared with free Cur, and the CPH could protect Cur from degradation more efficiently. Comparing with NaCas, the Cur NPs stabilized by CPH exhibited better bioaccessibility and antioxidant activity. This study demonstrated that CPH may be better than NaCas in Cur NPs fabrication and it opens up the possibility of using hydrophobic protein hydrolysate to construct the NPs delivery system.

  15. Anticancer Activity of a Hexapeptide from Skate (Raja porosa) Cartilage Protein Hydrolysate in HeLa Cells.

    PubMed

    Pan, Xin; Zhao, Yu-Qin; Hu, Fa-Yuan; Chi, Chang-Feng; Wang, Bin

    2016-08-16

    In this study, the hexapeptide Phe-Ile-Met-Gly-Pro-Tyr (FIMGPY), which has a molecular weight of 726.9 Da, was separated from skate (Raja porosa) cartilage protein hydrolysate using ultrafiltration and chromatographic methods, and its anticancer activity was evaluated in HeLa cells. Methylthiazolyldiphenyl-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay indicated that FIMGPY exhibited high, dose-dependent anti-proliferation activities in HeLa cells with an IC50 of 4.81 mg/mL. Acridine orange/ethidium bromide (AO/EB) fluorescence staining and flow cytometry methods confirmed that FIMGPY could inhibit HeLa cell proliferation by inducing apoptosis. Western blot assay revealed that the Bax/Bcl-2 ratio and relative intensity of caspase-3 in HeLa cells treated with 7-mg/mL FIMGPY were 2.63 and 1.83, respectively, significantly higher than those of the blank control (p < 0.01). Thus, FIMGPY could induce apoptosis by upregulating the Bax/Bcl-2 ratio and caspase-3 activation. Using a DNA ladder method further confirmed that the anti-proliferation activity of FIMGPY was attributable to its role in inducing apoptosis. These results suggest that FIMGPY from skate cartilage protein hydrolysate may have applications as functional foods and nutraceuticals for the treatment and prevention of cancer.

  16. Purification and characterization of novel antioxidant peptides of different molecular weights from mackerel Pneumatophorus japonicus protein hydrolysate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xueqin; Xing, Ronge; Liu, Song; Yu, Huahua; Li, Kecheng; Chen, Zuoyuan; Li, Pengcheng

    2015-01-01

    Mackerel ( Pneumatophorus japonic u s) proteins were hydrolyzed by five proteases: trypsin, papain, neutrase, acid protease, and flavourzyme. The hydrolysate treated by neutrase exhibited the highest antioxidant activity. Response surface methodology (RSM) was employed to optimize the hydrolysis conditions in an effort to obtain a mackerel protein hydrolysate (MPH) with the highest DPPH radical scavenging activity. The MPH was fractioned using a series of ultrafiltration membranes and five fractions, namely, MPH-I (>10 kDa), MPH-II (10-2.5 kDa), MPH-III (1-2.5 kDa), MPH-IV (0.4-1 kDa), and MPH-V (below 0.4 kDa), were obtained. DPPH radical scavenging activity, reducing power, hydroxyl radical scavenging activity, and the lipid peroxidation inhibition capability of these fractions were evaluated. The fractions in molecular weights <2.5 kDa (MPH-III, MPH-IV, and MPH-V), which occupied 93.4% of the total fractions, showed the strongest antioxidant activity; and the antioxidant activities of the three fractions are similar to each other. Using SP Sephadex C-25 and Sephadex G-25 columns, eight fractions were obtained from the MPH (<2.5 kDa). The isolated peptide I (1 664 kDa) displayed the highest DPPH radical scavenging activity. Therefore, MPH is a potential source of antioxidant peptides.

  17. Supplementation with a whey protein hydrolysate enhances recovery of muscle force-generating capacity following eccentric exercise.

    PubMed

    Buckley, Jonathan D; Thomson, Rebecca L; Coates, Alison M; Howe, Peter R C; DeNichilo, Mark O; Rowney, Michelle K

    2010-01-01

    There is evidence that protein hydrolysates can speed tissue repair following damage and may therefore be useful for accelerating recovery from exercise induced muscle damage. The potential for a hydrolysate (WPI(HD)) of whey protein isolate (WPI) to speed recovery following eccentric exercise was evaluated by assessing effects on recovery of peak isometric torque (PIT). In a double-blind randomised parallel trial, 28 sedentary males had muscle soreness (MS), serum creatine kinase (CK) activity, plasma TNFalpha, and PIT assessed at baseline and after 100 maximal eccentric contractions (ECC) of their knee extensors. Participants then consumed 250 ml of flavoured water (FW; n=11), or FW containing 25 g WPI (n=11) or 25 g WPI(HD) (n=6) and the assessments were repeated 1, 2, 6 and 24h later. PIT decreased approximately 23% following ECC, remained suppressed in FW and WPI, but recovered fully in WPI(HD) by 6h (P=0.006, treatment x time interaction). MS increased following ECC (P<0.001 for time), and remained elevated with no difference between groups (P=0.61). TNFalpha and CK did not change (P>0.45). WPI(HD) may be a useful supplement for assisting athletes to recover from fatiguing eccentric exercise. Copyright (c) 2008 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Anticancer Activity of a Hexapeptide from Skate (Raja porosa) Cartilage Protein Hydrolysate in HeLa Cells

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Xin; Zhao, Yu-Qin; Hu, Fa-Yuan; Chi, Chang-Feng; Wang, Bin

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the hexapeptide Phe-Ile-Met-Gly-Pro-Tyr (FIMGPY), which has a molecular weight of 726.9 Da, was separated from skate (Raja porosa) cartilage protein hydrolysate using ultrafiltration and chromatographic methods, and its anticancer activity was evaluated in HeLa cells. Methylthiazolyldiphenyl-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay indicated that FIMGPY exhibited high, dose-dependent anti-proliferation activities in HeLa cells with an IC50 of 4.81 mg/mL. Acridine orange/ethidium bromide (AO/EB) fluorescence staining and flow cytometry methods confirmed that FIMGPY could inhibit HeLa cell proliferation by inducing apoptosis. Western blot assay revealed that the Bax/Bcl-2 ratio and relative intensity of caspase-3 in HeLa cells treated with 7-mg/mL FIMGPY were 2.63 and 1.83, respectively, significantly higher than those of the blank control (p < 0.01). Thus, FIMGPY could induce apoptosis by upregulating the Bax/Bcl-2 ratio and caspase-3 activation. Using a DNA ladder method further confirmed that the anti-proliferation activity of FIMGPY was attributable to its role in inducing apoptosis. These results suggest that FIMGPY from skate cartilage protein hydrolysate may have applications as functional foods and nutraceuticals for the treatment and prevention of cancer. PMID:27537897

  19. Experimental study showed that adding fortifier and extra-hydrolysed proteins to preterm infant mothers' milk increased osmolality.

    PubMed

    Rosas, R; Sanz, M P; Fernández-Calle, P; Alcaide, M J; Montes, M T; Pastrana, N; Segovia, C; Omeñaca, F; Sáenz de Pipaón, M

    2016-12-01

    Measuring milk osmolality after adjustable fortification is clinically relevant, as values exceeding recommended safety thresholds might result in gastrointestinal consequences. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of four fortification levels and storage time on the osmolality of human milk. This was an experimental study using 71 spare samples of fresh breastmilk collected from 31 mothers of preterm infants. Osmolality was measured before and after adding commercial human milk fortifier containing dextrinomaltose and hydrolysed proteins at four different concentrations. Measurements were performed at various points during the 23 hours after fortification. The mean basal osmolality of the 71 human milk samples was 296 ± 14 milliosmoles (mOsm)/kg, and these remained stable over a period of 23 hours. Just after fortification, the four fortified formulas showed higher osmolalities than the nonfortified human milk, ranging between 384 ± 14 and 486 ± 15 mOsm/kg, respectively (p < 0.01). This osmolality increased significantly from 20 minutes to 23 hours after fortification (p < 0.05). Adding fortifier and extra-hydrolysed proteins to human preterm milk increased osmolality, and these osmolality levels also increased with time. We recommend evaluating the risk of hyperosmolality when a higher fortification level is needed, to avoid gastrointestinal problems. ©2016 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities, functional properties and mutagenicity studies of protein and protein hydrolysate obtained from Prosopis alba seed flour.

    PubMed

    Cattaneo, Florencia; Sayago, Jorge Esteban; Alberto, María Rosa; Zampini, Iris Catiana; Ordoñez, Roxana Mabel; Chamorro, Verónica; Pazos, Adriana; Isla, María Inés

    2014-10-15

    Prosopis species are considered multipurpose trees and shrubs by FAO and their fruit constitute a food source for humans and animals. According to the "Código Alimentario Argentino", "algarrobo flour" is produced by grinding the whole mature pod, but in the traditional process most of the seeds are discarded. In this paper, the flour from seed was obtained. Then, the proteins were extracted and enzymatic hydrolysis was carried out. According to their amino acid profile and chemical score (>100%), the Prosopis alba proteins, are not deficient in essential amino acids considering the amount of amino acid necessary by adults. The protein isolate showed a good solubility (pH 7.4-9), emulsificant capacity, oil binding capacity and water adsorption capacity. The antioxidant ability of proteins was significantly increased with hydrolysis (SC50 values: 50-5μg/mL, respectively). Inhibitory activity of pro-inflammatory enzymes (lipoxygenase and phospholipase) was described. The mutagenicity/antimutagenicity of proteins and protein hydrolysates from seed flour were also analysed. The results suggest that P. alba cotyledon flour could be a new alternative in the formulation of functional foods not only for its high protein content but also by the biological and functional properties of its proteins and protein hydrolysates. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Effects of acute treatment with a tryptophan-rich protein hydrolysate on plasma amino acids, mood and emotional functioning in older women.

    PubMed

    Gibson, E L; Vargas, K; Hogan, E; Holmes, A; Rogers, P J; Wittwer, J; Kloek, J; Goralczyk, R; Mohajeri, M H

    2014-12-01

    Effective functioning of the neurotransmitter serotonin is important for optimal cognitive and emotional function. Dietary supplements able to increase availability to the brain of the precursor amino acid, tryptophan (TRP), and thereby enhance serotonin synthesis, can have measurable impact on these psychological processes. This study involves a randomised controlled trial of a TRP-rich egg-white protein hydrolysate (DSM Nutritional Products Ltd., Switzerland) on plasma amino acids, cognition, mood and emotional processing in older women. Following a baseline test day without treatment, 60 healthy women aged 45-65 years received drinks containing either 2 or 4 g of TRP-rich protein hydrolysate product or 3.11 g casein hydrolysate as a control. One hour later, they undertook a 2-h battery of cognitive and emotional tests. The TRP-rich protein hydrolysate produced the expected dose-dependent increase in the ratio of plasma TRP to competing large neutral amino acids. TRP-rich protein hydrolysate (2 g only) prevented both the decline in wellbeing and increase in fatigue seen over the test session in the control group. This treatment dose resulted in a significant shift in emotional processing towards positive words and reduced negative bias in assessing negative facial expressions. Effects on cognition were small and not statistically reliable and are not reported here. However, there was no evidence for any adverse effects. Consumption of a low dose of TRP-rich protein hydrolysate may have beneficial effects on emotional function that could promote feelings of wellbeing, possibly conferring resistance to deterioration in mood in healthy subjects or depressive episodes.

  2. The effects of inulin supplementation of diets with or without hydrolysed protein sources on digestibility, faecal characteristics, haematology and immunoglobulins in dogs.

    PubMed

    Verlinden, A; Hesta, M; Hermans, J M; Janssens, G P J

    2006-11-01

    Dogs with food allergy are often treated by giving a diet with hydrolysed protein sources. Prebiotics might also be successful in prevention and treatment of allergic disease through their effect on the colonic microflora, analogous to studies on probiotics in allergic children. The present study was set up to investigate the effect of supplementing inulin (IN) to commercial hypoallergenic dog diets on apparent nutrient digestibility, faecal characteristics, haematology and Ig in dogs. Supplementation of 3 % IN did not affect faecal pH, food and water intake and urine production. Compared with the intact protein diet with a limited number of ingredients (L), the diet with a hydrolysed protein source (H) resulted in an increased water intake (P<0.001), which could be due to the osmotic effect of free amino acids. Faeces production was increased by IN due to increased faecal moisture content. Increased faeces production on the H diet was mainly due to a higher DM excretion. Subsequently, the apparent digestibility coefficient (ADC) of DM was lower in the H diet group. A similar result was noted for ADC of diethyl ether extract and crude ash. The ADC of crude protein was higher in the H diet group, whereas IN decreased the ADC of crude protein. Differences in the ADC of crude protein among the different diets disappeared after correction for a higher faecal biomass, except for the dogs fed the L+IN diet. Total faecal IgA concentrations were lower in the H group (P<0.05) because of lower antigenic stimulation of hydrolysed protein, which implies that hydrolysed protein is really hypoallergenic. The present study indicates that the use of hydrolysed protein diets for canine food allergy treatment can affect digestibility and that combination with IN affected apparent protein digestibility but not IgA response.

  3. Fluorescence spectroscopy and principal component analysis of soy protein hydrolysate fractions and the potential to assess their antioxidant capacity characteristics.

    PubMed

    Ranamukhaarachchi, Sahan A; Peiris, Ramila H; Moresoli, Christine

    2017-02-15

    The potential of intrinsic fluorescence and principal component analysis (PCA) to characterize the antioxidant capacity of soy protein hydrolysates (SPH) during sequential ultrafiltration (UF) and nanofiltration (NF) was evaluated. SPH was obtained by enzymatic hydrolysis of soy protein isolate. Antioxidant capacity was measured by Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity (ORAC) and Folin Ciocalteau Reagent (FCR) assays together with fluorescence excitation-emission matrices (EEM). PCA of the fluorescence EEMs revealed two principal components (PC1-tryptophan, PC2-tyrosine) that captured significant variance in the fluorescence spectra. Regression models between antioxidant capacity and PC1 and PC2 displayed strong linear correlations for NF fractions and a weak linear correlation for UF fractions. Clustering of UF and NF fractions according to ORACFPCA and FCRFPCA was observed. The ability of this method to extract information on contributions by tryptophan and tyrosine amino acid residues to the antioxidant capacity of SPH fractions was demonstrated. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Identification of peptides in wheat germ hydrolysate that demonstrate calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II inhibitory activity.

    PubMed

    Kumrungsee, Thanutchaporn; Akiyama, Sayaka; Guo, Jian; Tanaka, Mitsuru; Matsui, Toshiro

    2016-12-15

    Hydrolysis of wheat germ by proteases resulted in bioactive peptides that demonstrated an inhibitory effect against the vasoconstrictive Ca(2+)-calmodulin (CaM)-dependent protein kinase II (CaMK II). The hydrolysate by thermolysin (1.0wt%, 5h) showed a particularly potent CaMK II inhibition. As a result of mixed mode high-performance liquid chromatography of thermolysin hydrolysate with pH elution gradient ranging between 4.8 and 8.9, the fraction eluted at pH 8.9 was the most potent CaMK II inhibitor. From this fraction, Trp-Val and Trp-Ile were identified as CaMK II inhibitors. In Sprague-Dawley rats, an enhanced aortic CaMK II activity by 1μM phenylephrine was significantly (p<0.05) suppressed by 15-min incubation with 300μM Trp-Val or Trp-Ile. On the basis of Ca(2+)-chelating fluorescence and CaMK II activity assays, it was concluded that Trp-Val and Trp-Ile competed with Ca(2+)-CaM complex to bind to CaMK II with Ki values of 5.4 and 3.6μM, respectively.

  5. Purification and identification of Se-containing antioxidative peptides from enzymatic hydrolysates of Se-enriched brown rice protein.

    PubMed

    Liu, Kunlun; Zhao, Yan; Chen, Fusheng; Fang, Yong

    2015-11-15

    As a further study of Se-containing proteins (Se-Pro) derived from Se-enriched brown rice (Se-BR), this paper aimed to purify and identify Se-containing antioxidative peptides (Se-antioxi-Peps) from Se-Pro hydrolysates. The total Se content in Se-BR was 6.26μg/g DW, and selenocystine, Se-methylselenocysteine, and selenomethionine were identified as the main organic Se species by high-performance liquid chromatography-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Se-Pro was extracted and hydrolyzed by four types of proteases, and Alcalase was chosen as the optimum enzyme according to the degree of hydrolysis (DH). The hydrolysate with 17.08% DH possessing the highest DPPH radical scavenging activity was separated into five fractions (F1 to F5). Fractions F3 to F5, which had high antioxidative activities, were further separated. Sub-fractions F3-3, F4-2, and F5-1 were chosen to evaluate antioxidative activities and analyze Se species. The Se-antioxi-Pep with the sequence SeMet-Pro-Ser was identified by electrospray ionization Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Effects of heat and pH treatments and in vitro digestion on the biological activity of protein hydrolysates of Amaranthus hypochondriacus L. grain.

    PubMed

    López-Sánchez, J; Ponce-Alquicira, E; Pedroza-Islas, R; de la Peña-Díaz, A; Soriano-Santos, J

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this work was to assess the effects of temperature (T), time (t) and pH treatments and an in vitro digestion on the stability of the angiotensin I-converting-enzyme-inhibitory activity (ACEIA) and antithrombotic activity (ATA; assessed as inhibition of platelet aggregation) of selected protein hydrolysates of amaranth named Alb1H103 and GloH88 and GluH24 with dipeptidyl peptidase IV inhibitory activity (DPPIVIA). Heat treatment (40-100 °C) for 1 h showed no significant differences among ACEIA, DPPIVIA and ATA of the heated hydrolysates at pH 4 and 7. There was no statistically significant loss of any bioactivity under heat treatment for 3 h at pH 4.0. Alb1H103 and GluH24 maintained the inhibitory activity of ACE and ATA at pH 7.0 for 3 h, whereas GloH88 maintained ACEIA and ATA for 2.0 h at pH 7.0. The pH effect on hydrolysates bioactivity was assessed in the range of 2.0-12.0. This was negligible on ACEIA, ATA and DPPIVIA. The in vitro digestion was performed using pepsin, trypsin (T) and α-chymotrypsin (C). A previous treatment of hydrolysates with pepsin improved the proteolytic activities of T and C. The hydrolysates kept at 100 °C for 1 h at pH 4.0, showed a significant increase in bioactivity. Conversely, a treatment at pH 7.0 showed no significant difference (p < 0.05) in the hydrolysates bioactivities after their digestion. Thus, biological activity of hydrolysates may be preserved or enhanced, depending on their processing conditions.

  7. The effect of a partially hydrolysed formula based on rice protein in the treatment of infants with cow's milk protein allergy.

    PubMed

    Reche, M; Pascual, C; Fiandor, A; Polanco, I; Rivero-Urgell, M; Chifre, R; Johnston, S; Martín-Esteban, M

    2010-06-01

    Infants diagnosed with allergy to cow's milk protein (CMP) are fed extensively hydrolysed cow's milk formulas, modified soy formulas or even amino acid-based formulas. Hydrolysed rice protein infant formulas have become available and have been shown to be well tolerated by these infants. A prospective open, randomized clinical study to compare the clinical tolerance of a new hydrolysed rice protein formula (HRPF) with an extensively hydrolysed CMP formula (EHF) in the feeding of infants with IgE-mediated cow's milk allergy. Ninety-two infants (46 boys and 46 girls, mean age 4.3 months, range 1.1-10.1 months) diagnosed with IgE-mediated cow's milk allergy were enrolled in the study. Clinical tolerance to the formula products was tested. Clinical evaluation included skin prick tests with whole cow's milk, soya and rice as well as antigens of CMP (beta-lactoglobulin, alpha-lactalbumin, casein and bovine seroalbumin), HRPF and EHF and specific IgE determinations to CMP using CAP technology. Patients were randomized to receive either an EHF based on CMP or a new HRPF. Follow-up was at 3, 6, 12, 18 and 24 months. Growth parameters were measured at each visit. One infant showed immediate allergic reaction to EHF, but no reaction was shown by any infant in the HRPF group. The number of infants who did not become tolerant to CMP during the study was not statistically different between the two groups. Measurement of IgE levels of infants allergic to CMP during the study showed no significant differences between the two formula groups. Growth parameters were in the normal range and similar between groups. In this study, the HRPF was well tolerated by infants with moderate to severe symptoms of IgE-mediated CMP allergy. Children receiving this formula showed similar growth and development of clinical tolerance to those receiving an EHF. In accordance with current guidelines, this HRPF was tolerated by more than 90% of children with CMP allergy and therefore could provide an

  8. Efficient hydrolysis of corncob residue through cellulolytic enzymes from Trichoderma strain G26 and L-lactic acid preparation with the hydrolysate.

    PubMed

    Xie, Lulu; Zhao, Jin; Wu, Jian; Gao, Mingfu; Zhao, Zhewei; Lei, Xiangyun; Zhao, Yi; Yang, Wei; Gao, Xiaoxue; Ma, Cuiyun; Liu, Huanfei; Wu, Fengjuan; Wang, Xingxing; Zhang, Fengwei; Guo, Pengyuan; Dai, Guifu

    2015-10-01

    To prepare fermentable hydrolysate from corncob residue (CCR), Trichoderma strain G26 was cultured on medium containing CCR for production of cellulolytic enzymes through solid-state fermentation (SSF), resulting in 71.3 IU/g (FPA), 136.2 IU/g (CMCase), 85.1 IU/g (β-glucosidase) and 11,344 IU/g (xylanase), respectively. Through a three-stage saccharification strategy, CCR was hydrolyzed by the enzymatic solution (6.5 FPU/ml) into fermentable hydrolysate containing 60.1g/l glucose (81.2% cellulose was converted at solid loading of 12.5%), 21.4% higher than that by the one-stage method. And then the hydrolysate was used to produce L-lactic acid by a previous screened strain Bacillus coagulans ZX25 in the submerged fermentation. 52.0 g/l L-lactic acid was obtained after fermentation for 44 h, with 86.5% glucose being converted to L-lactic acid. The results indicate that the strains and the hydrolysis strategy are promising for commercial production of L-lactic acid from CCR and other biomass. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. High throughput and rapid screening of marine protein hydrolysates enriched in peptides with angiotensin-I-converting enzyme inhibitory activity by capillary electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    He, Hai-Lun; Chen, Xiu-Lan; Wu, Hao; Sun, Cai-Yun; Zhang, Yu-Zhong; Zhou, Bai-Cheng

    2007-12-01

    Twelve kinds of marine protein materials, including fish, shrimp, seashell, algae and seafood wastes were selected for the hydrolysis using four different proteases. The IC(50) values for angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory activity of 48 hydrolysates were rapidly determined by capillary electrophoresis (CE). The values ranged from 0.17 to 501.7mg/ml, and were affected by both the marine protein resources and the selected proteases. Hydrolysates of the lowest IC(50) values were from shrimp (Acetes chinensis), shark meat, mackerel bone, Polysiphonia urceolata and Spirulina platensis, indicating these five kinds of marine food proteins contained beneficial materials for the production of ACE inhibitory peptides by proteolysis. The hydrolysates obtained using proteases Protamex and SM98011 had lower IC(50) values, showing these two proteases were superior to others. The CE method achieved the same sensitivity as the high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method. However, the CE method was faster and, as a result, more economical. Therefore, CE had potential for rapid screening of marine protein hydrolysates enriched in ACE inhibitory peptides.

  10. Antioxidant and cryoprotective effects of Amur sturgeon skin gelatin hydrolysate in unwashed fish mince.

    PubMed

    Nikoo, Mehdi; Benjakul, Soottawat; Xu, Xueming

    2015-08-15

    Antioxidant and cryoprotective effects of Amur sturgeon skin gelatin hydrolysates prepared using different commercial proteases in unwashed fish mince were investigated. Gelatin hydrolysates prepared using either Alcalase or Flavourzyme, were effective in preventing lipid oxidation as evidenced by the lower thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances formation. Gelatin hydrolysates were able to retard protein oxidation as indicated by the retarded protein carbonyl formation and lower loss in sulfhydryl content. In the presence of gelatin hydrolysates, unwashed mince had higher transition temperature of myosin and higher enthalpy of myosin and actin as determined by differential scanning calorimetry. Based on low field proton nuclear magnetic resonance analysis, gelatin hydrolysates prevented the displacement of water molecules between the different compartments, thus stabilizing the water associated with myofibrils in unwashed mince induced by repeated freeze-thawing. Oligopeptides in gelatin hydrolysates more likely contributed to the cryoprotective effect. Thus, gelatin hydrolysate could act as both antioxidant and cryoprotectant in unwashed fish mince. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Hydrolysed ovalbumin offers more effective preventive and therapeutic protection against egg allergy than the intact protein.

    PubMed

    Lozano-Ojalvo, D; Pérez-Rodríguez, L; Pablos-Tanarro, A; Molina, E; López-Fandiño, R

    2017-08-01

    The application of specific immunotherapy to stimulate oral tolerance towards food allergens is hampered by the high frequency of adverse side-effects and the excessive duration of the treatments. In this work, a hydrolysate of ovalbumin with pepsin (OP), selected for its low IgE reactivity and Th2-stimulating capacity, was assayed for its ability to prevent and treat allergy to egg white (EW). As a first step, the safety of OP, in terms of the absence of sensitizing and eliciting potential, was evaluated in BALB/c mice. Then, its suitability for prophylactic and therapeutic applications was compared with that of the intact allergen, paying attention to the molecular and cellular mechanisms involved in the control of the allergic process. To this aim, IgE, IgG1, IgG2a and IgA levels, allergic reactions, expression of genes related to Th1, Th2, Th17 and Treg responses, dendritic and T cell populations were assessed in intestinal tissues and spleens of EW-allergic mice, either untreated or treated with intact ovalbumin (OVA) or OP. The hydrolysate of OVA with pepsin was hypoallergenic, lacked sensitizing potential and offered preventive and therapeutic protection against allergy to EW through the induction of Treg cells and the up-regulation of TGF-β, IL-10, IL-17, Foxp3 and RORγt in intestinal tissues. This restrained the expression of GATA3 and the differentiation of Th2 cells, leading to low cytokine responses following ex vivo spleen cell stimulation. As compared with intact OVA, OP was more effective against sensitization. In addition, in the therapeutic setting, OP provided quicker desensitization that lasted for at least 3 weeks after discontinuation of the therapy. This study provides evidence for the superior role of hydrolysed, as compared to intact allergens, in the prevention of allergy development and in the promotion of long-term desensitization, as well as of intermolecular tolerance. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Whey Protein Hydrolysate but not Whole Whey Protein Protects Against 7,12-Dimethylbenz(a)anthracene-Induced Mammary Tumors in Rats.

    PubMed

    Ronis, Martin J; Hakkak, Reza; Korourian, Soheila; Badger, Thomas M

    2015-01-01

    Effects of intact and processed bovine milk proteins on development of chemically induced mammary tumors in female rats were compared. AIN-93G diets were made with 20% casein (CAS), casein hydrolysate (CASH), intact whey protein (IWP), or whey protein hydrolysate (WPH). Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were fed the diets starting at Gestational Day 4. Offspring were fed the same diet. At 50 days, female offspring (44-49/group) were gavaged with sesame oil containing 80 mg/kg of the mammary carcinogen dimethylbenzanthracene (DMBA) and euthanized 62 days posttreatment. Rats fed WPH had an adenocarcinoma incidence of 17% compared to the rats fed CAS, CASH, and IWP diets (34%, 33%, and 36% respectively) (P < 0.001). Median palpable tumor latency for rats fed WPH was greater (61 days, P < 0.001) compared to CAS (44 days), CASH (42 days) and IWP (45 days). Tumor multiplicity was also lower (1.5 vs. 3.0, P < 0.05) in rats fed WPH than in CAS and CASH fed groups. Results demonstrate that hydrolytic processing of whey protein is required for this diet to be effective in reducing DMBA-induced mammary tumors. The bioactive compounds produced during whey protein processing and mechanisms underlying the anticancer effects of WPH are yet to be identified.

  13. Extensive protein hydrolysate formula effectively reduces regurgitation in infants with positive and negative challenge tests for cow's milk allergy.

    PubMed

    Vandenplas, Y; De Greef, E

    2014-06-01

    Cow's milk protein allergy (CMPA) is treated using an elimination diet with an extensive protein hydrolysate. We explored whether a thickened or nonthickened version was best for infants with suspected CMPA, which commonly causes regurgitation/vomiting. Diagnosis of CMPA was based on a positive challenge test. We compared the efficacy of two casein extensive hydrolysates (eCH), a nonthickened version (NT-eCH) and a thickened version (T-eCH), using a symptom-based score covering regurgitation, crying, stool consistency, eczema, urticarial and respiratory symptoms. A challenge was performed in 52/72 infants with suspected CMPA and was positive in 65.4%. All confirmed CMPA cases tolerated eCH. The symptom-based score decreased significantly in all infants within a month, and the highest reduction was in those with confirmed CMPA. Regurgitation was reduced in all infants (6.4 ± 3.2-2.8 ± 2.9, p < 0.001), but fell more with the T-eCH (-4.2 ± 3.2 regurgitations/day vs. -3.0 ± 4.5, ns), especially in infants with a negative challenge (-3.9 ± 4.0 vs. -1.9 ± 3.4, ns). eCH fulfilled the criteria for a hypoallergenic formula, and the NT-eCH and T-eCH formulas both reduced CMPA symptoms. The symptom-based score is useful for evaluating how effective dietary treatments are for CMPA. ©2014 The Authors. Acta Paediatrica published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Foundation Acta Paediatrica.

  14. A Specific Peptide with Calcium-Binding Capacity from Defatted Schizochytrium sp. Protein Hydrolysates and the Molecular Properties.

    PubMed

    Cai, Xixi; Yang, Qian; Lin, Jiaping; Fu, Nanyan; Wang, Shaoyun

    2017-03-29

    Marine microorganisms have been proposed as a new kind of protein source. Efforts are needed in order to transform the protein-rich biological wastes left after lipid extraction into value-added bio-products. Thus, the utilization of protein recovered from defatted Schizochytrium sp. by-products presents an opportunity. A specific peptide Tyr-Leu (YL) with calcium-binding capacity was purified from defatted Schizochytrium sp. protein hydrolysates through gel filtration chromatography and RP-HPLC. The calcium-binding activity of YL reached 126.34 ± 3.40 μg/mg. The calcium-binding mechanism was investigated through ultraviolet, fluorescence and infrared spectroscopy. The results showed that calcium ions could form dative bonds with carboxyl oxygen atoms and amino nitrogen atoms as well as the nitrogen and oxygen atoms of amide bonds. YL-Ca exhibited excellent thermal stability and solubility, which was beneficial for its absorption and transport in the basic intestinal tract of the human body. Moreover, the cellular uptake of calcium in Caco-2 cells showed that YL-Ca could enhance calcium uptake efficiency and protect calcium ions against precipitation caused by dietary inhibitors such as tannic acid, oxalate, phytate and metal ions. The findings indicate that the by-product of Schizochytrium sp. is a promising source for making peptide-calcium bio-products as algae-based functional supplements for human beings.

  15. Development of an at-line method for the identification of angiotensin-I inhibiting peptides in protein hydrolysates.

    PubMed

    van Platerink, Chris J; Janssen, Hans-Gerd M; Haverkamp, Johan

    2007-02-01

    A fast at-line method was developed for the identification of ACE inhibiting (ACEI) peptides in protein hydrolysates. The method consists of activity measurements of fractions collected from a two-dimensional HPLC fractionation of the peptide mixture followed by MS identification of the peptides in the inhibiting fractions. The inhibition assay is based on the inhibiting effect of ACEI peptides on the hydrolytic scission of the substrate Hippuric acid-His-Leu (HHL) during the ACE-catalysed hydrolysis reaction. A fast LC method was developed for the quantification of Hippuric acid (H) and Hippuric acid-Histidine-Leucine (HHL), allowing a large number of fractions to be analysed within a reasonable time period. The method is sensitive and uses only standard laboratory equipment. The limit of detection is 0.34 microM for the known ACEI peptide IPP. This is sufficiently sensitive for the identification of only moderately active peptides and/or ACEI peptides present at low concentrations. The relative standard deviation of the inhibition assay was 12% measured over a time period of 2 months. The IC50 value of IPP measured with the assay was 5.6 microM, which is comparable to the values of 5 microM and 5.15 microM reported in literature for the standard Matsui method. The assay was successfully applied in the identification of ACEI peptides in enzymatically hydrolysed caseinate samples. Two new, not earlier published ACEI peptides were identified; MAP (beta-casein f102-104) and ITP (alpha-s2-casein f119-121) with IC50 values of 3.8 microM and 50 microM, respectively.

  16. A peptidomic approach for the identification of antioxidant and ACE-inhibitory peptides in sardinelle protein hydrolysates fermented by Bacillus subtilis A26 and Bacillus amyloliquefaciens An6.

    PubMed

    Jemil, Ines; Mora, Leticia; Nasri, Rim; Abdelhedi, Ola; Aristoy, Maria-Concepción; Hajji, Mohamed; Nasri, Moncef; Toldrá, Fidel

    2016-11-01

    Antioxidant and angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE)-inhibitory activities of sardinelle (Sardinella aurita) protein hydrolysates (SPHs) obtained by fermentation with Bacillus subtilis A26 (SPH-A26) and Bacillus amyloliquefaciens An6 (SPH-An6) were investigated. Both hydrolysates showed dose-dependent antioxidant activities evaluated using various in vitro antioxidant assays. Further, they were found to exhibit ACE-inhibitory activity. Peptides from SPH-A26 and SPH-An6 were analyzed by nESI-LC-MS/MS and approximately 800 peptides were identified. Identified peptides derived mainly from myosin (43% and 31% in SPH-An6 and SPH-A26, respectively). Several peptides identified in both hydrolysates were found to share sequences with previously identified antioxidant and ACE-inhibitory peptides based on Biopep database. Some of these peptides were selected for synthesis and their biological activities were evaluated. Among the synthesized peptides, NVPVYEGY and ITALAPSTM were found to be the most effective ACE-inhibitors with IC50 values of 0.21 and 0.23mM, respectively. On the other hand, NVPVYEGY, which exhibited the highest ACE-inhibitory activity, showed the highest reducing power and peroxyl radical scavenging activities, followed by SLEAQAEKY and GTEDELDKY. The results of this study suggest that fermented sardinelle protein hydrolysates are a good source of natural antioxidant peptides and could have the potential to act as hypotensive nutraceutical ingredients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. An extensively hydrolysed rice protein-based formula in the management of infants with cow's milk protein allergy: preliminary results after 1 month.

    PubMed

    Vandenplas, Yvan; De Greef, Elisabeth; Hauser, Bruno

    2014-10-01

    Guidelines recommend extensively hydrolysed cow's milk protein formulas (eHF) in the treatment of infants diagnosed with cow's milk protein allergy (CMPA). Extensively hydrolysed rice protein infant formulas (eRHFs) have recently become available, and could offer a valid alternative. A prospective trial was performed to evaluate the clinical tolerance of a new eRHF in infants with a confirmed CMPA. Patients were followed for 1 month. Clinical tolerance of the eRHF was evaluated with a symptom-based score (SBS) and growth (weight and length) was monitored. Thirty-nine infants (mean age 3.4 months, range 0.5-6 months) diagnosed with CMPA were enrolled. All infants tolerated the eRHF and experienced a normal growth. In accordance with current guidelines, this eRHF is tolerated by more than 90% of children with proven CMPA with a 95% CI, and is an adequate alternative to cow's milk-based eHF. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01998074. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  18. Symptomatology and growth in infants with cow's milk protein intolerance using two different whey-protein hydrolysate based formulas in a Primary Health Care setting.

    PubMed

    Verwimp, J J; Bindels, J G; Barents, M; Heymans, H S

    1995-09-01

    Both growth and the course of allergic symptoms were evaluated in 79 infants with cow's milk protein intolerance, aged three months or younger, diagnosed by standard elimination/provocation and treated with a whey-hydrolysate based infant formula: Nutrilon Pept or Pepti Junior. The efficacy of both products, in terms of symptomatology and growth, was compared with each other. The products differ in fat source (Pepti Junior 50% of its fat as MCT, Nutrilon Pepti normal LCT fat blend) and the presence of lactose (Pepti Junior: lactose free; Nutrilon Pepti: 40% of its carbohydrate as lactose). The study was part of a large project that aimed at standardising the approach towards cow's milk protein intolerance in Baby Health Clinics. Nearly 50 Baby Health Clinics participated in this project. In this study, growth and symptomatology (skin, respiratory tract, gastrointestinal tract) were monitored during an intervention period of at least 10 weeks. Infants in both feeding groups showed normal growth, and in at least 80% of the infants an improvement of the overall symptomatology could be seen during the intervention period. Most profound were the decreases in prevalence and severity of eczema and infantile colic. No differences in efficacy were found in this study between the two infant formulas. It was concluded that the exclusive use of either whey hydrolysate based infant formula resulted in an improvement of allergic symptoms and in normal growth in infants diagnosed by elimination/provocation for cow's milk protein intolerance in a Primary Health Care setting.

  19. An endurance-enhancing effect of peanut meal protein hydrolysate in mice: possible involvement of a specific peanut peptide.

    PubMed

    Liu, J; Chen, L W; Ji, K M; Yu, L; Zhang, Z J

    2014-10-01

    To improve the functional properties of peanut meal protein for wide utilization, hydrolysis was conducted by alcalase. Compared with saline and peanut meal protein, intragastric administration of low molecular weight (<1 kD) peanut meal peptide (PPH I) could significantly prolong swimming time, increase levels of blood sugar, non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) and liver glycogen and decrease blood lactate content in mice. Levels of Pro, Leu, Val and His in low molecular weight peanut meal peptides were higher significantly than those in other peanut meal protein hydrolysates. Hydrophobic amino acids, such as Pro, Tyr and His, could perhaps capture free radical and increase antioxidant capacity of peanut peptide and retard fatigue induced by free radical. After separation by HPLC, a primary peptide P1, Pro-Glu-Ile-Glu-Val, was sequenced. Its N-terminal was Val, and it was rich in antioxidant amino acid, Pro and Ile. Levels of plasma glucose, NEFA and liver glycogen in PPH I group were higher than those in mice intragastric administration with peptide P1, and the swimming time is longer in PPH I group than in P1 group. So, the high content of P1 was one of the reason why PPH I had high endurance-enhancing capacity.

  20. Effect of whey protein hydrolysates with different molecular weight on fatigue induced by swimming exercise in mice.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jing; Wang, Xinxia; Zhao, Zheng

    2014-01-15

    In order to improve the antioxidant and anti-fatigue capacities of whey protein for wider utilization, it was hydrolyzed by chymotrypsin (EC 3.4.21.1) to produce whey protein hydrolysate (WPH). Fractions of WPH with different molecular weight (MW) were separated by ultrafiltration. Kunming mice in various treatment groups were orally administered (1.5 g kg(-1) body weight) whey protein isolate (WPI), WPH or WPHs with different MW (<5, 5-10, 10-30 or >30 kDa) for 6 weeks to explore whether different MW fractions of WPH affected mice fatigue. Compared with the control group (orally administered 9 g kg(-1) saline) or the WPI group, low-MW (<10 kDa) WPH groups showed prolonged swimming time (P < 0.05) and had higher concentrations (P < 0.05) of glucose, non-esterfied fatty acid, liver glycogen, superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase and lower concentration of lactate. Low-MW (<10 kDa) WPHs had higher hydroxyl- and α,α-diphenyl-β-picrylhydrazyl-scavenging abilities and ferrous-chelating capacity than WPI. The results proved that low-MW (<10 kDa) WPHs with higher anti-fatigue capacity showed higher free radical-scavenging and ferrous-chelating activities. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  1. Low-molecular fraction of wheat protein hydrolysate stimulates glucagon-like peptide-1 secretion in an enteroendocrine L cell line and improves glucose tolerance in rats.

    PubMed

    Kato, Masaki; Nakanishi, Takenori; Tani, Tsubasa; Tsuda, Takanori

    2017-01-01

    The incretin hormone glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) is secreted by enteroendocrine L cells. Stimulating endogenous GLP-1 secretion by dietary factors is a promising strategy to increase GLP-1 action. Several studies have examined the specific physiological function of wheat protein hydrolysate. Some reports suggested that intake of wheat protein ameliorates hyperglycemia. We hypothesized that wheat protein hydrolysate reduces blood glucose concentration via stimulation of GLP-1 secretion. In this study, we investigated whether wheat protein hydrolysate stimulates GLP-1 secretion and its molecular mechanism in an enteroendocrine L cell line (GLUTag cells), and we examined the effect on glucose tolerance via stimulation of GLP-1 secretion followed by induction of insulin secretion in rats. The low-molecular fraction of wheat protein hydrolysate (LWP) significantly increased GLP-1 secretion, whereas the high-molecular fraction did not. This increase was found to involve activation of the Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent kinase II pathway mediated by G protein-coupled receptor family C group 6 subtype A. Moreover, preadministration of LWP ameliorated hyperglycemia via the stimulation of GLP-1 secretion followed by induction of insulin secretion in rats. Furthermore, this LWP-induced glucose-lowering effect was significantly attenuated by the administration of a GLP-1 receptor antagonist. These results demonstrate that LWP significantly increased GLP-1 secretion through activation of the Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent kinase II pathway mediated by G protein-coupled receptor family C group 6 subtype A in GLUTag cells. Moreover, preadministration of LWP ameliorated hyperglycemia via the stimulation of GLP-1 secretion followed by induction of insulin secretion in rats. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. A novel angiotensin-І converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory peptide from gastrointestinal protease hydrolysate of silkworm pupa (Bombyx mori) protein: Biochemical characterization and molecular docking study.

    PubMed

    Wu, Qiongying; Jia, Junqiang; Yan, Hui; Du, Jinjuan; Gui, Zhongzheng

    2015-06-01

    Silkworm pupa (Bombyx mori) protein was hydrolyzed using gastrointestinal endopeptidases (pepsin, trypsin and α-chymotrypsin). Then, the hydrolysate was purified sequentially by ultrafiltration, gel filtration chromatography and RP-HPLC. A novel ACE inhibitory peptide, Ala-Ser-Leu, with the IC50 value of 102.15μM, was identified by IT-MS/MS. This is the first report of Ala-Ser-Leu from natural protein. Lineweaver-Burk plots suggest that the peptide is a competitive inhibitor against ACE. The molecular docking studies revealed that the ACE inhibition of Ala-Ser-Leu is mainly attributed to forming very strong hydrogen bonds with the S1 pocket (Ala354) and the S2 pocket (Gln281 and His353). The results indicate that silkworm pupa (B. mori) protein or its gastrointestinal protease hydrolysate could be used as a functional ingredient in auxiliary therapeutic foods against hypertension.

  3. Reverse-phase HPLC separation of hemp seed (Cannabis sativa L.) protein hydrolysate produced peptide fractions with enhanced antioxidant capacity.

    PubMed

    Girgih, Abraham T; Udenigwe, Chibuike C; Aluko, Rotimi E

    2013-03-01

    Hemp seed protein hydrolysate (HPH) was produced through simulated gastrointestinal tract (GIT) digestion of hemp seed protein isolate followed by partial purification and separation into eight peptide fractions by reverse-phase (RP)-HPLC. The peptide fractions exhibited higher oxygen radical absorbance capacity as well as scavenging of 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl, superoxide and hydroxyl radicals when compared to HPH. Radical scavenging activities of the fractionated peptides increased as content of hydrophobic amino acids or elution time was increased, with the exception of hydroxyl radical scavenging that showed decreased trend. Glutathione (GSH), HPH and the RP-HPLC peptide fractions possessed low ferric ion reducing ability but all had strong (>60 %) metal chelating activities. Inhibition of linoleic acid oxidation by some of the HPH peptide fractions was higher at 1 mg/ml when compared to that observed at 0.1 mg/ml peptide concentration. Peptide separation resulted in higher concentration of some hydrophobic amino acids (especially proline, leucine and isoleucine) in the fractions (mainly F5 and F8) when compared to HPH. The elution time-dependent increased concentrations of the hydrophobic amino acids coupled with decreased levels of positively charged amino acids may have been responsible for the significantly higher (p < 0.05) antioxidant properties observed for some of the peptide fractions when compared to the unfractionated HPH. In conclusion, the antioxidant activity of HPH after simulated GIT digestion is mainly influenced by the amino acid composition of some of its peptides.

  4. Whey protein hydrolysate increases translocation of GLUT-4 to the plasma membrane independent of insulin in wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Morato, Priscila Neder; Lollo, Pablo Christiano Barboza; Moura, Carolina Soares; Batista, Thiago Martins; Camargo, Rafael Ludemann; Carneiro, Everardo Magalhães; Amaya-Farfan, Jaime

    2013-01-01

    Whey protein (WP) and whey protein hydrolysate (WPH) have the recognized capacity to increase glycogen stores. The objective of this study was to verify if consuming WP and WPH could also increase the concentration of the glucose transporters GLUT-1 and GLUT-4 in the plasma membrane (PM) of the muscle cells of sedentary and exercised animals. Forty-eight Wistar rats were divided into 6 groups (n = 8 per group), were treated and fed with experimental diets for 9 days as follows: a) control casein (CAS); b) WP; c) WPH; d) CAS exercised; e) WP exercised; and f) WPH exercised. After the experimental period, the animals were sacrificed, muscle GLUT-1 and GLUT-4, p85, Akt and phosphorylated Akt were analyzed by western blotting, and the glycogen, blood amino acids, insulin levels and biochemical health indicators were analyzed using standard methods. Consumption of WPH significantly increased the concentrations of GLUT-4 in the PM and glycogen, whereas the GLUT-1 and insulin levels and the health indicators showed no alterations. The physical exercise associated with consumption of WPH had favorable effects on glucose transport into muscle. These results should encourage new studies dealing with the potential of both WP and WPH for the treatment or prevention of type II diabetes, a disease in which there is reduced translocation of GLUT-4 to the plasma membrane.

  5. Optimization of Maillard reaction with ribose for enhancing anti-allergy effect of fish protein hydrolysates using response surface methodology.

    PubMed

    Yang, Sung-Yong; Kim, Se-Wook; Kim, Yoonsook; Lee, Sang-Hoon; Jeon, Hyeonjin; Lee, Kwang-Won

    2015-06-01

    Halibut is served on sushi and as sliced raw fish fillets. We investigated the optimal conditions of the Maillard reaction (MR) with ribose using response surface methodology to reduce the allergenicity of its protein. A 3-factored and 5-leveled central composite design was used, where the independent variables were substrate (ribose) concentration (X1, %), reaction time (X2, min), and pH (X3), while the dependent variables were browning index (Y1, absorbance at 420nm), DPPH scavenging (Y2, EC50 mg/mL), FRAP (Y3, mM FeSO4/mg extract) and β-hexosaminidase release (Y4, %). The optimal conditions were obtained as follows: X1, 28.36%; X2, 38.09min; X3, 8.26. Maillard reaction products of fish protein hydrolysate (MFPH) reduced the amount of nitric oxide synthesis compared to the untreated FPH, and had a significant anti-allergy effect on β-hexosaminidase and histamine release, compared with that of the FPH control. We concluded that MFPH, which had better antioxidant and anti-allergy activities than untreated FPH, can be used as an improved dietary source. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. The positive effect of soybean protein hydrolysates-calcium complexes on bone mass of rapidly growing rats.

    PubMed

    Lv, Ying; Liu, He; Ren, Jianhua; Li, Xin; Guo, Shuntang

    2013-08-01

    It was previously found that soybean protein hydrolysates (SPHs) can bind with calcium to form soluble complexes and promote calcium uptake by Caco-2 cells. However, the role of SPHs-calcium complexes on bone mass still needs to be explored. Fast growing male and female rats (n = 72) were assigned to eight groups: Control, lactic acid calcium (LCa), SPHs-calcium complexes (SPHCa) and casein phosphopeptides calcium (CPPCa). After four weeks treatment, oral administration of SPHCa significantly increased femur BMD of rats compared with Control and LCa groups (P < 0.05), while there are no obvious difference on the BMD of femur and lumbar vertebrae between SPHCa and CPPCa groups. Also, SPHCa showed a tendency to improve the mechanical properties of vertebra lumber for female rats. These findings suggest that the SPHs-calcium complexes might have positive effects on bone accretion of fast growing animals. This study brings new insight for better understanding the role of soybean protein itself on bone mass.

  7. Soya protein hydrolysates modify the expression of various pro-inflammatory genes induced by fatty acids in ovine phagocytes.

    PubMed

    Politis, Ioannis; Theodorou, Georgios; Lampidonis, Antonios D; Chronopoulou, Roubini; Baldi, Antonella

    2012-10-01

    The objective of the present study was to test the hypothesis that fatty acids are the circulating mediators acting in a pro-inflammatory manner towards activated circulating ovine monocyte/macrophages and neutrophils. Furthermore, whether soya protein hydrolysates (SPH) inhibit the fatty acid-induced increase in the production of pro-inflammatory responses by ovine phagocytes was tested in vitro. All the fatty acids tested (myristic, palmitic, palmitoleic, stearic and oleic) increased (P<0·01; C18>C16>C14) membrane-bound urokinase plasminogen activator (u-PA) and u-PA free binding sites in cell membranes of activated ovine blood monocytes/macrophages, but only the C18 fatty acids (stearic, oleic) were effective towards blood neutrophils. The C18 fatty acids up-regulated (P<0·05) the gene expression of u-PA, u-PA receptor, intercellular adhesion molecule 1 and inducible NO synthase (in monocytes) but not that of cyclo-oxygenase-2, integrin α X and plasminogen activator inhibitor types 1 and 2 by ovine phagocytes. SPH blocked completely or partially all C18 fatty acid-induced changes in the expression of various pro-inflammatory genes. In conclusion, fatty acids selectively 'activate' ovine phagocytes, suggesting that these cells 'sense' metabolic signals derived from adipocytes. Soya protein peptides inhibit all changes in gene expression induced by fatty acids in ovine phagocytes in vitro. This constitutes a novel mechanism of action.

  8. Antioxidative activities of hydrolysates from edible birds nest using enzymatic hydrolysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muhammad, Nurul Nadia; Babji, Abdul Salam; Ayub, Mohd Khan

    2015-09-01

    Edible bird's nest protein hydrolysates (EBN) were prepared via enzymatic hydrolysis to investigate its antioxidant activity. Two types of enzyme (alcalase and papain) were used in this study and EBN had been hydrolysed with different hydrolysis time (30, 60, 90 and 120 min). Antioxidant activities in EBN protein hydrolysate were measured using DPPH, ABTS+ and Reducing Power Assay. From this study, increased hydrolysis time from 30 min to 120 min contributed to higher DH, as shown by alcalase (40.59%) and papain (24.94%). For antioxidant assay, EBN hydrolysed with papain showed higher scavenging activity and reducing power ability compared to alcalase. The highest antioxidant activity for papain was at 120 min hydrolysis time with ABTS (54.245%), DPPH (49.78%) and Reducing Power (0.0680). Meanwhile for alcalase, the highest antioxidant activity was at 30 min hydrolysis time. Even though scavenging activity for EBN protein hydrolysates were high, the reducing power ability was quite low as compared to BHT and ascorbic Acid. This study showed that EBN protein hydrolysate with alcalase and papain treatments potentially exhibit high antioxidant activity which have not been reported before.

  9. The Maillard reaction of a shrimp by-product protein hydrolysate: chemical changes and inhibiting effects of reactive oxygen species in human HepG2 cells.

    PubMed

    Zha, Fengchao; Wei, Binbin; Chen, Shengjun; Dong, Shiyuan; Zeng, Mingyong; Liu, Zunying

    2015-06-01

    Recently, much attention has been given to improving the antioxidant activity of protein hydrolysates via the Maillard reaction, but little is known about the cellular antioxidant activity of Maillard reaction products (MRPs) from protein hydrolysates. We first investigated chemical characterization and the cellular antioxidant activity of MRPs in a shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) by-product protein hydrolysate (SBH)-glucose system at 110 °C for up to 10 h of heating. Solutions of SBH and glucose were also heated alone as controls. The Maillard reaction greatly resulted in the increase of hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) and browning intensity, high molecular weight fraction, and reduction of the total amino acid in SBH with the heating time, which correlated well with the free radical scavenging activity of MRPs. MRPs had stronger inhibiting effects on oxidative stress of human HepG2 cells than the original SBH, and its cellular antioxidant activity strongly correlated with free radical scavenging activity, but less affected by the browning intensity and HMF level. The caramelization of glucose partially affected the HMF level and free radical scavenging activity of MRPs, but it was not related to the cellular antioxidant activity. The cellular antioxidant activity of MRPs for 5 h of heating time appeared to reach a maximum level, which was mainly due to carbonyl ammonia condensation reaction. In conclusion, the Maillard reaction is a potential method to increase the cellular antioxidant activity of a shrimp by-product protein hydrolysate, but the higher HMF levels and the lower amino acid content in MRPs should also be considered.

  10. Antioxidant activity of Cod (Gadus morhua) protein hydrolysates: in vitro assays and evaluation in 5% fish oil-in-water emulsion.

    PubMed

    Farvin, K H Sabeena; Lystbæk Andersen, Lisa; Hauch Nielsen, Henrik; Jacobsen, Charlotte; Jakobsen, Greta; Johansson, Inez; Jessen, Flemming

    2014-04-15

    Cod protein hydrolysates were fractionated according to the molecular mass into three fractions of >5 kDa, 3-5 kDa and <3 kDa using an ultrafiltration membrane system. The antioxidative activity of the crude hydrolysates and the fractions were investigated, both in in vitro assays (DPPH radical scavenging activity, reducing power, Fe²⁺ chelating activity and inhibition of lipid oxidation in liposome model system), and in 5% fish oil-in-water emulsions. The <3 kDa fractions had very good radical scavenging activity, Fe²⁺ chelating activity and reducing power while the fraction 3-5 kDa resulted in higher protection against oxidation in the liposome model system. When tested in 5% oil-in-water emulsions, all the fractions, including the crude protein hydrolysate, were able to protect fish oil against oxidation in an iron induced oxidation system. However, none of the peptide fractions were effective in preventing tocopherol loss and showed no tocopherol sparing property. Volatile oxidation products showed an interaction between the aldehydes and the protein/peptides added in the emulsions, and this needs further investigation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Purification and identification of antioxidant peptides from the skin protein hydrolysate of two marine fishes, horse mackerel (Magalaspis cordyla) and croaker (Otolithes ruber).

    PubMed

    Sampath Kumar, N S; Nazeer, R A; Jaiganesh, R

    2012-05-01

    In the current study, two peptides with antioxidant properties were purified from skin protein hydrolysates of horse mackerel (Magalaspis cordyla) and croaker (Otolithes ruber) by consecutive chromatographic fractionations including ion exchange chromatography and gel filtration chromatography. By electron spray ionization double mass spectrometry (ESI-MS/MS), the sequence of the peptide from the skin protein hydrolysate of horse mackerel was identified to be Asn-His-Arg-Tyr-Asp-Arg (856 Da) and that of croaker to be Gly-Asn-Arg-Gly-Phe-Ala-Cys-Arg-His-Ala (1101.5 Da). The antioxidant activity of these peptides was tested by electron spin resonance (ESR) spectrometry using 1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH·) and hydroxyl (OH·) radical scavenging assays. Both peptides exhibited higher activity against polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) peroxidation than the natural antioxidant α-tocopherol. These results suggest that the two peptides isolated from the skin protein hydrolysates of horse mackerel and croaker are potent antioxidants and may be effectively used as food additives and as pharmaceutical agents.

  12. Modification of soy protein hydrolysates by Maillard reaction: Effects of carbohydrate chain length on structural and interfacial properties.

    PubMed

    Li, Weiwei; Zhao, Haibo; He, Zhiyong; Zeng, Maomao; Qin, Fang; Chen, Jie

    2016-02-01

    This study investigated the effects of carbohydrate chain length on the structural and interfacial properties of the Maillard reaction conjugates of soy protein hydrolysates (Mw>30 kDa). The covalent attachment of sugars to soy peptides was confirmed by amino acid analysis and examination of the Fourier-transform infrared spectra. The results suggested that the emulsion stability of the conjugates increased as the length of the carbohydrate chains increased. The surface activity measurement revealed that the soy peptide-dextran conjugates were closely packed and that each molecule occupied a small area of the interface. It was further confirmed that the soy peptide-dextran conjugates formed a thick adsorbed layer at the oil-water interface, as observed in the confocal laser scanning micrographs. The interfacial layer of soy peptides was rheologically complex with broad linear viscoelastic region and strong elastic modulus, and the soy peptide-dextran conjugates might form multilayer adsorption at the interface. This study suggested that the improved surface properties of the soy peptide-dextran conjugates were a result of the strong membrane formed by the closely packed molecular and multilayer adsorption at the interface, which provided steric hindrance to flocculation.

  13. Improved physicochemical properties and hepatic protection of Maillard reaction products derived from fish protein hydrolysates and ribose.

    PubMed

    Yang, Sung-Yong; Lee, Sanghoon; Pyo, Min Cheol; Jeon, Hyeonjin; Kim, Yoonsook; Lee, Kwang-Won

    2017-04-15

    High amounts of waste products generated from fish-processing need to be disposed of despite their potential nutritional value. A variety of methods, such as enzymatic hydrolysis, have been developed for these byproducts. In the current study, we investigated the physicochemical, biological and antioxidative properties of fish protein hydrolysates (FPH) conjugated with ribose through the Maillard reaction. These glycated conjugates of FPH (GFPH) had more viscous rheological properties than FPH and exhibited higher heat, emulsification and foaming stability. They also protected liver HepG2 cells against t-BHP-induced oxidative stress with enhanced glutathione synthesis in vitro. Furthermore, it was shown that GFPH induced upregulation of phase II enzyme expression, such as that of HO-1 and γ-GCL, via nuclear translocation of Nrf2 and phosphorylation of ERK. Taken together, these results demonstrate the potential of GFPH for use as a functional food ingredient with improved rheological and antioxidative properties. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Correlation of sensory bitterness in dairy protein hydrolysates: Comparison of prediction models built using sensory, chromatographic and electronic tongue data.

    PubMed

    Newman, J; Egan, T; Harbourne, N; O'Riordan, D; Jacquier, J C; O'Sullivan, M

    2014-08-01

    Sensory evaluation can be problematic for ingredients with a bitter taste during research and development phase of new food products. In this study, 19 dairy protein hydrolysates (DPH) were analysed by an electronic tongue and their physicochemical characteristics, the data obtained from these methods were correlated with their bitterness intensity as scored by a trained sensory panel and each model was also assessed by its predictive capabilities. The physiochemical characteristics of the DPHs investigated were degree of hydrolysis (DH%), and data relating to peptide size and relative hydrophobicity from size exclusion chromatography (SEC) and reverse phase (RP) HPLC. Partial least square regression (PLS) was used to construct the prediction models. All PLS regressions had good correlations (0.78 to 0.93) with the strongest being the combination of data obtained from SEC and RP HPLC. However, the PLS with the strongest predictive power was based on the e-tongue which had the PLS regression with the lowest root mean predicted residual error sum of squares (PRESS) in the study. The results show that the PLS models constructed with the e-tongue and the combination of SEC and RP-HPLC has potential to be used for prediction of bitterness and thus reducing the reliance on sensory analysis in DPHs for future food research.

  15. Novel Peptide with Specific Calcium-Binding Capacity from Schizochytrium sp. Protein Hydrolysates and Calcium Bioavailability in Caco-2 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Xixi; Lin, Jiaping; Wang, Shaoyun

    2016-01-01

    Peptide-calcium can probably be a suitable supplement to improve calcium absorption in the human body. In this study, a specific peptide Phe-Tyr (FY) with calcium-binding capacity was purified from Schizochytrium sp. protein hydrolysates through gel filtration chromatography and reversed phase HPLC. The calcium-binding capacity of FY reached 128.77 ± 2.57 μg/mg. Results of ultraviolet spectroscopy, fluorescence spectroscopy, and infrared spectroscopy showed that carboxyl groups, amino groups, and amido groups were the major chelating sites. FY-Ca exhibited excellent thermal stability and solubility, which were beneficial to be absorbed and transported in the basic intestinal tract of the human body. Moreover, the calcium bioavailability in Caco-2 cells showed that FY-Ca could enhance calcium uptake efficiency by more than three times when compared with CaCl2, and protect calcium ions against dietary inhibitors, such as tannic acid, oxalate, phytate, and Zn2+. Our findings further the progress of algae-based peptide-calcium, suggesting that FY-Ca has the potential to be developed as functionally nutraceutical additives. PMID:28036002

  16. Novel Peptide with Specific Calcium-Binding Capacity from Schizochytrium sp. Protein Hydrolysates and Calcium Bioavailability in Caco-2 Cells.

    PubMed

    Cai, Xixi; Lin, Jiaping; Wang, Shaoyun

    2016-12-27

    Peptide-calcium can probably be a suitable supplement to improve calcium absorption in the human body. In this study, a specific peptide Phe-Tyr (FY) with calcium-binding capacity was purified from Schizochytrium sp. protein hydrolysates through gel filtration chromatography and reversed phase HPLC. The calcium-binding capacity of FY reached 128.77 ± 2.57 μg/mg. Results of ultraviolet spectroscopy, fluorescence spectroscopy, and infrared spectroscopy showed that carboxyl groups, amino groups, and amido groups were the major chelating sites. FY-Ca exhibited excellent thermal stability and solubility, which were beneficial to be absorbed and transported in the basic intestinal tract of the human body. Moreover, the calcium bioavailability in Caco-2 cells showed that FY-Ca could enhance calcium uptake efficiency by more than three times when compared with CaCl₂, and protect calcium ions against dietary inhibitors, such as tannic acid, oxalate, phytate, and Zn(2+). Our findings further the progress of algae-based peptide-calcium, suggesting that FY-Ca has the potential to be developed as functionally nutraceutical additives.

  17. Postprandial leucine and insulin responses and toxicological effects of a novel whey protein hydrolysate-based supplement in rats

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was: aim 1) compare insulin and leucine serum responses after feeding a novel hydrolyzed whey protein (WPH)-based supplement versus a whey protein isolate (WPI) in rats during the post-absorptive state, and aim 2) to perform a thorough toxicological analysis on rats that consume different doses of the novel WPH-based supplement over a 30-day period. In male Wistar rats (~250 g, n = 40), serum insulin and leucine concentrations were quantified up to 120 min after one human equivalent dose of a WPI or the WPH-based supplement. In a second cohort of rats (~250 g, n = 20), we examined serum/blood and liver/kidney histopathological markers after 30 days of feeding low (1human equivalent dose), medium (3 doses) and high (6 doses) amounts of the WPH-based supplement. In aim 1, higher leucine levels existed at 15 min after WPH vs. WPI ingestion (p = 0.04) followed by higher insulin concentrations at 60 min (p = 0.002). In aim 2, liver and kidney histopathology/toxicology markers were not different 30 days after feeding with low, medium, high dose WPH-based supplementation or water only. There were no between-condition differences in body fat or lean mass or circulating clinical chemistry markers following the 30-day feeding intervention in aim 2. In comparison to WPI, acute ingestion of a novel WPH-based supplement resulted in a higher transient leucine response with a sequential increase in insulin. Furthermore, chronic ingestion of the tested whey protein hydrolysate supplement appears safe. PMID:22672725

  18. An identified antioxidant peptide obtained from ostrich (Struthio camelus) egg white protein hydrolysate shows wound healing properties.

    PubMed

    Homayouni-Tabrizi, Masoud; Asoodeh, Ahmad; Abbaszadegan, Mohammad-Reza; Shahrokhabadi, Khadijeh; Nakhaie Moghaddam, Mahboobeh

    2015-08-01

    Ostrich (Struthio camelus) egg possesses a high amount of food proteins and thus plays an important role in nutrition. Ostrich egg white proteins were hydrolyzed with pepsin and pancreatin to examine its antioxidant properties and further characterized the most active peptide. Ostrich egg white protein hydrolysate (OEWPH) was fractionized using reversed phase high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC). The antioxidant activity of OEWPH and its HPLC fraction were investigated based on their scavenging capacity1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical, 2,2'-azinobis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) diammonium salt (ABTS), superoxide ([Formula: see text]), hydroxyl (OH(•-)) radicals, and Cu(+2) chelating. In a wound healing assay, paravertebral excision (1 cm diameter) was made on the skin and the percentage of wound closure was measured at defined intervals (0, 3, 7, and 14 d). A potent antioxidant peptide named DG-10 with the sequence DAESLSRLLG (MW: 1060.18 ± 0.5 Da) was identified from OEWPH. The peptide DG-10 showed DPPH (IC50 = 0.0085 mg/ml), ABTS(•+) (IC50 = 0.56 mg/ml), superoxide (IC50 = 0.36 mg/ml), and hydroxyl (IC50 = 0.4 mg/ml) radical scavenger and copper chelating activity (IC50 = 0.28 mg/ml). In vitro cultured HFLF-pI 5, the cell model, also revealed that DG-10 could protect HFLF-pI 5 cells against H2O2-treated necrosis. Ointment composed of DG-10 peptide exhibited wound-healing properties on adult rats (Wistar strain). The percentage of wound closure in peptide-treated group was 98% by day 14. Our results suggested that DG-10 is a natural agent obtained from ostrich egg possessing considerable antioxidant and wound-healing properties.

  19. Investigation of enzymatic hydrolysis conditions on the properties of protein hydrolysate from fish muscle (Collichthys niveatus) and evaluation of its functional properties.

    PubMed

    Shen, Qing; Guo, Rui; Dai, Zhiyuan; Zhang, Yanping

    2012-05-23

    This study was carried out to investigate the enzymatic hydrolysis conditions on the properties of protein hydrolysate from fish muscle of the marine fish species Collichthys niveatus. About 160 fish samples were tested, and the analyzed fish species was found to be a lean fish with low fat (1.77 ± 0.01%) and high protein (16.76 ± 1.21%). Fish muscle of C. niveatus was carefully collected and hydrolyzed with four commercial enzymes: Alcalase, Neutrase, Protamex, and Flavourzyme under the conditions recommended by the manufacturers. Among the tested proteases, Neutrase catalyzed the hydrolysis process most effectively since the hydrolysate generated by Neutrase has the highest content of sweet and umami taste amino acids (SUA). The effect of hydrolysis conditions was further optimized using response surface methodology (RSM), and the optimum values for temperature, pH, and enzyme/substrate ratio (E/S ratio) were found to be 40.7 °C, 7.68, and 0.84%, respectively. Finally, the amino acid composition of the hydrolysate was analyzed by AccQ·Tag derivatization and HPLC-PDA determination. Major amino acids of the muscle of C. niveatus were threonine, glutamic acid, phenyalanine, tryptophan, and lysine, accounting for respectively 10.92%, 10.85%, 10.79%, 9.86%, and 9.76% of total amino acid content. The total content of essential amino acids was 970.7 ng·mL(-1), while that of nonessential amino acids was 709.1 ng·mL(-1). The results suggest that the fish muscle and its protein hydrolysate from C. niveatus provide a versatile supply of the benefits and can be incorporated as supplements in health-care foods.

  20. Post-exercise whey protein hydrolysate supplementation induces a greater increase in muscle protein synthesis than its constituent amino acid content.

    PubMed

    Kanda, Atsushi; Nakayama, Kyosuke; Fukasawa, Tomoyuki; Koga, Jinichiro; Kanegae, Minoru; Kawanaka, Kentaro; Higuchi, Mitsuru

    2013-09-28

    It is well known that ingestion of a protein source is effective in stimulating muscle protein synthesis after exercise. In addition, there are numerous reports on the impact of leucine and leucine-rich whey protein on muscle protein synthesis and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signalling. However, there is only limited information on the effects of whey protein hydrolysates (WPH) on muscle protein synthesis and mTOR signalling. The aim of the present study was to compare the effects of WPH and amino acids on muscle protein synthesis and the initiation of translation in skeletal muscle during the post-exercise phase. Male Sprague–Dawley rats swam for 2 h to depress muscle protein synthesis. Immediately after exercise, the animals were administered either carbohydrate (CHO), CHO plus an amino acid mixture (AA) or CHO plus WPH. At 1 h after exercise, the supplements containing whey-based protein (AA and WPH) caused a significant increase in the fractional rate of protein synthesis (FSR) compared with CHO. WPH also caused a significant increase in FSR compared with AA. Post-exercise ingestion of WPH caused a significant increase in the phosphorylation of mTOR levels compared with AA or CHO. In addition, WPH caused greater phosphorylation of ribosomal protein S6 kinase and eukaryotic initiation factor 4E-binding protein 1 than AA and CHO. In contrast, there was no difference in plasma amino acid levels following supplementation with either AA or WPH. These results indicate that WPH may include active components that are superior to amino acids for stimulating muscle protein synthesis and initiating translation.

  1. Development of a large-scale (50 L) apparatus for ampholyte-free isoelectric focusing (autofocusing) of peptides in enzymatic hydrolysates of food proteins.

    PubMed

    Hashimoto, Kaori; Sato, Kenji; Nakamura, Yasushi; Ohtsuki, Kozo

    2005-05-18

    It has been demonstrated that peptides in enzymatic hydrolysates of proteins can be fractionated on the basis of the amphoteric nature of the sample peptides, by a laboratory-scale isoelectric focusing apparatus, without adding a chemically synthesized carrier ampholyte. This approach is referred to as autofocusing. In the present study, a large-scale (up to 50 L) autofocusing apparatus was developed and tested. A tank (125 cm x 25 cm x 20 cm) was divided into 12 compartments by 11 plates, each with a window covered in a thin agarose gel layer supported by a nylon screen (100 mesh). The compartments at both ends were filled with 0.1 N phosphoric acid (anode) and 0.1 N NaOH (cathode), respectively, functioning as electrode compartments. The remaining compartments were used for sample compartments. Autofocusing was carried out at constant voltage according to two different methods. In method 1, all sample compartments were filled with a 1% water solution of casein or milk whey protein hydrolysates. In method 2, two compartments located in the center of the tank were filled with 5% sample solution and the others were filled with deionized water. Compositional and sequence analyses of the autofocusing fractions revealed that peptides in the two hydrolysates can be fractionated within 24 h by the present apparatus. Better fractionation was obtained by method 2, whereas enrichment of some peptides occurred by using method 1.

  2. Angiotensin-I converting enzyme inhibitory activity of hydrolysates from oat (Avena sativa) proteins by in silico and in vitro analyses.

    PubMed

    Cheung, Imelda W Y; Nakayama, Satoko; Hsu, Monica N K; Samaranayaka, Anusha G P; Li-Chan, Eunice C Y

    2009-10-14

    The potential for producing antihypertensive peptides from oat proteins through enzymatic hydrolysis was assessed in silico and confirmed in vitro. Thermolysin (EC 3.4.24.27) was predicted using BIOPEP database as the enzyme that would theoretically produce the most angiotensin I converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory peptides from oat. Experimental evidence confirmed that strong ACE-inhibitory activity was produced under various hydrolysis conditions. Hydrolysates produced under high enzyme-to-substrate ratio (3%) short time (20 min) (HEST) and low enzyme-to-substrate ratio (0.1%) long time (120 min) (LELT) conditions had IC(50) values of 30 and 50 microg/mL, respectively. After simulated gastrointestinal digestion, the IC(50) of the HEST hydrolysate was 35 microg/mL whereas the IC(50) of the LELT hydrolysate was higher at 85 microg/mL. Ultrafiltration revealed that potent ACE-inhibitory peptides had molecular weights below 3 kDa. This study demonstrates the usefulness of in silico analysis to select enzymes for hydrolysis of proteins not previously examined as sources of bioactive peptides.

  3. Supplementation with a fish protein hydrolysate (Micromesistius poutassou): effects on body weight, body composition, and CCK/GLP-1 secretion

    PubMed Central

    Nobile, Vincenzo; Duclos, Elisa; Michelotti, Angela; Bizzaro, Gioia; Negro, Massimo; Soisson, Florian

    2016-01-01

    Background Fish protein hydrolysates (FPHs) have been reported as a suitable source of proteins for human nutrition because of their balanced amino acid composition and positive effect on gastrointestinal absorption. Objective Here, we investigated the effect of a FPH, Slimpro®, obtained from blue whiting (Micromesistius poutassou) muscle by enzymatic hydrolysis, on body composition and on stimulating cholecystokinin (CCK) and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) secretion. Design A randomized clinical study was carried out on 120, slightly overweight (25 kg/m2 ≤ BMI<30 kg/m2), male (25%) and female (75%) subjects. FPH was tested in a food supplement at two doses (1.4 and 2.8 g) to establish if a dose–effect relationship exists. Product use was associated with a mild hypocaloric diet (−300 kcal/day). Body composition (body weight; fat mass; extracellular water; and circumference of waist, thighs, and hips) and CCK/GLP-1 blood levels were measured at the beginning of the study and after 45 and 90 days of product use. CCK/GLP-1 levels were measured since they are involved in controlling food intake. Results Treated subjects reported an improvement of body weight composition and an increased blood concentration of both CCK and GLP-1. No differences were found between the 1.4 and 2.8 g FPH doses, indicating a plateau effect starting from 1.4 g FPH. Conclusions Both 1.4 and 2.8 g of FPH were effective in improving body composition and in increasing CCK and GLP-1 blood levels. PMID:26829186

  4. Antihypertensive Properties of a Pea Protein Hydrolysate during Short- and Long-Term Oral Administration to Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats.

    PubMed

    Girgih, Abraham T; Nwachukwu, Ifeanyi D; Onuh, John O; Malomo, Sunday A; Aluko, Rotimi E

    2016-05-01

    This study investigated short-term (24 h) and long-term (5 wk) systolic blood pressure (SBP)-lowering effects in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) of a 5 kDa membrane pea protein hydrolysate permeate (PPH-5) produced through thermoase hydrolysis of pea protein isolate (PPI). Amino acid analysis showed that the PPH-5 had lower contents of sulfur-containing amino acids than the PPI. Size-exclusion chromatography indicated mainly low molecular weight (<10 kDa) peptides in PPH-5 but not in the PPI. The PPH-5 had renin and angiotensin converting enzyme inhibition IC50 values of 0.57 and 0.10 mg/mL (P < 0.05), respectively, and consisted mainly of peptides with 2 to 6 amino acids. Mass spectrometry analysis revealed mainly hydrophilic tetrapeptide sequences. After a single oral administration (100 mg/kg body weight) to SHR, the unheated PPI showed weakest (P < 0.05) SBP-lowering effect with a -4 mm Hg maximum when compared to -25 mm Hg for heat-treated PPI and -36 mm Hg for PPH-5. Incorporation of the PPH-5 as 0.5% or 1% (w/w) casein substitute in the SHR diet produced maximum SBP reductions of -22 or -26 mm Hg (P < 0.05), respectively after 3 wk. In comparison, the unhydrolyzed PPI produced a maximum SBP reduction of -17 mm Hg also after 3 wk. Potency of the pea products decreased in the 4th and 5th wk, though SBP values of the treated rats were still lower than the untreated control. We conclude that the antihypertensive potency of PPH-5 may have been due to the presence of easily absorbed hydrophilic peptides. © 2016 Institute of Food Technologists®

  5. Anti-ulcerogenic effect of a whey protein isolate and collagen hydrolysates against ethanol ulcerative lesions on oral administration to rats.

    PubMed

    Castro, G A; Carvalho, J E; Tinti, S V; Possenti, A; Sgarbieri, V C

    2010-02-01

    The effect of the administration of a whey protein isolate (WPI) and collagen hydrolysates on ethanol-induced ulcerative lesions was studied in rats. WPI and bovine or porcine collagen hydrolysate (BCH and PCH, respectively) were given to rats by gavage. In acute experiments, (single-dose) physiological saline (10 mL/kg of body weight) was used as the negative control, and carbenoxolone (200 mg/kg of body weight) was used as a positive control. Ethanol (1 mL per 250-g rat) was also given by gavage. These treatments reduced the ulcerative lesion index (ULI) in a range of 40-77%, depending on the dosage. Some mixtures of WPI with either PCH or BCH provided results that suggested synergisms between WPI and the collagen hydrolysates. For example, WPI/BCH (in the proportion of 375:375 mg/kg of body weight) decreased ULI by 64%. The mechanism for mucosal protection involved a decrease in plasma gastrin (approximately 40%), a significant increase (50-267%) in mucus production, and a reduction in ULI (percentage) when intragastric administrations were performed after in vivo alkylation by N-ethylmaleimide. Results suggest that gastrin, sulfhydryl substances, and some mechanisms related to mucus production are all involved in gastric ulcer protection against ethanol. The collagen hydrolysates (both PCH and BCH) presented a stronger effect on mucus production; on the other hand, the effect of WPI was also dependent on sulfhydryl compounds, resulting in a more protective effect when the two proteins were administered together.

  6. Hydrolysis and large scale ultrafiltration study of alfalfa protein concentrate enzymatic hydrolysate.

    PubMed

    D'Alvise; Lesueur-Lambert; Fertin; Dhulster; Guillochon

    2000-08-01

    Batch enzymatic hydrolysis of insoluble Alfalfa Protein Concentrate by Delvolase was carried out at laboratory and at pilot-plant scale coupled to an ultrafiltration reactor with a mineral tubular membrane. Parametric studies were carried out on the batch system to determine the biochemical and hydrodynamical optimum conditions. The hydrolysis conditions selected were 40 degrees C, pH 9.5, initial substrate level 3 g protein/100 g and the enzyme substrate ratio 152 U/g protein. After 5 h of hydrolysis, 96% of the total amount of initial nitrogen was solubilized. The ultrafiltration conditions selected were a 10 000 Nominal Molecular Weight Cut-Off, a transmembrane pressure of 1.5 bar, a flux velocity of 0.8 m/s. Fifty percent of the initial nitrogen appeared in the permeate.

  7. Quantitative mass spectrometric analysis of dipeptides in protein hydrolysate by a TNBS derivatization-aided standard addition method.

    PubMed

    Hanh, Vu Thi; Kobayashi, Yutaro; Maebuchi, Motohiro; Nakamori, Toshihiro; Tanaka, Mitsuru; Matsui, Toshiro

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to establish, through a standard addition method, a convenient quantification assay for dipeptides (GY, YG, SY, YS, and IY) in soybean hydrolysate using 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonate (TNBS) derivatization-aided LC-TOF-MS. Soybean hydrolysate samples (25.0 mg mL(-1)) spiked with target standards were subjected to TNBS derivatization. Under the optimal LC-MS conditions, five target dipeptides derivatized with TNBS were successfully detected. Examination of the standard addition curves, with a correlation coefficient of r(2) > 0.979, provided a reliable quantification of the target dipeptides, GY, YG, SY, YS, and IY, in soybean hydrolysate to be 424 ± 20, 184 ± 9, 2188 ± 199, 327 ± 16, and 2211 ± 133 μg g(-1) of hydrolysate, respectively. The proposed LC-MS assay is a reliable and convenient assay method, with no interference from matrix effects in hydrolysate, and with no requirement for the use of an isotope labeled internal standard.

  8. Fermentative recovery of lipids and proteins from freshwater fish head waste with reference to antimicrobial and antioxidant properties of protein hydrolysate.

    PubMed

    Ruthu; Murthy, Pushpa S; Rai, Amit Kumar; Bhaskar, N

    2014-09-01

    Effectiveness of fermentation using lactic acid bacteria (LAB) for recovering lipids and proteins simultaneously from freshwater fish head (FWH) was evaluated. Three different proteolytic LAB (Pediococcus acidilactici NCIM5368, Enterococcus faecium NCIM5335 and Pediococcus acidilactici FD3) isolated from fish processing wastes were employed in the fermentation process. The fermentation conditions involved 10 % (w/w) glucose, 2 % (w/w) NaCl and 10 % (v/w) LAB cultures at 37 °C. The process resulted in 38.4 % of degree of hydrolysis (in case proteins) and a recovery of 63.6 % of the oil present in the material. The fermentation process did not affect the fatty acid profile of lipids. The hydrolyzed protein rich fermentation liquor exhibited DPPH radical scavenging activity (EC50 - 5.1 mg protein) as well as antagonistic properties towards several bacterial and fungal pathogens. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of fermentated liquor (with E. faecium NCIM5335 as starter) were 10 and 12 mg/ml for Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella itridicus, respectively. A higher MIC (60 and 96 mg/ml for Aspergillus ochraceus and Penicillium chrysogenum, respectively) was observed in case of fungal pathogens. Both the oil and protein hydrolysate rich liquor from fish head can be used as biofunctional ingredients in both human food as well as livestock feed formulations.

  9. Concentration-dependent displacement of cholesterol in micelles by hydrophobic rice bran protein hydrolysates

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The recent production of rice bran oil in Asia and the U.S. has resulted in large quantities of defatted rice bran as a low-value byproduct. Peptides from soy, milk, and other foods have been shown to have the potential hypocholesterolemic property and rice bran protein (RBP) may also contain bioact...

  10. Quantitative and qualitative heterogeneity of partially hydrolysed serum proteins of cancer patients and normal individuals, analysed by polyacrylamide disc gel cationic electrophoresis. I. Breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Delinassios, J G

    1978-01-01

    Serum samples from patients with primary breast carcinoma, breast carcinoma with metastases, chronic mastitis and fibroadenoma, and healthy individuals, were treated with hydrochloric acid and urea and analysed by polyacrylamide disc gel cationic electrophoresis. The discrete and highly reproducible patterns received showed variations from individual to individual. The frequencies of the presence and of the color intensity of every protein band were compared and profound differences were found for several bands between the four groups of patients and the healthy controls studied. The results suggest that a correlation exists between the electrophoretic profiles of partially hydrolysed serum cationic proteins and occurrence of disease, possibly useful for the early diagnosis of preneoplastic states.

  11. Effect of Mechanically Deboned Chicken Meat Hydrolysates on the Physicochemical Properties of Imitation Fish Paste

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Sang-Keun; Go, Gwang-woong; Jung, Eun-Young; Lim, Hyun-Jung; Yang, Han-Sul; Park, Jae-Hong

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated on the effects of adding mechanically deboned chicken meat (MDCM) hydrolysates on the quality properties of imitation fish paste (IFP) during storage. IFP was prepared from Alaska Pollack, spent laying hens surimi and protein hydrolysates which were enzymatically extracted from MDCM. The study was designed as a 3×4 factorial design with three MDCM hydrolysate content groups (0%, 0.4%, and 0.8%) and four storage times (0, 2, 4, and 6 weeks). Addition of MDCM hydrolysates increased crude fat content but lowered water content (p<0.05). The breaking force of IFP, an indicator of gel formation, increased in treated groups compared to control (p<0.05). Angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) activity was inhibited and free radical scavenging activity increased with increasing MDCM hydrolysate content (p<0.05). In conclusion, the addition of MDCM to IFP improves gel characteristics. Additionally, protein hydrolysates from MDCM serve as a potential source of ACE inhibiting peptides. PMID:25049933

  12. Anti-obesity effects of yellow catfish protein hydrolysate on mice fed a 45% kcal high-fat diet

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Mi-Ryung; Kim, Joo-Wan; Park, Jeong Been; Hong, Yong-Ki; Ku, Sae Kwang; Choi, Jae-Suk

    2017-01-01

    Obesity contributes to the etiologies of a variety of comorbid conditions, such as type 2 diabetes, hypertension and cardiovascular disease. In the present study, the anti-obesity effects of yellow catfish protein hydrolysate (YPh) were observed in mice fed a 45% kcal high-fat diet (HFD) compared with those of mice treated with simvastatin. The HFD-fed control mice exhibited noticeable increase in body weight, and whole-body and abdominal fat densities, periovarian and abdominal wall-deposited fat pad weight, as well as in the levels of triglycerides (TG), blood total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, creatinine, blood urea nitrogen, and in the fecal TG and TC contents. However, they exhibited a decrease in serum high-density lipoprotein levels. In addition, an increase was detected in periovarian and dorsal abdominally deposited fat pad thickness, adipocyte hypertrophy, the number of steatohepatitis regions, hepatocyte hypertrophy and lipid droplet deposition-related renal tubular vacuolation degenerative lesions, along with increased hepatic lipid peroxidation and a deteriorated endogenous antioxidant defense system (glutathione, catalase and superoxide dismutase). However, all the above-mentioned obesity-related complications were dose-dependently and significantly inhibited after 84 days of thye consecutive oral administration of 125, 250 and 500 mg/kg YPh. In addition, YPh dose-dependently depleted the liver endogenous antioxidant defense system and inhibited hepatic lipid peroxidation. Overall, the effects of 250 mg/kg YPh on HFD-induced obesity and related complications were similar or more potent than those of 10 mg/kg simvastatin. These results indicate that YPh is a promising new potent medicinal ingredient for possible use in the treatment of obesity and related complications. PMID:28713910

  13. Concentration and selective fractionation of an antihypertensive peptide from an alfalfa white proteins hydrolysate by mixed ion-exchange centrifugal partition chromatography.

    PubMed

    Boudesocque, Leslie; Kapel, Romain; Paris, Cedric; Dhulster, Pascal; Marc, Ivan; Renault, Jean-Hugues

    2012-09-15

    This article reports a promising use of the mixed ion-exchange centrifugal partition chromatography (MIXCPC) technique in the field of downstream processes. A complex alfalfa white protein concentrate hydrolysate (AWPC hydrolysate) showing anti-hypertensive properties was successfully fractionated by MIXCPC to yield a L-valyl-L-tryptophan (VW) enriched fraction in one run. This dipeptide shows an interesting anti-angiotensin converting enzyme (anti-ACE) activity. An analytical method based on RP-LC/MS-MS was developed to quantify the target VW peptide in both the starting material and the enriched fractions. The best results for the MIXCPC fractionation were obtained by the combined use of the quaternary biphasic solvent system, methyl-tert-butylether/acetonitrile/n-butanol/water (2:1:2:5, v/v) in the descending mode, of the lipophilic di(2-ethylhexyl)phosphoric acid (DEHPA) cation-exchanger with an exchanger (DEHPA)/peptides ratio of 15, and of two displacers: calcium chloride and hydrochloric acid. The complexity of the starting material involved the selectivity optimization by splitting the stationary phase into two sections that differed by their triethylamine concentration. From 1g of AWPC hydrolysate containing 0.26% of VW, 30.7 mg of a VW enriched fraction were recovered with a purity of 10.9%, corresponding to a purification factor of 41 and a recovery of 97%.

  14. Enzymatic generation of whey protein hydrolysates under pH-controlled and non pH-controlled conditions: Impact on physicochemical and bioactive properties.

    PubMed

    Le Maux, Solène; Nongonierma, Alice B; Barre, Chloé; FitzGerald, Richard J

    2016-05-15

    Enzymatic hydrolysis of whey protein (WP) was carried out under pH-controlled and non pH-controlled conditions using papain and a microbial-derived alternative (papain-like activity). The impact of such conditions on physicochemical and bioactive properties was assessed. WP hydrolysates (WPH) generated with the same enzyme displayed similar degree of hydrolysis. However, their reverse-phase liquid chromatograph mass spectrometry peptide profiles differed. A significantly higher oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) value was obtained for WP hydrolysed with papain at constant pH of 7.0 compared to the associated WPH generated without pH regulation. In contrast, there was no significant effect of pH regulation on dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP-IV) properties. WP hydrolysed with papain-like activity under pH regulation at 7.0 displayed higher ORAC activity and DPP-IV inhibitory properties compared to the associated WPH generated without pH regulation. This study has demonstrated that pH conditions during WPH generation may impact on peptide release and therefore on WPH bioactive properties. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Effects of cow milk versus extensive protein hydrolysate formulas on infant cognitive development

    PubMed Central

    Mennella, Julie A.; Trabulsi, Jillian C.; Papas, Mia A.

    2015-01-01

    Little research has focused on infant developmental effects, other than growth, of formulas that differ substantially in the form of protein. To examine development of infants fed formulas differing in free amino acid content, we randomized 0.5-month-old infants (n=79) to either a control group who fed only cow milk formula (CMF) during the first 8 months (CMF8), or to one of two experimental groups: one experimental group fed extensively protein hydrolyzed formula (EHF) for 1–3 months during first 4.5 months (EHF1-3) of life, and the other fed EHF for 8 months (EHF8). The Mullen Scales of Early Learning were administered monthly from 1.5 to 8.5 months to assess fine (FM) and gross (GM) motor control, receptive (RL) and expressive (EL) language, visual reception (VR), and an early learning composite (ELC). Across the 5.5–8.5 month time period, when compared to CMF8 infants, GM scores in EHF1-3 infants averaged 1.5 points higher (95% CI: 0.1, 3.0) and in EHF8 infants 2.2 points higher (95% CI: 0.3, 4.0). Similarly, VR scores averaged 1.9 points higher (95% CI: 0.1, 3.8) in EHF1-3 infants and 2.2 points higher (95% CI: −0.2, 4.5) in EHF8 infants. EHF8 infants RL scores averaged 1.8 points lower (95% CI: 0.1, 3.6) than CMF8 infants. These data suggest that the form of protein in infant formula may impact cognitive development and that the higher free amino acid content in breast milk may be a contributing factor to the differential cognitive development between breastfed and CMF-fed infants. Clinical Trial Registration: clinicaltrials.gov NCT00994747. PMID:26497857

  16. Feather keratin hydrolysates obtained from microbial keratinases: effect on hair fiber

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Hair is composed mainly of keratin protein and a small amount of lipid. Protein hydrolysates, in particular those with low molecular weight distribution have been known to protect hair against chemical and environmental damage. Many types of protein hydrolysates from plants and animals have been used in hair and personal care such as keratin hydrolysates obtained from nails, horns and wool. Most of these hydrolysates are obtained by chemical hydrolysis and hydrothermal methods, but recently hydrolyzed hair keratin, feather keratin peptides, and feather meal peptides have been obtained by enzymatic hydrolysis using Bacillus spp in submerged fermentation. Results Keratin peptides were obtained by enzymatic hydrolysis of keratinases using Bacillus subtilis AMR. The microorganism was grown on a feather medium, pH 8.0 (1% feathers) and supplemented with 0.01% of yeast extract, for 5 days, at 28°C with agitation. The supernatant containing the hydrolysates was colleted by centrifugation and ultra filtered in an AMICON system using nano–membranes (Millipore – YC05). The Proteins and peptides were analyzed using HPTLC and MALDI-TOF-MS. Commercial preparations of keratin hydrolysates were used as a comparative standard. After five days the feather had been degraded (90-95%) by the peptidases and keratinases of the microorganism. MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry showed multiple peaks that correspond to peptides in the range of 800 to 1079 Daltons and the commercial hydrolysate was in the range of 900 to 1400 Da. HPTLC showed lower molecular mass peptides and amino acids in the enzymatic hydrolysate when compared with the commercial hydrolysate . A mild shampoo and a rinse off conditioner were formulated with the enzymatic hydrolysate and applied to hair fibers to evaluate the hydration, with and without heat, using a Corneometer® CM 825. The hydration was more efficient with heat, suggesting a more complete incorporation of hydrolysates into the fibers

  17. Feather keratin hydrolysates obtained from microbial keratinases: effect on hair fiber.

    PubMed

    Villa, Ana Lúcia Vazquez; Aragão, Márcia Regina Senrra; Dos Santos, Elisabete Pereira; Mazotto, Ana Maria; Zingali, Russolina B; de Souza, Edilma Paraguai; Vermelho, Alane Beatriz

    2013-02-18

    Hair is composed mainly of keratin protein and a small amount of lipid. Protein hydrolysates, in particular those with low molecular weight distribution have been known to protect hair against chemical and environmental damage. Many types of protein hydrolysates from plants and animals have been used in hair and personal care such as keratin hydrolysates obtained from nails, horns and wool. Most of these hydrolysates are obtained by chemical hydrolysis and hydrothermal methods, but recently hydrolyzed hair keratin, feather keratin peptides, and feather meal peptides have been obtained by enzymatic hydrolysis using Bacillus spp in submerged fermentation. Keratin peptides were obtained by enzymatic hydrolysis of keratinases using Bacillus subtilis AMR. The microorganism was grown on a feather medium, pH 8.0 (1% feathers) and supplemented with 0.01% of yeast extract, for 5 days, at 28°C with agitation. The supernatant containing the hydrolysates was colleted by centrifugation and ultra filtered in an AMICON system using nano-membranes (Millipore - YC05). The Proteins and peptides were analyzed using HPTLC and MALDI-TOF-MS. Commercial preparations of keratin hydrolysates were used as a comparative standard. After five days the feather had been degraded (90-95%) by the peptidases and keratinases of the microorganism. MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry showed multiple peaks that correspond to peptides in the range of 800 to 1079 Daltons and the commercial hydrolysate was in the range of 900 to 1400 Da. HPTLC showed lower molecular mass peptides and amino acids in the enzymatic hydrolysate when compared with the commercial hydrolysate . A mild shampoo and a rinse off conditioner were formulated with the enzymatic hydrolysate and applied to hair fibers to evaluate the hydration, with and without heat, using a Corneometer® CM 825. The hydration was more efficient with heat, suggesting a more complete incorporation of hydrolysates into the fibers. Scanning Electron Microscopy

  18. Chemical composition and biological value of spray dried porcine blood by-products and bone protein hydrolysate for young chickens.

    PubMed

    Jamroz, D; Wiliczkiewicz, A; Orda, J; Skorupińska, J; Słupczyńska, M; Kuryszko, J

    2011-10-01

    The chemical composition of spray dried porcine blood by-products is characterised by wide variation in crude protein contents. In spray dried porcine blood plasma (SDBP) it varied between 670-780 g/kg, in spray dried blood cells (SDBC) between 830-930 g/kg, and in bone protein hydrolysate (BPH) in a range of 740-780 g/kg. Compared with fish meal, these feeds are poor in Met and Lys. Moreover, in BPH deep deficits of Met, Cys, Thr and other amino acids were found. The experiment comprised 7 dietary treatments: SDBP, SDBC, and BPH, each at an inclusion rate of 20 or 40 g/kg diet, plus a control. The addition of 20 or 40 g/kg of the analysed meals into feeds for very young chickens (1-28 d post hatch) significantly decreased the body weight (BW) of birds. Only the treatments with 40 g/kg of SDBP and SDBC showed no significant difference in BW as compared with the control. There were no significant differences between treatments and type of meal for feed intake, haematocrit and haemoglobin concentrations in blood. Addition of bone protein and blood cell meals to feed decreased the IgG concentration in blood and caused shortening of the femur and tibia bones. However, changes in the mineral composition of bones were not significantly affected by the type of meal used. The blood by-products, which are rich in microelements, improved retention of Ca and Cu only. In comparison to control chickens, significantly better accretion of these minerals was found in treatments containing 20 g/kg of SDBP or 40 g/kg of SDBC. Great variability in apparent ileal amino acid digestibility in chickens was determined. In this respect, some significant differences related to the type of meal fed were confirmed for Asp, Pro, Val, Tyr and His. In general, the apparent ileal digestibility of amino acids was about 2-3 percentage units better in chickens fed on diets containing the animal by products than in control birds.

  19. Preparation of Yeast Hydrolysate Enriched in Cyclo-His-Pro (CHP) by Enzymatic Hydrolysis and Evaluation of Its Functionality.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyun Jung; Son, Heung Soo; Park, Chung; Suh, Hyung Joo

    2015-12-01

    In this study, we attempted to enrich cyclo-His-Pro (CHP) using enzymatic hydrolysis of yeast and to evaluate the functionality of yeast hydrolysate (YH)-enriched CHP. Flavourzyme offered a better performance in enhancing CHP content than other proteases. The CHP enrichment conditions were optimized as follows: addition of 1% Flavourzyme, 48-h incubation at 60°C, and pH 6.0. The CHP content significantly increased by 20-fold after ultra-filtration (UF). Maximal CHP translation was obtained after heating for 8 h at 50°C and pH 7.0. YH showed poor foaming capacity between pH 3.0 to 9.0. The emulsifying activities of YHs were slightly higher at near acidic pH. Increase in heating temperature and time resulted in decreased CHP content. The results indicate that YH is more heat stable after UF. Therefore, the CHP in YH after UF can be used as a food additive with physiological CHP activity and high heat stability.

  20. Preparation of Yeast Hydrolysate Enriched in Cyclo-His-Pro (CHP) by Enzymatic Hydrolysis and Evaluation of Its Functionality

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hyun Jung; Son, Heung Soo; Park, Chung; Suh, Hyung Joo

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we attempted to enrich cyclo-His-Pro (CHP) using enzymatic hydrolysis of yeast and to evaluate the functionality of yeast hydrolysate (YH)-enriched CHP. Flavourzyme offered a better performance in enhancing CHP content than other proteases. The CHP enrichment conditions were optimized as follows: addition of 1% Flavourzyme, 48-h incubation at 60°C, and pH 6.0. The CHP content significantly increased by 20-fold after ultra-filtration (UF). Maximal CHP translation was obtained after heating for 8 h at 50°C and pH 7.0. YH showed poor foaming capacity between pH 3.0 to 9.0. The emulsifying activities of YHs were slightly higher at near acidic pH. Increase in heating temperature and time resulted in decreased CHP content. The results indicate that YH is more heat stable after UF. Therefore, the CHP in YH after UF can be used as a food additive with physiological CHP activity and high heat stability. PMID:26770916

  1. Buffalo Cheese Whey Proteins, Identification of a 24 kDa Protein and Characterization of Their Hydrolysates: In Vitro Gastrointestinal Digestion

    PubMed Central

    Bassan, Juliana C.; Goulart, Antonio J.; Nasser, Ana L. M.; Bezerra, Thaís M. S.; Garrido, Saulo S.; Rustiguel, Cynthia B.; Guimarães, Luis H. S.; Monti, Rubens

    2015-01-01

    Milk whey proteins are well known for their high biological value and versatile functional properties, characteristics that allow its wide use in the food and pharmaceutical industries. In this work, a 24 kDa protein from buffalo cheese whey was analyzed by mass spectrometry and presented homology with Bos taurus beta-lactoglobulin. In addition, the proteins present in buffalo cheese whey were hydrolyzed with pepsin and with different combinations of trypsin, chymotrypsin and carboxypeptidase-A. When the TNBS method was used the obtained hydrolysates presented DH of 55 and 62% for H1 and H2, respectively. Otherwise for the OPA method the DH was 27 and 43% for H1 and H2, respectively. The total antioxidant activities of the H1 and H2 samples with and without previous enzymatic hydrolysis, determined by DPPH using diphenyl-p-picrylhydrazyl radical, was 4.9 and 12 mM of Trolox equivalents (TE) for H2 and H2Dint, respectively. The increased concentrations for H1 and H2 samples were approximately 99% and 75%, respectively. The in vitro gastrointestinal digestion efficiency for the samples that were first hydrolyzed was higher compared with samples not submitted to previous hydrolysis. After in vitro gastrointestinal digestion, several amino acids were released in higher concentrations, and most of which were essential amino acids. These results suggest that buffalo cheese whey is a better source of bioavailable amino acids than bovine cheese whey. PMID:26465145

  2. Buffalo Cheese Whey Proteins, Identification of a 24 kDa Protein and Characterization of Their Hydrolysates: In Vitro Gastrointestinal Digestion.

    PubMed

    Bassan, Juliana C; Goulart, Antonio J; Nasser, Ana L M; Bezerra, Thaís M S; Garrido, Saulo S; Rustiguel, Cynthia B; Guimarães, Luis H S; Monti, Rubens

    2015-01-01

    Milk whey proteins are well known for their high biological value and versatile functional properties, characteristics that allow its wide use in the food and pharmaceutical industries. In this work, a 24 kDa protein from buffalo cheese whey was analyzed by mass spectrometry and presented homology with Bos taurus beta-lactoglobulin. In addition, the proteins present in buffalo cheese whey were hydrolyzed with pepsin and with different combinations of trypsin, chymotrypsin and carboxypeptidase-A. When the TNBS method was used the obtained hydrolysates presented DH of 55 and 62% for H1 and H2, respectively. Otherwise for the OPA method the DH was 27 and 43% for H1 and H2, respectively. The total antioxidant activities of the H1 and H2 samples with and without previous enzymatic hydrolysis, determined by DPPH using diphenyl-p-picrylhydrazyl radical, was 4.9 and 12 mM of Trolox equivalents (TE) for H2 and H2Dint, respectively. The increased concentrations for H1 and H2 samples were approximately 99% and 75%, respectively. The in vitro gastrointestinal digestion efficiency for the samples that were first hydrolyzed was higher compared with samples not submitted to previous hydrolysis. After in vitro gastrointestinal digestion, several amino acids were released in higher concentrations, and most of which were essential amino acids. These results suggest that buffalo cheese whey is a better source of bioavailable amino acids than bovine cheese whey.

  3. The ability of in vitro antioxidant assays to predict the efficiency of a cod protein hydrolysate and brown seaweed extract to prevent oxidation in marine food model systems.

    PubMed

    Jónsdóttir, Rósa; Geirsdóttir, Margrét; Hamaguchi, Patricia Y; Jamnik, Polona; Kristinsson, Hordur G; Undeland, Ingrid

    2016-04-01

    The ability of different in vitro antioxidant assays to predict the efficiency of cod protein hydrolysate (CPH) and Fucus vesiculosus ethyl acetate extract (EA) towards lipid oxidation in haemoglobin-fortified washed cod mince and iron-containing cod liver oil emulsion was evaluated. The progression of oxidation was followed by sensory analysis, lipid hydroperoxides and thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) in both systems, as well as loss of redness and protein carbonyls in the cod system. The in vitro tests revealed high reducing capacity, high DPPH radical scavenging properties and a high oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) value of the EA which also inhibited lipid and protein oxidation in the cod model system. The CPH had a high metal chelating capacity and was efficient against oxidation in the cod liver oil emulsion. The results indicate that the F. vesiculosus extract has a potential as an excellent natural antioxidant against lipid oxidation in fish muscle foods while protein hydrolysates are more promising for fish oil emulsions. The usefulness of in vitro assays to predict the antioxidative properties of new natural ingredients in foods thus depends on the knowledge about the food systems, particularly the main pro-oxidants present. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  4. Balanced intraintestinal nutrition. A preparation for intraintestinal no-residue nutrition.

    PubMed

    Ziemlański, S; Cieślakowa, D; Rakowska, M

    1978-01-01

    The investigations were carried out on dogs and male Wistar rats using the method of isolated intestinal loops. The absorption of nitrogen from a preparation was studied. The protein component of the preparation was an enzymatic hydrolysate of whey proteins, milk proteins, casein and a 7% bovine blood hydrolysate manufactured by Polfa. Comparative investigations were carried out on the effect of the protein component on the absorption of fat from the tested preparation. No significant differences were found in nitrogen absorption from the hydrolysates of milk proteins administered in the form of a protein-fat-carbohydrate emulsion or in fat absorption depending on the protein component. On the basis of theoretical assumptions and experiments on laboratory animals the composition of a preparation for balanced no-residue intraintestinal nutrition was elaborated in which the protein component was a hydrolysate of whey proteins without lactose and the fat component was soybean oil.

  5. Scientist prepare Lysozyme Protein Crystal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    Dan Carter and Charles Sisk center a Lysozyme Protein crystal grown aboard the USML-2 shuttle mission. Protein isolated from hen egg-white and functions as a bacteriostatic enzyme by degrading bacterial cell walls. First enzyme ever characterized by protein crystallography. It is used as an excellent model system for better understanding parameters involved in microgravity crystal growth experiments. The goal is to compare kinetic data from microgravity experiments with data from laboratory experiments to study the equilibrium.

  6. Scientist prepare Lysozyme Protein Crystal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    Dan Carter and Charles Sisk center a Lysozyme Protein crystal grown aboard the USML-2 shuttle mission. Protein isolated from hen egg-white and functions as a bacteriostatic enzyme by degrading bacterial cell walls. First enzyme ever characterized by protein crystallography. It is used as an excellent model system for better understanding parameters involved in microgravity crystal growth experiments. The goal is to compare kinetic data from microgravity experiments with data from laboratory experiments to study the equilibrium.

  7. Purification, identification and molecular mechanism of two dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP-IV) inhibitory peptides from Antarctic krill (Euphausia superba) protein hydrolysate.

    PubMed

    Ji, Wei; Zhang, Chaohua; Ji, Hongwu

    2017-10-01

    Dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP-IV) played an important role in blood glucose regulation. Inhibition of DPP-IV may improve glycemic control in diabetics by preventing the rapid breakdown of incretin hormones and prolonging their physiological action. In this study, Antarctic krill (Euphausia superba) protein was hydrolyzed using animal proteolytic enzymes. The hydrolysate was purified sequentially by ultrafiltration, gel filtration chromatography and reversed phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC). DPP-IV inhibitory activity of the fractions achieved from Antarctic krill protein was determined by DPP-IV screening reagent kit. Two purified peptides were identified by Xevo G2-XS QTof mass spectrometer (QTOF-MS). One peptide purified was Ala-Pro (AP) with IC50 values of 0.0530mg/mL, the other Ile-Pro-Ala (IPA) with IC50 values of 0.0370mg/mL. They both exhibited strong DPP-IV inhibitory activity. The molecular docking analysis revealed that DPP-IV inhibition by AP and IPA was mainly due to formation of a strong interaction surface force with the 91-96 and 101-105 amino acids of the DPP-IV. Our results suggested that the protein hydrolysate from Antarctic krill can be considered as a promising natural source of DPP-IV inhibitory peptides in the management of diabetes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. In silico and in vitro analyses of the angiotensin-I converting enzyme inhibitory activity of hydrolysates generated from crude barley (Hordeum vulgare) protein concentrates.

    PubMed

    Gangopadhyay, Nirupama; Wynne, Kieran; O'Connor, Paula; Gallagher, Eimear; Brunton, Nigel P; Rai, Dilip K; Hayes, Maria

    2016-07-15

    Angiotensin-I-converting enzyme (ACE-I) plays a key role in control of hypertension, and type-2 diabetes mellitus, which frequently co-exist. Our current work utilised in silico methodologies and peptide databases as tools for predicting release of ACE-I inhibitory peptides from barley proteins. Papain was the enzyme of choice, based on in silico analysis, for experimental hydrolysis of barley protein concentrate, which was performed at the enzyme's optimum conditions (60 °C, pH 6.0) for 24 h. The generated hydrolysate was subjected to molecular weight cut-off (MWCO) filtration, following which the non-ultrafiltered hydrolysate (NUFH), and the generated 3 kDa and 10 kDa MWCO filtrates were assessed for their in vitro ACE-I inhibitory activities. The 3 kDa filtrate (1 mg/ml), that demonstrated highest ACE-I inhibitory activity of 70.37%, was characterised in terms of its peptidic composition using mass spectrometry and 1882 peptides derived from 61 barley proteins were identified, amongst which 15 peptides were selected for chemical synthesis based on their predicted ACE-I inhibitory properties. Of the synthesized peptides, FQLPKF and GFPTLKIF were most potent, demonstrating ACE-I IC50 values of 28.2 μM and 41.2 μM respectively.

  9. High molecular weight entities in industrial wheat protein hydrolysates are immunoreactive with IgE from allergic patients.

    PubMed

    Bouchez-Mahiout, Isabelle; Pecquet, Catherine; Kerre, Stephan; Snégaroff, Jacques; Raison-Peyron, Nadia; Laurière, Michel

    2010-04-14

    Hydrolyzed wheat proteins (HWP) can induce immediate hypersensitivity through skin contact and/or food ingestion. Such patients develop IgE against unmodified wheat proteins without allergy to wheat. Our objective was to study the IgE-reacting content of HWP. We compared the reactivity of HWP and unmodified wheat proteins with IgE from patients suffering from immediate hypersensitivity to HWP. We studied the cross-reactivity between one HWP preparation and wheat proteins using immunoblot inhibition experiments. This showed that the tested HWP carried mainly unmodified epitopes originating from wheat proteins. The size distribution of polypeptides from two HWP preparations was analyzed by size-exclusion-high performance liquid chromatography (SE-HPLC), and their reactivity with IgE was studied. This showed that they contained highly IgE-reacting high molecular weight entities, likely resulting in a rearrangement of peptides issued from gluten processes. These multiepitopic entities could explain the high immunogenicity of HWP for sensitized people.

  10. A comparison of the clinical manifestations of feeding whole and hydrolysed chicken to dogs with hypersensitivity to the native protein.

    PubMed

    Ricci, Rebecca; Hammerberg, Bruce; Paps, Judy; Contiero, Barbara; Jackson, Hilary

    2010-08-01

    Twenty-six dogs with known adverse food reactions were fed whole chicken for 14 days. From this group, 12 dogs with cutaneous manifestations following exposure to chicken meat were selected and randomly divided into two groups (n = 6). Each group was then fed hydrolysed chicken or hydrolysed soy for 14 days in a blinded crossover design with a 17-day washout period between each diet. Assessments of a CADESI (Canine Atopic Dermatitis Extent and Severity Index) score and pruritus were performed throughout the entire study, and combined in a global score (GS). Serum was collected weekly for the measurement of chicken- and soy-specific IgG and IgE. Dogs displayed the most severe clinical response when eating whole chicken compared to baseline (P < 0.001). The GS was significantly reduced in 11 of the 12 dogs when fed hydrolysed chicken were compared to those fed whole chicken (3.58 ± 2.81 versus 20.38 ± 14.65, P < 0.01). Serum immunoglobulin G and E responses were variable and did not show relationship with specific dietary exposure. © 2010 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2010 ESVD and ACVD.

  11. Angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory activity and structural properties of oven- and freeze-dried protein hydrolysate from fresh water fish (Cirrhinus mrigala).

    PubMed

    Elavarasan, K; Shamasundar, B A; Badii, Faraha; Howell, Nazlin

    2016-09-01

    The angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory activity and structural properties of oven-dried (OD-FPH) and freeze-dried (FD-FPH) protein hydrolysates derived from fresh water fish (Cirrhinus mrigala) muscle, using papain, were investigated. Amino acid profiles indicated a higher proportion of hydrophobic residues in OD-FPH and hydrophilic residues in FD-FPH samples. Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectra revealed random coil structure in OD-FPH and β-sheet in FD-FPH samples. The approximate molecular weight of peptides in OD-FPH and FD-FPH was in the range of 7030-339Da. The IC50 values for ACE inhibition by OD-FPH and FD-FPH samples were found to be 1.15 and 1.53mg of proteinml(-1), respectively. The ACE-inhibitory activity of OD-FPH was more stable (during sequential digestion, using pepsin and pancreatin) than that of FD-FPH sample. The study suggested that the ACE inhibitory activity of protein hydrolysate was not affected by oven-drying. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Housefly larvae hydrolysate: orthogonal optimization of hydrolysis, antioxidant activity, amino acid composition and functional properties.

    PubMed

    Wang, Juan; Wang, Yansheng; Dang, Xiangli; Zheng, Xiaoxia; Zhang, Wenqing

    2013-05-17

    Antioxidant, one of the most important food additives, is widely used in food industry. At present, antioxidant is mostly produced by chemical synthesis, which would accumulate to be pathogenic. Therefore, a great interest has been developed to identify and use natural antioxidants. It was showed that there are a lot of antioxidative peptides in protein hydrolysates, possessing strong capacity of inhibiting peroxidation of macro-biomolecular and scavenging free redicals in vivo. Enzymatic hydrolysis used for preparation of antioxidative peptides is a new hot-spot in the field of natural antioxidants. It reacts under mild conditions, with accurate site-specific degradation, good repeatability and few damages to biological activity of protein. Substrates for enzymatic hydrolysis are usually plants and aqua-animals. Insects are also gaining attention because of their rich protein and resource. Antioxidative peptides are potential to be exploited as new natural antioxidant and functional food. There is a huge potential market in medical and cosmetic field as well. Protein hydrolysate with antioxidant activity was prepared from housefly larvae, by a two-step hydrolysis. Through orthogonal optimization of the hydrolysis conditions, the degree of hydrolysis was determined to be approximately 60%. Fractionated hydrolysate at 25 mg/mL, 2.5 mg/mL and 1 mg/mL exhibited approximately 50%, 60% and 50% of scavenging capacity on superoxide radicals, 1, 1-Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radicals and hydroxyl radicals, respectively. Hydrolysate did not exhibit substantial ion chelation. Using a linoneic peroxidation system, the inhibition activity of hydrolysate at 20 mg/mL was close to that of 20 μg/mL tertiary butylhydroquinone, suggesting a potential application of hydrolysate in the oil industry as an efficient antioxidant. The lyophilized hydrolysate presented almost 100% solubility at pH 3-pH 9, and maintained nearly 100% activity at pH 5-pH 8 at 0°C- 4°C and room

  13. Housefly larvae hydrolysate: orthogonal optimization of hydrolysis, antioxidant activity, amino acid composition and functional properties

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Antioxidant, one of the most important food additives, is widely used in food industry. At present, antioxidant is mostly produced by chemical synthesis, which would accumulate to be pathogenic. Therefore, a great interest has been developed to identify and use natural antioxidants. It was showed that there are a lot of antioxidative peptides in protein hydrolysates, possessing strong capacity of inhibiting peroxidation of macro-biomolecular and scavenging free redicals in vivo. Enzymatic hydrolysis used for preparation of antioxidative peptides is a new hot-spot in the field of natural antioxidants. It reacts under mild conditions, with accurate site-specific degradation, good repeatability and few damages to biological activity of protein. Substrates for enzymatic hydrolysis are usually plants and aqua-animals. Insects are also gaining attention because of their rich protein and resource. Antioxidative peptides are potential to be exploited as new natural antioxidant and functional food. There is a huge potential market in medical and cosmetic field as well. Result Protein hydrolysate with antioxidant activity was prepared from housefly larvae, by a two-step hydrolysis. Through orthogonal optimization of the hydrolysis conditions, the degree of hydrolysis was determined to be approximately 60%. Fractionated hydrolysate at 25 mg/mL, 2.5 mg/mL and 1 mg/mL exhibited approximately 50%, 60% and 50% of scavenging capacity on superoxide radicals, 1, 1-Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radicals and hydroxyl radicals, respectively. Hydrolysate did not exhibit substantial ion chelation. Using a linoneic peroxidation system, the inhibition activity of hydrolysate at 20 mg/mL was close to that of 20 μg/mL tertiary butylhydroquinone, suggesting a potential application of hydrolysate in the oil industry as an efficient antioxidant. The lyophilized hydrolysate presented almost 100% solubility at pH 3-pH 9, and maintained nearly 100% activity at pH 5-pH 8 at 0

  14. In silico analysis and molecular docking study of angiotensin I-converting enzyme inhibitory peptides from smooth-hound viscera protein hydrolysates fractionated by ultrafiltration.

    PubMed

    Abdelhedi, Ola; Nasri, Rim; Mora, Letica; Jridi, Mourad; Toldrá, Fidel; Nasri, Moncef

    2018-01-15

    Smooth-hound viscera hydrolysates (SHVHs) were prepared by treatment with Neutrase (SHVH-N) and Purafect (SHVH-P). Hydrolysates were then separated according to their molecular weight, using the ultra-filtration membrane system, into 5 fractions (≥50, 50-5, 5-3, 3-1 and ≤1kDa). Fractions showed different amino acid compositions and angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory potentials. The SHVH-P-FV (≤1kDa) and SHVH-N-FIV (3-1kDa) fractions showed the best ACE-inhibitory activities with IC50 values of 53.31 and 75.05µg/ml, respectively. According to their high ACE-inhibitory potential, FIV and FV were fractionated by RP-HPLC and then analyzed by LC-MS/MS to identify peptide sequences. A systematic peptidomic study resulted in the identification of numerous novel sequences. Furthermore, in silico data, based on the molecular docking simulation, showed that GPAGPRGPAG, AVVPPSDKM, TTMYPGIA, and VKPLPQSG could bind ACE active site with low interaction scores. Indeed, they share hydrogen bonds and Van der Waals and electrostatic interactions with ACE catalytic pockets. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Actinopyga lecanora Hydrolysates as Natural Antibacterial Agents

    PubMed Central

    Ghanbari, Raheleh; Ebrahimpour, Afshin; Abdul-Hamid, Azizah; Ismail, Amin; Saari, Nazamid

    2012-01-01

    Actinopyga lecanora, a type of sea cucumber commonly known as stone fish with relatively high protein content, was explored as raw material for bioactive peptides production. Six proteolytic enzymes, namely alcalase, papain, pepsin, trypsin, bromelain and flavourzyme were used to hydrolyze A. lecanora at different times and their respective degrees of hydrolysis (DH) were calculated. Subsequently, antibacterial activity of the A. lecanora hydrolysates, against some common pathogenic Gram positive bacteria (Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus) and Gram negative bacteria (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Pseudomonas sp.) were evaluated. Papain hydrolysis showed the highest DH value (89.44%), followed by alcalase hydrolysis (83.35%). Bromelain hydrolysate after one and seven hours of hydrolysis exhibited the highest antibacterial activities against Pseudomonas sp., P. aeruginosa and E. coli at 51.85%, 30.07% and 30.45%, respectively compared to the other hydrolysates. Protein hydrolysate generated by papain after 8 h hydrolysis showed maximum antibacterial activity against S. aureus at 20.19%. The potent hydrolysates were further fractionated using RP-HPLC and antibacterial activity of the collected fractions from each hydrolysate were evaluated, wherein among them only three fractions from the bromelain hydrolysates exhibited inhibitory activities against Pseudomonas sp., P. aeruginosa and E. coli at 24%, 25.5% and 27.1%, respectively and one fraction of papain hydrolysate showed antibacterial activity of 33.1% against S. aureus. The evaluation of the relationship between DH and antibacterial activities of papain and bromelain hydrolysates revealed a meaningful correlation of four and six order functions. PMID:23222684

  16. Pepsin-pancreatin protein hydrolysates from extruded amaranth inhibit markers of atherosclerosis in LPS-induced THP-1 macrophages-like human cells by reducing expression of proteins in LOX-1 signaling pathway

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Atherosclerosis is considered a progressive disease that affects arteries that bring blood to the heart, to the brain and to the lower end. It derives from endothelial dysfunction and inflammation, which play an important role in the thrombotic complications of atherosclerosis. Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death around the world and one factor that can contribute to its progression and prevention is diet. Our previous study found that amaranth hydrolysates inhibited LPS-induced inflammation in human and mouse macrophages by preventing activation of NF-κB signaling. Furthermore, extrusion improved the anti-inflammatory effect of amaranth protein hydrolysates in both cell lines, probably attributed to the production of bioactive peptides during processing. Therefore, the objective of this study was to compare the anti-atherosclerotic potential of pepsin-pancreatin hydrolysates from unprocessed and extruded amaranth in THP-1 lipopolysaccharide-induced human macrophages and suggest the mechanism of action. Results Unprocessed amaranth hydrolysate (UAH) and extruded amaranth hydrolysate (EAH) showed a significant reduction in the expression of interleukin-4 (IL-4) (69% and 100%, respectively), interleukin-6 (IL-6) (64% and 52%, respectively), interleukin-22 (IL-22) (55% and 70%, respectively). Likewise, UAH and EAH showed a reduction in the expression of monocyte-chemo attractant protein-1 (MCP-1) (35% and 42%, respectively), transferrin receptor-1 (TfR-1) (48% and 61%, respectively), granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) (59% and 63%, respectively), and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) (60% and 63%, respectively). Also, EAH reduced the expression of lectin-like oxidized low-density lipoprotein receptor-1 (LOX-1) (27%), intracellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) (28%) and matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) (19%), important molecular markers in the atherosclerosis pathway. EAH, led to a reduction of 58, 52 and 79% for

  17. Isolation of a novel calcium-binding peptide from wheat germ protein hydrolysates and the prediction for its mechanism of combination.

    PubMed

    Wang, Li; Ding, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Xinxia; Li, Yongfu; Wang, Ren; Luo, Xiaohu; Li, Yanan; Li, Juan; Chen, Zhengxing

    2018-01-15

    To isolate a novel peptide with specific calcium-binding capacity, wheat germ protein was hydrolyzed. The hydrolysates were purified using ultrafiltration, anion-exchange chromatography, gel filtration chromatography, and reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography. The amino acid sequence of the purified peptide was determined and confirmed to be FVDVT (Phe-Val-Asp-Val-Thr). The calcium-binding capacity of FVDVT reached 89.94±0.75%, increased by 86.37% compared to the hydrolysates. The chelating mechanism between FVDVT and calcium was further investigated by Ultraviolet-Visible absorption spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, and (1)H nuclear magnetic resonances spectroscopy. The results indicated that the oxygen atoms of the carboxy group and the nitrogen atoms of the amido group provided major binding sites. In addition, aspartic acid and threonine show considerable capacity for incorporating with calcium by donating electron pairs. This study provides a feasible approach to isolate calcium-binding peptides and to clarify the possible binding mechanism of calcium and peptide. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Use of whey as a culture medium for Bacillus clausii for the production of protein hydrolysates with antimicrobial and antioxidant activity.

    PubMed

    Rochín-Medina, Jesús J; Ramírez-Medina, Hilda K; Rangel-Peraza, Jesús G; Pineda-Hidalgo, Karen V; Iribe-Arellano, Pablo

    2017-01-01

    The use of whey as a natural culture medium to produce hydrolysates with antimicrobial from Bacillus clausii is the objective of this research. The fermentation process was carried out at 25 ℃ for five days, where proteolytic activity, soluble peptides quantification, and antimicrobial activity using the disc diffusion method were determined every day. The fermented whey reached values ​​of proteolytic activity between 90 and 260 U ml(-1) and a production of soluble peptides between 100 and 2070 µg ml(-1). The maximum values ​​were reached after three days of fermentation to all determinations. In addition, the inhibition zone of fermented whey against Salmonella Typhimurium, Escherichia coli, Shigella flexneri, Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria monocytogenes, and Enterococcus faecalis strains were 13.7, 13.2, 14.4, 14.6, 9.8, 15.7 mm, respectively. The hydrolysates inhibited the 2, 2'-azinobis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline- 6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) and 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radicals by 85 and 80%, respectively. The whey was used to allow the growth of B. clausii and to generate peptides with antioxidant and antimicrobial activity through the hydrolysis of proteins present in the natural culture medium. This process could be used for the development of new dairy products added with probiotics.

  19. Anti-diabetic and antihypertensive activities of two flaxseed protein hydrolysate fractions revealed following their simultaneous separation by electrodialysis with ultrafiltration membranes.

    PubMed

    Doyen, Alain; Udenigwe, Chibuike C; Mitchell, Patricia L; Marette, André; Aluko, Rotimi E; Bazinet, Laurent

    2014-02-15

    Flaxseed protein hydrolysate has been fractionated by electrodialysis with two ultrafiltration membranes (20 and 50 kDa) stacked in the system for the recovery of two specific cationic peptide fractions (KCl-F1 and KCl-F2). After 360 min of treatment, peptide migration increased as a function of time in KCl compartments. Moreover, the use of two different ultrafiltration membrane allowed concentration of the 300-400 and 400-500 Da molecular weight range peptides in the KCl-F1 and KCl-F2 fractions, respectively, compared to the initial hydrolysate. After mass spectrometry analysis, higher amounts of low molecular weight peptides were recovered in the KCl-F2 compartment while relatively higher molecular weight peptides were more detected in the KCl-F1 compartment. Amino acid analysis showed that His, Lys and Arg were especially concentrated in the KCl compartments. Finally, glucose-transport assay demonstrated that the KCl-F2 fraction increased glucose uptake while oral administration of KCl-F1 and final FPH decreased systolic blood pressure. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Angiotensin-I Converting Enzyme (ACE) Inhibitory and Anti-Oxidant Activities of Sea Cucumber (Actinopyga lecanora) Hydrolysates.

    PubMed

    Ghanbari, Raheleh; Zarei, Mohammad; Ebrahimpour, Afshin; Abdul-Hamid, Azizah; Ismail, Amin; Saari, Nazamid

    2015-12-04

    In recent years, food protein-derived hydrolysates have received considerable attention because of their numerous health benefits. Amongst the hydrolysates, those with anti-hypertensive and anti-oxidative activities are receiving special attention as both activities can play significant roles in preventing cardiovascular diseases. The present study investigated the angiotensin-I converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory and anti-oxidative activities of Actinopyga lecanora (A. lecanora) hydrolysates, which had been prepared by alcalase, papain, bromelain, flavourzyme, pepsin, and trypsin under their optimum conditions. The alcalase hydrolysate showed the highest ACE inhibitory activity (69.8%) after 8 h of hydrolysis while the highest anti-oxidative activities measured by 2,2-diphenyl 1-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging (DPPH) (56.00%) and ferrous ion-chelating (FIC) (59.00%) methods were exhibited after 24 h and 8 h of hydrolysis, respectively. The ACE-inhibitory and anti-oxidative activities displayed dose-dependent trends, and increased with increasing protein hydrolysate concentrations. Moreover, strong positive correlations between angiotensin-I converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory and anti-oxidative activities were also observed. This study indicates that A. lecanora hydrolysate can be exploited as a source of functional food owing to its anti-oxidant as well as anti-hypertension functions.

  1. Angiotensin-I Converting Enzyme (ACE) Inhibitory and Anti-Oxidant Activities of Sea Cucumber (Actinopyga lecanora) Hydrolysates

    PubMed Central

    Ghanbari, Raheleh; Zarei, Mohammad; Ebrahimpour, Afshin; Abdul-Hamid, Azizah; Ismail, Amin; Saari, Nazamid

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, food protein-derived hydrolysates have received considerable attention because of their numerous health benefits. Amongst the hydrolysates, those with anti-hypertensive and anti-oxidative activities are receiving special attention as both activities can play significant roles in preventing cardiovascular diseases. The present study investigated the angiotensin-I converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory and anti-oxidative activities of Actinopyga lecanora (A. lecanora) hydrolysates, which had been prepared by alcalase, papain, bromelain, flavourzyme, pepsin, and trypsin under their optimum conditions. The alcalase hydrolysate showed the highest ACE inhibitory activity (69.8%) after 8 h of hydrolysis while the highest anti-oxidative activities measured by 2,2-diphenyl 1-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging (DPPH) (56.00%) and ferrous ion-chelating (FIC) (59.00%) methods were exhibited after 24 h and 8 h of hydrolysis, respectively. The ACE-inhibitory and anti-oxidative activities displayed dose-dependent trends, and increased with increasing protein hydrolysate concentrations. Moreover, strong positive correlations between angiotensin-I converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory and anti-oxidative activities were also observed. This study indicates that A. lecanora hydrolysate can be exploited as a source of functional food owing to its anti-oxidant as well as anti-hypertension functions. PMID:26690117

  2. Fractionation of liver proteins by preparative electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Fountoulakis, M; Juranville, J-F; Tsangaris, G; Suter, L

    2004-02-01

    Proteomics offers unique possibilities to investigate changes in the levels and modifications of proteins involved in the pathomechanisms of diseases and toxic events. However, search for potential drug targets and disease or toxicity markers is limited by the fact that mainly the high-abundance, hydrophilic proteins are visualized in two-dimensional gels. Here we studied the enrichment of rat liver cytosolic proteins by preparative electrophoresis. Preparative electrophoresis was performed with the PrepCell apparatus in the presence of 0.1% lithium dodecyl sulfate. Lithium dodecyl sulfate was exchanged against agents compatible with isoelectric focusing prior to the two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. Proteins were identified from two-dimensional gels by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass specrometry. Low- and middle-size proteins and low-abundance proteins, which had not been found before, were enriched by preparative electrophoresis. The present study represents a contribution of proteomics in the quantification of differences in the levels of low-abundance liver proteins in toxicity studies.

  3. Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) protein hydrolysate in diets for weaning piglets ─ effect on growth performance, intestinal morphometry and microbiota composition.

    PubMed

    Opheim, Margareth; Strube, Mikael Lenz; Sterten, Hallgeir; Øverland, Margareth; Kjos, Nils Petter

    2016-01-01

    Salmon protein hydrolysates (SPH) from two different rest raw materials were evaluated in diets for weaning piglets. Four experimental diets were included in the study: a diet based on plant protein with soy protein as the main protein source (Diet PP), a diet based on fishmeal in exchange for soy protein (Diet FM) and two diets in which different SPH replaced fishmeal in the FM diet. The experimental diets were fed to piglets from the day of weaning until 32 d postweaning. In addition to the record of performance data, an intestinal sampling for mucosal morphometry and microbiota 16S rRNA gene sequencing were performed at day 11 on a subset of the animals. The duodenal villi absorption area was significantly larger in piglets receiving Diets SPH compared with Diet PP (p < 0.02). A significant positive correlation between duodenal villi height and average daily gain during the first 11 d postweaning was detected. Only small differences in intestinal microbiota community and no differences in growth performance were detected between the experimental diets. To conclude, SPH seem to be an interesting novel protein source in weanling piglets.

  4. Preparation of Soluble Proteins from Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Wingfield, Paul T.

    2014-01-01

    Purification of human IL-1β is used in this unit as an example of the preparation of soluble proteins from E. coli. Bacteria containing IL-1β are lysed, and IL-1 β in the resulting supernatant is purified by anion-exchange chromatography, salt precipitation and cation-exchange chromatography, and then concentrated. Finally, the IL-1 β protein is applied to a gel-filtration column to separate it from remaining higher- and lower-molecular-weight contaminants, the purified protein is stored frozen or is lyophilized. The purification protocol described is typical for a protein that is expressed in fairly high abundance (i.e., >5% total protein) and accumulates in a soluble state. Also, the purification procedure serves as an example of how use classical protein purifications methods which may also be used in conjunction with the affinity-based methods now more commonly used. PMID:25367009

  5. Angiotensin-I Converting Enzyme (ACE) Inhibitory and Anti-Hypertensive Effect of Protein Hydrolysate from Actinopyga lecanora (Sea Cucumber) in Rats.

    PubMed

    Sadegh Vishkaei, Mahdokht; Ebrahimpour, Afshin; Abdul-Hamid, Azizah; Ismail, Amin; Saari, Nazamid

    2016-09-30

    Food protein hydrolysates are known to exhibit angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory properties and can be used as a novel functional food for prevention of hypertension. This study evaluated the ACE inhibitory potentials of Actinopyga lecanora proteolysate (ALP) in vivo. The pre-fed rats with ALP at various doses (200, 400, 800 mg/kg body weight) exhibited a significant (p ≤ 0.05) suppression effect after inducing hypertension. To determine the optimum effective dose that will produce maximal reduction in blood pressure, ALP at three doses was fed to the rats after inducing hypertension. The results showed that the 800 mg/kg body weight dose significantly reduced blood pressure without noticeable negative physiological effect. In addition, there were no observable changes in the rats' heart rate after oral administration of the ALP. It was concluded that Actinopyga lecanora proteolysate could potentially be used for the development of functional foods and nutraceuticals for prevention and treatment of hypertension.

  6. Angiotensin-I Converting Enzyme (ACE) Inhibitory and Anti-Hypertensive Effect of Protein Hydrolysate from Actinopyga lecanora (Sea Cucumber) in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Sadegh Vishkaei, Mahdokht; Ebrahimpour, Afshin; Abdul-Hamid, Azizah; Ismail, Amin; Saari, Nazamid

    2016-01-01

    Food protein hydrolysates are known to exhibit angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory properties and can be used as a novel functional food for prevention of hypertension. This study evaluated the ACE inhibitory potentials of Actinopyga lecanora proteolysate (ALP) in vivo. The pre-fed rats with ALP at various doses (200, 400, 800 mg/kg body weight) exhibited a significant (p ≤ 0.05) suppression effect after inducing hypertension. To determine the optimum effective dose that will produce maximal reduction in blood pressure, ALP at three doses was fed to the rats after inducing hypertension. The results showed that the 800 mg/kg body weight dose significantly reduced blood pressure without noticeable negative physiological effect. In addition, there were no observable changes in the rats’ heart rate after oral administration of the ALP. It was concluded that Actinopyga lecanora proteolysate could potentially be used for the development of functional foods and nutraceuticals for prevention and treatment of hypertension. PMID:27706040

  7. Consumption of pork-liver protein hydrolysate reduces body fat in Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty rats by suppressing hepatic lipogenesis.

    PubMed

    Shimizu, Muneshige; Tanabe, Soichi; Morimatsu, Fumiki; Nagao, Koji; Yanagita, Teruyoshi; Kato, Norihisa; Nishimura, Toshihide

    2006-01-01

    This study was performed to examine the effect of consumption of pork-liver protein hydrolysate (PLH) on body fat accumulation in Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF) rats as a non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus model and in Long-Evans Tokushima Otsuka (LETO) rats as a control. Male 20-week-old OLETF and LETO rats were pair-fed either PLH or casein containing diet for 14 weeks. In the OLETF rats, dietary PLH significantly reduced the growth and weight of fat pad including perirenal and epididymal adipose tissues. Consumption of PLH markedly suppressed hepatic activities of lipogenesis enzymes such as glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and fatty acid synthase and slightly elevated fecal excretion of total fat. In the LETO rats, growth and adipose tissue weight were unaffected by dietary treatment. The results suggest that PLH is a novel ingredient suppressing body fat in genetically obese rats by reducing lipogenesis.

  8. Extensive protein hydrolysate formula effectively reduces regurgitation in infants with positive and negative challenge tests for cow’s milk allergy

    PubMed Central

    Vandenplas, Y; De Greef, E

    2014-01-01

    Aim Cow’s milk protein allergy (CMPA) is treated using an elimination diet with an extensive protein hydrolysate. We explored whether a thickened or nonthickened version was best for infants with suspected CMPA, which commonly causes regurgitation/vomiting. Methods Diagnosis of CMPA was based on a positive challenge test. We compared the efficacy of two casein extensive hydrolysates (eCH), a nonthickened version (NT-eCH) and a thickened version (T-eCH), using a symptom-based score covering regurgitation, crying, stool consistency, eczema, urticarial and respiratory symptoms. Results A challenge was performed in 52/72 infants with suspected CMPA and was positive in 65.4%. All confirmed CMPA cases tolerated eCH. The symptom-based score decreased significantly in all infants within a month, and the highest reduction was in those with confirmed CMPA. Regurgitation was reduced in all infants (6.4 ± 3.2–2.8 ± 2.9, p < 0.001), but fell more with the T-eCH (−4.2 ± 3.2 regurgitations/day vs. −3.0 ± 4.5, ns), especially in infants with a negative challenge (−3.9 ± 4.0 vs. −1.9 ± 3.4, ns). Conclusion eCH fulfilled the criteria for a hypoallergenic formula, and the NT-eCH and T-eCH formulas both reduced CMPA symptoms. The symptom-based score is useful for evaluating how effective dietary treatments are for CMPA. PMID:24575806

  9. PlayMolecule ProteinPrepare: A Web Application for Protein Preparation for Molecular Dynamics Simulations.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Rosell, Gerard; Giorgino, Toni; De Fabritiis, Gianni

    2017-07-24

    Protein preparation is a critical step in molecular simulations that consists of refining a Protein Data Bank (PDB) structure by assigning titration states and optimizing the hydrogen-bonding network. In this application note, we describe ProteinPrepare, a web application designed to interactively support the preparation of protein structures. Users can upload a PDB file, choose the solvent pH value, and inspect the resulting protonated residues and hydrogen-bonding network within a 3D web interface. Protonation states are suggested automatically but can be manually changed using the visual aid of the hydrogen-bonding network. Tables and diagrams provide estimated pKa values and charge states, with visual indication for cases where review is required. We expect the graphical interface to be a useful instrument to assess the validity of the preparation, but nevertheless, a script to execute the preparation offline with the High-Throughput Molecular Dynamics (HTMD) environment is also provided for noninteractive operations.

  10. Preparative parallel protein purification (P4).

    PubMed

    Strömberg, Patrik; Rotticci-Mulder, Joke; Björnestedt, Robert; Schmidt, Stefan R

    2005-04-15

    In state of the art drug discovery, it is essential to gain structural information of pharmacologically relevant proteins. Increasing the output of novel protein structures requires improved preparative methods for high throughput (HT) protein purification. Currently, most HT platforms are limited to small-scale and available technology for increasing throughput at larger scales is scarce. We have adapted a 10-channel parallel flash chromatography system for protein purification applications. The system enables us to perform 10 different purifications in parallel with individual gradients and UV monitoring. Typical protein purification applications were set up. Methods for ion exchange chromatography were developed for different sample proteins and columns. Affinity chromatography was optimized for His-tagged proteins using metal chelating media and buffer exchange by gel filtration was also tested. The results from the present system were comparable, with respect to resolution and reproducibility, with those from control experiments on an AKTA purifier system. Finally, lysates from 10 E. coli cultures expressing different His-tagged proteins were subjected to a three-step parallel purification procedure, combining the above-mentioned procedures. Nine proteins were successfully purified whereas one failed probably due to lack of expression.

  11. Antioxidant activity measurement and potential antioxidant peptides exploration from hydrolysates of novel continuous microwave-assisted enzymolysis of the Scomberomorus niphonius protein.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yipeng; Ruan, Guihua; Qin, Zhijun; Li, Haiyun; Zheng, Yanjie

    2017-05-15

    A novel continuous microwave-assisted enzymatic digestion (cMAED) method is proposed for the digestion of protein from Scomberomorus niphonius to obtain potential antioxidant peptides. In this study, bromelain was found to have a high capacity for the digestion of the Scomberomorus niphonius protein. The following cMAED conditions were investigated: protease species, microwave power, temperature, bromelain content, acidity of the substrate solution, and incubation time. At 400W, 40°C, 1500U·g(-1) bromelain, 20% substrate concentration, pH 6.0 and 5min incubation, the degree of hydrolysis and total antioxidant activity of the hydrolysates were 15.86% and 131.49μg·mL(-1), respectively. The peptide analyses showed that eight of the potential antioxidant peptide sequences, which ranged from 502.32 to 1080.55Da with 4-10 amino acid residues, had features typical of well-known antioxidant proteins. Thus, the new cMAED method can be useful to obtain potential antioxidant peptides from protein sources, such as Scomberomorus niphonius. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Diverse role of conformational dynamics in carboxypeptidase A-driven peptide and ester hydrolyses: disclosing the "perfect induced fit" and "protein local unfolding" pathways by altering protein stability.

    PubMed

    Shushanyan, Mikhael; Khoshtariya, Dimitri E; Tretyakova, Tatyana; Makharadze, Maya; van Eldik, Rudi

    2011-12-01

    Catalytic mechanisms of carboxypeptidase A (CPA) are well known for their diversity and the relative inaccessibility for a decisive comprehension. Recent encouraging attempts through modern computational techniques promoted new challenges for the complementary experimental endeavors. In this work, we have applied the stopped-flow technique and the method of reaction progress curve fitting to extract kinetic parameters for the CPA-catalyzed hydrolyses of smaller (typical) peptide and ester substrates, known for their strong activating/inhibiting impact, thus to which the traditional method of "initial rates" is not applicable. Our approach that innately implies the overall constancy of the affecter (substrate plus "active" product) concentration, made it possible to rigorously determine the physically meaningful "effective" values for the catalytic and Michaelis constants under diverse experimental conditions including variable temperature and urea or trimethylamine N-oxide concentrations. Analysis of the obtained results allowed for: (i) the further substantiation of diverse mechanistic patterns for archetypal specific peptide and ester substrates, (ii) testing and disclosure of intrinsic links between the stabilizing/destabilizing and activating/inhibiting effects for the important model enzyme, CPA, and (iii) tentative explanation of a distinct activating/inhibiting impact of these substrates through the strong specific interaction of their benzyl (Bz) moiety with the substrate binding S(3) subsite of CPA. We have demonstrated that stabilization of CPA either through the interaction with an extra Bz moiety (belonging to another substrate or to the product) leads to the increase of its catalytic power with respect to the specific peptide substrate and to its decrease with respect to the counterpart ester substrate. We conjecture that the catalytic mechanisms operating in these two cases include: (a) the "promoted water" mechanism for the peptide substrate that

  13. Effects of various feed supplements containing fish protein hydrolysate or fish processing by-products on the innate immune functions of juvenile coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Murray, A.L.; Pascho, R.J.; Alcorn, S.W.; Fairgrieve, W.T.; Shearer, K.D.; Roley, D.

    2003-01-01

    Immunomodulators administered to fish in the diet have been shown in some cases to enhance innate immune defense mechanisms. Recent studies have suggested that polypeptide fractions found in fish protein hydrolysates may stimulate factors in fish important for disease resistance. For the current study, groups of coho salmon were reared on practical feeds that contained either fish meal (Control diet), fish meal supplemented with cooked fish by-products, or fish meal supplemented with hydrolyzed fish protein alone, or with hydrolyzed fish protein and processed fish bones. For each diet group, three replicate tanks of fish were fed the experimental diets for 6 weeks. Morphometric measurements, and serologic and cellular assays were used to evaluate the general health and immunocompetence of fish in the various feed groups. Whereas the experimental diets had no effect on the morphometric and cellular measurements, fish fed cooked by-products had increased leucocrit levels and lower hematocrit levels than fish from the other feed groups. Innate cellular responses were increased in all feed groups after feeding the four experimental diets compared with pre-feed results. Subgroups of fish from each diet group were also challenged with Vibrio anguillarum (ca. 7.71 ?? 105 bacteria ml-1) at 15??C by immersion. No differences were found in survival among the various feed groups.

  14. Protein hydrolysate of salted duck egg white as a substitute of phosphate and its effect on quality of Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei).

    PubMed

    Kaewmanee, Thammarat; Benjakul, Soottawat; Visessanguan, Wonnop

    2009-10-01

    Protein hydrolysate from salted egg white (PHSEW) with different degrees of hydrolysis (DH) (3%, 6%, and 9%) was produced using pepsin. Disappearance of proteins with molecular weight (MW) of 108 and 85 kDa with the concomitant formation of proteins with MW of 23, 20, 13, and 5 kDa was observed in PHSEW. The use of PHSEW for quality improvement of Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) was investigated. Shrimp soaked in 4% NaCl containing 7% PHSEW and 2.5% mixed phosphates (0.625% sodium acid pyrophosphate [SAPP] and 1.875% tetrasodium pyrophosphate [TSPP]) had the highest cooking yield with the lowest cooking loss (P < 0.05), compared with shrimps with other treatments. Nevertheless, no difference in weight gain was obtained in comparison with those treated with 4% NaCl containing 3.5% mixed phosphate (P > 0.05). Cooked shrimp treated with 4% NaCl containing 7% PHSEW and 2.5% mixed phosphate or those treated with 4% NaCl containing 3.5% mixed phosphate had the higher score of appearance, texture, and overall likeness but less shear force, in comparison with the control (no treatment) (P < 0.05). Microstructure study revealed that muscle fibers of cooked shrimp from both treatments had the swollen fibrils and gaps, while the control had the swollen compact structure. Therefore, use of PHSEW could reduce phosphate residue in shrimps without an adverse effect on sensory properties.

  15. Analysis of taste-active compounds in an enzymatic hydrolysate of deamidated wheat gluten.

    PubMed

    Schlichtherle-Cerny, Hedwig; Amadò, Renato

    2002-03-13

    Hydrolyzed plant proteins are widely used as ingredients in culinary products for their glutamate-like ("umami") taste. Three hydrolysates were prepared from wheat gluten using different enzymatic approaches. Comparison of their taste profiles revealed the enzymatic hydrolysate of an acid-deamidated wheat gluten (WGH-3) to be the least bitter of all and to elicit an intense glutamate-like taste. Its umami taste intensity was similar to that of an enzymatic hydrolysate in which glutaminase had been employed to convert free glutamine to glutamic acid and which had a 3-fold higher concentration of free glutamate. Reconstitution studies based on the results of the chemical analysis of WGH-3 and sensory comparison of the model solution and WGH-3 indicated that other components in addition to glutamate and organic acids contribute to its glutamate-like taste. WGH-3 was fractionated by gel permeation chromatography and reversed phase high-performance liquid chromatography, and two fractions with a pronounced glutamate-like taste were obtained. In one of them four pyroglutamyl peptides were tentatively identified: pGlu-Pro-Ser, pGlu-Pro, pGlu-Pro-Glu, and pGlu-Pro-Gln. Apparently, these peptides were formed by cyclization of the N-terminal glutamine residues during the preparation of the hydrolysates.

  16. Wool-waste valorization: production of protein hydrolysate with high antioxidative potential by fermentation with a new keratinolytic bacterium, Bacillus pumilus A1.

    PubMed

    Fakhfakh, N; Ktari, N; Siala, R; Nasri, M

    2013-08-01

    Wool, a recalcitrant waste mainly composed of keratin, constituted a serious problem for the environment and was not effectively valorized. This study reported the optimization of wool-waste biodegradation by a new keratinolytic bacterium Bacillus pumilus A1. The in vitro digestibility and the antioxidant potential of wool protein hydrolysate (WPH) were also investigated. The antioxidant potential of WPH was evaluated using in vitro antioxidant assays, such as 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical-scavenging activity, reducing power and metal (Fe(2+)) chelating activity. Cultivation on 50 g l(-1) of wool for 2 days, at 45°C and at initial pH of 10, resulted in maximum production of amino acids and peptides (39.7 g l(-1)). WPH presented a very high in vitro digestibility (97%) as compared with that of the untreated wool (3%). The keratin present into the wool-waste was completely solubilized. Interestingly, WPH presented an important DPPH radical-scavenging activity with an IC50 value of 0.14 ± 0.01 mg ml(-1). WPH would be a very useful source of protein and antioxidants in animals' diets. © 2013 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  17. Thermoase-derived flaxseed protein hydrolysates and membrane ultrafiltration peptide fractions have systolic blood pressure-lowering effects in spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Nwachukwu, Ifeanyi D; Girgih, Abraham T; Malomo, Sunday A; Onuh, John O; Aluko, Rotimi E

    2014-10-09

    Thermoase-digested flaxseed protein hydrolysate (FPH) samples and ultrafiltration membrane-separated peptide fractions were initially evaluated for in vitro inhibition of angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) and renin activities. The two most active FPH samples and their corresponding peptide fractions were subsequently tested for in vivo antihypertensive activity in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). The FPH produced with 3% thermoase digestion showed the highest ACE- and renin-inhibitory activities. Whereas membrane ultrafiltration resulted in significant (p < 0.05) increases in ACE inhibition by the <1 and 1-3 kDa peptides, only a marginal improvement in renin-inhibitory activity was observed for virtually all the samples after membrane ultrafiltration. The FPH samples and membrane fractions were also effective in lowering systolic blood pressure (SBP) in SHR with the largest effect occurring after oral administration (200 mg/kg body weight) of the 1-3 kDa peptide fraction of the 2.5% FPH and the 3-5 kDa fraction of the 3% FPH. Such potent SBP-lowering capacity indicates the potential of flaxseed protein-derived bioactive peptides as ingredients for the formulation of antihypertensive functional foods and nutraceuticals.

  18. Beneficial effects of fermented sardinelle protein hydrolysates on hypercaloric diet induced hyperglycemia, oxidative stress and deterioration of kidney function in wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Jemil, Ines; Nasri, Rim; Abdelhedi, Ola; Aristoy, Maria-Concepción; Salem, Rabeb Ben Slama-Ben; Kallel, Choumous; Marrekchi, Rim; Jamoussi, Kamel; ElFeki, Abdelfattah; Hajji, Mohamed; Toldrá, Fidel; Nasri, Moncef

    2017-02-01

    This study investigated the potential effects of fermented sardinelle protein hydrolysates (FSPHs) obtained by two proteolytic bacteria, Bacillus subtilis A26 (FSPH-A26) and Bacillus amyloliquefaciens An6 (FSPH-An6), on hypercaloric diet (HCD) induced hyperglycemia and oxidative stress in rats. Effects of FSPHs on blood glucose level, glucose tolerance, α-amylase activity and hepatic glycogen content were investigated, as well as their effect on the oxidative stress state. Biochemical findings revealed that, while undigested sardinelle proteins did not exhibit hypoglycemic activity, oral administration of FSPHs to HCD-fed rats reduced significantly α-amylase activity as well as glycemia and hepatic glycogen levels. Further, the treatment with FSPHs improved the redox status by decreasing the levels of lipid peroxidation products and increasing the activities of the antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase and catalase) and the level of glutathione in the liver and kidneys, as compared to those of HCD-fed rats. FSPHs were also found to exert significant protective effects on liver and kidney functions, evidenced by a marked decrease in alkaline phosphatase activity and a modulation of creatinine and uric acid contents. These results indicated the beneficial effect of FSPHs on the prevention from hyperglycemia and oxidative stress.

  19. Anti-Fatigue Effect by Peptide Fraction from Protein Hydrolysate of Croceine Croaker (Pseudosciaena crocea) Swim Bladder through Inhibiting the Oxidative Reactions including DNA Damage

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Yu-Qin; Zeng, Li; Yang, Zui-Su; Huang, Fang-Fang; Ding, Guo-Fang; Wang, Bin

    2016-01-01

    The swim bladder of the croceine croaker (Pseudosciaena crocea) was believed to have good curative effects in various diseases, including amnesia, insomnia, dizziness, anepithymia, and weakness after giving birth, in traditional Chinese medicine. However, there is no research focusing on the antioxidant and anti-fatigue peptides from croceine croaker swim bladders at present. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the bioactivities of peptide fractions from the protein hydrolysate of croceine croaker related to antioxidant and anti-fatigue effects. In the study, swim bladder peptide fraction (SBP-III-3) was isolated from the protein hydrolysate of the croceine croaker, and its antioxidant and anti-fatigue activities were measured using in vitro and in vivo methods. The results indicated that SBP-III-3 exhibited good scavenging activities on hydroxyl radicals (HO•) (EC50 (the concentration where a sample caused a 50% decrease of the initial concentration of HO•) = 0.867 mg/mL), 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radicals (DPPH•) (EC50 = 0.895 mg/mL), superoxide anion radical (O2−•) (EC50 = 0.871 mg/mL), and 2,2′-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid radical (ABTS+•) (EC50 = 0.346 mg/mL). SBP-III-3 also showed protective effects on DNA damage in a concentration-effect manner and prolonged the swimming time to exhaustion of Institute of Cancer Research (ICR) mice by 57.9%–107.5% greater than that of the control. SBP-III-3 could increase the levels of muscle glucose (9.4%–115.2% increase) and liver glycogen (35.7%–157.3%), and decrease the levels of blood urea nitrogen (BUN), lactic acid (LA), and malondialdehyde (MDA) by 16.4%–22.4%, 13.9%–20.1%, and 28.0%–53.6%, respectively. SBP-III-3 also enhanced the activity of lactic dehydrogenase to scavenge excessive LA for slowing the development of fatigue. In addition, SBP-III-3 increased the activities superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase to reduce the

  20. Anti-Fatigue Effect by Peptide Fraction from Protein Hydrolysate of Croceine Croaker (Pseudosciaena crocea) Swim Bladder through Inhibiting the Oxidative Reactions including DNA Damage.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yu-Qin; Zeng, Li; Yang, Zui-Su; Huang, Fang-Fang; Ding, Guo-Fang; Wang, Bin

    2016-12-13

    The swim bladder of the croceine croaker (Pseudosciaena crocea) was believed to have good curative effects in various diseases, including amnesia, insomnia, dizziness, anepithymia, and weakness after giving birth, in traditional Chinese medicine. However, there is no research focusing on the antioxidant and anti-fatigue peptides from croceine croaker swim bladders at present. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the bioactivities of peptide fractions from the protein hydrolysate of croceine croaker related to antioxidant and anti-fatigue effects. In the study, swim bladder peptide fraction (SBP-III-3) was isolated from the protein hydrolysate of the croceine croaker, and its antioxidant and anti-fatigue activities were measured using in vitro and in vivo methods. The results indicated that SBP-III-3 exhibited good scavenging activities on hydroxyl radicals (HO•) (EC50 (the concentration where a sample caused a 50% decrease of the initial concentration of HO•) = 0.867 mg/mL), 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radicals (DPPH•) (EC50 = 0.895 mg/mL), superoxide anion radical ( O 2 - •) (EC50 = 0.871 mg/mL), and 2,2'-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid radical (ABTS⁺•) (EC50 = 0.346 mg/mL). SBP-III-3 also showed protective effects on DNA damage in a concentration-effect manner and prolonged the swimming time to exhaustion of Institute of Cancer Research (ICR) mice by 57.9%-107.5% greater than that of the control. SBP-III-3 could increase the levels of muscle glucose (9.4%-115.2% increase) and liver glycogen (35.7%-157.3%), and decrease the levels of blood urea nitrogen (BUN), lactic acid (LA), and malondialdehyde (MDA) by 16.4%-22.4%, 13.9%-20.1%, and 28.0%-53.6%, respectively. SBP-III-3 also enhanced the activity of lactic dehydrogenase to scavenge excessive LA for slowing the development of fatigue. In addition, SBP-III-3 increased the activities superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase to reduce the reactive

  1. Generation of bioactive peptide hydrolysates from cattle plasma using plant and fungal proteases.

    PubMed

    Bah, Clara S F; Bekhit, Alaa El-Din A; McConnell, Michelle A; Carne, Alan

    2016-12-15

    Four protease preparations from plant and fungal sources (papain, bromelain, FP400 and FPII) were used to hydrolyse plasma which was separated from slaughterhouse cattle blood. The o-phthaldialdehyde assay was used to follow the release of TCA-soluble peptides over a 24h period. Hydrolysis profiles were displayed using SDS-PAGE. The in vitro antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of the hydrolysates were determined. The results showed that hydrolysates of cattle plasma generated with fungal protease FPII had higher antioxidant activities. Overall than hydrolysates generated with papain, bromelain and FP400. None of the hydrolysates demonstrated antimicrobial activity. The FPII peptide hydrolysate was fractionated using gel permeation chromatography, OFFGEL isoelectric focusing and RP-HPLC. The RP-HPLC fraction with highest antioxidant activity contained 15 novel peptide sequences. The use of protease FPII to hydrolyse cattle plasma resulted in a hydrolysate with high antioxidant properties and unique peptide sequences.

  2. Porcine Splenic Hydrolysate has Antioxidant Activity in vivo and in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Taek Joon

    2014-01-01

    The antioxidant capacity of porcine splenic hydrolysate (PSH) was studied in vitro and in vivo. Peptide hydrolysates were prepared, using the proteolytic enzyme Alcalase®. The molecular weights of PSH were 37,666, 10,673, 6,029, and 2,918 g/mol. Rats were fed a 5% (w/v) PSH diet, instead of a casein diet, for 4 wk. The food intake, body weight gain, and liver weight of rats in the PSH group were similar to those in the control (CONT) group. There were no differences in the serum total cholesterol, triglyceride, total protein, or albumin levels between PSH and CONT groups. However, the level of in vivo hepatic lipid peroxidation in PSH group was significantly lower than that in CONT. In vivo hepatic catalase and glutathione peroxidase activities in the PSH group were significantly higher than those in the control group. The in vitro protein digestibility of PSH was lower than that of casein. The in vitro trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity of PSH was significantly higher than that of the peptide hydrolysate from casein. The in vitro radical scavenging activities of PSH were significantly higher than those of the peptide hydrolysate from casein. The present findings suggest that porcine splenic peptides improve the antioxidant status in rats by enhancing hepatic catalase and GSH-Px activities, and indicate a potential mechanism of radical scavenging activity during gastrointestinal passage. PMID:26761173

  3. Comparative effects of intraduodenal whey protein hydrolysate on antropyloroduodenal motility, gut hormones, glycemia, appetite, and energy intake in lean and obese men.

    PubMed

    Hutchison, Amy T; Feinle-Bisset, Christine; Fitzgerald, Penelope C E; Standfield, Scott; Horowitz, Michael; Clifton, Peter M; Luscombe-Marsh, Natalie D

    2015-12-01

    In lean individuals, intraduodenal protein and lipid modulate gastrointestinal motor and hormone functions and reduce energy intake in a load-dependent manner; protein also stimulates insulin, with modest effects on reducing blood glucose. The effect of intraduodenal lipid on gastrointestinal motor and hormone responses is diminished in obesity; whether the effects of protein are also attenuated remains unclear. The objectives of this study were to characterize the load-dependent effects of intraduodenal whey protein hydrolysate on antropyloroduodenal pressures, gut hormones, glycemia, appetite, and energy intake in obese subjects and to compare the responses to the higher protein load with those in lean subjects. We measured antropyloroduodenal pressures, plasma cholecystokinin (CCK), glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1), glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP), glucagon, insulin, blood glucose, appetite, and energy intake in 12 nondiabetic obese men on 3 separate occasions, in a double-blind, randomized order, during 60-min intraduodenal infusions of hydrolyzed whey protein at either 0 (saline control), 1.5, or 3 kcal/min. Twelve age-matched lean individuals received a 3-kcal/min infusion only. Immediately after the infusions, energy intake from a buffet lunch was quantified. In obese subjects, protein suppressed antral and duodenal pressures; stimulated plasma CCK, GLP-1, GIP, insulin, and glucagon (all r > 0.57, P < 0.01); and tended to reduce energy intake (r = -10.38, P = 0.057) in a dose-dependent manner. In response to the 3-kcal/min protein load, antropyloroduodenal pressures, CCK, GLP-1, and glucagon did not differ between lean and obese subjects. Insulin release was greater, and GIP release less, in obese than in lean subjects (both P < 0.05), whereas the reduction in glucose was comparable. Energy intake tended to be higher in obese subjects (P = 0.08). The gastrointestinal effects of hydrolyzed whey protein remain relatively intact in obesity

  4. Enhanced production of optically pure d (-) lactic acid from nutritionally rich Borassus flabellifer sugar and whey protein hydrolysate based-fermentation medium.

    PubMed

    Reddy Tadi, Subbi Rami; E V R, Arun; Limaye, Anil Mukund; Sivaprakasam, Senthilkumar

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this study is to optimize the production of optically pure d (-) lactic acid (DLA) employing a cost-effective production medium. Based on the designed biomass approach, Sporolactobacillus inulinus NBRC 13595 was found to exhibit high DLA titer (19.0 g L(-1) ) and optical purity (99.6%). A cost-effective medium was constituted using Palmyra palm jaggery (PJ) from Borassus flabellifer and whey protein hydrolysate (WPH) as carbon and nitrogen sources, respectively. Plackett-Burman design indicated that PJ, WPH, and MnSO4 as significant variables influence DLA production. A rotatable central composite design and response surface methodology were used to optimize the PJ and WPH concentrations. A maximum DLA titer (170.14 g L(-1) ) was predicted for 222.24 g L(-1) of PJ and 11.99 g L(-1) of WPH, respectively. Fermentation experimental results exhibited a maximum DLA titer (189.0 ± 8.53 g L(-1) ) and productivity (5.25 ± 0.24 g L(-1) H(-1) ), which is the highest ever reported for DLA production from a renewable feedstock in the batch process. The present investigation substantiates that the potential application of economically viable raw feedstocks (PJ and WPH) for enhanced DLA production, which is attributed to 2.5-fold reduction in DLA production cost compared with conventional medium. © 2015 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  5. Rice Bran Protein Hydrolysates Improve Insulin Resistance and Decrease Pro-inflammatory Cytokine Gene Expression in Rats Fed a High Carbohydrate-High Fat Diet.

    PubMed

    Boonloh, Kampeebhorn; Kukongviriyapan, Veerapol; Kongyingyoes, Bunkerd; Kukongviriyapan, Upa; Thawornchinsombut, Supawan; Pannangpetch, Patchareewan

    2015-08-03

    A high carbohydrate-high fat (HCHF) diet causes insulin resistance (IR) and metabolic syndrome (MS). Rice bran has been demonstrated to have anti-dyslipidemic and anti-atherogenic properties in an obese mouse model. In the present study, we investigated the beneficial effects of rice bran protein hydrolysates (RBP) in HCHF-induced MS rats. After 12 weeks on this diet, the HCHF-fed group was divided into four subgroups, which were orally administered RBP 100 or 500 mg/kg, pioglitazone 10 mg/kg, or tap water for a further 6 weeks. Compared with normal diet control group, the MS rats had elevated levels of blood glucose, lipid, insulin, and HOMA-IR. Treatment with RBP significantly alleviated all those changes and restored insulin sensitivity. Additionally, RBP treatment increased adiponectin and suppressed leptin levels. Expression of Ppar-γ mRNA in adipose tissues was significantly increased whereas expression of lipogenic genes Srebf1 and Fasn was significantly decreased. Levels of mRNA of proinflammatory cytokines, Il-6, Tnf-α, Nos-2 and Mcp-1 were significantly decreased. In conclusion, the present findings support the consumption of RBP as a functional food to improve insulin resistance and to prevent the development of metabolic syndrome.

  6. An extensively hydrolysed casein-based formula for infants with cows' milk protein allergy: tolerance/hypo-allergenicity and growth catch-up.

    PubMed

    Dupont, Christophe; Hol, Jeroen; Nieuwenhuis, Edward E S

    2015-04-14

    Children with cows' milk protein allergy (CMPA) are at risk of insufficient length and weight gain, and the nutritional efficacy of hypo-allergenic formulas should be carefully assessed. In 2008, a trial assessed the impact of probiotic supplementation of an extensively hydrolysed casein-based formula (eHCF) on acquisition of tolerance in 119 infants with CMPA. First analysis of the study results showed that the studied formula allowed improvement of food-related symptoms. The scoring of atopic dermatitis (SCORAD) index was assessed at randomisation and after 6 months of feeding. A post hoc analysis was performed using WHO growth software's nutritional survey module (WHO Anthro version 3.2.2). All infants who were fed the study formula tolerated it well. The SCORAD index significantly improved from randomisation to 6 months of feeding with the study formula. Anthropometric data indicated a significant improvement in the weight-for-age, length-for-age and weight-for-length z scores, as well as in the restoration of normal BMI. The probiotic supplementation did not show any impact on these parameters. The present data showed that this eHCF was clinically tolerated and significantly improved the SCORAD index and growth indices.

  7. Production of Fish Protein Hydrolysates from Scyliorhinus canicula Discards with Antihypertensive and Antioxidant Activities by Enzymatic Hydrolysis and Mathematical Optimization Using Response Surface Methodology.

    PubMed

    Vázquez, José A; Blanco, Maria; Massa, Agueda E; Amado, Isabel Rodríguez; Pérez-Martín, Ricardo I

    2017-10-10

    Fish discards are of major concern in new EU policies. Alternatives for the management of the new biomass that has to be landed is compulsory. The production of bioactive compounds from fish protein hydrolysates (FPH) has been explored in recent years. However, the viability of Scyliorhinus canicula discards, which might account for up to 90-100% of captures in mixed trawler, gillnet, and longline industrial fisheries, to produce FPH from the muscle with bioactivities has still not been studied in terms of the optimization of the experimental conditions to enhance its production. The effect of pH and temperature on the hydrolysis of the S.canicula muscle was mediated by three commercial proteases using response surface methodology. Temperatures of 64.6 °C and 60.8 °C and pHs of 9.40 and 8.90 were established as the best hydrolysis conditions for Alcalase and Esperase, respectively. Optimization of the best conditions for the maximization of antihypertensive and antioxidant activities was performed. Higher Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) activity was found with Esperase. The pH optimum and temperature optimum for antioxidants were 55 °C/pH8.0 for ABTS/DPPH-Esperase, 63.1 °C/pH9.0 for DPPH-Alcalase, and 55 °C/pH9.0 for ABTS-Alcalase. No hydrolysis was detected when using Protamex.

  8. Seed vigour studies in corn, soybean and tomato in response to fish protein hydrolysates and consequences on phenolic-linked responses.

    PubMed

    Horii, Akiyo; McCue, Patrick; Shetty, Kalidas

    2007-08-01

    Seed priming with fish protein hydrolysates (FPH) has been studied for the enhancement of seed vigour of corn, soybean and tomato. The influence of FPH at 2.5 mL/L and 5.0 mL/L on traditional agronomic parameters for seed vigour (germination percentage, seedling weight, seedling height) and potential new vigour-associated parameters (phenolic content, antioxidant activity, guaiacol peroxidase (GuPX) activity, chlorophyll content) was investigated. FPH treatment preferentially stimulated seedling vigour in the following order: soybean>tomato>corn. For soybean, FPH at 2.5 mL/L and 5 mL/L improved the majority of the seed vigour parameters (seedling weight and height, phenolic content, antioxidant activity and chlorophyll content, and lignification-associated GuPX activity). Similarly, for tomato, FPH at 2.5 mL/L stimulated seedling weight and height, GuPX activity and chlorophyll content. However, FPH did not stimulate corn seed vigour. Our results suggest an ability of proline precursor-rich FPH to improve of plant growth and development (e.g., seed vigour) in phenolic-rich plant species through modulation of phenolic and chlorophyll metabolisms.

  9. Protection mechanism of Se-containing protein hydrolysates from Se-enriched rice on Pb(2+)-induced apoptosis in PC12 and RAW264.7 cells.

    PubMed

    Fang, Yong; Xu, Zi; Shi, Yi; Pei, Fei; Yang, Wenjian; Ma, Ning; Kimatu, Benard Muinde; Liu, Kunlun; Qiu, Weifen; Hu, Qiuhui

    2017-03-15

    This study aimed to investigate the protection mechanism of Se-containing protein hydrolysates (SPH) from Se-enriched rice on Pb(2+)-induced apoptosis in PC12 and RAW264.7 cells. Results showed that SPHs could alleviate Pb(2+)-induced morphological changes of apoptosis and the loss of mitochondrial transmembrane potential in both cell types. Besides this, SPHs could significantly reduce the activation of caspase-3, -8, -9 induced by Pb(2+), reverse the Pb(2+)-induced upregulation of Bax and release of cytochrome C, and downregulate Bcl-2 in cells. HPLC-ICP-MS and SEC-HPLC assays showed that SPHs were low molecular weight peptides (229.4-534.9Da), and the major Se species found in SPHs was SeMet. Taken together, these findings suggested that SPHs could possibly protect the cells against Pb(2+)-induced apoptosis via a caspase-dependent mitochondrial pathway, and the primary effective constituents in SPHs were SeMet and Se-containing peptides, suggesting that SPHs might be a novel potential candidate to improve the health of people with Se deficiency or in Pb-contaminated areas. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Identification and characterization of a novel antioxidant peptide from feather keratin hydrolysate.

    PubMed

    Wan, Min-Yuan; Dong, Ge; Yang, Bin-Qing; Feng, Hong

    2016-04-01

    To improve the potential value of feather, which is a valuable protein resource, we have separated and identified antioxidant peptide(s) from feather hydrolysate. Feather hydrolysate was prepared by fermentation with Bacillus subtilis S1-4. Antioxidative peptides were separated by sequential acid precipitation, cation exchange, and reversed-phase fast performance liquid chromatography. Finally, a peptide with antioxidative activity was identified as Ser-Asn-Leu-Cys-Arg-Pro-Cys-Gly by MALDI time-of-flight (TOF)/TOF analysis, and determined to represent a portion of feather keratin near its N-terminal. A synthesized peptide with the same sequence was used to characterize its antioxidative properties, including scavenging free radicals, reducing power, and Fe(2+) chelation. In terms of the peptide's amino acid composition, the antioxidative activity might be mainly attributed to Cys and other amino acid residues. Feather keratin is a good source for the quantitative preparation of antioxidative peptides.

  11. Antioxidant, Liver Protective and Angiotensin I-converting Enzyme Inhibitory Activities of Old Laying Hen Hydrolysate in Crab Meat Analogue.

    PubMed

    Jin, Sang Keun; Choi, Jung Seok; Choi, Yeung Joon; Lee, Seung-Jae; Lee, Seung Yun; Hur, Sun Jin

    2016-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the antioxidative activities of Crab meat analogue prepared with protein hydrolysates obtained from mechanically deboned chicken meat (MDCM) from spent laying hens. 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl hydrate (DPPH) radical-scavenging activity was increased by adding MDCM hydrolysates during storage, and activity correlated with the concentration of DPPH added up to 6 weeks of storage. Hydroxyl radical-scavenging activity was increased in all analogues containing MDCM hydrolysates. At 0 days of storage, angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE)-inhibitory activity was increased by the addition of MDCM hydrolysates. Activity did not correlate after 6 weeks of storage, in which ACE-inhibitory activity was increased with low concentrations of MDCM hydrolysates, but no ACE-inhibitory activity was observed at higher concentrations. The liver-protecting activity of crab meat analogue was shown to be around 60% of the positive control; however, it was not significantly different among the samples during storage. These results support the use of MDCM as a source of health-promoting constituents in crab meat analogue.

  12. Antioxidant, Liver Protective and Angiotensin I-converting Enzyme Inhibitory Activities of Old Laying Hen Hydrolysate in Crab Meat Analogue

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Sang Keun; Choi, Jung Seok; Choi, Yeung Joon; Lee, Seung-Jae; Lee, Seung Yun; Hur, Sun Jin

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the antioxidative activities of Crab meat analogue prepared with protein hydrolysates obtained from mechanically deboned chicken meat (MDCM) from spent laying hens. 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl hydrate (DPPH) radical-scavenging activity was increased by adding MDCM hydrolysates during storage, and activity correlated with the concentration of DPPH added up to 6 weeks of storage. Hydroxyl radical-scavenging activity was increased in all analogues containing MDCM hydrolysates. At 0 days of storage, angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE)-inhibitory activity was increased by the addition of MDCM hydrolysates. Activity did not correlate after 6 weeks of storage, in which ACE-inhibitory activity was increased with low concentrations of MDCM hydrolysates, but no ACE-inhibitory activity was observed at higher concentrations. The liver-protecting activity of crab meat analogue was shown to be around 60% of the positive control; however, it was not significantly different among the samples during storage. These results support the use of MDCM as a source of health-promoting constituents in crab meat analogue. PMID:26954200

  13. Biocatalytic conversion of poultry processing leftovers: Optimization of hydrolytic conditions and peptide hydrolysate characterization.

    PubMed

    Nikolaev, I V; Sforza, S; Lambertini, F; Ismailova, D Yu; Khotchenkov, V P; Volik, V G; Dossena, A; Popov, V O; Koroleva, O V

    2016-04-15

    Peptide hydrolysate (PH) was produced by deep controllable bioconversion of poultry processing leftovers (broiler necks), by means of a multienzyme composition, containing four commercially available enzyme preparations (Alcalase, Neutrase, Flavourzyme, Protamex). The design of multienzyme composition (MEC) was applied to yield a hydrolysate with adjusted properties, including minimized antigenicity and bitterness. The protein recovery was optimized using Box-Behnken response surface design. The individual and interactive effects of hydrolysis conditions (time, hydromodule and MEC dosage) were studied. The experimental data were analyzed by ANOVA method and a well-predictive, second order polynomial model was developed using multiple regression analysis. Optimal hydrolysis conditions were found to be: hydrolysis time 3 h, hydromodule 2.25 l/kg and dosage of MEC 0.25%. The corresponding predicted value for protein recovery was 75.34%, 2 times higher compared to traditional long-term heating hydrolysis. The PH obtained is a low allergenic product with high antioxidant capacity.

  14. Evaluation of Hypotensive and Antihypertensive Effects of Velvet Bean (Mucuna pruriens L.) Hydrolysates.

    PubMed

    Chel-Guerrero, Luis; Galicia-Martínez, Saulo; Acevedo-Fernández, Juan José; Santaolalla-Tapia, Jesus; Betancur-Ancona, David

    2017-01-01

    Hypertension could cause significant worldwide health problems that affect 15-20% of all adults; according to National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, about 29% of the adult population in the United States are hypertensive. Recent research has shown that peptides derived from the hydrolysis of food proteins can decrease blood pressure. This study was carried out to evaluate the hypotensive and antihypertensive potential of Mucuna pruriens protein hydrolysates in in vitro and in vivo models. M. pruriens protein concentrate was prepared by wet fractionation and enzymatically hydrolyzed using Alcalase(®), Flavourzyme(®), and the sequential system Alcalase-Flavourzyme at different times (5-120 min). The biological potential was measured in vitro based on the IC50 value as well as in vivo effect, measuring the systolic (SBP) and diastolic (DBP) blood pressure in normotensive and antihypertensive Wistar-Kyoto rats by the tail-cuff method. Hydrolysis of M. pruriens protein concentrates with commercial enzymes generated extensive hydrolysates with angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE-I) inhibitory activity (IC50: 0.589-0.993 mg/mL) and hypotensive (SBP: 0.6-47.43%, DBP: 1.94-43.47%) and antihypertensive (SBP: 8.84-27.29% DBP: 16.1-29.37%) effect. These results indicate that Mucuna pruriens protein hydrolysate (MPPH) could be used as a functional ingredient to prevent blood pressure increase.

  15. Preventive and treatment effects of a hemp seed (Cannabis sativa L.) meal protein hydrolysate against high blood pressure in spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Girgih, Abraham T; Alashi, Adeola; He, Rong; Malomo, Sunday; Aluko, Rotimi E

    2014-08-01

    This work determined the ability of hemp seed meal protein hydrolysate (HMH)-containing diets to attenuate elevated blood pressure (hypertension) development in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs). Effects of diets on plasma levels of renin and angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) in the SHRs were also determined. Defatted hemp seed protein meal was hydrolyzed using simulated gastrointestinal tract digestion with pepsin followed by pancreatin, and the resulting HMH used as a source of antihypertensive peptides. The HMH was substituted for casein at 0.5 and 1.0% levels and fed to young growing rats for 8 weeks (preventive phase) or adult rats for 4 weeks (treatment phase). Feeding of young growing SHRs with HMH resulted in attenuation of the normal increases in systolic blood pressure (SBP) with an average value of ~120 mmHg when compared to the casein-only group of rats (control) with a maximum of 158 mm Hg (p < 0.05). Feeding adult rats (SBP ~145 mmHg) with same diets during a 4-week period led to significant (p < 0.05) reduction in SBP to ~119 mmHg in comparison with 150 mmHg for the control rats. Plasma ACE activity was significantly (p < 0.05) suppressed (0.047-0.059 U/mL) in HMH-fed rats when compared to control rats (0.123 U/mL). Plasma renin level was also decreased for HMH-fed rats (0.040-0.054 μg/mL) when compared to control rats that were fed only with casein (0.151 μg/mL). The results suggest that HMH with strong hypotensive effects in SHRs could be used as a therapeutic agent for both the prevention and treatment of hypertension.

  16. Effects of hydrolysed casein, intact casein and intact whey protein on energy expenditure and appetite regulation: a randomised, controlled, cross-over study.

    PubMed

    Bendtsen, Line Q; Lorenzen, Janne K; Gomes, Sisse; Liaset, Bjørn; Holst, Jens J; Ritz, Christian; Reitelseder, Søren; Sjödin, Anders; Astrup, Arne

    2014-10-28

    Casein and whey differ in amino acid composition and in the rate of absorption; however, the absorption rate of casein can be increased to mimic that of whey by exogenous hydrolysis. The objective of the present study was to compare the effects of hydrolysed casein (HC), intact casein (IC) and intact whey (IW) on energy expenditure (EE) and appetite regulation, and thereby to investigate the influence of amino acid composition and the rate of absorption. In the present randomised cross-over study, twenty-four overweight and moderately obese young men and women consumed three isoenergetic dietary treatments that varied in protein source. The study was conducted in a respiration chamber, where EE, substrate oxidation and subjective appetite were measured over 24 h at three independent visits. Moreover, blood and urine samples were collected from the participants. The results showed no differences in 24 h and postprandial EE or appetite regulation. However, lipid oxidation, estimated from the respiratory quotient (RQ), was found to be higher after consumption of IW than after consumption of HC during daytime (P= 0·014) as well as during the time after the breakfast meal (P= 0·008) when the food was provided. Likewise, NEFA concentrations were found to be higher after consumption of IW than after consumption of HC and IC (P< 0·01). However, there was no overall difference in the concentration of insulin or glucagon-like peptide 1. In conclusion, dietary treatments when served as high-protein mixed meals induced similar effects on EE and appetite regulation, except for lipid oxidation, where RQ values suggest that it is higher after consumption of IW than after consumption of HC.

  17. Screening, discovery, and characterization of angiotensin-I converting enzyme inhibitory peptides derived from proteolytic hydrolysate of bitter melon seed proteins.

    PubMed

    Priyanto, Anugerah Dany; Doerksen, Robert J; Chang, Chi-I; Sung, Wang-Chou; Widjanarko, Simon Bambang; Kusnadi, Joni; Lin, Ya-Chi; Wang, Ting-Chin; Hsu, Jue-Liang

    2015-10-14

    In this study, new angiotensin-I converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory peptides were comprehensively identified from a thermolysin digest of bitter melon (Momordica charantia) seed proteins. The hydrolysate was fractionated by reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC), and the inhibitory activities of the resulting fractions were evaluated using ACE inhibitory assay. Two novel ACE inhibitory peptides (VY-7 and VG-8) were identified using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) and database-assisted peptide sequencing. VY-7 and VG-8 were derived from momordin A and MAP30, respectively, and their IC50 values were as low as 8.64±0.60 and 13.30±0.62 μM, respectively. Lineweaver-Burk plots further indicated that VY-7, which showed the best IC50 value, acts as a competitive inhibitor. Notably, the content of VY-7 in crude thermolysin digest was determined to be as high as 14.89±0.88 μg/mg using LC-MS/MS quantification. In the spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR) model, oral administration of VY-7 at 2mg/kg body weight significantly decreased the systolic blood pressure. The interaction between VY-7 and ACE was examined using molecular docking calculations and the results suggested that certain residues of VY-7 can fit perfectly into the S1, S1' and S2' regions of the binding pocket of ACE. One of the most common supportive therapies for treating hypertension is the use of synthetic drugs to inhibit ACE activity. Synthetic ACE inhibitors possess good antihypertensive effects, but come with accompanying side effects. Therefore, food-derived ACE inhibitory peptides are regarded as safer alternatives and are attracting much attention for hypertension treatment. In this study, we comprehensively identified peptides derived from bitter melon (Momordica charantia) seed proteins (BMSPs) using a shotgun proteomics approach. Based on results from an in vitro ACE inhibitory assay, two peptides (VY-7 and VG-8) derived from momordin A and MAP

  18. Growth of Aureobasidium pullulans on straw hydrolysate.

    PubMed Central

    Han, Y W; Cheeke, P R; Anderson, A W; Lekprayoon, C

    1976-01-01

    Growth characteristics and cell properties of Aureobasidium (Pullularia) pullulans were studied. The organism grew well on an acid hydrolysate of ryegrass straw over a wide range of pH and temperature. The optimum temperature and pH for the growth of the organism were 32 degrees C and 5.5, respectively. A cell yield of 1.5 g/liter of straw hydrolysate was obtained. The dried cell mass contained 42.6% crude protein, 0.4% crude fat, and 6.4% nucleic acids. The essential amino acid profile of the microbial protein was comparable to that of Candida utilis. A rat feeding study indicated that the A. pullulans cells were not toxic and that the feed intake, weight gain, and protein efficiency ratio values were superior to those obtained with C. utilis. Once the question of mathogenicity is resolved, A. pullulans could be useful for production of single-cell protein from cellulosic wastes. PMID:12721

  19. Chronic treatment with a tryptophan-rich protein hydrolysate improves emotional processing, mental energy levels and reaction time in middle-aged women.

    PubMed

    Mohajeri, M H; Wittwer, J; Vargas, K; Hogan, E; Holmes, A; Rogers, P J; Goralczyk, R; Gibson, E L

    2015-01-28

    Common pharmacological treatments of mood disorders aim to modulate serotonergic neurotransmission and enhance serotonin levels in the brain. Brain serotonin levels are dependent on the availability of its food-derived precursor essential amino acid tryptophan (Trp). We tested the hypothesis that delivery of Trp via food may serve as an alternative treatment, and examined the effects of a Trp-rich, bioavailable dietary supplement from egg protein hydrolysate on cognitive and emotional functions, mood state, and sleep quality. In a randomised, placebo-controlled, parallel trial, fifty-nine mentally and physically healthy women aged 45-65 years received placebo (n 30) or the supplement (n 29) (both as 0.5 g twice per d) for 19 d. Emotional processing was significantly changed by supplementation, exhibiting a shift in bias away from negative stimuli. The results for the Affective Go/No-Go Task exhibited a slowing of responses to negative words, suggesting reduced attention to negative emotional stimuli. The results for the Facial Emotional Expression Rating Task also supported a shift away from attention to negative emotions and a bias towards happiness. An increase in arousal-like symptoms, labelled 'high energy', shorter reaction times and a slight benefit to sustained attention were observed in the treated subjects. Finally, when the supplement was taken 60-90 min before bedtime, a feeling of happiness before going to bed was consistently reported. In summary, daily consumption of a low-dose supplement containing bioavailable Trp may have beneficial effects on emotional and cognitive functions.

  20. Light backscatter fiber optic sensor: a new tool for predicting the stability of pork emulsions containing antioxidative potato protein hydrolysate.

    PubMed

    Nieto, Gema; Xiong, Youling L; Payne, Fred; Castillo, Manuel

    2015-02-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether light backscatter response from fresh pork meat emulsions is correlated to final product stability indices. A specially designed fiber optic measurement system was used in combination with a miniature fiber optic spectrometer to determine the intensity of light backscatter within the wavelength range 300-1100 nm (UV/VIS/NIR) at different radial distances (2, 2.5 and 3mm) with respect to the light source in pork meat emulsions with two fat levels (15%, 30%) and two levels (0, 2.5%) of the natural antioxidant hydrolyzed potato protein (HPP). Textural parameters (hardness, deformability, cohesiveness and breaking force), cooking loss, TBARS (1, 2, 3, and 7 days of storage at 4 °C) and CIELAB color coordinates of cooked emulsions were measured. The light backscatter was directly correlated with cooking losses, color, breaking force and TBARS. The optical configuration proposed would compensate for the emulsion heterogeneity, maximizing the existing correlation between the optical signal and the emulsion quality metrics.

  1. Hydrolysate of lipid extracted microalgal biomass residue: An algal growth promoter and enhancer.

    PubMed

    Maurya, Rahulkumar; Paliwal, Chetan; Chokshi, Kaumeel; Pancha, Imran; Ghosh, Tonmoy; Satpati, Gour Gopal; Pal, Ruma; Ghosh, Arup; Mishra, Sandhya

    2016-05-01

    The present study demonstrates the utilization of the algal hydrolysate (AH) prepared from lipid extracted residual harmful bloom-forming cyanobacteria Lyngbya majuscula biomass, as a growth supplement for the cultivation of green microalgae Chlorella vulgaris. BG-11 replacements with AH in different proportions significantly affects the cell count, dry cell weight (DCW), biomass productivity (BP) and pigments concentration. Among all, 25% AH substitution in BG11 media was found to be optimum which enhanced DCW, BP and pigments content by 39.13%, 40.81% and 129.47%, respectively, compared to control. The lipid content (31.95%) was also significantly higher in the 25% AH replacement. The volumetric productivity of neutral lipids (ideal for biodiesel) and total protein content of the cells significantly increased in all AH substitutions. Thus, lipid extracted microalgal biomass residue (LMBR) hydrolysate can be a potential growth stimulating supplement for oleaginous microalgae C. vulgaris.

  2. Preparation of Gnathostoma protein by ultrafiltration method using Nanosep membrane.

    PubMed

    Sugaroon, Suphan; Saksirisampant, Wilai; Kraivichian, Kanyarattana; Suwansaksri, Jamsai; Wiwanitkit, Viroj

    2003-01-01

    We report our experience with Gnathostoma protein preparation by the ultrafiltration method. Crude antigen was sonicated and ultrafiltrated using the Nanosep 100 K membrane. SDS-PAGE electrophoresis showed protein bands at 43, 41, 24, 22, 21, 19.5 kDa. Use of the ultrafiltration method can provide specific protein (24 kDa), similar to the non-ultrafiltration method, with the other 5 non-specific proteins. Using the non-ultrafiltration method, there were more (20) non-specific protein. The ultrafiltration method can be an alternative method for the preparation of protein, which can provide better results than non-ultrafiltration.

  3. Transcriptome-Wide Identification of Differentially Expressed Genes in Solanum lycopersicon L. in Response to an Alfalfa-Protein Hydrolysate Using Microarrays

    PubMed Central

    Ertani, Andrea; Schiavon, Michela; Nardi, Serenella

    2017-01-01

    An alfalfa-based protein hydrolysate (EM) has been tested in tomato (Solanum lycopersicon L.) plants at two different concentrations (0.1 and 1 mL L-1) to get insight on its efficacy as biostimulant in this species and to unravel possible metabolic targets and molecular mechanisms that may shed light on its mode of action. EM was efficient in promoting the fresh biomass and content in chlorophyll and soluble sugars of tomato plants, especially when it was applied at the concentration of 1 mL L-1. This effect on plant productivity was likely related to the EM-dependent up-regulation of genes identified via microarray and involved in primary carbon and nitrogen metabolism, photosynthesis, nutrient uptake and developmental processes. EM also up-regulated a number of genes implied in the secondary metabolism that leads to the synthesis of compounds (phenols and terpenes) functioning in plant development and interaction with the environment. Concomitantly, phenol content was enhanced in EM-treated plants. Several new genes have been identified in tomato as potential targets of EM action, like those involved in detoxification processes from reactive oxygen species and xenobiotic (particularly glutathione/ascorbate cycle-related and ABC transporters), and defense against abiotic and biotic stress. The model hypothesized is that elicitors present in the EM formulation like auxins, phenolics, and amino acids, may trigger a signal transduction pathway via modulation of the intracellular levels of the hormones ethylene, jasmonic acid and abscissic acid, which then further prompt the activation of a cascade events requiring the presence and activity of many kinases and transcription factors to activate stress-related genes. The genes identified suggest these kinases and transcription factors as players involved in a complex crosstalk between biotic and abiotic stress signaling pathways. We conclude that EM acts as a biostimulant in tomato due to its capacity to stimulate plant

  4. Synergistic Action of a Microbial-based Biostimulant and a Plant Derived-Protein Hydrolysate Enhances Lettuce Tolerance to Alkalinity and Salinity.

    PubMed

    Rouphael, Youssef; Cardarelli, Mariateresa; Bonini, Paolo; Colla, Giuseppe

    2017-01-01

    In the coming years, farmers will have to deal with growing crops under suboptimal conditions dictated by global climate changes. The application of plant biostimulants such as beneficial microorganisms and plant-derived protein hydrolysates (PHs) may represent an interesting approach for increasing crop tolerance to alkalinity and salinity. The current research aimed at elucidating the agronomical, physiological, and biochemical effects as well as the changes in mineral composition of greenhouse lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) either untreated or treated with a microbial-based biostimulant (Tablet) containing Rhizophagus intraradices and Trichoderma atroviride alone or in combination with a PH. Plants were sprayed with PH at weekly intervals with a solution containing 2.5 ml L(-1) of PH. Lettuce plants were grown in sand culture and supplied with three nutrient solutions: standard, saline (25 mM NaCl) or alkaline (10 mM NaHCO3 + 0.5 g l(-1) CaCO3; pH 8.1). Salt stress triggered a decrease in fresh yield, biomass production, SPAD index, chlorophyll fluorescence, leaf mineral composition and increased leaf proline concentration, without altering antioxidant enzyme activities. The decrease in marketable yield and biomass production under alkali stress was not significant. Irrespective of nutrient solution, the application of Tablet and especially Tablet + PH increased fresh marketable yield, shoot and root dry weight. This was associated with an improvement in SPAD index, Fv/Fm ratio, CAT and GPX activities and a better nutritional status (higher P, K, and Fe and lower Na with NaCl and higher P and Fe with NaHCO3) via an increase of total root length and surface. The combination of microbial biostimulant with foliar application of PH synergistically increased the marketable fresh yield by 15.5 and 46.7% compared to the Tablet-treated and untreated plants, respectively. The improved crop performance of Tablet + PH application was attributed to a better root system

  5. Synergistic Action of a Microbial-based Biostimulant and a Plant Derived-Protein Hydrolysate Enhances Lettuce Tolerance to Alkalinity and Salinity

    PubMed Central

    Rouphael, Youssef; Cardarelli, Mariateresa; Bonini, Paolo; Colla, Giuseppe

    2017-01-01

    In the coming years, farmers will have to deal with growing crops under suboptimal conditions dictated by global climate changes. The application of plant biostimulants such as beneficial microorganisms and plant-derived protein hydrolysates (PHs) may represent an interesting approach for increasing crop tolerance to alkalinity and salinity. The current research aimed at elucidating the agronomical, physiological, and biochemical effects as well as the changes in mineral composition of greenhouse lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) either untreated or treated with a microbial-based biostimulant (Tablet) containing Rhizophagus intraradices and Trichoderma atroviride alone or in combination with a PH. Plants were sprayed with PH at weekly intervals with a solution containing 2.5 ml L-1 of PH. Lettuce plants were grown in sand culture and supplied with three nutrient solutions: standard, saline (25 mM NaCl) or alkaline (10 mM NaHCO3 + 0.5 g l-1 CaCO3; pH 8.1). Salt stress triggered a decrease in fresh yield, biomass production, SPAD index, chlorophyll fluorescence, leaf mineral composition and increased leaf proline concentration, without altering antioxidant enzyme activities. The decrease in marketable yield and biomass production under alkali stress was not significant. Irrespective of nutrient solution, the application of Tablet and especially Tablet + PH increased fresh marketable yield, shoot and root dry weight. This was associated with an improvement in SPAD index, Fv/Fm ratio, CAT and GPX activities and a better nutritional status (higher P, K, and Fe and lower Na with NaCl and higher P and Fe with NaHCO3) via an increase of total root length and surface. The combination of microbial biostimulant with foliar application of PH synergistically increased the marketable fresh yield by 15.5 and 46.7% compared to the Tablet-treated and untreated plants, respectively. The improved crop performance of Tablet + PH application was attributed to a better root system

  6. Cell periphery-related proteins as major genomic targets behind the adaptive evolution of an industrial Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain to combined heat and hydrolysate stress.

    PubMed

    Wallace-Salinas, Valeria; Brink, Daniel P; Ahrén, Dag; Gorwa-Grauslund, Marie F

    2015-07-09

    Laboratory evolution is an important tool for developing robust yeast strains for bioethanol production since the biological basis behind combined tolerance requires complex alterations whose proper regulation is difficult to achieve by rational metabolic engineering. Previously, we reported on the evolved industrial Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain ISO12 that had acquired improved tolerance to grow and ferment in the presence of lignocellulose-derived inhibitors at high temperature (39 °C). In the current study, we used comparative genomics to uncover the extent of the genomic alterations that occurred during the evolution process and investigated possible associations between the mutations and the phenotypic traits in ISO12. Through whole-genome sequencing and variant calling we identified a high number of strain-unique SNPs and INDELs in both ISO12 and the parental strain Ethanol Red. The variants were predicted to have 760 non-synonymous effects in both strains combined and were significantly enriched in Gene Ontology terms related to cell periphery, membranes and cell wall. Eleven genes, including MTL1, FLO9/FLO11, and CYC3 were found to be under positive selection in ISO12. Additionally, the FLO genes exhibited changes in copy number, and the alterations to this gene family were correlated with experimental results of multicellularity and invasive growth in the adapted strain. An independent lipidomic analysis revealed further differences between the strains in the content of nine lipid species. Finally, ISO12 displayed improved viability in undiluted spruce hydrolysate that was unrelated to reduction of inhibitors and changes in cell wall integrity, as shown by HPLC and lyticase assays. Together, the results of the sequence comparison and the physiological characterisations indicate that cell-periphery proteins (e.g. extracellular sensors such as MTL1) and peripheral lipids/membranes are important evolutionary targets in the process of adaptation to the

  7. Characterization and Bioactivity of Hydrolysates produced from Aflatoxin Contaminated Peanut Meal

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Justification: Interest in protein hydrolysates is increasing because of their improved functionality and health benefits, particularly angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibition, compared to their parent proteins. Large-scale production of hydrolysates is expensive, and one way to minimize co...

  8. In vitro digestion of short-dough biscuits enriched in proteins and/or fibres using a multi-compartmental and dynamic system (2): Protein and starch hydrolyses.

    PubMed

    Villemejane, C; Denis, S; Marsset-Baglieri, A; Alric, M; Aymard, P; Michon, C

    2016-01-01

    The influence of protein and/or fibre enrichment on the nutritional properties of biscuits was studied in terms of proteolysis and amylolysis. Biscuits were digested using a multi-compartmental and dynamic system that simulates the main physiological digestive functions of the upper tract of healthy adult humans: the TIM-1. A control biscuit and three biscuits enriched in proteins and/or fibres were digested under the same conditions. Samples were collected in each compartment of the TIM-1 (stomach, duodenum, jejunum and ileum) at different times of digestion and analysed in terms of proteolysis and amylolysis. Results indicate that both formulation and processing impacted the digestive fate of the biscuits. Incorporating proteins or fibres in biscuits lowered or delayed proteolysis. Moreover a protein-plus-fibre additional or synergic effect was observed. Biscuits enriched in proteins and/or fibres displayed a higher amylolysis degree than the control biscuit, probably due to lower starch amounts and higher gelatinization degrees.

  9. Hydrolysates of sheep cheese whey as a source of bioactive peptides with antioxidant and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitory activities.

    PubMed

    Corrêa, Ana Paula Folmer; Daroit, Daniel Joner; Fontoura, Roberta; Meira, Stela Maris Meister; Segalin, Jeferson; Brandelli, Adriano

    2014-11-01

    Enzymatic proteolysis may be employed to release bioactive peptides, which have been investigated for potential benefits from both technological and human health perspectives. In this study, sheep cheese whey (SCW) was hydrolyzed with a protease preparation from Bacillus sp. P7, and the hydrolysates were evaluated for antioxidant and angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE)-inhibitory activities. Soluble protein and free amino acids increased during hydrolysis of SCW for up to 4h. Antioxidant activity of hydrolysates, evaluated by the 2,2'azino-bis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline)-6-sulfonic acid radical scavenging method, increased 3.2-fold from 0 h (15.9%) to 6h of hydrolysis (51.3%). Maximum Fe(2+) chelation was reached in 3h hydrolysates, and the reducing power peaked at 1h of hydrolysis, representing 6.2 and 2.1-fold increase, respectively, when compared to that of non-hydrolyzed SCW. ACE inhibition by SCW (12%) was improved through hydrolysis, reaching maximal values (55% inhibition) in 4h, although 42% inhibition was already observed after 1h hydrolysis. The peptide LAFNPTQLEGQCHV, derived from β-lactoglobulin, was identified from 4-h hydrolysates. Such a biotechnological approach might be an interesting strategy for SCW processing, potentially contributing to the management and valorization of this abundant dairy byproduct. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Production of a novel wheat gluten hydrolysate containing dipeptidyl peptidase-IV inhibitory tripeptides using ginger protease.

    PubMed

    Taga, Yuki; Hayashida, Osamu; Kusubata, Masashi; Ogawa-Goto, Kiyoko; Hattori, Shunji

    2017-09-01

    Wheat gluten is a Pro-rich protein complex comprising glutenins and gliadins. Previous studies have reported that oral intake of enzymatic hydrolysates of gluten has beneficial effects, such as suppression of muscle injury and improvement of hepatitis. Here, we utilized ginger protease that preferentially cleaves peptide bonds with Pro at the P2 position to produce a novel type of wheat gluten hydrolysate. Ginger protease efficiently hydrolyzed gluten, particularly under weak acidic conditions, to peptides with an average molecular weight of <600 Da. In addition, the gluten hydrolysate contained substantial amounts of tripeptides, including Gln-Pro-Gln, Gln-Pro-Gly, Gln-Pro-Phe, Leu-Pro-Gln, and Ser-Pro-Gln (e.g. 40.7 mg/g at pH 5.2). These gluten-derived tripeptides showed high inhibitory activity on dipeptidyl peptidase-IV with IC50 values of 79.8, 70.9, 71.7, 56.7, and 78.9 μM, respectively, suggesting that the novel gluten hydrolysate prepared using ginger protease can be used as a functional food for patients with type 2 diabetes.

  11. Ethanolic fermentation of pentoses in lignocellulose hydrolysates

    SciTech Connect

    Hahn-Haegerdal, B.; Linden, T.; Senac, T.; Skoog, K.

    1991-12-31

    In the fermentation of lignocellulose hydrolysates to ethanol, two major problems are encountered: the fermentation of the pentose sugar xylose, and the presence of microbial inhibitors. Xylose can be directly fermented with yeasts; such as Pachysolen tannophilus, Candida shehatae, and Pichia stipis, or by isomerization of xylose to xylulose with the enzyme glucose (xylose) isomerase, and subsequent fermentation with bakers yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The direct fermentation requires low, carefully controlled oxygenation, as well as the removal of inhibitors. Also, the xylose-fermenting yeasts have a limited ethanol tolerance. The combined isomerization and fermentation with XI and S. cerevisiae gives yields and productivities comparable to those obtained in hexose fermentations without oxygenation and removal of inhibitors. However, the enzyme is not very stable in a lignocellulose hydrolysate, and S. cerevisiae has a poorly developed pentose phosphate shunt. Different strategies involving strain adaptation, and protein and genetic engineering adopted to overcome these different obstacles, are discussed.

  12. Preparation of bean curds from protein fractions of six legumes.

    PubMed

    Cai, R; Klamczynska, B; Baik, B K

    2001-06-01

    Chickpeas, lentils, smooth peas, mung beans, and faba beans were milled into flours and fractionated to protein and starch fractions. Compositions of the seeds, cotyledons, and flours were compared for each legume and the weight and protein recovery of each fraction analyzed. Bean curds were prepared from the protein fractions through heat denaturation of protein milk, followed by coagulation with calcium sulfate or magnesium sulfate. The effect of chickpea protein concentration and coagulant dosage on the texture of bean curds was evaluated using a texture analyzer. Textural analysis indicated that curd prepared at 2.3-3.0% protein concentration and 1.5% CaSO(4) dosage had better yield and better texture than curds prepared under other conditions. Bean curds prepared from chickpeas and faba beans exhibited the second highest springiness and cohesiveness after those from soybeans. Curds of mung beans and smooth peas, on the other hand, had the highest yields and the highest moisture contents. The protein yield of the first and second soluble extracts used for curd preparation accounted for approximately 90% of the total protein of the seeds.

  13. Enrichment of low-abundance brain proteins by preparative electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Fountoulakis, Michael; Juranville, Jean François

    2003-02-15

    Detection of low-copy-number gene products is essential for the development of novel drugs, however, it represents a major drawback of proteomics and simultaneously a scientific challenge. We studied the enrichment of rat brain cytosolic proteins by preparative electrophoresis using the PrepCell apparatus. The electrophoresis was performed in the presence of 0.1% lithium dodecyl sulfate. The proteins eluted from the gel were analyzed by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and identified by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization mass specrometry. Lithium dodecyl sulfate was easily exchanged against agents compatible with isoelectric focusing. Low-abundance proteins, which had not been found before, including neuronal-specific and calcium-binding proteins, were detected. In particular, low-molecular-mass proteins, such as hippocalcin, visinin-like proteins, and 14-3-3 proteins were strongly enriched by preparative electrophoresis.

  14. The effect of hydrolysates of proteins from rice milk on the physiological response of enterocytes and on the adhesion of bacteria from healthy and allergic people – an in vitro study

    PubMed Central

    Markiewicz, Lidia H.; Wróblewska, Barbara

    2017-01-01

    Designing an optimal diet requires knowledge of the biological activity of food products, particularly in relation to people with food allergies. The hypothesis, which constitutes the basis of this thesis, states that the peptides and glycopeptides released from proteins by enzymatic hydrolysis are able to change the quantity and quality of the human gastrointestinal ecosystem. Such substrates may interfere with adhesion to the intestinal epithelium microbiota and alter enterocytic metabolic activity. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of protein hydrolysates from rice milk substitute on gut epithelial cells and the intestinal microbiota of healthy people and ones suffering from an allergy to milk. The following experimental work applied systems that reflect the conditions occurring in the gastrointestinal tract. PMID:28450799

  15. Optimization of Hydrolysis Conditions for the Production of Angiotensin-I Converting Enzyme-Inhibitory Peptides and Isolation of a Novel Peptide from Lizard Fish (Saurida elongata) Muscle Protein Hydrolysate

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Shanguang; Sun, Jianhua; Tong, Zhangfa; Lan, Xiongdiao; Zhao, Zhongxing; Liao, Dankui

    2012-01-01

    Lizard fish (Saurida elongata) muscle protein was hydrolyzed using neutral protease to produce protein hydrolysate (LFPH), and the hydrolysis conditions were investigated using response-surface methodology. The optimum conditions for producing peptides with the highest angiotensin-I converting enzyme (ACE)-inhibitory activity were the following: enzyme-to-substrate ratio of 10,000 U/g, temperature of 48 °C, pH 7.0, and hydrolysis time of 2 h. Under these conditions, the ACE-inhibitory activity of LFPH and the degree of hydrolysis were 84% and 24%, respectively. A novel ACE-inhibitory peptide was isolated from LFPH using ultrafiltration, Sephadex G-15, and high-performance liquid chromatography. The amino acid sequence of the ACE-inhibitory peptide was identified as Ser-Pro-Arg-Cys-Arg (SPRCR), and its IC50 was 41 ± 1 µM. PMID:22822357

  16. Quantitation of protein in samples prepared for 2-D electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Berkelman, Tom

    2008-01-01

    The concentration of protein in a sample prepared for two dimensional (2-D) electrophoretic analysis is usually determined by protein assay. Reasons for this include the following. (1) Protein quantitation ensures that the amount of protein to be separated is appropriate for the gel size and visualization method. (2) Protein quantitation facilitates comparison among similar samples, as image-based analysis is simplified when equivalent quantities of proteins have been loaded on the gels to be compared. (3) Quantitation is necessary in cases where the protein sample is labeled with dye before separation (1,2). The labeling chemistry is affected by the dye to protein ratio so it is essential to know the protein concentration before setting up the labeling reaction.A primary consideration with quantitating protein in samples prepared for 2-D electrophoresis is interference by nonprotein substances that may be present in the sample. These samples generally contain chaotropic solubilizing agents, detergents, reductants, buffers or carrier ampholytes, all of which potentially interfere with protein quantitation. The most commonly used protein assays in proteomics research are colorimetric assays in which the presence of protein causes a color change that can be measured spectrophotometrically (3). All protein assays utilize standards, a dilution series of a known concentration of a known protein, to create a standard curve. Two methods will be considered that circumvent some of the problems associated with interfering substances and are well suited for samples prepared for 2-D electrophoresis. The first method (4.1.1) relies on a color change that occurs upon binding of a dye to protein and the second (4.1.2) relies on binding and reduction of cupric ion (Cu2+) ion to cuprous ion (Cu+) by proteins.

  17. Electrodeposited gels prepared from protein alloys

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Yinan; Wang, Siran; Chen, Ying; Wang, Qianrui; Burke, Kelly A; Spedden, Elise M; Staii, Cristian; Weiss, Anthony S; Kaplan, David L

    2015-01-01

    Aim Silk-tropoelastin alloys, composed of recombinant human tropoelastin and regenerated Bombyx mori silk fibroin, are an emerging, versatile class of biomaterials endowed with tunable combinations of physical and biological properties. Electrodeposition of these alloys provides a programmable means to assemble functional gels with both spatial and temporal controllability. Materials & methods Tropoelastin-modified silk was prepared by enzymatic coupling between tyrosine residues. Hydrogel coatings were electrodeposited using two wire electrodes. Results & discussion Mechanical characterization and in vitro cell culture revealed enhanced adhesive capability and cellular response of these alloy gels as compared with electrogelled silk alone. Conclusion These electro-depositable silk-tropoelastin alloys constitute a suitable coating material for nanoparticle-based drug carriers and offer a novel opportunity for on-demand encapsulation/release of nanomedicine. PMID:25816881

  18. Long-Term Fungal Inhibition by Pisum sativum Flour Hydrolysate during Storage of Wheat Flour Bread

    PubMed Central

    Lavecchia, Anna; Gramaglia, Valerio; Gobbetti, Marco

    2015-01-01

    In order to identify antifungal compounds from natural sources to be used as ingredients in the bakery industry, water/salt-soluble extracts (WSE) from different legume flour hydrolysates obtained by the use of a fungal protease were assayed against Penicillium roqueforti DPPMAF1. The agar diffusion assays allowed the selection of the pea (Pisum sativum) hydrolysate as the most active. As shown by the hyphal radial growth rate, the WSE had inhibitory activity towards several fungi isolated from bakeries. The MIC of the WSE was 9.0 mg/ml. Fungal inhibition was slightly affected by heating and variations in pH. The antifungal activity was attributed to three native proteins (pea defensins 1 and 2 and a nonspecific lipid transfer protein [nsLTP]) and a mixture of peptides released during hydrolysis. The three proteins have been reported previously as components of the defense system of the plant. Five peptides were purified from WSE and were identified as sequences encrypted in leginsulin A, vicilin, provicilin, and the nsLTP. To confirm antifungal activity, the peptides were chemically synthesized and tested. Freeze-dried WSE were used as ingredients in leavened baked goods. In particular, breads made by the addition of 1.6% (wt/wt) of the extract and fermented by baker's yeast or sourdough were characterized for their main chemical, structural, and sensory features, packed in polyethylene bags, stored at room temperature, and compared to controls prepared without pea hydrolysate. Artificially inoculated slices of a bread containing the WSE did not show contamination by fungi until at least 21 days of storage and behaved like the bread prepared with calcium propionate (0.3%, wt/wt). PMID:25862230

  19. Long-Term Fungal Inhibition by Pisum sativum Flour Hydrolysate during Storage of Wheat Flour Bread.

    PubMed

    Rizzello, Carlo Giuseppe; Lavecchia, Anna; Gramaglia, Valerio; Gobbetti, Marco

    2015-06-15

    In order to identify antifungal compounds from natural sources to be used as ingredients in the bakery industry, water/salt-soluble extracts (WSE) from different legume flour hydrolysates obtained by the use of a fungal protease were assayed against Penicillium roqueforti DPPMAF1. The agar diffusion assays allowed the selection of the pea (Pisum sativum) hydrolysate as the most active. As shown by the hyphal radial growth rate, the WSE had inhibitory activity towards several fungi isolated from bakeries. The MIC of the WSE was 9.0 mg/ml. Fungal inhibition was slightly affected by heating and variations in pH. The antifungal activity was attributed to three native proteins (pea defensins 1 and 2 and a nonspecific lipid transfer protein [nsLTP]) and a mixture of peptides released during hydrolysis. The three proteins have been reported previously as components of the defense system of the plant. Five peptides were purified from WSE and were identified as sequences encrypted in leginsulin A, vicilin, provicilin, and the nsLTP. To confirm antifungal activity, the peptides were chemically synthesized and tested. Freeze-dried WSE were used as ingredients in leavened baked goods. In particular, breads made by the addition of 1.6% (wt/wt) of the extract and fermented by baker's yeast or sourdough were characterized for their main chemical, structural, and sensory features, packed in polyethylene bags, stored at room temperature, and compared to controls prepared without pea hydrolysate. Artificially inoculated slices of a bread containing the WSE did not show contamination by fungi until at least 21 days of storage and behaved like the bread prepared with calcium propionate (0.3%, wt/wt). Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  20. Evaluation of Catfish Skin Hydrolysates as a Glazing Material for Air-Blast Frozen Shrimp

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Catfish is one of the most widely consumed seafood in the United States. A by-product of this consumption is a large quantity of catfish skin (CS), approximately 8,200 metric tons in 2014. Enzymatic hydrolysis is used to produce protein hydrolysates from the skin. These hydrolysates have considerabl...

  1. Amelioration of estrogen deficiency-induced obesity by collagen hydrolysate

    PubMed Central

    Chiang, Tsay-I; Chang, I-Chang; Lee, Hsueh-Hui; Hsieh, Kuang hui; Chiu, Yung-Wei; Lai, Te-Jen; Liu, Jer-Yuh; Hsu, Li-Sung; Kao, Shao-Hsuan

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Menopausal transition with declining estrogen levels significantly affects the physiological properties of women and consequently contributes to a series of medical conditions, including obesity. Obesity is a crucial risk factor associated with cardiovascular diseases, diabetes mellitus, and breast cancer. Increasing dietary protein content improves satiety and energy expenditure. Thus, we hypothesize that supplementing with collagen, a common dietary protein, may alleviate menopause-induced obesity. Methods: We used ovariectomized (OVX) rats to mimic a menopausal human. The body weight of OVX rats significantly increased compared with that of sham-operated rats (P<0.05), but uterus weight was decreased. Adipocyte size in perigonadal adipose tissue also increased (P<0.05). Results: By contrast, OVX rats supplemented with aqueous collagen hydrolysate (2.5 mg/mL) exhibited significant attenuation in body weight gain and adipocyte enlargement (P<0.05), but insignificant change in uterus weight. Further investigation indicated that collagen hydrolysate supplementation insignificantly affected the levels of dorsal fat, serum total cholesterol, and serum triacylglycerol. Levels of serum biochemical factors, calcium, phosphorus, and glucose were also insignificantly altered by collagen hydrolysate supplementation. Conclusion: Collagen hydrolysate supplementation reduced body weight gain and adipocyte enlargement in response to ovariectomy but slightly affected blood lipids, calcium, and glucose in both sham-operated and OVX rats. Collagen hydrolysate supplementation is beneficial in ameliorating estrogen deficiency-induced obesity and its associated risk factors. PMID:27877077

  2. Amelioration of estrogen deficiency-induced obesity by collagen hydrolysate.

    PubMed

    Chiang, Tsay-I; Chang, I-Chang; Lee, Hsueh-Hui; Hsieh, Kuang Hui; Chiu, Yung-Wei; Lai, Te-Jen; Liu, Jer-Yuh; Hsu, Li-Sung; Kao, Shao-Hsuan

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Menopausal transition with declining estrogen levels significantly affects the physiological properties of women and consequently contributes to a series of medical conditions, including obesity. Obesity is a crucial risk factor associated with cardiovascular diseases, diabetes mellitus, and breast cancer. Increasing dietary protein content improves satiety and energy expenditure. Thus, we hypothesize that supplementing with collagen, a common dietary protein, may alleviate menopause-induced obesity. Methods: We used ovariectomized (OVX) rats to mimic a menopausal human. The body weight of OVX rats significantly increased compared with that of sham-operated rats (P<0.05), but uterus weight was decreased. Adipocyte size in perigonadal adipose tissue also increased (P<0.05). Results: By contrast, OVX rats supplemented with aqueous collagen hydrolysate (2.5 mg/mL) exhibited significant attenuation in body weight gain and adipocyte enlargement (P<0.05), but insignificant change in uterus weight. Further investigation indicated that collagen hydrolysate supplementation insignificantly affected the levels of dorsal fat, serum total cholesterol, and serum triacylglycerol. Levels of serum biochemical factors, calcium, phosphorus, and glucose were also insignificantly altered by collagen hydrolysate supplementation. Conclusion: Collagen hydrolysate supplementation reduced body weight gain and adipocyte enlargement in response to ovariectomy but slightly affected blood lipids, calcium, and glucose in both sham-operated and OVX rats. Collagen hydrolysate supplementation is beneficial in ameliorating estrogen deficiency-induced obesity and its associated risk factors.

  3. Production of wheat gluten hydrolysates with reduced antigenicity employing enzymatic hydrolysis combined with downstream unit operations.

    PubMed

    Merz, Michael; Kettner, Lucas; Langolf, Emma; Appel, Daniel; Blank, Imre; Stressler, Timo; Fischer, Lutz

    2016-08-01

    Due to allergies or other health disorders a certain segment of the population is not able to safely consume some plant proteins, which are the main protein support in human nutrition. Coeliac disease is a prominent autoimmune disorder and requires a strict adherence to a gluten-free diet. The aim of this study was to identify suitable combinations of enzymatic hydrolysis and common unit operations in food processing (centrifugation, ultra-filtration) to produce gluten-free wheat gluten hydrolysates for food application. To analyse the hydrolysates, a simple and cheap competitive ELISA protocol was designed and validated in this study as well. The competitive ELISA was validated using gliadin spiked skim milk protein hydrolysates, due to the latter application of the assay. The limit of quantification was 4.19 mg kg(-1) , which allowed the identification of gluten-free (<20 mg kg(-1) ) hydrolysates. Enzymatic hydrolysis, including the type of peptidase, and the downstream processing greatly affected the antigenicity of the hydrolysates. Enzymatic hydrolysis and downstream processing operations, such as centrifugation and ultra-filtration, reduced the antigenicity of wheat gluten hydrolysates. Gluten-free hydrolysates were obtained with Flavourzyme after centrifugation (25 g L(-1) substrate) and after 1 kDa ultra-filtration (100 g L(-1) substrate). A multiple peptidase complex, such as Flavourzyme, seems to be required for the production of gluten-free hydrolysates. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  4. Mechanism of the discrepancy in the enzymatic hydrolysis efficiency between defatted peanut flour and peanut protein isolate by Flavorzyme.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Lin; Zhao, Yijun; Xiao, Chuqiao; Sun-Waterhouse, Dongxiao; Zhao, Mouming; Su, Guowan

    2015-02-01

    Both defatted peanut flour (DPF) and peanut protein isolate (PPI) are widely used to prepare peanut protein hydrolysates. To compare their enzymatic hydrolysis efficiencies, DPF and PPI were hydrolysed by Alcalase, Neutrase, Papain, Protamex and Flavorzyme. Alcalase and Flavorzyme were found to be the most efficient proteases to hydrolyse both DPF and PPI. The efficiency was comparable to each other when using Alcalase, while PPI was hydrolysed less efficiently than DPF when using Flavorzyme. Analysis of changes in the protein solubility, subunit and conformation, and amino acid composition of DPF, PPI and their Flavorzyme hydrolysis residues indicated that the PPI preparation process had minimal effect on it, but peptide aggregation via non-covalent bonding (including hydrophobic interactions and hydrogen bonds) during hydrolysis and/or thermal treatment after hydrolysis were likely responsible for the reduced hydrolysis efficiency of PPI by Flavorzyme.

  5. Development, validation and characterization of an analytical method for the quantification of hydrolysable urinary metabolites and plasma protein adducts of 2,4- and 2,6-toluene diisocyanate, 1,5-naphthalene diisocyanate and 4,4'-methylenediphenyl diisocyanate.

    PubMed

    Sennbro, Carl Johan; Lindh, Christian H; Tinnerberg, Håkan; Gustavsson, Cecilia; Littorin, Margareta; Welinder, Hans; Jönsson, Bo A G

    2003-01-01

    Occupational exposure to diisocyanates within the plastic industry causes irritation and disorders in the airway. The aim of this study was to develop, validate and characterize a method for the determination of 2,4-toluenediamine (2,4-TDA), 2,6-toluenediamine (2,6-TDA), 1,5-diaminonaphthalene (1,5-NDA) and 4,4'-methylenedianiline (4,4'-MDA) in hydrolysed urine and plasma, and to study the correlation between the plasma and urinary levels of these potential biomarkers of 2,4-toluene diisocyanate (2,4-TDI), 2,6-toluene diisocyanate (2,6-TDI), 1,5-naphthalene diisocyanate (1,5-NDI) and 4,4'-methylenediphenyl diisocyanate (4,4'-MDI), respectively. Samples were hydrolysed with 0.3 M NaOH at 100 degrees C for 24 h. The diamines were extracted, derivatized with pentafluoropropionic acid anhydride, and quantified by selected ion monitoring on gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The repeatability and reproducibility of the method were 7-18% and 7-19%, respectively. Dialysis experiments showed that the metabolites of 2,4-TDI, 2,6-TDI, 1,5-NDI and 4,4'-MDI in plasma were exclusively protein adducts. No free diamines were found in urine, indicating that all diisocyanate-related metabolites were in a conjugated form. For each diisocyanate-related biomarker, there were strongly significant correlations (p<0.001) between individual levels of metabolites in plasma and urine, with Spearman's rank correlation coefficient (rs) values of 0.74-0.90. The methods presented here will be valuable for the development of biological monitoring methods for diisocyanates.

  6. Ultrasonic-assisted enzymolysis to improve the antioxidant activities of peanut (Arachin conarachin L.) antioxidant hydrolysate.

    PubMed

    Yu, Lina; Sun, Jie; Liu, Shaofang; Bi, Jie; Zhang, Chushu; Yang, Qingli

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this work is to provide a theoretical basis for preparing peanut antioxidant hydrolysate in order to improve its antioxidant activities. Therefore, response surface methodology (RSM) based on the Box-Behnken design was used to optimize ultrasonic-assisted enzymolysis for the purpose of preparing peanut antioxidant hydrolysate. Results indicated that the DPPH free radical scavenging activity of peanut hydrolysate could reach 90.06% under the following optimum conditions: ultrasonic power of 150.0 w, reaction temperature of 62.0 °C, incubation time of 25.0 min, and initial pH value of 8.5. The DPPH free radical scavenging rate of peanut hydrolysate from ultrasonic-assisted enzymolysis improved comparing with that of peanut hydrolysate from protease hydrolysis alone. The peanut antioxidant hydrolysate was found to display eight improved kinds of antioxidant activities. In conclusion, the optimal ultrasonic-assisted enzymolysis technology conditions described in this paper, appear to be beneficial for preparing peanut antioxidant hydrolysate.

  7. Ultrasonic-Assisted Enzymolysis to Improve the Antioxidant Activities of Peanut (Arachin conarachin L.) Antioxidant Hydrolysate

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Lina; Sun, Jie; Liu, Shaofang; Bi, Jie; Zhang, Chushu; Yang, Qingli

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this work is to provide a theoretical basis for preparing peanut antioxidant hydrolysate in order to improve its antioxidant activities. Therefore, response surface methodology (RSM) based on the Box-Behnken design was used to optimize ultrasonic-assisted enzymolysis for the purpose of preparing peanut antioxidant hydrolysate. Results indicated that the DPPH free radical scavenging activity of peanut hydrolysate could reach 90.06% under the following optimum conditions: ultrasonic power of 150.0 w, reaction temperature of 62.0 °C, incubation time of 25.0 min, and initial pH value of 8.5. The DPPH free radical scavenging rate of peanut hydrolysate from ultrasonic-assisted enzymolysis improved comparing with that of peanut hydrolysate from protease hydrolysis alone. The peanut antioxidant hydrolysate was found to display eight improved kinds of antioxidant activities. In conclusion, the optimal ultrasonic-assisted enzymolysis technology conditions described in this paper, appear to be beneficial for preparing peanut antioxidant hydrolysate. PMID:22942751

  8. Allergies in high-risk schoolchildren after early intervention with cow's milk protein hydrolysates: 10-year results from the German Infant Nutritional Intervention (GINI) study.

    PubMed

    von Berg, Andrea; Filipiak-Pittroff, Birgit; Krämer, Ursula; Hoffmann, Barbara; Link, Elke; Beckmann, Christina; Hoffmann, Ute; Reinhardt, Dietrich; Grübl, Armin; Heinrich, Joachim; Wichmann, H-Erich; Bauer, Carl-P; Koletzko, Sibylle; Berdel, Dietrich

    2013-06-01

    The long-term effect of nutritional intervention with hydrolysate infant formulas on allergic manifestations in high-risk children is uncertain. We sought to investigate the effect of hydrolysate infant formulas on allergic phenotypes in children with family history of allergies at school age. We analyzed data from participants of the prospective German Infant Nutritional Intervention study after 10 years of follow-up. At birth, children were randomly assigned to receive, for the first 4 months, one of 4 blinded formulas as breast milk substitute, if necessary: partially hydrolyzed whey formula (pHF-W), extensively hydrolyzed whey formula (eHF-W), extensively hydrolyzed casein formula (eHF-C), or standard cow's milk formula. Outcomes were parent-reported, physician-diagnosed allergic diseases. Log-binomial regression models were used for statistical analysis. The relative risk for the cumulative incidence of any allergic disease in the intention-to-treat analysis (n = 2252) was 0.87 (95% CI, 0.77-0.99) for pHF-W, 0.94 (95% CI, 0.83-1.07) for eHF-W, and 0.83 (95% CI, 0.72-0.95) for eHF-C compared with standard cow's milk formula. The corresponding figures for atopic eczema/dermatits (AD) were 0.82 (95% CI, 0.68-1.00), 0.91 (95% CI, 0.76-1.10), and 0.72 (95% CI, 0.58-0.88), respectively. In the per-protocol analysis (n = 988) effects were stronger. The period prevalence of AD at 7 to 10 years was significantly reduced with eHF-C in this analysis, but there was no preventive effect on asthma or allergic rhinitis. The significant preventive effect on the cumulative incidence of allergic diseases, particularly AD, with pHF-W and eHF-C persisted until 10 years without rebound, whereas eHF-W showed no significant risk reduction. There is insufficient evidence of ongoing preventive activity at 7 to 10 years of age. Copyright © 2013 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Preparation of Modified Films with Protein from Grouper Fish

    PubMed Central

    Tecante, A.; Granados-Navarrete, S.; Martínez-García, C.

    2016-01-01

    A protein concentrate (PC) was obtained from Grouper fish skin and it was used to prepare films with different amounts of sorbitol and glycerol as plasticizers. The best performing films regarding resistance were then modified with various concentrations of CaCl2, CaSO4 (calcium salts), and glucono-δ-lactone (GDL) with the purpose of improving their mechanical and barrier properties. These films were characterized by determining their mechanical properties and permeability to water vapor and oxygen. Formulations with 5% (w/v) protein and 75% sorbitol and 4% (w/v) protein with a mixture of 15% glycerol and 15% sorbitol produced adequate films. Calcium salts and GDL increased the tensile fracture stress but reduced the fracture strain and decreased water vapor permeability compared with control films. The films prepared represent an attractive alternative for being used as food packaging materials. PMID:27597950

  10. Influence of calcium, magnesium, or potassium ions on the formation and stability of emulsions prepared using highly hydrolyzed whey proteins.

    PubMed

    Ramkumar, C; Singh, H; Munro, P A; Singh, A M

    2000-05-01

    Oil-in-water emulsions (4 wt % soy oil) containing 4 wt % whey protein hydrolysate (WPH) (27% degree of hydrolysis) and different levels of calcium, magnesium, or potassium chloride were prepared in a two-stage homogenizer. Other emulsions containing 4 wt % WPH but including 0.35 wt % hydroxylated lecithin and different levels of the above minerals were similarly prepared. The formation and stability of these emulsions were determined by measuring oil droplet size distributions using laser light scattering and by confocal scanning laser microscopy and a gravity creaming test. Both lecithin-free and lecithin-containing emulsions showed no change in droplet size distributions with increasing concentration of potassium in the range 0-37.5 mM. In contrast, the diameter of emulsion droplets increased with increasing calcium or magnesium concentration >12.5 mM. Emulsions containing hydroxylated lecithin were more sensitive to the addition of calcium or magnesium than the lecithin-free emulsions. Storage of emulsions at 20 degrees C for 24 h further increased the diameter of droplets and resulted in extensive creaming in emulsions containing >25 mM calcium or magnesium. It appears that both flocculation and coalescence processes were involved in the destabilization of emulsions induced by the addition of divalent cations.

  11. Characterization of bromine-77-labeled proteins prepared using bromoperoxidase

    SciTech Connect

    McElvany, K.D.; Welch, M.J.

    1980-10-01

    The halogenating enzyme bromoperoxidase, isolated from the red algae Bonnemaisonia hamifera and Penicillus capitatus, was used to catalyze the radiohalogenation of proteins at neutral pH. Human serum albumin and canine fibrinogen were halogenated as model compounds; the proteins were labeled with Br-77, produced by the /sup 75/As(..cap alpha..,2n)/sup 77/Br reaction. For each enzyme, the essential reaction parameters (including the concentrations of hydrogen peroxide or of protein, the amount of enzyme used to catalyze the reaction, the pH of the reaction mixture, and the reaction time) were varied to obtain conditions that resulted in the highest yield of radiolabeled protein. The labeled proteins prepared with bromoperoxidase are stable with respect to loss of the radiolabel by hydrolysis and retain their biologic activity. The extension of this method to radiobromination of other types of compounds for imaging and receptor studies seems promising.

  12. An ignored variable: solution preparation temperature in protein crystallization

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Rui-Qing; Lu, Qin-Qin; Cheng, Qing-Di; Ao, Liang-Bo; Zhang, Chen-Yan; Hou, Hai; Liu, Yong-Ming; Li, Da-Wei; Yin, Da-Chuan

    2015-01-01

    Protein crystallization is affected by many parameters, among which certain parameters have not been well controlled. The temperature at which the protein and precipitant solutions are mixed (i.e., the ambient temperature during mixing) is such a parameter that is typically not well controlled and is often ignored. In this paper, we show that this temperature can influence protein crystallization. The experimental results showed that both higher and lower mixing temperatures can enhance the success of crystallization, which follows a parabolic curve with an increasing ambient temperature. This work illustrates that the crystallization solution preparation temperature is also an important parameter for protein crystallization. Uncontrolled or poorly controlled room temperature may yield poor reproducibility in protein crystallization. PMID:25597864

  13. An ignored variable: solution preparation temperature in protein crystallization.

    PubMed

    Chen, Rui-Qing; Lu, Qin-Qin; Cheng, Qing-Di; Ao, Liang-Bo; Zhang, Chen-Yan; Hou, Hai; Liu, Yong-Ming; Li, Da-Wei; Yin, Da-Chuan

    2015-01-19

    Protein crystallization is affected by many parameters, among which certain parameters have not been well controlled. The temperature at which the protein and precipitant solutions are mixed (i.e., the ambient temperature during mixing) is such a parameter that is typically not well controlled and is often ignored. In this paper, we show that this temperature can influence protein crystallization. The experimental results showed that both higher and lower mixing temperatures can enhance the success of crystallization, which follows a parabolic curve with an increasing ambient temperature. This work illustrates that the crystallization solution preparation temperature is also an important parameter for protein crystallization. Uncontrolled or poorly controlled room temperature may yield poor reproducibility in protein crystallization.

  14. Purification and characterization of two human erythrocyte arylamidases preferentially hydrolysing N-terminal arginine or lysine residues.

    PubMed Central

    Mäkinen, K K; Mäkinen, P L

    1978-01-01

    Two arylamidases (I and II) were purified from human erythrocytes by a procedure that comprised removal of haemoglobin from disrupted cells with CM-Sephadex D-50, followed by treatment of the haemoglobin-free preparation subsequently with DEAE-cellulose, gel-permeation chromatography on Sephadex G-200, gradient solubilization on Celite, isoelectric focusing in a pH gradient from 4 to 6, gel-permeation chromatography on Sephadex G-100 (superfine), and finally affinity chromatography on Sepharose 4B covalently coupled to L-arginine. In preparative-scale purifications, enzymes I and II were separated at the second gel-permeation chromatography. Enzyme II was obtained as a homogeneous protein, as shown by several criteria. Enzyme I hydrolysed, with decreasing rates, the L-amino acid 2-naphtylamides of lysine, arginine, alanine, methionine, phenylalanine and leucine, and the reactions were slightly inhibited by 0.2 M-NaCl. Enzyme II hydrolysed most rapidly the corresponding derivatives of arginine, leucine, valine, methionine, proline and alanine, in that order, and the hydrolyses were strongly dependent on Cl-. The hydrolysis of these substrates proceeded rapidly at physiological Cl- concentration (0.15 M). The molecular weights (by gel filtration) of enzymes I and II were 85 000 and 52 500 respectively. The pH optimum was approx. 7.2 for both enzymes. The isoelectric point of enzyme II was approx. 4.8. Enzyme I was activated by Co2+, which did not affect enzyme II to any noticeable extent. The kinetics of reactions catalysed by enzyme I were characterized by strong substrate inhibition, but enzyme II was not inhibited by high substrate concentrations. The Cl- activated enzyme II also showed endopeptidase activity in hydrolysing bradykinin. PMID:743227

  15. Temperature-depe