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Sample records for protein mutant r234w

  1. Regulation of Mutant p53 Protein Expression.

    PubMed

    Vijayakumaran, Reshma; Tan, Kah Hin; Miranda, Panimaya Jeffreena; Haupt, Sue; Haupt, Ygal

    2015-01-01

    For several decades, p53 has been detected in cancer biopsies by virtue of its high protein expression level which is considered indicative of mutation. Surprisingly, however, mouse genetic studies revealed that mutant p53 is inherently labile, similar to its wild type (wt) counterpart. Consistently, in response to stress conditions, both wt and mutant p53 accumulate in cells. While wt p53 returns to basal level following recovery from stress, mutant p53 remains stable. In part, this can be explained in mutant p53-expressing cells by the lack of an auto-regulatory loop with Mdm2 and other negative regulators, which are pivotal for wt p53 regulation. Further, additional protective mechanisms are acquired by mutant p53, largely mediated by the co-chaperones and their paralogs, the stress-induced heat shock proteins. Consequently, mutant p53 is accumulated in cancer cells in response to chronic stress and this accumulation is critical for its oncogenic gain of functions (GOF). Building on the extensive knowledge regarding wt p53, the regulation of mutant p53 is unraveling. In this review, we describe the current understanding on the major levels at which mutant p53 is regulated. These include the regulation of p53 protein levels by microRNA and by enzymes controlling p53 proteasomal degradation.

  2. Applications of Protein Thermodynamic Database for Understanding Protein Mutant Stability and Designing Stable Mutants.

    PubMed

    Gromiha, M Michael; Anoosha, P; Huang, Liang-Tsung

    2016-01-01

    Protein stability is the free energy difference between unfolded and folded states of a protein, which lies in the range of 5-25 kcal/mol. Experimentally, protein stability is measured with circular dichroism, differential scanning calorimetry, and fluorescence spectroscopy using thermal and denaturant denaturation methods. These experimental data have been accumulated in the form of a database, ProTherm, thermodynamic database for proteins and mutants. It also contains sequence and structure information of a protein, experimental methods and conditions, and literature information. Different features such as search, display, and sorting options and visualization tools have been incorporated in the database. ProTherm is a valuable resource for understanding/predicting the stability of proteins and it can be accessed at http://www.abren.net/protherm/ . ProTherm has been effectively used to examine the relationship among thermodynamics, structure, and function of proteins. We describe the recent progress on the development of methods for understanding/predicting protein stability, such as (1) general trends on mutational effects on stability, (2) relationship between the stability of protein mutants and amino acid properties, (3) applications of protein three-dimensional structures for predicting their stability upon point mutations, (4) prediction of protein stability upon single mutations from amino acid sequence, and (5) prediction methods for addressing double mutants. A list of online resources for predicting has also been provided.

  3. Mutant Proteins--Enzymes to Hydrolyze Toxic Organophosphates.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-06-15

    strains of infectious bacteria and the serine protease’ lytic protease. We also employ novel chemical modifications of ; mutant proteins to achieve...mutant RTEM -1 8-lactamase. We have previously generated and characterized mutants of RTEM -1 .- lactamase with all possible amino acid substitutions (site...denaturation than wild-type -lactamase. Uniquely among class A B- lactamases, the RTEM -1 (and RTEM -2) enzymes contain a single disulfide bond between Cys

  4. Purification of recombinant C-reactive protein mutants

    PubMed Central

    Thirumalai, Avinash; Singh, Sanjay K.; Hammond, David J.; Gang, Toh B.; Ngwa, Donald N.; Pathak, Asmita; Agrawal, Alok

    2017-01-01

    C-reactive protein (CRP) is an evolutionarily conserved protein, a component of the innate immune system, and an acute phase protein in humans. In addition to its raised level in blood in inflammatory states, CRP is also localized at sites of inflammation including atherosclerotic lesions, arthritic joints and amyloid plaque deposits. Results of in vivo experiments in animal models of inflammatory diseases indicate that CRP is an anti-pneumococcal, anti-atherosclerotic, anti-arthritic and an anti-amyloidogenic molecule. The mechanisms through which CRP functions in inflammatory diseases are not fully defined; however, the ligand recognition function of CRP in its native and non-native pentameric structural conformations and the complement-activating ability of ligand-complexed CRP have been suggested to play a role. One tool to understand the structure-function relationships of CRP and determine the contributions of the recognition and effector functions of CRP in host defense is to employ site-directed mutagenesis to create mutants for experimentation. For example, CRP mutants incapable of binding to phosphocholine are generated to investigate the importance of the phosphocholine-binding property of CRP in mediating host defense. Recombinant CRP mutants can be expressed in mammalian cells and, if expressed, can be purified from the cell culture media. While the methods to purify wild-type CRP are well established, different purification strategies are needed to purify various mutant forms of CRP if the mutant does not bind to either calcium or phosphocholine. In this article, we report the methods used to purify pentameric recombinant wild-type and mutant CRP expressed in and secreted by mammalian cells. PMID:1460031

  5. Cuticle surface proteins of wild type and mutant Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Blaxter, M L

    1993-03-25

    The molecular components of the surface of the free-living nematode Caenorhabditis elegans have been identified by surface-specific radioiodination. Four compartments were defined by fractionation of labeled wild type (N2 strain) adult hermaphrodites. Organic solvents extracted cuticular lipids. Homogenization in detergents released a single, non-collagenous, hydrophobic protein. This is not glycosylated and is a heterodimer of 6.5- and 12-kDa subunits. The third compartment, proteins solubilized by reducing agents, included both the cuticular collagens and the heterodimer. Residual material corresponds to the cuticlin fraction. Larval stages showed a similar pattern, except that the dauer larva had an additional 37-kDa detergent-soluble protein. Other species of rhabditid nematodes displayed similar profiles, and comparison with parasitic species suggests that this simple pattern may be primitive in the Nematoda. A C. elegans strain mutant in cuticular collagen (rol-6) had a pattern identical to that of wild type, but another morphological mutant (dpy-3) [corrected] and several mutants that differ in surface reactivity to antibody and lectins (srf mutants) also had striking differences in surface labeling patterns.

  6. AraC regulatory protein mutants with altered effector specificity.

    PubMed

    Tang, Shuang-Yan; Fazelinia, Hossein; Cirino, Patrick C

    2008-04-16

    The AraC regulatory protein of the Escherichia coli ara operon has been engineered to activate transcription in response to D-arabinose and not in response to its native effector L-arabinose. Two different AraC mutant libraries, each with four randomized binding pocket residues, were subjected to FACS-mediated dual screening using a GFP reporter. Both libraries yielded mutants with the desired switch in effector specificity, and one mutant we describe maintains tight repression in the absence of effector. The presence of 100 mM L-arabinose does not influence the response of the reported mutants to D-arabinose, and the mutants are not induced by other sugars tested (D-xylose, D-fucose, D-lyxose). Co-expression of the FucP transporter in E. coli enabled induction by D-arabinose in the 0.1 mM range. Our results demonstrate the power of dual screening for altering AraC inducer specificity and represent steps toward the design of customized in vivo molecular reporters and gene switches for metabolic engineering.

  7. Yeast mutants affecting possible quality control of plasma membrane proteins.

    PubMed

    Li, Y; Kane, T; Tipper, C; Spatrick, P; Jenness, D D

    1999-05-01

    Mutations gef1, stp22, STP26, and STP27 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae were identified as suppressors of the temperature-sensitive alpha-factor receptor (mutation ste2-3) and arginine permease (mutation can1(ts)). These suppressors inhibited the elimination of misfolded receptors (synthesized at 34 degrees C) as well as damaged surface receptors (shifted from 22 to 34 degrees C). The stp22 mutation (allelic to vps23 [M. Babst and S. Emr, personal communication] and the STP26 mutation also caused missorting of carboxypeptidase Y, and ste2-3 was suppressed by mutations vps1, vps8, vps10, and vps28 but not by mutation vps3. In the stp22 mutant, both the mutant and the wild-type receptors (tagged with green fluorescent protein [GFP]) accumulated within an endosome-like compartment and were excluded from the vacuole. GFP-tagged Stp22p also accumulated in this compartment. Upon reaching the vacuole, cytoplasmic domains of both mutant and wild-type receptors appeared within the vacuolar lumen. Stp22p and Gef1p are similar to tumor susceptibility protein TSG101 and voltage-gated chloride channel, respectively. These results identify potential elements of plasma membrane quality control and indicate that cytoplasmic domains of membrane proteins are translocated into the vacuolar lumen.

  8. Rhes, a Striatal Specific Protein, Mediates Mutant-Huntingtin Cytotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    Subramaniam, Srinivasa; Sixt, Katherine M.; Barrow, Roxanne; Snyder, Solomon H.

    2009-01-01

    Huntington's disease (HD) is caused by a polyglutamine repeat in the protein huntingtin (Htt) with mutant Htt (mHtt) expressed throughout the body and similarly in all brain regions. Yet, HD neuropathology is largely restricted to the corpus striatum. We report that the small guanine nucleotide–binding protein Rhes, which is localized very selectively to the striatum, binds physiologically to mHtt. Using cultured cells, we found Rhes induces sumoylation of mHtt, which leads to cytotoxicity. Thus, Rhes-mHtt interactions can account for the localized neuropathology of HD. PMID:19498170

  9. Mutant analysis, protein-protein interactions and subcellular localization of the Arabidopsis B sister (ABS) protein.

    PubMed

    Kaufmann, Kerstin; Anfang, Nicole; Saedler, Heinz; Theissen, Günter

    2005-09-01

    Recently, close relatives of class B floral homeotic genes, termed B(sister) genes, have been identified in both angiosperms and gymnosperms. In contrast to the B genes themselves, B(sister) genes are exclusively expressed in female reproductive organs, especially in the envelopes or integuments surrounding the ovules. This suggests an important ancient function in ovule or seed development for B(sister) genes, which has been conserved for about 300 million years. However, investigation of the first loss-of-function mutant for a B(sister) gene (ABS/TT16 from Arabidopsis) revealed only a weak phenotype affecting endothelium formation. Here, we present an analysis of two additional mutant alleles, which corroborates this weak phenotype. Transgenic plants that ectopically express ABS show changes in the growth and identity of floral organs, suggesting that ABS can interact with floral homeotic proteins. Yeast-two-hybrid and three-hybrid analyses indicated that ABS can form dimers with SEPALLATA (SEP) floral homeotic proteins and multimeric complexes that also include the AGAMOUS-like proteins SEEDSTICK (STK) or SHATTERPROOF1/2 (SHP1, SHP2). These data suggest that the formation of multimeric transcription factor complexes might be a general phenomenon among MIKC-type MADS-domain proteins in angiosperms. Heterodimerization of ABS with SEP3 was confirmed by gel retardation assays. Fusion proteins tagged with CFP (Cyan Fluorescent Protein) and YFP (Yellow Fluorescent Protein) in Arabidopsis protoplasts showed that ABS is localized in the nucleus. Phylogenetic analysis revealed the presence of a structurally deviant, but closely related, paralogue of ABS in the Arabidopsis genome. Thus the evolutionary developmental genetics of B(sister) genes can probably only be understood as part of a complex and redundant gene network that may govern ovule formation in a conserved manner, which has yet to be fully explored.

  10. Subcellular distribution of mutant movement proteins of Cucumber mosaic virus fused to green fluorescent proteins.

    PubMed

    Canto, Tomas; Palukaitis, Peter

    2005-04-01

    The subcellular distribution of the movement proteins (MPs) of nine alanine-scanning mutants of Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV), fused to the green fluorescent protein (GFP) and expressed from CMV, was determined by confocal microscopy of infected epidermal cells of Nicotiana tabacum and Nicotiana benthamiana, as well as infected N. benthamiana protoplasts. Only those mutant MPs that were functional for movement in all host species tested localized to plasmodesmata of infected epidermal cells and to tubules extending from the surface of infected protoplasts, as for wild-type CMV 3a MP. Various mutant MPs that were either conditionally functional for movement or dysfunctional for movement did not localize to plasmodesmata and did not form tubules on the surface of infected protoplasts. Rather, they showed distribution to different extents throughout the infected cells, including the cytoplasm, nucleus or the plasma membrane. The CMV 3a MP also did not associate with microtubules.

  11. Azide-resistant mutants in Acinetobacter calcoaceticus A2 are defective in protein secretion.

    PubMed

    Elkeles, A; Rosenberg, E; Ron, E Z

    1994-02-15

    Azide, an inhibitor of ATPase, and a specific inhibitor of protein export was used in order to select for protein secretion mutants in Acinetobacter calcoaceticus A2. Two such mutants were isolated that were azide-resistant and defective in the general protein transport system. The mutation also conferred additional phenotypic changes, including an inability to grow on minimal media or at 40 degrees C. The existence of protein secretion mutants with a selectable phenotype may be useful for the genetic study of protein export.

  12. Protein expression, characterization and activity comparisons of wild type and mutant DUSP5 proteins

    SciTech Connect

    Nayak, Jaladhi; Gastonguay, Adam J.; Talipov, Marat R.; Vakeel, Padmanabhan; Span, Elise A.; Kalous, Kelsey S.; Kutty, Raman G.; Jensen, Davin R.; Pokkuluri, Phani Raj; Sem, Daniel S.; Rathore, Rajendra; Ramchandran, Ramani

    2014-12-18

    Background: The mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) pathway is critical for cellular signaling, and proteins such as phosphatases that regulate this pathway are important for normal tissue development. Based on our previous work on dual specificity phosphatase-5 (DUSP5), and its role in embryonic vascular development and disease, we hypothesized that mutations in DUSP5 will affect its function. Results: In this study, we tested this hypothesis by generating full-length glutathione-S-transferase-tagged DUSP5 and serine 147 proline mutant (S147P) proteins from bacteria. Light scattering analysis, circular dichroism, enzymatic assays and molecular modeling approaches have been performed to extensively characterize the protein form and function. We demonstrate that both proteins are active and, interestingly, the S147P protein is hypoactive as compared to the DUSP5 WT protein in two distinct biochemical substrate assays. Furthermore, due to the novel positioning of the S147P mutation, we utilize computational modeling to reconstruct full-length DUSP5 and S147P to predict a possible mechanism for the reduced activity of S147P. Conclusion: Taken together, this is the first evidence of the generation and characterization of an active, full-length, mutant DUSP5 protein which will facilitate future structure-function and drug development-based studies.

  13. Protein expression, characterization and activity comparisons of wild type and mutant DUSP5 proteins

    DOE PAGES

    Nayak, Jaladhi; Gastonguay, Adam J.; Talipov, Marat R.; ...

    2014-12-18

    Background: The mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) pathway is critical for cellular signaling, and proteins such as phosphatases that regulate this pathway are important for normal tissue development. Based on our previous work on dual specificity phosphatase-5 (DUSP5), and its role in embryonic vascular development and disease, we hypothesized that mutations in DUSP5 will affect its function. Results: In this study, we tested this hypothesis by generating full-length glutathione-S-transferase-tagged DUSP5 and serine 147 proline mutant (S147P) proteins from bacteria. Light scattering analysis, circular dichroism, enzymatic assays and molecular modeling approaches have been performed to extensively characterize the protein form and function.more » We demonstrate that both proteins are active and, interestingly, the S147P protein is hypoactive as compared to the DUSP5 WT protein in two distinct biochemical substrate assays. Furthermore, due to the novel positioning of the S147P mutation, we utilize computational modeling to reconstruct full-length DUSP5 and S147P to predict a possible mechanism for the reduced activity of S147P. Conclusion: Taken together, this is the first evidence of the generation and characterization of an active, full-length, mutant DUSP5 protein which will facilitate future structure-function and drug development-based studies.« less

  14. Increased expression of the maize immunoglobulin binding protein homolog b-70 in three zein regulatory mutants.

    PubMed Central

    Boston, R S; Fontes, E B; Shank, B B; Wrobel, R L

    1991-01-01

    Plants carrying floury-2, Defective endosperm-B30, or Mucronate mutations overproduce b-70, a maize homolog of the mammalian immunoglobulin binding protein. During endosperm development in these mutants, levels of both b-70 protein and RNA increase dramatically between 14 days and 20 days after pollination. At later stages, b-70 RNA levels decline while protein levels remain high. The increase in b-70 RNA levels is endosperm specific and dependent on gene dosage in the floury-2 mutant. In all three mutants, the increases in b-70 RNA and protein levels are inversely proportional to changes in zein synthesis. Although b-70 polypeptides can be extracted from purified protein bodies, they carry a carboxy-terminal endoplasmic reticulum retention signal, HDEL. We propose that induction of b-70 in these mutants is a cellular response to abnormally folded or improperly assembled storage proteins and probably reflects its role as a polypeptide chain binding protein. PMID:1840924

  15. Apolipoprotein A-I mutant proteins having cysteine substitutions and polynucleotides encoding same

    DOEpatents

    Oda, Michael N.; Forte, Trudy M.

    2007-05-29

    Functional Apolipoprotein A-I mutant proteins, having one or more cysteine substitutions and polynucleotides encoding same, can be used to modulate paraoxonase's arylesterase activity. These ApoA-I mutant proteins can be used as therapeutic agents to combat cardiovascular disease, atherosclerosis, acute phase response and other inflammatory related diseases. The invention also includes modifications and optimizations of the ApoA-I nucleotide sequence for purposes of increasing protein expression and optimization.

  16. Multiple classes of yeast mutants are defective in vacuole partitioning yet target vacuole proteins correctly.

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Y X; Zhao, H; Harding, T M; Gomes de Mesquita, D S; Woldringh, C L; Klionsky, D J; Munn, A L; Weisman, L S

    1996-01-01

    In Saccharomyces cerevisiae the vacuoles are partitioned from mother cells to daughter cells in a cell-cycle-coordinated process. The molecular basis of this event remains obscure. To date, few yeast mutants had been identified that are defective in vacuole partitioning (vac), and most such mutants are also defective in vacuole protein sorting (vps) from the Golgi to the vacuole. Both the vps mutants and previously identified non-vps vac mutants display an altered vacuolar morphology. Here, we report a new method to monitor vacuole inheritance and the isolation of six new non-vps vac mutants. They define five complementation groups (VAC8-VAC12). Unlike mutants identified previously, three of the complementation groups exhibit normal vacuolar morphology. Zygote studies revealed that these vac mutants are also defective in intervacuole communication. Although at least four pathways of protein delivery to the vacuole are known, only the Vps pathway seems to significantly overlap with vacuole partitioning. Mutants defective in both vacuole partitioning and endocytosis or vacuole partitioning and autophagy were not observed. However, one of the new vac mutants was additionally defective in direct protein transport from the cytoplasm to the vacuole. Images PMID:8885233

  17. Molecular interplay between mutant p53 proteins and autophagy in cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Cordani, Marco; Butera, Giovanna; Pacchiana, Raffaella; Donadelli, Massimo

    2017-01-01

    An increasing number of studies highlight the role of mutant p53 proteins in cancer cell growth and in the worsening of cancer patients' clinical outcome. Autophagy has been widely recognized as a main biological event involved in both the regulation of cancer cell proliferation and in the response of several anticancer drugs. A thorough analysis of scientific literature underlines the reciprocal interplay between mutant p53 proteins and autophagy regulation. In this review, we analytically summarize recent findings, which indicate that gain-of-function (GOF) mutant p53 proteins counteract the autophagic machinery by various molecular mechanisms including the regulation of AMPK and Akt/mTOR pathways, autophagy-related genes (ATGs), HIF-1α target genes, and the mitochondrial citrate carrier CIC. Moreover, we report that mutant p53 protein stability is affected by lysosome-mediated degradation through macroautophagy or chaperone-mediated autophagy, suggesting the use of autophagy stimulators to counteract mutant p53 oncogenic activity. Finally, we discuss the functional role of the interplay between mutant p53 proteins and autophagy in cancer progression, a fundamental knowledge to design more effective therapies against cancers bearing mutant TP53 gene.

  18. The level of Yop proteins secreted by Yersinia enterocolitica is changed in maltose mutants.

    PubMed

    Brzostek, K; Raczkowska, A

    2001-10-16

    Enteropathogenic Yersinia enterocolitica strains express a set of plasmid-encoded proteins called Yops, involved in pathogenicity. We studied the influence of the maltose system on the production of Yop proteins and found that the level of Yop proteins of Y. enterocolitica O:9 was reduced in the presence of maltose. Transposon insertion mutants impaired with the maltose transport activity showed a decreased level in the production of Yop proteins. The transcription of the yopH gene for YopH phosphatase in these maltose mutants was unchanged and revealed a maltose mutation impaired in the secretion of Yop proteins instead of their expression.

  19. Proteomic profiling of maize opaque endosperm mutants reveals selective accumulation of lysine-enriched proteins

    PubMed Central

    Morton, Kyla J.; Jia, Shangang; Zhang, Chi; Holding, David R.

    2016-01-01

    Reduced prolamin (zein) accumulation and defective endoplasmic reticulum (ER) body formation occurs in maize opaque endosperm mutants opaque2 (o2), floury2 (fl2), defective endosperm*B30 (DeB30), and Mucronate (Mc), whereas other opaque mutants such as opaque1 (o1) and floury1 (fl1) are normal in these regards. This suggests that other factors contribute to kernel texture. A liquid chromatography approach coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) proteomics was used to compare non-zein proteins of nearly isogenic opaque endosperm mutants. In total, 2762 proteins were identified that were enriched for biological processes such as protein transport and folding, amino acid biosynthesis, and proteolysis. Principal component analysis and pathway enrichment suggested that the mutants partitioned into three groups: (i) Mc, DeB30, fl2 and o2; (ii) o1; and (iii) fl1. Indicator species analysis revealed mutant-specific proteins, and highlighted ER secretory pathway components that were enriched in selected groups of mutants. The most significantly changed proteins were related to stress or defense and zein partitioning into the soluble fraction for Mc, DeB30, o1, and fl1 specifically. In silico dissection of the most significantly changed proteins revealed novel qualitative changes in lysine abundance contributing to the overall lysine increase and the nutritional rebalancing of the o2 and fl2 endosperm. PMID:26712829

  20. Nuclear protein import is reduced in cells expressing nuclear envelopathy-causing lamin A mutants

    SciTech Connect

    Busch, Albert; Kiel, Tilman; Heupel, Wolfgang-M.; Wehnert, Manfred; Huebner, Stefan

    2009-08-15

    Lamins, which form the nuclear lamina, not only constitute an important determinant of nuclear architecture, but additionally play essential roles in many nuclear functions. Mutations in A-type lamins cause a wide range of human genetic disorders (laminopathies). The importance of lamin A (LaA) in the spatial arrangement of nuclear pore complexes (NPCs) prompted us to study the role of LaA mutants in nuclear protein transport. Two mutants, causing prenatal skin disease restrictive dermopathy (RD) and the premature aging disease Hutchinson Gilford progeria syndrome, were used for expression in HeLa cells to investigate their impact on the subcellular localization of NPC-associated proteins and nuclear protein import. Furthermore, dynamics of the LaA mutants within the nuclear lamina were studied. We observed affected localization of NPC-associated proteins, diminished lamina dynamics for both LaA mutants and reduced nuclear import of representative cargo molecules. Intriguingly, both LaA mutants displayed similar effects on nuclear morphology and functions, despite their differences in disease severity. Reduced nuclear protein import was also seen in RD fibroblasts and impaired lamina dynamics for the nucleoporin Nup153. Our data thus represent the first study of a direct link between LaA mutant expression and reduced nuclear protein import.

  1. Mutant p53 proteins counteract autophagic mechanism sensitizing cancer cells to mTOR inhibition.

    PubMed

    Cordani, Marco; Oppici, Elisa; Dando, Ilaria; Butturini, Elena; Dalla Pozza, Elisa; Nadal-Serrano, Mercedes; Oliver, Jordi; Roca, Pilar; Mariotto, Sofia; Cellini, Barbara; Blandino, Giovanni; Palmieri, Marta; Di Agostino, Silvia; Donadelli, Massimo

    2016-08-01

    Mutations in TP53 gene play a pivotal role in tumorigenesis and cancer development. Here, we report that gain-of-function mutant p53 proteins inhibit the autophagic pathway favoring antiapoptotic effects as well as proliferation of pancreas and breast cancer cells. We found that mutant p53 significantly counteracts the formation of autophagic vesicles and their fusion with lysosomes throughout the repression of some key autophagy-related proteins and enzymes as BECN1 (and P-BECN1), DRAM1, ATG12, SESN1/2 and P-AMPK with the concomitant stimulation of mTOR signaling. As a paradigm of this mechanism, we show that atg12 gene repression was mediated by the recruitment of the p50 NF-κB/mutant p53 protein complex onto the atg12 promoter. Either mutant p53 or p50 NF-κB depletion downregulates atg12 gene expression. We further correlated the low expression levels of autophagic genes (atg12, becn1, sesn1, and dram1) with a reduced relapse free survival (RFS) and distant metastasis free survival (DMFS) of breast cancer patients carrying TP53 gene mutations conferring a prognostic value to this mutant p53-and autophagy-related signature. Interestingly, the mutant p53-driven mTOR stimulation sensitized cancer cells to the treatment with the mTOR inhibitor everolimus. All these results reveal a novel mechanism through which mutant p53 proteins promote cancer cell proliferation with the concomitant inhibition of autophagy.

  2. Mutant p53 protein localized in the cytoplasm inhibits autophagy.

    PubMed

    Morselli, Eugenia; Tasdemir, Ezgi; Maiuri, Maria Chiara; Galluzzi, Lorenzo; Kepp, Oliver; Criollo, Alfredo; Vicencio, José Miguel; Soussi, Thierry; Kroemer, Guido

    2008-10-01

    The knockout, knockdown or chemical inhibition of p53 stimulates autophagy. Moreover, autophagy-inducing stimuli such as nutrient depletion, rapamycin or lithium cause the depletion of cytoplasmic p53, which in turn is required for the induction of autophagy. Here, we show that retransfection of p53(-/-) HCT 116 colon carcinoma cells with wild type p53 decreases autophagy down to baseline levels. Surprisingly, one third among a panel of 22 cancer-associated p53 single amino acid mutants also inhibited autophagy when transfected into p53(-/-) cells. Those variants of p53 that preferentially localize to the cytoplasm effectively repressed autophagy, whereas p53 mutants that display a prominently nuclear distribution failed to inhibit autophagy. The investigation of a series of deletion mutants revealed that removal of the DNA-binding domain from p53 fails to interfere with its role in the regulation of autophagy. Altogether, these results identify the cytoplasmic localization of p53 as the most important feature for p53-mediated autophagy inhibition. Moreover, the structural requirements for the two biological activities of extranuclear p53, namely induction of apoptosis and inhibition of autophagy, are manifestly different.

  3. LHC II protein phosphorylation in leaves of Arabidopsis thaliana mutants deficient in non-photochemical quenching.

    PubMed

    Breitholtz, Hanna-Leena; Srivastava, Renu; Tyystjärvi, Esa; Rintamäki, Eevi

    2005-06-01

    Phosphorylation of the light-harvesting chlorophyll a/b complex II (LHC II) proteins is induced in light via activation of the LHC II kinase by reduction of cytochrome b(6)f complex in thylakoid membranes. We have recently shown that, besides this activation, the LHC II kinase can be regulated in vitro by a thioredoxin-like component, and H2O2 that inserts an inhibitory loop in the regulation of LHC II protein phosphorylation in the chloroplast. In order to disclose the complex network for LHC II protein phosphorylation in vivo, we studied phosphorylation of LHC II proteins in the leaves of npq1-2 and npq4-1 mutants of Arabidopis thaliana. In comparison to wild-type, these mutants showed reduced non-photochemical quenching and increased excitation pressure of Photosystem II (PS II) under physiological light intensities. Peculiar regulation of LHC II protein phosphorylation was observed in mutant leaves under illumination. The npq4-1 mutant was able to maintain a high amount of phosphorylated LHC II proteins in thylakoid membranes at light intensities that induced inhibition of phosphorylation in wild-type leaves. Light intensity-dependent changes in the level of LHC II protein phosphorylation were smaller in the npq1-2 mutant compared to the wild-type. No significant differences in leaf thickness, dry weight, chlorophyll content, or the amount of LHC II proteins were observed between the two mutant and wild-type lines. We propose that the reduced capacity of the mutant lines to dissipate excess excitation energy induces changes in the production of reactive oxygen species in chloroplasts, which consequently affects the regulation of LHC II protein phosphorylation.

  4. Expression of alcohol-soluble endosperm proteins in maize single and double mutants.

    PubMed

    Paulis, J W; Bietz, J A; Bogyo, T P; Darrah, L L; Zuber, M S

    1990-05-01

    Many maize (Zea mays L.) mutant genes exist. Some affect protein content or composition, while others modify carbohydrates or kernel phenotype. In doublemutant lines, two mutant genes are present. We know little about interactions of such genes, however. We therefore examined a normal maize inbred, B37, 10 near-isogenic single mutants and 46 double mutants to analyze quantitative effects on alcohol-soluble endosperm proteins. Proteins were extracted with 70% ethanol0.5% sodium acetate-5% mercaptoethanol, and fractionated by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC). Early peaks were alcohol-soluble glutelin (ASG) subunits, while late peaks contained zein. Results were quantified and statistically analyzed. In many double mutants, protein compositions differed significantly from averages of compositions of corresponding single mutants. For example, a high-methionine, water-insoluble ASG is absent when the opaque-2 (o2) gene combines with shrunken-1 (sh1) or surgary-1 (su1). Another water-insoluble ASG nearly doubled when floury-2 (fl2) andsu1 combined. A high-proline, high-histidine, water-soluble ASG nearly doubled in combinations offl2 witho2,su1 and sugary-2 (su2). Zein was about half its expected value wheno2 combined with amylose-extender (ae), floury-1 (fl1), soft-starch (h),sh1 andsu1. Thus, rapid protein extraction and quantitative RP-HPLC showed major new epistatic and synergistic effects of several mutant genes on protein composition. Unexpectedly, these effects often involve genes that primarily affect starch composition or kernel phenotype. Alcohol-soluble proteins often vary in amount, as ino2 lines. They also differ in nutritional value. Thus, RP-HPLC analysis of these proteins can identify nutritionally superior genotypes, and may help explain the basis of such quality.

  5. microRNAs: short non-coding bullets of gain of function mutant p53 proteins

    PubMed Central

    Donzelli, Sara; Strano, Sabrina; Blandino, Giovanni

    2014-01-01

    TP53 gene mutations are present in more than half of all human cancers. The resulting proteins are mostly full-length with a single aminoacid change and are abundantly present in cancer cells. Some of mutant p53 proteins gain oncogenic activities through which actively contribute to the aberrant cell proliferation, increased resistance to apoptotic stimuli and ability to metastatize of cancer cells. Gain of function mutant p53 proteins can transcriptionally regulate the expression of a large plethora of target genes. This mainly occurs through the formation of oncogenic transcriptional competent complexes that include mutant p53 protein, known transcription factors, posttranslational modifiers and scaffold proteins. Mutant p53 protein can also transcriptionally regulate the expression of microRNAs, small non-coding RNAs that regulate gene expression at the posttranscriptional level. Each microRNA can putatively target the expression of hundred mRNAs and consequently impact on many cellular functions. Thus, gain of function mutant p53 proteins can exert their oncogenic activities through the modulation of both non-coding and coding regions of human genome. PMID:25594041

  6. Nuclear inheritance of erythromycin resistance in human cells: New class of mitochondrial protein synthesis mutants

    SciTech Connect

    Doersen, C.J.; Stanbridge, E.J.

    1982-06-01

    The characterization of two new erythromycin-resistant mutants of HeLa cells is described. The strains ERY2305 and ERY2309 both exhibited resistance to erythromycin in growth assays and cell-free mitochondrial protein synthesis assays. The erythromycin resistance phenotype could not be transferred by cybridization. The mutation appeared to be encoded in the nucleus and inherited as a recessive trait. These two mutants, therefore, represent a new class of erythromycin-resistant mutants in human cells that is distinct from the cytoplasmically inherited mutation in strain ERY2301 described previously.

  7. Engineered antibody therapies to counteract mutant huntingtin and related toxic intracellular proteins

    PubMed Central

    Butler, David C.; McLear, Julie A.; Messer, Anne

    2013-01-01

    The engineered antibody approach to Huntington's disease (HD) therapeutics is based on the premise that significantly lowering the levels of the primary misfolded mutant protein will reduce abnormal protein interactions and direct toxic effects of the misfolded huntingtin (HTT). This will in turn reduce the pathologic stress on cells, and normalize intrinsic proteostasis. Intracellular antibodies (intrabodies) are single-chain (scFv) and single-domain (dAb; nanobody) variable fragments that can retain the affinity and specificity of full-length antibodies, but can be selected and engineered as genes. Functionally, they represent a protein-based approach to the problem of aberrant mutant protein folding, post-translational modifications, protein-protein interactions, and aggregation. Several intrabodies that bind on either side of the expanded polyglutamine tract of mutant HTT have been reported to improve the mutant phenotype in cell and organotypic cultures, fruit flies, and mice. Further refinements to the difficult challenges of intraneuronal delivery, cytoplasmic folding, and long-term efficacy are in progress. This review covers published studies and emerging approaches on the choice of targets, selection and engineering methods, gene and protein delivery options, and testing of candidates in cell and animal models. The resultant antibody fragments can be used as direct therapeutics and as target validation/drug discovery tools for HD, while the technology is also applicable to a wide range of neurodegenerative and other diseases that are triggered by toxic proteins. PMID:22120646

  8. Ribosomal protein alterations in thiostrepton- and Micrococcin-resistant mutants of Bacillus subtilis.

    PubMed

    Wienen, B; Ehrlich, R; Stöffler-Meilicke, M; Stöffler, G; Smith, I; Weiss, D; Vince, R; Pestka, S

    1979-08-25

    Ribosomal proteins of parental thiostrepton- and micrococcin-sensitive Bacillus subtilis cysA14 and thiostrepton-and micrococcin-resistant mutants were compared. Several electrophoretic and immunochemical techniques showed unambiguously that BS-L11 was not present on 50 S ribosomal subunits from the six thiostrepton-resistant mutants. Protein BS-L11 reappeared in all six revertants from thiostrepton resistance to thiostrepton sensitivity. No definitive protein alteration could be ascribed to the mutation from micrococcin sensitivity to resistance. It was also demonstrated that B. subtilis protein BS-L11 is homologous to Escherichia coli ribosomal protein L11. The finding that ribosomes from thiostrepton-resistant mutants do not contain protein L11 suggests that L11 not only is involved in binding of thiostrepton, but also, when mutationally altered, confers resistance to this antibiotic. Although the ribosomes of these strains do not contain protein L11, all thiostrepton-resistant mutants showed the same viability as the parental strain. Thus protein L11 cannot be obligatory for the structure and function of the ribosome.

  9. The activating transcription factor 3 protein suppresses the oncogenic function of mutant p53 proteins.

    PubMed

    Wei, Saisai; Wang, Hongbo; Lu, Chunwan; Malmut, Sarah; Zhang, Jianqiao; Ren, Shumei; Yu, Guohua; Wang, Wei; Tang, Dale D; Yan, Chunhong

    2014-03-28

    Mutant p53 proteins (mutp53) often acquire oncogenic activities, conferring drug resistance and/or promoting cancer cell migration and invasion. Although it has been well established that such a gain of function is mainly achieved through interaction with transcriptional regulators, thereby modulating cancer-associated gene expression, how the mutp53 function is regulated remains elusive. Here we report that activating transcription factor 3 (ATF3) bound common mutp53 (e.g. R175H and R273H) and, subsequently, suppressed their oncogenic activities. ATF3 repressed mutp53-induced NFKB2 expression and sensitized R175H-expressing cancer cells to cisplatin and etoposide treatments. Moreover, ATF3 appeared to suppress R175H- and R273H-mediated cancer cell migration and invasion as a consequence of preventing the transcription factor p63 from inactivation by mutp53. Accordingly, ATF3 promoted the expression of the metastasis suppressor SHARP1 in mutp53-expressing cells. An ATF3 mutant devoid of the mutp53-binding domain failed to disrupt the mutp53-p63 binding and, thus, lost the activity to suppress mutp53-mediated migration, suggesting that ATF3 binds to mutp53 to suppress its oncogenic function. In line with these results, we found that down-regulation of ATF3 expression correlated with lymph node metastasis in TP53-mutated human lung cancer. We conclude that ATF3 can suppress mutp53 oncogenic function, thereby contributing to tumor suppression in TP53-mutated cancer.

  10. Developmental Defects in Mutants of the PsbP Domain Protein 5 in Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Roose, Johnna L.; Frankel, Laurie K.; Bricker, Terry M.

    2011-01-01

    Plants contain an extensive family of PsbP-related proteins termed PsbP-like (PPL) and PsbP domain (PPD) proteins, which are localized to the thylakoid lumen. The founding member of this family, PsbP, is an established component of the Photosystem II (PS II) enzyme, and the PPL proteins have also been functionally linked to other photosynthetic processes. However, the functions of the remaining seven PPD proteins are unknown. To elucidate the function of the PPD5 protein (At5g11450) in Arabidopsis, we have characterized a mutant T-DNA insertion line (SALK_061118) as well as several RNAi lines designed to suppress the expression of this gene. The functions of the photosynthetic electron transfer reactions are largely unaltered in the ppd5 mutants, except for a modest though significant decrease in NADPH dehydrogenase (NDH) activity. Interestingly, these mutants show striking plant developmental and morphological defects. Relative to the wild-type Col-0 plants, the ppd5 mutants exhibit both increased lateral root branching and defects associated with axillary bud formation. These defects include the formation of additional rosettes originating from axils at the base of the plant as well as aerial rosettes formed at the axils of the first few nodes of the shoot. The root-branching phenotype is chemically complemented by treatment with the synthetic strigolactone, GR24. We propose that the developmental defects observed in the ppd5 mutants are related to a deficiency in strigolactone biosynthesis. PMID:22174848

  11. Viable transmembrane region mutants of bacteriophage M13 coat protein prepared by site-directed mutagenesis.

    PubMed

    Li, Z; Deber, C M

    1991-10-31

    Bacteriophage M13 coat protein - a 50-residue protein located at the E. coli host membrane during phage reproduction - is subjected to cytoplasmic, membrane-bound, and DNA-interactive environments during the phage life cycle. In research to examine the specific features of primary/secondary structure in the effective transmembrane (TM) region of the protein (residues 21-39: YIGYAWAMVVVIVGATIGI) which modulate its capacity to respond conformationally to the progressive influences of these varying environments, we have prepared over two dozen viable mutant phages with alterations in their coat protein TM regions. Mutants were obtained through use of site-directed mutagenesis techniques in combination with three "randomized" oligonucleotides which spanned the TM region. No subcloning was required. Among mutations observed were those in which each of the four TM Val residues was changed to Ala, and several with increased Ser or Thr content, including one double Ser mutant (G23S-A25S). Polar substitutions arising at Gly23 and Tyr24-including G23D, Y24H, Y24D and Y24N-suggested that this local segment resides external to the host membrane. Milligram quantities of mutant coat proteins are obtained by growing M13 mutant phages in liter preparations, with isotopic (e.g., 13C) labelling at desired sites, for subsequent characterization and conformational analysis in membrane-mimetic media.

  12. Protein kinase PKR mutants resistant to the poxvirus pseudosubstrate K3L protein.

    PubMed

    Seo, Eun Joo; Liu, Furong; Kawagishi-Kobayashi, Makiko; Ung, Tekly L; Cao, Chune; Dar, Arvin C; Sicheri, Frank; Dever, Thomas E

    2008-11-04

    As part of the mammalian cell innate immune response, the double-stranded RNA activated protein kinase PKR phosphorylates the translation initiation factor eIF2alpha to inhibit protein synthesis and thus block viral replication. Poxviruses including vaccinia and smallpox viruses express PKR inhibitors such as the vaccinia virus K3L protein that resembles the N-terminal substrate-targeting domain of eIF2alpha. Whereas high-level expression of human PKR was toxic in yeast, this growth inhibition was suppressed by coexpression of the K3L protein. We used this yeast assay to screen for PKR mutants that are resistant to K3L inhibition, and we identified 12 mutations mapping to the C-terminal lobe of the PKR kinase domain. The PKR mutations specifically conferred resistance to the K3L protein both in yeast and in vitro. Consistently, the PKR-D486V mutation led to nearly a 15-fold decrease in K3L binding affinity yet did not impair eIF2alpha phosphorylation. Our results support the identification of the eIF2alpha-binding site on an extensive face of the C-terminal lobe of the kinase domain, and they indicate that subtle changes to the PKR kinase domain can drastically impact pseudosubstrate inhibition while leaving substrate phosphorylation intact. We propose that these paradoxical effects of the PKR mutations on pseudosubstrate vs. substrate interactions reflect differences between the rigid K3L protein and the plastic nature of eIF2alpha around the Ser-51 phosphorylation site.

  13. A Mutant Library Approach to Identify Improved Meningococcal Factor H Binding Protein Vaccine Antigens

    PubMed Central

    Konar, Monica; Rossi, Raffaella; Walter, Helen; Pajon, Rolando; Beernink, Peter T.

    2015-01-01

    Factor H binding protein (FHbp) is a virulence factor used by meningococci to evade the host complement system. FHbp elicits bactericidal antibodies in humans and is part of two recently licensed vaccines. Using human complement Factor H (FH) transgenic mice, we previously showed that binding of FH decreased the protective antibody responses to FHbp vaccination. Therefore, in the present study we devised a library-based method to identify mutant FHbp antigens with very low binding of FH. Using an FHbp sequence variant in one of the two licensed vaccines, we displayed an error-prone PCR mutant FHbp library on the surface of Escherichia coli. We used fluorescence-activated cell sorting to isolate FHbp mutants with very low binding of human FH and preserved binding of control anti-FHbp monoclonal antibodies. We sequenced the gene encoding FHbp from selected clones and introduced the mutations into a soluble FHbp construct. Using this approach, we identified several new mutant FHbp vaccine antigens that had very low binding of FH as measured by ELISA and surface plasmon resonance. The new mutant FHbp antigens elicited protective antibody responses in human FH transgenic mice that were up to 20-fold higher than those elicited by the wild-type FHbp antigen. This approach offers the potential to discover mutant antigens that might not be predictable even with protein structural information and potentially can be applied to other microbial vaccine antigens that bind host proteins. PMID:26057742

  14. Limited temperature-sensitive transactivation by mutant adenovirus type 2 E1a proteins.

    PubMed Central

    Fahnestock, M L; Lewis, J B

    1989-01-01

    A series of linker-scanning and deletion mutations was generated in the transactivating domain of the larger, 289-amino-acid-residue E1a protein of adenovirus type 2. Mutant genes were recombined into virus to assay the ability of the variant E1a proteins to activate expression of an E1a-dependent viral gene during infection. Results of assays performed at 32, 37, and 40 degrees C indicated that at least 2 of the 10 mutants tested showed limited temperature sensitivity for transactivation. Images PMID:2523001

  15. Aggregation of ALS-linked FUS mutant sequesters RNA binding proteins and impairs RNA granules formation

    SciTech Connect

    Takanashi, Keisuke; Yamaguchi, Atsushi

    2014-09-26

    Highlights: • Aggregation of ALS-linked FUS mutant sequesters ALS-associated RNA-binding proteins (FUS wt, hnRNP A1, and hnRNP A2). • Aggregation of ALS-linked FUS mutant sequesters SMN1 in the detergent-insoluble fraction. • Aggregation of ALS-linked FUS mutant reduced the number of speckles in the nucleus. • Overproduced ALS-linked FUS mutant reduced the number of processing-bodies (PBs). - Abstract: Protein aggregate/inclusion is one of hallmarks for neurodegenerative disorders including amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). FUS/TLS, one of causative genes for familial ALS, encodes a multifunctional DNA/RNA binding protein predominantly localized in the nucleus. C-terminal mutations in FUS/TLS cause the retention and the inclusion of FUS/TLS mutants in the cytoplasm. In the present study, we examined the effects of ALS-linked FUS mutants on ALS-associated RNA binding proteins and RNA granules. FUS C-terminal mutants were diffusely mislocalized in the cytoplasm as small granules in transiently transfected SH-SY5Y cells, whereas large aggregates were spontaneously formed in ∼10% of those cells. hnRNP A1, hnRNP A2, and SMN1 as well as FUS wild type were assembled into stress granules under stress conditions, and these were also recruited to FUS mutant-derived spontaneous aggregates in the cytoplasm. These aggregates stalled poly(A) mRNAs and sequestered SMN1 in the detergent insoluble fraction, which also reduced the number of nuclear oligo(dT)-positive foci (speckles) in FISH (fluorescence in situ hybridization) assay. In addition, the number of P-bodies was decreased in cells harboring cytoplasmic granules of FUS P525L. These findings raise the possibility that ALS-linked C-terminal FUS mutants could sequester a variety of RNA binding proteins and mRNAs in the cytoplasmic aggregates, which could disrupt various aspects of RNA equilibrium and biogenesis.

  16. Enhanced Priming of Adaptive Immunity by Mycobacterium smegmatis Mutants with High-Level Protein Secretion

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Natalie; Bahunde, Faith; Thompson, Afton; Yu, Jae-Sung; Jacobs, William R.; Letvin, Norm L.; Haynes, Barton F.

    2012-01-01

    Mycobacteria have features that make them attractive as potential vaccine vectors. The nonpathogenic and rapidly growing Mycobacterium smegmatis can express both Mycobacterium tuberculosis antigens and heterologous antigens from other pathogens, and it has been used as a viable vector for the development of live vaccines. In order to further improve antigen-specific immunogenicity of M. smegmatis, we screened a random transposon mutant library for mutants displaying enhanced efficiency of protein secretion (“high secretors”) and isolated 61 mutants showing enhanced endogenic and transgenic protein secretion. Sequence analysis identified a total of 54 genes involved in optimal secretion of insert proteins, as well as multiple independent transposon insertions localized within the same genomic loci and operons. The majority of transposon insertions occurred in genes that have no known protein secretion function. These transposon mutants were shown to prime antigen-specific CD8+ T cell responses better than the parental strain. Specifically, upon introducing the simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) gag gene into these transposon mutant strains, we observed that they primed SIV Gag-specific CD8+ T cell responses significantly better than the control prime immunization in a heterologous prime/boost regimen. Our results reveal a dependence on bacterial secretion of mycobacterial and foreign antigens for the induction of antigen-specific CD8+ T cells in vivo. The data also suggest that these M. smegmatis transposon mutants could be used as novel live attenuated vaccine strains to express foreign antigens, such as those of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), and induce strong antigen-specific T cell responses. PMID:22787192

  17. The first mutant of the Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein that forms a red chromophore.

    PubMed

    Mishin, Alexander S; Subach, Fedor V; Yampolsky, Ilia V; King, William; Lukyanov, Konstantin A; Verkhusha, Vladislav V

    2008-04-22

    Green fluorescent protein (GFP) from a jellyfish, Aequorea victoria, and its mutants are widely used in biomedical studies as fluorescent markers. In spite of the enormous efforts of academia and industry toward generating its red fluorescent mutants, no GFP variants with emission maximum at more than 529 nm have been developed during the 15 years since its cloning. Here, we used a new strategy of molecular evolution aimed at generating a red-emitting mutant of GFP. As a result, we have succeeded in producing the first GFP mutant that substantially matures to the red-emitting state with excitation and emission maxima at 555 and 585 nm, respectively. A novel, nonoxidative mechanism for formation of the red chromophore in this mutant that includes a dehydration of the Ser65 side chain has been proposed. Model experiments showed that the novel dual-color GFP mutant with green and red emission is suitable for multicolor flow cytometry as an additional color since it is clearly separable from both green and red fluorescent tags.

  18. Distinct tumor protein p53 mutants in breast cancer subgroups.

    PubMed

    Dumay, Anne; Feugeas, Jean-Paul; Wittmer, Evelyne; Lehmann-Che, Jacqueline; Bertheau, Philippe; Espié, Marc; Plassa, Louis-François; Cottu, Paul; Marty, Michel; André, Fabrice; Sotiriou, Christos; Pusztai, Lajos; de Thé, Hugues

    2013-03-01

    Tumor protein p53 (TP53) is mutated in approximately 30% of breast cancers, but this frequency fluctuates widely between subclasses. We investigated the p53 mutation status in 572 breast tumors, classified into luminal, basal and molecular apocrine subgroups. As expected, the lowest mutation frequency was observed in luminal (26%), and the highest in basal (88%) tumors. Luminal tumors showed significantly higher frequency of substitutions (82 vs. 65%), notably A/T to G/C transitions (31 vs. 15%), whereas molecular apocrine and basal tumors presented much higher frequencies of complex mutations (deletions/insertions) (36 and 33%, respectively, vs. 18%). Accordingly, missense mutations were significantly more frequent in luminal tumors (75 vs. 54%), whereas basal tumors displayed significantly increased rates of TP53 truncations (43 vs. 25%), resulting in loss of function and/or expression. Interestingly, as basal tumors, molecular apocrine tumors presented with a high rate of complex mutations, but paradoxically, these were not associated with increased frequency of p53 truncation. As in luminal tumors, this could reflect a selective pressure for p53 gain of function, possibly through P63/P73 inactivation. Collectively, these observations point not only to different mechanisms of TP53 alterations, but also to different functional consequences in the different breast cancer subtypes.

  19. CHEMOSENSITIZATION BY A NON-APOPTOGENIC HEAT SHOCK PROTEIN 70-BINDING APOPTOSIS INDUCING FACTOR MUTANT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Chemosensitization by a non-apoptogenic heat shock protein 70-binding apoptosis inducing factor mutant

    Abstract
    HSP70 inhibits apoptosis by neutralizing the caspase activator Apaf-1 and by interacting with apoptosis inducing factor (AIF), a mitochondrial flavoprotein wh...

  20. Phenylarsine Oxide Can Induce the Arsenite-Resistance Mutant PML Protein Solubility Changes

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Yu Han; Chen, Ye Jia; Wang, Chao; Lan, Yong Fei; Yang, Chang; Wang, Qian Qian; Hussain, Liaqat; Maimaitiying, Yasen; Islam, Khairul; Naranmandura, Hua

    2017-01-01

    Arsenic trioxide (As2O3) has recently become one of the most effective drugs for treatment of patient with acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL), and its molecular mechanism has also been largely investigated. However, it has been reported that As2O3 resistant patients are frequently found in relapsed APL after consolidation therapy, which is due to the point mutations in B-box type 2 motifs of promyelocytic leukemia (PML) gene. In the present study, we for the first time establish whether organic arsenic species phenylarsine oxide (PAO) could induce the mutant PML-IV (A216V) protein solubility changes and degradation. Here, three different PML protein variants (i.e., PML-IV, PML-V and mutant PML-A216V) were overexpressed in HEK293T cells and then exposed to PAO in time- and dose-dependent manners. Interestingly, PAO is found to have potential effect on induction of mutant PML-IV (A216V) protein solubility changes and degradation, but no appreciable effects were found following exposure to high concentrations of iAsIII, dimethylarsinous acid (DMAIII) and adriamycin (doxorubicin), even though they cause cell death. Our current data strongly indicate that PAO has good effects on the mutant PML protein solubility changes, and it may be helpful for improving the therapeutic strategies for arsenic-resistant APL treatments in the near future. PMID:28125064

  1. Antigenic Structure of Outer Membrane Protein E of Moraxella catarrhalis and Construction and Characterization of Mutants

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, Timothy F.; Brauer, Aimee L.; Yuskiw, Norine; Hiltke, Thomas J.

    2000-01-01

    Outer membrane protein E (OMP E) is a 50-kDa protein of Moraxella catarrhalis which possesses several characteristics indicating that the protein will be an effective vaccine antigen. To study the antigenic structure of OMP E, eight monoclonal antibodies were developed and characterized. Three of the antibodies recognized epitopes which are present on the bacterial surface. Fusion peptides corresponding to overlapping regions of OMP E were constructed, and immunoblot assays were performed to localize the areas of the molecule bound by the monoclonal antibodies. These studies identified a surface-exposed epitope in the region of amino acids 80 through 180. To further study the protein, two mutants which lack OMP E were constructed. In bactericidal assays, the mutants were more readily killed by normal human serum compared to the isogenic parent strains. These results indicate that OMP E is involved in the expression of serum resistance of M. catarrhalis. PMID:11035732

  2. Glycolipid analyses of light-harvesting chlorosomes from envelope protein mutants of Chlorobaculum tepidum.

    PubMed

    Tsukatani, Yusuke; Mizoguchi, Tadashi; Thweatt, Jennifer; Tank, Marcus; Bryant, Donald A; Tamiaki, Hitoshi

    2016-06-01

    Chlorosomes are large and efficient light-harvesting organelles in green photosynthetic bacteria, and they characteristically contain large numbers of bacteriochlorophyll c, d, or e molecules. Self-aggregated bacteriochlorophyll pigments are surrounded by a monolayer envelope membrane comprised of glycolipids and Csm proteins. Here, we analyzed glycolipid compositions of chlorosomes from the green sulfur bacterium Chlorobaculum tepidum mutants lacking one, two, or three Csm proteins by HPLC equipped with an evaporative light-scattering detector. The ratio of monogalactosyldiacylglyceride (MGDG) to rhamnosylgalactosyldiacylglyceride (RGDG) was smaller in chlorosomes from mutants lacking two or three proteins in CsmC/D/H motif family than in chlorosomes from the wild-type, whereas chlorosomes lacking CsmIJ showed relatively less RGDG than MGDG. The results suggest that the CsmC, CsmD, CsmH, and other chlorosome proteins are involved in organizing MGDG and RGDG and thereby affect the size and shape of the chlorosome.

  3. ALS-linked mutant superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) alters mitochondrial protein composition and decreases protein import

    PubMed Central

    Vande Velde, Christine; Israelson, Adrian; Xie, Jing; Bailey, Aaron O.; Dong, Meng-Qui; Chun, Seung-Joo; Roy, Tamal; Winer, Leah; Yates, John R.; Capaldi, Roderick A.; Cleveland, Don W.; Miller, Timothy M.

    2010-01-01

    Mutations in superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) cause familial ALS. Mutant SOD1 preferentially associates with the cytoplasmic face of mitochondria from spinal cords of rats and mice expressing SOD1 mutations. Two-dimensional gels and multidimensional liquid chromatography, in combination with tandem mass spectrometry, revealed 33 proteins that were increased and 21 proteins that were decreased in SOD1G93A rat spinal cord mitochondria compared with SOD1WT spinal cord mitochondria. Analysis of this group of proteins revealed a higher-than-expected proportion involved in complex I and protein import pathways. Direct import assays revealed a 30% decrease in protein import only in spinal cord mitochondria, despite an increase in the mitochondrial import components TOM20, TOM22, and TOM40. Recombinant SOD1G93A or SOD1G85R, but not SOD1WT or a Parkinson's disease-causing, misfolded α-synucleinE46K mutant, decreased protein import by >50% in nontransgenic mitochondria from spinal cord, but not from liver. Thus, altered mitochondrial protein content accompanied by selective decreases in protein import into spinal cord mitochondria comprises part of the mitochondrial damage arising from mutant SOD1. PMID:21078990

  4. Transforming mutant v-mos protein kinases that are deficient in in vitro autophosphorylation.

    PubMed Central

    Freeman, R S; Donoghue, D J

    1989-01-01

    We investigated the importance of specific serine residues for autophosphorylation and transformation by serine-threonine protein kinase p37mos. When either serine 326 or 358 was replaced with alanine, the resulting mutant protein retained the ability to transform NIH 3T3 cells but failed to autophosphorylate in vitro. These studies represent the first functional uncoupling of these two activities for p37mos. Images PMID:2528689

  5. Isolation and characterization of the E. coli membrane protein production strain Mutant56(DE3)

    PubMed Central

    Baumgarten, Thomas; Schlegel, Susan; Wagner, Samuel; Löw, Mirjam; Eriksson, Jonas; Bonde, Ida; Herrgård, Markus J.; Heipieper, Hermann J.; Nørholm, Morten H. H.; Slotboom, Dirk Jan; de Gier, Jan-Willem

    2017-01-01

    Membrane protein production is usually toxic to E. coli. However, using genetic screens strains can be isolated in which the toxicity of membrane protein production is reduced, thereby improving production yields. Best known examples are the C41(DE3) and C43(DE3) strains, which are both derived from the T7 RNA polymerase (P)-based BL21(DE3) protein production strain. In C41(DE3) and C43(DE3) mutations lowering t7rnap expression levels result in strongly reduced T7 RNAP accumulation levels. As a consequence membrane protein production stress is alleviated in the C41(DE3) and C43(DE3) strains, thereby increasing membrane protein yields. Here, we isolated Mutant56(DE3) from BL21(DE3) using a genetic screen designed to isolate BL21(DE3)-derived strains with mutations alleviating membrane protein production stress other than the ones in C41(DE3) and C43(DE3). The defining mutation of Mutant56(DE3) changes one amino acid in its T7 RNAP, which weakens the binding of the T7 RNAP to the T7 promoter governing target gene expression rather than lowering T7 RNAP levels. For most membrane proteins tested yields in Mutant56(DE3) were considerably higher than in C41(DE3) and C43(DE3). Thus, the isolation of Mutant56(DE3) shows that the evolution of BL21(DE3) can be promoted towards further enhanced membrane protein production. PMID:28338018

  6. Hepatitis B virus X protein mutants exhibit distinct biological activities in hepatoma Huh7 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Liu Xiaohong; Zhang Shuhui; Lin Jing; Zhang Shunmin; Feitelson, Mark A.; Gao Hengjun; Zhu Minghua

    2008-09-05

    The role of the hepatitis B virus X protein (HBx) in hepatocarcinogenesis remains controversial. To investigate the biological impact of hepatitis B virus x gene (HBx) mutation on hepatoma cells, plasmids expressing the full-length HBx or HBx deletion mutants were constructed. The biological activities in these transfectants were analyzed by a series of assays. Results showed that HBx3'-20 and HBx3'-40 amino acid deletion mutants exhibited an increase in cellular proliferation, focus formation, tumorigenicity, and invasive growth and metastasis through promotion of the cell cycle from G0/G1 to the S phase, when compared with the full-length HBx. In contrast, HBx3'-30 amino acid deletion mutant repressed cell proliferation by blocking in G1 phase. The expression of P53, p21{sup WAF1}, p14{sup ARF}, and MDM2 proteins was regulated by expression of HBx mutants. In conclusions, HBx variants showed different effects and functions on cell proliferation and invasion by regulation of the cell cycle progression and its associated proteins expression.

  7. The cellular Mre11 protein interferes with adenovirus E4 mutant DNA replication

    SciTech Connect

    Mathew, Shomita S.; Bridge, Eileen

    2007-09-01

    Adenovirus type 5 (Ad5) relocalizes and degrades the host DNA repair protein Mre11, and efficiently initiates viral DNA replication. Mre11 associates with Ad E4 mutant DNA replication centers and is important for concatenating viral genomes. We have investigated the role of Mre11 in the E4 mutant DNA replication defect. RNAi-mediated knockdown of Mre11 dramatically rescues E4 mutant DNA replication in cells that do or do not concatenate viral genomes, suggesting that Mre11 inhibits DNA replication independent of genome concatenation. The mediator of DNA damage checkpoint 1 (Mdc1) protein is involved in recruiting and sustaining Mre11 at sites of DNA damage following ionizing radiation. We observe foci formation by Mdc1 in response to viral infection, indicating that this damage response protein is activated. However, knockdown of Mdc1 does not prevent Mre11 from localizing at viral DNA replication foci or rescue E4 mutant DNA replication. Our results are consistent with a model in which Mre11 interferes with DNA replication when it is localized at viral DNA replication foci.

  8. Vanadate-resistant mutants of Saccharomyces cerevisiae show alterations in protein phosphorylation and growth control.

    PubMed Central

    Kanik-Ennulat, C; Neff, N

    1990-01-01

    This work describes two spontaneous vanadate-resistant mutants of Saccharomyces cerevisiae with constitutive alterations in protein phosphorylation, growth control, and sporulation. Vanadate has been shown by a number of studies to be an efficient competitor of phosphate in biochemical reactions, especially those that involve phosphoproteins as intermediates or substrates. Resistance to toxic concentrations of vanadate can arise in S. cerevisiae by both recessive and dominant spontaneous mutations in a large number of loci. Mutations in two of the recessive loci, van1-18 and van2-93, resulted in alterations in the phosphorylation of a number of proteins. The mutant van1-18 gene also showed an increase in plasma membrane ATPase activity in vitro and a lowered basal phosphatase activity under alkaline conditions. Cells containing the van2-93 mutant allele had normal levels of plasma membrane ATPase activity, but this activity was not inhibited by vanadate. Both of these mutants failed to enter stationary phase, were heat shock sensitive, showed lowered long-term viability, and sporulated on rich medium in the presence of 2% glucose. The wild-type VAN1 gene was isolated and sequenced. The open reading frame predicts a protein of 522 amino acids, with no significant homology to any genes that have been identified. Diploid cells that contained two mutant alleles of this gene demonstrated defects in spore viability. These data suggest that the VAN1 gene product is involved in regulation of the phosphorylation of a number of proteins, some of which appear to be important in cell growth control. Images PMID:2137555

  9. An improved reversibly dimerizing mutant of the FK506-binding protein FKBP

    PubMed Central

    Barrero, Juan J.; Papanikou, Effrosyni; Casler, Jason C.; Day, Kasey J.; Glick, Benjamin S.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT FK506-binding protein (FKBP) is a monomer that binds to FK506, rapamycin, and related ligands. The F36M substitution, in which Phe36 in the ligand-binding pocket is changed to Met, leads to formation of antiparallel FKBP dimers, which can be dissociated into monomers by ligand binding. This FKBP(M) mutant has been employed in the mammalian secretory pathway to generate aggregates that can be dissolved by ligand addition to create cargo waves. However, when testing this approach in yeast, we found that dissolution of FKBP(M) aggregates was inefficient. An improved reversibly dimerizing FKBP formed aggregates that dissolved more readily. This FKBP(L,V) mutant carries the F36L mutation, which increases the affinity of ligand binding, and the I90V mutation, which accelerates ligand-induced dissociation of the dimers. The FKBP(L,V) mutant expands the utility of reversibly dimerizing FKBP. PMID:27738551

  10. Immunohistochemical detection of mutant p53 protein in small-cell lung cancer: relationship to treatment outcome.

    PubMed

    Gemba, K; Ueoka, H; Kiura, K; Tabata, M; Harada, M

    2000-07-01

    We investigated the expression of mutant p53 proteins in small-cell lung cancer (SCLC) immunohistochemically, by identification of stabilized mutant p53 proteins with a much longer half-life than the wild-type protein. Of 103 tumor specimens obtained by transbronchial tumor biopsy for histologic diagnosis, 52 (50%) showed positive staining for p53 protein with a p53 monoclonal antibody, DO-1. Positive staining for p53 protein was not correlated with age, sex, performance status, lifetime cigarette consumption, serum concentration of neuron-specific enolase and extent of disease. Complete response rates in patients with a mutant p53 protein-positive tumor were significantly lower than those in p53-negative patients (25% versus 59%; P=0.0005, by chi-square test). Similarly, survival periods in patients with a mutant p53 protein-positive tumor were significantly shorter than those in mutant p53-protein-negative patients (10.8 months versus 20.6 months; P=0.0001, by generalized Wilcoxon test). Multivariate analysis using Cox's proportional hazards model revealed that the presence of mutant p53 protein is an independent factor associated with differences in overall survival (hazards ratio=2.72; 95% confidence interval, 1.71-4.34; P=0.0001). These observations suggest that the expression of mutant p53 proteins in SCLC may be an important factor predicting poor prognosis.

  11. Characterization of FNR* mutant proteins indicates two distinct mechanisms for altering oxygen regulation of the Escherichia coli transcription factor FNR.

    PubMed Central

    Bates, D M; Lazazzera, B A; Kiley, P J

    1995-01-01

    In order to gain insight into the mechanism by which the Escherichia coli transcription factor FNR* is activated in response to anaerobiosis, we have analyzed FNR mutant proteins which, unlike the wild-type protein, stimulate gene expression in the presence of oxygen in vivo. Cell extracts containing seven different FNR* mutant proteins were tested in vitro for the ability to bind to the FNR consensus DNA site in a gel retardation assay under aerobic conditions. At the concentration of protein tested, only extracts which contained FNR* mutant proteins with amino acid substitutions at position 154 showed significant DNA binding. The three position-154 FNR* mutant proteins could be further distinguished from the other mutant proteins by analysis of the in vivo phenotypes of FNR* proteins containing amino acid substitutions at either of two essential cysteine residues. In the presence of oxygen, FNR* mutant proteins with amino acid substitutions at position 154 were the least affected when either Cys-23 or Cys-122 was substituted for Ser. On the basis of these in vivo and in vitro analyses, FNR* mutant proteins appear to segregate into at least two classes. Thus, it appears that each class of FNR* substitutions alters the normal pathway of FNR activation in response to oxygen deprivation by a different mechanism. PMID:7608069

  12. Death-associated protein kinase 1 promotes growth of p53-mutant cancers.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jing; Zhao, Dekuang; Poage, Graham M; Mazumdar, Abhijit; Zhang, Yun; Hill, Jamal L; Hartman, Zachary C; Savage, Michelle I; Mills, Gordon B; Brown, Powel H

    2015-07-01

    Estrogen receptor-negative (ER-negative) breast cancers are extremely aggressive and associated with poor prognosis. In particular, effective treatment strategies are limited for patients diagnosed with triple receptor-negative breast cancer (TNBC), which also carries the worst prognosis of all forms of breast cancer; therefore, extensive studies have focused on the identification of molecularly targeted therapies for this tumor subtype. Here, we sought to identify molecular targets that are capable of suppressing tumorigenesis in TNBCs. Specifically, we found that death-associated protein kinase 1 (DAPK1) is essential for growth of p53-mutant cancers, which account for over 80% of TNBCs. Depletion or inhibition of DAPK1 suppressed growth of p53-mutant but not p53-WT breast cancer cells. Moreover, DAPK1 inhibition limited growth of other p53-mutant cancers, including pancreatic and ovarian cancers. DAPK1 mediated the disruption of the TSC1/TSC2 complex, resulting in activation of the mTOR pathway. Our studies demonstrated that high DAPK1 expression causes increased cancer cell growth and enhanced signaling through the mTOR/S6K pathway; evaluation of multiple breast cancer patient data sets revealed that high DAPK1 expression associates with worse outcomes in individuals with p53-mutant cancers. Together, our data support targeting DAPK1 as a potential therapeutic strategy for p53-mutant cancers.

  13. A Pseudomonas aeruginosa mutant non-derepressible for orthophosphate-regulated proteins.

    PubMed Central

    Gray, G L; Berka, R M; Vasil, M L

    1981-01-01

    Using a rapid screening assay based on the hydrolysis of p-nitrophenylphosphorylcholine, we isolated several mutants of Pseudomonas aeruginosa deficient in the production of phospholipase C. One, designated strain A50N, was also markedly deficient in the synthesis of alkaline phosphatase and several unidentified extracellular proteins. Because strain A50N produces these proteins under conditions of derepression at levels equal to those produced by the parental strain PAO1 grown in medium containing excess phosphate, it appears to have a mutation in a genetic element involved in the derepression of phosphate-repressible proteins. Images PMID:6790519

  14. IBMPFD Disease-Causing Mutant VCP/p97 Proteins Are Targets of Autophagic-Lysosomal Degradation

    PubMed Central

    Bayraktar, Oznur; Akkoc, Yunus; Eberhart, Karin; Kosar, Ali

    2016-01-01

    The ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) degrades soluble proteins and small aggregates, whereas macroautophagy (autophagy herein) eliminates larger protein aggregates, tangles and even whole organelles in a lysosome-dependent manner. VCP/p97 was implicated in both pathways. VCP/p97 mutations cause a rare multisystem disease called IBMPFD (Inclusion Body Myopathy with Paget’s Disease and Frontotemporal Dementia). Here, we studied the role IBMPFD-related mutants of VCP/p97 in autophagy. In contrast with the wild-type VCP/p97 protein or R155C or R191Q mutants, the P137L mutant was aggregate-prone. We showed that, unlike commonly studied R155C or R191Q mutants, the P137L mutant protein stimulated both autophagosome and autolysosome formation. Moreover, P137L mutant protein itself was a substrate of autophagy. Starvation- and mTOR inhibition-induced autophagy led to the degradation of the P137L mutant protein, while preserving the wild-type and functional VCP/p97. Strikingly, similar to the P137L mutant, other IBMPFD-related VCP/p97 mutants, namely R93C and G157R mutants induced autophagosome and autolysosome formation; and G157R mutant formed aggregates that could be cleared by autophagy. Therefore, cellular phenotypes caused by P137L mutant expression were not isolated observations, and some other IBMPFD disease-related VCP/p97 mutations could lead to similar outcomes. Our results indicate that cellular mechanisms leading to IBMPFD disease may be various, and underline the importance of studying different disease-associated mutations in order to better understand human pathologies and tailor mutation-specific treatment strategies. PMID:27768726

  15. Abelson murine leukemia virus transformation-defective mutants with impaired P120-associated protein kinase activity.

    PubMed Central

    Reynolds, F H; Van de Ven, W J; Stephenson, J R

    1980-01-01

    Several transformation-defective (td) mutants of Abelson murine leukemia virus (AbLV) are described. Cells nonproductively infected with such mutants exhibited a high degree of growth contact inhibition, failed to form colonies in soft agar, lacked rescuable transforming virus, and were as susceptible as uninfected control cells to transformation by wild-type (wt) AbLV pseudotype virus. In addition, each of several td AbLV nonproductively infected cell clones analyzed was found to be nontumorigenic in vivo. Biochemical analysis of td mutant AbLV-infected clones revealed levels of expression of the major AbLV translational product, P120, and a highly related 80,000-Mr AbLV-encoded protein, P80, at concentrations analogous to those in wt AbLV-transformed cells. Although the AbLV-specific 120,000-Mr polyproteins expressed in td mutant AbLV-infected clones were indistinguishable from those in wt AbLV-transformed lines with respect to molecular weight and [35S]methionine tryptic peptide composition, they each differed from wt AbLV P120 in their patterns of post-translational phosphorylation. A previously described AbLV-associated protein kinase activity is shown to recognize as substrate a major tyrosine-specific acceptor site(s) contained within a single well-resolved tryptic peptide common to both AbLV P120 and P80. In vitro [gamma-32P]ATP-mediated labeling of this phosphorylation site was reduced to below detectable levels in td mutant nonproductively infected cell clones. These findings establish that the AbLV-encoded polyprotein P120 and its associated protein kinase activity are involved in AbLV tumorigenesis. Images PMID:6253663

  16. Co-occurence of filamentation defects and impaired biofilms in Candida albicans protein kinase mutants.

    PubMed

    Konstantinidou, Nina; Morrissey, John Patrick

    2015-12-01

    Pathogenicity of Candida albicans is linked with its developmental stages, notably the capacity switch from yeast-like to hyphal growth, and to form biofilms on surfaces. To better understand the cellular processes involved in C. albicans development, a collection of 63 C. albicans protein kinase mutants was screened for biofilm formation in a microtitre plate assay. Thirty-eight mutants displayed some degree of biofilm impairment, with 20 categorised as poor biofilm formers. All the poor biofilm formers were also defective in the switch from yeast to hyphae, establishing it as a primary defect. Five genes, VPS15, IME2, PKH3, PGA43 and CEX1, encode proteins not previously reported to influence hyphal development or biofilm formation. Network analysis established that individual components of some processes, most interestingly MAP kinase pathways, are not required for biofilm formation, most likely indicating functional redundancy. Mutants were also screened for their response to bacterial supernatants and it was found that Pseudomonas aeruginosa supernatants inhibited biofilm formation in all mutants, regardless of the presence of homoserine lactones (HSLs). In contrast, Candida morphology was only affected by supernatant containing HSLs. This confirms the distinct HSL-dependent inhibition of filamentation and the HSL-independent impairment of biofilm development by P. aeruginosa.

  17. Genomic polymorphism and protein changes of soybean mutant induced by space environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, J.; Gao, Y.; Sun, Y.

    Soybean 194 4126 of excellent agricultural qualities such as high yield and rounder and wider leaf was selected in six generation after abroad recoverable satellite 15 days in 1996 from Soybean 72163 featured with long-leaf white-blossom grey-hair and infinitude-poding To explore the mechanisms of plant mutation induced by space environment we have experimented at genome and proteome level on Soybean 194 4126 and its control Soybean 72163 Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism AFLP was used to identify mutated sits and the result shows that 36 polymorphic bands varying between 100 and 900 bp in 2022 DNA bands varying between 100 and 1500 bp have been amplified out of 64 pairs of primer combinations between mutant Soybean 194 4126 and the control plant So the mutation degree of DNA is 3 56 The protein two-dimensional electrophoresis 2-DE and peptide mass fingerprint PMF assays were used to investigate the difference of proteins in fruits and leaves between Soybean 194 4126 and its control Results indicate that 62 protein dots specially appear in Soybean 72163 and 39 dots specially in the mutant Soybean 194 4126 by image analysis software PDQuest in the 2-DE maps of soybean seeds Using PMF assay and protein data-base searching to investigate two distinct protein dots we found that the protein specially expressed in the seed of mutant Soybean 194 4126 may be Dehydrin and the other protein specially expressed in the seed of the control Soybean 72163 may be maturation-associated protein MAT1 Because Dehydrin and MAT1 are

  18. Substantially elevating the levels of αB-crystallin in spinal motor neurons of mutant SOD1 mice does not significantly delay paralysis or attenuate mutant protein aggregation.

    PubMed

    Xu, Guilian; Fromholt, Susan; Ayers, Jacob I; Brown, Hilda; Siemienski, Zoe; Crosby, Keith W; Mayer, Christopher A; Janus, Christopher; Borchelt, David R

    2015-05-01

    There has been great interest in enhancing endogenous protein maintenance pathways such as the heat-shock chaperone response, as it is postulated that enhancing clearance of misfolded proteins could have beneficial disease modifying effects in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and other neurodegenerative disorders. In cultured cell models of mutant SOD1 aggregation, co-expression of αB-crystallin (αB-crys) has been shown to inhibit the formation of detergent-insoluble forms of mutant protein. Here, we describe the generation of a new line of transgenic mice that express αB-crys at > 6-fold the normal level in spinal cord, with robust increases in immunoreactivity throughout the spinal cord grey matter and, specifically, in spinal motor neurons. Surprisingly, spinal cords of mice expressing αB-crys alone contained 20% more motor neurons per section than littermate controls. Raising αB-crys by these levels in mice transgenic for either G93A or L126Z mutant SOD1 had no effect on the age at which paralysis developed. In the G93A mice, which showed the most robust degree of motor neuron loss, the number of these cells declined by the same proportion as in mice expressing the mutant SOD1 alone. In paralyzed bigenic mice, the levels of detergent-insoluble, misfolded, mutant SOD1 were similar to those of mice expressing mutant SOD1 alone. These findings indicate that raising the levels of αB-crys in spinal motor neurons by 6-fold does not produce the therapeutic effects predicted by cell culture models of mutant SOD1 aggregation. Enhancing the protein chaperone function may present a therapeutic approach to amyotrophic lateral sclerosis caused by mutations in SOD1, and other neurodegenerative disorders characterized by cytosolic protein aggregation. Previous studies in cell models suggested that the chaperone known as αB-crystallin (αB-crys) can prevent mutant SOD1 aggregation. We report that transgenic expression of αB-crys at > 6-fold the normal level in spinal

  19. Cyclin-dependent kinase 5 phosphorylation of familial prion protein mutants exacerbates conversion into amyloid structure.

    PubMed

    Rouget, Raphaël; Sharma, Gyanesh; LeBlanc, Andréa C

    2015-02-27

    Familial prion protein (PrP) mutants undergo conversion from soluble and protease-sensitive to insoluble and partially protease-resistant proteins. Cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (Cdk5) phosphorylation of wild type PrP (pPrP) at serine 43 induces a conversion of PrP into aggregates and fibrils. Here, we investigated whether familial PrP mutants are predisposed to Cdk5 phosphorylation and whether phosphorylation of familial PrP mutants increases conversion. PrP mutants representing three major familial PrP diseases and different PrP structural domains were studied. We developed a novel in vitro kinase reaction coupled with Thioflavin T binding to amyloid structure assay to monitor phosphorylation-dependent amyloid conversion. Although non-phosphorylated full-length wild type or PrP mutants did not convert into amyloid, Cdk5 phosphorylation rapidly converted these into Thioflavin T-positive structures following first order kinetics. Dephosphorylation partially reversed conversion. Phosphorylation-dependent conversion of PrP from α-helical structures into β-sheet structures was confirmed by circular dichroism. Relative to wild type pPrP, most PrP mutants showed increased rate constants of conversion. In contrast, non-phosphorylated truncated PrP Y145X (where X represents a stop codon) and Q160X mutants converted spontaneously into Thioflavin T-positive fibrils after a lag phase of over 20 h, indicating nucleation-dependent polymerization. Phosphorylation reduced the lag phase by over 50% and thus accelerated the formation of the nucleating event. Consistently, phosphorylated Y145X and phosphorylated Q160X exacerbated conversion in a homologous seeding reaction, whereas WT pPrP could not seed WT PrP. These results demonstrate an influence of both the N terminus and the C terminus of PrP on conversion. We conclude that post-translational modifications of the flexible N terminus of PrP can cause or exacerbate PrP mutant conversion.

  20. A highly digestible sorghum mutant cultivar exhibits a unique folded structure of endosperm protein bodies

    PubMed Central

    Oria, Maria P.; Hamaker, Bruce R.; Axtell, John D.; Huang, Chia-Ping

    2000-01-01

    The endosperm of a sorghum mutant cultivar, with high in vitro uncooked and cooked protein digestibilities, was examined by transmission electron microscopy and α-, β-, and γ-kafirins (storage proteins) were localized within its protein bodies. Transmission electron microscopy micrographs revealed that these protein bodies had a unique microstructure related to high protein digestibility. They were irregular in shape and had numerous invaginations, often reaching to the central area of the protein body. Protein bodies from normal cultivars, such as P721N studied here, with much lower uncooked and cooked digestibilities are spherical and contain no invaginations. Immunocytochemistry results showed that the relative location of α- and β-kafirins within the protein bodies of the highly digestible genotype were similar to the normal cultivar, P721N. γ-Kafirin, however, was concentrated in dark-staining regions at the base of the folds instead of at the protein body periphery, as is typical of normal cultivars. The resulting easy accessibility of digestive enzymes to α-kafirin, the major storage protein, in addition to the increased surface area of the protein bodies of the highly digestible cultivar appear to account for its high in vitro protein digestibility. PMID:10792028

  1. Functional rescue of mutant ABCA1 proteins by sodium 4-phenylbutyrate[S

    PubMed Central

    Sorrenson, Brie; Suetani, Rachel J.; Williams, Michael J. A.; Bickley, Vivienne M.; George, Peter M.; Jones, Gregory T.; McCormick, Sally P. A.

    2013-01-01

    Mutations in the ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1) are a major cause of decreased HDL cholesterol (HDL-C), which infers an increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Many ABCA1 mutants show impaired localization to the plasma membrane. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the chemical chaperone, sodium 4-phenylbutyrate (4-PBA) could improve cellular localization and function of ABCA1 mutants. Nine different ABCA1 mutants (p.A594T, p.I659V, p.R1068H, p.T1512M, p.Y1767D, p.N1800H, p.R2004K, p.A2028V, p.Q2239N) expressed in HEK293 cells, displaying different degrees of mislocalization to the plasma membrane and discrete impacts on cholesterol efflux, were subject to treatment with 4-PBA. Treatment restored localization to the plasma membrane and increased cholesterol efflux function for the majority of mutants. Treatment with 4-PBA also increased ABCA1 protein expression in all transfected cell lines. In fibroblast cells obtained from low HDL-C subjects expressing two of the ABCA1 mutants (p.R1068H and p.N1800H), 4-PBA increased cholesterol efflux without any increase in ABCA1 expression. Our study is the first to investigate the effect of the chemical chaperone, 4-PBA on ABCA1 and shows that it is capable of restoring plasma membrane localization and enhancing the cholesterol efflux function of mutant ABCA1s both in vitro and ex vivo. These results suggest 4-PBA may warrant further investigation as a potential therapy for increasing cholesterol efflux and HDL-C levels. PMID:23087442

  2. Purification and characterization of a mutant DnaB protein specifically defective in ATP hydrolysis.

    PubMed Central

    Shrimankar, P; Stordal, L; Maurer, R

    1992-01-01

    The dnaB gene of Escherichia coli encodes an essential DNA replication enzyme. Fueled by the energy derived from the hydrolysis of ATP to ADP+P(i), this enzyme unwinds double-stranded DNA in advance of the DNA polymerase. While doing so, it intermittently stimulates primase to synthesize an RNA primer for an Okazaki fragment. To better understand the structural basis of these and other aspects of DnaB function, we have initiated a study of mutant DnaB proteins. Here, we report the purification and characterization of a mutant DnaB protein (RC231) containing cysteine in place of arginine at residue 231. The mutant protein attains a stable, properly folded structure that allows association of six promoters to form a hexamer, as is also true for wild-type DnaB. Further, the mutant protein interacts with ATP, the nonhydrolyzable ATP analog adenosine-5'-O-(3-thiotriphosphate) (ATP gamma S), ADP, and poly(dT), and it stimulates primase action. It is, however, profoundly deficient in ATP hydrolysis, helicase activity, and replication activity at the chromosomal origin of replication. In addition, while general priming reactions with wild-type DnaB and ATP elicited the synthesis of short primers, reactions with DnaB and ATP gamma S or with RC231 and either ATP or ATP gamma S stimulated the synthesis of significantly longer primers. On the basis of these observations, we suggest that primase interacts directly with DnaB throughout primer synthesis during general priming, until dissociation of DnaB from DNA or ATP hydrolysis by DnaB disrupts the interaction and leads to primer termination. Images PMID:1332941

  3. Molecular pathogenesis of Spondylocheirodysplastic Ehlers-Danlos syndrome caused by mutant ZIP13 proteins

    PubMed Central

    Bin, Bum-Ho; Hojyo, Shintaro; Hosaka, Toshiaki; Bhin, Jinhyuk; Kano, Hiroki; Miyai, Tomohiro; Ikeda, Mariko; Kimura-Someya, Tomomi; Shirouzu, Mikako; Cho, Eun-Gyung; Fukue, Kazuhisa; Kambe, Taiho; Ohashi, Wakana; Kim, Kyu-Han; Seo, Juyeon; Choi, Dong-Hwa; Nam, Yeon-Ju; Hwang, Daehee; Fukunaka, Ayako; Fujitani, Yoshio; Yokoyama, Shigeyuki; Superti-Furga, Andrea; Ikegawa, Shiro; Lee, Tae Ryong; Fukada, Toshiyuki

    2014-01-01

    The zinc transporter protein ZIP13 plays critical roles in bone, tooth, and connective tissue development, and its dysfunction is responsible for the spondylocheirodysplastic form of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (SCD-EDS, OMIM 612350). Here, we report the molecular pathogenic mechanism of SCD-EDS caused by two different mutant ZIP13 proteins found in human patients: ZIP13G64D, in which Gly at amino acid position 64 is replaced by Asp, and ZIP13ΔFLA, which contains a deletion of Phe-Leu-Ala. We demonstrated that both the ZIP13G64D and ZIP13ΔFLA protein levels are decreased by degradation via the valosin-containing protein (VCP)-linked ubiquitin proteasome pathway. The inhibition of degradation pathways rescued the protein expression levels, resulting in improved intracellular Zn homeostasis. Our findings uncover the pathogenic mechanisms elicited by mutant ZIP13 proteins. Further elucidation of these degradation processes may lead to novel therapeutic targets for SCD-EDS. PMID:25007800

  4. Dynamics of protein damage in yeast frataxin mutant exposed to oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jin-Hee; Sedlak, Miroslav; Gao, Qiang; Riley, Catherine P; Regnier, Fred E; Adamec, Jiri

    2010-12-01

    Oxidative stress and protein carbonylation is implicated in aging and various diseases such as neurodegenerative disorders, diabetes, and cancer. Therefore, the accurate identification and quantification of protein carbonylation may lead to the discovery of new biomarkers. We have developed a new method that combines avidin affinity selection of carbonylated proteins with iTRAQ labeling and LC fractionation of intact proteins. This simple LC-based workflow is an effective technique to reduce sample complexity, minimize technical variation, and enable simultaneous quantification of four samples. This method was used to determine protein oxidation in an iron accumulating mutant of Saccharomyces cerevisiae exposed to oxidative stress. Overall, 31 proteins were identified with 99% peptide confidence, and of those, 27 proteins were quantified. Most of the identified proteins were associated with energy metabolism (32.3%), and cellular defense, transport, and folding (38.7%), suggesting a drop in energy production and reducing power of the cells due to the damage of glycolytic enzymes and decrease in activity of enzymes involved in protein protection and regeneration. In addition, the oxidation sites of seven proteins were identified and their estimated position also indicated a potential impact on the enzymatic activities. Predicted 3D structures of peroxiredoxin (TSA1) and thioredoxin II (TRX2) revealed close proximity of all oxidized amino acid residues to the protein active sites.

  5. Elucidating the Mechanism of Gain of Toxic Function From Mutant C1 Inhibitor Proteins in Hereditary Angioedema

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-10-01

    AD______________ AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-14-1-0506 TITLE: Elucidating the Mechanism of Gain of Toxic Function From Mutant C1 Inhibitor Proteins...REPORT TYPE Annual 3. DATES COVERED 30 Sept 2014 – 29 Sept 2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Elucidating the Mechanism of Gain of Toxic Function From Mutant ...Unlimited 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT HAE is autosomal dominant. Cells, heterozygous for the SERPING1 mutation, express both mutant and WT

  6. Modulation of cellular and viral promoters by mutant human p53 proteins found in tumor cells.

    PubMed Central

    Deb, S; Jackson, C T; Subler, M A; Martin, D W

    1992-01-01

    Wild-type p53 has recently been shown to repress transcription from several cellular and viral promoters. Since p53 mutations are the most frequently reported genetic defects in human cancers, it becomes important to study the effects of mutations of p53 on promoter functions. We, therefore, have studied the effects of wild-type and mutant human p53 on the human proliferating-cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) promoter and on several viral promoters, including the herpes simplex virus type 1 UL9 promoter, the human cytomegalovirus major immediate-early promoter-enhancer, and the long terminal repeat promoters of Rous sarcoma virus and human T-cell lymphotropic virus type I. HeLa cells were cotransfected with a wild-type or mutant p53 expression vector and a plasmid containing a chloramphenicol acetyltransferase reporter gene under viral (or cellular) promoter control. As expected, expression of the wild-type p53 inhibited promoter function. Expression of a p53 with a mutation at any one of the four amino acid positions 175, 248, 273, or 281, however, correlated with a significant increase of the PCNA promoter activity (2- to 11-fold). The viral promoters were also activated, although to a somewhat lesser extent. We also showed that activation by a mutant p53 requires a minimal promoter containing a lone TATA box. A more significant increase (25-fold) in activation occurs when the promoter contains a binding site for the activating transcription factor or cyclic AMP response element-binding protein. Using Saos-2 cells that do not express p53, we showed that activation by a mutant p53 was a direct enhancement. The mutant forms of p53 used in this study are found in various cancer cells. The activation of PCNA by mutant p53s may indicate a way to increase cell proliferation by the mutant p53s. Thus, our data indicate a possible functional role for the mutants of p53 found in cancer cells in activating several important loci, including PCNA. Images PMID:1356162

  7. Cysteine oxidation within N-terminal mutant huntingtin promotes oligomerization and delays clearance of soluble protein.

    PubMed

    Fox, Jonathan H; Connor, Teal; Stiles, Megan; Kama, Jibrin; Lu, Zhen; Dorsey, Kathryn; Lieberman, Gregory; Liebermann, Gregory; Sapp, Ellen; Cherny, Robert A; Banks, Mary; Volitakis, Irene; DiFiglia, Marian; Berezovska, Oksana; Bush, Ashley I; Hersch, Steven M

    2011-05-20

    Huntington disease (HD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder caused by expression of polyglutamine-expanded mutant huntingtin protein (mhtt). Most evidence indicates that soluble mhtt species, rather than insoluble aggregates, are the important mediators of HD pathogenesis. However, the differential roles of soluble monomeric and oligomeric mhtt species in HD and the mechanisms of oligomer formation are not yet understood. We have shown previously that copper interacts with and oxidizes the polyglutamine-containing N171 fragment of huntingtin. In this study we report that oxidation-dependent oligomers of huntingtin form spontaneously in cell and mouse HD models. Levels of these species are modulated by copper, hydrogen peroxide, and glutathione. Mutagenesis of all cysteine residues within N171 blocks the formation of these oligomers. In cells, levels of oligomerization-blocked mutant N171 were decreased compared with native N171. We further show that a subset of the oligomerization-blocked form of glutamine-expanded N171 huntingtin is rapidly depleted from the soluble pool compared with "native " mutant N171. Taken together, our data indicate that huntingtin is subject to specific oxidations that are involved in the formation of stable oligomers and that also delay removal from the soluble pool. These findings show that inhibiting formation of oxidation-dependent huntingtin oligomers, or promoting their dissolution, may have protective effects in HD by decreasing the burden of soluble mutant huntingtin.

  8. Enamel Protein Regulation and Dental and Periodontal Physiopathology in Msx2 Mutant Mice

    PubMed Central

    Molla, Muriel; Descroix, Vianney; Aïoub, Muhanad; Simon, Stéphane; Castañeda, Beatriz; Hotton, Dominique; Bolaños, Alba; Simon, Yohann; Lezot, Frédéric; Goubin, Gérard; Berdal, Ariane

    2010-01-01

    Signaling pathways that underlie postnatal dental and periodontal physiopathology are less studied than those of early tooth development. Members of the muscle segment homeobox gene (Msx) family encode homeoproteins that show functional redundancy during development and are known to be involved in epithelial-mesenchymal interactions that lead to crown morphogenesis and ameloblast cell differentiation. This study analyzed the MSX2 protein during mouse postnatal growth as well as in the adult. The analysis focused on enamel and periodontal defects and enamel proteins in Msx2-null mutant mice. In the epithelial lifecycle, the levels of MSX2 expression and enamel protein secretion were inversely related. Msx2+/− mice showed increased amelogenin expression, enamel thickness, and rod size. Msx2−/− mice displayed compound phenotypic characteristics of enamel defects, related to both enamel-specific gene mutations (amelogenin and enamelin) in isolated amelogenesis imperfecta, and cell-cell junction elements (laminin 5 and cytokeratin 5) in other syndromes. These effects were also related to ameloblast disappearance, which differed between incisors and molars. In Msx2−/− roots, Malassez cells formed giant islands that overexpressed amelogenin and ameloblastin that grew over months. Aberrant expression of enamel proteins is proposed to underlie the regional osteopetrosis and hyperproduction of cellular cementum. These enamel and periodontal phenotypes of Msx2 mutants constitute the first case report of structural and signaling defects associated with enamel protein overexpression in a postnatal context. PMID:20934968

  9. Escherichia coli pleiotropic mutant that reduces amounts of several periplasmic and outer membrane proteins.

    PubMed Central

    Wanner, B L; Sarthy, A; Beckwith, J

    1979-01-01

    We have isolated a mutant of Escherichia coli K-12 that is reduced from 6- to 10-fold in the amount of alkaline phosphatase found in the periplasmic space. The reduced synthesis is not due to effects at the level of transcription regulation of the phoA gene, the structural gene for the enzyme. In addition, the mutation (termed perA) responsible for this phenotype results in reduced amounts of possibly six or more other periplasmic proteins and at least three outer membrane proteins. One of the outer membrane proteins affected is protein IA (D. L. Diedrich, A. O. Summers, and C. A. Schnaitman, J. Bacteriol. 131:598-607, 1977). Although other possibilities exist, one explanation for the phenotype of the perA mutation is that it affects the cell's secretory apparatus. Images PMID:387722

  10. Epilepsy, Behavioral Abnormalities, and Physiological Comorbidities in Syntaxin-Binding Protein 1 (STXBP1) Mutant Zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Grone, Brian P.; Marchese, Maria; Hamling, Kyla R.; Kumar, Maneesh G.; Krasniak, Christopher S.; Sicca, Federico; Santorelli, Filippo M.; Patel, Manisha; Baraban, Scott C.

    2016-01-01

    Mutations in the synaptic machinery gene syntaxin-binding protein 1, STXBP1 (also known as MUNC18-1), are linked to childhood epilepsies and other neurodevelopmental disorders. Zebrafish STXBP1 homologs (stxbp1a and stxbp1b) have highly conserved sequence and are prominently expressed in the larval zebrafish brain. To understand the functions of stxbp1a and stxbp1b, we generated loss-of-function mutations using CRISPR/Cas9 gene editing and studied brain electrical activity, behavior, development, heart physiology, metabolism, and survival in larval zebrafish. Homozygous stxbp1a mutants exhibited a profound lack of movement, low electrical brain activity, low heart rate, decreased glucose and mitochondrial metabolism, and early fatality compared to controls. On the other hand, homozygous stxbp1b mutants had spontaneous electrographic seizures, and reduced locomotor activity response to a movement-inducing “dark-flash” visual stimulus, despite showing normal metabolism, heart rate, survival, and baseline locomotor activity. Our findings in these newly generated mutant lines of zebrafish suggest that zebrafish recapitulate clinical phenotypes associated with human syntaxin-binding protein 1 mutations. PMID:26963117

  11. Chlorophyll-Protein Complexes from Euglena gracilis and Mutants Deficient in Chlorophyll b: II. Polypeptide Composition.

    PubMed

    Cunningham, F X; Schiff, J A

    1986-01-01

    Chlorophyll-protein complexes (CPs) obtained from thylakoids of Euglena gracilis Klebs var bacillaris Cori contain the following polypeptides (listed in parentheses in order of prominence after Coomassie R-250 staining of polyacrylamide gels): CP Ia (66, 18, 22, 22.5, 27.5, 21, 28, 24, 25.5, and 26 kilodaltons [kD]); CP I (66 kD); CPx (41 kD); LHCP(2) (an oligomer of LHCP) (26.5, 28, and 26 kD); CPy (27 and 19 kD); CPa (54 kD); and LHCP (26.5, 28, and 26 kD). Mutants of bacillaris low in chlorophyll b (Gr(1)BSL, G(1)BU, and O(4)BSL; Chl a/b [mol/mol] = 50-100) which lack CP Ia, LHCP(2), and LHCP also lack or are deficient in polypeptides associated with these complexes in wild-type cells. Mutants G(1) and O(4), which also lack CPy, lack the CPy-associated polypeptides found in wild-type and Gr(1). Using an antiserum which was elicited by and reacts strongly and selectively with the SDS-treated major polypeptide (26.5 kD) of the LHCP complexes of wild-type, this polypeptide is undetectable in the mutants (<0.25% of the level in wild-type on a cell basis); the antiserum does not react with the SDS-treated 28 kD polypeptide of the Euglena LHCP complexes and cross-reacts only very weakly with components in SDS-treated cells of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii Dangeard and chloroplasts of Spinacia oleracea L. cv Winter Bloomsdale. Rates of photosynthesis of the wild-type and mutant cells of Euglena are approximately equal on a cell basis when measured at light saturation, consistent with the selective loss of major antenna components but not CP I or CPa from the mutants.

  12. Differential protein stability of EGFR mutants determines responsiveness to tyrosine kinase inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Ray, Paramita; Tan, Yee Sun; Somnay, Vishal; Mehta, Ranjit; Sitto, Merna; Ahsan, Aarif; Nyati, Shyam; Naughton, John P.; Bridges, Alexander; Zhao, Lili; Rehemtulla, Alnawaz; Lawrence, Theodore S.; Ray, Dipankar; Nyati, Mukesh K.

    2016-01-01

    Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients carrying specific EGFR kinase activating mutations (L858R, delE746-A750) respond well to tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs). However, drug resistance develops within a year. In about 50% of such patients, acquired drug resistance is attributed to the enrichment of a constitutively active point mutation within the EGFR kinase domain (T790M). To date, differential drug-binding and altered ATP affinities by EGFR mutants have been shown to be responsible for differential TKI response. As it has been reported that EGFR stability plays a role in the survival of EGFR driven cancers, we hypothesized that differential TKI-induced receptor degradation between the sensitive L858R and delE746-A750 and the resistant T790M may also play a role in drug responsiveness. To explore this, we have utilized an EGFR-null CHO overexpression system as well as NSCLC cell lines expressing various EGFR mutants and determined the effects of erlotinib treatment. We found that erlotinib inhibits EGFR phosphorylation in both TKI sensitive and resistant cells, but the protein half-lives of L858R and delE746-A750 were significantly shorter than L858R/T790M. Third generation EGFR kinase inhibitor (AZD9291) inhibits the growth of L858R/T790M-EGFR driven cells and also induces EGFR degradation. Erlotinib treatment induced polyubiquitination and proteasomal degradation, primarily in a c-CBL-independent manner, in TKI sensitive L858R and delE746-A750 mutants when compared to the L858R/T790M mutant, which correlated with drug sensitivity. These data suggest an additional mechanism of TKI resistance, and we postulate that agents that degrade L858R/T790M-EGFR protein may overcome TKI resistance. PMID:27612423

  13. Food safety assessment of Cry8Ka5 mutant protein using Cry1Ac as a control Bt protein.

    PubMed

    Farias, Davi Felipe; Viana, Martônio Ponte; Oliveira, Gustavo Ramos; Santos, Vanessa Olinto; Pinto, Clidia Eduarda Moreira; Viana, Daniel Araújo; Vasconcelos, Ilka Maria; Grossi-de-Sa, Maria Fátima; Carvalho, Ana Fontenele Urano

    2015-07-01

    Cry8Ka5 is a mutant protein from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) that has been proposed for developing transgenic plants due to promising activity against coleopterans, like Anthonomus grandis (the major pest of Brazilian cotton culture). Thus, an early food safety assessment of Cry8Ka5 protein could provide valuable information to support its use as a harmless biotechnological tool. This study aimed to evaluate the food safety of Cry8Ka5 protein following the two-tiered approach, based on weights of evidence, proposed by ILSI. Cry1Ac protein was used as a control Bt protein. The history of safe use revealed no convincing hazard reports for Bt pesticides and three-domain Cry proteins. The bioinformatics analysis with the primary amino acids sequence of Cry8Ka5 showed no similarity to any known toxic, antinutritional or allergenic proteins. The mode of action of Cry proteins is well understood and their fine specificity is restricted to insects. Cry8Ka5 and Cry1Ac proteins were rapidly degraded in simulated gastric fluid, but were resistant to simulated intestinal fluid and heat treatment. The LD50 for Cry8Ka5 and Cry1Ac was >5000 mg/kg body weight when administered by gavage in mice. Thus, no expected relevant risks are associated with the consumption of Cry8Ka5 protein.

  14. Atypical parkinsonism–associated retromer mutant alters endosomal sorting of specific cargo proteins

    PubMed Central

    McMillan, Kirsty J.; Gallon, Matthew; Jellett, Adam P.; Clairfeuille, Thomas; Tilley, Frances C.; Danson, Chris M.; Wilkinson, Kevin A.; Collins, Brett M.

    2016-01-01

    The retromer complex acts as a scaffold for endosomal protein complexes that sort integral membrane proteins to various cellular destinations. The retromer complex is a heterotrimer of VPS29, VPS35, and VPS26. Two of these paralogues, VPS26A and VPS26B, are expressed in humans. Retromer dysfunction is associated with neurodegenerative disease, and recently, three VPS26A mutations (p.K93E, p.M112V, and p.K297X) were discovered to be associated with atypical parkinsonism. Here, we apply quantitative proteomics to provide a detailed description of the retromer interactome. By establishing a comparative proteomic methodology, we identify how this interactome is perturbed in atypical parkinsonism-associated VPS26A mutants. In particular, we describe a selective defect in the association of VPS26A (p.K297X) with the SNX27 cargo adaptor. By showing how a retromer mutant leads to altered endosomal sorting of specific PDZ ligand–containing cargo proteins, we reveal a new mechanism for perturbed endosomal cargo sorting in atypical parkinsonism. PMID:27528657

  15. Loss of RAD-23 Protects Against Models of Motor Neuron Disease by Enhancing Mutant Protein Clearance

    PubMed Central

    Jablonski, Angela M.; Lamitina, Todd; Liachko, Nicole F.; Sabatella, Mariangela; Lu, Jiayin; Zhang, Lei; Ostrow, Lyle W.; Gupta, Preetika; Wu, Chia-Yen; Doshi, Shachee; Mojsilovic-Petrovic, Jelena; Lans, Hannes; Wang, Jiou; Kraemer, Brian

    2015-01-01

    Misfolded proteins accumulate and aggregate in neurodegenerative disease. The existence of these deposits reflects a derangement in the protein homeostasis machinery. Using a candidate gene screen, we report that loss of RAD-23 protects against the toxicity of proteins known to aggregate in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Loss of RAD-23 suppresses the locomotor deficit of Caenorhabditis elegans engineered to express mutTDP-43 or mutSOD1 and also protects against aging and proteotoxic insults. Knockdown of RAD-23 is further neuroprotective against the toxicity of SOD1 and TDP-43 expression in mammalian neurons. Biochemical investigation indicates that RAD-23 modifies mutTDP-43 and mutSOD1 abundance, solubility, and turnover in association with altering the ubiquitination status of these substrates. In human amyotrophic lateral sclerosis spinal cord, we find that RAD-23 abundance is increased and RAD-23 is mislocalized within motor neurons. We propose a novel pathophysiological function for RAD-23 in the stabilization of mutated proteins that cause neurodegeneration. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT In this work, we identify RAD-23, a component of the protein homeostasis network and nucleotide excision repair pathway, as a modifier of the toxicity of two disease-causing, misfolding-prone proteins, SOD1 and TDP-43. Reducing the abundance of RAD-23 accelerates the degradation of mutant SOD1 and TDP-43 and reduces the cellular content of the toxic species. The existence of endogenous proteins that act as “anti-chaperones” uncovers new and general targets for therapeutic intervention. PMID:26490867

  16. Association of a polynuclear iron-sulfur center with a mutant FNR protein enhances DNA binding.

    PubMed Central

    Khoroshilova, N; Beinert, H; Kiley, P J

    1995-01-01

    In the facultative anaerobe Escherichia coli, the transcription factor FNR (fumarate nitrate reduction) regulates gene expression in response to oxygen deprivation. To investigate how the activity of FNR is regulated by oxygen availability, two mutant proteins, DA154 and LH28-DA154, which have enhanced in vivo activity in the presence of oxygen, were purified and compared. Unlike other previously examined FNR preparations, the absorption spectrum of LH28-DA154 had two maxima at 324 nm and 419 nm, typical of iron-sulfur (Fe-S)-containing proteins. Consistent with these data, metal analysis showed that only the LH28-DA154 protein contained a significant amount of iron and acid-labile sulfide, and, by low temperature EPR spectroscopy, a signal typical of a [3Fe-4S]+ cluster was detected. The LH28-DA154 protein that contained the Fe-S cluster also contained a higher proportion of dimers and had a 3- to 4-fold higher apparent affinity for the target DNA than the DA154 protein. In agreement with this, we found that when the LH28-DA154 protein was treated with an iron chelator (alpha,alpha'-dipyridyl), it lost its characteristic absorption and the apparent affinity for DNA was reduced 6-fold. However, increased DNA binding and the characteristic absorption spectrum could be restored by in vitro reconstitution of the Fe-S center. DNA binding of the LH28-DA154 protein was also affected by the redox state of the Fe-S center, since protein exposed to oxygen bound 1/10th as much DNA as the protein reduced anaerobically with dithionite. The observation that DNA binding is enhanced when the Fe-S center is reduced indicates that the redox state of the Fe-S center affects the DNA-binding activity of this protein and suggests a possible mechanism for regulation of the wild-type protein. Images Fig. 4 PMID:7708673

  17. Perturbed Amelogenin Secondary Structure Leads to Uncontrolled Aggregation in Amelogenesis Imperfecta Mutant Proteins*

    PubMed Central

    Lakshminarayanan, Rajamani; Bromley, Keith M.; Lei, Ya-Ping; Snead, Malcolm L.; Moradian-Oldak, Janet

    2010-01-01

    Mutations in amelogenin sequence result in defective enamel, and the diverse group of genetically altered conditions is collectively known as amelogenesis imperfecta (AI). Despite numerous studies, the detailed molecular mechanism of defective enamel formation is still unknown. In this study, we have examined the biophysical properties of a recombinant murine amelogenin (rM180) and two point mutations identified from human DNA sequences in two cases of AI (T21I and P41T). At pH 5.8 and 25 °C, wild type (WT) rM180 and mutant P41T existed as monomers, and mutant T21I formed lower order oligomers. CD, dynamic light scattering, and fluorescence studies indicated that rM180 and P41T can be classified as a premolten globule-like subclass protein at 25 °C. Thermal denaturation and refolding monitored by CD ellipticity at 224 nm indicated the presence of a strong hysteresis in mutants compared with WT. Variable temperature tryptophan fluorescence and dynamic light scattering studies showed that WT transformed to a partially folded conformation upon heating and remained stable. The partially folded conformation formed by P41T, however, readily converted into a heterogeneous population of aggregates. T21I existed in an oligomeric state at room temperature and, upon heating, rapidly formed large aggregates over a very narrow temperature range. Thermal denaturation and refolding studies indicated that the mutants are less stable and exhibit poor refolding ability compared with WT rM180. Our results suggest that alterations in self-assembly of amelogenin are a consequence of destabilization of the intrinsic disorder. Therefore, we propose that, like a number of other human diseases, AI appears to be due to the destabilization of the secondary structure as a result of amelogenin mutations. PMID:20929860

  18. Two cellular proteins that bind to wild-type but not mutant p53.

    PubMed Central

    Iwabuchi, K; Bartel, P L; Li, B; Marraccino, R; Fields, S

    1994-01-01

    p53 is a tumor-suppressor protein that can activate and repress transcription. Using the yeast two-hybrid system, we identified two previously uncharacterized human proteins, designated 53BP1 and 53BP2, that bind to p53. 53BP1 shows no significant homology to proteins in available databases, whereas 53BP2 contains two adjacent ankyrin repeats and a Src homology 3 domain. In vitro binding analyses indicate that both of these proteins bind to the central domain of p53 (residues 80-320) required for site-specific DNA binding. Consistent with this finding, p53 cannot bind simultaneously to 53BP1 or 53BP2 and to a DNA fragment containing a consensus p53 binding site. Unlike other cellular proteins whose binding to p53 has been characterized, both 53BP1 and 53BP2 bind to the wild-type but not to two mutant p53 proteins identified in human tumors, suggesting that binding is dependent on p53 conformation. The characteristics of these interactions argue that 53BP1 and 53BP2 are involved in some aspect of p53-mediated tumor suppression. Images PMID:8016121

  19. A Dictyostelium mutant lacking an F-actin cross-linking protein, the 120-kD gelation factor

    PubMed Central

    1990-01-01

    Actin-binding proteins are known to regulate in vitro the assembly of actin into supramolecular structures, but evidence for their activities in living nonmuscle cells is scarce. Amebae of Dictyostelium discoideum are nonmuscle cells in which mutants defective in several actin-binding proteins have been described. Here we characterize a mutant deficient in the 120-kD gelation factor, one of the most abundant F-actin cross- linking proteins of D. discoideum cells. No F-actin cross-linking activity attributable to the 120-kD protein was detected in mutant cell extracts, and antibodies recognizing different epitopes on the polypeptide showed the entire protein was lacking. Under the conditions used, elimination of the gelation factor did not substantially alter growth, shape, motility, or chemotactic orientation of the cells towards a cAMP source. Aggregates of the mutant developed into fruiting bodies consisting of normally differentiated spores and stalk cells. In cytoskeleton preparations a dense network of actin filaments as typical of the cell cortex, and bundles as they extend along the axis of filopods, were recognized. A significant alteration found was an enhanced accumulation of actin in cytoskeletons of the mutant when cells were stimulated with cyclic AMP. Our results indicate that control of cell shape and motility does not require the fine-tuned interactions of all proteins that have been identified as actin-binding proteins by in vitro assays. PMID:1698791

  20. Regulation of ribosomal protein synthesis in an Escherichia coli mutant missing ribosomal protein L1.

    PubMed Central

    Jinks-Robertson, S; Nomura, M

    1981-01-01

    In an Escherichia coli B strain missing ribosomal protein L1, the synthesis rate of L11 is 50% greater than that of other ribosomal proteins. This finding is in agreement with the previous conclusion that L1 regulates synthesis of itself and L11 and indicates that this regulation is important for maintaining the balanced synthesis of ribosomal proteins under physiological conditions. PMID:7009590

  1. Synthesis of outer membrane proteins in cpxA cpxB mutants of Escherichia coli K-12.

    PubMed Central

    McEwen, J; Sambucetti, L; Silverman, P M

    1983-01-01

    Two major proteins, the murein lipoprotein and the OmpF matrix porin, are deficient in the outer membrane of cpxA cpxB mutants of Escherichia coli K-12. We present evidence that the cpx mutations prevent or retard the translocation of these proteins to the outer membrane. The mutations had no effect on the rate of lipoprotein synthesis. Mutant cells labeled for 5 min with radioactive arginine accumulated as much lipoprotein as otherwise isogenic cpxA+ cpxB+ cells. This lipoprotein accumulated as such; no material synthesized in mutant cells and reactive with antilipoprotein antibodies had the electrophoretic mobility of prolipoprotein. Hence, the initial stages of prolipoprotein insertion into the inner membrane leading to its cleavage to lipoprotein appeared normal. However, after a long labeling interval, mutant cells were deficient in free lipoprotein and lacked lipoprotein covalently bound to peptidoglycan, suggesting that little if any of the lipoprotein synthesized in mutant cells reaches the outer membrane. Immunoreactive OmpF protein could also be detected in extracts of mutant cells labeled for 5 min, but the amount that accumulated was severalfold less in mutant cells than in cpxA+ cpxB+ cells. Analysis of beta-galactosidase synthesis from ompF-lacZ fusion genes showed this difference to be the result of a reduced rate of ompF transcription in mutant cells. Even so, little or none of the ompF protein synthesized in mutant cells was incorporated into the outer membrane. Images PMID:6339479

  2. Loss of cAMP-specific phosphodiesterase rescues spore development in G protein mutant in dictyostelium.

    PubMed

    Schwebs, David J; Nguyen, Hoai-Nghia; Miller, Jamison A; Hadwiger, Jeffrey A

    2014-02-01

    Cyclic AMP (cAMP) is an important intracellular signaling molecule for many G protein-mediated signaling pathways but the specificity of cAMP signaling in cells with multiple signaling pathways is not well-understood. In Dictyostelium, at least two different G protein signaling pathways, mediated by the Gα2 and Gα4 subunits, are involved with cAMP accumulation, spore production, and chemotaxis and the stimulation of these pathways results in the activation of ERK2, a mitogen-activated protein kinase that can down regulate the cAMP-specific phosphodiesterase RegA. The regA gene was disrupted in gα2(−) and gα4(−) cells to determine if the absence of this phosphodiesterase rescues the development of these G protein mutants as it does for erk2(−) mutants. There gA(−) mutation had no major effects on developmental morphology but enriched the distribution of the Gα mutant cells to the prespore/prestalk border in chimeric aggregates. The loss of RegA function had no effect on Gα4- mediated folate chemotaxis. However, the regA gene disruption in gα4(−) cells, but not in gα2(−) cells, resulted in a substantial rescue and acceleration of spore production. This rescue in sporulation required cell autonomous signaling because the precocious sporulation could not be induced through intercellular signaling in chimeric aggregates. However, intercellular signals from regA(−) strains increased the expression of the prestalk gene ecmB and accelerated the vacuolization of stalk cells. Intercellular signaling from the gα4(−)regA(−) strain did not induce ecmA gene expression indicating cell-type specificity in the promotion of prestalk cell development. regA gene disruption in a Gα4(HC) (Gα4 overexpression) strain did not result in precocious sporulation or stalk cell development indicating that elevated Gα4 subunit expression can mask regA(−) associated phenotypes even when provided with wild-type intercellular signaling. These findings indicate that

  3. Functional Analysis of GLRX5 Mutants Reveals Distinct Functionalities of GLRX5 Protein.

    PubMed

    Liu, Gang; Wang, Yongwei; Anderson, Gregory J; Camaschella, Clara; Chang, Yanzhong; Nie, Guangjun

    2016-01-01

    Glutaredoxin 5 (GLRX5) is a 156 amino acid mitochondrial protein that plays an essential role in mitochondrial iron-sulfur cluster transfer. Mutations in this protein were reported to result in sideroblastic anemia and variant nonketotic hyperglycinemia in human. Recently, we have characterized a Chinese congenital sideroblastic anemia patient who has two compound heterozygous missense mutations (c. 301 A>C and c. 443 T>C) in his GLRX5 gene. Herein, we developed a GLRX5 knockout K562 cell line and studied the biochemical functions of the identified pathogenic mutations and other conserved amino acids with predicted essential functions. We observed that the K101Q mutation (due to c. 301 A>C mutation) may prevent the binding of [Fe-S] to GLRX5 protein, while L148S (due to c. 443 T>C mutation) may interfere with [Fe-S] transfer from GLRX5 to iron regulatory protein 1 (IRP1), mitochondrial aconitase (m-aconitase) and ferrochelatase. We also demonstrated that L148S is functionally complementary to the K51del mutant with respect to Fe/S-ferrochelatase, Fe/S-IRP1, Fe/S-succinate dehydrogenase, and Fe/S-m-aconitase biosynthesis and lipoylation of pyruvate dehydrogenase complex and α-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase complex. Furthermore, we demonstrated that the mutations of highly conserved amino acid residues in GLRX5 protein can have different effects on downstream Fe/S proteins. Collectively, our current work demonstrates that GLRX5 protein is multifunctional in [Fe-S] protein synthesis and maturation and defects of the different amino acids of the protein will lead to distinct effects on downstream Fe/S biosynthesis.

  4. Dictyostelium mutants lacking the cytoskeletal protein coronin are defective in cytokinesis and cell motility

    PubMed Central

    1993-01-01

    Coronin is an actin-binding protein in Dictyostelium discoideum that is enriched at the leading edge of the cells and in projections of the cell surface called crowns. The polypeptide sequence of coronin is distinguished by its similarities to the beta-subunits of trimeric G proteins (E. L. de Hostos, B. Bradtke, F. Lottspeich, R. Guggenheim, and G. Gerisch, 1991. EMBO (Eur. Mol. Biol. Organ.) J. 10:4097-4104). To elucidate the in vivo function of coronin, null mutants have been generated by gene replacement. The mutant cells lacking coronin grow and migrate more slowly than wild-type cells. When these cor- cells grow in liquid medium they become multinucleate, indicating a role of coronin in cytokinesis. To explore this role, coronin has been localized in mitotic wild-type cells by immunofluorescence labeling. During separation of the daughter cells, coronin is strongly accumulated at their distal portions including the leading edges. This contrasts with the localization of myosin II in the cleavage furrow and suggests that coronin functions independently of the conventional myosin in facilitating cytokinesis. PMID:8380174

  5. Pyridones as NNRTIs against HIV-1 mutants: 3D-QSAR and protein informatics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Debnath, Utsab; Verma, Saroj; Jain, Surabhi; Katti, Setu B.; Prabhakar, Yenamandra S.

    2013-07-01

    CoMFA and CoMSIA based 3D-QSAR of HIV-1 RT wild and mutant (K103, Y181C, and Y188L) inhibitory activities of 4-benzyl/benzoyl pyridin-2-ones followed by protein informatics of corresponding non-nucleoside inhibitors' binding pockets from pdbs 2BAN, 3MED, 1JKH, and 2YNF were analysed to discover consensus features of the compounds for broad-spectrum activity. The CoMFA/CoMSIA models indicated that compounds with groups which lend steric-cum-electropositive fields in the vicinity of C5, hydrophobic field in the vicinity of C3 of pyridone region and steric field in aryl region produce broad-spectrum anti-HIV-1 RT activity. Also, a linker rendering electronegative field between pyridone and aryl moieties is common requirement for the activities. The protein informatics showed considerable alteration in residues 181 and 188 characteristics on mutation. Also, mutants' isoelectric points shifted in acidic direction. The study offered fresh avenues for broad-spectrum anti-HIV-1 agents through designing new molecules seeded with groups satisfying common molecular fields and concerns of mutating residues.

  6. Mutant huntingtin regulates EGF receptor fate in non-neuronal cells lacking wild-type protein.

    PubMed

    Melone, Mariarosa A B; Calarco, Anna; Petillo, Orsolina; Margarucci, Sabrina; Colucci-D'Amato, Luca; Galderisi, Umberto; Koverech, Guido; Peluso, Gianfranco

    2013-01-01

    Huntingtin (htt) is a scaffold protein localized at the subcellular level and is involved in coordinating the activity of several protein for signaling and intracellular transport. The emerging properties of htt in intracellular trafficking prompted us to study the role of mutant htt (polyQ-htt) in the intracellular fate of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), whose activity seems to be strictly regulated by htt. In particular, to evaluate whether protein trafficking dysfunction occurs in non-neuronal cells in the absence of functional htt, we monitored the EGFR protein in fibroblasts from homozygotic HD patients and their healthy counterpart. We found that polyQ-htt controls EGFR degradation and recycling. Lack of wild-type htt caused alteration of the ubiquitination cycle, formation of EGFR-incorporating high-molecular weight protein aggregates and abnormal EGFR distribution in endosomes of the degradation and recycling pathways after EGF stimulation. PolyQ-htt-induced alteration of EGFR trafficking affected cell migration and proliferation, at least in part, through inhibition of ERK signaling. To our knowledge the data here reported represent the first signaling and phenotypic characterization of polyQ-htt involvement in the modulation of growth factor stimulation in non-neuronal cells.

  7. Chemical Chaperones Improve Protein Secretion and Rescue Mutant Factor VIII in Mice with Hemophilia A

    PubMed Central

    Milanov, Peter; Abriss, Daniela; Ungerer, Christopher; Quade-Lyssy, Patricia; Simpson, Jeremy C.; Pepperkok, Rainer; Seifried, Erhard; Tonn, Torsten

    2012-01-01

    Inefficient intracellular protein trafficking is a critical issue in the pathogenesis of a variety of diseases and in recombinant protein production. Here we investigated the trafficking of factor VIII (FVIII), which is affected in the coagulation disorder hemophilia A. We hypothesized that chemical chaperones may be useful to enhance folding and processing of FVIII in recombinant protein production, and as a therapeutic approach in patients with impaired FVIII secretion. A tagged B-domain-deleted version of human FVIII was expressed in cultured Chinese Hamster Ovary cells to mimic the industrial production of this important protein. Of several chemical chaperones tested, the addition of betaine resulted in increased secretion of FVIII, by increasing solubility of intracellular FVIII aggregates and improving transport from endoplasmic reticulum to Golgi. Similar results were obtained in experiments monitoring recombinant full-length FVIII. Oral betaine administration also increased FVIII and factor IX (FIX) plasma levels in FVIII or FIX knockout mice following gene transfer. Moreover, in vitro and in vivo applications of betaine were also able to rescue a trafficking-defective FVIII mutant (FVIIIQ305P). We conclude that chemical chaperones such as betaine might represent a useful treatment concept for hemophilia and other diseases caused by deficient intracellular protein trafficking. PMID:22973456

  8. Boat, an AXH domain protein, suppresses the cytotoxicity of mutant ataxin-1.

    PubMed

    Mizutani, Akifumi; Wang, Lei; Rajan, Harini; Vig, Parminder J S; Alaynick, William A; Thaler, Joshua P; Tsai, Chih-Cheng

    2005-09-21

    Ataxin-1 is a neurodegenerative disorder protein whose glutamine-repeat expanded form causes spinocerebellar ataxia type 1 (SCA1) in humans and exerts cytotoxicity in Drosophila and mouse. We report here that the cytotoxicity caused by ataxin-1 is modulated by association with a related protein, Brother of ataxin-1 (Boat). Boat and ataxin-1 share a conserved AXH (ataxin-1 and HMG-box protein 1) domain, which is essential for both proteins' interactions with the transcriptional corepressor SMRT and its Drosophila homolog, SMRTER. The Boat-ataxin-1 interaction is mediated through multiple regions in both proteins, including a newly identified NBA (N-terminal region of Boat and ataxin-1) domain. We investigated the physiological relevance of the Boat-ataxin-1 interaction in Drosophila and discovered that a mutant ataxin-1-mediated eye defect is suppressed by ataxin-1's association with Boat. Correspondingly, in transgenic SCA1 mouse, Boat expression is greatly reduced in Purkinje cells, the primary targets of SCA1. Our study thus establishes that Boat is an in vivo binding partner of ataxin-1 whose altered expression in Purkinje cells may contribute to their degeneration in SCA1 animals.

  9. Role of ribosomal protein S12 in peptide chain elongation: analysis of pleiotropic, streptomycin-resistant mutants of Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Zengel, J M; Young, R; Dennis, P P; Nomura, M

    1977-01-01

    Some of the spontaneous streptomycin-resistant mutants of Escherichia coli strain C600 exhibit pleiotropic effects in addition to the antibiotic resistance. These effects include decreased growth rates, reduced levels of certain enzymes, and poor support of bacteriophage growth. One of these mutants, strain SM3, was studied further. We have examined the question of whether the reduced growth rate of the mutant SM3 is related to the reduction in relative amounts of ribosomes or to the reduction in the efficiency of ribosomes in protein synthesis. Measurements of alpha, the differential synthesis rate of ribosomal protein, revealed that the protein synthesis effeciency of ribosomes from the mutant strain SM3 was reduced about twofold relative to that of the parent strain C600. Measurements of the induction lag for beta-galactosidase and of the synthesis time of several different molecular-weight classes of proteins indicated that the mutation resulted in a marked reduction in the peptide chain growth rate. This reduction in the chain growth rate probably accounted for most of the observed reduction in the growth rate of the mutant strain. These experimental results show that the strA gene product, the S12 protein of the 30S subunit, is involved in some aspect of protein chain elongation. Presumably this involvement occurs during the messenger ribonucleic acid-directed binding of transfer ribonucleic acid to the ribosome. PMID:321423

  10. Role of ribosomal protein S12 in peptide chain elongation: analysis of pleiotropic, streptomycin-resistant mutants of Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Zengel, J M; Young, R; Dennis, P P; Nomura, M

    1977-03-01

    Some of the spontaneous streptomycin-resistant mutants of Escherichia coli strain C600 exhibit pleiotropic effects in addition to the antibiotic resistance. These effects include decreased growth rates, reduced levels of certain enzymes, and poor support of bacteriophage growth. One of these mutants, strain SM3, was studied further. We have examined the question of whether the reduced growth rate of the mutant SM3 is related to the reduction in relative amounts of ribosomes or to the reduction in the efficiency of ribosomes in protein synthesis. Measurements of alpha, the differential synthesis rate of ribosomal protein, revealed that the protein synthesis effeciency of ribosomes from the mutant strain SM3 was reduced about twofold relative to that of the parent strain C600. Measurements of the induction lag for beta-galactosidase and of the synthesis time of several different molecular-weight classes of proteins indicated that the mutation resulted in a marked reduction in the peptide chain growth rate. This reduction in the chain growth rate probably accounted for most of the observed reduction in the growth rate of the mutant strain. These experimental results show that the strA gene product, the S12 protein of the 30S subunit, is involved in some aspect of protein chain elongation. Presumably this involvement occurs during the messenger ribonucleic acid-directed binding of transfer ribonucleic acid to the ribosome.

  11. Rescue of αB Crystallin (HSPB5) Mutants Associated Protein Aggregation by Co-Expression of HSPB5 Partners.

    PubMed

    Hussein, Rasha M; Benjamin, Ivor J; Kampinga, Harm H

    2015-01-01

    HSPB5 (also called αB-crystallin) is a ubiquitously expressed small heat shock protein. Mutations in HSPB5 have been found to cause cataract, but are also associated with a subgroup of myofibrillar myopathies. Cells expressing each of these HSPB5 mutants are characterized by the appearance of protein aggregates of primarily the mutant HSPB5. Like several members of the HSPB family, HSPB5 can form both homo-oligomeric and hetero-oligomeric complexes. Previous studies showed that co-expression of HSPB1 and HSPB8 can prevent the aggregation associated with the HSPB5 (R120G) mutant in cardiomyocytes and in transgenic mice. In this study, we systematically compared the effect of co-expression of each of the members of the human HSPB family (HSPB1-10) on the aggregation of three different HSPB5 mutants (R120G, 450 Δ A, 464 Δ CT). Of all members, co-expression of HSPB1, HSPB4 and HSPB5 itself, most effectively prevent the aggregation of these 3 HSPB5 mutants. HSPB6 and HSPB8 were also active but less, whilst the other 5 HSPB members were ineffective. Co-expression of Hsp70 did not reduce the aggregation of the HSPB5 mutants, suggesting that aggregate formation is most likely not related to a toxic gain of function of the mutants per se, but rather related to a loss of chaperone function of the oligomeric complexes containing the HSPB5 mutants (dominant negative effects). Our data suggest that the rescue of aggregation associated with the HSPB5 mutants is due to competitive incorporation of its partners into hetero-oligomers hereby negating the dominant negative effects of the mutant on the functioning of the hetero-oligomer.

  12. v-mos proteins encoded by myeloproliferative sarcoma virus and its ts159 mutant.

    PubMed Central

    Singh, B; Stocking, C; Walker, R; Yang, Y D; Ostertag, W; Arlinghaus, R B

    1992-01-01

    The myeloproliferative sarcoma virus (MPSV) v-mos protein was predicted to be identical in size to p39c-mos because of an observed one-base deletion in the seventh codon of the env-mos open reading frame, which would allow translation to initiate at the methionine equivalent to codon 32 of the env-mos gene. On the basis of published results, p39c-mos is known to have greatly reduced in vitro protein kinase activity compared with p37env-mos encoded by Moloney murine sarcoma virus. Unexpectedly, the relative activity of the MPSV v-mos protein kinase was comparable to that of p37env-mos. Consistent with this finding, the size of MPSV v-mos protein was found to be similar to the size of p37env-mos. Moreover, the pattern and sizes of phosphorylated bands produced by autophosphorylation of the MPSV v-mos protein were similar to those of p37env-mos. These results were confirmed by in vitro transcription-translation of the MPSV v-mos gene. Resequencing portions of the MPSV mos gene failed to show the deletion within codon 7. Except for the codon 262 deletion, other mutations characteristic of MPSV and temperature-sensitive MPSV v-mos genes were confirmed. A glycine-to-arginine mutation at residue 338 of the MPSV env-mos sequence, previously shown to cause thermosensitivity of the mutant virus (termed ts159) transforming function, yielded a v-mos protein that had significantly reduced protein kinase activity in vitro. These findings indicate that MPSV, like other Moloney murine sarcoma virus strains, also encodes a functional env-mos protein. Images PMID:1309903

  13. Proteome Analysis of Rice (Oryza sativa L.) Mutants Reveals Differentially Induced Proteins during Brown Planthopper (Nilaparvata lugens) Infestation

    PubMed Central

    Sangha, Jatinder Singh; Yolanda, H. Chen; Kaur, Jatinder; Khan, Wajahatullah; Abduljaleel, Zainularifeen; Alanazi, Mohammed S.; Mills, Aaron; Adalla, Candida B.; Bennett, John; Prithiviraj, Balakrishnan; Jahn, Gary C.; Leung, Hei

    2013-01-01

    Although rice resistance plays an important role in controlling the brown planthopper (BPH), Nilaparvata lugens, not all varieties have the same level of protection against BPH infestation. Understanding the molecular interactions in rice defense response is an important tool to help to reveal unexplained processes that underlie rice resistance to BPH. A proteomics approach was used to explore how wild type IR64 and near-isogenic rice mutants with gain and loss of resistance to BPH respond during infestation. A total of 65 proteins were found markedly altered in wild type IR64 during BPH infestation. Fifty-two proteins associated with 11 functional categories were identified using mass spectrometry. Protein abundance was less altered at 2 and 14 days after infestation (DAI) (T1, T2, respectively), whereas higher protein levels were observed at 28 DAI (T3). This trend diminished at 34 DAI (T4). Comparative analysis of IR64 with mutants showed 22 proteins that may be potentially associated with rice resistance to the brown planthopper (BPH). Ten proteins were altered in susceptible mutant (D1131) whereas abundance of 12 proteins including S-like RNase, Glyoxalase I, EFTu1 and Salt stress root protein “RS1” was differentially changed in resistant mutant (D518). S-like RNase was found in greater quantities in D518 after BPH infestation but remained unchanged in IR64 and decreased in D1131. Taken together, this study shows a noticeable level of protein abundance in the resistant mutant D518 compared to the susceptible mutant D1131 that may be involved in rendering enhanced level of resistance against BPH. PMID:23434671

  14. Heat shock protein 70 chaperone overexpression ameliorates phenotypes of the spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy transgenic mouse model by reducing nuclear-localized mutant androgen receptor protein.

    PubMed

    Adachi, Hiroaki; Katsuno, Masahisa; Minamiyama, Makoto; Sang, Chen; Pagoulatos, Gerassimos; Angelidis, Charalampos; Kusakabe, Moriaki; Yoshiki, Atsushi; Kobayashi, Yasushi; Doyu, Manabu; Sobue, Gen

    2003-03-15

    Spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy (SBMA) is an inherited motor neuron disease caused by the expansion of the polyglutamine (polyQ) tract within the androgen receptor (AR). The nuclear inclusions consisting of the mutant AR protein are characteristic and combine with many components of ubiquitin-proteasome and molecular chaperone pathways, raising the possibility that misfolding and altered degradation of mutant AR may be involved in the pathogenesis. We have reported that the overexpression of heat shock protein (HSP) chaperones reduces mutant AR aggregation and cell death in a neuronal cell model (Kobayashi et al., 2000). To determine whether increasing the expression level of chaperone improves the phenotype in a mouse model, we cross-bred SBMA transgenic mice with mice overexpressing the inducible form of human HSP70. We demonstrated that high expression of HSP70 markedly ameliorated the motor function of the SBMA model mice. In double-transgenic mice, the nuclear-localized mutant AR protein, particularly that of the large complex form, was significantly reduced. Monomeric mutant AR was also reduced in amount by HSP70 overexpression, suggesting the enhanced degradation of mutant AR. These findings suggest that HSP70 overexpression ameliorates SBMA phenotypes in mice by reducing nuclear-localized mutant AR, probably caused by enhanced mutant AR degradation. Our study may provide the basis for the development of an HSP70-related therapy for SBMA and other polyQ diseases.

  15. Sensitivity of prostate tumors to wild type and M protein mutant vesicular stomatitis viruses.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Maryam; Cramer, Scott D; Lyles, Douglas S

    2004-12-05

    Because of its potent ability to induce apoptosis, vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) is an attractive candidate as an oncolytic virus for tumor therapy. Previous studies have suggested that VSV selectively infects tumor cells due to defects in their antiviral responses making them more susceptible to VSV infection than normal cells. We tested this hypothesis in the prostate tumor system by comparing LNCaP and PC-3 prostate tumor cells to benign human prostatic epithelial cells from patient prostatectomy specimens. We compared the cell killing ability of a recombinant virus containing a wild-type (wt) M protein (rwt) and an isogenic M protein mutant virus (rM51R-M) that induces interferon (IFN) in infected cells and should display a greater selectivity for tumor cells. Our results showed that in single-cycle infection experiments, LNCaP cells were sensitive to killing by both wt and mutant viruses, while PC-3 cells were highly resistant to VSV-induced cell killing. LNCaP and benign prostate cells were similarly susceptible to both viruses, indicating that normal prostate cells are not inherently resistant to killing by VSV. In each of the cell lines, the rM51R-M virus induced similar levels of apoptosis to rwt virus, showing that the M protein does not play a significant role in apoptosis induction by VSV in these cells. In multiple-cycle infection experiments, LNCaP cells were more sensitive than benign prostatic epithelial cells to virus-induced cell killing by rM51R-M virus, but not rwt virus. Both viruses were equally effective at reducing LNCaP tumor volume in vivo following intratumoral and intravenous inoculation in nude mice, while PC-3 tumors were resistant to VSV treatment. None of the mice treated with rM51R-M virus died as a result of virus infection, while 50-71% of mice treated with rwt virus succumbed to virus infection. Similarly, when inoculated by the more sensitive intranasal route, the rM51R-M virus was less pathogenic than the rwt virus from

  16. Altered chlorplast ribosomal proteins associated with erythromycin-resistant mutants in two genetic systems of Chlamydomonas reinhardi.

    PubMed

    Mets, L; Bogorad, L

    1972-12-01

    The phenotype of several erythromycin-resistant mutants of Chlamydomonas reinhardi was further characterized in terms of the electrophoretic properties of their chloroplast ribosomal proteins. In mutant ery-M2d a single protein of the large (52 S) subunit has altered properties, which probably result from a change in its primary sequence. This mutation is inherited in a Meudelian manner. In mutant ery-U1a, which is inherited in a uniparental manner, a different single protein of the 52 S subunit is altered. This change might result from a change in either the primary sequence of the protein or in some form of secondary modification. These results indicate that these two distinct genetic systems must cooperate in the production of chloroplast ribosomes.

  17. Nonsense Mediated Decay Resistant Mutations Are a Source of Expressed Mutant Proteins in Colon Cancer Cell Lines with Microsatellite Instability

    PubMed Central

    Williams, David S.; Bird, Matthew J.; Jorissen, Robert N.; Yu, Yen Lin; Walker, Franscesa; Zhang, Hui Hua; Nice, Edouard C.; Burgess, Antony W.

    2010-01-01

    Background Frameshift mutations in microsatellite instability high (MSI-High) colorectal cancers are a potential source of targetable neo-antigens. Many nonsense transcripts are subject to rapid degradation due to nonsense-mediated decay (NMD), but nonsense transcripts with a cMS in the last exon or near the last exon-exon junction have intrinsic resistance to nonsense-mediated decay (NMD). NMD-resistant transcripts are therefore a likely source of expressed mutant proteins in MSI-High tumours. Methods Using antibodies to the conserved N-termini of predicted mutant proteins, we analysed MSI-High colorectal cancer cell lines for examples of naturally expressed mutant proteins arising from frameshift mutations in coding microsatellites (cMS) by immunoprecipitation and Western Blot experiments. Detected mutant protein bands from NMD-resistant transcripts were further validated by gene-specific short-interfering RNA (siRNA) knockdown. A genome-wide search was performed to identify cMS-containing genes likely to generate NMD-resistant transcripts that could encode for antigenic expressed mutant proteins in MSI-High colon cancers. These genes were screened for cMS mutations in the MSI-High colon cancer cell lines. Results Mutant protein bands of expected molecular weight were detected in mutated MSI-High cell lines for NMD-resistant transcripts (CREBBP, EP300, TTK), but not NMD-sensitive transcripts (BAX, CASP5, MSH3). Expression of the mutant CREBBP and EP300 proteins was confirmed by siRNA knockdown. Five cMS-bearing genes identified from the genome-wide search and without existing mutation data (SFRS12IP1, MED8, ASXL1, FBXL3 and RGS12) were found to be mutated in at least 5 of 11 (45%) of the MSI-High cell lines tested. Conclusion NMD-resistant transcripts can give rise to expressed mutant proteins in MSI-High colon cancer cells. If commonly expressed in primary MSI-High colon cancers, MSI-derived mutant proteins could be useful as cancer specific immunological

  18. Membrane Interactions of the Mason-Pfizer Monkey Virus Matrix Protein and Its Budding Deficient Mutants.

    PubMed

    Kroupa, Tomáš; Langerová, Hana; Doležal, Michal; Prchal, Jan; Spiwok, Vojtěch; Hunter, Eric; Rumlová, Michaela; Hrabal, Richard; Ruml, Tomáš

    2016-11-20

    Matrix proteins (MAs) play a key role in the transport of retroviral proteins inside infected cells and in the interaction with cellular membranes. In most retroviruses, retroviral MAs are N-terminally myristoylated. This modification serves as a membrane targeting signal and also as an anchor for membrane interaction. The aim of this work was to characterize the interactions anchoring retroviral MA at the plasma membrane of infected cell. To address this issue, we compared the structures and membrane affinity of the Mason-Pfizer monkey virus (M-PMV) wild-type MA with its two budding deficient double mutants, that is, T41I/T78I and Y28F/Y67F. The structures of the mutants were determined using solution NMR spectroscopy, and their interactions with water-soluble phospholipids were studied. Water-soluble phospholipids are widely used models for studying membrane interactions by solution NMR spectroscopy. However, this approach might lead to artificial results due to unnatural hydrophobic interactions. Therefore, we used a new approach based on the measurement of the loss of the (1)H NMR signal intensity of the protein sample induced by the addition of the liposomes containing phospholipids with naturally long fatty acids. HIV-1 MA was used as a positive control because its ability to interact with liposomes has already been described. We found that in contrast to HIV-1, the M-PMV MA interacted with the liposomes differently and much weaker. In our invivo experiments, the M-PMV MA did not co-localize with lipid rafts. Therefore, we concluded that M-PMV might adopt a different membrane binding mechanism than HIV-1.

  19. Novel Mutant AAV2 Rep Proteins Support AAV2 Replication without Blocking HSV-1 Helpervirus Replication

    PubMed Central

    Seyffert, Michael; Glauser, Daniel L.; Schraner, Elisabeth M.; de Oliveira, Anna-Paula; Mansilla-Soto, Jorge; Vogt, Bernd; Büning, Hildegard; Linden, R. Michael; Ackermann, Mathias; Fraefel, Cornel

    2017-01-01

    As their names imply, parvoviruses of the genus Dependovirus rely for their efficient replication on the concurrent presence of a helpervirus, such as herpesvirus, adenovirus, or papilloma virus. Adeno-associated virus 2 (AAV2) is such an example, which in turn can efficiently inhibit the replication of each helpervirus by distinct mechanisms. In a previous study we have shown that expression of the AAV2 rep gene is not compatible with efficient replication of herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1). In particular, the combined DNA-binding and ATPase/helicase activities of the Rep68/78 proteins have been shown to exert opposite effects on the replication of AAV2 and HSV-1. While essential for AAV2 DNA replication these protein activities account for the Rep-mediated inhibition of HSV-1 replication. Here, we describe a novel Rep mutant (Rep-D371Y), which displayed an unexpected phenotype. Rep-D371Y did not block HSV-1 replication, but still supported efficient AAV2 replication, at least when a double-stranded AAV2 genome template was used. We also found that the capacity of Rep-D371Y to induce apoptosis and a Rep-specific DNA damage response was significantly reduced compared to wild-type Rep. These findings suggest that AAV2 Rep-helicase subdomains exert diverging activities, which contribute to distinct steps of the AAV2 life cycle. More important, the novel AAV2 mutant Rep-D371Y may allow deciphering yet unsolved activities of the AAV2 Rep proteins such as DNA second-strand synthesis, genomic integration or packaging, which all involve the Rep-helicase activity. PMID:28125695

  20. Insights into the conformational equilibria of maltose-binding protein by analysis of high affinity mutants.

    PubMed

    Telmer, Patrick G; Shilton, Brian H

    2003-09-05

    The affinity of maltose-binding protein (MBP) for maltose and related carbohydrates was greatly increased by removal of groups in the interface opposite the ligand binding cleft. The wild-type protein has a KD of 1200 nM for maltose; mutation of residues Met-321 and Gln-325, both to alanine, resulted in a KD for maltose of 70 nM; deletion of 4 residues, Glu-172, Asn-173, Lys-175, and Tyr-176, which are part of a poorly ordered loop, results in a KD for maltose of 110 nM. Combining the mutations yields an increased affinity for maltodextrins and a KD of 6 nM for maltotriose. Comparison of ligand binding by the mutants, using surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy, indicates that decreases in the off-rate are responsible for the increased affinity. Small-angle x-ray scattering was used to demonstrate that the mutations do not significantly affect the solution conformation of MBP in either the presence or absence of maltose. The crystal structures of selected mutants showed that the mutations do not cause significant structural changes in either the closed or open conformation of MBP. These studies show that interactions in the interface opposite the ligand binding cleft, which we term the "balancing interface," are responsible for modulating the affinity of MBP for its ligand. Our results are consistent with a model in which the ligand-bound protein alternates between the closed and open conformations, and removal of interactions in the balancing interface decreases the stability of the open conformation, without affecting the closed conformation.

  1. Mutant Brucella abortus membrane fusogenic protein induces protection against challenge infection in mice.

    PubMed

    de Souza Filho, Job Alves; de Paulo Martins, Vicente; Campos, Priscila Carneiro; Alves-Silva, Juliana; Santos, Nathalia V; de Oliveira, Fernanda Souza; Menezes, Gustavo B; Azevedo, Vasco; Cravero, Silvio Lorenzo; Oliveira, Sergio Costa

    2015-04-01

    Brucella species can cause brucellosis, a zoonotic disease that causes serious livestock economic losses and represents a public health threat. The mechanism of virulence of Brucella spp. is not yet fully understood. Therefore, it is crucial to identify new molecules that serve as virulence factors to better understand this host-pathogen interplay. Here, we evaluated the role of the Brucella membrane fusogenic protein (Mfp) and outer membrane protein 19 (Omp19) in bacterial pathogenesis. In this study, we showed that B. abortus Δmfp::kan and Δomp19::kan deletion mutant strains have reduced persistence in vivo in C57BL/6 and interferon regulatory factor 1 (IRF-1) knockout (KO) mice. Additionally, 24 h after macrophage infection with a Δmfp::kan or Δomp19::kan strain expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP) approximately 80% or 65% of Brucella-containing vacuoles (BCVs) retained the late endosomal/lysosomal marker LAMP-1, respectively, whereas around 60% of BCVs containing wild-type S2308 were found in LAMP-1-negative compartments. B. abortus Δomp19::kan was attenuated in vivo but had a residual virulence in C57BL/6 and IRF-1 KO mice, whereas the Δmfp::kan strain had a lower virulence in these same mouse models. Furthermore, Δmfp::kan and Δomp19::kan strains were used as live vaccines. Challenge experiments revealed that in C57BL/6 and IRF-1 KO mice, the Δmfp::kan strain induced greater protection than the vaccine RB51 and protection similar that of vaccine S19. However, a Δomp19::kan strain induced protection similar to that of RB51. Thus, these results demonstrate that Brucella Mfp and Omp19 are critical for full bacterial virulence and that the Δmfp::kan mutant may serve as a potential vaccine candidate in future studies.

  2. Genetic mapping and characterization of Pseudomonas aeruginosa mutants defective in the formation of extracellular proteins.

    PubMed Central

    Wretlind, B; Pavlovskis, O R

    1984-01-01

    We isolated 15 mutants of Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO which were defective in the formation of certain extracellular proteins, such as elastase, staphylolytic enzyme, and lipase ( Xcp mutants). The mutations were mapped on the chromosome by conjugation and transduction. The locations were xcp -1 near 0', with the gene order cys-59- xcp -1- proB , and loci xcp -2, xcp -3, and xcp -31 at 35', with the gene order trpC , D- xcp -3/ xcp -31- xcp -2- argC . Loci xcp -4 and xcp -41 through xcp -44 were cotransducible with proA at 40'; loci xcp -5, xcp -51, xcp -52, and xcp53 were located at 55', with the gene order leu-10- trpF -met-9010- xcp -53- xcp -5/ xcp -51/ xcp+ ++-52, and xcp -6 was located at 65' to 70', between catA and mtu-9002. Nine mutations ( xcp -2, xcp -3, xcp -31, xcp -4, and xcp -41 through xcp -45) caused decreased production of extracellular enzymes. Six strains with mutations xcp -1, xcp -5, xcp -51, xcp -52, xcp -53, and xcp -6 produced cell-bound exoproteins and had defective release mechanisms. The regulation of production of alkaline phosphatase and phospholipase C is different from other exoproteins , such as elastase, but they all seem to share a common release mechanism. Alkaline protease had separate mechanisms for regulation and release, since this protease was found in culture supernatants of all but one of the mutants, and none of the strains had cell-bound enzyme. PMID:6427194

  3. Mutant p53 proteins bind DNA in a DNA structure-selective mode

    PubMed Central

    Göhler, Thomas; Jäger, Stefan; Warnecke, Gabriele; Yasuda, Hideyo; Kim, Ella; Deppert, Wolfgang

    2005-01-01

    Despite the loss of sequence-specific DNA binding, mutant p53 (mutp53) proteins can induce or repress transcription of mutp53-specific target genes. To date, the molecular basis for transcriptional modulation by mutp53 is not understood, but increasing evidence points to the possibility that specific interactions of mutp53 with DNA play an important role. So far, the lack of a common denominator for mutp53 DNA binding, i.e. the existence of common sequence elements, has hampered further characterization of mutp53 DNA binding. Emanating from our previous discovery that DNA structure is an important determinant of wild-type p53 (wtp53) DNA binding, we analyzed the binding of various mutp53 proteins to oligonucleotides mimicking non-B DNA structures. Using various DNA-binding assays we show that mutp53 proteins bind selectively and with high affinity to non-B DNA. In contrast to sequence-specific and DNA structure-dependent binding of wtp53, mutp53 DNA binding to non-B DNA is solely dependent on the stereo-specific configuration of the DNA, and not on DNA sequence. We propose that DNA structure-selective binding of mutp53 proteins is the basis for the well-documented interaction of mutp53 with MAR elements and for transcriptional activities mediates by mutp53. PMID:15722483

  4. Characterization of mutant histidine-containing proteins of the phosphoenolpyruvate:sugar phosphotransferase system of Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhimurium

    SciTech Connect

    Waygood, E.B.; Reiche, B.; Hengstenberg, W.; Lee, J.S.

    1987-06-01

    Histidine-containing phosphocarrier protein (HPr) is common to all of the phosphoenolpyruvate:sugar phosphotransferase systems (PTS) in Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhimurium, except the fructose-specific PTS. Strains which lack HPr activity (ptsH) have been characterized in the past, and it has proved difficult to delineate between tight and leaky mutants. In this study four different parameters of ptsH strains were measured: in vitro sugar phosphorylation activity of the mutant HPr; detection of /sup 32/P-labeled P-HPr; ability of monoclonal antibodies to bind mutant HPr; and sensitivity of ptsH strains to fosfomycin. Tight ptsH strains could be defined; they were fosfomycin resistant and produced no HPr protein or completely inactive mutant HPr. All leaky ptsH strains were fosfomycin sensitive, Usually produced normal amounts of mutant HPr protein, and had low but measurable activity, and HPr was detectable as a phosphoprotein. This indicates that the regulatory functions of the PTS require a very low level of HPr activity (about 1%). The antibodies used to detect mutant HPr in crude extracts were two monoclonal immunoglobulin G antibodies Jel42 and Jel44. Both antibodies, which have different pIs, inhibited PTS sugar phosphorylation assays, but the antibody-JPr complex could still be phosphorylated by enzyme I. Preliminary evidence suggests that the antibodies bind to two different epitopes which are in part located in a ..beta..-sheet structure.

  5. Plasma mutant α-galactosidase A protein and globotriaosylsphingosine level in Fabry disease.

    PubMed

    Tsukimura, Takahiro; Nakano, Sachie; Togawa, Tadayasu; Tanaka, Toshie; Saito, Seiji; Ohno, Kazuki; Shibasaki, Futoshi; Sakuraba, Hitoshi

    2014-01-01

    Fabry disease is an X-linked genetic disorder characterized by deficient activity of α-galactosidase A (GLA) and accumulation of glycolipids, and various GLA gene mutations lead to a wide range of clinical phenotypes from the classic form to the later-onset one. To investigate the biochemical heterogeneity and elucidate the basis of the disease using available clinical samples, we measured GLA activity, GLA protein and accumulated globotriaosylsphingosine (Lyso-Gb3), a biomarker of this disease, in plasma samples from Fabry patients. The analysis revealed that both the enzyme activity and the protein level were apparently decreased, and the enzyme activity was well correlated with the protein level in many Fabry patients. In these cases, a defect of biosynthesis or excessive degradation of mutant GLAs should be involved in the pathogenesis, and the residual protein level would determine the accumulation of Lyso-Gb3 and the severity of the disease. However, there are some exceptional cases, i.e., ones harboring p.C142Y, p.R112H and p.M296I, who exhibit a considerable amount of GLA protein. Especially, a subset of Fabry patients with p.R112H or p.M296I has been attracted interest because the patients exhibit almost normal plasma Lyso-Gb3 concentration. Structural analysis revealed that C142Y causes a structural change at the entrance of the active site. It will lead to a complete enzyme activity deficiency, resulting in a high level of plasma Lyso-Gb3 and the classic Fabry disease. On the other hand, it is thought that R112H causes a relatively large structural change on the molecular surface, and M296I a small one in a restricted region from the core to the surface, both the structural changes being far from the active site. These changes will cause not only partial degradation but also degeneration of the mutant GLA proteins, and the degenerated enzymes exhibiting small and residual activity remain and probably facilitate degradation of Lyso-Gb3 in plasma, leading

  6. Systematic generation of in vivo G protein-coupled receptor mutants in the rat

    PubMed Central

    van Boxtel, R; Vroling, B; Toonen, P; Nijman, I J; van Roekel, H; Verheul, M; Baakman, C; Guryev, V; Vriend, G; Cuppen, E

    2011-01-01

    G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) constitute a large family of cell surface receptors that are involved in a wide range of physiological and pathological processes, and are targets for many therapeutic interventions. However, genetic models in the rat, one of the most widely used model organisms in physiological and pharmacological research, are largely lacking. Here, we applied N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (ENU)-driven target-selected mutagenesis to generate an in vivo GPCR mutant collection in the rat. A pre-selected panel of 250 human GPCR homologs was screened for mutations in 813 rats, resulting in the identification of 131 non-synonymous mutations. From these, seven novel potential rat gene knockouts were established as well as 45 lines carrying missense mutations in various genes associated with or involved in human diseases. We provide extensive in silico modeling results of the missense mutations and show experimental data, suggesting loss-of-function phenotypes for several models, including Mc4r and Lpar1. Taken together, the approach used resulted not only in a set of novel gene knockouts, but also in allelic series of more subtle amino acid variants, similar as commonly observed in human disease. The mutants presented here may greatly benefit studies to understand specific GPCR function and support the development of novel therapeutic strategies. PMID:20531371

  7. Systematic generation of in vivo G protein-coupled receptor mutants in the rat.

    PubMed

    van Boxtel, R; Vroling, B; Toonen, P; Nijman, I J; van Roekel, H; Verheul, M; Baakman, C; Guryev, V; Vriend, G; Cuppen, E

    2011-10-01

    G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) constitute a large family of cell surface receptors that are involved in a wide range of physiological and pathological processes, and are targets for many therapeutic interventions. However, genetic models in the rat, one of the most widely used model organisms in physiological and pharmacological research, are largely lacking. Here, we applied N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (ENU)-driven target-selected mutagenesis to generate an in vivo GPCR mutant collection in the rat. A pre-selected panel of 250 human GPCR homologs was screened for mutations in 813 rats, resulting in the identification of 131 non-synonymous mutations. From these, seven novel potential rat gene knockouts were established as well as 45 lines carrying missense mutations in various genes associated with or involved in human diseases. We provide extensive in silico modeling results of the missense mutations and show experimental data, suggesting loss-of-function phenotypes for several models, including Mc4r and Lpar1. Taken together, the approach used resulted not only in a set of novel gene knockouts, but also in allelic series of more subtle amino acid variants, similar as commonly observed in human disease. The mutants presented here may greatly benefit studies to understand specific GPCR function and support the development of novel therapeutic strategies.

  8. Integrated analysis of transcriptome and metabolome of Arabidopsis albino or pale green mutants with disrupted nuclear-encoded chloroplast proteins.

    PubMed

    Satou, Masakazu; Enoki, Harumi; Oikawa, Akira; Ohta, Daisaku; Saito, Kazunori; Hachiya, Takushi; Sakakibara, Hitoshi; Kusano, Miyako; Fukushima, Atsushi; Saito, Kazuki; Kobayashi, Masatomo; Nagata, Noriko; Myouga, Fumiyoshi; Shinozaki, Kazuo; Motohashi, Reiko

    2014-07-01

    We used four mutants having albino or pale green phenotypes with disrupted nuclear-encoded chloroplast proteins to analyze the regulatory system of metabolites in chloroplast. We performed an integrated analyses of transcriptomes and metabolomes of the four mutants. Transcriptome analysis was carried out using the Agilent Arabidopsis 2 Oligo Microarray, and metabolome analysis with two mass spectrometers; a direct-infusion Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometer (FT-ICR/MS) and a gas chromatograph-time of flight mass spectrometer. Among approximately 200 known metabolites detected by the FT-ICR/MS, 71 metabolites showed significant changes in the mutants when compared with controls (Ds donor plants). Significant accumulation of several amino acids (glutamine, glutamate and asparagine) was observed in the albino and pale green mutants. Transcriptome analysis revealed altered expressions of genes in several metabolic pathways. For example, genes involved in the tricarboxylic acid cycle, the oxidative pentose phosphate pathway, and the de novo purine nucleotide biosynthetic pathway were up-regulated. These results suggest that nitrogen assimilation is constitutively promoted in the albino and pale green mutants. The accumulation of ammonium ions in the albino and pale green mutants was consistently higher than in Ds donor lines. Furthermore, genes related to pyridoxin accumulation and the de novo purine nucleotide biosynthetic pathway were up-regulated, which may have occurred as a result of the accumulation of glutamine in the albino and pale green mutants. The difference in metabolic profiles seems to be correlated with the disruption of chloroplast internal membrane structures in the mutants. In albino mutants, the alteration of metabolites accumulation and genes expression is stronger than pale green mutants.

  9. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of Ebola VP35 interferon inhibitory domain mutant proteins

    SciTech Connect

    Leung, Daisy W.; Borek, Dominika; Farahbakhsh, Mina; Ramanan, Parameshwaran; Nix, Jay C.; Wang, Tianjiao; Prins, Kathleen C.; Otwinowski, Zbyszek; Honzatko, Richard B.; Helgeson, Luke A.; Basler, Christopher F.; Amarasinghe, Gaya K.

    2010-06-21

    VP35 is one of seven structural proteins encoded by the Ebola viral genome and mediates viral replication, nucleocapsid formation and host immune suppression. The C-terminal interferon inhibitory domain (IID) of VP35 is critical for dsRNA binding and interferon inhibition. The wild-type VP35 IID structure revealed several conserved residues that are important for dsRNA binding and interferon antagonism. Here, the expression, purification and crystallization of recombinant Zaire Ebola VP35 IID mutants R312A, K319A/R322A and K339A in space groups P6{sub 1}22, P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2{sub 1} and P2{sub 1}, respectively, are described. Diffraction data were collected using synchrotron sources at the Advanced Light Source and the Advanced Photon Source.

  10. Selection and characterization of human respiratory syncytial virus escape mutants resistant to a polyclonal antiserum raised against the F protein.

    PubMed

    Tomé, Lorena; Frabasile, Sandra; Candia, Claudia; Pittini, Alvaro; Farina, Natalia; Melero, José Antonio; Arbiza, Juan

    2012-06-01

    A human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV) neutralization escape mutant was obtained after 56 serial passages in the presence of a polyclonal antiserum raised against the F protein. Nucleotide sequence analysis of this escape mutant virus revealed two amino acid substitutions: Asn268Ile and Val533Met. When this virus was allowed to grow in the absence of the anti-F polyclonal serum, only the mutation Asn268Ile was stably maintained. Both the double and single escape mutant viruses lost reactivity with mAbs belonging to antigenic site II of the fusion protein of RSV. Mutation Asn268Ile has already been reported in RS viruses that are resistant to mAbs 47F and 11 and palivizumab (PZ). We have thus identified a novel mutation (Val533Met) in the transmembrane domain of the F protein that was selected under immune pressure.

  11. Rapid site-specific DNA inversion in Escherichia coli mutants lacking the histonelike protein H-NS.

    PubMed Central

    Kawula, T H; Orndorff, P E

    1991-01-01

    Escherichia coli pilG mutants are thought to have a dramatically higher DNA inversion rate as measured by the site-specific DNA inversion of the type 1 pili pilA promoter. DNA sequence of the pilG gene confirmed its identity to the gene encoding the bacterial histonelike protein H-NS. Unlike other histonelike protein complexes that enhance site-specific DNA recombination, the H-NS protein inhibited this process. This inhibition was indicated by the increased inversion rate of the pilA promoter region effected by two different mutant pilG alleles. One of these alleles, pilG1, conferred a mutant phenotype only at low temperature attributable to a T-to-G transversion in the -35 sequence of the pilG promoter. The other allele, pilG2-tetR, was an insertion mutation in the pilG coding region that conferred the mutant phenotype independent of temperature. We measured an approximately 100-fold-increased pilA promoter inversion rate in the mutant by exploiting the temperature-dependent expression of pilG1 and using a novel rapid-population-sampling method. Contrary to one current view on how the H-NS protein might act to increase DNA inversion rate, we found no evidence to support the hypothesis that DNA supercoiling affected pilA promoter inversion. Images PMID:1648076

  12. Paradoxical gain-of-function mutant of the G-protein-coupled receptor PROKR2 promotes early puberty.

    PubMed

    Fukami, Maki; Suzuki, Erina; Izumi, Yoko; Torii, Tomohiro; Narumi, Satoshi; Igarashi, Maki; Miyado, Mami; Katsumi, Momori; Fujisawa, Yasuko; Nakabayashi, Kazuhiko; Hata, Kenichiro; Umezawa, Akihiro; Matsubara, Yoichi; Yamauchi, Junji; Ogata, Tsutomu

    2017-03-24

    The human genome encodes ~750 G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), including prokineticin receptor 2 (PROKR2) involved in the regulation of sexual maturation. Previously reported pathogenic gain-of-function mutations of GPCR genes invariably encoded aberrant receptors with excessive signal transduction activity. Although in vitro assays demonstrated that an artificially created inactive mutant of PROKR2 exerted paradoxical gain-of-function effects when co-transfected with wild-type proteins, such a phenomenon has not been observed in vivo. Here, we report a heterozygous frameshift mutation of PROKR2 identified in a 3.5-year-old girl with central precocious puberty. The mutant mRNA escaped nonsense-mediated decay and generated a GPCR lacking two transmembrane domains and the carboxyl-terminal tail. The mutant protein had no in vitro signal transduction activity; however, cells co-expressing the mutant and wild-type PROKR2 exhibited markedly exaggerated ligand-induced Ca(2+) responses. The results indicate that certain inactive PROKR2 mutants can cause early puberty by enhancing the functional property of coexisting wild-type proteins. Considering the structural similarity among GPCRs, this paradoxical gain-of-function mechanism may underlie various human disorders.

  13. Activity of mutant sigma F proteins truncated near the C terminus.

    PubMed Central

    Min, K T; Yudkin, M D

    1992-01-01

    sigma F, the product of the spoIIAC gene of Bacillus subtilis, is homologous in amino acid sequence throughout most of its length with several other sigma factors of B. subtilis and Escherichia coli. However, 8 residues from the C terminus the homology abruptly breaks down, suggesting that the C-terminal tail of the protein may be dispensable. It is known that an amber mutation at the 11th codon (wild-type glutamine 245) from the C terminus abolishes the function of the sigma factor. We have now placed chain-terminating codons at the ninth codon (wild-type lysine 247), the eighth codon (wild-type valine 248), or the seventh codon (wild-type glutamine 249) from the C terminus. We have tested the resulting mutants for their capacity to sporulate and for their ability to transcribe from a promoter (spoIIIG) that is normally read by RNA polymerase bound to sigma F (E sigma F). The results indicate that a mutant sigma F lacking the terminal 7 residues functions almost normally, which suggests that glutamine 249 is dispensable. By contrast, lysine 247 is crucial for the activity of sigma F: deletion of the 9 C-terminal residues totally inactivates the protein. When the terminal 8 residues were deleted, placing lysine 247 at the C terminus, the transcriptional activity of the factor is reduced by about 80%: we attribute this effect to neutralization of the positive charge of lysine 247 by formation of a salt bridge with the -COO- terminus. Images PMID:1429437

  14. Glycosaminoglycan Sulphation Affects the Seeded Misfolding of a Mutant Prion Protein

    PubMed Central

    Lawson, Victoria A.; Lumicisi, Brooke; Welton, Jeremy; Machalek, Dorothy; Gouramanis, Katrina; Klemm, Helen M.; Stewart, James D.; Masters, Colin L.; Hoke, David E.; Collins, Steven J.; Hill, Andrew F.

    2010-01-01

    Background The accumulation of protease resistant conformers of the prion protein (PrPres) is a key pathological feature of prion diseases. Polyanions, including RNA and glycosaminoglycans have been identified as factors that contribute to the propagation, transmission and pathogenesis of prion disease. Recent studies have suggested that the contribution of these cofactors to prion propagation may be species specific. Methodology/Principal Finding In this study a cell-free assay was used to investigate the molecular basis of polyanion stimulated PrPres formation using brain tissue or cell line derived murine PrP. Enzymatic depletion of endogenous nucleic acids or heparan sulphate (HS) from the PrPC substrate was found to specifically prevent PrPres formation seeded by mouse derived PrPSc. Modification of the negative charge afforded by the sulphation of glycosaminoglycans increased the ability of a familial PrP mutant to act as a substrate for PrPres formation, while having no effect on PrPres formed by wildtype PrP. This difference may be due to the observed differences in the binding of wild type and mutant PrP for glycosaminoglycans. Conclusions/Significance Cofactor requirements for PrPres formation are host species and prion strain specific and affected by disease associated mutations of the prion protein. This may explain both species and strain dependent propagation characteristics and provide insights into the underlying mechanisms of familial prion disease. It further highlights the challenge of designing effective therapeutics against a disease which effects a range of mammalian species, caused by range of aetiologies and prion strains. PMID:20808809

  15. Molecular Dynamics Driven Design of pH-Stabilized Mutants of MNEI, a Sweet Protein

    PubMed Central

    Picone, Delia

    2016-01-01

    MNEI is a single chain derivative of monellin, a plant protein that can interact with the human sweet taste receptor, being therefore perceived as sweet. This unusual physiological activity makes MNEI a potential template for the design of new sugar replacers for the food and beverage industry. Unfortunately, applications of MNEI have been so far limited by its intrinsic sensitivity to some pH and temperature conditions, which could occur in industrial processes. Changes in physical parameters can, in fact, lead to irreversible protein denaturation, as well as aggregation and precipitation. It has been previously shown that the correlation between pH and stability in MNEI derives from the presence of a single glutamic residue in a hydrophobic pocket of the protein. We have used molecular dynamics to study the consequences, at the atomic level, of the protonation state of such residue and have identified the network of intramolecular interactions responsible for MNEI stability at acidic pH. Based on this information, we have designed a pH-independent, stabilized mutant of MNEI and confirmed its increased stability by both molecular modeling and experimental techniques. PMID:27340829

  16. Low dietary protein content alleviates motor symptoms in mice with mutant dynactin/dynein-mediated neurodegeneration

    PubMed Central

    Wiesner, Diana; Sinniger, Jérome; Henriques, Alexandre; Dieterlé, Stéphane; Müller, Hans-Peter; Rasche, Volker; Ferger, Boris; Dirrig-Grosch, Sylvie; Soylu-Kucharz, Rana; Petersén, Asa; Walther, Paul; Linkus, Birgit; Kassubek, Jan; Wong, Philip C.; Ludolph, Albert C.; Dupuis, Luc

    2015-01-01

    Mutations in components of the molecular motor dynein/dynactin lead to neurodegenerative diseases of the motor system or atypical parkinsonism. These mutations are associated with prominent accumulation of vesicles involved in autophagy and lysosomal pathways, and with protein inclusions. Whether alleviating these defects would affect motor symptoms remain unknown. Here, we show that a mouse model expressing low levels of disease linked-G59S mutant dynactin p150Glued develops motor dysfunction >8 months before loss of motor neurons or dopaminergic degeneration is observed. Abnormal accumulation of autophagosomes and protein inclusions were efficiently corrected by lowering dietary protein content, and this was associated with transcriptional upregulations of key players in autophagy. Most importantly this dietary modification partially rescued overall neurological symptoms in these mice after onset. Similar observations were made in another mouse strain carrying a point mutation in the dynein heavy chain gene. Collectively, our data suggest that stimulating the autophagy/lysosomal system through appropriate nutritional intervention has significant beneficial effects on motor symptoms of dynein/dynactin diseases even after symptom onset. PMID:25552654

  17. Intracellular Transport, Assembly, and Degradation of Wild-Type and Disease-linked Mutant Gap Junction Proteins

    PubMed Central

    VanSlyke, Judy K.; Deschenes, Suzanne M.; Musil, Linda S.

    2000-01-01

    More than 130 different mutations in the gap junction integral plasma membrane protein connexin32 (Cx32) have been linked to the human peripheral neuropathy X-linked Charcot–Marie–Tooth disease (CMTX). How these various mutants are processed by the cell and the mechanism(s) by which they cause CMTX are unknown. To address these issues, we have studied the intracellular transport, assembly, and degradation of three CMTX-linked Cx32 mutants stably expressed in PC12 cells. Each mutant had a distinct fate: E208K Cx32 appeared to be retained in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), whereas both the E186K and R142W mutants were transported to perinuclear compartments from which they trafficked either to lysosomes (R142W Cx32) or back to the ER (E186K Cx32). Despite these differences, each mutant was soluble in nonionic detergent but unable to assemble into homomeric connexons. Degradation of both mutant and wild-type connexins was rapid (t1/2 < 3 h) and took place at least in part in the ER by a process sensitive to proteasome inhibitors. The mutants studied are therefore unlikely to cause disease by accumulating in degradation-resistant aggregates but instead are efficiently cleared from the cell by quality control processes that prevent abnormal connexin molecules from traversing the secretory pathway. PMID:10848620

  18. A subset of yeast vacuolar protein sorting mutants is blocked in one branch of the exocytic pathway.

    PubMed

    Harsay, Edina; Schekman, Randy

    2002-01-21

    Exocytic vesicles that accumulate in a temperature-sensitive sec6 mutant at a restrictive temperature can be separated into at least two populations with different buoyant densities and unique cargo molecules. Using a sec6 mutant background to isolate vesicles, we have found that vacuolar protein sorting mutants that block an endosome-mediated route to the vacuole, including vps1, pep12, vps4, and a temperature-sensitive clathrin mutant, missort cargo normally transported by dense exocytic vesicles, such as invertase, into light exocytic vesicles, whereas transport of cargo specific to the light exocytic vesicles appears unaffected. Immunoisolation experiments confirm that missorting, rather than a changed property of the normally dense vesicles, is responsible for the altered density gradient fractionation profile. The vps41Delta and apl6Delta mutants, which block transport of only the subset of vacuolar proteins that bypasses endosomes, sort exocytic cargo normally. Furthermore, a vps10Delta sec6 mutant, which lacks the sorting receptor for carboxypeptidase Y (CPY), accumulates both invertase and CPY in dense vesicles. These results suggest that at least one branch of the yeast exocytic pathway transits through endosomes before reaching the cell surface. Consistent with this possibility, we show that immunoisolated clathrin-coated vesicles contain invertase.

  19. Thermolabile in vivo DNA-binding activity associated with a protein encoded by mutants of herpes simplex virus type 1.

    PubMed Central

    Lee, C K; Knipe, D M

    1983-01-01

    The major DNA-binding protein encoded by several temperature-sensitive mutants of herpes simplex virus type 1 was thermolabile for binding to intracellular viral DNA. The ability of DNase I to release this protein from isolated nuclei was used as a measure of the amount of protein bound to viral DNA. This assay was based upon our previous observation that the fraction of herpesviral DNA-binding protein which can be eluted from nuclei with DNase I represents proteins associated with progeny viral DNA (D. M. Knipe and A. E. Spang, J. Virol. 43:314-324, 1982). In this study, we found that several temperature-sensitive mutants encoded proteins which rapidly chased from a DNase I-sensitive to a DNase I-resistant nuclear form upon shift to the nonpermissive temperature. We interpret this change in DNase I sensitivity to represent the denaturation of the DNA-binding site at the nonpermissive temperature and the association with the nuclear framework via a second site on the protein. The DNA-binding activity measured by the DNase I sensitivity assay represents an important function of the protein in viral replication because three of five mutants tested were thermolabile for this activity. A fourth mutant encoded a protein which did not associate with the nucleus at the nonpermissive temperature and therefore would not be available for DNA binding in the nucleus. We also present supportive evidence for the binding of the wild-type protein to intracellular viral DNA by showing that a monoclonal antibody coprecipitated virus-specific DNA sequences with the major DNA-binding protein. Images PMID:6304350

  20. The induction levels of heat shock protein 70 differentiate the vulnerabilities to mutant huntingtin among neuronal subtypes.

    PubMed

    Tagawa, Kazuhiko; Marubuchi, Shigeki; Qi, Mei-Ling; Enokido, Yasushi; Tamura, Takuya; Inagaki, Reina; Murata, Miho; Kanazawa, Ichiro; Wanker, Erich E; Okazawa, Hitoshi

    2007-01-24

    The reason why vulnerabilities to mutant polyglutamine (polyQ) proteins are different among neuronal subtypes is mostly unknown. In this study, we compared the gene expression profiles of three types of primary neurons expressing huntingtin (htt) or ataxin-1. We found that heat shock protein 70 (hsp70), a well known chaperone molecule protecting neurons in the polyQ pathology, was dramatically upregulated only by mutant htt and selectively in the granule cells of the cerebellum. Granule cells, which are insensitive to degeneration in the human Huntington's disease (HD) pathology, lost their resistance by suppressing hsp70 with siRNA, whereas cortical neurons, affected in human HD, gained resistance by overexpressing hsp70. This indicates that induction levels of hsp70 are a critical factor for determining vulnerabilities to mutant htt among neuronal subtypes. CAT (chloramphenicol acetyltransferase) assays showed that CBF (CCAAT box binding factor, CCAAT/enhancer binding protein zeta) activated, but p53 repressed transcription of the hsp70 gene in granule cells. Basal and mutant htt-induced expression levels of p53 were remarkably lower in granule cells than in cortical neurons, suggesting that different magnitudes of p53 are linked to distinct induction levels of hsp70. Surprisingly, however, heat shock factor 1 was not activated in granule cells by mutant htt. Collectively, different levels of hsp70 among neuronal subtypes might be involved in selective neuronal death in the HD pathology.

  1. An in vitro perspective on the molecular mechanisms underlying mutant huntingtin protein toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Cisbani, G; Cicchetti, F

    2012-01-01

    Huntington's disease (HD) is a devastating neurodegenerative disorder whose main hallmark is brain atrophy. However, several peripheral organs are considerably affected and their symptoms may, in fact, manifest before those resulting from brain pathology. HD is of genetic origin and caused by a mutation in the huntingtin gene. The mutated protein has detrimental effects on cell survival, but whether the mutation leads to a gain of toxic function or a loss of function of the altered protein is still highly controversial. Most currently used in vitro models have been designed, to a large extent, to investigate the effects of the aggregation process in neuronal-like cells. However, as the pathology involves several other organs, new in vitro models are critically needed to take into account the deleterious effects of mutant huntingtin in peripheral tissues, and thus to identify new targets that could lead to more effective clinical interventions in the early course of the disease. This review aims to present current in vitro models of HD pathology and to discuss the knowledge that has been gained from these studies as well as the new in vitro tools that have been developed, which should reflect the more global view that we now have of the disease. PMID:22932724

  2. On the role of a Lipid-Transfer Protein. Arabidopsis ltp3 mutant is compromised in germination and seedling growth.

    PubMed Central

    Pagnussat, Luciana A; Oyarburo, Natalia; Cimmino, Carlos; Pinedo, Marcela L; de la Canal, Laura

    2015-01-01

    Plant Lipid-Transfer Proteins (LTPs) exhibit the ability to reversibly bind/transport lipids in vitro. LTPs have been involved in diverse physiological processes but conclusive evidence on their role has only been presented for a few members, none of them related to seed physiology. Arabidopsis seeds rely on storage oil breakdown to supply carbon skeletons and energy for seedling growth. Here, Arabidopsis ltp3 mutant was analyzed for its ability to germinate and for seedling establishment. Ltp3 showed delayed germination and reduced germination frequency. Seedling growth appeared reduced in the mutant but this growth restriction was rescued by the addition of an exogenous carbon supply, suggesting a defective oil mobilization. Lipid breakdown analysis during seedling growth revealed a differential profile in the mutant compared to the wild type. The involvement of LTP3 in germination and seedling growth and its relationship with the lipid transfer ability of this protein is discussed. PMID:26479260

  3. On the role of a Lipid-Transfer Protein. Arabidopsis ltp3 mutant is compromised in germination and seedling growth.

    PubMed

    Pagnussat, Luciana A; Oyarburo, Natalia; Cimmino, Carlos; Pinedo, Marcela L; de la Canal, Laura

    2015-01-01

    Plant Lipid-Transfer Proteins (LTPs) exhibit the ability to reversibly bind/transport lipids in vitro. LTPs have been involved in diverse physiological processes but conclusive evidence on their role has only been presented for a few members, none of them related to seed physiology. Arabidopsis seeds rely on storage oil breakdown to supply carbon skeletons and energy for seedling growth. Here, Arabidopsis ltp3 mutant was analyzed for its ability to germinate and for seedling establishment. Ltp3 showed delayed germination and reduced germination frequency. Seedling growth appeared reduced in the mutant but this growth restriction was rescued by the addition of an exogenous carbon supply, suggesting a defective oil mobilization. Lipid breakdown analysis during seedling growth revealed a differential profile in the mutant compared to the wild type. The involvement of LTP3 in germination and seedling growth and its relationship with the lipid transfer ability of this protein is discussed.

  4. Thermodynamics of protein denaturation at temperatures over 100 °C: CutA1 mutant proteins substituted with hydrophobic and charged residues.

    PubMed

    Matsuura, Yoshinori; Takehira, Michiyo; Joti, Yasumasa; Ogasahara, Kyoko; Tanaka, Tomoyuki; Ono, Naoko; Kunishima, Naoki; Yutani, Katsuhide

    2015-10-26

    Although the thermodynamics of protein denaturation at temperatures over 100 °C is essential for the rational design of highly stable proteins, it is not understood well because of the associated technical difficulties. We designed certain hydrophobic mutant proteins of CutA1 from Escherichia coli, which have denaturation temperatures (Td) ranging from 101 to 113 °C and show a reversible heat denaturation. Using a hydrophobic mutant as a template, we successfully designed a hyperthermostable mutant protein (Td = 137 °C) by substituting six residues with charged ones. Thermodynamic analyses of these mutant proteins indicated that the hydrophobic mutants were stabilized by the accumulation of denaturation enthalpy (ΔH) with no entropic gain from hydrophobic solvation around 100 °C, and that the stabilization due to salt bridges resulted from both the increase in ΔH from ion-ion interactions and the entropic effect of the electrostatic solvation over 113 °C. This is the first experimental evidence that has successfully overcome the typical technical difficulties.

  5. Fusion-defective mutants of mouse hepatitis virus A59 contain a mutation in the spike protein cleavage signal.

    PubMed Central

    Gombold, J L; Hingley, S T; Weiss, S R

    1993-01-01

    Infection of primary mouse glial cell cultures with mouse hepatitis virus strain A59 results in a productive, persistent infection, but without any obvious cytopathic effect. Mutant viruses isolated from infected glial cultures 16 to 18 weeks postinfection replicate with kinetics similar to those of wild-type virus but produce small plaques on fibroblasts and cause only minimal levels of cell-to-cell fusion under conditions in which wild type causes nearly complete cell fusion. However, since extensive fusion is present in mutant-infected cells at late times postinfection, the defect is actually a delay in kinetics rather than an absolute block in activity. Addition of trypsin to mutant-infected fibroblast cultures enhanced cell fusion a small (two- to fivefold) but significant degree, indicating that the defect could be due to a lack of cleavage of the viral spike (fusion) protein. Sequencing of portions of the spike genes of six fusion-defective mutants revealed that all contained the same single nucleotide mutation resulting in a substitution of aspartic acid for histidine in the spike cleavage signal. Mutant virions contained only the 180-kDa form of spike protein, suggesting that this mutation prevented the normal proteolytic cleavage of the 180-kDa protein into the 90-kDa subunits. Examination of revertants of the mutants supports this hypothesis. Acquisition of fusion competence correlates with the replacement of the negatively charged aspartic acid with either the wild-type histidine or a nonpolar amino acid and the restoration of spike protein cleavage. These data confirm and extend previous reports concluding cleavage of S is required for efficient cell-cell fusion by mouse hepatitis virus but not for virus-cell fusion (infectivity). Images PMID:8392595

  6. Characterization of a Cruciferin Deficient Mutant of Arabidopsis and Its Utility for Overexpression of Foreign Proteins in Plants

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Yimei; Pajak, Agnieszka; Marsolais, Frédéric; McCourt, Peter; Riggs, C. Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Plant seeds naturally accumulate storage reserves (proteins, carbohydrates, lipids) that are mobilized during germination to provide energy and raw materials to support early seedling growth. Seeds have been exploited as bioreactors for the production to foreign materials, but stable, high level expression has been elusive, in part due to the intrinsic bias for producing the natural reserves in their typical proportions. To identify mutants governing seed filling, we screened a population of mutagenized Arabidopsis plants for a mutant that failed to fill its seeds. Here we report the identification of ssp1, a recessive, viable mutant that accumulates approximately 15% less protein than wildtype seeds. Molecular analyses revealed that ssp1 is due to the introduction of a premature stop codon in CRU3, one of the major cruciferin genes. Unlike many other reserve mutants or transgenic lines in which seed storage protein levels are reduced by antisense/RNAi technologies, ssp1 exhibits low level compensation by other reserves, and represents a mutant background that might prove useful for high level expression of foreign proteins. To test this hypothesis, we used a bean phytohemagglutinin (PHA) gene as a reporter and compared PHA expression levels in single copy insertion lines in ssp1 vs. wildtype. These near isogenic lines allow reporter protein levels to be compared without the confounding and sometimes unknown influences of transgene copy number and position effects on gene expression. The ssp1 lines consistently accumulated more PHA than the backcrossed counterparts, with increases ranging from 12% to 126%. This proof of principle study suggests that similar strategies in crop plants may improve the yield of foreign proteins of agronomic and economic interest. PMID:23724110

  7. Flat cells come full sphere: Are mutant cytoskeletal-related proteins oncoprotein-monsters or useful immunogens?

    PubMed

    Parry, Michele L; Blanck, George

    2016-01-01

    Osteogenesis imperfecta is inherited as a dominant disease because if one allele is mutated, it contributes a mutant, destructive subunit polypeptide to collagen, which requires many subunits to form normal, polymeric, collagenous structures. Recent cancer genome atlas (TCGA) data indicate that cytoskeletal-related proteins are among the most commonly mutated proteins in human cancers, in distinct mutation frequency groups, i.e., including low mutation frequency groups. Part of the explanation for this observation is likely to be the fact that many of the coding regions for these proteins are very large, and indeed, it is likely these coding regions are mutated in many cells that never become cancerous. However, it would not be surprising if mutations in cytoskeletal proteins, when combined with oncoprotein or tumor suppressor protein mutations, had significant impacts on cancer development, for a number of reasons, including results obtained almost 5 decades ago indicating that well-spread cells in tissue culture, with well-formed cytoskeletons, were less tumorigenic than spherical cells with disrupted cytoskeletons. This raises the question, are mutant cytoskeletal proteins, which would likely interfere with polymer formation, a new class of oncoproteins, in particular, dominant negative oncoproteins? If these proteins are so commonly mutant, could they be the bases for common cancer vaccines?

  8. Properties of adenyl cyclase and cyclic adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate receptor protein-deficient mutants of Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, S

    1976-01-01

    Several spontaneous cya and crp mutants of Escherichia coli have been selected as clones simultaneously resistant to phage lambda and nalidixic acid and characterized. Both cya and crp mutants have been found to grow as cocci with increased doubling times. They have increased resistance to some mutagens (methylmethanesulfonate, ultraviolet light, gamma rays), antibiotics (nalidixic acid, ampicillin), phages (lambda, T6), sublethal heat and hypotonic shock, and decreased resistance to neutral detergents (sodium dodecyl sulfate, sodium deoxycholate), a protein synthesis inhibitor (streptomycin), and a respiratory inhibitor (sodium azide). The nature of changes in cell parameters indicate fundamental alterations in the envelope structure of the cya and crp mutant cells. The new cya and crp mutants have been found to be multiply carbohydrate negative and nonmotile in conformity with similar previously isolated mutants. Studies of revertants and phi80 cya+ and phi80 cya transductants indicated that the pleiotropic phenotype is related to a single mutational event at the cya or the crp locus in the mutants. Images PMID:173710

  9. A simple method for isolation and construction of markerless cyanobacterial mutants defective in acyl-acyl carrier protein synthetase.

    PubMed

    Kojima, Kouji; Keta, Sumie; Uesaka, Kazuma; Kato, Akihiro; Takatani, Nobuyuki; Ihara, Kunio; Omata, Tatsuo; Aichi, Makiko

    2016-12-01

    Cyanobacterial mutants defective in acyl-acyl carrier protein synthetase (Aas) secrete free fatty acids (FFAs) into the external medium and hence have been used for the studies aimed at photosynthetic production of biofuels. While the wild-type strain of Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 is highly sensitive to exogenously added linolenic acid, mutants defective in the aas gene are known to be resistant to the externally provided fatty acid. In this study, the wild-type Synechocystis cells were shown to be sensitive to lauric, oleic, and linoleic acids as well, and the resistance to these fatty acids was shown to be enhanced by inactivation of the aas gene. On the basis of these observations, we developed an efficient method to isolate aas-deficient mutants from cultures of Synechocystis cells by counter selection using linoleic acid or linolenic acid as the selective agent. A variety of aas mutations were found in about 70 % of the FFA-resistant mutants thus selected. Various aas mutants were isolated also from Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002, using lauric acid as a selective agent. Selection using FFAs was useful also for construction of markerless aas knockout mutants from Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 and Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002. Thus, genetic engineering of FFA-producing cyanobacterial strains would be greatly facilitated by the use of the FFAs for counter selection.

  10. Special AT-rich Binding Protein-2 (SATB2) Differentially Affects Disease-causing p63 Mutant Proteins*

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Jacky; Grant, R. Ian; Kaplan, David R.; Irwin, Meredith S.

    2011-01-01

    p63, a p53 family member, is critical for proper skin and limb development and directly regulates gene expression in the ectoderm. Mice lacking p63 exhibit skin and craniofacial defects including cleft palate. In humans p63 mutations are associated with several distinct developmental syndromes. p63 sterile-α-motif domain, AEC (ankyloblepharon-ectodermal dysplasia-clefting)-associated mutations are associated with a high prevalence of orofacial clefting disorders, which are less common in EEC (ectrodactyly-ectodermal dysplasia-clefting) patients with DNA binding domain p63 mutations. However, the mechanisms by which these mutations differentially influence p63 function remain unclear, and interactions with other proteins implicated in craniofacial development have not been identified. Here, we show that AEC p63 mutations affect the ability of the p63 protein to interact with special AT-rich binding protein-2 (SATB2), which has recently also been implicated in the development of cleft palate. p63 and SATB2 are co-expressed early in development in the ectoderm of the first and second branchial arches, two essential sites where signaling is required for craniofacial patterning. SATB2 attenuates p63-mediated gene expression of perp (p53 apoptosis effector related to PMP-22), a critical downstream target gene during development, and specifically decreases p63 perp promoter binding. Interestingly, AEC but not EEC p63 mutations affect the ability of p63 to interact with SATB2 and the inhibitory effects of SATB2 on p63 transactivation of perp are most pronounced for AEC-associated p63 mutations. Our findings reveal a novel gain-of-function property of AEC-causing p63 mutations and identify SATB2 as the first p63 binding partner that differentially influences AEC and EEC p63 mutant proteins. PMID:21965674

  11. Delayed degradation of chlorophylls and photosynthetic proteins in Arabidopsis autophagy mutants during stress-induced leaf yellowing.

    PubMed

    Sakuraba, Yasuhito; Lee, Sang-Hwa; Kim, Ye-Sol; Park, Ohkmae K; Hörtensteiner, Stefan; Paek, Nam-Chon

    2014-07-01

    Plant autophagy, one of the essential proteolysis systems, balances proteome and nutrient levels in cells of the whole plant. Autophagy has been studied by analysing Arabidopsis thaliana autophagy-defective atg mutants, but the relationship between autophagy and chlorophyll (Chl) breakdown during stress-induced leaf yellowing remains unclear. During natural senescence or under abiotic-stress conditions, extensive cell death and early yellowing occurs in the leaves of atg mutants. A new finding is revealed that atg5 and atg7 mutants exhibit a functional stay-green phenotype under mild abiotic-stress conditions, but leaf yellowing proceeds normally in wild-type leaves under these conditions. Under mild salt stress, atg5 leaves retained high levels of Chls and all photosystem proteins and maintained a normal chloroplast structure. Furthermore, a double mutant of atg5 and non-functional stay-green nonyellowing1-1 (atg5 nye1-1) showed a much stronger stay-green phenotype than either single mutant. Taking these results together, it is proposed that autophagy functions in the non-selective catabolism of Chls and photosynthetic proteins during stress-induced leaf yellowing, in addition to the selective degradation of Chl-apoprotein complexes in the chloroplasts through the senescence-induced STAY-GREEN1/NYE1 and Chl catabolic enzymes.

  12. Enhanced protective antibody to a mutant meningococcal factor H-binding protein with low-factor H binding

    PubMed Central

    Granoff, Dan M.; Giuntini, Serena; Gowans, Flor A.; Lujan, Eduardo; Sharkey, Kelsey; Beernink, Peter T.

    2016-01-01

    Meningococcal factor H-binding protein (FHbp) is an antigen in 2 serogroup B meningococcal vaccines. FHbp specifically binds human and some nonhuman primate complement FH. To investigate the effect of binding of FH to FHbp on protective antibody responses, we immunized infant rhesus macaques with either a control recombinant FHbp antigen that bound macaque FH or a mutant antigen with 2 amino acid substitutions and >250-fold lower affinity for FH. The mutant antigen elicited 3-fold higher serum IgG anti-FHbp titers and up to 15-fold higher serum bactericidal titers than the control FHbp vaccine. When comparing sera with similar IgG anti-FHbp titers, the antibodies elicited by the mutant antigen gave greater deposition of complement component C4b on live meningococci (classical complement pathway) and inhibited binding of FH, while the anti-FHbp antibodies elicited by the control vaccine enhanced FH binding. Thus, the mutant FHbp vaccine elicited an anti-FHbp antibody repertoire directed at FHbp epitopes within the FH binding site, which resulted in greater protective activity than the antibodies elicited by the control vaccine, which targeted FHbp epitopes outside of the FH combining site. Binding of a host protein to a vaccine antigen impairs protective antibody responses, which can be overcome with low-binding mutant antigens. PMID:27668287

  13. Structural characterization of V57D and V57P mutants of human cystatin C, an amyloidogenic protein

    SciTech Connect

    Orlikowska, Marta; Szymańska, Aneta; Skowron, Piotr; Jankowska, Elżbieta

    2013-04-01

    Val57 point mutants of human cystatin C, which were designed to assess the influence of changes in the properties of the L1 loop on the dimerization propensity, were structurally characterized. Wild-type human cystatin C (hCC wt) is a low-molecular-mass protein (120 amino-acid residues, 13 343 Da) that is found in all nucleated cells. Physiologically, it functions as a potent regulator of cysteine protease activity. While the biologically active hCC wt is a monomeric protein, all crystallization efforts to date have resulted in a three-dimensional domain-swapped dimeric structure. In the recently published structure of a mutated hCC, the monomeric fold was preserved by a stabilization of the conformationally constrained loop L1 caused by a single amino-acid substitution: Val57Asn. Additional hCC mutants were obtained in order to elucidate the relationship between the stability of the L1 loop and the propensity of human cystatin C to dimerize. In one mutant Val57 was substituted by an aspartic acid residue, which is favoured in β-turns, and in the second mutant proline, a residue known for broadening turns, was substituted for the same Val57. Here, 2.26 and 3.0 Å resolution crystal structures of the V57D andV57P mutants of hCC are reported and their dimeric architecture is discussed in terms of the stabilization and destabilization effects of the introduced mutations.

  14. A Dictyostelium mutant deficient in severin, an F-actin fragmenting protein, shows normal motility and chemotaxis

    PubMed Central

    1989-01-01

    A severin deficient mutant of Dictyostelium discoideum has been isolated by the use of colony immunoblotting after chemical mutagenesis. In homogenates of wild-type cells, severin is easily detected as a very active F-actin fragmenting protein. Tests for severin in the mutant, HG1132, included viscometry for the assay of F- actin fragmentation in fractions from DEAE-cellulose columns, labeling of blots with monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies, and immunofluorescent-labeling of cryosections. Severin could not be detected in the mutant using these methods. The mutation in HG1132 is recessive and has been mapped to linkage group VII. The mutant failed to produce the normal severin mRNA, but small amounts of a transcript that was approximately 100 bases larger than the wild-type mRNA were detected in the mutant throughout all stages of development. On the DNA level a new Mbo II restriction site was found in the mutant within the coding region of the severin gene. The severin deficient mutant cells grew at an approximately normal rate, aggregated and formed fruiting bodies with viable spores. By the use of an image processing system, speed of cell movement, turning rates, and precision of chemotactic orientation in a stable gradient of cyclic AMP were quantitated, and no significant differences between wild-type and mutant cells were found. Thus, under the culture conditions used, severin proved to be neither essential for growth of D. discoideum nor for any cell function that is important for aggregation or later development. PMID:2537840

  15. A poliovirus 2A(pro) mutant unable to cleave 3CD shows inefficient viral protein synthesis and transactivation defects.

    PubMed Central

    Ventoso, I; Carrasco, L

    1995-01-01

    Four poliovirus mutants with modifications of tyrosine 88 in 2A(pro) were generated and introduced into the cloned poliovirus genome. Mutants Y88P and Y88L were nonviable, mutant Y88F showed a wild-type (WT) phenotype, and mutant Y88S showed a delayed cytopathic effect and formed small plaques in HeLa cells. Growth of Y88S in HeLa cells was restricted, giving rise to about 20% of the PFU production of the WT poliovirus. The 2A (Y88S) mutant synthesized significantly lower levels of viral proteins in HeLa cells than did the WT poliovirus, while the kinetics of p220 cleavage were identical for both viruses. Strikingly, the 2A (Y88S) mutant was unable to cleave 3CD, as shown by analysis of poliovirus proteins labeled with [35S]methionine or immunoblotted with a specific anti-3C serum. The ability of the Y88S mutant to form infectious virus and cleave 3CD can be complemented by the WT poliovirus. Synthesis of viral RNA was diminished in the Y88S mutant but less than the inhibition of translation of viral RNA. Experiments in which guanidine was used to inhibit poliovirus RNA synthesis suggest that the primary defect of the Y88S mutant virus is at the level of poliovirus RNA translation, while viral genome replication is much less affected. Transfection of HeLa cells infected with the WT poliovirus with a luciferase mRNA containing the poliovirus 5' untranslated sequence gives rise to a severalfold increase in luciferase activity. This enhanced translation of leader-luc mRNA was not observed when the transfected cells were infected with the 2A (Y88S) mutant. Moreover, cotransfection with mRNA encoding WT poliovirus 2A(pro) enhanced translation of leader-luc mRNA. This enhancement was much lower upon transfection with mRNA encoding 2A(Y88S), 2A(Y88L), or 2A(Y88P). These findings support the view that 2A(pro) itself, rather than the 3C' and/or 3D' products, is necessary for efficient translation of poliovirus RNA in HeLa cells. PMID:7666528

  16. Reversible symptoms and clearance of mutant prion protein in an inducible model of a genetic prion disease in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Murali, A; Maue, R A; Dolph, P J

    2014-07-01

    Prion diseases are progressive disorders that affect the central nervous system leading to memory loss, personality changes, ataxia and neurodegeneration. In humans, these disorders include Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, kuru and Gerstmann-Straüssler-Scheinker (GSS) syndrome, the latter being a dominantly inherited prion disease associated with missense mutations in the gene that codes for the prion protein. The exact mechanism by which mutant prion proteins affect the central nervous system and cause neurological disease is not well understood. We have generated an inducible model of GSS disease in Drosophila melanogaster by temporally expressing a misfolded form of the murine prion protein in cholinergic neurons. Flies accumulating this mutant protein develop motor abnormalities which are associated with electrophysiological defects in cholinergic neurons. We find that, upon blocking the expression of the mutant protein, both behavioral and electrophysiological defects can be reversed. This represents the first case of reversibility reported in a model of genetic prion disease. Additionally, we observe that endogenous mechanisms exist within Drosophila that are capable of clearing the accumulated prion protein.

  17. Genetic studies of an Escherichia coli K-12 temperature-sensitive mutant defective in membrane protein synthesis.

    PubMed Central

    Sato, T; Ohki, M; Yura, T; Ito, K

    1979-01-01

    The mutant divE42(Ts) of Escherichia coli K-12, defective in the synthesis of membrane proteins and in the transcription of the lac operon at high temperature, has been further characterized. It was found that a mutation (divE42) located at about min 22 on the E. coli chromosome map is responsible for the Lac- phenotype and temperature-sensitive growth. The mutation could be contransduced with serC, pyrD, or pyrC by phage P1 at a frequency of 4, 16, or 0.5%, respectively, the gene order being serC-pyrD-ompA-sulA-divE-pyrC. Examination of temperature-independent revertants and Pyr+ transductants revealed that all the mutant phenotypes examined (deficiencies in the increase of activities of some membrane enzymes, expression of the lac operon, and synthesis of several other proteins) are due to a single mutation (divE42) which is recessive to the wild-type (divE+) allele. Protein synthesis in the mutant was also analyzed by dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Synthesis of a number of proteins, including membrane proteins, was found to decrease significantly, whereas that of an elongation factor, EF-Tu, increased upon transfer of a log-phase culture to high temperature (42 degrees C). These effects of temperature shift-up on protein synthesis were evident within 5 min under the conditions used. Images PMID:374381

  18. Metabolic and Phenotypic Differences between Mice Producing a Werner Syndrome Helicase Mutant Protein and Wrn Null Mice

    PubMed Central

    Aumailley, Lucie; Garand, Chantal; Dubois, Marie Julie; Johnson, F. Brad; Marette, André; Lebel, Michel

    2015-01-01

    Werner syndrome (WS) is a premature aging disorder caused by mutations in a RecQ-family DNA helicase, WRN. Mice lacking part of the helicase domain of the WRN orthologue exhibit many phenotypic features of WS, including metabolic abnormalities and a shorter mean life span. In contrast, mice lacking the entire Wrn protein (i.e. Wrn null mice) do not exhibit a premature aging phenotype. In this study, we used a targeted mass spectrometry-based metabolomic approach to identify serum metabolites that are differentially altered in young Wrn helicase mutant and Wrn null mice. An antibody-based quantification of 43 serum cytokines and markers of cardiovascular disease risk complemented this study. We found that Wrn helicase mutants exhibited elevated and decreased levels, respectively, of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 and the pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-18. Wrn helicase mutants also exhibited an increase in serum hydroxyproline and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1, markers of extracellular matrix remodeling of the vascular system and inflammation in aging. We also observed an abnormal increase in the ratio of very long chain to short chain lysophosphatidylcholines in the Wrn helicase mutants underlying a peroxisome perturbation in these mice. Remarkably, the Wrn mutant helicase protein was mislocalized to the endoplasmic reticulum and the peroxisomal fractions in liver tissues. Additional analyses with mouse embryonic fibroblasts indicated a severe defect of the autophagy flux in cells derived from Wrn helicase mutants compared to wild type and Wrn null animals. These results indicate that the deleterious effects of the helicase-deficient Wrn protein are mediated by the dysfunction of several cellular organelles. PMID:26447695

  19. Kinetic Detection of Orthogonal Protein and Chemical Coordinates in Enzyme Catalysis: Double Mutants of Soybean Lipoxygenase.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Sudhir C; Klinman, Judith P

    2015-09-08

    Soybean lipoxygenase-1 (SLO-1) is a paradigmatic enzyme system for studying the contribution of hydrogen tunneling to enzymatic proton-coupled electron transfer processes. In this study, the impact of pairs of double mutants on the properties of SLO-1 is presented. Steady-state rates and their deuterium kinetic isotope effects (KIEs) have been measured for the bimolecular reaction of enzyme with free substrate (kcat/Km) and compared to the unimolecular rate constant, kcat. A key kinetic finding is that the competitive KIEs on the second-order rate constant (kcat/Km) are all reduced from (D)kcat and, despite large changes in rate and activation parameters, remain essentially unaltered under a variety of conditions. These data implicate a protein reaction coordinate that is orthogonal to the chemical reaction coordinate and controls the concentration of the active enzyme. This study introduces a new means to interrogate the alteration of conformational landscapes that can occur following site-specific mutagenesis.

  20. Functional Reconstitution and Channel Activity Measurements of Purified Wildtype and Mutant CFTR Protein

    PubMed Central

    Eckford, Paul D. W.; Li, Canhui; Bear, Christine E.

    2015-01-01

    The Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator (CFTR) is a unique channel-forming member of the ATP Binding Cassette (ABC) superfamily of transporters. The phosphorylation and nucleotide dependent chloride channel activity of CFTR has been frequently studied in whole cell systems and as single channels in excised membrane patches. Many Cystic Fibrosis-causing mutations have been shown to alter this activity. While a small number of purification protocols have been published, a fast reconstitution method that retains channel activity and a suitable method for studying population channel activity in a purified system have been lacking. Here rapid methods are described for purification and functional reconstitution of the full-length CFTR protein into proteoliposomes of defined lipid composition that retains activity as a regulated halide channel. This reconstitution method together with a novel flux-based assay of channel activity is a suitable system for studying the population channel properties of wild type CFTR and the disease-causing mutants F508del- and G551D-CFTR. Specifically, the method has utility in studying the direct effects of phosphorylation, nucleotides and small molecules such as potentiators and inhibitors on CFTR channel activity. The methods are also amenable to the study of other membrane channels/transporters for anionic substrates. PMID:25867140

  1. Ribosomal protein uS19 mutants reveal its role in coordinating ribosome structure and function

    PubMed Central

    Bowen, Alicia M; Musalgaonkar, Sharmishtha; Moomau, Christine A; Gulay, Suna P; Mirvis, Mary; Dinman, Jonathan D

    2015-01-01

    Prior studies identified allosteric information pathways connecting functional centers in the large ribosomal subunit to the decoding center in the small subunit through the B1a and B1b/c intersubunit bridges in yeast. In prokaryotes a single SSU protein, uS13, partners with H38 (the A-site finger) and uL5 to form the B1a and B1b/c bridges respectively. In eukaryotes, the SSU component was split into 2 separate proteins during the course of evolution. One, also known as uS13, participates in B1b/c bridge with uL5 in eukaryotes. The other, called uS19 is the SSU partner in the B1a bridge with H38. Here, polyalanine mutants of uS19 involved in the uS19/uS13 and the uS19/H38 interfaces were used to elucidate the important amino acid residues involved in these intersubunit communication pathways. Two key clusters of amino acids were identified: one located at the junction between uS19 and uS13, and a second that appears to interact with the distal tip of H38. Biochemical analyses reveal that these mutations shift the ribosomal rotational equilibrium toward the unrotated state, increasing ribosomal affinity for tRNAs in the P-site and for ternary complex in the A-site, and inhibit binding of the translocase, eEF2. These defects in turn affect specific aspects of translational fidelity. These findings suggest that uS19 plays a critical role as a conduit of information exchange between the large and small ribosomal subunits directly through the B1a, and indirectly through the B1b/c bridges. PMID:26824029

  2. A MUTANT OF YEAST APPARENTLY DEFECTIVE IN THE INITIATION OF PROTEIN SYNTHESIS*

    PubMed Central

    Hartwell, Leland H.; McLaughlin, Calvin S.

    1969-01-01

    A temperature-sensitive mutant of yeast, ts-187, which is apparently unable to initiate the synthesis of new polypeptide chains after a short incubation at the restrictive temperature, is described. The existence of this mutant demonstrates that in eucaryotic cells, as in procaryotic cells, there are processes unique to the initiation of polypeptide chains. PMID:5256225

  3. DNA breakage and induction of DNA damage response proteins precede the appearance of visible mutant huntingtin aggregates.

    PubMed

    Illuzzi, Jennifer; Yerkes, Sarah; Parekh-Olmedo, Hetal; Kmiec, Eric B

    2009-02-15

    Huntington's disease (HD) is a neurodegenerative disorder that follows an autosomal-dominant inheritance pattern. The pathogenesis of the disease depends on the degree of expansion of triplet (CAG) repeats located in the first exon on the gene. An expanded polyglutamine tract within the protein huntingtin (Htt) enables a gain-of-function phenotype that is often exhibited by a dysfunctional oligomerization process and the formation of protein aggregates. How this process leads to neurodegeneration remains undefined. We report that expression of a Htt-fragment containing an expanded glutamine tract induces DNA damage and activates the DNA damage response pathway. Both single-strand and double-strand breaks are observed as the mutant protein accumulates in the cell; these breaks precede the appearance of detectable protein aggregates containing mutant Htt. We also observe activation of H2AX, ATM, and p53 in cells expressing mutant Htt, a predictable response in cells containing chromosomal breakage. Expression of wild-type Htt does not affect the integrity of DNA, nor does it activate the same pathway. Furthermore, DNA damage and activated H2AX are present in HD transgenic mice before the formation of mutant Htt aggregates and HD pathogenesis. Taken together, our data suggest that the expression of mutant Htt causes an accumulation of DNA breaks that activates the DNA damage response pathway, a process that can disable cell function. Because these events can lead to apoptosis, it is possible that the DNA damage response pathway activated by single- and double-strand breaks that we found contributes to neurodegeneration.

  4. In vitro and molecular modeling analysis of two mutant desert hedgehog proteins associated with 46,XY gonadal dysgenesis.

    PubMed

    Castro, Josué Joram; Méndez, Juan Pablo; Coral-Vázquez, Ramón Mauricio; Soriano-Ursúa, Marvin Antonio; Damian-Matsumura, Pablo; Benítez-Granados, Jesús; Rosas-Vargas, Haydee; Canto, Patricia

    2013-09-01

    Mutations of Desert hedgehog (DHH) have been associated to 46,XY pure gonadal dysgenesis (PGD) and to mixed gonadal dysgenesis (MGD); however, there have been no functional studies of mutations described in DHH. To determine if mutations p.L162P and Δ1086delG yield functional impairment, we performed in vitro and in silico analysis of both DHH mutants. In complementary DNA of DHH, we performed site-directed mutagenesis, which was confirmed by DNA sequencing. Protein extracts were obtained from HEK293cells transfected with different constructs and analyzed by Western blot; besides, densitometric analysis of chemiluminescent signals was performed. In addition, the structure of the wt-DHH and its two mutant proteins was inferred using in silico protein molecular modeling. In the Western blot analysis, we observed the absence of signal for p.L162P in DHH-N and a diminished signal for Δ1086delG in DHH-C, when compared to wt-DHH. Protein modeling showed notable conformational changes for the side chains of p.L162P, while the secondary structure was drastically modified in Δ1086delG, when compared to wt-DHH. To our knowledge, this is the first study focused to determine by in vitro studies, the effect of two specific mutations in DHH associated with 46,XY PGD and MGD. Our results suggest that both mutations have a deleterious effect on the expression of the DHH mutant proteins.

  5. In Vitro and Molecular Modeling Analysis of Two Mutant Desert Hedgehog Proteins Associated with 46,XY Gonadal Dysgenesis

    PubMed Central

    Castro, Josué Joram; Méndez, Juan Pablo; Coral-Vázquez, Ramón Mauricio; Soriano-Ursúa, Marvin Antonio; Damian-Matsumura, Pablo; Benítez-Granados, Jesús; Rosas-Vargas, Haydee

    2013-01-01

    Mutations of Desert hedgehog (DHH) have been associated to 46,XY pure gonadal dysgenesis (PGD) and to mixed gonadal dysgenesis (MGD); however, there have been no functional studies of mutations described in DHH. To determine if mutations p.L162P and Δ1086delG yield functional impairment, we performed in vitro and in silico analysis of both DHH mutants. In complementary DNA of DHH, we performed site-directed mutagenesis, which was confirmed by DNA sequencing. Protein extracts were obtained from HEK293cells transfected with different constructs and analyzed by Western blot; besides, densitometric analysis of chemiluminescent signals was performed. In addition, the structure of the wt-DHH and its two mutant proteins was inferred using in silico protein molecular modeling. In the Western blot analysis, we observed the absence of signal for p.L162P in DHH-N and a diminished signal for Δ1086delG in DHH-C, when compared to wt-DHH. Protein modeling showed notable conformational changes for the side chains of p.L162P, while the secondary structure was drastically modified in Δ1086delG, when compared to wt-DHH. To our knowledge, this is the first study focused to determine by in vitro studies, the effect of two specific mutations in DHH associated with 46,XY PGD and MGD. Our results suggest that both mutations have a deleterious effect on the expression of the DHH mutant proteins. PMID:23786321

  6. Surveying the lipogenesis landscape in Yarrowia lipolytica through understanding the function of a Mga2p regulatory protein mutant.

    PubMed

    Liu, Leqian; Markham, Kelly; Blazeck, John; Zhou, Nijia; Leon, Dacia; Otoupal, Peter; Alper, Hal S

    2015-09-01

    Lipogenic organisms represent great starting points for metabolic engineering of oleochemical production. While previous engineering efforts were able to significantly improve lipid production in Yarrowia lipolytica, the lipogenesis landscape, especially with respect to regulatory elements, has not been fully explored. Through a comparative genomics and transcriptomics approach, we identified and validated a mutant mga2 protein that serves as a regulator of desaturase gene expression and potent lipogenesis factor. The resulting strain is enriched in unsaturated fatty acids. Comparing the underlying mechanism of this mutant to other previously engineered strains suggests that creating an imbalance between glycolysis and the TCA cycle can serve as a driving force for lipogenesis when combined with fatty acid catabolism overexpressions. Further comparative transcriptomics analysis revealed both distinct and convergent rewiring associated with these different genotypes. Finally, by combining metabolic engineering targets, it is possible to further engineer a strain containing the mutant mga2 gene to a lipid production titer of 25g/L.

  7. Insights on the structural perturbations in human MTHFR Ala222Val mutant by protein modeling and molecular dynamics.

    PubMed

    Abhinand, P A; Shaikh, Faraz; Bhakat, Soumendranath; Radadiya, Ashish; Bhaskar, L V K S; Shah, Anamik; Ragunath, P K

    2016-01-01

    Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) protein catalyzes the only biochemical reaction which produces methyltetrahydrofolate, the active form of folic acid essential for several molecular functions. The Ala222Val polymorphism of human MTHFR encodes a thermolabile protein associated with increased risk of neural tube defects and cardiovascular disease. Experimental studies have shown that the mutation does not affect the kinetic properties of MTHFR, but inactivates the protein by increasing flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) loss. The lack of completely solved crystal structure of MTHFR is an impediment in understanding the structural perturbations caused by the Ala222Val mutation; computational modeling provides a suitable alternative. The three-dimensional structure of human MTHFR protein was obtained through homology modeling, by taking the MTHFR structures from Escherichia coli and Thermus thermophilus as templates. Subsequently, the modeled structure was docked with FAD using Glide, which revealed a very good binding affinity, authenticated by a Glide XP score of -10.3983 (kcal mol(-1)). The MTHFR was mutated by changing Alanine 222 to Valine. The wild-type MTHFR-FAD complex and the Ala222Val mutant MTHFR-FAD complex were subjected to molecular dynamics simulation over 50 ns period. The average difference in backbone root mean square deviation (RMSD) between wild and mutant variant was found to be ~.11 Å. The greater degree of fluctuations in the mutant protein translates to increased conformational stability as a result of mutation. The FAD-binding ability of the mutant MTHFR was also found to be significantly lowered as a result of decreased protein grip caused by increased conformational flexibility. The study provides insights into the Ala222Val mutation of human MTHFR that induces major conformational changes in the tertiary structure, causing a significant reduction in the FAD-binding affinity.

  8. Preclinical efficacy of a RAF inhibitor that evades paradoxical MAPK pathway activation in protein kinase BRAF-mutant lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Okimoto, Ross A; Lin, Luping; Olivas, Victor; Chan, Elton; Markegard, Evan; Rymar, Andrey; Neel, Dana; Chen, Xiao; Hemmati, Golzar; Bollag, Gideon; Bivona, Trever G

    2016-11-22

    Oncogenic activation of protein kinase BRAF drives tumor growth by promoting mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway signaling. Because oncogenic mutations in BRAF occur in ∼2-7% of lung adenocarcinoma (LA), BRAF-mutant LA is the most frequent cause of BRAF-mutant cancer mortality worldwide. Whereas most tumor types harbor predominantly the BRAF(V600E)-mutant allele, the spectrum of BRAF mutations in LA includes BRAF(V600E) (∼60% of cases) and non-V600E mutant alleles (∼40% of cases) such as BRAF(G469A) and BRAF(G466V) The presence of BRAF(V600E) in LA has prompted clinical trials testing selective BRAF inhibitors such as vemurafenib in BRAF(V600E)-mutant patients. Despite promising clinical efficacy, both innate and acquired resistance often result from reactivation of MAPK pathway signaling, thus limiting durable responses to the current BRAF inhibitors. Further, the optimal therapeutic strategy to block non-V600E BRAF-mutant LA remains unclear. Here, we report the efficacy of the Raf proto-oncogene serine/threonine protein kinase (RAF) inhibitor, PLX8394, that evades MAPK pathway reactivation in BRAF-mutant LA models. We show that PLX8394 treatment is effective in both BRAF(V600E) and certain non-V600 LA models, in vitro and in vivo. PLX8394 was effective against treatment-naive BRAF-mutant LAs and those with acquired vemurafenib resistance caused by an alternatively spliced, truncated BRAF(V600E) that promotes vemurafenib-insensitive MAPK pathway signaling. We further show that acquired PLX8394 resistance occurs via EGFR-mediated RAS-mTOR signaling and is prevented by upfront combination therapy with PLX8394 and either an EGFR or mTOR inhibitor. Our study provides a biological rationale and potential polytherapy strategy to aid the deployment of PLX8394 in lung cancer patients.

  9. Golgi and vacuolar membrane proteins reach the vacuole in vps1 mutant yeast cells via the plasma membrane.

    PubMed

    Nothwehr, S F; Conibear, E; Stevens, T H

    1995-04-01

    The Vps1 protein of Saccharomyces cerevisiae is an 80-kD GTPase associated with the Golgi apparatus. Vps1p appears to play a direct role in the retention of late Golgi membrane proteins, which are mislocalized to the vacuolar membrane in its absence. The pathway by which late Golgi and vacuolar membrane proteins reach the vacuole in vps1 delta mutants was investigated by analyzing transport of these proteins in vps1 delta cells that also contained temperature sensitive mutations in either the SEC4 or END4 genes, which are required for a late step in secretion and the internalization step of endocytosis, respectively. Not only was vacuolar transport of a Golgi membrane protein blocked in the vps1 delta sec4-ts and vps1 delta end4-ts double mutant cells at the non-permissive temperature but vacuolar delivery of the vacuolar membrane protein, alkaline phosphatase was also blocked in these cells. Moreover, both proteins expressed in the vps1 delta end4-ts cells at the elevated temperature could be detected on the plasma membrane by a protease digestion assay indicating that these proteins are transported to the vacuole via the plasma membrane in vps1 mutant cells. These data strongly suggest that a loss of Vps1p function causes all membrane traffic departing from the late Golgi normally destined for the prevacuolar compartment to instead be diverted to the plasma membrane. We propose a model in which Vps1p is required for formation of vesicles from the late Golgi apparatus that carry vacuolar and Golgi membrane proteins bound for the prevacuolar compartment.

  10. The flagellar motility of Chlamydomonas pf25 mutant lacking an AKAP-binding protein is overtly sensitive to medium conditions.

    PubMed

    Yang, Chun; Yang, Pinfen

    2006-01-01

    Radial spokes are a conserved axonemal structural complex postulated to regulate the motility of 9 + 2 cilia and flagella via a network of phosphoenzymes and regulatory proteins. Consistently, a Chlamydomonas radial spoke protein, RSP3, has been identified by RII overlays as an A-kinase anchoring protein (AKAP) that localizes the cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) holoenzyme by binding to the RIIa domain of PKA RII subunit. However, the highly conserved docking domain of PKA is also found in the N termini of several AKAP-binding proteins unrelated to PKA as well as a 24-kDa novel spoke protein, RSP11. Here, we report that RSP11 binds to RSP3 directly in vitro and colocalizes with RSP3 toward the spoke base near outer doublets and dynein motors in axonemes. Importantly, RSP11 mutant pf25 displays a spectrum of motility, from paralysis with flaccid or twitching flagella as other spoke mutants to wildtype-like swimming. The wide range of motility changes reversibly depending on the condition of liquid media without replacing defective proteins. We postulate that radial spokes use the RIIa/AKAP module to regulate ciliary and flagellar beating; absence of the spoke RIIa protein exposes a medium-sensitive regulatory mechanism that is not obvious in wild-type Chlamydomonas.

  11. Dynamics of the Peripheral Membrane Protein P2 from Human Myelin Measured by Neutron Scattering—A Comparison between Wild-Type Protein and a Hinge Mutant

    PubMed Central

    Laulumaa, Saara; Nieminen, Tuomo; Lehtimäki, Mari; Aggarwal, Shweta; Simons, Mikael; Koza, Michael M.; Vattulainen, Ilpo; Kursula, Petri; Natali, Francesca

    2015-01-01

    Myelin protein P2 is a fatty acid-binding structural component of the myelin sheath in the peripheral nervous system, and its function is related to its membrane binding capacity. Here, the link between P2 protein dynamics and structure and function was studied using elastic incoherent neutron scattering (EINS). The P38G mutation, at the hinge between the β barrel and the α-helical lid, increased the lipid stacking capacity of human P2 in vitro, and the mutated protein was also functional in cultured cells. The P38G mutation did not change the overall structure of the protein. For a deeper insight into P2 structure-function relationships, information on protein dynamics in the 10 ps to 1 ns time scale was obtained using EINS. Values of mean square displacements mainly from protein H atoms were extracted for wild-type P2 and the P38G mutant and compared. Our results show that at physiological temperatures, the P38G mutant is more dynamic than the wild-type P2 protein, especially on a slow 1-ns time scale. Molecular dynamics simulations confirmed the enhanced dynamics of the mutant variant, especially within the portal region in the presence of bound fatty acid. The increased softness of the hinge mutant of human myelin P2 protein is likely related to an enhanced flexibility of the portal region of this fatty acid-binding protein, as well as to its interactions with the lipid bilayer surface requiring conformational adaptations. PMID:26068118

  12. Allelic differences in Medicago truncatula NIP/LATD mutants correlate with their encoded proteins' transport activities in planta.

    PubMed

    Salehin, Mohammad; Huang, Ying-Sheng; Bagchi, Rammyani; Sherrier, D Janine; Dickstein, Rebecca

    2013-02-01

    Medicago truncatula NIP/LATD gene, required for symbiotic nitrogen fixing nodule and root architecture development, encodes a member of the NRT1(PTR) family that demonstrates high-affinity nitrate transport in Xenopus laevis oocytes. Of three Mtnip/latd mutant proteins, one retains high-affinity nitrate transport in oocytes, while the other two are nitrate-transport defective. To further examine the mutant proteins' transport properties, the missense Mtnip/latd alleles were expressed in Arabidopsis thaliana chl1-5, resistant to the herbicide chlorate because of a deletion spanning the nitrate transporter AtNRT1.1(CHL1) gene. Mtnip-3 expression restored chlorate sensitivity in the Atchl1-5 mutant, similar to wild type MtNIP/LATD, while Mtnip-1 expression did not. The high-affinity nitrate transporter AtNRT2.1 gene was expressed in Mtnip-1 mutant roots; it did not complement, which could be caused by several factors. Together, these findings support the hypothesis that MtNIP/LATD may have another biochemical activity.

  13. A phenotype survey of 36 mutant mouse strains with gene-targeted defects in glycosyltransferases or glycan-binding proteins

    PubMed Central

    Orr, Sally L; Le, Dzung; Long, Jeffrey M; Sobieszczuk, Peter; Ma, Bo; Tian, Hua; Fang, Xiaoqun; Paulson, James C; Marth, Jamey D; Varki, Nissi

    2013-01-01

    The consortium for functional glycomics (CFG) was a large research initiative providing networking and resources for investigators studying the role of glycans and glycan-binding proteins in health and disease. Starting in 2001, six scientific cores were established to generate data, materials and new technologies. By the end of funding in 2011, the mouse phenotype core (MPC) submitted data to a website from the phenotype screen of 36 mutant mouse strains deficient in a gene for either a glycan-binding protein (GBP) or glycosyltransferase (GT). Each mutant strain was allotted three months for analysis and screened by standard phenotype assays used in the fields of immunology, histology, hematology, coagulation, serum chemistry, metabolism and behavior. Twenty of the deficient mouse strains had been studied in other laboratories, and additional tests were performed on these strains to confirm previous observations and discover new data. The CFG constructed 16 new homozygous mutant mouse strains and completed the initial phenotype screen of the majority of these new mutant strains. In total, >300 phenotype changes were observed, but considering the over 100 assays performed on each strain, most of the phenotypes were unchanged. Phenotype differences include abnormal testis morphology in GlcNAcT9- and Siglec-H-deficient mice and lethality in Pomgnt1-deficient mice. The numerous altered phenotypes discovered, along with the consideration of the significant findings of normality, will provide a platform for future characterization to understand the important roles of glycans and GBPs in the mechanisms of health and disease. PMID:23118208

  14. Phenotype, virulence and immunogenicity of Edwardsiella ictaluri cyclic adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate receptor protein (Crp) mutants in catfish host.

    PubMed

    Santander, Javier; Mitra, Arindam; Curtiss, Roy

    2011-12-01

    Edwardsiella ictaluri is an Enterobacteriaceae that causes lethal enteric septicemia in catfish. Being a mucosal facultative intracellular pathogen, this bacterium is an excellent candidate to develop immersion-oral live attenuated vaccines for the catfish aquaculture industry. Deletion of the cyclic 3',5'-adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) receptor protein (crp) gene in several Enterobacteriaceae has been utilized in live attenuated vaccines for mammals and birds. Here we characterize the crp gene and report the effect of a crp deletion in E. ictaluri. The E. ictaluri crp gene and encoded protein are similar to other Enterobacteriaceae family members, complementing Salmonella enterica Δcrp mutants in a cAMP-dependent fashion. The E. ictaluri Δcrp-10 in-frame deletion mutant demonstrated growth defects, loss of maltose utilization, and lack of flagella synthesis. We found that the E. ictaluri Δcrp-10 mutant was attenuated, colonized lymphoid tissues, and conferred immune protection against E. ictaluri infection to zebrafish (Danio rerio) and catfish (Ictalurus punctatus). Evaluation of the IgM titers indicated that bath immunization with the E. ictaluri Δcrp-10 mutant triggered systemic and skin immune responses in catfish. We propose that deletion of the crp gene in E. ictaluri is an effective strategy to develop immersion live attenuated antibiotic-sensitive vaccines for the catfish aquaculture industry.

  15. Rationally designed fluorescently labeled sulfate-binding protein mutants: evaluation in the development of a sensing system for sulfate.

    PubMed

    Shrestha, Suresh; Salins, Lyndon L E; Mark Ensor, C; Daunert, Sylvia

    2002-06-05

    Periplasmic binding proteins from E. coli undergo large conformational changes upon binding their respective ligands. By attaching a fluorescent probe at rationally selected unique sites on the protein, these conformational changes in the protein can be monitored by measuring the changes in fluorescence intensity of the probe which allow the development of reagentless sensing systems for their corresponding ligands. In this work, we evaluated several sites on bacterial periplasmic sulfate-binding protein (SBP) for attachment of a fluorescent probe and rationally designed a reagentless sensing system for sulfate. Eight different mutants of SBP were prepared by employing the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to introduce a unique cysteine residue at a specific location on the protein. The sites Gly55, Ser90, Ser129, Ala140, Leu145, Ser171, Val181, and Gly186 were chosen for mutagenesis by studying the three-dimensional X-ray crystal structure of SBP. An environment-sensitive fluorescent probe (MDCC) was then attached site-specifically to the protein through the sulfhydryl group of the unique cysteine residue introduced. Each fluorescent probe-conjugated SBP mutant was characterized in terms of its fluorescence properties and Ser171 was determined to be the best site for the attachment of the fluorescent probe that would allow for the development of a reagentless sensing system for sulfate. Three different environment-sensitive fluorescent probes (1,5-IAEDANS, MDCC, and acylodan) were studied with the SBP171 mutant protein. A calibration curve for sulfate was constructed using the labeled protein and relating the change in the fluorescence intensity with the amount of sulfate present in the sample. The detection limit for sulfate was found to be in the submicromolar range using this system. The selectivity of the sensing system was demonstrated by evaluating its response to other anions. A fast and selective sensing system with detection limits for sulfate in the

  16. Rationally designed fluorescently labeled sulfate-binding protein mutants: evaluation in the development of a sensing system for sulfate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shrestha, Suresh; Salins, Lyndon L E.; Mark Ensor, C.; Daunert, Sylvia

    2002-01-01

    Periplasmic binding proteins from E. coli undergo large conformational changes upon binding their respective ligands. By attaching a fluorescent probe at rationally selected unique sites on the protein, these conformational changes in the protein can be monitored by measuring the changes in fluorescence intensity of the probe which allow the development of reagentless sensing systems for their corresponding ligands. In this work, we evaluated several sites on bacterial periplasmic sulfate-binding protein (SBP) for attachment of a fluorescent probe and rationally designed a reagentless sensing system for sulfate. Eight different mutants of SBP were prepared by employing the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to introduce a unique cysteine residue at a specific location on the protein. The sites Gly55, Ser90, Ser129, Ala140, Leu145, Ser171, Val181, and Gly186 were chosen for mutagenesis by studying the three-dimensional X-ray crystal structure of SBP. An environment-sensitive fluorescent probe (MDCC) was then attached site-specifically to the protein through the sulfhydryl group of the unique cysteine residue introduced. Each fluorescent probe-conjugated SBP mutant was characterized in terms of its fluorescence properties and Ser171 was determined to be the best site for the attachment of the fluorescent probe that would allow for the development of a reagentless sensing system for sulfate. Three different environment-sensitive fluorescent probes (1,5-IAEDANS, MDCC, and acylodan) were studied with the SBP171 mutant protein. A calibration curve for sulfate was constructed using the labeled protein and relating the change in the fluorescence intensity with the amount of sulfate present in the sample. The detection limit for sulfate was found to be in the submicromolar range using this system. The selectivity of the sensing system was demonstrated by evaluating its response to other anions. A fast and selective sensing system with detection limits for sulfate in the

  17. A protein phosphatase methylesterase (PME-1) is one of several novel proteins stably associating with two inactive mutants of protein phosphatase 2A.

    PubMed

    Ogris, E; Du, X; Nelson, K C; Mak, E K; Yu, X X; Lane, W S; Pallas, D C

    1999-05-14

    Carboxymethylation of proteins is a highly conserved means of regulation in eukaryotic cells. The protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) catalytic (C) subunit is reversibly methylated at its carboxyl terminus by specific methyltransferase and methylesterase enzymes which have been purified, but not cloned. Carboxymethylation affects PP2A activity and varies during the cell cycle. Here, we report that substitution of glutamine for either of two putative active site histidines in the PP2A C subunit results in inactivation of PP2A and formation of stable complexes between PP2A and several cellular proteins. One of these cellular proteins, herein named protein phosphatase methylesterase-1 (PME-1), was purified and microsequenced, and its cDNA was cloned. PME-1 is conserved from yeast to human and contains a motif found in lipases having a catalytic triad-activated serine as their active site nucleophile. Bacterially expressed PME-1 demethylated PP2A C subunit in vitro, and okadaic acid, a known inhibitor of the PP2A methylesterase, inhibited this reaction. To our knowledge, PME-1 represents the first mammalian protein methylesterase to be cloned. Several lines of evidence indicate that, although there appears to be a role for C subunit carboxyl-terminal amino acids in PME-1 binding, amino acids other than those at the extreme carboxyl terminus of the C subunit also play an important role in PME-1 binding to a catalytically inactive mutant.

  18. Expression and properties of wild-type and mutant forms of the Drosophila sex comb on midleg (SCM) repressor protein.

    PubMed

    Bornemann, D; Miller, E; Simon, J

    1998-10-01

    The Sex comb on midleg (Scm) gene encodes a transcriptional repressor of the Polycomb group (PcG). Here we show that SCM protein is nuclear and that its expression is widespread during fly development. SCM protein contains a C-terminal domain, termed the SPM domain, which mediates protein-protein interactions. The biochemical function of another domain consisting of two 100-amino-acid-long repeats, termed "mbt" repeats, is unknown. We have determined the molecular lesions of nine Scm mutant alleles, which identify functional requirements for specific domains. The Scm alleles were tested for genetic interactions with mutations in other PcG genes. Intriguingly, three hypomorphic Scm mutations, which map within an mbt repeat, interact with PcG mutations more strongly than do Scm null alleles. The strongest interactions produce partial synthetic lethality that affects doubly heterozygous females more severely than males. We show that mbt repeat alleles produce stable SCM proteins that associate with normal sites in polytene chromosomes. We also analyzed progeny from Scm mutant germline clones to compare the effects of an mbt repeat mutation during embryonic vs. pupal development. We suggest that the mbt repeat alleles produce altered SCM proteins that incorporate into and impair function of PcG protein complexes.

  19. Single cell protein production from yacon extract using a highly thermosensitive and permeable mutant of the marine yeast Cryptococcus aureus G7a and its nutritive analysis.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Chun-Hai; Zhang, Tong; Chi, Zhen-Ming; Chi, Zhe; Li, Jing; Wang, Xiang-Hong

    2010-06-01

    The intracellular protein in the highly thermosensitive and permeable mutant can be easily released when they are incubated both in the low-osmolarity water and at the non-permissive temperature (usually 37 degrees C). After the mutant was grown in the yacon extract for 45 h, the crude protein content in the highly thermosensitive and permeable mutant Z114 was 59.1% and over 61% of the total protein could be released from the cells treated at 37 degrees C. The mutant cells grown in the yacon extract still contained high level of essential amino acids and other nutrients. This means that the yacon extract could be used as the medium for growth of the highly thermosensitive and permeable mutant which contained high content of crude protein.

  20. Proteomic analysis of wild-type and mutant huntingtin-associated proteins in mouse brains identifies unique interactions and involvement in protein synthesis.

    PubMed

    Culver, Brady P; Savas, Jeffrey N; Park, Sung K; Choi, Jeong H; Zheng, Shuqiu; Zeitlin, Scott O; Yates, John R; Tanese, Naoko

    2012-06-22

    Huntington disease is a neurodegenerative disorder caused by a CAG repeat amplification in the gene huntingtin (HTT) that is reflected by a polyglutamine expansion in the Htt protein. Nearly 20 years of research have uncovered roles for Htt in a wide range of cellular processes, and many of these discoveries stemmed from the identification of Htt-interacting proteins. However, no study has employed an impartial and comprehensive strategy to identify proteins that differentially associate with full-length wild-type and mutant Htt in brain tissue, the most relevant sample source to the disease condition. We analyzed Htt affinity-purified complexes from wild-type and HTT mutant juvenile mouse brain from two different biochemical fractions by tandem mass spectrometry. We compared variations in protein spectral counts relative to Htt to identify those proteins that are the most significantly contrasted between wild-type and mutant Htt purifications. Previously unreported Htt interactions with Myo5a, Prkra (PACT), Gnb2l1 (RACK1), Rps6, and Syt2 were confirmed by Western blot analysis. Gene Ontology analysis of these and other Htt-associated proteins revealed a statistically significant enrichment for proteins involved in translation among other categories. Furthermore, Htt co-sedimentation with polysomes in cytoplasmic mouse brain extracts is dependent upon the presence of intact ribosomes. Finally, wild-type or mutant Htt overexpression inhibits cap-dependent translation of a reporter mRNA in an in vitro system. Cumulatively, these data support a new role for Htt in translation and provide impetus for further study into the link between protein synthesis and Huntington disease pathogenesis.

  1. Proteomic Analysis of Wild-type and Mutant Huntingtin-associated Proteins in Mouse Brains Identifies Unique Interactions and Involvement in Protein Synthesis*

    PubMed Central

    Culver, Brady P.; Savas, Jeffrey N.; Park, Sung K.; Choi, Jeong H.; Zheng, Shuqiu; Zeitlin, Scott O.; Yates, John R.; Tanese, Naoko

    2012-01-01

    Huntington disease is a neurodegenerative disorder caused by a CAG repeat amplification in the gene huntingtin (HTT) that is reflected by a polyglutamine expansion in the Htt protein. Nearly 20 years of research have uncovered roles for Htt in a wide range of cellular processes, and many of these discoveries stemmed from the identification of Htt-interacting proteins. However, no study has employed an impartial and comprehensive strategy to identify proteins that differentially associate with full-length wild-type and mutant Htt in brain tissue, the most relevant sample source to the disease condition. We analyzed Htt affinity-purified complexes from wild-type and HTT mutant juvenile mouse brain from two different biochemical fractions by tandem mass spectrometry. We compared variations in protein spectral counts relative to Htt to identify those proteins that are the most significantly contrasted between wild-type and mutant Htt purifications. Previously unreported Htt interactions with Myo5a, Prkra (PACT), Gnb2l1 (RACK1), Rps6, and Syt2 were confirmed by Western blot analysis. Gene Ontology analysis of these and other Htt-associated proteins revealed a statistically significant enrichment for proteins involved in translation among other categories. Furthermore, Htt co-sedimentation with polysomes in cytoplasmic mouse brain extracts is dependent upon the presence of intact ribosomes. Finally, wild-type or mutant Htt overexpression inhibits cap-dependent translation of a reporter mRNA in an in vitro system. Cumulatively, these data support a new role for Htt in translation and provide impetus for further study into the link between protein synthesis and Huntington disease pathogenesis. PMID:22556411

  2. Control of grain protein contents through SEMIDWARF1 mutant alleles: sd1 increases the grain protein content in Dee-geo-woo-gen but not in Reimei.

    PubMed

    Terao, Tomio; Hirose, Tatsuro

    2015-06-01

    A new possibility for genetic control of the protein content of rice grains was suggested by the allele differences of the SEMIDWARF1 (SD1) mutation. Two quantitative trait loci-qPROT1 and qPROT12-were found on chromosomes 1 and 12, respectively, using backcrossed inbred lines of Sasanishiki/Habataki//Sasanishiki///Sasanishiki. One of them, qPROT1, increased almost all grain proteins instead of only certain proteins in the recessive Habataki allele. Fine mapping of qPROT1 revealed that two gene candidates-Os01g0883800 and Os01g0883900-were included in this region. Os01g0883800 encoded Gibberellin 20 oxidase 2 as well as SD1, the dwarf gene used in the so-called 'Green Revolution'. Mutant analyses as well as sequencing analysis using the semi-dwarf mutant cultivars Dee-geo-woo-gen and Calrose 76 revealed that the sd1 mutant showed significantly higher grain protein contents than their corresponding wild-type cultivars, strongly suggesting that the high protein contents were caused by sd1 mutation. However, the sd1 mutant Reimei did not have high grain protein contents. It is possible to control the grain protein content and column length separately by selecting for sd1 alleles. From this finding, the genetic control of grain protein content, as well as the column length of rice cultivars, might be possible. This ability might be useful to improve rice nutrition, particularly in areas where the introduction of semi-dwarf cultivars is not advanced.

  3. Penicillin-binding protein 2 is essential in wild-type Escherichia coli but not in lov or cya mutants.

    PubMed Central

    Ogura, T; Bouloc, P; Niki, H; D'Ari, R; Hiraga, S; Jaffé, A

    1989-01-01

    Penicillin-binding protein 2 (PBP2), target of the beta-lactam mecillinam, is required for rod morphology and cell wall elongation in Escherichia coli. A new temperature-sensitive PBP2 allele and an in vitro-constructed insertion deletion allele were shown to be lethal in wild-type strains, establishing that the activity of this protein is essential. Mutations in the lov or cya genes, conferring mecillinam resistance, compensated for the deleterious effect of the absence of PBP2. The resulting double mutants grew as spheres. In a cya mutant lacking PBP2, the restoration of a Cya+ phenotype by addition of cyclic AMP caused lethality and a block in cell division. These results show that in wild-type cells, PBP2 is essential for growth and division. PMID:2656638

  4. Probing the relation between protein-protein interactions and DNA binding for a linker mutant of the bacterial nucleoid protein H-NS.

    PubMed

    Giangrossi, Mara; Wintraecken, Kathelijne; Spurio, Roberto; de Vries, Renko

    2014-02-01

    We have investigated the relationship between oligomerization in solution and DNA binding for the bacterial nucleoid protein H-NS. This was done by comparing oligomerization and DNA binding of H-NS with that of a H-NS D68V-D71V linker mutant. The double linker mutation D68V-D71V, that makes the linker significantly more hydrophobic, leads to a dramatically enhanced and strongly temperature-dependent H-NS oligomerization in solution, as detected by dynamic light scattering. The DNA binding affinity of H-NS D68V-D71V for the hns promoter region is lower and has stronger temperature dependence than that of H-NS. DNase I footprinting experiments show that at high concentrations, regions protected by H-NS D68V-D71V are larger and less defined than for H-NS. In vitro transcription assays show that the enhanced protection also leads to enhanced transcriptional repression. Whereas the lower affinity of the H-NS D68V-D71V for DNA could be caused by competition between oligomerization in solution and oligomerization on DNA, the larger size of protected regions clearly confirms the notion that cooperative binding of H-NS to DNA is related to protein-protein interactions. These results emphasize the relative contributions of protein-protein interactions and substrate-dependent oligomerization in the control of gene repression operated by H-NS.

  5. PTH1R Mutants Found in Patients with Primary Failure of Tooth Eruption Disrupt G-Protein Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Kollert, Sina; Rukoyatkina, Natalia; Sturm, Julia; Gambaryan, Stepan; Stellzig-Eisenhauer, Angelika; Meyer-Marcotty, Philipp; Eigenthaler, Martin; Wischmeyer, Erhard

    2016-01-01

    Aim Primary failure of tooth eruption (PFE) is causally linked to heterozygous mutations of the parathyroid hormone receptor (PTH1R) gene. The mutants described so far lead to exchange of amino acids or truncation of the protein that may result in structural changes of the expressed PTH1R. However, functional effects of these mutations have not been investigated yet. Materials and Methods In HEK293 cells, PTH1R wild type was co-transfected with selected PTH1R mutants identified in patients with PFE. The effects on activation of PTH-regulated intracellular signaling pathways were analyzed by ELISA and Western immunoblotting. Differential effects of wild type and mutated PTH1R on TRESK ion channel regulation were analyzed by electrophysiological recordings in Xenopus laevis oocytes. Results In HEK293 cells, activation of PTH1R wild type increases cAMP and in response activates cAMP-stimulated protein kinase as detected by phosphorylation of the vasodilator stimulated phosphoprotein (VASP). In contrast, the PTH1R mutants are functionally inactive and mutant PTH1R/Gly452Glu has a dominant negative effect on the signaling of PTH1R wild type. Confocal imaging revealed that wild type PTH1R is expressed on the cell surface, whereas PTH1R/Gly452Glu mutant is mostly retained inside the cell. Furthermore, in contrast to wild type PTH1R which substantially augmented K+ currents of TRESK channels, coupling of mutated PTH1R to TRESK channels was completely abolished. Conclusions PTH1R mutations affect intracellular PTH-regulated signaling in vitro. In patients with primary failure of tooth eruption defective signaling of PTH1R mutations is suggested to occur in dento-alveolar cells and thus may lead to impaired tooth movement. PMID:27898723

  6. Isolation and characterization of mutant Sinorhizobium meliloti NodD1 proteins with altered responses to luteolin.

    PubMed

    Peck, Melicent C; Fisher, Robert F; Bliss, Robert; Long, Sharon R

    2013-08-01

    NodD1, a member of the NodD family of LysR-type transcriptional regulators (LTTRs), mediates nodulation (nod) gene expression in the soil bacterium Sinorhizobium meliloti in response to the plant-secreted flavonoid luteolin. We used genetic screens and targeted approaches to identify NodD1 residues that show altered responses to luteolin during the activation of nod gene transcription. Here we report four types of NodD1 mutants. Type I (NodD1 L69F, S104L, D134N, and M193I mutants) displays reduced or no activation of nod gene expression. Type II (NodD1 K205N) is constitutively active but repressed by luteolin. Type III (NodD1 L280F) demonstrates enhanced activity with luteolin compared to that of wild-type NodD1. Type IV (NodD1 D284N) shows moderate constitutive activity yet can still be induced by luteolin. In the absence of luteolin, many mutants display a low binding affinity for nod gene promoter DNA in vitro. Several mutants also show, as does wild-type NodD1, increased affinity for nod gene promoters with added luteolin. All of the NodD1 mutant proteins can homodimerize and heterodimerize with wild-type NodD1. Based on these data and the crystal structures of several LTTRs, we present a structural model of wild-type NodD1, identifying residues important for inducer binding, protein multimerization, and interaction with RNA polymerase at nod gene promoters.

  7. The Evolutionarily Conserved Protein PHOTOSYNTHESIS AFFECTED MUTANT71 Is Required for Efficient Manganese Uptake at the Thylakoid Membrane in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Steinberger, Iris; Herdean, Andrei; Gandini, Chiara; Labs, Mathias; Flügge, Ulf-Ingo; Geimer, Stefan; Schmidt, Sidsel Birkelund; Husted, Søren; Spetea, Cornelia; Leister, Dario

    2016-01-01

    In plants, algae, and cyanobacteria, photosystem II (PSII) catalyzes the light-driven oxidation of water. The oxygen-evolving complex of PSII is a Mn4CaO5 cluster embedded in a well-defined protein environment in the thylakoid membrane. However, transport of manganese and calcium into the thylakoid lumen remains poorly understood. Here, we show that Arabidopsis thaliana PHOTOSYNTHESIS AFFECTED MUTANT71 (PAM71) is an integral thylakoid membrane protein involved in Mn2+ and Ca2+ homeostasis in chloroplasts. This protein is required for normal operation of the oxygen-evolving complex (as evidenced by oxygen evolution rates) and for manganese incorporation. Manganese binding to PSII was severely reduced in pam71 thylakoids, particularly in PSII supercomplexes. In cation partitioning assays with intact chloroplasts, Mn2+ and Ca2+ ions were differently sequestered in pam71, with Ca2+ enriched in pam71 thylakoids relative to the wild type. The changes in Ca2+ homeostasis were accompanied by an increased contribution of the transmembrane electrical potential to the proton motive force across the thylakoid membrane. PSII activity in pam71 plants and the corresponding Chlamydomonas reinhardtii mutant cgld1 was restored by supplementation with Mn2+, but not Ca2+. Furthermore, PAM71 suppressed the Mn2+-sensitive phenotype of the yeast mutant Δpmr1. Therefore, PAM71 presumably functions in Mn2+ uptake into thylakoids to ensure optimal PSII performance. PMID:27020959

  8. Crystal Structures of the uL3 Mutant Ribosome: Illustration of the Importance of Ribosomal Proteins for Translation Efficiency

    PubMed Central

    Mailliot, Justine; de Loubresse, Nicolas Garreau; Yusupova, Gulnara; Meskauskas, Arturas; Dinman, Jonathan D.; Yusupov, Marat

    2017-01-01

    The ribosome has been described as a ribozyme in which ribosomal RNA is responsible for peptidyl-transferase reaction catalysis. The W255C mutation of the universally conserved ribosomal protein uL3 has diverse effects on ribosome function (e.g., increased affinities for transfer RNAs, decreased rates of peptidyl-transfer), and cells harboring this mutation are resistant to peptidyl-transferase inhibitors (e.g., anisomycin). These observations beg the question of how a single amino acid mutation may have such wide ranging consequences. Here, we report the structure of the vacant yeast uL3 W255C mutant ribosome by X-ray crystallography, showing a disruption of the A-site side of the peptidyl-transferase center (PTC). An additional X-ray crystallographic structure of the anisomycin-containing mutant ribosome shows that high concentrations of this inhibitor restore a “WT-like” configuration to this region of the PTC, providing insight into the resistance mechanism of the mutant. Globally, our data demonstrate that ribosomal protein uL3 is structurally essential to ensure an optimal and catalytically efficient organization of the PTC, highlighting the importance of proteins in the RNA-centered ribosome. PMID:26906928

  9. Crystal Structures of the uL3 Mutant Ribosome: Illustration of the Importance of Ribosomal Proteins for Translation Efficiency.

    PubMed

    Mailliot, Justine; Garreau de Loubresse, Nicolas; Yusupova, Gulnara; Meskauskas, Arturas; Dinman, Jonathan D; Yusupov, Marat

    2016-05-22

    The ribosome has been described as a ribozyme in which ribosomal RNA is responsible for peptidyl-transferase reaction catalysis. The W255C mutation of the universally conserved ribosomal protein uL3 has diverse effects on ribosome function (e.g., increased affinities for transfer RNAs, decreased rates of peptidyl-transfer), and cells harboring this mutation are resistant to peptidyl-transferase inhibitors (e.g., anisomycin). These observations beg the question of how a single amino acid mutation may have such wide ranging consequences. Here, we report the structure of the vacant yeast uL3 W255C mutant ribosome by X-ray crystallography, showing a disruption of the A-site side of the peptidyl-transferase center (PTC). An additional X-ray crystallographic structure of the anisomycin-containing mutant ribosome shows that high concentrations of this inhibitor restore a "WT-like" configuration to this region of the PTC, providing insight into the resistance mechanism of the mutant. Globally, our data demonstrate that ribosomal protein uL3 is structurally essential to ensure an optimal and catalytically efficient organization of the PTC, highlighting the importance of proteins in the RNA-centered ribosome.

  10. Soya bean Gα proteins with distinct biochemical properties exhibit differential ability to complement Saccharomyces cerevisiae gpa1 mutant.

    PubMed

    Roy Choudhury, Swarup; Wang, Yuqi; Pandey, Sona

    2014-07-01

    Signalling pathways mediated by heterotrimeric G-proteins are common to all eukaryotes. Plants have a limited number of each of the G-protein subunits, with the most elaborate G-protein network discovered so far in soya bean (Glycine max, also known as soybean) which has four Gα, four Gβ and ten Gγ proteins. Biochemical characterization of Gα proteins from plants suggests significant variation in their properties compared with the well-characterized non-plant proteins. Furthermore, the four soya bean Gα (GmGα) proteins exhibit distinct biochemical activities among themselves, but the extent to which such biochemical differences contribute to their in vivo function is also not known. We used the yeast gpa1 mutant which displays constitutive signalling and growth arrest in the pheromone-response pathway as an in vivo model to evaluate the effect of distinct biochemical activities of GmGα proteins. We showed that specific GmGα proteins can be activated during pheromone-dependent receptor-mediated signalling in yeast and they display different strengths towards complementation of yeast gpa1 phenotypes. We also identified amino acids that are responsible for differential complementation abilities of specific Gα proteins. These data establish that specific plant Gα proteins are functional in the receptor-mediated pheromone-response pathway in yeast and that the subtle biochemical differences in their activity are physiologically relevant.

  11. Trafficking of androgen receptor mutants fused to green fluorescent protein: a new investigation of partial androgen insensitivity syndrome.

    PubMed

    Georget, V; Térouanne, B; Lumbroso, S; Nicolas, J C; Sultan, C

    1998-10-01

    The naturally occurring mutations of the androgen receptor (AR), detected in patients with androgen insensitivity syndrome (AIS), are currently analyzed by in vitro assays. Unfortunately, these assays do not always permit the demonstration of a direct relationship between the in vitro activity of the receptor and the severity of the phenotype (in particular, for mutations detected in patients with partial AIS). We recently studied the trafficking of wild-type AR, fused to the green fluorescent protein (GFP) in living cells. In the present study, we applied this method for the analysis of AR mutants to find out whether it could be a complementary method of investigation of AIS. After construction of the GFP-AR mutant fusion proteins, the androgen-binding characteristics, nuclear transfer capacities, and transcriptional activities were evaluated. The nuclear transfer was quantified in the presence of various concentrations of dihydrotestosterone (DHT). We studied two mutants associated with partial AIS: G743V and R840C. The androgen-binding characteristics of both mutants were affected, in comparison with normal AR. Although the affinities were similar, the dissociation rate of GFP-AR-G743V was twice that of GFP-AR-R840C. In transcriptional assay, both mutants were active only at high concentrations of androgen. The nuclear trafficking of the mutants was evaluated by two parameters: 1) the rate of nuclear transfer; and 2) the maximal amount of receptors imported into the nucleus. At 10(-6) mol/L DHT, the GFP-AR mutants entered into the nucleus in a fashion similar to that of GFP-AR-wt. At 10(-7) mol/L DHT, the rate and maximal degree of nuclear import were both reduced, even more, for GFP-AR-G743V. The difference between mutants was more pronounced at 10(-9) mol/L DHT, because GFP-AR-G743V entered into the nucleus with even slower kinetics. Though the androgen-binding affinity and transcriptional activity assays did not reveal major differences between mutants, the

  12. Identification of a 34 kDa protein altered in the LF-1 mutant as the herbicide-binding D1 protein of photosystem II

    SciTech Connect

    Metz, J.; Pakrasi, H.; Seibert, M.; Arntzen, C.

    1986-04-01

    The LF-1 mutant of Scenedesmus has a complete block on the oxidizing side of its PSII reaction center. However, the reaction center as well as the reducing side of PSII is fully functional in this mutant. Compared to the wildtype (WT) the only detected protein difference in the PSII complex of LF-1 is the change in mobility of a 34 kDa protein to 36 kDa. This protein has been implicated to have a major role in Mn-binding and water-oxidation. The authors have recently shown that photoaffinity labeling of thylakoids with azido-(/sup 14/C)-atrazine tags the 34 kDa protein in WT and the 36 kDa protein in LF-1. It has been shown that the azido-atrazine labeled protein, called D1, functions in herbicide binding and Q/sub A/ to Q/sub B/ electron transfer on the reducing side of PSII. Polyclonal antibodies directed against the D1 protein of Amaranthus hybridus (Ohad, et al., EMBOJ 1985) were found to recognize the Scenedesmus 34 kDa (WT) and 36 kDa (LF-1) proteins. The implied dual function for the D1 protein on the reducing as well as the oxidizing side of PSII reaction center will be discussed.

  13. Temperature sensitivity of human wild-type and mutant p53 proteins expressed in vivo.

    PubMed Central

    Ponchel, F.; Milner, J.

    1998-01-01

    p53 is activated in response to DNA damage and functions in the maintenance of genetic integrity. Loss of p53 function because of mutation of the p53 gene is associated with over half all human cancers. Certain human p53 mutants are conformationally flexible in vitro and are temperature sensitive, with partial or complete recovery of wild-type (wt) properties at 32 degrees C. We have now tested the functional capacities of selected p53 mutants in vivo, by transfection into established human cell lines. Unexpectedly, we found that wt p53 can be temperature sensitive for transactivation of a co-transfected target gene in vivo. Flexible mutants retained varying degrees of functional capacity in transfected cells, and the recipient cell line appeared to be a significant determinant of both wt and mutant p53 function; importantly, two p53 null cell lines commonly used to study p53 function (Saos-2 and Hep3B) differed markedly in this latter respect. We also show that the p53 mutant V272M, which exhibits sequence-specific DNA binding in vitro, is nonetheless defective for transactivation and is unable to induce apoptosis in vivo. The valine 272 residue may thus be crucial for properties (other than sequence-specific DNA binding) that are important for p53 function(s) in vivo. Images Figure 4 PMID:9635828

  14. Sodium Orthovanadate-Resistant Mutants of Saccharomyces Cerevisiae Show Defects in Golgi-Mediated Protein Glycosylation, Sporulation and Detergent Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Kanik-Ennulat, C.; Montalvo, E.; Neff, N.

    1995-01-01

    Orthovanadate is a small toxic molecule that competes with the biologically important oxyanion orthophosphate. Orthovanadate resistance arises spontaneously in Saccharomyces cerevisiae haploid cells by mutation in a number of genes. Mutations selected at 3 mM sodium orthovanadate have different degrees of vanadate resistance, hygromycin sensitivity, detergent sensitivity and sporulation defects. Recessive vanadate-resistant mutants belong to at least six genetic loci. Most mutants are defective in outer chain glycosylation of secreted invertase (van1, van2, van4, van5, van6, VAN7-116 and others), a phenotype found in some MNN or VRG mutants. The phenotypes of these vanadate-resistant mutants are consistent with an alteration in the permeability or specificity of the Golgi apparatus. The previously published VAN1 gene product has a 200 amino acid domain with 40% identity with the MNN9 gene product and 70% identity with the ANP1 gene product. Cells containing the van1-18, mnn9 (vrg6) or anp1 mutations have some phenotypic similarities. The VAN2 gene was isolated and its coding region is identified and reported. It is an essential gene on chromosome XV and its translated amino acid sequence predicts a unique 337 amino acid protein with multiple transmembrane domains. PMID:7672592

  15. Highly ordered crystals of channel-forming membrane proteins, of nucleoside-monophosphate kinases, of FAD-containing oxidoreductases and of sugar-processing enzymes and their mutants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schulz, G. E.; Dreyer, M.; Klein, C.; Kreusch, A.; Mittl, P.; Mu¨ller, C. W.; Mu¨ller-Dieckmann, J.; Muller, Y. A.; Proba, K.; Schlauderer, G.; Spu¨rgin, P.; Stehle, T.; Weiss, M. S.

    1992-08-01

    Preparation and crystallization procedures as well as crystal properties are reported for 12 proteins plus numerous site-directed mutants. The proteins are: the integral membrane protein porin from Rhodobacter capsulatus which diffracts to at least 1.8A˚resolution, porin from Rhodopseudomonas blastica which diffracts to at least 2.0A˚resolution, adenylate kinase from yeast and mutants, adenylate kinase from Escherichia coli and mutants, bovine liver mitochondrial adenylate kinase, guanylate kinase from yeast, uridylate kinase from yeast, glutathione reductase from E. coli and mutants, NADH peroxidase from Streptococcus faecalis containing a sulfenic acid as redox-center, pyruvate oxidase from Lactobacillus plantarum containing FAD and TPP, cyclodextrin glycosyltransferase from Bacillus circulans and mutants, and a fuculose aldolase from E. coli.

  16. A mutant form of the rho protein can restore stress fibers and adhesion plaques in v-src transformed fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Mayer, T; Meyer, M; Janning, A; Schiedel, A C; Barnekow, A

    1999-03-25

    The organization of polymerized actin in the mammalian cell is regulated by several members of the rho family. Three rho proteins, cdc42, rac and rho act in a cascade to organize the intracellular actin cytoskeleton. Rho proteins are involved in the formation of actin stress fibers and adhesion plaques in fibroblasts. During transformation of mammalian cells by oncogenes the cytoskeleton is rearranged and stress fibers and adhesion plaques are disintegrated. In this paper we investigate the function of the rho protein in RR1022 rat fibroblasts transformed by the Rous sarcoma virus. Two activated mutants of the rho protein, rho G14V and rho Q63L, and a dominant negative mutant, rho N1171, were stably transfected into RR1022 cells. The resulting cell lines were analysed for the organization of polymerized actin and adhesion plaques. Cells expressing rho Q63L, but not rho wt, rho G14V or rho N1171, showed an altered morphology. These cells displayed a flat, fibroblast like shape when compared with the RR1022 ancestor cells. Immunofluorescence analyses revealed that actin stress fibers and adhesion plaques were rearranged in these cells. We conclude from these data that an active rho protein can restore elements of the actin cytoskeleton in transformed cells by overriding the tyrosine kinase phosphorylation induced by the pp60(v-src).

  17. Interaction of Herbicides and Quinone with the QB-Protein of the Diuron-Resistant Chlamydomonas reinhardtii Mutant Dr2

    PubMed Central

    Haworth, Philip; Steinback, Katherine E.

    1987-01-01

    We have used the diuron-resistant Dr2 mutant of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii which is altered in the 32 kilodalton QB-protein at amino acid 219 (valine to isoleucine), to investigate the interactions of herbicides and plastoquinone with the 32 kilodalton QB-protein. The data contained in this report demonstrate that the effects of this mutation are different from those of the more completely characterized mutant which confers extreme resistance to triazines in higher plants. The mutation in C. reinhardtii Dr2 confers only slight resistance to a number of inhibitors of photosynthetic electron transport. Extreme triazine resistance results from an increase in the binding constant of the herbicide with the 32 kilodalton QB-protein, in contrast the diuron binding constant for chloroplasts isolated from wild-type (sensitive) Chlamydomonas and the resistant Dr2 are indistinguishable. We conclude that the altered structure in the 32 kilodalton QB-protein of Dr2 does not directly affect the diuron binding site. This mutation appears to alter the steric properties of the binding protein in such a way that diuron and plastoquinone do not directly compete for binding. This steric perturbation confers mild resistance to other herbicidal inhibitors of photosynthesis and alters the kinetics of QA to QB electron transfer. PMID:16665318

  18. Changes in patterns of ADP-ribosylated proteins during differentiation of Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2) and its development mutants.

    PubMed Central

    Shima, J; Penyige, A; Ochi, K

    1996-01-01

    Mutants resistant to 3-aminobenzamide, a known inhibitor of ADP-ribosyltransferase, were obtained from Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2). One (strain 27) was analyzed in detail. Mutant 27 had a reduced ADP-ribosyl-transferase activity, exhibited substantial changes from the wild type in ADP-ribosylated protein profile during cell aging, and was defective in producing aerial mycelium and antibiotics. A 92-kDa ADP-ribosylated protein disappeared at the onset of differentiation in the parent strain but was present in mutant 27. Four ADP-ribosylated proteins (39, 41, 43, and 46 kDa) appeared at the onset of differentiation in the parent strain but were missing in mutant 27. Failure to ADP-ribosylate these four proteins was detected when the parent strain was grown in the presence of subinhibitory amounts of 3-aminobenzamide. Genetic analysis showed that the mutation, named brgA, conferring resistance to 3-aminobenzamide, cosegregated with the altered phenotypes (i.e., defects in ADP-ribosylation and aerial mycelium formation) and was mapped to a new locus near uraA. The brgA mutants were nonconditionally deficient in producing aerial mycelium and antibiotics, as determined by using various media, and had a morphological and physiological phenotype quite different from that of a bldG mutant carrying a mutation which was previously mapped near uraA. Among the known bld mutants, bldA, bldD, and bldG mutants exhibited a ADP-ribosylated protein profile similar to that of the wild type, while like mutant 27, bldB, bldC, and bldH mutants failed to ADP-ribosylate certain proteins. PMID:8682781

  19. Changes in patterns of ADP-ribosylated proteins during differentiation of Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2) and its development mutants.

    PubMed

    Shima, J; Penyige, A; Ochi, K

    1996-07-01

    Mutants resistant to 3-aminobenzamide, a known inhibitor of ADP-ribosyltransferase, were obtained from Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2). One (strain 27) was analyzed in detail. Mutant 27 had a reduced ADP-ribosyl-transferase activity, exhibited substantial changes from the wild type in ADP-ribosylated protein profile during cell aging, and was defective in producing aerial mycelium and antibiotics. A 92-kDa ADP-ribosylated protein disappeared at the onset of differentiation in the parent strain but was present in mutant 27. Four ADP-ribosylated proteins (39, 41, 43, and 46 kDa) appeared at the onset of differentiation in the parent strain but were missing in mutant 27. Failure to ADP-ribosylate these four proteins was detected when the parent strain was grown in the presence of subinhibitory amounts of 3-aminobenzamide. Genetic analysis showed that the mutation, named brgA, conferring resistance to 3-aminobenzamide, cosegregated with the altered phenotypes (i.e., defects in ADP-ribosylation and aerial mycelium formation) and was mapped to a new locus near uraA. The brgA mutants were nonconditionally deficient in producing aerial mycelium and antibiotics, as determined by using various media, and had a morphological and physiological phenotype quite different from that of a bldG mutant carrying a mutation which was previously mapped near uraA. Among the known bld mutants, bldA, bldD, and bldG mutants exhibited a ADP-ribosylated protein profile similar to that of the wild type, while like mutant 27, bldB, bldC, and bldH mutants failed to ADP-ribosylate certain proteins.

  20. The workflow for quantitative proteome analysis of chloroplast development and differentiation, chloroplast mutants, and protein interactions by spectral counting.

    PubMed

    Friso, Giulia; Olinares, Paul Dominic B; van Wijk, Klaas J

    2011-01-01

    This chapter outlines a quantitative proteomics workflow using a label-free spectral counting technique. The workflow has been tested on different aspects of chloroplast biology in maize and Arabidopsis, including chloroplast mutant analysis, cell-type specific chloroplast differentiation, and the proplastid-to-chloroplast transition. The workflow involves one-dimensional SDS-PAGE of the proteomes of leaves or chloroplast subfractions, tryptic digestions, online LC-MS/MS using a mass spectrometer with high mass accuracy and duty cycle, followed by semiautomatic data processing. The bioinformatics analysis can effectively select best gene models and deals with quantification of closely related proteins; the workflow avoids overidentification of proteins and results in more accurate protein quantification. The final output includes pairwise comparative quantitative analysis, as well as hierarchical clustering for discovery of temporal and spatial patterns of protein accumulation. A brief discussion about potential pitfalls, as well as the advantages and disadvantages of spectral counting, is provided.

  1. Inhibition of NIH 3T3 cell proliferation by a mutant ras protein with preferential affinity for GDP.

    PubMed Central

    Feig, L A; Cooper, G M

    1988-01-01

    Substitution of asparagine for serine at position 17 decreased the affinity of rasH p21 for GTP 20- to 40-fold without significantly affecting its affinity for GDP. Transfection of NIH 3T3 cells with a mammalian expression vector containing the Asn-17 rasH gene and a Neor gene under the control of the same promoter yielded only a small fraction of the expected number of G418-resistant colonies, indicating that expression of Asn-17 p21 inhibited cell proliferation. The inhibitory effect of Asn-17 p21 required its localization to the plasma membrane and was reversed by coexpression of an activated ras gene, indicating that the mutant p21 blocked the endogenous ras function required for NIH 3T3 cell proliferation. NIH 3T3 cells transformed by v-mos and v-raf, but not v-src, were resistant to inhibition by Asn-17 p21, indicating that the requirement for normal ras function can be bypassed by these cytoplasmic oncogenes. The Asn-17 mutant represents a novel reagent for the study of ras function by virtue of its ability to inhibit cellular ras activity in vivo. Since this phenotype is likely associated with the preferential affinity of the mutant protein for GDP, analogous mutations might also yield inhibitors of other proteins whose activities are regulated by guanine nucleotide binding. Images PMID:3145408

  2. Neferine attenuates the protein level and toxicity of mutant huntingtin in PC-12 cells via induction of autophagy.

    PubMed

    Wong, Vincent Kam Wai; Wu, An Guo; Wang, Jing Rong; Liu, Liang; Law, Betty Yuen-Kwan

    2015-02-18

    Mutant huntingtin aggregation is highly associated with the pathogenesis of Huntington's disease, an adult-onset autosomal dominant disorder, which leads to a loss of motor control and decline in cognitive function. Recent literature has revealed the protective role of autophagy in neurodegenerative diseases through degradation of mutant toxic proteins, including huntingtin or a-synuclein. Through the GFP-LC3 autophagy detection platform, we have  identified  neferine,  isolated  from  the  lotus  seed  embryo  of Nelumbo nucifera, which is able to induce autophagy through an AMPK-mTOR-dependent pathway. Furthermore, by overexpressing huntingtin with 74 CAG repeats (EGFP-HTT 74) in PC-12 cells, neferine reduces both the protein level and toxicity of mutant huntingtin through an autophagy-related gene 7 (Atg7)-dependent mechanism. With the variety of novel active compounds present in medicinal herbs, our current study suggests the possible protective mechanism of an autophagy inducer isolated from Chinese herbal medicine, which is crucial for its further development into a potential therapeutic agent for neurodegenerative disorders in the future.

  3. Partial complementation of Sinorhizobium meliloti bacA mutant phenotypes by the Mycobacterium tuberculosis BacA protein.

    PubMed

    Arnold, M F F; Haag, A F; Capewell, S; Boshoff, H I; James, E K; McDonald, R; Mair, I; Mitchell, A M; Kerscher, B; Mitchell, T J; Mergaert, P; Barry, C E; Scocchi, M; Zanda, M; Campopiano, D J; Ferguson, G P

    2013-01-01

    The Sinorhizobium meliloti BacA ABC transporter protein plays an important role in its nodulating symbiosis with the legume alfalfa (Medicago sativa). The Mycobacterium tuberculosis BacA homolog was found to be important for the maintenance of chronic murine infections, yet its in vivo function is unknown. In the legume plant as well as in the mammalian host, bacteria encounter host antimicrobial peptides (AMPs). We found that the M. tuberculosis BacA protein was able to partially complement the symbiotic defect of an S. meliloti BacA-deficient mutant on alfalfa plants and to protect this mutant in vitro from the antimicrobial activity of a synthetic legume peptide, NCR247, and a recombinant human β-defensin 2 (HBD2). This finding was also confirmed using an M. tuberculosis insertion mutant. Furthermore, M. tuberculosis BacA-mediated protection of the legume symbiont S. meliloti against legume defensins as well as HBD2 is dependent on its attached ATPase domain. In addition, we show that M. tuberculosis BacA mediates peptide uptake of the truncated bovine AMP, Bac7(1-16). This process required a functional ATPase domain. We therefore suggest that M. tuberculosis BacA is important for the transport of peptides across the cytoplasmic membrane and is part of a complete ABC transporter. Hence, BacA-mediated protection against host AMPs might be important for the maintenance of latent infections.

  4. Surface translocation and tri-iodothyronine uptake of mutant MCT8 proteins are cell type-dependent.

    PubMed

    Kinne, Anita; Roth, Stephan; Biebermann, Heike; Köhrle, Josef; Grüters, Annette; Schweizer, Ulrich

    2009-12-01

    Mutations in the gene encoding the thyroid hormone transporter, monocarboxylate transporter 8 (MCT8), underlie severe mental retardation. We wanted to understand the functional consequences of a series of missense mutations in MCT8 in order to identify therapeutic options for affected patients. We established cell lines stably expressing 12 MCT8 variants in JEG1 and MDCK1 cells. The cell lines were characterized according to MCT8 mRNA and protein expression, tri-iodothyronine (T(3)) transport activity, substrate K(M) characteristics, surface expression, and responsiveness to T(3) preincubation and chemical chaperones. Functional activities of ins235V and L568P MCT8 mutants depend on the cell type in which they are expressed. These mutants and R271H exhibited considerable transport activity when present at the cell surface as verified by surface biotinylation and kinetic analysis. Most mutants, however, were inactive in T(3) transport even when present at the cell surface (e.g. S194F, A224V, DeltaF230, L512P). Preincubation of G558D with T(3) increased T(3) uptake in MDCK1 cells to a small, but significant, extent. Chemical chaperones were ineffective. The finding that the cell type determines surface expression and T(3) transport activities of missense mutants in MCT8 may be important to understand phenotypic variability among carriers of different mutations. In particular, the clinical observation that the severity of derangements of thyroid hormone levels does not correlate with mental impairments of the patients may be based on different residual activity of mutant MCT8 in different cell types.

  5. Valosin-containing protein (VCP/p97) inhibitors relieve Mitofusin-dependent mitochondrial defects due to VCP disease mutants.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ting; Mishra, Prashant; Hay, Bruce A; Chan, David; Guo, Ming

    2017-03-21

    Missense mutations of valosin-containing protein (VCP) cause an autosomal dominant disease known as inclusion body myopathy, Paget disease with frontotemporal dementia (IBMPFD) and other neurodegenerative disorders. The pathological mechanism of IBMPFD is not clear and there is no treatment. We show that endogenous VCP negatively regulates Mitofusin, which is required for outer mitochondrial membrane fusion. Because 90% of IBMPFD patients have myopathy, we generated an in vivo IBMPFD model in adult Drosophila muscle, which recapitulates disease pathologies. We show that common VCP disease mutants act as hyperactive alleles with respect to regulation of Mitofusin. Importantly, VCP inhibitors suppress mitochondrial defects, muscle tissue damage and cell death associated with IBMPFD models in Drosophila. These inhibitors also suppress mitochondrial fusion and respiratory defects in IBMPFD patient fibroblasts. These results suggest that VCP disease mutants cause IBMPFD through a gain-of-function mechanism, and that VCP inhibitors have therapeutic value.

  6. Insertional Inactivation of Genes Encoding the Crystalline Inclusion Proteins of Photorhabdus luminescens Results in Mutants with Pleiotropic Phenotypes

    PubMed Central

    Bintrim, Scott B.; Ensign, Jerald C.

    1998-01-01

    The entomopathogenic bacterium Photorhabdus luminescens exhibits phase variation when cultured in vitro. The variant forms of P. luminescens are pleiotropic and are designated phase I and phase II variants. One of the characteristic phenotypes of phase I cells is the production of two types of intracellular protein inclusions. The genes encoding the protein monomers that form these inclusions, designated cipA and cipB, were cloned and characterized. cipA and cipB encode hydrophobic proteins of 11,648 and 11,308 Da, respectively. The deduced amino acid sequences of CipA and CipB have no significant amino acid sequence similarity to any other known protein but have 25% identity and 49% similarity to each other. Insertional inactivation of cipA or cipB in phase I cells of P. luminescens produced mutants that differ from phase I cells in bioluminescence, the pattern and activities of extracellular products, biochemical traits, adsorption of dyes, and ability to support nematode growth and reproduction. In general, the cip mutants were phenotypically more similar to each other than to either phase I or phase II variants. PMID:9495767

  7. Rapid Proteasomal Degradation of Mutant Proteins Is the Primary Mechanism Leading to Tumorigenesis in Patients With Missense AIP Mutations

    PubMed Central

    Hernández-Ramírez, Laura C.; Martucci, Federico; Morgan, Rhodri M. L.; Trivellin, Giampaolo; Tilley, Daniel; Ramos-Guajardo, Nancy; Iacovazzo, Donato; D'Acquisto, Fulvio; Prodromou, Chrisostomos

    2016-01-01

    Context: The pathogenic effect of mutations in the aryl hydrocarbon receptor interacting protein (AIP) gene (AIPmuts) in pituitary adenomas is incompletely understood. We have identified the primary mechanism of loss of function for missense AIPmuts. Objective: This study sought to analyze the mechanism/speed of protein turnover of wild-type and missense AIP variants, correlating protein half-life with clinical parameters. Design and Setting: Half-life and protein–protein interaction experiments and cross-sectional analysis of AIPmut positive patients' data were performed in a clinical academic research institution. Patients: Data were obtained from our cohort of pituitary adenoma patients and literature-reported cases. Interventions: Protein turnover of endogenous AIP in two cell lines and fifteen AIP variants overexpressed in HEK293 cells was analyzed via cycloheximide chase and proteasome inhibition. Glutathione-S-transferase pull-down and quantitative mass spectrometry identified proteins involved in AIP degradation; results were confirmed by coimmunoprecipitation and gene knockdown. Relevant clinical data was collected. Main Outcome Measures: Half-life of wild-type and mutant AIP proteins and its correlation with clinical parameters. Results: Endogenous AIP half-life was similar in HEK293 and lymphoblastoid cells (43.5 and 32.7 h). AIP variants were divided into stable proteins (median, 77.7 h; interquartile range [IQR], 60.7–92.9 h), and those with short (median, 27 h; IQR, 21.6–28.7 h) or very short (median, 7.7 h; IQR, 5.6–10.5 h) half-life; proteasomal inhibition rescued the rapid degradation of mutant proteins. The experimental half-life significantly correlated with age at diagnosis of acromegaly/gigantism (r = 0.411; P = .002). The FBXO3-containing SKP1–CUL1–F-box protein complex was identified as the E3 ubiquitin-ligase recognizing AIP. Conclusions: AIP is a stable protein, driven to ubiquitination by the SKP1–CUL1–F-box protein complex

  8. Construction of a mutagenesis cartridge for poliovirus genome-linked viral protein: isolation and characterization of viable and nonviable mutants

    SciTech Connect

    Kuhn, R.J.; Tada, H.; Ypma-Wong, M.F.; Dunn, J.J.; Semler, B.L.; Wimmer, E.

    1988-01-01

    By following a strategy of genetic analysis of poliovirus, the authors have constructed a synthetic mutagenesis cartridge spanning the genome-linked viral protein coding region and flanking cleavage sites in an infectious cDNA clone of the type I (Mahoney) genome. The insertion of new restriction sites within the infectious clone has allowed them to replace the wild-type sequences with short complementary pairs of synthetic oligonucleotides containing various mutations. A set of mutations have been made that create methionine codons within the genome-linked viral protein region. The resulting viruses have growth characteristics similar to wild type. Experiments that led to an alteration of the tyrosine residue responsible for the linkage to RNA have resulted in nonviable virus. In one mutant, proteolytic processing assayed in vitro appeared unimpaired by the mutation. They suggest that the position of the tyrosine residue is important for genome-linked viral protein function(s).

  9. Dominant-negative mutants of a yeast G-protein beta subunit identify two functional regions involved in pheromone signalling.

    PubMed Central

    Leberer, E; Dignard, D; Hougan, L; Thomas, D Y; Whiteway, M

    1992-01-01

    The STE4 gene, which encodes the beta subunit of the mating response G-protein in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, was subjected to a saturation mutagenesis using 'doped' oligodeoxynucleotides. We employed a genetic screen to select dominant-negative STE4 mutants, which when overexpressed from the GAL1 promoter, interfered with the signalling function of the wild type protein. The identified inhibitory amino acid alterations define two small regions that are crucially involved in transmitting the mating signal from G beta to downstream components of the signalling pathway. These results underline the positive signalling role of yeast G beta and assign for the first time the positive signalling function of a G-protein beta subunit to specific structural features. Images PMID:1464310

  10. Human T-cell leukemia virus I tax protein sensitizes p53-mutant cells to DNA damage.

    PubMed

    Mihaylova, Valia T; Green, Allison M; Khurgel, Moshe; Semmes, Oliver J; Kupfer, Gary M

    2008-06-15

    Mutations in p53 are a common cause of resistance of cancers to standard chemotherapy and, thus, treatment failure. Reports have shown that Tax, a human T-cell leukemia virus type I encoded protein that has been associated with genomic instability and perturbation of transcription and cell cycle, sensitizes HeLa cells to UV treatment. The extent to which Tax can sensitize cells and the mechanism by which it exerts its effect are unknown. In this study, we show that Tax sensitizes p53-mutant cells to a broad range of DNA-damaging agents, including mitomycin C, a bifunctional alkylator, etoposide, a topoisomerase II drug, and UV light, but not ionizing radiation, a double-strand break agent, or vinblastine, a tubulin poison. Tax caused hypersensitivity in all p53-deleted cell lines and several, but not all, mutant-expressed p53-containing cell lines, while unexpectedly being protective in p53 wild-type (wt) cells. The effect observed in p53-deleted lines could be reversed for this by transfection of wt p53. We also show that Tax activates a p53-independent proapoptotic program through decreased expression of the retinoblastoma protein and subsequent increased E2F1 expression. The expression of several proapoptotic proteins was also induced by Tax, including Puma and Noxa, culminating in a substantial increase in Bax dimerization. Our results show that Tax can sensitize p53-mutant cells to DNA damage while protecting p53 wt cells, a side benefit that might result in reduced toxicity in normal cells. Such studies hold the promise of a novel adjunctive therapy that could make cancer chemotherapy more effective.

  11. Degradation of LDLR protein mediated by 'gain of function' PCSK9 mutants in normal and ARH cells.

    PubMed

    Fasano, Tommaso; Sun, Xi-Ming; Patel, Dilipkumar D; Soutar, Anne K

    2009-03-01

    Dominant gain-of-function mutations in proprotein convertase subtilisin kexin type 9 (PCSK9) cause familial hypercholesterolaemia (FH) and result in accelerated atherosclerosis and premature coronary heart disease. It is believed that PCSK9 binds to LDL-receptor (LDLR) protein and prevents its recycling to the cell surface; gain-of-function PCSK9 mutants enhance LDLR degradation. Several new variants of PCSK9 have been identified, but their effect on PCSK9 activity has not been determined. We describe a new procedure for assessing the activity of four putative gain-of-function mutations identified in FH patients (D129N, D374H, N425S, R496W). All four mutant proteins were secreted normally from transfected HEK293T cells. Immortalized lymphocytes from normolipaemic controls were incubated with conditioned medium from transfected cells and cell-surface LDLR protein was determined by FACS. D374H was as potent as D374Y in reducing cell-surface LDLR, while the other three mutations were more potent than wild type, but less so than the D374 mutants; this correlated with total serum cholesterol in the patients. Substitution of different amino acids at 374 showed that aspartate in this position was critical; even glutamate at residue 374 increased LDLR degradation. When the assay was carried out with ARH-negative lymphocytes that are unable to internalise the LDLR, D374Y-PCSK9 was able to reduce cell-surface LDLR by 35%, compared with approximately 70% for normal lymphocytes. Thus, PCSK9-mediated LDLR degradation is not entirely dependent on ARH function. We propose a novel ARH-independent pathway for PCSK9 activity on LDLR.

  12. Che-1/AATF: A Critical Cofactor for Both Wild-Type- and Mutant-p53 Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Bruno, Tiziana; Iezzi, Simona; Fanciulli, Maurizio

    2016-01-01

    The p53 protein is a key player in a wide range of protein networks that allow the state of “good health” of the cell. Not surprisingly, mutations of the TP53 gene are one of the most common alterations associated to cancer cells. Mutated forms of p53 (mtp53) not only lose the ability to protect the integrity of the genetic heritage of the cell but also acquire pro-oncogenic functions, behaving like dangerous accelerators of transformation and tumor progression. In recent years, many studies focused on investigating possible strategies aiming to counteract this mutant p53 “gain of function” but the results have not always been satisfactory. Che-1/AATF is a nuclear protein that binds to RNA polymerase II and plays a role in multiple fundamental processes, including control of transcription, cell cycle regulation, DNA damage response, and apoptosis. Several studies showed Che-1/AATF as an important endogenous regulator of p53 expression and activity in a variety of biological processes. Notably, this same regulation was more recently observed also on mtp53. The depletion of Che-1/AATF strongly reduces the expression of mutant p53 in several tumors in vitro and in vivo, making the cells an easier target for chemotherapy treatments. In this mini review, we report an overview of Che-1/AATF functions and discuss a possible role of Che-1/AATF in cancer therapy, with particular regard to its action on p53/mtp53. PMID:26913241

  13. Expression of the Brazil nut methionine-rich protein and mutants with increased methionine in transgenic potato.

    PubMed

    Tu, H M; Godfrey, L W; Sun, S S

    1998-07-01

    A cDNA encoding the methionine-rich (19 mol% Met) protein in Brazil nut was placed under the regulation of CaMV 35S promoter and nopaline synthase terminator and introduced into the potato cultivar Russet Burbank via Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. To further enhance the Met content in the transgenic plants, chimeric genes containing four mutant constructs, BoxIa (with 5 additional Met), BoxIIa (2 additional Met), BoxIaIIa (7 additional Met), and BoxIIa2 (7 additional Met), were also generated by sequence modifications of the cDNA and transferred into potato. Analysis of the microtubers and leaves of the transgenic potato plants revealed, in general, with the exception of the BoxIIa2, the presence of mRNA transcripts of the expected size and the correctly processed Met-rich 9 kDa subunit polypeptides. The expression levels in the leaves among the various constructs and individual transgenic plants varied between <0.01% and 0.2% of total protein. The corresponding expression in the tubers was usually 2- to 4-fold lower than in leaves. In the case of BoxIIa2, which contains two tandem repeats of the BoxIIa mutant sequence, a larger (10.5-11 kDa) polypeptide was detected. These findings demonstrated that it is feasible to exploit the variable region of the Brazil Nut 2S protein for enhanced Met contents and perhaps for other desirable properties.

  14. High Throughput Sequencing Identifies Misregulated Genes in the Drosophila Polypyrimidine Tract-Binding Protein (hephaestus) Mutant Defective in Spermatogenesis.

    PubMed

    Sridharan, Vinod; Heimiller, Joseph; Robida, Mark D; Singh, Ravinder

    2016-01-01

    The Drosophila polypyrimidine tract-binding protein (dmPTB or hephaestus) plays an important role during spermatogenesis. The heph2 mutation in this gene results in a specific defect in spermatogenesis, causing aberrant spermatid individualization and male sterility. However, the array of molecular defects in the mutant remains uncharacterized. Using an unbiased high throughput sequencing approach, we have identified transcripts that are misregulated in this mutant. Aberrant transcripts show altered expression levels, exon skipping, and alternative 5' ends. We independently verified these findings by reverse-transcription and polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis. Our analysis shows misregulation of transcripts that have been connected to spermatogenesis, including components of the actomyosin cytoskeletal apparatus. We show, for example, that the Myosin light chain 1 (Mlc1) transcript is aberrantly spliced. Furthermore, bioinformatics analysis reveals that Mlc1 contains a high affinity binding site(s) for dmPTB and that the site is conserved in many Drosophila species. We discuss that Mlc1 and other components of the actomyosin cytoskeletal apparatus offer important molecular links between the loss of dmPTB function and the observed developmental defect in spermatogenesis. This study provides the first comprehensive list of genes misregulated in vivo in the heph2 mutant in Drosophila and offers insight into the role of dmPTB during spermatogenesis.

  15. High Throughput Sequencing Identifies Misregulated Genes in the Drosophila Polypyrimidine Tract-Binding Protein (hephaestus) Mutant Defective in Spermatogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Sridharan, Vinod; Heimiller, Joseph; Robida, Mark D.; Singh, Ravinder

    2016-01-01

    The Drosophila polypyrimidine tract-binding protein (dmPTB or hephaestus) plays an important role during spermatogenesis. The heph2 mutation in this gene results in a specific defect in spermatogenesis, causing aberrant spermatid individualization and male sterility. However, the array of molecular defects in the mutant remains uncharacterized. Using an unbiased high throughput sequencing approach, we have identified transcripts that are misregulated in this mutant. Aberrant transcripts show altered expression levels, exon skipping, and alternative 5’ ends. We independently verified these findings by reverse-transcription and polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis. Our analysis shows misregulation of transcripts that have been connected to spermatogenesis, including components of the actomyosin cytoskeletal apparatus. We show, for example, that the Myosin light chain 1 (Mlc1) transcript is aberrantly spliced. Furthermore, bioinformatics analysis reveals that Mlc1 contains a high affinity binding site(s) for dmPTB and that the site is conserved in many Drosophila species. We discuss that Mlc1 and other components of the actomyosin cytoskeletal apparatus offer important molecular links between the loss of dmPTB function and the observed developmental defect in spermatogenesis. This study provides the first comprehensive list of genes misregulated in vivo in the heph2 mutant in Drosophila and offers insight into the role of dmPTB during spermatogenesis. PMID:26942929

  16. Protein-RNA Networks Regulated by Normal and ALS-Associated Mutant HNRNPA2B1 in the Nervous System.

    PubMed

    Martinez, Fernando J; Pratt, Gabriel A; Van Nostrand, Eric L; Batra, Ranjan; Huelga, Stephanie C; Kapeli, Katannya; Freese, Peter; Chun, Seung J; Ling, Karen; Gelboin-Burkhart, Chelsea; Fijany, Layla; Wang, Harrison C; Nussbacher, Julia K; Broski, Sara M; Kim, Hong Joo; Lardelli, Rea; Sundararaman, Balaji; Donohue, John P; Javaherian, Ashkan; Lykke-Andersen, Jens; Finkbeiner, Steven; Bennett, C Frank; Ares, Manuel; Burge, Christopher B; Taylor, J Paul; Rigo, Frank; Yeo, Gene W

    2016-11-23

    HnRNPA2B1 encodes an RNA binding protein associated with neurodegeneration. However, its function in the nervous system is unclear. Transcriptome-wide crosslinking and immunoprecipitation in mouse spinal cord discover UAGG motifs enriched within ∼2,500 hnRNP A2/B1 binding sites and an unexpected role for hnRNP A2/B1 in alternative polyadenylation. HnRNP A2/B1 loss results in alternative splicing (AS), including skipping of an exon in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS)-associated D-amino acid oxidase (DAO) that reduces D-serine metabolism. ALS-associated hnRNP A2/B1 D290V mutant patient fibroblasts and motor neurons differentiated from induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC-MNs) demonstrate abnormal splicing changes, likely due to increased nuclear-insoluble hnRNP A2/B1. Mutant iPSC-MNs display decreased survival in long-term culture and exhibit hnRNP A2/B1 localization to cytoplasmic granules as well as exacerbated changes in gene expression and splicing upon cellular stress. Our findings provide a cellular resource and reveal RNA networks relevant to neurodegeneration, regulated by normal and mutant hnRNP A2/B1. VIDEO ABSTRACT.

  17. Directed evolution of bright mutants of an oxygen-independent flavin-binding fluorescent protein from Pseudomonas putida

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Fluorescent reporter proteins have revolutionized our understanding of cellular bioprocesses by enabling live cell imaging with exquisite spatio-temporal resolution. Existing fluorescent proteins are predominantly based on the green fluorescent protein (GFP) and related analogs. However, GFP-family proteins strictly require molecular oxygen for maturation of fluorescence, which precludes their application for investigating biological processes in low-oxygen environments. A new class of oxygen-independent fluorescent reporter proteins was recently reported based on flavin-binding photosensors from Bacillus subtilis and Pseudomonas putida. However, flavin-binding fluorescent proteins show very limited brightness, which restricts their utility as biological imaging probes. Results In this work, we report the discovery of bright mutants of a flavin-binding fluorescent protein from P. putida using directed evolution by site saturation mutagenesis. We discovered two mutations at a chromophore-proximal amino acid (F37S and F37T) that confer a twofold enhancement in brightness relative to the wild type fluorescent protein through improvements in quantum yield and holoprotein fraction. In addition, we observed that substitution with other aromatic amino acids at this residue (F37Y and F37W) severely diminishes fluorescence emission. Therefore, we identify F37 as a key amino acid residue in determining fluorescence. Conclusions To increase the scope and utility of flavin-binding fluorescent proteins as practical fluorescent reporters, there is a strong need for improved variants of the wild type protein. Our work reports on the application of site saturation mutagenesis to isolate brighter variants of a flavin-binding fluorescent protein, which is a first-of-its-kind approach. Overall, we anticipate that the improved variants will find pervasive use as fluorescent reporters for biological studies in low-oxygen environments. PMID:23095243

  18. The gravitropism defective 2 mutants of Arabidopsis are deficient in a protein implicated in endocytosis in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Silady, Rebecca A; Kato, Takehide; Lukowitz, Wolfgang; Sieber, Patrick; Tasaka, Masao; Somerville, Chris R

    2004-10-01

    The gravitropism defective 2 (grv2) mutants of Arabidopsis show reduced shoot phototropism and gravitropism. Amyloplasts in the shoot endodermal cells of grv2 do not sediment to the same degree as in wild type. The GRV2 gene encodes a 277-kD polypeptide that is 42% similar to the Caenorhabditis elegans RME-8 protein, which is required for endocytosis. We hypothesize that a defect in endocytosis may affect both the initial gravity sensing via amyloplasts sedimentation and the subsequent more general tropic growth response.

  19. Production of viable seeds from the seedling lethal mutant ppi2-2 lacking the atToc159 chloroplast protein import receptor using plastic containers, and characterization of the homozygous mutant progeny.

    PubMed

    Tada, Akari; Adachi, Fumi; Kakizaki, Tomohiro; Inaba, Takehito

    2014-01-01

    Biogenesis of chloroplasts is essential for plant growth and development. A number of homozygous mutants lacking a chloroplast protein exhibit an albino phenotype. In general, it is challenging to grow albino Arabidopsis plants on soil until they set seeds. Homozygous albino mutants are usually obtained as progenies of heterozygous parents. Here, we describe a method of recovering seeds from the seedling lethal Arabidopsis mutant ppi2-2, which lacks the atToc159 protein import receptor at the outer envelope membrane of chloroplast. Using plastic containers, we were able to grow homozygous ppi2-2 plants until these set seed. Although the germination rate of the harvested seeds was relatively low, it was still sufficient to allow us to further analyze the ppi2-2 progeny. Using ppi2-2 homozygous seeds, we were able to analyze the role of plastid protein import in the light-regulated induction of nuclear genes. We propose that this method be applied to other seedling lethal Arabidopsis mutants to obtain homozygous seeds, helping us further investigate the roles of plastid proteins in plant growth and development.

  20. GALT protein database, a bioinformatics resource for the management and analysis of structural features of a galactosemia-related protein and its mutants.

    PubMed

    d'Acierno, Antonio; Facchiano, Angelo; Marabotti, Anna

    2009-06-01

    We describe the GALT-Prot database and its related web-based application that have been developed to collect information about the structural and functional effects of mutations on the human enzyme galactose-1-phosphate uridyltransferase (GALT) involved in the genetic disease named galactosemia type I. Besides a list of missense mutations at gene and protein sequence levels, GALT-Prot reports the analysis results of mutant GALT structures. In addition to the structural information about the wild-type enzyme, the database also includes structures of over 100 single point mutants simulated by means of a computational procedure, and the analysis to each mutant was made with several bioinformatics programs in order to investigate the effect of the mutations. The web-based interface allows querying of the database, and several links are also provided in order to guarantee a high integration with other resources already present on the web. Moreover, the architecture of the database and the web application is flexible and can be easily adapted to store data related to other proteins with point mutations. GALT-Prot is freely available at http://bioinformatica.isa.cnr.it/GALT/.

  1. Severe impairment of growth and differentiation in a Neurospora crassa mutant lacking all heterotrimeric G alpha proteins.

    PubMed Central

    Kays, Ann M; Borkovich, Katherine A

    2004-01-01

    Heterotrimeric G alpha proteins play a critical role in regulating growth and differentiation in filamentous fungi. No systematic analysis of functional relationships between subunits has been investigated. This study explores the relative contributions of Neurospora crassa G alpha subunits, gna-1, gna-2, and gna-3, in directing development by analyzing strains deleted for various combinations of these genes. Although viable, mutants lacking all G alpha subunits or gna-1 and gna-3 are severely restricted in apical growth, forming small colonies. These strains form little aerial hyphae during asexual development on solid medium and exhibit inappropriate sporulation in submerged cultures. Similar to all strains carrying the Delta gna-1 mutation, these mutants are female sterile. Defects attributed to gna-2 are observed only in conjunction with the loss of gna-1 or gna-3, suggesting a minor role for this G alpha in N. crassa biology. Results from analysis of adenylyl cyclase and epistatic studies with the cAMP-dependent protein kinase regulatory subunit (mcb) indicate separate functions for GNA-1 and GNA-3 in cAMP metabolism and additional cAMP-independent roles for GNA-1. These studies indicate that although G alpha subunits are not essential for viability in filamentous fungi, their loss results in an organism that cannot effectively forage for nutrients or undergo asexual or sexual reproduction. PMID:15082543

  2. Methyl jasmonate inhibition of root growth and induction of a leaf protein are decreased in an Arabidopsis thaliana mutant.

    PubMed Central

    Staswick, P E; Su, W; Howell, S H

    1992-01-01

    Jasmonic acid and its methyl ester, methyl jasmonate (MeJA), are plant signaling molecules that affect plant growth and gene expression. Primary root growth of wild-type Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings was inhibited 50% when seedlings were grown on agar medium containing 0.1 M MeJA. An ethyl methanesulfonate mutant (jar1) with decreased sensitivity to MeJA inhibition of root elongation was isolated and characterized. Genetic data indicated the trait was recessive and controlled by a single Mendelian factor. MeJA-induced polypeptides were detected in Arabidopsis leaves by antiserum to a MeJA-inducible vegetative storage protein from soybean. The induction of these proteins by MeJA in the mutant was at least 4-fold less in jar1 compared to wild type. In contrast, seeds of jar1 plants were more sensitive than wild type to inhibition of germination by abscisic acid. These results suggest that the defect in jar1 affects a general jasmonate response pathway, which may regulate multiple genes in different plant organs. Images PMID:11607311

  3. Altered protein expression pattern in skin fibroblasts from parkin-mutant early-onset Parkinson's disease patients.

    PubMed

    Lippolis, Rosa; Siciliano, Rosa Anna; Pacelli, Consiglia; Ferretta, Anna; Mazzeo, Maria Fiorella; Scacco, Salvatore; Papa, Francesco; Gaballo, Antonio; Dell'Aquila, Claudia; De Mari, Michele; Papa, Sergio; Cocco, Tiziana

    2015-09-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is the most common neurodegenerative movement disorder caused primarily by selective degeneration of the dopaminergic neurons in substantia nigra. In this work the proteomes extracted from primary fibroblasts of two unrelated, hereditary cases of PD patients, with different parkin mutations, were compared with the proteomes extracted from commercial adult normal human dermal fibroblasts (NHDF) and primary fibroblasts from the healthy mother of one of the two patients. The results show that the fibroblasts from the two different cases of parkin-mutant patients display analogous alterations in the expression level of proteins involved in different cellular functions, like cytoskeleton structure-dynamics, calcium homeostasis, oxidative stress response, protein and RNA processing.

  4. Molecular dynamics studies on the NMR structures of rabbit prion protein wild type and mutants: surface electrostatic charge distributions.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jiapu; Wang, Feng; Zhang, Yuanli

    2015-01-01

    Prion diseases are invariably fatal and highly infectious neurodegenerative diseases that affect a wide variety of mammalian species such as sheep and goats, cattle, deer and elk, and humans. But for rabbits, studies have shown that they have a low susceptibility to be infected by prion diseases. This paper does molecular dynamics (MD) studies of rabbit NMR structures (of the wild type and its two mutants of two surface residues), in order to understand the specific mechanism of rabbit prion proteins (RaPrP(C)). Protein surface electrostatic charge distributions are specially focused to analyze the MD trajectories. This paper can conclude that surface electrostatic charge distributions indeed contribute to the structural stability of wild-type RaPrP(C); this may be useful for the medicinal treatment of prion diseases.

  5. Analysis of parainfluenza virus-5 hemagglutinin-neuraminidase protein mutants that are blocked in internalization and degradation

    SciTech Connect

    Robach, Jessica G.; Lamb, Robert A.

    2010-10-25

    The PIV-5 hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) protein is a multifunctional protein with sialic acid binding, neuraminidase and fusion promotion activity. HN is internalized by clathrin-mediated endocytosis and degraded. HN lacks internalization signals in its cytoplasmic tail but a single glutamic acid present at residue 37 at the putative transmembrane/ectodomain boundary is critical. We rescued rPIV-5 with mutations E37D or E37K, which have been shown to impair or abolish HN internalization, respectively. These viruses exhibited growth properties similar to wild-type (wt) virus but are impaired for fitness in tissue culture. Biochemical analysis of HN activities showed differences between HN E37D and HN E37K in fusion promotion and incorporation of HN and F into virions. Furthermore, oligomeric analyses indicate that HN E37 mutants perturb the tetrameric organization of HN, probably by destabilizing the dimer-of-dimers interface.

  6. A DDB2 mutant protein unable to interact with PCNA promotes cell cycle progression of human transformed embryonic kidney cells.

    PubMed

    Perucca, Paola; Sommatis, Sabrina; Mocchi, Roberto; Prosperi, Ennio; Stivala, Lucia Anna; Cazzalini, Ornella

    2015-01-01

    DNA damage binding protein 2 (DDB2) is a protein involved in the early step of DNA damage recognition of the nucleotide excision repair (NER) process. Recently, it has been suggested that DDB2 may play a role in DNA replication, based on its ability to promote cell proliferation. We have previously shown that DDB2 binds PCNA during NER, but also in the absence of DNA damage; however, whether and how this interaction influences cell proliferation is not known. In this study, we have addressed this question by using HEK293 cell clones stably expressing DDB2(Wt) protein, or a mutant form (DDB2(Mut)) unable to interact with PCNA. We report that overexpression of the DDB2(Mut) protein provides a proliferative advantage over the wild type form, by influencing cell cycle progression. In particular, an increase in the number of S-phase cells, together with a reduction in p21(CDKN1A) protein level, and a shorter cell cycle length, has been observed in the DDB2(Mut) cells. These results suggest that DDB2 influences cell cycle progression thanks to its interaction with PCNA.

  7. Lack of the D2 protein in a Chlamydomonas reinhardtii psbD mutant affects photosystem II stability and D1 expression

    PubMed Central

    Erickson, Jeanne M.; Rahire, Michéle; Malnoë, Pia; Girard-Bascou, Jacqueline; Pierre, Yves; Bennoun, Pierre; Rochaix, Jean-David

    1986-01-01

    D1 and D2, two chloroplast proteins with apparent mol. wt of 32 000-34 000, play an important role in the photosynthetic reactions mediated by the membrane-bound protein complex of photosystem II (PSII). We have isolated and characterized an uniparental, non-photosynthetic mutant of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and show that the mutation is in the chloroplast gene psbD, coding for D2. A 46 bp direct DNA duplication in the coding region of the mutant gene causes a frame-shift which results in a psbD transcript coding for 186 amino acid residues instead of the normal 352. The truncated D2 peptide is never seen, even after pulse-labeling, suggesting that the mutant protein is very unstable. In addition, little or no D1 protein is detected in this mutant although the gene and normal levels of mRNA for D1 are present in mutant cells. All other core PSII proteins are synthesized and inserted into the membrane fraction, but never accumulate. These results suggest that D2 contributes not only to the stabilization of the PSII complex in the membrane, but also may play a specific role in the regulation of the D1 protein, either at the translational or post-translational level. ImagesFig. 1.Fig. 2.Fig. 6. PMID:16453694

  8. Accelerating the clearance of mutant huntingtin protein aggregates through autophagy induction by europium hydroxide nanorods.

    PubMed

    Wei, Peng-Fei; Zhang, Li; Nethi, Susheel Kumar; Barui, Ayan Kumar; Lin, Jun; Zhou, Wei; Shen, Yi; Man, Na; Zhang, Yun-Jiao; Xu, Jing; Patra, Chitta Ranjan; Wen, Long-Ping

    2014-01-01

    Autophagy is one of the well-known pathways to accelerate the clearance of protein aggregates, which contributes to the therapy of neurodegenerative diseases. Although there are numerous reports that demonstrate the induction of autophagy with small molecules including rapamycin, trehalose and lithium, however, there are few reports mentioning the clearance of aggregate-prone proteins through autophagy induction by nanoparticles. In the present article, we have demonstrated that europium hydroxide [Eu(III)(OH)3] nanorods can reduce huntingtin protein aggregation (EGFP-tagged huntingtin protein with 74 polyQ repeats), responsible for neurodegenerative diseases. Again, we have found that these nanorods induce authentic autophagy flux in different cell lines (Neuro 2a, PC12 and HeLa cells) through the expression of higher levels of characteristic autophagy marker protein LC3-II and degradation of selective autophagy substrate/cargo receptor p62/SQSTM1. Furthermore, depression of protein aggregation clearance through the autophagy blockade has also been observed by using specific inhibitors (wortmannin and chloroquine), indicating that autophagy is involved in the degradation of huntingtin protein aggregation. Since [Eu(III)(OH)3] nanorods can enhance the degradation of huntingtin protein aggregation via autophagy induction, we strongly believe that these nanorods would be useful for the development of therapeutic treatment strategies for various neurodegenerative diseases in near future using nanomedicine approach.

  9. Induction of expression and co-localization of heat shock polypeptides with the polyalanine expansion mutant of poly(A)-binding protein N1 after chemical stress

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Qishan Bag, Jnanankur

    2008-05-23

    Formation of nuclear inclusions consisting of aggregates of a polyalanine expansion mutant of nuclear poly(A)-binding protein (PABPN1) is the hallmark of oculopharyngeal muscular dystrophy (OPMD). OPMD is a late onset autosomal dominant disease. Patients with this disorder exhibit progressive swallowing difficulty and drooping of their eye lids, which starts around the age of 50. Previously we have shown that treatment of cells expressing the mutant PABPN1 with a number of chemicals such as ibuprofen, indomethacin, ZnSO{sub 4}, and 8-hydroxy-quinoline induces HSP70 expression and reduces PABPN1 aggregation. In these studies we have shown that expression of additional HSPs including HSP27, HSP40, and HSP105 were induced in mutant PABPN1 expressing cells following exposure to the chemicals mentioned above. Furthermore, all three additional HSPs were translocated to the nucleus and probably helped to properly fold the mutant PABPN1 by co-localizing with this protein.

  10. The Peripheral Neuropathy-Linked Trembler and Trembler-J Mutant Forms of Peripheral Myelin Protein 22 are Folding-Destabilized†

    PubMed Central

    Myers, Jeffrey K.; Mobley, Charles K.; Sanders, Charles R.

    2008-01-01

    Dominant mutations in the tetraspan membrane protein peripheral myelin protein 22 (PMP22) are known to result in peripheral neuropathies such as Charcot-Marie-Tooth Type 1A (CMT1A) disease via mechanisms that appear to be closely linked to misfolding of PMP22 in the membrane of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). To characterize the molecular defects in PMP22, we examined the structure and folding stability of two human disease mutant forms of PMP22 that are also the basis for mouse models of peripheral neuropathies: G150D (Trembler phenotype), and L16P (Trembler-J phenotype). Circular dichroism and NMR spectroscopic studies indicated that, when folded, the 3-D structures of these disease-linked mutants are similar to the folded wild type protein. However, the folded forms of the mutants were observed to be destabilized relative to the wild type protein, with the L16P mutant being particularly unstable. The rate of refolding from an unfolded state was observed to be very slow for the wild type protein, and no refolding was observed for either mutant. These results lead to the hypothesis that ER quality control recognizes the G150D and L16P mutant forms of PMP22 as defective through mechanisms closely related to their conformational instability and/or slow folding. It was also seen that wild type PMP22 binds Zn(II) and Cu(II) with micromolar affinity, a property that may be important to the stability and function of this protein. Zn(II) was able to rescue the stability defect of the Tr mutant. PMID:18795802

  11. Mutants of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Bacillus citri Changed the Protein Content of the Nigerian Oryza sativa variety “Igbimo” during Fermentation

    PubMed Central

    Boboye, Bolatito E; Adeleke, Mutiat A; Olawale, Anthony O

    2012-01-01

    Effect of mutation on protein production by Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Bacillus citri, the best protein producing yeast and bacterium isolated during a previous natural fermentation of a Nigerian rice (“Igbimo”). The two microorganisms were grown to logarithmic phase and mutagenized separately using ethylmethyl sulphonate (EMS). The wild-types and variants were inoculated individually into sterile “Igbimo” rice. Fermentation was allowed to take place at 27°C for 7 days after which protein released into the rice was quantified using the Biuret reagent method. The data obtained showed that the mutants are different from each other. Some mutants did form the protein at lower concentrations, others at the same and higher concentrations than the mother strains. The parental strains of S. cerevisiae and B. citri synthesized 0.89 mg/mL and 0.36 mg/mL protein respectively. Four groups of the mutants are recognized: classes I, II, III and IV which are the Poor, Average, Good and Super Protein Producers with 0-0.20, 0.21-0.50, 0.51-1.0 and 1.0 mg/mL protein respectively The yeast mutants produced higher amounts of protein than those of the bacterium. PMID:23166568

  12. Modulation of Escherichia coli Adenylyl Cyclase Activity by Catalytic-Site Mutants of Protein IIAGlc of the Phosphoenolpyruvate:Sugar Phosphotransferase System

    PubMed Central

    Reddy, Prasad; Kamireddi, Madhavi

    1998-01-01

    It is demonstrated here that in Escherichia coli, the phosphorylated form of the glucose-specific phosphocarrier protein IIAGlc of the phosphoenolpyruvate:sugar phosphotransferase system is an activator of adenylyl cyclase and that unphosphorylated IIAGlc has no effect on the basal activity of adenylyl cyclase. To elucidate the specific role of IIAGlc phosphorylation in the regulation of adenylyl cyclase activity, both the phosphorylatable histidine (H90) and the interactive histidine (H75) of IIAGlc were mutated by site-directed mutagenesis to glutamine and glutamate. Wild-type IIAGlc and the H75Q mutant, in which the histidine in position 75 has been replaced by glutamine, were phosphorylated by the phosphohistidine-containing phosphocarrier protein (HPr∼P) and were equally potent activators of adenylyl cyclase. Neither the H90Q nor the H90E mutant of IIAGlc was phosphorylated by HPr∼P, and both failed to activate adenylyl cyclase. Furthermore, replacement of H75 by glutamate inhibited the appearance of a steady-state level of phosphorylation of H90 of this mutant protein by HPr∼P, yet the H75E mutant of IIAGlc was a partial activator of adenylyl cyclase. The H75E H90A double mutant, which cannot be phosphorylated, did not activate adenylyl cyclase. This suggests that the H75E mutant was transiently phosphorylated by HPr∼P but the steady-state level of the phosphorylated form of the mutant protein was decreased due to the repulsive forces of the negatively charged glutamate at position 75 in the catalytic pocket. These results are discussed in the context of the proximity of H75 and H90 in the IIAGlc structure and the disposition of the negative charge in the modeled glutamate mutants. PMID:9457881

  13. A fast method for analyzing essential protein mutants in human cells.

    PubMed

    Dietsch, Frank; Donzeau, Mariel; Cordonnier, Agnes M; Weiss, Etienne; Chatton, Bruno; Vigneron, Marc

    2017-02-01

    Here we developed a complementation method for the study of essential genes in live human cells using the CRISPR/Cas9 system. Proteins encoded by essential genes were expressed using a derivative of the pCEP4 compensating plasmid in combination with Cas9 endonuclease targeting of the chromosomal genes. We show that this strategy can be applied to essential genes, such as those coding for proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and DNA polymerase delta subunit 2 (POLD2). As demonstrated for the PCNA protein, our method allows mutational analysis of essential protein-coding sequences in live cells.

  14. Alpha-Synuclein Proteins Promote Pro-Inflammatory Cascades in Microglia: Stronger Effects of the A53T Mutant

    PubMed Central

    Hoenen, Claire; Gustin, Audrey; Birck, Cindy; Kirchmeyer, Mélanie; Beaume, Nicolas; Felten, Paul; Grandbarbe, Luc; Heuschling, Paul; Heurtaux, Tony

    2016-01-01

    Parkinson’s disease (PD) is histologically described by the deposition of α-synuclein, whose accumulation in Lewy bodies causes dopaminergic neuronal death. Although most of PD cases are sporadic, point mutations of the gene encoding the α-synuclein protein cause inherited forms of PD. There are currently six known point mutations that result in familial PD. Oxidative stress and neuroinflammation have also been described as early events associated with dopaminergic neuronal degeneration in PD. Though it is known that microglia are activated by wild-type α-synuclein, little is known about its mutated forms and the signaling cascades responsible for this microglial activation. The present study was designed to investigate consequences of wild-type and mutant α-synuclein (A53T, A30P and E46K) exposure on microglial reactivity. Interestingly, we described that α-synuclein-induced microglial reactivity appeared to be peptide-dependent. Indeed, the A53T protein activated more strongly microglia than the wild-type α-synuclein and other mutants. This A53T-induced microglial reactivity mechanism was found to depend on phosphorylation mechanisms mediated by MAPKs and on successive NFkB/AP-1/Nrf2 pathways activation. These results suggest that the microgliosis intensity during PD might depend on the type of α-synuclein protein implicated. Indeed, mutated forms are more potent microglial stimulators than wild-type α-synuclein. Based on these data, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant therapeutic strategies may be valid in order to reduce microgliosis but also to subsequently slow down PD progression, especially in familial cases. PMID:27622765

  15. Fragile X-like behaviors and abnormal cortical dendritic spines in cytoplasmic FMR1-interacting protein 2-mutant mice.

    PubMed

    Han, Kihoon; Chen, Hogmei; Gennarino, Vincenzo A; Richman, Ronald; Lu, Hui-Chen; Zoghbi, Huda Y

    2015-04-01

    Silencing of fragile X mental retardation 1 (FMR1) gene and loss of fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP) cause fragile X syndrome (FXS), a genetic disorder characterized by intellectual disability and autistic behaviors. FMRP is an mRNA-binding protein regulating neuronal translation of target mRNAs. Abnormalities in actin-rich dendritic spines are major neuronal features in FXS, but the molecular mechanism and identity of FMRP targets mediating this phenotype remain largely unknown. Cytoplasmic FMR1-interacting protein 2 (Cyfip2) was identified as an interactor of FMRP, and its mRNA is a highly ranked FMRP target in mouse brain. Importantly, Cyfip2 is a component of WAVE regulatory complex, a key regulator of actin cytoskeleton, suggesting that Cyfip2 could be implicated in the dendritic spine phenotype of FXS. Here, we generated and characterized Cyfip2-mutant (Cyfip2(+/-)) mice. We found that Cyfip2(+/-) mice exhibited behavioral phenotypes similar to Fmr1-null (Fmr1(-/y)) mice, an animal model of FXS. Synaptic plasticity and dendritic spines were normal in Cyfip2(+/-) hippocampus. However, dendritic spines were altered in Cyfip2(+/-) cortex, and the dendritic spine phenotype of Fmr1(-/y) cortex was aggravated in Fmr1(-/y); Cyfip2(+/-) double-mutant mice. In addition to the spine changes at basal state, metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGluR)-induced dendritic spine regulation was impaired in both Fmr1(-/y) and Cyfip2(+/-) cortical neurons. Mechanistically, mGluR activation induced mRNA translation-dependent increase of Cyfip2 in wild-type cortical neurons, but not in Fmr1(-/y) or Cyfip2(+/-) neurons. These results suggest that misregulation of Cyfip2 function and its mGluR-induced expression contribute to the neurobehavioral phenotypes of FXS.

  16. Photosystem II Repair and Plant Immunity: Lessons Learned from Arabidopsis Mutant Lacking the THYLAKOID LUMEN PROTEIN 18.3

    PubMed Central

    Järvi, Sari; Isojärvi, Janne; Kangasjärvi, Saijaliisa; Salojärvi, Jarkko; Mamedov, Fikret; Suorsa, Marjaana; Aro, Eva-Mari

    2016-01-01

    Chloroplasts play an important role in the cellular sensing of abiotic and biotic stress. Signals originating from photosynthetic light reactions, in the form of redox and pH changes, accumulation of reactive oxygen and electrophile species or stromal metabolites are of key importance in chloroplast retrograde signaling. These signals initiate plant acclimation responses to both abiotic and biotic stresses. To reveal the molecular responses activated by rapid fluctuations in growth light intensity, gene expression analysis was performed with Arabidopsis thaliana wild type and the tlp18.3 mutant plants, the latter showing a stunted growth phenotype under fluctuating light conditions (Biochem. J, 406, 415–425). Expression pattern of genes encoding components of the photosynthetic electron transfer chain did not differ between fluctuating and constant light conditions, neither in wild type nor in tlp18.3 plants, and the composition of the thylakoid membrane protein complexes likewise remained unchanged. Nevertheless, the fluctuating light conditions repressed in wild-type plants a broad spectrum of genes involved in immune responses, which likely resulted from shade-avoidance responses and their intermixing with hormonal signaling. On the contrary, in the tlp18.3 mutant plants there was an imperfect repression of defense-related transcripts upon growth under fluctuating light, possibly by signals originating from minor malfunction of the photosystem II (PSII) repair cycle, which directly or indirectly modulated the transcript abundances of genes related to light perception via phytochromes. Consequently, a strong allocation of resources to defense reactions in the tlp18.3 mutant plants presumably results in the stunted growth phenotype under fluctuating light. PMID:27064270

  17. Huntingtin-associated protein 1 (HAP1) interacts with androgen receptor (AR) and suppresses SBMA-mutant-AR-induced apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Takeshita, Yukio; Fujinaga, Ryutaro; Zhao, Changjiu; Yanai, Akie; Shinoda, Koh

    2006-08-01

    Huntingtin-associated protein 1 (HAP1), an interactor of huntingtin, has been known as an essential component of the stigmoid body (STB) and recently reported to play a protective role against neurodegeneration in Huntington's disease (HD). In the present study, subcellular association between HAP1 and androgen receptor (AR) with a long polyglutamine tract (polyQ) derived from spinal-and-bulbar-muscular-atrophy (SBMA) was examined using HEp-2 cells cotransfected with HAP1 and/or normal ARQ25, SBMA-mutant ARQ65 or deletion-mutant AR cDNAs. The results provided the first clear evidence that HAP1 interacts with AR through its ligand-binding domain in a polyQ-length-dependent manner and forms prominent inclusions sequestering polyQ-AR, and that addition of dihydrotestosterone reduces the association strength of HAP1 with ARQ25 more dramatically than that with ARQ65. Furthermore, SBMA-mutant-ARQ65-induced apoptosis was suppressed by cotransfection with HAP1. Our findings strongly suggest that HAP1/STB is relevant to polyQ-length-dependent modification on subcellular AR functions and critically involved in pathogenesis of not only HD but also SBMA as an important intrinsic neuroprotectant determining the threshold for cellular vulnerability to apoptosis. Taking together with previous reports that HAP1/STB is selectively expressed in the brain regions spared from degenerative targets in HD and SBMA, the current study might explain the region-specific occurrence of neurodegeneration in both diseases, shedding light on common aspects of their molecular pathological mechanism and yet-to-be-uncovered diagnostic or therapeutic applications for HD and SBMA patients.

  18. Valosin-containing protein (VCP/p97) inhibitors relieve Mitofusin-dependent mitochondrial defects due to VCP disease mutants

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ting; Mishra, Prashant; Hay, Bruce A; Chan, David; Guo, Ming

    2017-01-01

    Missense mutations of valosin-containing protein (VCP) cause an autosomal dominant disease known as inclusion body myopathy, Paget disease with frontotemporal dementia (IBMPFD) and other neurodegenerative disorders. The pathological mechanism of IBMPFD is not clear and there is no treatment. We show that endogenous VCP negatively regulates Mitofusin, which is required for outer mitochondrial membrane fusion. Because 90% of IBMPFD patients have myopathy, we generated an in vivo IBMPFD model in adult Drosophila muscle, which recapitulates disease pathologies. We show that common VCP disease mutants act as hyperactive alleles with respect to regulation of Mitofusin. Importantly, VCP inhibitors suppress mitochondrial defects, muscle tissue damage and cell death associated with IBMPFD models in Drosophila. These inhibitors also suppress mitochondrial fusion and respiratory defects in IBMPFD patient fibroblasts. These results suggest that VCP disease mutants cause IBMPFD through a gain-of-function mechanism, and that VCP inhibitors have therapeutic value. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.17834.001 PMID:28322724

  19. An antibody raised against a pathogenic serpin variant induces mutant-like behaviour in the wild-type protein

    PubMed Central

    Irving, James A.; Miranda, Elena; Haq, Imran; Perez, Juan; Kotov, Vadim R.; Faull, Sarah V.; Motamedi-Shad, Neda; Lomas, David A.

    2015-01-01

    A monoclonal antibody (mAb) that binds to a transient intermediate may act as a catalyst for the corresponding reaction; here we show this principle can extend on a macro molecular scale to the induction of mutant-like oligomerization in a wild-type protein. Using the common pathogenic E342K (Z) variant of α1-antitrypsin as antigen–whose native state is susceptible to the formation of a proto-oligomeric intermediate–we have produced a mAb (5E3) that increases the rate of oligomerization of the wild-type (M) variant. Employing ELISA, gel shift, thermal stability and FRET time-course experiments, we show that mAb5E3 does not bind to the native state of α1-antitrypsin, but recognizes a cryptic epitope in the vicinity of the post-helix A loop and strand 4C that is revealed upon transition to the polymerization intermediate, and which persists in the ensuing oligomer. This epitope is not shared by loop-inserted monomeric conformations. We show the increased amenity to polymerization by either the pathogenic E342K mutation or the binding of mAb5E3 occurs without affecting the energetic barrier to polymerization. As mAb5E3 also does not alter the relative stability of the monomer to intermediate, it acts in a manner similar to the E342K mutant, by facilitating the conformational interchange between these two states. PMID:25738741

  20. Deciphering the Dynamics of Non-Covalent Interactions Affecting Thermal Stability of a Protein: Molecular Dynamics Study on Point Mutant of Thermus thermophilus Isopropylmalate Dehydrogenase.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Reetu; Sastry, G Narahari

    2015-01-01

    Thermus thermophilius isopropylmalate dehydrogenase catalyzes oxidative decarboxylation and dehydrogenation of isopropylmalate. Substitution of leucine to alanine at position 172 enhances the thermal stability among the known point mutants. Exploring the dynamic properties of non-covalent interactions such as saltbridges, hydrogen bonds and hydrophobic interactions to explain thermal stability of a protein is interesting in its own right. In this study dynamic changes in the non-covalent interactions are studied to decipher the deterministic features of thermal stability of a protein considering a case study of a point mutant in Thermus thermophilus isopropylmalate dehydrogenase. A total of four molecular dynamic simulations of 0.2 μs were carried out on wild type and mutant's functional dimers at 300 K and 337 K. Higher thermal stability of the mutant as compared to wild type is revealed by root mean square deviation, root mean square fluctuations and Cα-Cα distance with an increase in temperature from 300 K to 337 K. Most of the regions of wild type fluctuate higher than the corresponding regions of mutant with an increase in temperature. Cα-Cα distance analysis suggests that long distance networks are significantly affected in wild type as compared to the mutant. Short lived contacts are higher in wild type, while long lived contacts are lost at 337 K. The mutant forms less hydrogen bonds with water as compared to wild type at 337 K. In contrast to wild type, the mutant shows significant increase in unique saltbridges, hydrogen bonds and hydrophobic contacts at 337 K. The current study indicates that there is a strong inter-dependence of thermal stability on the way in which non-covalent interactions reorganize, and it is rewarding to explore this connection in single mutant studies.

  1. Importance of mutant position in Ramachandran plot for predicting protein stability of surface mutations.

    PubMed

    Gromiha, M Michael; Oobatake, Motohisa; Kono, Hidetoshi; Uedaira, Hatsuho; Sarai, Akinori

    2002-08-05

    Understanding the mechanisms by which mutations affect protein stability is one of the most important problems in molecular biology. In this work, we analyzed the relationship between changes in protein stability caused by surface mutations and changes in 49 physicochemical, energetic, and conformational properties of amino acid residues. We found that the hydration entropy was the major contributor to the stability of surface mutations in helical segments; other properties responsible for size and volume of molecule also correlated significantly with stability. Classification of coil mutations based on their locations in the (phi-psi) map improved the correlation significantly, demonstrating the existence of a relationship between stability and strain energy, which indicates that the role of strain energy is very important for the stability of surface mutations. We observed that the inclusion of sequence and structural information raised the correlation, indicating the influence of surrounding residues on the stability of surface mutations. Further, we examined the previously reported "inverse relationship" between stability and hydrophobicity, and observed that the inverse hydrophobic effect was generally applicable only to coil mutations. The present study leads to a simple method for predicting protein stability changes caused by amino acid substitutions, which will be useful for protein engineering in designing novel proteins with increased stability and altered function.

  2. Cotton leaf curl Burewala virus with intact or mutant transcriptional activator proteins: complexity of cotton leaf curl disease.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Jitendra; Gunapati, Samatha; Alok, Anshu; Lalit, Adarsh; Gadre, Rekha; Sharma, Naresh C; Roy, Joy K; Singh, Sudhir P

    2015-05-01

    Cotton leaf curl disease (CLCuD) is a serious disease of cotton on the Indian subcontinent. In the present study, three cotton leaf curl viruses, cotton leaf curl Burewala virus (CLCuBuV), cotton leaf curl Kokhran virus (CLCuKoV) and cotton leaf curl Multan virus (CLCuMV), and their associated satellites, cotton leaf curl Multan betasatellite (CLCuMB) and cotton leaf curl Multan alphasatellite (CLCuMA), were detected. CLCuBuV with either intact (CLCuBuV-1) or mutant (CLCuBuV-2) transcriptional activator protein (TrAP) were detected in different plants. Agroinoculation with CLCuBuV-1 or CLCuBuV-2 together with CLCuMB and CLCuMA, resulted in typical leaf curling and stunting of tobacco plants. Inoculation with CLCuKoV or an isolate of CLCuMV (CLCuMV-2), together with CLCuMB and CLCuMA, induced severe leaf curling, while the other isolate of CLCuMV (CLCuMV-1), which was recombinant in origin, showed mild leaf curling in tobacco. To investigate the effect of intact or mutant TrAP and also the recombination events, CLCuBuV-1, CLCuBuV-2, CLCuMV-1 or CLCuMV-2 together with the satellites (CLCuMA and CLCuMB) were transferred to cotton via whitefly-mediated transmission. Cotton plants containing CLCuBuV-1, CLCuBuV-2 or CLCuMV-2 together with satellites showed curling and stunting, whereas the plants having CLCuMV-1 and the satellites showed only mild and indistinguishable symptoms. CLCuBuV-1 (intact TrAP) showed severe symptoms in comparison to CLCuBuV-2 (mutant TrAP). The present study reveals that two types of CLCuBuV, one with an intact TrAP and the other with a mutant TrAP, exist in natural infection of cotton in India. Additionally, CLCuMuV-1, which has a recombinant origin, induces mild symptoms in comparison to the other CLCuMV isolates.

  3. Room temperature crystal structure of the fast switching M159T mutant of the fluorescent protein dronpa.

    PubMed

    Kaucikas, Marius; Fitzpatrick, Ann; Bryan, Elana; Struve, Abelone; Henning, Robert; Kosheleva, Irina; Srajer, Vukica; Groenhof, Gerrit; Van Thor, Jasper J

    2015-03-01

    The fluorescent protein Dronpa undergoes reversible photoswitching reactions between the bright "on" and dark "off" states via photoisomerization and proton transfer reactions. We report the room temperature crystal structure of the fast switching Met159Thr mutant of Dronpa at 2.0-Å resolution in the bright on state. Structural differences with the wild type include shifted backbone positions of strand β8 containing Thr159 as well as an altered A-C dimer interface involving strands β7, β8, β10, and β11. The Met159Thr mutation increases the cavity volume for the p-hydroxybenzylidene-imidazolinone chromophore as a result of both the side chain difference and the backbone positional differences.

  4. Two Subclasses of Kaposi's Sarcoma-Associated Herpesvirus Lytic Cycle Promoters Distinguished by Open Reading Frame 50 Mutant Proteins That Are Deficient in Binding to DNA

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Pey-Jium; Shedd, Duane; Miller, George

    2005-01-01

    A transcriptional activator encoded in open reading frame 50 (ORF50) of the Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) genome initiates the viral lytic cycle. Here we classify four lytic cycle genes on the basis of several characteristics of the ORF50 response elements (ORF50 REs) in their promoters: nucleotide sequence homology, the capacity to bind ORF50 protein in vitro, the ability to bind the cellular protein RBP-Jκ in vitro, and the capacity to confer activation by DNA binding-deficient mutants of ORF50 protein. ORF50 expressed in human cells binds the promoters of PAN and K12 but does not bind ORF57 or vMIP-1 promoters. Conversely, the RBP-Jκ protein binds ORF57 and vMIP-1 but not PAN or K12 promoters. DNA binding-deficient mutants of ORF50 protein differentiate these two subclasses of promoters in reporter assays; the PAN and K12 promoters cannot be activated, while the ORF57 and vMIP-1 promoters are responsive. Although DNA binding-deficient mutants of ORF50 protein are defective in activating direct targets, they are nonetheless capable of activating the lytic cascade of KSHV. Significantly, DNA binding-deficient ORF50 mutants are competent to autostimulate expression of endogenous ORF50 and to autoactivate ORF50 promoter reporters. The experiments show that ORF50 protein activates downstream targets by at least two distinct mechanisms: one involves direct binding of ORF50 REs in promoter DNA; the other mechanism employs interactions with the RBP-Jκ cellular protein bound to promoter DNA in the region of the ORF50 RE. The DNA binding-deficient mutants allow classification of ORF50-responsive genes and will facilitate study of the several distinct mechanisms of activation of KSHV lytic cycle genes that are under the control of ORF50 protein. PMID:15994769

  5. Two subclasses of Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus lytic cycle promoters distinguished by open reading frame 50 mutant proteins that are deficient in binding to DNA.

    PubMed

    Chang, Pey-Jium; Shedd, Duane; Miller, George

    2005-07-01

    A transcriptional activator encoded in open reading frame 50 (ORF50) of the Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) genome initiates the viral lytic cycle. Here we classify four lytic cycle genes on the basis of several characteristics of the ORF50 response elements (ORF50 REs) in their promoters: nucleotide sequence homology, the capacity to bind ORF50 protein in vitro, the ability to bind the cellular protein RBP-Jkappa in vitro, and the capacity to confer activation by DNA binding-deficient mutants of ORF50 protein. ORF50 expressed in human cells binds the promoters of PAN and K12 but does not bind ORF57 or vMIP-1 promoters. Conversely, the RBP-Jkappa protein binds ORF57 and vMIP-1 but not PAN or K12 promoters. DNA binding-deficient mutants of ORF50 protein differentiate these two subclasses of promoters in reporter assays; the PAN and K12 promoters cannot be activated, while the ORF57 and vMIP-1 promoters are responsive. Although DNA binding-deficient mutants of ORF50 protein are defective in activating direct targets, they are nonetheless capable of activating the lytic cascade of KSHV. Significantly, DNA binding-deficient ORF50 mutants are competent to autostimulate expression of endogenous ORF50 and to autoactivate ORF50 promoter reporters. The experiments show that ORF50 protein activates downstream targets by at least two distinct mechanisms: one involves direct binding of ORF50 REs in promoter DNA; the other mechanism employs interactions with the RBP-Jkappa cellular protein bound to promoter DNA in the region of the ORF50 RE. The DNA binding-deficient mutants allow classification of ORF50-responsive genes and will facilitate study of the several distinct mechanisms of activation of KSHV lytic cycle genes that are under the control of ORF50 protein.

  6. Phenotypic differences in PFIC2 and BRIC2 correlate with protein stability of mutant Bsep and impaired taurocholate secretion in MDCK II cells.

    PubMed

    Kagawa, Tatehiro; Watanabe, Norihito; Mochizuki, Kaori; Numari, Asano; Ikeno, Yoshie; Itoh, Johbu; Tanaka, Hirotoshi; Arias, Irwin M; Mine, Tetsuya

    2008-01-01

    Progressive familial cholestasis (PFIC) 2 and benign recurrent intrahepatic cholestasis (BRIC) 2 are caused by mutations in the bile salt export pump (BSEP, ABCB11) gene; however, their prognosis differs. PFIC2 progresses to cirrhosis and requires liver transplantation, whereas BRIC2 is clinically benign. To identify the molecular mechanism(s) responsible for the phenotypic differences, eight PFIC2 and two BRIC2 mutations were introduced in rat Bsep, which was transfected in MDCK II cells. Taurocholate transport activity, protein expression, and subcellular distribution of these mutant proteins were studied in a polarized MDCK II monolayer. The taurocholate transport activity was approximately half of the wild-type (WT) in BRIC2 mutants (A570T and R1050C), was substantially less in two PFIC2 mutants (D482G and E297G), and was almost abolished in six other PFIC2 mutants (K461E, G982R, R1153C, R1268Q, 3767-3768insC, and R1057X). Bsep protein expression levels correlated closely with transport activity, except for R1057X. The half-life of the D482G mutant was shorter than that of the WT (1.35 h vs. 3.49 h in the mature form). BRIC2 mutants and three PFIC mutants (D482G, E297G, and R1057X) were predominantly distributed in the apical membrane. The other PFIC2 mutants remained intracellular. The R1057X mutant protein was stably expressed and trafficked to the apical membrane, suggesting that the COOH-terminal tail is required for transport activity but not for correct targeting. In conclusion, taurocholate transport function was impaired in proportion to rapid degradation of Bsep protein in the mutants, which were aligned in the following order: A570T and R1050C > D482G > E297G > K461E, G982R, R1153C, R1268Q, 3767-3768insC, and R1057X. These results may explain the phenotypic difference between BRIC2 and PFIC2.

  7. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of D53H mutant Escherichia coli cAMP receptor protein.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jing; Wu, Tong; Guo, Zheng; Lou, Tiantian; Yu, Shaoning; Gong, Weimin; Ji, Chaoneng

    2013-12-01

    The Escherichia coli cyclic AMP receptor protein (CRP) is a prokaryotic global transcription activator protein that controls the expression of many different genes. Wild-type CRP can bind to special DNA sequences in the presence of cAMP. The substitution of Asp53 by His results in the CRP* phenotype, which does not require exogenous cAMP. In the present study, the D53H CRP mutant was overexpressed, purified and crystallized. cAMP-free D53H CRP crystals were obtained and diffracted to a resolution of 2.9 Å. Based on the systematic absences of the crystals, the space group is likely to be P2(1)2(1)2(1), with unit-cell parameters a = 76.66, b = 152.14, c = 176.11 Å. The asymmetric unit was confirmed to contain four protein dimers, with a Matthews coefficient of 2.71 Å(3) Da(-1) and a solvent content of 54.68%.

  8. Coexpression of the simian immunodeficiency virus Env and Rev proteins by a recombinant human adenovirus host range mutant.

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, S M; Lee, S G; Ronchetti-Blume, M; Virk, K P; Mizutani, S; Eichberg, J W; Davis, A; Hung, P P; Hirsch, V M; Chanock, R M

    1992-01-01

    Recombinant human adenoviruses (Ads) that replicate in the intestinal tract offer a novel, yet practical, means of immunoprophylaxis against a wide variety of viral and bacterial pathogens. For some infectious agents such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), the potential for residual infectious material in vaccine preparations must be eliminated. Therefore, recombinant human Ads that express noninfectious HIV or other microbial proteins are attractive vaccine candidates. To test such an approach for HIV, we chose an experimental model of AIDS based on simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) infection of macaques. Our data demonstrate that the SIV Env gene products are expressed in cultured cells after infection with a recombinant Ad containing both SIV env and rev genes. An E3 deletion vector derived from a mutant of human Ad serotype 5 that efficiently replicates in both human and monkey cells was used to bypass the usual host range restriction of Ad infection. In addition, we show that the SIV rev gene is properly spliced from a single SIV subgenomic DNA fragment and that the Rev protein is expressed in recombinant Ad-SIV-infected human as well as monkey cells. The expression of SIV gene products in suitable live Ad vectors provides an excellent system for studying the regulation of SIV gene expression in cultured cells and evaluating the immunogenicity and protective efficacy of SIV proteins in macaques. Images PMID:1404612

  9. Strong morphological defects in conditional Arabidopsis abp1 knock-down mutants generated in absence of functional ABP1 protein

    PubMed Central

    Perrot-Rechenmann, Catherine; Friml, Jiří

    2016-01-01

    The Auxin Binding Protein 1 (ABP1) is one of the most studied proteins in plants. Since decades ago, it has been the prime receptor candidate for the plant hormone auxin with a plethora of described functions in auxin signaling and development. The developmental importance of ABP1 has recently been questioned by identification of Arabidopsis thaliana abp1 knock-out alleles that show no obvious phenotypes under normal growth conditions. In this study, we examined the contradiction between the normal growth and development of the abp1 knock-outs and the strong morphological defects observed in three different ethanol-inducible abp1 knock-down mutants ( abp1-AS, SS12K, SS12S). By analyzing segregating populations of abp1 knock-out vs. abp1 knock-down crosses we show that the strong morphological defects that were believed to be the result of conditional down-regulation of ABP1 can be reproduced also in the absence of the functional ABP1 protein. This data suggests that the phenotypes in  abp1 knock-down lines are due to the off-target effects and asks for further reflections on the biological function of ABP1 or alternative explanations for the missing phenotypic defects in the abp1 loss-of-function alleles. PMID:26925228

  10. Dataset of differentially regulated proteins in HUVECs challenged with wild type and UGM1 mutant Aspergillus fumigatus strains.

    PubMed

    Neves, Gabriela Westerlund Peixoto; Curty, Nathália; Kubitschek-Barreira, Paula Helena; Fontaine, Thierry; Souza, Gustavo Henrique Martins Ferreira; Cunha, Marcel Lyra; Goldman, Gustavo H; Beauvais, Anne; Latgé, Jean-Paul; Lopes-Bezerra, Leila M

    2016-12-01

    Invasive aspergillosis is the primary opportunistic invasive fungal infection described in neutropenic hematologic patients, caused by the angioinvasive pathogen Aspergillus fumigatus. The molecular mechanisms associated with A. fumigatus infection in the vascular endothelium are poorly understood. In this context, we used a high-throughput proteomic approach to unveil the proteins modulated in HUVECs after interaction with a wild type strain and the UGM1 mutant (Δugm1) of A. fumigatus. The proteomic analysis was also performed in HUVECs challenged with a galactosaminogalactan (GAG) purified from A. fumigatus cell wall. The dataset presented here correspond to all proteins identified that fit a 2-fold change criteria (log 2 ratio ≥ 1 or ≤ -1), disregarding the statistical validation cut off, in order to supplement the research article entitled "Modifications to the composition of the hyphal outer layer of Aspergillus fumigatus modulates the HUVEC proteins associated with inflammatory and stress responses" (G.W.P. Neves, N.A. Curty, P.H. Kubitschek-Barreira, T. Fontaine, G.H.M.F. Souza, M. Lyra Cunha, G.H. Goldman, A. Beauvais, J.P. Latgé, L.M. Lopes-Bezerra, 2016) [1]. The mass spectrometry proteomic data have been deposited in the ProteomeXchange Consortium via the PRIDE partner repository with the dataset identifier PRIDE: PXD002823.

  11. Blue light is required for survival of the tomato phytochrome-deficient aurea mutant and the expression of four nuclear genes coding for plastidic proteins.

    PubMed

    Oelmüller, R; Kendrick, R E

    1991-02-01

    When dark-grown aurea mutant tomato seedlings which lack more than 95% of the phytochrome present in isogenic wild-type seedlings are kept in white or blue light, four nuclear-encoded transcripts coding for plastidic proteins (the light-harvesting chlorophyll a/b-binding protein of photosystem I and II [cab-PSII], plastocyanin and subunit 2 of photosystem I) are present in comparable amounts. These transcript levels in red light are strongly reduced in aurea seedlings when compared with those of wild type. Thus, blue light is required for normal expression of these genes in the mutant, while red light alone is not sufficient. Red light-grown aurea seedlings are very sensitive to blue light, even 10 minutes of blue light every day suffices to cause a measurable increase in cab-PSII transcript level. The action of blue light on the expression of cab-PSII in the mutant is under phytochrome control. After 8 days of blue light, phytochrome is almost as effective in inducing cab-PSII mRNA as in the isogenic wild type, whereas after 8 days of red light, only a small phytochrome response was observed in the mutant. It is concluded that blue light sensitizes the mutant to the residual phytochrome which allows normal gene expression and survival of the mutant under daylight conditions.

  12. A hyperfusogenic F protein enhances the oncolytic potency of a paramyxovirus simian virus 5 P/V mutant without compromising sensitivity to type I interferon.

    PubMed

    Gainey, Maria D; Manuse, Mary J; Parks, Griffith D

    2008-10-01

    Viral fusogenic membrane proteins have been proposed as tools to increase the potency of oncolytic viruses, but there is a need for mechanisms to control the spread of fusogenic viruses in normal versus tumor cells. We have previously shown that a mutant of the paramyxovirus simian virus 5 (SV5) that harbors mutations in the P/V gene from the canine parainfluenza virus (P/V-CPI(-)) is a potent inducer of type I interferon (IFN) and apoptosis and is restricted for spread through normal but not tumor cells in vitro. Here, we have used the cytopathic P/V-CPI(-) as a backbone vector to test the hypothesis that a virus expressing a hyperfusogenic glycoprotein will be a more effective oncolytic vector but will retain sensitivity to IFN. A P/V mutant virus expressing an F protein with a glycine-to-alanine substitution in the fusion peptide (P/V-CPI(-)-G3A) was more fusogenic than the parental P/V-CPI(-) mutant. In two model prostate tumor cell lines which are defective in IFN production (LNCaP and DU145), the hyperfusogenic P/V-CPI(-)-G3A mutant had normal growth properties at low multiplicities of infection and was more effective than the parental P/V-CPI(-) mutant at cell killing in vitro. However, in PC3 cells which produce and respond to IFN, the hyperfusogenic P/V-CPI(-)-G3A mutant was attenuated for growth and spread. Killing of PC3 cells was equivalent between the parental P/V-CPI(-) mutant and the hyperfusogenic P/V-CPI(-)-G3A mutant. In a nude mouse model using LNCaP cells, the hyperfusogenic P/V-CPI(-)-G3A mutant was more effective than P/V-CPI(-) at reducing tumor burden. In the case of DU145 tumors, the two vectors based on P/V-CPI(-) were equally effective at limiting tumor growth. Together, our results provide proof of principle that a cytopathic SV5 P/V mutant can serve as an oncolytic virus and that the oncolytic effectiveness of P/V mutants can be enhanced by a fusogenic membrane protein without compromising sensitivity to IFN. The potential advantages of

  13. Protein Kinase C Inhibitors Sensitize GNAQ Mutant Uveal Melanoma Cells to Ionizing Radiation

    PubMed Central

    Cerne, Jasmina Ziva; Hartig, Sean Michael; Hamilton, Mark Patrick; Chew, Sue Anne; Mitsiades, Nicholas; Poulaki, Vassiliki; McGuire, Sean Eric

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. Uveal melanoma (UM) tumors require large doses of radiation therapy (RT) to achieve tumor ablation, which frequently results in damage to adjacent normal tissues, leading to vision-threatening complications. Approximately 50% of UM patients present with activating somatic mutations in the gene encoding for G protein αq-subunit (GNAQ), which lead to constitutive activation of downstream pathways, including protein kinase C (PKC). In this study, we investigated the impact of small-molecule PKC inhibitors bisindolylmaleimide I (BIM) and sotrastaurin (AEB071), combined with ionizing radiation (IR), on survival in melanoma cell lines. Methods. Cellular radiosensitivity was determined by using a combination of proliferation, viability, and clonogenic assays. Cell-cycle effects were measured by flow cytometry. Transcriptomic and proteomic profiling were performed by quantitative real-time PCR, reverse-phase protein array analysis, and immunofluorescence. Results. We found that the PKC inhibitors combined with IR significantly decreased the viability, proliferation, and clonogenic potential of GNAQmt, but not GNAQwt/BRAFmt cells, compared with IR alone. Combined treatment increased the antiproliferative and proapoptotic effects of IR in GNAQmt cells through delayed DNA-damage resolution and enhanced induction of proteins involved in cell-cycle arrest, cell-growth arrest, and apoptosis. Conclusions. Our preclinical results suggest that combined modality treatment may allow for reductions in the total RT dose and/or fraction size, which may lead to better functional organ preservation in the treatment of primary GNAQmt UM. These findings suggest future clinical trials combining PKC inhibitors with RT in GNAQmt UM warrant consideration. PMID:24595385

  14. Deciphering the Dynamics of Non-Covalent Interactions Affecting Thermal Stability of a Protein: Molecular Dynamics Study on Point Mutant of Thermus thermophilus Isopropylmalate Dehydrogenase

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Reetu; Sastry, G. Narahari

    2015-01-01

    Thermus thermophilius isopropylmalate dehydrogenase catalyzes oxidative decarboxylation and dehydrogenation of isopropylmalate. Substitution of leucine to alanine at position 172 enhances the thermal stability among the known point mutants. Exploring the dynamic properties of non-covalent interactions such as saltbridges, hydrogen bonds and hydrophobic interactions to explain thermal stability of a protein is interesting in its own right. In this study dynamic changes in the non-covalent interactions are studied to decipher the deterministic features of thermal stability of a protein considering a case study of a point mutant in Thermus thermophilus isopropylmalate dehydrogenase. A total of four molecular dynamic simulations of 0.2 μs were carried out on wild type and mutant’s functional dimers at 300 K and 337 K. Higher thermal stability of the mutant as compared to wild type is revealed by root mean square deviation, root mean square fluctuations and Cα-Cα distance with an increase in temperature from 300 K to 337 K. Most of the regions of wild type fluctuate higher than the corresponding regions of mutant with an increase in temperature. Cα-Cα distance analysis suggests that long distance networks are significantly affected in wild type as compared to the mutant. Short lived contacts are higher in wild type, while long lived contacts are lost at 337 K. The mutant forms less hydrogen bonds with water as compared to wild type at 337 K. In contrast to wild type, the mutant shows significant increase in unique saltbridges, hydrogen bonds and hydrophobic contacts at 337 K. The current study indicates that there is a strong inter-dependence of thermal stability on the way in which non-covalent interactions reorganize, and it is rewarding to explore this connection in single mutant studies. PMID:26657745

  15. Accumulation of mutant alpha1-antitrypsin Z in the endoplasmic reticulum activates caspases-4 and -12, NFkappaB, and BAP31 but not the unfolded protein response.

    PubMed

    Hidvegi, Tunda; Schmidt, Bela Z; Hale, Pamela; Perlmutter, David H

    2005-11-25

    In alpha(1)-antitrypsin (alpha1AT) deficiency, a polymerogenic mutant form of the secretory glycoprotein alpha1AT, alpha1ATZ, is retained in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) of liver cells. It is not yet known how this results in liver injury in a subgroup of deficient individuals and how the remainder of deficient individuals escapes liver disease. One possible explanation is that the "susceptible" subgroup is unable to mount the appropriate protective cellular responses. Here we examined the effect of mutant alpha1ATZ on several potential protective signaling pathways by using cell lines with inducible expression of mutant alpha1AT as well as liver from transgenic mice with liver-specific inducible expression of mutant alpha1AT. The results show that ER retention of polymerogenic mutant alpha1ATZ does not result in an unfolded protein response (UPR). The UPR can be induced in the presence of alpha1ATZ by tunicamycin excluding the possibility that the pathway has been disabled. In striking contrast, ER retention of nonpolymerogenic alpha1AT mutants does induce the UPR. These results indicate that the machinery responsible for activation of the UPR can distinguish the physical characteristics of proteins that accumulate in the ER in such a way that it can respond to misfolded but not relatively ordered polymeric structures. Accumulation of mutant alpha1ATZ does activate specific signaling pathways, including caspase-12 in mouse, caspase-4 in human, NFkappaB, and BAP31, a profile that was distinct from that activated by nonpolymerogenic alpha1AT mutants.

  16. Structural analysis of site-directed mutants of cellular retinoic acid-binding protein II addresses the relationship between structural integrity and ligand binding

    SciTech Connect

    Vaezeslami, Soheila; Jia, Xiaofei; Vasileiou, Chrysoula; Borhan, Babak; Geiger, James H.

    2008-12-01

    A water network stabilizes the structure of cellular retionic acid binding protein II. The structural integrity of cellular retinoic acid-binding protein II (CRABPII) has been investigated using the crystal structures of CRABPII mutants. The overall fold was well maintained by these CRABPII mutants, each of which carried multiple different mutations. A water-mediated network is found to be present across the large binding cavity, extending from Arg111 deep inside the cavity to the α2 helix at its entrance. This chain of interactions acts as a ‘pillar’ that maintains the integrity of the protein. The disruption of the water network upon loss of Arg111 leads to decreased structural integrity of the protein. A water-mediated network can be re-established by introducing the hydrophilic Glu121 inside the cavity, which results in a rigid protein with the α2 helix adopting an altered conformation compared with wild-type CRABPII.

  17. Tlr4-mutant mice are resistant to acute alcohol-induced sterol-regulatory element binding protein activation and hepatic lipid accumulation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhi-Hui; Liu, Xiao-Qian; Zhang, Cheng; He, Wei; Wang, Hua; Chen, Yuan-Hua; Liu, Xiao-Jing; Chen, Xi; Xu, De-Xiang

    2016-09-15

    Previous studies demonstrated that acute alcohol intoxication caused hepatic lipid accumulation. The present study showed that acute alcohol intoxication caused hepatic lipid accumulation in Tlr4-wild-type mice but not in Tlr4-mutant mice. Hepatic sterol-regulatory element binding protein (SREBP)-1, a transcription factor regulating fatty acid and triglyceride (TG) synthesis, was activated in alcohol-treated Tlr4-wild-type mice but not in Tlr4-mutant mice. Hepatic Fas, Acc, Scd-1 and Dgat-2, the key genes for fatty acid and TG synthesis, were up-regulated in alcohol-treated Tlr4-wild-type mice but not in Tlr4-mutant mice. Additional experiment showed that hepatic MyD88 was elevated in alcohol-treated Tlr4-wild-type mice but not in Tlr4-mutant mice. Hepatic NF-κB was activated in alcohol-treated Tlr4-wild-type mice but not in Tlr4-mutant mice. Moreover, hepatic GSH content was reduced and hepatic MDA level was elevated in alcohol-treated Tlr4-wild-type mice but not in Tlr4-mutant mice. Hepatic CYP2E1 was elevated in alcohol-treated Tlr4-wild-type mice but not in Tlr4-mutant mice. Hepatic p67phox and gp91phox, two NADPH oxidase subunits, were up-regulated in alcohol-treated Tlr4-wild-type mice but not in Tlr4-mutant mice. Alpha-phenyl-N-t-butylnitrone (PBN), a free radical spin-trapping agent, protected against alcohol-induced hepatic SREBP-1 activation and hepatic lipid accumulation. In conclusion, Tlr4-mutant mice are resistant to acute alcohol-induced hepatic SREBP-1 activation and hepatic lipid accumulation.

  18. Tlr4-mutant mice are resistant to acute alcohol-induced sterol-regulatory element binding protein activation and hepatic lipid accumulation

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zhi-Hui; Liu, Xiao-Qian; Zhang, Cheng; He, Wei; Wang, Hua; Chen, Yuan-Hua; Liu, Xiao-Jing; Chen, Xi; Xu, De-Xiang

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies demonstrated that acute alcohol intoxication caused hepatic lipid accumulation. The present study showed that acute alcohol intoxication caused hepatic lipid accumulation in Tlr4-wild-type mice but not in Tlr4-mutant mice. Hepatic sterol-regulatory element binding protein (SREBP)-1, a transcription factor regulating fatty acid and triglyceride (TG) synthesis, was activated in alcohol-treated Tlr4-wild-type mice but not in Tlr4-mutant mice. Hepatic Fas, Acc, Scd-1 and Dgat-2, the key genes for fatty acid and TG synthesis, were up-regulated in alcohol-treated Tlr4-wild-type mice but not in Tlr4-mutant mice. Additional experiment showed that hepatic MyD88 was elevated in alcohol-treated Tlr4-wild-type mice but not in Tlr4-mutant mice. Hepatic NF-κB was activated in alcohol-treated Tlr4-wild-type mice but not in Tlr4-mutant mice. Moreover, hepatic GSH content was reduced and hepatic MDA level was elevated in alcohol-treated Tlr4-wild-type mice but not in Tlr4-mutant mice. Hepatic CYP2E1 was elevated in alcohol-treated Tlr4-wild-type mice but not in Tlr4-mutant mice. Hepatic p67phox and gp91phox, two NADPH oxidase subunits, were up-regulated in alcohol-treated Tlr4-wild-type mice but not in Tlr4-mutant mice. Alpha-phenyl-N-t-butylnitrone (PBN), a free radical spin-trapping agent, protected against alcohol-induced hepatic SREBP-1 activation and hepatic lipid accumulation. In conclusion, Tlr4-mutant mice are resistant to acute alcohol-induced hepatic SREBP-1 activation and hepatic lipid accumulation. PMID:27627966

  19. Suppression of the novel ER protein Maxer by mutant ataxin-1 in Bergman glia contributes to non-cell-autonomous toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Shiwaku, Hiroki; Yoshimura, Natsue; Tamura, Takuya; Sone, Masaki; Ogishima, Soichi; Watase, Kei; Tagawa, Kazuhiko; Okazawa, Hitoshi

    2010-01-01

    Non-cell-autonomous effect of mutant proteins expressed in glia has been implicated in several neurodegenerative disorders, whereas molecules mediating the toxicity are currently not known. We identified a novel molecule named multiple α-helix protein located at ER (Maxer) downregulated by mutant ataxin-1 (Atx1) in Bergmann glia. Maxer is an endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane protein interacting with CDK5RAP3. Maxer anchors CDK5RAP3 to the ER and inhibits its function of Cyclin D1 transcription repression in the nucleus. The loss of Maxer eventually induces cell accumulation at G1 phase. It was also shown that mutant Atx1 represses Maxer and inhibits proliferation of Bergmann glia in vitro. Consistently, Bergmann glia are reduced in the cerebellum of mutant Atx1 knockin mice before onset. Glutamate-aspartate transporter reduction in Bergmann glia by mutant Atx1 and vulnerability of Purkinje cell to glutamate are both strengthened by Maxer knockdown in Bergmann glia, whereas Maxer overexpression rescues them. Collectively, these results suggest that the reduction of Maxer mediates functional deficiency of Bergmann glia, and might contribute to the non-cell-autonomous pathology of SCA1. PMID:20531390

  20. Suppression of the novel ER protein Maxer by mutant ataxin-1 in Bergman glia contributes to non-cell-autonomous toxicity.

    PubMed

    Shiwaku, Hiroki; Yoshimura, Natsue; Tamura, Takuya; Sone, Masaki; Ogishima, Soichi; Watase, Kei; Tagawa, Kazuhiko; Okazawa, Hitoshi

    2010-07-21

    Non-cell-autonomous effect of mutant proteins expressed in glia has been implicated in several neurodegenerative disorders, whereas molecules mediating the toxicity are currently not known. We identified a novel molecule named multiple alpha-helix protein located at ER (Maxer) downregulated by mutant ataxin-1 (Atx1) in Bergmann glia. Maxer is an endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane protein interacting with CDK5RAP3. Maxer anchors CDK5RAP3 to the ER and inhibits its function of Cyclin D1 transcription repression in the nucleus. The loss of Maxer eventually induces cell accumulation at G1 phase. It was also shown that mutant Atx1 represses Maxer and inhibits proliferation of Bergmann glia in vitro. Consistently, Bergmann glia are reduced in the cerebellum of mutant Atx1 knockin mice before onset. Glutamate-aspartate transporter reduction in Bergmann glia by mutant Atx1 and vulnerability of Purkinje cell to glutamate are both strengthened by Maxer knockdown in Bergmann glia, whereas Maxer overexpression rescues them. Collectively, these results suggest that the reduction of Maxer mediates functional deficiency of Bergmann glia, and might contribute to the non-cell-autonomous pathology of SCA1.

  1. Active photosynthesis in cyanobacterial mutants with directed modifications in the ligands for two iron-sulfur clusters on the PsaC protein of photosystem I.

    PubMed Central

    Mannan, R M; He, W Z; Metzger, S U; Whitmarsh, J; Malkin, R; Pakrasi, H B

    1996-01-01

    The PsaC protein of the Photosystem I (PSI) complex in thylakoid membranes coordinates two [4Fe-4S] clusters, FA and FB. Although it is known that PsaC participates in electron transfer to ferredoxin, the pathway of electrons through this protein is unknown. To elucidate the roles of FA and FB, we created two site-directed mutant strains of the cyanobacterium Anabaena variabilis ATCC 29413. In one mutant, cysteine 13, a ligand for FB was replaced by an aspartic acid (C13D); in the other mutant, cysteine 50, a ligand for FA was modified similarly (C50D). Low-temperature electron paramagnetic resonance studies demonstrated that the C50D mutant has a normal FB center and a modified FA center. In contrast, the C13D strain has normal FA, but failed to reveal any signal from FB. Room-temperature optical studies showed that C13D has only one functional electron acceptor in PsaC, whereas two such acceptors are functional in the C50D and wild-type strains. Although both mutants grow under photoautotrophic conditions, the rate of PSI-mediated electron transfer in C13D under low light levels is about half that of C50D or wild type. These data show that (i) FB is not essential for the assembly of the PsaC protein in PSI and (ii) FB is not absolutely required for electron transfer from the PSI reaction center to ferredoxin. PMID:8617228

  2. Use of a mutant OGA for detecting O-GlcNAc modified proteins.

    PubMed

    Chalkley, Robert J

    2015-12-01

    In the previous issue of Biochemical Journal Mariappa et al. [(2015) Biochem J. 470,: 255-262] demonstrate a new method for visualizing O-linked N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) modified proteins by making use of a catalytically dead version of the enzyme that normally removes this modification. They show their approach has broader specificity than current antibody-based techniques and higher specificity than lectin and chemical biology-based labelling approaches. This commentary discusses methods for O-GlcNAc detection and the significance of this work for characterizing this common, but currently poorly understood regulatory modification.

  3. Functional characterization of Escherichia coli GlpG and additional rhomboid proteins using an aarA mutant of Providencia stuartii.

    PubMed

    Clemmer, Katy M; Sturgill, Gwen M; Veenstra, Alexander; Rather, Philip N

    2006-05-01

    The Providencia stuartii AarA protein is a member of the rhomboid family of intramembrane serine proteases and required for the production of an extracellular signaling molecule that regulates cellular functions including peptidoglycan acetylation, methionine transport, and cysteine biosynthesis. Additional aarA-dependent phenotypes include (i) loss of an extracellular yellow pigment, (ii) inability to grow on MacConkey agar, and (iii) abnormal cell division. Since these phenotypes are easily assayed, the P. stuartii aarA mutant serves as a useful host system to investigate rhomboid function. The Escherichia coli GlpG protein was shown to be functionally similar to AarA and rescued the above aarA-dependent phenotypes in P. stuartii. GlpG proteins containing single alanine substitutions at the highly conserved catalytic triad of asparagine (N154A), serine (S201A), or histidine (H254A) residues were nonfunctional. The P. stuartii aarA mutant was also used as a biosensor to demonstrate that proteins from a variety of diverse sources exhibited rhomboid activity. In an effort to further investigate the role of a rhomboid protein in cell physiology, a glpG mutant of E. coli was constructed. In phenotype microarray experiments, the glpG mutant exhibited a slight increase in resistance to the beta-lactam antibiotic cefotaxime.

  4. Aggregation of a slow-folding mutant of a beta-clam protein proceeds through a monomeric nucleus.

    PubMed

    Ignatova, Zoya; Gierasch, Lila M

    2005-05-17

    Mechanistic understanding of protein aggregation, leading either to structured amyloid fibrils or to amorphous inclusion body-like deposits, should facilitate the identification of potential therapeutic intervention strategies for the devastating amyloid-based diseases. Here we focus on the in vitro aggregation of a slow-folding mutant of the beta-clam protein, cellular retinoic acid-binding protein I (P39A CRABP I), which forms inclusion bodies when expressed in Escherichia coli. Aggregation was monitored by observing the fluorescence of a fluorescein-based biarsenical dye (FlAsH) that ligates to a tetra-Cys motif, here incorporated into a flexible Omega-loop. The fluorescence signal of FlAsH on the tetra-Cys-containing P39A CRABP I is sensitive to whether this protein is native or unfolded, and was used in combination with other techniques to follow aggregate formation. The aggregation time course is compatible with a nucleation-dependent polymerization model, and detailed kinetic analysis showed that the energetically unfavorable nucleus is monomeric. A similar conclusion was reached previously for poly(Gln) species [Chen, S., Ferrone, F. A., and Wetzel, R. (2002) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 99, 11884-11889] and points to an unfavorable equilibrium between the misfolded intermediate and the bulk pool of monomers as causative in aggregation. The P39A mutation, which removes a helix-stop signal, may slow closure of the beta-barrel in P39A CRABP I relative to the wild type, leaving it vulnerable to aggregation. Wide-angle X-ray scattering showed that the amorphous aggregates formed by the aggregation-prone intermediates of P39A CRABP I contain predominantly beta-strands structured in a lamellar fashion with 10.03 A spacing between adjacent beta-sheets.

  5. Integrative proteomics, genomics, and translational immunology approaches reveal mutated forms of Proteolipid Protein 1 (PLP1) and mutant-specific immune response in multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Qendro, Veneta; Bugos, Grace A; Lundgren, Debbie H; Glynn, John; Han, May H; Han, David K

    2017-03-01

    In order to gain mechanistic insights into multiple sclerosis (MS) pathogenesis, we utilized a multi-dimensional approach to test the hypothesis that mutations in myelin proteins lead to immune activation and central nervous system autoimmunity in MS. Mass spectrometry-based proteomic analysis of human MS brain lesions revealed seven unique mutations of PLP1; a key myelin protein that is known to be destroyed in MS. Surprisingly, in-depth genomic analysis of two MS patients at the genomic DNA and mRNA confirmed mutated PLP1 in RNA, but not in the genomic DNA. Quantification of wild type and mutant PLP RNA levels by qPCR further validated the presence of mutant PLP RNA in the MS patients. To seek evidence linking mutations in abundant myelin proteins and immune-mediated destruction of myelin, specific immune response against mutant PLP1 in MS patients was examined. Thus, we have designed paired, wild type and mutant peptide microarrays, and examined antibody response to multiple mutated PLP1 in sera from MS patients. Consistent with the idea of different patients exhibiting unique mutation profiles, we found that 13 out of 20 MS patients showed antibody responses against specific but not against all the mutant-PLP1 peptides. Interestingly, we found mutant PLP-directed antibody response against specific mutant peptides in the sera of pre-MS controls. The results from integrative proteomic, genomic, and immune analyses reveal a possible mechanism of mutation-driven pathogenesis in human MS. The study also highlights the need for integrative genomic and proteomic analyses for uncovering pathogenic mechanisms of human diseases.

  6. The splicing mutant of the human tumor suppressor protein DFNA5 induces programmed cell death when expressed in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Van Rossom, Sofie; Op de Beeck, Ken; Franssens, Vanessa; Swinnen, Erwin; Schepers, Anne; Ghillebert, Ruben; Caldara, Marina; Van Camp, Guy; Winderickx, Joris

    2012-01-01

    DFNA5 was first identified as a gene responsible for autosomal dominant deafness. Different mutations were found, but they all resulted in exon 8 skipping during splicing and premature termination of the protein. Later, it became clear that the protein also has a tumor suppression function and that it can induce apoptosis. Epigenetic silencing of the DFNA5 gene is associated with different types of cancers, including gastric and colorectal cancers as well as breast tumors. We introduced the wild-type and mutant DFNA5 allele in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The expression of the wild-type protein was well tolerated by the yeast cells, although the protein was subject of degradation and often deposited in distinct foci when cells entered the diauxic shift. In contrast, cells had problems to cope with mutant DFNA5 and despite an apparent compensatory reduction in expression levels, the mutant protein still triggered a marked growth defect, which in part can be ascribed to its interaction with mitochondria. Consistently, cells with mutant DFNA5 displayed significantly increased levels of ROS and signs of programmed cell death. The latter occurred independently of the yeast caspase, Mca1, but involved the mitochondrial fission protein, Fis1, the voltage-dependent anion channel protein, Por1 and the mitochondrial adenine nucleotide translocators, Aac1 and Aac3. Recent data proposed DFNA5 toxicity to be associated to a globular domain encoded by exon 2-6. We confirmed these data by showing that expression of solely this domain confers a strong growth phenotype. In addition, we identified a point mutant in this domain that completely abrogated its cytotoxicity in yeast as well as human Human Embryonic Kidney 293T cells (HEK293T). Combined, our data underscore that the yeast system offers a valuable tool to further dissect the apoptotic properties of DFNA5.

  7. Piperlongumine exerts cytotoxic effects against cancer cells with mutant p53 proteins at least in part by restoring the biological functions of the tumor suppressor.

    PubMed

    Basak, Debasish; Punganuru, Surendra R; Srivenugopal, Kalkunte S

    2016-04-01

    Piperlongumine (PL), a small molecule alkaloid present in black pepper (Piper longum), has been reported to kill tumor cells irrespective of their p53 gene status, however, the mechanisms involved are unknown. Since p53 is a redox-sensitive protein, we hypothesized that the redox imbalance induced by PL may affect the structure and/or function of the mutant p53 protein and promote cell death. We used two human colon cancer cell lines, the HT29 and SW620 which harbor the R273H DNA contact abrogatory mutation in p53. PL treatment induced significant ROS production and protein glutathionylation with a concomitant increase in Nrf-2 expression in both cell lines. Surprisingly, immunoprecipitation with wt-p53 specific antibodies (PAb1620) or direct western blotting showed a progressive generation of wild-type-like p53 protein along with a loss of its mutant counterpart in PL-treated HT29 and SW620 cells. Moreover, the EMSA and DNA-affinity blotting revealed a time-dependent restoration of DNA-binding for the mutant p53, which was accompanied by the induction of p53 target genes, MDM2 and Bax. PL, while cytotoxic by itself, also increased the cell killing by many anticancer drugs. In nude mice bearing the HT29 tumors, PL alone (7.5 mg/kg daily) produced a 40% decrease in tumor volume, which was accompanied by diminished intratumoral mutant p53 protein levels. The antitumor efficacy of BCNU or doxorubicin in HT29 xenografts was highly potentiated by PL, followed by expression of apoptotic proteins. These clinically-relevant findings suggest that PL-induced oxidative milieu facilitates a weak functional restoration of mutant p53 through protein glutathionylation and contributes to the increased drug sensitivity.

  8. Shutdown of HIV-1 Transcription in T Cells by Nullbasic, a Mutant Tat Protein

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Hongping; Li, Dongsheng; Sivakumaran, Haran; Lor, Mary; Rustanti, Lina; Cloonan, Nicole; Wani, Shivangi

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Nullbasic is a derivative of the HIV-1 transactivator of transcription (Tat) protein that strongly inhibits HIV-1 replication in lymphocytes. Here we show that lentiviral vectors that constitutively express a Nullbasic-ZsGreen1 (NB-ZSG1) fusion protein by the eEF1α promoter led to robust long-term inhibition of HIV-1 replication in Jurkat cells. Although Jurkat-NB-ZSG1 cells were infected by HIV-1, no virus production could be detected and addition of phorbol ester 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) and JQ1 had no effect, while suberanilohydroxamic acid (SAHA) modestly stimulated virus production but at levels 300-fold lower than those seen in HIV-1-infected Jurkat-ZSG1 cells. Virus replication was not recovered by coculture of HIV-1-infected Jurkat-NB-ZSG1 cells with uninfected Jurkat cells. Latently infected Jurkat latent 6.3 and ACH2 cells treated with latency-reversing agents produced measurable viral capsid (CA), but little or none was made when they expressed NB-ZSG1. When Jurkat cells chronically infected with HIV-1 were transduced with lentiviral virus-like particles conveying NB-ZSG1, a >3-log reduction in CA production was observed. Addition of PMA increased virus CA production but at levels 500-fold lower than those seen in nontransduced Jurkat cells. Transcriptome sequencing analysis confirmed that HIV-1 mRNA was strongly inhibited by NB-ZSG1 but indicated that full-length viral mRNA was made. Analysis of HIV-1-infected Jurkat cells expressing NB-ZSG1 by chromatin immunoprecipitation assays indicated that recruitment of RNA polymerase II (RNAPII) and histone 3 lysine 9 acetylation were inhibited. The reduction of HIV-1 promoter-associated RNAPII and epigenetic changes in viral nucleosomes indicate that Nullbasic can inhibit HIV-1 replication by enforcing viral silencing in cells. PMID:27381288

  9. Pathology associated memory deficits in Swedish mutant genome-based amyloid precursor protein transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Hock, Brian J; Lattal, K Matthew; Kulnane, Laura Shapiro; Abel, Ted; Lamb, Bruce T

    2009-12-01

    To gain insight into the relationship between pathological alterations and memory deficits observed in Alzheimer's disease (AD), a number of amyloid precursor protein (APP) transgenic animal models have been generated containing familial AD mutations. The most commonly utilized method involves a cDNA-based approach, utilizing heterologous promoters to drive expression of specific APP isoforms. As a result of the assumptions inherent in the design of each model, the different cDNA-based transgenic mouse models have revealed different relationships between the biochemical, pathological and behavioral alterations observed in these models. Here we provide further characterization of a genomic-based, amyloid precursor protein yeast artificial chromosome transgenic mouse model of AD, R1.40, that makes few assumptions regarding disease pathogenesis to study the relationship between brain pathology and altered behavior. Aged R1.40 transgenic and control mice were tested for learning and memory in the Morris water maze and for working memory in the Y maze. Results from the water maze demonstrated intact learning in the both control and R1.40 mice, but impairments in the long-term retention of this information in the transgenic mice, but not controls. Interestingly, however, long-term memory deficits did not correlate with the presence of Abeta deposits within the group of animals examined. By contrast, age-related working memory impairments were also observed in the Y maze in the R1.40 mice, and these deficits correlated with the presence of Abeta deposits. Our results demonstrate unique behavioral alterations in the R1.40 mouse model of AD that are likely both dependent and independent of Abeta deposition.

  10. Mini-F plasmid mutants able to replicate in the absence of sigma 32: mutations in the repE coding region producing hyperactive initiator protein.

    PubMed Central

    Kawasaki, Y; Wada, C; Yura, T

    1991-01-01

    Mini-F plasmids cannot replicate in Escherichia coli strains (delta rpoH) lacking sigma 32, presumably because transcription of the repE gene encoding the replication initiator protein (RepE protein) depends mostly on RNA polymerase containing sigma 32. We have isolated and characterized mini-F mutants able to replicate in delta rpoH cells. Contrary to the initial expectation, five mutants with mutations in the repE coding region that produce altered RepE proteins were obtained. The mutations caused replacement of a single amino acid: the 92nd glutamic acid was replaced by lysine (repE10, repE16, and repE25) or glycine (repE22) or the 109th glutamic acid was replaced by lysine (repE26). These plasmids overproduced RepE protein and exhibited very high copy numbers. Two major activities of mutated RepE proteins have been determined in vivo; the autogenous repressor activity was significantly reduced, whereas the initiator activity was much enhanced in all mutants. These results indicate the importance of a small central region of RepE protein for both initiator and repressor activities. Thus the decreased repE transcription in delta rpoH cells can be compensated for by an increased initiator activity and a decreased repressor activity of RepE, resulting in the increased synthesis of hyperactive RepE protein. Images PMID:1991708

  11. A mutant prion protein sensitizes neurons to glutamate-induced excitotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Biasini, Emiliano; Unterberger, Ursula; Solomon, Isaac H; Massignan, Tania; Senatore, Assunta; Bian, Hejiao; Voigtlaender, Till; Bowman, Frederick P; Bonetto, Valentina; Chiesa, Roberto; Luebke, Jennifer; Toselli, Paul; Harris, David A

    2013-02-06

    Growing evidence suggests that a physiological activity of the cellular prion protein (PrP(C)) plays a crucial role in several neurodegenerative disorders, including prion and Alzheimer's diseases. However, how the functional activity of PrP(C) is subverted to deliver neurotoxic signals remains uncertain. Transgenic (Tg) mice expressing PrP with a deletion of residues 105-125 in the central region (referred to as ΔCR PrP) provide important insights into this problem. Tg(ΔCR) mice exhibit neonatal lethality and massive degeneration of cerebellar granule neurons, a phenotype that is dose dependently suppressed by the presence of wild-type PrP. When expressed in cultured cells, ΔCR PrP induces large, ionic currents that can be detected by patch-clamping techniques. Here, we tested the hypothesis that abnormal ion channel activity underlies the neuronal death seen in Tg(ΔCR) mice. We find that ΔCR PrP induces abnormal ionic currents in neurons in culture and in cerebellar slices and that this activity sensitizes the neurons to glutamate-induced, calcium-mediated death. In combination with ultrastructural and biochemical analyses, these results demonstrate a role for glutamate-induced excitotoxicity in PrP-mediated neurodegeneration. A similar mechanism may operate in other neurodegenerative disorders attributable to toxic, β-rich oligomers that bind to PrP(C).

  12. Rapamycin reverses cellular phenotypes and enhances mutant protein clearance in Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome cells.

    PubMed

    Cao, Kan; Graziotto, John J; Blair, Cecilia D; Mazzulli, Joseph R; Erdos, Michael R; Krainc, Dimitri; Collins, Francis S

    2011-06-29

    Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome (HGPS) is a lethal genetic disorder characterized by premature aging. HGPS is most commonly caused by a de novo single-nucleotide substitution in the lamin A/C gene (LMNA) that partially activates a cryptic splice donor site in exon 11, producing an abnormal lamin A protein termed progerin. Accumulation of progerin in dividing cells adversely affects the integrity of the nuclear scaffold and leads to nuclear blebbing in cultured cells. Progerin is also produced in normal cells, increasing in abundance as senescence approaches. Here, we report the effect of rapamycin, a macrolide antibiotic that has been implicated in slowing cellular and organismal aging, on the cellular phenotypes of HGPS fibroblasts. Treatment with rapamycin abolished nuclear blebbing, delayed the onset of cellular senescence, and enhanced the degradation of progerin in HGPS cells. Rapamycin also decreased the formation of insoluble progerin aggregates and induced clearance through autophagic mechanisms in normal fibroblasts. Our findings suggest an additional mechanism for the beneficial effects of rapamycin on longevity and encourage the hypothesis that rapamycin treatment could provide clinical benefit for children with HGPS.

  13. A MUTANT PRION PROTEIN SENSITIZES NEURONS TO GLUTAMATE-INDUCED EXCITOTOXICITY

    PubMed Central

    Biasini, Emiliano; Unterberger, Ursula; Solomon, Isaac H.; Massignan, Tania; Senatore, Assunta; Bian, Hejiao; Voigtlaender, Till; Bowman, Frederick P.; Bonetto, Valentina; Chiesa, Roberto; Luebke, Jennifer; Toselli, Paul; Harris, David A.

    2013-01-01

    Growing evidence suggests that a physiological activity of the cellular prion protein (PrPC) plays a crucial role in several neurodegenerative disorders, including prion and Alzheimer’s diseases. However, how the functional activity of PrPC is subverted to deliver neurotoxic signals remains uncertain. Transgenic mice expressing PrP with a deletion of residues 105–125 in the central region (referred to as ΔCR PrP) provide important insights into this problem. Tg(ΔCR) mice exhibit neonatal lethality and massive degeneration of cerebellar granule neurons, a phenotype that is dose-dependently suppressed by the presence of wild-type PrP. When expressed in cultured cells, ΔCR PrP induces large, ionic currents that can be detected by patch-clamping techniques. Here, we have tested the hypothesis that abnormal ion channel activity underlies the neuronal death seen in Tg(ΔCR) mice. We find that ΔCR PrP induces abnormal ionic currents in neurons in culture and in cerebellar slices, and that this activity sensitizes the neurons to glutamate-induced, calcium-mediated death. In combination with ultrastructural and biochemical analyses, these results demonstrate a role for glutamate-induced excitotoxicity in PrP-mediated neurodegeneration. A similar mechanism may operate in other neurodegenerative disorders due to toxic, β-rich oligomers that bind to PrPC. PMID:23392670

  14. Alterations in Gene Expression in Mutant Amyloid Precursor Protein Transgenic Mice Lacking Niemann-Pick Type C1 Protein

    PubMed Central

    Maulik, Mahua; Thinakaran, Gopal; Kar, Satyabrata

    2013-01-01

    Niemann-Pick type C (NPC) disease, a rare autosomal recessive disorder caused mostly by mutation in NPC1 gene, is pathologically characterized by the accumulation of free cholesterol in brain and other tissues. This is accompanied by gliosis and loss of neurons in selected brain regions, including the cerebellum. Recent studies have shown that NPC disease exhibits intriguing parallels with Alzheimer’s disease, including the presence of neurofibrillary tangles and increased levels of amyloid precursor protein (APP)-derived β-amyloid (Aβ) peptides in vulnerable brain neurons. To evaluate the role of Aβ in NPC disease, we determined the gene expression profile in selected brain regions of our recently developed bigenic ANPC mice, generated by crossing APP transgenic (Tg) mice with heterozygous Npc1-deficient mice. The ANPC mice exhibited exacerbated neuronal and glial pathology compared to other genotypes [i.e., APP-Tg, double heterozygous (Dhet), Npc1-null and wild-type mice]. Analysis of expression profiles of 86 selected genes using real-time RT-PCR arrays showed a wide-spectrum of alterations in the four genotypes compared to wild-type controls. The changes observed in APP-Tg and Dhet mice are limited to only few genes involved mostly in the regulation of cholesterol metabolism, whereas Npc1-null and ANPC mice showed alterations in the expression profiles of a number of genes regulating cholesterol homeostasis, APP metabolism, vesicular trafficking and cell death mechanism in both hippocampus and cerebellum compared to wild-type mice. Intriguingly, ANPC and Npc1-null mice, with some exceptions, exhibited similar changes, although more genes were differentially expressed in the affected cerebellum than the relatively spared hippocampus. The altered gene profiles were found to match with the corresponding protein levels. These results suggest that lack of Npc1 protein can alter the expression profile of selected transcripts as well as proteins, and APP

  15. Resonance assignments of the myristoylated Y28F/Y67F mutant of the Mason-Pfizer monkey virus matrix protein.

    PubMed

    Doležal, Michal; Hrabal, Richard; Ruml, Tomáš; Rumlová, Michaela

    2015-10-01

    The matrix protein (MA) of the Mason-Pfizer monkey virus (M-PMV) plays a key role in the transport and budding of immature retroviral particles from the host cell. Natural N-terminal myristoylation of MA is essential for the targeting of the particles to the plasma membrane and participates in the interaction of MA with membranes phospholipids. The mutation Y28F/Y67F in MA reduces budding and thus causes the accumulation of viral particles under the cytoplasmic membrane. To investigate the impact of Y28F/Y67F mutation on the structure of MA, we prepared this protein in amount and quality suitable for NMR spectroscopy. We report backbone, side-chain and myristoyl residue assignments of the Y28F/Y67F mutant of the M-PMV matrix protein, which will be used to study the interaction with membrane phospholipids and to determine the structure of the mutant matrix protein.

  16. Structural analysis of site-directed mutants of cellular retinoic acid-binding protein II addresses the relationship between structural integrity and ligand binding

    SciTech Connect

    Vaezeslami, Soheila; Jia, Xiaofei; Vasileiou, Chrysoula; Borhan, Babak; Geiger, James H.

    2009-09-02

    The structural integrity of cellular retinoic acid-binding protein II (CRABPII) has been investigated using the crystal structures of CRABPII mutants. The overall fold was well maintained by these CRABPII mutants, each of which carried multiple different mutations. A water-mediated network is found to be present across the large binding cavity, extending from Arg111 deep inside the cavity to the {alpha} 2 helix at its entrance. This chain of interactions acts as a 'pillar' that maintains the integrity of the protein. The disruption of the water network upon loss of Arg111 leads to decreased structural integrity of the protein. A water-mediated network can be re-established by introducing the hydrophilic Glu121 inside the cavity, which results in a rigid protein with the {alpha}2 helix adopting an altered conformation compared with wild-type CRABPII.

  17. Location of functional regions of the Escherichia coli RecA protein by DNA sequence analysis of RecA protease-constitutive mutants.

    PubMed Central

    Wang, W B; Tessman, E S

    1986-01-01

    In previous work (E. S. Tessman and P. K. Peterson, J. Bacteriol. 163:677-687 and 688-695, 1985), we isolated many novel protease-constitutive (Prtc) recA mutants, i.e., mutants in which the RecA protein was always in the protease state without the usual need for DNA damage to activate it. Most Prtc mutants were recombinase positive and were designated Prtc Rec+; only a few Prtc mutants were recombinase negative, and those were designated Prtc Rec-. We report changes in DNA sequence of the recA gene for several of these mutants. The mutational changes clustered at three regions on the linear RecA polypeptide. Region 1 includes amino acid residues 25 through 39, region 2 includes amino acid residues 157 through 184, and region 3 includes amino acid residues 298 through 301. The in vivo response of these Prtc mutants to different effectors suggests that the RecA effector-binding sites have been altered. In particular we propose that the mutations may define single-stranded DNA- and nucleoside triphosphate-binding domains of RecA, that polypeptide regions 1 and 3 comprise part of the single-stranded DNA-binding domain, and that polypeptide regions 2 and 3 comprise part of the nucleoside triphosphate-binding domain. The overlapping of single-stranded DNA- and nucleoside triphosphate-binding domains in region 3 can explain previously known complex allosteric effects. Each of four Prtc Rec- mutants sequenced was found to contain a single amino acid change, showing that the change of just one amino acid can affect both the protease and recombinase activities and indicating that the functional domains for these two activities of RecA overlap. A recA promoter-down mutation was isolated by its ability to suppress the RecA protease activity of one of our strong Prtc mutants. PMID:3536864

  18. Structures and free energy landscapes of the wild-type and A30P mutant-type α-synuclein proteins with dynamics.

    PubMed

    Wise-Scira, Olivia; Aloglu, Ahmet Kemal; Dunn, Aquila; Sakallioglu, Isin Tuna; Coskuner, Orkid

    2013-03-20

    The genetic missense A30P mutation of the wild-type α-synuclein protein results in the replacement of the 30th amino acid residue from alanine (Ala) to proline (Pro) and was initially found in the members of a German family who developed Parkinson's disease. Even though the structures of these proteins have been measured before, detailed understanding about the structures and their relationships with free energy landscapes is lacking, which is of interest to provide insights into the pathogenic mechanism of Parkinson's disease. We report the secondary and tertiary structures and conformational free energy landscapes of the wild-type and A30P mutant-type α-synuclein proteins in an aqueous solution environment via extensive parallel tempering molecular dynamics simulations along with thermodynamic calculations. In addition, we present the residual secondary structure component transition stabilities at the atomic level with dynamics in terms of free energy change calculations using a new strategy that we reported most recently. Our studies yield new interesting results; for instance, we find that the A30P mutation has local as well as long-range effects on the structural properties of the wild-type α-synuclein protein. The helical content at Ala18-Gly31 is less prominent in comparison to the wild-type α-synuclein protein. The β-sheet structure abundance decreases in the N-terminal region upon A30P mutation of the wild-type α-synuclein, whereas the NAC and C-terminal regions possess larger tendencies for β-sheet structure formation. Long-range intramolecular protein interactions are less abundant upon A30P mutation, especially between the NAC and C-terminal regions, which is linked to the less compact and less stable structures of the A30P mutant-type rather than the wild-type α-synuclein protein. Results including the usage of our new strategy for secondary structure transition stabilities show that the A30P mutant-type α-synuclein tendency toward

  19. Reduced Sweetness of a Monellin (MNEI) Mutant Results from Increased Protein Flexibility and Disruption of a Distant Poly-(L-Proline) II Helix

    PubMed Central

    Templeton, Catherine M.; Ostovar pour, Saeideh; Hobbs, Jeanette R.; Blanch, Ewan W.; Munger, Steven D.

    2011-01-01

    Monellin is a highly potent sweet-tasting protein but relatively little is known about how it interacts with the sweet taste receptor. We determined X-ray crystal structures of 3 single-chain monellin (MNEI) proteins with alterations at 2 core residues (G16A, V37A, and G16A/V37A) that induce 2- to 10-fold reductions in sweetness relative to the wild-type protein. Surprisingly, no changes were observed in the global protein fold or the positions of surface amino acids important for MNEI sweetness that could explain these differences in protein activity. Differential scanning calorimetry showed that while the thermal stability of each mutant MNEI was reduced, the least sweet mutant, G16A-MNEI, was not the least stable protein. In contrast, solution spectroscopic measurements revealed that changes in protein flexibility and the C-terminal structure correlate directly with protein activity. G16A mutation-induced disorder in the protein core is propagated via changes to hydrophobic interactions that disrupt the formation and/or position of a critical C-terminal poly-(L-proline) II helix. These findings suggest that MNEI interaction with the sweet taste receptor is highly sensitive to the relative positions of key residues across its protein surface and that loss of sweetness in G16A-MNEI may result from an increased entropic cost of binding. PMID:21343241

  20. Mutant superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1), a cause of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, disrupts the recruitment of SMN, the spinal muscular atrophy protein to nuclear Cajal bodies.

    PubMed

    Kariya, Shingo; Re, Diane B; Jacquier, Arnaud; Nelson, Katelyn; Przedborski, Serge; Monani, Umrao R

    2012-08-01

    Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) are among the most common motor neuron diseases to afflict the human population. A deficiency of the survival of motor neuron (SMN) protein causes SMA and is also reported to be an exacerbating factor in the development of ALS. However, pathways linking the two diseases have yet to be defined and it is not clear precisely how the pathology of ALS is aggravated by reduced SMN or whether mutant proteins underlying familial forms of ALS interfere with SMN-related biochemical pathways to exacerbate the neurodegenerative process. In this study, we show that mutant superoxide dismutase-1 (SOD1), a cause of familial ALS, profoundly alters the sub-cellular localization of the SMN protein, preventing the formation of nuclear 'gems' by disrupting the recruitment of the protein to Cajal bodies. Overexpressing the SMN protein in mutant SOD1 mice, a model of familial ALS, alleviates this phenomenon, most likely in a cell-autonomous manner, and significantly mitigates the loss of motor neurons in the spinal cord and in culture dishes. In the mice, the onset of the neuromuscular phenotype is delayed and motor function enhanced, suggestive of a therapeutic benefit for ALS patients treated with agents that augment the SMN protein. Nevertheless, this finding is tempered by an inability to prolong survival, a limitation most likely imposed by the inexorable denervation that characterizes ALS and eventually disrupts the neuromuscular synapses even in the presence of increased SMN.

  1. Computational diagnosis of protein conformational diseases: short molecular dynamics simulations reveal a fast unfolding of r-LDL mutants that cause familial hypercholesterolemia.

    PubMed

    Cuesta-López, S; Falo, F; Sancho, J

    2007-01-01

    The molecular basis of conformational diseases frequently resides in mutant proteins constituting a subset of the vast mutational space. While the subtleties of protein structure point to molecular dynamics (MD) techniques as promising tools for an efficient exploration of such a space, the average size of proteins and the time scale of unfolding events make this goal difficult with present computational capabilities. We show here, nevertheless, that an efficient approach is already feasible for modular proteins. Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) is a conformational disease linked to mutations in the gene encoding the low density lipoprotein receptor. A high percentage of these mutations has been found in the seven small modular binding repeats of the receptor. Taking advantage of its small size, we have performed an in depth MD study of the fifth binding repeat. Fast unfolding dynamics have been observed in the absence of a structural bound calcium ion, which agrees with its reported essential role in the stability of the module. In addition, several mutations detected in FH patients have been analyzed, starting from the native conformation. Our results indicate that in contrast with the wild type protein and an innocuous control mutant, disease-related mutants experience, in short simulation times (2-8 ns), gross departures from the native state that lead to unfolded conformations and, in some cases, to binding site desorganization deriving in calcium release. Computational diagnosis of mutations leading to conformational diseases seems thus feasible, at least for small or modular pathogenic proteins.

  2. Blue-light mediated accumulation of nuclear-encoded transcripts coding for proteins of the thylakoid membrane is absent in the phytochrome-deficient aurea mutant of tomato.

    PubMed

    Oelmüller, R; Kendrick, R E; Briggs, W R

    1989-08-01

    Polyclonal antibodies against pea phytochrome detect 2 protein bands (about 116 and 120 kDa) on blots of crude protein extracts and protein of microsomal preparations of dark-grown tomato seedlings. Both protein bands are undetectable in Western blots of the aurea mutant extracts. Neither protein band is detectable after isogenic wild-type seedlings are illuminated with 3 h of red light, either in the crude extract or in the membrane fraction of the irradiated seedlings; this result is consistent with the hypothesis that both bands are phytochrome. When dark-grown wild-type seedlings are illuminated with 3 h of red light or blue light against a red light background, the transcript levels for chlorophyll a/b-binding proteins of photosystem I and II, plastocyanin, and the subunit II of photosystem I increase. In all cases, the same fluence rate of blue light is much more effective than red light alone, a result that indicates the involvement of a blue/UV-A light photoreceptor in addition to the involvement of the far-red-absorbing form of phytochrome, Pfr. The aurea mutant responds neither to red light nor to blue light. Thus, no Pfr-independent induction of the four transcripts by a blue/UV-A light photoreceptor can be measured in the aurea mutant.

  3. Compensatory role of PspA, a member of the phage shock protein operon, in rpoE mutant Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium.

    PubMed

    Becker, Lynne A; Bang, Iel-Soo; Crouch, Marie-Laure; Fang, Ferric C

    2005-05-01

    Sigma(E) is an alternative sigma factor that responds to and ameliorates extracytoplasmic stress. In Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium), sigma(E) is required for oxidative stress resistance, stationary-phase survival and virulence in mice. Microarray analysis of stationary-phase gene expression in rpoE mutant bacteria revealed a dramatic increase in expression of pspA, a member of the phage shock protein (psp) operon. The psp operon can be induced by filamentous bacteriophages or by perturbations of protein secretion, and is believed to facilitate the maintenance of proton motive force (PMF). We hypothesized that increased pspA expression may represent a compensatory response to the loss of sigma(E) function. Increased pspA expression was confirmed in rpoE mutant Salmonella and also observed in a mutant lacking the F(1)F(0) ATPase. Alternatively, expression of pspA could be induced by exposure to CCCP, a protonophore that disrupts PMF. An rpoE pspA double mutant strain was found to have a stationary-phase survival defect more pronounced than that of isogenic strains harbouring single mutations. The double mutant strains were also more susceptible to killing by CCCP or by a bactericidal/permeability-increasing protein (BPI)-derived anti-microbial peptide. Using fluorescence ratio imaging, differences were observed in the Deltapsi of wild-type and rpoE or pspA mutant bacteria. These findings suggest that pspA expression in S. Typhimurium is induced by alterations in PMF and a functional sigma(E) regulon is essential for the maintenance of PMF.

  4. Conservative Tryptophan Mutants of the Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase YopH Exhibit Impaired WPD-Loop Function and Crystallize with Divanadate Esters in Their Active Sites

    PubMed Central

    Moise, Gwendolyn; Gallup, Nathan M.; Alexandrova, Anastassia N.; Hengge, Alvan C.; Johnson, Sean J.

    2016-01-01

    Catalysis in protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs) involves movement of a protein loop called the WPD loop that brings a conserved aspartic acid into the active site to function as a general acid. Mutation of the tryptophan in the WPD loop of the PTP YopH to any other residue with a planar, aromatic side chain (phenylalanine, tyrosine, or histidine) disables general acid catalysis. Crystal structures reveal these conservative mutations leave this critical loop in a catalytically unproductive, quasi-open position. Although the loop positions in crystal structures are similar for all three conservative mutants, the reasons inhibiting normal loop closure differ for each mutant. In the W354F and W354Y mutants, steric clashes result from six-membered rings occupying the position of the five-membered ring of the native indole side chain. The histidine mutant dysfunction results from new hydrogen bonds stabilizing the unproductive position. The results demonstrate how even modest modifications can disrupt catalytically important protein dynamics. Crystallization of all the catalytically compromised mutants in the presence of vanadate gave rise to vanadate dimers at the active site. In W354Y and W354H, a divanadate ester with glycerol is observed. Such species have precedence in solution and are known from the small molecule crystal database. Such species have not been observed in the active site of a phosphatase, as a functional phosphatase would rapidly catalyze their decomposition. The compromised functionality of the mutants allows the trapping of species that undoubtedly form in solution and are capable of binding at the active sites of PTPs, and, presumably, other phosphatases. In addition to monomeric vanadate, such higher-order vanadium-based molecules are likely involved in the interaction of vanadate with PTPs in solution. PMID:26445170

  5. Steady-state and time-resolved fluorescence studies on wild type and mutant chromatium vinosum high potential iron proteins: holo- and apo-forms.

    PubMed Central

    Sau, A K; Chen, C A; Cowan, J A; Mazumdar, S; Mitra, S

    2001-01-01

    Detailed circular dichroism (CD), steady-state and time-resolved tryptophan fluorescence studies on the holo- and apo- forms of high potential iron protein (HiPIP) from Chromatium vinosum and its mutant protein have been carried out to investigate conformational properties of the protein. CD studies showed that the protein does not have any significant secondary structure elements in the holo- or apo- HiPIP, indicating that the metal cluster does not have any effect on formation of secondary structure in the protein. Steady-state fluorescence quenching studies however, suggested that removal of the iron-sulfur ([Fe(4)S(4)](3+)) cluster from the protein leads to an increase in the solvent accessibility of tryptophans, indicating change in the tertiary structure of the protein. CD studies on the holo- and apo- HiPIP also showed that removal of the metal prosthetic group drastically affects the tertiary structure of the protein. Time-resolved fluorescence decay of the wild type protein was fitted to a four-exponentials model and that of the W80N mutant was fitted to a three-exponentials model. The time-resolved fluorescence decay was also analyzed by maximum entropy method (MEM). The results of the MEM analysis agreed with those obtained from discrete exponentials model analysis. Studies on the wild type and mutants helped to assign the fast picosecond lifetime component to the W80 residue, which exhibits fast fluorescence energy transfer to the [Fe(4)S(4)](3+) cluster of the protein. Decay-associated fluorescence spectra of each tryptophan residues were calculated from the time-resolved fluorescence results at different emission wavelengths. The results suggested that W80 is in the hydrophobic core of the protein, but W60 and W76 are partially or completely exposed to the solvent. PMID:11566801

  6. Systematic lipidomic analysis of yeast protein kinase and phosphatase mutants reveals novel insights into regulation of lipid homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    da Silveira dos Santos, Aline Xavier; Riezman, Isabelle; Aguilera-Romero, Maria-Auxiliadora; David, Fabrice; Piccolis, Manuele; Loewith, Robbie; Schaad, Olivier; Riezman, Howard

    2014-01-01

    The regulatory pathways required to maintain eukaryotic lipid homeostasis are largely unknown. We developed a systematic approach to uncover new players in the regulation of lipid homeostasis. Through an unbiased mass spectrometry–based lipidomic screening, we quantified hundreds of lipid species, including glycerophospholipids, sphingolipids, and sterols, from a collection of 129 mutants in protein kinase and phosphatase genes of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Our approach successfully identified known kinases involved in lipid homeostasis and uncovered new ones. By clustering analysis, we found connections between nutrient-sensing pathways and regulation of glycerophospholipids. Deletion of members of glucose- and nitrogen-sensing pathways showed reciprocal changes in glycerophospholipid acyl chain lengths. We also found several new candidates for the regulation of sphingolipid homeostasis, including a connection between inositol pyrophosphate metabolism and complex sphingolipid homeostasis through transcriptional regulation of AUR1 and SUR1. This robust, systematic lipidomic approach constitutes a rich, new source of biological information and can be used to identify novel gene associations and function. PMID:25143408

  7. Ectopic expression of a polyalanine expansion mutant of poly(A)-binding protein N1 in muscle cells in culture inhibits myogenesis

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Qishan; Bag, Jnanankur . E-mail: jbag@uoguelph.ca

    2006-02-17

    Oculopharyngeal muscular dystrophy (OPMD) is an adult-onset dominant genetic disease caused by the expansion of a GCG trinucleotide repeat that encodes the polyalanine tract at the N-terminus of the nuclear poly(A)-binding protein (PABPN1). Presence of intranuclear inclusions (INIs) containing PABPN1 aggregates in the skeletal muscles is the hallmark of OPMD. Here, we show that ectopic expression of the mutant PABPN1 produced INIs in a muscle cell culture model and reduced expression of several muscle-specific proteins including {alpha}-actin, slow troponin C, muscle creatine kinase, and two myogenic transcription factors, myogenin and MyoD. However, the levels of two upstream regulators of the MyoD gene, the Myf-5 and Pax3/7, were not affected, but both proteins co-localized with the PABPN1 aggregates in the mutant PABPN1 overexpressing cells. In these cells, although myogenin and MyoD levels were reduced, these two transcription factors did not co-localize with the mutant PABPN1 aggregates. Therefore, sequestration of Myf5 and Pax3/7 by the mutant PABPN1 aggregates was a specific effect on these factors. Our results suggest that trapping of these two important myogenic determinants may interfere with an early step in myogenesis.

  8. Opposing Roles of Double-Stranded RNA Effector Pathways and Viral Defense Proteins Revealed with CRISPR-Cas9 Knockout Cell Lines and Vaccinia Virus Mutants

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Ruikang

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Vaccinia virus (VACV) decapping enzymes and cellular exoribonuclease Xrn1 catalyze successive steps in mRNA degradation and prevent double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) accumulation, whereas the viral E3 protein can bind dsRNA. We showed that dsRNA and E3 colocalized within cytoplasmic viral factories in cells infected with a decapping enzyme mutant as well as with wild-type VACV and that they coprecipitated with antibody. An E3 deletion mutant induced protein kinase R (PKR) and eukaryotic translation initiation factor alpha (eIF2α) phosphorylation earlier and more strongly than a decapping enzyme mutant even though less dsRNA was made, leading to more profound effects on viral gene expression. Human HAP1 and A549 cells were genetically modified by clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat-Cas9 (CRISPR-Cas9) to determine whether the same pathways restrict E3 and decapping mutants. The E3 mutant replicated in PKR knockout (KO) HAP1 cells in which RNase L is intrinsically inactive but only with a double knockout (DKO) of PKR and RNase L in A549 cells, indicating that both pathways decreased replication equivalently and that no additional dsRNA pathway was crucial. In contrast, replication of the decapping enzyme mutant increased significantly (though less than that of wild-type virus) in DKO A549 cells but not in DKO HAP1 cells where a smaller increase in viral protein synthesis occurred. Xrn1 KO A549 cells were viable but nonpermissive for VACV; however, wild-type and mutant viruses replicated in triple-KO cells in which RNase L and PKR were also inactivated. Since KO of PKR and RNase L was sufficient to enable VACV replication in the absence of E3 or Xrn1, the poor replication of the decapping mutant, particularly in HAP1 DKO, cells indicated additional translational defects. IMPORTANCE Viruses have evolved ways of preventing or counteracting the cascade of antiviral responses that double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) triggers in host cells. We showed that

  9. ErbB2 inhibition by lapatinib promotes degradation of mutant p53 protein in cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Li, Dun; Marchenko, Natalia D

    2017-01-01

    Mutations in the p53 tumor suppressor gene are the most prevalent genetic events in human Her2-positive breast cancer and are associated with poor prognosis and survival. Human clinical data and our in vitro and in vivo studies strongly suggest potent oncogenic cooperation between mutant p53 and Her2 (ErbB2). Yet, the translational significance of mutant p53 in Her2 positive breast cancer, especially with respect to Her2-targeted therapies, has not been evaluated. Our previous work identified novel oncogenic activity of mutant p53 whereby mutp53 amplifies ErbB2 signaling via the mutp53-HSF1-ErbB2 feed-forward loop. Here we report that pharmacological interception of this circuit by ErbB2 inhibitor lapatinib downregulates mutant p53 in vitro and in vivo. We found that ErbB2 inhibition by lapatinib inhibits transcription factor HSF1, and its target Hsp90, followed by mutant p53 degradation in MDM2 dependent manner. Thus, our data suggest that mutant p53 sensitizes cancer cells to lapatinib via two complementary mechanisms: mutant p53 mediated amplification of ErbB2 signaling, and simultaneous annihilation of both potent oncogenic drivers, ErbB2 and mutant p53. Hence, our study could provide valuable information for the optimization of therapeutic protocols to achieve superior clinical effects in the treatment of Her2 positive breast cancer. PMID:27791982

  10. ErbB2 inhibition by lapatinib promotes degradation of mutant p53 protein in cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Dun; Marchenko, Natalia D

    2017-01-24

    Mutations in the p53 tumor suppressor gene are the most prevalent genetic events in human Her2-positive breast cancer and are associated with poor prognosis and survival. Human clinical data and our in vitro and in vivo studies strongly suggest potent oncogenic cooperation between mutant p53 and Her2 (ErbB2). Yet, the translational significance of mutant p53 in Her2 positive breast cancer, especially with respect to Her2-targeted therapies, has not been evaluated. Our previous work identified novel oncogenic activity of mutant p53 whereby mutp53 amplifies ErbB2 signaling via the mutp53-HSF1-ErbB2 feed-forward loop. Here we report that pharmacological interception of this circuit by ErbB2 inhibitor lapatinib downregulates mutant p53 in vitro and in vivo. We found that ErbB2 inhibition by lapatinib inhibits transcription factor HSF1, and its target Hsp90, followed by mutant p53 degradation in MDM2 dependent manner. Thus, our data suggest that mutant p53 sensitizes cancer cells to lapatinib via two complementary mechanisms: mutant p53 mediated amplification of ErbB2 signaling, and simultaneous annihilation of both potent oncogenic drivers, ErbB2 and mutant p53. Hence, our study could provide valuable information for the optimization of therapeutic protocols to achieve superior clinical effects in the treatment of Her2 positive breast cancer.

  11. Identification of Atg2 and ArfGAP1 as Candidate Genetic Modifiers of the Eye Pigmentation Phenotype of Adaptor Protein-3 (AP-3) Mutants in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez-Fernandez, Imilce A; Dell'Angelica, Esteban C

    2015-01-01

    The Adaptor Protein (AP)-3 complex is an evolutionary conserved, molecular sorting device that mediates the intracellular trafficking of proteins to lysosomes and related organelles. Genetic defects in AP-3 subunits lead to impaired biogenesis of lysosome-related organelles (LROs) such as mammalian melanosomes and insect eye pigment granules. In this work, we have performed a forward screening for genetic modifiers of AP-3 function in the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster. Specifically, we have tested collections of large multi-gene deletions--which together covered most of the autosomal chromosomes-to identify chromosomal regions that, when deleted in single copy, enhanced or ameliorated the eye pigmentation phenotype of two independent AP-3 subunit mutants. Fine-mapping led us to define two non-overlapping, relatively small critical regions within fly chromosome 3. The first critical region included the Atg2 gene, which encodes a conserved protein involved in autophagy. Loss of one functional copy of Atg2 ameliorated the pigmentation defects of mutants in AP-3 subunits as well as in two other genes previously implicated in LRO biogenesis, namely Blos1 and lightoid, and even increased the eye pigment content of wild-type flies. The second critical region included the ArfGAP1 gene, which encodes a conserved GTPase-activating protein with specificity towards GTPases of the Arf family. Loss of a single functional copy of the ArfGAP1 gene ameliorated the pigmentation phenotype of AP-3 mutants but did not to modify the eye pigmentation of wild-type flies or mutants in Blos1 or lightoid. Strikingly, loss of the second functional copy of the gene did not modify the phenotype of AP-3 mutants any further but elicited early lethality in males and abnormal eye morphology when combined with mutations in Blos1 and lightoid, respectively. These results provide genetic evidence for new functional links connecting the machinery for biogenesis of LROs with molecules implicated in

  12. Endoplasmic Reticulum-Targeted Subunit Toxins Provide a New Approach to Rescue Misfolded Mutant Proteins and Revert Cell Models of Genetic Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Park, Hyun-Joo; Tailor, Chetankumar; Che, Clare; Kamani, Mustafa; Spitalny, George; Binnington, Beth

    2016-01-01

    Many germ line diseases stem from a relatively minor disturbance in mutant protein endoplasmic reticulum (ER) 3D assembly. Chaperones are recruited which, on failure to correct folding, sort the mutant for retrotranslocation and cytosolic proteasomal degradation (ER-associated degradation-ERAD), to initiate/exacerbate deficiency-disease symptoms. Several bacterial (and plant) subunit toxins, retrograde transport to the ER after initial cell surface receptor binding/internalization. The A subunit has evolved to mimic a misfolded protein and hijack the ERAD membrane translocon (dislocon), to effect cytosolic access and cytopathology. We show such toxins compete for ERAD to rescue endogenous misfolded proteins. Cholera toxin or verotoxin (Shiga toxin) containing genetically inactivated (± an N-terminal polyleucine tail) A subunit can, within 2–4 hrs, temporarily increase F508delCFTR protein, the major cystic fibrosis (CF) mutant (5-10x), F508delCFTR Golgi maturation (<10x), cell surface expression (20x) and chloride transport (2x) in F508del CFTR transfected cells and patient-derived F508delCFTR bronchiolar epithelia, without apparent cytopathology. These toxoids also increase glucocerobrosidase (GCC) in N370SGCC Gaucher Disease fibroblasts (3x), another ERAD–exacerbated misfiling disease. We identify a new, potentially benign approach to the treatment of certain genetic protein misfolding diseases. PMID:27935997

  13. Spontaneous nisin-resistant Listeria monocytogenes mutants with increased expression of a putative penicillin-binding protein and their sensitivity to various antibiotics.

    PubMed

    Gravesen, A; Sørensen, K; Aarestrup, F M; Knøchel, S

    2001-01-01

    A concern regarding the use of bacteriocins, as for example the lantibiotic nisin, for biopreservation of certain food products is the possibility of resistance development and potential cross-resistance to antibiotics in the target organism. The genetic basis for nisin resistance development is as yet unknown. We analyzed changes in gene expression following nisin resistance development in Listeria monocytogenes 412 by restriction fragment differential display. The mutant had increased expression of a protein with strong homology to the glycosyltransferase domain of high-molecular-weight penicillin-binding proteins (PBPs), a histidine protein kinase, a protein of unknown function, and ClpB (putative functions from homology). The three former proteins had increased expression in a total of six out of 10 independent mutants originating from five different wild-type strains, indicating a prevalent nisin resistance mechanism under the employed isolation conditions. Increased expression of the putative PBP may affect the cell wall composition and thereby alter the sensitivity to cell wall-targeting compounds. The mutants had an isolate-specific increase in sensitivity to different beta-lactams and a slight decrease in sensitivity to another lantibiotic, mersacidin. A model incorporating these observations is proposed based on current knowledge of nisin's mode of action.

  14. Analysis of a sugar response mutant of Arabidopsis identified a novel B3 domain protein that functions as an active transcriptional repressor.

    PubMed

    Tsukagoshi, Hironaka; Saijo, Takanori; Shibata, Daisuke; Morikami, Atsushi; Nakamura, Kenzo

    2005-06-01

    A recessive mutation hsi2 of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) expressing luciferase (LUC) under control of a short promoter derived from a sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) sporamin gene (Spo(min)LUC) caused enhanced LUC expression under both low- and high-sugar conditions, which was not due to increased level of abscisic acid. The hsi2 mutant contained a nonsense mutation in a gene encoding a protein with B3 DNA-binding domain. HSI2 and two other Arabidopsis proteins appear to constitute a novel subfamily of B3 domain proteins distinct from ABI3, FUS3, and LEC2, which are transcription activators involved in seed development. The C-terminal part of HSI2 subfamily proteins contained a sequence similar to the ERF-associated amphiphilic repression (EAR) motif. Deletion of the C-terminal portion of HSI2 lost in the hsi2 mutant caused reduced nuclear targeting of HSI2. Null allele of HSI2 showed even higher Spo(min)LUC expression than the hsi2 mutant, whereas overexpression of HSI2 reduced the LUC expression. Transient coexpression of 35SHSI2 with Spo(min)LUC in protoplasts repressed the expression of LUC activity, and deletion or mutation of the EAR motif significantly reduced the repression activity of HSI2. These results indicate that HSI2 and related proteins are B3 domain-EAR motif active transcription repressors.

  15. Erwinia carotovora DsbA mutants: evidence for a periplasmic-stress signal transduction system affecting transcription of genes encoding secreted proteins.

    PubMed

    Vincent-Sealy, L V; Thomas, J D; Commander, P; Salmond, G P

    1999-08-01

    The dsbA genes, which encode major periplasmic disulfide-bond-forming proteins, were isolated from Erwinia carotovora subsp. carotovora (Ecc) and Erwinia carotovora subsp. atroseptica (Eca), and the dsbC gene, encoding another periplasmic disulfide oxidoreductase was isolated from Ecc. All three genes were sequenced and mutants deficient in these genes were created by marker exchange mutagenesis. The Ecc mutants were severely affected in activity and secretion of pectate lyase, probably due to the absence of functional PelC, which is predicted to require disulfide bond formation to achieve its correct conformation prior to secretion across the outer membrane. Similarly, endopolygalacturonase, also predicted to possess disulfide bonds, displayed reduced activity. The major Ecc cellulase (CelV) does not contain cysteine residues and was still secreted in dsbA-deficient strains. This observation demonstrated unequivocally that the localization and activity of the individual components of the Out apparatus are independent of disulfide bond formation. Surprisingly, cellulase activity was shown to be increased approximately two- to threefold in the DsbA mutant. This phenomenon resulted from transcriptional up-regulation of celV gene expression. In contrast, transcription of both pelC and peh were down-regulated in dsbA-deficient strains when compared to the wild-type. Protease (Prt) activity and secretion were unaffected in the Ecc dsbA mutant. Prt activity was considerably reduced in the double dsbA dsbC mutant. However Prt was secreted normally in this strain. The Eca dsbA mutant was found to be non-motile, suggesting that disulfide bond formation is essential for motility in this strain. All of the dsb mutants showed reduced tissue maceration in planta. These results suggest that a feedback regulation system operates in Ecc. In this system, defects in periplasmic disulfide bond formation act as a signal which is relayed to the transcription machinery regulating gene

  16. Characterization of mutants of a highly cross-reactive calcium-binding protein from Brassica pollen for allergen-specific immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Garmatiuk, Tetiana; Swoboda, Ines; Twardosz-Kropfmüller, Anna; Dall'antonia, Fabio; Keller, Walter; Singh, Mohan B; Bhalla, Prem L; Okada, Takashi; Toriyama, Kinya; Weber, Milena; Ghannadan, Minoo; Sperr, Wolfgang R; Blatt, Katharina; Valent, Peter; Klein, Brigitte; Niederberger, Verena; Curin, Mirela; Balic, Nadja; Spitzauer, Susanne; Valenta, Rudolf

    2013-09-01

    The major turnip (Brassica rapa) pollen allergen, belongs to a family of calcium-binding proteins (i.e., two EF-hand proteins), which occur as highly cross-reactive allergens in pollen of weeds, grasses and trees. In this study, the IgE binding capacity and allergenic activity of three recombinant allergen variants containing mutations in their calcium-binding sites were analyzed in sensitized patients with the aim to identify the most suitable hypoallergenic molecule for specific immunotherapy. Analysis of the wildtype allergen and the mutants regarding IgE reactivity and activation of basophils in allergic patients indicated that the allergen derivative mutated in both calcium-binding domains had the lowest allergenic activity. Gel filtration and circular dichroism experiments showed that both, the wildtype and the double mutant, occurred as dimers in solution and assumed alpha-helical fold, respectively. However, both fold and thermal stability were considerably reduced in the double mutant. The use of bioinformatic tools for evaluation of the solvent accessibility and charge distribution suggested that the reduced IgE reactivity and different structural properties of the double mutant may be due to a loss of negatively charged amino acids on the surface. Interestingly, immunization of rabbits showed that only the double mutant but not the wildtype allergen induced IgG antibodies which recognized the allergen and blocked binding of allergic patients IgE. Due to the extensive structural similarity and cross-reactivity between calcium-binding pollen allergens the hypoallergenic double mutant may be useful not only for immunotherapy of turnip pollen allergy, but also for the treatment of allergies to other two EF-hand pollen allergens.

  17. Chlorophyll-Protein Complexes of a Photosystem II Mutant of Maize : Evidence that Chlorophyll-Protein a-2 and a Chlorophyll-Protein Complex Derived from a Photosystem I Antennae System Comigrate on Polyacrylamide Gels.

    PubMed

    Metz, J G; Krueger, R W; Miles, D

    1984-05-01

    Use of the octyl beta-d-glucopyranoside solubilization procedure of Camm and Green (1980 Plant Physiol 66: 428-432) reveals that thylakoid membranes of a photosystem (PS) II-deficient maize (Zea mays L.) mutant lack two chlorophyll protein (CP) complexes associated with PSII, i.e. CPa-1 and CPa-2. In contrast, when lithium dodecyl sulfate is used to solubilize the membranes of the mutant prior to electrophoretic separation, a CP complex is observed which has a mobility similar to that of CPa-2. Comparison of spectral characteristics and polypeptide composition of the green bands in this region taken from samples of the mutant, normal sibling control plants and from PSII preparations indicate that the CP complex observed in the mutant represents a portion of a light-harvesting complex of PSI (Mullet et al. 1980 Plant Physiol 65: 814-822). The green band observed in normal maize samples can contain both the CPa-2 complex as well as the CP complex derived from the PSI antennae system.

  18. Cell-substrate interactions and locomotion of Dictyostelium wild-type and mutants defective in three cytoskeletal proteins: a study using quantitative reflection interference contrast microscopy.

    PubMed Central

    Schindl, M; Wallraff, E; Deubzer, B; Witke, W; Gerisch, G; Sackmann, E

    1995-01-01

    Reflection interference contrast microscopy combined with digital image processing was applied to study the motion of Dictyostelium discoideum cells in their pre-aggregative state on substrata of different adhesiveness (glass, albumin-covered glass, and freshly cleaved mica). The temporal variations of the size and shape of the cell/substratum contact area and the time course of advancement of pseudopods protruding in contact with the substratum were analyzed. The major goal was to study differences between the locomotion of wild-type cells and strains of triple mutants deficient in two F-actin cross-linking proteins (alpha-actinin and the 120-kDa gelation factor) and one F-actin fragmenting protein (severin). The size of contact area, AC, of both wild-type and mutant cells fluctuates between minimum and maximum values on the order of minutes, pointing toward an intrinsic switching mechanism associated with the mechanochemical control system. The fluctuation amplitudes are much larger on freshly cleaved mica than on glass. Wild-type and mutant cells exhibit remarkable differences on mica but not on glass. These differences comprise the population median of AC and alterations in pseudopod protrusion. AC is smaller by a factor of two or more for all mutants. Pseudopods protrude slower and shorter in the mutants. It is concluded that cell shape and pseudopods are destabilized by defects in the actin-skeleton, which can be overcompensated by strongly adhesive substrata. Several features of amoeboid cell locomotion on substrata can be understood on the basis of the minimum bending energy concept of soft adhering shells and by assuming that adhesion induces local alterations of the composite membrane consisting of the protein/lipid bilayer on the cell surface and the underlying actin-cortex. Images FIGURE 3 FIGURE 4 FIGURE 6 FIGURE 8 FIGURE 9 FIGURE 10 FIGURE 11 FIGURE 12 PMID:7756537

  19. ND9P, a novel protein with armadillo-like repeats involved in exocytosis: physiological studies using allelic mutants in paramecium.

    PubMed Central

    Froissard, M; Keller, A M; Cohen, J

    2001-01-01

    In Paramecium, a number of mutants affected in the exocytotic membrane fusion step of the regulated secretory pathway have been obtained. Here, we report the isolation of one of the corresponding genes, ND9, previously suspected to encode a soluble protein interacting with both plasma and trichocyst membranes. Nd9p is a novel polypeptide that contains C-terminal Armadillo-like repeats. Point mutations were found in the first N-terminal quarter of the molecule and in the last putative Armadillo repeat, respectively, for the two thermosensitive mutants, nd9-1 and nd9-2. The different behaviors of these mutants in recovery experiments upon temperature shifts suggest that the N-terminal domain of the molecule may be involved in membrane binding activity, whereas the C-terminal domain is a candidate for protein-protein interactions. The nonsense nd9-3 mutation that produces a short N-terminal peptide has a dominant negative effect on the nd9-1 allele. We show here that, when overexpressed, the dominant negative effect can be produced even on the wild-type allele, suggesting competition for a common target. We suggest that Nd9p could act, like some SNARE proteins, at the membrane-cytosol interface to promote membrane fusion. PMID:11156983

  20. Regulation of promyelocytic leukemia (PML) protein levels and cell morphology by bovine herpesvirus 1 infected cell protein 0 (bICP0) and mutant bICP0 proteins that do not localize to the nucleus.

    PubMed

    Gaudreault, Natasha; Jones, Clinton

    2011-03-01

    BHV-1 is an important pathogen of cattle. The infected cell protein 0 (bICP0) encoded by BHV-1 is an important regulatory protein because it is constitutively expressed and can activate all viral promoters. The mechanism by which bICP0 activates viral promoters is not well understood because bICP0 does not appear to be a sequence specific binding protein. A C(3)HC(4) zinc RING (really interesting novel gene) motif at the N-terminus of bICP0 has E3 ubiquitin ligase activity, which is important for activating viral gene expression and inhibiting interferon dependent transcription. Like other alpha-herpesvirinae ICP0 homologues, bICP0 is associated with promyelocytic leukemia (PML) protein-containing nuclear domains. During productive infection of cultured cells, BHV-1 induces degradation of the PML protein, which correlates with efficient productive infection. In this study, we demonstrated that a plasmid expressing bICP0 reduces steady state levels of the PML protein, and the C(3)HC(4) zinc RING finger is important for PML degradation. Surprisingly, bICP0 mutants with an intact C(3)HC(4) zinc RING finger that lack a nuclear localization signal also reduces steady PML protein levels. In addition, mutant bICP0 proteins that primarily localize to the cytoplasm induced morphological changes in transfected cells. During productive infection, bICP0 was detected in the cytoplasm of low-passage bovine kidney, but not established bovine kidney cells. These studies demonstrated that bICP0, even when not able to efficiently localize to the nucleus, was able to induce degradation of the PML protein and alter the morphology of transfected cells.

  1. Soluble N-terminal fragment of mutant Huntingtin protein impairs mitochondrial axonal transport in cultured hippocampal neurons.

    PubMed

    Tian, Jun; Yan, Ya-Ping; Zhou, Rui; Lou, Hui-Fang; Rong, Ye; Zhang, Bao-Rong

    2014-02-01

    Huntington's disease (HD) is an autosomal dominant, progressive, neurodegenerative disorder caused by an unstable expansion of CAG repeats (>35 repeats) within exon 1 of the interesting transcript 15 (IT15) gene. This gene encodes a protein called Huntingtin (Htt), and mutation of the gene results in a polyglutamine (polyQ) near the N-terminus of Htt. The N-terminal fragments of mutant Htt (mHtt), which tend to aggregate, are sufficient to cause HD. Whether these aggregates are causal or protective for HD remains hotly debated. Dysfunctional mitochondrial axonal transport is associated with HD. It remains unknown whether the soluble or aggregated form of mHtt is the primary cause of the impaired mitochondrial axonal transport in HD pathology. Here, we investigated the impact of soluble and aggregated N-terminal fragments of mHtt on mitochondrial axonal transport in cultured hippocampal neurons. We found that the N-terminal fragment of mHtt formed aggregates in almost half of the transfected neurons. Overexpression of the N-terminal fragment of mHtt decreased the velocity of mitochondrial axonal transport and mitochondrial mobility in neurons regardless of whether aggregates were formed. However, the impairment of mitochondrial axonal transport in neurons expressing the soluble and aggregated N-terminal fragments of mHtt did not differ. Our findings indicate that both the soluble and aggregated N-terminal fragments of mHtt impair mitochondrial axonal transport in cultured hippocampal neurons. We predict that dysfunction of mitochondrial axonal transport is an early-stage event in the progression of HD, even before mHtt aggregates are formed.

  2. Reduced Activity of Mutant Calcium-Dependent Protein Kinase 1 Is Compensated in Plasmodium falciparum through the Action of Protein Kinase G

    PubMed Central

    Ojo, Kayode K.; Mu, Jianbing; Maly, Dustin J.; Van Voorhis, Wesley C.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT We used a sensitization approach that involves replacement of the gatekeeper residue in a protein kinase with one with a different side chain. The activity of the enzyme with a bulky gatekeeper residue, such as methionine, cannot be inhibited using bumped kinase inhibitors (BKIs). Here, we have used this approach to study Plasmodium falciparum calcium-dependent protein kinase 1 (PfCDPK1). The methionine gatekeeper substitution, T145M, although it led to a 47% reduction in transphosphorylation, was successfully introduced into the CDPK1 locus using clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR)/Cas9. As methionine is a bulky residue, BKI 1294 had a 10-fold-greater effect in vitro on the wild-type enzyme than on the methionine mutant. However, in contrast to in vitro data with recombinant enzymes, BKI 1294 had a slightly greater inhibition of the growth of CDPK1 T145M parasites than the wild type. Moreover, the CDPK1 T145M parasites were more sensitive to the action of compound 2 (C2), a specific inhibitor of protein kinase G (PKG). These results suggest that a reduction in the activity of CDPK1 due to methionine substitution at the gatekeeper position is compensated through the direct action of PKG or of another kinase under the regulation of PKG. The transcript levels of CDPK5 and CDPK6 were significantly upregulated in the CDPK1 T145M parasites. The increase in CDPK6 or some other kinase may compensate for decrease in CDPK1 activity during invasion. This study suggests that targeting two kinases may be more effective in chemotherapy to treat malaria so as not to select for mutations in one of the enzymes. PMID:27923926

  3. Structures of KaiC Circadian Clock Mutant Proteins: A New Phosphorylation Site at T426 and Mechanisms of Kinase, ATPase and Phosphatase

    SciTech Connect

    Pattanayek, Rekha; Mori, Tetsuya; Xu, Yao; Pattanayek, Sabuj; Johnson, Carl H.; Egli, Martin

    2010-09-02

    The circadian clock of the cyanobacterium Synechococcus elongatus can be reconstituted in vitro by three proteins, KaiA, KaiB and KaiC. Homo-hexameric KaiC displays kinase, phosphatase and ATPase activities; KaiA enhances KaiC phosphorylation and KaiB antagonizes KaiA. Phosphorylation and dephosphorylation of the two known sites in the C-terminal half of KaiC subunits, T432 and S431, follow a strict order (TS {yields} pTS {yields} pTpS {yields} TpS {yields} TS) over the daily cycle, the origin of which is not understood. To address this void and to analyze the roles of KaiC active site residues, in particular T426, we determined structures of single and double P-site mutants of S. elongatus KaiC. The conformations of the loop region harboring P-site residues T432 and S431 in the crystal structures of six KaiC mutant proteins exhibit subtle differences that result in various distances between Thr (or Ala/Asn/Glu) and Ser (or Ala/Asp) residues and the ATP {gamma}-phosphate. T432 is phosphorylated first because it lies consistently closer to P{gamma}. The structures of the S431A and T432E/S431A mutants reveal phosphorylation at T426. The environments of the latter residue in the structures and functional data for T426 mutants in vitro and in vivo imply a role in dephosphorylation. We provide evidence for a third phosphorylation site in KaiC at T426. T426 and S431 are closely spaced and a KaiC subunit cannot carry phosphates at both sites simultaneously. Fewer subunits are phosphorylated at T426 in the two KaiC mutants compared to phosphorylated T432 and/or S431 residues in the structures of wt and other mutant KaiCs, suggesting that T426 phosphorylation may be labile. The structures combined with functional data for a host of KaiC mutant proteins help rationalize why S431 trails T432 in the loss of its phosphate and shed light on the mechanisms of the KaiC kinase, ATPase and phosphatase activities.

  4. The tomato homolog of the gene encoding UV-damaged DNA binding protein 1 (DDB1) underlined as the gene that causes the high pigment-1 mutant phenotype.

    PubMed

    Lieberman, Michal; Segev, Orit; Gilboa, Nehama; Lalazar, Avraham; Levin, Ilan

    2004-05-01

    A tomato EST sequence, highly homologous to the human and Arabidopsis thaliana UV-damaged DNA binding protein 1 (DDB1), was mapped to the centromeric region of the tomato chromosome 2. This region was previously shown to harbor the HP-1 gene, encoding the high pigment-1 ( hp-1) and the high pigment-1(w) ( hp-1(w)) mutant phenotypes. Recent results also show that the A. thaliana DDB1 protein interacts both genetically and biochemically with the protein encoded by DEETIOLATED1, a gene carrying three tomato mutations that are in many respects isophenotypic to hp-1: high pigment-2 ( hp-2), high pigment-2(j) ( hp-2(j)) and dark green ( dg). The entire coding region of the DDB1 gene was sequenced in an hp-1 mutant and its near-isogenic normal plant in the cv. Ailsa Craig background, and also in an hp-1(w) mutant and its isogenic normal plant in the GT breeding line background. Sequence analysis revealed a single A(931)-to-T(931) base transversion in the coding sequence of the DDB1 gene in the hp-1 mutant plants. This transversion results in the substitution of the conserved asparagine at position 311 to a tyrosine residue. In the hp-1(w) mutant, on the other hand, a single G(2392)-to-A(2392) transition was observed, resulting in the substitution of the conserved glutamic acid at position 798 to a lysine residue. The single nucleotide polymorphism that differentiates hp-1 mutant and normal plants in the cv. Ailsa Craig background was used to design a pyrosequencing genotyping system. Analysis of a resource F(2) population segregating for the hp-1 mutation revealed a very strong linkage association between the DDB1 locus and the photomorphogenic response of the seedlings, measured as hypocotyl length (25mutant phenotypes.

  5. A Mutant Form of the Neisseria gonorrhoeae Pilus Secretin Protein PilQ Allows Increased Entry of Heme and Antimicrobial Compounds†

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Ching-ju; Tobiason, Deborah M.; Thomas, Christopher E.; Shafer, William M.; Seifert, H. Steven; Sparling, P. Frederick

    2004-01-01

    A spontaneous point mutation in pilQ (pilQ1) resulted in phenotypic suppression of a hemoglobin (Hb) receptor mutant (hpuAB mutant), allowing gonococci to grow on Hb as the sole source of iron. PilQ, formerly designated OMP-MC, is a member of the secretin family of proteins located in the outer membrane and is required for pilus biogenesis. The pilQ1 mutant also showed decreased piliation and transformation efficiency. Insertional inactivation of pilQ1 resulted in the loss of the Hb utilization phenotype and decreased entry of free heme. Despite the ability of the pilQ1 mutant to use Hb for iron acquisition and porphyrin, there was no demonstrable binding of Hb to the cell surface. The pilQ1 mutant was more sensitive to the toxic effect of free heme in growth medium and hypersensitive to the detergent Triton X-100 and multiple antibiotics. Double mutation in pilQ1 and tonB had no effect on these phenotypes, but a double pilQ1 pilT mutant showed a reduction in Hb-dependent growth and decreased sensitivity to heme and various antimicrobial agents. Insertional inactivation of wild-type pilQ also resulted in reduced entry of heme, Triton X-100, and some antibiotics. These results show that PilQ forms a channel that allows entry of heme and certain antimicrobial compounds and that a gain-of function point mutation in pilQ results in TonB-independent, PilT-dependent increase of entry. PMID:14729699

  6. Enhanced expression of tandem multimers of the antimicrobial peptide buforin II in Escherichia coli by the DEAD-box protein and trxB mutant.

    PubMed

    Lee, J H; Kim, M S; Cho, J H; Kim, S C

    2002-05-01

    The tandem multimeric expression of various peptides has been explored by many researchers. However, expression levels have usually not been proportional to the degree of multimerization. To increase the expression level in Escherichia coli of tandem multimers of a cationic antimicrobial peptide, buforin II, fused to an anionic peptide, we studied the effect of the DEAD-box protein and the trxB mutant on the expression of tandem multimers. An expression vector with a tac promoter was more effective in directing multimeric expression than one with a T7 promoter. The expression level of large multimers was substantially increased with the tac promoter, possibly through stabilization of long transcripts by synchronization of transcription and translation. Coexpression of the DEAD-box protein, an RNA-binding protein, with the T7 expression system increased the expression level of multimers, especially large multimers, due to protection of the long RNA transcripts. In addition, the use of the trxB mutant also enhanced the expression level of tandem multimers, which contain two cysteine residues at both ends of the monomeric unit. It seems that disulfide bonds formed in the multimers in the trxB mutant might help efficient charge neutralization for inclusion body formation of the multimers, resulting in enhancement of expression. Our results show that the expression of multimers can be improved through the stabilization of the long transcripts by the DEAD-box protein or the expression, under an oxidizing environment, of the trxB mutant in which covalent cross-links through disulfide bonds facilitate inclusion body formation of the multimeric fusion peptide.

  7. Role of protein synthesis in the repair of sublethal x-ray damage in a mutant Chinese hamster ovary cell line

    SciTech Connect

    Yezzi, M.J.

    1985-04-01

    A temperature-sensitive mutant for protein synthesis, CHO-TSH1, has been compared to the wild-type cell, CHO-sC1, in single- and split-radiation-dose schemes. When the exponentially growing TS mutant and the wild-type cells were treated at 40/sub 0/C for up to 2 hrs prior to graded doses of x rays, the survival curves were identical and were the same as those obtained without heat treatment. If the cultures were incubated at 40/sup 0/C for 2 hrs before a first dose and maintained at 40/sup 0/C during a 2 hr dose fractionation interval, repair of radiation damage was reduced in the mutant compared to the wild type. These observations implied that a pool of proteins was involved in the repair of sublethal x-ray damage. However, if repair was measured by the alkaline-unwinding technique under the same time and temperature schemes, no difference in the kientics of DNA strand rejoining was observed. Misrepair processes may permit restoration of DNA strand integrity but not allow functional repair. The effect of diminished repair under conditions of inhibition of protein synthesis was found to be cell-cycle dependent in survival studies with synchronized mutant cell populations. Repair was found to be almost completely eliminated if the temperature sequence described above was applied in the middle of the DNA synthetic phase. Treatment of cell populations in the middle of G/sub 1/-phase yielded repair inhibition comparable to that observed with the asynchronous cells. Splitdose experiments were done using pre-incubation with cycloheximide to chemically inhibit protein synthesis. WT cells and TS cells were treated with cycloheximide at 35/sup 0/C for 2 hrs before a first dose and during a 2 hr dose fractionation interval. 23 figs., 7 tabs.

  8. The expression analysis of cysteine proteinase-like protein in wild-type and nm2 mutant silkworm (Lepidoptera: Bombyx mori).

    PubMed

    Wu, Fan; Kang, Lequn; Wang, Pingyang; Zhao, Qiaoling

    2016-07-15

    The mutant of non-molting in the 2nd instar (nm2) is a recently discovered mutant of Bombyx mori. The mutant cannot molt and exuviate and died successively in premolting of 2nd instar. In this study, two dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) was performed to screen the differential expression of epidermis proteins in pre-molting larvae of 2nd instar between the wild-type and nm2 mutant. Interestingly, a cysteine proteinase-like (BmCP-like) protein in nm2 was significantly higher than that of the wild-type. The transcription profiles of BmCP-like gene were investigated by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR), and the result revealed that BmCP-like mRNA was remarkably higher in nm2 than that of the wild-type. The transcription level of BmCP-like was high in the epidermis while low in the midgut and hemocytes, and fluctuate with development, while the highest in the newly molted larvae of 3rd and lowest in the pre-molting of the 1st and 2nd instar. The body of injected BmCP-like RNAi of 2nd larvae formed a dark spots around the injection place. These results suggested the BmCP-like gene play a key role in the degradation of the cuticle and epidermis layer during molting of 1st and 2nd instar silkworm. Furthermore, the ORF of BmCP-like gene in nm2 was the same to the wild-type. These studies give us a hint that BmCP-like gene maybe not the major gene responsible for nm2, but BmCP-like gene might participate in the immune systems of silkworm, and the upregulation of BmCP-like transcription in the nm2 mutant might be induced by the disadvantages that limit the growth and development of silkworm in order to survive.

  9. Novel induced mlo mutant alleles in combination with site-directed mutagenesis reveal functionally important domains in the heptahelical barley Mlo protein

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Recessively inherited natural and induced mutations in the barley Mlo gene confer durable broad-spectrum resistance against the powdery mildew pathogen, Blumeria graminis f.sp. hordei. Mlo codes for a member of a plant-specific family of polytopic integral membrane proteins with unknown biochemical activity. Resistant barley mlo mutant alleles identify amino acid residues that are critical for Mlo function in the context of powdery mildew susceptibility. Results We molecularly analyzed a novel set of induced barley mlo mutants and used site-directed mutagenesis in combination with transient gene expression to unravel novel amino acid residues of functional significance. We integrate these results with previous findings to map functionally important regions of the heptahelical Mlo protein. Our data reveal the second and third cytoplasmic loop as being particularly sensitive to functional impediment by mutational perturbation, suggesting that these regions are critical for the susceptibility-conferring activity of the Mlo protein. In contrast, only mutations in the second but not the third cytoplasmic loop appear to trigger the Endoplasmic Reticulum-localized quality control machinery that ensures the biogenesis of properly folded membrane proteins. Conclusion Our findings identify functionally important regions of the polytopic barley Mlo protein and reveal the differential sensitivity of individual protein domains to cellular quality control. PMID:20170486

  10. Structure–Biological Function Relationship Extended to Mitotic Arrest-Deficient 2-Like Protein Mad2 Native and Mutants-New Opportunity for Genetic Disorder Control

    PubMed Central

    Avram, Speranta; Milac, Adina; Mernea, Maria; Mihailescu, Dan; Putz, Mihai V.; Buiu, Catalin

    2014-01-01

    Overexpression of mitotic arrest-deficient proteins Mad1 and Mad2, two components of spindle assembly checkpoint, is a risk factor for chromosomal instability (CIN) and a trigger of many genetic disorders. Mad2 transition from inactive open (O-Mad2) to active closed (C-Mad2) conformations or Mad2 binding to specific partners (cell-division cycle protein 20 (Cdc20) or Mad1) were targets of previous pharmacogenomics studies. Here, Mad2 binding to Cdc20 and the interconversion rate from open to closed Mad2 were predicted and the molecular features with a critical contribution to these processes were determined by extending the quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) method to large-size proteins such as Mad2. QSAR models were built based on available published data on 23 Mad2 mutants inducing CIN-related functional changes. The most relevant descriptors identified for predicting Mad2 native and mutants action mechanism and their involvement in genetic disorders are the steric (van der Waals area and solvent accessible area and their subdivided) and energetic van der Waals energy descriptors. The reliability of our QSAR models is indicated by significant values of statistical coefficients: Cross-validated correlation q2 (0.53–0.65) and fitted correlation r2 (0.82–0.90). Moreover, based on established QSAR equations, we rationally design and analyze nine de novo Mad2 mutants as possible promoters of CIN. PMID:25411801

  11. The Arabidopsis pxa1 Mutant Is Defective in an ATP-Binding Cassette Transporter-Like Protein Required for Peroxisomal Fatty Acid β-Oxidation1

    PubMed Central

    Zolman, Bethany K.; Silva, Illeana D.; Bartel, Bonnie

    2001-01-01

    Peroxisomes are important organelles in plant metabolism, containing all the enzymes required for fatty acid β-oxidation. More than 20 proteins are required for peroxisomal biogenesis and maintenance. The Arabidopsis pxa1 mutant, originally isolated because it is resistant to the auxin indole-3-butyric acid (IBA), developmentally arrests when germinated without supplemental sucrose, suggesting defects in fatty acid β-oxidation. Because IBA is converted to the more abundant auxin, indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), in a mechanism that parallels β-oxidation, the mutant is likely to be IBA resistant because it cannot convert IBA to IAA. Adult pxa1 plants grow slowly compared with wild type, with smaller rosettes, fewer leaves, and shorter inflorescence stems, indicating that PXA1 is important throughout development. We identified the molecular defect in pxa1 using a map-based positional approach. PXA1 encodes a predicted peroxisomal ATP-binding cassette transporter that is 42% identical to the human adrenoleukodystrophy (ALD) protein, which is defective in patients with the demyelinating disorder X-linked ALD. Homology to ALD protein and other human and yeast peroxisomal transporters suggests that PXA1 imports coenzyme A esters of fatty acids and IBA into the peroxisome for β-oxidation. The pxa1 mutant makes fewer lateral roots than wild type, both in response to IBA and without exogenous hormones, suggesting that the IAA derived from IBA during seedling development promotes lateral root formation. PMID:11706205

  12. Xyloketal-derived small molecules show protective effect by decreasing mutant Huntingtin protein aggregates in Caenorhabditis elegans model of Huntington's disease.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Yixuan; Guo, Wenyuan; Xu, Guangqing; Wang, Qinmei; Feng, Luyang; Long, Simei; Liang, Fengyin; Huang, Yi; Lu, Xilin; Li, Shichang; Zhou, Jiebin; Burgunder, Jean-Marc; Pang, Jiyan; Pei, Zhong

    2016-01-01

    Huntington's disease is an autosomal-dominant neurodegenerative disorder, with chorea as the most prominent manifestation. The disease is caused by abnormal expansion of CAG codon repeats in the IT15 gene, which leads to the expression of a glutamine-rich protein named mutant Huntingtin (Htt). Because of its devastating disease burden and lack of valid treatment, development of more effective therapeutics for Huntington's disease is urgently required. Xyloketal B, a natural product from mangrove fungus, has shown protective effects against toxicity in other neurodegenerative disease models such as Parkinson's and Alzheimer's diseases. To identify potential neuroprotective molecules for Huntington's disease, six derivatives of xyloketal B were screened in a Caenorhabditis elegans Huntington's disease model; all six compounds showed a protective effect. Molecular docking studies indicated that compound 1 could bind to residues GLN369 and GLN393 of the mutant Htt protein, forming a stable trimeric complex that can prevent the formation of mutant Htt aggregates. Taken together, we conclude that xyloketal derivatives could be novel drug candidates for treating Huntington's disease. Molecular target analysis is a good method to simulate the interaction between proteins and drug compounds. Further, protective candidate drugs could be designed in future using the guidance of molecular docking results.

  13. The effect of the lamin A and its mutants on nuclear structure, cell proliferation, protein stability, and mobility in embryonic cells.

    PubMed

    Piekarowicz, Katarzyna; Machowska, Magdalena; Dratkiewicz, Ewelina; Lorek, Daria; Madej-Pilarczyk, Agnieszka; Rzepecki, Ryszard

    2016-08-17

    LMNA gene encodes for nuclear intermediate filament proteins lamin A/C. Mutations in this gene lead to a spectrum of genetic disorders, collectively referred to as laminopathies. Lamin A/C are widely expressed in most differentiated somatic cells but not in early embryos and some undifferentiated cells. To investigate the role of lamin A/C in cell phenotype maintenance and differentiation, which could be a determinant of the pathogenesis of laminopathies, we examined the role played by exogenous lamin A and its mutants in differentiated cell lines (HeLa, NHDF) and less-differentiated HEK 293 cells. We introduced exogenous wild-type and mutated (H222P, L263P, E358K D446V, and ∆50) lamin A into different cell types and analyzed proteins' impact on proliferation, protein mobility, and endogenous nuclear envelope protein distribution. The mutants give rise to a broad spectrum of nuclear phenotypes and relocate lamin C. The mutations ∆50 and D446V enhance proliferation in comparison to wild-type lamin A and control cells, but no changes in exogenous protein mobility measured by FRAP were observed. Interestingly, although transcripts for lamins A and C are at similar level in HEK 293 cells, only lamin C protein is detected in western blots. Also, exogenous lamin A and its mutants, when expressed in HEK 293 cells underwent posttranscriptional processing. Overall, our results provide new insight into the maintenance of lamin A in less-differentiated cells. Embryonic cells are very sensitive to lamin A imbalance, and its upregulation disturbs lamin C, which may influence gene expression and many regulatory pathways.

  14. Activation of a GTP-binding protein and a GTP-binding-protein-coupled receptor kinase (beta-adrenergic-receptor kinase-1) by a muscarinic receptor m2 mutant lacking phosphorylation sites.

    PubMed

    Kameyama, K; Haga, K; Haga, T; Moro, O; Sadée, W

    1994-12-01

    A mutant of the human muscarinic acetylcholine receptor m2 subtype (m2 receptor), lacking a large part of the third intracellular loop, was expressed and purified using the baculovirus/insect cell culture system. The mutant was not phosphorylated by beta-adrenergic-receptor kinase, as expected from the previous assignment of phosphorylation sites to the central part of the third intracellular loop. However, the m2 receptor mutant was capable of stimulating beta-adrenergic-receptor-kinase-1-mediated phosphorylation of a glutathione S-transferase fusion protein containing the m2 phosphorylation sites in an agonist-dependent manner. Both mutant and wild-type m2 receptors reconstituted with the guanine-nucleotide-binding regulatory proteins (G protein), G(o) and G(i)2, displayed guanine-nucleotide-sensitive high-affinity agonist binding, as assessed by displacement of [3H]quinuclidinyl-benzilate binding with carbamoylcholine, and both stimulated guanosine 5'-3-O-[35S]thiotriphosphate ([35S]GTP[S]) binding in the presence of carbamoylcholine and GDP. The Ki values of carbamoylcholine effects on [3H]quinuclidinyl-benzilate binding were indistinguishable for the mutant and wild-type m2 receptors. Moreover, the phosphorylation of the wild-type m2 receptor by beta-adrenergic-receptor kinase-1 did not affect m2 interaction with G proteins as assessed by the binding of [3H]quinuclidinyl benzilate or [35S]GTP[S]. These results indicate that (a) the m2 receptor serves both as an activator and as a substrate of beta-adrenergic-receptor kinase, and (b) a large part of the third intracellular loop of the m2 receptor does not contribute to interaction with G proteins and its phosphorylation by beta-adrenergic-receptor kinase does not uncouple the receptor and G proteins in reconstituted lipid vesicles.

  15. pH Induced Conformational Transitions in the Transforming Growth Factor β-Induced Protein (TGFβIp) Associated Corneal Dystrophy Mutants

    PubMed Central

    Murugan, Elavazhagan; Venkatraman, Anandalakshmi; Lei, Zhou; Mouvet, Victoria; Rui Yi Lim, Rayne; Muruganantham, Nandhakumar; Goh, Eunice; Swee Lim Peh, Gary; Beuerman, Roger W.; Chaurasia, Shyam S.; Rajamani, Lakshminarayanan; Mehta, Jodhbir S.

    2016-01-01

    Most stromal corneal dystrophies are associated with aggregation and deposition of the mutated transforming growth factor-β induced protein (TGFβIp). The 4th_FAS1 domain of TGFβIp harbors ~80% of the mutations that forms amyloidogenic and non-amyloidogenic aggregates. To understand the mechanism of aggregation and the differences between the amyloidogenic and non-amyloidogenic phenotypes, we expressed the 4th_FAS1 domains of TGFβIp carrying the mutations R555W (non-amyloidogenic) and H572R (amyloidogenic) along with the wild-type (WT). R555W was more susceptible to acidic pH compared to H572R and displayed varying chemical stabilities with decreasing pH. Thermal denaturation studies at acidic pH showed that while WT did not undergo any conformational transition, the mutants exhibited a clear pH-dependent irreversible conversion from αβ conformation to β-sheet oligomers. The β-oligomers of both mutants were stable at physiological temperature and pH. Electron microscopy and dynamic light scattering studies showed that β-oligomers of H572R were larger compared to R555W. The β-oligomers of both mutants were cytotoxic to primary human corneal stromal fibroblast (pHCSF) cells. The β-oligomers of both mutants exhibit variations in their morphologies, sizes, thermal and chemical stabilities, aggregation patterns and cytotoxicities. PMID:27030015

  16. The rye mutants identify a role for Ssn/Srb proteins of the RNA polymerase II holoenzyme during stationary phase entry in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Y W; Howard, S C; Budovskaya, Y V; Rine, J; Herman, P K

    2001-01-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells enter into a distinct resting state, known as stationary phase, in response to specific types of nutrient deprivation. We have identified a collection of mutants that exhibited a defective transcriptional response to nutrient limitation and failed to enter into a normal stationary phase. These rye mutants were isolated on the basis of defects in the regulation of YGP1 expression. In wild-type cells, YGP1 levels increased during the growth arrest caused by nutrient deprivation or inactivation of the Ras signaling pathway. In contrast, the levels of YGP1 and related genes were significantly elevated in the rye mutants during log phase growth. The rye defects were not specific to this YGP1 response as these mutants also exhibited multiple defects in stationary phase properties, including an inability to survive periods of prolonged starvation. These data indicated that the RYE genes might encode important regulators of yeast cell growth. Interestingly, three of the RYE genes encoded the Ssn/Srb proteins, Srb9p, Srb10p, and Srb11p, which are associated with the RNA polymerase II holoenzyme. Thus, the RNA polymerase II holoenzyme may be a target of the signaling pathways responsible for coordinating yeast cell growth with nutrient availability. PMID:11139488

  17. Evaluation of a Brucella melitensis mutant deficient in O-polysaccharide export system ATP-binding protein as a rough vaccine candidate.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhen; Niu, Jian Rui; Wang, Xiao Lei; Wu, Tong Lei; Cheng, Jie; Lu, Lin; Wu, Qing Min

    2014-08-01

    Rough Brucella mutants have been sought as vaccine candidates that do not interfere with the conventional serological diagnosis of brucellosis. In this study, a rough mutant of Brucella melitensis was generated by the disruption of the wzt gene, which encodes the O-polysaccharide (O-PS) export system ATP-binding protein. In vivo, the mutant 16MΔwzt was attenuated and conferred a level of protection against B. melitensis 16M challenge similar to that conferred by the vaccine strain B. melitensis M5 in mice. In pregnant sheep, the mutant 16MΔwzt did not induce abortion. In vitro, 16MΔwzt was more susceptible to polymyxin B and complement-mediated killing than B. melitensis 16M was. Most importantly, although 16MΔwzt had a rough phenotype, it was able to synthesize O-PS and did not induce detectable specific antibodies in sheep. These results suggested that 16MΔwzt deserved to further systematic evaluation as a vaccine for target animal hosts due to its promising features.

  18. The molecular chaperone, Atp12p, from Homo sapiens. In vitro studies with purified wild type and mutant (E240K) proteins.

    PubMed

    Hinton, Ayana; Gatti, Domenico L; Ackerman, Sharon H

    2004-03-05

    Work in Saccharomyces cerevisiae has shown that Atp12p binds to unassembled alpha subunits of F(1) and in so doing prevents the alpha subunit from associating with itself in non-productive complexes during assembly of the F(1) moiety of the mitochondrial ATP synthase. We have developed a method to prepare recombinant Atp12p after expression of its human cDNA in bacterial cells. The molecular chaperone activity of HuAtp12p was studied using citrate synthase as a model substrate. Wild type HuAtp12p suppresses the aggregation of thermally inactivated citrate synthase. In contrast, the mutant protein HuAtp12p(E240K), which harbors a lysine at the position of the highly conserved Glu-240, fails to prevent citrate synthase aggregation at 43 degrees C. No significant differences were observed between the wild type and the mutant proteins as judged by sedimentation analysis, cysteine titration, tryptophan emission spectra, or limited proteolysis, which suggests that the E240K mutation alters the activity of HuAtp12p with minimal effects on the physical integrity of the protein. An additional important finding of this work is that the equilibrium chemical denaturation curve of HuAtp12p shows two components, the first of which is associated with protein aggregation. This result is consistent with a model for Atp12p structure in which there is a hydrophobic chaperone domain that is buried within the protein interior.

  19. Heating of proteins as a means of improving crystallization: a successful case study on a highly amyloidogenic triple mutant of human transthyretin

    SciTech Connect

    Karlsson, Anders; Sauer-Eriksson, A. Elisabeth

    2007-08-01

    By heating a highly amyloidogenic mutant of the human plasma protein transthyretin at 328 K for 48 h, diffraction-quality crystals could be reproducibly produced. The procedure precipitated ∼40% of the protein, but rendered what remained in solution more homogenous. The use of high temperatures in the purification procedures of heat-stable proteins is a well established technique. Recently, rapid pre-heat treatment of protein samples prior to crystallization trials was described as a final polishing step to improve the diffraction properties of crystals [Pusey et al. (2005 ▶), Prog. Biophys. Mol. Biol. 88, 359–386]. The present study demonstrates that extended high-temperature incubation (328 K for 48 h) of the highly amyloidogenic transthyretin mutant TTR G53S/E54D/L55S successfully removes heterogeneities and allows the reproducible growth of well diffracting crystals. Heat treatment might be applied as an optimization method to other cases in which the protein/biomolecule fails to form diffracting crystals.

  20. In vivo and in vitro analysis of ptl1, a yeast ts mutant with a membrane-associated defect in protein translocation.

    PubMed Central

    Toyn, J; Hibbs, A R; Sanz, P; Crowe, J; Meyer, D I

    1988-01-01

    Mutants defective in the ability to translocate proteins across the membrane of the endoplasmic reticulum were selected in Trp- Saccharomyces cerevisiae on the basis of their ability to retain a fusion protein in the cytosol. The fusion comprised the prepro region of prepro-alpha-factor (MF alpha 1) N-terminal to phosphoribosyl anthranilate isomerase (TRP1). The first of the protein translocation mutations, called ptl1, results in temperature-sensitivity of growth and protein translocation. At the non-permissive temperature, precursors to several secretory proteins accumulate in the cytosol. Using this mutant, we demonstrate that the prepro-carboxypeptidase Y that had been accumulated in the cytosol at the non-permissive temperature could be post-translationally translocated into the endoplasmic reticulum when cells were returned to the permissive temperature. This result indicates that post-translational translocation of preproteins across endoplasmic reticulum membranes can occur in vivo. We have also determined that the temperature-sensitive component is membrane-associated in ptl1, and that the membranes derived from this strain show a reversible temperature-sensitive translocation phenotype in vitro. Images PMID:3072198

  1. A single amino acid alteration in the initiation protein is responsible for the DNA overproduction phenotype of copy number mutants of plasmid R6K.

    PubMed Central

    Inuzuka, M; Wada, Y

    1985-01-01

    A novel type of high copy-number (cop) mutants of a mini-R6K plasmid were isolated. The mutations were mapped in the pir gene which encodes the pi initiation protein for plasmid R6K DNA replication. They resulted in an alteration by substitution of a single amino acid: threonine to isoleucine at the 108th position for the cop41, and proline to serine at the 113th position for the cop50, of the 305 amino acid pi protein. The cop41 mutation in the pi protein was found to be trans-dominant over the wild-type allele in the copy control of plasmid R6K. Moreover, it was shown that the altered pi protein was not overproduced in maxicells carrying this mutant plasmid and had a higher affinity to the repeated sequence which is present in the pir promoter region. Most likely the mutated pi protein also interacts more efficiently with the same repeated sequences, a target of pi, in the replication origin region and increases the frequency of the initiation event per cell division. Images Fig. 2. Fig. 5. PMID:3000771

  2. The Mutant KRAS Gene Up-regulates BCL-XL Protein via STAT3 to Confer Apoptosis Resistance That Is Reversed by BIM Protein Induction and BCL-XL Antagonism.

    PubMed

    Zaanan, Aziz; Okamoto, Koichi; Kawakami, Hisato; Khazaie, Khashayarsha; Huang, Shengbing; Sinicrope, Frank A

    2015-09-25

    In colorectal cancers with oncogenic GTPase Kras (KRAS) mutations, inhibition of downstream MEK/ERK signaling has shown limited efficacy, in part because of failure to induce a robust apoptotic response. We studied the mechanism of apoptosis resistance in mutant KRAS cells and sought to enhance the efficacy of a KRAS-specific MEK/ERK inhibitor, GDC-0623. GDC-0623 was shown to potently up-regulate BIM expression to a greater extent versus other MEK inhibitors in isogenic KRAS HCT116 and mutant KRAS SW620 colon cancer cells. ERK silencing enhanced BIM up-regulation by GDC-0623 that was due to its loss of phosphorylation at Ser(69), confirmed by a BIM-EL phosphorylation-defective mutant (S69G) that increased protein stability and blocked BIM induction. Despite BIM and BIK induction, the isogenic KRAS mutant versus wild-type cells remained resistant to GDC-0623-induced apoptosis, in part because of up-regulation of BCL-XL. KRAS knockdown by a doxycycline-inducible shRNA attenuated BCL-XL expression. BCL-XL knockdown sensitized KRAS mutant cells to GDC-0623-mediated apoptosis, as did the BH3 mimetic ABT-263. GDC-0623 plus ABT-263 induced a synergistic apoptosis by a mechanism that includes release of BIM from its sequestration by BCL-XL. Furthermore, mutant KRAS activated p-STAT3 (Tyr(705)) in the absence of IL-6 secretion, and STAT3 knockdown reduced BCL-XL mRNA and protein expression. These data suggest that BCL-XL up-regulation by STAT3 contributes to mutant KRAS-mediated apoptosis resistance. Such resistance can be overcome by potent BIM induction and concurrent BCL-XL antagonism to enable a synergistic apoptotic response.

  3. Purification, Crystallization and Preliminary X-ray Diffraction Analysis of the Phage T4 Vertex Protein Gp24 and its Mutant Forms

    SciTech Connect

    Boeshans,K.; Liu, F.; Peng, G.; Idler, W.; Jang, S.; Marekov, L.; Black, L.; Ahvazi, B.

    2006-01-01

    The study of bacteriophage T4 assembly has revealed regulatory mechanisms pertinent not only to viruses but also to macromolecular complexes. The capsid of bacteriophage T4 is composed of the major capsid protein gp23, and a minor capsid protein gp24, which is arranged as pentamers at the vertices of the capsid. In this study the T4 capsid protein gp24 and its mutant forms were overexpressed and purified to homogeneity. The overexpression from plasmid vectors of all the constructs in Escherichia coli yields biologically active protein in vivo as determined by assembly of active virus following infection with inactivated gene 24 mutant viruses. The gp24 mutant was subjected to surface entropy reduction by mutagenesis and reductive alkylation in order to improve its crystallization properties and diffraction quality. To determine if surface mutagenesis targeting would result in diffractable crystals, two glutamate to alanine mutations (E89A,E90A) were introduced. We report here the biochemical observations and consequent mutagenesis experiment that resulted in improvements in the stability, crystallizability and crystal quality of gp24 without affecting the overall folding. Rational modification of the protein surface to achieve crystallization appears promising for improving crystallization behavior and crystal diffracting qualities. The crystal of gp24(E89A,E90A) diffracted to 2.6 {angstrom} resolution compared to wild-type gp24 at 3.80 {angstrom} resolution under the same experimental conditions. Surface mutation proved to be a better method than reductive methylation for improving diffraction quality of the gp24 crystals.

  4. Purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction of wild-type and mutant recombinant human transforming growth factor β-induced protein (TGFBIp)

    PubMed Central

    Runager, Kasper; García-Castellanos, Raquel; Valnickova, Zuzana; Kristensen, Torsten; Nielsen, Niels Chr.; Klintworth, Gordon K.; Gomis-Rüth, F. Xavier; Enghild, Jan J.

    2009-01-01

    Transforming growth factor β-induced protein (TGFBIp) has been linked to several corneal dystrophies as certain point mutations in the protein may give rise to a progressive accumulation of insoluble protein material in the human cornea. Little is known about the biological functions of this extracellular protein, which is expressed in various tissues throughout the human body. However, it has been found to interact with a number of extracellular matrix macromolecules such as collagens and proteoglycans. Structural information about TGFBIp might prove to be a valuable tool in the elucidation of its function and its role in corneal dystrophies caused by mutations in the TGFBI gene. A simple method for the purification of wild-type and mutant forms of recombinant human TGFBIp from human cells under native conditions is presented here. Moreover, the crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of TGFBIp are reported. PMID:19255489

  5. Recruitment of DNA replication and damage response proteins to viral replication centers during infection with NS2 mutants of Minute Virus of Mice (MVM).

    PubMed

    Ruiz, Zandra; Mihaylov, Ivailo S; Cotmore, Susan F; Tattersall, Peter

    2011-02-20

    MVM NS2 is essential for viral DNA amplification, but its mechanism of action is unknown. A classification scheme for autonomous parvovirus-associated replication (APAR) center development, based on NS1 distribution, was used to characterize abnormal APAR body maturation in NS2null mutant infections, and their organization examined for defects in host protein recruitment. Since acquisition of known replication factors appeared normal, we looked for differences in invoked DNA damage responses. We observed widespread association of H2AX/MDC1 damage response foci with viral replication centers, and sequestration and complex hyperphosphorylation of RPA(32), which occurred in wildtype and mutant infections. Quantifying these responses by western transfer indicated that both wildtype and NS2 mutant MVM elicited ATM activation, while phosphorylation of ATR, already basally activated in asynchronous A9 cells, was downregulated. We conclude that MVM infection invokes multiple damage responses that influence the APAR environment, but that NS2 does not modify the recruitment of cellular proteins.

  6. Differential apoptotic and proliferative activities of wild-type FOXL2 and blepharophimosis-ptosis-epicanthus inversus syndrome (BPES)-associated mutant FOXL2 proteins.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jae-Hong; Bae, Jeehyeon

    2014-03-07

    FOXL2 is an essential transcription factor that is required for proper development of the ovary and eyelid. Mutations in FOXL2 cause an autosomal dominant genetic disorder, blepharophimosis-ptosis-epicanthus inversus syndrome (BPES). BPES type I patients have eyelid malformation and premature ovarian failure leading to infertility, whereas women with type II BPES are fertile or subfertile. In the present study, we evaluated and compared apoptotic and antiproliferative activities of wild-type (WT) and mutant FOXL2 proteins found in BPES type I and II in human granulosa cell tumor-derived KGN cells. Ectopic expression of WT FOXL2 induced apoptosis and inhibited cell cycle progression in human granulosa cells. In contrast, mutated FOXL2s found in BPES type I significantly reduced these activities, whereas mutated FOXL2s in BPES type II showed intermediate activities. Furthermore, mutant FOX L2 proteins were defective in activating transcription of target genes including Caspase 8, TNF-R1, FAS, p21, and BMP4, which regulate apoptosis, proliferation, and differentiation of granulosa cells. Thus, decreased apoptotic and antiproliferative activities caused by mutant forms of FOXL2 found in BPES patients may at least partially contribute to the pathophysiology of ovarian dysfunction.

  7. Differential Apoptotic and Proliferative Activities of Wild-type FOXL2 and Blepharophimosis-ptosis-epicanthus Inversus Syndrome (BPES)-associated Mutant FOXL2 Proteins

    PubMed Central

    KIM, Jae-Hong; BAE, Jeehyeon

    2013-01-01

    Abstract FOXL2 is an essential transcription factor that is required for proper development of the ovary and eyelid. Mutations in FOXL2 cause an autosomal dominant genetic disorder, blepharophimosis-ptosis-epicanthus inversus syndrome (BPES). BPES type I patients have eyelid malformation and premature ovarian failure leading to infertility, whereas women with type II BPES are fertile or subfertile. In the present study, we evaluated and compared apoptotic and antiproliferative activities of wild-type (WT) and mutant FOXL2 proteins found in BPES type I and II in human granulosa cell tumor-derived KGN cells. Ectopic expression of WT FOXL2 induced apoptosis and inhibited cell cycle progression in human granulosa cells. In contrast, mutated FOXL2s found in BPES type I significantly reduced these activities, whereas mutated FOXL2s in BPES type II showed intermediate activities. Furthermore, mutant FOX L2 proteins were defective in activating transcription of target genes including Caspase 8, TNF-R1, FAS, p21, and BMP4, which regulate apoptosis, proliferation, and differentiation of granulosa cells. Thus, decreased apoptotic and antiproliferative activities caused by mutant forms of FOXL2 found in BPES patients may at least partially contribute to the pathophysiology of ovarian dysfunction. PMID:24240106

  8. Neuronal-specific overexpression of a mutant valosin-containing protein associated with IBMPFD promotes aberrant ubiquitin and TDP-43 accumulation and cognitive dysfunction in transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez-Ortiz, Carlos J; Hoshino, Hitomi; Cheng, David; Liu-Yescevitz, Liqun; Blurton-Jones, Mathew; Wolozin, Benjamin; LaFerla, Frank M; Kitazawa, Masashi

    2013-08-01

    Mutations in valosin-containing protein (VCP) cause a rare, autosomal dominant disease called inclusion body myopathy associated with Paget disease of bone and frontotemporal dementia (IBMPFD). One-third of patients with IBMPFD develop frontotemporal dementia, characterized by an extensive neurodegeneration in the frontal and temporal lobes. Neuropathologic hallmarks include nuclear and cytosolic inclusions positive to ubiquitin and transactive response DNA-binding protein 43 (TDP-43) in neurons and glial activation in affected regions. However, the pathogenic mechanisms by which mutant VCP triggers neurodegeneration remain unknown. Herein, we generated a mouse model selectively overexpressing a human mutant VCP in neurons to study pathogenic mechanisms of mutant VCP-mediated neurodegeneration and cognitive impairment. The overexpression of VCPA232E mutation in forebrain regions produced significant progressive impairments of cognitive function, including deficits in spatial memory, object recognition, and fear conditioning. Although overexpressed or endogenous VCP did not seem to focally aggregate inside neurons, TDP-43 and ubiquitin accumulated with age in transgenic mouse brains. TDP-43 was also found to co-localize with stress granules in the cytosolic compartment. Together with the appearance of high-molecular-weight TDP-43 in cytosolic fractions, these findings demonstrate the mislocalization and accumulation of abnormal TDP-43 in the cytosol of transgenic mice, which likely lead to an increase in cellular stress and cognitive impairment. Taken together, these results highlight an important pathologic link between VCP and cognition.

  9. Brucella ovis PA mutants for outer membrane proteins Omp10, Omp19, SP41, and BepC are not altered in their virulence and outer membrane properties.

    PubMed

    Sidhu-Muñoz, Rebeca S; Sancho, Pilar; Vizcaíno, Nieves

    2016-04-15

    Mutants in several genes have been obtained on the genetic background of virulent rough (lacking O-polysaccharide) Brucella ovis PA. The target genes encode outer membrane proteins previously associated with the virulence of smooth (bearing O-polysaccharide chains in the lipopolysaccharide) Brucella strains. Multiple attempts to delete omp16, coding for a homologue to peptidoglycan-associated lipoproteins, were unsuccessful, which suggests that Omp16 is probably essential for in vitro survival of B. ovis PA. Single deletion of omp10 or omp19-that encode two other outer membrane lipoproteins--was achieved, but the simultaneous removal of both genes failed, suggesting an essential complementary function between both proteins. Two other deletion mutants, defective in the Tol-C-homologue BepC or in the SP41 adhesin, were also obtained. Surprisingly when compared to previous results obtained with smooth Brucella, none of the B. ovis mutants showed attenuation in the virulence, either in the mouse model or in cellular models of professional and non-professional phagocytes. Additionally, and in contrast to the observations reported with smooth Brucella strains, several properties related to the outer membrane remained almost unaltered. These results evidence new distinctive traits between naturally rough B. ovis and smooth brucellae.

  10. Identification of Atg2 and ArfGAP1 as Candidate Genetic Modifiers of the Eye Pigmentation Phenotype of Adaptor Protein-3 (AP-3) Mutants in Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez-Fernandez, Imilce A.; Dell’Angelica, Esteban C.

    2015-01-01

    The Adaptor Protein (AP)-3 complex is an evolutionary conserved, molecular sorting device that mediates the intracellular trafficking of proteins to lysosomes and related organelles. Genetic defects in AP-3 subunits lead to impaired biogenesis of lysosome-related organelles (LROs) such as mammalian melanosomes and insect eye pigment granules. In this work, we have performed a forward screening for genetic modifiers of AP-3 function in the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster. Specifically, we have tested collections of large multi-gene deletions–which together covered most of the autosomal chromosomes–to identify chromosomal regions that, when deleted in single copy, enhanced or ameliorated the eye pigmentation phenotype of two independent AP-3 subunit mutants. Fine-mapping led us to define two non-overlapping, relatively small critical regions within fly chromosome 3. The first critical region included the Atg2 gene, which encodes a conserved protein involved in autophagy. Loss of one functional copy of Atg2 ameliorated the pigmentation defects of mutants in AP-3 subunits as well as in two other genes previously implicated in LRO biogenesis, namely Blos1 and lightoid, and even increased the eye pigment content of wild-type flies. The second critical region included the ArfGAP1 gene, which encodes a conserved GTPase-activating protein with specificity towards GTPases of the Arf family. Loss of a single functional copy of the ArfGAP1 gene ameliorated the pigmentation phenotype of AP-3 mutants but did not to modify the eye pigmentation of wild-type flies or mutants in Blos1 or lightoid. Strikingly, loss of the second functional copy of the gene did not modify the phenotype of AP-3 mutants any further but elicited early lethality in males and abnormal eye morphology when combined with mutations in Blos1 and lightoid, respectively. These results provide genetic evidence for new functional links connecting the machinery for biogenesis of LROs with molecules implicated

  11. pH-dependent absorption spectra of rhodopsin mutant E113Q: On the role of counterions and protein

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Peng; Zhou, Panwang; Alsaedi, Ahmed; Zhang, Yan

    2017-03-01

    The absorption spectra of bovine rhodopsin mutant E113Q in solutions were investigated at the molecular level by using a hybrid quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics (QM/MM) method. The calculations suggest the mechanism of the absorption variations of E113Q at different pH values. The results indicate that the polarizations of the counterions in the vicinity of Schiff base under protonation and unprotonation states of the mutant E113Q would be a crucial factor to change the energy gap of the retinal to tune the absorption spectra. Glu-181 residue, which is close to the chromophore, cannot serve as the counterion of the protonated Schiff base of E113Q in dark state. Moreover, the results of the absorption maximum in mutant E113Q with the various anions (Cl-, Br-, I- and NO3-) manifested that the mutant E113Q could have the potential for use as a template of anion biosensors at visible wavelength.

  12. Constitutive expression and enzymatic activity of Tan protein in brain and epidermis of Ceratitis capitata and of Drosophila melanogaster wild-type and tan mutants.

    PubMed

    Pérez, M M; Sabio, G; Badaracco, A; Quesada-Allué, L A

    2011-09-01

    The present report shows a partial biochemical characterization and life cycle expression of N-β-alanyldopamine hydrolase (Tan protein) in Ceratitis capitata and Drosophila melanogaster. This enzyme catalyzes the hydrolysis of N-β-alanyldopamine (NBAD), the main tanning precursor of insect brown cuticles. It also plays an important role in the metabolism of brain neurotransmitters, recycling dopamine and histamine. In contrast to NBAD-synthase, Tan is expressed constitutively in epidermis and does not respond directly to microbial challenge. Immunodetection experiments showed the novel localization of NBAD-hydrolase in the embryo central neural system and in different regions of the adult brain, in addition to optic lobes. We sequenced and characterized Drosophila mutants tan¹ and tan³. The latter appears to be a mutant with normal expression in neural tissue but weak one in epidermis.

  13. Mutations in the Schmallenberg Virus Gc Glycoprotein Facilitate Cellular Protein Synthesis Shutoff and Restore Pathogenicity of NSs Deletion Mutants in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Pinto, Rute Maria; Caporale, Marco; Piras, Ilaria M.; Taggart, Aislynn; Seehusen, Frauke; Hahn, Kerstin; Janowicz, Anna; de Souza, William Marciel; Baumgärtner, Wolfgang; Shi, Xiaohong

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Serial passage of viruses in cell culture has been traditionally used to attenuate virulence and identify determinants of viral pathogenesis. In a previous study, we found that a strain of Schmallenberg virus (SBV) serially passaged in tissue culture (termed SBVp32) unexpectedly displayed increased pathogenicity in suckling mice compared to wild-type SBV. In this study, we mapped the determinants of SBVp32 virulence to the viral genome M segment. SBVp32 virulence is associated with the capacity of this virus to reach high titers in the brains of experimentally infected suckling mice. We also found that the Gc glycoprotein, encoded by the M segment of SBVp32, facilitates host cell protein shutoff in vitro. Interestingly, while the M segment of SBVp32 is a virulence factor, we found that the S segment of the same virus confers by itself an attenuated phenotype to wild-type SBV, as it has lost the ability to block the innate immune system of the host. Single mutations present in the Gc glycoprotein of SBVp32 are sufficient to compensate for both the attenuated phenotype of the SBVp32 S segment and the attenuated phenotype of NSs deletion mutants. Our data also indicate that the SBVp32 M segment does not act as an interferon (IFN) antagonist. Therefore, SBV mutants can retain pathogenicity even when they are unable to fully control the production of IFN by infected cells. Overall, this study suggests that the viral glycoprotein of orthobunyaviruses can compensate, at least in part, for the function of NSs. In addition, we also provide evidence that the induction of total cellular protein shutoff by SBV is determined by multiple viral proteins, while the ability to control the production of IFN maps to the NSs protein. IMPORTANCE The identification of viral determinants of pathogenesis is key to the development of prophylactic and intervention measures. In this study, we found that the bunyavirus Gc glycoprotein is a virulence factor. Importantly, we show that

  14. Hepatitis B virus pre-S2 mutant large surface protein inhibits DNA double-strand break repair and leads to genome instability in hepatocarcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Yi-Hsuan; Chang, Yu-Ying; Su, Ih-Jen; Yen, Chia-Jui; Liu, Yi-Ru; Liu, Ren-Jei; Hsieh, Wen-Chuan; Tsai, Hung-Wen; Wang, Lily Hui-Ching; Huang, Wenya

    2015-07-01

    Although hepatitis B virus (HBV) has been established to cause hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), the exact mechanism remains to be clarified. Type II ground glass hepatocytes (GGHs) harbouring the HBV pre-S2 mutant large surface protein (LHBS) have been recognized as a morphologically distinct hallmark of HCC in the advanced stages of chronic HBV infection. Considering its preneoplastic nature, we hypothesized that type II GGH may exhibit high genomic instability, which is important for the carcinogenic process in chronic HBV carriers. In this study we found that pre-S2 mutant LHBS directly interacted with importin α1, the key factor that recognizes cargos undergoing nuclear transportation mediated by the importin α/β-associated nuclear pore complex (NPC). By interacting with importin α1, which inhibits its function as an NPC factor, pre-S2 mutant LHBS blocked nuclear transport of an essential DNA repair and recombination factor, Nijmegen breakage syndrome 1 (NBS1), upon DNA damage, thereby delaying the formation of nuclear foci at the sites of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs). Pre-S2 mutant LHBS was also found to block NBS1-mediated homologous recombination repair and induce multi-nucleation of cells. In addition, pre-S2 mutant LHBS transgenic mice showed genomic instability, indicated by increased global gene copy number variations (CNVs), which were significantly higher than those in hepatitis B virus X mice, indicating that pre-S2 mutant LHBS is the major viral oncoprotein inducing genomic instability in HBV-infected hepatocytes. Consistently, the human type II GGHs in HCC patients exhibited increased DNA DSBs representing significant genomic instability. In conclusion, type II GGHs harbouring HBV pre-S2 mutant oncoprotein represent a high-risk marker for the loss of genome integrity in chronic HBV carriers and explain the complex chromosome changes in HCCs. Mouse array CGH raw data: GEO Accession No. GSE61378 (http://www.ncbi

  15. Control of protein synthesis in herpesvirus-infected cells: analysis of the polypeptides induced by wild type and sixteen temperature-sensitive mutants of HSV strain 17.

    PubMed

    Marsden, H S; Crombie, I K; Subak-Sharpe, J H

    1976-06-01

    The polypeptides induced in cells infected with a Glasgow isolate of HSV-I (17 syn+) have been characterized by SDS polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Study of the kinetics of synthesis in three cell lines has detected a total of 52 polypeptides, 33 of which can be identified in polypeptide profiles of purified virions. These include six low mol. wt. polypeptides that have not been previously reported. Several polypeptides were labelled with glucosamine in infected BHK cells. The different polypeptide patterns obtained at permissive (31 degrees C) and nonpermissive (38 degrees C) temperature in cells infected with 16 temperature-sensitive (ts) mutants are reported. The effect of multiplicity of infection (m.o.i.) on the polypeptide profile has been examined for two of the DNA -ve mutants: below ten, the profile varied with the m.o.i. whereas above ten it was constant. All mutants were therefore examined at an m.o.i. of approx. 20. Mutants from the same complementation group showed very similar profiles. A number of general conclusions concerning control of protein synthesis in HSV infected cells can be made: (I) As most of the 16 ts mutants affected the synthesis of several or many polypeptides it follows that a large proportion of genome specifies controlling functions. (2) The high frequency with which some polypeptides were affected suggests they are at or near the terminus of biosynthetic pathways which are under multiple control. (3) Conversely, some polypeptides were affected with a low frequency suggesting that their synthesis is not dependent on the expression of many virus functions. (4) Several individual ts mutations lead to the synthesis of increased amounts of different large polypeptides. (5) Analysis of every band detectably affected by at least one ts mutation has disclosed nine classes of dependence relationship between polypeptide synthesis and the DNA phenotype of the mutants, illustrating that this relationship is complex and different for

  16. Gain of function mutant p53 proteins cooperate with E2F4 to transcriptionally downregulate RAD17 and BRCA1 gene expression.

    PubMed

    Valenti, Fabio; Ganci, Federica; Fontemaggi, Giulia; Sacconi, Andrea; Strano, Sabrina; Blandino, Giovanni; Di Agostino, Silvia

    2015-03-20

    Genomic instability (IN) is a common feature of many human cancers. The TP53 tumour suppressor gene is mutated in approximately half of human cancers. Here, we show that BRCA1 and RAD17 genes, whose derived proteins play a pivotal role in DNA damage repair, are transcriptional targets of gain-of-function mutant p53 proteins. Indeed, high levels of mutp53 protein facilitate DNA damage accumulation and severely impair BRCA1 and RAD17 expression in proliferating cancer cells. The recruitment of mutp53/E2F4 complex onto specific regions of BRCA1 and RAD17 promoters leads to the inhibition of their expression. BRCA1 and RAD17 mRNA expression is reduced in HNSCC patients carrying TP53 mutations when compared to those bearing wt-p53 gene. Furthermore, the analysis of gene expression databases for breast cancer patients reveals that low expression of DNA repair genes correlates significantly with reduced relapse free survival of patients carrying TP53 gene mutations. Collectively, these findings highlight the direct involvement of transcriptionally active gain of function mutant p53 proteins in genomic instability through the impairment of DNA repair mechanisms.

  17. A Mutant Small Heat Shock Protein with Increased Thylakoid Association Provides an Elevated Resistance Against UV-B Damage in Synechocystis 6803*

    PubMed Central

    Balogi, Zsolt; Cheregi, Ottilia; Giese, Kim C.; Juhász, Kata; Vierling, Elizabeth; Vass, Imre; Vígh, László; Horváth, Ibolya

    2008-01-01

    Besides acting as molecular chaperones, the amphitropic small heat shock proteins (sHsps) are suggested to play an additional role in membrane quality control. We investigated sHsp membrane function in the model cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PPC 6803 using mutants of the single sHsp from this organism, Hsp17. We examined mutants in the N-terminal arm, L9P and Q16R, for altered interaction with thylakoid and lipid membranes and examined the effects of these mutations on thylakoid functions. These mutants are unusual in that they retain their oligomeric state and chaperone activity in vitro but fail to confer thermotolerance in vivo. We found that both mutant proteins had dramatically altered membrane/lipid interaction properties. Whereas L9P showed strongly reduced binding to thylakoid and model membranes, Q16R was almost exclusively membrane-associated, properties that may be the cause of reduced heat tolerance of cells carrying these mutations. Among the lipid classes tested, Q16R displayed the highest interaction with negatively charged SQDG. In Q16R cells a specific alteration of the thylakoid-embedded Photosystem II (PSII) complex was observed. Namely, the binding of plastoquinone and quinone analogue acceptors to the QB site was modified. In addition, the presence of Q16R dramatically reduced UV-B damage of PSII activity because of enhanced PSII repair. We suggest these effects occur at least partly because of increased interaction of Q16R with SQDG in the PSII complex. Our findings further support the model that membrane association is a functional property of sHsps and suggest sHsps as a possible biotechnological tool to enhance UV protection of photosynthetic organisms. PMID:18574246

  18. Comparison of the effect of recombinant bovine wild and mutant lipopolysaccharide-binding protein in lipopolysaccharide-challenged bovine mammary epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaojuan; Li, Lian; Sun, Yu; Wu, Jie; Wang, Genlin

    2016-05-01

    Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-binding protein (LBP) plays a crucial role in the recognition of bacterial components, such as LPS that causes an immune response. The aim of this study was to compare the different effects of recombinant bovine wild LBP and mutant LBP (67 Ala → Thr) on the LPS-induced inflammatory response of bovine mammary epithelial cells (BMECs). When BMECs were treated with various concentrations of recombinant bovine lipopolysaccharide-binding protein (RBLBP) (1, 5, 10, and 15 μg/mL) for 12 h, RBLBP of 5 μg/mL increased the apoptosis of BMECs induced by LPS without cytotoxicity, and mutant LBP resulted in a higher cell apoptosis than wild LBP did. By gene-chip microarray and bioinformatics, the data identified 2306 differentially expressed genes that were changed significantly between the LPS-induced inflamed BMECs treated with 5 μg/mL of mutant LBP and the BMECs only treated with 10 μg/mL of LPS (fold change ≥2). Meanwhile, 1585 genes were differently expressed between the inflamed BMECs treated with 5 μg/mL of wild LBP and 10 μg/mL of LPS-treated BMECs. Gene Ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway analyses showed that these differentially expressed genes were involved in different pathways that regulate the inflammation response. It predicted that carriers of this mutation increase the risk for a more severe inflammatory response. Our study provides an overview of the gene expression profile between wild LBP and mutant LBP on the LPS-induced inflammatory response of BMECs, which will lead to further understanding of the potential effects of LBP mutations on bovine mammary glands.

  19. Heterologous expression in Escherichia coli of native and mutant forms of the major intrinsic protein of rat eye lens (MIP26).

    PubMed Central

    Dilsiz, N; Crabbe, M J

    1995-01-01

    The complete cDNA of rat eye lens major intrinsic protein (MIP26) was sequenced using the dideoxy chain termination method. The sequence displayed 89% nucleotide identity and 95% identity at the amino acid level with bovine MIP26 [Gorin, Yancey, Cline, Revel and Horwitz (1984) Cell, 39, 49-54]. Both native and mutant cDNAs coding for rat MIP26 were amplified by PCR and subcloned into the pPOW expression vector for expression of Escherichia coli. A membrane signal peptide (PelB) was used for secretion of MIP26 into the cytoplasmic membrane. A hydrophilic octapeptide tail (FLAG) was fused to either the N- or C-terminus of MIP26 to aid monoclonal antibody-mediated identification and purification. Heterologously expressed MIP26 was identified by using a monoclonal antibody corresponding to the FLAG peptide located at the termini of MIP26. Immunofluorescently labelled monoclonal antibody was used to determine the localization of MIP26 in the cytoplasmic membrane. The majority of the protein was integrated into cell plasma membrane. MIP26 was extracted with n-octyl beta-D-glucopyranoside and then purified on an affinity gel column. Rat MIP26 cDNA contains an -Asn-Gly- sequence at the C-terminus, which has been shown in other proteins to be particularly susceptible to spontaneous deamidation [Takemoto and Emmons (1991) Curr. Eye Res. 10, 863-869]. We therefore modified the MIP26 molecule using a site-directed mutagenesis method to generate a mutant MIP26 at the appropriate asparagine residue (Asn244-->Asp) near the C-terminus. The mutation was confirmed by DNA sequencing. The mutant MIP26 protein was also expressed in E. coli and incorporated predominantly into the cytoplasmic membrane. Images Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 PMID:7848273

  20. THI1, a protein involved in the biosynthesis of thiamin in Arabidopsis thaliana: structural analysis of THI1(A140V) mutant.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Assuero F; Dyszy, Fabio; Munte, Claudia E; Demarco, Ricardo; Beltramini, Leila M; Oliva, Glaucius; Costa-Filho, Antonio J; Araujo, Ana P U

    2014-06-01

    In eukaryotes, there are still steps of the vitamin B1 biosynthetic pathway not completely understood. In Arabidopsis thaliana, THI1 protein has been associated with the synthesis of the thiazole ring, a finding supported by the identification of a thiamine pyrophosphate (TPP)-like compound in its structure. Here, we investigated THI1 and its mutant THI1(A140V), responsible for the thiamin auxotrophy in a A. thaliana mutant line, aiming to clarify the impact of this mutation in the stability and activity of THI1. Recently, the THI1 orthologue (THI4) was revealed to be responsible for the donation of the sulfur atom from a cysteine residue to the thiazole ring in the thiamine intermediate. In this context, we carried out a cysteine quantification in THI1 and THI1(A140V) using electron spin resonance (ESR). These data showed that THI1(A140V) contains more sulfur-containing cysteines than THI1, indicating that the function as a sulfur donor is conserved, but the rate of donation reaction is somehow affected. Also, the bound compounds were isolated from both proteins and are present in different amounts in each protein. Unfolding studies presented differences in melting temperatures and also in the concentration of guanidine at which half of the protein unfolds, thus showing that THI1(A140V) has its conformational stability affected by the mutation. Hence, despite keeping its function in the early steps during the synthesis of TPP precursor, our studies have shown a decrease in the THI1(A140V) stability, which might be slowing down the biological activity of the mutant, and thus contributing to thiamin auxotrophy.

  1. Involvement of the Eukaryote-Like Kinase-Phosphatase System and a Protein That Interacts with Penicillin-Binding Protein 5 in Emergence of Cephalosporin Resistance in Cephalosporin-Sensitive Class A Penicillin-Binding Protein Mutants in Enterococcus faecium

    PubMed Central

    Desbonnet, Charlene; Tait-Kamradt, Amelia; Garcia-Solache, Monica; Dunman, Paul; Coleman, Jeffrey; Arthur, Michel

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The intrinsic resistance of Enterococcus faecium to ceftriaxone and cefepime (here referred to as “cephalosporins”) is reliant on the presence of class A penicillin-binding proteins (Pbps) PbpF and PonA. Mutants lacking these Pbps exhibit cephalosporin susceptibility that is reversible by exposure to penicillin and by selection on cephalosporin-containing medium. We selected two cephalosporin-resistant mutants (Cro1 and Cro2) of class A Pbp-deficient E. faecium CV598. Genome analysis revealed changes in the serine-threonine kinase Stk in Cro1 and a truncation in the associated phosphatase StpA in Cro2 whose respective involvements in resistance were confirmed in separate complementation experiments. In an additional effort to identify proteins linked to cephalosporin resistance, we performed tandem affinity purification using Pbp5 as bait in penicillin-exposed E. faecium; these experiments yielded a protein designated Pbp5-associated protein (P5AP). Transcription of the P5AP gene was increased after exposure to penicillin in wild-type strains and in Cro2 and suppressed in Cro2 complemented with the wild-type stpA. Transformation of class A Pbp-deficient strains with the plasmid-carried P5AP gene conferred cephalosporin resistance. These data suggest that Pbp5-associated cephalosporin resistance in E. faecium devoid of typical class A Pbps is related to the presence of P5AP, whose expression is influenced by the activity of the serine-threonine phosphatase/kinase system. PMID:27048803

  2. Enhancing cellulase production by overexpression of xylanase regulator protein gene, xlnR, in Talaromyces cellulolyticus cellulase hyperproducing mutant strain.

    PubMed

    Okuda, Naoyuki; Fujii, Tatsuya; Inoue, Hiroyuki; Ishikawa, Kazuhiko; Hoshino, Tamotsu

    2016-10-01

    We obtained strains with the xylanase regulator gene, xlnR, overexpressed (HXlnR) and disrupted (DXlnR) derived from Talaromyces cellulolyticus strain C-1, which is a cellulase hyperproducing mutant. Filter paper degrading enzyme activity and cellobiohydrolase I gene expression was the highest in HXlnR, followed by C-1 and DXlnR. These results indicate that the enhancement of cellulase productivity was succeeded by xlnR overexpression.

  3. Analysis of the function of the 70-kilodalton cyclase-associated protein (CAP) by using mutants of yeast adenylyl cyclase defective in CAP binding.

    PubMed

    Wang, J; Suzuki, N; Nishida, Y; Kataoka, T

    1993-07-01

    In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, adenylyl cyclase forms a complex with the 70-kDa cyclase-associated protein (CAP). By in vitro mutagenesis, we assigned a CAP-binding site of adenylyl cyclase to a small segment near its C terminus and created mutants which lost the ability to bind CAP. CAP binding was assessed first by observing the ability of the overproduced C-terminal 150 residues of adenylyl cyclase to sequester CAP, thereby suppressing the heat shock sensitivity of yeast cells bearing the activated RAS2 gene (RAS2Val-19), and then by immunoprecipitability of adenylyl cyclase activity with anti-CAP antibody and by direct measurement of the amount of CAP bound. Yeast cells whose chromosomal adenylyl cyclase genes were replaced by the CAP-nonbinding mutants possessed adenylyl cyclase activity fully responsive to RAS2 protein in vitro. However, they did not exhibit sensitivity to heat shock in the RAS2Val-19 background. When glucose-induced accumulation of cyclic AMP (cAMP) was measured in these mutants carrying RAS2Val-19, a rapid transient rise indistinguishable from that of wild-type cells was observed and a high peak level and following persistent elevation of the cAMP concentration characteristic of RAS2Val-19 were abolished. In contrast, in the wild-type RAS2 background, similar cyclase gene replacement did not affect the glucose-induced cAMP response. These results suggest that the association with CAP, although not involved in the in vivo response to the wild-type RAS2 protein, is somehow required for the exaggerated response of adenylyl cyclase to activated RAS2.

  4. Inflammation in mice ectopically expressing human Pyogenic Arthritis, Pyoderma Gangrenosum, and Acne (PAPA) Syndrome-associated PSTPIP1 A230T mutant proteins.

    PubMed

    Wang, Donghai; Höing, Susanne; Patterson, Heide Christine; Ahmad, Umtul M; Rathinam, Vijay A K; Rajewsky, Klaus; Fitzgerald, Katherine A; Golenbock, Douglas T

    2013-02-15

    Pyogenic Arthritis, Pyoderma Gangrenosum, and Acne Syndrome (PAPA syndrome) is an autoinflammatory disease caused by aberrant production of the proinflammatory cytokine interleukin-1. Mutations in the gene encoding proline serine threonine phosphatase-interacting protein-1 (PSTPIP1) have been linked to PAPA syndrome. PSTPIP1 is an adaptor protein that interacts with PYRIN, the protein encoded by the Mediterranean Fever (MEFV) gene whose mutations cause Familial Mediterranean Fever (FMF). However, the pathophysiological function of PSTPIP1 remains to be elucidated. We have generated mouse strains that either are PSTPIP1 deficient or ectopically express mutant PSTPIP1. Results from analyzing these mice suggested that PSTPIP1 is not an essential regulator of the Nlrp3, Aim2, or Nlrc4 inflammasomes. Although common features of human PAPA syndrome such as pyogenic arthritis and skin inflammation were not recapitulated in the mouse model, ectopic expression of the mutant but not the wild type PSTPIP1 in mice lead to partial embryonic lethality, growth retardation, and elevated level of circulating proinflammatory cytokines.

  5. A porcine circovirus-2 mutant isolated in Brazil contains low-frequency substitutions in regions of immunoprotective epitopes in the capsid protein.

    PubMed

    Salgado, Rafael Locatelli; Vidigal, Pedro Marcus Pereira; Gonzaga, Natalia F; de Souza, Luiz F L; Polêto, Marcelo D; Onofre, Thiago Souza; Eller, Monique R; Pereira, Carlos Eduardo Real; Fietto, Juliana L R; Bressan, Gustavo C; Guedes, Roberto M C; Almeida, Márcia R; Silva Júnior, Abelardo

    2015-11-01

    Porcine circovirus-2 (PCV2) is the etiologic agent of several diseases in pigs, including multi-systemic wasting syndrome (PMWS). In this work, a new mutant PCV2b was isolated from PMWS-affected pigs on a Brazilian farm. Its genome showed high sequence similarity (>99% identity) to those from a group of emerging mutants isolated from cases of PMWS outbreaks in vaccinated pigs in China, the USA and South Korea. Here, we show that these isolates share a combination of low-frequency substitutions (single amino acid polymorphisms with a frequency of ≤25%) in the viral capsid protein, mainly in regions of immunoprotective epitopes, and an additional lysine residue at position 234. These isolates were phylogenetically grouped in the PCV2b clade, reinforcing the idea of the emergence of a new group of mutants PCV2b associated with outbreaks worldwide. The identification of these polymorphisms in the viral capsid highlights the importance of considering these isolates for the development of more-effective vaccines.

  6. Hepatitis B virus X protein mutant HBxΔ127 promotes proliferation of hepatoma cells through up-regulating miR-215 targeting PTPRT

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Fabao; You, Xiaona; Chi, Xiumei; Wang, Tao; Ye, Lihong; Niu, Junqi; Zhang, Xiaodong

    2014-02-07

    Highlights: • Relative to wild type HBx, HBX mutant HBxΔ127 strongly enhances cell proliferation. • Relative to wild type HBx, HBxΔ127 remarkably up-regulates miR-215 in hepatoma cells. • HBxΔ127-elevated miR-215 promotes cell proliferation via targeting PTPRT mRNA. - Abstract: The mutant of virus is a frequent event. Hepatitis B virus X protein (HBx) plays a vital role in the development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Therefore, the identification of potent mutant of HBx in hepatocarcinogenesis is significant. Previously, we identified a natural mutant of the HBx gene (termed HBxΔ127). Relative to wild type HBx, HBxΔ127 strongly enhanced cell proliferation and migration in HCC. In this study, we aim to explore the mechanism of HBxΔ127 in promotion of proliferation of hepatoma cells. Our data showed that both wild type HBx and HBxΔ127 could increase the expression of miR-215 in hepatoma HepG2 and H7402 cells. However, HBxΔ127 was able to significantly increase miR-215 expression relative to wild type HBx in the cells. We identified that protein tyrosine phosphatase, receptor type T (PTPRT) was one of the target genes of miR-215 through targeting 3′UTR of PTPRT mRNA. In function, miR-215 was able to promote the proliferation of hepatoma cells. Meanwhile anti-miR-215 could partially abolish the enhancement of cell proliferation mediated by HBxΔ127 in vitro. Knockdown of PTPRT by siRNA could distinctly suppress the decrease of cell proliferation mediated by anti-miR-215 in HepG2-XΔ127/H7402-XΔ127 cells. Moreover, we found that anti-miR-215 remarkably inhibited the tumor growth of hepatoma cells in nude mice. Collectively, relative to wild type HBx, HBxΔ127 strongly enhances proliferation of hepatoma cells through up-regulating miR-215 targeting PTPRT. Our finding provides new insights into the mechanism of HBx mutant HBxΔ127 in promotion of proliferation of hepatoma cells.

  7. Chemical genomic screening of a Saccharomyces cerevisiae genomewide mutant collection reveals genes required for defense against four antimicrobial peptides derived from proteins found in human saliva.

    PubMed

    Lis, Maciej; Bhatt, Sanjay; Schoenly, Nathan E; Lee, Anna Y; Nislow, Corey; Bobek, Libuse A

    2013-02-01

    To compare the effects of four antimicrobial peptides (MUC7 12-mer, histatin 12-mer, cathelicidin KR20, and a peptide containing lactoferricin amino acids 1 to 11) on the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, we employed a genomewide fitness screen of combined collections of mutants with homozygous deletions of nonessential genes and heterozygous deletions of essential genes. When an arbitrary fitness score cutoffs of 1 (indicating a fitness defect, or hypersensitivity) and -1 (indicating a fitness gain, or resistance) was used, 425 of the 5,902 mutants tested exhibited altered fitness when treated with at least one peptide. Functional analysis of the 425 strains revealed enrichment among the identified deletions in gene groups associated with the Gene Ontology (GO) terms "ribosomal subunit," "ribosome biogenesis," "protein glycosylation," "vacuolar transport," "Golgi vesicle transport," "negative regulation of transcription," and others. Fitness profiles of all four tested peptides were highly similar, particularly among mutant strains exhibiting the greatest fitness defects. The latter group included deletions in several genes involved in induction of the RIM101 signaling pathway, including several components of the ESCRT sorting machinery. The RIM101 signaling regulates response of yeasts to alkaline and neutral pH and high salts, and our data indicate that this pathway also plays a prominent role in regulating protective measures against all four tested peptides. In summary, the results of the chemical genomic screens of S. cerevisiae mutant collection suggest that the four antimicrobial peptides, despite their differences in structure and physical properties, share many interactions with S. cerevisiae cells and consequently a high degree of similarity between their modes of action.

  8. A multi-omic analysis of an Enterococcus faecium mutant reveals specific genetic mutations and dramatic changes in mRNA and protein expression

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background For a long time, Enterococcus faecium was considered a harmless commensal of the mammalian gastrointestinal (GI) tract and was used as a probiotic in fermented foods. In recent decades, E. faecium has been recognised as an opportunistic pathogen that causes diseases such as neonatal meningitis, urinary tract infections, bacteremia, bacterial endocarditis and diverticulitis. E. faecium could be taken into space with astronauts and exposed to the space environment. Thus, it is necessary to observe the phenotypic and molecular changes of E. faecium after spaceflight. Results An E. faecium mutant with biochemical features that are different from those of the wild-type strain was obtained from subculture after flight on the SHENZHOU-8 spacecraft. To understand the underlying mechanism causing these changes, the whole genomes of both the mutant and the WT strains were sequenced using Illumina technology. The genomic comparison revealed that dprA, a recombination-mediator gene, and arpU, a gene associated with cell wall growth, were mutated. Comparative transcriptomic and proteomic analyses showed that differentially expressed genes or proteins were involved with replication, recombination, repair, cell wall biogenesis, glycometabolism, lipid metabolism, amino acid metabolism, predicted general function and energy production/conversion. Conclusion This study analysed the comprehensive genomic, transcriptomic and proteomic changes of an E. faecium mutant from subcultures that were loaded on the SHENZHOU-8 spacecraft. The implications of these gene mutations and expression changes and their underlying mechanisms should be investigated in the future. We hope that the current exploration of multiple “-omics” analyses of this E. faecium mutant will provide clues for future studies on this opportunistic pathogen. PMID:24373636

  9. Prion Protein Interacts with BACE1 Protein and Differentially Regulates Its Activity toward Wild Type and Swedish Mutant Amyloid Precursor Protein*

    PubMed Central

    Griffiths, Heledd H.; Whitehouse, Isobel J.; Baybutt, Herbert; Brown, Debbie; Kellett, Katherine A. B.; Jackson, Carolyn D.; Turner, Anthony J.; Piccardo, Pedro; Manson, Jean C.; Hooper, Nigel M.

    2011-01-01

    In Alzheimer disease amyloid-β (Aβ) peptides derived from the amyloid precursor protein (APP) accumulate in the brain. Cleavage of APP by the β-secretase BACE1 is the rate-limiting step in the production of Aβ. We have reported previously that the cellular prion protein (PrPC) inhibited the action of BACE1 toward human wild type APP (APPWT) in cellular models and that the levels of endogenous murine Aβ were significantly increased in PrPC-null mouse brain. Here we investigated the molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying this observation. PrPC interacted directly with the prodomain of the immature Golgi-localized form of BACE1. This interaction decreased BACE1 at the cell surface and in endosomes where it preferentially cleaves APPWT but increased it in the Golgi where it preferentially cleaves APP with the Swedish mutation (APPSwe). In transgenic mice expressing human APP with the Swedish and Indiana familial mutations (APPSwe,Ind), PrPC deletion had no influence on APP proteolytic processing, Aβ plaque deposition, or levels of soluble Aβ or Aβ oligomers. In cells, although PrPC inhibited the action of BACE1 on APPWT, it did not inhibit BACE1 activity toward APPSwe. The differential subcellular location of the BACE1 cleavage of APPSwe relative to APPWT provides an explanation for the failure of PrPC deletion to affect Aβ accumulation in APPSwe,Ind mice. Thus, although PrPC exerts no control on cleavage of APPSwe by BACE1, it has a profound influence on the cleavage of APPWT, suggesting that PrPC may be a key protective player against sporadic Alzheimer disease. PMID:21795680

  10. Proteomic Analysis of Different Mutant Genotypes of Arabidopsis Led to the Identification of 11 Proteins Correlating with Adventitious Root Development1[W

    PubMed Central

    Sorin, Céline; Negroni, Luc; Balliau, Thierry; Corti, Hélène; Jacquemot, Marie-Pierre; Davanture, Marlène; Sandberg, Göran; Zivy, Michel; Bellini, Catherine

    2006-01-01

    A lack of competence to form adventitious roots by cuttings or explants in vitro occurs routinely and is an obstacle for the clonal propagation and rapid fixation of elite genotypes. Adventitious rooting is known to be a quantitative genetic trait. We performed a proteomic analysis of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) mutants affected in their ability to develop adventitious roots in order to identify associated molecular markers that could be used to select genotypes for their rooting ability and/or to get further insight into the molecular mechanisms controlling adventitious rooting. Comparison of two-dimensional gel electrophoresis protein profiles resulted in the identification of 11 proteins whose abundance could be either positively or negatively correlated with endogenous auxin content, the number of adventitious root primordia, and/or the number of mature adventitious roots. One protein was negatively correlated only to the number of root primordia and two were negatively correlated to the number of mature adventitious roots. Two putative chaperone proteins were positively correlated only to the number of primordia, and, interestingly, three auxin-inducible GH3-like proteins were positively correlated with the number of mature adventitious roots. The others were correlated with more than one parameter. The 11 proteins are predicted to be involved in different biological processes, including the regulation of auxin homeostasis and light-associated metabolic pathways. The results identify regulatory pathways associated with adventitious root formation and represent valuable markers that might be used for the future identification of genotypes with better rooting abilities. PMID:16377752

  11. Dimerization, oligomerization, and aggregation of human amyotrophic lateral sclerosis copper/zinc superoxide dismutase 1 protein mutant forms in live cells.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jiho; Lee, Honggun; Lee, Joo Hyun; Kwon, Do-yoon; Genovesio, Auguste; Fenistein, Denis; Ogier, Arnaud; Brondani, Vincent; Grailhe, Regis

    2014-05-23

    More than 100 copper/zinc superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) genetic mutations have been characterized. These mutations lead to the death of motor neurons in ALS. In its native form, the SOD1 protein is expressed as a homodimer in the cytosol. In vitro studies have shown that SOD1 mutations impair the dimerization kinetics of the protein, and in vivo studies have shown that SOD1 forms aggregates in patients with familial forms of ALS. In this study, we analyzed WT SOD1 and 9 mutant (mt) forms of the protein by non-invasive fluorescence techniques. Using microscopic techniques such as fluorescence resonance energy transfer, fluorescence complementation, image-based quantification, and fluorescence correlation spectroscopy, we studied SOD1 dimerization, oligomerization, and aggregation. Our results indicate that SOD1 mutations lead to an impairment in SOD1 dimerization and, subsequently, affect protein aggregation. We also show that SOD1 WT and mt proteins can dimerize. However, aggregates are predominantly composed of SOD1 mt proteins.

  12. The reduction rates of DEPC-modified mutant Thermus thermophilus Rieske proteins differ when there is a negative charge proximal to the cluster.

    PubMed

    Karagas, Nicholas E; Jones, Christie N; Osborn, Deborah J; Dzierlenga, Anika L; Oyala, Paul; Konkle, Mary E; Whitney, Emily M; David Britt, R; Hunsicker-Wang, Laura M

    2014-10-01

    Rieske and Rieske-type proteins are electron transport proteins involved in key biological processes such as respiration, photosynthesis, and detoxification. They have a [2Fe-2S] cluster ligated by two cysteines and two histidines. A series of mutations, L135E, L135R, L135A, and Y158F, of the Rieske protein from Thermus thermophilus has been produced which probe the effects of the neighboring residues, in the second sphere, on the dynamics of cluster reduction and the reactivity of the ligating histidines. These properties were probed using titrations and modifications with diethyl pyrocarbonate (DEPC) at various pH values monitored using UV-Visible and circular dichroism spectrophotometry. These results, along with results from EPR studies, provide information on ligating histidine modification and rate of reduction of each of the mutant proteins. L135R, L135A, and Y158F react with DEPC similarly to wild type, resulting in modified protein with a reduced [2Fe-2S] cluster in <90 min, whereas L135E requires >15 h under the same conditions. Thus, the negative charge slows down the rate of reduction and provides an explanation as to why negatively charged residues are rarely, if ever, found in the equivalent position of other Rieske and Rieske-type proteins.

  13. Antioxidant status, peroxidase activity, and PR protein transcript levels in ascorbate-deficient Arabidopsis thaliana vtc mutants.

    PubMed

    Colville, Louise; Smirnoff, Nicholas

    2008-01-01

    Ascorbate is the most abundant small molecule antioxidant in plants and is proposed to function, along with other members of an antioxidant network, in controlling reactive oxygen species. A biochemical and molecular characterization of four ascorbate-deficient (vtc) Arabidopsis thaliana mutants has been carried out to determine if ascorbate deficiency is compensated by changes in the other major antioxidants. Seedlings grown in vitro were used to minimize stress and longer term developmental differences. Comparison was made with the low glutathione cad2 mutant and vtc2-1 treated with D,L-buthionine-[S,R]-sulphoximine to cause combined ascorbate and glutathione deficiency. The pool sizes and oxidation state of ascorbate and glutathione were not altered by deficiency of the other. alpha-Tocopherol and activities of monodehydroascorbate reductase, dehydroascorbate reductase, glutathione reductase, and catalase were little affected. Ascorbate peroxidase activity was higher in vtc1, vtc2-1, and vtc2-2. Ionically bound cell wall peroxidase activity was increased in vtc1, vtc2-1, and vtc4. Supplementation with ascorbate increased cell wall peroxidase activity. 2,6-Dichlorobenzonitrile, an inhibitor of cellulose synthesis, increased cell wall peroxidase activity in the wild type and vtc1. The transcript level of an endochitinase, PR1, and PR2, but not GST6, was increased in vtc1, vtc2-1, and vtc-2-2. Endochitinase transcript levels increased after ascorbate, paraquat, salicylic acid, and UV-C treatment, PR1 after salicylic acid treatment, and PR2 after paraquat and UV-C treatment. Camalexin was higher in vtc1 and the vtc2 alleles. Induction of PR genes, cell wall peroxidase activity, and camalexin in vtc1, vtc2-1, and vtc2-2 suggests that the mutants are affected in pathogen response signalling pathways.

  14. Large Scale Comparative Proteomics of a Chloroplast Clp Protease Mutant Reveals Folding Stress, Altered Protein Homeostasis, and Feedback Regulation of Metabolism*

    PubMed Central

    Zybailov, Boris; Friso, Giulia; Kim, Jitae; Rudella, Andrea; Rodríguez, Verenice Ramírez; Asakura, Yukari; Sun, Qi; van Wijk, Klaas J.

    2009-01-01

    The clpr2-1 mutant is delayed in development due to reduction of the chloroplast ClpPR protease complex. To understand the role of Clp proteases in plastid biogenesis and homeostasis, leaf proteomes of young seedlings of clpr2-1 and wild type were compared using large scale mass spectrometry-based quantification using an LTQ-Orbitrap and spectral counting with significance determined by G-tests. Virtually only chloroplast-localized proteins were significantly affected, indicating that the molecular phenotype was confined to the chloroplast. A comparative chloroplast stromal proteome analysis of fully developed plants was used to complement the data set. Chloroplast unfoldase ClpB3 was strongly up-regulated in both young and mature leaves, suggesting widespread and persistent protein folding stress. The importance of ClpB3 in the clp2-1 mutant was demonstrated by the observation that a CLPR2 and CLPB3 double mutant was seedling-lethal. The observed up-regulation of chloroplast chaperones and protein sorting components further illustrated destabilization of protein homeostasis. Delayed rRNA processing and up-regulation of a chloroplast DEAD box RNA helicase and polynucleotide phosphorylase, but no significant change in accumulation of ribosomal subunits, suggested a bottleneck in ribosome assembly or RNA metabolism. Strong up-regulation of a chloroplast translational regulator TypA/BipA GTPase suggested a specific response in plastid gene expression to the distorted homeostasis. The stromal proteases PreP1,2 were up-regulated, likely constituting compensation for reduced Clp protease activity and possibly shared substrates between the ClpP and PreP protease systems. The thylakoid photosynthetic apparatus was decreased in the seedlings, whereas several structural thylakoid-associated plastoglobular proteins were strongly up-regulated. Two thylakoid-associated reductases involved in isoprenoid and chlorophyll synthesis were up-regulated reflecting feedback from rate

  15. Impaired Acid Catalysis by Mutation of a Protein Loop Hinge Residue in a YopH Mutant Revealed by Crystal Structures

    SciTech Connect

    Brandao, T.; Robinson, H; Johnson, S; Hengge, A

    2009-01-01

    Catalysis by the Yersinia protein-tyrosine phosphatase YopH is significantly impaired by the mutation of the conserved Trp354 residue to Phe. Though not a catalytic residue, this Trp is a hinge residue in a conserved flexible loop (the WPD-loop) that must close during catalysis. To learn why this seemingly conservative mutation reduces catalysis by 2 orders of magnitude, we have solved high-resolution crystal structures for the W354F YopH in the absence and in the presence of tungstate and vanadate. Oxyanion binding to the P-loop in W354F is analogous to that observed in the native enzyme. However, the WPD-loop in the presence of oxyanions assumes a half-closed conformation, in contrast to the fully closed state observed in structures of the native enzyme. This observation provides an explanation for the impaired general acid catalysis observed in kinetic experiments with Trp mutants. A 1.4 Angstroms structure of the W354F mutant obtained in the presence of vanadate reveals an unusual divanadate species with a cyclic [VO]2 core, which has precedent in small molecules but has not been previously reported in a protein crystal structure.

  16. Spectral characteristics of the mutant form GGBP/H152C of D-glucose/D-galactose-binding protein labeled with fluorescent dye BADAN: influence of external factors

    PubMed Central

    Fonin, Alexander V.; Stepanenko, Olga V.; Povarova, Olga I.; Volova, Catherine A.; Philippova, Elizaveta M.; Bublikov, Grigory S.; Kuznetsova, Irina M.; Demchenko, Alexander P.

    2014-01-01

    The mutant form GGBP/H152C of the D-glucose/D-galactose-binding protein with the solvatochromic dye BADAN linked to cysteine residue Cys 152 can be used as a potential base for a sensitive element of glucose biosensor system. We investigated the influence of various external factors on the physical-chemical properties of GGBP/H152C-BADAN and its complex with glucose. The high affinity (Kd = 8.5 µM) and high binding rate of glucose make GGBP/H152C-BADAN a good candidate to determine the sugar content in biological fluids extracted using transdermal techniques. It was shown that changes in the ionic strength and pH of solution within the physiological range did not have a significant influence on the fluorescent characteristics of GGBP/H152C-BADAN. The mutant form GGBP/H152C has relatively low resistance to denaturation action of GdnHCl and urea. This result emphasizes the need to find more stable proteins for the creation of a sensitive element for a glucose biosensor system. PMID:24711960

  17. Involvement of the Putative ATP-Dependent Efflux Proteins PatA and PatB in Fluoroquinolone Resistance of a Multidrug-Resistant Mutant of Streptococcus pneumoniae

    PubMed Central

    Marrer, Estelle; Schad, Karen; Satoh, Andreas T.; Page, Malcolm G. P.; Johnson, Maggie M.; Piddock, Laura J. V.

    2006-01-01

    The multidrug-resistant mutant Streptococcus pneumoniae M22 constitutively overexpresses two genes (patA and patB) that encode proteins homologous to known efflux proteins belonging to the ABC transporter family. It is shown here that PatA and PatB were strongly induced by quinolone antibiotics and distamycin in fluoroquinolone-sensitive strains. PatA was very important for growth of S. pneumoniae, and it could not be disrupted in strain M22. PatB appeared to control metabolic activity, particularly in amino acid biosynthesis, and it may have a pivotal role in coordination of the response to quinolone antibiotics. The induction of PatA and PatB by antibiotics showed a pattern similar to that exhibited by SP1861, a homologue of ABC-type transporters of choline and other osmoprotectants. A second group of quinolone-induced transporter genes comprising SP1587 and SP0287, which are homologues of, respectively, oxalate/formate antiporters and xanthine or uracil permeases belonging to the major facilitator family, showed a different pattern of induction by other antibiotics. There was no evidence for the involvement of PmrA, the putative proton-dependent multidrug transporter that has been implicated in norfloxacin resistance, in the response to quinolone antibiotics in either the resistant mutant or the fluoroquinolone-sensitive strains. PMID:16436727

  18. A Novel Hsp90 Inhibitor Activates Compensatory Heat Shock Protein Responses and Autophagy and Alleviates Mutant A53T α-Synuclein Toxicity.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Rui; Zhou, Wenbo; Siegel, David; Kitson, Russell R A; Freed, Curt R; Moody, Christopher J; Ross, David

    2015-12-01

    A potential cause of neurodegenerative diseases, including Parkinson's disease (PD), is protein misfolding and aggregation that in turn leads to neurotoxicity. Targeting Hsp90 is an attractive strategy to halt neurodegenerative diseases, and benzoquinone ansamycin (BQA) Hsp90 inhibitors such as geldanamycin (GA) and 17-(allylamino)-17-demethoxygeldanamycin have been shown to be beneficial in mutant A53T α-synuclein PD models. However, current BQA inhibitors result in off-target toxicities via redox cycling and/or arylation of nucleophiles at the C19 position. We developed novel 19-substituted BQA (19BQA) as a means to prevent arylation. In this study, our data demonstrated that 19-phenyl-GA, a lead 19BQA in the GA series, was redox stable and exhibited little toxicity relative to its parent quinone GA in human dopaminergic SH-SY5Y cells as examined by oxygen consumption, trypan blue, 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide (MTT), and apoptosis assays. Meanwhile, 19-phenyl-GA retained the ability to induce autophagy and potentially protective heat shock proteins (HSPs) such as Hsp70 and Hsp27. We found that transduction of A53T, but not wild type (WT) α-synuclein, induced toxicity in SH-SY5Y cells. 19-Phenyl-GA decreased oligomer formation and toxicity of A53T α-synuclein in transduced cells. Mechanistic studies indicated that mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR)/p70 ribosomal S6 kinase signaling was activated by A53T but not WT α-synuclein, and 19-phenyl-GA decreased mTOR activation that may be associated with A53T α-synuclein toxicity. In summary, our results indicate that 19BQAs such as 19-phenyl-GA may provide a means to modulate protein-handling systems including HSPs and autophagy, thereby reducing the aggregation and toxicity of proteins such as mutant A53T α-synuclein.

  19. Examination of stability of mutant photosynthetic reaction center of Rhodobacter sphaeroides I(L177)H and determination of location of bacteriochlorophyll covalently bound to the protein.

    PubMed

    Fufina, T Y; Vasilieva, L G; Shuvalov, V A

    2010-02-01

    We demonstrated earlier that as a result of the I(L177)H mutation in the photosynthetic reaction center (RC) of the bacterium Rhodobacter sphaeroides, one of the bacteriochlorophylls (BChl) binds with the L-subunit, simultaneously raising coordination stability of the central magnesium atom of the bacteriochlorophyll associated with the protein. In this study, spectral properties of wild type RC and I(L177)H in the presence of urea and SDS as well as at 48 degrees C were examined. It is shown that the I(L177)H mutation decreases the RC stability. Under denaturing conditions, some changes indicating breakdown of oligomeric structure of the complex and loss of interaction between pigments and their protein environment are observed in I(L177)H RC spectra. In addition, pheophytinization of bacteriochlorophylls occurs in both types of RC in the presence of SDS. However, an 811-nm band is observed in the spectrum of the mutant RC under these conditions, which indicates retention of one of the BChl molecules in the protein binding site and stable coordination of its central magnesium atom. It is shown that in both types of RC, monomeric BChl B(B) can be modified by sodium borohydride treatment and then extracted by acetone-methanol mixture. Spectral properties of the BChl covalently bound with the protein in I(L177)H RC do not change. The results demonstrate that BChl P(A) is the molecule of BChl tightly bound with the L-subunit in mutant RC as it was supposed earlier.

  20. A small nuclear GTP-binding protein from tomato suppresses a Schizosaccharomyces pombe cell-cycle mutant.

    PubMed Central

    Ach, R A; Gruissem, W

    1994-01-01

    Ran is a 25-kDa Ras-related nuclear GTP-binding protein which is very highly conserved in humans, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and Schizosaccharomyces pombe. Ran has been found to form a stable, noncovalent complex with the chromatin-associated protein RCC1, a negative regulator of mitosis. In Sch. pombe, a temperature-sensitive mutation in the RCC1 homolog encoded by the pim1 gene causes premature induction of mitosis, and this mutation can be suppressed by overexpression of the Ran homolog encoded by spi1. We report here the cloning of three Ran cDNAs from tomato. The Ran protein is very highly conserved among plants, animals, and fungi. In tomato, Ran mRNA is expressed in all tissues examined, even those with little or no cell division, indicating that Ran in plants may have functions other than just control of mitosis. We have found that the tomato Ran protein can direct a beta-glucuronidase reporter protein to the plant cell nucleus, confirming that Ran is a nuclear protein in plants. We show that the tomato Ran protein can suppress the Sch. pombe pim1 mutation, indicating that the tomato Ran protein and the Sch. pombe spi1 protein are functionally homologous. Images PMID:8016079

  1. A novel mutant 10Ala/Arg together with mutant 144Ser/Arg of hepatitis B virus X protein involved in hepatitis B virus-related hepatocarcinogenesis in HepG2 cell lines

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Ying; Wang, Junwei; Wang, Yuhe; Wang, Anna; Guo, Hongliang; Wei, Feili; Mehta, Sanjay R.; Espitia, Stephen; Smith, Davey M.; Liu, Longgen; Zhang, Yulin; Chen, Dexi

    2016-01-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection-related hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) represents a major health problem worldwide. HBV X (HBx) protein is the most common open reading frame that may undergo mutations, resulting in the development of HCC. This study aimed to determine specific HBx mutations that differentiate the central- and para-tumor tissues, and identify their association with HCC development. HBx gene from HCC tumor and para-tumor tissues of 47 HCC patients was amplified, sequenced and statistically analyzed. A novel combination of 2 mutations at residues 10 and 144 was identified which might play a significant role in HCC development. Expression vectors carrying HBx with the specific mutations were constructed and transfected into HepG2 and p53-null HepG2 cells. Compared to wild type (WT) and single mutation of HBx at residue 10 or 144, the 10/144 double mutations strongly up-regulated p21 expression and prolonged G1/S transition in WT- and p53-null HepG2 cells. Apoptosis was also inhibited by HBx harboring 10/44 double-mutation. Binding of 10/144 double-mutant HBx to p53 was lower than WT HBx. Conclusively, the 10/144 double mutation of HBx might play a crucial role in HCC formation. PMID:26706415

  2. Deletion mutants of Harvey ras p21 protein reveal the absolute requirement of at least two distant regions for GTP-binding and transforming activities.

    PubMed Central

    Lacal, J C; Anderson, P S; Aaronson, S A

    1986-01-01

    Deletions of small sequences from the viral Harvey ras gene have been generated, and resulting ras p21 mutants have been expressed in Escherichia coli. Purification of each deleted protein allowed the in vitro characterization of GTP-binding, GTPase and autokinase activity of the proteins. Microinjection of the highly purified proteins into quiescent NIH/3T3 cells, as well as transfection experiments utilizing a long terminal repeat (LTR)-containing vector, were utilized to analyze the biological activity of the deleted proteins. Two small regions located at 6-23 and 152-165 residues are shown to be absolutely required for in vitro and in vivo activities of the ras product. By contrast, the variable region comprising amino acids 165-184 was shown not to be necessary for either in vitro or in vivo activities. Thus, we demonstrate that: (i) amino acid sequences at positions 5-23 and 152-165 of ras p21 protein are probably directly involved in the GTP-binding activity; (ii) GTP-binding is required for the transforming activity of ras p21 and by extension for the normal function of the proto-oncogene product; and (iii) the variable region at the C-terminal end of the ras p21 molecule from amino acids 165 to 184 is not required for transformation. Images Fig.2. Fig.4. PMID:3011420

  3. Decreased interactions of mutant muscle LIM protein (MLP) with N-RAP and alpha-actinin and their implication for hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Gehmlich, Katja; Geier, Christian; Osterziel, Karl Josef; Van der Ven, Peter F M; Fürst, Dieter O

    2004-08-01

    Previous work has shown that mutations in muscle LIM protein (MLP) can cause hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM). In order to gain an insight into the molecular basis of the disease phenotype, we analysed the binding characteristics of wild-type MLP and of the (C58G) mutant MLP that causes hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. We show that MLP can form a ternary complex with two of its previously documented myofibrillar ligand proteins, N-RAP and alpha-actinin, which indicates the presence of distinct, non-overlapping binding sites. Our data also show that, in comparison to wild-type MLP, the capacity of the mutated MLP protein to bind both N-RAP and alpha-actinin is significantly decreased. In addition, this single point mutation prevents zinc coordination and proper folding of the second zinc-finger in the first LIM domain, which consequently renders the protein less stable and more susceptible to proteolysis. The molecular basis for HCM-causing mutations in the MLP gene might therefore be an alteration in the equilibrium of interactions of the ternary complex MLP-N-RAP-alpha-actinin. This assumption is supported by the previous observation that in the pathological situation accompanied by MLP down regulation, cardiomyocytes try to compensate for the decreased stability of MLP protein by increasing the expression of its ligand N-RAP, which might finally result in the development of myocyte disarray that is characteristic of this disease.

  4. An AXIN2 Mutant Allele Associated With Predisposition to Colorectal Neoplasia Has Context-Dependent Effects on AXIN2 Protein Function.

    PubMed

    Mazzoni, Serina M; Petty, Elizabeth M; Stoffel, Elena M; Fearon, Eric R

    2015-05-01

    Heterozygous, germline nonsense mutations in AXIN2 have been reported in two families with oligodontia and colorectal cancer (CRC) predisposition, including an AXIN2 1989G>A mutation. Somatic AXIN2 mutations predicted to generate truncated AXIN2 (trAXIN2) proteins have been reported in some CRCs. Our studies of cells from an AXIN2 1989G>A mutation carrier showed that the mutant transcripts are not significantly susceptible to nonsense-mediated decay and, thus, could encode a trAXIN2 protein. In transient transfection assays, trAXIN2 was more abundant than wild-type AXIN2 protein, and in contrast to AXIN2, glycogen synthase kinase 3β inhibition did not increase trAXIN2 levels. Like AXIN2, the trAXIN2 protein interacts with β-catenin destruction complex proteins. When ectopically overexpressed, trAXIN2 inhibits β-catenin/T-cell factor-dependent reporter gene activity and SW480 CRC cell colony formation. These findings suggest the trAXIN2 protein may retain some wild-type functions when highly expressed. However, when stably expressed in rat intestinal IEC-6 cells, the trAXIN2 protein did not match AXIN2's activity in inhibiting Wnt-mediated induction of Wnt-regulated target genes, and SW480 cells with stable expression of trAXIN2 but not AXIN2 could be generated. Our data suggest the AXIN2 1989G>A mutation may not have solely a loss-of-function role in CRC. Rather, its contribution may depend on context, with potential loss-of-function when AXIN2 levels are low, such as in the absence of Wnt pathway activation. However, given its apparent increased stability in some settings, the trAXIN2 protein might have gain-of-function in cells with substantially elevated AXIN2 expression, such as Wnt pathway-defective CRC cells.

  5. An AXIN2 Mutant Allele Associated With Predisposition to Colorectal Neoplasia Has Context-Dependent Effects on AXIN2 Protein Function1

    PubMed Central

    Mazzoni, Serina M.; Petty, Elizabeth M.; Stoffel, Elena M.; Fearon, Eric R.

    2015-01-01

    Heterozygous, germline nonsense mutations in AXIN2 have been reported in two families with oligodontia and colorectal cancer (CRC) predisposition, including an AXIN2 1989G>A mutation. Somatic AXIN2 mutations predicted to generate truncated AXIN2 (trAXIN2) proteins have been reported in some CRCs. Our studies of cells from an AXIN2 1989G>A mutation carrier showed that the mutant transcripts are not significantly susceptible to nonsense-mediated decay and, thus, could encode a trAXIN2 protein. In transient transfection assays, trAXIN2 was more abundant than wild-type AXIN2 protein, and in contrast to AXIN2, glycogen synthase kinase 3β inhibition did not increase trAXIN2 levels. Like AXIN2, the trAXIN2 protein interacts with β-catenin destruction complex proteins. When ectopically overexpressed, trAXIN2 inhibits β-catenin/T-cell factor–dependent reporter gene activity and SW480 CRC cell colony formation. These findings suggest the trAXIN2 protein may retain some wild-type functions when highly expressed. However, when stably expressed in rat intestinal IEC-6 cells, the trAXIN2 protein did not match AXIN2’s activity in inhibiting Wnt-mediated induction of Wnt-regulated target genes, and SW480 cells with stable expression of trAXIN2 but not AXIN2 could be generated. Our data suggest the AXIN2 1989G>A mutation may not have solely a loss-of-function role in CRC. Rather, its contribution may depend on context, with potential loss-of-function when AXIN2 levels are low, such as in the absence of Wnt pathway activation. However, given its apparent increased stability in some settings, the trAXIN2 protein might have gain-of-function in cells with substantially elevated AXIN2 expression, such as Wnt pathway–defective CRC cells. PMID:26025668

  6. Target and resistance-related proteins of recombinant mutant human tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand on myeloma cell lines.

    PubMed

    Jian, Yuan; Chen, Yuling; Geng, Chuanying; Liu, Nian; Yang, Guangzhong; Liu, Jinwei; Li, Xin; Deng, Haiteng; Chen, Wenming

    2016-06-01

    Recombinant mutant human tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (rmhTRAIL) has become a potential therapeutic drug for multiple myeloma (MM). However, the exact targets and resistance mechanisms of rmhTRAIL on MM cells remain to be elucidated. The present study aimed to investigate the target and resistance-related proteins of rmhTRAIL on myeloma cell lines. A TRAIL-sensitive myeloma cell line, RPMI 8226, and a TRAIL-resistance one, U266, were chosen and the differentially expressed proteins between the two cell lines were analyzed prior and subsequent to rmhTRAIL administration by a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method. The results showed that following TRAIL treatment, 6 apoptosis-related proteins, calpain small subunit 1 (CPNS1), peflin (PEF1), B-cell receptor-associated protein 31 (BAP31), apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing CARD (ASC), BAG family molecular chaperone regulator 2 (BAG2) and chromobox protein homolog 3 (CBX3), were upregulated in RPMI 8226 cells while no change was identified in the U266 cells. Furthermore, small ubiquitin-related modifier 1 and several other ubiquitin proteasome pathway (UPP)-related proteins expressed higher levels in TRAIL-resistant cells U266 compared to the RPMI-8226 cells prior and subsequent to rmhTRAIL treatment. These results suggested that CPNS1, PEF1, BAP31, ASC, BAG2 and CBX3 were possibly target proteins of rmhTRAIL on RPMI 8226 cells, while UPP may have a vital role in mediating TRAIL-resistance in U266 cells.

  7. Target and resistance-related proteins of recombinant mutant human tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand on myeloma cell lines

    PubMed Central

    JIAN, YUAN; CHEN, YULING; GENG, CHUANYING; LIU, NIAN; YANG, GUANGZHONG; LIU, JINWEI; LI, XIN; DENG, HAITENG; CHEN, WENMING

    2016-01-01

    Recombinant mutant human tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (rmhTRAIL) has become a potential therapeutic drug for multiple myeloma (MM). However, the exact targets and resistance mechanisms of rmhTRAIL on MM cells remain to be elucidated. The present study aimed to investigate the target and resistance-related proteins of rmhTRAIL on myeloma cell lines. A TRAIL-sensitive myeloma cell line, RPMI 8226, and a TRAIL-resistance one, U266, were chosen and the differentially expressed proteins between the two cell lines were analyzed prior and subsequent to rmhTRAIL administration by a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method. The results showed that following TRAIL treatment, 6 apoptosis-related proteins, calpain small subunit 1 (CPNS1), peflin (PEF1), B-cell receptor-associated protein 31 (BAP31), apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing CARD (ASC), BAG family molecular chaperone regulator 2 (BAG2) and chromobox protein homolog 3 (CBX3), were upregulated in RPMI 8226 cells while no change was identified in the U266 cells. Furthermore, small ubiquitin-related modifier 1 and several other ubiquitin proteasome pathway (UPP)-related proteins expressed higher levels in TRAIL-resistant cells U266 compared to the RPMI-8226 cells prior and subsequent to rmhTRAIL treatment. These results suggested that CPNS1, PEF1, BAP31, ASC, BAG2 and CBX3 were possibly target proteins of rmhTRAIL on RPMI 8226 cells, while UPP may have a vital role in mediating TRAIL-resistance in U266 cells. PMID:27284413

  8. Quantitative evaluation of his-tag purification and immunoprecipitation of tristetraprolin and its mutant proteins from transfected human cells

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Histidine (His)-tag is widely used for affinity purification of recombinant proteins, but the yield and purity of expressed proteins are quite different. Little information is available about quantitative evaluation of this procedure. The objective of the current study was to evaluate the His-tag pr...

  9. EXAFS of Klebsiella pneumoniae nitrogenase MoFe protein from wild-type and nif V mutant strains

    SciTech Connect

    Eidsness, M.K.; Flank, A.M.; Smith, B.E.; Flood, A.C.; Garner, C.D.; Cramer. S.P.

    1986-05-14

    The enzyme nitrogenase catalyzes the biological reduction of N/sub 2/ to NH/sub 3/. In Klebsiella pneumoniae a cluster of 17 genes in seven transcriptional units has been associated with nitrogen fixation. The nitrogenase enzyme from the nif V mutants is relatively ineffective at dinitrogen reduction, is more efficient than the wild-type enzyme at HCN reduction, and has its hydrogen evolution activity inhibited up to 80% by CO. This altered substrate specificity has been shown to be associated with the iron-molybdenum cofactor, FeMo-co, of the enzyme. X-ray absorption spectroscopy has been a valuable tool for probing the molybdenum environment of wild-type nitrogenase, and the authors report here similar studies on the Nif V/sup -/ enzyme.

  10. Two-dimensional analysis of flagellar proteins from wild-type and paralyzed mutants of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.

    PubMed Central

    Piperno, G; Huang, B; Luck, D J

    1977-01-01

    Flagellar polypeptides of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii were analyzed in two-dimensions by isoelectric focusing and electrophoresis in the presence of sodium dodecyl sulfate. In addition to flagellar tubulin, over 130 polypeptides were resolved and 100 of these were identified as axonemal components in wild-type organisms. Flagella of two nonconditional paralyzed mutants, pf 14 and pf 1, were also analyzed and, at the same time, electron microscopic studies were carried out. pf 14 flagella, which completely lack radial spokes and associated spokeheads, are missing 12 polypeptides. Six of these polypeptides are also missing from pf 1 flagella in which spokes are clearly present but spoke heads appear to be absent. Images PMID:266200

  11. The mouse glucocorticoid receptor: mapping of functional domains by cloning, sequencing and expression of wild-type and mutant receptor proteins.

    PubMed Central

    Danielsen, M; Northrop, J P; Ringold, G M

    1986-01-01

    We have isolated mouse glucocorticoid receptor (GR) cDNAs which, when expressed in transfected mammalian cells, produce a fully functional GR protein. Sequence analysis reveals an open reading frame of 2349 bp which could encode a protein of approximately 86,000 daltons. We have also isolated two receptor cDNAs from mouse S49 nuclear transfer-deficient (nt-) cells which encode mutant forms of the receptor protein. One cDNA encodes a protein that is unable to bind hormone and represents the endogenous hormone binding deficient receptor recently discovered in S49 cells. The lesion in this receptor is due to a single amino acid substitution (Glu-546 to Gly). The second cDNA from nt- cells produces a receptor protein that is able to bind hormone but has reduced nuclear binding. This cDNA, therefore, encodes for the S49 nt- receptor which has been shown to have reduced affinity for DNA. The lesion maps to a single amino acid substitution (Arg-484 to His) located in a highly Cys, Lys, Arg-rich region of the protein previously implicated in DNA binding. Our studies provide unambiguous identification of receptor domains and specific amino acids critical for the hormone and DNA binding properties of this transcriptional regulatory protein. Contained within the first 106 amino acids of the mouse GR is a stretch of nine glutamines with two prolines which are related to the family of transcribed repetitive elements, opa, found in Drosophila melanogaster. A truncated receptor lacking these 106 amino acids is functionally indistinguishable from the wild-type receptor. Images Fig. 2. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. Fig. 7. PMID:3780669

  12. Food safety knowledge on the Bt mutant protein Cry8Ka5 employed in the development of coleopteran-resistant transgenic cotton plants

    PubMed Central

    Farias, Davi F; Peijnenburg, Ad A C M; Grossi-de-Sá, Maria F; Carvalho, Ana F U

    2015-01-01

    Insecticidal Cry proteins from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) have been exploited in the development of genetically modified (GM) crops for pest control. However, several pests are still difficult to control such as the coleopteran boll weevil Anthonomus grandis. By applying in vitro molecular evolution to the cry8Ka1 gene sequence, variants were generated with improved activity against A. grandis. Among them, Cry8Ka5 mutant protein showed coleoptericidal activity 3-fold higher (LC50 2.83 μg/mL) than that of the original protein (Cry8Ka1). Cry8Ka5 has been used in breeding programs in order to obtain coleopteran-resistant cotton plants. Nevertheless, there is some concern in relation to the food safety of transgenic crops, especially to the heterologously expressed proteins. In this context, our research group has performed risk assessment studies on Cry8Ka5, using the tests recommended by Codex as well as tests that we proposed as alternative and/or complementary approaches. Our results on the risk analysis of Cry8Ka5 taken together with those of other Cry proteins, point out that there is a high degree of certainty on their food safety. It is reasonable to emphasize that most safety studies on Cry proteins have essentially used the Codex approach. However, other methodologies would potentially provide additional information such as studies on the effects of Cry proteins and derived peptides on the indigenous gastrointestinal microbiota and on intestinal epithelial cells of humans. Additionally, emerging technologies such as toxicogenomics potentially will offer sensitive alternatives for some current approaches or methods. PMID:26513483

  13. Food safety knowledge on the Bt mutant protein Cry8Ka5 employed in the development of coleopteran-resistant transgenic cotton plants.

    PubMed

    Farias, Davi F; Peijnenburg, Ad A C M; Grossi-de-Sá, Maria F; Carvalho, Ana F U

    2015-01-01

    Insecticidal Cry proteins from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) have been exploited in the development of genetically modified (GM) crops for pest control. However, several pests are still difficult to control such as the coleopteran boll weevil Anthonomus grandis. By applying in vitro molecular evolution to the cry8Ka1 gene sequence, variants were generated with improved activity against A. grandis. Among them, Cry8Ka5 mutant protein showed coleoptericidal activity 3-fold higher (LC50 2.83 μg/mL) than that of the original protein (Cry8Ka1). Cry8Ka5 has been used in breeding programs in order to obtain coleopteran-resistant cotton plants. Nevertheless, there is some concern in relation to the food safety of transgenic crops, especially to the heterologously expressed proteins. In this context, our research group has performed risk assessment studies on Cry8Ka5, using the tests recommended by Codex as well as tests that we proposed as alternative and/or complementary approaches. Our results on the risk analysis of Cry8Ka5 taken together with those of other Cry proteins, point out that there is a high degree of certainty on their food safety. It is reasonable to emphasize that most safety studies on Cry proteins have essentially used the Codex approach. However, other methodologies would potentially provide additional information such as studies on the effects of Cry proteins and derived peptides on the indigenous gastrointestinal microbiota and on intestinal epithelial cells of humans. Additionally, emerging technologies such as toxicogenomics potentially will offer sensitive alternatives for some current approaches or methods.

  14. Epitopes and nuclear localization analyses of canine distemper virus nucleocapsid protein by expression of its deletion mutants.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, E; Shin, Y S; Iwatsuki, K; Gemma, T; Miyashita, N; Tomonaga, K; Hirayama, N; Mikami, T; Kai, C

    1999-05-01

    A series of nucleocapsid protein (NP)-deleted genes of the Onderstepoort strain was constructed in order to locate antigenic regions of the NP of canine distemper virus. The expression of proteins from 5'-deleted NP genes was examined in COS-7 cells by indirect immunofluorescence assay using three monoclonal antibodies (MAbs), c-5, f-5 and h-6, and a rabbit serum against NP. These MAbs reacted with two regions of NP. Amino acid residues from 1 to 80, and 337-358, were necessary and sufficient for formation of the epitopes identified by MAbs f-5 and h-6, and c-5, respectively. The proteins translated from intact or 3'-deleted genes were found to be localized in the nuclei of COS-7 cells, whereas the proteins from the 5'-deleted genes were mainly detected in the cytoplasm. These results suggested that 80 amino acid residues at the N-terminus are required for transportation of NP into the nucleus.

  15. Characterization of mutants within the gene for the adenovirus E3 14.7-kilodalton protein which prevents cytolysis by tumor necrosis factor.

    PubMed Central

    Ranheim, T S; Shisler, J; Horton, T M; Wold, L J; Gooding, L R; Wold, W S

    1993-01-01

    The 14,700-Da protein (14.7K protein) encoded by the E3 region of adenovirus has previously been shown to protect mouse cells from cytolysis by tumor necrosis factor (TNF). Delineating the sequences in the 14.7K protein that are required for this activity may provide insight into the mechanism of protection from TNF by 14.7K as well as the mechanism of TNF cytolysis. In the present study, we examined the ability of 14.7K mutants to protect cells from lysis by TNF. In-frame deletions as well as Cys-to-Ser mutations in the 14.7K gene were generated by site-directed mutagenesis and then built into the genome of a modified adenovirus type 5 (dl7001) that lacks all E3 genes. dl7001, which replicates to the same titers as does adenovirus type 5 in cultured cells, has the largest E3 deletion analyzed to date. 51Cr release was used to assay TNF cytolysis. Our results indicate that most mutations in the 14.7K gene result in a loss of function, suggesting that nearly the entire protein rather than a specific domain functions to prevent TNF cytolysis. Images PMID:8445725

  16. Changes of alternative oxidase activity, capacity and protein content in leaves of Cucumis sativus wild-type and MSC16 mutant grown under different light intensities.

    PubMed

    Florez-Sarasa, Igor; Ostaszewska, Monika; Galle, Alexander; Flexas, Jaume; Rychter, Anna M; Ribas-Carbo, Miquel

    2009-12-01

    In vitro studies demonstrated that alternative oxidase (AOX) is biochemically regulated by a sulfhydryl-disulfide system, interaction with alpha-ketoacids, ubiquinone pool redox state and protein content among others. However, there is still scarce information about the in vivo regulation of the AOX. Cucumis sativus wild-type (WT) and MSC16 mutant plants were grown under two different light intensities and were used to analyze the relationship between the amount of leaf AOX protein and its in vivo capacity and activity at night and day periods. WT and MSC16 plants presented lower total respiration (V(t)), cytochrome oxidase pathway (COP) activity (v(cyt)) and alternative oxidase pathway (AOP) activity (v(alt)) when grown at low light (LL), although growth light intensity did not change the amount of cytochrome oxidase (COX) nor AOX protein. Changes of v(cyt) related to growing light conditions suggested a substrate availability and energy demand control. On the other hand, the total amount of AOX protein present in the tissue does not play a role in the regulation neither of the capacity nor of the activity of the AOP in vivo. Soluble carbohydrates were directly related to the activity of the AOP. However, although differences in soluble sugar contents mostly regulate the capacity of the AOP at different growth light intensities, additional regulatory mechanisms are necessary to fully explain the observed results.

  17. Immune escape mutants of Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza H5N1 selected using polyclonal sera: identification of key amino acids in the HA protein.

    PubMed

    Sitaras, Ioannis; Kalthoff, Donata; Beer, Martin; Peeters, Ben; de Jong, Mart C M

    2014-01-01

    Evolution of Avian Influenza (AI) viruses--especially of the Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (HPAI) H5N1 subtype--is a major issue for the poultry industry. HPAI H5N1 epidemics are associated with huge economic losses and are sometimes connected to human morbidity and mortality. Vaccination (either as a preventive measure or as a means to control outbreaks) is an approach that splits the scientific community, due to the risk of it being a potential driving force in HPAI evolution through the selection of mutants able to escape vaccination-induced immunity. It is therefore essential to study how mutations are selected due to immune pressure. To this effect, we performed an in vitro selection of mutants from HPAI A/turkey/Turkey/1/05 (H5N1), using immune pressure from homologous polyclonal sera. After 42 rounds of selection, we identified 5 amino acid substitutions in the Haemagglutinin (HA) protein, most of which were located in areas of antigenic importance and suspected to be prone to selection pressure. We report that most of the mutations took place early in the selection process. Finally, our antigenic cartography studies showed that the antigenic distance between the selected isolates and their parent strain increased with passage number.

  18. Mutant torsinA interferes with protein processing through the secretory pathway in DYT1 dystonia cells

    PubMed Central

    Hewett, Jeffrey W.; Tannous, Bakhos; Niland, Brian P.; Nery, Flavia C.; Zeng, Juan; Li, Yuqing; Breakefield, Xandra O.

    2007-01-01

    TorsinA is an AAA+ protein located predominantly in the lumen of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and nuclear envelope responsible for early onset torsion dystonia (DYT1). Most cases of this dominantly inherited movement disorder are caused by deletion of a glutamic acid in the carboxyl terminal region of torsinA. We used a sensitive reporter, Gaussia luciferase (Gluc) to evaluate the role of torsinA in processing proteins through the ER. In primary fibroblasts from controls and DYT1 patients most Gluc activity (95%) was released into the media and processed through the secretory pathway, as confirmed by inhibition with brefeldinA and nocodazole. Fusion of Gluc to a fluorescent protein revealed coalignment and fractionation with ER proteins and association of Gluc with torsinA. Notably, fibroblasts from DYT1 patients were found to secrete markedly less Gluc activity as compared with control fibroblasts. This decrease in processing of Gluc in DYT1 cells appear to arise, at least in part, from a loss of torsinA activity, because mouse embryonic fibroblasts lacking torsinA also had reduced secretion as compared with control cells. These studies demonstrate the exquisite sensitivity of this reporter system for quantitation of processing through the secretory pathway and support a role for torsinA as an ER chaperone protein. PMID:17428918

  19. Accumulation of mutant huntingtin fragments in aggresome-like inclusion bodies as a result of insufficient protein degradation.

    PubMed

    Waelter, S; Boeddrich, A; Lurz, R; Scherzinger, E; Lueder, G; Lehrach, H; Wanker, E E

    2001-05-01

    The huntingtin exon 1 proteins with a polyglutamine repeat in the pathological range (51 or 83 glutamines), but not with a polyglutamine tract in the normal range (20 glutamines), form aggresome-like perinuclear inclusions in human 293 Tet-Off cells. These structures contain aggregated, ubiquitinated huntingtin exon 1 protein with a characteristic fibrillar morphology. Inclusion bodies with truncated huntingtin protein are formed at centrosomes and are surrounded by vimentin filaments. Inhibition of proteasome activity resulted in a twofold increase in the amount of ubiquitinated, SDS-resistant aggregates, indicating that inclusion bodies accumulate when the capacity of the ubiquitin-proteasome system to degrade aggregation-prone huntingtin protein is exhausted. Immunofluorescence and electron microscopy with immunogold labeling revealed that the 20S, 19S, and 11S subunits of the 26S proteasome, the molecular chaperones BiP/GRP78, Hsp70, and Hsp40, as well as the RNA-binding protein TIA-1, the potential chaperone 14-3-3, and alpha-synuclein colocalize with the perinuclear inclusions. In 293 Tet-Off cells, inclusion body formation also resulted in cell toxicity and dramatic ultrastructural changes such as indentations and disruption of the nuclear envelope. Concentration of mitochondria around the inclusions and cytoplasmic vacuolation were also observed. Together these findings support the hypothesis that the ATP-dependent ubiquitin-proteasome system is a potential target for therapeutic interventions in glutamine repeat disorders.

  20. Characterization of the herpes simplex virus (HSV)-1 tegument protein VP1-2 during infection with the HSV temperature-sensitive mutant tsB7.

    PubMed

    Abaitua, F; Souto, R N; Browne, H; Daikoku, T; O'Hare, P

    2009-10-01

    VP1-2, encoded by the UL36 gene of herpes simplex virus (HSV), is a large structural protein, conserved across the family Herpesviridae, that is assembled into the tegument and is essential for virus replication. Current evidence indicates that VP1-2 is a central component in the tegumentation and envelopment processes and that it also possesses important roles in capsid transport and entry. However, any detailed mechanistic understanding of VP1-2 function(s) remains limited. This study characterized the replication of HSV-1 tsB7, a temperature-sensitive mutant restricted at the non-permissive temperature due to a defect in VP1-2 function. A tsB7 virus expressing green fluorescent protein-fused VP16 protein was used to track the accumulation and location of a major tegument protein. After infection at the permissive temperature and shift to the non-permissive temperature, the production of infectious virus ceased. VP1-2 accumulated in altered cytosolic clusters, together with VP16 and other virion proteins. Furthermore, correlating with the results of immunofluorescence, electron microscopy demonstrated abnormal cytosolic capsid clustering and a block in envelopment. As VP1-2 encompasses a ubiquitin-specific protease domain, the occurrence of ubiquitin-conjugated proteins during tsB7 infection was also examined at the non-permissive temperature. A striking overaccumulation was observed of ubiquitin-specific conjugates in cytoplasmic clusters, overlapping and adjacent to the VP1-2 clusters. These results are discussed in relation to the possible functions of VP1-2 in the assembly pathway and the nature of the defect in tsB7.

  1. Problem-Solving Test: Tryptophan Operon Mutants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szeberenyi, Jozsef

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a problem-solving test that deals with the regulation of the "trp" operon of "Escherichia coli." Two mutants of this operon are described: in mutant A, the operator region of the operon carries a point mutation so that it is unable to carry out its function; mutant B expresses a "trp" repressor protein unable to bind…

  2. Protein preparation and preliminary X-ray crystallographic analysis of a putative glucosamine 6-phosphate deaminase from Streptococcus mutants

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, Guan-Jing; Li, Lan-Fen; Li, Dan; Liu, Cong; Wei, Shi-Cheng; Liang, Yu-He Su, Xiao-Dong

    2007-09-01

    A glucosamine 6-phosphate deaminase homologue from S. mutans was expressed, purified and crystallized. Diffraction data have been collected to 2.4 Å resolution. The SMU.636 protein from Streptococcus mutans is a putative glucosamine 6-phosphate deaminase with 233 residues. The smu.636 gene was PCR-amplified from S. mutans genomic DNA and cloned into the expression vector pET-28a(+). The resultant His-tagged fusion protein was expressed in Escherichia coli and purified to homogeneity in two steps. Crystals of the fusion protein were obtained by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method. The crystals diffracted to 2.4 Å resolution and belong to space group P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2{sub 1}, with unit-cell parameters a = 53.83, b = 82.13, c = 134.70 Å.

  3. Structure of solvation water around the active and inactive regions of a type III antifreeze protein and its mutants of lowered activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grabowska, Joanna; Kuffel, Anna; Zielkiewicz, Jan

    2016-08-01

    Water molecules from the solvation shell of the ice-binding surface are considered important for the antifreeze proteins to perform their function properly. Herein, we discuss the problem whether the extent of changes of the mean properties of solvation water can be connected with the antifreeze activity of the protein. To this aim, the structure of solvation water of a type III antifreeze protein from Macrozoarces americanus (eel pout) is investigated. A wild type of the protein is used, along with its three mutants, with antifreeze activities equal to 54% or 10% of the activity of the native form. The solvation water of the ice-binding surface and the rest of the protein are analyzed separately. To characterize the structure of solvation shell, parameters describing radial and angular characteristics of the mutual arrangement of the molecules were employed. They take into account short-distance (first hydration shell) or long-distance (two solvation shells) effects. The obtained results and the comparison with the results obtained previously for a hyperactive antifreeze protein from Choristoneura fumiferana lead to the conclusion that the structure and amino acid composition of the active region of the protein evolved to achieve two goals. The first one is the modification of the properties of the solvation water. The second one is the geometrical adjustment of the protein surface to the specific crystallographic plane of ice. Both of these goals have to be achieved simultaneously in order for the protein to perform its function properly. However, they seem to be independent from one another in a sense that very small antifreeze activity does not imply that properties of water become different from the ones observed for the wild type. The proteins with significantly lower activity still modify the mean properties of solvation water in a right direction, in spite of the fact that the accuracy of the geometrical match with the ice lattice is lost because of the

  4. A QM/MM study of the associative mechanism for the phosphorylation reaction catalyzed by protein kinase A and its D166A mutant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pérez-Gallegos, Ayax; Garcia-Viloca, Mireia; González-Lafont, Àngels; Lluch, José M.

    2014-11-01

    Here we analyze in detail the possible catalytic role of the associative mechanism in the γ-phosphoryl transfer reaction in the catalytic subunit of the mammalian cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) enzyme and its D166A mutant. We have used a complete solvated model of the ATP-Mg2-Kemptide/PKA system and good levels of theory (B3LYP/MM and MP2/MM) to determine several potential energy paths from different MD snapshots, and we present a deep analysis of the interaction distances and energies between ligands, metals and enzyme residues. We have also tested the electrostatic stabilization of the transition state structures localized herein with the charge balance hypothesis. Overall, the results obtained in this work reopen the discussion about the plausibility of the associative reaction pathway and highlight the proposed role of the catalytic triad Asp166-Lys168-Thr201.

  5. Photoisomerization and proton transfer in the forward and reverse photoswitching of the fast-switching M159T mutant of the Dronpa fluorescent protein.

    PubMed

    Kaucikas, Marius; Tros, Martijn; van Thor, Jasper J

    2015-02-12

    The fast-switching M159T mutant of the reversibly photoswitchable fluorescent protein Dronpa has an enhanced yield for the on-to-off reaction. The forward and reverse photoreactions proceed via cis-trans and trans-cis photoisomerization, yet protonation and deprotonation of the hydroxyphenyl oxygen of the chromophore is responsible for the majority of the resulting spectroscopic contrast. Ultrafast visible-pump, infrared-probe spectroscopy was used to detect the picosecond, nanosecond, as well as metastable millisecond intermediates. Additionally, static FTIR difference measurements of the Dronpa-M159T mutant correspond very closely to those of the wild type Dronpa, identifying the p-hydroxybenzylidene-imidazolinone chromophore in the cis anion and trans neutral forms in the bright "on" and dark "off" states, respectively. Green excitation of the on state is followed by dominant radiative decay with characteristic time constants of 1.9 ps, 185 ps, and 1.1 ns, and additionally reveals spectral changes belonging to the species decaying with a 1.1 ns time constant, associated with both protein and chromophore modes. A 1 ms measurement of the on state identifies bleach features that correspond to those seen in the static off-minus-on Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) difference spectrum, indicating that thermal protonation of the hydroxyphenyl oxygen proceeds within this time window. Blue excitation of the off state directly resolves the formation of the primary photoproduct with 0.6 and 14 ps time constants, which is stable on the nanosecond time scale. Assignment of the primary photoproduct to the cis neutral chromophore in the electronic ground state is supported by the frequency positions expected relative to those for the nonplanar distorted geometry for the off state. A 1 ms measurement of the off state corresponds closely with the on-minus-off FTIR difference spectrum, indicating thermal deprotonation and rearrangement of the Arg66 side chain to be complete.

  6. A mutant sumo facilitates quick plasmid construction for expressing proteins with native N-termini after fusion tag removal

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sumo is one of the fusion tags commonly used to enhance the solubility and yield of recombinant proteins. One advantage of using sumo is that the removal of the sumo tag is highly specific because its recognition by the ULP sumo protease is determined by its structural characteristics, instead of th...

  7. Structure of a Highly Active Cephalopod S-crystallin Mutant: New Molecular Evidence for Evolution from an Active Enzyme into Lens-Refractive Protein

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Wei-Hung; Cheng, Shu-Chun; Liu, Yu-Tung; Wu, Cheng-Guo; Lin, Min-Han; Chen, Chiao-Che; Lin, Chao-Hsiung; Chou, Chi-Yuan

    2016-01-01

    Crystallins are found widely in animal lenses and have important functions due to their refractive properties. In the coleoid cephalopods, a lens with a graded refractive index provides good vision and is required for survival. Cephalopod S-crystallin is thought to have evolved from glutathione S-transferase (GST) with various homologs differentially expressed in the lens. However, there is no direct structural information that helps to delineate the mechanisms by which S-crystallin could have evolved. Here we report the structural and biochemical characterization of novel S-crystallin-glutathione complex. The 2.35-Å crystal structure of a S-crystallin mutant from Octopus vulgaris reveals an active-site architecture that is different from that of GST. S-crystallin has a preference for glutathione binding, although almost lost its GST enzymatic activity. We’ve also identified four historical mutations that are able to produce a “GST-like” S-crystallin that has regained activity. This protein recapitulates the evolution of S-crystallin from GST. Protein stability studies suggest that S-crystallin is stabilized by glutathione binding to prevent its aggregation; this contrasts with GST-σ, which do not possess this protection. We suggest that a tradeoff between enzyme activity and the stability of the lens protein might have been one of the major driving force behind lens evolution. PMID:27499004

  8. Structure of a Highly Active Cephalopod S-crystallin Mutant: New Molecular Evidence for Evolution from an Active Enzyme into Lens-Refractive Protein.

    PubMed

    Tan, Wei-Hung; Cheng, Shu-Chun; Liu, Yu-Tung; Wu, Cheng-Guo; Lin, Min-Han; Chen, Chiao-Che; Lin, Chao-Hsiung; Chou, Chi-Yuan

    2016-08-08

    Crystallins are found widely in animal lenses and have important functions due to their refractive properties. In the coleoid cephalopods, a lens with a graded refractive index provides good vision and is required for survival. Cephalopod S-crystallin is thought to have evolved from glutathione S-transferase (GST) with various homologs differentially expressed in the lens. However, there is no direct structural information that helps to delineate the mechanisms by which S-crystallin could have evolved. Here we report the structural and biochemical characterization of novel S-crystallin-glutathione complex. The 2.35-Å crystal structure of a S-crystallin mutant from Octopus vulgaris reveals an active-site architecture that is different from that of GST. S-crystallin has a preference for glutathione binding, although almost lost its GST enzymatic activity. We've also identified four historical mutations that are able to produce a "GST-like" S-crystallin that has regained activity. This protein recapitulates the evolution of S-crystallin from GST. Protein stability studies suggest that S-crystallin is stabilized by glutathione binding to prevent its aggregation; this contrasts with GST-σ, which do not possess this protection. We suggest that a tradeoff between enzyme activity and the stability of the lens protein might have been one of the major driving force behind lens evolution.

  9. Biological safety assessment of mutant variant of Allium sativum leaf agglutinin (mASAL), a novel antifungal protein for future transgenic application.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Prithwi; Roy, Amit; Chakraborty, Joydeep; Das, Sampa

    2013-12-04

    Genetic engineering has established itself to be an important tool for crop improvement. Despite the success, there is always a risk of food allergy induced by alien gene products. The present study assessed the biosafety of mutant Allium sativum leaf agglutinin (mASAL), a potent antifungal protein generated by site directed mutagenesis of Allium sativum leaf agglutinin (ASAL). mASAL was cloned in pET28a+ and expressed in E. coli, and the safety assessment was carried out according to the FAO/WHO guideline (2001). Bioinformatics analysis, pepsin digestion, and thermal stability assay showed the protein to be nonallergenic. Targeted sera screening revealed no significant IgE affinity of mASAL. Furthermore, mASAL sensitized Balb/c mice showed normal histopathology of lung and gut tissue. All results indicated the least possibility of mASAL being an allergen. Thus, mASAL appears to be a promising antifungal candidate protein suitable for agronomical biotechnology.

  10. Proteomic analysis reveals differential accumulation of small heat shock proteins and late embryogenesis abundant proteins between ABA-deficient mutant vp5 seeds and wild-type Vp5 seeds in maize

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Xiaolin; Gong, Fangping; Yang, Le; Hu, Xiuli; Tai, Fuju; Wang, Wei

    2014-01-01

    ABA is a major plant hormone that plays important roles during many phases of plant life cycle, including seed development, maturity and dormancy, and especially the acquisition of desiccation tolerance. Understanding of the molecular basis of ABA-mediated plant response to stress is of interest not only in basic research on plant adaptation but also in applied research on plant productivity. Maize mutant viviparous-5 (vp5), deficient in ABA biosynthesis in seeds, is a useful material for studying ABA-mediated response in maize. Due to carotenoid deficiency, vp5 endosperm is white, compared to yellow Vp5 endosperm. However, the background difference at proteome level between vp5 and Vp5 seeds is unclear. This study aimed to characterize proteome alterations of maize vp5 seeds and to identify ABA-dependent proteins during seed maturation. We compared the embryo and endosperm proteomes of vp5 and Vp5 seeds by gel-based proteomics. Up to 46 protein spots, most in embryos, were found to be differentially accumulated between vp5 and Vp5. The identified proteins included small heat shock proteins (sHSPs), late embryogenesis abundant (LEA) proteins, stress proteins, storage proteins and enzymes among others. However, EMB564, the most abundant LEA protein in maize embryo, accumulated in comparable levels between vp5 and Vp5 embryos, which contrasted to previously characterized, greatly lowered expression of emb564 mRNA in vp5 embryos. Moreover, LEA proteins and sHSPs displayed differential accumulations in vp5 embryos: six out of eight identified LEA proteins decreased while nine sHSPs increased in abundance. Finally, we discussed the possible causes of global proteome alterations, especially the observed differential accumulation of identified LEA proteins and sHSPs in vp5 embryos. The data derived from this study provides new insight into ABA-dependent proteins and ABA-mediated response during maize seed maturation. PMID:25653661

  11. The seirena B Class Floral Homeotic Mutant of California Poppy (Eschscholzia californica) Reveals a Function of the Enigmatic PI Motif in the Formation of Specific Multimeric MADS Domain Protein Complexes[C][W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Lange, Matthias; Orashakova, Svetlana; Lange, Sabrina; Melzer, Rainer; Theißen, Günter; Smyth, David R.; Becker, Annette

    2013-01-01

    The products of B class floral homeotic genes specify petal and stamen identity, and loss of B function results in homeotic conversions of petals into sepals and stamens into carpels. Here, we describe the molecular characterization of seirena-1 (sei-1), a mutant from the basal eudicot California poppy (Eschscholzia californica) that shows homeotic changes characteristic of floral homeotic B class mutants. SEI has been previously described as EScaGLO, one of four B class–related MADS box genes in California poppy. The C terminus of SEI, including the highly conserved PI motif, is truncated in sei-1 proteins. Nevertheless, like the wild-type SEI protein, the sei-1 mutant protein is able to bind CArG-boxes and can form homodimers, heterodimers, and several higher order complexes with other MADS domain proteins. However, unlike the wild type, the mutant protein is not able to mediate higher order complexes consisting of specific B, C, and putative E class related proteins likely involved in specifying stamen identity. Within the PI motif, five highly conserved N-terminal amino acids are specifically required for this interaction. Several families lack this short conserved sequence, including the Brassicaceae, and we propose an evolutionary scenario to explain these functional differences. PMID:23444328

  12. Possible Role of MADS AFFECTING FLOWERING 3 and B-BOX DOMAIN PROTEIN 19 in Flowering Time Regulation of Arabidopsis Mutants with Defects in Nonsense-Mediated mRNA Decay

    PubMed Central

    Nasim, Zeeshan; Fahim, Muhammad; Ahn, Ji Hoon

    2017-01-01

    Eukaryotic cells use nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD) to clear aberrant mRNAs from the cell, thus preventing the accumulation of truncated proteins. In Arabidopsis, two UP-Frameshift (UPF) proteins, UPF1 and UPF3, play a critical role in NMD. Although deficiency of UPF1 and UPF3 leads to various developmental defects, little is known about the mechanism underlying the regulation of flowering time by NMD. Here, we showed that the upf1-5 and upf3-1 mutants had a late-flowering phenotype under long-day conditions and the upf1-5 upf3-1 double mutants had an additive effect in delaying flowering time. RNA sequencing of the upf mutants revealed that UPF3 exerted a stronger effect than UPF1 in the UPF-mediated regulation of flowering time. Among genes known to regulate flowering time, FLOWERING LOCUS C (FLC) mRNA levels increased (up to 8-fold) in upf mutants, as confirmed by qPCR. The upf1-5, upf3-1, and upf1-5 upf3-1 mutants responded to vernalization, suggesting a role of FLC in delayed flowering of upf mutants. Consistent with the high FLC transcript levels and delayed flowering in upf mutants, levels of FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) and SUPPRESSOR OF OVEREXPRESSION OF CONSTANS 1 (SOC1) mRNAs were reduced in the upf mutants. However, RNA-seq did not identify an aberrant FLC transcript containing a premature termination codon (PTC), suggesting that FLC is not a direct target in the regulation of flowering time by NMD. Among flowering time regulators that act in an FLC-dependent manner, we found that MAF3, NF-YA2, NF-YA5, and TAF14 showed increased transcript levels in upf mutants. We also found that BBX19 and ATC, which act in an FLC-independent manner, showed increased transcript levels in upf mutants. An aberrant transcript containing a PTC was identified from MAF3 and BBX19 and the levels of the aberrant transcripts increased in upf mutants. Taking these results together, we propose that the late-flowering phenotype of upf mutants is mediated by at least two different

  13. Possible Role of MADS AFFECTING FLOWERING 3 and B-BOX DOMAIN PROTEIN 19 in Flowering Time Regulation of Arabidopsis Mutants with Defects in Nonsense-Mediated mRNA Decay.

    PubMed

    Nasim, Zeeshan; Fahim, Muhammad; Ahn, Ji Hoon

    2017-01-01

    Eukaryotic cells use nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD) to clear aberrant mRNAs from the cell, thus preventing the accumulation of truncated proteins. In Arabidopsis, two UP-Frameshift (UPF) proteins, UPF1 and UPF3, play a critical role in NMD. Although deficiency of UPF1 and UPF3 leads to various developmental defects, little is known about the mechanism underlying the regulation of flowering time by NMD. Here, we showed that the upf1-5 and upf3-1 mutants had a late-flowering phenotype under long-day conditions and the upf1-5 upf3-1 double mutants had an additive effect in delaying flowering time. RNA sequencing of the upf mutants revealed that UPF3 exerted a stronger effect than UPF1 in the UPF-mediated regulation of flowering time. Among genes known to regulate flowering time, FLOWERING LOCUS C (FLC) mRNA levels increased (up to 8-fold) in upf mutants, as confirmed by qPCR. The upf1-5, upf3-1, and upf1-5 upf3-1 mutants responded to vernalization, suggesting a role of FLC in delayed flowering of upf mutants. Consistent with the high FLC transcript levels and delayed flowering in upf mutants, levels of FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) and SUPPRESSOR OF OVEREXPRESSION OF CONSTANS 1 (SOC1) mRNAs were reduced in the upf mutants. However, RNA-seq did not identify an aberrant FLC transcript containing a premature termination codon (PTC), suggesting that FLC is not a direct target in the regulation of flowering time by NMD. Among flowering time regulators that act in an FLC-dependent manner, we found that MAF3, NF-YA2, NF-YA5, and TAF14 showed increased transcript levels in upf mutants. We also found that BBX19 and ATC, which act in an FLC-independent manner, showed increased transcript levels in upf mutants. An aberrant transcript containing a PTC was identified from MAF3 and BBX19 and the levels of the aberrant transcripts increased in upf mutants. Taking these results together, we propose that the late-flowering phenotype of upf mutants is mediated by at least two different

  14. Activation of mutant protein kinase C{gamma} leads to aberrant sequestration and impairment of its cellular function

    SciTech Connect

    Doran, Graeme; Davies, Kay E.; Talbot, Kevin

    2008-08-01

    Mutations in protein kinase C{gamma} (PKC{gamma}) cause the neurodegenerative disease spinocerebellar ataxia type 14 (SCA14). In this study, expression of an extensive panel of known SCA14-associated PKC{gamma} mutations as fusion proteins in cell culture led to the consistent formation of cytoplasmic aggregates in response to purinoceptor stimulation. Aggregates co-stained with antibodies to phosphorylated PKC{gamma} and the early endosome marker EEA1 but failed to redistribute to the cell membrane under conditions of oxidative stress. These studies suggest that Purkinje cell damage in SCA14 may result from a reduction of PKC{gamma} activity due its aberrant sequestration in the early endosome compartment.

  15. A Novel Hsp90 Inhibitor Activates Compensatory Heat Shock Protein Responses and Autophagy and Alleviates Mutant A53T α-Synuclein Toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Xiong, Rui; Zhou, Wenbo; Siegel, David; Kitson, Russell R. A.; Freed, Curt R.; Moody, Christopher J.

    2015-01-01

    A potential cause of neurodegenerative diseases, including Parkinson’s disease (PD), is protein misfolding and aggregation that in turn leads to neurotoxicity. Targeting Hsp90 is an attractive strategy to halt neurodegenerative diseases, and benzoquinone ansamycin (BQA) Hsp90 inhibitors such as geldanamycin (GA) and 17-(allylamino)-17-demethoxygeldanamycin have been shown to be beneficial in mutant A53T α-synuclein PD models. However, current BQA inhibitors result in off-target toxicities via redox cycling and/or arylation of nucleophiles at the C19 position. We developed novel 19-substituted BQA (19BQA) as a means to prevent arylation. In this study, our data demonstrated that 19-phenyl-GA, a lead 19BQA in the GA series, was redox stable and exhibited little toxicity relative to its parent quinone GA in human dopaminergic SH-SY5Y cells as examined by oxygen consumption, trypan blue, 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide (MTT), and apoptosis assays. Meanwhile, 19-phenyl-GA retained the ability to induce autophagy and potentially protective heat shock proteins (HSPs) such as Hsp70 and Hsp27. We found that transduction of A53T, but not wild type (WT) α-synuclein, induced toxicity in SH-SY5Y cells. 19-Phenyl-GA decreased oligomer formation and toxicity of A53T α-synuclein in transduced cells. Mechanistic studies indicated that mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR)/p70 ribosomal S6 kinase signaling was activated by A53T but not WT α-synuclein, and 19-phenyl-GA decreased mTOR activation that may be associated with A53T α-synuclein toxicity. In summary, our results indicate that 19BQAs such as 19-phenyl-GA may provide a means to modulate protein-handling systems including HSPs and autophagy, thereby reducing the aggregation and toxicity of proteins such as mutant A53T α-synuclein. PMID:26405178

  16. Temperature-sensitive Gbeta mutants discriminate between G protein-dependent and -independent signaling mediated by serpentine receptors.

    PubMed Central

    Jin, T; Soede, R D; Liu, J; Kimmel, A R; Devreotes, P N; Schaap, P

    1998-01-01

    Deletion of the single gene for the Dictyostelium G protein beta-subunit blocks development at an early stage. We have now isolated temperature-sensitive alleles of Gbeta to investigate its role in later development. We show that Gbeta is directly required for adenylyl cyclase A activation and for morphogenetic signaling during the entire developmental program. Gbeta was also essential for induction of aggregative gene expression by cAMP pulses, a process that is mediated by serpentine cAMP receptors (cARs). However, Gbeta was not required for cAR-mediated induction of prespore genes and repression of stalk genes, and neither was Gbeta needed for induction of prestalk genes by the differentiation inducing factor (DIF). cAMP induction of prespore genes and repression of stalk genes is mediated by the protein kinase GSK-3. GSK-3 also determines cell-type specification in insects and vertebrates and is regulated by the wingless/wnt morphogens that are detected by serpentine fz receptors. The G protein-dependent and -independent modes of cAR-mediated signaling reported here may also exist for the wingless/wnt signaling pathways in higher organisms. PMID:9724643

  17. Kinetic isotope effects on the noncovalent flavin mutant protein of pyranose 2-oxidase reveal insights into the flavin reduction mechanism.

    PubMed

    Sucharitakul, Jeerus; Wongnate, Thanyaporn; Chaiyen, Pimchai

    2010-05-04

    Pyranose 2-oxidase (P2O) from Trametes multicolor contains a flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) cofactor covalently linked to the N(3) atom of His167. The enzyme catalyzes the oxidation of aldopyranoses by molecular oxygen to generate 2-keto-aldoses and H(2)O(2) as products. In this study, the transient kinetics and primary and solvent kinetic isotope effects of the mutant in which His167 has been replaced with Ala (H167A) were investigated, to elucidate the functional role of the 8a-N(3)-histidyl FAD linkage and to gain insights into the reaction mechanism of P2O. The results indicate that the covalent linkage is mainly important for a reductive half-reaction in which the FAD cofactor is reduced by d-glucose, while it is not important for an oxidative half-reaction in which oxygen reacts with the reduced FAD to generate H(2)O(2). d-Glucose binds to H167A via multiple binding modes before the formation of the active Michaelis complex, and the rate constant of flavin reduction decreases approximately 22-fold compared to that of the wild-type enzyme. The reduction of H167A using d-glucose isotopes (2-d-d-glucose, 3-d-d-glucose, and 1,2,3,4,5,6,6-d(7)-d-glucose) as substrates indicates that the primary isotope effect results only from substitution at the C2 position, implying that H167A catalyzes the oxidation of d-glucose regiospecifically at this position. No solvent kinetic isotope effect was detected during the reductive half-reaction of the wild-type or H167A enzyme, implying that the deprotonation of the d-glucose C2-OH group may occur readily upon the binding to P2O and is not synchronized with the cleavage of the d-glucose C2-H bond. The mutation has no drastic effect on the oxidative half-reaction of P2O, as H167A is very similar to the wild-type enzyme with respect to the kinetic constants and the formation of the C4a-hydroperoxyflavin intermediate. Kinetic mechanisms for both half-reactions of H167A were proposed on the basis of transient kinetic data and

  18. The proteinopathy of D169G and K263E mutants at the RNA Recognition Motif (RRM) domain of tar DNA binding protein (tdp43) causing neurological disorders: A computational study.

    PubMed

    Bhandare, Vishwambhar Vishnu; Ramaswamy, Amutha

    2017-03-22

    One of the multitasking proteins, transactive response DNA-binding protein 43 (tdp43) plays a key role in RNA regulation and the two pathogenic mutations such as D169G and K263E, located at the RNA Recognition Motif (RRM) of tdp43, are reported to cause neurological disorders such as Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) and Fronto Temporal Lobar Degeneration (FTLD). As the exploration of the proteinopathy demands both structural and functional characterization of mutants, a comparative analysis on the wild type and mutant tdp43 (D169G and K263E) and their complexes with RNA have been performed using computational approaches. Molecular dynamics simulations revealed comparatively stable mutant structures compared to wild type tdp43. Both mutants show lesser binding affinity towards RNA molecule when compared to the wild type tdp43. Some of the observed features, including the increased solvent accessible surface area, conformational flexibility as well as unfolding of tdp43 and the altered RNA conformation in tp43-RNA complex, reveal the susceptibility of these mutants to induce conformational changes in tdp43 for a possible aggregation in the cytoplasm. Particularly, the enhanced aggregation propensity of both mutants also evidences the higher probability of cytoplasmic aggregation of tdp43 mutants. Hence, the present analysis highlighting the structural and functional aspects of wild and mutant tdp43 will form the basis to gain insight into the proteinopathy of tdp43 and the related structure based drug discovery. Thus, tdp43 can be used as target to develop novel therapeutic approaches or drug designing.

  19. Streptavidin mutants

    SciTech Connect

    2000-02-08

    The present invention relates to streptavidin proteins and peptides having a altered physical properties such as an increased stability or increased or decreased affinity for binding biotin. The invention also relates to methods for the detection, identification, separation and isolation of targets using streptavidin proteins or peptides. Streptavidin with increased or reduced affinity allows for the use of the streptavidin-biotin coupling systems for detection and isolation systems wherein it is necessary to remove of one or the other of the binding partners. Such systems are useful for the purification of functional proteins and viable cells. The invention also relates to nucleic acids which encode these streptavidin proteins and peptides and to recombinant cells such as bacteria, yeast and mammalian cells which contain these nucleic acids.

  20. Streptavidin mutants

    DOEpatents

    Sano, Takeshi; Cantor, Charles R.; Vajda, Sandor; Reznik, Gabriel O.; Smith, Cassandra L.; Pandori, Mark W.

    2000-01-01

    The present invention relates to streptavidin proteins and peptides having a altered physical properties such as an increased stability or increased or decreased affinity for binding biotin. The invention also relates to methods for the detection, identification, separation and isolation of targets using streptavidin proteins or peptides. Streptavidin with increased or reduced affinity allows for the use of the streptavidin-biotin coupling systems for detection and isolation systems wherein it is necessary to remove of one or the other of the binding partners. Such systems are useful for the purification of functional proteins and viable cells. The invention also relates to nucleic acids which encode these streptavidin proteins and peptides and to recombinant cells such as bacteria, yeast and mammalian cells which contain these nucleic acids.

  1. Structures and free energy landscapes of the A53T mutant-type α-synuclein protein and impact of A53T mutation on the structures of the wild-type α-synuclein protein with dynamics.

    PubMed

    Coskuner, Orkid; Wise-Scira, Olivia

    2013-07-17

    The A53T genetic missense mutation of the wild-type α-synuclein (αS) protein was initially identified in Greek and Italian families with familial Parkinson's disease. Detailed understanding of the structures and the changes induced in the wild-type αS structure by the A53T mutation, as well as establishing the direct relationships between the rapid conformational changes and free energy landscapes of these intrinsically disordered fibrillogenic proteins, helps to enhance our fundamental knowledge and to gain insights into the pathogenic mechanism of Parkinson's disease. We employed extensive parallel tempering molecular dynamics simulations along with thermodynamic calculations to determine the secondary and tertiary structural properties as well as the conformational free energy surfaces of the wild-type and A53T mutant-type αS proteins in an aqueous solution medium using both implicit and explicit water models. The confined aqueous volume effect in the simulations of disordered proteins using an explicit model for water is addressed for a model disordered protein. We also assessed the stabilities of the residual secondary structure component interconversions in αS based on free energy calculations at the atomic level with dynamics using our recently developed theoretical strategy. To the best of our knowledge, this study presents the first detailed comparison of the structural properties linked directly to the conformational free energy landscapes of the monomeric wild-type and A53T mutant-type α-synuclein proteins in an aqueous solution environment. Results demonstrate that the β-sheet structure is significantly more altered than the helical structure upon A53T mutation of the monomeric wild-type αS protein in aqueous solution. The β-sheet content close to the mutation site in the N-terminal region is more abundant while the non-amyloid-β component (NAC) and C-terminal regions show a decrease in β-sheet abundance upon A53T mutation. Obtained results

  2. Protein structure refinement based on paramagnetic NMR shifts: applications to wild-type and mutant forms of cytochrome c.

    PubMed Central

    Gochin, M.; Roder, H.

    1995-01-01

    A new approach to NMR solution structure refinement is introduced that uses paramagnetic effects on nuclear chemical shifts as constraints in energy minimization or molecular dynamics calculations. Chemical shift differences between oxidized and reduced forms of horse cytochrome c for more than 300 protons were used as constraints to refine the structure of the wild-type protein in solution and to define the structural changes induced by a Leu 94 to Val mutation. A single round of constrained minimization, using the crystal structure as the starting point, converged to a low-energy structure with an RMS deviation between calculated and observed pseudo-contact shifts of 0.045 ppm, 7.5-fold lower than the starting structure. At the same time, the procedure provided stereospecific assignments for more than 45 pairs of methylene protons and methyl groups. Structural changes caused by the mutation were determined to a precision of better than 0.3 A. Structure determination based on dipolar paramagnetic (pseudocontact) shifts is applicable to molecules containing anisotropic paramagnetic centers with short electronic relaxation times, including numerous naturally occurring metalloproteins, as well as proteins or nucleic acids to which a paramagnetic metal ion or ligand may be attached. The long range of paramagnetic shift effects (up to 20 A from the iron in the case of cytochrome c) provides global structural constraints, which, in conjunction with conventional NMR distance and dihedral angle constraints, will enhance the precision of NMR solution structure determination. PMID:7757018

  3. Astrocyte pathology in a human neural stem cell model of frontotemporal dementia caused by mutant TAU protein

    PubMed Central

    Hallmann, Anna-Lena; Araúzo-Bravo, Marcos J.; Mavrommatis, Lampros; Ehrlich, Marc; Röpke, Albrecht; Brockhaus, Johannes; Missler, Markus; Sterneckert, Jared; Schöler, Hans R.; Kuhlmann, Tanja; Zaehres, Holm; Hargus, Gunnar

    2017-01-01

    Astroglial pathology is seen in various neurodegenerative diseases including frontotemporal dementia (FTD), which can be caused by mutations in the gene encoding the microtubule-associated protein TAU (MAPT). Here, we applied a stem cell model of FTD to examine if FTD astrocytes carry an intrinsic propensity to degeneration and to determine if they can induce non-cell-autonomous effects in neighboring neurons. We utilized CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing in human induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cell-derived neural progenitor cells (NPCs) to repair the FTD-associated N279K MAPT mutation. While astrocytic differentiation was not impaired in FTD NPCs derived from one patient carrying the N279K MAPT mutation, FTD astrocytes appeared larger, expressed increased levels of 4R-TAU isoforms, demonstrated increased vulnerability to oxidative stress and elevated protein ubiquitination and exhibited disease-associated changes in transcriptome profiles when compared to astrocytes derived from one control individual and to the isogenic control. Interestingly, co-culture experiments with FTD astrocytes revealed increased oxidative stress and robust changes in whole genome expression in previously healthy neurons. Our study highlights the utility of iPS cell-derived NPCs to elucidate the role of astrocytes in the pathogenesis of FTD. PMID:28256506

  4. Enhanced green fluorescence by the expression of an Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein mutant in mono- and dicotyledonous plant cells.

    PubMed

    Reichel, C; Mathur, J; Eckes, P; Langenkemper, K; Koncz, C; Schell, J; Reiss, B; Maas, C

    1996-06-11

    The expression of the jellyfish green fluorescent protein (GFP) in plants was analyzed by transient expression in protoplasts from Nicotiana tabacum, Arabidopsis thaliana, Hordeum vulgare, and Zea mays. Expression of GFP was only observed with a mutated cDNA, from which a recently described cryptic splice site had been removed. However, detectable levels of green fluorescence were only emitted from a small number of protoplasts. Therefore, other mutations in the GFP cDNA leading to single-amino acid exchanges in the chromophore region, which had been previously studied in Escherichia coli, were tested in order to improve the sensitivity of this marker protein. Of the mutations tested so far, the exchange of GFP amino acid tyrosine 66 to histidine (Y66H) led to detection of blue fluorescence in plant protoplasts, while the exchange of amino acid serine 65 to cysteine (S65C) and threonine (S65T) increased the intensity of green fluorescence drastically, thereby significantly raising the detection level for GFP. For GFP S65C, the detectable number of green fluorescing tobacco (BY-2) protoplasts was raised up to 19-fold, while the fluorimetricly determined fluorescence was raised by at least 2 orders of magnitude.

  5. Kinetics of interaction of Cotton Leaf Curl Kokhran Virus-Dabawali (CLCuKV-Dab) coat protein and its mutants with ssDNA

    SciTech Connect

    Priyadarshini, C.G. Poornima; Savithri, H.S.

    2009-04-10

    Gemini viral assembly and transport of viral DNA into nucleus for replication, essentially involve DNA-coat protein interactions. The kinetics of interaction of Cotton Leaf Curl Kokhran Virus-Dabawali recombinant coat protein (rCP) with DNA was studied by electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) and surface plasmon resonance (SPR). The rCP interacted with ssDNA with a K{sub A}, of 2.6 +- 0.29 x 10{sup 8} M{sup -1} in a sequence non-specific manner. The CP has a conserved C2H2 type zinc finger motif composed of residues C68, C72, H81 and H85. Mutation of these residues to alanine resulted in reduced binding to DNA probes. The H85A mutant rCP showed the least binding with approximately 756 fold loss in the association rate and a three order magnitude decrease in the binding affinity as compared to rCP. The CP-DNA interactions via the zinc finger motif could play a crucial role in virus assembly and in nuclear transport.

  6. Structural and denaturation studies of two mutants of a cold adapted superoxide dismutase point to the importance of electrostatic interactions in protein stability.

    PubMed

    Merlino, Antonello; Russo Krauss, Irene; Castellano, Immacolata; Ruocco, Maria Rosaria; Capasso, Alessandra; De Vendittis, Emmanuele; Rossi, Bianca; Sica, Filomena

    2014-03-01

    A peculiar feature of the psychrophilic iron superoxide dismutase from Pseudoalteromonas haloplanktis (PhSOD) is the presence in its amino acid sequence of a reactive cysteine (Cys57). To define the role of this residue, a structural characterization of the effect of two PhSOD mutations, C57S and C57R, was performed. Thermal and denaturant-induced unfolding of wild type and mutant PhSOD followed by circular dichroism and fluorescence studies revealed that C→R substitution alters the thermal stability and the resistance against denaturants of the enzyme, whereas C57S only alters the stability of the protein against urea. The crystallographic data on the C57R mutation suggest an involvement of the Arg side chain in the formation of salt bridges on protein surface. These findings support the hypothesis that the thermal resistance of PhSOD relies on optimization of charge-charge interactions on its surface. Our study contributes to a deeper understanding of the denaturation mechanism of superoxide dismutases, suggesting the presence of a structural dimeric intermediate between the native state and the unfolded state. This hypothesis is supported by the crystalline and solution data on the reduced form of the enzyme.

  7. Fusion protein of mutant B7-DC and Fc enhances the antitumor immune effect of GM-CSF-secreting whole-cell vaccine.

    PubMed

    Kojima, Masatsugu; Murata, Satoshi; Mekata, Eiji; Takebayashi, Katsushi; Jaffee, Elizabeth M; Tani, Tohru

    2014-04-01

    B7-DC [also known as programmed death ligand 2 (PD-L2)] is a costimulatory molecule expressed predominantly on dendritic cells (DCs) and macrophages. In addition to its coinhibitory receptor, programmed death receptor 1 (PD-1), evidence suggests that B7-DC interacts with an unidentified costimulatory receptor on T cells. B7-DC mutants with selective binding capacity for the costimulatory receptor may be effective in stimulating antitumor immune responses, while avoiding the inhibitory effects of PD-1. In this study, we concomitantly administered a GM-CSF-secreting whole-cell vaccine together with a fusion protein of mutant B7-DC and Fc portion (mB7-DC-Fc), which binds selectively to the costimulatory receptor. This lead to an increased number of tumor antigen-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes both in the spleen and at the tumor site and complete elimination of established tumors in vivo. In addition, mB7-DC-Fc increased IFN-γ and IL-2 production and decreased IL-4 and IL-10 production in vitro, indicating that mB7-DC-Fc tips the Th1/Th2 balance toward Th1 dominance, which is more favorable for antitumor immunity. Furthermore, mB7-DC-Fc decreased the PD-1(+) proportion of CD8(+) T cells in vitro and tumor-infiltrating CD8(+) T cells in vivo, suggesting that mB7-DC-Fc may maintain tumor-infiltrating CD8(+) T cells in a nonexhausted state. In conclusion, mB7-DC-Fc administration during the T-cell priming phase enhances antitumor effects of vaccine by generating more tumor antigen-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes and leading to their accumulation at the tumor site. We suggest that this combination approach may be a promising strategy for antitumor immunotherapy.

  8. A mutant GlnD nitrogen sensor protein leads to a nitrogen-fixing but ineffective Sinorhizobium meliloti symbiosis with alfalfa.

    PubMed

    Yurgel, Svetlana N; Kahn, Michael L

    2008-12-02

    The nitrogen-fixing symbiosis between rhizobia and legume plants is a model of coevolved nutritional complementation. The plants reduce atmospheric CO(2) by photosynthesis and provide carbon compounds to symbiotically associated bacteria; the rhizobia use these compounds to reduce (fix) atmospheric N(2) to ammonia, a form of nitrogen the plants can use. A key feature of symbiotic N(2) fixation is that N(2) fixation is uncoupled from bacterial nitrogen stress metabolism so that the rhizobia generate "excess" ammonia and release this ammonia to the plant. In the symbiosis between Sinorhizobium meliloti and alfalfa, mutations in GlnD, the major bacterial nitrogen stress response sensor protein, led to a symbiosis in which nitrogen was fixed (Fix(+)) but was not effective (Eff(-)) in substantially increasing plant growth. Fixed (15)N(2) was transported to the shoots, but most fixed (15)N was not present in the plant after 24 h. Analysis of free-living S. meliloti strains with mutations in genes related to nitrogen stress response regulation (glnD, glnB, ntrC, and ntrA) showed that catabolism of various nitrogen-containing compounds depended on the NtrC and GlnD components of the nitrogen stress response cascade. However, only mutants of GlnD with an amino terminal deletion had the unusual Fix(+)Eff(-) symbiotic phenotype, and the data suggest that these glnD mutants export fixed nitrogen in a form that the plants cannot use. These results indicate that bacterial nitrogen stress regulation is important to symbiotic productivity and suggest that GlnD may act in a novel way to influence symbiotic behavior.

  9. Amplified UvrA protein can ameliorate the ultraviolet sensitivity of an Escherichia coli recA mutant.

    PubMed

    Kiyosawa, K; Tanaka, M; Matsunaga, T; Nikaido, O; Yamamoto, K

    2001-12-19

    When a recA strain of Escherichia coli was transformed with the multicopy plasmid pSF11 carrying the uvrA gene of E. coli, its extreme ultraviolet (UV) sensitivity was decreased. The sensitivity of the lexA1 (Ind(-)) strain to UV was also decreased by pSF11. The recA cells expressing Neurospora crassa UV damage endonuclease (UVDE), encoding UV-endonuclease, show UV resistance. On the other hand, only partial amelioration of UV sensitivity of the recA strain was observed in the presence of the plasmid pNP10 carrying the uvrB gene. Host cell reactivation of UV-irradiated lambda phage in recA cells with pSF11 was as efficient as that in wild-type cells. Using an antibody to detect cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers, we found that UV-irradiated recA cells removed dimers from their DNA more rapidly if they carried pSF11 than if they carried a vacant control plasmid. Using anti-UvrA antibody, we observed that the expression level of UvrA protein was about 20-fold higher in the recA strain with pSF11 than in the recA strain without pSF11. Our results were consistent with the idea that constitutive level of UvrA protein in the recA cells results in constitutive levels of active UvrABC nuclease which is not enough to operate full nucleotide excision repair (NER), thus leading to extreme UV sensitivity.

  10. Ophthalmic acid accumulation in an Escherichia coli mutant lacking the conserved pyridoxal 5'-phosphate-binding protein YggS.

    PubMed

    Ito, Tomokazu; Yamauchi, Ayako; Hemmi, Hisashi; Yoshimura, Tohru

    2016-12-01

    Escherichia coli YggS is a highly conserved pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP)-binding protein whose biochemical function is currently unknown. A previous study with a yggS-deficient E. coli strain (ΔyggS) demonstrated that YggS controls l-Ile- and l-Val-metabolism by modulating 2-ketobutyrate (2-KB), l-2-aminobutyrate (l-2-AB), and/or coenzyme A (CoA) availability in a PLP-dependent fashion. In this study, we found that ΔyggS accumulates an unknown metabolite as judged by amino acid analyses. LC/MS and MS/MS analyses of the compound with propyl chloroformate derivatization, and co-chromatography analysis identified this compound as γ-l-glutamyl-l-2-aminobutyryl-glycine (ophthalmic acid), a glutathione (GSH) analogue in which the l-Cys moiety is replaced by l-2-AB. We also determine the metabolic consequence of the yggS mutation. Absence of YggS initially increases l-2-AB availability, and then causes ophthalmic acid accumulation and CoA limitation in the cell. The expression of a γ-glutamylcysteine synthetase and a glutathione synthetase in a ΔyggS background causes high-level accumulation of ophthalmic acid in the cells (∼1.2 nmol/mg cells) in a minimal synthetic medium. This opens the possibility of a first fermentative production of ophthalmic acid.

  11. Trimethylangelicin promotes the functional rescue of mutant F508del CFTR protein in cystic fibrosis airway cells.

    PubMed

    Favia, Maria; Mancini, Maria T; Bezzerri, Valentino; Guerra, Lorenzo; Laselva, Onofrio; Abbattiscianni, Anna C; Debellis, Lucantonio; Reshkin, Stephan J; Gambari, Roberto; Cabrini, Giulio; Casavola, Valeria

    2014-07-01

    Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) carrying the F508del mutation is retained in endoplasmic reticulum and fails to traffic to the cell surface where it functions as a protein kinase A (PKA)-activated chloride channel. Pharmacological correctors that rescue the trafficking of F508del CFTR may overcome this defect; however, the rescued F508del CFTR still displays reduced chloride permeability. Therefore, a combined administration of correctors and potentiators of the gating defect is ideal. We recently found that 4,6,4'-trimethylangelicin (TMA), besides inhibiting the expression of the IL-8 gene in airway cells in which the inflammatory response was challenged with Pseudomonas aeruginosa, also potentiates the cAMP/PKA-dependent activation of wild-type CFTR or F508del CFTR that has been restored to the plasma membrane. Here, we demonstrate that long preincubation with nanomolar concentrations of TMA is able to effectively rescue both F508del CFTR-dependent chloride secretion and F508del CFTR cell surface expression in both primary or secondary airway cell monolayers homozygous for F508del mutation. The correction effect of TMA seems to be selective for CFTR and persisted for 24 h after washout. Altogether, the results suggest that TMA, besides its anti-inflammatory and potentiator activities, also displays corrector properties.

  12. Comparative proteomic analysis of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium ppGpp-deficient mutant to identify a novel virulence protein required for intracellular survival in macrophages

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The global ppGpp-mediated stringent response in pathogenic bacteria plays an important role in the pathogenesis of bacterial infections. In Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium), several genes, including virulence genes, are regulated by ppGpp when bacteria are under the stringent response. To understand the control of virulence genes by ppGpp in S. Typhimurium, agarose 2-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) combined with mass spectrometry was used and a comprehensive 2-DE reference map of amino acid-starved S. Typhimurium strain SH100, a derivative of ATCC 14028, was established. Results Of the 366 examined spots, 269 proteins were successfully identified. The comparative analysis of the wild-type and ppGpp0 mutant strains revealed 55 proteins, the expression patterns of which were affected by ppGpp. Using a mouse infection model, we further identified a novel virulence-associated factor, STM3169, from the ppGpp-regulated and Salmonella-specific proteins. In addition, Salmonella strains carrying mutations in the gene encoding STM3169 showed growth defects and impaired growth within macrophage-like RAW264.7 cells. Furthermore, we found that expression of stm3169 was controlled by ppGpp and SsrB, a response regulator of the two-component system located on Salmonella pathogenicity island 2. Conclusions A proteomic approach using a 2-DE reference map can prove a powerful tool for analyzing virulence factors and the regulatory network involved in Salmonella pathogenesis. Our results also provide evidence of a global response mediated by ppGpp in S. enterica. PMID:21176126

  13. Development of a robust scintillation proximity assay for protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B using the catalytically inactive (C215S) mutant.

    PubMed

    Skorey, K I; Kennedy, B P; Friesen, R W; Ramachandran, C

    2001-04-15

    Protein tyrosine phosphatases are a class of enzymes that function to modulate tyrosine phosphorylation of cellular proteins and play an essential role in regulating cell function. PTP1B has been implicated in the negative regulation of the insulin signaling pathway by dephosphorylating the activated insulin receptor. Inhibiting this phosphatase and preventing the insulin-receptor downregulation has been suggested as a target for the treatment of Type II diabetes. A high-throughput screen for inhibitors of PTP1B was developed using a scintillation proximity assay (SPA) with GST-- or FLAG--PTP1B((1-320)) and a potent [(3)H]-tripeptide inhibitor. The problem of interference from extraneous oxidizing and alkylating agents which react with the cysteine active-site nucleophile was overcome by the use of the catalytically inactive C215S form of the native enzyme (GST--PTP1B(C215S)). The GST--PTP1B was linked to the protein A scintillation bead via GST antibody. The radiolabeled inhibitor when bound to the enzyme gave a radioactive signal that was competed away by the unknown competitive compounds. Further utility of PTP1B(C215S) was demonstrated by mixing in the same well both the catalytically inactive GST--PTP1B(C215S) and the catalytically active FLAG--CD45 with an inhibitor. Both a binding and kinetic assay was then performed in the same 96-well plate with the inhibition results determined for the PTP1B(C215S) (binding assay) and CD45 (activity assay). In this way inhibitors could be differentiated between the two phosphatases under identical assay conditions in one 96-well assay plate. The use of a mutant to reduce interference in a binding assay and compare with activity assays is also amenable for most cysteine active-site proteases.

  14. Structure of wild type and mutant F508del CFTR: A small-angle X-ray scattering study of the protein-detergent complexes.

    PubMed

    Pollock, Naomi L; Satriano, Letizia; Zegarra-Moran, Olga; Ford, Robert C; Moran, Oscar

    2016-04-01

    CFTR is an anionic channel expressed in epithelia whose mutations cause cystic fibrosis. Wild (WT) and mutated (F508del) types were over-expressed in yeast, solubilised in the detergent LPG-14 and purified. The detergent-CFTR complexes were studied by SAXS techniques using a solvent of variable density. The final result of the study is the numerical value of a set of parameters: molecular mass, volume and radius of gyration, average electron density and second moment of the electron density fluctuations inside the particles. It is also shown that in the complex the centres of gravity of CFTR and of the detergent are displaced relative to each other. The analysis of these parameters led to the determination of the size and shape of the volumes occupied by protein and by detergent in the complex. WT-CFTR to be an elongated molecule (maximum diameter ∼12.4nm) which spans a flat detergent micelle. The distance distribution function, P(r) confirms that the WT-CFTR is elongated and with an inhomogeneous electronic density. The F508del-CFTR molecule is also elongated (maximum diameter ∼13.2nm), but the associated detergent micelle hides a larger surface, plausibly related to an increased exposure of hydrophobic portions of the mutated protein. The corresponding P(r) is consistent with the presence of well defined domains, probably linked by flexible regions. These differences suggest that the full-length mutant F508del-CFTR has a detectably different conformation, in contrast to the minor differences observed for the isolated F508-containing domain. We interpret the data in terms of an incomplete post-translational assembly of the protein domains.

  15. Hepatocyte growth factor renders BRAF mutant human melanoma cell lines resistant to PLX4032 by downregulating the pro-apoptotic BH3-only proteins PUMA and BIM.

    PubMed

    Rohrbeck, Leona; Gong, Jia-Nan; Lee, Erinna F; Kueh, Andrew J; Behren, Andreas; Tai, Lin; Lessene, Guillaume; Huang, David C S; Fairlie, Walter D; Strasser, Andreas; Herold, Marco J

    2016-12-01

    A large proportion of melanomas harbour the activating BRAF(V600E) mutation that renders these cells dependent on MAPK signalling for their survival. Although the highly specific and clinically approved BRAF(V600E) kinase inhibitor, PLX4032, induces apoptosis of melanoma cells bearing this mutation, the underlying molecular mechanisms are not fully understood. Here, we reveal that PLX4032-induced apoptosis depends on the induction of the pro-apoptotic BH3-only protein PUMA with a minor contribution of its relative BIM. Apoptosis could be significantly augmented when PLX4032 was combined with an inhibitor of the pro-survival protein BCL-XL, whereas neutralization of the pro-survival family member BCL-2 caused no additional cell death. Although the initial response to PLX4032 in melanoma patients is very potent, resistance to the drug eventually develops and relapse occurs. Several factors can cause melanoma cells to develop resistance to PLX4032; one of them is the activation of the receptor tyrosine kinase cMET on melanoma cells by its ligand, hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), provided by the tumour microenvironment or the cancer cells themselves. We found that HGF mediates resistance of cMET-expressing BRAF mutant melanoma cells to PLX4032-induced apoptosis through downregulation of PUMA and BIM rather than by increasing the expression of pro-survival BCL-2-like proteins. These results suggest that resistance to PLX4032 may be overcome by specifically increasing the levels of PUMA and BIM in melanoma cells through alternative signalling cascades or by blocking pro-survival BCL-2 family members with suitable BH3 mimetic compounds.

  16. Arabidopsis inositol polyphosphate 6-/3-kinase is a nuclear protein that complements a yeast mutant lacking a functional ArgR-Mcm1 transcription complex.

    PubMed

    Xia, Hui-Jun; Brearley, Charles; Elge, Stephan; Kaplan, Boaz; Fromm, Hillel; Mueller-Roeber, Bernd

    2003-02-01

    Inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate 3-kinase, and more generally inositol polyphosphate kinases (Ipk), play important roles in signal transduction in animal cells; however, their functions in plant cells remain to be elucidated. Here, we report the molecular cloning of a cDNA (AtIpk2beta) from a higher plant, Arabidopsis. Arabidopsis AtIpk2beta is a 33-kD protein that exhibits weak homology ( approximately 25% identical amino acids) with Ipk proteins from animals and yeast and lacks a calmodulin binding site, as revealed by sequence analysis and calmodulin binding assays. However, recombinant AtIpk2beta phosphorylates inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate to inositol 1,4,5,6-tetrakisphosphate and also converts it to inositol 1,3,4,5,6-pentakisphosphate [Ins(1,3,4,5,6)P(5)]. AtIpk2beta also phosphorylates inositol 1,3,4,5-tetrakisphosphate to Ins(1,3,4,5,6)P(5). Thus, the enzyme is a D3/D6 dual-specificity inositol phosphate kinase. AtIpk2beta complements a yeast ARG82/IPK2 mutant lacking a functional ArgR-Mcm1 transcription complex. This complex is involved in regulating Arg metabolism-related gene expression and requires inositol polyphosphate kinase activity to function. AtIpk2beta was found to be located predominantly in the nucleus of plant cells, as demonstrated by immunolocalization and fusion to green fluorescent protein. RNA gel blot analysis and promoter-beta-glucuronidase reporter gene studies demonstrated AtIpk2beta gene expression in various organs tested. These data suggest a role for AtIpk2beta as a transcriptional control mediator in plants.

  17. Computational studies on the resistance of penicillin-binding protein 2B (PBP2B) of wild-type and mutant strains of Streptococcus pneumoniae against β-lactam antibiotics.

    PubMed

    Ramalingam, Jothi; Vennila, Jannet; Subbiah, Parthasarathy

    2013-09-01

    Mutations within transpeptidase domain of penicillin-binding protein 2B of the strains of Streptococcus pneumoniae leads to resistance against β-lactam antibiotics. To uncover the important residues responsible for sensitivity and resistance, the recently determined three dimensional structures of penicillin-binding protein 2B of both wild-type R6 (sensitive) and mutant 5204 (resistant) strains along with the predicted structures of other mutant strains G54, Hungary19A-6 and SP195 were considered for the interaction study with β-lactam antibiotics using induced-fit docking of Schrödinger. Associated binding energies of the complexes and their intermolecular interactions in the binding site clearly show that the wild-type R6 as sensitive, mutant strains 5204 and G54 as highly resistant, and the mutant strains Hungary19A-6 and SP195 as intermediate resistant. The study also reveals that the mutant strains Hungary19A-6 and SP195 exhibit intermediate resistant because of the existence of mutations till the intermediate 538th and 516th positions, respectively, and not till the end of the C-terminus. Furthermore, our investigations show that if the mutations are extended till the end of the C terminus, then the antibiotic resistance of induced-mutated strains increases from intermediate to high as in the strains 5204 and G54. The binding patterns obtained in the study are useful in designing potential inhibitors against multidrug resistant S. pneumoniae.

  18. Global Systems-Level Analysis of Hfq and SmpB Deletion Mutants in Salmonella: Implications for Virulence and Global Protein Translation

    SciTech Connect

    Ansong, Charles; Yoon, Hyunjin; Porwollik, Steffen; Mottaz-Brewer, Heather; Petritis, Brianne O.; Jaitly, Navdeep; Adkins, Joshua N.; Mcclelland, Michael; Heffron, Fred; Smith, Richard D.

    2009-03-11

    In recent years the profound importance of sRNA-mediated translational/post-transcriptional regulation has been increasingly appreciated. However, the global role played by translational regulation in control of gene expression has never been elucidated in any organism for the simple reason that global proteomics methods required to accurately characterize post-transcriptional processes and the knowledge of translational control mechanisms have only become available within the last few years. The proteins Hfq and SmpB are essential for the biological activity of a range of regulatory sRNAs and thus provide a means to identify potential targets of sRNA regulation. We performed a sample-matched global proteomics and transcriptional analysis to examine the role of Hfq and SmpB in global protein translation and virulence using the Salmonella typhimurium model system. Samples were analyzed from bacteria grown under four different conditions; two laboratory conditions and two that are thought to mimic the intracellular environment. We show that mutants of hfq and smpB directly or indirectly modulate at least 20% and 4% of all Salmonella proteins, respectively, with limited correlation between transcription and protein expression. This is the first report suggesting that SmpB could be a general translational regulator. The broad spectrum of proteins modulated by Hfq was also surprising including central metabolism, LPS biosynthesis, two-component regulatory systems, quorum sensing, SP1-TTSS, oxidative stress, fatty acid metabolism, nucleoside and nucleotide metabolism, envelope stress, aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases, amino acid biosynthesis, peptide transport, and motility.. The extent of global regulation of translation by Hfq is unexpected, with profound effects in all stages of Salmonella’s life cycle. Our results represent the first global systems-level analysis of translational regulation; the elucidated potential targets of sRNA regulation from our analysis will

  19. Defective chloroplast development inhibits maintenance of normal levels of abscisic acid in a mutant of the Arabidopsis RH3 DEAD-box protein during early post-germination growth.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kwang-Hee; Park, Jiyoung; Williams, Donna S; Xiong, Yuqing; Hwang, Inhwan; Kang, Byung-Ho

    2013-03-01

    The plastid has its own translation system, and its ribosomes are assembled through a complex process in which rRNA precursors are processed and ribosomal proteins are inserted into the rRNA backbone. DEAD-box proteins have been shown to play roles in multiple steps in ribosome biogenesis. To investigate the cellular and physiological roles of an Arabidopsis DEAD-box protein, RH3, we examined its expression and localization and the phenotypes of rh3-4, a T-DNA insertion mutant allele of RH3. The promoter activity of RH3 is strongest in the greening tissues of 3-day and 1-week-old seedlings but reduced afterwards. Cotyledons were pale and seedling growth was retarded in the mutant. The most obvious abnormality in the mutant chloroplasts was their lack of normal ribosomes. Electron tomography analysis indicated that ribosome density in the 3-day-old mutant chloroplasts is only 20% that of wild-type chloroplasts, and the ribosomes in the mutant are smaller. These chloroplast defects in rh3-4 were alleviated in 2-week-old cotyledons and true leaves. Interestingly, rh3-4 seedlings have lower amounts of abscisic acid prior to recovery of their chloroplasts, and were more sensitive to abiotic stresses. Transcriptomic analysis indicated that nuclear genes for chloroplast proteins are down-regulated, and proteins mediating chloroplast-localized steps of abscisic acid biosynthesis are expressed to a lower extent in 1-week-old rh3-4 seedlings. Taken together, these results suggest that conversion of eoplasts into chloroplasts in young seedlings is critical for the seedlings to start carbon fixation as well as for maintenance of abscisic acid levels for responding to environmental challenges.

  20. Manipulation of cellular GSH biosynthetic capacity via TAT-mediated protein transduction of wild-type or a dominant-negative mutant of glutamate cysteine ligase alters cell sensitivity to oxidant-induced cytotoxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Backos, Donald S.; Brocker, Chad N.; Franklin, Christopher C.

    2010-02-15

    The glutathione (GSH) antioxidant defense system plays a central role in protecting mammalian cells against oxidative injury. Glutamate cysteine ligase (GCL) is the rate-limiting enzyme in GSH biosynthesis and is a heterodimeric holoenzyme composed of catalytic (GCLC) and modifier (GCLM) subunits. As a means of assessing the cytoprotective effects of enhanced GSH biosynthetic capacity, we have developed a protein transduction approach whereby recombinant GCL protein can be rapidly and directly transferred into cells when coupled to the HIV TAT protein transduction domain. Bacterial expression vectors encoding TAT fusion proteins of both GCL subunits were generated and recombinant fusion proteins were synthesized and purified to near homogeneity. The TAT-GCL fusion proteins were capable of heterodimerization and formation of functional GCL holoenzyme in vitro. Exposure of Hepa-1c1c7 cells to the TAT-GCL fusion proteins resulted in the time- and dose-dependent transduction of both GCL subunits and increased cellular GCL activity and GSH levels. A heterodimerization-competent, enzymatically deficient GCLC-TAT mutant was also generated in an attempt to create a dominant-negative suppressor of GCL. Transduction of cells with a catalytically inactive GCLC(E103A)-TAT mutant decreased cellular GCL activity in a dose-dependent manner. TAT-mediated manipulation of cellular GCL activity was also functionally relevant as transduction with wild-type GCLC(WT)-TAT or mutant GCLC(E103A)-TAT conferred protection or enhanced sensitivity to H{sub 2}O{sub 2}-induced cell death, respectively. These findings demonstrate that TAT-mediated transduction of wild-type or dominant-inhibitory mutants of the GCL subunits is a viable means of manipulating cellular GCL activity to assess the effects of altered GSH biosynthetic capacity.

  1. A novel mutation in the SLC25A15 gene in a Turkish patient with HHH syndrome: functional analysis of the mutant protein.

    PubMed

    Ersoy Tunalı, Nagehan; Marobbio, Carlo M T; Tiryakioğlu, N Ozan; Punzi, Giuseppe; Saygılı, Seha K; Onal, Hasan; Palmieri, Ferdinando

    2014-05-01

    The hyperornithinemia-hyperammonemia-homocitrullinuria syndrome is a rare autosomal recessive disorder caused by the functional deficiency of the mitochondrial ornithine transporter 1 (ORC1). ORC1 is encoded by the SLC25A15 gene and catalyzes the transport of cytosolic ornithine into mitochondria in exchange for citrulline. Although the age of onset and the severity of the symptoms vary widely, the disease usually manifests in early infancy. The typical clinical features include protein intolerance, lethargy, episodic confusion, cerebellar ataxia, seizures and mental retardation. In this study, we identified a novel p.Ala15Val (c.44C>T) mutation by genomic DNA sequencing in a Turkish child presenting severe tantrum, confusion, gait disturbances and loss of speech abilities in addition to hyperornithinemia, hyperammonemia and homocitrullinuria. One hundred Turkish control chromosomes did not possess this variant. The functional effect of the novel mutation was assessed by both complementation of the yeast ORT1 null mutant and transport assays. Our study demonstrates that the A15V mutation dramatically interferes with the transport properties of ORC1 since it was shown to inhibit ornithine transport nearly completely.

  2. A novel mutation in the SLC25A15 gene in a Turkish patient with HHH syndrome: Functional analysis of the mutant protein

    PubMed Central

    Ersoy Tunalı, Nagehan; Marobbio, Carlo M.T.; Tiryakioğlu, N. Ozan; Punzi, Giuseppe; Saygılı, Seha K.; Önal, Hasan; Palmieri, Ferdinando

    2014-01-01

    The hyperornithinemia–hyperammonemia–homocitrullinuria syndrome is a rare autosomal recessive disorder caused by the functional deficiency of the mitochondrial ornithine transporter 1 (ORC1). ORC1 is encoded by the SLC25A15 gene and catalyzes the transport of cytosolic ornithine into mitochondria in exchange for citrulline. Although the age of onset and the severity of the symptoms vary widely, the disease usually manifests in early infancy. The typical clinical features include protein intolerance, lethargy, episodic confusion, cerebellar ataxia, seizures and mental retardation. In this study, we identified a novel p.Ala15Val (c.44C > T) mutation by genomic DNA sequencing in a Turkish child presenting severe tantrum, confusion, gait disturbances and loss of speech abilities in addition to hyperornithinemia, hyperammonemia and homocitrullinuria. One hundred Turkish control chromosomes did not possess this variant. The functional effect of the novel mutation was assessed by both complementation of the yeast ORT1 null mutant and transport assays. Our study demonstrates that the A15V mutation dramatically interferes with the transport properties of ORC1 since it was shown to inhibit ornithine transport nearly completely. PMID:24721342

  3. Enhanced plasmin inhibition by a reactive center lysine mutant of the Kunitz-type protease inhibitor domain of the amyloid beta-protein precursor.

    PubMed

    Van Nostrand, W E; Schmaier, A H; Siegel, R S; Wagner, S L; Raschke, W C

    1995-09-29

    The Alzheimer's disease related protein, amyloid beta-protein precursor (A beta PP), contains a domain homologous to Kunitz-type serine protease inhibitors (KPI). The recombinant KPI domain of A beta PP is a potent inhibitor of coagulation factors XIa and IXa and functions as an anticoagulant in vitro. Here we report the expression, purification, and characterization of a reactive center lysine mutant of the KPI domain of A beta PP (KPI-Lys17). An expression plasmid for the KPI-Lys17 domain of A beta PP encoded amino acids 285-345 of the A beta PP cDNA containing a lysine substitution at arginine 17 in the KPI domain. The secreted 61-amino acid product was purified to homogeneity and functionally characterized. The protease inhibitory properties of the KPI-Lys17 domain were compared to those of the native KPI domain of A beta PP. Both KPI domains equally inhibited trypsin, chymotrypsin, and coagulation factors IXa and Xa. However, the KPI-Lys17 domain was an approximately 25-fold less effective inhibitor of coagulation factor XIa resulting in markedly less prolongation of the activated partial thromboplastin time compared to the native KPI domain of A beta PP. On the other hand, the KPI-Lys17 domain was an approximately 10- and 5-fold better inhibitor of plasmin in a chromogenic substrate assay and in a fibrinolytic assay, respectively, than the native KPI domain of A beta PP. Together, these studies suggest that the KPI-Lys17 domain has enhanced anti-fibrinolytic and diminished factor XIa inhibitory properties compared to the native KPI domain of A beta PP.

  4. O2 activation by non-heme diiron proteins: identification of a symmetric mu-1,2-peroxide in a mutant of ribonucleotide reductase.

    PubMed

    Moënne-Loccoz, P; Baldwin, J; Ley, B A; Loehr, T M; Bollinger, J M

    1998-10-20

    Non-heme diiron clusters occur in a number of enzymes (e.g., ribonucleotide reductase, methane monooxygenase, and Delta9-stearoyl-ACP desaturase) that activate O2 for chemically difficult oxidation reactions. In each case, a kinetically labile peroxo intermediate is believed to form when O2 reacts with the diferrous enzyme, followed by O-O bond cleavage and the formation of high-valent iron intermediates [formally Fe(IV)] that are thought to be the reactive oxidants. Greater kinetic stability of a peroxodiiron(III) intermediate in protein R2 of ribonucleotide reductase was achieved by the iron-ligand mutation Asp84 --> Glu and the surface mutation Trp48 --> Phe. Here, we present the first definitive evidence for a bridging, symmetrical peroxo adduct from vibrational spectroscopic studies of the freeze-trapped intermediate of this mutant R2. Isotope-sensitive bands are observed at 870, 499, and 458 cm-1 that are assigned to the intraligand peroxo stretching frequency and the asymmetric and symmetric Fe-O2-Fe stretching frequencies, respectively. Similar results have been obtained in the resonance Raman spectroscopic study of a peroxodiferric species of Delta9-stearoyl-ACP desaturase [Broadwater, J. A., Ai, J., Loehr, T. M., Sanders-Loehr, J., and Fox, B. G. (1998) Biochemistry 37, 14664-14671]. Similarities among these adducts and transient species detected during O2 activation by methane monooxygenase hydroxylase, ferritin, and wild-type protein R2 suggest the symmetrical peroxo adduct as a common intermediate in the diverse oxidation reactions mediated by members of this class.

  5. QM/MM MD and free energy simulations of G9α-like protein (GLP) and its mutants: Understanding the factors that determine the product specificity

    DOE PAGES

    Chu, Yuzhuo; Yao, Jianzhuang; Guo, Hong

    2012-05-18

    Certain lysine residues on histone tails could be methylated by protein lysine methyltransferases (PKMTs) using S-adenosyl-L-methionine (AdoMet) as the methyl donor. Since the methylation states of the target lysines play a fundamental role in the regulation of chromatin structure and gene expression, it is important to study the property of PKMTs that allows a specific number of methyl groups (one, two or three) to be added (termed as product specificity). It has been shown that the product specificity of PKMTs may be controlled in part by the existence of specific residues at the active site. One of the best examplesmore » is a Phe/Tyr switch found in many PKMTs. Here quantum mechanical/molecular mechanical (QM/MM) molecular dynamics (MD) and free energy simulations are performed on wild type G9a-like protein (GLP) and its F1209Y and Y1124F mutants for understanding the energetic origin of the product specificity and the reasons for the change of product specificity as a result of single-residue mutations at the Phe/Tyr switch as well as other positions. The free energy barriers of the methyl transfer processes calculated from our simulations are consistent with experimental data, supporting the suggestion that the relative free energy barriers may determine, at least in part, the product specificity of PKMTs. The changes of the free energy barriers as a result of the mutations are also discussed based on the structural information obtained from the simulations. Furthermore, the results suggest that the space and active-site interactions around the -amino group of the target lysine available for methyl addition appear to among the key structural factors in controlling the product specificity and activity of PKMTs.« less

  6. QM/MM MD and free energy simulations of G9α-like protein (GLP) and its mutants: Understanding the factors that determine the product specificity

    SciTech Connect

    Chu, Yuzhuo; Yao, Jianzhuang; Guo, Hong

    2012-05-18

    Certain lysine residues on histone tails could be methylated by protein lysine methyltransferases (PKMTs) using S-adenosyl-L-methionine (AdoMet) as the methyl donor. Since the methylation states of the target lysines play a fundamental role in the regulation of chromatin structure and gene expression, it is important to study the property of PKMTs that allows a specific number of methyl groups (one, two or three) to be added (termed as product specificity). It has been shown that the product specificity of PKMTs may be controlled in part by the existence of specific residues at the active site. One of the best examples is a Phe/Tyr switch found in many PKMTs. Here quantum mechanical/molecular mechanical (QM/MM) molecular dynamics (MD) and free energy simulations are performed on wild type G9a-like protein (GLP) and its F1209Y and Y1124F mutants for understanding the energetic origin of the product specificity and the reasons for the change of product specificity as a result of single-residue mutations at the Phe/Tyr switch as well as other positions. The free energy barriers of the methyl transfer processes calculated from our simulations are consistent with experimental data, supporting the suggestion that the relative free energy barriers may determine, at least in part, the product specificity of PKMTs. The changes of the free energy barriers as a result of the mutations are also discussed based on the structural information obtained from the simulations. Furthermore, the results suggest that the space and active-site interactions around the -amino group of the target lysine available for methyl addition appear to among the key structural factors in controlling the product specificity and activity of PKMTs.

  7. Small Molecule DFPM Derivative-Activated Plant Resistance Protein Signaling in Roots Is Unaffected by EDS1 Subcellular Targeting Signal and Chemical Genetic Isolation of victr R-Protein Mutants.

    PubMed

    Kunz, Hans-Henning; Park, Jiyoung; Mevers, Emily; García, Ana V; Highhouse, Samantha; Gerwick, William H; Parker, Jane E; Schroeder, Julian I

    2016-01-01

    The small molecule DFPM ([5-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)furan-2-yl]-piperidine-1-ylmethanethione) was recently shown to trigger signal transduction via early effector-triggered immunity signaling genes including EDS1 and PAD4 in Arabidopsis thaliana accession Col-0. Chemical genetic analyses of A. thaliana natural variants identified the plant Resistance protein-like Toll/Interleukin1 Receptor (TIR)-Nucleotide Binding (NB)-Leucine-Rich Repeat (LRR) protein VICTR as required for DFPM-mediated root growth arrest. Here a chemical genetic screen for mutants which disrupt DFPM-mediated root growth arrest in the Col-0 accession identified new mutant alleles of the TIR-NB-LRR gene VICTR. One allele, victr-6, carries a Gly216-to-Asp mutation in the Walker A domain supporting an important function of the VICTR nucleotide binding domain in DFPM responses consistent with VICTR acting as a canonical Resistance protein. The essential nucleo-cytoplasmic regulator of TIR-NB-LRR-mediated effector-triggered immunity, EDS1, was reported to have both nuclear and cytoplasmic actions in pathogen resistance. DFPM was used to investigate the requirements for subcellular EDS1 localization in DFPM-mediated root growth arrest. EDS1-YFP fusions engineered to localize mainly in the cytoplasm or the nucleus by tagging with a nuclear export signal (NES) or a nuclear localization signal (NLS), respectively, were tested. We found that wild-type EDS1-YFP and both the NES and NLS-tagged EDS1 variants were induced by DFPM treatments and fully complemented eds1 mutant plants in root responses to DFPM, suggesting that enrichment of EDS1 in either compartment could confer DFPM-mediated root growth arrest. We further found that a light and O2-dependent modification of DFPM is necessary to mediate DFPM signaling in roots. Chemical analyses including Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry and High-Resolution Atmospheric Pressure Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometry identified a DFPM modification product that is

  8. Small Molecule DFPM Derivative-Activated Plant Resistance Protein Signaling in Roots Is Unaffected by EDS1 Subcellular Targeting Signal and Chemical Genetic Isolation of victr R-Protein Mutants

    PubMed Central

    Mevers, Emily; García, Ana V.; Highhouse, Samantha; Gerwick, William H.; Parker, Jane E.; Schroeder, Julian I.

    2016-01-01

    The small molecule DFPM ([5-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)furan-2-yl]-piperidine-1-ylmethanethione) was recently shown to trigger signal transduction via early effector-triggered immunity signaling genes including EDS1 and PAD4 in Arabidopsis thaliana accession Col-0. Chemical genetic analyses of A. thaliana natural variants identified the plant Resistance protein-like Toll/Interleukin1 Receptor (TIR)-Nucleotide Binding (NB)-Leucine-Rich Repeat (LRR) protein VICTR as required for DFPM-mediated root growth arrest. Here a chemical genetic screen for mutants which disrupt DFPM-mediated root growth arrest in the Col-0 accession identified new mutant alleles of the TIR-NB-LRR gene VICTR. One allele, victr-6, carries a Gly216-to-Asp mutation in the Walker A domain supporting an important function of the VICTR nucleotide binding domain in DFPM responses consistent with VICTR acting as a canonical Resistance protein. The essential nucleo-cytoplasmic regulator of TIR-NB-LRR-mediated effector-triggered immunity, EDS1, was reported to have both nuclear and cytoplasmic actions in pathogen resistance. DFPM was used to investigate the requirements for subcellular EDS1 localization in DFPM-mediated root growth arrest. EDS1-YFP fusions engineered to localize mainly in the cytoplasm or the nucleus by tagging with a nuclear export signal (NES) or a nuclear localization signal (NLS), respectively, were tested. We found that wild-type EDS1-YFP and both the NES and NLS-tagged EDS1 variants were induced by DFPM treatments and fully complemented eds1 mutant plants in root responses to DFPM, suggesting that enrichment of EDS1 in either compartment could confer DFPM-mediated root growth arrest. We further found that a light and O2-dependent modification of DFPM is necessary to mediate DFPM signaling in roots. Chemical analyses including Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry and High-Resolution Atmospheric Pressure Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometry identified a DFPM modification product that is

  9. The single N-glycan deletion mutant of soluble ErbB3 protein attenuates heregulin β1-induced tumor progression by blocking of the HIF-1 and Nrf2 pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Takamiya, Rina Takahashi, Motoko; Uehara, Yasuaki; Ariki, Shigeru; Hashimoto, Jiro; Hasegawa, Yoshihiro; Kuroki, Yoshio

    2014-11-21

    Highlights: • The sErbB3 N418Q mutant blocks heregulin β1 induced nuclear accumulation of HIF-1α. • The sErbB3 N418Q mutant attenuates cancer cell migration induced by heregulin β1. • The sErbB3 N418Q mutant blocks heregulin β1 induced nuclear accumulation of Nrf2. • The sErbB3 N418Q mutant may be a potential therapeutic application for tumor. - Abstract: It has been well documented that activation of the ErbB3–PI3K–Akt pathway is implicated in tumor survival and progression. We previously demonstrated that the single N-glycan deletion mutant of soluble ErbB3 protein (sErbB3 N418Q) attenuates heregulin β1-induced ErbB3 signaling. The active PI3K–Akt pathway augments the nuclear accumulation of hypoxia inducible factor (HIF)-1α, which activates the transcription of many target genes and drives cancer progression. In this study, we focused on the effects of sErbB3 N418Q mutant on nuclear accumulation of HIF-1α. Pretreatment with the sErbB3 N418Q mutant suppressed heregulin β1-induced HIF-1α activation in MCF7 cells. Similar results were also obtained in other breast cancer cell lines, T47D and BT474. Interestingly, these suppressive effects were not observed with the sErbB3 wild type. In addition, pretreatment with the sErbB3 N418Q mutant suppressed the cell migration of MCF7 cells induced by heregulin β1. Furthermore, incubation with heregulin β1 also induced the nuclear accumulation of Nrf2, and this effect was also reduced by the sErbB3 N418Q mutant, but not the sErbB3 wild type. These findings indicated that the sErbB3 N418Q mutant suppressed malignant formation of cancer cells by blocking of the HIF-1α and Nrf2 pathways.

  10. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis-linked mutant SOD1 sequesters Hu antigen R (HuR) and TIA-1-related protein (TIAR): implications for impaired post-transcriptional regulation of vascular endothelial growth factor.

    PubMed

    Lu, Liang; Wang, Shuying; Zheng, Lei; Li, Xuelin; Suswam, Esther A; Zhang, Xiaowen; Wheeler, Crystal G; Nabors, L B; Filippova, Natalia; King, Peter H

    2009-12-04

    Down-regulation of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in the mouse leads to progressive and selective degeneration of motor neurons similar to amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). In mice expressing ALS-associated mutant superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1), VEGF mRNA expression in the spinal cord declines significantly prior to the onset of clinical manifestations. In vitro models suggest that dysregulation of VEGF mRNA stability contributes to that decline. Here, we show that the major RNA stabilizer, Hu Antigen R (HuR), and TIA-1-related protein (TIAR) colocalize with mutant SOD1 in mouse spinal cord extracts and cultured glioma cells. The colocalization was markedly reduced or abolished by RNase treatment. Immunoanalysis of transfected cells indicated that colocalization occurred in insoluble aggregates and inclusions. RNA immunoprecipitation showed a significant loss of VEGF mRNA binding to HuR and TIAR in mutant SOD1 cells, and there was marked depletion of HuR from polysomes. Ectopic expression of HuR in mutant SOD1 cells more than doubled the mRNA half-life of VEGF and significantly increased expression to that of wild-type SOD1 control. Cellular effects produced by mutant SOD1, including impaired mitochondrial function and oxidative stress-induced apoptosis, were reversed by HuR in a gene dose-dependent pattern. In summary, our findings indicate that mutant SOD1 impairs post-transcriptional regulation by sequestering key regulatory RNA-binding proteins. The rescue effect of HuR suggests that this impairment, whether related to VEGF or other potential mRNA targets, contributes to cytotoxicity in ALS.

  11. Regulation of the laminin beta 1 (LAMB1), retinoic acid receptor beta, and bone morphogenetic protein 2 genes in mutant F9 teratocarcinoma cell lines partially deficient in cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase activity.

    PubMed

    Shen, J; Li, C; Gudas, L J

    1997-12-01

    We stably transfected a gene encoding a dominant negative regulatory subunit of cyclic AMP (cAMP)-dependent protein kinase A (PKA) into F9 cells and generated cell lines partially deficient in PKA activity (DN16 and DN19). In these cell lines, the retinoic acid (RA) receptor beta and laminin beta(1) chain (LAMB1) genes were regulated normally by RA alone, indicating that in the absence of exogenous modulation of cAMP levels, the PKA signaling pathway does not seem to play a major role in the RA-associated regulation of these genes. However, alterations in gene regulation were observed when the mutant cell lines were treated with a combination of RA and cAMP analogues. Moreover, in the DN16 cell line, which exhibits the lowest PKA activity among the mutant cell lines [22% of wild type (WT) at 1 microM cAMP], there was a significant decrease in the cAMP-associated activation of the LAMB1 gene DNase I hypersensitivity site 2 enhancer, as measured by chloramphenicol acetyl transferase assays. Using electrophoretic mobility shift assays, less protein binding was observed at one of the motifs (C2) within this enhancer region in the DN16 cells as compared to the F9 WT cells after treatment of the cells with RA and cAMP analogues for 24 h. Furthermore, no increase in C2 binding was observed when extracts from RA-treated F9 ST or DN16 cells were subjected to in vitro phosphorylation, suggesting that PKA is involved in the induction of the C2-binding protein in RA-treated cells. In contrast to the results with RA receptor beta and LAMB1, the effects of cAMP analogues on the RA-associated regulation of the bone morphogenetic protein 2 gene were not altered in the cell lines that exhibited reduced PKA activity. These results suggest that a partial reduction in PKA activity is not sufficient to abrogate the effects of cAMP analogues on all of the genes regulated by RA.

  12. Early-onset amyloid deposition and cognitive deficits in transgenic mice expressing a double mutant form of amyloid precursor protein 695.

    PubMed

    Chishti, M A; Yang, D S; Janus, C; Phinney, A L; Horne, P; Pearson, J; Strome, R; Zuker, N; Loukides, J; French, J; Turner, S; Lozza, G; Grilli, M; Kunicki, S; Morissette, C; Paquette, J; Gervais, F; Bergeron, C; Fraser, P E; Carlson, G A; George-Hyslop, P S; Westaway, D

    2001-06-15

    We have created early-onset transgenic (Tg) models by exploiting the synergistic effects of familial Alzheimer's disease mutations on amyloid beta-peptide (Abeta) biogenesis. TgCRND8 mice encode a double mutant form of amyloid precursor protein 695 (KM670/671NL+V717F) under the control of the PrP gene promoter. Thioflavine S-positive Abeta amyloid deposits are present at 3 months, with dense-cored plaques and neuritic pathology evident from 5 months of age. TgCRND8 mice exhibit 3,200-4,600 pmol of Abeta42 per g brain at age 6 months, with an excess of Abeta42 over Abeta40. High level production of the pathogenic Abeta42 form of Abeta peptide was associated with an early impairment in TgCRND8 mice in acquisition and learning reversal in the reference memory version of the Morris water maze, present by 3 months of age. Notably, learning impairment in young mice was offset by immunization against Abeta42 (Janus, C., Pearson, J., McLaurin, J., Mathews, P. M., Jiang, Y., Schmidt, S. D., Chishti, M. A., Horne, P., Heslin, D., French, J., Mount, H. T. J., Nixon, R. A., Mercken, M., Bergeron, C., Fraser, P. E., St. George-Hyslop, P., and Westaway, D. (2000) Nature 408, 979-982). Amyloid deposition in TgCRND8 mice was enhanced by the expression of presenilin 1 transgenes including familial Alzheimer's disease mutations; for mice also expressing a M146L+L286V presenilin 1 transgene, amyloid deposits were apparent by 1 month of age. The Tg mice described here suggest a potential to investigate aspects of Alzheimer's disease pathogenesis, prophylaxis, and therapy within short time frames.

  13. Arrestin interactions with G protein-coupled receptors. Direct binding studies of wild type and mutant arrestins with rhodopsin, beta 2-adrenergic, and m2 muscarinic cholinergic receptors.

    PubMed

    Gurevich, V V; Dion, S B; Onorato, J J; Ptasienski, J; Kim, C M; Sterne-Marr, R; Hosey, M M; Benovic, J L

    1995-01-13

    Arrestins play an important role in quenching signal transduction initiated by G protein-coupled receptors. To explore the specificity of arrestin-receptor interaction, we have characterized the ability of various wild-type arrestins to bind to rhodopsin, the beta 2-adrenergic receptor (beta 2AR), and the m2 muscarinic cholinergic receptor (m2 mAChR). Visual arrestin was found to be the most selective arrestin since it discriminated best between the three different receptors tested (highest binding to rhodopsin) as well as between the phosphorylation and activation state of the receptor (> 10-fold higher binding to the phosphorylated light-activated form of rhodopsin compared to any other form of rhodopsin). While beta-arrestin and arrestin 3 were also found to preferentially bind to the phosphorylated activated form of a given receptor, they only modestly discriminated among the three receptors tested. To explore the structural characteristics important in arrestin function, we constructed a series of truncated and chimeric arrestins. Analysis of the binding characteristics of the various mutant arrestins suggests a common molecular mechanism involved in determining receptor binding selectivity. Structural elements that contribute to arrestin binding include: 1) a C-terminal acidic region that serves a regulatory role in controlling arrestin binding selectivity toward the phosphorylated and activated form of a receptor, without directly participating in receptor interaction; 2) a basic N-terminal domain that directly participates in receptor interaction and appears to serve a regulatory role via intramolecular interaction with the C-terminal acidic region; and 3) two centrally localized domains that are directly involved in determining receptor binding specificity and selectivity. A comparative structure-function model of all arrestins and a kinetic model of beta-arrestin and arrestin 3 interaction with receptors are proposed.

  14. Increased body temperature accelerates aggregation of the Leu-68-->Gln mutant cystatin C, the amyloid-forming protein in hereditary cystatin C amyloid angiopathy.

    PubMed Central

    Abrahamson, M; Grubb, A

    1994-01-01

    Hereditary cystatin C amyloid angiopathy is a dominantly inherited disorder, characterized by dementia, paralysis, and death from cerebral hemorrhage in early adult life. A variant of the cysteine proteinase inhibitor, cystatin C, is deposited as amyloid in the tissues of the patients and their spinal-fluid level of cystatin C is abnormally low. The disease-associated Leu-68-->Gln mutant (L68Q) cystatin C has been produced in an Escherichia coli expression system and isolated by use of denaturing buffers, immunosorption, and gel filtration. Parallel physicochemical and functional investigations of L68Q-cystatin C and wild-type cystatin C revealed that both proteins effectively inhibit the cysteine proteinase cathepsin B (equilibrium constants for dissociation, 0.4 and 0.5 nM, respectively) but differ considerably in their tendency to dimerize and form aggregates. While wild-type cystatin C is monomeric and functionally active even after prolonged storage at elevated temperatures, L68Q-cystatin C starts to dimerize and lose biological activity immediately after it is transferred to a nondenaturing buffer. The dimerization of L68Q-cystatin C is highly temperature-dependent, with a rise in incubation temperature from 37 to 40 degrees C resulting in a 150% increase in dimerization rate. The aggregation at physiological concentrations is likewise increased at 40 compared to 37 degrees C, by approximately 60%. These properties of L68Q-cystatin C have bearing upon our understanding of the pathophysiological process of hereditary cystatin C amyloid angiopathy. They might also be of clinical relevance, since medical intervention to abort febrile periods of carriers of the disease trait may reduce the in vivo formation of L68Q-cystatin C aggregates. Images PMID:8108423

  15. A tomato mutant that shows stunting, wilting, progressive necrosis and constitutive expression of defence genes contains a recombinant Hcr9 gene encoding an autoactive protein.

    PubMed

    Barker, Claire L; Talbot, Stephen J; Jones, Jonathan D G; Jones, David A

    2006-05-01

    The tomato Cf-9 gene confers resistance to races of the leaf mould fungus Cladosporium fulvum that carry the Avr9 avirulence gene. Cf-9 resides at a locus containing five paralogous genes and was isolated by transposon tagging using a modified maize Dissociation (Ds) element. The tagging experiment generated an allelic series of Ds-induced mutations of Cf-9, most of which were wild type in appearance. However, one mutant, designated M205, showed stunted growth, wilting, progressive leaf chlorosis and necrosis and constitutive expression of defence genes. The phenotype of M205 was caused by a semidominant, Avr9-independent mutation that co-segregated with a Ds element insertion at the Cf-9 locus. Molecular genetic analysis indicated that the Cf-9 locus of M205 had undergone recombination, generating a chimeric gene, designated Hcr9-M205, that comprised an in-frame fusion between the 5' coding region of the Cf-9 paralogue, Hcr9-9A, and the 3' coding region of Cf-9. The presence of a possible excision footprint adjacent to the junction between Hcr9-9A and Cf-9, and a Ds insertion at the homologous position in the downstream paralogue Hcr9-9D, is consistent with recombination between Hcr9-9A and Cf-9 promoted by transposition of Ds from Cf-9 into Hcr9-9D. Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transient expression of Hcr9-M205 in Nicotiana tabacum caused chlorosis and the accumulation of defence gene transcripts, indicating that the protein encoded by this novel Hcr9 gene is autoactive.

  16. pH-dependent fluorescence of a heterologously expressed Aequorea green fluorescent protein mutant: in situ spectral characteristics and applicability to intracellular pH estimation.

    PubMed

    Robey, R B; Ruiz, O; Santos, A V; Ma, J; Kear, F; Wang, L J; Li, C J; Bernardo, A A; Arruda, J A

    1998-07-14

    The green fluorescent protein of Aequorea victoria (GFP) is a natural peptide chromophore without substrate or cofactor requirements for fluorescence. In vitro, a recombinant F64L/S65T GFP mutant (GFPmut1) exhibited pH sensitive fluorescence within the physiologic range. When heterologously expressed in BS-C-1 cells or rabbit proximal tubule cells, uniform cytosolic and nuclear fluorescence was observed. Cytosolic fluorescence constituted over 80% of the total. Excitation scanning of transfected cells revealed two GFPmut1-specific regions that were pH-sensitive over the physiologic range, and each region exhibited a unique pH "bias" in fluorescence emission. Excitation at or near the expected maximum of 488 nm (region II) uniformly resulted in fluorescence that was preferentially altered at acidic pH. In contrast, a novel "wild-type" excitation peak at 400 nm (region I) resulted in alkaline-biased fluorescence similar to that described for the wild-type chromophore in vitro, suggesting that wild-type spectral features disrupted in vitro by mutagenesis may be recovered in intact cells. Calibration of intracellular pH (pHi) with in situ fluorescence following excitation in either region revealed a semilogarithmic relationship between fluorescence intensity and pH within the physiologic range. We therefore measured pHi changes attributable to altered Na/HCO3 cotransport (NBC) activity both in GFPmut1-expressing cells and in paired untransfected cells loaded with BCECF. Basal NBC activity was the same in each group, as was the stimulation of activity by 10% CO2, thus validating the utility of GFPmut1 as a fluorescent probe for pHi and establishing a novel, useful, and practical application for GFPmut1 in monitoring pHi in real time.

  17. Mutant calreticulin requires both its mutant C-terminus and the thrombopoietin receptor for oncogenic transformation

    PubMed Central

    Elf, Shannon; Abdelfattah, Nouran S.; Chen, Edwin; Perales-Patón, Javier; Rosen, Emily A.; Ko, Amy; Peisker, Fabian; Florescu, Natalie; Giannini, Silvia; Wolach, Ofir; Morgan, Elizabeth A.; Tothova, Zuzana; Losman, Julie-Aurore; Schneider, Rebekka K.; Al-Shahrour, Fatima; Mullally, Ann

    2016-01-01

    Somatic mutations in calreticulin (CALR) are present in approximately 40% of patients with myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPN) but the mechanism by which mutant CALR is oncogenic remains unclear. Here, we demonstrate that expression of mutant CALR alone is sufficient to engender MPN in mice and recapitulates the disease phenotype of CALR-mutant MPN patients. We further show that the thrombopoietin receptor, MPL is required for mutant CALR-driven transformation through JAK-STAT pathway activation, thus rendering mutant CALR-transformed hematopoietic cells sensitive to JAK2 inhibition. Finally, we demonstrate that the oncogenicity of mutant CALR is dependent on the positive electrostatic charge of the C-terminus of the mutant protein, which is necessary for physical interaction between mutant CALR and MPL. Together, our findings elucidate a novel paradigm of cancer pathogenesis and reveal how CALR mutations induce MPN. PMID:26951227

  18. Motor neuron cell death in wobbler mutant mice follows overexpression of the G-protein-coupled, protease-activated receptor for thrombin.

    PubMed Central

    Festoff, B. W.; D'Andrea, M. R.; Citron, B. A.; Salcedo, R. M.; Smirnova, I. V.; Andrade-Gordon, P.

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Mechanisms underlying neurodegeneration are actively sought for new therapeutic strategies. Transgenic, knockout and genetic mouse models greatly aid our understanding of the mechanisms for neuronal cell death. A naturally occurring, autosomal recessive mutant, known as wobbler, and mice transgenic for familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (FALS) superoxide dismutase (SOD)1 mutations are available, but the molecular mechanisms remain equally unknown. Both phenotypes are detectable after birth. Wobbler is detectable in the third week of life, when homozygotes (wr/wr) exhibit prominent gliosis and significant motor neuron loss in the cervical, but not in lumbar, spinal cord segments. To address molecular mechanisms, we evaluated "death signals" associated with the multifunctional serine protease, thrombin, which leads to apoptotic motor neuronal cell death in culture by cleavage of a G-protein coupled, protease-activated receptor 1 (PAR-1). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thrombin activities were determined with chromogenic substrate assays, Western immunoblots and immunohistochemistry were performed with anti-PAR-1 to observe localizations of the receptor and anti-GFAP staining was used to monitor astrocytosis. PAR-1 mRNA levels and locations were determined by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and in situ hybridizations. Cell death was monitored with in situ DNA fragmentation assays. RESULTS: In preliminary studies we found a 5-fold increase in PAR-1 mRNA in cervical spinal cords from wr/wr, compared with wild-type (wt) littermates. Our current studies suggested that reactive astrocytosis and motor neuron cell death were causally linked with alterations in thrombin signaling. PAR-1 protein expression was increased, as demonstrated by immunocytochemistry and confirmed with in situ hybridization, in phenotypic wr/wr motor neurons, compared with wt, but not in astrocytes. This increase was much greater in cervical, compared with lumbar

  19. Identification of a site in the phosphocarrier protein, HPr, which influences its interactions with sugar permeases of the bacterial phosphotransferase system: kinetic analyses employing site-specific mutants.

    PubMed Central

    Koch, S; Sutrina, S L; Wu, L F; Reizer, J; Schnetz, K; Rak, B; Saier, M H

    1996-01-01

    The permeases of the Escherichia coli phosphoenolpyruvate:sugar phosphotransferase system (PTS), the sugar-specific enzymes II, are energized by sequential phosphoryl transfer from phosphoenolpyruvate to (i) enzyme I, (ii) the phosphocarrier protein HPr, (iii) the enzyme IIA domains of the permeases, and (iv) the enzyme IIBC domains of the permeases which transport and phosphorylate their sugar substrates. A number of site-specific mutants of HPr were examined by using kinetic approaches. Most of the mutations exerted minimal effects on the kinetic parameters characterizing reactions involving phosphoryl transfer from phospho-HPr to various sugars. However, when the well-conserved aspartyl 69 residue in HPr was changed to a glutamyl residue, the affinities for phospho-HPr of the enzymes II specific for mannitol, N-acetylglucosamine, and beta-glucosides decreased markedly without changing the maximal reaction rates. The same mutation reduced the spontaneous rate of phosphohistidyl HPr hydrolysis but did not appear to alter the rate of phosphoryl transfer from phospho-enzyme I to HPr. When the adjacent glutamyl residue 70 in HPr was changed to a lysyl residue, the Vmax values of the reactions catalyzed by the enzymes II were reduced, but the Km values remained unaltered. Changing this residue to alanine exerted little effect. Site-specific alterations in the C terminus of the beta-glucoside enzyme II which reduced the maximal reaction rate of phosphoryl transfer about 20-fold did not alter the relative kinetic parameters because of the aforementioned mutations in HPr. Published three-dimensional structural analyses of HPr and the complex of HPr with the glucose-specific enzyme IIA (IIAGlc) (homologous to the beta-glucoside and N-acetylglucosamine enzyme IIA domains) have revealed that residues 69 and 70 in HPr are distant from the active phosphorylation site and the IIAGlc binding interface in HPr. The results reported therefore suggest that residues D-69 and E-70 in

  20. Identification and characterization of the fusion transcript, composed of the apterous homolog and a putative protein phosphatase gene, generated by 1.5-Mb interstitial deletion in the vestigial (Vg) mutant of Bombyx mori.

    PubMed

    Fujii, T; Abe, H; Katsuma, S; Shimada, T

    2011-05-01

    The vestigial (Vg) mutant is a Z-linked mutant that causes vestigial wings in the silkworm, Bombyx mori. We have previously reported a 1.5-Mb interstitial deletion on the Z chromosome bearing the Vg mutation (Z(Vg) chromosome). In this study, we found that exons 3-8 of a gene named Bmptp-Z encoding a putative tyrosine-specific protein phosphatase are deleted by the 1.5-Mb interstitial deletion. We found that a gene encoding the Bombyx homolog of Drosophila Apterous (BmAp-A) protein is located 4.5 kb downstream of the distal breakpoint of the 1.5-Mb interstitial deletion. Moreover, an in-frame fusion transcript composed of the 5' part of Bmptp-Z and the 3' part of Bmap-A is generated specific to the Z(Vg) chromosome. Effects of the in-frame fusion transcript on the vestigial phenotype are discussed.

  1. EPR studies on a stable sulfinyl radical observed in the iron-oxygen-reconstituted Y177F/I263C protein R2 double mutant of ribonucleotide reductase from mouse.

    PubMed

    Adrait, Annie; Ohrström, Maria; Barra, Anne-Laure; Thelander, Lars; Gräslund, Astrid

    2002-05-21

    Ribonucleotide reductase (RNR) catalyzes the biosynthesis of deoxyribonucleotides. The active enzyme contains a diiron center and a tyrosyl free radical required for enzyme activity. The radical is located at Y177 in the R2 protein of mouse RNR. The radical is formed concomitantly with the mu-oxo-bridged diferric center in a reconstitution reaction between ferrous iron and molecular oxygen in the protein. EPR at 9.6 and 285 GHz was used to investigate the reconstitution reaction in the double-mutant Y177F/I263C of mouse protein R2. The aim was to produce a protein-linked radical derived from the Cys residue in the mutant protein to investigate its formation and characteristics. The mutation Y177F hinders normal radical formation at Y177, and the I263C mutation places a Cys residue at the same distance from the iron center as Y177 in the native protein. In the reconstitution reaction, we observed small amounts of a transient radical with a probable assignment to a peroxy radical, followed by a stable sulfinyl radical, most likely located on C263. The unusual radical stability may be explained by the hydrophobic surroundings of C263, which resemble the hydrophobic pocket surrounding Y177 in native protein R2. The observation of a sulfinyl radical in RNR strengthens the relationship between RNR and another free radical enzyme, pyruvate formate-lyase, where a similar relatively stable sulfinyl radical has been observed in a mutant. Sulfinyl radicals may possibly be considered as stabilized forms of very short-lived thiyl radicals, proposed to be important intermediates in the radical chemistry of RNR.

  2. Expression of a Mutant SEMA3A Protein with Diminished Signalling Capacity Does Not Alter ALS-Related Motor Decline, or Confer Changes in NMJ Plasticity after BotoxA-Induced Paralysis of Male Gastrocnemic Muscle

    PubMed Central

    Moloney, Elizabeth B.; Hobo, Barbara; De Winter, Fred

    2017-01-01

    Terminal Schwann cells (TSCs) are specialized cells that envelop the motor nerve terminal, and play a role in the maintenance and regeneration of neuromuscular junctions (NMJs). The chemorepulsive protein semaphorin 3A (SEMA3A) is selectively up-regulated in TSCs on fast-fatigable muscle fibers following experimental denervation of the muscle (BotoxA-induced paralysis or crush injury to the sciatic nerve) or in the motor neuron disease amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Re-expression of SEMA3A in this subset of TSCs is thought to play a role in the selective plasticity of nerve terminals as observed in ALS and following BotoxA-induced paralysis. Using a mouse model expressing a mutant SEMA3A with diminished signaling capacity, we studied the influence of SEMA3A signaling at the NMJ with two denervation paradigms; a motor neuron disease model (the G93A-hSOD1 ALS mouse line) and an injury model (BotoxA-induced paralysis). ALS mice that either expressed 1 or 2 mutant SEMA3A alleles demonstrated no difference in ALS-induced decline in motor behavior. We also investigated the effects of BotoxA-induced paralysis on the sprouting capacity of NMJs in the K108N-SEMA3A mutant mouse, and observed no change in the differential neuronal plasticity found at NMJs on fast-fatigable or slow muscle fibers due to the presence of the SEMA3A mutant protein. Our data may be explained by the residual repulsive activity of the mutant SEMA3A, or it may imply that SEMA3A alone is not a key component of the molecular signature affecting NMJ plasticity in ALS or BotoxA-induced paralysis. Interestingly, we did observe a sex difference in motor neuron sprouting behavior after BotoxA-induced paralysis in WT mice which we speculate may be an important factor in the sex dimorphic differences seen in ALS. PMID:28103314

  3. ECB deacylase mutants

    DOEpatents

    Arnold, Frances H.; Shao, Zhixin; Zhao, Huimin; Giver, Lorraine J.

    2002-01-01

    A method for in vitro mutagenesis and recombination of polynucleotide sequences based on polymerase-catalyzed extension of primer oligonucleotides is disclosed. The method involves priming template polynucleotide(s) with random-sequences or defined-sequence primers to generate a pool of short DNA fragments with a low level of point mutations. The DNA fragments are subjected to denaturization followed by annealing and further enzyme-catalyzed DNA polymerization. This procedure is repeated a sufficient number of times to produce full-length genes which comprise mutants of the original template polynucleotides. These genes can be further amplified by the polymerase chain reaction and cloned into a vector for expression of the encoded proteins.

  4. Identifying representative drug resistant mutants of HIV

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background Drug resistance is one of the most important causes for failure of anti-AIDS treatment. During therapy, multiple mutations accumulate in the HIV genome, eventually rendering the drugs ineffective in blocking replication of the mutant virus. The huge number of possible mutants precludes experimental analysis to explore the molecular mechanisms of resistance and develop improved antiviral drugs. Results In order to solve this problem, we have developed a new algorithm to reveal the most representative mutants from the whole drug resistant mutant database based on our newly proposed unified protein sequence and 3D structure encoding method. Mean shift clustering and multiple regression analysis were applied on genotype-resistance data for mutants of HIV protease and reverse transcriptase. This approach successfully chooses less than 100 mutants with the highest resistance to each drug out of about 10K in the whole database. When considering high level resistance to multiple drugs, the numbers reduce to one or two representative mutants. Conclusion This approach for predicting the most representative mutants for each drug has major importance for experimental verification since the results provide a small number of representative sequences, which will be amenable for in vitro testing and characterization of the expressed mutant proteins. PMID:26678327

  5. Human tau protein forms complex with PrP and some GSS- and fCJD-related PrP mutants possess stronger binding activities with tau in vitro.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiao-Fan; Dong, Chen-Fang; Zhang, Jin; Wan, Yan-Zhen; Li, Feng; Huang, Yin-Xia; Han, Lu; Shan, Bing; Gao, Chen; Han, Jun; Dong, Xiao-Ping

    2008-03-01

    Microtubule associated protein tau is considered to play roles in some types of human transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSE). In this study, the full-length and several truncated human tau proteins were expressed from E. coli and purified. Using GST pull down, co-immunoprecipitation assay and tau-coated ELISA, the molecular interaction between tau protein and PrP was confirmed in the context of the full-length human tau. The N terminus (amino acids 1-91) and tandem repeats region (amino acids 186-283) of tau protein were responsible for the interaction with PrP. The octapeptide repeats within PrP directly affected the binding activity of PrP with tau. GSS-related mutant PrP102L and fCJD- related mutants with two and seven extra octarepeats showed more active binding capacity with tau than wild-type PrP. The molecular interactions between PrP and tau protein highlight a potential role of tau in the biological function of PrP and the pathogenesis of TSE.

  6. Mutant p53: One, No One, and One Hundred Thousand.

    PubMed

    Walerych, Dawid; Lisek, Kamil; Del Sal, Giannino

    2015-01-01

    Encoded by the mutated variants of the TP53 tumor suppressor gene, mutant p53 proteins are getting an increased experimental support as active oncoproteins promoting tumor growth and metastasis. p53 missense mutant proteins are losing their wild-type tumor suppressor activity and acquire oncogenic potential, possessing diverse transforming abilities in cell and mouse models. Whether various mutant p53s differ in their oncogenic potential has been a matter of debate. Recent discoveries are starting to uncover the existence of mutant p53 downstream programs that are common to different mutant p53 variants. In this review, we discuss a number of studies on mutant p53, underlining the advantages and disadvantages of alternative experimental approaches that have been used to describe the numerous mutant p53 gain-of-function activities. Therapeutic possibilities are also discussed, taking into account targeting either individual or multiple mutant p53 proteins in human cancer.

  7. Biochemical and biological characteristics of cross-reacting material 197 CRM197, a non-toxic mutant of diphtheria toxin: use as a conjugation protein in vaccines and other potential clinical applications.

    PubMed

    Bröker, Michael; Costantino, Paolo; DeTora, Lisa; McIntosh, E David; Rappuoli, Rino

    2011-07-01

    The biochemical and biological characteristics of CRM(197) are reviewed. Polysaccharide protein conjugate vaccines represent an important technological advancement that allowed for protection against dangerous diseases in vulnerable populations such as infants. The first carrier proteins, diphtheria and tetanus toxoids, were chosen in the context of an extensive body of information describing their immunogenicity and safety profiles in clinical use. These carriers perform well, and they require detoxification. A non-toxic mutant of diphtheria toxin, cross-reacting material 197 (CRM(197)), is a useful carrier protein with several manufacturing and other potential advantages over toxoids. For over a decade, several important and widely used routine childhood glycoconjugate vaccines against serious illnesses, including Haemophilus influenzae type b and pneumococcal disease, have employed CRM(197) as carrier protein. Additional clinical applications of CRM(197), as in chemotherapy, also exist.

  8. Protein glycosylation in pmt mutants of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Influence of heterologously expressed cellobiohydrolase II of Trichoderma reesei and elevated levels of GDP-mannose and cis-prenyltransferase activity.

    PubMed

    Górka-Nieć, Wioletta; Bańkowska, Renata; Palamarczyk, Grazyna; Krotkiewski, Hubert; Kruszewska, Joanna S

    2007-05-01

    Protein O-mannosylation has been postulated to be critical for production and secretion of glycoproteins in fungi. Therefore, understanding the regulation of this process and the influence of heterologous expression of glycoproteins on the activity of enzymes engaged in O-glycosylation are of considerable interest. In this study we expressed cellobiohydrolase II (CBHII) of T. reesei, which is normally highly O-mannosylated, in Saccharomyces cerevisiae pmt mutants partially blocked in O-mannosylation. We found that the lack of Pmt1 or Pmt2 protein O-mannosyltransferase activity limited the glycosylation of CBHII, but it did not affect its secretion. The S. cerevisiae pmt1Delta and pmt2Delta mutants expressing T. reesei cbh2 gene showed a decrease of GDP-mannose level and a very high activity of cis-prenyltransferase compared to untransformed strains. On the other hand, elevation of cis-prenyltransferase activity by overexpression of the S. cerevisiae RER2 gene in these mutants led to an increase of dolichyl phosphate mannose synthase activity, but it did not influence the activity of O-mannosyltransferases. Overexpression of the MPG1 gene increased the level of GDP-mannose and stimulated the activity of mannosyltransferases elongating O-linked sugar chains, leading to partial restoration of CBHII glycosylation.

  9. Brucella abortus mutants lacking ATP-binding cassette transporter proteins are highly attenuated in virulence and confer protective immunity against virulent B. abortus challenge in BALB/c mice.

    PubMed

    Truong, Quang Lam; Cho, Youngjae; Park, Soyeon; Park, Bo-Kyoung; Hahn, Tae-Wook

    2016-06-01

    Brucella abortus RB51 is an attenuated vaccine strain that has been most frequently used for bovine brucellosis. Although it is known to provide good protection in cattle, it still has some drawbacks including resistance to rifampicin, residual virulence and pathogenicity in humans. Thus, there has been a continuous interest on new safe and effective bovine vaccine candidates. In the present study, we have constructed unmarked mutants by deleting singly cydD and cydC genes, which encode ATP-binding cassette transporter proteins, from the chromosome of the virulent Brucella abortus isolate from Korean cow (referred to as IVK15). Both IVK15ΔcydD and ΔcydC mutants showed increased sensitivity to metal ions, hydrogen peroxide and acidic pH, which are mimic to intracellular environment during host infection. Additionally, the mutants exhibited a significant growth defect in RAW264.7 cells and greatly attenuated in mice. Vaccination of mice with either IVK15ΔcydC or IVK15ΔcydD mutant could elicit an anti-Brucella specific immunoglobulin G (IgG) and IgG subclass responses as well as enhance the secretion of interferon-gamma, and provided better protection against challenge with B. abortus strain 2308 than with the commercial B. abortus strain RB51 vaccine. Collectively, these results suggest that both IVK15ΔcydC and IVK15ΔcydD mutants could be an attenuated vaccine candidate against B. abortus.

  10. Absence of the major light harvesting antenna proteins alters the redox properties of photosystem II reaction centres in the chlorine F2 mutant of barley

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Although the chlorina F2 mutant of barley specifically exhibits reduced levels of the major light harvesting polypeptides (Lhcb) associated with photosystem II, thermoluminescence measurements of photosystem reaction centre photochemistry revealed that S2/S3QB- charge recombinations were shifted to ...

  11. Analyzing the 3D Structure of Human Carbonic Anhydrase II and Its Mutants Using Deep View and the Protein Data Bank

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ship, Noam J.; Zamble, Deborah B.

    2005-01-01

    The self directed study of a 3D image of a biomolecule stresses the complex nature of the intra- and intermolecular interactions that come together to define its structure. This is made up of a series of in vitro experiments with a wild-type and mutants forms of human carbonic anhydrase II (hCAII) that examine the structure function relationship…

  12. Chaperone protein HYPK interacts with the first 17 amino acid region of Huntingtin and modulates mutant HTT-mediated aggregation and cytotoxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Choudhury, Kamalika Roy; Bhattacharyya, Nitai P.

    2015-01-02

    Highlights: • HYPK reduces mutant HTT-mediated aggregate formation and cytotoxicity. • Interaction of HYPK with HTT requires N-terminal 17 amino acid of HTT (HTT-N17). • Deletion of HTT-N17 leads to SDS-soluble, smaller, nuclear aggregates. • These smaller aggregates do not associate with HYPK and are more cytotoxic. • Maybe, interaction of HYPK with amphipathic HTT-N17 block HTT aggregate formation. - Abstract: Huntington’s disease is a polyglutamine expansion disorder, characterized by mutant HTT-mediated aggregate formation and cytotoxicity. Many reports suggests roles of N-terminal 17 amino acid domain of HTT (HTT-N17) towards subcellular localization, aggregate formation and subsequent pathogenicity induced by N-terminal HTT harboring polyQ stretch in pathogenic range. HYPK is a HTT-interacting chaperone which can reduce N-terminal mutant HTT-mediated aggregate formation and cytotoxicity in neuronal cell lines. However, how HYPK interacts with N-terminal fragment of HTT remained unknown. Here we report that specific interaction of HYPK with HTT-N17 is crucial for the chaperone activity of HYPK. Deletion of HTT-N17 leads to formation of tinier, SDS-soluble nuclear aggregates formed by N-terminal mutant HTT. The increased cytotoxicity imparted by these tiny aggregates might be contributed due to loss of interaction with HYPK.

  13. Bypassing Iron Storage in Endodermal Vacuoles Rescues the Iron Mobilization Defect in the natural resistance associated-macrophage protein3natural resistance associated-macrophage protein4 Double Mutant.

    PubMed

    Mary, Viviane; Schnell Ramos, Magali; Gillet, Cynthia; Socha, Amanda L; Giraudat, Jérôme; Agorio, Astrid; Merlot, Sylvain; Clairet, Colin; Kim, Sun A; Punshon, Tracy; Guerinot, Mary Lou; Thomine, Sébastien

    2015-09-01

    To improve seed iron (Fe) content and bioavailability, it is crucial to decipher the mechanisms that control Fe storage during seed development. In Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) seeds, most Fe is concentrated in insoluble precipitates, with phytate in the vacuoles of cells surrounding the vasculature of the embryo. NATURAL RESISTANCE ASSOCIATED-MACROPHAGE PROTEIN3 (AtNRAMP3) and AtNRAMP4 function redundantly in Fe retrieval from vacuoles during germination. When germinated under Fe-deficient conditions, development of the nramp3nramp4 double mutant is arrested as a consequence of impaired Fe mobilization. To identify novel genes involved in seed Fe homeostasis, we screened an ethyl methanesulfonate-mutagenized population of nramp3nramp4 seedlings for mutations suppressing their phenotypes on low Fe. Here, we report that, among the suppressors, two independent mutations in the VACUOLAR IRON TRANSPORTER1 (AtVIT1) gene caused the suppressor phenotype. The AtVIT1 transporter is involved in Fe influx into vacuoles of endodermal and bundle sheath cells. This result establishes a functional link between Fe loading in vacuoles by AtVIT1 and its remobilization by AtNRAMP3 and AtNRAMP4. Moreover, analysis of subcellular Fe localization indicates that simultaneous disruption of AtVIT1, AtNRAMP3, and AtNRAMP4 limits Fe accumulation in vacuolar globoids.

  14. Bypassing Iron Storage in Endodermal Vacuoles Rescues the Iron Mobilization Defect in the natural resistance associated-macrophage protein3natural resistance associated-macrophage protein4 Double Mutant1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Mary, Viviane; Schnell Ramos, Magali; Gillet, Cynthia; Socha, Amanda L.; Giraudat, Jérôme; Agorio, Astrid; Merlot, Sylvain; Clairet, Colin; Kim, Sun A.; Punshon, Tracy; Guerinot, Mary Lou; Thomine, Sébastien

    2015-01-01

    To improve seed iron (Fe) content and bioavailability, it is crucial to decipher the mechanisms that control Fe storage during seed development. In Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) seeds, most Fe is concentrated in insoluble precipitates, with phytate in the vacuoles of cells surrounding the vasculature of the embryo. NATURAL RESISTANCE ASSOCIATED-MACROPHAGE PROTEIN3 (AtNRAMP3) and AtNRAMP4 function redundantly in Fe retrieval from vacuoles during germination. When germinated under Fe-deficient conditions, development of the nramp3nramp4 double mutant is arrested as a consequence of impaired Fe mobilization. To identify novel genes involved in seed Fe homeostasis, we screened an ethyl methanesulfonate-mutagenized population of nramp3nramp4 seedlings for mutations suppressing their phenotypes on low Fe. Here, we report that, among the suppressors, two independent mutations in the VACUOLAR IRON TRANSPORTER1 (AtVIT1) gene caused the suppressor phenotype. The AtVIT1 transporter is involved in Fe influx into vacuoles of endodermal and bundle sheath cells. This result establishes a functional link between Fe loading in vacuoles by AtVIT1 and its remobilization by AtNRAMP3 and AtNRAMP4. Moreover, analysis of subcellular Fe localization indicates that simultaneous disruption of AtVIT1, AtNRAMP3, and AtNRAMP4 limits Fe accumulation in vacuolar globoids. PMID:26232490

  15. Novel aggregate formation of a frame-shift mutant protein of tissue-nonspecific alkaline phosphatase is ascribed to three cysteine residues in the C-terminal extension. Retarded secretion and proteasomal degradation.

    PubMed

    Komaru, Keiichi; Ishida, Yoko; Amaya, Yoshihiro; Goseki-Sone, Masae; Orimo, Hideo; Oda, Kimimitsu

    2005-04-01

    In the majority of hypophosphatasia patients, reductions in the serum levels of alkaline phosphatase activity are caused by various missense mutations in the tissue-nonspecific alkaline phosphatase (TNSALP) gene. A unique frame-shift mutation due to a deletion of T at cDNA number 1559 [TNSALP (1559delT)] has been reported only in Japanese patients with high allele frequency. In this study, we examined the molecular phenotype of TNSALP (1559delT) using in vitro translation/translocation system and COS-1 cells transiently expressing this mutant protein. We showed that the mutant protein not only has a larger molecular size than the wild type enzyme by approximately 12 kDa, reflecting an 80 amino acid-long extension at its C-terminus, but that it also lacks a glycosylphosphatidylinositol anchor. In support of this, alkaline phosphatase activity of the cells expressing TNSALP (1559delT) was localized at the juxtanucleus position, but not on the cell surface. However, only a limited amount of the newly synthesized protein was released into the medium and the rest was polyubiquitinated, followed by degradation in the proteasome. SDS/PAGE and analysis by sucrose-density-gradient analysis indicated that TNSALP (1559delT) forms a disulfide-bonded high-molecular-mass aggregate. Interestingly, the aggregate form of TNSALP (1559delT) exhibited a significant enzyme activity. When all three cysteines at positions of 506, 521 and 577 of TNSALP (1559delT) were replaced with serines, the aggregation disappeared and instead this modified mutant protein formed a noncovalently associated dimer, strongly indicating that these cysteine residues in the C-terminal region are solely responsible for aggregate formation by cross-linking the catalytically active dimers. Thus, complete absence of TNSALP on cell surfaces provides a plausible explanation for a severe lethal phenotype of a homozygote hypophosphatasia patient carrying TNSALP (1559delT).

  16. Electrophysiological study of Drosophila rhodopsin mutants

    PubMed Central

    1986-01-01

    Electrophysiological investigations were carried out on several independently isolated mutants of the ninaE gene, which encodes opsin in R1-6 photoreceptors, and a mutant of the ninaD gene, which is probably important in the formation of the rhodopsin chromophore. In these mutants, the rhodopsin content in R1-6 photoreceptors is reduced by 10(2)-10(6)-fold. Light-induced bumps recorded from even the most severely affected mutants are physiologically normal. Moreover, a detailed noise analysis shows that photoreceptor responses of both a ninaE mutant and a ninaD mutant follow the adapting bump model. Since any extensive rhodopsin-rhodopsin interactions are not likely in these mutants, the above results suggest that such interactions are not needed for the generation and adaptation of light-induced bumps. Mutant bumps are strikingly larger in amplitude than wild-type bumps. This difference is observed both in ninaD and ninaE mutants, which suggests that it is due to severe depletion of rhodopsin content, rather than to any specific alterations in the opsin protein. Lowering or buffering the intracellular calcium concentration by EGTA injection mimics the effects of the mutations on the bump amplitude, but, unlike the mutations, it also affects the latency and kinetics of light responses. PMID:3097245

  17. Mutagenic and Recombinagenic Responses to Defective DNA Polymerase δ Are Facilitated by the Rev1 Protein in pol3-t Mutants of Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Mito, Erica; Mokhnatkin, Janet V.; Steele, Molly C.; Buettner, Victoria L.; Sommer, Steve S.; Manthey, Glenn M.; Bailis, Adam M.

    2008-01-01

    Defective DNA replication can result in substantial increases in the level of genome instability. In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the pol3-t allele confers a defect in the catalytic subunit of replicative DNA polymerase δ that results in increased rates of mutagenesis, recombination, and chromosome loss, perhaps by increasing the rate of replicative polymerase failure. The translesion polymerases Pol η, Pol ζ, and Rev1 are part of a suite of factors in yeast that can act at sites of replicative polymerase failure. While mutants defective in the translesion polymerases alone displayed few defects, loss of Rev1 was found to suppress the increased rates of spontaneous mutation, recombination, and chromosome loss observed in pol3-t mutants. These results suggest that Rev1 may be involved in facilitating mutagenic and recombinagenic responses to the failure of Pol δ. Genome stability, therefore, may reflect a dynamic relationship between primary and auxiliary DNA polymerases. PMID:18711219

  18. Structure-function analysis of a double-mutant cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator protein occurring in disorders related to cystic fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Fanen, P; Clain, J; Labarthe, R; Hulin, P; Girodon, E; Pagesy, P; Goossens, M; Edelman, A

    1999-06-11

    A number of disorders related to cystic fibrosis have been described since the cloning of the cystic fibrosis gene, including infertility due to the congenital bilateral absence of the vas deferens. We have identified, in several patients, complex cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator genotypes like double-mutant alleles. We have now analyzed the structure-function relationships of one of these mutants, R74W-D1270N cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator, expressed in HeLa cells, to evaluate the contribution of each mutation in the phenotype. We found that R74W cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator appears to be a polymorphism, while D1270N cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator could be responsible for the congenital bilateral absence of the vas deferens phenotype. The combination of the two produced a more severe effect on the chloride conductance pathway as well as on the phenotype.

  19. A mutant RAS gene acts through protein kinase C to augment interleukin-3 dependent proliferation in a fastidious immortal myeloid cell line.

    PubMed

    Boswell, H S; Harrington, M A; Burgess, G S; Nahreini, T L; Derigs, H G; Hodges, T D; English, D; Crean, C D; Gabig, T G

    1989-09-01

    The functional role of a mutant RAS gene in immortal myeloid cell proliferation was examined in a fastidious interleukin-3 (IL-3) dependent cell line (NFS/N1.H7) formed by forced proliferation in IL-3 of marrow cells of the NFS/N mouse. The NFS/N1.H7 cell line was strictly dependent upon IL-3 for growth, and the cell line could be activated by phorbol esters (PMA) to augment IL-3 dependent proliferation, but when pKC was downregulated, diminished IL-3 proliferative response resulted. Transfection (electroporation) of the T24 RAS-containing vector pAL8 to NFS/N1.H7 led to clones (H7 NeoRas.F3, H7 NeoRas.E2) that had incorporated the entire 6.6 Kb human mutant H-RAS genome. The mutant RAS-containing clones demonstrated greater proliferation than parent cells or cells containing a control (neo-resistance) vector over a range of suboptimal IL-3 does and in optimal IL-3 concentrations had a faster doubling rate than parent cells. The clone H7 NeoRas.F3 was studied biochemically, and found to constitutively form 3-fold more 3H-diacylglycerol than the parent cell line upon exposure to 3H-glycerol. PMA could partially repair the proliferative defect of NFS/N1.H7 compared to the RAS-expressor. These studies affirm a secondary, accelerating role for a mutant RAS gene product acting through pKC to promote clonal expansion of immortal myeloid cells stimulated by IL-3.

  20. Annexin-like p