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Sample records for protein quantitation based

  1. How Many proteins are Missed in Quantitative proteomics Based on Ms/Ms sequencing Methods?

    PubMed Central

    Mulvey, Claire; Thur, Bettina; Crawford, Mark; Godovac-Zimmermann, Jasminka

    2014-01-01

    Current bottom-up quantitative proteomics methods based on MS/MS sequencing of peptides are shown to be strongly dependent on sample preparation. Using cytosolic proteins from MCF-7 breast cancer cells, it is shown that protein pre-fractionation based on pI and MW is more effective than pre-fractionation using only MW in increasing the number of observed proteins (947 vs. 704 proteins) and the number of spectral counts per protein. Combination of MS data from the different pre-fractionation methods results in further improvements (1238 proteins). We discuss that at present the main limitation on quantitation by MS/MS sequencing is not MS sensitivity and protein abundance, but rather extensive peptide overlap and limited MS/MS sequencing throughput, and that this favors internally calibrated methods such as SILAC, ICAT or ITRAQ over spectral counting methods in attempts to drastically improve proteome coverage of biological samples. PMID:25729266

  2. Quantitative characterization of protein-protein complexes involved in base excision DNA repair.

    PubMed

    Moor, Nina A; Vasil'eva, Inna A; Anarbaev, Rashid O; Antson, Alfred A; Lavrik, Olga I

    2015-07-13

    Base Excision Repair (BER) efficiently corrects the most common types of DNA damage in mammalian cells. Step-by-step coordination of BER is facilitated by multiple interactions between enzymes and accessory proteins involved. Here we characterize quantitatively a number of complexes formed by DNA polymerase β (Polβ), apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease 1 (APE1), poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 (PARP1), X-ray repair cross-complementing protein 1 (XRCC1) and tyrosyl-DNA phosphodiesterase 1 (TDP1), using fluorescence- and light scattering-based techniques. Direct physical interactions between the APE1-Polβ, APE1-TDP1, APE1-PARP1 and Polβ-TDP1 pairs have been detected and characterized for the first time. The combined results provide strong evidence that the most stable complex is formed between XRCC1 and Polβ. Model DNA intermediates of BER are shown to induce significant rearrangement of the Polβ complexes with XRCC1 and PARP1, while having no detectable influence on the protein-protein binding affinities. The strength of APE1 interaction with Polβ, XRCC1 and PARP1 is revealed to be modulated by BER intermediates to different extents, depending on the type of DNA damage. The affinity of APE1 for Polβ is higher in the complex with abasic site-containing DNA than after the APE1-catalyzed incision. Our findings advance understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying coordination and regulation of the BER process.

  3. A statistical framework for protein quantitation in bottom-up MS-based proteomics

    SciTech Connect

    Karpievitch, Yuliya; Stanley, Jeffrey R.; Taverner, Thomas; Huang, Jianhua; Adkins, Joshua N.; Ansong, Charles; Heffron, Fred; Metz, Thomas O.; Qian, Weijun; Yoon, Hyunjin; Smith, Richard D.; Dabney, Alan R.

    2009-08-15

    ABSTRACT Motivation: Quantitative mass spectrometry-based proteomics requires protein-level estimates and confidence measures. Challenges include the presence of low-quality or incorrectly identified peptides and widespread, informative, missing data. Furthermore, models are required for rolling peptide-level information up to the protein level. Results: We present a statistical model for protein abundance in terms of peptide peak intensities, applicable to both label-based and label-free quantitation experiments. The model allows for both random and censoring missingness mechanisms and provides naturally for protein-level estimates and confidence measures. The model is also used to derive automated filtering and imputation routines. Three LC-MS datasets are used to illustrate the methods. Availability: The software has been made available in the open-source proteomics platform DAnTE (Polpitiya et al. (2008)) (http://omics.pnl.gov/software/). Contact: adabney@stat.tamu.edu

  4. A Statistical Framework for Protein Quantitation in Bottom-Up MS-Based Proteomics

    SciTech Connect

    Karpievitch, Yuliya; Stanley, Jeffrey R.; Taverner, Thomas; Huang, Jianhua; Adkins, Joshua N.; Ansong, Charles; Heffron, Fred; Metz, Thomas O.; Qian, Weijun; Yoon, Hyunjin; Smith, Richard D.; Dabney, Alan R.

    2009-08-15

    Motivation: Quantitative mass spectrometry-based proteomics requires protein-level estimates and associated confidence measures. Challenges include the presence of low quality or incorrectly identified peptides and informative missingness. Furthermore, models are required for rolling peptide-level information up to the protein level. Results: We present a statistical model that carefully accounts for informative missingness in peak intensities and allows unbiased, model-based, protein-level estimation and inference. The model is applicable to both label-based and label-free quantitation experiments. We also provide automated, model-based, algorithms for filtering of proteins and peptides as well as imputation of missing values. Two LC/MS datasets are used to illustrate the methods. In simulation studies, our methods are shown to achieve substantially more discoveries than standard alternatives. Availability: The software has been made available in the opensource proteomics platform DAnTE (http://omics.pnl.gov/software/). Contact: adabney@stat.tamu.edu Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

  5. Rapid and quantitative detection of C-reactive protein based on quantum dots and immunofiltration assay

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Pengfei; Bao, Yan; Draz, Mohamed Shehata; Lu, Huiqi; Liu, Chang; Han, Huanxing

    2015-01-01

    Convenient and rapid immunofiltration assays (IFAs) enable on-site “yes” or “no” determination of disease markers. However, traditional IFAs are commonly qualitative or semi-quantitative and are very limited for the efficient testing of samples in field diagnostics. Here, we overcome these limitations by developing a quantum dots (QDs)-based fluorescent IFA for the quantitative detection of C-reactive proteins (CRP). CRP, the well-known diagnostic marker for acute viral and bacterial infections, was used as a model analyte to demonstrate performance and sensitivity of our developed QDs-based IFA. QDs capped with both polyethylene glycol (PEG) and glutathione were used as fluorescent labels for our IFAs. The presence of the surface PEG layer, which reduced the non-specific protein interactions, in conjunction with the inherent optical properties of QDs, resulted in lower background signal, increased sensitivity, and ability to detect CRP down to 0.79 mg/L with only 5 µL serum sample. In addition, the developed assay is simple, fast and can quantitatively detect CRP with a detection limit up to 200 mg/L. Clinical test results of our QD-based IFA are well correlated with the traditional latex enhance immune-agglutination aggregation. The proposed QD-based fluorescent IFA is very promising, and potentially will be adopted for multiplexed immunoassay and in field point-of-care test. PMID:26491289

  6. Rapid and quantitative detection of C-reactive protein based on quantum dots and immunofiltration assay.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Pengfei; Bao, Yan; Draz, Mohamed Shehata; Lu, Huiqi; Liu, Chang; Han, Huanxing

    2015-01-01

    Convenient and rapid immunofiltration assays (IFAs) enable on-site "yes" or "no" determination of disease markers. However, traditional IFAs are commonly qualitative or semi-quantitative and are very limited for the efficient testing of samples in field diagnostics. Here, we overcome these limitations by developing a quantum dots (QDs)-based fluorescent IFA for the quantitative detection of C-reactive proteins (CRP). CRP, the well-known diagnostic marker for acute viral and bacterial infections, was used as a model analyte to demonstrate performance and sensitivity of our developed QDs-based IFA. QDs capped with both polyethylene glycol (PEG) and glutathione were used as fluorescent labels for our IFAs. The presence of the surface PEG layer, which reduced the non-specific protein interactions, in conjunction with the inherent optical properties of QDs, resulted in lower background signal, increased sensitivity, and ability to detect CRP down to 0.79 mg/L with only 5 µL serum sample. In addition, the developed assay is simple, fast and can quantitatively detect CRP with a detection limit up to 200 mg/L. Clinical test results of our QD-based IFA are well correlated with the traditional latex enhance immune-agglutination aggregation. The proposed QD-based fluorescent IFA is very promising, and potentially will be adopted for multiplexed immunoassay and in field point-of-care test.

  7. Quantitative, fluorescence-based in-situ assessment of protein expression.

    PubMed

    Moeder, Christopher B; Giltnane, Jennifer M; Moulis, Sharon Pozner; Rimm, David L

    2009-01-01

    As companion diagnostics grow in prevalence and importance, the need for accurate assessment of in situ protein concentrations has increased. Traditional immunohistochemistry (IHC), while valuable for assessment of context of expression, is less valuable for quantification. The lack of rigorous quantitative potential of traditional IHC led to our development of an immunofluorescence-based method now commercialized as the AQUA technology. Immunostaining of tissue samples, image acquisition, and use of AQUA software allow investigators to quickly, efficiently, and accurately measure levels of expression within user-defined subcellular or architectural compartments. IHC analyzed by AQUA shows high reproducibility and demonstrates protein measurement accuracy similar to ELISA assays. The process is largely automated, eliminating potential error, and the resultant scores are exported on a continuous scale. There are now numerous published examples where observations made with this technology are not seen by traditional methods.

  8. Quantitative detection of protein arrays.

    PubMed

    Levit-Binnun, Nava; Lindner, Ariel B; Zik, Ory; Eshhar, Zelig; Moses, Elisha

    2003-03-15

    We introduce a quantitative method that utilizes scanning electron microscopy for the analysis of protein chips (SEMPC). SEMPC is based upon counting target-coated gold particles interacting specifically with ligands or proteins arrayed on a derivative microscope glass slide by utilizing backscattering electron detection. As model systems, we quantified the interactions of biotin and streptavidin and of an antibody with its cognate hapten. Our method gives quantitative molecule-counting capabilities with an excellent signal-to-noise ratio and demonstrates a broad dynamic range while retaining easy sample preparation and realistic automation capability. Increased sensitivity and dynamic range are achieved in comparison to currently used array detection methods such as fluorescence, with no signal bleaching, affording high reproducibility and compatibility with miniaturization. Thus, our approach facilitates the determination of the absolute number of molecules bound to the chip rather than their relative amounts, as well as the use of smaller samples.

  9. Quantitative characterization of protein–protein complexes involved in base excision DNA repair

    PubMed Central

    Moor, Nina A.; Vasil'eva, Inna A.; Anarbaev, Rashid O.; Antson, Alfred A.; Lavrik, Olga I.

    2015-01-01

    Base Excision Repair (BER) efficiently corrects the most common types of DNA damage in mammalian cells. Step-by-step coordination of BER is facilitated by multiple interactions between enzymes and accessory proteins involved. Here we characterize quantitatively a number of complexes formed by DNA polymerase β (Polβ), apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease 1 (APE1), poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 (PARP1), X-ray repair cross-complementing protein 1 (XRCC1) and tyrosyl-DNA phosphodiesterase 1 (TDP1), using fluorescence- and light scattering-based techniques. Direct physical interactions between the APE1-Polβ, APE1-TDP1, APE1-PARP1 and Polβ-TDP1 pairs have been detected and characterized for the first time. The combined results provide strong evidence that the most stable complex is formed between XRCC1 and Polβ. Model DNA intermediates of BER are shown to induce significant rearrangement of the Polβ complexes with XRCC1 and PARP1, while having no detectable influence on the protein–protein binding affinities. The strength of APE1 interaction with Polβ, XRCC1 and PARP1 is revealed to be modulated by BER intermediates to different extents, depending on the type of DNA damage. The affinity of APE1 for Polβ is higher in the complex with abasic site-containing DNA than after the APE1-catalyzed incision. Our findings advance understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying coordination and regulation of the BER process. PMID:26013813

  10. Quantitative Description of a Protein Fitness Landscape Based on Molecular Features.

    PubMed

    Meini, María-Rocío; Tomatis, Pablo E; Weinreich, Daniel M; Vila, Alejandro J

    2015-07-01

    Understanding the driving forces behind protein evolution requires the ability to correlate the molecular impact of mutations with organismal fitness. To address this issue, we employ here metallo-β-lactamases as a model system, which are Zn(II) dependent enzymes that mediate antibiotic resistance. We present a study of all the possible evolutionary pathways leading to a metallo-β-lactamase variant optimized by directed evolution. By studying the activity, stability and Zn(II) binding capabilities of all mutants in the preferred evolutionary pathways, we show that this local fitness landscape is strongly conditioned by epistatic interactions arising from the pleiotropic effect of mutations in the different molecular features of the enzyme. Activity and stability assays in purified enzymes do not provide explanatory power. Instead, measurement of these molecular features in an environment resembling the native one provides an accurate description of the observed antibiotic resistance profile. We report that optimization of Zn(II) binding abilities of metallo-β-lactamases during evolution is more critical than stabilization of the protein to enhance fitness. A global analysis of these parameters allows us to connect genotype with fitness based on quantitative biochemical and biophysical parameters.

  11. Quantitative Description of a Protein Fitness Landscape Based on Molecular Features

    PubMed Central

    Meini, María-Rocío; Tomatis, Pablo E.; Weinreich, Daniel M.; Vila, Alejandro J.

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the driving forces behind protein evolution requires the ability to correlate the molecular impact of mutations with organismal fitness. To address this issue, we employ here metallo-β-lactamases as a model system, which are Zn(II) dependent enzymes that mediate antibiotic resistance. We present a study of all the possible evolutionary pathways leading to a metallo-β-lactamase variant optimized by directed evolution. By studying the activity, stability and Zn(II) binding capabilities of all mutants in the preferred evolutionary pathways, we show that this local fitness landscape is strongly conditioned by epistatic interactions arising from the pleiotropic effect of mutations in the different molecular features of the enzyme. Activity and stability assays in purified enzymes do not provide explanatory power. Instead, measurement of these molecular features in an environment resembling the native one provides an accurate description of the observed antibiotic resistance profile. We report that optimization of Zn(II) binding abilities of metallo-β-lactamases during evolution is more critical than stabilization of the protein to enhance fitness. A global analysis of these parameters allows us to connect genotype with fitness based on quantitative biochemical and biophysical parameters. PMID:25767204

  12. Quantitative Description of a Protein Fitness Landscape Based on Molecular Features.

    PubMed

    Meini, María-Rocío; Tomatis, Pablo E; Weinreich, Daniel M; Vila, Alejandro J

    2015-07-01

    Understanding the driving forces behind protein evolution requires the ability to correlate the molecular impact of mutations with organismal fitness. To address this issue, we employ here metallo-β-lactamases as a model system, which are Zn(II) dependent enzymes that mediate antibiotic resistance. We present a study of all the possible evolutionary pathways leading to a metallo-β-lactamase variant optimized by directed evolution. By studying the activity, stability and Zn(II) binding capabilities of all mutants in the preferred evolutionary pathways, we show that this local fitness landscape is strongly conditioned by epistatic interactions arising from the pleiotropic effect of mutations in the different molecular features of the enzyme. Activity and stability assays in purified enzymes do not provide explanatory power. Instead, measurement of these molecular features in an environment resembling the native one provides an accurate description of the observed antibiotic resistance profile. We report that optimization of Zn(II) binding abilities of metallo-β-lactamases during evolution is more critical than stabilization of the protein to enhance fitness. A global analysis of these parameters allows us to connect genotype with fitness based on quantitative biochemical and biophysical parameters. PMID:25767204

  13. Quantitative real-time PCR assay for detection of Paenibacillus polymyxa using membrane-fusion protein-based primers.

    PubMed

    Cho, Min Seok; Park, Dong Suk; Lee, Jung Won; Chi, Hee Youn; Sohn, Soo-In; Jeon, Bong-Kyun; Ma, Jong-Beom

    2012-11-01

    Paenibacillus polymyxa is known to be a plant-growthpromoting rhizobacterium. The present study describes a quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) assay for the specific detection and quantitation of P. polymyxa using a primer pair based on the sequence of a membranefusion protein for the amplification of a 268 bp DNA fragment. This study reports that the qPCR-based method is applicable for the rapid and sensitive detection of P. polymyxa and can be used as an alternative method for agricultural soil monitoring.

  14. Analysis of protein complexes through model-based biclustering of label-free quantitative AP-MS data

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Hyungwon; Kim, Sinae; Gingras, Anne-Claude; Nesvizhskii, Alexey I

    2010-01-01

    Affinity purification followed by mass spectrometry (AP-MS) has become a common approach for identifying protein–protein interactions (PPIs) and complexes. However, data analysis and visualization often rely on generic approaches that do not take advantage of the quantitative nature of AP-MS. We present a novel computational method, nested clustering, for biclustering of label-free quantitative AP-MS data. Our approach forms bait clusters based on the similarity of quantitative interaction profiles and identifies submatrices of prey proteins showing consistent quantitative association within bait clusters. In doing so, nested clustering effectively addresses the problem of overrepresentation of interactions involving baits proteins as compared with proteins only identified as preys. The method does not require specification of the number of bait clusters, which is an advantage against existing model-based clustering methods. We illustrate the performance of the algorithm using two published intermediate scale human PPI data sets, which are representative of the AP-MS data generated from mammalian cells. We also discuss general challenges of analyzing and interpreting clustering results in the context of AP-MS data. PMID:20571534

  15. Identifying specific protein-DNA interactions using SILAC-based quantitative proteomics.

    PubMed

    Spruijt, Cornelia G; Baymaz, H Irem; Vermeulen, Michiel

    2013-01-01

    A comprehensive identification of protein-DNA interactions that drive processes such as transcription and replication, both in prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms, remains a major technical challenge. In this chapter, we present a SILAC-based DNA affinity purification method that can be used to identify specific interactions between proteins and functional DNA elements in an unbiased manner.

  16. Quantitative MS-based enzymology of caspases reveals distinct protein substrate specificities, hierarchies, and cellular roles

    PubMed Central

    Zhuang, Min; Wiita, Arun P.; O’Donoghue, Anthony J.; Knudsen, Giselle M.; Craik, Charles S.; Wells, James A.

    2016-01-01

    Proteases constitute the largest enzyme family, yet their biological roles are obscured by our rudimentary understanding of their cellular substrates. There are 12 human caspases that play crucial roles in inflammation and cell differentiation and drive the terminal stages of cell death. Recent N-terminomics technologies have begun to enumerate the diverse substrates individual caspases can cleave in complex cell lysates. It is clear that many caspases have shared substrates; however, few data exist about the catalytic efficiencies (kcat/KM) of these substrates, which is critical to understanding their true substrate preferences. In this study, we use quantitative MS to determine the catalytic efficiencies for hundreds of natural protease substrates in cellular lysate for two understudied members: caspase-2 and caspase-6. Most substrates are new, and the cleavage rates vary up to 500-fold. We compare the cleavage rates for common substrates with those found for caspase-3, caspase-7, and caspase-8, involved in apoptosis. There is little correlation in catalytic efficiencies among the five caspases, suggesting each has a unique set of preferred substrates, and thus more specialized roles than previously understood. We synthesized peptide substrates on the basis of protein cleavage sites and found similar catalytic efficiencies between the protein and peptide substrates. These data suggest the rates of proteolysis are dominated more by local primary sequence, and less by the tertiary protein fold. Our studies highlight that global quantitative rate analysis for posttranslational modification enzymes in complex milieus for native substrates is critical to better define their functions and relative sequence of events. PMID:27006500

  17. Sensitive and Quantitative Detection of C-Reaction Protein Based on Immunofluorescent Nanospheres Coupled with Lateral Flow Test Strip.

    PubMed

    Hu, Jiao; Zhang, Zhi-Ling; Wen, Cong-Ying; Tang, Man; Wu, Ling-Ling; Liu, Cui; Zhu, Lian; Pang, Dai-Wen

    2016-06-21

    Sensitive and quantitative detection of protein biomarkers with a point-of-care (POC) assay is significant for early diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis of diseases. In this paper, a quantitative lateral flow assay with high sensitivity for protein biomarkers was established by utilizing fluorescent nanospheres (FNs) as reporters. Each fluorescent nanosphere (FN) contains 332 ± 8 CdSe/ZnS quantum dots (QDs), leading to its superstrong luminescence, 380-fold higher than that of one QD. Then a detection limit of 27.8 pM C-reaction protein (CRP) could be achieved with an immunofluorescent nanosphere (IFN)-based lateral flow test strip. The assay was 257-fold more sensitive than that with a conventional Au-based lateral flow test strip for CRP detection. Besides, the fluorescence intensity of FNs and bioactivity of IFNs were stable during 6 months of storage. Hence, the assay owns good reproducibility (intra-assay variability of 5.3% and interassay variability of 6.6%). Furthermore, other cancer biomarkers (PSA, CEA, AFP) showed negative results by this method, validating the excellent specificity of the method. Then the assay was successfully applied to quantitatively detect CRP in peripheral blood plasma samples from lung cancer and breast cancer patients, and healthy people, facilitating the diagnosis of lung cancer. It holds a good prospect of POC protein biomarker detection. PMID:27253137

  18. Strigolactone-Regulated Proteins Revealed by iTRAQ-Based Quantitative Proteomics in Arabidopsis

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Zhou; Czarnecki, Olaf; Chourey, Karuna; Yang, Jun; Tuskan, Gerald A; Hurst, Gregory {Greg} B; Pan, Chongle; Chen, Jay

    2014-01-01

    Strigolactones (SLs) are a new class of plant hormones. In addition to acting as a key inhibitor of shoot branching, SLs stimulate seed germination of root parasitic plants and promote hyphal branching and root colonization of symbiotic arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. They also regulate many other aspects of plant growth and development. At the transcription level, SL-regulated genes have been reported. However, nothing is known about the proteome regulated by this new class of plant hormones. Here, a quantitative proteomics approach using an isobaric chemical labeling reagent, iTRAQ, to identify the proteome regulated by SLs in Arabidopsis seedlings is presented. It was found SLs regulate the expression of about three dozens of proteins that have not been previously assigned to SL pathways. These findings provide a new tool to investigate the molecular mechanism of action of SLs.

  19. Quantitative single-molecule detection of protein based on DNA tetrahedron fluorescent nanolabels.

    PubMed

    Ding, Yongshun; Liu, Xingti; Zhu, Jing; Wang, Lei; Jiang, Wei

    2014-07-01

    A highly sensitive method for single-molecule quantitative detection of human IgG is presented by the employment of a new fluorescent nanolabel. In this method, fluorescent nanolabels were assembled by inserting SYBR Green I into DNA tetrahedron nanostructure. The bio-nanolabels were attached to the streptavidin-antihuman antibody by a specific reaction between biotin and streptavidin. The antibody was combined with the target antigen, human IgG, which was immobilized on the silanized glass subtrate surface. Finally, epi-fluorescence microscopy (EFM) coupled with an electron multiplying charge-coupled device was employed for fluorescence imaging. The fluorescent spots corresponding to single protein molecule on images were counted and further used for the quantitative detection. It was found that the new nanolabel shows good photostability, biocompatiblity and exhibits no blinking compared to traditional labels like fluorescence dyes and quantum dot (QDs). In addition, the number of fluorescence spots on the images has a linear relationship with the concentration of human IgG in the range of 3.0×10(-14) to 1.0×10(-12)mol L(-1). What is more, this method showed an excellent specificity and a low matrix effect.

  20. Investigation of Pokemon-regulated proteins in hepatocellular carcinoma using mass spectrometry-based multiplex quantitative proteomics.

    PubMed

    Bi, Xin; Jin, Yibao; Gao, Xiang; Liu, Feng; Gao, Dan; Jiang, Yuyang; Liu, Hongxia

    2013-01-01

    Pokemon is a transcription regulator involved in embryonic development, cellular differentiation and oncogenesis. It is aberrantly overexpressed in multiple human cancers including Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and is considered as a promising biomarker for HCC. In this work, the isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ)-based quantitative proteomics strategy was used to investigate the proteomic profile associated with Pokemon in human HCC cell line QGY7703 and human hepatocyte line HL7702. Samples were labeled with four-plex iTRAQ reagents followed by two-dimensional liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry analysis. A total of 24 differentially expressed proteins were selected as significant. Nine proteins were potentially up-regulated by Pokemon while 15 proteins were potentially down-regulated and many proteins were previously identified as potential biomarkers for HCC. Gene ontology (GO) term enrichment revealed that the listed proteins were mainly involved in DNA metabolism and biosynthesis process. The changes of glucose-6-phosphate 1-dehydrogenase (G6PD, up-regulated) and ribonucleoside-diphosphate reductase large sub-unit (RIM1, down-regulated) were validated by Western blotting analysis and denoted as Pokemon's function of oncogenesis. We also found that Pokemon potentially repressed the expression of highly clustered proteins (MCM3, MCM5, MCM6, MCM7) which played key roles in promoting DNA replication. Altogether, our results may help better understand the role of Pokemon in HCC and promote the clinical applications. PMID:24261083

  1. Investigation of Pokemon-regulated proteins in hepatocellular carcinoma using mass spectrometry-based multiplex quantitative proteomics.

    PubMed

    Bi, Xin; Jin, Yibao; Gao, Xiang; Liu, Feng; Gao, Dan; Jiang, Yuyang; Liu, Hongxia

    2013-01-01

    Pokemon is a transcription regulator involved in embryonic development, cellular differentiation and oncogenesis. It is aberrantly overexpressed in multiple human cancers including Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and is considered as a promising biomarker for HCC. In this work, the isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ)-based quantitative proteomics strategy was used to investigate the proteomic profile associated with Pokemon in human HCC cell line QGY7703 and human hepatocyte line HL7702. Samples were labeled with four-plex iTRAQ reagents followed by two-dimensional liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry analysis. A total of 24 differentially expressed proteins were selected as significant. Nine proteins were potentially up-regulated by Pokemon while 15 proteins were potentially down-regulated and many proteins were previously identified as potential biomarkers for HCC. Gene ontology (GO) term enrichment revealed that the listed proteins were mainly involved in DNA metabolism and biosynthesis process. The changes of glucose-6-phosphate 1-dehydrogenase (G6PD, up-regulated) and ribonucleoside-diphosphate reductase large sub-unit (RIM1, down-regulated) were validated by Western blotting analysis and denoted as Pokemon's function of oncogenesis. We also found that Pokemon potentially repressed the expression of highly clustered proteins (MCM3, MCM5, MCM6, MCM7) which played key roles in promoting DNA replication. Altogether, our results may help better understand the role of Pokemon in HCC and promote the clinical applications.

  2. A protocol for the systematic and quantitative measurement of protein-lipid interactions using the liposome-microarray-based assay.

    PubMed

    Saliba, Antoine-Emmanuel; Vonkova, Ivana; Deghou, Samy; Ceschia, Stefano; Tischer, Christian; Kugler, Karl G; Bork, Peer; Ellenberg, Jan; Gavin, Anne-Claude

    2016-06-01

    Lipids organize the activity of the cell's proteome through a complex network of interactions. The assembly of comprehensive atlases embracing all protein-lipid interactions is an important challenge that requires innovative methods. We recently developed a liposome-microarray-based assay (LiMA) that integrates liposomes, microfluidics and fluorescence microscopy and which is capable of measuring protein recruitment to membranes in a quantitative and high-throughput manner. Compared with previous assays that are labor-intensive and difficult to scale up, LiMA improves the protein-lipid interaction assay throughput by at least three orders of magnitude. Here we provide a step-by-step LiMA protocol that includes the following: (i) the serial and generic production of the liposome microarray; (ii) its integration into a microfluidic format; (iii) the measurement of fluorescently labeled protein (either purified proteins or from cell lysate) recruitment to liposomal membranes using high-throughput microscopy; (iv) automated image analysis pipelines to quantify protein-lipid interactions; and (v) data quality analysis. In addition, we discuss the experimental design, including the relevant quality controls. Overall, the protocol-including device preparation, assay and data analysis-takes 6-8 d. This protocol paves the way for protein-lipid interaction screens to be performed on the proteome and lipidome scales. PMID:27149326

  3. A protocol for the systematic and quantitative measurement of protein-lipid interactions using the liposome-microarray-based assay.

    PubMed

    Saliba, Antoine-Emmanuel; Vonkova, Ivana; Deghou, Samy; Ceschia, Stefano; Tischer, Christian; Kugler, Karl G; Bork, Peer; Ellenberg, Jan; Gavin, Anne-Claude

    2016-06-01

    Lipids organize the activity of the cell's proteome through a complex network of interactions. The assembly of comprehensive atlases embracing all protein-lipid interactions is an important challenge that requires innovative methods. We recently developed a liposome-microarray-based assay (LiMA) that integrates liposomes, microfluidics and fluorescence microscopy and which is capable of measuring protein recruitment to membranes in a quantitative and high-throughput manner. Compared with previous assays that are labor-intensive and difficult to scale up, LiMA improves the protein-lipid interaction assay throughput by at least three orders of magnitude. Here we provide a step-by-step LiMA protocol that includes the following: (i) the serial and generic production of the liposome microarray; (ii) its integration into a microfluidic format; (iii) the measurement of fluorescently labeled protein (either purified proteins or from cell lysate) recruitment to liposomal membranes using high-throughput microscopy; (iv) automated image analysis pipelines to quantify protein-lipid interactions; and (v) data quality analysis. In addition, we discuss the experimental design, including the relevant quality controls. Overall, the protocol-including device preparation, assay and data analysis-takes 6-8 d. This protocol paves the way for protein-lipid interaction screens to be performed on the proteome and lipidome scales.

  4. Approach to quantitative detection of CD146 with the label-free protein biosensor based on imaging ellipsometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niu, Yu; Liu, Li; Yan, Xiyun; Jin, Gang

    2011-03-01

    CD146 glycoprotein belonging to cell adhesion molecules is considered to be a novel target on endothelial cell involved in tumor angiogenesis. The biosensor based on imaging ellipsometry (BIE) which is performed in null and off-null mode is used for CD146 detection as a trial by the following steps. Firstly, anti-CD146 antibody as ligand is immobilized on Protein G modified silicon substrate. Then, CD146 test is carried out and its calibration curve is established for the requirement of quantitative detection. Finally, 18 serum samples are detected quantitatively and their results are validated by ELISA's. The sensitivity for CD146 detection achieves the order of ng/ml and the relationship between BIE signal y (grayscale value) and CD146 concentration x (ng/ml) is y=3.3ln(x) +91.3. Compared with ELISA's, the majority of results are in agreement, and the results of two approaches have significant statistic relevance.

  5. The Development and Application of a Quantitative Peptide Microarray Based Approach to Protein Interaction Domain Specificity Space*

    PubMed Central

    Engelmann, Brett W.; Kim, Yohan; Wang, Miaoyan; Peters, Bjoern; Rock, Ronald S.; Nash, Piers D.

    2014-01-01

    Protein interaction domain (PID) linear peptide motif interactions direct diverse cellular processes in a specific and coordinated fashion. PID specificity, or the interaction selectivity derived from affinity preferences between possible PID-peptide pairs is the basis of this ability. Here, we develop an integrated experimental and computational cellulose peptide conjugate microarray (CPCMA) based approach for the high throughput analysis of PID specificity that provides unprecedented quantitative resolution and reproducibility. As a test system, we quantify the specificity preferences of four Src Homology 2 domains and 124 physiological phosphopeptides to produce a novel quantitative interactome. The quantitative data set covers a broad affinity range, is highly precise, and agrees well with orthogonal biophysical validation, in vivo interactions, and peptide library trained algorithm predictions. In contrast to preceding approaches, the CPCMAs proved capable of confidently assigning interactions into affinity categories, resolving the subtle affinity contributions of residue correlations, and yielded predictive peptide motif affinity matrices. Unique CPCMA enabled modes of systems level analysis reveal a physiological interactome with expected node degree value decreasing as a function of affinity, resulting in minimal high affinity binding overlap between domains; uncover that Src Homology 2 domains bind ligands with a similar average affinity yet strikingly different levels of promiscuity and binding dynamic range; and parse with unprecedented quantitative resolution contextual factors directing specificity. The CPCMA platform promises broad application within the fields of PID specificity, synthetic biology, specificity focused drug design, and network biology. PMID:25135669

  6. Quantitative mass spectrometry-based assay development and validation: from small molecules to proteins.

    PubMed

    Božović, Andrea; Kulasingam, Vathany

    2013-04-01

    Mass spectrometry (MS) has emerged as a powerful analytical tool for the identification, characterization and quantification of various biomolecules (small molecules, drug metabolites and proteins) in biological specimens. The use of mass spectrometers in the clinical diagnostic laboratories have gained popularity due to its ease of development of new assays, ability to measure multiple analytes in a single analytical run, low volume requirements and low reagent costs. Novel technological advancements in ionization sources, instrumentation and software have increased the popularity of these platforms. Consequently, a number of home-brew assays, utilizing the power of MS, are being developed and validated for clinical diagnostic use. In this review, we will discuss the two phases that precede method implementation: method development and validation for both small molecule analysis and protein quantification using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Some of the challenges facing protein quantification will be highlighted and an outlook for the future of laboratory medicine and MS will be provided. PMID:23041077

  7. Quantitative assessment of fluorescent proteins.

    PubMed

    Cranfill, Paula J; Sell, Brittney R; Baird, Michelle A; Allen, John R; Lavagnino, Zeno; de Gruiter, H Martijn; Kremers, Gert-Jan; Davidson, Michael W; Ustione, Alessandro; Piston, David W

    2016-07-01

    The advent of fluorescent proteins (FPs) for genetic labeling of molecules and cells has revolutionized fluorescence microscopy. Genetic manipulations have created a vast array of bright and stable FPs spanning blue to red spectral regions. Common to autofluorescent FPs is their tight β-barrel structure, which provides the rigidity and chemical environment needed for effectual fluorescence. Despite the common structure, each FP has unique properties. Thus, there is no single 'best' FP for every circumstance, and each FP has advantages and disadvantages. To guide decisions about which FP is right for a given application, we have quantitatively characterized the brightness, photostability, pH stability and monomeric properties of more than 40 FPs to enable straightforward and direct comparison between them. We focus on popular and/or top-performing FPs in each spectral region. PMID:27240257

  8. A New Strategy of Using O18-Labeled Iodoacetic Acid for Mass Spectrometry-Based Protein Quantitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Shunhai; Kaltashov, Igor A.

    2012-07-01

    A new O18 labeling protocol is designed to assist quantitation of cysteine-containing proteins using LC/MS. Unlike other O18 labeling strategies, the labeling is carried out at the intact protein level (prior to its digestion) during reduction/alkylation of cysteine side chains using O18-labeled iodoacetic acid (IAA). The latter can be easily prepared by exchanging carboxylic oxygen atoms of commercially available IAA in O18-enriched water at low pH. Since incorporation of the O18 label in the protein occurs at the whole protein, rather than peptide level, the quantitation results are not peptide-dependent. The excellent stability of the label in mild pH conditions provides flexibility and robustness needed of sample processing steps following the labeling. In contrast to generally costly isotope labeling reagents, this approach uses only two relatively inexpensive commercially available reagents (IAA and H2O18). The feasibility of the new method is demonstrated using an 80 kDa human serum transferrin (hTf) as a model, where linear quantitation is achieved across a dynamic range spanning three orders of magnitude. The new approach can be used in quantitative proteomics applications and is particularly suitable for a variety of tasks in the biopharmaceutical sector, ranging from pharmacokinetic studies to quality control of protein therapeutics.

  9. Quantitative study of protein-protein interactions by quartz nanopipettes.

    PubMed

    Tiwari, Purushottam Babu; Astudillo, Luisana; Miksovska, Jaroslava; Wang, Xuewen; Li, Wenzhi; Darici, Yesim; He, Jin

    2014-09-01

    In this report, protein-modified quartz nanopipettes were used to quantitatively study protein-protein interactions in attoliter sensing volumes. As shown by numerical simulations, the ionic current through the conical-shaped nanopipette is very sensitive to the surface charge variation near the pore mouth. With the appropriate modification of negatively charged human neuroglobin (hNgb) onto the inner surface of a nanopipette, we were able to detect concentration-dependent current change when the hNgb-modified nanopipette tip was exposed to positively charged cytochrome c (Cyt c) with a series of concentrations in the bath solution. Such current change is due to the adsorption of Cyt c to the inner surface of the nanopipette through specific interactions with hNgb. In contrast, a smaller current change with weak concentration dependence was observed when Cyt c was replaced with lysozyme, which does not specifically bind to hNgb. The equilibrium dissociation constant (KD) for the Cyt c-hNgb complex formation was derived and the value matched very well with the result from surface plasmon resonance measurement. This is the first quantitative study of protein-protein interactions by a conical-shaped nanopore based on charge sensing. Our results demonstrate that nanopipettes can potentially be used as a label-free analytical tool to quantitatively characterize protein-protein interactions.

  10. Quantitative analysis of G-protein-coupled receptor internalization using DnaE intein-based assay.

    PubMed

    Lu, Bin; Chen, Linjie; Zhang, Yaping; Shi, Ying; Zhou, Naiming

    2016-01-01

    G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), the largest family of cell surface receptors, are involved in many physiological processes. They represent highly important therapeutic targets for drug discovery. Currently, there are numerous cell-based assays developed for the pharmacological profiling of GPCRs and the identification of novel agonists and antagonists. However, the development of new, faster, easier, and more cost-effective approaches to detect GPCR activity remains highly desirable. β-arrestin-dependent internalization has been demonstrated to be a common mechanism for most GPCRs. Here we describe a novel assay for quantitative analysis of GPCR internalization based on DnaE intein-mediated reconstitution of fragmented Renilla luciferase or Firefly luciferase when activated GPCRs interact with β-arrestin2 or Rab5. Further validation, using functionally divergent GPCRs, showed that EC50 values obtained for the known agonists and antagonists were in close agreement with the results of previous reports. This suggests that this assay is sensitive enough to permit quantification of GPCR internalization. Compared with conventional assays, this novel assay system is cost-effective, rapid, and easy to manipulate. These advantages may allow this assay to be used universally as a functional cell-based system for GPCR characterization and in the screening process of drug discovery. PMID:26928549

  11. Bence-Jones protein - quantitative

    MedlinePlus

    Immunoglobulin light chains - urine; Urine Bence-Jones protein ... Bence-Jones proteins are a part of regular antibodies called light chains. These proteins are not normally in urine. Sometimes, when ...

  12. Stoichiometry of chromatin-associated protein complexes revealed by label-free quantitative mass spectrometry-based proteomics.

    PubMed

    Smits, Arne H; Jansen, Pascal W T C; Poser, Ina; Hyman, Anthony A; Vermeulen, Michiel

    2013-01-01

    Many cellular proteins assemble into macromolecular protein complexes. The identification of protein-protein interactions and quantification of their stoichiometry is therefore crucial to understand the molecular function of protein complexes. Determining the stoichiometry of protein complexes is usually achieved by mass spectrometry-based methods that rely on introducing stable isotope-labeled reference peptides into the sample of interest. However, these approaches are laborious and not suitable for high-throughput screenings. Here, we describe a robust and easy to implement label-free relative quantification approach that combines the detection of high-confidence protein-protein interactions with an accurate determination of the stoichiometry of the identified protein-protein interactions in a single experiment. We applied this method to two chromatin-associated protein complexes for which the stoichiometry thus far remained elusive: the MBD3/NuRD and PRC2 complex. For each of these complexes, we accurately determined the stoichiometry of the core subunits while at the same time identifying novel interactors and their stoichiometry.

  13. MaXIC-Q Web: a fully automated web service using statistical and computational methods for protein quantitation based on stable isotope labeling and LC-MS.

    PubMed

    Tsou, Chih-Chiang; Tsui, Yin-Hao; Yian, Yi-Hwa; Chen, Yi-Ju; Yang, Han-Yin; Yu, Chuan-Yih; Lynn, Ke-Shiuan; Chen, Yu-Ju; Sung, Ting-Yi; Hsu, Wen-Lian

    2009-07-01

    Isotope labeling combined with liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) provides a robust platform for analyzing differential protein expression in proteomics research. We present a web service, called MaXIC-Q Web (http://ms.iis.sinica.edu.tw/MaXIC-Q_Web/), for quantitation analysis of large-scale datasets generated from proteomics experiments using various stable isotope-labeling techniques, e.g. SILAC, ICAT and user-developed labeling methods. It accepts spectral files in the standard mzXML format and search results from SEQUEST, Mascot and ProteinProphet as input. Furthermore, MaXIC-Q Web uses statistical and computational methods to construct two kinds of elution profiles for each ion, namely, PIMS (projected ion mass spectrum) and XIC (extracted ion chromatogram) from MS data. Toward accurate quantitation, a stringent validation procedure is performed on PIMSs to filter out peptide ions interfered with co-eluting peptides or noise. The areas of XICs determine ion abundances, which are used to calculate peptide and protein ratios. Since MaXIC-Q Web adopts stringent validation on spectral data, it achieves high accuracy so that manual validation effort can be substantially reduced. Furthermore, it provides various visualization diagrams and comprehensive quantitation reports so that users can conveniently inspect quantitation results. In summary, MaXIC-Q Web is a user-friendly, interactive, robust, generic web service for quantitation based on ICAT and SILAC labeling techniques.

  14. Quantitative identification of protein nitration sites.

    PubMed

    Chiappetta, Giovanni; Corbo, Claudia; Palmese, Angelo; Galli, Francesco; Piroddi, Marta; Marino, Gennaro; Amoresano, Angela

    2009-03-01

    Several labelling strategies have been developed targeting specific amino acid residues and/or PTMs. Methods specifically tailored for the qualitative and sometimes quantitative determination of PTMs have emerged. Many research groups have focused their attention towards o-nitrotyrosine residues, developing various methodologies for their identification, while direct quantification has remained elusive. So far the iTRAQ chemistry has been limited to primary amines. Here, we report a new strategy based on the use of iTRAQ reagents coupled to MS analysis for the selective labelling of o-nitrotyrosine residues. This method was proved to lead to the simultaneous localisation and quantification of nitration sites both in model proteins and in biological systems. PMID:19242934

  15. Green fluorescent protein as a quantitative tool.

    PubMed

    Hack, N J; Billups, B; Guthrie, P B; Rogers, J H; Muir, E M; Parks, T N; Kater, S B

    2000-02-15

    Manipulating the expression of a protein can provide a powerful tool for understanding its function, provided that the protein is expressed at physiologically-significant concentrations. We have developed a simple method to measure (1) the concentration of an overexpressed protein in single cells and (2) the covariation of particular physiological properties with a protein's expression. As an example of how this method can be used, teratocarcinoma cells were transfected with the neuron-specific calcium binding protein calretinin (CR) tagged with green fluorescent protein (GFP). By measuring GFP fluorescence in microcapillaries, we created a standard curve for GFP fluorescence that permitted quantification of CR concentrations in individual cells. Fura-2 measurements in the same cells showed a strong positive correlation between CR-GFP fusion protein expression levels and calcium clearance capacity. This method should allow reliable quantitative analysis of GFP fusion protein expression.

  16. Quantitative Proteomic Approaches for Analysis of Protein S-Nitrosylation.

    PubMed

    Qu, Zhe; Greenlief, C Michael; Gu, Zezong

    2016-01-01

    S-Nitrosylation is a redox-based post-translational modification of a protein in response to nitric oxide (NO) signaling, and it participates in a variety of processes in diverse biological systems. The significance of this type of protein modification in health and diseases is increasingly recognized. In the central nervous system, aberrant S-nitrosylation, due to excessive NO production, is known to cause protein misfolding, mitochondrial dysfunction, transcriptional dysregulation, and neuronal death. This leads to an altered physiological state and consequently contributes to pathogenesis of neurodegenerative disorders. To date, much effort has been made to understand the mechanisms underlying protein S-nitrosylation, and several approaches have been developed to unveil S-nitrosylated proteins from different organisms. Interest in determining the dynamic changes of protein S-nitrosylation under different physiological and pathophysiological conditions has underscored the need for the development of quantitative proteomic approaches. Currently, both gel-based and gel-free mass spectrometry-based quantitative methods are widely used, and they each have advantages and disadvantages but may also be used together to produce complementary data. This review evaluates current available quantitative proteomic techniques for the analysis of protein S-nitrosylation and highlights recent advances, with emphasis on applications in neurodegenerative diseases. An important goal is to provide a comprehensive guide of feasible quantitative proteomic methodologies for examining protein S-nitrosylation in research to yield insights into disease mechanisms, diagnostic biomarkers, and drug discovery.

  17. Decoding protein networks during virus entry by quantitative proteomics.

    PubMed

    Gerold, Gisa; Bruening, Janina; Pietschmann, Thomas

    2016-06-15

    Virus entry into host cells relies on interactions between viral and host structures including lipids, carbohydrates and proteins. Particularly, protein-protein interactions between viral surface proteins and host proteins as well as secondary host protein-protein interactions play a pivotal role in coordinating virus binding and uptake. These interactions are dynamic and frequently involve multiprotein complexes. In the past decade mass spectrometry based proteomics methods have reached sensitivities and high throughput compatibilities of genomics methods and now allow the reliable quantitation of proteins in complex samples from limited material. As proteomics provides essential information on the biologically active entity namely the protein, including its posttranslational modifications and its interactions with other proteins, it is an indispensable method in the virologist's toolbox. Here we review protein interactions during virus entry and compare classical biochemical methods to study entry with novel technically advanced quantitative proteomics techniques. We highlight the value of quantitative proteomics in mapping functional virus entry networks, discuss the benefits and limitations and illustrate how the methodology will help resolve unsettled questions in virus entry research in the future. PMID:26365680

  18. Quantitative interaction proteomics of neurodegenerative disease proteins.

    PubMed

    Hosp, Fabian; Vossfeldt, Hannes; Heinig, Matthias; Vasiljevic, Djordje; Arumughan, Anup; Wyler, Emanuel; Landthaler, Markus; Hubner, Norbert; Wanker, Erich E; Lannfelt, Lars; Ingelsson, Martin; Lalowski, Maciej; Voigt, Aaron; Selbach, Matthias

    2015-05-19

    Several proteins have been linked to neurodegenerative disorders (NDDs), but their molecular function is not completely understood. Here, we used quantitative interaction proteomics to identify binding partners of Amyloid beta precursor protein (APP) and Presenilin-1 (PSEN1) for Alzheimer's disease (AD), Huntingtin (HTT) for Huntington's disease, Parkin (PARK2) for Parkinson's disease, and Ataxin-1 (ATXN1) for spinocerebellar ataxia type 1. Our network reveals common signatures of protein degradation and misfolding and recapitulates known biology. Toxicity modifier screens and comparison to genome-wide association studies show that interaction partners are significantly linked to disease phenotypes in vivo. Direct comparison of wild-type proteins and disease-associated variants identified binders involved in pathogenesis, highlighting the value of differential interactome mapping. Finally, we show that the mitochondrial protein LRPPRC interacts preferentially with an early-onset AD variant of APP. This interaction appears to induce mitochondrial dysfunction, which is an early phenotype of AD.

  19. Quantitative analysis of protein turnover in plants.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Clark J; Li, Lei; Millar, A Harvey

    2014-03-01

    Proteins are constantly being synthesised and degraded as plant cells age and as plants grow, develop and adapt the proteome. Given that plants develop through a series of events from germination to fruiting and even undertake whole organ senescence, an understanding of protein turnover as a fundamental part of this process in plants is essential. Both synthesis and degradation processes are spatially separated in a cell across its compartmented structure. The majority of protein synthesis occurs in the cytosol, while synthesis of specific components occurs inside plastids and mitochondria. Degradation of proteins occurs in both the cytosol, through the action of the plant proteasome, and in organelles and lytic structures through different protease classes. Tracking the specific synthesis and degradation rate of individual proteins can be undertaken using stable isotope feeding and the ability of peptide MS to track labelled peptide fractions over time. Mathematical modelling can be used to follow the isotope signature of newly synthesised protein as it accumulates and natural abundance proteins as they are lost through degradation. Different technical and biological constraints govern the potential for the use of (13)C, (15)N, (2)H and (18)O for these experiments in complete labelling and partial labelling strategies. Future development of quantitative protein turnover analysis will involve analysis of protein populations in complexes and subcellular compartments, assessing the effect of PTMs and integrating turnover studies into wider system biology study of plants.

  20. A gel-free MS-based quantitative proteomic approach accurately measures cytochrome P450 protein concentrations in human liver microsomes.

    PubMed

    Wang, Michael Zhuo; Wu, Judy Qiju; Dennison, Jennifer B; Bridges, Arlene S; Hall, Stephen D; Kornbluth, Sally; Tidwell, Richard R; Smith, Philip C; Voyksner, Robert D; Paine, Mary F; Hall, James Edwin

    2008-10-01

    The human cytochrome P450 (P450) superfamily consists of membrane-bound proteins that metabolize a myriad of xenobiotics and endogenous compounds. Quantification of P450 expression in various tissues under normal and induced conditions has an important role in drug safety and efficacy. Conventional immunoquantification methods have poor dynamic range, low throughput, and a limited number of specific antibodies. Recent advances in MS-based quantitative proteomics enable absolute protein quantification in a complex biological mixture. We have developed a gel-free MS-based protein quantification strategy to quantify CYP3A enzymes in human liver microsomes (HLM). Recombinant protein-derived proteotypic peptides and synthetic stable isotope-labeled proteotypic peptides were used as calibration standards and internal standards, respectively. The lower limit of quantification was approximately 20 fmol P450. In two separate panels of HLM examined (n = 11 and n = 22), CYP3A, CYP3A4 and CYP3A5 concentrations were determined reproducibly (CV based method strongly correlated with the immunoquantification method (r(2)>or=0.87) and marker activities (r(2)>or=0.88), including testosterone 6beta-hydroxylation (CYP3A), midazolam 1'-hydroxylation (CYP3A), itraconazole 6-hydroxylation (CYP3A4) and CYP3A5-mediated vincristine M1 formation (CYP3A5). Taken together, our MS-based method provides a specific, sensitive and reliable means of P450 protein quantification and should facilitate P450 characterization during drug development, especially when specific substrates and/or antibodies are unavailable.

  1. Attomole quantitation of protein separations with accelerator mass spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Vogel, J S; Grant, P G; Buccholz, B A; Dingley, K; Turteltaub, K W

    2000-12-15

    Quantification of specific proteins depends on separation by chromatography or electrophoresis followed by chemical detection schemes such as staining and fluorophore adhesion. Chemical exchange of short-lived isotopes, particularly sulfur, is also prevalent despite the inconveniences of counting radioactivity. Physical methods based on isotopic and elemental analyses offer highly sensitive protein quantitation that has linear response over wide dynamic ranges and is independent of protein conformation. Accelerator mass spectrometry quantifies long-lived isotopes such as 14C to sub-attomole sensitivity. We quantified protein interactions with small molecules such as toxins, vitamins, and natural biochemicals at precisions of 1-5% . Micro-proton-induced-xray-emission quantifies elemental abundances in separated metalloprotein samples to nanogram amounts and is capable of quantifying phosphorylated loci in gels. Accelerator-based quantitation is a possible tool for quantifying the genome translation into proteome.

  2. Highly Multiplexed and Reproducible Ion-Current-Based Strategy for Large-Scale Quantitative Proteomics and the Application to Protein Expression Dynamics Induced by Methylprednisolone in 60 Rats

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    A proteome-level time-series study of drug effects (i.e., pharmacodynamics) is critical for understanding mechanisms of action and systems pharmacology, but is challenging, because of the requirement of a proteomics method for reliable quantification of many biological samples. Here, we describe a highly reproducible strategy, enabling a global, large-scale investigation of the expression dynamics of corticosteroid-regulated proteins in livers from adrenalectomized rats over 11 time points after drug dosing (0.5–66 h, N = 5/point). The analytical advances include (i) exhaustive tissue extraction with a Polytron/sonication procedure in a detergent cocktail buffer, and a cleanup/digestion procedure providing very consistent protein yields (relative standard deviation (RSD%) of 2.7%–6.4%) and peptide recoveries (4.1–9.0%) across the 60 animals; (ii) an ultrahigh-pressure nano-LC setup with substantially improved temperature stabilization, pump-noise suppression, and programmed interface cleaning, enabling excellent reproducibility for continuous analyses of numerous samples; (iii) separation on a 100-cm-long column (2-μm particles) with high reproducibility for days to enable both in-depth profiling and accurate peptide ion-current match; and (iv) well-controlled ion-current-based quantification. To obtain high-quality quantitative data necessary to describe the 11 time-points protein expression temporal profiles, strict criteria were used to define “quantifiable proteins”. A total of 323 drug-responsive proteins were revealed with confidence, and the time profiles of these proteins provided new insights into the diverse temporal changes of biological cascades associated with hepatic metabolism, response to hormone stimuli, gluconeogenesis, inflammatory responses, and protein translation processes. Most profile changes persisted well after the drug was eliminated. The developed strategy can also be broadly applied in preclinical and clinical research, where

  3. Quantitative Proteomics-Based Reconstruction and Identification of Metabolic Pathways and Membrane Transport Proteins Related to Sugar Accumulation in Developing Fruits of Pear (Pyrus communis).

    PubMed

    Reuscher, Stefan; Fukao, Yoichiro; Morimoto, Reina; Otagaki, Shungo; Oikawa, Akira; Isuzugawa, Kanji; Shiratake, Katsuhiro

    2016-03-01

    During their 6 month development, pear (Pyrus communis) fruits undergo drastic changes in their morphology and their chemical composition. To gain a better understanding of the metabolic pathways and transport processes active during fruit development, we performed a time-course analysis using mass spectrometry (MS)-based protein identification and quantification of fruit flesh tissues. After pre-fractionation of the samples, 2,841 proteins were identified. A principal component analysis (PCA) separated the samples from seven developmental stages into three distinct clusters representing the early, mid and late developmental phase. Over-representation analysis of proteins characteristic of each developmental phase revealed both expected and novel biological processes relevant at each phase. A high abundance of aquaporins was detected in samples from fruits in the cell expansion stage. We were able quantitatively to reconstruct basic metabolic pathways such as the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle, which indicates sufficient coverage to reconstruct other metabolic pathways. Most of the enzymes that presumably contribute to sugar accumulation in pear fruits could be identified. Our data indicate that invertases do not play a major role in the sugar conversions in developing pear fruits. Rather, sucrose might be broken down by sucrose synthases. Further focusing on sugar transporters, we identified several putative sugar transporters from diverse families which showed developmental regulation. In conclusion, our data set comprehensively describes the proteome of developing pear fruits and provides novel insights about sugar accumulation as well as candidate genes for key reactions and transport steps.

  4. Quantitative Proteomics-Based Reconstruction and Identification of Metabolic Pathways and Membrane Transport Proteins Related to Sugar Accumulation in Developing Fruits of Pear (Pyrus communis).

    PubMed

    Reuscher, Stefan; Fukao, Yoichiro; Morimoto, Reina; Otagaki, Shungo; Oikawa, Akira; Isuzugawa, Kanji; Shiratake, Katsuhiro

    2016-03-01

    During their 6 month development, pear (Pyrus communis) fruits undergo drastic changes in their morphology and their chemical composition. To gain a better understanding of the metabolic pathways and transport processes active during fruit development, we performed a time-course analysis using mass spectrometry (MS)-based protein identification and quantification of fruit flesh tissues. After pre-fractionation of the samples, 2,841 proteins were identified. A principal component analysis (PCA) separated the samples from seven developmental stages into three distinct clusters representing the early, mid and late developmental phase. Over-representation analysis of proteins characteristic of each developmental phase revealed both expected and novel biological processes relevant at each phase. A high abundance of aquaporins was detected in samples from fruits in the cell expansion stage. We were able quantitatively to reconstruct basic metabolic pathways such as the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle, which indicates sufficient coverage to reconstruct other metabolic pathways. Most of the enzymes that presumably contribute to sugar accumulation in pear fruits could be identified. Our data indicate that invertases do not play a major role in the sugar conversions in developing pear fruits. Rather, sucrose might be broken down by sucrose synthases. Further focusing on sugar transporters, we identified several putative sugar transporters from diverse families which showed developmental regulation. In conclusion, our data set comprehensively describes the proteome of developing pear fruits and provides novel insights about sugar accumulation as well as candidate genes for key reactions and transport steps. PMID:26755692

  5. Quantitative protein localization signatures reveal an association between spatial and functional divergences of proteins.

    PubMed

    Loo, Lit-Hsin; Laksameethanasan, Danai; Tung, Yi-Ling

    2014-03-01

    Protein subcellular localization is a major determinant of protein function. However, this important protein feature is often described in terms of discrete and qualitative categories of subcellular compartments, and therefore it has limited applications in quantitative protein function analyses. Here, we present Protein Localization Analysis and Search Tools (PLAST), an automated analysis framework for constructing and comparing quantitative signatures of protein subcellular localization patterns based on microscopy images. PLAST produces human-interpretable protein localization maps that quantitatively describe the similarities in the localization patterns of proteins and major subcellular compartments, without requiring manual assignment or supervised learning of these compartments. Using the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a model system, we show that PLAST is more accurate than existing, qualitative protein localization annotations in identifying known co-localized proteins. Furthermore, we demonstrate that PLAST can reveal protein localization-function relationships that are not obvious from these annotations. First, we identified proteins that have similar localization patterns and participate in closely-related biological processes, but do not necessarily form stable complexes with each other or localize at the same organelles. Second, we found an association between spatial and functional divergences of proteins during evolution. Surprisingly, as proteins with common ancestors evolve, they tend to develop more diverged subcellular localization patterns, but still occupy similar numbers of compartments. This suggests that divergence of protein localization might be more frequently due to the development of more specific localization patterns over ancestral compartments than the occupation of new compartments. PLAST enables systematic and quantitative analyses of protein localization-function relationships, and will be useful to elucidate protein

  6. Modern quantitative acid-base chemistry.

    PubMed

    Stewart, P A

    1983-12-01

    Quantitative analysis of ionic solutions in terms of physical and chemical principles has been effectively prohibited in the past by the overwhelming amount of calculation it required, but computers have suddenly eliminated that prohibition. The result is an approach to acid-base which revolutionizes our ability to understand, predict, and control what happens to hydrogen ions in living systems. This review outlines that approach and suggests some of its most useful implications. Quantitative understanding requires distinctions between independent variables (in body fluids: pCO2, net strong ion charge, and total weak acid, usually protein), and dependent variables [( HCO-3], [HA], [A-], [CO(2-)3], [OH-], and [H+] (or pH]. Dependent variables are determined by independent variables, and can be calculated from the defining equations for the specific system. Hydrogen ion movements between solutions can not affect hydrogen ion concentration; only changes in independent variables can. Many current models for ion movements through membranes will require modification on the basis of this quantitative analysis. Whole body acid-base balance can be understood quantitatively in terms of the three independent variables and their physiological regulation by the lungs, kidneys, gut, and liver. Quantitative analysis also shows that body fluids interact mainly by strong ion movements through the membranes separating them.

  7. Quantitative assessment of protein function prediction programs.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, B N; Steffens, M B R; Raittz, R T; Santos-Weiss, I C R; Marchaukoski, J N

    2015-12-21

    Fast prediction of protein function is essential for high-throughput sequencing analysis. Bioinformatic resources provide cheaper and faster techniques for function prediction and have helped to accelerate the process of protein sequence characterization. In this study, we assessed protein function prediction programs that accept amino acid sequences as input. We analyzed the classification, equality, and similarity between programs, and, additionally, compared program performance. The following programs were selected for our assessment: Blast2GO, InterProScan, PANTHER, Pfam, and ScanProsite. This selection was based on the high number of citations (over 500), fully automatic analysis, and the possibility of returning a single best classification per sequence. We tested these programs using 12 gold standard datasets from four different sources. The gold standard classification of the databases was based on expert analysis, the Protein Data Bank, or the Structure-Function Linkage Database. We found that the miss rate among the programs is globally over 50%. Furthermore, we observed little overlap in the correct predictions from each program. Therefore, a combination of multiple types of sources and methods, including experimental data, protein-protein interaction, and data mining, may be the best way to generate more reliable predictions and decrease the miss rate.

  8. Quantitative assessment of protein function prediction programs.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, B N; Steffens, M B R; Raittz, R T; Santos-Weiss, I C R; Marchaukoski, J N

    2015-01-01

    Fast prediction of protein function is essential for high-throughput sequencing analysis. Bioinformatic resources provide cheaper and faster techniques for function prediction and have helped to accelerate the process of protein sequence characterization. In this study, we assessed protein function prediction programs that accept amino acid sequences as input. We analyzed the classification, equality, and similarity between programs, and, additionally, compared program performance. The following programs were selected for our assessment: Blast2GO, InterProScan, PANTHER, Pfam, and ScanProsite. This selection was based on the high number of citations (over 500), fully automatic analysis, and the possibility of returning a single best classification per sequence. We tested these programs using 12 gold standard datasets from four different sources. The gold standard classification of the databases was based on expert analysis, the Protein Data Bank, or the Structure-Function Linkage Database. We found that the miss rate among the programs is globally over 50%. Furthermore, we observed little overlap in the correct predictions from each program. Therefore, a combination of multiple types of sources and methods, including experimental data, protein-protein interaction, and data mining, may be the best way to generate more reliable predictions and decrease the miss rate. PMID:26782400

  9. A quantitative measure for protein conformational heterogeneity

    PubMed Central

    Lyle, Nicholas; Das, Rahul K.; Pappu, Rohit V.

    2013-01-01

    Conformational heterogeneity is a defining characteristic of proteins. Intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs) and denatured state ensembles are extreme manifestations of this heterogeneity. Inferences regarding globule versus coil formation can be drawn from analysis of polymeric properties such as average size, shape, and density fluctuations. Here we introduce a new parameter to quantify the degree of conformational heterogeneity within an ensemble to complement polymeric descriptors. The design of this parameter is guided by the need to distinguish between systems that couple their unfolding-folding transitions with coil-to-globule transitions and those systems that undergo coil-to-globule transitions with no evidence of acquiring a homogeneous ensemble of conformations upon collapse. The approach is as follows: Each conformation in an ensemble is converted into a conformational vector where the elements are inter-residue distances. Similarity between pairs of conformations is quantified using the projection between the corresponding conformational vectors. An ensemble of conformations yields a distribution of pairwise projections, which is converted into a distribution of pairwise conformational dissimilarities. The first moment of this dissimilarity distribution is normalized against the first moment of the distribution obtained by comparing conformations from the ensemble of interest to conformations drawn from a Flory random coil model. The latter sets an upper bound on conformational heterogeneity thus ensuring that the proposed measure for intra-ensemble heterogeneity is properly calibrated and can be used to compare ensembles for different sequences and across different temperatures. The new measure of conformational heterogeneity will be useful in quantitative studies of coupled folding and binding of IDPs and in de novo sequence design efforts that are geared toward controlling the degree of heterogeneity in unbound forms of IDPs. PMID:24089719

  10. Quantitative analysis of protein-ligand interactions by NMR.

    PubMed

    Furukawa, Ayako; Konuma, Tsuyoshi; Yanaka, Saeko; Sugase, Kenji

    2016-08-01

    Protein-ligand interactions have been commonly studied through static structures of the protein-ligand complex. Recently, however, there has been increasing interest in investigating the dynamics of protein-ligand interactions both for fundamental understanding of the underlying mechanisms and for drug development. NMR is a versatile and powerful tool, especially because it provides site-specific quantitative information. NMR has widely been used to determine the dissociation constant (KD), in particular, for relatively weak interactions. The simplest NMR method is a chemical-shift titration experiment, in which the chemical-shift changes of a protein in response to ligand titration are measured. There are other quantitative NMR methods, but they mostly apply only to interactions in the fast-exchange regime. These methods derive the dissociation constant from population-averaged NMR quantities of the free and bound states of a protein or ligand. In contrast, the recent advent of new relaxation-based experiments, including R2 relaxation dispersion and ZZ-exchange, has enabled us to obtain kinetic information on protein-ligand interactions in the intermediate- and slow-exchange regimes. Based on R2 dispersion or ZZ-exchange, methods that can determine the association rate, kon, dissociation rate, koff, and KD have been developed. In these approaches, R2 dispersion or ZZ-exchange curves are measured for multiple samples with different protein and/or ligand concentration ratios, and the relaxation data are fitted to theoretical kinetic models. It is critical to choose an appropriate kinetic model, such as the two- or three-state exchange model, to derive the correct kinetic information. The R2 dispersion and ZZ-exchange methods are suitable for the analysis of protein-ligand interactions with a micromolar or sub-micromolar dissociation constant but not for very weak interactions, which are typical in very fast exchange. This contrasts with the NMR methods that are used

  11. A strategy to quantitate global phosphorylation of bone matrix proteins.

    PubMed

    Sroga, Grażyna E; Vashishth, Deepak

    2016-04-15

    Current studies of protein phosphorylation focus primarily on the importance of specific phosphoproteins and their landscapes of phosphorylation in the regulation of different cellular functions. However, global changes in phosphorylation of extracellular matrix phosphoproteins measured "in bulk" are equally important. For example, correct global phosphorylation of different bone matrix proteins is critical to healthy tissue biomineralization. To study changes of bone matrix global phosphorylation, we developed a strategy that combines a procedure for in vitro phosphorylation/dephosphorylation of fully mineralized bone in addition to quantitation of the global phosphorylation levels of bone matrix proteins. For the first time, we show that it is possible to enzymatically phosphorylate/dephosphorylate fully mineralized bone originating from either cadaveric human donors or laboratory animals (mice). Using our strategy, we detected the difference in the global phosphorylation levels of matrix proteins isolated from wild-type and osteopontin knockout mice. We also observed that the global phosphorylation levels of matrix proteins isolated from human cortical bone were lower than those isolated from trabecular bone. The developed strategy has the potential to open new avenues for studies on the global phosphorylation of bone matrix proteins and their role in biomineralization as well for other tissues/cells and protein-based materials.

  12. Quantitative analysis of low-abundance serological proteins with peptide affinity-based enrichment and pseudo-multiple reaction monitoring by hybrid quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kwang Hoe; Ahn, Yeong Hee; Ji, Eun Sun; Lee, Ju Yeon; Kim, Jin Young; An, Hyun Joo; Yoo, Jong Shin

    2015-07-01

    Multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) is commonly used for the quantitative analysis of proteins during mass pectrometry (MS), and has excellent specificity and sensitivity for an analyte in a complex sample. In this study, a pseudo-MRM method for the quantitative analysis of low-abundance serological proteins was developed using hybrid quadrupole time-of-flight (hybrid Q-TOF) MS and peptide affinity-based enrichment. First, a pseudo-MRM-based analysis using hybrid Q-TOF MS was performed for synthetic peptides selected as targets and spiked into tryptic digests of human serum. By integrating multiple transition signals corresponding to fragment ions in the full scan MS/MS spectrum of a precursor ion of the target peptide, a pseudo-MRM MS analysis of the target peptide showed an increased signal-to-noise (S/N) ratio and sensitivity, as well as an improved reproducibility. The pseudo-MRM method was then used for the quantitative analysis of the tryptic peptides of two low-abundance serological proteins, tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 1 (TIMP1) and tissue-type protein tyrosine phosphatase kappa (PTPκ), which were prepared with peptide affinity-based enrichment from human serum. Finally, this method was used to detect femtomolar amounts of target peptides derived from TIMP1 and PTPκ, with good coefficients of variation (CV 2.7% and 9.8%, respectively), using a few microliters of human serum from colorectal cancer patients. The results suggest that pseudo-MRM using hybrid Q-TOF MS, combined with peptide affinity-based enrichment, could become a promising alternative for the quantitative analysis of low-abundance target proteins of interest in complex serum samples that avoids protein depletion.

  13. Overcoming the metabolic burden of protein secretion in Schizosaccharomyces pombe--a quantitative approach using 13C-based metabolic flux analysis.

    PubMed

    Klein, Tobias; Lange, Sabrina; Wilhelm, Nadine; Bureik, Matthias; Yang, Tae-Hoon; Heinzle, Elmar; Schneider, Konstantin

    2014-01-01

    Protein secretion in yeast is generally associated with a burden to cellular metabolism. To investigate this metabolic burden in Schizosaccharomyces pombe, we constructed a set of strains secreting the model protein maltase in different amounts. We quantified the influence of protein secretion on the metabolism applying (13)C-based metabolic flux analysis in chemostat cultures. Analysis of the macromolecular biomass composition revealed an increase in cellular lipid content at elevated levels of protein secretion and we observed altered metabolic fluxes in the pentose phosphate pathway, the TCA cycle, and around the pyruvate node including mitochondrial NADPH supply. Supplementing acetate to glucose or glycerol minimal media was found to improve protein secretion, accompanied by an increased cellular lipid content and carbon flux through the TCA cycle as well as increased mitochondrial NADPH production. Thus, systematic metabolic analyses can assist in identifying factors limiting protein secretion and in deriving strategies to overcome these limitations.

  14. Heterogeneity mapping of protein expression in tumors using quantitative immunofluorescence.

    PubMed

    Faratian, Dana; Christiansen, Jason; Gustavson, Mark; Jones, Christine; Scott, Christopher; Um, InHwa; Harrison, David J

    2011-10-25

    and subject to intra- and inter-observer bias, more sensitive and quantitative methodologies are required in order to accurately map and quantify tissue heterogeneity in situ. We have developed and applied an experimental and statistical methodology in order to systematically quantify the heterogeneity of protein expression in whole tissue sections of tumors, based on the Automated QUantitative Analysis (AQUA) system(6). Tissue sections are labeled with specific antibodies directed against cytokeratins and targets of interest, coupled to fluorophore-labeled secondary antibodies. Slides are imaged using a whole-slide fluorescence scanner. Images are subdivided into hundreds to thousands of tiles, and each tile is then assigned an AQUA score which is a measure of protein concentration within the epithelial (tumor) component of the tissue. Heatmaps are generated to represent tissue expression of the proteins and a heterogeneity score assigned, using a statistical measure of heterogeneity originally used in ecology, based on the Simpson's biodiversity index(7). To date there have been no attempts to systematically map and quantify this variability in tandem with protein expression, in histological preparations. Here, we illustrate the first use of the method applied to ER and HER2 biomarker expression in ovarian cancer. Using this method paves the way for analyzing heterogeneity as an independent variable in studies of biomarker expression in translational studies, in order to establish the significance of heterogeneity in prognosis and prediction of responses to therapy.

  15. Muscadine Grape Skin Extract Induces an Unfolded Protein Response-Mediated Autophagy in Prostate Cancer Cells: A TMT-Based Quantitative Proteomic Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Burton, Liza J.; Rivera, Mariela; Hawsawi, Ohuod; Zou, Jin; Hudson, Tamaro; Wang, Guangdi; Zhang, Qiang; Cubano, Luis; Boukli, Nawal; Odero-Marah, Valerie

    2016-01-01

    Muscadine grape skin extract (MSKE) is derived from muscadine grape (Vitis rotundifolia), a common red grape used to produce red wine. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress activates the unfolded protein response (UPR) that serves as a survival mechanism to relieve ER stress and restore ER homeostasis. However, when persistent, ER stress can alter the cytoprotective functions of the UPR to promote autophagy and cell death. Although MSKE has been documented to induce apoptosis, it has not been linked to ER stress/UPR/autophagy. We hypothesized that MSKE may induce a severe ER stress response-mediated autophagy leading to apoptosis. As a model, we treated C4-2 prostate cancer cells with MSKE and performed a quantitative Tandem Mass Tag Isobaric Labeling proteomic analysis. ER stress response, autophagy and apoptosis were analyzed by western blot, acridine orange and TUNEL/Annexin V staining, respectively. Quantitative proteomics analysis indicated that ER stress response proteins, such as GRP78 were greatly elevated following treatment with MSKE. The up-regulation of pro-apoptotic markers PARP, caspase-12, cleaved caspase-3, -7, BAX and down-regulation of anti-apoptotic marker BCL2 was confirmed by Western blot analysis and apoptosis was visualized by increased TUNEL/Annexin V staining upon MSKE treatment. Moreover, increased acridine orange, and LC3B staining was detected in MSKE-treated cells, suggesting an ER stress/autophagy response. Finally, MSKE-mediated autophagy and apoptosis was antagonized by co-treatment with chloroquine, an autophagy inhibitor. Our results indicate that MSKE can elicit an UPR that can eventually lead to apoptosis in prostate cancer cells. PMID:27755556

  16. Quantitative evaluation of marine protein contribution in ancient diets based on nitrogen isotope ratios of individual amino acids in bone collagen: an investigation at the Kitakogane Jomon site.

    PubMed

    Naito, Yuichi I; Honch, Noah V; Chikaraishi, Yoshito; Ohkouchi, Naohiko; Yoneda, Minoru

    2010-09-01

    Nitrogen stable isotopes analysis of individual bone collagen amino acids was applied to archeological samples as a new tool for assessing the composition of ancient human diets and calibrating radiocarbon dates. We used this technique to investigate human and faunal samples from the Kitakogane shell midden in Hokkaido, Japan (5,300-6,000 cal BP). Using compound-specific nitrogen isotope analysis of individual amino acids, we aimed to estimate i) the quantitative contribution of marine and terrestrial protein to the human diet, and ii) the mean trophic level (TL) from which dietary protein was derived from marine ecosystems. Data were interpreted with reference to the amino acid trophic level (TL(AA)) model, which uses empirical amino acid delta(15)N from modern marine fauna to construct mathematical equations that predict the trophic position of organisms. The TL(AA) model produced realistic TL estimates for the Kitakogane marine animals. However, this model was not appropriate for the interpretation of human amino acid delta(15)N, as dietary protein is derived from both marine and terrestrial environments. Hence, we developed a series of relevant equations that considered the consumption of dietary resources from both ecosystems. Using these equations, the mean percentage of marine protein in the Kitakogane human diet was estimated to be 74%. Although this study is one of the first systematic investigations of amino acid delta(15)N in archeological bone collagen, we believe that this technique is extremely useful for TL reconstruction, palaeodietary interpretation, and the correction of marine reservoir effects for radiocarbon dating.

  17. Protein Crystal Based Nanomaterials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bell, Jeffrey A.; VanRoey, Patrick

    2001-01-01

    This is the final report on a NASA Grant. It concerns a description of work done, which includes: (1) Protein crystals cross-linked to form fibers; (2) Engineering of protein to favor crystallization; (3) Better knowledge-based potentials for protein-protein contacts; (4) Simulation of protein crystallization.

  18. Quantitative thermophoretic study of disease-related protein aggregates

    PubMed Central

    Wolff , Manuel; Mittag, Judith J.; Herling, Therese W.; Genst, Erwin De; Dobson, Christopher M.; Knowles, Tuomas P. J.; Braun, Dieter; Buell, Alexander K.

    2016-01-01

    Amyloid fibrils are a hallmark of a range of neurodegenerative disorders, including Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s diseases. A detailed understanding of the physico-chemical properties of the different aggregated forms of proteins, and of their interactions with other compounds of diagnostic or therapeutic interest, is crucial for devising effective strategies against such diseases. Protein aggregates are situated at the boundary between soluble and insoluble structures, and are challenging to study because classical biophysical techniques, such as scattering, spectroscopic and calorimetric methods, are not well adapted for their study. Here we present a detailed characterization of the thermophoretic behavior of different forms of the protein α-synuclein, whose aggregation is associated with Parkinson’s disease. Thermophoresis is the directed net diffusional flux of molecules and colloidal particles in a temperature gradient. Because of their low volume requirements and rapidity, analytical methods based on this effect have considerable potential for high throughput screening for drug discovery. In this paper we rationalize and describe in quantitative terms the thermophoretic behavior of monomeric, oligomeric and fibrillar forms of α-synuclein. Furthermore, we demonstrate that microscale thermophoresis (MST) is a valuable method for screening for ligands and binding partners of even such highly challenging samples as supramolecular protein aggregates. PMID:26984748

  19. Beyond hairballs: the use of quantitative mass spectrometry data to understand protein-protein interactions

    PubMed Central

    Gingras, Anne-Claude; Raught, Brian

    2012-01-01

    The past 10 years have witnessed a dramatic proliferation in the availability of protein interaction data. However, for interaction mapping based on affinity purification coupled with mass spectrometry (AP-MS), there is a wealth of information present in the datasets that often goes unrecorded in public repositories, and as such remains largely unexplored. Further, how this type of data is represented and used by bioinformaticians has not been well established. Here, we point out some common mistakes in how AP-MS data are handled, and describe how protein complex organization and interaction dynamics can be inferred using quantitative AP-MS approaches. PMID:22710165

  20. Quantitative Tagless Copurification: A Method to Validate and Identify Protein-Protein Interactions

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Shatsky, Maxim; Dong, Ming; Liu, Haichuan; Yang, Lee Lisheng; Choi, Megan; Singer, Mary; Geller, Jil; Fisher, Susan; Hall, Steven; Hazen, Terry C.; et al

    2016-04-20

    Identifying protein-protein interactions (PPIs) at an acceptable false discovery rate (FDR) is challenging. Previously we identified several hundred PPIs from affinity purification - mass spectrometry (AP-MS) data for the bacteria Escherichia coli and Desulfovibrio vulgaris. These two interactomes have lower FDRs than any of the nine interactomes proposed previously for bacteria and are more enriched in PPIs validated by other data than the nine earlier interactomes. To more thoroughly determine the accuracy of ours or other interactomes and to discover further PPIs de novo, here we present a quantitative tagless method that employs iTRAQ MS to measure the copurification ofmore » endogenous proteins through orthogonal chromatography steps. 5273 fractions from a four-step fractionation of a D. vulgaris protein extract were assayed, resulting in the detection of 1242 proteins. Protein partners from our D. vulgaris and E. coli AP-MS interactomes copurify as frequently as pairs belonging to three benchmark data sets of well-characterized PPIs. In contrast, the protein pairs from the nine other bacterial interactomes copurify two- to 20-fold less often. We also identify 200 high confidence D. vulgaris PPIs based on tagless copurification and colocalization in the genome. These PPIs are as strongly validated by other data as our AP-MS interactomes and overlap with our AP-MS interactome for D.vulgaris within 3% of expectation, once FDRs and false negative rates are taken into account. Finally, we reanalyzed data from two quantitative tagless screens of human cell extracts. We estimate that the novel PPIs reported in these studies have an FDR of at least 85% and find that less than 7% of the novel PPIs identified in each screen overlap. Our results establish that a quantitative tagless method can be used to validate and identify PPIs, but that such data must be analyzed carefully to minimize the FDR.« less

  1. Quantitative Tagless Copurification: A Method to Validate and Identify Protein-Protein Interactions.

    PubMed

    Shatsky, Maxim; Dong, Ming; Liu, Haichuan; Yang, Lee Lisheng; Choi, Megan; Singer, Mary E; Geller, Jil T; Fisher, Susan J; Hall, Steven C; Hazen, Terry C; Brenner, Steven E; Butland, Gareth; Jin, Jian; Witkowska, H Ewa; Chandonia, John-Marc; Biggin, Mark D

    2016-06-01

    Identifying protein-protein interactions (PPIs) at an acceptable false discovery rate (FDR) is challenging. Previously we identified several hundred PPIs from affinity purification - mass spectrometry (AP-MS) data for the bacteria Escherichia coli and Desulfovibrio vulgaris These two interactomes have lower FDRs than any of the nine interactomes proposed previously for bacteria and are more enriched in PPIs validated by other data than the nine earlier interactomes. To more thoroughly determine the accuracy of ours or other interactomes and to discover further PPIs de novo, here we present a quantitative tagless method that employs iTRAQ MS to measure the copurification of endogenous proteins through orthogonal chromatography steps. 5273 fractions from a four-step fractionation of a D. vulgaris protein extract were assayed, resulting in the detection of 1242 proteins. Protein partners from our D. vulgaris and E. coli AP-MS interactomes copurify as frequently as pairs belonging to three benchmark data sets of well-characterized PPIs. In contrast, the protein pairs from the nine other bacterial interactomes copurify two- to 20-fold less often. We also identify 200 high confidence D. vulgaris PPIs based on tagless copurification and colocalization in the genome. These PPIs are as strongly validated by other data as our AP-MS interactomes and overlap with our AP-MS interactome for D.vulgaris within 3% of expectation, once FDRs and false negative rates are taken into account. Finally, we reanalyzed data from two quantitative tagless screens of human cell extracts. We estimate that the novel PPIs reported in these studies have an FDR of at least 85% and find that less than 7% of the novel PPIs identified in each screen overlap. Our results establish that a quantitative tagless method can be used to validate and identify PPIs, but that such data must be analyzed carefully to minimize the FDR. PMID:27099342

  2. Quantitative Tagless Copurification: A Method to Validate and Identify Protein-Protein Interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Shatsky, Maxim; Dong, Ming; Liu, Haichuan; Yang, Lee Lisheng; Choi, Megan; Singer, Mary; Geller, Jil; Fisher, Susan; Hall, Steven; Hazen, Terry C; Brenner, Steven; Butland, Gareth; Jin, Jian; Witkowska, H. Ewa; Chandonia, John-Marc; Biggin, Mark D.

    2016-01-01

    Identifying protein-protein interactions (PPIs) at an acceptable false discovery rate (FDR) is challenging. Previously we identified several hundred PPIs from affinity purification - mass spectrometry (AP-MS) data for the bacteria Escherichia coli and Desulfovibrio vulgaris. These two interactomes have lower FDRs than any of the nine interactomes proposed previously for bacteria and are more enriched in PPIs validated by other data than the nine earlier interactomes. To more thoroughly determine the accuracy of ours or other interactomes and to discover further PPIs de novo, here we present a quantitative tagless method that employs iTRAQ MS to measure the copurification of endogenous proteins through orthogonal chromatography steps. 5273 fractions from a four-step fractionation of a D. vulgaris protein extract were assayed, resulting in the detection of 1242 proteins. Protein partners from our D. vulgaris and E. coli AP-MS interactomes copurify as frequently as pairs belonging to three benchmark data sets of well-characterized PPIs. In contrast, the protein pairs from the nine other bacterial interactomes copurify two- to 20-fold less often. We also identify 200 high confidence D. vulgaris PPIs based on tagless copurification and colocalization in the genome. These PPIs are as strongly validated by other data as our AP-MS interactomes and overlap with our AP-MS interactome for D.vulgaris within 3% of expectation, once FDRs and false negative rates are taken into account. Finally, we reanalyzed data from two quantitative tagless screens of human cell extracts. We estimate that the novel PPIs reported in these studies have an FDR of at least 85% and find that less than 7% of the novel PPIs identified in each screen overlap. Our results establish that a quantitative tagless method can be used to validate and identify PPIs, but that such data must be analyzed carefully to minimize the FDR.

  3. Quantitative Tagless Copurification: A Method to Validate and Identify Protein-Protein Interactions*

    PubMed Central

    Shatsky, Maxim; Dong, Ming; Liu, Haichuan; Yang, Lee Lisheng; Choi, Megan; Singer, Mary E.; Geller, Jil T.; Fisher, Susan J.; Hall, Steven C.; Hazen, Terry C.; Brenner, Steven E.; Butland, Gareth; Jin, Jian; Witkowska, H. Ewa; Chandonia, John-Marc; Biggin, Mark D.

    2016-01-01

    Identifying protein-protein interactions (PPIs) at an acceptable false discovery rate (FDR) is challenging. Previously we identified several hundred PPIs from affinity purification - mass spectrometry (AP-MS) data for the bacteria Escherichia coli and Desulfovibrio vulgaris. These two interactomes have lower FDRs than any of the nine interactomes proposed previously for bacteria and are more enriched in PPIs validated by other data than the nine earlier interactomes. To more thoroughly determine the accuracy of ours or other interactomes and to discover further PPIs de novo, here we present a quantitative tagless method that employs iTRAQ MS to measure the copurification of endogenous proteins through orthogonal chromatography steps. 5273 fractions from a four-step fractionation of a D. vulgaris protein extract were assayed, resulting in the detection of 1242 proteins. Protein partners from our D. vulgaris and E. coli AP-MS interactomes copurify as frequently as pairs belonging to three benchmark data sets of well-characterized PPIs. In contrast, the protein pairs from the nine other bacterial interactomes copurify two- to 20-fold less often. We also identify 200 high confidence D. vulgaris PPIs based on tagless copurification and colocalization in the genome. These PPIs are as strongly validated by other data as our AP-MS interactomes and overlap with our AP-MS interactome for D.vulgaris within 3% of expectation, once FDRs and false negative rates are taken into account. Finally, we reanalyzed data from two quantitative tagless screens of human cell extracts. We estimate that the novel PPIs reported in these studies have an FDR of at least 85% and find that less than 7% of the novel PPIs identified in each screen overlap. Our results establish that a quantitative tagless method can be used to validate and identify PPIs, but that such data must be analyzed carefully to minimize the FDR. PMID:27099342

  4. The detection and quantitation of protein oligomerization.

    PubMed

    Gell, David A; Grant, Richard P; Mackay, Joel P

    2012-01-01

    There are many different techniques available to biologists and biochemists that can be used to detect and characterize the self-association of proteins. Each technique has strengths and weaknesses and it is often useful to combine several approaches to maximize the former and minimize the latter. Here we review a range of methodologies that identify protein self-association and/or allow the stoichiometry and affinity of the interaction to be determined, placing an emphasis on what type of information can be obtained and outlining the advantages and disadvantages involved. In general, in vitro biophysical techniques, such as size exclusion chromatography, analytical ultracentrifugation, scattering techniques, NMR spectroscopy, isothermal titration calorimetry, fluorescence anisotropy and mass spectrometry, provide information on stoichiometry and/or binding affinities. Other approaches such as cross-linking, fluorescence methods (e.g., fluorescence correlation spectroscopy, FCS; Förster resonance energy transfer, FRET; fluorescence recovery after photobleaching, FRAP; and proximity imaging, PRIM) and complementation approaches (e.g., yeast two hybrid assays and bimolecular fluorescence complementation, BiFC) can be used to detect protein self-association in a cellular context.

  5. Quantitative proteomics analysis of adsorbed plasma proteins classifies nanoparticles with different surface properties and size

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Haizhen; Burnum, Kristin E.; Luna, Maria L.; Petritis, Brianne O.; Kim, Jong Seo; Qian, Weijun; Moore, Ronald J.; Heredia-Langner, Alejandro; Webb-Robertson, Bobbie-Jo M.; Thrall, Brian D.; Camp, David G.; Smith, Richard D.; Pounds, Joel G.; Liu, Tao

    2011-12-01

    In biofluids (e.g., blood plasma) nanoparticles are readily embedded in layers of proteins that can affect their biological activity and biocompatibility. Herein, we report a study on the interactions between human plasma proteins and nanoparticles with a controlled systematic variation of properties using stable isotope labeling and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) based quantitative proteomics. Novel protocol has been developed to simplify the isolation of nanoparticle bound proteins and improve the reproducibility. Plasma proteins associated with polystyrene nanoparticles with three different surface chemistries and two sizes as well as for four different exposure times (for a total of 24 different samples) were identified and quantified by LC-MS analysis. Quantitative comparison of relative protein abundances were achieved by spiking an 18 O-labeled 'universal reference' into each individually processed unlabeled sample as an internal standard, enabling simultaneous application of both label-free and isotopic labeling quantitation across the sample set. Clustering analysis of the quantitative proteomics data resulted in distinctive pattern that classifies the nanoparticles based on their surface properties and size. In addition, data on the temporal study indicated that the stable protein 'corona' that was isolated for the quantitative analysis appeared to be formed in less than 5 minutes. The comprehensive results obtained herein using quantitative proteomics have potential implications towards predicting nanoparticle biocompatibility.

  6. LC-MS/MS-Based Monitoring of In Vivo Protein Biotransformation: Quantitative Determination of Trastuzumab and Its Deamidation Products in Human Plasma.

    PubMed

    Bults, Peter; Bischoff, Rainer; Bakker, Hilde; Gietema, Jourik A; van de Merbel, Nico C

    2016-02-01

    An LC-MS/MS-based method is described for quantitatively monitoring the in vivo deamidation of the biopharmaceutical monoclonal antibody trastuzumab at a crucial position in its complementarity determining region (CDR). The multiplexed LC-MS/MS assay using selected reaction monitoring (SRM) allows simultaneous quantitation of five molecular species derived from trastuzumab after tryptic digestion: a stable signature peptide (FTISADTSK), a deamidation-sensitive signature peptide (IYPTNGYTR), its deamidated products (IYPTDGYTR and IYPTisoDGYTR), and a succinimide intermediate (IYPTsuccGYTR). Digestion of a 50 μL plasma sample is performed at pH 7 for 3 h at 37 °C, which combines a reasonable (>80%) digestion efficiency with a minimal (<1%) formation of deamidation products during digestion. Rapid in vitro deamidation was observed at higher pH, leading to a (large) overestimation of the concentrations of deamidation products in the original plasma sample. The LC-MS/MS method was validated in accordance with international bioanalytical guidelines over the clinically relevant range of 0.5 to 500 μg/mL with bias and CV values well below 15%. Deamidation of trastuzumab was observed in plasma both in a 56 day in vitro forced degradation study (up to 37% of the total drug concentration) and in samples obtained from breast cancer patients after treatment with the drug for several months (up to 25%). Comparison with a validated ELISA method for trastuzumab showed that deamidation of the drug at the CDR leads to a loss of recognition by the antibodies used in the ELISA assay. PMID:26713683

  7. Quantitative analysis of flagellar proteins in Drosophila sperm tails.

    PubMed

    Mendes Maia, Teresa; Paul-Gilloteaux, Perrine; Basto, Renata

    2015-01-01

    The cilium has a well-defined structure, which can still accommodate some morphological and molecular composition diversity to suit the functional requirements of different cell types. The sperm flagellum of the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster appears as a good model to study the genetic regulation of axoneme assembly and motility, due to the wealth of genetic tools publically available for this organism. In addition, the fruit fly's sperm flagellum displays quite a long axoneme (∼1.8mm), which may facilitate both histological and biochemical analyses. Here, we present a protocol for imaging and quantitatively analyze proteins, which associate with the fly differentiating, and mature sperm flagella. We will use as an example the quantification of tubulin polyglycylation in wild-type testes and in Bug22 mutant testes, which present defects in the deposition of this posttranslational modification. During sperm biogenesis, flagella appear tightly bundled, which makes it more challenging to get accurate measurements of protein levels from immunostained specimens. The method we present is based on the use of a novel semiautomated, macro installed in the image processing software ImageJ. It allows to measure fluorescence levels in closely associated sperm tails, through an exact distinction between positive and background signals, and provides background-corrected pixel intensity values that can directly be used for data analysis. PMID:25837396

  8. Quantitative estimation of urinary protein excretion by refractometry.

    PubMed

    Kumar, S; Visweswaran, K; Sobha, A; Sarasa, G; Nampoory, M R

    1992-09-01

    Quantitative estimation of proteinuria done by the refractometric method was compared with that done by the sulphosalycilic acid method and biuret method in 102 urine samples. The analysis of results by students' t test showed no statistically significant difference between the three methods. It is concluded that quantitative estimation of urinary protein excretion by refractometric method is a simple cheap and reliable method and can be performed easily in the outpatient clinic. The instrument is quite handy and can be carried in the pocket.

  9. Quantitation of carcinogen bound protein adducts by fluorescence measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gan, Liang-Shang; Otteson, Michael S.; Doxtader, Mark M.; Skipper, Paul L.; Dasari, Ramachandra R.; Tannenbaum, Steven R.

    1989-01-01

    A highly significant correlation of aflatoxin B 1 serum albumin adduct level with daily aflatoxin B 1 intake was observed in a molecular epidemiological study of aflatoxin carcinogenesis which used conventional fluorescence spectroscopy methods for adduct quantitation. Synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy and laser induced fluorescence techniques have been employed to quantitate antibenzo[ a]pyrene diol epoxide derived globin peptide adducts. Fast and efficient methods to isolate the peptide adducts as well as eliminate protein fluorescence background are described. A detection limit of several femtomoles has been achieved. Experimental and technical considerations of low temperature synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy and fluorescence line narrowing to improve the detection sensitivities are also presented.

  10. Global, quantitative and dynamic mapping of protein subcellular localization

    PubMed Central

    Itzhak, Daniel N; Tyanova, Stefka; Cox, Jürgen; Borner, Georg HH

    2016-01-01

    Subcellular localization critically influences protein function, and cells control protein localization to regulate biological processes. We have developed and applied Dynamic Organellar Maps, a proteomic method that allows global mapping of protein translocation events. We initially used maps statically to generate a database with localization and absolute copy number information for over 8700 proteins from HeLa cells, approaching comprehensive coverage. All major organelles were resolved, with exceptional prediction accuracy (estimated at >92%). Combining spatial and abundance information yielded an unprecedented quantitative view of HeLa cell anatomy and organellar composition, at the protein level. We subsequently demonstrated the dynamic capabilities of the approach by capturing translocation events following EGF stimulation, which we integrated into a quantitative model. Dynamic Organellar Maps enable the proteome-wide analysis of physiological protein movements, without requiring any reagents specific to the investigated process, and will thus be widely applicable in cell biology. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.16950.001 PMID:27278775

  11. ProCoCoA: A quantitative approach for analyzing protein core composition.

    PubMed

    Bottini, Silvia; Bernini, Andrea; De Chiara, Matteo; Garlaschelli, Diego; Spiga, Ottavia; Dioguardi, Marco; Vannuccini, Elisa; Tramontano, Anna; Niccolai, Neri

    2013-04-01

    Defining the amino acid composition of protein cores is fundamental for understanding protein folding, as different architectures might achieve structural stability only in the presence of specific amino acid networks. Quantitative characterization of protein cores in relation to the corresponding structures and dynamics is needed to increase the reliability of protein engineering procedures. Unambiguous criteria based on atom depth considerations were established to assign amino acid residues to protein cores and, hence, for classifying inner and outer molecular moieties. These criteria were summarized in a new tool named ProCoCoA, Protein Core Composition Analyzer. An user-friendly web interface was developed, available at the URL: http://www.sbl.unisi.it/prococoa. An accurate estimate of protein core composition for six protein architectures selected from the CATH database of solved structures has been carried out, and the obtained results indicate the presence of specific patterns of amino acid core composition in different protein folds.

  12. Quantitating protein synthesis, degradation, and endogenous antigen processing.

    PubMed

    Princiotta, Michael F; Finzi, Diana; Qian, Shu-Bing; Gibbs, James; Schuchmann, Sebastian; Buttgereit, Frank; Bennink, Jack R; Yewdell, Jonathan W

    2003-03-01

    Using L929 cells, we quantitated the macroeconomics of protein synthesis and degradation and the microeconomics of producing MHC class I associated peptides from viral translation products. To maintain a content of 2.6 x 10(9) proteins, each cell's 6 x 10(6) ribosomes produce 4 x 10(6) proteins min(-1). Each of the cell's 8 x 10(5) proteasomes degrades 2.5 substrates min(-1), creating one MHC class I-peptide complex for each 500-3000 viral translation products degraded. The efficiency of complex formation is similar in dendritic cells and macrophages, which play a critical role in activating T cells in vivo. Proteasomes create antigenic peptides at different efficiencies from two distinct substrate pools: rapidly degraded newly synthesized proteins that clearly represent defective ribosomal products (DRiPs) and a less rapidly degraded pool in which DRiPs may also predominate. PMID:12648452

  13. Study on the plasma protein binding rate of Schisandra lignans based on the LC-IT-TOF/MS technique with relative quantitative analysis.

    PubMed

    Liang, Yan; Zhou, Yuan-Yuan; Liu, Yan-Na; Guan, Tian-Ye; Zheng, Xiao; Dai, Chen; Xing, Lu; Rao, Tai; Xie, Lin; Wang, Guang-Ji

    2013-07-01

    The main objective of the current study was to develop a universal method for a protein binding assay of complicated herbal components, and to investigate the possible relationship between compound polarity and protein binding using Schisadra lignans as an example. Firstly, the rat, dog and human plasma were spiked with three different concentrations of Schisandra chinensis extract (SLE), and ultramicrofiltration was used to obtain the unbound ingredients. Secondly, thirty-one Schisandra lignans in total plasma and ultrafiltered fluid were measured by LC-IT-TOFMS. Lastly, a relative exposure approach, which entailed calculating the relative concentrations of each Schisandra lignan from the corresponding calibration equation created from the calibration samples spiked with the stock solution of SLE, was applied in order to overcome the absence of authentic standards. The results showed that Schisandra lignans exhibited a high capability to bind with plasma protein, furthermore, the protein binding ratio of the lignan components increased proportionally with their individual chromatographic retention time, which indicated that the ratio of protein binding of lignans might increase accordingly with decreasing polarity. This study suggested that the compound polarity might be an important factor affecting the plasma protein binding of herbal components.

  14. Quantitative urinary protein excretion in chronic renal failure.

    PubMed

    McMorrow, R G; Galla, J H; Luke, R G

    1982-01-01

    The diagnostic value of the measurement of quantitative proteinuria in patients with a creatinine clearance of less than 10 ml/min was determined in patients seen in a single center over a 5-year period. All 126 patients in whom a definitive renal diagnosis was possible were included. Patients with glomerular disease excreted 6.1 +/- 0.6 g/day and patients with interstitial disease 1.5 +/- 0.3 g/day (p less than 0.001). In individual patients with end-stage renal disease, however, measurement of urinary protein excretion excluded (with 95% confidence levels) patients with interstitial diseases only when greater than 2.9 g/day. To examine the natural history of proteinuria in progressive renal disease, urinary protein, absolute and factored for glomerular filtration rate (GFR; creatinine clearance), was determined at 10 ml/min decrements in GFR for patients with membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis, idiopathic membranous glomerulonephritis and focal glomerulosclerosis. Quantitative urinary protein excretion was relatively constant as GFR fell but did fall significantly at less than 10 ml/min but only to 4.8-7.0 g/day at even that level. Urinary protein excretion/GFR increased as GFR fell, particularly at end stage where a highly significant four-fold rise was seen; an increase also occurred in patients with primary interstitial disease. Similar data were obtained for 34 randomly selected patients after at least 1 year of chronic hemodialysis. Although a significant decline in absolute urinary protein excretion occurred during the year of dialysis to levels not different between glomerular and interstitial disease, urinary protein excretion/unit GFR remained elevated. Increased urinary protein excretion/unit GFR may result from a functional adaptation of remaining nephrons in response to declining renal mass.

  15. Protein based Block Copolymers

    PubMed Central

    Rabotyagova, Olena S.; Cebe, Peggy; Kaplan, David L.

    2011-01-01

    Advances in genetic engineering have led to the synthesis of protein-based block copolymers with control of chemistry and molecular weight, resulting in unique physical and biological properties. The benefits from incorporating peptide blocks into copolymer designs arise from the fundamental properties of proteins to adopt ordered conformations and to undergo self-assembly, providing control over structure formation at various length scales when compared to conventional block copolymers. This review covers the synthesis, structure, assembly, properties, and applications of protein-based block copolymers. PMID:21235251

  16. A quantitative liposome microarray to systematically characterize protein-lipid interactions.

    PubMed

    Saliba, Antoine-Emmanuel; Vonkova, Ivana; Ceschia, Stefano; Findlay, Greg M; Maeda, Kenji; Tischer, Christian; Deghou, Samy; van Noort, Vera; Bork, Peer; Pawson, Tony; Ellenberg, Jan; Gavin, Anne-Claude

    2014-01-01

    Lipids have a role in virtually all biological processes, acting as structural elements, scaffolds and signaling molecules, but they are still largely under-represented in known biological networks. Here we describe a liposome microarray-based assay (LiMA), a method that measures protein recruitment to membranes in a quantitative, automated, multiplexed and high-throughput manner.

  17. Multiple Reaction Monitoring for Direct Quantitation of Intact Proteins Using a Triple Quadrupole Mass Spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Evelyn H.; Combe, Peter C.; Schug, Kevin A.

    2016-05-01

    Methods that can efficiently and effectively quantify proteins are needed to support increasing demand in many bioanalytical fields. Triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (QQQ-MS) is sensitive and specific, and it is routinely used to quantify small molecules. However, low resolution fragmentation-dependent MS detection can pose inherent difficulties for intact proteins. In this research, we investigated variables that affect protein and fragment ion signals to enable protein quantitation using QQQ-MS. Collision induced dissociation gas pressure and collision energy were found to be the most crucial variables for optimization. Multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) transitions for seven standard proteins, including lysozyme, ubiquitin, cytochrome c from both equine and bovine, lactalbumin, myoglobin, and prostate-specific antigen (PSA) were determined. Assuming the eventual goal of applying such methodology is to analyze protein in biological fluids, a liquid chromatography method was developed. Calibration curves of six standard proteins (excluding PSA) were obtained to show the feasibility of intact protein quantification using QQQ-MS. Linearity (2-3 orders), limits of detection (0.5-50 μg/mL), accuracy (<5% error), and precision (1%-12% CV) were determined for each model protein. Sensitivities for different proteins varied considerably. Biological fluids, including human urine, equine plasma, and bovine plasma were used to demonstrate the specificity of the approach. The purpose of this model study was to identify, study, and demonstrate the advantages and challenges for QQQ-MS-based intact protein quantitation, a largely underutilized approach to date.

  18. Optimisation of a simple and reliable label-free methodology for the relative quantitation of raw pork meat proteins.

    PubMed

    Gallego, Marta; Mora, Leticia; Aristoy, M Concepción; Toldrá, Fidel

    2015-09-01

    Recent advances in proteomics have become an indispensable tool for a fast, precise and sensitive analysis of proteins in complex biological samples at both, qualitative and quantitative level. In this study, a label-free quantitative proteomic methodology has been optimised for the relative quantitation of proteins extracted from raw pork meat. So, after the separation of proteins by one-dimensional gel electrophoresis and trypsin digestion, their identification and quantitation have been done using nanoliquid chromatography coupled to a quadrupole/time-of-flight (Q/ToF) mass spectrometer. Relative quantitation has been based on the measurement of mass spectral peak intensities, which have been described that are correlated with protein abundances. The results obtained regarding linearity, robustness, repeatability and accuracy show that this procedure could be used as a fast, simple, and reliable method to quantify changes in protein abundance in meat samples.

  19. Biologically based, quantitative risk assessment of neurotoxicants.

    PubMed

    Slikker, W; Crump, K S; Andersen, M E; Bellinger, D

    1996-01-01

    The need for biologically based, quantitative risk assessment procedures for noncancer endpoints such as neurotoxicity has been discussed in reports by the United States Congress (Office of Technology Assessment, OTA), National Research Council (NRC), and a federal coordinating council. According to OTA, current attention and resources allocated to health risk assessment research are inadequate and not commensurate with its impact on public health and the economy. Methods to include continuous rather than dichotomous data for neurotoxicity endpoints, biomarkers of exposure and effects, and pharmacokinetic and mechanistic data have been proposed for neurotoxicity risk assessment but require further review and validation before acceptance. The purpose of this symposium was to examine procedures to enhance the risk assessment process for neurotoxicants and to discuss techniques to make the process more quantitative. Accordingly, a review of the currently used safety factor risk assessment approach for neurotoxicants is provided along with specific examples of how this process may be enhanced with the use of the benchmark dose approach. The importance of including physiologically based pharmacokinetic data in the risk assessment process and specific examples of this approach is presented for neurotoxicants. The role of biomarkers of exposure and effect and mechanistic information in the risk assessment process are also addressed. Finally, quantitative approaches with the use of continuous neurotoxicity data are demonstrated and the outcomes compared to those generated by currently used risk assessment procedures. PMID:8838636

  20. Isotope coded protein labeling coupled immunoprecipitation (ICPL-IP): a novel approach for quantitative protein complex analysis from native tissue.

    PubMed

    Vogt, Andreas; Fuerholzner, Bettina; Kinkl, Norbert; Boldt, Karsten; Ueffing, Marius

    2013-05-01

    High confidence definition of protein interactions is an important objective toward the understanding of biological systems. Isotope labeling in combination with affinity-based isolation of protein complexes has increased in accuracy and reproducibility, yet, larger organisms--including humans--are hardly accessible to metabolic labeling and thus, a major limitation has been its restriction to small animals, cell lines, and yeast. As composition as well as the stoichiometry of protein complexes can significantly differ in primary tissues, there is a great demand for methods capable to combine the selectivity of affinity-based isolation as well as the accuracy and reproducibility of isotope-based labeling with its application toward analysis of protein interactions from intact tissue. Toward this goal, we combined isotope coded protein labeling (ICPL)(1) with immunoprecipitation (IP) and quantitative mass spectrometry (MS). ICPL-IP allows sensitive and accurate analysis of protein interactions from primary tissue. We applied ICPL-IP to immuno-isolate protein complexes from bovine retinal tissue. Protein complexes of immunoprecipitated β-tubulin, a highly abundant protein with known interactors as well as the lowly expressed small GTPase RhoA were analyzed. The results of both analyses demonstrate sensitive and selective identification of known as well as new protein interactions by our method.

  1. Absolute quantitation of isoforms of post-translationally modified proteins in transgenic organism.

    PubMed

    Li, Yaojun; Shu, Yiwei; Peng, Changchao; Zhu, Lin; Guo, Guangyu; Li, Ning

    2012-08-01

    Post-translational modification isoforms of a protein are known to play versatile biological functions in diverse cellular processes. To measure the molar amount of each post-translational modification isoform (P(isf)) of a target protein present in the total protein extract using mass spectrometry, a quantitative proteomic protocol, absolute quantitation of isoforms of post-translationally modified proteins (AQUIP), was developed. A recombinant ERF110 gene overexpression transgenic Arabidopsis plant was used as the model organism for demonstration of the proof of concept. Both Ser-62-independent (14)N-coded synthetic peptide standards and (15)N-coded ERF110 protein standard isolated from the heavy nitrogen-labeled transgenic plants were employed simultaneously to determine the concentration of all isoforms (T(isf)) of ERF110 in the whole plant cell lysate, whereas a pair of Ser-62-dependent synthetic peptide standards were used to quantitate the Ser-62 phosphosite occupancy (R(aqu)). The P(isf) was finally determined by integrating the two empirically measured variables using the following equation: P(isf) = T(isf) · R(aqu). The absolute amount of Ser-62-phosphorylated isoform of ERF110 determined using AQUIP was substantiated with a stable isotope labeling in Arabidopsis-based relative and accurate quantitative proteomic approach. The biological role of the Ser-62-phosphorylated isoform was demonstrated in transgenic plants.

  2. In-depth identification of pathways related to cisplatin-induced hepatotoxicity through an integrative method based on an informatics-assisted label-free protein quantitation and microarray gene expression approach.

    PubMed

    Cho, Young-Eun; Singh, Thoudam S K; Lee, Hyun-Chul; Moon, Pyong-Gon; Lee, Jeong-Eun; Lee, Myung-Hoon; Choi, Eung-Chil; Chen, Yu-Ju; Kim, Sang-Hyun; Baek, Moon-Chang

    2012-01-01

    Cisplatin is used widely for treatment of a variety of cancer diseases. Recently, however, the use of cisplatin is restricted because of its adverse effects such as hepatotoxicity. There is no study with current proteomics technology to evaluate cisplatin-induced hepatotoxicity, even if some studies have reported on the hepatotoxicity. In this study, proteomic as well as genomic analyses have been used for identification of proteins and genes that respond to cisplatin treatment in rat primary hepatocytes. To investigate the hepatotoxic effects of cisplatin, rat primary hepatocytes were treated with an IC(20) concentration for 24 h. From proteomic analysis based on label-free quantitation strategy, cisplatin induced 76 up-regulated and 19 down-regulated proteins among 325 distinct proteins. In the mRNA level, genomic analysis revealed 72 up-regulated and 385 down-regulated genes in the cisplatin-treated group. Based on these two analyses, 19 pathways were commonly altered, whereas seven pathways were identified only by proteomic analysis, and 19 pathways were identified only by genomic analysis. Overall, this study explained the mechanism of cisplatin-induced hepatotoxicity with two points of view: well known pathways including drug metabolism, fatty acid metabolism, and glycolysis/TCA cycle and little known pathways including urea cycle and inflammation metabolism, for hepatotoxicity of other toxic agents. Up-regulated proteins detected by proteomic analysis in the cisplatin-treated group: FBP1 (fructose 1,6-bisphosphatase 1), FASN (fatty acid synthase), CAT (catalase), PRDX1 (peroxiredoxin-1), HSPD1 (60-kDa heat shock protein), MDH2 (malate dehydrogenase 2), and ARG1 (arginase 1), and also down-regulated proteins in the cisplatin-treated group: TPM1 (tropomyosin 1), TPM3 (tropomyosin 3), and CTSB (cathepsin B), were confirmed by Western blot analysis. In addition, up-regulated mRNAs detected by microarray analysis in the cisplatin-treated group: GSTA2, GSTT2, YC2

  3. Qualitative and Quantitative Protein Complex Prediction Through Proteome-Wide Simulations.

    PubMed

    Rizzetto, Simone; Priami, Corrado; Csikász-Nagy, Attila

    2015-10-01

    Despite recent progress in proteomics most protein complexes are still unknown. Identification of these complexes will help us understand cellular regulatory mechanisms and support development of new drugs. Therefore it is really important to establish detailed information about the composition and the abundance of protein complexes but existing algorithms can only give qualitative predictions. Herein, we propose a new approach based on stochastic simulations of protein complex formation that integrates multi-source data--such as protein abundances, domain-domain interactions and functional annotations--to predict alternative forms of protein complexes together with their abundances. This method, called SiComPre (Simulation based Complex Prediction), achieves better qualitative prediction of yeast and human protein complexes than existing methods and is the first to predict protein complex abundances. Furthermore, we show that SiComPre can be used to predict complexome changes upon drug treatment with the example of bortezomib. SiComPre is the first method to produce quantitative predictions on the abundance of molecular complexes while performing the best qualitative predictions. With new data on tissue specific protein complexes becoming available SiComPre will be able to predict qualitative and quantitative differences in the complexome in various tissue types and under various conditions.

  4. Quantitative assessment of the p53-Mdm2 feedback loop using protein lysate microarrays.

    PubMed

    Ramalingam, Sundhar; Honkanen, Peter; Young, Lynn; Shimura, Tsutomu; Austin, John; Steeg, Patricia S; Nishizuka, Satoshi

    2007-07-01

    Mathematical simulations of the p53-Mdm2 feedback loop suggest that both proteins will exhibit impulsive expression characteristics in response to high cellular stress levels. However, little quantitative experimental evaluation has been done, particularly of the phosphorylated forms. To evaluate the mathematical models experimentally, we used lysate microarrays from an isogenic pair of gamma-ray-irradiated cell lysates from HCT116 (p53(+/+) and p53(-/-)). Both p53 and Mdm2 proteins showed expected pulses in the wild type, whereas no pulses were seen in the knockout. Based on experimental observations, we determined model parameters and generated an in silico "knockout," reflecting the experimental data, including phosphorylated proteins.

  5. Reverse Phase Protein Arrays—Quantitative Assessment of Multiple Biomarkers in Biopsies for Clinical Use

    PubMed Central

    Boellner, Stefanie; Becker, Karl-Friedrich

    2015-01-01

    Reverse Phase Protein Arrays (RPPA) represent a very promising sensitive and precise high-throughput technology for the quantitative measurement of hundreds of signaling proteins in biological and clinical samples. This array format allows quantification of one protein or phosphoprotein in multiple samples under the same experimental conditions at the same time. Moreover, it is suited for signal transduction profiling of small numbers of cultured cells or cells isolated from human biopsies, including formalin fixed and paraffin embedded (FFPE) tissues. Owing to the much easier sample preparation, as compared to mass spectrometry based technologies, and the extraordinary sensitivity for the detection of low-abundance signaling proteins over a large linear range, RPPA have the potential for characterization of deregulated interconnecting protein pathways and networks in limited amounts of sample material in clinical routine settings. Current aspects of RPPA technology, including dilution curves, spotting, controls, signal detection, antibody validation, and calculation of protein levels are addressed. PMID:27600215

  6. Reverse Phase Protein Arrays—Quantitative Assessment of Multiple Biomarkers in Biopsies for Clinical Use

    PubMed Central

    Boellner, Stefanie; Becker, Karl-Friedrich

    2015-01-01

    Reverse Phase Protein Arrays (RPPA) represent a very promising sensitive and precise high-throughput technology for the quantitative measurement of hundreds of signaling proteins in biological and clinical samples. This array format allows quantification of one protein or phosphoprotein in multiple samples under the same experimental conditions at the same time. Moreover, it is suited for signal transduction profiling of small numbers of cultured cells or cells isolated from human biopsies, including formalin fixed and paraffin embedded (FFPE) tissues. Owing to the much easier sample preparation, as compared to mass spectrometry based technologies, and the extraordinary sensitivity for the detection of low-abundance signaling proteins over a large linear range, RPPA have the potential for characterization of deregulated interconnecting protein pathways and networks in limited amounts of sample material in clinical routine settings. Current aspects of RPPA technology, including dilution curves, spotting, controls, signal detection, antibody validation, and calculation of protein levels are addressed.

  7. Quantitation of protein post-translational modifications using isobaric tandem mass tags.

    PubMed

    Liang, Hui-Chung; Lahert, Emma; Pike, Ian; Ward, Malcolm

    2015-01-01

    Post-translational modifications (PTMs) of proteins are known to modulate many cellular processes and their qualitative and quantitative evaluation is fundamental for understanding the mechanisms of biological events. Over the past decade, improvements in sample preparation techniques and enrichment strategies, the development of quantitative labeling strategies, the launch of a new generation of mass spectrometers and the creation of bioinformatics tools for the interrogation of ever larger datasets has established MS-based quantitative proteomics as a powerful workflow for global proteomics, PTM analysis and the elucidation of key biological mechanisms. With the advantage of their multiplexing capacity and the flexibility of an ever-growing family of different peptide-reactive groups, isobaric tandem mass tags facilitate quantitative proteomics and PTM experiments and enable higher sample throughput. In this review, we focus on the technical concept and utility of the isobaric tandem mass tag labeling approach to PTM analysis, including phosphorylation, glycosylation and S-nitrosylation. PMID:25697195

  8. A DNA immunoprecipitation assay used in quantitative detection of in vitro DNA-protein complex binding.

    PubMed

    Kim, Min Young; Chae, Ji Hyung; Oh, Chang-Ho; Kim, Chul Geun

    2013-10-15

    To begin gene transcription, several transcription factors must bind to specific DNA sequences to form a complex via DNA-protein interactions. We established an in vitro method for specific and sensitive analyses of DNA-protein interactions based on a DNA immunoprecipitation (DIP) method. We verified the accuracy and efficiency of the DIP assay in quantitatively measuring DNA-protein binding using transcription factor CP2c as a model. With our DIP assay, we could detect specific interactions within a DNA-CP2c complex, with reproducible and quantitative binding values. In addition, we were able to effectively measure the changes in DNA-CP2c binding by the addition of a small molecule, FQI1 (factor quinolinone inhibitor 1), previously identified as a specific inhibitor of this binding. To identify a new regulator of DNA-CP2c binding, we analyzed several CP2c binding peptides and found that only one class of peptide severely inhibits DNA-CP2c binding. These data show that our DIP assay is very useful in quantitatively detecting the binding dynamics of DNA-protein complex. Because DNA-protein interaction is very dynamic in different cellular environments, our assay can be applied to the detection of active transcription factors, including promoter occupancy in normal and disease conditions. Moreover, it may be used to develop a targeted regulator of specific DNA-protein interaction.

  9. Quantitative peptide and protein profiling by mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Alexander; Bisle, Birgit; Kislinger, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    Proteomics may be defined as the systematic analysis of proteins expressed in a given organism (Electrophoresis 16:1090-1094, 1995). Important technical innovations in mass spectrometry (MS), protein identification methods, and database annotation, over the past decade, now make it possible to routinely identify thousands of proteins in complex biological samples (Nature 422:198-207, 2003). However, to gain new insights regarding fundamental biological questions, accurate protein quantification is also required. In this chapter, we present methods for the biochemical separation of different cellular compartments, two-dimensional chromatographic separation of the constituent peptide populations, and the recently published Spectral Counting Strategy, a label-free MS-based protein quantification technology (Cell 125:173-186, 2006; Anal Chem 76:4193-4201, 2004; Mol Cell Proteomics 4:1487-1502, 2005; Cell 125:1003-1013, 2006; Methods 40:135-142, 2006; Anal Chem 77:6218-6224, 2005; J Proteome Res 5:2339-2347, 2006). Additionally, highly accurate protein quantification based on isotope dilution, describing the isotope coded protein label (ICPL) -- method shall be explained in detail (Mol Cell Proteomics 5:1543-1558, 2006; Proteomics 5:4-15, 2005).

  10. Mass spectrometric quantitation of covalently bound cell wall proteins in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Qing Yuan; de Groot, Piet W J; de Jong, Luitzen; Klis, Frans M; De Koster, Chris G

    2007-01-01

    The cell wall of yeast consists of an internal skeletal layer and an external layer of glycoproteins covalently linked to the stress-bearing polysaccharides. The cell wall protein (CWP) population consists of over 20 different proteins, and may vary in composition. We present two complementary methods for quantifying CWPs, based on isobaric tagging and tandem MS: (1) absolute quantitation of individual CWPs, allowing estimation of surface densities; and (2) relative quantitation of CWPs, allowing monitoring of the dynamics of the CWP population. For absolute quantitation, we selected a representative group of five proteins (Cwp1p, Crh1p, Scw4p, Gas1p, and Ecm33p), which had 67 × 103, 44 × 103, 38 × 103, 11 × 103 and 6.5 × 103 of wall-bound copies per cell, respectively. As Cwp1p is predominantly incorporated in the birth scar, this corresponds to a protein density of c. 22 × 103 copies μm−2. For relative quantitation, we compared wild-type cells to gas1Δ cells, in which the cell wall integrity pathway is constitutively activated. The levels of Crh1p, Crh2p, Ecm33p, Gas5p, Pst1p and Pir3p increased about three- to fivefold, whereas the level of Scw4p was significantly decreased. We propose that our methods are widely applicable to other fungi. PMID:17617218

  11. Quantitative analysis of protein-protein interactions by split firefly luciferase complementation in plant protoplasts.

    PubMed

    Li, Jian-Feng; Zhang, Dandan

    2014-07-01

    This unit describes the split firefly luciferase complementation (SFLC) assay, a high-throughput quantitative method that can be used to investigate protein-protein interactions (PPIs) in plant mesophyll protoplasts. In SFLC, the two proteins to be tested for interaction are expressed as chimeric proteins, each fused to a different half of firefly luciferase. If the proteins interact, a functional luciferase can be transitorily reconstituted, and is detected using the cell-permeable substrate D-luciferin. An advantage of the SFLC assay is that dynamic changes in PPIs in a cell can be detected in a near real-time manner. Another advantage is the unusually high DNA co-transfection and protein expression efficiencies that can be achieved in plant protoplasts, thereby enhancing the throughput of the method.

  12. Quantitative Measurement of Protein Relocalization in Live Cells

    PubMed Central

    Bush, Alan; Colman-Lerner, Alejandro

    2013-01-01

    Microscope cytometry provides a powerful means to study signaling in live cells. Here we present a quantitative method to measure protein relocalization over time, which reports the absolute fraction of a tagged protein in each compartment. Using this method, we studied an essential step in the early propagation of the pheromone signal in Saccharomyces cerevisiae: recruitment to the membrane of the scaffold Ste5 by activated Gβγ dimers. We found that the dose response of Ste5 recruitment is graded (EC50 = 0.44 ± 0.08 nM, Hill coefficient = 0.8 ± 0.1). Then, we determined the effective dissociation constant (Kde) between Ste5 and membrane sites during the first few minutes when the negative feedback from the MAPK Fus3 is first activated. Kde changed during the first minutes from a high affinity of <0.65 nM to a steady-state value of 17 ± 9 nM. During the same period, the total number of binding sites decreased slightly, from 1940 ± 150 to 1400 ± 200. This work shows how careful quantification of a protein relocalization dynamic can give insight into the regulation mechanisms of a biological system. PMID:23442923

  13. Single-Cell Based Quantitative Assay of Chromosome Transmission Fidelity.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Jin; Heinecke, Dominic; Mulla, Wahid A; Bradford, William D; Rubinstein, Boris; Box, Andrew; Haug, Jeffrey S; Li, Rong

    2015-06-01

    Errors in mitosis are a primary cause of chromosome instability (CIN), generating aneuploid progeny cells. Whereas a variety of factors can influence CIN, under most conditions mitotic errors are rare events that have been difficult to measure accurately. Here we report a green fluorescent protein-based quantitative chromosome transmission fidelity (qCTF) assay in budding yeast that allows sensitive and quantitative detection of CIN and can be easily adapted to high-throughput analysis. Using the qCTF assay, we performed genome-wide quantitative profiling of genes that affect CIN in a dosage-dependent manner and identified genes that elevate CIN when either increased (icCIN) or decreased in copy number (dcCIN). Unexpectedly, qCTF screening also revealed genes whose change in copy number quantitatively suppress CIN, suggesting that the basal error rate of the wild-type genome is not minimized, but rather, may have evolved toward an optimal level that balances both stability and low-level karyotype variation for evolutionary adaptation.

  14. A Turn-On Resonance Raman Scattering (BCS/Cu+) Sensor for Quantitative Determination of Proteins.

    PubMed

    Chen, Lei; Xue, Xiangxin; Jiang, Dayu; Yang, Jin; Zhao, Bing; Han, Xiao Xia; Mee Jung, Young

    2016-02-01

    In this study, a new method for the quantitative evaluation of proteins is developed using competitive resonance Raman spectroscopy. A chelation reaction between bathocuproine disulfonate (BCS) and Cu(+) which is reduced by proteins in an alkaline environment, is utilized to create a BCS-Cu(+) complex that has strong resonance Raman activity. As a result, the method presented here enables protein detection over a much wider concentration range than conventional methods. Furthermore, the resonance Raman-based method can provide an improved lower limit of detection (500 pg/mL) compared to that obtained by colorimetric and ultraviolet- (UV-) based methods. Additionally, protein-to-protein variation can be determined using a standard curve created from known concentrations of bovine serum albumin (BSA), and excellent protein recovery is observed. More importantly, the proposed method was employing to the real sample (fetal bovine serum [FBS]). Based on the calibration curve from this method, it is extremely accurate for the determination of total protein concentrations in FBS. Results of this study demonstrate that the proposed method provides a novel and highly sensitive protocol for reagent-based protein assays.

  15. Interpretation of protein quantitation using the Bradford assay: comparison with two calculation models.

    PubMed

    Ku, Hyung-Keun; Lim, Hyuk-Min; Oh, Kyong-Hwa; Yang, Hyo-Jin; Jeong, Ji-Seon; Kim, Sook-Kyung

    2013-03-01

    The Bradford assay is a simple method for protein quantitation, but variation in the results between proteins is a matter of concern. In this study, we compared and normalized quantitative values from two models for protein quantitation, where the residues in the protein that bind to anionic Coomassie Brilliant Blue G-250 comprise either Arg and Lys (Method 1, M1) or Arg, Lys, and His (Method 2, M2). Use of the M2 model yielded much more consistent quantitation values compared with use of the M1 model, which exhibited marked overestimations against protein standards.

  16. Quantitative Proteomics Reveals Membrane Protein-Mediated Hypersaline Sensitivity and Adaptation in Halophilic Nocardiopsis xinjiangensis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yao; Li, Yanchang; Zhang, Yongguang; Wang, Zhiqiang; Zhao, Mingzhi; Su, Na; Zhang, Tao; Chen, Lingsheng; Wei, Wei; Luo, Jing; Zhou, Yanxia; Xu, Yongru; Xu, Ping; Li, Wenjun; Tao, Yong

    2016-01-01

    The genus Nocardiopsis is one of the most dominant Actinobacteria that survives in hypersaline environments. However, the adaptation mechanisms for halophilism are still unclear. Here, we performed isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantification based quantitative proteomics to investigate the functions of the membrane proteome after salt stress. A total of 683 membrane proteins were identified and quantified, of which 126 membrane proteins displayed salt-induced changes in abundance. Intriguingly, bioinformatics analyses indicated that these differential proteins showed two expression patterns, which were further validated by phenotypic changes and functional differences. The majority of ABC transporters, secondary active transporters, cell motility proteins, and signal transduction kinases were up-regulated with increasing salt concentration, whereas cell differentiation, small molecular transporter (ions and amino acids), and secondary metabolism proteins were significantly up-regulated at optimum salinity, but down-regulated or unchanged at higher salinity. The small molecule transporters and cell differentiation-related proteins acted as sensing proteins that played a more important biological role at optimum salinity. However, the ABC transporters for compatible solutes, Na(+)-dependent transporters, and cell motility proteins acted as adaptive proteins that actively counteracted higher salinity stress. Overall, regulation of membrane proteins may provide a major protection strategy against hyperosmotic stress. PMID:26549328

  17. Quantitative Proteomics Reveals Membrane Protein-Mediated Hypersaline Sensitivity and Adaptation in Halophilic Nocardiopsis xinjiangensis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yao; Li, Yanchang; Zhang, Yongguang; Wang, Zhiqiang; Zhao, Mingzhi; Su, Na; Zhang, Tao; Chen, Lingsheng; Wei, Wei; Luo, Jing; Zhou, Yanxia; Xu, Yongru; Xu, Ping; Li, Wenjun; Tao, Yong

    2016-01-01

    The genus Nocardiopsis is one of the most dominant Actinobacteria that survives in hypersaline environments. However, the adaptation mechanisms for halophilism are still unclear. Here, we performed isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantification based quantitative proteomics to investigate the functions of the membrane proteome after salt stress. A total of 683 membrane proteins were identified and quantified, of which 126 membrane proteins displayed salt-induced changes in abundance. Intriguingly, bioinformatics analyses indicated that these differential proteins showed two expression patterns, which were further validated by phenotypic changes and functional differences. The majority of ABC transporters, secondary active transporters, cell motility proteins, and signal transduction kinases were up-regulated with increasing salt concentration, whereas cell differentiation, small molecular transporter (ions and amino acids), and secondary metabolism proteins were significantly up-regulated at optimum salinity, but down-regulated or unchanged at higher salinity. The small molecule transporters and cell differentiation-related proteins acted as sensing proteins that played a more important biological role at optimum salinity. However, the ABC transporters for compatible solutes, Na(+)-dependent transporters, and cell motility proteins acted as adaptive proteins that actively counteracted higher salinity stress. Overall, regulation of membrane proteins may provide a major protection strategy against hyperosmotic stress.

  18. Quantitation of residual mouse DNA in monoclonal antibody based products.

    PubMed

    Per, S R; Aversa, C R; Sito, A F

    1990-01-01

    The identification and characterization of cell substrates and testing of bulk and final products is an important issue which must be addressed by manufacturers. In view of the fact that hundreds of applications for Investigational New Drugs (IND) have been submitted over the past few years, there is an obvious need for testing of these products. Detection of DNA by molecular hybridization has been used for various applications including the quantitation and characterization of DNA in biological products. We have developed a precise assay based on hybridization for the detection and quantitation of residual genomic DNA. In order to reduce protein interference, a specific pretreatment method for isolation of DNA in monoclonal antibody based products was implemented. We have used the assay to evaluate levels of contaminating DNA in prepared lots of monoclonal antibodies. Validation experiments demonstrated a sensitivity below 10 pg DNA using nick-translated 32P-labelled genomic DNA probes. The assay allows accurate quantitation of residual DNA in biologics.

  19. Quantitative Analysis of Protein-DNA Interaction by qDPI-ELISA.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Stefan M; Böser, Alexander; Hirsch, Jan P; Wanke, Dierk

    2016-01-01

    The specific binding of DNA-binding proteins to their cognate DNA motifs is a crucial step for gene expression control and chromatin organization in vivo. The development of methods for the identification of in vivo binding regions by, e.g. chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) or DNA adenine methyltransferase identification (Dam-ID) added an additional level of qualitative information for data mining in systems biology or applications in synthetic biology. In this respect, the in vivo techniques outpaced methods for thorough characterization of protein-DNA interaction and, especially, of the binding motifs at single base-pair resolution. The elucidation of DNA-binding capacities of proteins is frequently done with methods such as yeast one-hybrid, electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) or systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment (SELEX) that provide only qualitative binding information and are not suited for automation or high-throughput screening of several DNA motifs. Here, we describe the quantitative DNA-protein-Interaction-ELISA (qDPI-ELISA) protocol, which makes use of fluorescent fusion proteins and, hence, is faster and easier to handle than the classical DPI-ELISA. Although every DPI-ELISA experiment delivers quantitative information, the qDPI-ELISA has an increased consistency, as it does not depend on immunological detection. We demonstrate the high comparability between probes and different protein extracts in qDPI-ELISA experiments. PMID:27557760

  20. Quantitative measurement of intracellular protein dynamics using photobleaching or photoactivation of fluorescent proteins.

    PubMed

    Matsuda, Tomoki; Nagai, Takeharu

    2014-12-01

    Unlike in vitro protein dynamics, intracellular protein dynamics are intricately regulated by protein-protein interactions or interactions between proteins and other cellular components, including nucleic acids, the plasma membrane and the cytoskeleton. Alteration of these dynamics plays a crucial role in physiological phenomena such as gene expression and cell division. Live-cell imaging via microscopy with the inherent properties of fluorescent proteins, i.e. photobleaching and photoconversion, or fluorescence correlation spectroscopy, provides insight into the movement of proteins and their interactions with cellular components. This article reviews techniques based on photo-induced changes in the physicochemical properties of fluorescent proteins to measure protein dynamics inside living cells, and it also discusses the strengths and weaknesses of these techniques.

  1. Using quantitative acid-base analysis in the ICU.

    PubMed

    Lloyd, P; Freebairn, R

    2006-03-01

    The quantitative acid-base 'Strong Ion' calculator is a practical application of quantitative acid-base chemistry, as developed by Peter Stewart and Peter Constable. It quantifies the three independent factors that control acidity, calculates the concentration and charge of unmeasured ions, produces a report based on these calculations and displays a Gamblegram depicting measured ionic species. Used together with the medical history, quantitative acid-base analysis has advantages over traditional approaches.

  2. Radar Based Quantitative Precipitation Estimation in Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Y.; Zhang, J.; Chang, P.

    2012-12-01

    Accurate high-resolution radar quantitative precipitation estimation (QPE) has shown increasing values in hydrological predictions in the last decade. Such QPEs are especially valuable in complex terrain where rain gauge network is sparse and hard to maintain while flash floods and mudslides are common hazards. Taiwan Central Weather Bureau has deployed four S-band radars to support their flood warning operations in recent years, and a real-time multi-radar QPE system was developed. Evaluations of the real-time system over one-year revealed some underestimation issues in the radar QPE. The current work investigates these issues and develops a series of refinements to the system. The refinements include replacing the general R-Z relationships used in the old system with the local ones, mitigating non-standard beam blockage artifacts based on long-term accumulations, and applying vertical profile of reflectivity (VPR) corrections. The local R-Z relationships were derived from 2D video disdrometer observations of winter stratiform precipitation, meiyu fronts, local convective storms, and typhoons. The VPR correction was applied to reduce radar QPE errors in severely blocked area near the Central Mountain Range (CMR). The new radar QPE system was tested using different precipitation events and showed significant improvements over the old system especially along the CMR.

  3. Physiologically based quantitative modeling of unihemispheric sleep.

    PubMed

    Kedziora, D J; Abeysuriya, R G; Phillips, A J K; Robinson, P A

    2012-12-01

    Unihemispheric sleep has been observed in numerous species, including birds and aquatic mammals. While knowledge of its functional role has been improved in recent years, the physiological mechanisms that generate this behavior remain poorly understood. Here, unihemispheric sleep is simulated using a physiologically based quantitative model of the mammalian ascending arousal system. The model includes mutual inhibition between wake-promoting monoaminergic nuclei (MA) and sleep-promoting ventrolateral preoptic nuclei (VLPO), driven by circadian and homeostatic drives as well as cholinergic and orexinergic input to MA. The model is extended here to incorporate two distinct hemispheres and their interconnections. It is postulated that inhibitory connections between VLPO nuclei in opposite hemispheres are responsible for unihemispheric sleep, and it is shown that contralateral inhibitory connections promote unihemispheric sleep while ipsilateral inhibitory connections promote bihemispheric sleep. The frequency of alternating unihemispheric sleep bouts is chiefly determined by sleep homeostasis and its corresponding time constant. It is shown that the model reproduces dolphin sleep, and that the sleep regimes of humans, cetaceans, and fur seals, the latter both terrestrially and in a marine environment, require only modest changes in contralateral connection strength and homeostatic time constant. It is further demonstrated that fur seals can potentially switch between their terrestrial bihemispheric and aquatic unihemispheric sleep patterns by varying just the contralateral connection strength. These results provide experimentally testable predictions regarding the differences between species that sleep bihemispherically and unihemispherically. PMID:22960411

  4. A microfabrication-based approach to quantitative isothermal titration calorimetry.

    PubMed

    Wang, Bin; Jia, Yuan; Lin, Qiao

    2016-04-15

    Isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) directly measures heat evolved in a chemical reaction to determine equilibrium binding properties of biomolecular systems. Conventional ITC instruments are expensive, use complicated design and construction, and require long analysis times. Microfabricated calorimetric devices are promising, although they have yet to allow accurate, quantitative ITC measurements of biochemical reactions. This paper presents a microfabrication-based approach to integrated, quantitative ITC characterization of biomolecular interactions. The approach integrates microfabricated differential calorimetric sensors with microfluidic titration. Biomolecules and reagents are introduced at each of a series of molar ratios, mixed, and allowed to react. The reaction thermal power is differentially measured, and used to determine the thermodynamic profile of the biomolecular interactions. Implemented in a microdevice featuring thermally isolated, well-defined reaction volumes with minimized fluid evaporation as well as highly sensitive thermoelectric sensing, the approach enables accurate and quantitative ITC measurements of protein-ligand interactions under different isothermal conditions. Using the approach, we demonstrate ITC characterization of the binding of 18-Crown-6 with barium chloride, and the binding of ribonuclease A with cytidine 2'-monophosphate within reaction volumes of approximately 0.7 µL and at concentrations down to 2mM. For each binding system, the ITC measurements were completed with considerably reduced analysis times and material consumption, and yielded a complete thermodynamic profile of the molecular interaction in agreement with published data. This demonstrates the potential usefulness of our approach for biomolecular characterization in biomedical applications. PMID:26655185

  5. A microfabrication-based approach to quantitative isothermal titration calorimetry.

    PubMed

    Wang, Bin; Jia, Yuan; Lin, Qiao

    2016-04-15

    Isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) directly measures heat evolved in a chemical reaction to determine equilibrium binding properties of biomolecular systems. Conventional ITC instruments are expensive, use complicated design and construction, and require long analysis times. Microfabricated calorimetric devices are promising, although they have yet to allow accurate, quantitative ITC measurements of biochemical reactions. This paper presents a microfabrication-based approach to integrated, quantitative ITC characterization of biomolecular interactions. The approach integrates microfabricated differential calorimetric sensors with microfluidic titration. Biomolecules and reagents are introduced at each of a series of molar ratios, mixed, and allowed to react. The reaction thermal power is differentially measured, and used to determine the thermodynamic profile of the biomolecular interactions. Implemented in a microdevice featuring thermally isolated, well-defined reaction volumes with minimized fluid evaporation as well as highly sensitive thermoelectric sensing, the approach enables accurate and quantitative ITC measurements of protein-ligand interactions under different isothermal conditions. Using the approach, we demonstrate ITC characterization of the binding of 18-Crown-6 with barium chloride, and the binding of ribonuclease A with cytidine 2'-monophosphate within reaction volumes of approximately 0.7 µL and at concentrations down to 2mM. For each binding system, the ITC measurements were completed with considerably reduced analysis times and material consumption, and yielded a complete thermodynamic profile of the molecular interaction in agreement with published data. This demonstrates the potential usefulness of our approach for biomolecular characterization in biomedical applications.

  6. Quantitative analysis of pheromone-binding protein specificity

    PubMed Central

    Katti, S.; Lokhande, N.; González, D.; Cassill, A.; Renthal, R.

    2012-01-01

    Many pheromones have very low water solubility, posing experimental difficulties for quantitative binding measurements. A new method is presented for determining thermodynamically valid dissociation constants for ligands binding to pheromone-binding proteins (OBPs), using β-cyclodextrin as a solubilizer and transfer agent. The method is applied to LUSH, a Drosophila OBP that binds the pheromone 11-cis vaccenyl acetate (cVA). Refolding of LUSH expressed in E. coli was assessed by measuring N-phenyl-1-naphthylamine (NPN) binding and Förster resonance energy transfer between LUSH tryptophan 123 (W123) and NPN. Binding of cVA was measured from quenching of W123 fluorescence as a function of cVA concentration. The equilibrium constant for transfer of cVA between β-cyclodextrin and LUSH was determined from a linked equilibria model. This constant, multiplied by the β-cyclodextrin-cVA dissociation constant, gives the LUSH-cVA dissociation constant: ~100 nM. It was also found that other ligands quench W123 fluorescence. The LUSH-ligand dissociation constants were determined to be ~200 nM for the silk moth pheromone bombykol and ~90 nM for methyl oleate. The results indicate that the ligand-binding cavity of LUSH can accommodate a variety ligands with strong binding interactions. Implications of this for the pheromone receptor model proposed by Laughlin et al. (Cell 133: 1255–65, 2008) are discussed. PMID:23121132

  7. The Isotope-Coded Affinity Tag Method for Quantitative Protein Profile Comparison and Relative Quantitation of Cysteine Redox Modifications.

    PubMed

    Chan, James Chun Yip; Zhou, Lei; Chan, Eric Chun Yong

    2015-11-02

    The isotope-coded affinity tag (ICAT) technique has been applied to measure pairwise changes in protein expression through differential stable isotopic labeling of proteins or peptides followed by identification and quantification using a mass spectrometer. Changes in protein expression are observed when the identical peptide from each of two biological conditions is identified and a difference is detected in the measurements comparing the peptide labeled with the heavy isotope to the one with a normal isotopic distribution. This approach allows the simultaneous comparison of the expression of many proteins between two different biological states (e.g., yeast grown on galactose versus glucose, or normal versus cancer cells). Due to the cysteine-specificity of the ICAT reagents, the ICAT technique has also been applied to perform relative quantitation of cysteine redox modifications such as oxidation and nitrosylation. This unit describes both protein quantitation and profiling of cysteine redox modifications using the ICAT technique.

  8. Quantitative variability of 342 plasma proteins in a human twin population

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yansheng; Buil, Alfonso; Collins, Ben C; Gillet, Ludovic CJ; Blum, Lorenz C; Cheng, Lin-Yang; Vitek, Olga; Mouritsen, Jeppe; Lachance, Genevieve; Spector, Tim D; Dermitzakis, Emmanouil T; Aebersold, Ruedi

    2015-01-01

    The degree and the origins of quantitative variability of most human plasma proteins are largely unknown. Because the twin study design provides a natural opportunity to estimate the relative contribution of heritability and environment to different traits in human population, we applied here the highly accurate and reproducible SWATH mass spectrometry technique to quantify 1,904 peptides defining 342 unique plasma proteins in 232 plasma samples collected longitudinally from pairs of monozygotic and dizygotic twins at intervals of 2–7 years, and proportioned the observed total quantitative variability to its root causes, genes, and environmental and longitudinal factors. The data indicate that different proteins show vastly different patterns of abundance variability among humans and that genetic control and longitudinal variation affect protein levels and biological processes to different degrees. The data further strongly suggest that the plasma concentrations of clinical biomarkers need to be calibrated against genetic and temporal factors. Moreover, we identified 13 cis-SNPs significantly influencing the level of specific plasma proteins. These results therefore have immediate implications for the effective design of blood-based biomarker studies. PMID:25652787

  9. Quantitative Proteomic Analysis of Differentially Expressed Protein Profiles Involved in Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Kuo, Kung-Kai; Kuo, Chao-Jen; Chiu, Chiang-Yen; Liang, Shih-Shin; Huang, Chun-Hao; Chi, Shu-Wen; Tsai, Kun-Bow; Chen, Chiao-Yun; Hsi, Edward; Cheng, Kuang-Hung; Chiou, Shyh-Horng

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to identify differentially expressed proteins among various stages of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) by shotgun proteomics using nano-liquid chromatography coupled tandem mass spectrometry and stable isotope dimethyl labeling. Methods Differentially expressed proteins were identified and compared based on the mass spectral differences of their isotope-labeled peptide fragments generated from protease digestion. Results Our quantitative proteomic analysis of the differentially expressed proteins with stable isotope (deuterium/hydrogen ratio, ≥2) identified a total of 353 proteins, with at least 5 protein biomarker proteins that were significantly differentially expressed between cancer and normal mice by at least a 2-fold alteration. These 5 protein biomarker candidates include α-enolase, α-catenin, 14-3-3 β, VDAC1, and calmodulin with high confidence levels. The expression levels were also found to be in agreement with those examined by Western blot and histochemical staining. Conclusions The systematic decrease or increase of these identified marker proteins may potentially reflect the morphological aberrations and diseased stages of pancreas carcinoma throughout progressive developments leading to PDAC. The results would form a firm foundation for future work concerning validation and clinical translation of some identified biomarkers into targeted diagnosis and therapy for various stages of PDAC. PMID:26262590

  10. Rapid method for protein quantitation by Bradford assay after elimination of the interference of polysorbate 80.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Yongfeng; Wei, Haiming; Sun, Rui; Tian, Zhigang; Zheng, Xiaodong

    2016-02-01

    Bradford assay is one of the most common methods for measuring protein concentrations. However, some pharmaceutical excipients, such as detergents, interfere with Bradford assay even at low concentrations. Protein precipitation can be used to overcome sample incompatibility with protein quantitation. But the rate of protein recovery caused by acetone precipitation is only about 70%. In this study, we found that sucrose not only could increase the rate of protein recovery after 1 h acetone precipitation, but also did not interfere with Bradford assay. So we developed a method for rapid protein quantitation in protein drugs even if they contained interfering substances.

  11. Development of a Model Protein Interaction Pair as a Benchmarking Tool for the Quantitative Analysis of 2-Site Protein-Protein Interactions.

    PubMed

    Yamniuk, Aaron P; Newitt, John A; Doyle, Michael L; Arisaka, Fumio; Giannetti, Anthony M; Hensley, Preston; Myszka, David G; Schwarz, Fred P; Thomson, James A; Eisenstein, Edward

    2015-12-01

    A significant challenge in the molecular interaction field is to accurately determine the stoichiometry and stepwise binding affinity constants for macromolecules having >1 binding site. The mission of the Molecular Interactions Research Group (MIRG) of the Association of Biomolecular Resource Facilities (ABRF) is to show how biophysical technologies are used to quantitatively characterize molecular interactions, and to educate the ABRF members and scientific community on the utility and limitations of core technologies [such as biosensor, microcalorimetry, or analytic ultracentrifugation (AUC)]. In the present work, the MIRG has developed a robust model protein interaction pair consisting of a bivalent variant of the Bacillus amyloliquefaciens extracellular RNase barnase and a variant of its natural monovalent intracellular inhibitor protein barstar. It is demonstrated that this system can serve as a benchmarking tool for the quantitative analysis of 2-site protein-protein interactions. The protein interaction pair enables determination of precise binding constants for the barstar protein binding to 2 distinct sites on the bivalent barnase binding partner (termed binase), where the 2 binding sites were engineered to possess affinities that differed by 2 orders of magnitude. Multiple MIRG laboratories characterized the interaction using isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC), AUC, and surface plasmon resonance (SPR) methods to evaluate the feasibility of the system as a benchmarking model. Although general agreement was seen for the binding constants measured using solution-based ITC and AUC approaches, weaker affinity was seen for surface-based method SPR, with protein immobilization likely affecting affinity. An analysis of the results from multiple MIRG laboratories suggests that the bivalent barnase-barstar system is a suitable model for benchmarking new approaches for the quantitative characterization of complex biomolecular interactions. PMID:26543437

  12. Development of a Model Protein Interaction Pair as a Benchmarking Tool for the Quantitative Analysis of 2-Site Protein-Protein Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Newitt, John A.; Doyle, Michael L.; Arisaka, Fumio; Giannetti, Anthony M.; Hensley, Preston; Myszka, David G.; Schwarz, Fred P.; Thomson, James A.; Eisenstein, Edward

    2015-01-01

    A significant challenge in the molecular interaction field is to accurately determine the stoichiometry and stepwise binding affinity constants for macromolecules having >1 binding site. The mission of the Molecular Interactions Research Group (MIRG) of the Association of Biomolecular Resource Facilities (ABRF) is to show how biophysical technologies are used to quantitatively characterize molecular interactions, and to educate the ABRF members and scientific community on the utility and limitations of core technologies [such as biosensor, microcalorimetry, or analytic ultracentrifugation (AUC)]. In the present work, the MIRG has developed a robust model protein interaction pair consisting of a bivalent variant of the Bacillus amyloliquefaciens extracellular RNase barnase and a variant of its natural monovalent intracellular inhibitor protein barstar. It is demonstrated that this system can serve as a benchmarking tool for the quantitative analysis of 2-site protein-protein interactions. The protein interaction pair enables determination of precise binding constants for the barstar protein binding to 2 distinct sites on the bivalent barnase binding partner (termed binase), where the 2 binding sites were engineered to possess affinities that differed by 2 orders of magnitude. Multiple MIRG laboratories characterized the interaction using isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC), AUC, and surface plasmon resonance (SPR) methods to evaluate the feasibility of the system as a benchmarking model. Although general agreement was seen for the binding constants measured using solution-based ITC and AUC approaches, weaker affinity was seen for surface-based method SPR, with protein immobilization likely affecting affinity. An analysis of the results from multiple MIRG laboratories suggests that the bivalent barnase-barstar system is a suitable model for benchmarking new approaches for the quantitative characterization of complex biomolecular interactions. PMID:26543437

  13. Quantitative Characterization of Heparin Binding to Tau Protein

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Hai-Li; Fernández, Cristina; Fan, Jun-Bao; Shewmaker, Frank; Chen, Jie; Minton, Allen P.; Liang, Yi

    2010-01-01

    Neurofibrillary tangles, principally composed of bundles of filaments formed by the microtubule-associated protein Tau, are a hallmark of a group of neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer disease. Polyanionic cofactors such as heparin can induce Tau filament formation in vitro. Here we quantitatively characterize the interaction between recombinant human Tau fragment Tau244–372 and heparin (average molecular mass = 7 kDa) as well as heparin-induced fibril formation by using static light scattering, isothermal titration calorimetry, turbidity assays, and transmission electron microscopy. Our data clearly show that at physiological pH, heparin 7K, and human Tau244–372 form a tight 1:1 complex with an equilibrium association constant exceeding 106 m−1 under reducing conditions, triggering Tau fibrillization. In the absence of dithiothreitol, heparin shows a moderate binding affinity (105 m−1) to Tau244–372, similarly triggering Tau fibrillization. Further fibrillization kinetics analyses show that the lag time appears to be approximately invariant up to a molar ratio of 2:1 and then increases at larger ratios of heparin/Tau. The maximum slope representing the apparent rate constant for fibril growth increases sharply with substoichiometric ratios of heparin/Tau and then decreases to some extent with ratios of >1:1. The retarding effect of heparin in excess is attributed to the large increase in ionic strength of the medium arising from free heparin. Together, these results suggest that the formation of the 1:1 complex of Tau monomer and heparin plays an important role in the inducer-mediated Tau filament formation, providing clues to understanding the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:19959468

  14. Quantitative Analysis of Multivalent Ligand Presentation on Gold Glyconanoparticles and Their Effects on Protein Binding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xin; Ramström, Olof; Yan, Mingdi

    2010-03-01

    Bio-functionalized nanomaterials, which combine functions of biological ligands and unique properties of nano-sized building blocks, have exhibited increased potential applications in biosensing, therapeutics, and diagnostics. Glyconanoparitcles carrying a monolayer of carbohydrate ligands on nanoparticles provide an excellent platform for sensitive protein recognitions. Using Au nanoparticles as the scaffold, multivalent interactions between glycan ligands and proteins have been demonstrated. However, quantitative analysis especially the binding affinity of the resulting glyconanoparticles is challenging to determine. Here we present a new characterization technique, based on fluorescent competition binding assays, for measuring dissociation constants for glyconanoparticles-protein interactions. Au nanoparticles coupled with a series of un-derivatized carbohydrates were prepared by a photocoupling chemistry. Dramatic binding affinity enhancement was observed due to the high ligand density on nanoparticles, which was highly relevant to ligand display, controlled by the linker type, chain length, ligand size and density.

  15. Quantitative Fluorescence Studies in Living Cells: Extending Fluorescence Fluctuation Spectroscopy to Peripheral Membrane Proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Elizabeth Myhra

    The interactions of peripheral membrane proteins with both membrane lipids and proteins are vital for many cellular processes including membrane trafficking, cellular signaling, and cell growth/regulation. Building accurate biophysical models of these processes requires quantitative characterization of the behavior of peripheral membrane proteins, yet methods to quantify their interactions inside living cells are very limited. Because peripheral membrane proteins usually exist both in membrane-bound and cytoplasmic forms, the separation of these two populations is a key challenge. This thesis aims at addressing this challenge by extending fluorescence fluctuation spectroscopy (FFS) to simultaneously measure the oligomeric state of peripheral membrane proteins in the cytoplasm and at the plasma membrane. We developed a new method based on z-scan FFS that accounts for the fluorescence contributions from cytoplasmic and membrane layers by incorporating a fluorescence intensity z-scan through the cell. H-Ras-EGFP served as a model system to demonstrate the feasibility of the technique. The resolvability and stability of z-scanning was determined as well as the oligomeric state of H-Ras-EGFP at the plasma membrane and in the cytoplasm. Further, we successfully characterized the binding affinity of a variety of proteins to the plasma membrane by quantitative analysis of the z-scan fluorescence intensity profile. This analysis method, which we refer to as z-scan fluorescence profile deconvoution, was further used in combination with dual-color competition studies to determine the lipid specificity of protein binding. Finally, we applied z-scan FFS to provide insight into the early assembly steps of the HTLV-1 retrovirus.

  16. Free flow electrophoresis separation and AMS quantitation of C-naphthalene-protein adducts.

    PubMed

    Buchholz, Bruce A; Haack, Kurt W; Sporty, Jennifer L; Buckpitt, Alan R; Morin, Dexter

    2010-04-01

    Naphthalene is a volatile aromatic hydrocarbon to which humans are exposed from a variety of sources including mobile air sources and cigarette smoke. Naphthalene produces dose- (concentration) dependent injury to airway epithelial cells of murine lung which is observed at concentrations well below the current occupational exposure standard. Toxicity is dependent upon the cytochrome P450 mediated metabolic activation of the parent substrate to unstable metabolites which become bound covalently to tissue proteins. Nearly 70 proteins have been identified as forming adducts with reactive naphthalene metabolites using in vitro systems but very little work has been conducted in vivo because reasonably large amounts (100 μCi) of (14)C labeled parent compound must be administered to generate detectable adduct levels on storage phosphor screens following separation of labeled proteins by 2 D gel electrophoresis. The work described here was done to provide proof of concept that protein separation by free flow electrophoresis followed by AMS detection of protein fractions containing protein bound reactive metabolites would provide adducted protein profiles in animals dosed with trace quantities of labeled naphthalene. Mice were administered 200 mg/kg naphthalene intraperitoneally at a calculated specific activity of 2 DPM/nmol (1 pCi/nmol) and respiratory epithelial tissue was obtained by lysis lavage 4 hr post injection. Free flow electrophoresis (FFE) separates proteins in the liquid phase over a large pH range (2.5-11.5) using low molecular weight acids and bases to modify the pH. The apparatus separates fractions into standard 96-well plates that can be used in other protein analysis techniques. The buffers of the fractions have very high carbon content, however, and need to be dialyzed to yield buffers compatible with (14)C-AMS. We describe the processing techniques required to couple FFE to AMS for quantitation of protein adducts. PMID:20454606

  17. Free flow electrophoresis separation and AMS quantitation of 14C-naphthalene-protein adducts

    PubMed Central

    Buchholz, Bruce A.; Haack, Kurt W.; Sporty, Jennifer L.; Buckpitt, Alan R.; Morin, Dexter

    2009-01-01

    Naphthalene is a volatile aromatic hydrocarbon to which humans are exposed from a variety of sources including mobile air sources and cigarette smoke. Naphthalene produces dose- (concentration) dependent injury to airway epithelial cells of murine lung which is observed at concentrations well below the current occupational exposure standard. Toxicity is dependent upon the cytochrome P450 mediated metabolic activation of the parent substrate to unstable metabolites which become bound covalently to tissue proteins. Nearly 70 proteins have been identified as forming adducts with reactive naphthalene metabolites using in vitro systems but very little work has been conducted in vivo because reasonably large amounts (100 μCi) of 14C labeled parent compound must be administered to generate detectable adduct levels on storage phosphor screens following separation of labeled proteins by 2 D gel electrophoresis. The work described here was done to provide proof of concept that protein separation by free flow electrophoresis followed by AMS detection of protein fractions containing protein bound reactive metabolites would provide adducted protein profiles in animals dosed with trace quantities of labeled naphthalene. Mice were administered 200 mg/kg naphthalene intraperitoneally at a calculated specific activity of 2 DPM/nmol (1 pCi/nmol) and respiratory epithelial tissue was obtained by lysis lavage 4 hr post injection. Free flow electrophoresis (FFE) separates proteins in the liquid phase over a large pH range (2.5–11.5) using low molecular weight acids and bases to modify the pH. The apparatus separates fractions into standard 96-well plates that can be used in other protein analysis techniques. The buffers of the fractions have very high carbon content, however, and need to be dialyzed to yield buffers compatible with 14C-AMS. We describe the processing techniques required to couple FFE to AMS for quantitation of protein adducts. PMID:20454606

  18. Free flow electrophoresis separation and AMS quantitation of 14C-naphthalene-protein adducts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buchholz, Bruce A.; Haack, Kurt W.; Sporty, Jennifer L.; Buckpitt, Alan R.; Morin, Dexter

    2010-04-01

    Naphthalene is a volatile aromatic hydrocarbon to which humans are exposed from a variety of sources including mobile air sources and cigarette smoke. Naphthalene produces dose-(concentration)dependent injury to airway epithelial cells of murine lung which is observed at concentrations well below the current occupational exposure standard. Toxicity is dependent upon the cytochrome P450 mediated metabolic activation of the parent substrate to unstable metabolites which become bound covalently to tissue proteins. Nearly 70 proteins have been identified as forming adducts with reactive naphthalene metabolites using in vitro systems but very little work has been conducted in vivo because reasonably large amounts (100 μCi) of 14C labeled parent compound must be administered to generate detectable adduct levels on storage phosphor screens following separation of labeled proteins by 2D gel electrophoresis. The work described here was done to provide proof of concept that protein separation by free flow electrophoresis followed by AMS detection of protein fractions containing protein bound reactive metabolites would provide adducted protein profiles in animals dosed with trace quantities of labeled naphthalene. Mice were administered 200 mg/kg naphthalene intraperitoneally at a calculated specific activity of 2 DPM/nmol (1 pCi/nmol) and respiratory epithelial tissue was obtained by lysis lavage 4 h post injection. Free flow electrophoresis (FFE) separates proteins in the liquid phase over a large pH range (2.5-11.5) using low molecular weight acids and bases to modify the pH. The apparatus separates fractions into standard 96-well plates that can be used in other protein analysis techniques. The buffers of the fractions have very high carbon content, however, and need to be dialyzed to yield buffers compatible with 14C-AMS. We describe the processing techniques required to couple FFE to AMS for quantitation of protein adducts.

  19. Quantitative phosphoproteomics of protein kinase SnRK1 regulated protein phosphorylation in Arabidopsis under submergence

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Hsing-Yi; Wen, Tuan-Nan; Wang, Ying-Tsui; Shih, Ming-Che

    2016-01-01

    SNF1 RELATED PROTEIN KINASE 1 (SnRK1) is proposed to be a central integrator of the plant stress and energy starvation signalling pathways. We observed that the Arabidopsis SnRK1.1 dominant negative mutant (SnRK1.1 K48M) had lower tolerance to submergence than the wild type, suggesting that SnRK1.1-dependent phosphorylation of target proteins is important in signalling pathways triggered by submergence. We conducted quantitative phosphoproteomics and found that the phosphorylation levels of 57 proteins increased and the levels of 27 proteins decreased in Col-0 within 0.5–3h of submergence. Among the 57 proteins with increased phosphorylation in Col-0, 38 did not show increased phosphorylation levels in SnRK1.1 K48M under submergence. These proteins are involved mainly in sugar and protein synthesis. In particular, the phosphorylation of MPK6, which is involved in regulating ROS responses under abiotic stresses, was disrupted in the SnRK1.1 K48M mutant. In addition, PTP1, a negative regulator of MPK6 activity that directly dephosphorylates MPK6, was also regulated by SnRK1.1. We also showed that energy conservation was disrupted in SnRK1.1 K48M, mpk6, and PTP1 S7AS8A under submergence. These results reveal insights into the function of SnRK1 and the downstream signalling factors related to submergence. PMID:27029354

  20. Quantitation of the Noncovalent Cellular Retinol-Binding Protein, Type 1 Complex Through Native Mass Spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Wenjing; Yu, Jianshi; Kane, Maureen A.

    2016-10-01

    Native mass spectrometry (MS) has become a valuable tool in probing noncovalent protein-ligand interactions in a sample-efficient way, yet the quantitative application potential of native MS has not been fully explored. Cellular retinol binding protein, type I (CrbpI) chaperones retinol and retinal in the cell, protecting them from nonspecific oxidation and delivering them to biosynthesis enzymes where the bound (holo-) and unbound (apo-) forms of CrbpI exert distinct biological functions. Using nanoelectrospray, we developed a native MS assay for probing apo- and holo-CrbpI abundance to facilitate exploring their biological functions in retinoid metabolism and signaling. The methods were developed on two platforms, an Orbitrap-based Thermo Exactive and a Q-IMS-TOF-based Waters Synapt G2S, where similar ion behaviors under optimized conditions were observed. Overall, our results suggested that within the working range (~1-10 μM), gas-phase ions in the native state linearly correspond to solution concentration and relative ion intensities of the apo- and holo-protein ions can linearly respond to the solution ratios, suggesting native MS is a viable tool for relative quantitation in this system.

  1. Quantitative analysis of cell surface membrane proteins using membrane-impermeable chemical probe coupled with 18O labeling

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Haizhen; Brown, Roslyn N.; Qian, Wei-Jun; Monroe, Matthew E.; Purvine, Samuel O.; Moore, Ronald J.; Gritsenko, Marina A.; Shi, Liang; Romine, Margaret F; Fredrickson, James K.; Paša-Tolić, Ljiljana; Smith, Richard D.; Lipton, Mary S.

    2010-01-01

    We report a mass spectrometry-based strategy for quantitative analysis of cell surface membrane proteome changes. The strategy includes enrichment of surface membrane proteins using a membrane-impermeable chemical probe followed by stable isotope 18O labeling and LC-MS analysis. We applied this strategy for enriching membrane proteins expressed by Shewanella oneidensis MR-1, a gram-negative bacterium with known metal-reduction capability via extracellular electron transfer between outer membrane proteins and extracellular electron receptors. LC/MS/MS analysis resulted in the identification of about 400 proteins with 79% of them being predicted to be membrane localized. Quantitative aspects of the membrane enrichment were shown by peptide level 16O and 18O labeling of proteins from wild-type and mutant cells (generated from deletion of a type II secretion protein, GspD) prior to LC-MS analysis. Using a chemical probe labeled pure protein as an internal standard for normalization, the quantitative data revealed reduced abundances in ΔgspD mutant cells of many outer membrane proteins including the outer membrane c-cype cytochromes OmcA and MtrC, in agreement with previously investigation demonstrating that these proteins are substrates of the type II secretion system. PMID:20380418

  2. Mass spectrometric-based approaches in quantitative proteomics.

    PubMed

    Ong, Shao-En; Foster, Leonard J; Mann, Matthias

    2003-02-01

    Classically, experiments aimed at studying changes in protein expression have always followed a small set of proteins. This focused approach was necessary since tools to efficiently analyze large numbers of proteins were simply not available. Large-scale quantitative proteomics promises to produce reams of data that previously would have taken decades to measure with classical methods. Mass spectrometry is already a well-established protein identification tool and recent methodological developments indicate that it can also be successfully applied to extract quantitative data of protein abundance. From the first reports 4 years ago, numerous schemes to take advantage of stable isotope nuclei incorporation in proteins and peptides have been developed. Here we review the benefits and pitfalls of some of the most commonly used protocols, focusing on a procedure now being used extensively in our laboratory, stable isotope labeling with amino acids in cell culture (SILAC). The basic theory, application, and data analysis of a SILAC experiment are discussed. The emerging nature of these techniques and the rapid pace of technological development make forecasting the directions of the field difficult but we speculate that SILAC will soon be a key tool of quantitative proteomics.

  3. Quantitative Correlation between the protein primary sequences and secondary structures in spider dragline silks.

    PubMed

    Jenkins, Janelle E; Creager, Melinda S; Lewis, Randolph V; Holland, Gregory P; Yarger, Jeffery L

    2010-01-11

    Synthetic spider silk holds great potential for use in various applications spanning medical uses to ultra lightweight armor; however, producing synthetic fibers with mechanical properties comparable to natural spider silk has eluded the scientific community. Natural dragline spider silks are commonly made from proteins that contain highly repetitive amino acid motifs, adopting an array of secondary structures. Before further advances can be made in the production of synthetic fibers based on spider silk proteins, it is imperative to know the percentage of each amino acid in the protein that forms a specific secondary structure. Linking these percentages to the primary amino acid sequence of the protein will establish a structural foundation for synthetic silk. In this study, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) techniques are used to quantify the percentage of Ala, Gly, and Ser that form both beta-sheet and helical secondary structures. The fraction of these three amino acids and their secondary structure are quantitatively correlated to the primary amino acid sequence for the proteins that comprise major and minor ampullate silk from the Nephila clavipes spider providing a blueprint for synthetic spider silks. PMID:20000730

  4. The effects of shared peptides on protein quantitation in label-free proteomics by LC/MS/MS

    SciTech Connect

    Jin, Shuangshuang; Daly, Don S.; Springer, David L.; Miller, John H.

    2008-01-02

    Assessment of differential protein abundance from the observed properties of detected peptides is an essential part of protein profiling based on shotgun proteomics. However, the abundance observed for degenerate peptides may be due to contributions from multiple proteins that are affected differently by a given treatment. Excluding degenerate peptides eliminates this ambiguity but may significantly decrease the number of proteins for which abundance estimates can be obtained. Peptide degeneracy within a family of biologically related proteins does not cause ambiguity if family members have a common response to treatment. Based on this concept, we have developed an approach for including degenerate peptides in the analysis of differential protein abundance in protein profiling. Data from a recent proteomics study of lung tissue from mice exposed to lipopolysaccharide, cigarette smoke, and a combination of these agents is used to illustrate our method. Starting from data where about half of the protein identifications involved degenerate peptides, 82% of the affected proteins were grouped into families, based on FASTA annotation, with closure on peptide degeneracy. In many cases, a common abundance relative to control was sufficient to explain ion-current peak areas for peptides, both unique and degenerate, that identified biologically-related proteins in a peptide-degeneracy closure group. Based on these results, we propose that peptide-degeneracy closure groups provide a way to include abundance data for degenerate-peptides in quantitative protein profiling by high throughput mass spectrometry.

  5. Neurodegenerative diseases: quantitative predictions of protein-RNA interactions.

    PubMed

    Cirillo, Davide; Agostini, Federico; Klus, Petr; Marchese, Domenica; Rodriguez, Silvia; Bolognesi, Benedetta; Tartaglia, Gian Gaetano

    2013-02-01

    Increasing evidence indicates that RNA plays an active role in a number of neurodegenerative diseases. We recently introduced a theoretical framework, catRAPID, to predict the binding ability of protein and RNA molecules. Here, we use catRAPID to investigate ribonucleoprotein interactions linked to inherited intellectual disability, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Creutzfeuld-Jakob, Alzheimer's, and Parkinson's diseases. We specifically focus on (1) RNA interactions with fragile X mental retardation protein FMRP; (2) protein sequestration caused by CGG repeats; (3) noncoding transcripts regulated by TAR DNA-binding protein 43 TDP-43; (4) autogenous regulation of TDP-43 and FMRP; (5) iron-mediated expression of amyloid precursor protein APP and α-synuclein; (6) interactions between prions and RNA aptamers. Our results are in striking agreement with experimental evidence and provide new insights in processes associated with neuronal function and misfunction.

  6. Quantitative characterization of conformational-specific protein-DNA binding using a dual-spectral interferometric imaging biosensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xirui; Daaboul, George G.; Spuhler, Philipp S.; Dröge, Peter; Ünlü, M. Selim

    2016-03-01

    DNA-binding proteins play crucial roles in the maintenance and functions of the genome and yet, their specific binding mechanisms are not fully understood. Recently, it was discovered that DNA-binding proteins recognize specific binding sites to carry out their functions through an indirect readout mechanism by recognizing and capturing DNA conformational flexibility and deformation. High-throughput DNA microarray-based methods that provide large-scale protein-DNA binding information have shown effective and comprehensive analysis of protein-DNA binding affinities, but do not provide information of DNA conformational changes in specific protein-DNA complexes. Building on the high-throughput capability of DNA microarrays, we demonstrate a quantitative approach that simultaneously measures the amount of protein binding to DNA and nanometer-scale DNA conformational change induced by protein binding in a microarray format. Both measurements rely on spectral interferometry on a layered substrate using a single optical instrument in two distinct modalities. In the first modality, we quantitate the amount of binding of protein to surface-immobilized DNA in each DNA spot using a label-free spectral reflectivity technique that accurately measures the surface densities of protein and DNA accumulated on the substrate. In the second modality, for each DNA spot, we simultaneously measure DNA conformational change using a fluorescence vertical sectioning technique that determines average axial height of fluorophores tagged to specific nucleotides of the surface-immobilized DNA. The approach presented in this paper, when combined with current high-throughput DNA microarray-based technologies, has the potential to serve as a rapid and simple method for quantitative and large-scale characterization of conformational specific protein-DNA interactions.DNA-binding proteins play crucial roles in the maintenance and functions of the genome and yet, their specific binding mechanisms are

  7. Quantitative proteomic analysis of cold-responsive proteins in rice.

    PubMed

    Neilson, Karlie A; Mariani, Michael; Haynes, Paul A

    2011-05-01

    Rice is susceptible to cold stress and with a future of climatic instability we will be unable to produce enough rice to satisfy increasing demand. A thorough understanding of the molecular responses to thermal stress is imperative for engineering cultivars, which have greater resistance to low temperature stress. In this study we investigated the proteomic response of rice seedlings to 48, 72 and 96 h of cold stress at 12-14°C. The use of both label-free and iTRAQ approaches in the analysis of global protein expression enabled us to assess the complementarity of the two techniques for use in plant proteomics. The approaches yielded a similar biological response to cold stress despite a disparity in proteins identified. The label-free approach identified 236 cold-responsive proteins compared to 85 in iTRAQ results, with only 24 proteins in common. Functional analysis revealed differential expression of proteins involved in transport, photosynthesis, generation of precursor metabolites and energy; and, more specifically, histones and vitamin B biosynthetic proteins were observed to be affected by cold stress. PMID:21433000

  8. Classification of cassava genotypes based on qualitative and quantitative data.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, E J; Oliveira Filho, O S; Santos, V S

    2015-02-02

    We evaluated the genetic variation of cassava accessions based on qualitative (binomial and multicategorical) and quantitative traits (continuous). We characterized 95 accessions obtained from the Cassava Germplasm Bank of Embrapa Mandioca e Fruticultura; we evaluated these accessions for 13 continuous, 10 binary, and 25 multicategorical traits. First, we analyzed the accessions based only on quantitative traits; next, we conducted joint analysis (qualitative and quantitative traits) based on the Ward-MLM method, which performs clustering in two stages. According to the pseudo-F, pseudo-t2, and maximum likelihood criteria, we identified five and four groups based on quantitative trait and joint analysis, respectively. The smaller number of groups identified based on joint analysis may be related to the nature of the data. On the other hand, quantitative data are more subject to environmental effects in the phenotype expression; this results in the absence of genetic differences, thereby contributing to greater differentiation among accessions. For most of the accessions, the maximum probability of classification was >0.90, independent of the trait analyzed, indicating a good fit of the clustering method. Differences in clustering according to the type of data implied that analysis of quantitative and qualitative traits in cassava germplasm might explore different genomic regions. On the other hand, when joint analysis was used, the means and ranges of genetic distances were high, indicating that the Ward-MLM method is very useful for clustering genotypes when there are several phenotypic traits, such as in the case of genetic resources and breeding programs.

  9. Selective quantitative bioanalysis of proteins in biological fluids by on-line immunoaffinity chromatography-protein digestion-liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Hoos, Johannes S; Sudergat, Hilke; Hoelck, Jens-Peter; Stahl, Mark; de Vlieger, Jon S B; Niessen, Wilfried M A; Lingeman, Henk; Irth, Hubertus

    2006-01-18

    A quantitative method for the determination of proteins in complex biological matrices has been developed based on the selectivity of antibodies for sample purification followed by proteolytic digestion and quantitative mass spectrometry. An immunosorbent of polyclonal anti-bovine serum albumin (BSA) antibodies immobilized on CNBR agarose is used in the on-line mode for selective sample pretreatment. Next, the purified sample is trypsin digested to obtain protein specific peptide markers. Subsequent analysis of the peptide mixture using a desalination procedure and a separation step coupled, on-line to an ion-trap mass spectrometer, reveals that this method enables selective determination of proteins in biological matrices like diluted human plasma. This approach enhances substantially the selectivity compared to common quantitative analysis executed with immunoassays and colorimetry, fluorimetry or luminescence detection. Hyphenation of the immunoaffinity chromatography with on-line digestion and chromatography-mass spectrometry is performed and a completely on-line quantification of the model protein BSA in bovine and human urine was established. A detection limit of 170 nmol/l and a quantification limit of 280 nmol/l is obtained using 50 microl of either standard or spiked biological matrix. The model system allows fully automated absolute quantitative mass spectrometric analysis of intact proteins in biological matrices without time-consuming labeling procedures.

  10. Shotgun Quantitative Proteomic Analysis of Proteins Responding to Drought Stress in Brassica rapa L. (Inbred Line "Chiifu").

    PubMed

    Kwon, Soon-Wook; Kim, Mijeong; Kim, Hijin; Lee, Joohyun

    2016-01-01

    Through a comparative shotgun quantitative proteomics analysis in Brassica rapa (inbred line Chiifu), total of 3,009 nonredundant proteins were identified with a false discovery rate of 0.01 in 3-week-old plants subjected to dehydration treatment for 0, 24, and 48 h, plants subjected to drought stress. Ribulose-bisphosphate carboxylases, chlorophyll a/b-binding protein, and light harvesting complex in photosystem II were highly abundant proteins in the leaves and accounted for 9%, 2%, and 4%, respectively, of the total identified proteins. Comparative analysis of the treatments enabled detection of 440 differentially expressed proteins during dehydration. The results of clustering analysis, gene ontology (GO) enrichment analysis, and analysis of composite expression profiles of functional categories for the differentially expressed proteins indicated that drought stress reduced the levels of proteins associated with photosynthesis and increased the levels of proteins involved in catabolic processes and stress responses. We observed enhanced expression of many proteins involved in osmotic stress responses and proteins with antioxidant activities. Based on previously reported molecular functions, we propose that the following five differentially expressed proteins could provide target genes for engineering drought resistance in plants: annexin, phospholipase D delta, sDNA-binding transcriptional regulator, auxin-responsive GH3 family protein, and TRAF-like family protein.

  11. High-Throughput Multiplexed Quantitation of Protein Aggregation and Cytotoxicity in a Huntington’s Disease Model

    PubMed Central

    Titus, Steven A; Southall, Noel; Marugan, Juan; Austin, Christopher P; Zheng, Wei

    2012-01-01

    A hallmark of Huntington’s disease is the presence of a large polyglutamine expansion in the first exon of the Huntingtin protein and the propensity of protein aggregation by the mutant proteins. Aberrant protein aggregation also occurs in other polyglutamine expansion disorders, as well as in other neurodegenerative diseases including Parkinson’s, Alzheimer’s, and prion diseases. However, the pathophysiological role of these aggregates in the cell death that characterizes the diseases remains unclear. Identification of small molecule probes that modulate protein aggregation and cytotoxicity caused by aggregated proteins may greatly facilitate the studies on pathogenesis of these diseases and potentially lead to development of new therapies. Based on a detergent insoluble property of the Huntingtin protein aggregates, we have developed a homogenous assay to rapidly quantitate the levels of protein aggregates in a cellular model of Huntington’s disease. The protein aggregation assay has also been multiplexed with a protease release assay for the measurement of cytotoxicity resulting from aggregated proteins in the same cells. Through a testing screen of a compound library, we have demonstrated that this multiplexed cytotoxicity and protein aggregation assay has ability to identify active compounds that prevent cell death and/or modulate protein aggregation in cells of the Huntington’s disease model. Therefore, this multiplexed screening approach is also useful for development of high-throughput screening assays for other neurodegenerative diseases involving protein aggregation. PMID:23346268

  12. Shotgun Quantitative Proteomic Analysis of Proteins Responding to Drought Stress in Brassica rapa L. (Inbred Line "Chiifu").

    PubMed

    Kwon, Soon-Wook; Kim, Mijeong; Kim, Hijin; Lee, Joohyun

    2016-01-01

    Through a comparative shotgun quantitative proteomics analysis in Brassica rapa (inbred line Chiifu), total of 3,009 nonredundant proteins were identified with a false discovery rate of 0.01 in 3-week-old plants subjected to dehydration treatment for 0, 24, and 48 h, plants subjected to drought stress. Ribulose-bisphosphate carboxylases, chlorophyll a/b-binding protein, and light harvesting complex in photosystem II were highly abundant proteins in the leaves and accounted for 9%, 2%, and 4%, respectively, of the total identified proteins. Comparative analysis of the treatments enabled detection of 440 differentially expressed proteins during dehydration. The results of clustering analysis, gene ontology (GO) enrichment analysis, and analysis of composite expression profiles of functional categories for the differentially expressed proteins indicated that drought stress reduced the levels of proteins associated with photosynthesis and increased the levels of proteins involved in catabolic processes and stress responses. We observed enhanced expression of many proteins involved in osmotic stress responses and proteins with antioxidant activities. Based on previously reported molecular functions, we propose that the following five differentially expressed proteins could provide target genes for engineering drought resistance in plants: annexin, phospholipase D delta, sDNA-binding transcriptional regulator, auxin-responsive GH3 family protein, and TRAF-like family protein. PMID:27419125

  13. Shotgun Quantitative Proteomic Analysis of Proteins Responding to Drought Stress in Brassica rapa L. (Inbred Line “Chiifu”)

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Soon-Wook

    2016-01-01

    Through a comparative shotgun quantitative proteomics analysis in Brassica rapa (inbred line Chiifu), total of 3,009 nonredundant proteins were identified with a false discovery rate of 0.01 in 3-week-old plants subjected to dehydration treatment for 0, 24, and 48 h, plants subjected to drought stress. Ribulose-bisphosphate carboxylases, chlorophyll a/b-binding protein, and light harvesting complex in photosystem II were highly abundant proteins in the leaves and accounted for 9%, 2%, and 4%, respectively, of the total identified proteins. Comparative analysis of the treatments enabled detection of 440 differentially expressed proteins during dehydration. The results of clustering analysis, gene ontology (GO) enrichment analysis, and analysis of composite expression profiles of functional categories for the differentially expressed proteins indicated that drought stress reduced the levels of proteins associated with photosynthesis and increased the levels of proteins involved in catabolic processes and stress responses. We observed enhanced expression of many proteins involved in osmotic stress responses and proteins with antioxidant activities. Based on previously reported molecular functions, we propose that the following five differentially expressed proteins could provide target genes for engineering drought resistance in plants: annexin, phospholipase D delta, sDNA-binding transcriptional regulator, auxin-responsive GH3 family protein, and TRAF-like family protein. PMID:27419125

  14. Identification of Protein Network Alterations upon Retinal Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury by Quantitative Proteomics Using a Rattus norvegicus Model

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Han; Wang, Leilei; Cai, Ruiqi; Zheng, Ling; Guo, Lin

    2014-01-01

    Retinal ischemia is a common feature associated with several ocular diseases, including diabetic retinopathy. In this study, we investigated the effect of a retinal ischemia and reperfusion (I/R) injury on protein levels via a quantitative shotgun strategy using stable isotope dimethyl labeling combined with LC-MS/MS analysis. Based on the relative quantitation data of 1088 proteins, 234 proteins showed a greater than 1.5-fold change following I/R injury, 194 of which were up-regulated and 40 were down-regulated. Gene ontology analysis revealed that after I/R injury, there was an increase in the metabolic-process related proteins but a decline in cell communication, system process and transport-related proteins. A ribosome protein network and a secreted protein network consisting of many protease inhibitors were identified among the up-regulated proteins, despite a suppression of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway following the I/R injury. A synaptic-related protein network was found to be significantly down-regulated, implicating a functional reduction of neurons following a retinal I/R injury. Our results provide new systems-biology clues for the study of retinal ischemia. PMID:25549249

  15. Quantitation of Human Metallothionein Isoforms: A Family of Small, Highly Conserved, Cysteine-rich Proteins*

    PubMed Central

    Mehus, Aaron A.; Muhonen, Wallace W.; Garrett, Scott H.; Somji, Seema; Sens, Donald A.; Shabb, John B.

    2014-01-01

    Human metallothioneins (MTs) are important regulators of metal homeostasis and protectors against oxidative damage. Their altered mRNA expression has been correlated with metal toxicity and a variety of cancers. Current immunodetection methods lack the specificity to distinguish all 12 human isoforms. Each, however, can be distinguished by the mass of its acetylated, cysteine-rich, hydrophilic N-terminal tryptic peptides. These properties were exploited to develop a bottom-up MALDI-TOF/TOF-MS-based method for their simultaneous quantitation. Key features included enrichment of N-terminal acetylated peptides by strong cation exchange chromatography, optimization of C18 reversed-phase chromatography, and control of methionine oxidation. Combinations of nine isoforms were identified in seven cell lines and two tissues. Relative quantitation was accomplished by comparing peak intensities of peptides generated from pooled cytosolic proteins alkylated with 14N- or 15N-iodoacetamide. Absolute quantitation was achieved using 15N-iodoacetamide-labeled synthetic peptides as internal standards. The method was applied to the cadmium induction of MTs in human kidney HK-2 epithelial cells expressing recombinant MT-3. Seven isoforms were detected with abundances spanning almost 2 orders of magnitude and inductions up to 12-fold. The protein-to-mRNA ratio for MT-1E was one-tenth that of other MTs, suggesting isoform-specific differences in protein expression efficiency. Differential expression of MT-1G1 and MT-1G2 suggested tissue- and cell-specific alternative splicing for the MT-1G isoform. Protein expression of MT isoforms was also evaluated in human breast epithelial cancer cell lines. Estrogen-receptor-positive cell lines expressed only MT-2 and MT-1X, whereas estrogen-receptor-negative cell lines additionally expressed MT-1E. The combined expression of MT isoforms was 38-fold greater in estrogen-receptor-negative cell lines than in estrogen-receptor-positive cells. These

  16. Quantitative analysis of aberrant protein glycosylation in liver cancer plasma by AAL-enrichment and MRM mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Yeong Hee; Shin, Park Min; Kim, Yong-Sam; Oh, Na Ree; Ji, Eun Sun; Kim, Kwang Hoe; Lee, Yeon Jung; Kim, Sung Ho; Yoo, Jong Shin

    2013-11-01

    A lectin-coupled mass spectrometry (MS) approach was employed to quantitatively monitor aberrant protein glycosylation in liver cancer plasma. To do this, we compared the difference in the total protein abundance of a target glycoprotein between hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) plasmas and hepatitis B virus (HBV) plasmas, as well as the difference in lectin-specific protein glycoform abundance of the target glycoprotein. Capturing the lectin-specific protein glycoforms from a plasma sample was accomplished by using a fucose-specific aleuria aurantia lectin (AAL) immobilized onto magnetic beads via a biotin-streptavidin conjugate. Following tryptic digestion of both the total plasma and its AAL-captured fraction of each HCC and HBV sample, targeted proteomic mass spectrometry was conducted quantitatively by a multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) technique. From the MRM-based analysis of the total plasmas and AAL-captured fractions, differences between HCC and HBV plasma groups in fucosylated glycoform levels of target glycoproteins were confirmed to arise from both the change in the total protein abundance of the target proteins and the change incurred by aberrant fucosylation on target glycoproteins in HCC plasma, even when no significant change occurs in the total protein abundance level. Combining the MRM-based analysis method with the lectin-capturing technique proved to be a successful means of quantitatively investigating aberrant protein glycosylation in cancer plasma samples. Additionally, it was elucidated that the differences between HCC and control groups in fucosylated biomarker candidates A1AT and FETUA mainly originated from an increase in fucosylation levels on these target glycoproteins, rather than an increase in the total protein abundance of the target glycoproteins.

  17. Secondary Reactions and Strategies to Improve Quantitative Protein Footprinting

    SciTech Connect

    Xu,G.; Kiselar, J.; He, Q.; Chance, M.

    2005-01-01

    Hydroxyl radical-mediated footprinting permits detailed examination of structure and dynamic processes of proteins and large biological assemblies, as changes in the rate of reaction of radicals with target peptides are governed by changes in the solvent accessibility of the side-chain probe residues. The precise and accurate determination of peptide reaction rates is essential to successfully probing protein structure using footprinting. In this study, we specifically examine the magnitude and mechanisms of secondary oxidation occurring after radiolytic exposure and prior to mass spectrometric analysis. Secondary oxidation results from hydrogen peroxide and other oxidative species generated during radiolysis, significantly impacting the oxidation of Met and Cys but not aromatic or other reactive residues. Secondary oxidation of Met with formation of sulfoxide degrades data reproducibility and inflates the perceived solvent accessibility of Met-containing peptides. It can be suppressed by adding trace amounts of catalase or millimolar Met-NH{sub 2} (or Met-OH) buffer immediately after irradiation; this leads to greatly improved adherence to first-order kinetics and more precise observed oxidation rates. The strategy is shown to suppress secondary oxidation in model peptides and improve data quality in examining the reactivity of peptides within the Arp2/3 protein complex. Cysteine is also subject to secondary oxidation generating disulfide as the principal product. The disulfides can be reduced before mass spectrometric analysis by reducing agents such as TCEP, while methionine sulfoxide is refractory to reduction by this reagent under typical reducing conditions.

  18. Quantitative protein composition and baking quality of winter wheat as affected by late sulfur fertilization.

    PubMed

    Zörb, Christian; Steinfurth, Dorothee; Seling, Simone; Langenkämper, Georg; Koehler, Peter; Wieser, Herbert; Lindhauer, Meinolf G; Mühling, Karl H

    2009-05-13

    Increasing prices for wheat products and fertilizers, as well as reduced sulfur (S) contributions from the atmosphere, call for an improvement of product quality and agricultural management. To detect the impact of a time-dependent S fertilization, the quantitative protein composition and the baking quality of two different wheat cultivars, Batis and Turkis, were evaluated. The glutathione concentration in grains serves as a reliable marker of the need for added S fertilizer. The quantitation of gliadins and glutenin subunits by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography confirmed that S-rich proteins significantly increased with S fertilization, whereas the S-poor proteins significantly decreased. Proteome analysis by means of high-resolution protein profiles detected 55 and 37 proteins from Batis and Turkis changed by late S fertilization. A microscale baking test using wholemeal flour was implemented for the evaluation of baking quality, and late S fertilization was found to improve the composition of gluten proteins and baking quality.

  19. Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry-based Quantitative Proteomics

    SciTech Connect

    Xie, Fang; Liu, Tao; Qian, Weijun; Petyuk, Vladislav A.; Smith, Richard D.

    2011-07-22

    Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS)-based quantitative proteomics has become increasingly applied for a broad range of biological applications due to growing capabilities for broad proteome coverage and good accuracy in quantification. Herein, we review the current LC-MS-based quantification methods with respect to their advantages and limitations, and highlight their potential applications.

  20. Quantitative methods for the analysis of protein phosphorylation in drug development.

    PubMed

    Olive, D Michael

    2004-10-01

    Most signal transduction and cell signaling pathways are mediated by protein kinases. Protein kinases have emerged as important cellular regulatory proteins in many aspects of neoplasia. Protein kinase inhibitors offer the opportunity to target diseases such as cancer with chemotherapeutic agents specific for the causative molecular defect. In order to identify possible targets and assess kinase inhibitors, quantitative methods for analyzing protein phosphorylation have been developed. This review examines some of the current formats used for quantifying kinase function for drug development. PMID:15966829

  1. Quantitative proteomic analysis of mice corneal tissues reveals angiogenesis-related proteins involved in corneal neovascularization.

    PubMed

    Shen, Minqian; Tao, Yimin; Feng, Yifan; Liu, Xing; Yuan, Fei; Zhou, Hu

    2016-07-01

    Corneal neovascularization (CNV) was induced in Balb/c mice by alkali burns in the central area of the cornea with a diameter of 2.5mm. After fourteen days, the cornea from one eye was collected for histological staining for CNV examination, while the cornea from the other eye of the same mouse was harvested for proteomic analysis. The label-free quantitative proteomic approach was applied to analyze five normal corneal tissues (normal group mice n=5) and five corresponding neovascularized corneal tissues (model group mice n=5). A total of 2124 proteins were identified, and 1682 proteins were quantified from these corneal tissues. Among these quantified proteins, 290 proteins were significantly changed between normal and alkali burned corneal tissues. Of these significantly changed proteins, 35 were reported or predicted as angiogenesis-related proteins. Then, these 35 proteins were analyzed using Ingenuity Pathway Analysis Software, resulting in 26 proteins enriched and connected to each other in the protein-protein interaction network, such as Lcn-2, αB-crystallin and Serpinf1 (PEDF). These three significantly changed proteins were selected for further Western blotting validation. Consistent with the quantitative proteomic results, Western blotting showed that Lcn-2 and αB-crystallin were significantly up-regulated in CNV model, while PEDF was down-regulated. This study provided increased understanding of angiogenesis-related proteins involved in corneal vascular development, which will be useful in the ophthalmic clinic of specifically target angiogenesis.

  2. Functional region identification in proteins by accumulative-quantitative peptide mapping using RP-HPLC-MS.

    PubMed

    Kuipers, Bas J H; Bakx, E J; Gruppen, Harry

    2007-11-14

    A new method was developed to identify regions in proteins from which peptides are derived with specific functional properties. This method is applicable for systems in which peptides of a hydrolyzed protein possess specific functional properties, but are too large to be sequenced directly and/or the peptide mixture is too complex to purify and characterize each peptide individually. In the present work, aggregating peptides obtained by proteolytic hydrolysis of soy glycinin were used as a case study. The aggregating peptides are isolated and subsequently further degraded with trypsin to result in peptides with a mass <5000 Da to enable sequence identification using RP-HPLC-MS in combination with MS/MS. Prior to RP-HPLC the peptides are fractionated using anion and cation exchange chromatography. The fractions obtained are analyzed with RP-HPLC-MS. The peptides, with identified sequences, were quantified using the peak areas of the RP-HPLC chromatograms measured at 214 nm. Next, the peak areas were corrected for the molar extinction coefficient of the individual peptides, followed by accumulative-quantitative peptide mapping. The results show that in complex systems, based on the method described, the regions in the parental protein from which the functional peptides originate can be properly identified.

  3. Rapid and quantitative detection of C-reactive protein using quantum dots and immunochromatographic test strips

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Xianglin; Pu, Xu; Jun, Pen; Zhu, XiaoBo; Zhu, Di; Chen, Ming

    2014-01-01

    Background Rapid immunochromatographic tests can detect disease markers in 10–15 minutes, which facilitates clinical diagnosis and treatment programs. However, most immunochromatographic tests employ gold nanoparticles as reporters, and these have only moderate sensitivity and act as qualitative methods for analyzing high biomarker concentrations. Methods In this study, we introduce quantum dots (QDs) as fluorescent probes and immunochromatographic strips to develop quantitative fluorescence point-of-care tests (QF-POCT) to analyze C-reactive protein (CRP) levels. Goat anti-rabbit IgG and rabbit IgG were used as control antibodies, and mouse monoclonal CRP antibody pairs were used for disease marker detection. One monoclonal CRP antibody was conjugated with QDs and served as a signal antibody, and the other monoclonal CRP antibody was dispensed onto the nitrocellulose membrane and served as a capturing antibody. In the presence of CRP, the fluorescence intensity of the monoclonal antibody-CRP-monoclonal antibody sandwich complex captured on the nitrocellulose membrane was determined using the fluorescence strip reader. Results QF-POCT assays could quantitatively analyze the concentration of CRP in 15 minutes had a detection limit of 0.25 mg/L, and had a wide detection linearity range (0.5–300 mg/L). The intra-assay and interassay coefficients of variation were 8.95% and 9.86% at 0.5 mg/L, 6.47% and 8.66% at 10 mg/L, and 6.81% and 9.10% at 60 mg/L, respectively. In a comparison between clinical samples, the results of this QD-based assay of CRP levels were significantly correlated with those of an Immulite 2000 assay (R=0.993, P<0.001). Conclusion Our results demonstrated that the QD-based immunochromatographic test is a rapid, sensitive, accurate, and quantitative method for the detection of disease biomarkers. PMID:25506215

  4. Unbiased Quantitative Models of Protein Translation Derived from Ribosome Profiling Data

    PubMed Central

    Gritsenko, Alexey A.; Hulsman, Marc; Reinders, Marcel J. T.; de Ridder, Dick

    2015-01-01

    Translation of RNA to protein is a core process for any living organism. While for some steps of this process the effect on protein production is understood, a holistic understanding of translation still remains elusive. In silico modelling is a promising approach for elucidating the process of protein synthesis. Although a number of computational models of the process have been proposed, their application is limited by the assumptions they make. Ribosome profiling (RP), a relatively new sequencing-based technique capable of recording snapshots of the locations of actively translating ribosomes, is a promising source of information for deriving unbiased data-driven translation models. However, quantitative analysis of RP data is challenging due to high measurement variance and the inability to discriminate between the number of ribosomes measured on a gene and their speed of translation. We propose a solution in the form of a novel multi-scale interpretation of RP data that allows for deriving models with translation dynamics extracted from the snapshots. We demonstrate the usefulness of this approach by simultaneously determining for the first time per-codon translation elongation and per-gene translation initiation rates of Saccharomyces cerevisiae from RP data for two versions of the Totally Asymmetric Exclusion Process (TASEP) model of translation. We do this in an unbiased fashion, by fitting the models using only RP data with a novel optimization scheme based on Monte Carlo simulation to keep the problem tractable. The fitted models match the data significantly better than existing models and their predictions show better agreement with several independent protein abundance datasets than existing models. Results additionally indicate that the tRNA pool adaptation hypothesis is incomplete, with evidence suggesting that tRNA post-transcriptional modifications and codon context may play a role in determining codon elongation rates. PMID:26275099

  5. Stress Responsive Proteins Are Actively Regulated during Rice (Oryza sativa) Embryogenesis as Indicated by Quantitative Proteomics Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Zi, Jin; Zhang, Jiyuan; Wang, Quanhui; Zhou, Baojin; Zhong, Junyan; Zhang, Chaoliang; Qiu, Xuemei; Wen, Bo; Zhang, Shenyan; Fu, Xiqin; Lin, Liang; Liu, Siqi

    2013-01-01

    Embryogenesis is the initial step in a plant’s life, and the molecular changes that occur during embryonic development are largely unknown. To explore the relevant molecular events, we used the isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantification (iTRAQ) coupled with the shotgun proteomics technique (iTRAQ/Shotgun) to study the proteomic changes of rice embryos during embryogenesis. For the first time, a total of 2 165 unique proteins were identified in rice embryos, and the abundances of 867 proteins were actively changed based on the statistical evaluation of the quantitative MS/MS signals. The quantitative data were then confirmed using multiple reactions monitoring (MRM) and were also supported by our previous study based on two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2 DE). Using the proteome at 6 days after pollination (DAP) as a reference, cluster analysis of these differential proteins throughout rice embryogenesis revealed that 25% were up-regulated and 75% were down-regulated. Gene Ontology (GO) analysis implicated that most of the up-regulated proteins were functionally categorized as stress responsive, mainly including heat shock-, lipid transfer-, and reactive oxygen species-related proteins. The stress-responsive proteins were thus postulated to play an important role during seed maturation. PMID:24058531

  6. A Simplified Workflow for Protein Quantitation of Rat Brain Tissues Using Label-Free Proteomics and Spectral Counting.

    PubMed

    Boutté, Angela M; Grant, Shonnette F; Dave, Jitendra R

    2016-01-01

    Mass spectrometry-based proteomics is an increasingly valuable tool for determining relative or quantitative protein abundance in brain tissues. A plethora of technical and analytical methods are available, but straightforward and practical approaches are often needed to facilitate reproducibility. This aspect is particularly important as an increasing number of studies focus on models of traumatic brain injury or brain trauma, for which brain tissue proteomes have not yet been fully described. This text provides suggested techniques for robust identification and quantitation of brain proteins by using molecular weight fractionation prior to mass spectrometry-based proteomics. Detailed sample preparation and generalized protocols for chromatography, mass spectrometry, spectral counting, and normalization are described. The rat cerebral cortex isolated from a model of blast-overpressure was used as an exemplary source of brain tissue. However, these techniques may be adapted for lysates generated from several types of cells or tissues and adapted by the end user. PMID:27604744

  7. A Simplified Workflow for Protein Quantitation of Rat Brain Tissues Using Label-Free Proteomics and Spectral Counting.

    PubMed

    Boutté, Angela M; Grant, Shonnette F; Dave, Jitendra R

    2016-01-01

    Mass spectrometry-based proteomics is an increasingly valuable tool for determining relative or quantitative protein abundance in brain tissues. A plethora of technical and analytical methods are available, but straightforward and practical approaches are often needed to facilitate reproducibility. This aspect is particularly important as an increasing number of studies focus on models of traumatic brain injury or brain trauma, for which brain tissue proteomes have not yet been fully described. This text provides suggested techniques for robust identification and quantitation of brain proteins by using molecular weight fractionation prior to mass spectrometry-based proteomics. Detailed sample preparation and generalized protocols for chromatography, mass spectrometry, spectral counting, and normalization are described. The rat cerebral cortex isolated from a model of blast-overpressure was used as an exemplary source of brain tissue. However, these techniques may be adapted for lysates generated from several types of cells or tissues and adapted by the end user.

  8. A Novel Systems-Biology Algorithm for the Analysis of Coordinated Protein Responses Using Quantitative Proteomics.

    PubMed

    García-Marqués, Fernando; Trevisan-Herraz, Marco; Martínez-Martínez, Sara; Camafeita, Emilio; Jorge, Inmaculada; Lopez, Juan Antonio; Méndez-Barbero, Nerea; Méndez-Ferrer, Simón; Del Pozo, Miguel Angel; Ibáñez, Borja; Andrés, Vicente; Sánchez-Madrid, Francisco; Redondo, Juan Miguel; Bonzon-Kulichenko, Elena; Vázquez, Jesús

    2016-05-01

    The coordinated behavior of proteins is central to systems biology. However, the underlying mechanisms are poorly known and methods to analyze coordination by conventional quantitative proteomics are still lacking. We present the Systems Biology Triangle (SBT), a new algorithm that allows the study of protein coordination by pairwise quantitative proteomics. The Systems Biology Triangle detected statistically significant coordination in diverse biological models of very different nature and subjected to different kinds of perturbations. The Systems Biology Triangle also revealed with unprecedented molecular detail an array of coordinated, early protein responses in vascular smooth muscle cells treated at different times with angiotensin-II. These responses included activation of protein synthesis, folding, turnover, and muscle contraction - consistent with a differentiated phenotype-as well as the induction of migration and the repression of cell proliferation and secretion. Remarkably, the majority of the altered functional categories were protein complexes, interaction networks, or metabolic pathways. These changes could not be detected by other algorithms widely used by the proteomics community, and the vast majority of proteins involved have not been described before to be regulated by AngII. The unique capabilities of The Systems Biology Triangle to detect functional protein alterations produced by the coordinated action of proteins in pairwise quantitative proteomics experiments make this algorithm an attractive choice for the biological interpretation of results on a routine basis.

  9. [Reconstituting evaluation methods based on both qualitative and quantitative paradigms].

    PubMed

    Miyata, Hiroaki; Okubo, Suguru; Yoshie, Satoru; Kai, Ichiro

    2011-01-01

    Debate about the relationship between quantitative and qualitative paradigms is often muddled and confusing and the clutter of terms and arguments has resulted in the concepts becoming obscure and unrecognizable. In this study we conducted content analysis regarding evaluation methods of qualitative healthcare research. We extracted descriptions on four types of evaluation paradigm (validity/credibility, reliability/credibility, objectivity/confirmability, and generalizability/transferability), and classified them into subcategories. In quantitative research, there has been many evaluation methods based on qualitative paradigms, and vice versa. Thus, it might not be useful to consider evaluation methods of qualitative paradigm are isolated from those of quantitative methods. Choosing practical evaluation methods based on the situation and prior conditions of each study is an important approach for researchers.

  10. Proteomic and mass spectroscopic quantitation of protein S-nitrosation differentiates NO-donors

    PubMed Central

    Sinha, Vaishali; Wijewickrama, Gihani T.; Chandrasena, R. Esala P.; Xu, Hua; Edirisinghe, Praneeth D.; Schiefer, Isaac T.; Thatcher, Gregory R. J.

    2010-01-01

    Protein S-nitrosation has been argued to be the most important signaling pathway mediating the bioactivity of NO. This post-translational modification of protein thiols is the result of chemical nitrosation of cysteine residues. The term NO-donors covers very different chemical classes: from clinical therapeutics to probes of routine use in chemical biology; their different chemistry is predicted to result in distinctive biology regulated by protein S-nitrosation. To measure the extent of protein S-nitrosation by NO-donors, a proteomic mass spectrometry method was developed, which quantitates free thiol versus nitrosothiol for each modified cysteine residue, coined d-Switch. This method is adapted from the biotin switch (BST) method, used extensively to identify S-nitrosated proteins in complex biological mixtures, however, BST does not quantitate free thiol. Since glutathione-S-transferase P1-1 (GST-P1) has been proposed to be a biological “NO carrier”, GST-P1 was used as a reporter protein. The 5 different chemical classes of NO-donors compared by d-Switch demonstrated very different profiles of protein S-nitrosation and response to O2 and cysteine, although, all NO-donors were oxidants towards GST-P1. The low limits of detection and the ability to use established MS database searching allowed facile generalization of the d-Switch method, therefore after incubation of neuronal cell cultures with nitrosothiol, it was possible not only to quantitate S-nitrosation of GST-P1, but also many other proteins, including novel targets such as ubiquitin carboxyl-terminal esterase L1 (UCHL1), moreover d-Switch also allowed identification of non-nitrosated proteins and quantitation of degree of nitrosation for individual protein thiols. PMID:20524644

  11. SILAC-Based Quantitative Proteomic Analysis of Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma Patients

    PubMed Central

    Rüetschi, Ulla; Stenson, Martin; Hasselblom, Sverker; Nilsson-Ehle, Herman; Hansson, Ulrika; Fagman, Henrik; Andersson, Per-Ola

    2015-01-01

    Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), the most common lymphoma, is a heterogeneous disease where the outcome for patients with early relapse or refractory disease is very poor, even in the era of immunochemotherapy. In order to describe possible differences in global protein expression and network patterns, we performed a SILAC-based shotgun (LC-MS/MS) quantitative proteomic analysis in fresh-frozen tumor tissue from two groups of DLBCL patients with totally different clinical outcome: (i) early relapsed or refractory and (ii) long-term progression-free patients. We could identify over 3,500 proteins; more than 1,300 were quantified in all patients and 87 were significantly differentially expressed. By functional annotation analysis on the 66 proteins overexpressed in the progression-free patient group, we found an enrichment of proteins involved in the regulation and organization of the actin cytoskeleton. Also, five proteins from actin cytoskeleton regulation, applied in a supervised regression analysis, could discriminate the two patient groups. In conclusion, SILAC-based shotgun quantitative proteomic analysis appears to be a powerful tool to explore the proteome in DLBCL tumor tissue. Also, as progression-free patients had a higher expression of proteins involved in the actin cytoskeleton protein network, such a pattern indicates a functional role in the sustained response to immunochemotherapy. PMID:26060582

  12. Mass spectrometry-based, label-free quantitative proteomics of round spermatids in mice.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hailong; Li, Yan; Yang, Lijuan; Yu, Baofeng; Yan, Ping; Pang, Min; Li, Xiaobing; Yang, Hong; Zheng, Guoping; Xie, Jun; Guo, Rui

    2014-10-01

    Round haploid spermatids are formed at the completion of meiosis. These spermatids then undergo morphological and cytological changes during spermiogenesis. Although sperm proteomes have been extensively studied, relatively few studies have specifically investigated the proteome of round spermatids. We developed a label-free quantitative method in combination with 2D-nano-LC-ESI-MS/MS to investigate the proteome of round spermatids in mice. Analysis of the proteomic data identified 2,331 proteins in the round spermatids. Functional classification of the proteins based on Gene Ontology terms and enrichment analysis further revealed the following: 504 of the identified proteins are predicted to be involved in the generation of precursor metabolites and energy; 343 proteins in translation and protein targeting; 298 proteins in nucleotide and nucleic acid metabolism; 275 and 289 proteins in transport and cellular component organization, respectively. A number of the identified proteins were associated with cytoskeleton organization (183), protein degradation (116) and response to stimulus (115). KEGG pathway analysis identified 68 proteins that are annotated as components of the ribosomal pathway and 17 proteins were related to aminoacyl-tRNA biosynthesis. The round spermatids also contained 28 proteins involved in the proteasome pathway and 40 proteins in the lysosome pathway. A total of 60 proteins were annotated as parts of the spliceosome pathway, in which heterogeneous nuclear RNA is converted to mRNA. Approximately 94 proteins were identified as actin‑binding proteins, involved in the regulation of the actin cytoskeleton. In conclusion, using a label-free shotgun proteomic approach, we identified numerous proteins associated with spermiogenesis in round spermatids. PMID:25109358

  13. Quantitative evaluation of proteins in one- and two-dimensional polyacrylamide gels using a fluorescent stain.

    PubMed

    Nishihara, Julie C; Champion, Kathleen M

    2002-07-01

    The characteristics of protein detection and quantitation with SYPRO Ruby protein gel stain in one- and two-dimensional polyacrylamide gels were evaluated. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) analyses of three different purified recombinant proteins showed that the limits of detection were comparable to the limits of detection with ammoniacal silver staining and were protein-specific, ranging from 0.5 to 5 ng. The linearity of the relationship between protein level and SYPRO Ruby staining intensity also depended on the individual protein, with observed linear dynamic ranges of 200-, 500-, and, 1000-fold for proteins analyzed by SDS-PAGE. SYPRO Ruby protein gel stain was also evaluated in two-dimensional electrophoretic (2-DE) analysis of Escherichia coli proteins. The experiment involved analysis of replicates of the same sample as well as dilution of the sample from 0.5 to 50 nug total protein across gels. In addition to validating the 2-DE system itself, the experiment was used to evaluate three different image analysis programs: Z3 (Compugen), Progenesis (Nonlinear Dynamics), and PDQuest (Bio-Rad). In each program, we analyzed the 2-DE images with respect to sensitivity and reproducibility of overall protein spot detection, as well as linearity of response for 20 representative proteins of different molecular weights and pI. Across all three programs, coefficients of variation (CV) in total number of spots detected among replicate gels ranged from 4 to 11%. For the 20 representative proteins, spot quantitation was also comparable with CVs for gel-to-gel reproducibility ranging from 3 to 33%. Using Progenesis and PDQuest, a 1000-fold linear dynamic range of SYPRO Ruby was demonstrated with a single known protein. These two programs were more suitable than Z3 for examining individual protein spot quantity across a series of gels and gave comparable results.

  14. Ultrasensitive proteomic quantitation of cellular signaling by digitized nanoparticle-protein counting

    PubMed Central

    Jacob, Thomas; Agarwal, Anupriya; Ramunno-Johnson, Damien; O’Hare, Thomas; Gönen, Mehmet; Tyner, Jeffrey W.; Druker, Brian J.; Vu, Tania Q.

    2016-01-01

    Many important signaling and regulatory proteins are expressed at low abundance and are difficult to measure in single cells. We report a molecular imaging approach to quantitate protein levels by digitized, discrete counting of nanoparticle-tagged proteins. Digitized protein counting provides ultrasensitive molecular detection of proteins in single cells that surpasses conventional methods of quantitating total diffuse fluorescence, and offers a substantial improvement in protein quantitation. We implement this digitized proteomic approach in an integrated imaging platform, the single cell-quantum dot platform (SC-QDP), to execute sensitive single cell phosphoquantitation in response to multiple drug treatment conditions and using limited primary patient material. The SC-QDP: 1) identified pAKT and pERK phospho-heterogeneity and insensitivity in individual leukemia cells treated with a multi-drug panel of FDA-approved kinase inhibitors, and 2) revealed subpopulations of drug-insensitive CD34+ stem cells with high pCRKL and pSTAT5 signaling in chronic myeloid leukemia patient blood samples. This ultrasensitive digitized protein detection approach is valuable for uncovering subtle but important differences in signaling, drug insensitivity, and other key cellular processes amongst single cells. PMID:27320899

  15. Laboratory and field validation of a Cry1Ab protein quantitation method for water.

    PubMed

    Strain, Katherine E; Whiting, Sara A; Lydy, Michael J

    2014-10-01

    The widespread planting of crops expressing insecticidal proteins derived from the soil bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) has given rise to concerns regarding potential exposure to non-target species. These proteins are released from the plant throughout the growing season into soil and surface runoff and may enter adjacent waterways as runoff, erosion, aerial deposition of particulates, or plant debris. It is crucial to be able to accurately quantify Bt protein concentrations in the environment to aid in risk analyses and decision making. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) is commonly used for quantitation of Bt proteins in the environment; however, there are no published methods detailing and validating the extraction and quantitation of Bt proteins in water. The objective of the current study was to optimize the extraction of a Bt protein, Cry1Ab, from three water matrices and validate the ELISA method for specificity, precision, accuracy, stability, and sensitivity. Recovery of the Cry1Ab protein was matrix-dependent and ranged from 40 to 88% in the validated matrices, with an overall method detection limit of 2.1 ng/L. Precision among two plates and within a single plate was confirmed with a coefficient of variation less than 20%. The ELISA method was verified in field and laboratory samples, demonstrating the utility of the validated method. The implementation of a validated extraction and quantitation protocol adds consistency and reliability to field-collected data regarding transgenic products. PMID:25059137

  16. Quantitative low-cost webcam-based microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parikesit, Gea Oswah Fatah; Darmawan, Marten; Faisal, Amir

    2010-11-01

    Digital web cameras (popularly known as webcams) have recently gained a significant increase of relevance in the field of optical microscopy, in particular to allow for quick and do-it-yourself methods in developing low-cost and portable microscopes suitable for life sciences and engineering applications in low-resource areas. Unfortunately, these methods were published without any systematic explanation and quantitative assessment of the imaging performances. We reproduce these do-it-yourself methods, discuss the optical considerations that are relevant for them, and quantitatively compare their imaging performances to a commercial digital microscope in order to clarify both the advantages and disadvantages of the webcam-based microscopes.

  17. Deep proteomics of mouse skeletal muscle enables quantitation of protein isoforms, metabolic pathways, and transcription factors.

    PubMed

    Deshmukh, Atul S; Murgia, Marta; Nagaraj, Nagarjuna; Treebak, Jonas T; Cox, Jürgen; Mann, Matthias

    2015-04-01

    Skeletal muscle constitutes 40% of individual body mass and plays vital roles in locomotion and whole-body metabolism. Proteomics of skeletal muscle is challenging because of highly abundant contractile proteins that interfere with detection of regulatory proteins. Using a state-of-the art MS workflow and a strategy to map identifications from the C2C12 cell line model to tissues, we identified a total of 10,218 proteins, including skeletal muscle specific transcription factors like myod1 and myogenin and circadian clock proteins. We obtain absolute abundances for proteins expressed in a muscle cell line and skeletal muscle, which should serve as a valuable resource. Quantitation of protein isoforms of glucose uptake signaling pathways and in glucose and lipid metabolic pathways provides a detailed metabolic map of the cell line compared with tissue. This revealed unexpectedly complex regulation of AMP-activated protein kinase and insulin signaling in muscle tissue at the level of enzyme isoforms.

  18. Deep Proteomics of Mouse Skeletal Muscle Enables Quantitation of Protein Isoforms, Metabolic Pathways, and Transcription Factors*

    PubMed Central

    Deshmukh, Atul S.; Murgia, Marta; Nagaraj, Nagarjuna; Treebak, Jonas T.; Cox, Jürgen; Mann, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    Skeletal muscle constitutes 40% of individual body mass and plays vital roles in locomotion and whole-body metabolism. Proteomics of skeletal muscle is challenging because of highly abundant contractile proteins that interfere with detection of regulatory proteins. Using a state-of-the art MS workflow and a strategy to map identifications from the C2C12 cell line model to tissues, we identified a total of 10,218 proteins, including skeletal muscle specific transcription factors like myod1 and myogenin and circadian clock proteins. We obtain absolute abundances for proteins expressed in a muscle cell line and skeletal muscle, which should serve as a valuable resource. Quantitation of protein isoforms of glucose uptake signaling pathways and in glucose and lipid metabolic pathways provides a detailed metabolic map of the cell line compared with tissue. This revealed unexpectedly complex regulation of AMP-activated protein kinase and insulin signaling in muscle tissue at the level of enzyme isoforms. PMID:25616865

  19. Molecular beacon aptamers for direct and universal quantitation of recombinant proteins from cell lysates.

    PubMed

    Tan, Xiaohong; Chen, Weijun; Lu, Shun; Zhu, Zhi; Chen, Tao; Zhu, Guizhi; You, Mingxu; Tan, Weihong

    2012-10-01

    Western blot, enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and fluorescent fusion proteins are currently the most common methods for detecting recombinant proteins. However, the former two are cumbersome and time-consuming, and the latter method may interfere with the trafficking and function of the fused recombinant proteins. We report here a rapid, inexpensive, and simple approach to detect and quantify recombinant proteins using an anti-His-tag molecular beacon aptamer (HMBA). We demonstrated the technique by detection and quantitation of expressed recombinant proteins directly from E. coli cell lysate. The amount of expressed P78-His was determined to be 1.49 μg from the 20 μg cell lysate proteins. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first example directly measuring the concentration and expression yield of recombinant proteins from cell lysate, and the entire procedure required only 5 min.

  20. Quantitative genetic bases of anthocyanin variation in grape (Vitis vinifera L. ssp. sativa) berry: a quantitative trait locus to quantitative trait nucleotide integrated study.

    PubMed

    Fournier-Level, Alexandre; Le Cunff, Loïc; Gomez, Camila; Doligez, Agnès; Ageorges, Agnès; Roux, Catherine; Bertrand, Yves; Souquet, Jean-Marc; Cheynier, Véronique; This, Patrice

    2009-11-01

    The combination of QTL mapping studies of synthetic lines and association mapping studies of natural diversity represents an opportunity to throw light on the genetically based variation of quantitative traits. With the positional information provided through quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping, which often leads to wide intervals encompassing numerous genes, it is now feasible to directly target candidate genes that are likely to be responsible for the observed variation in completely sequenced genomes and to test their effects through association genetics. This approach was performed in grape, a newly sequenced genome, to decipher the genetic architecture of anthocyanin content. Grapes may be either white or colored, ranging from the lightest pink to the darkest purple tones according to the amount of anthocyanin accumulated in the berry skin, which is a crucial trait for both wine quality and human nutrition. Although the determinism of the white phenotype has been fully identified, the genetic bases of the quantitative variation of anthocyanin content in berry skin remain unclear. A single QTL responsible for up to 62% of the variation in the anthocyanin content was mapped on a Syrah x Grenache F(1) pseudo-testcross. Among the 68 unigenes identified in the grape genome within the QTL interval, a cluster of four Myb-type genes was selected on the basis of physiological evidence (VvMybA1, VvMybA2, VvMybA3, and VvMybA4). From a core collection of natural resources (141 individuals), 32 polymorphisms revealed significant association, and extended linkage disequilibrium was observed. Using a multivariate regression method, we demonstrated that five polymorphisms in VvMybA genes except VvMybA4 (one retrotransposon, three single nucleotide polymorphisms and one 2-bp insertion/deletion) accounted for 84% of the observed variation. All these polymorphisms led to either structural changes in the MYB proteins or differences in the VvMybAs promoters. We concluded that

  1. Statistical design of quantitative mass spectrometry-based proteomic experiments.

    PubMed

    Oberg, Ann L; Vitek, Olga

    2009-05-01

    We review the fundamental principles of statistical experimental design, and their application to quantitative mass spectrometry-based proteomics. We focus on class comparison using Analysis of Variance (ANOVA), and discuss how randomization, replication and blocking help avoid systematic biases due to the experimental procedure, and help optimize our ability to detect true quantitative changes between groups. We also discuss the issues of pooling multiple biological specimens for a single mass analysis, and calculation of the number of replicates in a future study. When applicable, we emphasize the parallels between designing quantitative proteomic experiments and experiments with gene expression microarrays, and give examples from that area of research. We illustrate the discussion using theoretical considerations, and using real-data examples of profiling of disease.

  2. Quantitative Analysis of Spatial Protein-protein Proximity in Fluorescence Confocal Microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Yong; Liu, Yi-Kuang; Eghbali, Mansoureh; Stefani, Enrico

    2009-02-01

    To quantify spatial protein-protein proximity (colocalization) in fluorescence microscopic images, cross-correlation and autocorrelation functions were decomposed into fast and slowly decaying components. The fast component results from clusters of proteins specifically labeled and the slow one from background/image heterogeneity. We show that the calculation of the protein-protein proximity index and the correlation coefficient are more reliably determined by extracting the fast-decaying component.

  3. A universal, high recovery assay for protein quantitation through temperature programmed liquid chromatography (TPLC).

    PubMed

    Orton, Dennis J; Doucette, Alan A

    2013-03-15

    As an alternative to direct UV absorbance measurements, estimation of total protein concentration is typically conducted through colorimetric reagent assays. However, for protein-limited applications, the proportion of the sample sacrificed to the assay becomes increasingly significant. This work demonstrates a method for quantitation of protein samples with high recovery. Temperature programmed liquid chromatography (TPLC) with absorbance detection at 214nm permits accurate estimation of total protein concentration from samples containing as little as 0.75μg. The method incorporates a temperature gradient from 25 to 80°C to facilitate elution of total protein into a single fraction. Analyte recovery, as measured from 1 and 10μg protein extracts of Escherichia coli, is shown to exceed 93%. Extinction coefficients at 214nm were calculated across the human proteome, providing a relative standard deviation of 21% (versus 42% at 280nm), suggesting absorbance values at 214nm provide a more consistent measure of protein concentration. These results translate to a universal protein detection strategy exhibiting a coefficient of variation below 10%. Together with the sensitivity and tolerance to contaminants, TPLC with UV detection is a favorable alternative to colorimetric assay for total protein quantitation, particularly in sample-limited applications.

  4. A universal, high recovery assay for protein quantitation through temperature programmed liquid chromatography (TPLC).

    PubMed

    Orton, Dennis J; Doucette, Alan A

    2013-03-15

    As an alternative to direct UV absorbance measurements, estimation of total protein concentration is typically conducted through colorimetric reagent assays. However, for protein-limited applications, the proportion of the sample sacrificed to the assay becomes increasingly significant. This work demonstrates a method for quantitation of protein samples with high recovery. Temperature programmed liquid chromatography (TPLC) with absorbance detection at 214nm permits accurate estimation of total protein concentration from samples containing as little as 0.75μg. The method incorporates a temperature gradient from 25 to 80°C to facilitate elution of total protein into a single fraction. Analyte recovery, as measured from 1 and 10μg protein extracts of Escherichia coli, is shown to exceed 93%. Extinction coefficients at 214nm were calculated across the human proteome, providing a relative standard deviation of 21% (versus 42% at 280nm), suggesting absorbance values at 214nm provide a more consistent measure of protein concentration. These results translate to a universal protein detection strategy exhibiting a coefficient of variation below 10%. Together with the sensitivity and tolerance to contaminants, TPLC with UV detection is a favorable alternative to colorimetric assay for total protein quantitation, particularly in sample-limited applications. PMID:23435344

  5. Quantitative analysis of protein-RNA interactions by gel mobility shift

    PubMed Central

    Ryder, Sean P.; Recht, Michael I.; Williamson, James R.

    2010-01-01

    The gel mobility shift assay is routinely used to visualize protein-RNA interactions. Its power resides in the ability to resolve free from bound RNA with high resolution in a gel matrix. In this chapter, we review the quantitative application of this approach to elucidate thermodynamic properties of protein-RNA complexes. Assay designs for titration, competition, and stoichiometry experiments are presented for two unrelated model complexes. PMID:18982286

  6. Quantitative imaging of protein targets in the human brain with PET

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gunn, Roger N.; Slifstein, Mark; Searle, Graham E.; Price, Julie C.

    2015-11-01

    PET imaging of proteins in the human brain with high affinity radiolabelled molecules has a history stretching back over 30 years. During this period the portfolio of protein targets that can be imaged has increased significantly through successes in radioligand discovery and development. This portfolio now spans six major categories of proteins; G-protein coupled receptors, membrane transporters, ligand gated ion channels, enzymes, misfolded proteins and tryptophan-rich sensory proteins. In parallel to these achievements in radiochemical sciences there have also been significant advances in the quantitative analysis and interpretation of the imaging data including the development of methods for image registration, image segmentation, tracer compartmental modeling, reference tissue kinetic analysis and partial volume correction. In this review, we analyze the activity of the field around each of the protein targets in order to give a perspective on the historical focus and the possible future trajectory of the field. The important neurobiology and pharmacology is introduced for each of the six protein classes and we present established radioligands for each that have successfully transitioned to quantitative imaging in humans. We present a standard quantitative analysis workflow for these radioligands which takes the dynamic PET data, associated blood and anatomical MRI data as the inputs to a series of image processing and bio-mathematical modeling steps before outputting the outcome measure of interest on either a regional or parametric image basis. The quantitative outcome measures are then used in a range of different imaging studies including tracer discovery and development studies, cross sectional studies, classification studies, intervention studies and longitudinal studies. Finally we consider some of the confounds, challenges and subtleties that arise in practice when trying to quantify and interpret PET neuroimaging data including motion artifacts

  7. Quantitative imaging of protein targets in the human brain with PET.

    PubMed

    Gunn, Roger N; Slifstein, Mark; Searle, Graham E; Price, Julie C

    2015-11-21

    PET imaging of proteins in the human brain with high affinity radiolabelled molecules has a history stretching back over 30 years. During this period the portfolio of protein targets that can be imaged has increased significantly through successes in radioligand discovery and development. This portfolio now spans six major categories of proteins; G-protein coupled receptors, membrane transporters, ligand gated ion channels, enzymes, misfolded proteins and tryptophan-rich sensory proteins. In parallel to these achievements in radiochemical sciences there have also been significant advances in the quantitative analysis and interpretation of the imaging data including the development of methods for image registration, image segmentation, tracer compartmental modeling, reference tissue kinetic analysis and partial volume correction. In this review, we analyze the activity of the field around each of the protein targets in order to give a perspective on the historical focus and the possible future trajectory of the field. The important neurobiology and pharmacology is introduced for each of the six protein classes and we present established radioligands for each that have successfully transitioned to quantitative imaging in humans. We present a standard quantitative analysis workflow for these radioligands which takes the dynamic PET data, associated blood and anatomical MRI data as the inputs to a series of image processing and bio-mathematical modeling steps before outputting the outcome measure of interest on either a regional or parametric image basis. The quantitative outcome measures are then used in a range of different imaging studies including tracer discovery and development studies, cross sectional studies, classification studies, intervention studies and longitudinal studies. Finally we consider some of the confounds, challenges and subtleties that arise in practice when trying to quantify and interpret PET neuroimaging data including motion artifacts

  8. iTRAQ-Based Quantitative Proteomic Analysis of the Initiation of Head Regeneration in Planarians.

    PubMed

    Geng, Xiaofang; Wang, Gaiping; Qin, Yanli; Zang, Xiayan; Li, Pengfei; Geng, Zhi; Xue, Deming; Dong, Zimei; Ma, Kexue; Chen, Guangwen; Xu, Cunshuan

    2015-01-01

    The planarian Dugesia japonica has amazing ability to regenerate a head from the anterior ends of the amputated stump with maintenance of the original anterior-posterior polarity. Although planarians present an attractive system for molecular investigation of regeneration and research has focused on clarifying the molecular mechanism of regeneration initiation in planarians at transcriptional level, but the initiation mechanism of planarian head regeneration (PHR) remains unclear at the protein level. Here, a global analysis of proteome dynamics during the early stage of PHR was performed using isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ)-based quantitative proteomics strategy, and our data are available via ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD002100. The results showed that 162 proteins were differentially expressed at 2 h and 6 h following amputation. Furthermore, the analysis of expression patterns and functional enrichment of the differentially expressed proteins showed that proteins involved in muscle contraction, oxidation reduction and protein synthesis were up-regulated in the initiation of PHR. Moreover, ingenuity pathway analysis showed that predominant signaling pathways such as ILK, calcium, EIF2 and mTOR signaling which were associated with cell migration, cell proliferation and protein synthesis were likely to be involved in the initiation of PHR. The results for the first time demonstrated that muscle contraction and ILK signaling might played important roles in the initiation of PHR at the global protein level. The findings of this research provide a molecular basis for further unraveling the mechanism of head regeneration initiation in planarians.

  9. iTRAQ-Based Quantitative Proteomic Analysis of the Initiation of Head Regeneration in Planarians

    PubMed Central

    Geng, Xiaofang; Wang, Gaiping; Qin, Yanli; Zang, Xiayan; Li, Pengfei; Geng, Zhi; Xue, Deming; Dong, Zimei; Ma, Kexue; Chen, Guangwen; Xu, Cunshuan

    2015-01-01

    The planarian Dugesia japonica has amazing ability to regenerate a head from the anterior ends of the amputated stump with maintenance of the original anterior-posterior polarity. Although planarians present an attractive system for molecular investigation of regeneration and research has focused on clarifying the molecular mechanism of regeneration initiation in planarians at transcriptional level, but the initiation mechanism of planarian head regeneration (PHR) remains unclear at the protein level. Here, a global analysis of proteome dynamics during the early stage of PHR was performed using isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ)-based quantitative proteomics strategy, and our data are available via ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD002100. The results showed that 162 proteins were differentially expressed at 2 h and 6 h following amputation. Furthermore, the analysis of expression patterns and functional enrichment of the differentially expressed proteins showed that proteins involved in muscle contraction, oxidation reduction and protein synthesis were up-regulated in the initiation of PHR. Moreover, ingenuity pathway analysis showed that predominant signaling pathways such as ILK, calcium, EIF2 and mTOR signaling which were associated with cell migration, cell proliferation and protein synthesis were likely to be involved in the initiation of PHR. The results for the first time demonstrated that muscle contraction and ILK signaling might played important roles in the initiation of PHR at the global protein level. The findings of this research provide a molecular basis for further unraveling the mechanism of head regeneration initiation in planarians. PMID:26131905

  10. Development of a quantitative fluorescence-based ligand-binding assay

    PubMed Central

    Breen, Conor J.; Raverdeau, Mathilde; Voorheis, H. Paul

    2016-01-01

    A major goal of biology is to develop a quantitative ligand-binding assay that does not involve the use of radioactivity. Existing fluorescence-based assays have a serious drawback due to fluorescence quenching that accompanies the binding of fluorescently-labeled ligands to their receptors. This limitation of existing fluorescence-based assays prevents the number of cellular receptors under investigation from being accurately measured. We have developed a method where FITC-labeled proteins bound to a cell surface are proteolyzed extensively to eliminate fluorescence quenching and then the fluorescence of the resulting sample is compared to that of a known concentration of the proteolyzed FITC-protein employed. This step enables the number of cellular receptors to be measured quantitatively. We expect that this method will provide researchers with a viable alternative to the use of radioactivity in ligand binding assays. PMID:27161290

  11. Glycation Isotopic Labeling with 13C-Reducing Sugars for Quantitative Analysis of Glycated Proteins in Human Plasma*

    PubMed Central

    Priego-Capote, Feliciano; Scherl, Alexander; Müller, Markus; Waridel, Patrice; Lisacek, Frédérique; Sanchez, Jean-Charles

    2010-01-01

    Non-enzymatic glycation of proteins is a post-translational modification produced by a reaction between reducing sugars and amino groups located in lysine and arginine residues or in the N-terminal position. This modification plays a relevant role in medicine and food industry. In the clinical field, this undesired role is directly linked to blood glucose concentration and therefore to pathological conditions derived from hyperglycemia (>11 mm glucose) such as diabetes mellitus or renal failure. An approach for qualitative and quantitative analysis of glycated proteins is here proposed to achieve the three information levels for their complete characterization. These are: 1) identification of glycated proteins, 2) elucidation of sugar attachment sites, and 3) quantitative analysis to compare glycemic states. Qualitative analysis was carried out by tandem mass spectrometry after endoproteinase Glu-C digestion and boronate affinity chromatography for isolation of glycated peptides. For this purpose, two MS operational modes were used: higher energy collisional dissociation-MS2 and CID-MS3 by neutral loss scan monitoring of two selective neutral losses (162.05 and 84.04 Da for the glucose cleavage and an intermediate rearrangement of the glucose moiety). On the other hand, quantitative analysis was based on labeling of proteins with [13C6]glucose incubation to evaluate the native glycated proteins labeled with [12C6]glucose. As glycation is chemoselective, it is exclusively occurring in potential targets for in vivo modifications. This approach, named glycation isotopic labeling, enabled differentiation of glycated peptides labeled with both isotopic forms resulting from enzymatic digestion by mass spectrometry (6-Da mass shift/glycation site). The strategy was then applied to a reference plasma sample, revealing the detection of 50 glycated proteins and 161 sugar attachment positions with identification of preferential glycation sites for each protein. A predictive

  12. ReAsH as a Quantitative Probe of In-Cell Protein Dynamics.

    PubMed

    Gelman, Hannah; Wirth, Anna Jean; Gruebele, Martin

    2016-04-01

    The tetracysteine (tc) tag/biarsenical dye system (FlAsH or ReAsH) promises to combine the flexibility of fluorescent protein tags with the small size of dye labels, allowing in-cell study of target proteins that are perturbed by large protein tags. Quantitative thermodynamic and kinetic studies in-cell using FlAsH and ReAsH have been hampered by methodological complexities presented by the fluorescence properties of the tag-dye complex probed by either Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) or direct excitation. We label the model protein phosphoglycerate kinase (PGK) with AcGFP1 and ReAsH for direct comparison with AcGFP1/mCherry-labeled PGK. We find that fast relaxation imaging (FReI), combining millisecond temperature jump kinetics with fluorescence microscopy detection, circumvents many of the difficulties encountered working with the ReAsH system, allowing us to obtain quantitative FRET measurements of protein stability and kinetics both in vitro and in cells. We also demonstrate the to us surprising result that fluorescence from directly excited, unburied ReAsH at the C-terminus of the model protein also reports on folding in vitro and in cells. Comparing the ReAsH-labeled protein to a construct labeled with two fluorescent protein tags allows us to evaluate how a bulkier protein tag affects protein dynamics in cells and in vitro. We find that the average folding rate in the cell is closer to the in vitro rate with the smaller tag, highlighting the effect of tags on quantitative in-cell measurements. PMID:26959408

  13. Quantitative analysis of peptides and proteins in biomedicine by targeted mass spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Gillette, Michael A; Carr, Steven A

    2014-01-01

    Targeted mass spectrometry (MS) is becoming widely used in academia and in pharmaceutical and biotechnology industries for sensitive and quantitative detection of proteins, peptides and post-translational modifications. Here we describe the increasing importance of targeted MS technologies in clinical proteomics and the potential key roles these techniques will have in bridging biomedical discovery and clinical implementation. PMID:23269374

  14. Quantitative profiling of spreading-coupled protein tyrosine phosphorylation in migratory cells

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Yajun; Wang, Jinlong; Zhang, Yuanya; Liu, Xiaofei; Wang, Xiaorong; Liu, Kehui; Huang, Xiahe; Wang, Yingchun

    2016-01-01

    Protein tyrosine phosphorylation is an important mechanism that regulates cytoskeleton reorganization and cell spreading of migratory cells. A number of cytoskeletal proteins are known to be tyrosine phosphorylated (pY) in different cellular processes. However, the profile of pY proteins during different stages of cell spreading has not been available. Using immunoafffinity enrichment of pY proteins coupled with label free quantitative proteomics, we quantitatively identified 447 pY proteins in the migratory ECV-304 cells at the early spreading (adhesion) and the active spreading stages. We found that pY levels of the majority of the quantified proteins were significantly increased in the active spreading stage compared with the early spreading stage, suggesting that active cell spreading is concomitant with extra tyrosine phosphorylation. The major categories of proteins impacted by tyrosine phosphorylation are involved in cytoskeleton and focal adhesion regulation, protein translation and degradation. Our findings, for the first time, dissect the cell spreading-specific pY signals from the adhesion induced pY signals, and provide a valuable resource for the future mechanistic research regarding the regulation of cell spreading. PMID:27554326

  15. Quantitative profiling of spreading-coupled protein tyrosine phosphorylation in migratory cells.

    PubMed

    Xie, Yajun; Wang, Jinlong; Zhang, Yuanya; Liu, Xiaofei; Wang, Xiaorong; Liu, Kehui; Huang, Xiahe; Wang, Yingchun

    2016-01-01

    Protein tyrosine phosphorylation is an important mechanism that regulates cytoskeleton reorganization and cell spreading of migratory cells. A number of cytoskeletal proteins are known to be tyrosine phosphorylated (pY) in different cellular processes. However, the profile of pY proteins during different stages of cell spreading has not been available. Using immunoafffinity enrichment of pY proteins coupled with label free quantitative proteomics, we quantitatively identified 447 pY proteins in the migratory ECV-304 cells at the early spreading (adhesion) and the active spreading stages. We found that pY levels of the majority of the quantified proteins were significantly increased in the active spreading stage compared with the early spreading stage, suggesting that active cell spreading is concomitant with extra tyrosine phosphorylation. The major categories of proteins impacted by tyrosine phosphorylation are involved in cytoskeleton and focal adhesion regulation, protein translation and degradation. Our findings, for the first time, dissect the cell spreading-specific pY signals from the adhesion induced pY signals, and provide a valuable resource for the future mechanistic research regarding the regulation of cell spreading. PMID:27554326

  16. Label-free quantitative analysis for studying the interactions between nanoparticles and plasma proteins.

    PubMed

    Capriotti, Anna Laura; Caracciolo, Giulio; Caruso, Giuseppe; Cavaliere, Chiara; Pozzi, Daniela; Samperi, Roberto; Laganà, Aldo

    2013-01-01

    A shotgun proteomics approach was used to compare human plasma protein binding capability with cationic liposomes, DNA-cationic lipid complexes (lipoplexes), and lipid-polycation-DNA (LPD) complexes. Nano-high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with a high-resolution LTQ Orbitrap XL mass spectrometer was used to characterize and compare their protein corona. Spectral counting and area under curve methods were used to perform label-free quantification. Substantial qualitative and quantitative differences were found among proteins bound to the three different systems investigated. Protein variety found on lipoplexes and LPD complexes was richer than that found on cationic liposomes. There were also significant differences between the amounts of protein. Such results could help in the design of gene-delivery systems, because some proteins could be more selectively bound rather than others, and their bio-distribution could be driven in vivo for more efficient and effective gene therapy.

  17. Reproducibility and quantitation of amplicon sequencing-based detection.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jizhong; Wu, Liyou; Deng, Ye; Zhi, Xiaoyang; Jiang, Yi-Huei; Tu, Qichao; Xie, Jianping; Van Nostrand, Joy D; He, Zhili; Yang, Yunfeng

    2011-08-01

    To determine the reproducibility and quantitation of the amplicon sequencing-based detection approach for analyzing microbial community structure, a total of 24 microbial communities from a long-term global change experimental site were examined. Genomic DNA obtained from each community was used to amplify 16S rRNA genes with two or three barcode tags as technical replicates in the presence of a small quantity (0.1% wt/wt) of genomic DNA from Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 as the control. The technical reproducibility of the amplicon sequencing-based detection approach is quite low, with an average operational taxonomic unit (OTU) overlap of 17.2%±2.3% between two technical replicates, and 8.2%±2.3% among three technical replicates, which is most likely due to problems associated with random sampling processes. Such variations in technical replicates could have substantial effects on estimating β-diversity but less on α-diversity. A high variation was also observed in the control across different samples (for example, 66.7-fold for the forward primer), suggesting that the amplicon sequencing-based detection approach could not be quantitative. In addition, various strategies were examined to improve the comparability of amplicon sequencing data, such as increasing biological replicates, and removing singleton sequences and less-representative OTUs across biological replicates. Finally, as expected, various statistical analyses with preprocessed experimental data revealed clear differences in the composition and structure of microbial communities between warming and non-warming, or between clipping and non-clipping. Taken together, these results suggest that amplicon sequencing-based detection is useful in analyzing microbial community structure even though it is not reproducible and quantitative. However, great caution should be taken in experimental design and data interpretation when the amplicon sequencing-based detection approach is used for quantitative

  18. Quantitative and Functional Characterization of the Hyper-Conserved Protein of Prochlorococcus and Marine Synechococcus

    PubMed Central

    Zorz, Jackie K.; Joy, Andrew P.; Barnett, David A.; Johnson, Milo S.; Zhaxybayeva, Olga; Cockshutt, Amanda M.

    2014-01-01

    A large fraction of any bacterial genome consists of hypothetical protein-coding open reading frames (ORFs). While most of these ORFs are present only in one or a few sequenced genomes, a few are conserved, often across large phylogenetic distances. Such conservation provides clues to likely uncharacterized cellular functions that need to be elucidated. Marine cyanobacteria from the Prochlorococcus/marine Synechococcus clade are dominant bacteria in oceanic waters and are significant contributors to global primary production. A Hyper Conserved Protein (PSHCP) of unknown function is 100% conserved at the amino acid level in genomes of Prochlorococcus/marine Synechococcus, but lacks homologs outside of this clade. In this study we investigated Prochlorococcus marinus strains MED4 and MIT 9313 and Synechococcus sp. strain WH 8102 for the transcription of the PSHCP gene using RT-Q-PCR, for the presence of the protein product through quantitative immunoblotting, and for the protein's binding partners in a pull down assay. Significant transcription of the gene was detected in all strains. The PSHCP protein content varied between 8±1 fmol and 26±9 fmol per ug total protein, depending on the strain. The 50 S ribosomal protein L2, the Photosystem I protein PsaD and the Ycf48-like protein were found associated with the PSHCP protein in all strains and not appreciably or at all in control experiments. We hypothesize that PSHCP is a protein associated with the ribosome, and is possibly involved in photosystem assembly. PMID:25360678

  19. Quantitative Determination of Spatial Protein-Protein Correlations in Fluorescence Confocal Microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Yong; Eghbali, Mansoureh; Ou, Jimmy; Lu, Rong; Toro, Ligia; Stefani, Enrico

    2010-01-01

    Abstract To quantify spatial protein-protein proximity (colocalization) in paired microscopic images of two sets of proteins labeled by distinct fluorophores, we showed that the cross-correlation and the autocorrelation functions of image intensity consisted of fast and slowly decaying components. The fast component resulted from clusters of proteins specifically labeled, and the slow component resulted from image heterogeneity and a broadly-distributed background. To better evaluate spatial proximity between the two specifically labeled proteins, we extracted the fast-decaying component by fitting the sharp peak in correlation functions to a Gaussian function, which was then used to obtain protein-protein proximity index and the Pearson's correlation coefficient. We also employed the median-filter method as a universal approach for background reduction to minimize nonspecific fluorescence. We illustrated our method by analyzing computer-simulated images and biological images. PMID:20141764

  20. LC–MS Based Detection of Differential Protein Expression

    PubMed Central

    Tuli, Leepika; Ressom, Habtom W.

    2010-01-01

    While several techniques are available in proteomics, LC-MS based analysis of complex protein/peptide mixtures has turned out to be a mainstream analytical technique for quantitative proteomics. Significant technical advances at both sample preparation/separation and mass spectrometry levels have revolutionized comprehensive proteome analysis. Moreover, automation and robotics for sample handling process permit multiple sampling with high throughput. For LC-MS based quantitative proteomics, sample preparation turns out to be critical step, as it can significantly influence sensitivity of downstream analysis. Several sample preparation strategies exist, including depletion of high abundant proteins or enrichment steps that facilitate protein quantification but with a compromise of focusing on a smaller subset of a proteome. While several experimental strategies have emerged, certain limitations such as physiochemical properties of a peptide/protein, protein turnover in a sample, analytical platform used for sample analysis and data processing, still imply challenges to quantitative proteomics. Other aspects that make analysis of a proteome a challenging task include dynamic nature of a proteome, need for efficient and fast analysis of protein due to its constant modifications inside a cell, concentration range of proteins that exceed dynamic range of a single analytical method, and absence of appropriate bioinformatics tools for analysis of large volume and high dimensional data. This paper gives an overview of various LC-MS methods currently used in quantitative proteomics and their potential for detecting differential protein expression. Fundamental steps such as sample preparation, LC separation, mass spectrometry, quantitative assessment and protein identification are discussed. For quantitative assessment of protein expression, both label and label free approaches are evaluated for their set of merits and demerits. While most of these methods edge on providing

  1. Neuropeptidomics: Mass Spectrometry-Based Identification and Quantitation of Neuropeptides

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Neuropeptides produced from prohormones by selective action of endopeptidases are vital signaling molecules, playing a critical role in a variety of physiological processes, such as addiction, depression, pain, and circadian rhythms. Neuropeptides bind to post-synaptic receptors and elicit cellular effects like classical neurotransmitters. While each neuropeptide could have its own biological function, mass spectrometry (MS) allows for the identification of the precise molecular forms of each peptide without a priori knowledge of the peptide identity and for the quantitation of neuropeptides in different conditions of the samples. MS-based neuropeptidomics approaches have been applied to various animal models and conditions to characterize and quantify novel neuropeptides, as well as known neuropeptides, advancing our understanding of nervous system function over the past decade. Here, we will present an overview of neuropeptides and MS-based neuropeptidomic strategies for the identification and quantitation of neuropeptides. PMID:27103886

  2. A Microplate-Based Nonradioactive Protein Synthesis Assay: Application to TRAIL Sensitization by Protein Synthesis Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Henrich, Curtis J.

    2016-01-01

    Non-radioactive assays based on incorporation of puromycin into newly synthesized proteins and subsequent detection using anti-puromycin antibodies have been previously reported and well-validated. To develop a moderate- to high-throughput assay, an adaptation is here described wherein cells are puromycin-labeled followed by simultaneously probing puromycin-labeled proteins and a reference protein in situ. Detection using a pair of near IR-labeled secondary antibodies (InCell western, ICW format) allows quantitative analysis of protein synthesis in 384-well plates. After optimization, ICW results were compared to western blot analysis using cycloheximide as a model protein synthesis inhibitor and showed comparable results. The method was then applied to several protein synthesis inhibitors and revealed good correlation between potency as protein synthesis inhibitors to their ability to sensitize TRAIL-resistant renal carcinoma cells to TRAIL-induced apoptosis. PMID:27768779

  3. Single-Cell Based Quantitative Assay of Chromosome Transmission Fidelity

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Jin; Heinecke, Dominic; Mulla, Wahid A.; Bradford, William D.; Rubinstein, Boris; Box, Andrew; Haug, Jeffrey S.; Li, Rong

    2015-01-01

    Errors in mitosis are a primary cause of chromosome instability (CIN), generating aneuploid progeny cells. Whereas a variety of factors can influence CIN, under most conditions mitotic errors are rare events that have been difficult to measure accurately. Here we report a green fluorescent protein−based quantitative chromosome transmission fidelity (qCTF) assay in budding yeast that allows sensitive and quantitative detection of CIN and can be easily adapted to high-throughput analysis. Using the qCTF assay, we performed genome-wide quantitative profiling of genes that affect CIN in a dosage-dependent manner and identified genes that elevate CIN when either increased (icCIN) or decreased in copy number (dcCIN). Unexpectedly, qCTF screening also revealed genes whose change in copy number quantitatively suppress CIN, suggesting that the basal error rate of the wild-type genome is not minimized, but rather, may have evolved toward an optimal level that balances both stability and low-level karyotype variation for evolutionary adaptation. PMID:25823586

  4. [Quantitative Detection of Chinese Cabbage Clubroot Based on FTIR Spectroscopy].

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei-ping; Chai, A-li; Shi, Yan-xia; Xie, Xue-wen; Li, Bao-ju

    2015-05-01

    Clubroot, caused by Plasmodiophora brassicae, is considered the most devastating soilborne disease in Brassica crops. It has emerged as a serious disease threatening the cruciferous crop production industry in China. Nowadays, the detection techniques for P. brassicae are laborious, time-consuming and low sensitivity. Rapid and effective detection methods are needed. The objective of this study is to develop a Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FTIR) technique for detection of P. brassicae effectively and accurately. FTIR and Real-time PCR techniques were applied in quantitative detection of P. brassicae. Chinese cabbages were inoculated with P. brassicae. By analyzing the FTIR spectra of P. brassicae, infected clubroots and healthy roots, three specific bands 1 105, 1 145 and 1 228 cm-1 were selected. According to the correlation between the peak areas at these sensitive bands and Real-time PCR Ct value, quantitative evaluation model of P. brassicae was established based on FTIR y=34. 17 +12. 24x - 9. 81x2 - 6. 05x3, r=0. 98 (p<0. 05). To validate accuracy of the model, 10 clubroot samples were selected randomly from field, and detected by FTIR spectrum model, the results showed that the average error is 1. 60%. This demonstrated that the FTIR technology is an available one for the quantitative detection of P. brassicae in clubroot, and it provides a new method for quantitative and quickly detection of Chinese cabbage clubroot.

  5. Fluorogenic Tagging of Peptide and Protein 3-Nitrotyrosine with 4-(Aminomethyl)-benzenesulfonic Acid for Quantitative Analysis of Protein Tyrosine Nitration

    PubMed Central

    Sharov, Victor S.; Dremina, Elena S.; Galeva, Nadezhda A.; Gerstenecker, Gary S.; Li, Xiaobao; Dobrowsky, Rick T.; Stobaugh, John F.

    2010-01-01

    Protein 3-nitrotyrosine (3-NT) has been recognized as an important biomarker of nitroxidative stress associated with inflammatory and degenerative diseases, and biological aging. Analysis of protein-bound 3-NT continues to represent a challenge since in vivo it frequently does not accumulate on proteins in amounts detectable by quantitative analytical methods. Here, we describe a novel approach of fluorescent tagging and quantitation of peptide-bound 3-NT residues based on the selective reduction to 3-AT followed by reaction with 4-(amino-methyl)benzenesulfonic acid (ABS) in the presence of K3Fe(CN)6 to form a highly fluorescent 2-phenylbenzoxazole product. Synthetic 3-NT peptide (0.005–1 μM) upon reduction with 10 mM sodium dithionite and tagging with 2 mM ABS and 5 μM K3Fe(CN)6 in 0.1 M Na2HPO4 buffer (pH 9.0) was converted with yields >95% to a single fluorescent product incorporating two ABS molecules per 3-NT residue, with fluorescence excitation and emission maxima at 360 ± 2 and 490 ± 2 nm, respectively, and a quantum yield of 0.77 ± 0.08, based on reverse-phase LC with UV and fluorescence detection, fluorescence spectroscopy and LC–MS–MS analysis. This protocol was successfully tested for quantitative analysis of in vitro Tyr nitration in a model protein, rabbit muscle phosphorylase b, and in a complex mixture of proteins from C2C12 cultured cells exposed to peroxynitrite, with a detection limit of ca. 1 pmol 3-NT by fluorescence spectrometry, and an apparent LOD of 12 and 40 pmol for nitropeptides alone or in the presence of 100 μg digested cell proteins, respectively. LC–MS–MS analysis of ABS tagged peptides revealed that the fluorescent derivatives undergo efficient backbone fragmentations, allowing for sequence-specific characterization of protein Tyr nitration in proteomic studies. Fluorogenic tagging with ABS also can be instrumental for detection and visualization of protein 3-NT in LC and gel-based protein separations. PMID:20703364

  6. Fluorogenic Tagging of Peptide and Protein 3-Nitrotyrosine with 4-(Aminomethyl)-benzenesulfonic Acid for Quantitative Analysis of Protein Tyrosine Nitration.

    PubMed

    Sharov, Victor S; Dremina, Elena S; Galeva, Nadezhda A; Gerstenecker, Gary S; Li, Xiaobao; Dobrowsky, Rick T; Stobaugh, John F; Schöneich, Christian

    2010-01-01

    Protein 3-nitrotyrosine (3-NT) has been recognized as an important biomarker of nitroxidative stress associated with inflammatory and degenerative diseases, and biological aging. Analysis of protein-bound 3-NT continues to represent a challenge since in vivo it frequently does not accumulate on proteins in amounts detectable by quantitative analytical methods. Here, we describe a novel approach of fluorescent tagging and quantitation of peptide-bound 3-NT residues based on the selective reduction to 3-AT followed by reaction with 4-(amino-methyl)benzenesulfonic acid (ABS) in the presence of K(3)Fe(CN)(6) to form a highly fluorescent 2-phenylbenzoxazole product. Synthetic 3-NT peptide (0.005-1 μM) upon reduction with 10 mM sodium dithionite and tagging with 2 mM ABS and 5 μM K(3)Fe(CN)(6) in 0.1 M Na(2)HPO(4) buffer (pH 9.0) was converted with yields >95% to a single fluorescent product incorporating two ABS molecules per 3-NT residue, with fluorescence excitation and emission maxima at 360 ± 2 and 490 ± 2 nm, respectively, and a quantum yield of 0.77 ± 0.08, based on reverse-phase LC with UV and fluorescence detection, fluorescence spectroscopy and LC-MS-MS analysis. This protocol was successfully tested for quantitative analysis of in vitro Tyr nitration in a model protein, rabbit muscle phosphorylase b, and in a complex mixture of proteins from C2C12 cultured cells exposed to peroxynitrite, with a detection limit of ca. 1 pmol 3-NT by fluorescence spectrometry, and an apparent LOD of 12 and 40 pmol for nitropeptides alone or in the presence of 100 μg digested cell proteins, respectively. LC-MS-MS analysis of ABS tagged peptides revealed that the fluorescent derivatives undergo efficient backbone fragmentations, allowing for sequence-specific characterization of protein Tyr nitration in proteomic studies. Fluorogenic tagging with ABS also can be instrumental for detection and visualization of protein 3-NT in LC and gel-based protein separations. PMID

  7. Quantitative proteomics: assessing the spectrum of in-gel protein detection methods

    PubMed Central

    Gauci, Victoria J.; Wright, Elise P.

    2010-01-01

    Proteomics research relies heavily on visualization methods for detection of proteins separated by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Commonly used staining approaches involve colorimetric dyes such as Coomassie Brilliant Blue, fluorescent dyes including Sypro Ruby, newly developed reactive fluorophores, as well as a plethora of others. The most desired characteristic in selecting one stain over another is sensitivity, but this is far from the only important parameter. This review evaluates protein detection methods in terms of their quantitative attributes, including limit of detection (i.e., sensitivity), linear dynamic range, inter-protein variability, capacity for spot detection after 2D gel electrophoresis, and compatibility with subsequent mass spectrometric analyses. Unfortunately, many of these quantitative criteria are not routinely or consistently addressed by most of the studies published to date. We would urge more rigorous routine characterization of stains and detection methodologies as a critical approach to systematically improving these critically important tools for quantitative proteomics. In addition, substantial improvements in detection technology, particularly over the last decade or so, emphasize the need to consider renewed characterization of existing stains; the quantitative stains we need, or at least the chemistries required for their future development, may well already exist. PMID:21686332

  8. Gel-Based and Gel-Free Quantitative Proteomics Approaches at a Glance

    PubMed Central

    Abdallah, Cosette; Dumas-Gaudot, Eliane; Renaut, Jenny; Sergeant, Kjell

    2012-01-01

    Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) is widely applied and remains the method of choice in proteomics; however, pervasive 2-DE-related concerns undermine its prospects as a dominant separation technique in proteome research. Consequently, the state-of-the-art shotgun techniques are slowly taking over and utilising the rapid expansion and advancement of mass spectrometry (MS) to provide a new toolbox of gel-free quantitative techniques. When coupled to MS, the shotgun proteomic pipeline can fuel new routes in sensitive and high-throughput profiling of proteins, leading to a high accuracy in quantification. Although label-based approaches, either chemical or metabolic, gained popularity in quantitative proteomics because of the multiplexing capacity, these approaches are not without drawbacks. The burgeoning label-free methods are tag independent and suitable for all kinds of samples. The challenges in quantitative proteomics are more prominent in plants due to difficulties in protein extraction, some protein abundance in green tissue, and the absence of well-annotated and completed genome sequences. The goal of this perspective assay is to present the balance between the strengths and weaknesses of the available gel-based and -free methods and their application to plants. The latest trends in peptide fractionation amenable to MS analysis are as well discussed. PMID:23213324

  9. Quantitative Analysis of Age Specific Variation in the Abundance of Human Female Parotid Salivary Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Ambatipudi, Kiran S.; Lu, Bingwen; Hagen, Fred K; Melvin, James E.; Yates, John R.

    2010-01-01

    Summary Human saliva is a protein-rich, easily accessible source of potential local and systemic biomarkers to monitor changes that occur under pathological conditions; however little is known about the changes in abundance associated with normal aging. In this study, we performed a comprehensive proteomic profiling of pooled saliva collected from the parotid glands of healthy female subjects, divided into two age groups 1 and 2 (20–30 and 55–65 years old, respectively). Hydrophobic charge interaction chromatography was used to separate high from low abundant proteins prior to characterization of the parotid saliva using multidimensional protein identification technology (MudPIT). Collectively, 532 proteins were identified in the two age groups. Of these proteins, 266 were identified exclusively in one age group, while 266 proteins were common to both groups. The majority of the proteins identified in the two age groups belonged to the defense and immune response category. Of note, several defense related proteins (e.g. lysozyme, lactoferrin and histatin-1) were significantly more abundant in group 2 as determined by G-test. Selected representative mass spectrometric findings were validated by western blot analysis. Our study reports the first quantitative analysis of differentially regulated proteins in ductal saliva collected from young and older female subjects. This study supports the use of high-throughput proteomics as a robust discovery tool. Such results provide a foundation for future studies to identify specific salivary proteins which may be linked to age-related diseases specific to women. PMID:19764810

  10. Quantitative Fluorescent Labeling of Aldehyde-Tagged Proteins for Single-Molecule Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Xinghua; Jung, Yonil; Lin, Li-Jung; Liu, Cheng; Wu, Cong; Cann, Isaac K. O.; Ha, Taekjip

    2012-01-01

    A major hurdle for molecular mechanistic studies of many proteins is the lack of a general method for fluorescent labeling with high efficiency, specificity, and speed. By incorporating an aldehyde motif genetically into a protein and improving the labeling kinetics substantially under mild conditions, we achieved fast, site-specific labeling of a protein with ~100% efficiency while maintaining the biological function. We demonstrate that an aldehyde-tagged protein can be specifically labeled in cell extracts without protein purification and then can be used in single-molecule pull-down analysis. We further show the unique power of our method in a series of single-molecule studies on the transient interactions and switching between two quantitatively labeled DNA polymerases on their processivity factor. PMID:22466795

  11. Quantitative characterization of conformational-specific protein-DNA binding using a dual-spectral interferometric imaging biosensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xirui; Daaboul, George G.; Spuhler, Philipp S.; Dröge, Peter; Ünlü, M. Selim

    2016-03-01

    DNA-binding proteins play crucial roles in the maintenance and functions of the genome and yet, their specific binding mechanisms are not fully understood. Recently, it was discovered that DNA-binding proteins recognize specific binding sites to carry out their functions through an indirect readout mechanism by recognizing and capturing DNA conformational flexibility and deformation. High-throughput DNA microarray-based methods that provide large-scale protein-DNA binding information have shown effective and comprehensive analysis of protein-DNA binding affinities, but do not provide information of DNA conformational changes in specific protein-DNA complexes. Building on the high-throughput capability of DNA microarrays, we demonstrate a quantitative approach that simultaneously measures the amount of protein binding to DNA and nanometer-scale DNA conformational change induced by protein binding in a microarray format. Both measurements rely on spectral interferometry on a layered substrate using a single optical instrument in two distinct modalities. In the first modality, we quantitate the amount of binding of protein to surface-immobilized DNA in each DNA spot using a label-free spectral reflectivity technique that accurately measures the surface densities of protein and DNA accumulated on the substrate. In the second modality, for each DNA spot, we simultaneously measure DNA conformational change using a fluorescence vertical sectioning technique that determines average axial height of fluorophores tagged to specific nucleotides of the surface-immobilized DNA. The approach presented in this paper, when combined with current high-throughput DNA microarray-based technologies, has the potential to serve as a rapid and simple method for quantitative and large-scale characterization of conformational specific protein-DNA interactions.DNA-binding proteins play crucial roles in the maintenance and functions of the genome and yet, their specific binding mechanisms are

  12. Quantitative Proteomics of Sleep-Deprived Mouse Brains Reveals Global Changes in Mitochondrial Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Li, Tie-Mei; Zhang, Ju-en; Lin, Rui; Chen, She; Luo, Minmin; Dong, Meng-Qiu

    2016-01-01

    Sleep is a ubiquitous, tightly regulated, and evolutionarily conserved behavior observed in almost all animals. Prolonged sleep deprivation can be fatal, indicating that sleep is a physiological necessity. However, little is known about its core function. To gain insight into this mystery, we used advanced quantitative proteomics technology to survey the global changes in brain protein abundance. Aiming to gain a comprehensive profile, our proteomics workflow included filter-aided sample preparation (FASP), which increased the coverage of membrane proteins; tandem mass tag (TMT) labeling, for relative quantitation; and high resolution, high mass accuracy, high throughput mass spectrometry (MS). In total, we obtained the relative abundance ratios of 9888 proteins encoded by 6070 genes. Interestingly, we observed significant enrichment for mitochondrial proteins among the differentially expressed proteins. This finding suggests that sleep deprivation strongly affects signaling pathways that govern either energy metabolism or responses to mitochondrial stress. Additionally, the differentially-expressed proteins are enriched in pathways implicated in age-dependent neurodegenerative diseases, including Parkinson’s, Huntington’s, and Alzheimer’s, hinting at possible connections between sleep loss, mitochondrial stress, and neurodegeneration. PMID:27684481

  13. Quantitative Proteomic Analysis of Ovarian Cancer Cells Identified Mitochondrial Proteins Associated with Paclitaxel Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Yuan; Tan, Aik-Choon; Sun, Xiaer; Olson, Matthew T; Xie, Zhi; Jinawath, Natini; Chan, Daniel W.; Shih, Ie-Ming; Zhang, Zhen; Zhang, Hui

    2010-01-01

    Paclitaxel has been widely used as an anti-mitotic agent in chemotherapy for a variety of cancers and adds substantial efficacy as the first-line chemotherapeutic regimen for ovarian cancers. However, the frequent occurrence of paclitaxel resistance limits its function in long-term management. Despite abundant clinical and cellular demonstration of paclitaxel resistant tumors, the molecular mechanisms leading to paclitaxel resistance are poorly understood. Using genomic approaches, we have previously identified an association between a BTB/POZ gene, Nac1, and paclitaxel resistance in ovarian cancer. The experiments presented here have applied multiple quantitative proteomic methods to identify protein changes associated with paclitaxel resistance and Nac1 function. The SKOV-3 ovarian serous carcinoma cell line, which has inducible expression of dominant negative Nac1, was used to determine the paclitaxel treatment associated changes in the presence and absence of functional Nac1. Quantitative proteomic analyses were performed using iTRAQ labeling and mass spectrometry. Two label-free quantitative proteomic methods: LC-MS and spectral count were used to increase confidence of proteomic quantification. A total of 1371 proteins were quantified by at least one of the quantitative proteomic methods. Candidate proteins related to paclitaxel and NAC1 function were identified in this study. Go analysis of the protein changes identified upon paclitaxel resistance revealed that cell component enrichment related to mitochondria. Moreover, tubulin and mitochondrial proteins were the major cellular components with changes associated with paclitaxel treatment. This suggests that mitochondria may play a role in paclitaxel resistance. PMID:21113235

  14. A Miniaturized Technique for Assessing Protein Thermodynamics and Function Using Fast Determination of Quantitative Cysteine Reactivity

    PubMed Central

    Isom, Daniel G.; Marguet, Philippe R.; Oas, Terrence G.; Hellinga, Homme W.

    2010-01-01

    Protein thermodynamic stability is a fundamental physical characteristic that determines biological function. Furthermore, alteration of thermodynamic stability by macromolecular interactions or biochemical modifications is a powerful tool for assessing the relationship between protein structure, stability, and biological function. High-throughput approaches for quantifying protein stability are beginning to emerge that enable thermodynamic measurements on small amounts of material, in short periods of time, and using readily accessible instrumentation. Here we present such a method, fast quantitative cysteine reactivity (fQCR), which exploits the linkage between protein stability, sidechain protection by protein structure, and structural dynamics to characterize the thermodynamic and kinetic properties of proteins. In this approach, the reaction of a protected cysteine and thiol-reactive fluorogenic indicator is monitored over a gradient of temperatures after a short incubation time. These labeling data can be used to determine the midpoint of thermal unfolding, measure the temperature dependence of protein stability, quantify ligand-binding affinity, and, under certain conditions, estimate folding rate constants. Here, we demonstrate the fQCR method by characterizing these thermodynamic and kinetic properties for variants of Staphylococcal nuclease and E. coli ribose-binding protein engineered to contain single, protected cysteines. These straightforward, information-rich experiments are likely to find applications in protein engineering and functional genomics. PMID:21387407

  15. Non Linear Programming (NLP) formulation for quantitative modeling of protein signal transduction pathways.

    PubMed

    Mitsos, Alexander; Melas, Ioannis N; Morris, Melody K; Saez-Rodriguez, Julio; Lauffenburger, Douglas A; Alexopoulos, Leonidas G

    2012-01-01

    Modeling of signal transduction pathways plays a major role in understanding cells' function and predicting cellular response. Mathematical formalisms based on a logic formalism are relatively simple but can describe how signals propagate from one protein to the next and have led to the construction of models that simulate the cells response to environmental or other perturbations. Constrained fuzzy logic was recently introduced to train models to cell specific data to result in quantitative pathway models of the specific cellular behavior. There are two major issues in this pathway optimization: i) excessive CPU time requirements and ii) loosely constrained optimization problem due to lack of data with respect to large signaling pathways. Herein, we address both issues: the former by reformulating the pathway optimization as a regular nonlinear optimization problem; and the latter by enhanced algorithms to pre/post-process the signaling network to remove parts that cannot be identified given the experimental conditions. As a case study, we tackle the construction of cell type specific pathways in normal and transformed hepatocytes using medium and large-scale functional phosphoproteomic datasets. The proposed Non Linear Programming (NLP) formulation allows for fast optimization of signaling topologies by combining the versatile nature of logic modeling with state of the art optimization algorithms.

  16. Using Fluorescent Proteins to Visualize and Quantitate Chlamydia Vacuole Growth Dynamics in Living Cells.

    PubMed

    Zuck, Meghan; Feng, Caroline; Hybiske, Kevin

    2015-10-13

    The obligate intracellular bacterium Chlamydia elicits a great burden on global public health. C. trachomatis is the leading bacterial cause of sexually transmitted infection and also the primary cause of preventable blindness in the world. An essential determinant for successful infection of host cells by Chlamydia is the bacterium's ability to manipulate host cell signaling from within a novel, vacuolar compartment called the inclusion. From within the inclusion, Chlamydia acquire nutrients required for their 2-3 day developmental growth, and they additionally secrete a panel of effector proteins onto the cytosolic face of the vacuole membrane and into the host cytosol. Gaps in our understanding of Chlamydia biology, however, present significant challenges for visualizing and analyzing this intracellular compartment. Recently, a reverse-imaging strategy for visualizing the inclusion using GFP expressing host cells was described. This approach rationally exploits the intrinsic impermeability of the inclusion membrane to large molecules such as GFP. In this work, we describe how GFP- or mCherry-expressing host cells are generated for subsequent visualization of chlamydial inclusions. Furthermore, this method is shown to effectively substitute for costly antibody-based enumeration methods, can be used in tandem with other fluorescent labels, such as GFP-expressing Chlamydia, and can be exploited to derive key quantitative data about inclusion membrane growth from a range of Chlamydia species and strains.

  17. A Hybrid Approach to Protein Differential Expression in Mass Spectrometry-Based Proteomics

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Xuan; Anderson, Gordon A.; Smith, Richard D.; Dabney, Alan R.

    2012-04-19

    Motivation: Quantitative mass spectrometry-based proteomics involves statistical inference on protein abundance, based on the intensities of each protein's associated spectral peaks. However, typical MS-based proteomics data sets have substantial proportions of missing observations, due at least in part to censoring of low intensities. This complicates intensity-based differential expression analysis. Results: We outline a statistical method for protein differential expression, based on a simple Binomial likelihood. By modeling peak intensities as binary, in terms of 'presence/ absence,' we enable the selection of proteins not typically amendable to quantitative analysis; e.g., 'one-state' proteins that are present in one condition but absent in another. In addition, we present an analysis protocol that combines quantitative and presence/ absence analysis of a given data set in a principled way, resulting in a single list of selected proteins with a single associated FDR.

  18. A quantitative proteomics-based signature of platinum sensitivity in ovarian cancer cell lines

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Gaofeng; Wrzeszczynski, Kazimierz O.; Fu, Cexiong; Pappin, Darryl J.; Lucito, Robert; Tonks, Nicholas K.; Su, Gang

    2014-01-01

    Although DNA encodes the molecular instructions that underlie control of cell function, it is the proteins that are primarily responsible for implementing those instructions. Therefore, quantitative analyses of the proteome would be expected to yield insights into important candidates for the detection and treatment of disease. We present an iTRAQ (Isobaric Tagging for Relative and Absolute Quantification)-based proteomic analysis of 10 ovarian cancer cell lines and 2 normal ovarian surface epithelial cell lines. We profiled the abundance of 2659 cellular proteins, of which 1273 were common to all 12 cell lines. Of the 1273, 75 proteins exhibited elevated expression, and 164 proteins had diminished expression in the cancerous cells compared to the normal cell lines. The iTRAQ expression profiles allowed us to segregate cell lines based upon sensitivity and resistance to carboplatin. Importantly, we observed no substantial correlation between protein abundance and RNA expression or epigenetic, DNA methylation data. Furthermore, we could not discriminate between sensitivity and resistance to carboplatin on the basis of RNA expression and DNA methylation data alone. This study illustrates the importance of proteomics-based discovery for defining the basis for the carboplatin response in ovarian cancer and highlights candidate proteins, particularly involved in cellular redox regulation, homologous recombination and DNA damage repair, that otherwise could not have been predicted from whole genome and expression data sources alone. PMID:25406946

  19. Qualitative and Quantitative Assays for Detection and Characterization of Protein Antimicrobials.

    PubMed

    Farris, M Heath; Ford, Kara A; Doyle, Richard C

    2016-01-01

    Initial evaluations of large microbial libraries for potential producers of novel antimicrobial proteins require both qualitative and quantitative methods to screen for target enzymes prior to investing greater research effort and resources. The goal of this protocol is to demonstrate two complementary assays for conducting these initial evaluations. The microslide diffusion assay provides an initial or simple detection screen to enable the qualitative and rapid assessment of proteolytic activity against an array of both viable and heat-killed bacterial target substrates. As a counterpart, the increased sensitivity and reproducibility of the dye-release assay provides a quantitative platform for evaluating and comparing environmental influences affecting the hydrolytic activity of protein antimicrobials. The ability to label specific heat-killed cell culture substrates with Remazol brilliant blue R dye expands this capability to tailor the dye-release assay to characterize enzymatic activity of interest.

  20. Qualitative and Quantitative Assays for Detection and Characterization of Protein Antimicrobials

    PubMed Central

    Farris, M. Heath; Ford, Kara A.; Doyle, Richard C.

    2016-01-01

    Initial evaluations of large microbial libraries for potential producers of novel antimicrobial proteins require both qualitative and quantitative methods to screen for target enzymes prior to investing greater research effort and resources. The goal of this protocol is to demonstrate two complementary assays for conducting these initial evaluations. The microslide diffusion assay provides an initial or simple detection screen to enable the qualitative and rapid assessment of proteolytic activity against an array of both viable and heat-killed bacterial target substrates. As a counterpart, the increased sensitivity and reproducibility of the dye-release assay provides a quantitative platform for evaluating and comparing environmental influences affecting the hydrolytic activity of protein antimicrobials. The ability to label specific heat-killed cell culture substrates with Remazol brilliant blue R dye expands this capability to tailor the dye-release assay to characterize enzymatic activity of interest. PMID:27166738

  1. Quantitative analysis of regions of adenovirus E1A products involved in interactions with cellular proteins.

    PubMed

    Barbeau, D; Marcellus, R C; Bacchetti, S; Bayley, S T; Branton, P E

    1992-01-01

    Human adenovirus E1A proteins and oncogene products of several other DNA tumour viruses derive much of their oncogenic potential from interactions with cellular polypeptides. E1A proteins form complexes with p105Rb and a related p107 polypeptide, and with at least three other proteins (p60cycA, p130, and p300); all may be required for cell transformation. Using a series of E1A deletion mutants, we have carried out a quantitative analysis of the binding patterns of cellular proteins to E1A products. Binding of most of the proteins was affected at least partially by mutations within the amino terminal 25 residues, amino acids 36-69 within conserved region 1 (CR1), and residues 121-138 in conserved region 2 (CR2). However, the specific binding characteristics of each protein varied considerably. p300 was the only species for which binding was totally eliminated by deletions at the amino terminus. Removal of regions within CR1 eliminated binding of all species except p107 and p60cycA. Deletion of portions of CR2 reduced or eliminated binding of all proteins except p300. Thus, whereas cellular polypeptides generally were found to interact with the same three regions of E1A proteins, specific interactions varied considerably. PMID:1297336

  2. Development of a Quantitative BRET Affinity Assay for Nucleic Acid-Protein Interactions.

    PubMed

    Vickers, Timothy A; Crooke, Stanley T

    2016-01-01

    Protein-nucleic acid interactions play a crucial role in the regulation of diverse biological processes. Elucidating the roles that protein-nucleic acid complexes play in the regulation of transcription, translation, DNA replication, repair and recombination, and RNA processing continues to be a crucial aspect of understanding of cell biology and the mechanisms of disease. In addition, proteins have been demonstrated to interact with antisense oligonucleotide therapeutics in a sequence and chemistry dependent manner, influencing ASO potency and distribution in cells and in vivo. While many assays have been developed to measure protein-nucleic acid interactions, many suffer from lack of throughput and sensitivity, or challenges with protein purification and scalability. In this report we present a new BRET assay for the analysis of DNA-protein interactions which makes use of an extremely bright luciferase as a tag for the binding protein, along with a long-wavelength fluorophore conjugated to the nucleic acid. The resulting assay is high throughput, sensitive, does not require protein purification, and even allows for quantitative characterization of these interactions within the biologically relevant context of whole cells. PMID:27571227

  3. Quantitative Proteomics Reveals the Roles of Peroxisome-associated Proteins in Antiviral Innate Immune Responses.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Mao-Tian; Qin, Yue; Li, Mi; Chen, Chen; Chen, Xi; Shu, Hong-Bing; Guo, Lin

    2015-09-01

    Compared with whole-cell proteomic analysis, subcellular proteomic analysis is advantageous not only for the increased coverage of low abundance proteins but also for generating organelle-specific data containing information regarding dynamic protein movement. In the present study, peroxisome-enriched fractions from Sendai virus (SeV)-infected or uninfected HepG2 cells were obtained and subjected to quantitative proteomics analysis. We identified 311 proteins that were significantly changed by SeV infection. Among these altered proteins, 25 are immune response-related proteins. Further bioinformatic analysis indicated that SeV infection inhibits cell cycle-related proteins and membrane attack complex-related proteins, all of which are beneficial for the survival and replication of SeV within host cells. Using Luciferase reporter assays on several innate immune-related reporters, we performed functional analysis on 11 candidate proteins. We identified LGALS3BP and CALU as potential negative regulators of the virus-induced activation of the type I interferons.

  4. Development of a Quantitative BRET Affinity Assay for Nucleic Acid-Protein Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Vickers, Timothy A.; Crooke, Stanley T.

    2016-01-01

    Protein-nucleic acid interactions play a crucial role in the regulation of diverse biological processes. Elucidating the roles that protein-nucleic acid complexes play in the regulation of transcription, translation, DNA replication, repair and recombination, and RNA processing continues to be a crucial aspect of understanding of cell biology and the mechanisms of disease. In addition, proteins have been demonstrated to interact with antisense oligonucleotide therapeutics in a sequence and chemistry dependent manner, influencing ASO potency and distribution in cells and in vivo. While many assays have been developed to measure protein-nucleic acid interactions, many suffer from lack of throughput and sensitivity, or challenges with protein purification and scalability. In this report we present a new BRET assay for the analysis of DNA-protein interactions which makes use of an extremely bright luciferase as a tag for the binding protein, along with a long-wavelength fluorophore conjugated to the nucleic acid. The resulting assay is high throughput, sensitive, does not require protein purification, and even allows for quantitative characterization of these interactions within the biologically relevant context of whole cells. PMID:27571227

  5. A quantitative strategy to detect changes in accessibility of protein regions to chemical modification on heterodimerization.

    PubMed

    Dreger, Mathias; Leung, Bo Wah; Brownlee, George G; Deng, Tao

    2009-07-01

    We describe a method for studying quantitative changes in accessibility of surface lysine residues of the PB1 subunit of the influenza RNA polymerase as a result of association with the PA subunit to form a PB1-PA heterodimer. Our method combines two established methods: (i) the chemical modification of surface lysine residues of native proteins by N-hydroxysuccinimidobiotin (NHS-biotin) and (ii) the stable isotope labeling of amino acids in cell culture (SILAC) followed by tryptic digestion and mass spectrometry. By linking the chemical modification with the SILAC methodology for the first time, we obtain quantitative data on chemical modification allowing subtle changes in accessibility to be described. Five regions in the PB1 monomer showed altered reactivity to NHS-biotin when compared with the [PB1-PA] heterodimer. Mutational analysis of residues in two such regions-at K265 and K481 of PB1, which were about three- and twofold, respectively, less accessible to biotinylation in the PB1-PA heterodimer compared with the PB1 monomer, demonstrated that both K265 and K481 were crucial for polymerase function. This novel assay of quantitative profiling of biotinylation patterns (Q-POP assay) highlights likely conformational changes at important functional sites, as observed here for PB1, and may provide information on protein-protein interaction interfaces. The Q-POP assay should be a generally applicable approach and may detect novel functional sites suitable for targeting by drugs. PMID:19517532

  6. Qualitative and quantitative evaluation of Simon™, a new CE-based automated Western blot system as applied to vaccine development.

    PubMed

    Rustandi, Richard R; Loughney, John W; Hamm, Melissa; Hamm, Christopher; Lancaster, Catherine; Mach, Anna; Ha, Sha

    2012-09-01

    Many CE-based technologies such as imaged capillary IEF, CE-SDS, CZE, and MEKC are well established for analyzing proteins, viruses, or other biomolecules such as polysaccharides. For example, imaged capillary isoelectric focusing (charge-based protein separation) and CE-SDS (size-based protein separation) are standard replacement methods in biopharmaceutical industries for tedious and labor intensive IEF and SDS-PAGE methods, respectively. Another important analytical tool for protein characterization is a Western blot, where after size-based separation in SDS-PAGE the proteins are transferred to a membrane and blotted with specific monoclonal or polyclonal antibodies. Western blotting analysis is applied in many areas such as biomarker research, therapeutic target identification, and vaccine development. Currently, the procedure is very manual, laborious, and time consuming. Here, we evaluate a new technology called Simple Western™ (or Simon™) for performing automated Western analysis. This new technology is based on CE-SDS where the separated proteins are attached to the wall of capillary by a proprietary photo activated chemical crosslink. Subsequent blotting is done automatically by incubating and washing the capillary with primary and secondary antibodies conjugated with horseradish peroxidase and detected with chemiluminescence. Typically, Western blots are not quantitative, hence we also evaluated the quantitative aspect of this new technology. We demonstrate that Simon™ can quantitate specific components in one of our vaccine candidates and it provides good reproducibility and intermediate precision with CV <10%. PMID:22965727

  7. Semiconductor defect metrology using laser-based quantitative phase imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Renjie; Edwards, Chris; Popescu, Gabriel; Goddard, Lynford

    2015-03-01

    A highly sensitive laser-based quantitative phase imaging tool, using an epi-illumination diffraction phase microscope, has been developed for silicon wafer defect inspection. The first system used a 532 nm solid-state laser and detected 20 nm by 100 nm by 110 nm defects in a 22 nm node patterned silicon wafer. The second system, using a 405 nm diode laser, is more sensitive and has enabled detection of 15 nm by 90 nm by 35 nm defects in a 9 nm node densely patterned silicon wafer. In addition to imaging, wafer scanning and image-post processing are also crucial for defect detection.

  8. Quantitative analysis of RNA-protein interactions on a massively parallel array for mapping biophysical and evolutionary landscapes

    PubMed Central

    Buenrostro, Jason D.; Chircus, Lauren M.; Araya, Carlos L.; Layton, Curtis J.; Chang, Howard Y.; Snyder, Michael P.; Greenleaf, William J.

    2015-01-01

    RNA-protein interactions drive fundamental biological processes and are targets for molecular engineering, yet quantitative and comprehensive understanding of the sequence determinants of affinity remains limited. Here we repurpose a high-throughput sequencing instrument to quantitatively measure binding and dissociation of MS2 coat protein to >107 RNA targets generated on a flow-cell surface by in situ transcription and inter-molecular tethering of RNA to DNA. We decompose the binding energy contributions from primary and secondary RNA structure, finding that differences in affinity are often driven by sequence-specific changes in association rates. By analyzing the biophysical constraints and modeling mutational paths describing the molecular evolution of MS2 from low- to high-affinity hairpins, we quantify widespread molecular epistasis, and a long-hypothesized structure-dependent preference for G:U base pairs over C:A intermediates in evolutionary trajectories. Our results suggest that quantitative analysis of RNA on a massively parallel array (RNAMaP) relationships across molecular variants. PMID:24727714

  9. Comprehensive and quantitative proteomic analyses of zebrafish plasma reveals conserved protein profiles between genders and between zebrafish and human

    PubMed Central

    Li, Caixia; Tan, Xing Fei; Lim, Teck Kwang; Lin, Qingsong; Gong, Zhiyuan

    2016-01-01

    Omic approaches have been increasingly used in the zebrafish model for holistic understanding of molecular events and mechanisms of tissue functions. However, plasma is rarely used for omic profiling because of the technical challenges in collecting sufficient blood. In this study, we employed two mass spectrometric (MS) approaches for a comprehensive characterization of zebrafish plasma proteome, i.e. conventional shotgun liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) for an overview study and quantitative SWATH (Sequential Window Acquisition of all THeoretical fragment-ion spectra) for comparison between genders. 959 proteins were identified in the shotgun profiling with estimated concentrations spanning almost five orders of magnitudes. Other than the presence of a few highly abundant female egg yolk precursor proteins (vitellogenins), the proteomic profiles of male and female plasmas were very similar in both number and abundance and there were basically no other highly gender-biased proteins. The types of plasma proteins based on IPA (Ingenuity Pathway Analysis) classification and tissue sources of production were also very similar. Furthermore, the zebrafish plasma proteome shares significant similarities with human plasma proteome, in particular in top abundant proteins including apolipoproteins and complements. Thus, the current study provided a valuable dataset for future evaluation of plasma proteins in zebrafish. PMID:27071722

  10. Comprehensive and quantitative proteomic analyses of zebrafish plasma reveals conserved protein profiles between genders and between zebrafish and human.

    PubMed

    Li, Caixia; Tan, Xing Fei; Lim, Teck Kwang; Lin, Qingsong; Gong, Zhiyuan

    2016-01-01

    Omic approaches have been increasingly used in the zebrafish model for holistic understanding of molecular events and mechanisms of tissue functions. However, plasma is rarely used for omic profiling because of the technical challenges in collecting sufficient blood. In this study, we employed two mass spectrometric (MS) approaches for a comprehensive characterization of zebrafish plasma proteome, i.e. conventional shotgun liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) for an overview study and quantitative SWATH (Sequential Window Acquisition of all THeoretical fragment-ion spectra) for comparison between genders. 959 proteins were identified in the shotgun profiling with estimated concentrations spanning almost five orders of magnitudes. Other than the presence of a few highly abundant female egg yolk precursor proteins (vitellogenins), the proteomic profiles of male and female plasmas were very similar in both number and abundance and there were basically no other highly gender-biased proteins. The types of plasma proteins based on IPA (Ingenuity Pathway Analysis) classification and tissue sources of production were also very similar. Furthermore, the zebrafish plasma proteome shares significant similarities with human plasma proteome, in particular in top abundant proteins including apolipoproteins and complements. Thus, the current study provided a valuable dataset for future evaluation of plasma proteins in zebrafish. PMID:27071722

  11. Improved Protein Arrays for Quantitative Systems Analysis of the Dynamics of Signaling Pathway Interactions

    SciTech Connect

    YANG, CHIN-RANG

    2013-12-11

    Astronauts and workers in nuclear plants who repeatedly exposed to low doses of ionizing radiation (IR, <10 cGy) are likely to incur specific changes in signal transduction and gene expression in various tissues of their body. Remarkable advances in high throughput genomics and proteomics technologies enable researchers to broaden their focus from examining single gene/protein kinetics to better understanding global gene/protein expression profiling and biological pathway analyses, namely Systems Biology. An ultimate goal of systems biology is to develop dynamic mathematical models of interacting biological systems capable of simulating living systems in a computer. This Glue Grant is to complement Dr. Boothman’s existing DOE grant (No. DE-FG02-06ER64186) entitled “The IGF1/IGF-1R-MAPK-Secretory Clusterin (sCLU) Pathway: Mediator of a Low Dose IR-Inducible Bystander Effect” to develop sensitive and quantitative proteomic technology that suitable for low dose radiobiology researches. An improved version of quantitative protein array platform utilizing linear Quantum dot signaling for systematically measuring protein levels and phosphorylation states for systems biology modeling is presented. The signals are amplified by a confocal laser Quantum dot scanner resulting in ~1000-fold more sensitivity than traditional Western blots and show the good linearity that is impossible for the signals of HRP-amplification. Therefore this improved protein array technology is suitable to detect weak responses of low dose radiation. Software is developed to facilitate the quantitative readout of signaling network activities. Kinetics of EGFRvIII mutant signaling was analyzed to quantify cross-talks between EGFR and other signaling pathways.

  12. Smartphone based visual and quantitative assays on upconversional paper sensor.

    PubMed

    Mei, Qingsong; Jing, Huarong; Li, You; Yisibashaer, Wuerzha; Chen, Jian; Nan Li, Bing; Zhang, Yong

    2016-01-15

    The integration of smartphone with paper sensors recently has been gain increasing attentions because of the achievement of quantitative and rapid analysis. However, smartphone based upconversional paper sensors have been restricted by the lack of effective methods to acquire luminescence signals on test paper. Herein, by the virtue of 3D printing technology, we exploited an auxiliary reusable device, which orderly assembled a 980nm mini-laser, optical filter and mini-cavity together, for digitally imaging the luminescence variations on test paper and quantitative analyzing pesticide thiram by smartphone. In detail, copper ions decorated NaYF4:Yb/Tm upconversion nanoparticles were fixed onto filter paper to form test paper, and the blue luminescence on it would be quenched after additions of thiram through luminescence resonance energy transfer mechanism. These variations could be monitored by the smartphone camera, and then the blue channel intensities of obtained colored images were calculated to quantify amounts of thiram through a self-written Android program installed on the smartphone, offering a reliable and accurate detection limit of 0.1μM for the system. This work provides an initial demonstration of integrating upconversion nanosensors with smartphone digital imaging for point-of-care analysis on a paper-based platform.

  13. Smartphone based visual and quantitative assays on upconversional paper sensor.

    PubMed

    Mei, Qingsong; Jing, Huarong; Li, You; Yisibashaer, Wuerzha; Chen, Jian; Nan Li, Bing; Zhang, Yong

    2016-01-15

    The integration of smartphone with paper sensors recently has been gain increasing attentions because of the achievement of quantitative and rapid analysis. However, smartphone based upconversional paper sensors have been restricted by the lack of effective methods to acquire luminescence signals on test paper. Herein, by the virtue of 3D printing technology, we exploited an auxiliary reusable device, which orderly assembled a 980nm mini-laser, optical filter and mini-cavity together, for digitally imaging the luminescence variations on test paper and quantitative analyzing pesticide thiram by smartphone. In detail, copper ions decorated NaYF4:Yb/Tm upconversion nanoparticles were fixed onto filter paper to form test paper, and the blue luminescence on it would be quenched after additions of thiram through luminescence resonance energy transfer mechanism. These variations could be monitored by the smartphone camera, and then the blue channel intensities of obtained colored images were calculated to quantify amounts of thiram through a self-written Android program installed on the smartphone, offering a reliable and accurate detection limit of 0.1μM for the system. This work provides an initial demonstration of integrating upconversion nanosensors with smartphone digital imaging for point-of-care analysis on a paper-based platform. PMID:26356763

  14. Micromorphological characterization and label-free quantitation of small rubber particle protein in natural rubber latex.

    PubMed

    Wang, Sai; Liu, Jiahui; Wu, Yanxia; You, Yawen; He, Jingyi; Zhang, Jichuan; Zhang, Liqun; Dong, Yiyang

    2016-04-15

    Commercial natural rubber is traditionally supplied by Hevea brasiliensis, but now there is a big energy problem because of the limited resource and increasing demand. Intensive study of key rubber-related substances is urgently needed for further research of in vitro biosynthesis of natural rubber. Natural rubber is biosynthesized on the surface of rubber particles. A membrane protein called small rubber particle protein (SRPP) is a key protein associated closely with rubber biosynthesis; however, SRPP in different plants has been only qualitatively studied, and there are no quantitative reports so far. In this work, H. brasiliensis was chosen as a model plant. The microscopic distribution of SRPP on the rubber particles during the washing process was investigated by transmission electron microscopy-immunogold labeling. A label-free surface plasmon resonance (SPR) immunosensor was developed to quantify SRPP in H. brasiliensis for the first time. The immunosensor was then used to rapidly detect and analyze SRPP in dandelions and prickly lettuce latex samples. The label-free SPR immunosensor can be a desirable tool for rapid quantitation of the membrane protein SRPP, with excellent assay efficiency, high sensitivity, and high specificity. The method lays the foundation for further study of the functional relationship between SRPP and natural rubber content. PMID:26844871

  15. High Throughput Quantitative Analysis of Serum Proteins using Glycopeptide Capture and Liquid Chromatography Mass Spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Hui; Yi, Eugene C.; Li, Xiao-jun; Mallick, Parag; Kelly-Spratt, Karen S.; Masselon, Christophe D.; Camp, David G.; Smith, Richard D.; Kemp, Christopher; Aebersold, Ruedi

    2005-02-01

    It is expected that the composition of the serum proteome can provide valuable information about the state of the human body in health and disease, and that this information can be extracted via quantitative proteomic measurements. Suitable proteomic techniques need to be sensitive, reproducible and robust to detect potential biomarkers below the level of highly expressed proteins, to generate data sets that are comparable between experiments and laboratories, and have high throughput to support statistical studies. In this paper, we report a method for high throughput quantitative analysis of serum proteins. It consists of the selective isolation of peptides that are N-linked glycosylated in the intact protein, the analysis of these, no de-glycosylated peptides by LC-ESI-MS, and the comparative analysis of the resulting patterns. By focusing selectively on a few formerly N-linked glycopeptides per serum protein, the complexity of the analyte sample is significantly reduced and the sensitivity and throughput of serum proteome analysis are increased compared with the analysis of total tryptic peptides from unfractionated samples. We provide data that document the performance of the method and show that sera from untreated normal mice and genetically identical mice with carcinogen induced skin cancer can be unambiguously discriminated using unsupervised clustering of the resulting peptide patterns. We further identify, by tandem mass spectrometry, some of the peptides that were consistently elevated in cancer mice compared to their control littermates.

  16. High Throughput Quantitative Analysis of Serum Proteins Using Glycopeptide Capture and Liquid Chromatography Mass Spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Hui; Yi, Eugene C.; Li, Xiao-jun; Mallick, Parag; Kelly-Spratt, Karen S.; Masselon, Christophe D.; Camp, David G.; Smith, Richard D.; Kemp, Christopher J.; Aebersold, Reudi

    2005-02-01

    It is expected that the composition of the serum proteome can provide valuable information about the state of the human body in health and disease and that this information can be extracted via quantitative proteomic measurements. Suitable proteomic techniques need to be sensitive, reproducible, and robust to detect potential biomarkers below the level of highly expressed proteins, generate data sets that are comparable between experiments and laboratories, and have high throughput to support statistical studies. Here we report a method for high throughput quantitative analysis of serum proteins. It consists of the selective isolation of peptides that are N-linked glycosylated in the intact protein, the analysis of these now deglycosylated peptides by liquid chromatography electrospray ionization mass spectrometry, and the comparative analysis of the resulting patterns. By focusing selectively on a few formerly N-linked glycopeptides per serum protein, the complexity of the analyte sample is significantly reduced and the sensitivity and throughput of serum proteome analysis are increased compared with the analysis of total tryptic peptides from unfractionated samples. We provide data that document the performance of the method and show that sera from untreated normal mice and genetically identical mice with carcinogen-induced skin cancer can be unambiguously discriminated using unsupervised clustering of the resulting peptide patterns. We further identify, by tandem mass spectrometry, some of the peptides that were consistently elevated in cancer mice compared with their control littermates.

  17. Quantitation of tyrosine hydroxylase, protein levels: Spot immunolabeling with an affinity-purified antibody

    SciTech Connect

    Haycock, J.W. )

    1989-09-01

    Tyrosine hydroxylase was purified from bovine adrenal chromaffin cells and rat pheochromocytoma using a rapid (less than 2 days) procedure performed at room temperature. Rabbits were immunized with purified enzyme that was denatured with sodium dodecylsulfate, and antibodies to tyrosine hydroxylase were affinity-purified from immune sera. A Western blot procedure using the affinity-purified antibodies and {sup 125}I-protein A demonstrated a selective labeling of a single Mr approximately 62,000 band in samples from a number of different tissues. The relative lack of background {sup 125}I-protein A binding permitted the development of a quantitative spot immunolabeling procedure for tyrosine hydroxylase protein. The sensitivity of the assay is 1-2 ng of enzyme. Essentially identical standard curves were obtained with tyrosine hydroxylase purified from rat pheochromocytoma, rat corpus striatum, and bovine adrenal medulla. An extract of PC 12 cells (clonal rat pheochromocytoma cells) was calibrated against purified rat pheochromocytoma tyrosine hydroxylase and used as an external standard against which levels of tyrosine hydroxylase in PC12 cells and other tissue were quantified. With this procedure, qualitative assessment of tyrosine hydroxylase protein levels can be obtained in a few hours and quantitative assessment can be obtained in less than a day.

  18. Metal-tag labeling coupled with multiple reaction monitoring-mass spectrometry for absolute quantitation of proteins.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xueying; Wang, Xin; Qin, Weijie; Lin, Hongjun; Wang, Jifeng; Wei, Junying; Zhang, Yangjun; Qian, Xiaohong

    2013-09-21

    Mass spectrometry-based quantitative proteomics, consisting of relative and absolute parts, has been used to discover and validate proteins with key functions related to physiological and pathological processes. Currently, stable isotope dilution-multiple reaction monitoring-mass spectrometry (SID-MRM-MS) is the most commonly used method for the absolute determination of proteins in a biological sample. A prerequisite for this method is obtaining internal standards with isotope labels. Although many approaches have been developed for the labeling and preparation of internal peptides, expensive stable isotope labeling coupled with SID-MRM-MS has limited the application and development of an absolute quantitative method. Recently, a low-cost strategy using metal-tag labeling and MS has been developed for relative quantification of peptides or proteins. The introduction of labeling using metal tags has the merits of allowing multiple labeling and enlarging the mass shift to overcome the overlap of adjacent isotope clusters. However, most papers described MRM-MS for protein absolute quantification based on the metal in its peptides labelled with metal by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP MS) but not on its peptides labelled with metal. In this work, a novel approach based on metal-tag labeling coupled with MRM-MS was established for the absolute quantification of peptides or proteins. The principle of the method is that a bifunctional chelator, 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetraacetic acid bearing an N-hydroxysuccinimide ester (DOTA-NHS ester), is used to modify the N-termini of signature peptides from a target protein, and the modified peptides then chelate a certain metal, such as thulium, to form metal-tagged peptides (Tm-DOTA-P). Internal peptides are chemically synthesized and labeled with another metal, such as terbium (Tb-DOTA-P), as the internal standard. Both the Tb-DOTA- and Tm-DOTA-labeled peptides in samples can be analysed via

  19. Fusing Quantitative Requirements Analysis with Model-based Systems Engineering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cornford, Steven L.; Feather, Martin S.; Heron, Vance A.; Jenkins, J. Steven

    2006-01-01

    A vision is presented for fusing quantitative requirements analysis with model-based systems engineering. This vision draws upon and combines emergent themes in the engineering milieu. "Requirements engineering" provides means to explicitly represent requirements (both functional and non-functional) as constraints and preferences on acceptable solutions, and emphasizes early-lifecycle review, analysis and verification of design and development plans. "Design by shopping" emphasizes revealing the space of options available from which to choose (without presuming that all selection criteria have previously been elicited), and provides means to make understandable the range of choices and their ramifications. "Model-based engineering" emphasizes the goal of utilizing a formal representation of all aspects of system design, from development through operations, and provides powerful tool suites that support the practical application of these principles. A first step prototype towards this vision is described, embodying the key capabilities. Illustrations, implications, further challenges and opportunities are outlined.

  20. FRET-based genetically-encoded sensors for quantitative monitoring of metabolites.

    PubMed

    Mohsin, Mohd; Ahmad, Altaf; Iqbal, Muhammad

    2015-10-01

    Neighboring cells in the same tissue can exist in different states of dynamic activities. After genomics, proteomics and metabolomics, fluxomics is now equally important for generating accurate quantitative information on the cellular and sub-cellular dynamics of ions and metabolite, which is critical for functional understanding of organisms. Various spectrometry techniques are used for monitoring ions and metabolites, although their temporal and spatial resolutions are limited. Discovery of the fluorescent proteins and their variants has revolutionized cell biology. Therefore, novel tools and methods targeting sub-cellular compartments need to be deployed in specific cells and targeted to sub-cellular compartments in order to quantify the target-molecule dynamics directly. We require tools that can measure cellular activities and protein dynamics with sub-cellular resolution. Biosensors based on fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) are genetically encoded and hence can specifically target sub-cellular organelles by fusion to proteins or targetted sequences. Since last decade, FRET-based genetically encoded sensors for molecules involved in energy production, reactive oxygen species and secondary messengers have helped to unravel key aspects of cellular physiology. This review, describing the design and principles of sensors, presents a database of sensors for different analytes/processes, and illustrate examples of application in quantitative live cell imaging.

  1. FRET-based genetically-encoded sensors for quantitative monitoring of metabolites.

    PubMed

    Mohsin, Mohd; Ahmad, Altaf; Iqbal, Muhammad

    2015-10-01

    Neighboring cells in the same tissue can exist in different states of dynamic activities. After genomics, proteomics and metabolomics, fluxomics is now equally important for generating accurate quantitative information on the cellular and sub-cellular dynamics of ions and metabolite, which is critical for functional understanding of organisms. Various spectrometry techniques are used for monitoring ions and metabolites, although their temporal and spatial resolutions are limited. Discovery of the fluorescent proteins and their variants has revolutionized cell biology. Therefore, novel tools and methods targeting sub-cellular compartments need to be deployed in specific cells and targeted to sub-cellular compartments in order to quantify the target-molecule dynamics directly. We require tools that can measure cellular activities and protein dynamics with sub-cellular resolution. Biosensors based on fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) are genetically encoded and hence can specifically target sub-cellular organelles by fusion to proteins or targetted sequences. Since last decade, FRET-based genetically encoded sensors for molecules involved in energy production, reactive oxygen species and secondary messengers have helped to unravel key aspects of cellular physiology. This review, describing the design and principles of sensors, presents a database of sensors for different analytes/processes, and illustrate examples of application in quantitative live cell imaging. PMID:26184603

  2. A quantitative strategy to detect changes in accessibility of protein regions to chemical modification on heterodimerization

    PubMed Central

    Dreger, Mathias; Leung, Bo Wah; Brownlee, George G; Deng, Tao

    2009-01-01

    We describe a method for studying quantitative changes in accessibility of surface lysine residues of the PB1 subunit of the influenza RNA polymerase as a result of association with the PA subunit to form a PB1-PA heterodimer. Our method combines two established methods: (i) the chemical modification of surface lysine residues of native proteins by N-hydroxysuccinimidobiotin (NHS-biotin) and (ii) the stable isotope labeling of amino acids in cell culture (SILAC) followed by tryptic digestion and mass spectrometry. By linking the chemical modification with the SILAC methodology for the first time, we obtain quantitative data on chemical modification allowing subtle changes in accessibility to be described. Five regions in the PB1 monomer showed altered reactivity to NHS-biotin when compared with the [PB1-PA] heterodimer. Mutational analysis of residues in two such regions—at K265 and K481 of PB1, which were about three- and twofold, respectively, less accessible to biotinylation in the PB1-PA heterodimer compared with the PB1 monomer, demonstrated that both K265 and K481 were crucial for polymerase function. This novel assay of quantitative profiling of biotinylation patterns (Q-POP assay) highlights likely conformational changes at important functional sites, as observed here for PB1, and may provide information on protein–protein interaction interfaces. The Q-POP assay should be a generally applicable approach and may detect novel functional sites suitable for targeting by drugs. PMID:19517532

  3. Quantitative proteomics reveals novel insights into isoniazid susceptibility in mycobacteria mediated by a universal stress protein.

    PubMed

    Hu, Xinling; Li, Xiaojing; Huang, Lige; Chan, John; Chen, Yuling; Deng, Haiteng; Mi, Kaixia

    2015-03-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) is caused by the ancient pathogen, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, and is one of the most serious infectious diseases in the world. Isoniazid (INH) is an important first-line drug for the treatment of active and latent TB. INH resistance is an increasing problem in the treatment of TB. Phenotypic resistance to INH, however, is poorly understood. In this study, we constructed a strain of Mycobacterium bovis BCG that overexpresses the latency-related universal stress protein (USP), BCG_2013, and designated this strain BCG-2013. BCG_2013 overexpression increased susceptibility to INH compared with that of the wild-type strain, BCG-pMV261. Quantitative proteomic analysis revealed that BCG_2013 overexpression resulted in the upregulation of 50 proteins and the downregulation of 26 proteins among the 1500 proteins identified. Upregulation of catalase-peroxidase KatG expression in BCG-2013 was observed and confirmed by qPCR, whereas expression of other INH resistance-related proteins did not change. In addition, differential expression of the mycobacterial persistence regulator MprA and its regulatory proteins was observed. BCG_2013 and katG mRNA levels increased in a Wayne dormancy model, whereas MprA mRNA levels decreased. Taken together, our results suggest that the increase in KatG levels induced by increased BCG_2013 levels underlies the phenotypic susceptibility of mycobacteria to INH.

  4. Complex mixture analysis using protein expression as a qualitative and quantitative tool

    SciTech Connect

    Bradley, B.P.; Gonzalez, C.M.; Bond, J.A. . Dept. of Biological Sciences); Tepper, B.E. . Paper Products Division)

    1994-07-01

    Some proteins in organisms exposed to chemicals in stressful amounts or toxic concentrations show increased expression; others show decreased expression. These inducible and repressible proteins together potentially provide qualitative and quantitative diagnoses of components in complex mixtures of chemicals. The authors examined sets of proteins synthesized by Daphnia magna after exposure to mixtures of a cationic polyamide epichlorhydrin adduct (Kymene) and a combined assortment of water-extractable substances from chemi-thermal-mechanical pulp (CTMP) in lab water. Proteins were identified, after extracting from Daphnia magna, by gel filtration and silver staining, or by radiolabeling and then gel separation. Patterns of proteins induced by Kymene[reg sign] and by CTMP extracts were distinguishable in lab water, but there was interaction between them. The method of identifying and quantifying Kymene, however, was successful using lab simulations of mixtures. The method was tested using wastewater samples from a paper manufacturing plant. Kymene could be detected against variable levels and types of additional substances. But, again, there was interference, perhaps due to Kymene binding to other anionic polymers sometimes present in the samples. Interpretation from analyses of protein expression were consistent with results from sublethal Ceriodaphnia dubia assays.

  5. Quantitative changes in sets of proteins as markers of biological response

    SciTech Connect

    Giometti, C.S.; Taylor, J.; Gemmell, M.A.; Tollaksen, S.L. ); Lalwani, N.D.; Reddy, J.K. )

    1990-01-01

    Exposure to either physical or chemical insults triggers a cascade of bio-chemical events within the target cell. This response requires adjustment within the protein population of the cell, some proteins becoming more abundant (those involved in the cellular response), others less abundant (those not required or counterproductive to the response). Thus, quantitative changes in the global protein population of an exposed biological system may well serve as an indicator of exposure, provided the alterations observed are selective and dose-dependent. In this paper we present results from a study in which liver protein changes induced by exposure of mice to chemicals known to cause peroxisome proliferation and subsequent hepatocellular carcinoma where monitored. Clofibrate, and its chemical analog ciprofibrate, are hypolipidemic drugs. Di-(ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) is a plasticizer used widely in disposable containers for blood products. WY-14643 is a chemical shown to cause hypolipidemic and peroxisome proliferation, similar to clofibrate, ciprofibrate and DEHP, but structurally different from these three chemicals. Thus, two of the four chemicals are structurally similar while the remaining two are very distinct, although all four chemicals cause the same gross biological response. Our results show that although common protein effects are observed in mice exposed to these chemicals, each chemical also causes specific alterations in selective subsets of proteins that could serve as markers of a particular exposure. 13 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  6. Highly sensitive color-indicating and quantitative biosensor based on cholesteric liquid crystal

    PubMed Central

    Hsiao, Yu-Cheng; Sung, Yu-Chien; Lee, Mon-Juan; Lee, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Liquid crystal (LC)-based biosensors employ highly sensitive interfaces between the alignment layers and LCs to detect biomolecules and their interactions. Present techniques based on optical texture observation of the homeotropic-to-planar response of nematic LCs are limited by their quantitative reproducibility of results, indicating that both the accuracy and reliability of LC-based detection require further improvements. Here we show that cholesteric LC (CLC) can be used as a novel sensing element in the design of an alternative LC-based biosensing device. The chirality of the vertically anchored (VA) CLC was exploited in the detection of bovine serum albumin (BSA), a protein standard commonly used in protein quantitation. The color appearance and the corresponding transmission spectrum of the cholesteric phase changed with the concentration of BSA, by which a detection limit of 1 fg/ml was observed. The optical response of the VA CLC interface offers a simple and inexpensive platform for highly sensitive and naked-eye color-indicating detection of biomolecules, and, thus, may facilitate the development of point-of-care devices for the detection of disease-related biomarkers. PMID:26713215

  7. Highly sensitive color-indicating and quantitative biosensor based on cholesteric liquid crystal.

    PubMed

    Hsiao, Yu-Cheng; Sung, Yu-Chien; Lee, Mon-Juan; Lee, Wei

    2015-12-01

    Liquid crystal (LC)-based biosensors employ highly sensitive interfaces between the alignment layers and LCs to detect biomolecules and their interactions. Present techniques based on optical texture observation of the homeotropic-to-planar response of nematic LCs are limited by their quantitative reproducibility of results, indicating that both the accuracy and reliability of LC-based detection require further improvements. Here we show that cholesteric LC (CLC) can be used as a novel sensing element in the design of an alternative LC-based biosensing device. The chirality of the vertically anchored (VA) CLC was exploited in the detection of bovine serum albumin (BSA), a protein standard commonly used in protein quantitation. The color appearance and the corresponding transmission spectrum of the cholesteric phase changed with the concentration of BSA, by which a detection limit of 1 fg/ml was observed. The optical response of the VA CLC interface offers a simple and inexpensive platform for highly sensitive and naked-eye color-indicating detection of biomolecules, and, thus, may facilitate the development of point-of-care devices for the detection of disease-related biomarkers. PMID:26713215

  8. Quantitative rotor damage detection based on piezoelectric impedance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Yi; Tao, Yi; Mao, Yongfang; Tang, Baoping

    2015-12-01

    To realize the quantitative damage detection of a rotor, firstly an impedance analytic model is built. Then the change of bending stiffness is introduced as the damage index. Given the circular boundary condition of a rotor, annular elements are used as the analyzed objects and spectral element method is used. The electro-mechanical (E/M) coupled impedance expression of an undamaged rotor is derived with the application of a low-cost impedance test circuit. A Taylor expansion method is used to obtain the approximate E/M coupled impedance expression for the damaged rotor. After obtaining the difference between the undamaged and damaged rotor impedance, a rotor damage detection algorithm is proposed. In this paper, a preset damage configuration is used for the numerical simulation and experiment validation. The detection results have shown that the quantitative damage detection algorithm based on spectral element method and piezoelectric impedance proposed in this paper can identify the location and the severity of the damaged rotor accurately.

  9. Quantitative study of osteoporosis model based on synchrotron radiation.

    PubMed

    Xu, Wangyang; Xu, Jun; Zhao, Jun; Sun, Jianqi

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the changes of different periods of primary osteoporosis, we made quantitative analysis of osteoporosis using synchrotron radiation computed tomography (SRCT), together with histomorphometry analysis and finite element analysis (FEA). Tibias, femurs and lumbar vertebras were dissected from sham-ovariectomy rats and ovariectomized rats suffering from osteoporosis at certain time points. The samples were scanned by SRCT and then FEA was applied based on reconstructed slices. Histomorphometry analysis showed that the structure of some trabecular in osteoporosis degraded as the bone volume decreased, for femurs, the bone volume fraction (BV/TV) decreased from 69% to 43%. That led to the increase of the thickness of trabecular separation (from 45.05μm to 97.09μm) and the reduction of the number of trabecular (from 7.99 mm(-1) to 5.97mm(-1)). Simulation of various mechanical tests indicated that, with the exacerbation of osteoporosis, the bones' ability of resistance to compression, bending and torsion gradually became weaker. The compression stiffness decreased from 1770.96 Fμm(-1) to 697.41 Fμm(-1), and it matched the histomorphometry analysis. This study suggested that the combination of both analysis could quantitatively analyze the bone strength in good accuracy. PMID:26737752

  10. Image based quantitative reader for Lateral flow immunofluorescence assay.

    PubMed

    Chowdhury, Kaushik Basak; Joseph, Jayaraj; Sivaprakasam, Mohanasankar

    2015-08-01

    Fluorescence Lateral flow immunoassays (LFIA) have wide range of applications in point-of-care testing (POCT). An integrated, motion-free, accurate, reliable reader that performs automated quantitative analysis of LFIA is essential for POCT diagnosis. We demonstrate an image based quantitative method to read the lateral flow immunofluorescence test strips. The developed reader uses line laser diode module to illuminate the LFIA test strip having fluorescent dye. Fluorescence light coming from the region of interest (ROI) of the LFIA test strip was filtered using an emission filter and imaged using a camera following which images were processed in computer. A dedicated control program was developed that automated the entire process including illumination of the test strip using laser diode, capturing the ROI of the test strip, processing and analyzing the images and displaying of results. Reproducibility of the reader has been evaluated using few reference cartridges and HbA1c (Glycated haemoglobin) test cartridges. The proposed system can be upgraded to a compact reader for widespread testing of LFIA test strips. PMID:26736487

  11. Mass spectrometry-based quantitative analysis and biomarker discovery.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Naoto

    2011-01-01

      Mass spectrometry-based quantitative analysis and biomarker discovery using metabolomics approach represent one of the major platforms in clinical fields including for the prognosis or diagnosis, assessment of severity and response to therapy in a number of clinical disease states as well as therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM). This review first summarizes our mass spectrometry-based research strategy and some results on relationship between cysteinyl leukotriene (cysLT), thromboxane (TX), 12-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (12-HETE) and other metabolites of arachidonic acid and diseases such as atopic dermatitis, rheumatoid arthritis and diabetes mellitus. For the purpose of evaluating the role of these metabolites of arachidonic acid in disease status, we have developed sensitive determination methods with simple solid-phase extraction and applied in clinical settings. In addition to these endogenous compounds, using mass spectrometry, we have developed actually applicable quantitative methods for TDM. Representative example was a method of TDM for sirolimus, one of the immunosuppressant agents for a recipient of organ transplant, which requires rigorous monitoring of blood level. As we recognized great potential in mass spectrometry during these researches, we have become interested in metabolomics as the non-targeted analysis of metabolites. Now, established strategy for the metabolomics investigation applies to samples from cells, animals and humans to separate groups based on altered patterns of metabolites in biological fluids and to identify metabolites as potential biomarkers discriminating groups. We would be honored if our research using mass spectrometry would contribute to provide useful information in the field of medical pharmacy. PMID:21881303

  12. Comparison of surface and hydrogel-based protein microchips.

    PubMed

    Zubtsov, D A; Savvateeva, E N; Rubina, A Yu; Pan'kov, S V; Konovalova, E V; Moiseeva, O V; Chechetkin, V R; Zasedatelev, A S

    2007-09-15

    Protein microchips are designed for high-throughput evaluation of the concentrations and activities of various proteins. The rapid advance in microchip technology and a wide variety of existing techniques pose the problem of unified approach to the assessment and comparison of different platforms. Here we compare the characteristics of protein microchips developed for quantitative immunoassay with those of antibodies immobilized on glass surfaces and in hemispherical gel pads. Spotting concentrations of antibodies used for manufacturing of microchips of both types and concentrations of antigen in analyte solution were identical. We compared the efficiency of antibody immobilization, the intensity of fluorescence signals for both direct and sandwich-type immunoassays, and the reaction-diffusion kinetics of the formation of antibody-antigen complexes for surface and gel-based microchips. Our results demonstrate higher capacity and sensitivity for the hydrogel-based protein microchips, while fluorescence saturation kinetics for the two types of microarrays was comparable.

  13. [A rapid method for the quantitative determination of protein in urine].

    PubMed

    Kariagina, I Iu; Slepysheva, V V; Kozlov, A V

    1996-01-01

    A simple, economic, and available method for measuring protein in the urine is proposed. It is based on the capacity of bromophenol blue stain to form a complex with proteins in acid medium, which is characterized by absorption maximum at a wave-length of 597 nm. The proposed method is compared with the sulfosalicylic acid test and the Biuret method.

  14. Protein adducts of malondialdehyde and 4-hydroxynonenal in livers of iron loaded rats: quantitation and localization.

    PubMed

    Khan, M Firoze; Wu, Xiaohong; Tipnis, Ulka R; Ansari, G A S; Boor, Paul J

    2002-05-01

    Pathophysiological mechanisms for hepatocellular injury, fibrosis and/or cirrhosis in hepatic iron overload are poorly understood. An increase in intracellular transit pool of iron can catalyze peroxidation of lipids to produce reactive aldehydes such as malondialdehyde (MDA) and 4-hydroxynonenal (HNE). Covalent binding of such lipid aldehydes with proteins may cause impairment in cellular function and integrity. This investigation was focused on quantitative determination of MDA and HNE-protein adducts, and to establish a correlation between iron deposition and formation and localization of MDA and HNE-protein adducts, using immunohistochemistry. To achieve iron overload, male SD rats were fed a 2.5% carbonyl iron-supplemented diet for six weeks, while control animals received standard diet. Total iron as well as low molecular weight chelatable iron (LMWC-Fe) in the hepatic tissue of rats fed the iron supplemented diet increased significantly ( approximately 14- and approximately 15-fold, respectively). Quantitative ELISA for MDA-and HNE-protein adducts showed remarkable increases of 186 and 149%, respectively, in the liver homogenates of rats fed the iron-supplemented diet. Sections of liver stained for iron showed striking iron deposits in periportal (zone 1) hepatocytes, which was less dramatic in midzonal (zone 2) cells. Livers from iron-loaded rats showed strong, diffuse staining for both MDA and HNE adducts, which was highly pronounced in centrilobular (zone 3) hepatocytes, but was also evident in midzonal cells (zone 2). The demonstration of greater formation of both MDA and HNE-protein adducts provides evidence of iron-catalyzed lipid peroxidation in vivo. Although in this model of iron overload there was no evidence of tissue injury, our results provide an account of some of the initiating factors or early molecular events in hepatocellular damage that may lead to the pathological manifestations seen in chronic iron overload.

  15. Quantitative mass spectrometry measurements reveal stoichiometry of principal postsynaptic density proteins.

    PubMed

    Lowenthal, Mark S; Markey, Sanford P; Dosemeci, Ayse

    2015-06-01

    Quantitative studies are presented of postsynaptic density (PSD) fractions from rat cerebral cortex with the ultimate goal of defining the average copy numbers of proteins in the PSD complex. Highly specific and selective isotope dilution mass spectrometry assays were developed using isotopically labeled polypeptide concatemer internal standards. Interpretation of PSD protein stoichiometry was achieved as a molar ratio with respect to PSD-95 (SAP-90, DLG4), and subsequently, copy numbers were estimated using a consensus literature value for PSD-95. Average copy numbers for several proteins at the PSD were estimated for the first time, including those for AIDA-1, BRAGs, and densin. Major findings include evidence for the high copy number of AIDA-1 in the PSD (144 ± 30)-equivalent to that of the total GKAP family of proteins (150 ± 27)-suggesting that AIDA-1 is an element of the PSD scaffold. The average copy numbers for NMDA receptor sub-units were estimated to be 66 ± 18, 27 ± 9, and 45 ± 15, respectively, for GluN1, GluN2A, and GluN2B, yielding a total of 34 ± 10 NMDA channels. Estimated average copy numbers for AMPA channels and their auxiliary sub-units TARPs were 68 ± 36 and 144 ± 38, respectively, with a stoichiometry of ∼1:2, supporting the assertion that most AMPA receptors anchor to the PSD via TARP sub-units. This robust, quantitative analysis of PSD proteins improves upon and extends the list of major PSD components with assigned average copy numbers in the ongoing effort to unravel the complex molecular architecture of the PSD.

  16. Quantitative Monte Carlo-based holmium-166 SPECT reconstruction

    SciTech Connect

    Elschot, Mattijs; Smits, Maarten L. J.; Nijsen, Johannes F. W.; Lam, Marnix G. E. H.; Zonnenberg, Bernard A.; Bosch, Maurice A. A. J. van den; Jong, Hugo W. A. M. de; Viergever, Max A.

    2013-11-15

    Purpose: Quantitative imaging of the radionuclide distribution is of increasing interest for microsphere radioembolization (RE) of liver malignancies, to aid treatment planning and dosimetry. For this purpose, holmium-166 ({sup 166}Ho) microspheres have been developed, which can be visualized with a gamma camera. The objective of this work is to develop and evaluate a new reconstruction method for quantitative {sup 166}Ho SPECT, including Monte Carlo-based modeling of photon contributions from the full energy spectrum.Methods: A fast Monte Carlo (MC) simulator was developed for simulation of {sup 166}Ho projection images and incorporated in a statistical reconstruction algorithm (SPECT-fMC). Photon scatter and attenuation for all photons sampled from the full {sup 166}Ho energy spectrum were modeled during reconstruction by Monte Carlo simulations. The energy- and distance-dependent collimator-detector response was modeled using precalculated convolution kernels. Phantom experiments were performed to quantitatively evaluate image contrast, image noise, count errors, and activity recovery coefficients (ARCs) of SPECT-fMC in comparison with those of an energy window-based method for correction of down-scattered high-energy photons (SPECT-DSW) and a previously presented hybrid method that combines MC simulation of photopeak scatter with energy window-based estimation of down-scattered high-energy contributions (SPECT-ppMC+DSW). Additionally, the impact of SPECT-fMC on whole-body recovered activities (A{sup est}) and estimated radiation absorbed doses was evaluated using clinical SPECT data of six {sup 166}Ho RE patients.Results: At the same noise level, SPECT-fMC images showed substantially higher contrast than SPECT-DSW and SPECT-ppMC+DSW in spheres ≥17 mm in diameter. The count error was reduced from 29% (SPECT-DSW) and 25% (SPECT-ppMC+DSW) to 12% (SPECT-fMC). ARCs in five spherical volumes of 1.96–106.21 ml were improved from 32%–63% (SPECT-DSW) and 50%–80

  17. Models of Quantitative Estimations: Rule-Based and Exemplar-Based Processes Compared

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    von Helversen, Bettina; Rieskamp, Jorg

    2009-01-01

    The cognitive processes underlying quantitative estimations vary. Past research has identified task-contingent changes between rule-based and exemplar-based processes (P. Juslin, L. Karlsson, & H. Olsson, 2008). B. von Helversen and J. Rieskamp (2008), however, proposed a simple rule-based model--the mapping model--that outperformed the exemplar…

  18. Wavelet-based verification of the quantitative precipitation forecast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yano, Jun-Ichi; Jakubiak, Bogumil

    2016-06-01

    This paper explores the use of wavelets for spatial verification of quantitative precipitation forecasts (QPF), and especially the capacity of wavelets to provide both localization and scale information. Two 24-h forecast experiments using the two versions of the Coupled Ocean/Atmosphere Mesoscale Prediction System (COAMPS) on 22 August 2010 over Poland are used to illustrate the method. Strong spatial localizations and associated intermittency of the precipitation field make verification of QPF difficult using standard statistical methods. The wavelet becomes an attractive alternative, because it is specifically designed to extract spatially localized features. The wavelet modes are characterized by the two indices for the scale and the localization. Thus, these indices can simply be employed for characterizing the performance of QPF in scale and localization without any further elaboration or tunable parameters. Furthermore, spatially-localized features can be extracted in wavelet space in a relatively straightforward manner with only a weak dependence on a threshold. Such a feature may be considered an advantage of the wavelet-based method over more conventional "object" oriented verification methods, as the latter tend to represent strong threshold sensitivities. The present paper also points out limits of the so-called "scale separation" methods based on wavelets. Our study demonstrates how these wavelet-based QPF verifications can be performed straightforwardly. Possibilities for further developments of the wavelet-based methods, especially towards a goal of identifying a weak physical process contributing to forecast error, are also pointed out.

  19. Whole genome scan to detect quantitative trait loci for bovine milk protein composition.

    PubMed

    Schopen, G C B; Koks, P D; van Arendonk, J A M; Bovenhuis, H; Visker, M H P W

    2009-08-01

    The objective of this study was to perform a whole genome scan to detect quantitative trait loci (QTL) for milk protein composition in 849 Holstein-Friesian cows originating from seven sires. One morning milk sample was analysed for the major milk proteins using capillary zone electrophoresis. A genetic map was constructed with 1341 single nucleotide polymorphisms, covering 2829 centimorgans (cM) and 95% of the cattle genome. The chromosomal regions most significantly related to milk protein composition (P(genome) < 0.05) were found on Bos taurus autosomes (BTA) 6, 11 and 14. The QTL on BTA6 was found at about 80 cM, and affected alpha(S1)-casein, alpha(S2)-casein, beta-casein and kappa-casein. The QTL on BTA11 was found at 124 cM, and affected beta-lactoglobulin, and the QTL on BTA14 was found at 0 cM, and affected protein percentage. The proportion of phenotypic variance explained by the QTL was 3.6% for beta-casein and 7.9% for kappa-casein on BTA6, 28.3% for beta-lactoglobulin on BTA11, and 8.6% for protein percentage on BTA14. The QTL affecting alpha(S2)-casein on BTA6 and 17 showed a significant interaction. We investigated the extent to which the detected QTL affecting milk protein composition could be explained by known polymorphisms in beta-casein, kappa-casein, beta-lactoglobulin and DGAT1 genes. Correction for these polymorphisms decreased the proportion of phenotypic variance explained by the QTL previously found on BTA6, 11 and 14. Thus, several significant QTL affecting milk protein composition were found, of which some QTL could partially be explained by polymorphisms in milk protein genes.

  20. A quantitative dimming method for LED based on PWM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jiyong; Mou, Tongsheng; Wang, Jianping; Tian, Xiaoqing

    2012-10-01

    Traditional light sources were required to provide stable and uniform illumination for a living or working environment considering performance of visual function of human being. The requirement was always reasonable until non-visual functions of the ganglion cells in the retina photosensitive layer were found. New generation of lighting technology, however, is emerging based on novel lighting materials such as LED and photobiological effects on human physiology and behavior. To realize dynamic lighting of LED whose intensity and color were adjustable to the need of photobiological effects, a quantitative dimming method based on Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) and light-mixing technology was presented. Beginning with two channels' PWM, this paper demonstrated the determinacy and limitation of PWM dimming for realizing Expected Photometric and Colorimetric Quantities (EPCQ), in accordance with the analysis on geometrical, photometric, colorimetric and electrodynamic constraints. A quantitative model which mapped the EPCQ into duty cycles was finally established. The deduced model suggested that the determinacy was a unique individuality only for two channels' and three channels' PWM, but the limitation was an inevitable commonness for multiple channels'. To examine the model, a light-mixing experiment with two kinds of white LED simulated variations of illuminance and Correlation Color Temperature (CCT) from dawn to midday. Mean deviations between theoretical values and measured values were obtained, which were 15lx and 23K respectively. Result shows that this method can effectively realize the light spectrum which has a specific requirement of EPCQ, and provides a theoretical basis and a practical way for dynamic lighting of LED.

  1. Toxicity challenges in environmental chemicals: Prediction of human plasma protein binding through quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) models

    EPA Science Inventory

    The present study explores the merit of utilizing available pharmaceutical data to construct a quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) for prediction of the fraction of a chemical unbound to plasma protein (Fub) in environmentally relevant compounds. Independent model...

  2. A quantitative chaperone interaction network reveals the architecture of cellular protein homeostasis pathways

    PubMed Central

    Taipale, Mikko; Tucker, George; Peng, Jian; Krykbaeva, Irina; Lin, Zhen-Yuan; Larsen, Brett; Choi, Hyungwon; Berger, Bonnie; Gingras, Anne-Claude; Lindquist, Susan

    2014-01-01

    Chaperones are abundant cellular proteins that promote the folding and function of their substrate proteins (clients). In vivo, chaperones also associate with a large and diverse set of co-factors (co-chaperones) that regulate their specificity and function. However, how these co-chaperones regulate protein folding and whether they have chaperone-independent biological functions is largely unknown. We have combined mass spectrometry and quantitative high-throughput LUMIER assays to systematically characterize the chaperone/co-chaperone/client interaction network in human cells. We uncover hundreds of novel chaperone clients, delineate their participation in specific co-chaperone complexes, and establish a surprisingly distinct network of protein/protein interactions for co-chaperones. As a salient example of the power of such analysis, we establish that NUDC family co-chaperones specifically associate with structurally related but evolutionarily distinct β-propeller folds. We provide a framework for deciphering the proteostasis network, its regulation in development and disease, and expand the use of chaperones as sensors for drug/target engagement. PMID:25036637

  3. Identification of cypermethrin induced protein changes in green algae by iTRAQ quantitative proteomics.

    PubMed

    Gao, Yan; Lim, Teck Kwang; Lin, Qingsong; Li, Sam Fong Yau

    2016-04-29

    Cypermethrin (CYP) is one of the most widely used pesticides in large scale for agricultural and domestic purpose and the residue often seriously affects aquatic system. Environmental pollutant-induced protein changes in organisms could be detected by proteomics, leading to discovery of potential biomarkers and understanding of mode of action. While proteomics investigations of CYP stress in some animal models have been well studied, few reports about the effects of exposure to CYP on algae proteome were published. To determine CYP effect in algae, the impact of various dosages (0.001μg/L, 0.01μg/L and 1μg/L) of CYP on green algae Chlorella vulgaris for 24h and 96h was investigated by using iTRAQ quantitative proteomics technique. A total of 162 and 198 proteins were significantly altered after CYP exposure for 24h and 96h, respectively. Overview of iTRAQ results indicated that the influence of CYP on algae protein might be dosage-dependent. Functional analysis of differentially expressed proteins showed that CYP could induce protein alterations related to photosynthesis, stress responses and carbohydrate metabolism. This study provides a comprehensive view of complex mode of action of algae under CYP stress and highlights several potential biomarkers for further investigation of pesticide-exposed plant and algae. PMID:26961939

  4. Identification of cypermethrin induced protein changes in green algae by iTRAQ quantitative proteomics.

    PubMed

    Gao, Yan; Lim, Teck Kwang; Lin, Qingsong; Li, Sam Fong Yau

    2016-04-29

    Cypermethrin (CYP) is one of the most widely used pesticides in large scale for agricultural and domestic purpose and the residue often seriously affects aquatic system. Environmental pollutant-induced protein changes in organisms could be detected by proteomics, leading to discovery of potential biomarkers and understanding of mode of action. While proteomics investigations of CYP stress in some animal models have been well studied, few reports about the effects of exposure to CYP on algae proteome were published. To determine CYP effect in algae, the impact of various dosages (0.001μg/L, 0.01μg/L and 1μg/L) of CYP on green algae Chlorella vulgaris for 24h and 96h was investigated by using iTRAQ quantitative proteomics technique. A total of 162 and 198 proteins were significantly altered after CYP exposure for 24h and 96h, respectively. Overview of iTRAQ results indicated that the influence of CYP on algae protein might be dosage-dependent. Functional analysis of differentially expressed proteins showed that CYP could induce protein alterations related to photosynthesis, stress responses and carbohydrate metabolism. This study provides a comprehensive view of complex mode of action of algae under CYP stress and highlights several potential biomarkers for further investigation of pesticide-exposed plant and algae.

  5. Quantitative H2S-mediated protein sulfhydration reveals metabolic reprogramming during the integrated stress response.

    PubMed

    Gao, Xing-Huang; Krokowski, Dawid; Guan, Bo-Jhih; Bederman, Ilya; Majumder, Mithu; Parisien, Marc; Diatchenko, Luda; Kabil, Omer; Willard, Belinda; Banerjee, Ruma; Wang, Benlian; Bebek, Gurkan; Evans, Charles R; Fox, Paul L; Gerson, Stanton L; Hoppel, Charles L; Liu, Ming; Arvan, Peter; Hatzoglou, Maria

    2015-01-01

    The sulfhydration of cysteine residues in proteins is an important mechanism involved in diverse biological processes. We have developed a proteomics approach to quantitatively profile the changes of sulfhydrated cysteines in biological systems. Bioinformatics analysis revealed that sulfhydrated cysteines are part of a wide range of biological functions. In pancreatic β cells exposed to endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, elevated H2S promotes the sulfhydration of enzymes in energy metabolism and stimulates glycolytic flux. We propose that transcriptional and translational reprogramming by the integrated stress response (ISR) in pancreatic β cells is coupled to metabolic alternations triggered by sulfhydration of key enzymes in intermediary metabolism. PMID:26595448

  6. iTRAQ-based quantitative proteomic analysis of Thermobifida fusca reveals metabolic pathways of cellulose utilization.

    PubMed

    Adav, Sunil S; Ng, Chee Sheng; Sze, Siu Kwan

    2011-09-01

    Thermobifida fusca is an aerobic, thermophilic, cellulose degrading bacterium identified in heated organic materials. This study applied iTRAQ quantitative proteomic analysis to the cellular and membrane proteomes of T. fusca grown in presence and absence of cellulose to elucidate the cellular processes induced by cellulose nutrient. Using an iTRAQ-based quantitative proteomic approach, 783 cytosolic and 181 membrane proteins expressed during cellulose hydrolysis were quantified with ≤1% false discovery rate. The comparative iTRAQ quantification revealed considerable induction in the expression levels and up-regulation of specific proteins in cellulosic medium than non-cellulosic medium. The regulated proteins in cellulosic medium were grouped under central carbohydrate metabolism such as glycolysis/gluconeogenesis, pentose phosphate pathways, citric acid cycle, starch, sugars, pyruvate, propanoate and butanoate metabolism; energy metabolism that includes oxidative phosphorylation, nitrogen, methane and sulfur metabolism; fatty acid metabolism, amino acid metabolic pathways, purine and pyrimidine metabolism, and main cellular genetic information processing functions like replication, transcription, translation, and cell wall synthesis; and environmental information processing (membrane transport and signal transduction). The results demonstrated cellulose induced several metabolic pathways during cellulose utilization.

  7. Molecular bases of protein halotolerance.

    PubMed

    Graziano, Giuseppe; Merlino, Antonello

    2014-04-01

    Halophilic proteins are stable and function at high salt concentration. Understanding how these molecules maintain their fold stable and avoid aggregation under harsh conditions is of great interest for biotechnological applications. This mini-review describes what is known about the molecular determinants of protein halotolerance. Comparisons between the sequences of halophilic/non-halophilic homologous protein pairs indicated that Asp and Glu are significantly more frequent, while Lys, Ile and Leu are less frequent in halophilic proteins. Homologous halophilic and non-halophilic proteins have similar overall structure, secondary structure content, and number of residues involved in the formation of H-bonds. On the other hand, on the halophilic protein surface, a decrease of nonpolar residues and an increase of charged residues are observed. Particularly, halophilic adaptation correlates with an increase of Asp and Glu, compensated by a decrease of basic residues, mainly Lys, on protein surface. A thermodynamic model, that provides a reliable explanation of the salt effect on the conformational stability of globular proteins, is presented.

  8. PCA-based groupwise image registration for quantitative MRI.

    PubMed

    Huizinga, W; Poot, D H J; Guyader, J-M; Klaassen, R; Coolen, B F; van Kranenburg, M; van Geuns, R J M; Uitterdijk, A; Polfliet, M; Vandemeulebroucke, J; Leemans, A; Niessen, W J; Klein, S

    2016-04-01

    Quantitative magnetic resonance imaging (qMRI) is a technique for estimating quantitative tissue properties, such as the T1 and T2 relaxation times, apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC), and various perfusion measures. This estimation is achieved by acquiring multiple images with different acquisition parameters (or at multiple time points after injection of a contrast agent) and by fitting a qMRI signal model to the image intensities. Image registration is often necessary to compensate for misalignments due to subject motion and/or geometric distortions caused by the acquisition. However, large differences in image appearance make accurate image registration challenging. In this work, we propose a groupwise image registration method for compensating misalignment in qMRI. The groupwise formulation of the method eliminates the requirement of choosing a reference image, thus avoiding a registration bias. The method minimizes a cost function that is based on principal component analysis (PCA), exploiting the fact that intensity changes in qMRI can be described by a low-dimensional signal model, but not requiring knowledge on the specific acquisition model. The method was evaluated on 4D CT data of the lungs, and both real and synthetic images of five different qMRI applications: T1 mapping in a porcine heart, combined T1 and T2 mapping in carotid arteries, ADC mapping in the abdomen, diffusion tensor mapping in the brain, and dynamic contrast-enhanced mapping in the abdomen. Each application is based on a different acquisition model. The method is compared to a mutual information-based pairwise registration method and four other state-of-the-art groupwise registration methods. Registration accuracy is evaluated in terms of the precision of the estimated qMRI parameters, overlap of segmented structures, distance between corresponding landmarks, and smoothness of the deformation. In all qMRI applications the proposed method performed better than or equally well as

  9. PCA-based groupwise image registration for quantitative MRI.

    PubMed

    Huizinga, W; Poot, D H J; Guyader, J-M; Klaassen, R; Coolen, B F; van Kranenburg, M; van Geuns, R J M; Uitterdijk, A; Polfliet, M; Vandemeulebroucke, J; Leemans, A; Niessen, W J; Klein, S

    2016-04-01

    Quantitative magnetic resonance imaging (qMRI) is a technique for estimating quantitative tissue properties, such as the T1 and T2 relaxation times, apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC), and various perfusion measures. This estimation is achieved by acquiring multiple images with different acquisition parameters (or at multiple time points after injection of a contrast agent) and by fitting a qMRI signal model to the image intensities. Image registration is often necessary to compensate for misalignments due to subject motion and/or geometric distortions caused by the acquisition. However, large differences in image appearance make accurate image registration challenging. In this work, we propose a groupwise image registration method for compensating misalignment in qMRI. The groupwise formulation of the method eliminates the requirement of choosing a reference image, thus avoiding a registration bias. The method minimizes a cost function that is based on principal component analysis (PCA), exploiting the fact that intensity changes in qMRI can be described by a low-dimensional signal model, but not requiring knowledge on the specific acquisition model. The method was evaluated on 4D CT data of the lungs, and both real and synthetic images of five different qMRI applications: T1 mapping in a porcine heart, combined T1 and T2 mapping in carotid arteries, ADC mapping in the abdomen, diffusion tensor mapping in the brain, and dynamic contrast-enhanced mapping in the abdomen. Each application is based on a different acquisition model. The method is compared to a mutual information-based pairwise registration method and four other state-of-the-art groupwise registration methods. Registration accuracy is evaluated in terms of the precision of the estimated qMRI parameters, overlap of segmented structures, distance between corresponding landmarks, and smoothness of the deformation. In all qMRI applications the proposed method performed better than or equally well as

  10. A quantitative autoradiographic method for the measurement of local rates of brain protein synthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Dwyer, B.E.; Donatoni, P.; Wasterlain, C.G.

    1982-05-01

    We have developed a new method for measuring local rates of brain protein synthesis in vivo. It combines the intraperitoneal injection of a large dose of low specific activity amino acid with quantitative autoradiography. This method has several advantages: 1) It is ideally suited for young or small animals or where immobilizing an animal is undesirable. 2 The amino acid injection ''floods'' amino acid pools so that errors in estimating precursor specific activity, which is especially important in pathological conditions, are minimized. 3) The method provides for the use of a radioautographic internal standard in which valine incorporation is measured directly. Internal standards from experimental animals correct for tissue protein content and self-absorption of radiation in tissue sections which could vary under experimental conditions.

  11. Quantitative analysis of gene expression in preimplantation mouse embryos using green fluorescent protein reporter.

    PubMed

    Medvedev, Serguei Yuri; Tokunaga, Tomoyuki; Schultz, Richard M; Furukawa, Tsutomu; Nagai, Takashi; Yamaguchi, Manabu; Hosoe, Misa; Yakovlev, Alexander F; Takahashi, Seiya; Izaike, Yoshiaki

    2002-07-01

    We have developed a method to monitor noninvasively, quantitatively, and in real-time transcription in living preimplantation mouse embryos by measuring expression of a short half-life form of enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) following microinjection of a plasmid-borne EGFP reporter gene. A standard curve was established by injecting known amounts of recombinant green fluorescent protein, and transcriptional activity was then determined by interpolating the amount of fluorescence in the DNA-injected embryos. This approach permitted multiple measurements in single embryos with no significant detrimental effect on embryonic development as long as light exposure was brief (<30 sec) and no more than two measurements were made each day. This method should facilitate analysis of the regulation of gene expression in preimplantation embryos; in particular, during the maternal-to-zygotic transition, and in other species in which limited numbers of embryos are available. PMID:12080029

  12. High-throughput analysis of the protein sequence-stability landscape using a quantitative "yeast surface two-hybrid" system and fragment reconstitution

    PubMed Central

    Dutta, Sanjib; Koide, Akiko; Koide, Shohei

    2008-01-01

    Stability evaluation of many mutants can lead to a better understanding of the sequence determinants of a structural motif and of factors governing protein stability and protein evolution. The traditional biophysical analysis of protein stability is low throughput, limiting our ability to widely explore the sequence space in a quantitative manner. In this study, we have developed a high-throughput library screening method for quantifying stability changes, which is based on protein fragment reconstitution and yeast surface display. Our method exploits the thermodynamic linkage between protein stability and fragment reconstitution and the ability of the yeast surface display technique to quantitatively evaluate protein-protein interactions. The method was applied to a fibronectin type III (FN3) domain. Characterization of fragment reconstitution was facilitated by the co-expression of two FN3 fragments, thus establishing a "yeast surface two-hybrid" method. Importantly, our method does not rely on competition between clones and thus eliminates a common limitation of high-throughput selection methods in which the most stable variants are predominantly recovered. Thus, it allows for the isolation of sequences that exhibits a desired level of stability. We identified over one hundred unique sequences for a β-bulge motif, which was significantly more informative than natural sequences of the FN3 family in revealing the sequence determinants for the β-bulge. Our method provides a powerful means to rapidly assess stability of many variants, to systematically assess contribution of different factors to protein stability and to enhance protein stability. PMID:18674545

  13. Direct dye binding--a quantitative assay for solid-phase immobilized protein.

    PubMed

    Bonde, M; Pontoppidan, H; Pepper, D S

    1992-01-01

    A direct dye-binding procedure was established for the quantification of protein after its immobilization on a solid phase, using IgG and BSA as model proteins. The assay, which in the range 0-5 mg protein/ml gel correlates well with indirect protein determination by A280 as well as determination of protein hydrolyzed from the gel, is based on a modified Bradford dye-binding assay. As the protein coupled to the gel binds the dye, a decrease in A465 of the supernatant is measured. Three solid supports commonly used for protein immobilization (Sepharose, Sephadex, Sephacryl) were found to be compatible with the dye-binding assay while nonspecific dye binding was found to HEMA gels. Protein was coupled to Sephacryl S-1000 using three different activation methods (aldehyde, hydrazine, and adipic acid dihydrazide). Artifactual dye-binding was not observed using any of the three different "linkers." The assay is easily carried out and represents a useful tool, e.g., when optimizing procedures for protein immobilization. PMID:1595895

  14. Synthesizing Quantitative Evidence for Evidence-based Nursing: Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Oh, Eui Geum

    2016-06-01

    As evidence-based practice has become an important issue in healthcare settings, the educational needs for knowledge and skills for the generation and utilization of healthcare evidence are increasing. Systematic review (SR), a way of evidence generation, is a synthesis of primary scientific evidence, which summarizes the best evidence on a specific clinical question using a transparent, a priori protocol driven approach. SR methodology requires a critical appraisal of primary studies, data extraction in a reliable and repeatable way, and examination for validity of the results. SRs are considered hierarchically as the highest form of evidence as they are a systematic search, identification, and summarization of the available evidence to answer a focused clinical question with particular attention to the methodological quality of studies or the credibility of opinion and text. The purpose of this paper is to introduce an overview of the fundamental knowledge, principals and processes in SR. The focus of this paper is on SR especially for the synthesis of quantitative data from primary research studies that examines the effectiveness of healthcare interventions. To activate evidence-based nursing care in various healthcare settings, the best and available scientific evidence are essential components. This paper will include some examples to promote understandings.

  15. Quantitative Expression and Co-Localization of Wnt Signalling Related Proteins in Feline Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Marote, Georgina; Abramo, Francesca; McKay, Jenny; Thomson, Calum; Beltran, Mariana; Millar, Michael; Priestnall, Simon; Dobson, Jane; Costantino-Casas, Fernando; Petrou, Terry; McGonnell, Imelda M.; Davies, Anthony J.; Weetman, Malcolm; Garden, Oliver A.; Masters, John R.; Thrasivoulou, Christopher; Ahmed, Aamir

    2016-01-01

    Feline oral squamous cell carcinoma (FOSCC) is an aggressive neoplasm in cats. Little is known about the possible molecular mechanisms that may be involved in the initiation, maintenance and progression of FOSCC. Wnt signalling is critical in development and disease, including many mammalian cancers. In this study, we have investigated the expression of Wnt signalling related proteins using quantitative immunohistochemical techniques on tissue arrays. We constructed tissue arrays with 58 individual replicate tissue samples. We tested for the expression of four key Wnt/ß-catenin transcription targets, namely Cyclin D1 (CCND1 or CD1), FRA1, c-Myc and MMP7. All antibodies showed cross reactivity in feline tissue except MMP7. Quantitative immunohistochemical analysis of single proteins (expressed as area fraction / amount of tissue for normal vs tumor, mean ± SE) showed that the expression of CD1 (3.9 ± 0.5 vs 12.2 ± 0.9), FRA1 (5.5 ± 0.6 vs 16.8 ± 1.1) and c-Myc (5.4 ± 0.5 vs 12.5 ± 0.9) was increased in FOSCC tissue by 2.3 to 3 fold compared to normal controls (p<0.0001). By using a multilabel, quantitative fluorophore technique we further investigated if the co-localization of these proteins (all transcription factors) with each other and in the nucleus (stained with 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole, DAPI) was altered in FOSCC compared to normal tissue. The global intersection coefficients, a measure of the proximity of two fluorophore labeled entities, showed that there was a significant change (p < 0.01) in the co-localization for all permutations (e.g. CD1/FRA1 etc), except for the nuclear localization of CD1. Our results show that putative targets of Wnt signalling transcription are up-regulated in FOSCC with alterations in the co-localization of these proteins and could serve as a useful marker for the disease. PMID:27559731

  16. Quantitative Expression and Co-Localization of Wnt Signalling Related Proteins in Feline Squamous Cell Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Giuliano, Antonio; Swift, Rebecca; Arthurs, Callum; Marote, Georgina; Abramo, Francesca; McKay, Jenny; Thomson, Calum; Beltran, Mariana; Millar, Michael; Priestnall, Simon; Dobson, Jane; Costantino-Casas, Fernando; Petrou, Terry; McGonnell, Imelda M; Davies, Anthony J; Weetman, Malcolm; Garden, Oliver A; Masters, John R; Thrasivoulou, Christopher; Ahmed, Aamir

    2016-01-01

    Feline oral squamous cell carcinoma (FOSCC) is an aggressive neoplasm in cats. Little is known about the possible molecular mechanisms that may be involved in the initiation, maintenance and progression of FOSCC. Wnt signalling is critical in development and disease, including many mammalian cancers. In this study, we have investigated the expression of Wnt signalling related proteins using quantitative immunohistochemical techniques on tissue arrays. We constructed tissue arrays with 58 individual replicate tissue samples. We tested for the expression of four key Wnt/ß-catenin transcription targets, namely Cyclin D1 (CCND1 or CD1), FRA1, c-Myc and MMP7. All antibodies showed cross reactivity in feline tissue except MMP7. Quantitative immunohistochemical analysis of single proteins (expressed as area fraction / amount of tissue for normal vs tumor, mean ± SE) showed that the expression of CD1 (3.9 ± 0.5 vs 12.2 ± 0.9), FRA1 (5.5 ± 0.6 vs 16.8 ± 1.1) and c-Myc (5.4 ± 0.5 vs 12.5 ± 0.9) was increased in FOSCC tissue by 2.3 to 3 fold compared to normal controls (p<0.0001). By using a multilabel, quantitative fluorophore technique we further investigated if the co-localization of these proteins (all transcription factors) with each other and in the nucleus (stained with 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole, DAPI) was altered in FOSCC compared to normal tissue. The global intersection coefficients, a measure of the proximity of two fluorophore labeled entities, showed that there was a significant change (p < 0.01) in the co-localization for all permutations (e.g. CD1/FRA1 etc), except for the nuclear localization of CD1. Our results show that putative targets of Wnt signalling transcription are up-regulated in FOSCC with alterations in the co-localization of these proteins and could serve as a useful marker for the disease. PMID:27559731

  17. Slow erosion of a quantitative apple resistance to Venturia inaequalis based on an isolate-specific Quantitative Trait Locus.

    PubMed

    Caffier, Valérie; Le Cam, Bruno; Al Rifaï, Mehdi; Bellanger, Marie-Noëlle; Comby, Morgane; Denancé, Caroline; Didelot, Frédérique; Expert, Pascale; Kerdraon, Tifenn; Lemarquand, Arnaud; Ravon, Elisa; Durel, Charles-Eric

    2016-10-01

    Quantitative plant resistance affects the aggressiveness of pathogens and is usually considered more durable than qualitative resistance. However, the efficiency of a quantitative resistance based on an isolate-specific Quantitative Trait Locus (QTL) is expected to decrease over time due to the selection of isolates with a high level of aggressiveness on resistant plants. To test this hypothesis, we surveyed scab incidence over an eight-year period in an orchard planted with susceptible and quantitatively resistant apple genotypes. We sampled 79 Venturia inaequalis isolates from this orchard at three dates and we tested their level of aggressiveness under controlled conditions. Isolates sampled on resistant genotypes triggered higher lesion density and exhibited a higher sporulation rate on apple carrying the resistance allele of the QTL T1 compared to isolates sampled on susceptible genotypes. Due to this ability to select aggressive isolates, we expected the QTL T1 to be non-durable. However, our results showed that the quantitative resistance based on the QTL T1 remained efficient in orchard over an eight-year period, with only a slow decrease in efficiency and no detectable increase of the aggressiveness of fungal isolates over time. We conclude that knowledge on the specificity of a QTL is not sufficient to evaluate its durability. Deciphering molecular mechanisms associated with resistance QTLs, genetic determinants of aggressiveness and putative trade-offs within pathogen populations is needed to help in understanding the erosion processes.

  18. Protein composition of wheat gluten polymer fractions determined by quantitative two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and tandem mass spectrometry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Flour proteins from the US bread wheat Butte 86 were extracted in 0.5% SDS using a two-step procedure with and without sonication and further separated by size exclusion chromatography into monomeric and polymeric fractions. Proteins in each fraction were analyzed by quantitative two-dimensional gel...

  19. Quantitative evaluation of his-tag purification and immunoprecipitation of tristetraprolin and its mutant proteins from transfected human cells

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Histidine (His)-tag is widely used for affinity purification of recombinant proteins, but the yield and purity of expressed proteins are quite different. Little information is available about quantitative evaluation of this procedure. The objective of the current study was to evaluate the His-tag pr...

  20. Genetic mapping and confirmation of quantitative trait loci for seed protein and oil contents and seed weight in soybean

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Demand for soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] meal has increased worldwide and soybean importers often offer premiums for soybean containing higher contents of protein and oil. Objectives were to detect quantitative trait loci (QTL) associated with soybean seed protein, oil, and seed weight in a soyb...

  1. Quantitative proteomic analysis of wheat grain proteins reveals differential effects of silencing of omega-5 gliadin genes in transgenic lines

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Novel wheat lines with altered flour compositions can be used to decipher the roles of specific gluten proteins in flour quality. Grain proteins from transgenic wheat lines in which genes encoding the omega-5 gliadins were silenced by RNA interference (RNAi) were analyzed in detail by quantitative 2...

  2. Model-based quantitative laser Doppler flowmetry in skin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fredriksson, Ingemar; Larsson, Marcus; Strömberg, Tomas

    2010-09-01

    Laser Doppler flowmetry (LDF) can be used for assessing the microcirculatory perfusion. However, conventional LDF (cLDF) gives only a relative perfusion estimate for an unknown measurement volume, with no information about the blood flow speed distribution. To overcome these limitations, a model-based analysis method for quantitative LDF (qLDF) is proposed. The method uses inverse Monte Carlo technique with an adaptive three-layer skin model. By analyzing the optimal model where measured and simulated LDF spectra detected at two different source-detector separations match, the absolute microcirculatory perfusion for a specified speed region in a predefined volume is determined. qLDF displayed errors <12% when evaluated using simulations of physiologically relevant variations in the layer structure, in the optical properties of static tissue, and in blood absorption. Inhomogeneous models containing small blood vessels, hair, and sweat glands displayed errors <5%. Evaluation models containing single larger blood vessels displayed significant errors but could be dismissed by residual analysis. In vivo measurements using local heat provocation displayed a higher perfusion increase with qLDF than cLDF, due to nonlinear effects in the latter. The qLDF showed that the perfusion increase occurred due to an increased amount of red blood cells with a speed >1 mm/s.

  3. Improved corn protein based articles

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Developing higher value uses for zein (corn protein), a potential major co-product of the bio-ethanol industry, will improve the economics of this business. Historically, zein was predominantly used in the textile fiber industry. Unfortunately the techniques used at that time to modify the zein cann...

  4. Quantitative ToF-SIMS studies of protein drug release from biodegradable polymer drug delivery membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burns, Sarah A.; Gardella, Joseph A.

    2008-12-01

    Biodegradable polymers are of interest in developing strategies to control protein drug delivery. The protein that was used in this study is Keratinocyte Growth Factor (KGF) which is a protein involved in the re-epithelialization process. The protein is stabilized in the biodegradable polymer matrix during formulation and over the course of polymer degradation with the use of an ionic surfactant Aerosol-OT (AOT) which will encapsulate the protein in an aqueous environment. The release kinetics of the protein from the surface of these materials requires precise timing which is a crucial factor in the efficacy of this drug delivery system. Time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) was used in the same capacity to identify the molecular ion peak of the surfactant and polymer and use this to determine surface concentration. In the polymer matrix, the surfactant molecular ion peak was observed in the positive and negative mode at m/ z 467 and 421, respectively. These peaks were determined to be [AOT + Na +] and [AOT - Na +]. These methods are used to identify the surfactant and protein from the polymer matrix and are used to measure the rate of surface accumulation. The second step was to compare this accumulation rate with the release rate of the protein into an aqueous solution during the degradation of the biodegradable film. This rate is compared to that from fluorescence spectroscopy measurements using the protein autofluorescence from that released into aqueous solution [C.M. Mahoney, J. Yu, A. Fahey, J.A.J. Gardella, SIMS depth profiling of polymer blends with protein based drugs, Appl. Surf. Sci. 252 (2006), 6609-6614.].

  5. Protein self-association induced by macromolecular crowding: a quantitative analysis by magnetic relaxation dispersion.

    PubMed

    Snoussi, Karim; Halle, Bertil

    2005-04-01

    In the presence of high concentrations of inert macromolecules, the self-association of proteins is strongly enhanced through an entropic, excluded-volume effect variously called macromolecular crowding or depletion attraction. Despite the predicted large magnitude of this universal effect and its far-reaching biological implications, few experimental studies of macromolecular crowding have been reported. Here, we introduce a powerful new technique, fast field-cycling magnetic relaxation dispersion, for investigating crowding effects on protein self-association equilibria. By recording the solvent proton spin relaxation rate over a wide range of magnetic field strengths, we determine the populations of coexisting monomers and decamers of bovine pancreatic trypsin inhibitor in the presence of dextran up to a macromolecular volume fraction of 27%. Already at a dextran volume fraction of 14%, we find a 30-fold increase of the decamer population and 510(5)-fold increase of the association constant. The analysis of these results, in terms of a statistical-mechanical model that incorporates polymer flexibility as well as the excluded volume of the protein, shows that the dramatic enhancement of bovine pancreatic trypsin inhibitor self-association can be quantitatively rationalized in terms of hard repulsive interactions. PMID:15665132

  6. Quantitative Phosphoproteomics Reveals the Role of Protein Arginine Phosphorylation in the Bacterial Stress Response*

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, Andreas; Trentini, Débora Broch; Spiess, Silvia; Fuhrmann, Jakob; Ammerer, Gustav; Mechtler, Karl; Clausen, Tim

    2014-01-01

    Arginine phosphorylation is an emerging protein modification implicated in the general stress response of Gram-positive bacteria. The modification is mediated by the arginine kinase McsB, which phosphorylates and inactivates the heat shock repressor CtsR. In this study, we developed a mass spectrometric approach accounting for the peculiar chemical properties of phosphoarginine. The improved methodology was used to analyze the dynamic changes in the Bacillus subtilis arginine phosphoproteome in response to different stress situations. Quantitative analysis showed that a B. subtilis mutant lacking the YwlE arginine phosphatase accumulated a strikingly large number of arginine phosphorylations (217 sites in 134 proteins), however only a minor fraction of these sites was increasingly modified during heat shock or oxidative stress. The main targets of McsB-mediated arginine phosphorylation comprise central factors of the stress response system including the CtsR and HrcA heat shock repressors, as well as major components of the protein quality control system such as the ClpCP protease and the GroEL chaperonine. These findings highlight the impact of arginine phosphorylation in orchestrating the bacterial stress response. PMID:24263382

  7. A new quantitative method to measure activity of ice structuring proteins using differential scanning calorimetry.

    PubMed

    Hassa-Roudsari, Majid; Goff, H Douglas

    2012-01-01

    There are very few quantitative assays to measure the activity of antifreeze proteins (AFPs, or Ice Structuring Proteins, ISPs) and these can be prone to various inaccuracies and inconsistencies. Some methods rely only on unassisted visual assessment. When microscopy is used to measure ice crystal size, it is critical that standardized procedures be adopted, especially when image analysis software is used to quantify sizes. Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) has been used to measure the thermal hysteresis activity (TH) of AFPs. In this study, DSC was used isothermally to measure enthalpic changes associated with structural rearrangements as a function of time. Differences in slopes of isothermal heat flow vs. time between winter wheat ISP or AFP type I containing samples, and those without ISP or AFP type I were demonstrated. ISP or AFP type I containing samples had significantly higher slopes compared to those without ISP or AFP type I. Samples with higher concentration of ISP or AFP type I showed higher slope values during the first hour and took up to 3 hr to attain equilibrium. Differences were attributed to activity of the proteins at the ice interface. Proteinaceous activity of ISPs or AFP type I was confirmed by loss of activity after treatment with protease.

  8. Dissection of brassinosteroid-regulated proteins in rice embryos during germination by quantitative proteomics

    PubMed Central

    Li, Qian-Feng; Xiong, Min; Xu, Peng; Huang, Li-Chun; Zhang, Chang-Quan; Liu, Qiao-Quan

    2016-01-01

    Brassinosteroids (BRs), essential plant-specific steroidal hormones, function in a wide spectrum of plant growth and development events, including seed germination. Rice is not only a monocotyledonous model plant but also one of the most important staple food crops of human beings. Rice seed germination is a decisive event for the next-generation of plant growth and successful seed germination is critical for rice yield. However, little is known about the molecular mechanisms on how BR modulates seed germination in rice. In the present study, we used isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantification (iTRAQ) based proteomic approach to study BR-regulated proteome during the early stage of seed germination. The results showed that more than 800 BR-responsive proteins were identified, including 88 reliable target proteins responsive to stimuli of both BR-deficiency and BR-insensitivity. Moreover, 90% of the 88 target proteins shared a similar expression change pattern. Gene ontology and string analysis indicated that ribosomal structural proteins, as well as proteins involved in protein biosynthesis and carbohydrate metabolisms were highly clustered. These findings not only enrich BR-regulated protein database in rice seeds, but also allow us to gain novel insights into the molecular mechanism of BR regulated seed germination. PMID:27703189

  9. Predicting disease-related proteins based on clique backbone in protein-protein interaction network.

    PubMed

    Yang, Lei; Zhao, Xudong; Tang, Xianglong

    2014-01-01

    Network biology integrates different kinds of data, including physical or functional networks and disease gene sets, to interpret human disease. A clique (maximal complete subgraph) in a protein-protein interaction network is a topological module and possesses inherently biological significance. A disease-related clique possibly associates with complex diseases. Fully identifying disease components in a clique is conductive to uncovering disease mechanisms. This paper proposes an approach of predicting disease proteins based on cliques in a protein-protein interaction network. To tolerate false positive and negative interactions in protein networks, extending cliques and scoring predicted disease proteins with gene ontology terms are introduced to the clique-based method. Precisions of predicted disease proteins are verified by disease phenotypes and steadily keep to more than 95%. The predicted disease proteins associated with cliques can partly complement mapping between genotype and phenotype, and provide clues for understanding the pathogenesis of serious diseases.

  10. Clarifying CLARITY: Quantitative Optimization of the Diffusion Based Delipidation Protocol for Genetically Labeled Tissue.

    PubMed

    Magliaro, Chiara; Callara, Alejandro L; Mattei, Giorgio; Morcinelli, Marco; Viaggi, Cristina; Vaglini, Francesca; Ahluwalia, Arti

    2016-01-01

    Tissue clarification has been recently proposed to allow deep tissue imaging without light scattering. The clarification parameters are somewhat arbitrary and dependent on tissue type, source and dimension: every laboratory has its own protocol, but a quantitative approach to determine the optimum clearing time is still lacking. Since the use of transgenic mouse lines that express fluorescent proteins to visualize specific cell populations is widespread, a quantitative approach to determine the optimum clearing time for genetically labeled neurons from thick murine brain slices using CLARITY2 is described. In particular, as the main objective of the delipidation treatment is to clarify tissues, while limiting loss of fluorescent signal, the "goodness" of clarification was evaluated by considering the bulk tissue clarification index (BTCi) and the fraction of the fluorescent marker retained in the slice as easily quantifiable macroscale parameters. Here we describe the approach, illustrating an example of how it can be used to determine the optimum clearing time for 1 mm-thick cerebellar slice from transgenic L7GFP mice, in which Purkinje neurons express the GFP (green fluorescent protein) tag. To validate the method, we evaluated confocal stacks of our samples using standard image processing indices (i.e., the mean pixel intensity of neurons and the contrast-to-noise ratio) as figures of merit for image quality. The results show that detergent-based delipidation for more than 5 days does not increase tissue clarity but the fraction of GFP in the tissue continues to diminish. The optimum clearing time for 1 mm-thick slices was thus identified as 5 days, which is the best compromise between the increase in light penetration depth due to removal of lipids and a decrease in fluorescent signal as a consequence of protein loss: further clearing does not improve tissue transparency, but only leads to more protein removal or degradation. The rigorous quantitative approach

  11. Clarifying CLARITY: Quantitative Optimization of the Diffusion Based Delipidation Protocol for Genetically Labeled Tissue

    PubMed Central

    Magliaro, Chiara; Callara, Alejandro L.; Mattei, Giorgio; Morcinelli, Marco; Viaggi, Cristina; Vaglini, Francesca; Ahluwalia, Arti

    2016-01-01

    Tissue clarification has been recently proposed to allow deep tissue imaging without light scattering. The clarification parameters are somewhat arbitrary and dependent on tissue type, source and dimension: every laboratory has its own protocol, but a quantitative approach to determine the optimum clearing time is still lacking. Since the use of transgenic mouse lines that express fluorescent proteins to visualize specific cell populations is widespread, a quantitative approach to determine the optimum clearing time for genetically labeled neurons from thick murine brain slices using CLARITY2 is described. In particular, as the main objective of the delipidation treatment is to clarify tissues, while limiting loss of fluorescent signal, the “goodness” of clarification was evaluated by considering the bulk tissue clarification index (BTCi) and the fraction of the fluorescent marker retained in the slice as easily quantifiable macroscale parameters. Here we describe the approach, illustrating an example of how it can be used to determine the optimum clearing time for 1 mm-thick cerebellar slice from transgenic L7GFP mice, in which Purkinje neurons express the GFP (green fluorescent protein) tag. To validate the method, we evaluated confocal stacks of our samples using standard image processing indices (i.e., the mean pixel intensity of neurons and the contrast-to-noise ratio) as figures of merit for image quality. The results show that detergent-based delipidation for more than 5 days does not increase tissue clarity but the fraction of GFP in the tissue continues to diminish. The optimum clearing time for 1 mm-thick slices was thus identified as 5 days, which is the best compromise between the increase in light penetration depth due to removal of lipids and a decrease in fluorescent signal as a consequence of protein loss: further clearing does not improve tissue transparency, but only leads to more protein removal or degradation. The rigorous quantitative

  12. Quantitative GFP fluorescence as an indicator of recombinant protein synthesis in transgenic plants.

    PubMed

    Richards, H A; Halfhill, M D; Millwood, R J; Stewart, C N

    2003-09-01

    The utility of green fluorescent protein (GFP) for biological research is evident. A fluorescence-based method was developed to quantify GFP levels in transgenic plants and protein extracts. Fluorescence intensity was linear with increasing levels of GFP over a range that encompasses transgene expression in plants by the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter. Standard curves were used to estimate GFP concentration in planta and in protein extracts. These values were consistent with ELISA measurements of GFP in protein extracts from transgenic plants, indicating that the technique is a reliable measure of recombinant GFP expression. The levels of in planta GFP expression in both homozygous and hemizygous plants was then estimated. Homozygous transgenic plants expressed twice the amount of GFP than hemizygous plants, suggesting additive transgene expression. This methodology may be useful to simplify the characterization of transgene expression in plants.

  13. Analysis of disease-associated protein expression using quantitative proteomics—fibulin-5 is expressed in association with hepatic fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Bracht, Thilo; Schweinsberg, Vincent; Trippler, Martin; Kohl, Michael; Ahrens, Maike; Padden, Juliet; Naboulsi, Wael; Barkovits, Katalin; Megger, Dominik A; Eisenacher, Martin; Borchers, Christoph H; Schlaak, Jörg F; Hoffmann, Andreas-Claudius; Weber, Frank; Baba, Hideo A; Meyer, Helmut E; Sitek, Barbara

    2015-05-01

    Hepatic fibrosis and cirrhosis are major health problems worldwide. Until now, highly invasive biopsy remains the diagnostic gold standard despite many disadvantages. To develop noninvasive diagnostic assays for the assessment of liver fibrosis, it is urgently necessary to identify molecules that are robustly expressed in association with the disease. We analyzed biopsied tissue samples from 95 patients with HBV/HCV-associated hepatic fibrosis using three different quantification methods. We performed a label-free proteomics discovery study to identify novel disease-associated proteins using a subset of the cohort (n = 27). Subsequently, gene expression data from all available clinical samples were analyzed (n = 77). Finally, we performed a targeted proteomics approach, multiple reaction monitoring (MRM), to verify the disease-associated expression in samples independent from the discovery approach (n = 68). We identified fibulin-5 (FBLN5) as a novel protein expressed in relation to hepatic fibrosis. Furthermore, we confirmed the altered expression of microfibril-associated glycoprotein 4 (MFAP4), lumican (LUM), and collagen alpha-1(XIV) chain (COL14A1) in association to hepatic fibrosis. To our knowledge, no tissue-based quantitative proteomics study for hepatic fibrosis has been performed using a cohort of comparable size. By this means, we add substantial evidence for the disease-related expression of the proteins examined in this study.

  14. Quantitation of Protein Expression and Co-localization Using Multiplexed Immuno-histochemical Staining and Multispectral Imaging.

    PubMed

    Bauman, Tyler M; Ricke, Emily A; Drew, Sally A; Huang, Wei; Ricke, William A

    2016-04-08

    Immunohistochemistry is a commonly used clinical and research lab detection technique for investigating protein expression and localization within tissues. Many semi-quantitative systems have been developed for scoring expression using immunohistochemistry, but inherent subjectivity limits reproducibility and accuracy of results. Furthermore, the investigation of spatially overlapping biomarkers such as nuclear transcription factors is difficult with current immunohistochemistry techniques. We have developed and optimized a system for simultaneous investigation of multiple proteins using high throughput methods of multiplexed immunohistochemistry and multispectral imaging. Multiplexed immunohistochemistry is performed by sequential application of primary antibodies with secondary antibodies conjugated to horseradish peroxidase or alkaline phosphatase. Different chromogens are used to detect each protein of interest. Stained slides are loaded into an automated slide scanner and a protocol is created for automated image acquisition. A spectral library is created by staining a set of slides with a single chromogen on each. A subset of representative stained images are imported into multispectral imaging software and an algorithm for distinguishing tissue type is created by defining tissue compartments on images. Subcellular compartments are segmented by using hematoxylin counterstain and adjusting the intrinsic algorithm. Thresholding is applied to determine positivity and protein co-localization. The final algorithm is then applied to the entire set of tissues. Resulting data allows the user to evaluate protein expression based on tissue type (ex. epithelia vs. stroma) and subcellular compartment (nucleus vs. cytoplasm vs. plasma membrane). Co-localization analysis allows for investigation of double-positive, double-negative, and single-positive cell types. Combining multispectral imaging with multiplexed immunohistochemistry and automated image acquisition is an

  15. Protein-based fluorescent metal nanoclusters for small molecular drug screening.

    PubMed

    Yu, Yong; New, Siu Yee; Xie, Jianping; Su, Xiaodi; Tan, Yen Nee

    2014-11-18

    A facile drug screening method based on synthesis of fluorescent gold nanoclusters inside albumin proteins loaded with small molecular drugs and comparing the relative fluorescence intensities of the resultant gold nanoclusters has been developed and successfully applied for the quantitative measurement of drug-protein binding constants. PMID:25253537

  16. Activity-Based Protein Profiling of Microbes

    SciTech Connect

    Sadler, Natalie C.; Wright, Aaron T.

    2015-02-01

    Activity-Based Protein Profiling (ABPP) in conjunction with multimodal characterization techniques has yielded impactful findings in microbiology, particularly in pathogen, bioenergy, drug discovery, and environmental research. Using small molecule chemical probes that react irreversibly with specific proteins or protein families in complex systems has provided insights in enzyme functions in central metabolic pathways, drug-protein interactions, and regulatory protein redox, for systems ranging from photoautotrophic cyanobacteria to mycobacteria, and combining live cell or cell extract ABPP with proteomics, molecular biology, modeling, and other techniques has greatly expanded our understanding of these systems. New opportunities for application of ABPP to microbial systems include: enhancing protein annotation, characterizing protein activities in myriad environments, and reveal signal transduction and regulatory mechanisms in microbial systems.

  17. Quantitative Investigation of Protein-Nucleic Acid Interactions by Biosensor Surface Plasmon Resonance

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shuo; Poon, Gregory M. K.; Wilson, W. David

    2015-01-01

    Biosensor-surface plasmon resonance (SPR) technology has emerged as a powerful label-free approach for the study of nucleic acid interactions in real time. The method provides simultaneous equilibrium and kinetic characterization for biomolecular interactions with minimal materials and without an external probe. A detailed and practical guide for protein-DNA interaction analyses using biosensor-SPR methods is presented. Details of the SPR technology and basic fundamentals are described with recommendations on the preparation of the SPR instrument, sensor chips and samples, as well as extensive information on experimental design, quantitative and qualitative data analyses and presentation. A specific example of the interaction of a transcription factor with DNA is shown with results evaluated by both kinetic and steady-state SPR methods. PMID:26404159

  18. Methods for quantitative evaluation of dynamics of repair proteins within irradiated cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hable, V.; Dollinger, G.; Greubel, C.; Hauptner, A.; Krücken, R.; Dietzel, S.; Cremer, T.; Drexler, G. A.; Friedl, A. A.; Löwe, R.

    2006-04-01

    Living HeLa cells are irradiated well directed with single 100 MeV oxygen ions by the superconducting ion microprobe SNAKE, the Superconducting Nanoscope for Applied Nuclear (=Kern-) Physics Experiments, at the Munich 14 MV tandem accelerator. Various proteins, which are involved directly or indirectly in repair processes, accumulate as clusters (so called foci) at DNA-double strand breaks (DSBs) induced by the ions. The spatiotemporal dynamics of these foci built by the phosphorylated histone γ-H2AX are studied. For this purpose cells are irradiated in line patterns. The γ-H2AX is made visible under the fluorescence microscope using immunofluorescence techniques. Quantitative analysis methods are developed to evaluate the data of the microscopic images in order to analyze movement of the foci and their changing size.

  19. Quantitative H2S-mediated protein sulfhydration reveals metabolic reprogramming during the integrated stress response

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Xing-Huang; Krokowski, Dawid; Guan, Bo-Jhih; Bederman, Ilya; Majumder, Mithu; Parisien, Marc; Diatchenko, Luda; Kabil, Omer; Willard, Belinda; Banerjee, Ruma; Wang, Benlian; Bebek, Gurkan; Evans, Charles R.; Fox, Paul L.; Gerson, Stanton L.; Hoppel, Charles L.; Liu, Ming; Arvan, Peter; Hatzoglou, Maria

    2015-01-01

    The sulfhydration of cysteine residues in proteins is an important mechanism involved in diverse biological processes. We have developed a proteomics approach to quantitatively profile the changes of sulfhydrated cysteines in biological systems. Bioinformatics analysis revealed that sulfhydrated cysteines are part of a wide range of biological functions. In pancreatic β cells exposed to endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, elevated H2S promotes the sulfhydration of enzymes in energy metabolism and stimulates glycolytic flux. We propose that transcriptional and translational reprogramming by the integrated stress response (ISR) in pancreatic β cells is coupled to metabolic alternations triggered by sulfhydration of key enzymes in intermediary metabolism. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.10067.001 PMID:26595448

  20. A droplet-based, optofluidic device for high-throughput, quantitative bioanalysis.

    PubMed

    Guo, Feng; Lapsley, Michael Ian; Nawaz, Ahmad Ahsan; Zhao, Yanhui; Lin, Sz-Chin Steven; Chen, Yuchao; Yang, Shikuan; Zhao, Xing-Zhong; Huang, Tony Jun

    2012-12-18

    Analysis of chemical or biomolecular contents in a tiny amount of specimen presents a significant challenge in many biochemical studies and diagnostic applications. In this work, we present a single-layer, optofluidic device for real-time, high-throughput, quantitative analysis of droplet contents. Our device integrates an optical fiber-based, on-chip detection unit with a droplet-based microfluidic unit. It can quantitatively analyze the contents of individual droplets in real-time. It also achieves a detection throughput of 2000 droplets per second, a detection limit of 20 nM, and an excellent reproducibility in its detection results. In a proof-of-concept study, we demonstrate that our device can be used to perform detection of DNA and its mutations by monitoring the fluorescent signal changes of the target DNA/molecular beacon complex in single droplets. Our approach can be immediately extended to a real-time, high-throughput detection of other biomolecules (such as proteins and viruses) in droplets. With its advantages in throughput, functionality, cost, size, and reliability, the droplet-based optofluidic device presented here can be a valuable tool for many medical diagnostic applications.

  1. Characterization of Membrane Protein Interactions in Plasma Membrane Derived Vesicles with Quantitative Imaging FRET

    PubMed Central

    Sarabipour, Sarvenaz; Del Piccolo, Nuala; Hristova, Kalina

    2016-01-01

    CONSPECTUS Here we describe an experimental tool, termed Quantitative Imaging Förster Resonance Energy Transfer (QI-FRET), which enables the quantitative characterization of membrane protein interactions. The QI-FRET methodology allows us to acquire binding curves and calculate association constants for complex membrane proteins in the native plasma membrane environment. The method utilizes FRET detection, and thus requires that the proteins of interest are labeled with florescent proteins, either FRET donors or FRET acceptors. Since plasma membranes of cells have complex topologies precluding the acquisition of two-dimensional binding curves, the FRET measurements are performed in plasma membrane derived vesicles which bud off cells as a result of chemical or osmotic stress. The results overviewed here are acquired in vesicles produced with an osmotic vesiculation buffer developed in our laboratory, which does not utilize harsh chemicals. The concentrations of the donor-labeled and the acceptor-labeled proteins are determined, along with the FRET efficiencies, in each vesicle. The experiments utilize transient transfection, such that a wide variety of concentrations is sampled. Then, data from hundreds of vesicles are combined to yield dimerization curves. Here we discuss recent findings about the dimerization of receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs), membrane proteins that control cell growth and differentiation via lateral dimerization in the plasma membrane. We focus on the dimerization of fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 (FGFR3), an RTK that plays a critically important role in skeletal development. We study the role of different FGFR3 domains in FGFR3 dimerization in the absence of ligand, and we show that FGFR3 extracellular domains inhibit unliganded dimerization, while contacts between the juxtamembrane domains, which connect the transmembrane domains to the kinase domains, stabilize the unliganded FGFR3 dimers. Since FGFR3 has been documented to harbor

  2. Fluorescent siderophore-based chemosensors: iron(III) quantitative determinations.

    PubMed

    Palanché, T; Marmolle, F; Abdallah, M A; Shanzer, A; Albrecht-Gary, A M

    1999-04-01

    A highly sensitive and selective method is described for a rapid and easy determination of iron(III). This procedure is based on fluorimetric detection combined with the attractive properties of siderophores and biomimetic ligands, which are strong and selective ferric chelators. Azotobactin delta, a bacterial fluorescent siderophore, three fluorescent derivatives of desferriferrioxamine B with a linear structure (NBD-, MA-, NCP-desferriferrioxamine B) and one tripodal biomimetic ligand of desferriferrichrome carrying an anthracenyl fluorescent probe were examined. A very efficient static quenching mechanism by iron was observed for all the ligands considered in this work. Our results identify azotobactin delta as the most promising chemosensor of ferric traces in water, more sensitive than the NBD-desferriferrioxamine B fluorescent ligand. Under more lipophilic conditions, the anthryl-desferriferrichrome biomimetic analogue showed similar analytical potential and was found to be more sensitive than the lipophilic MA- and NCP-desferriferrioxamine B. Their detection limits were respectively 0.5 ng mL-1 for azotobactin delta and 0.6 ng mL-1 for the anthryl tripodal chelator. The calibration curves were linear over the range 0-95 ng mL-1 and 0-180 ng mL-1. Various foreign cations have been examined and only copper(II) and aluminium(III) were shown to interfere when present in similar concentrations as iron(III). The developed procedure using fluorescent siderophores or biomimetic ligands of iron(III) may be applied (1) to monitor iron-(III)-dependent biological systems and (2) to determine iron(III) quantitatively in natural waters and in biological systems.

  3. A novel logic-based approach for quantitative toxicology prediction.

    PubMed

    Amini, Ata; Muggleton, Stephen H; Lodhi, Huma; Sternberg, Michael J E

    2007-01-01

    There is a pressing need for accurate in silico methods to predict the toxicity of molecules that are being introduced into the environment or are being developed into new pharmaceuticals. Predictive toxicology is in the realm of structure activity relationships (SAR), and many approaches have been used to derive such SAR. Previous work has shown that inductive logic programming (ILP) is a powerful approach that circumvents several major difficulties, such as molecular superposition, faced by some other SAR methods. The ILP approach reasons with chemical substructures within a relational framework and yields chemically understandable rules. Here, we report a general new approach, support vector inductive logic programming (SVILP), which extends the essentially qualitative ILP-based SAR to quantitative modeling. First, ILP is used to learn rules, the predictions of which are then used within a novel kernel to derive a support-vector generalization model. For a highly heterogeneous dataset of 576 molecules with known fathead minnow fish toxicity, the cross-validated correlation coefficients (R2CV) from a chemical descriptor method (CHEM) and SVILP are 0.52 and 0.66, respectively. The ILP, CHEM, and SVILP approaches correctly predict 55, 58, and 73%, respectively, of toxic molecules. In a set of 165 unseen molecules, the R2 values from the commercial software TOPKAT and SVILP are 0.26 and 0.57, respectively. In all calculations, SVILP showed significant improvements in comparison with the other methods. The SVILP approach has a major advantage in that it uses ILP automatically and consistently to derive rules, mostly novel, describing fragments that are toxicity alerts. The SVILP is a general machine-learning approach and has the potential of tackling many problems relevant to chemoinformatics including in silico drug design.

  4. M13 Bacteriophage Based Protein Sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Ju Hun

    Despite significant progress in biotechnology and biosensing, early detection and disease diagnosis remains a critical issue for improving patient survival rates and well-being. Many of the typical detection schemes currently used possess issues such as low sensitivity and accuracy and are also time consuming to run and expensive. In addition, multiplexed detection remains difficult to achieve. Therefore, developing advanced approaches for reliable, simple, quantitative analysis of multiple markers in solution that also are highly sensitive are still in demand. In recent years, much of the research has primarily focused on improving two key components of biosensors: the bio-recognition agent (bio-receptor) and the transducer. Particular bio-receptors that have been used include antibodies, aptamers, molecular imprinted polymers, and small affinity peptides. In terms of transducing agents, nanomaterials have been considered as attractive candidates due to their inherent nanoscale size, durability and unique chemical and physical properties. The key focus of this thesis is the design of a protein detection and identification system that is based on chemically engineered M13 bacteriophage coupled with nanomaterials. The first chapter provides an introduction of biosensors and M13 bacteriophage in general, where the advantages of each are provided. In chapter 2, an efficient and enzyme-free sensor is demonstrated from modified M13 bacteriophage to generate highly sensitive colorimetric signals from gold nanocrystals. In chapter 3, DNA conjugated M13 were used to enable facile and rapid detection of antigens in solution that also provides modalities for identification. Lastly, high DNA loadings per phage was achieved via hydrozone chemistry and these were applied in conjunction with Raman active DNA-gold/silver core/shell nanoparticles toward highly sensitive SERS sensing.

  5. Guided protein extraction from formalin-fixed tissues for quantitative multiplex analysis avoids detrimental effects of histological stains.

    PubMed

    Becker, Karl-Friedrich; Schott, Christina; Becker, Ingrid; Höfler, Heinz

    2008-05-01

    Formalin fixed and paraffin embedded (FFPE) tissues are the basis for histopathological diagnosis of many diseases around the world. For translational research and routine diagnostics, protein analysis from FFPE tissues is very important. We evaluated the potential influence of six histological stains, including hematoxylin (Mayer and Gill), fast red, light green, methyl blue and toluidine blue, for yield, electrophoretic mobility in 1-D gels, and immunoreactivity of proteins isolated from formalin-fixed breast cancer tissues. Proteins extracted from stained FFPE tissues using a recently established technique were compared with proteins obtained from the same tissues but without prior histological staining. Western blot and quantitative protein lysate microarray analysis demonstrated that histological staining can result in decreased protein yield but may not have much influence on immunoreactivity and electrophoretic mobility. Interestingly, not all staining protocols tested are compatible with subsequent protein analysis. The commonly used hematoxylin staining was found to be suitable for multiplexed quantitative protein measurement technologies although protein extraction was less efficient. For best results we suggest a guided protein extraction method, in which an adjacent hematoxylin/eosin-stained tissue section is used to control dissection of an unstained specimen for subsequent protein extraction and quantification for research and diagnosis.

  6. Quantitation of yeast total proteins in sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis sample buffer for uniform loading.

    PubMed

    Sheen, Hyukho

    2016-04-01

    Proteins in sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) sample buffer are difficult to quantitate due to SDS and reducing agents being in the buffer. Although acetone precipitation has long been used to clean up proteins from detergents and salts, previous studies showed that protein recovery from acetone precipitation varies from 50 to 100% depending on the samples tested. Here, this article shows that acetone precipitates proteins highly efficiently from SDS-PAGE sample buffer and that quantitative recovery is achieved in 5 min at room temperature. Moreover, precipitated proteins are resolubilized with urea/guanidine, rather than with SDS. Thus, the resolubilized samples are readily quantifiable with Bradford reagent without using SDS-compatible assays.

  7. CANDU in-reactor quantitative visual-based inspection techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rochefort, P. A.

    2009-02-01

    This paper describes two separate visual-based inspection procedures used at CANDU nuclear power generating stations. The techniques are quantitative in nature and are delivered and operated in highly radioactive environments with access that is restrictive, and in one case is submerged. Visual-based inspections at stations are typically qualitative in nature. For example a video system will be used to search for a missing component, inspect for a broken fixture, or locate areas of excessive corrosion in a pipe. In contrast, the methods described here are used to measure characteristic component dimensions that in one case ensure ongoing safe operation of the reactor and in the other support reactor refurbishment. CANDU reactors are Pressurized Heavy Water Reactors (PHWR). The reactor vessel is a horizontal cylindrical low-pressure calandria tank approximately 6 m in diameter and length, containing heavy water as a neutron moderator. Inside the calandria, 380 horizontal fuel channels (FC) are supported at each end by integral end-shields. Each FC holds 12 fuel bundles. The heavy water primary heat transport water flows through the FC pressure tube, removing the heat from the fuel bundles and delivering it to the steam generator. The general design of the reactor governs both the type of measurements that are required and the methods to perform the measurements. The first inspection procedure is a method to remotely measure the gap between FC and other in-core horizontal components. The technique involves delivering vertically a module with a high-radiation-resistant camera and lighting into the core of a shutdown but fuelled reactor. The measurement is done using a line-of-sight technique between the components. Compensation for image perspective and viewing elevation to the measurement is required. The second inspection procedure measures flaws within the reactor's end shield FC calandria tube rolled joint area. The FC calandria tube (the outer shell of the FC) is

  8. Proteome-wide quantitative multiplexed profiling of protein expression: carbon-source dependency in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Paulo, Joao A.; O’Connell, Jeremy D.; Gaun, Aleksandr; Gygi, Steven P.

    2015-01-01

    The global proteomic alterations in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae due to differences in carbon sources can be comprehensively examined using mass spectrometry–based multiplexing strategies. In this study, we investigate changes in the S. cerevisiae proteome resulting from cultures grown in minimal media using galactose, glucose, or raffinose as the carbon source. We used a tandem mass tag 9-plex strategy to determine alterations in relative protein abundance due to a particular carbon source, in triplicate, thereby permitting subsequent statistical analyses. We quantified more than 4700 proteins across all nine samples; 1003 proteins demonstrated statistically significant differences in abundance in at least one condition. The majority of altered proteins were classified as functioning in metabolic processes and as having cellular origins of plasma membrane and mitochondria. In contrast, proteins remaining relatively unchanged in abundance included those having nucleic acid–related processes, such as transcription and RNA processing. In addition, the comprehensiveness of the data set enabled the analysis of subsets of functionally related proteins, such as phosphatases, kinases, and transcription factors. As a resource, these data can be mined further in efforts to understand better the roles of carbon source fermentation in yeast metabolic pathways and the alterations observed therein, potentially for industrial applications, such as biofuel feedstock production. PMID:26399295

  9. Proteome-wide quantitative multiplexed profiling of protein expression: carbon-source dependency in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Paulo, Joao A; O'Connell, Jeremy D; Gaun, Aleksandr; Gygi, Steven P

    2015-11-01

    The global proteomic alterations in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae due to differences in carbon sources can be comprehensively examined using mass spectrometry-based multiplexing strategies. In this study, we investigate changes in the S. cerevisiae proteome resulting from cultures grown in minimal media using galactose, glucose, or raffinose as the carbon source. We used a tandem mass tag 9-plex strategy to determine alterations in relative protein abundance due to a particular carbon source, in triplicate, thereby permitting subsequent statistical analyses. We quantified more than 4700 proteins across all nine samples; 1003 proteins demonstrated statistically significant differences in abundance in at least one condition. The majority of altered proteins were classified as functioning in metabolic processes and as having cellular origins of plasma membrane and mitochondria. In contrast, proteins remaining relatively unchanged in abundance included those having nucleic acid-related processes, such as transcription and RNA processing. In addition, the comprehensiveness of the data set enabled the analysis of subsets of functionally related proteins, such as phosphatases, kinases, and transcription factors. As a resource, these data can be mined further in efforts to understand better the roles of carbon source fermentation in yeast metabolic pathways and the alterations observed therein, potentially for industrial applications, such as biofuel feedstock production.

  10. Quantitative Assessment of Effect of Preanalytic Cold Ischemic Time on Protein Expression in Breast Cancer Tissues

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Companion diagnostic tests can depend on accurate measurement of protein expression in tissues. Preanalytic variables, especially cold ischemic time (time from tissue removal to fixation in formalin) can affect the measurement and may cause false-negative results. We examined 23 proteins, including four commonly used breast cancer biomarker proteins, to quantify their sensitivity to cold ischemia in breast cancer tissues. Methods A series of 93 breast cancer specimens with known time-to-fixation represented in a tissue microarray and a second series of 25 matched pairs of core needle biopsies and breast cancer resections were used to evaluate changes in antigenicity as a function of cold ischemic time. Estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PgR), HER2 or Ki67, and 19 other antigens were tested. Each antigen was measured using the AQUA method of quantitative immunofluorescence on at least one series. All statistical tests were two-sided. Results We found no evidence for loss of antigenicity with time-to-fixation for ER, PgR, HER2, or Ki67 in a 4-hour time window. However, with a bootstrapping analysis, we observed a trend toward loss for ER and PgR, a statistically significant loss of antigenicity for phosphorylated tyrosine (P = .0048), and trends toward loss for other proteins. There was evidence of increased antigenicity in acetylated lysine, AKAP13 (P = .009), and HIF1A (P = .046), which are proteins known to be expressed in conditions of hypoxia. The loss of antigenicity for phosphorylated tyrosine and increase in expression of AKAP13, and HIF1A were confirmed in the biopsy/resection series. Conclusions Key breast cancer biomarkers show no evidence of loss of antigenicity, although this dataset assesses the relatively short time beyond the 1-hour limit in recent guidelines. Other proteins show changes in antigenicity in both directions. Future studies that extend the time range and normalize for heterogeneity will provide more comprehensive

  11. xTract: software for characterizing conformational changes of protein complexes by quantitative cross-linking mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Walzthoeni, Thomas; Joachimiak, Lukasz A; Rosenberger, George; Röst, Hannes L; Malmström, Lars; Leitner, Alexander; Frydman, Judith; Aebersold, Ruedi

    2015-12-01

    Chemical cross-linking in combination with mass spectrometry generates distance restraints of amino acid pairs in close proximity on the surface of native proteins and protein complexes. In this study we used quantitative mass spectrometry and chemical cross-linking to quantify differences in cross-linked peptides obtained from complexes in spatially discrete states. We describe a generic computational pipeline for quantitative cross-linking mass spectrometry consisting of modules for quantitative data extraction and statistical assessment of the obtained results. We used the method to detect conformational changes in two model systems: firefly luciferase and the bovine TRiC complex. Our method discovers and explains the structural heterogeneity of protein complexes using only sparse structural information. PMID:26501516

  12. xTract: software for characterizing conformational changes of protein complexes by quantitative cross-linking mass spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Walzthoeni, Thomas; Joachimiak, Lukasz A; Rosenberger, George; Röst, Hannes L; Malmström, Lars; Leitner, Alexander; Frydman, Judith; Aebersold, Ruedi

    2016-01-01

    Chemical cross-linking in combination with mass spectrometry generates distance restraints of amino acid pairs in close proximity on the surface of native proteins and protein complexes. In this study we used quantitative mass spectrometry and chemical cross-linking to quantify differences in cross-linked peptides obtained from complexes in spatially discrete states. We describe a generic computational pipeline for quantitative cross-linking mass spectrometry consisting of modules for quantitative data extraction and statistical assessment of the obtained results. We used the method to detect conformational changes in two model systems: firefly luciferase and the bovine TRiC complex. Our method discovers and explains the structural heterogeneity of protein complexes using only sparse structural information. PMID:26501516

  13. Quantitative expression patterns of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-{beta}/{delta} (PPAR{beta}/{delta}) protein in mice

    SciTech Connect

    Girroir, Elizabeth E.; Hollingshead, Holly E.; He Pengfei; Zhu Bokai; Perdew, Gary H.; Peters, Jeffrey M.

    2008-07-04

    The expression patterns of PPAR{beta}/{delta} have been described, but the majority of these data are based on mRNA data. To date, there are no reports that have quantitatively examined the expression of PPAR{beta}/{delta} protein in mouse tissues. In the present study, a highly specific PPAR{beta}/{delta} antibody was developed, characterized, and used to examine tissue expression patterns of PPAR{beta}/{delta}. As compared to commercially available anti-PPAR{beta}/{delta} antibodies, one of six polyclonal anti-PPAR{beta}/{delta} antibodies developed was significantly more effective for immunoprecipitation of in vitro-translated PPAR{beta}/{delta}. This antibody was used for quantitative Western blot analysis using radioactive detection methods. Expression of PPAR{beta}/{delta} was highest in colon, small intestine, liver, and keratinocytes as compared to other tissues including heart, spleen, skeletal muscle, lung, brain, and thymus. Interestingly, PPAR{beta}/{delta} expression was localized in the nucleus and RXR{alpha} can be co-immunoprecipitated with nuclear PPAR{beta}/{delta}. Results from these studies demonstrate that PPAR{beta}/{delta} expression is highest in intestinal epithelium, liver, and keratinocytes, consistent with significant biological roles in these tissues.

  14. Dissociation coefficients of protein adsorption to nanoparticles as quantitative metrics for description of the protein corona: A comparison of experimental techniques and methodological relevance.

    PubMed

    Hühn, Jonas; Fedeli, Chiara; Zhang, Qian; Masood, Atif; Del Pino, Pablo; Khashab, Niveen M; Papini, Emanuele; Parak, Wolfgang J

    2016-06-01

    Protein adsorption to nanoparticles is described as a chemical reaction in which proteins attach to binding sites on the nanoparticle surface. This process is defined by a dissociation coefficient, which tells how many proteins are adsorbed per nanoparticle in dependence of the protein concentration. Different techniques to experimentally determine dissociation coefficients of protein adsorption to nanoparticles are reviewed. Results of more than 130 experiments in which dissociation coefficients have been determined are compared. Data show that different methods, nanoparticle systems, and proteins can lead to significantly different dissociation coefficients. However, we observed a clear tendency of smaller dissociation coefficients upon less negative towards more positive zeta potentials of the nanoparticles. The zeta potential thus is a key parameter influencing protein adsorption to the surface of nanoparticles. Our analysis highlights the importance of the characterization of the parameters governing protein-nanoparticle interaction for quantitative evaluation and objective literature comparison. PMID:26748245

  15. Quantitative protein topography analysis and high-resolution structure prediction using hydroxyl radical labeling and tandem-ion mass spectrometry (MS).

    PubMed

    Kaur, Parminder; Kiselar, Janna; Yang, Sichun; Chance, Mark R

    2015-04-01

    Hydroxyl radical footprinting based MS for protein structure assessment has the goal of understanding ligand induced conformational changes and macromolecular interactions, for example, protein tertiary and quaternary structure, but the structural resolution provided by typical peptide-level quantification is limiting. In this work, we present experimental strategies using tandem-MS fragmentation to increase the spatial resolution of the technique to the single residue level to provide a high precision tool for molecular biophysics research. Overall, in this study we demonstrated an eightfold increase in structural resolution compared with peptide level assessments. In addition, to provide a quantitative analysis of residue based solvent accessibility and protein topography as a basis for high-resolution structure prediction; we illustrate strategies of data transformation using the relative reactivity of side chains as a normalization strategy and predict side-chain surface area from the footprinting data. We tested the methods by examination of Ca(+2)-calmodulin showing highly significant correlations between surface area and side-chain contact predictions for individual side chains and the crystal structure. Tandem ion based hydroxyl radical footprinting-MS provides quantitative high-resolution protein topology information in solution that can fill existing gaps in structure determination for large proteins and macromolecular complexes.

  16. Quantitative Protein Topography Analysis and High-Resolution Structure Prediction Using Hydroxyl Radical Labeling and Tandem-Ion Mass Spectrometry (MS)*

    PubMed Central

    Kaur, Parminder; Kiselar, Janna; Yang, Sichun; Chance, Mark R.

    2015-01-01

    Hydroxyl radical footprinting based MS for protein structure assessment has the goal of understanding ligand induced conformational changes and macromolecular interactions, for example, protein tertiary and quaternary structure, but the structural resolution provided by typical peptide-level quantification is limiting. In this work, we present experimental strategies using tandem-MS fragmentation to increase the spatial resolution of the technique to the single residue level to provide a high precision tool for molecular biophysics research. Overall, in this study we demonstrated an eightfold increase in structural resolution compared with peptide level assessments. In addition, to provide a quantitative analysis of residue based solvent accessibility and protein topography as a basis for high-resolution structure prediction; we illustrate strategies of data transformation using the relative reactivity of side chains as a normalization strategy and predict side-chain surface area from the footprinting data. We tested the methods by examination of Ca+2-calmodulin showing highly significant correlations between surface area and side-chain contact predictions for individual side chains and the crystal structure. Tandem ion based hydroxyl radical footprinting-MS provides quantitative high-resolution protein topology information in solution that can fill existing gaps in structure determination for large proteins and macromolecular complexes. PMID:25687570

  17. Quantitative analysis of localized surface plasmons based on molecular probing.

    PubMed

    Deeb, Claire; Bachelot, Renaud; Plain, Jérôme; Baudrion, Anne-Laure; Jradi, Safi; Bouhelier, Alexandre; Soppera, Olivier; Jain, Prashant K; Huang, Libai; Ecoffet, Carole; Balan, Lavinia; Royer, Pascal

    2010-08-24

    We report on the quantitative characterization of the plasmonic optical near-field of a single silver nanoparticle. Our approach relies on nanoscale molecular molding of the confined electromagnetic field by photoactivated molecules. We were able to directly image the dipolar profile of the near-field distribution with a resolution better than 10 nm and to quantify the near-field depth and its enhancement factor. A single nanoparticle spectral signature was also assessed. This quantitative characterization constitutes a prerequisite for developing nanophotonic applications.

  18. An instantaneous colorimetric protein assay based on spontaneous formation of a protein corona on gold nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Ho, Yan Teck; Poinard, Barbara; Yeo, Eugenia Li Ling; Kah, James Chen Yong

    2015-02-21

    Commercial protein assays used ubiquitously in laboratories typically require long incubation times due to the inherently slow protein-reagent reactions. In this study, we report a novel facile technique for the instantaneous measurement of total protein concentration by exploiting the rapid aggregation dynamics of gold nanoparticles (NPs). By adsorbing different amounts of proteins on their surface to form a protein corona, these NPs can be sterically stabilized to different degrees by aggregation, thus exhibiting a spectrum of color change which can be quantitatively characterized by UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy. We evaluated this technique on four model proteins with different structures: bovine serum albumin (BSA), normal mouse immunoglobulin G (IgG), fibrinogen (FBG) and apolipoprotein A-I (Apo-A1) using two approaches, sequential and simultaneous. We obtained an approach-dependent linear concentration range up to 80 μg mL(-1) and 400 μg mL(-1) for sequential and simultaneous approaches, respectively. This linear working range was wider than that of the commercial Bradford assay and comparable to the Micro BCA assay. The simultaneous approach was also able to produce a linear working range of 200 to 1000 μg mL(-1) (R(2) = 0.995) in human urine, while the sequential approach was non-functional in urine. Similar to Micro BCA, the NP-based protein assay was able to elicit a linear response (R(2) > 0.87) for all four proteins with different structures. However, unlike Micro BCA which requires up to 120 min of incubation, we were able to obtain the read-out almost instantaneously without the need for incubation. The NP-based technique using the simultaneous approach can thus be exploited as a novel assay for instantaneous protein quantification to increase the productivity of laboratory processes.

  19. [Quantitative differences between genetic variants of milk proteins in Cholmogor cattle].

    PubMed

    Khaertdinov, R A

    1985-11-01

    The quantitative determination of genetical variants A and B of beta, kappa-caseins (beta-Cn, kappa-Cn), beta-lactoglobulin (beta-Lg) in Cholmogor cow's milk was carried out by means of polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and direct densitometrication. In all milk proteins of heterozygous cows with beta-CnAB, kappa-CnAB, beta-LgAB the variant A content was higher than that of variant B (P less than 0.001). The variant A of beta-casein was 0.380 g/100 ml (54.6%), B-0.316 g/100 ml (45.4%); of kappa-casein A-0.208 g/100 ml (58.3%), B-0.149 g/100 ml (41.7%); of beta-lactoglobulin A-0.143 g/100 ml (54.8%), B-0.118 g/100 ml (45.2%). The alleles beta-CnA, kappa-CnA, beta-LgA ensure higher quantity of protein than beta-CnB, kappa-CnB, beta-LgB alleles.

  20. Isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ)-based proteomic analysis of Cryptococcus humicola response to aluminum stress.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jingjing; Zhang, Lei; Qiu, Jinkui; Nian, Hongjuan

    2015-10-01

    Cryptococcus humicola is a highly aluminum (Al) tolerant yeast strain isolated from a tea field. Here the relative changes of protein expression in C. humicola undergoing aluminum stress were analyzed to understand the genetic basis of aluminum tolerance. In this work, iTRAQ-based (isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantification) quantitative proteomic technology was used to detect statistically significant proteins associated with the response to aluminum stress. A total of 625 proteins were identified and were mainly involved in translation/ribosomal structure and biogenesis, posttranslational modification/protein turnover/chaperones, energy production and conversion, and amino acid transport and metabolism. Of these proteins, 59 exhibited differential expression during aluminum stress. Twenty-nine proteins up-regulated by aluminum were mainly involved in translation/ribosomal structure and biogenesis, posttranslational modification/protein turnover and chaperones, and lipid transport and metabolism. Thirty proteins down-regulated by aluminum were mainly associated with energy transport and metabolism, translation/ribosomal structure and biogenesis, posttranslational modification/protein turnover/chaperones, and lipid transport and metabolism. The potential functions of some proteins in aluminum tolerance are discussed. These functional changes may be beneficial for cells to protect themselves from aluminum toxic conditions.

  1. Nanochemistry of Protein-Based Delivery Agents

    PubMed Central

    Rajendran, Subin R. C. K.; Udenigwe, Chibuike C.; Yada, Rickey Y.

    2016-01-01

    The past decade has seen an increased interest in the conversion of food proteins into functional biomaterials, including their use for loading and delivery of physiologically active compounds such as nutraceuticals and pharmaceuticals. Proteins possess a competitive advantage over other platforms for the development of nanodelivery systems since they are biocompatible, amphipathic, and widely available. Proteins also have unique molecular structures and diverse functional groups that can be selectively modified to alter encapsulation and release properties. A number of physical and chemical methods have been used for preparing protein nanoformulations, each based on different underlying protein chemistry. This review focuses on the chemistry of the reorganization and/or modification of proteins into functional nanostructures for delivery, from the perspective of their preparation, functionality, stability and physiological behavior. PMID:27489854

  2. Nanochemistry of Protein-Based Delivery Agents.

    PubMed

    Rajendran, Subin R C K; Udenigwe, Chibuike C; Yada, Rickey Y

    2016-01-01

    The past decade has seen an increased interest in the conversion of food proteins into functional biomaterials, including their use for loading and delivery of physiologically active compounds such as nutraceuticals and pharmaceuticals. Proteins possess a competitive advantage over other platforms for the development of nanodelivery systems since they are biocompatible, amphipathic, and widely available. Proteins also have unique molecular structures and diverse functional groups that can be selectively modified to alter encapsulation and release properties. A number of physical and chemical methods have been used for preparing protein nanoformulations, each based on different underlying protein chemistry. This review focuses on the chemistry of the reorganization and/or modification of proteins into functional nanostructures for delivery, from the perspective of their preparation, functionality, stability and physiological behavior.

  3. Nanochemistry of protein-based delivery agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajendran, Subin; Udenigwe, Chibuike; Yada, Rickey

    2016-07-01

    The past decade has seen an increased interest in the conversion of food proteins into functional biomaterials, including their use for loading and delivery of physiologically active compounds such as nutraceuticals and pharmaceuticals. Proteins possess a competitive advantage over other platforms for the development of nanodelivery systems since they are biocompatible, amphipathic, and widely available. Proteins also have unique molecular structures and diverse functional groups that can be selectively modified to alter encapsulation and release properties. A number of physical and chemical methods have been used for preparing protein nanoformulations, each based on different underlying protein chemistry. This review focuses on the chemistry of the reorganization and/or modification of proteins into functional nanostructures for delivery, from the perspective of their preparation, functionality, stability and physiological behavior.

  4. Nanochemistry of Protein-Based Delivery Agents.

    PubMed

    Rajendran, Subin R C K; Udenigwe, Chibuike C; Yada, Rickey Y

    2016-01-01

    The past decade has seen an increased interest in the conversion of food proteins into functional biomaterials, including their use for loading and delivery of physiologically active compounds such as nutraceuticals and pharmaceuticals. Proteins possess a competitive advantage over other platforms for the development of nanodelivery systems since they are biocompatible, amphipathic, and widely available. Proteins also have unique molecular structures and diverse functional groups that can be selectively modified to alter encapsulation and release properties. A number of physical and chemical methods have been used for preparing protein nanoformulations, each based on different underlying protein chemistry. This review focuses on the chemistry of the reorganization and/or modification of proteins into functional nanostructures for delivery, from the perspective of their preparation, functionality, stability and physiological behavior. PMID:27489854

  5. Analysis of purified Wild type and mutant adenovirus particles by SILAC based quantitative proteomics

    PubMed Central

    Alqahtani, Ali; Heesom, Kate; Bramson, Jonathan L.; Curiel, David; Ugai, Hideyo

    2014-01-01

    We used SILAC (stable isotope labelling of amino acids in cell culture) and high-throughput quantitative MS mass spectrometry to analyse the protein composition of highly purified WT wild type adenoviruses, mutant adenoviruses lacking an internal protein component (protein V) and recombinant adenoviruses of the type commonly used in gene therapy, including one virus that had been used in a clinical trial. We found that the viral protein abundance and composition were consistent across all types of virus examined except for the virus lacking protein V, which also had reduced amounts of another viral core protein, protein VII. In all the samples analysed we found no evidence of consistent packaging or contamination with cellular proteins. We believe this technique is a powerful method to analyse the protein composition of this important gene therapy vector and genetically engineered or synthetic virus-like particles. The raw data have been deposited at proteomexchange, identifer PXD001120. PMID:25096814

  6. Identification of indicator proteins associated with flooding injury in soybean seedlings using label-free quantitative proteomics.

    PubMed

    Nanjo, Yohei; Nakamura, Takuji; Komatsu, Setsuko

    2013-11-01

    Flooding injury is one of the abiotic constraints on soybean growth. An experimental system established for evaluating flooding injury in soybean seedlings indicated that the degree of injury is dependent on seedling density in floodwater. Dissolved oxygen levels in the floodwater were decreased by the seedlings and correlated with the degree of injury. To understand the molecular mechanism responsible for the injury, proteomic alterations in soybean seedlings that correlated with severity of stress were analyzed using label-free quantitative proteomics. The analysis showed that the abundance of proteins involved in cell wall modification, such as polygalacturonase inhibitor-like and expansin-like B1-like proteins, which may be associated with the defense system, increased dependence on stress at both the protein and mRNA levels in all organs during flooding. The manner of alteration in abundance of these proteins was distinct from those of other responsive proteins. Furthermore, proteins also showing specific changes in abundance in the root tip included protein phosphatase 2A subunit-like proteins, which are possibly involved in flooding-induced root tip cell death. Additionally, decreases in abundance of cell wall synthesis-related proteins, such as cinnamyl-alcohol dehydrogenase and cellulose synthase-interactive protein-like proteins, were identified in hypocotyls of seedlings grown for 3 days after flooding, and these proteins may be associated with suppression of growth after flooding. These flooding injury-associated proteins can be defined as indicator proteins for severity of flooding stress in soybean.

  7. Streptococcus mutans Protein Synthesis during Mixed-Species Biofilm Development by High-Throughput Quantitative Proteomics

    PubMed Central

    Klein, Marlise I.; Xiao, Jin; Lu, Bingwen; Delahunty, Claire M.; Yates, John R.; Koo, Hyun

    2012-01-01

    Biofilms formed on tooth surfaces are comprised of mixed microbiota enmeshed in an extracellular matrix. Oral biofilms are constantly exposed to environmental changes, which influence the microbial composition, matrix formation and expression of virulence. Streptococcus mutans and sucrose are key modulators associated with the evolution of virulent-cariogenic biofilms. In this study, we used a high-throughput quantitative proteomics approach to examine how S. mutans produces relevant proteins that facilitate its establishment and optimal survival during mixed-species biofilms development induced by sucrose. Biofilms of S. mutans, alone or mixed with Actinomyces naeslundii and Streptococcus oralis, were initially formed onto saliva-coated hydroxyapatite surface under carbohydrate-limiting condition. Sucrose (1%, w/v) was then introduced to cause environmental changes, and to induce biofilm accumulation. Multidimensional protein identification technology (MudPIT) approach detected up to 60% of proteins encoded by S. mutans within biofilms. Specific proteins associated with exopolysaccharide matrix assembly, metabolic and stress adaptation processes were highly abundant as the biofilm transit from earlier to later developmental stages following sucrose introduction. Our results indicate that S. mutans within a mixed-species biofilm community increases the expression of specific genes associated with glucan synthesis and remodeling (gtfBC, dexA) and glucan-binding (gbpB) during this transition (P<0.05). Furthermore, S. mutans up-regulates specific adaptation mechanisms to cope with acidic environments (F1F0-ATPase system, fatty acid biosynthesis, branched chain amino acids metabolism), and molecular chaperones (GroEL). Interestingly, the protein levels and gene expression are in general augmented when S. mutans form mixed-species biofilms (vs. single-species biofilms) demonstrating fundamental differences in the matrix assembly, survival and biofilm maintenance in the

  8. DNA-based control of protein activity

    PubMed Central

    Engelen, W.; Janssen, B. M. G.

    2016-01-01

    DNA has emerged as a highly versatile construction material for nanometer-sized structures and sophisticated molecular machines and circuits. The successful application of nucleic acid based systems greatly relies on their ability to autonomously sense and act on their environment. In this feature article, the development of DNA-based strategies to dynamically control protein activity via oligonucleotide triggers is discussed. Depending on the desired application, protein activity can be controlled by directly conjugating them to an oligonucleotide handle, or expressing them as a fusion protein with DNA binding motifs. To control proteins without modifying them chemically or genetically, multivalent ligands and aptamers that reversibly inhibit their function provide valuable tools to regulate proteins in a noncovalent manner. The goal of this feature article is to give an overview of strategies developed to control protein activity via oligonucleotide-based triggers, as well as hurdles yet to be taken to obtain fully autonomous systems that interrogate, process and act on their environments by means of DNA-based protein control. PMID:26812623

  9. Biomimetic extraction of Bacillus thuringiensis insecticidal crystal proteins from soil based on invertebrate gut fluid chemistry.

    PubMed

    Shan, Guomin; Embrey, Shawna K; Herman, Rod A; Wolt, Jeffrey D; Weston, Donald; Mayer, Larry M

    2005-08-24

    Quantitative monitoring of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) insecticidal crystal proteins in soil has been hampered by the lack of efficient extraction/detection methods. A novel approach for simple and effective Bt protein extraction was explored by evaluating extraction solutions from invertebrate gut fluids. Marine worm gut fluids were identified as promising for extracting Bt protein from soil. An artificial gut fluid based on these marine worm gut fluids was developed using commercially available chemicals and was evaluated for its ability to extract Bt proteins from soil. On the basis of experiments with Cry1 proteins, the artificial gut fluid in combination with ELISA was highly effective for protein extraction and analysis in a variety of soil types and was well-correlated with bioassay results. Coupling of immunoassay with this extraction method provides, for the first time, an efficient, accurate, and quantitative assay for routine measurement of Bt protein residues in soil.

  10. Data from SILAC-based quantitative analysis of lysates from mouse microglial cells treated with Withaferin A (WA)

    PubMed Central

    Narayan, Malathi; Seeley, Kent W.; Jinwal, Umesh K.

    2016-01-01

    Mass spectrometry data collected in a study analyzing the effect of withaferin A (WA) on a mouse microglial (N9) cell line is presented in this article. Data was collected from SILAC-based quantitative analysis of lysates from mouse microglial cells treated with either WA or DMSO vehicle control. This article reports all the proteins that were identified in this analysis. The data presented here is related to the published research article on the effect of WA on the differential regulation of proteins in mouse microglial cells [1]. Mass spectrometry data has also been deposited in the ProteomeXchange with the identifier PXD003032. PMID:27054189

  11. Quantitation and Identification of Intact Major Milk Proteins for High-Throughput LC-ESI-Q-TOF MS Analyses

    PubMed Central

    Vincent, Delphine; Elkins, Aaron; Condina, Mark R.; Ezernieks, Vilnis; Rochfort, Simone

    2016-01-01

    Cow’s milk is an important source of proteins in human nutrition. On average, cow’s milk contains 3.5% protein. The most abundant proteins in bovine milk are caseins and some of the whey proteins, namely beta-lactoglobulin, alpha-lactalbumin, and serum albumin. A number of allelic variants and post-translationally modified forms of these proteins have been identified. Their occurrence varies with breed, individuality, stage of lactation, and health and nutritional status of the animal. It is therefore essential to have reliable methods of detection and quantitation of these proteins. Traditionally, major milk proteins are quantified using liquid chromatography (LC) and ultra violet detection method. However, as these protein variants co-elute to some degree, another dimension of separation is beneficial to accurately measure their amounts. Mass spectrometry (MS) offers such a tool. In this study, we tested several RP-HPLC and MS parameters to optimise the analysis of intact bovine proteins from milk. From our tests, we developed an optimum method that includes a 20-28-40% phase B gradient with 0.02% TFA in both mobile phases, at 0.2 mL/min flow rate, using 75°C for the C8 column temperature, scanning every 3 sec over a 600–3000 m/z window. The optimisations were performed using external standards commercially purchased for which ionisation efficiency, linearity of calibration, LOD, LOQ, sensitivity, selectivity, precision, reproducibility, and mass accuracy were demonstrated. From the MS analysis, we can use extracted ion chromatograms (EICs) of specific ion series of known proteins and integrate peaks at defined retention time (RT) window for quantitation purposes. This optimum quantitative method was successfully applied to two bulk milk samples from different breeds, Holstein-Friesian and Jersey, to assess differences in protein variant levels. PMID:27749892

  12. The workflow for quantitative proteome analysis of chloroplast development and differentiation, chloroplast mutants, and protein interactions by spectral counting.

    PubMed

    Friso, Giulia; Olinares, Paul Dominic B; van Wijk, Klaas J

    2011-01-01

    This chapter outlines a quantitative proteomics workflow using a label-free spectral counting technique. The workflow has been tested on different aspects of chloroplast biology in maize and Arabidopsis, including chloroplast mutant analysis, cell-type specific chloroplast differentiation, and the proplastid-to-chloroplast transition. The workflow involves one-dimensional SDS-PAGE of the proteomes of leaves or chloroplast subfractions, tryptic digestions, online LC-MS/MS using a mass spectrometer with high mass accuracy and duty cycle, followed by semiautomatic data processing. The bioinformatics analysis can effectively select best gene models and deals with quantification of closely related proteins; the workflow avoids overidentification of proteins and results in more accurate protein quantification. The final output includes pairwise comparative quantitative analysis, as well as hierarchical clustering for discovery of temporal and spatial patterns of protein accumulation. A brief discussion about potential pitfalls, as well as the advantages and disadvantages of spectral counting, is provided.

  13. The use of quantitative structure-activity relationship models to develop optimized processes for the removal of tobacco host cell proteins during biopharmaceutical production.

    PubMed

    Buyel, J F; Woo, J A; Cramer, S M; Fischer, R

    2013-12-27

    The production of recombinant pharmaceutical proteins in plants benefits from the low cost of upstream production and the greater scalability of plants compared to fermenter-based systems. Now that manufacturing processes that comply with current good manufacturing practices have been developed, plants can compete with established platforms on equal terms. However, the costs of downstream processing remain high, in part because of the dedicated process steps required to remove plant-specific process-related impurities. We therefore investigated whether the ideal strategy for the chromatographic removal of tobacco host cell proteins can be predicted by quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) modeling to reduce the process development time and overall costs. We identified more than 100 tobacco proteins by mass spectrometry and their structures were reconstructed from X-ray crystallography, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and/or homology modeling data. The resulting three-dimensional models were used to calculate protein descriptors, and significant descriptors were selected based on recently-published retention data for model proteins to develop QSAR models for protein retention on anion, cation and mixed-mode resins. The predicted protein retention profiles were compared with experimental results using crude tobacco protein extracts. Because of the generic nature of the method, it can easily be transferred to other expression systems such as mammalian cells. The quality of the models and potential improvements are discussed.

  14. The use of quantitative structure-activity relationship models to develop optimized processes for the removal of tobacco host cell proteins during biopharmaceutical production.

    PubMed

    Buyel, J F; Woo, J A; Cramer, S M; Fischer, R

    2013-12-27

    The production of recombinant pharmaceutical proteins in plants benefits from the low cost of upstream production and the greater scalability of plants compared to fermenter-based systems. Now that manufacturing processes that comply with current good manufacturing practices have been developed, plants can compete with established platforms on equal terms. However, the costs of downstream processing remain high, in part because of the dedicated process steps required to remove plant-specific process-related impurities. We therefore investigated whether the ideal strategy for the chromatographic removal of tobacco host cell proteins can be predicted by quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) modeling to reduce the process development time and overall costs. We identified more than 100 tobacco proteins by mass spectrometry and their structures were reconstructed from X-ray crystallography, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and/or homology modeling data. The resulting three-dimensional models were used to calculate protein descriptors, and significant descriptors were selected based on recently-published retention data for model proteins to develop QSAR models for protein retention on anion, cation and mixed-mode resins. The predicted protein retention profiles were compared with experimental results using crude tobacco protein extracts. Because of the generic nature of the method, it can easily be transferred to other expression systems such as mammalian cells. The quality of the models and potential improvements are discussed. PMID:24268820

  15. Targeted quantitative proteomic investigation employing multiple reaction monitoring on quantitative changes in proteins that regulate volatile biosynthesis of strawberry fruit at different ripening stages.

    PubMed

    Song, Jun; Du, Lina; Li, Li; Palmer, Leslie Campbell; Forney, Charles F; Fillmore, Sherry; Zhang, ZhaoQi; Li, XiHong

    2015-08-01

    A targeted quantitative proteomic investigation employing the multiple reaction monitoring (MRM, SRM) technique was conducted on strawberry fruit at different development stages. We investigated 22 proteins and isoforms from 32 peptides with 111 peptide transitions, which may be involved in the volatile aroma biosynthesis pathway. The normalized protein abundance was significantly changed in coincidence with increased volatile production and advanced fruit maturities. Among them, alcohol acyltransferase (AAT), quinone oxidoreductase (QR), malonyl Co-A decarboxylase, (MLYCD), pyruvate decarboxylase (PDC), acetyl Co-A carboxylase (ACCase), and acyl Co-A synthetase (ACAs) were increased significantly. Several alcohol dehydrogenases (ADHs), and 3-oxoacyl-ACP synthase were significantly decreased. Furthermore, the expression of seven genes related to strawberry volatile production was also investigated using real-time qPCR. Among the tested genes, QR, AAT, ACCase, OMT, PDC and ADH showed increased up-regulation during fruit ripening, while 3-isopropylmalate dehydrogenase (IMD) decreased. Strong correlation between quantitative proteomic data and gene expression suggested that AAT, QR, ACCase, and PDC played critical roles in volatile biosynthesis of strawberry during fruit ripening. Poor correlation between protein abundance and gene expression of ADH was found.

  16. Quantitative definition and monitoring of the host cell protein proteome using iTRAQ - a study of an industrial mAb producing CHO-S cell line.

    PubMed

    Chiverton, Lesley M; Evans, Caroline; Pandhal, Jagroop; Landels, Andrew R; Rees, Byron J; Levison, Peter R; Wright, Phillip C; Smales, C Mark

    2016-08-01

    There are few studies defining CHO host cell proteins (HCPs) and the flux of these throughout a downstream purification process. Here we have applied quantitative iTRAQ proteomics to follow the HCP profile of an antibody (mAb) producing CHO-S cell line throughout a standard downstream purification procedure consisting of a Protein A, cation and anion exchange process. We used both 6 sample iTRAQ experiment to analyze technical replicates of three samples, which were culture harvest (HCCF), Protein A flow through and Protein A eluate and an 8 sample format to analyze technical replicates of four sample types; HCCF compared to Protein A eluate and subsequent cation and anion exchange purification. In the 6 sample iTRAQ experiment, 8781 spectra were confidently matched to peptides from 819 proteins (including the mAb chains). Across both the 6 and 8 sample experiments 936 proteins were identified. In the 8 sample comparison, 4187 spectra were confidently matched to peptides from 219 proteins. We then used the iTRAQ data to enable estimation of the relative change of individual proteins across the purification steps. These data provide the basis for application of iTRAQ for process development based upon knowledge of critical HCPs.

  17. Quantitative definition and monitoring of the host cell protein proteome using iTRAQ - a study of an industrial mAb producing CHO-S cell line.

    PubMed

    Chiverton, Lesley M; Evans, Caroline; Pandhal, Jagroop; Landels, Andrew R; Rees, Byron J; Levison, Peter R; Wright, Phillip C; Smales, C Mark

    2016-08-01

    There are few studies defining CHO host cell proteins (HCPs) and the flux of these throughout a downstream purification process. Here we have applied quantitative iTRAQ proteomics to follow the HCP profile of an antibody (mAb) producing CHO-S cell line throughout a standard downstream purification procedure consisting of a Protein A, cation and anion exchange process. We used both 6 sample iTRAQ experiment to analyze technical replicates of three samples, which were culture harvest (HCCF), Protein A flow through and Protein A eluate and an 8 sample format to analyze technical replicates of four sample types; HCCF compared to Protein A eluate and subsequent cation and anion exchange purification. In the 6 sample iTRAQ experiment, 8781 spectra were confidently matched to peptides from 819 proteins (including the mAb chains). Across both the 6 and 8 sample experiments 936 proteins were identified. In the 8 sample comparison, 4187 spectra were confidently matched to peptides from 219 proteins. We then used the iTRAQ data to enable estimation of the relative change of individual proteins across the purification steps. These data provide the basis for application of iTRAQ for process development based upon knowledge of critical HCPs. PMID:27214759

  18. Models of quantitative estimations: rule-based and exemplar-based processes compared.

    PubMed

    von Helversen, Bettina; Rieskamp, Jörg

    2009-07-01

    The cognitive processes underlying quantitative estimations vary. Past research has identified task-contingent changes between rule-based and exemplar-based processes (P. Juslin, L. Karlsson, & H. Olsson, 2008). B. von Helversen and J. Rieskamp (2008), however, proposed a simple rule-based model-the mapping model-that outperformed the exemplar model in a task thought to promote exemplar-based processing. This raised questions about the assumptions of rule-based versus exemplar-based models that underlie the notion of task contingency of cognitive processes. Rule-based models, such as the mapping model, assume the abstraction of explicit task knowledge. In contrast, exemplar models should profit if storage and activation of the exemplars is facilitated. Two studies tested the importance of the two models' assumptions. When knowledge about cues existed, the rule-based mapping model predicted quantitative estimations best. In contrast, when knowledge about the cues was difficult to gain, participants' estimations were best described by an exemplar model. The results emphasize the task contingency of cognitive processes. PMID:19586258

  19. A quantitative receptor assay using Triton X-114 for plasminogen activator binding proteins in solubilized membranes from human liver and placenta.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, G; Kruithof, E K

    1993-02-01

    Cell surface binding proteins play an important role in the localization of plasminogen activator (PA) activity at the cell surface or in the clearance of PAs. We describe a rapid and quantitative receptor assay applicable to the quantification and affinity determination of binding proteins for tissue-type PA and urokinase-type PA in solubilized membranes obtained from human liver, human placenta, or human monocyte-like cells. The method is based on the ability of a solution of the nonionic detergent Triton X-114 to phase separate at temperatures above 20 degrees C. After incubation of integral membrane proteins with radiolabeled ligand, a solution of Triton X-114 is added at 4 degrees C and warmed to 37 degrees C to allow phase partitioning. Radiolabeled ligand bound to membrane protein is recovered in the detergent-rich lower phase which is separated by centrifugation from the detergent-poor upper phase containing free radiolabeled ligand.

  20. Evaluation of empirical rule of linearly correlated peptide selection (ERLPS) for proteotypic peptide-based quantitative proteomics.

    PubMed

    Liu, Kehui; Zhang, Jiyang; Fu, Bin; Xie, Hongwei; Wang, Yingchun; Qian, Xiaohong

    2014-07-01

    Precise protein quantification is essential in comparative proteomics. Currently, quantification bias is inevitable when using proteotypic peptide-based quantitative proteomics strategy for the differences in peptides measurability. To improve quantification accuracy, we proposed an "empirical rule for linearly correlated peptide selection (ERLPS)" in quantitative proteomics in our previous work. However, a systematic evaluation on general application of ERLPS in quantitative proteomics under diverse experimental conditions needs to be conducted. In this study, the practice workflow of ERLPS was explicitly illustrated; different experimental variables, such as, different MS systems, sample complexities, sample preparations, elution gradients, matrix effects, loading amounts, and other factors were comprehensively investigated to evaluate the applicability, reproducibility, and transferability of ERPLS. The results demonstrated that ERLPS was highly reproducible and transferable within appropriate loading amounts and linearly correlated response peptides should be selected for each specific experiment. ERLPS was used to proteome samples from yeast to mouse and human, and in quantitative methods from label-free to O18/O16-labeled and SILAC analysis, and enabled accurate measurements for all proteotypic peptide-based quantitative proteomics over a large dynamic range.

  1. A Quantitative Tool for Producing DNA-Based Diagnostic Arrays

    SciTech Connect

    Tom J. Whitaker

    2008-07-11

    The purpose of this project was to develop a precise, quantitative method to analyze oligodeoxynucleotides (ODNs) on an array to enable a systematic approach to quality control issues affecting DNA microarrays. Two types of ODN's were tested; ODN's formed by photolithography and ODN's printed onto microarrays. Initial work in Phase I, performed in conjunction with Affymetrix, Inc. who has a patent on a photolithographic in situ technique for creating DNA arrays, was very promising but did seem to indicate that the atomization process was not complete. Soon after Phase II work was under way, Affymetrix had further developed fluorescent methods and indicated they were no longer interested in our resonance ionization technique. This was communicated to the program manager and it was decided that the project would continue and be focused on printed ODNs. The method being tested is called SIRIS, Sputter-Initiated Resonance Ionization Spectroscopy. SIRIS has been shown to be a highly sensitive, selective, and quantitative tool for atomic species. This project was aimed at determining if an ODN could be labeled in such a way that SIRIS could be used to measure the label and thus provide quantitative measurements of the ODN on an array. One of the largest problems in this study has been developing a method that allows us to know the amount of an ODN on a surface independent of the SIRIS measurement. Even though we could accurately determine the amount of ODN deposited on a surface, the amount that actually attached to the surface is very difficult to measure (hence the need for a quantitative tool). A double-labeling procedure was developed in which 33P and Pt were both used to label ODNs. The radioactive 33P could be measured by a proportional counter that maps the counts in one dimension. This gave a good measurement of the amount of ODN remaining on a surface after immobilization and washing. A second label, Pt, was attached to guanine nucleotides in the ODN. Studies

  2. Multiple reaction monitoring and multiple reaction monitoring cubed based assays for the quantitation of apolipoprotein F.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Abhinav; Gangadharan, Bevin; Zitzmann, Nicole

    2016-10-15

    Apolipoprotein F (APO-F) is a novel low abundance liver fibrosis biomarker and its concentration decreases in human serum and plasma across liver fibrosis stages. Current antibody based assays for APO-F suffer from limitations such as unspecific binding, antibody availability and undetectable target if the protein is degraded; and so an antibody-free assay has the potential to be a valuable diagnostic tool. We report an antibody-free, rapid, sensitive, selective and robust LC-MS/MS (MRM and MRM(3)) method for the detection and quantitation of APO-F in healthy human plasma. With further analysis of clinical samples, this LC-MS based method could be established as the first ever antibody-free biomarker assay for liver fibrosis. We explain the use of Skyline software for peptide selection and the creation of a reference library to aid in true peak identification of endogenous APO-F peptides in digests of human plasma without protein or peptide enrichment. Detection of a glycopeptide using MRM-EPI mode and reduction of interferences using MRM3 are explained. The amount of APO-F in human plasma from a healthy volunteer was determined to be 445.2ng/mL, the coefficient of variation (CV) of precision for 20 injections was <12% and the percentage error of each point along the calibration curve was calculated to be <8%, which is in line with the assay requirements for clinical samples. PMID:27592286

  3. Multiple reaction monitoring and multiple reaction monitoring cubed based assays for the quantitation of apolipoprotein F.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Abhinav; Gangadharan, Bevin; Zitzmann, Nicole

    2016-10-15

    Apolipoprotein F (APO-F) is a novel low abundance liver fibrosis biomarker and its concentration decreases in human serum and plasma across liver fibrosis stages. Current antibody based assays for APO-F suffer from limitations such as unspecific binding, antibody availability and undetectable target if the protein is degraded; and so an antibody-free assay has the potential to be a valuable diagnostic tool. We report an antibody-free, rapid, sensitive, selective and robust LC-MS/MS (MRM and MRM(3)) method for the detection and quantitation of APO-F in healthy human plasma. With further analysis of clinical samples, this LC-MS based method could be established as the first ever antibody-free biomarker assay for liver fibrosis. We explain the use of Skyline software for peptide selection and the creation of a reference library to aid in true peak identification of endogenous APO-F peptides in digests of human plasma without protein or peptide enrichment. Detection of a glycopeptide using MRM-EPI mode and reduction of interferences using MRM3 are explained. The amount of APO-F in human plasma from a healthy volunteer was determined to be 445.2ng/mL, the coefficient of variation (CV) of precision for 20 injections was <12% and the percentage error of each point along the calibration curve was calculated to be <8%, which is in line with the assay requirements for clinical samples.

  4. Energetics of cooperative protein-DNA interactions: comparison between quantitative deoxyribonuclease footprint titration and filter binding.

    PubMed

    Senear, D F; Brenowitz, M; Shea, M A; Ackers, G K

    1986-11-18

    Using the binding of cI repressor protein to the lambda right and left operators as a model system, we have analyzed the two common experimental techniques for studying the interactions of genome regulatory proteins with multiple, specific sites on DNA. These are the quantitative DNase footprint titration technique [Brenowitz, M., Senear, D. F., Shea, M. A., & Ackers, G. K. (1986) Methods Enzymol. 130, 132-181] and the nitrocellulose filter binding assay [Riggs, A., Suzuki, H., & Bourgeois, S. (1970) J. Mol. Biol. 48, 67-83]. The footprint titration technique provides binding curves that separately represent the fractional saturation for each site. In principle, such data contain the information necessary to determine the thermodynamic constants for local site binding and cooperativity. We show that in practice, this is not possible for all values of the constants in multisite systems, such as the lambda operators. We show how these constants can nevertheless be uniquely determined by using additional binding data from a small number of mutant operators in which the number of binding sites has been reduced. The filter binding technique does not distinguish binding to the individual sites and yields only macroscopic binding parameters which are composite averages of the various local site and cooperativity constants. Moreover, the resolution of even macroscopic constants from filter binding data for multisite systems requires ad hoc assumptions as to a relationship between the number of ligands bound and the filter retention of the complex. Our results indicate that no such relationship exists. Hence, the technique does not permit determination of thermodynamically valid interaction constants (even macroscopic) in multisite systems.

  5. Discovery of binding proteins for a protein target using protein-protein docking-based virtual screening.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Changsheng; Tang, Bo; Wang, Qian; Lai, Luhua

    2014-10-01

    Target structure-based virtual screening, which employs protein-small molecule docking to identify potential ligands, has been widely used in small-molecule drug discovery. In the present study, we used a protein-protein docking program to identify proteins that bind to a specific target protein. In the testing phase, an all-to-all protein-protein docking run on a large dataset was performed. The three-dimensional rigid docking program SDOCK was used to examine protein-protein docking on all protein pairs in the dataset. Both the binding affinity and features of the binding energy landscape were considered in the scoring function in order to distinguish positive binding pairs from negative binding pairs. Thus, the lowest docking score, the average Z-score, and convergency of the low-score solutions were incorporated in the analysis. The hybrid scoring function was optimized in the all-to-all docking test. The docking method and the hybrid scoring function were then used to screen for proteins that bind to tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα), which is a well-known therapeutic target for rheumatoid arthritis and other autoimmune diseases. A protein library containing 677 proteins was used for the screen. Proteins with scores among the top 20% were further examined. Sixteen proteins from the top-ranking 67 proteins were selected for experimental study. Two of these proteins showed significant binding to TNFα in an in vitro binding study. The results of the present study demonstrate the power and potential application of protein-protein docking for the discovery of novel binding proteins for specific protein targets.

  6. Summarization vs Peptide-Based Models in Label-Free Quantitative Proteomics: Performance, Pitfalls, and Data Analysis Guidelines.

    PubMed

    Goeminne, Ludger J E; Argentini, Andrea; Martens, Lennart; Clement, Lieven

    2015-06-01

    Quantitative label-free mass spectrometry is increasingly used to analyze the proteomes of complex biological samples. However, the choice of appropriate data analysis methods remains a major challenge. We therefore provide a rigorous comparison between peptide-based models and peptide-summarization-based pipelines. We show that peptide-based models outperform summarization-based pipelines in terms of sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, and precision. We also demonstrate that the predefined FDR cutoffs for the detection of differentially regulated proteins can become problematic when differentially expressed (DE) proteins are highly abundant in one or more samples. Care should therefore be taken when data are interpreted from samples with spiked-in internal controls and from samples that contain a few very highly abundant proteins. We do, however, show that specific diagnostic plots can be used for assessing differentially expressed proteins and the overall quality of the obtained fold change estimates. Finally, our study also illustrates that imputation under the "missing by low abundance" assumption is beneficial for the detection of differential expression in proteins with low abundance, but it negatively affects moderately to highly abundant proteins. Hence, imputation strategies that are commonly implemented in standard proteomics software should be used with care. PMID:25827922

  7. Protein-protein interaction network-based detection of functionally similar proteins within species.

    PubMed

    Song, Baoxing; Wang, Fen; Guo, Yang; Sang, Qing; Liu, Min; Li, Dengyun; Fang, Wei; Zhang, Deli

    2012-07-01

    Although functionally similar proteins across species have been widely studied, functionally similar proteins within species showing low sequence similarity have not been examined in detail. Identification of these proteins is of significant importance for understanding biological functions, evolution of protein families, progression of co-evolution, and convergent evolution and others which cannot be obtained by detection of functionally similar proteins across species. Here, we explored a method of detecting functionally similar proteins within species based on graph theory. After denoting protein-protein interaction networks using graphs, we split the graphs into subgraphs using the 1-hop method. Proteins with functional similarities in a species were detected using a method of modified shortest path to compare these subgraphs and to find the eligible optimal results. Using seven protein-protein interaction networks and this method, some functionally similar proteins with low sequence similarity that cannot detected by sequence alignment were identified. By analyzing the results, we found that, sometimes, it is difficult to separate homologous from convergent evolution. Evaluation of the performance of our method by gene ontology term overlap showed that the precision of our method was excellent.

  8. Fluorescent sensors based on bacterial fusion proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prats Mateu, Batirtze; Kainz, Birgit; Pum, Dietmar; Sleytr, Uwe B.; Toca-Herrera, José L.

    2014-06-01

    Fluorescence proteins are widely used as markers for biomedical and technological purposes. Therefore, the aim of this project was to create a fluorescent sensor, based in the green and cyan fluorescent protein, using bacterial S-layers proteins as scaffold for the fluorescent tag. We report the cloning, expression and purification of three S-layer fluorescent proteins: SgsE-EGFP, SgsE-ECFP and SgsE-13aa-ECFP, this last containing a 13-amino acid rigid linker. The pH dependence of the fluorescence intensity of the S-layer fusion proteins, monitored by fluorescence spectroscopy, showed that the ECFP tag was more stable than EGFP. Furthermore, the fluorescent fusion proteins were reassembled on silica particles modified with cationic and anionic polyelectrolytes. Zeta potential measurements confirmed the particle coatings and indicated their colloidal stability. Flow cytometry and fluorescence microscopy showed that the fluorescence of the fusion proteins was pH dependent and sensitive to the underlying polyelectrolyte coating. This might suggest that the fluorescent tag is not completely exposed to the bulk media as an independent moiety. Finally, it was found out that viscosity enhanced the fluorescence intensity of the three fluorescent S-layer proteins.

  9. Protein docking using case-based reasoning.

    PubMed

    Ghoorah, Anisah W; Devignes, Marie-Dominique; Smaïl-Tabbone, Malika; Ritchie, David W

    2013-12-01

    Protein docking algorithms aim to calculate the three-dimensional (3D) structure of a protein complex starting from its unbound components. Although ab initio docking algorithms are improving, there is a growing need to use homology modeling techniques to exploit the rapidly increasing volumes of structural information that now exist. However, most current homology modeling approaches involve finding a pair of complete single-chain structures in a homologous protein complex to use as a 3D template, despite the fact that protein complexes are often formed from one or more domain-domain interactions (DDIs). To model 3D protein complexes by domain-domain homology, we have developed a case-based reasoning approach called KBDOCK which systematically identifies and reuses domain family binding sites from our database of nonredundant DDIs. When tested on 54 protein complexes from the Protein Docking Benchmark, our approach provides a near-perfect way to model single-domain protein complexes when full-homology templates are available, and it extends our ability to model more difficult cases when only partial or incomplete templates exist. These promising early results highlight the need for a new and diverse docking benchmark set, specifically designed to assess homology docking approaches. PMID:24123156

  10. ARiBo pull-down for riboproteomic studies based on label-free quantitative mass spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Di Tomasso, Geneviève; Miller Jenkins, Lisa M.

    2016-01-01

    As part of their normal life cycle, most RNA molecules associate with several proteins that direct their fate and regulate their function. Here, we describe a novel method for identifying proteins that associate with a target RNA. The procedure is based on the ARiBo method for affinity purification of RNA, which was originally developed to quickly purify RNA with high yields and purity under native conditions. The ARiBo method was further optimized using in vitro transcribed RNA to capture RNA-associating proteins from cellular extracts with high yields and low background protein contamination. For these RNA pull-downs, stem–loops present in the immature forms of let-7 miRNAs (miRNA stem–loops) were used as the target RNAs. Label-free quantitative mass spectrometry analysis allowed for the reliable identification of proteins that are specific to the stem–loops present in the immature forms of two miRNAs, let-7a-1 and let-7g. Several proteins known to bind immature forms of these let-7 miRNAs were identified, but with an improved coverage compared to previous studies. In addition, several novel proteins were identified that better define the protein interactome of the let-7 miRNA stem–loops and further link let-7 biogenesis to important biological processes such as development and tumorigenesis. Thus, combining the ARiBo pull-down method with label-free quantitative mass spectrometry provides an effective proteomic approach for identification of proteins that associate with a target RNA. PMID:27659051

  11. Quantitative assessment of the multivalent protein-carbohydrate interactions on silicon.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jie; Chazalviel, Jean-Noël; Siriwardena, Aloysius; Boukherroub, Rabah; Ozanam, François; Szunerits, Sabine; Gouget-Laemmel, Anne Chantal

    2014-10-21

    A key challenge in the development of glycan arrays is that the sensing interface be fabricated reliably so as to ensure the sensitive and accurate analysis of the protein-carbohydrate interaction of interest, reproducibly. These goals are complicated in the case of glycan arrays as surface sugar density can influence dramatically the strength and mode of interaction of the sugar ligand at any interface with lectin partners. In this Article, we describe the preparation of carboxydecyl-terminated crystalline silicon (111) surfaces onto which are grafted either mannosyl moieties or a mixture of mannose and spacer alcohol molecules to provide "diluted" surfaces. The fabrication of the silicon surfaces was achieved efficiently through a strategy implicating a "click" coupling step. The interactions of these newly fabricated glycan interfaces with the lectin, Lens culinaris, have been characterized using quantitative infrared (IR) spectroscopy in the attenuated total geometry (ATR). The density of mannose probes and lectin targets was precisely determined for the first time by the aid of special IR calibration experiments, thus allowing for the interpretation of the distribution of mannose and its multivalent binding with lectins. These experimental findings were accounted for by numerical simulations of lectin adsorption. PMID:25216376

  12. A protein relational database and protein family knowledge bases to facilitate structure-based design analyses.

    PubMed

    Mobilio, Dominick; Walker, Gary; Brooijmans, Natasja; Nilakantan, Ramaswamy; Denny, R Aldrin; Dejoannis, Jason; Feyfant, Eric; Kowticwar, Rupesh K; Mankala, Jyoti; Palli, Satish; Punyamantula, Sairam; Tatipally, Maneesh; John, Reji K; Humblet, Christine

    2010-08-01

    The Protein Data Bank is the most comprehensive source of experimental macromolecular structures. It can, however, be difficult at times to locate relevant structures with the Protein Data Bank search interface. This is particularly true when searching for complexes containing specific interactions between protein and ligand atoms. Moreover, searching within a family of proteins can be tedious. For example, one cannot search for some conserved residue as residue numbers vary across structures. We describe herein three databases, Protein Relational Database, Kinase Knowledge Base, and Matrix Metalloproteinase Knowledge Base, containing protein structures from the Protein Data Bank. In Protein Relational Database, atom-atom distances between protein and ligand have been precalculated allowing for millisecond retrieval based on atom identity and distance constraints. Ring centroids, centroid-centroid and centroid-atom distances and angles have also been included permitting queries for pi-stacking interactions and other structural motifs involving rings. Other geometric features can be searched through the inclusion of residue pair and triplet distances. In Kinase Knowledge Base and Matrix Metalloproteinase Knowledge Base, the catalytic domains have been aligned into common residue numbering schemes. Thus, by searching across Protein Relational Database and Kinase Knowledge Base, one can easily retrieve structures wherein, for example, a ligand of interest is making contact with the gatekeeper residue.

  13. Interaction Energy Based Protein Structure Networks

    PubMed Central

    Vijayabaskar, M.S.; Vishveshwara, Saraswathi

    2010-01-01

    The three-dimensional structure of a protein is formed and maintained by the noncovalent interactions among the amino-acid residues of the polypeptide chain. These interactions can be represented collectively in the form of a network. So far, such networks have been investigated by considering the connections based on distances between the amino-acid residues. Here we present a method of constructing the structure network based on interaction energies among the amino-acid residues in the protein. We have investigated the properties of such protein energy-based networks (PENs) and have shown correlations to protein structural features such as the clusters of residues involved in stability, formation of secondary and super-secondary structural units. Further we demonstrate that the analysis of PENs in terms of parameters such as hubs and shortest paths can provide a variety of biologically important information, such as the residues crucial for stabilizing the folded units and the paths of communication between distal residues in the protein. Finally, the energy regimes for different levels of stabilization in the protein structure have clearly emerged from the PEN analysis. PMID:21112295

  14. Mass Spectrometry-Based Quantitative O-GlcNAcomic Analysis.

    PubMed

    Ma, Junfeng; Hart, Gerald W

    2016-01-01

    The dynamic co- and post-translational modification (PTM) of proteins, O-linked β-D-N-acetylglucosamine modification (O-GlcNAcylation) of serine/threonine residues is critical in many cellular processes, contributing to multiple physiological and pathological events. The term "O-GlcNAcome" refers to not only the complete set of proteins that undergo O-GlcNAcylation but also the O-GlcNAc status at individual residues, as well as the dynamics of O-GlcNAcylation in response to various stimuli. O-GlcNAcomic analyses have been a challenge for many years. In this chapter, we describe a recently developed approach for the identification and quantification of O-GlcNAc proteins/peptides from complex samples.

  15. Large-Scale Quantitative Assessment of Binding Preferences in Protein-Nucleic Acid Complexes.

    PubMed

    Jakubec, Dávid; Hostas, Jirí; Laskowski, Roman A; Hobza, Pavel; Vondrásek, Jirí

    2015-04-14

    The growing number of high-quality experimental (X-ray, NMR) structures of protein–DNA complexes has sufficient enough information to assess whether universal rules governing the DNA sequence recognition process apply. While previous studies have investigated the relative abundance of various modes of amino acid–base contacts (van der Waals contacts, hydrogen bonds), relatively little is known about the energetics of these noncovalent interactions. In the present study, we have performed the first large-scale quantitative assessment of binding preferences in protein–DNA complexes by calculating the interaction energies in all 80 possible amino acid–DNA base combinations. We found that several mutual amino acid–base orientations featuring bidentate hydrogen bonds capable of unambiguous one-to-one recognition correspond to unique minima in the potential energy space of the amino acid–base pairs. A clustering algorithm revealed that these contacts form a spatially well-defined group offering relatively little conformational freedom. Various molecular mechanics force field and DFT-D ab initio calculations were performed, yielding similar results. PMID:26894243

  16. Template-based prediction of protein function.

    PubMed

    Petrey, Donald; Chen, T Scott; Deng, Lei; Garzon, Jose Ignacio; Hwang, Howook; Lasso, Gorka; Lee, Hunjoong; Silkov, Antonina; Honig, Barry

    2015-06-01

    We discuss recent approaches for structure-based protein function annotation. We focus on template-based methods where the function of a query protein is deduced from that of a template for which both the structure and function are known. We describe the different ways of identifying a template. These are typically based on sequence analysis but new methods based on purely structural similarity are also being developed that allow function annotation based on structural relationships that cannot be recognized by sequence. The growing number of available structures of known function, improved homology modeling techniques and new developments in the use of structure allow template-based methods to be applied on a proteome-wide scale and in many different biological contexts. This progress significantly expands the range of applicability of structural information in function annotation to a level that previously was only achievable by sequence comparison.

  17. The contribution of genetic and environmental factors to quantitative variability of erythrocyte membrane proteins in primary hypotension.

    PubMed

    Ivanov, V P; Polonikov, A V; Solodilova, M A

    2005-01-01

    Our previous studies have shown that, compared with healthy individuals, patients with primary arterial hypotension (PAH) have significant quantitative changes in erythrocyte membrane proteins. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the contribution made by genetic and environmental factors to quantitative variation of erythrocyte membrane proteins in PAH. We studied 109 hypotensive patients, 124 normotensive subjects, 222 of their first-degree relatives and 24 twin pairs by sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The decomposition of total phenotypic variance of erythrocyte membrane proteins to genetic and environmental components was performed on the basis of correlations among first-degree relatives by the least squares method. The genetic dominance and shared environmental factors were found to influence the variability of cytoskeletal membrane proteins whose contents were changed in PAH. Furthermore, variations in alpha-spectrin, actin and anion exchanger in hypotensives were substantially influenced by major gene and maternal effects. Ankyrin 2.1 and actin content was under the control of common underlying genes. Variations in membrane-associated glutathione-S-transferase and tropomyosin were predominantly affected by polygenes. These findings suggest that the putative major genes with pleiotropic effects appear to be involved in the control of quantitative disorders of erythrocyte membrane proteins in primary hypotension. PMID:15638825

  18. An isotopically tagged azobenzene-based cleavable linker for quantitative proteomics.

    PubMed

    Qian, Yu; Martell, Julianne; Pace, Nicholas J; Ballard, T Eric; Johnson, Douglas S; Weerapana, Eranthie

    2013-08-19

    Putting a number on it: Cleavable linkers are widely utilized in proteomics applications. In particular, the azobenzene-based linker cleaves under mild conditions that are mass-spectrometry-compatible. Here, we adapt this linker for quantitative proteomic applications by incorporating an isotopic label. These light- and heavy-tagged linkers enable the identification and quantitation of labeled peptides from multiple proteomes.

  19. Evolution-Based Functional Decomposition of Proteins.

    PubMed

    Rivoire, Olivier; Reynolds, Kimberly A; Ranganathan, Rama

    2016-06-01

    The essential biological properties of proteins-folding, biochemical activities, and the capacity to adapt-arise from the global pattern of interactions between amino acid residues. The statistical coupling analysis (SCA) is an approach to defining this pattern that involves the study of amino acid coevolution in an ensemble of sequences comprising a protein family. This approach indicates a functional architecture within proteins in which the basic units are coupled networks of amino acids termed sectors. This evolution-based decomposition has potential for new understandings of the structural basis for protein function. To facilitate its usage, we present here the principles and practice of the SCA and introduce new methods for sector analysis in a python-based software package (pySCA). We show that the pattern of amino acid interactions within sectors is linked to the divergence of functional lineages in a multiple sequence alignment-a model for how sector properties might be differentially tuned in members of a protein family. This work provides new tools for studying proteins and for generally testing the concept of sectors as the principal units of function and adaptive variation. PMID:27254668

  20. Protein-based tumor molecular imaging probes

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Xin; Xie, Jin

    2013-01-01

    Molecular imaging is an emerging discipline which plays critical roles in diagnosis and therapeutics. It visualizes and quantifies markers that are aberrantly expressed during the disease origin and development. Protein molecules remain to be one major class of imaging probes, and the option has been widely diversified due to the recent advances in protein engineering techniques. Antibodies are part of the immunosystem which interact with target antigens with high specificity and affinity. They have long been investigated as imaging probes and were coupled with imaging motifs such as radioisotopes for that purpose. However, the relatively large size of antibodies leads to a half-life that is too long for common imaging purposes. Besides, it may also cause a poor tissue penetration rate and thus compromise some medical applications. It is under this context that various engineered protein probes, essentially antibody fragments, protein scaffolds, and natural ligands have been developed. Compared to intact antibodies, they possess more compact size, shorter clearance time, and better tumor penetration. One major challenge of using protein probes in molecular imaging is the affected biological activity resulted from random labeling. Site-specific modification, however, allows conjugation happening in a stoichiometric fashion with little perturbation of protein activity. The present review will discuss protein-based probes with focus on their application and related site-specific conjugation strategies in tumor imaging. PMID:20232092

  1. Optimized Protocol for Quantitative Multiple Reaction Monitoring-Based Proteomic Analysis of Formalin-Fixed, Paraffin-Embedded Tissues.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, Jacob J; Whiteaker, Jeffrey R; Schoenherr, Regine M; Yan, Ping; Allison, Kimberly; Shipley, Melissa; Lerch, Melissa; Hoofnagle, Andrew N; Baird, Geoffrey Stuart; Paulovich, Amanda G

    2016-08-01

    Despite a clinical, economic, and regulatory imperative to develop companion diagnostics, precious few new biomarkers have been successfully translated into clinical use, due in part to inadequate protein assay technologies to support large-scale testing of hundreds of candidate biomarkers in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissues. Although the feasibility of using targeted, multiple reaction monitoring mass spectrometry (MRM-MS) for quantitative analyses of FFPE tissues has been demonstrated, protocols have not been systematically optimized for robust quantification across a large number of analytes, nor has the performance of peptide immuno-MRM been evaluated. To address this gap, we used a test battery approach coupled to MRM-MS with the addition of stable isotope-labeled standard peptides (targeting 512 analytes) to quantitatively evaluate the performance of three extraction protocols in combination with three trypsin digestion protocols (i.e., nine processes). A process based on RapiGest buffer extraction and urea-based digestion was identified to enable similar quantitation results from FFPE and frozen tissues. Using the optimized protocols for MRM-based analysis of FFPE tissues, median precision was 11.4% (across 249 analytes). There was excellent correlation between measurements made on matched FFPE and frozen tissues, both for direct MRM analysis (R(2) = 0.94) and immuno-MRM (R(2) = 0.89). The optimized process enables highly reproducible, multiplex, standardizable, quantitative MRM in archival tissue specimens.

  2. Optimized Protocol for Quantitative Multiple Reaction Monitoring-Based Proteomic Analysis of Formalin-Fixed, Paraffin-Embedded Tissues.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, Jacob J; Whiteaker, Jeffrey R; Schoenherr, Regine M; Yan, Ping; Allison, Kimberly; Shipley, Melissa; Lerch, Melissa; Hoofnagle, Andrew N; Baird, Geoffrey Stuart; Paulovich, Amanda G

    2016-08-01

    Despite a clinical, economic, and regulatory imperative to develop companion diagnostics, precious few new biomarkers have been successfully translated into clinical use, due in part to inadequate protein assay technologies to support large-scale testing of hundreds of candidate biomarkers in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissues. Although the feasibility of using targeted, multiple reaction monitoring mass spectrometry (MRM-MS) for quantitative analyses of FFPE tissues has been demonstrated, protocols have not been systematically optimized for robust quantification across a large number of analytes, nor has the performance of peptide immuno-MRM been evaluated. To address this gap, we used a test battery approach coupled to MRM-MS with the addition of stable isotope-labeled standard peptides (targeting 512 analytes) to quantitatively evaluate the performance of three extraction protocols in combination with three trypsin digestion protocols (i.e., nine processes). A process based on RapiGest buffer extraction and urea-based digestion was identified to enable similar quantitation results from FFPE and frozen tissues. Using the optimized protocols for MRM-based analysis of FFPE tissues, median precision was 11.4% (across 249 analytes). There was excellent correlation between measurements made on matched FFPE and frozen tissues, both for direct MRM analysis (R(2) = 0.94) and immuno-MRM (R(2) = 0.89). The optimized process enables highly reproducible, multiplex, standardizable, quantitative MRM in archival tissue specimens. PMID:27462933

  3. Optimized protocol for quantitative multiple reaction monitoring-based proteomic analysis of formalin-fixed, paraffin embedded tissues

    PubMed Central

    Kennedy, Jacob J.; Whiteaker, Jeffrey R.; Schoenherr, Regine M.; Yan, Ping; Allison, Kimberly; Shipley, Melissa; Lerch, Melissa; Hoofnagle, Andrew N.; Baird, Geoffrey Stuart; Paulovich, Amanda G.

    2016-01-01

    Despite a clinical, economic, and regulatory imperative to develop companion diagnostics, precious few new biomarkers have been successfully translated into clinical use, due in part to inadequate protein assay technologies to support large-scale testing of hundreds of candidate biomarkers in formalin-fixed paraffin embedded (FFPE) tissues. While the feasibility of using targeted, multiple reaction monitoring-mass spectrometry (MRM-MS) for quantitative analyses of FFPE tissues has been demonstrated, protocols have not been systematically optimized for robust quantification across a large number of analytes, nor has the performance of peptide immuno-MRM been evaluated. To address this gap, we used a test battery approach coupled to MRM-MS with the addition of stable isotope labeled standard peptides (targeting 512 analytes) to quantitatively evaluate the performance of three extraction protocols in combination with three trypsin digestion protocols (i.e. 9 processes). A process based on RapiGest buffer extraction and urea-based digestion was identified to enable similar quantitation results from FFPE and frozen tissues. Using the optimized protocols for MRM-based analysis of FFPE tissues, median precision was 11.4% (across 249 analytes). There was excellent correlation between measurements made on matched FFPE and frozen tissues, both for direct MRM analysis (R2 = 0.94) and immuno-MRM (R2 = 0.89). The optimized process enables highly reproducible, multiplex, standardizable, quantitative MRM in archival tissue specimens. PMID:27462933

  4. iTRAQ-Based Quantitative Proteomic Analysis Identified HSC71 as a Novel Serum Biomarker for Renal Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yushi; Cai, Yi; Yu, Hongyan; Li, Hanzhong

    2015-01-01

    Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is one of the most lethal urologic cancers and about 80% of RCC are of the clear-cell type (ccRCC). However, there are no serum biomarkers for the accurate diagnosis of RCC. In this study, we performed a quantitative proteomic analysis on serum samples from ccRCC patients and control group by using isobaric tag for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ) labeling and LC-MS/MS analysis to access differentially expressed proteins. Overall, 16 proteins were significantly upregulated (ratio > 1.5) and 14 proteins were significantly downregulated (ratio < 0.67) in early-stage ccRCC compared to control group. HSC71 was selected and subsequently validated by Western blot in six independent sets of patients. ELISA subsequently confirmed HSC71 as a potential serum biomarker for distinguishing RCC from benign urologic disease with an operating characteristic curve (ROC) area under the curve (AUC) of 0.86 (95% confidence interval (CI), 0.76~0.96), achieving sensitivity of 87% (95% CI 69%~96%) at a specificity of 80% (95% CI 61~92%) with a threshold of 15 ng/mL. iTRAQ-based quantitative proteomic analysis led to identification of serum HSC71 as a novel serum biomarker of RCC, particularly useful in early diagnosis of ccRCC. PMID:26425554

  5. Neurofilament protein defines regional patterns of cortical organization in the macaque monkey visual system: a quantitative immunohistochemical analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hof, P. R.; Morrison, J. H.; Bloom, F. E. (Principal Investigator)

    1995-01-01

    Visual function in monkeys is subserved at the cortical level by a large number of areas defined by their specific physiological properties and connectivity patterns. For most of these cortical fields, a precise index of their degree of anatomical specialization has not yet been defined, although many regional patterns have been described using Nissl or myelin stains. In the present study, an attempt has been made to elucidate the regional characteristics, and to varying degrees boundaries, of several visual cortical areas in the macaque monkey using an antibody to neurofilament protein (SMI32). This antibody labels a subset of pyramidal neurons with highly specific regional and laminar distribution patterns in the cerebral cortex. Based on the staining patterns and regional quantitative analysis, as many as 28 cortical fields were reliably identified. Each field had a homogeneous distribution of labeled neurons, except area V1, where increases in layer IVB cell and in Meynert cell counts paralleled the increase in the degree of eccentricity in the visual field representation. Within the occipitotemporal pathway, areas V3 and V4 and fields in the inferior temporal cortex were characterized by a distinct population of neurofilament-rich neurons in layers II-IIIa, whereas areas located in the parietal cortex and part of the occipitoparietal pathway had a consistent population of large labeled neurons in layer Va. The mediotemporal areas MT and MST displayed a distinct population of densely labeled neurons in layer VI. Quantitative analysis of the laminar distribution of the labeled neurons demonstrated that the visual cortical areas could be grouped in four hierarchical levels based on the ratio of neuron counts between infragranular and supragranular layers, with the first (areas V1, V2, V3, and V3A) and third (temporal and parietal regions) levels characterized by low ratios and the second (areas MT, MST, and V4) and fourth (frontal regions) levels characterized by

  6. Field-based multiplex and quantitative assay platforms for diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venkatasubbarao, Srivatsa; Dixon, C. Edward; Chipman, Russell; Scherer, Axel; Beshay, Manal; Kempen, Lothar U.; Chandra Sekhar, Jai Ganesh; Yan, Hong; Puccio, Ava; Okonkwo, David; McClain, Stephen; Gilbert, Noah; Vyawahare, Saurabh

    2011-06-01

    The U.S. military has a continued interest in the development of handheld, field-usable sensors and test kits for a variety of diagnostic applications, such as traumatic brain injury (TBI) and infectious diseases. Field-use presents unique challenges for biosensor design, both for the readout unit and for the biological assay platform. We have developed robust biosensor devices that offer ultra-high sensitivity and also meet field-use needs. The systems under development include a multiplexed quantitative lateral flow test strip for TBI diagnostics, a field test kit for the diagnosis of pathogens endemic to the Middle East, and a microfluidic assay platform with a label-free reader for performing complex biological automated assays in the field.

  7. Network-Based Protein Biomarker Discovery Platforms

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Minhyung

    2016-01-01

    The advances in mass spectrometry-based proteomics technologies have enabled the generation of global proteome data from tissue or body fluid samples collected from a broad spectrum of human diseases. Comparative proteomic analysis of global proteome data identifies and prioritizes the proteins showing altered abundances, called differentially expressed proteins (DEPs), in disease samples, compared to control samples. Protein biomarker candidates that can serve as indicators of disease states are then selected as key molecules among these proteins. Recently, it has been addressed that cellular pathways can provide better indications of disease states than individual molecules and also network analysis of the DEPs enables effective identification of cellular pathways altered in disease conditions and key molecules representing the altered cellular pathways. Accordingly, a number of network-based approaches to identify disease-related pathways and representative molecules of such pathways have been developed. In this review, we summarize analytical platforms for network-based protein biomarker discovery and key components in the platforms. PMID:27103885

  8. Designer protein-based performance materials.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Manoj; Sanford, Karl J; Cuevas, William A; Cuevas, William P; Du, Mai; Collier, Katharine D; Chow, Nicole

    2006-09-01

    Repeat sequence protein polymer (RSPP) technology provides a platform to design and make protein-based performance polymers and represents the best nature has to offer. We report here that the RSPP platform is a novel approach to produce functional protein polymers that have both biomechanical and biofunctional blocks built into one molecule by design, using peptide motifs. We have shown that protein-based designer biopolymers can be made using recombinant DNA technology and fermentation and offer the ability to screen for desired properties utilizing the tremendous potential diversity of amino acid combinations. The technology also allows for large-scale manufacturing with a favorable fermentative cost-structure to deliver commercially viable performance polymers. Using three diverse examples with antimicrobial, textile targeting, and UV-protective agent, we have introduced functional attributes into structural protein polymers and shown, for example, that the functionalized RSPPs have possible applications in biodefense, industrial biotechnology, and personal care areas. This new class of biobased materials will simulate natural biomaterials that can be modified for desired function and have many advantages over conventional petroleum-based polymers.

  9. Integrated quantitative analysis of nitrogen stress response in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii using metabolite and protein profiling.

    PubMed

    Wase, Nishikant; Black, Paul N; Stanley, Bruce A; DiRusso, Concetta C

    2014-03-01

    Nitrogen starvation induces a global stress response in microalgae that results in the accumulation of lipids as a potential source of biofuel. Using GC-MS-based metabolite and iTRAQ-labeled protein profiling, we examined and correlated the metabolic and proteomic response of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii under nitrogen stress. Key amino acids and metabolites involved in nitrogen sparing pathways, methyl group transfer reactions, and energy production were decreased in abundance, whereas certain fatty acids, citric acid, methionine, citramalic acid, triethanolamine, nicotianamine, trehalose, and sorbitol were increased in abundance. Proteins involved in nitrogen assimilation, amino acid metabolism, oxidative phosphorylation, glycolysis, TCA cycle, starch, and lipid metabolism were elevated compared with nonstressed cultures. In contrast, the enzymes of the glyoxylate cycle, one carbon metabolism, pentose phosphate pathway, the Calvin cycle, photosynthetic and light harvesting complex, and ribosomes were reduced. A noteworthy observation was that citrate accumulated during nitrogen stress coordinate with alterations in the enzymes that produce or utilize this metabolite, demonstrating the value of comparing protein and metabolite profiles to understand complex patterns of metabolic flow. Thus, the current study provides unique insight into the global metabolic adjustments leading to lipid storage during N starvation for application toward advanced biofuel production technologies.

  10. Mass spectrometry based biomarker discovery, verification, and validation--quality assurance and control of protein biomarker assays.

    PubMed

    Parker, Carol E; Borchers, Christoph H

    2014-06-01

    In its early years, mass spectrometry (MS)-based proteomics focused on the cataloging of proteins found in different species or different tissues. By 2005, proteomics was being used for protein quantitation, typically based on "proteotypic" peptides which act as surrogates for the parent proteins. Biomarker discovery is usually done by non-targeted "shotgun" proteomics, using relative quantitation methods to determine protein expression changes that correlate with disease (output given as "up-or-down regulation" or "fold-increases"). MS-based techniques can also perform "absolute" quantitation which is required for clinical applications (output given as protein concentrations). Here we describe the differences between these methods, factors that affect the precision and accuracy of the results, and some examples of recent studies using MS-based proteomics to verify cancer-related biomarkers.

  11. Protein composition of wheat gluten polymer fractions determined by quantitative two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and tandem mass spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Certain wheat gluten proteins form large protein polymers that are extractable in 0.5% SDS only after sonication. Although there is a strong relationship between the amounts of these polymers in the flour and bread-making quality, the protein components of these polymers have not been thoroughly investigated. Results Flour proteins from the US bread wheat Butte 86 were extracted in 0.5% SDS using a two-step procedure with and without sonication. Proteins were further separated by size exclusion chromatography (SEC) into monomeric and polymeric fractions and analyzed by quantitative two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE). When proteins in select 2-DE spots were identified by tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS), overlapping spots from the different protein fractions often yielded different identifications. Most high-molecular-weight glutenin subunits (HMW-GS) and low-molecular-weight glutenin subunits (LMW-GS) partitioned into the polymer fractions, while most gliadins were found in the monomer fractions. The exceptions were alpha, gamma and omega gliadins containing odd numbers of cysteine residues. These proteins were detected in all fractions, but comprised the largest proportion of the SDS-extractable polymer fraction. Several types of non-gluten proteins also were found in the polymer fractions, including serpins, triticins and globulins. All three types were found in the largest proportions in the SDS-extractable polymer fraction. Conclusions This is the first study to report the accumulation of gliadins containing odd numbers of cysteine residues in the SDS-extractable glutenin polymer fraction, supporting the hypothesis that these gliadins serve as chain terminators of the polymer chains. These data make it possible to formulate hypotheses about how protein composition influences polymer size and structure and provide a foundation for future experiments aimed at determining how environment affects glutenin polymer distribution. In addition, the

  12. Quantitative characterization of heparin binding to Tau protein: implication for inducer-mediated Tau filament formation.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Hai-Li; Fernández, Cristina; Fan, Jun-Bao; Shewmaker, Frank; Chen, Jie; Minton, Allen P; Liang, Yi

    2010-02-01

    Neurofibrillary tangles, principally composed of bundles of filaments formed by the microtubule-associated protein Tau, are a hallmark of a group of neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer disease. Polyanionic cofactors such as heparin can induce Tau filament formation in vitro. Here we quantitatively characterize the interaction between recombinant human Tau fragment Tau(244-372) and heparin (average molecular mass = 7 kDa) as well as heparin-induced fibril formation by using static light scattering, isothermal titration calorimetry, turbidity assays, and transmission electron microscopy. Our data clearly show that at physiological pH, heparin 7K, and human Tau(244-372) form a tight 1:1 complex with an equilibrium association constant exceeding 10(6) m(-1) under reducing conditions, triggering Tau fibrillization. In the absence of dithiothreitol, heparin shows a moderate binding affinity (10(5) m(-1)) to Tau(244-372), similarly triggering Tau fibrillization. Further fibrillization kinetics analyses show that the lag time appears to be approximately invariant up to a molar ratio of 2:1 and then increases at larger ratios of heparin/Tau. The maximum slope representing the apparent rate constant for fibril growth increases sharply with substoichiometric ratios of heparin/Tau and then decreases to some extent with ratios of >1:1. The retarding effect of heparin in excess is attributed to the large increase in ionic strength of the medium arising from free heparin. Together, these results suggest that the formation of the 1:1 complex of Tau monomer and heparin plays an important role in the inducer-mediated Tau filament formation, providing clues to understanding the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases.

  13. DISQOVER the Landcover - R based tools for quantitative vegetation reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Theuerkauf, Martin; Couwenberg, John; Kuparinen, Anna; Liebscher, Volkmar

    2016-04-01

    Quantitative methods have gained increasing attention in the field of vegetation reconstruction over the past decade. The DISQOVER package implements key tools in the R programming environment for statistical computing. This implementation has three main goals: 1) Provide a user-friendly, transparent, and open implementation of the methods 2) Provide full flexibility in all parameters (including the underlying pollen dispersal model) 3) Provide a sandbox for testing the sensitivity of the methods. We illustrate the possibilities of the package with tests of the REVEALS model and of the extended downscaling approach (EDA). REVEALS (Sugita 2007) is designed to translate pollen data from large lakes into regional vegetation composition. We applied REVEALSinR on pollen data from Lake Tiefer See (NE-Germany) and validated the results with historic landcover data. The results clearly show that REVEALS is sensitive to the underlying pollen dispersal model; REVEALS performs best when applied with the state of the art Lagrangian stochastic dispersal model. REVEALS applications with the conventional Gauss model can produce realistic results, but only if unrealistic pollen productivity estimates are used. The EDA (Theuerkauf et al. 2014) employs pollen data from many sites across a landscape to explore whether species distributions in the past were related to know stable patterns in the landscape, e.g. the distribution of soil types. The approach had so far only been implemented in simple settings with few taxa. Tests with EDAinR show that it produces sharp results in complex settings with many taxa as well. The DISQOVER package is open source software, available from disqover.uni-greifswald.de. This website can be used as a platform to discuss and improve quantitative methods in vegetation reconstruction. To introduce the tool we plan a short course in autumn of this year. This study is a contribution to the Virtual Institute of Integrated Climate and Landscape Evolution

  14. PCR-based quantitation of Cryptosporidium parvum in municipal water samples.

    PubMed

    Chung, E; Aldom, J E; Carreno, R A; Chagla, A H; Kostrzynska, M; Lee, H; Palmateer, G; Trevors, J T; Unger, S; Xu, R; De Grandis, S A

    1999-10-01

    A PCR method for the quantitation of Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts in municipal drinking water samples was investigated. Quantitative PCR uses an internal standard (IS) template with unknown target numbers to compare to standards of known concentrations in a standard curve. The IS template was amplified using the same primers used to amplify a portion of a 358 bp gene fragment that encodes a repetitive oocyst wall protein in C. parvum. Municipal water samples spiked with known numbers of C. parvum oocysts were tested by quantitative PCR using the IS and the Digene SHARP Signal System Assay for PCR product detection. The absorbance readings for target DNA and IS templates versus the number of molecules of the target DNA were plotted to generate standard curves for estimating oocyst numbers. The method allowed the quantitation of oocysts from log 3 to log 5 spiked into municipal water samples.

  15. Quantitative Proteomics Identifies Serum Response Factor Binding Protein 1 as a Host Factor for Hepatitis C Virus Entry.

    PubMed

    Gerold, Gisa; Meissner, Felix; Bruening, Janina; Welsch, Kathrin; Perin, Paula M; Baumert, Thomas F; Vondran, Florian W; Kaderali, Lars; Marcotrigiano, Joseph; Khan, Abdul G; Mann, Matthias; Rice, Charles M; Pietschmann, Thomas

    2015-08-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) enters human hepatocytes through a multistep mechanism involving, among other host proteins, the virus receptor CD81. How CD81 governs HCV entry is poorly characterized, and CD81 protein interactions after virus binding remain elusive. We have developed a quantitative proteomics protocol to identify HCV-triggered CD81 interactions and found 26 dynamic binding partners. At least six of these proteins promote HCV infection, as indicated by RNAi. We further characterized serum response factor binding protein 1 (SRFBP1), which is recruited to CD81 during HCV uptake and supports HCV infection in hepatoma cells and primary human hepatocytes. SRFBP1 facilitates host cell penetration by all seven HCV genotypes, but not of vesicular stomatitis virus and human coronavirus. Thus, SRFBP1 is an HCV-specific, pan-genotypic host entry factor. These results demonstrate the use of quantitative proteomics to elucidate pathogen entry and underscore the importance of host protein-protein interactions during HCV invasion. PMID:26212323

  16. Gold-coated graphene field-effect transistors for quantitative analysis of protein-antibody interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarasov, Alexey; Tsai, Meng-Yen; Flynn, Erin M.; Joiner, Corey A.; Taylor, Robert C.; Vogel, Eric M.

    2015-12-01

    Field-effect transistors (FETs) based on large-area graphene and other 2D materials can potentially be used as low-cost and flexible potentiometric biological sensors. However, there have been few attempts to use these devices for quantifying molecular interactions and to compare their performance to established sensor technology. Here, gold-coated graphene FETs are used to measure the binding affinity of a specific protein-antibody interaction. Having a gold surface gives access to well-known thiol chemistry for the self-assembly of linker molecules. The results are compared with potentiometric silicon-based extended-gate sensors and a surface plasmon resonance system. The estimated dissociation constants are in excellent agreement for all sensor types as long as the active surfaces are the same (gold). The role of the graphene transducer is to simply amplify surface potential changes caused by adsorption of molecules on the gold surface.

  17. Quantitative Proteomics Analysis of Altered Protein Expression in the Placental Villous Tissue of Early Pregnancy Loss Using Isobaric Tandem Mass Tags

    PubMed Central

    Ni, Xiaobei; Li, Xin; Guo, Yueshuai; Zhou, Tao; Guo, Xuejiang; Zhao, Chun; Lin, Min; Zhou, Zuomin; Shen, Rong; Guo, Xirong; Ling, Xiufeng

    2014-01-01

    Many pregnant women suffer miscarriages during early gestation, but the description of these early pregnancy losses (EPL) can be somewhat confusing because of the complexities of early development. Thus, the identification of proteins with different expression profiles related to early pregnancy loss is essential for understanding the comprehensive pathophysiological mechanism. In this study, we report a gel-free tandem mass tags- (TMT-) labeling based proteomic analysis of five placental villous tissues from patients with early pregnancy loss and five from normal pregnant women. The application of this method resulted in the identification of 3423 proteins and 19647 peptides among the patient group and the matched normal control group. Qualitative and quantitative proteomic analysis revealed 51 proteins to be differentially abundant between the two groups (≥1.2-fold, Student's t-test, P < 0.05). To obtain an overview of the biological functions of the proteins whose expression levels altered significantly in EPL group, gene ontology analysis was performed. We also investigated the twelve proteins with a difference over 1.5-fold using pathways analysis. Our results demonstrate that the gel-free TMT-based proteomic approach allows the quantification of differences in protein expression levels, which is useful for obtaining molecular insights into early pregnancy loss. PMID:24738066

  18. ICan: An Optimized Ion-Current-Based Quantification Procedure with Enhanced Quantitative Accuracy and Sensitivity in Biomarker Discovery

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The rapidly expanding availability of high-resolution mass spectrometry has substantially enhanced the ion-current-based relative quantification techniques. Despite the increasing interest in ion-current-based methods, quantitative sensitivity, accuracy, and false discovery rate remain the major concerns; consequently, comprehensive evaluation and development in these regards are urgently needed. Here we describe an integrated, new procedure for data normalization and protein ratio estimation, termed ICan, for improved ion-current-based analysis of data generated by high-resolution mass spectrometry (MS). ICan achieved significantly better accuracy and precision, and lower false-positive rate for discovering altered proteins, over current popular pipelines. A spiked-in experiment was used to evaluate the performance of ICan to detect small changes. In this study E. coli extracts were spiked with moderate-abundance proteins from human plasma (MAP, enriched by IgY14-SuperMix procedure) at two different levels to set a small change of 1.5-fold. Forty-five (92%, with an average ratio of 1.71 ± 0.13) of 49 identified MAP protein (i.e., the true positives) and none of the reference proteins (1.0-fold) were determined as significantly altered proteins, with cutoff thresholds of ≥1.3-fold change and p ≤ 0.05. This is the first study to evaluate and prove competitive performance of the ion-current-based approach for assigning significance to proteins with small changes. By comparison, other methods showed remarkably inferior performance. ICan can be broadly applicable to reliable and sensitive proteomic survey of multiple biological samples with the use of high-resolution MS. Moreover, many key features evaluated and optimized here such as normalization, protein ratio determination, and statistical analyses are also valuable for data analysis by isotope-labeling methods. PMID:25285707

  19. Molecular cloning of protein-based polymers.

    PubMed

    Mi, Lixin

    2006-07-01

    Protein-based biopolymers have become a promising class of materials for both biomedical and pharmaceutical applications, as they have well-defined molecular weights, monomer compositions, as well as tunable chemical, biological, and mechanical properties. Using standard molecular biology tools, it is possible to design and construct genes encoding artificial proteins or protein-based polymers containing multiple repeats of amino acid sequences. This article reviews some of the traditional methods used for constructing DNA duplexes encoding these repeat-containing genes, including monomer generation, concatemerization, iterative oligomerization, and seamless cloning. A facile and versatile method, called modules of degenerate codons (MDC), which uses PCR and codon degeneracy to overcome some of the disadvantages of traditional methods, is introduced. Re-engineering of the random coil spacer domain of a bioactive protein, WPT2-3R, is used to demonstrate the utility of the MDC method. MDC re-constructed coding sequences facilitate further manipulations, such as insertion, deletion, and swapping of various sequence modules. A summary of some promising emerging techniques for synthesizing repetitive sequence-containing artificial proteins is also provided. PMID:16827576

  20. Evolution-Based Functional Decomposition of Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Rivoire, Olivier; Reynolds, Kimberly A.; Ranganathan, Rama

    2016-01-01

    The essential biological properties of proteins—folding, biochemical activities, and the capacity to adapt—arise from the global pattern of interactions between amino acid residues. The statistical coupling analysis (SCA) is an approach to defining this pattern that involves the study of amino acid coevolution in an ensemble of sequences comprising a protein family. This approach indicates a functional architecture within proteins in which the basic units are coupled networks of amino acids termed sectors. This evolution-based decomposition has potential for new understandings of the structural basis for protein function. To facilitate its usage, we present here the principles and practice of the SCA and introduce new methods for sector analysis in a python-based software package (pySCA). We show that the pattern of amino acid interactions within sectors is linked to the divergence of functional lineages in a multiple sequence alignment—a model for how sector properties might be differentially tuned in members of a protein family. This work provides new tools for studying proteins and for generally testing the concept of sectors as the principal units of function and adaptive variation. PMID:27254668

  1. Fusion-Related Host Proteins Are Actively Regulated by NA during Influenza Infection as Revealed by Quantitative Proteomics Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Sui, Zhiwei; Wen, Bo; Gao, Zhimin; Chen, Quanjiao

    2014-01-01

    Three recombinant influenza A viruses with different neuraminidases (NAs) in the background of A/PR/8/34 (PR8), named rPR8-H5N1NA, rPR8-H9N2NA, and rPR8-H1N1NA, derived from H5N1, H9N2, H1N1 (swine) viruses, respectively, were constructed. We performed a quantitative proteomics analysis to investigate differential protein expression in Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells infected with recombinant and wild-type influenza viruses to determine whether NA replacement would alter host cell gene expression. Using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-TOF MS) and two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE), we identified 12 up-regulated and 49 down-regulated protein spots, including cytoskeletal proteins, molecular biosynthesis proteins, ubiquitin-proteasome pathway proteins, and heat shock proteins. The most significant changes in infected cells were observed for molecular biosynthesis proteins. We found more differentially expressed protein spots in cells infected with rPR8-H5N1NA or rPR8-H9N2NA viruses than cells infected with wild-type virus. Many of those proteins are postulated to be involved in cell-cell fusion, but the full mechanism remains to be explored. Meanwhile, our data demonstrate that the wild-type virus has evolutionary advantages over recombinant viruses. PMID:25153908

  2. Qualitative and quantitative changes in exoskeletal proteins synthesized throughout the molt cycle of the Bermuda land crab

    SciTech Connect

    Stringfellow, L.A.; Skinner, D.M.

    1987-05-01

    During the premolt period in Crustacea, a single layer of epidermal cells that underlies the exoskeleton is thought to be responsible for the degradation of the old exoskeleton and synthesis of a new one. In order to identify molt-specific proteins and their temporal appearance, they cultured epidermis and associated integumentary tissue from the gill chambers of crab in vitro in the presence of one of three radiolabeled amino acids. Autoradiographs of (/sup 35/S)Met-labeled tissues indicate a low level of synthesis in epidermal cells of intermolt animals; synthesis increases during premolt and stage B of postmolt. Label is also found in the innermost layer of the old exoskeleton while it is being degraded and in new exoskeletal layers during their synthesis. Fluorographs of gels of integumentary proteins show marked quantitative changes in 44 and 56 kD proteins late in premolt. Qualitative changes include synthesis of 46 and 48 kD proteins during late premolt and three proteins (all of approx. 170 kD) detectable only in postmolt. Solubilized gel slices of (/sup 3/H)Leu-labeled proteins indicate maximum synthesis at an earlier premolt stage than seen in Met-labeled proteins. Other proteins of 20, 24, 29, 32, and 96 kD are synthesized in a stage-dependent manner while (/sup 3/H)Tyr labels small proteins that appear only in late premolt.

  3. iTRAQ-based quantitative proteomic analysis reveals new metabolic pathways of wheat seedling growth under hydrogen peroxide stress.

    PubMed

    Ge, Pei; Hao, Pengchao; Cao, Min; Guo, Guangfang; Lv, Dongwen; Subburaj, Saminathan; Li, Xiaohui; Yan, Xing; Xiao, Jitian; Ma, Wujun; Yan, Yueming

    2013-10-01

    As an abundant ROS, hydrogen peroxide (H2 O2 ) plays pivotal roles in plant growth and development. In this work, we conducted for the first time an iTRAQ-based quantitative proteomic analysis of wheat seedling growth under different exogenous H2 O2 treatments. The growth of seedlings and roots was significantly restrained by increased H2 O2 concentration stress. Malondialdehyde, soluble sugar, and proline contents as well as peroxidase activity increased with increasing H2 O2 levels. A total of 3,425 proteins were identified by iTRAQ, of which 157 showed differential expression and 44 were newly identified H2 O2 -responsive proteins. H2 O2 -responsive proteins were mainly involved in stress/defense/detoxification, signal transduction, and carbohydrate metabolism. It is clear that up-regulated expression of signal transduction and stress/defence/detoxification-related proteins under H2 O2 stress, such as plasma membrane intrinsic protein 1, fasciclin-like arabinogalactan protein, and superoxide dismutase, could contribute to H2 O2 tolerance of wheat seedlings. Increased gluconeogenesis (phosphoenol-pyruvate carboxykinase) and decreased pyruvate kinase proteins are potentially related to the higher H2 O2 tolerance of wheat seedlings. A metabolic pathway of wheat seedling growth under H2 O2 stress is presented.

  4. A quantitative risk-based model for reasoning over critical system properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feather, M. S.

    2002-01-01

    This position paper suggests the use of a quantitative risk-based model to help support reeasoning and decision making that spans many of the critical properties such as security, safety, survivability, fault tolerance, and real-time.

  5. High Throughput Quantitative Expression Screening and Purification Applied to Recombinant Disulfide-rich Venom Proteins Produced in E. coli

    PubMed Central

    Saez, Natalie J.; Nozach, Hervé; Blemont, Marilyne; Vincentelli, Renaud

    2014-01-01

    Escherichia coli (E. coli) is the most widely used expression system for the production of recombinant proteins for structural and functional studies. However, purifying proteins is sometimes challenging since many proteins are expressed in an insoluble form. When working with difficult or multiple targets it is therefore recommended to use high throughput (HTP) protein expression screening on a small scale (1-4 ml cultures) to quickly identify conditions for soluble expression. To cope with the various structural genomics programs of the lab, a quantitative (within a range of 0.1-100 mg/L culture of recombinant protein) and HTP protein expression screening protocol was implemented and validated on thousands of proteins. The protocols were automated with the use of a liquid handling robot but can also be performed manually without specialized equipment. Disulfide-rich venom proteins are gaining increasing recognition for their potential as therapeutic drug leads. They can be highly potent and selective, but their complex disulfide bond networks make them challenging to produce. As a member of the FP7 European Venomics project (www.venomics.eu), our challenge is to develop successful production strategies with the aim of producing thousands of novel venom proteins for functional characterization. Aided by the redox properties of disulfide bond isomerase DsbC, we adapted our HTP production pipeline for the expression of oxidized, functional venom peptides in the E. coli cytoplasm. The protocols are also applicable to the production of diverse disulfide-rich proteins. Here we demonstrate our pipeline applied to the production of animal venom proteins. With the protocols described herein it is likely that soluble disulfide-rich proteins will be obtained in as little as a week. Even from a small scale, there is the potential to use the purified proteins for validating the oxidation state by mass spectrometry, for characterization in pilot studies, or for sensitive

  6. High throughput quantitative expression screening and purification applied to recombinant disulfide-rich venom proteins produced in E. coli.

    PubMed

    Saez, Natalie J; Nozach, Hervé; Blemont, Marilyne; Vincentelli, Renaud

    2014-07-30

    Escherichia coli (E. coli) is the most widely used expression system for the production of recombinant proteins for structural and functional studies. However, purifying proteins is sometimes challenging since many proteins are expressed in an insoluble form. When working with difficult or multiple targets it is therefore recommended to use high throughput (HTP) protein expression screening on a small scale (1-4 ml cultures) to quickly identify conditions for soluble expression. To cope with the various structural genomics programs of the lab, a quantitative (within a range of 0.1-100 mg/L culture of recombinant protein) and HTP protein expression screening protocol was implemented and validated on thousands of proteins. The protocols were automated with the use of a liquid handling robot but can also be performed manually without specialized equipment. Disulfide-rich venom proteins are gaining increasing recognition for their potential as therapeutic drug leads. They can be highly potent and selective, but their complex disulfide bond networks make them challenging to produce. As a member of the FP7 European Venomics project (www.venomics.eu), our challenge is to develop successful production strategies with the aim of producing thousands of novel venom proteins for functional characterization. Aided by the redox properties of disulfide bond isomerase DsbC, we adapted our HTP production pipeline for the expression of oxidized, functional venom peptides in the E. coli cytoplasm. The protocols are also applicable to the production of diverse disulfide-rich proteins. Here we demonstrate our pipeline applied to the production of animal venom proteins. With the protocols described herein it is likely that soluble disulfide-rich proteins will be obtained in as little as a week. Even from a small scale, there is the potential to use the purified proteins for validating the oxidation state by mass spectrometry, for characterization in pilot studies, or for sensitive

  7. Bovine serum albumin detection and quantitation based on capacitance measurements of liquid crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Chi-Hao; Lee, Mon-Juan; Lee, Wei

    2016-08-01

    Liquid crystal (LC)-based biosensing is generally limited by the lack of accurate quantitative strategies. This study exploits the unique electric capacitance properties of LCs to establish quantitative assay methods for bovine serum albumin (BSA) biomolecules. By measuring the voltage-dependent electric capacitance of LCs under an alternating-current field with increasing amplitude, positive correlations were derived between the BSA concentration and the electric capacitance parameters of LCs. This study demonstrates that quantitative analysis can be achieved in LC-based biosensing through electric capacitance measurements extensively employed in LCD research and development.

  8. Quantitative, real-time analysis of base excision repair activity in cell lysates utilizing lesion-specific molecular beacons.

    PubMed

    Svilar, David; Vens, Conchita; Sobol, Robert W

    2012-01-01

    We describe a method for the quantitative, real-time measurement of DNA glycosylase and AP endonuclease activities in cell nuclear lysates using base excision repair (BER) molecular beacons. The substrate (beacon) is comprised of a deoxyoligonucleotide containing a single base lesion with a 6-Carboxyfluorescein (6-FAM) moiety conjugated to the 5'end and a Dabcyl moiety conjugated to the 3' end of the oligonucleotide. The BER molecular beacon is 43 bases in length and the sequence is designed to promote the formation of a stem-loop structure with 13 nucleotides in the loop and 15 base pairs in the stem. When folded in this configuration the 6-FAM moiety is quenched by Dabcyl in a non-fluorescent manner via Förster Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET). The lesion is positioned such that following base lesion removal and strand scission the remaining 5 base oligonucleotide containing the 6-FAM moiety is released from the stem. Release and detachment from the quencher (Dabcyl) results in an increase of fluorescence that is proportionate to the level of DNA repair. By collecting multiple reads of the fluorescence values, real-time assessment of BER activity is possible. The use of standard quantitative real-time PCR instruments allows the simultaneous analysis of numerous samples. The design of these BER molecular beacons, with a single base lesion, is amenable to kinetic analyses, BER quantification and inhibitor validation and is adaptable for quantification of DNA Repair activity in tissue and tumor cell lysates or with purified proteins. The analysis of BER activity in tumor lysates or tissue aspirates using these molecular beacons may be applicable to functional biomarker measurements. Further, the analysis of BER activity with purified proteins using this quantitative assay provides a rapid, high-throughput method for the discovery and validation of BER inhibitors.

  9. A simple quantitative model of macromolecular crowding effects on protein folding: Application to the murine prion protein(121-231)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergasa-Caceres, Fernando; Rabitz, Herschel A.

    2013-06-01

    A model of protein folding kinetics is applied to study the effects of macromolecular crowding on protein folding rate and stability. Macromolecular crowding is found to promote a decrease of the entropic cost of folding of proteins that produces an increase of both the stability and the folding rate. The acceleration of the folding rate due to macromolecular crowding is shown to be a topology-dependent effect. The model is applied to the folding dynamics of the murine prion protein (121-231). The differential effect of macromolecular crowding as a function of protein topology suffices to make non-native configurations relatively more accessible.

  10. The IUPHAR/BPS Guide to PHARMACOLOGY in 2016: towards curated quantitative interactions between 1300 protein targets and 6000 ligands.

    PubMed

    Southan, Christopher; Sharman, Joanna L; Benson, Helen E; Faccenda, Elena; Pawson, Adam J; Alexander, Stephen P H; Buneman, O Peter; Davenport, Anthony P; McGrath, John C; Peters, John A; Spedding, Michael; Catterall, William A; Fabbro, Doriano; Davies, Jamie A

    2016-01-01

    The IUPHAR/BPS Guide to PHARMACOLOGY (GtoPdb, http://www.guidetopharmacology.org) provides expert-curated molecular interactions between successful and potential drugs and their targets in the human genome. Developed by the International Union of Basic and Clinical Pharmacology (IUPHAR) and the British Pharmacological Society (BPS), this resource, and its earlier incarnation as IUPHAR-DB, is described in our 2014 publication. This update incorporates changes over the intervening seven database releases. The unique model of content capture is based on established and new target class subcommittees collaborating with in-house curators. Most information comes from journal articles, but we now also index kinase cross-screening panels. Targets are specified by UniProtKB IDs. Small molecules are defined by PubChem Compound Identifiers (CIDs); ligand capture also includes peptides and clinical antibodies. We have extended the capture of ligands and targets linked via published quantitative binding data (e.g. Ki, IC50 or Kd). The resulting pharmacological relationship network now defines a data-supported druggable genome encompassing 7% of human proteins. The database also provides an expanded substrate for the biennially published compendium, the Concise Guide to PHARMACOLOGY. This article covers content increase, entity analysis, revised curation strategies, new website features and expanded download options. PMID:26464438

  11. The IUPHAR/BPS Guide to PHARMACOLOGY in 2016: towards curated quantitative interactions between 1300 protein targets and 6000 ligands

    PubMed Central

    Southan, Christopher; Sharman, Joanna L.; Benson, Helen E.; Faccenda, Elena; Pawson, Adam J.; Alexander, Stephen P. H.; Buneman, O. Peter; Davenport, Anthony P.; McGrath, John C.; Peters, John A.; Spedding, Michael; Catterall, William A.; Fabbro, Doriano; Davies, Jamie A.

    2016-01-01

    The IUPHAR/BPS Guide to PHARMACOLOGY (GtoPdb, http://www.guidetopharmacology.org) provides expert-curated molecular interactions between successful and potential drugs and their targets in the human genome. Developed by the International Union of Basic and Clinical Pharmacology (IUPHAR) and the British Pharmacological Society (BPS), this resource, and its earlier incarnation as IUPHAR-DB, is described in our 2014 publication. This update incorporates changes over the intervening seven database releases. The unique model of content capture is based on established and new target class subcommittees collaborating with in-house curators. Most information comes from journal articles, but we now also index kinase cross-screening panels. Targets are specified by UniProtKB IDs. Small molecules are defined by PubChem Compound Identifiers (CIDs); ligand capture also includes peptides and clinical antibodies. We have extended the capture of ligands and targets linked via published quantitative binding data (e.g. Ki, IC50 or Kd). The resulting pharmacological relationship network now defines a data-supported druggable genome encompassing 7% of human proteins. The database also provides an expanded substrate for the biennially published compendium, the Concise Guide to PHARMACOLOGY. This article covers content increase, entity analysis, revised curation strategies, new website features and expanded download options. PMID:26464438

  12. Semi-automated, Quantitative Analysis of Retinal Ganglion Cell Morphology in Mice Selectively Expressing Yellow Fluorescent Protein

    PubMed Central

    Oglesby, Ericka; Quigley, Harry A.; Zack, Donald J.; Cone, Frances E.; Steinhart, Matthew R.; Tian, Jing; Pease, Mary E.; Kalesnykas, Giedrius

    2012-01-01

    The development of transgenic mouse lines that selectively label a subset of neurons provides unique opportunities to study detailed neuronal morphology and morphological changes under experimental conditions. In the present study, a mouse line in which a small number of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) express yellow fluorescent protein (YFP) under control of the Thy-1 promoter was used (Feng et al., 2000). We characterized the number, distribution by retinal region and eccentricity of YFP-labeled RGCs using fluorescence microscopy and StereoInvestigator software (MicroBrightField, VT, USA). Then, we captured images of 4–6 YFP-expressing RGCs from each of 8 retinal regions by confocal microscopy, producing 3-dimensional and flattened data sets. A new semi-automated method to quantify the soma size, dendritic length and dendritic arbor complexity was developed using MetaMorph software (Molecular Devices, PA, USA). Our results show that YFP is expressed in 0.2% of all RGCs. Expression of YFP was not significantly different in central versus peripheral retina, but there were higher number of YFP expressing RGCs in the temporal quadrant than in the nasal. By confocal-based analysis, 58% of RGCs expressing YFP did so at a high level, with the remainder distributed in decreasing levels of brightness. Variability in detailed morphometric parameters was as great between two fellow retinas as in retinas from different mice. The analytic methods developed for this selective YFP expressing RGC model permit quantitative comparisons of parameters relevant to neuronal injury. PMID:22210127

  13. The IUPHAR/BPS Guide to PHARMACOLOGY in 2016: towards curated quantitative interactions between 1300 protein targets and 6000 ligands.

    PubMed

    Southan, Christopher; Sharman, Joanna L; Benson, Helen E; Faccenda, Elena; Pawson, Adam J; Alexander, Stephen P H; Buneman, O Peter; Davenport, Anthony P; McGrath, John C; Peters, John A; Spedding, Michael; Catterall, William A; Fabbro, Doriano; Davies, Jamie A

    2016-01-01

    The IUPHAR/BPS Guide to PHARMACOLOGY (GtoPdb, http://www.guidetopharmacology.org) provides expert-curated molecular interactions between successful and potential drugs and their targets in the human genome. Developed by the International Union of Basic and Clinical Pharmacology (IUPHAR) and the British Pharmacological Society (BPS), this resource, and its earlier incarnation as IUPHAR-DB, is described in our 2014 publication. This update incorporates changes over the intervening seven database releases. The unique model of content capture is based on established and new target class subcommittees collaborating with in-house curators. Most information comes from journal articles, but we now also index kinase cross-screening panels. Targets are specified by UniProtKB IDs. Small molecules are defined by PubChem Compound Identifiers (CIDs); ligand capture also includes peptides and clinical antibodies. We have extended the capture of ligands and targets linked via published quantitative binding data (e.g. Ki, IC50 or Kd). The resulting pharmacological relationship network now defines a data-supported druggable genome encompassing 7% of human proteins. The database also provides an expanded substrate for the biennially published compendium, the Concise Guide to PHARMACOLOGY. This article covers content increase, entity analysis, revised curation strategies, new website features and expanded download options.

  14. Quantitative Genome-Wide Genetic Interaction Screens Reveal Global Epistatic Relationships of Protein Complexes in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Ashwani; Stewart, Geordie; Samanfar, Bahram; Aoki, Hiroyuki; Wagih, Omar; Vlasblom, James; Phanse, Sadhna; Lad, Krunal; Yeou Hsiung Yu, Angela; Graham, Christopher; Jin, Ke; Brown, Eric; Golshani, Ashkan; Kim, Philip; Moreno-Hagelsieb, Gabriel; Greenblatt, Jack; Houry, Walid A.; Parkinson, John; Emili, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Large-scale proteomic analyses in Escherichia coli have documented the composition and physical relationships of multiprotein complexes, but not their functional organization into biological pathways and processes. Conversely, genetic interaction (GI) screens can provide insights into the biological role(s) of individual gene and higher order associations. Combining the information from both approaches should elucidate how complexes and pathways intersect functionally at a systems level. However, such integrative analysis has been hindered due to the lack of relevant GI data. Here we present a systematic, unbiased, and quantitative synthetic genetic array screen in E. coli describing the genetic dependencies and functional cross-talk among over 600,000 digenic mutant combinations. Combining this epistasis information with putative functional modules derived from previous proteomic data and genomic context-based methods revealed unexpected associations, including new components required for the biogenesis of iron-sulphur and ribosome integrity, and the interplay between molecular chaperones and proteases. We find that functionally-linked genes co-conserved among γ-proteobacteria are far more likely to have correlated GI profiles than genes with divergent patterns of evolution. Overall, examining bacterial GIs in the context of protein complexes provides avenues for a deeper mechanistic understanding of core microbial systems. PMID:24586182

  15. A Quantitative Analysis of Published Skull Base Endoscopy Literature.

    PubMed

    Hardesty, Douglas A; Ponce, Francisco A; Little, Andrew S; Nakaji, Peter

    2016-02-01

    Objectives Skull base endoscopy allows for minimal access approaches to the sinonasal contents and cranial base. Advances in endoscopic technique and applications have been published rapidly in recent decades. Setting We utilized an Internet-based scholarly database (Web of Science, Thomson Reuters) to query broad-based phrases regarding skull base endoscopy literature. Participants All skull base endoscopy publications. Main Outcome Measures Standard bibliometrics outcomes. Results We identified 4,082 relevant skull base endoscopy English-language articles published between 1973 and 2014. The 50 top-cited publications (n = 51, due to articles with equal citation counts) ranged in citation count from 397 to 88. Most of the articles were clinical case series or technique descriptions. Most (96% [49/51])were published in journals specific to either neurosurgery or otolaryngology. Conclusions A relatively small number of institutions and individuals have published a large amount of the literature. Most of the publications consisted of case series and technical advances, with a lack of randomized trials. PMID:26949585

  16. Monitoring with Trackers Based on Semi-Quantitative Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuipers, Benjamin

    1997-01-01

    In three years of NASA-sponsored research preceding this project, we successfully developed a technology for: (1) building qualitative and semi-quantitative models from libraries of model-fragments, (2) simulating these models to predict future behaviors with the guarantee that all possible behaviors are covered, (3) assimilating observations into behaviors, shrinking uncertainty so that incorrect models are eventually refuted and correct models make stronger predictions for the future. In our object-oriented framework, a tracker is an object which embodies the hypothesis that the available observation stream is consistent with a particular behavior of a particular model. The tracker maintains its own status (consistent, superceded, or refuted), and answers questions about its explanation for past observations and its predictions for the future. In the MIMIC approach to monitoring of continuous systems, a number of trackers are active in parallel, representing alternate hypotheses about the behavior of a system. This approach is motivated by the need to avoid 'system accidents' [Perrow, 1985] due to operator fixation on a single hypothesis, as for example at Three Mile Island. As we began to address these issues, we focused on three major research directions that we planned to pursue over a three-year project: (1) tractable qualitative simulation, (2) semiquantitative inference, and (3) tracking set management. Unfortunately, funding limitations made it impossible to continue past year one. Nonetheless, we made major progress in the first two of these areas. Progress in the third area as slower because the graduate student working on that aspect of the project decided to leave school and take a job in industry. I enclosed a set of abstract of selected papers on the work describe below. Several papers that draw on the research supported during this period appeared in print after the grant period ended.

  17. Proteome-wide measurement of non-canonical bacterial mistranslation by quantitative mass spectrometry of protein modifications

    PubMed Central

    Cvetesic, Nevena; Semanjski, Maja; Soufi, Boumediene; Krug, Karsten; Gruic-Sovulj, Ita; Macek, Boris

    2016-01-01

    The genetic code is virtually universal in biology and was likely established before the advent of cellular life. The extent to which mistranslation occurs is poorly understood and presents a fundamental question in basic research and production of recombinant proteins. Here we used shotgun proteomics combined with unbiased protein modification analysis to quantitatively analyze in vivo mistranslation in an E. coli strain with a defect in the editing mechanism of leucyl-tRNA synthetase. We detected the misincorporation of a non-proteinogenic amino acid norvaline on 10% of all measured leucine residues under microaerobic conditions and revealed preferential deployment of a tRNALeu(CAG) isoacceptor during norvaline misincorporation. The strain with the norvalylated proteome demonstrated a substantial reduction in cell fitness under both prolonged aerobic and microaerobic cultivation. Unlike norvaline, isoleucine did not substitute for leucine even under harsh error-prone conditions. Our study introduces shotgun proteomics as a powerful tool in quantitative analysis of mistranslation. PMID:27377007

  18. Deconvoluting complex tissues for expression quantitative trait locus-based analyses

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Ji-Heui; Li, Qiyuan; Fatima, Aquila; Eklund, Aron; Szallasi, Zoltan; Polyak, Kornelia; Richardson, Andrea L.; Freedman, Matthew L.

    2013-01-01

    Breast cancer genome-wide association studies have pinpointed dozens of variants associated with breast cancer pathogenesis. The majority of risk variants, however, are located outside of known protein-coding regions. Therefore, identifying which genes the risk variants are acting through presents an important challenge. Variants that are associated with mRNA transcript levels are referred to as expression quantitative trait loci (eQTLs). Many studies have demonstrated that eQTL-based strategies provide a direct way to connect a trait-associated locus with its candidate target gene. Performing eQTL-based analyses in human samples is complicated because of the heterogeneous nature of human tissue. We addressed this issue by devising a method to computationally infer the fraction of cell types in normal human breast tissues. We then applied this method to 13 known breast cancer risk loci, which we hypothesized were eQTLs. For each risk locus, we took all known transcripts within a 2 Mb interval and performed an eQTL analysis in 100 reduction mammoplasty cases. A total of 18 significant associations were discovered (eight in the epithelial compartment and 10 in the stromal compartment). This study highlights the ability to perform large-scale eQTL studies in heterogeneous tissues. PMID:23650637

  19. An Integrated Quantitative Proteomics and Systems Biology Approach to Explore Synaptic Protein Profile Changes During Morphine Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Stockton, Steven D; Devi, Lakshmi A

    2014-01-01

    Morphine is a classic analgesic for the treatment of chronic pain. However, its repeated use is known to produce tolerance, physical dependence, and addiction; these properties limit its long-term therapeutic use and this has led to a quest for therapeutics without these unwanted side effects. Understanding the molecular changes in response to long-term use of morphine is likely to aid in the development of novel therapeutics for the treatment of pain. Studies examining the effects of chronic morphine administration have reported alterations in gene expression, synapse morphology, and synaptic transmission implying changes in synaptic protein profile. To fully understand the changes in protein profiles, proteomic techniques have been used. Studies using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis of various brain regions combined with mass spectrometry have found alterations in the levels of a number of proteins. However, neither the changes in brain regions relevant to morphine effects nor changes in the abundance of synaptic proteins have been clearly delineated. Recent studies employing subcellular fractionation to isolate the striatal synapse, combined with quantitative proteomics and graph theory-inspired network analyses, have begun to quantify morphine-regulated changes in synaptic proteins and facilitate the generation of networks that could serve as targets for the development of novel therapeutics for the treatment of chronic pain. Thus, an integrated quantitative proteomics and systems biology approach can be useful to identify novel targets for the treatment of pain and other disorders of the brain. PMID:24045585

  20. Duplex Quantitative PCR Assay for Detection of Haemophilus influenzae That Distinguishes Fucose- and Protein D-Negative Strains.

    PubMed

    de Gier, Camilla; Pickering, Janessa L; Richmond, Peter C; Thornton, Ruth B; Kirkham, Lea-Ann S

    2016-09-01

    We have developed a specific Haemophilus influenzae quantitative PCR (qPCR) that also identifies fucose-negative and protein D-negative strains. Analysis of 100 H. influenzae isolates, 28 Haemophilus haemolyticus isolates, and 14 other bacterial species revealed 100% sensitivity (95% confidence interval [CI], 96% to 100%) and 100% specificity (95% CI, 92% to 100%) for this assay. The evaluation of 80 clinical specimens demonstrated a strong correlation between semiquantitative culture and the qPCR (P < 0.001).

  1. Comparison of colorimetric assays with quantitative amino acid analysis for protein quantification of Generalized Modules for Membrane Antigens (GMMA).

    PubMed

    Rossi, Omar; Maggiore, Luana; Necchi, Francesca; Koeberling, Oliver; MacLennan, Calman A; Saul, Allan; Gerke, Christiane

    2015-01-01

    Genetically induced outer membrane particles from Gram-negative bacteria, called Generalized Modules for Membrane Antigens (GMMA), are being investigated as vaccines. Rapid methods are required for estimating the protein content for in-process assays during production. Since GMMA are complex biological structures containing lipid and polysaccharide as well as protein, protein determinations are not necessarily straightforward. We compared protein quantification by Bradford, Lowry, and Non-Interfering assays using bovine serum albumin (BSA) as standard with quantitative amino acid (AA) analysis, the most accurate currently available method for protein quantification. The Lowry assay has the lowest inter- and intra-assay variation and gives the best linearity between protein amount and absorbance. In all three assays, the color yield (optical density per mass of protein) of GMMA was markedly different from that of BSA with a ratio of approximately 4 for the Bradford assay, and highly variable between different GMMA; and approximately 0.7 for the Lowry and Non-Interfering assays, highlighting the need for calibrating the standard used in the colorimetric assay against GMMA quantified by AA analysis. In terms of a combination of ease, reproducibility, and proportionality of protein measurement, and comparability between samples, the Lowry assay was superior to Bradford and Non-Interfering assays for GMMA quantification.

  2. Isobaric Tags for Relative and Absolute Quantitation-Based Proteomic Analysis of Patent and Constricted Ductus Arteriosus Tissues Confirms the Systemic Regulation of Ductus Arteriosus Closure.

    PubMed

    Hong, Haifa; Ye, Lincai; Chen, Huiwen; Xia, Yu; Liu, Yue; Liu, Jinfen; Lu, Yanan; Zhang, Haibo

    2015-08-01

    We aimed to evaluate global changes in protein expression associated with patency by undertaking proteomic analysis of human constricted and patent ductus arteriosus (DA). Ten constricted and 10 patent human DAs were excised from infants with ductal-dependent heart disease during surgery. Using isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation-based quantitative proteomics, 132 differentially expressed proteins were identified. Of 132 proteins, voltage-gated sodium channel 1.3 (SCN3A), myosin 1d (Myo1d), Rho GTPase activating protein 26 (ARHGAP26), and retinitis pigmentosa 1 (RP1) were selected for validation by Western blot and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction analyses. Significant upregulation of SCN3A, Myo1d, and RP1 messenger RNA, and protein levels was observed in the patent DA group (all P ≤ 0.048). ARHGAP26 messenger RNA and protein levels were decreased in patent DA tissue (both P ≤ 0.018). Immunohistochemistry analysis revealed that Myo1d, ARHGAP26, and RP1 were specifically expressed in the subendothelial region of constricted DAs; however, diffuse expression of these proteins was noted in the patent group. Proteomic analysis revealed global changes in the expression of proteins that regulate oxygen sensing, ion channels, smooth muscle cell migration, nervous system, immune system, and metabolism, suggesting a basis for the systemic regulation of DA patency by diverse signaling pathways, which will be confirmed in further studies.

  3. Quantitative model of calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II activation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mihalas, Stefan

    Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) is a key element in the calcium second messenger cascades that lead to long term potentiation (LTP) of synaptic strength. In this thesis, I have constructed kinetic models of activation of CaMKII and measured some of the unknown parameters of the model. I used the models to elucidate mechanisms of activation of CaMKII and to study the kinetics of its activation under conditions similar to those in dendritic spines.In chapter 2, I developed a new experimental method to rapidly stop the autophosphorylation reaction. I used this method to measure the catalytic turnover number of CaMKII. To quantitatively characterize CaMKII atophosphorylation in nonsaturating calcium, I also measured the autophosphorylation turnover number when CaMKII is activated by calmodulin mutants that can bind calcium ions only in either the amino or the carboxyl lobes.Previous models of CaMKII activation assumed that binding of calmodulins to individual CaMKII subunits is independent and that autophosphorylation occurs within a ring of 6 subunits. However, a recent structure of CaMKII suggests that pairs of subunits cooperate in binding calmodulin and raises the possibility that the autophosphorylation occurs within pairs of subunits. In chapter 3, I constructed a model in which CaMKII subunits cooperate in binding calmodulin. This model reconciled previous experimental results from the literature that appeared contradictory. In chapter 4, I constructed two models for CaMKII autophosphorylation, in which autophosphorylation can occur either in rings or pairs, and used them to design experiments aimed at differentiating between these possibilities. Previously published measurements and the measurements that I performed are more consistent with autophosphorylation occurring within pairs.In chapter 5, I constructed a model for simultaneous interactions among calcium, calmodulin, and CaMKII, and I used an automatic parameter search algorithm

  4. Label-free single-cell protein quantification using a drop-based mix-and-read system

    PubMed Central

    Abbaspourrad, Alireza; Zhang, Huidan; Tao, Ye; Cui, Naiwen; Asahara, Haruichi; Zhou, Ying; Yue, Dongxian; Koehler, Stephan A.; Ung, Lloyd W.; Heyman, John; Ren, Yukun; Ziblat, Roy; Chong, Shaorong; Weitz, David A.

    2015-01-01

    Quantitative protein analysis of single cells is rarely achieved due to technical difficulties of detecting minute amounts of proteins present in one cell. We develop a mix-and-read assay for drop-based label-free protein analysis of single cells. This high-throughput method quantifies absolute, rather than relative, amounts of proteins and does not involve antibody labeling or mass spectrometry. PMID:26234416

  5. Occurrence of protein a in staphylococcal strains: quantitative aspects and correlation to antigenic and bacteriophage types.

    PubMed

    Kronvall, G; Dossett, J H; Quie, P G; Williams, R C

    1971-01-01

    Protein A of Staphylococcus aureus can be detected on cell walls of intact bacteria by use of radioactively labeled myeloma globulin. Of 156 strains of S. aureus, 141 (90%) contained protein A. None of 47 S. epidermidis strains was positive for protein A. The production of protein A was influenced by incubation temperature but not by differences in incubation time or inoculum size. A medium containing a high concentration of NaCl suppressed the production of protein A by 90%. Formalin treatment of protein A-containing strains caused a decrease in the amount detected, but no further decrease was detected after storage at 4 C. No correlation was found between absence or presence of protein A and phage type or phage group. Sixteen S. aureus strains were studied extensively. There was no correlation between protein A and any of the 26 antigenic characteristics which have been previously described in these strains.

  6. Occurrence of protein a in staphylococcal strains: quantitative aspects and correlation to antigenic and bacteriophage types.

    PubMed

    Kronvall, G; Dossett, J H; Quie, P G; Williams, R C

    1971-01-01

    Protein A of Staphylococcus aureus can be detected on cell walls of intact bacteria by use of radioactively labeled myeloma globulin. Of 156 strains of S. aureus, 141 (90%) contained protein A. None of 47 S. epidermidis strains was positive for protein A. The production of protein A was influenced by incubation temperature but not by differences in incubation time or inoculum size. A medium containing a high concentration of NaCl suppressed the production of protein A by 90%. Formalin treatment of protein A-containing strains caused a decrease in the amount detected, but no further decrease was detected after storage at 4 C. No correlation was found between absence or presence of protein A and phage type or phage group. Sixteen S. aureus strains were studied extensively. There was no correlation between protein A and any of the 26 antigenic characteristics which have been previously described in these strains. PMID:16557923

  7. Model-based resolution: applying the theory in quantitative microscopy.

    PubMed

    Santos, A; Young, I T

    2000-06-10

    Model-based image processing techniques have been proposed as a way to increase the resolution of optical microscopes. Here a model based on the microscope's point-spread function is analyzed, and the resolution limits achieved with a proposed goodness-of-fit criterion are quantified. Several experiments were performed to evaluate the possibilities and limitations of this method: (a) experiments with an ideal (diffraction-limited) microscope, (b) experiments with simulated dots and a real microscope, and (c) experiments with real dots acquired with a real microscope. The results show that a threefold increase over classical resolution (e.g., Rayleigh) is possible. These results can be affected by model misspecifications, whereas model corruption, as seen in the effect of Poisson noise, seems to be unimportant. This research can be considered to be preliminary with the final goal being the accurate measurement of various cytogenetic properties, such as gene distributions, in labeled preparations.

  8. The mzQuantML data standard for mass spectrometry-based quantitative studies in proteomics.

    PubMed

    Walzer, Mathias; Qi, Da; Mayer, Gerhard; Uszkoreit, Julian; Eisenacher, Martin; Sachsenberg, Timo; Gonzalez-Galarza, Faviel F; Fan, Jun; Bessant, Conrad; Deutsch, Eric W; Reisinger, Florian; Vizcaíno, Juan Antonio; Medina-Aunon, J Alberto; Albar, Juan Pablo; Kohlbacher, Oliver; Jones, Andrew R

    2013-08-01

    The range of heterogeneous approaches available for quantifying protein abundance via mass spectrometry (MS)(1) leads to considerable challenges in modeling, archiving, exchanging, or submitting experimental data sets as supplemental material to journals. To date, there has been no widely accepted format for capturing the evidence trail of how quantitative analysis has been performed by software, for transferring data between software packages, or for submitting to public databases. In the context of the Proteomics Standards Initiative, we have developed the mzQuantML data standard. The standard can represent quantitative data about regions in two-dimensional retention time versus mass/charge space (called features), peptides, and proteins and protein groups (where there is ambiguity regarding peptide-to-protein inference), and it offers limited support for small molecule (metabolomic) data. The format has structures for representing replicate MS runs, grouping of replicates (for example, as study variables), and capturing the parameters used by software packages to arrive at these values. The format has the capability to reference other standards such as mzML and mzIdentML, and thus the evidence trail for the MS workflow as a whole can now be described. Several software implementations are available, and we encourage other bioinformatics groups to use mzQuantML as an input, internal, or output format for quantitative software and for structuring local repositories. All project resources are available in the public domain from the HUPO Proteomics Standards Initiative http://www.psidev.info/mzquantml.

  9. Bioengineered tunable memristor based on protein nanocage.

    PubMed

    Meng, Fanben; Sana, Barindra; Li, Yuangang; Liu, Yuanjun; Lim, Sierin; Chen, Xiaodong

    2014-01-29

    Bioengineered protein-based nanodevices with tunable and reproducible memristive performance are fabricated by combining the unique high loading capacity of Archaeoglobus fulgidus ferritin with OWL-generated nanogaps. By tuning the iron amount inside ferritin, the ON/OFF ratio of conductance switching can be modulated accordingly. Higher molecular loading exhibits better memristive performance owing to the higher electrochemical activity of the ferric complex core.

  10. iTRAQ-Based Quantitative Proteomic Analysis of the Antimicrobial Mechanism of Peptide F1 against Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Miao, Jianyin; Chen, Feilong; Duan, Shan; Gao, Xiangyang; Liu, Guo; Chen, Yunjiao; Dixon, William; Xiao, Hang; Cao, Yong

    2015-08-19

    Antimicrobial peptides have received increasing attention in the agricultural and food industries due to their potential to control pathogens. However, to facilitate the development of novel peptide-based antimicrobial agents, details regarding the molecular mechanisms of these peptides need to be elucidated. The aim of this study was to investigate the antimicrobial mechanism of peptide F1, a bacteriocin found in Tibetan kefir, against Escherichia coli at protein levels using iTRAQ-based quantitative proteomic analysis. In response to treatment with peptide F1, 31 of the 280 identified proteins in E. coli showed alterations in their expression, including 10 down-regulated proteins and 21 up-regulated proteins. These 31 proteins all possess different molecular functions and are involved in different molecular pathways, as is evident in referencing the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathways. Specifically, pathways that were significantly altered in E. coli in response to peptide F1 treatment include the tricarboxylic acid cycle, oxidative phosphorylation, glycerophospholipid metabolism, and the cell cycle-caulobacter pathways, which was also associated with inhibition of the cell growth, induction of morphological changes, and cell death. The results provide novel insights into the molecular mechanisms of antimicrobial peptides.

  11. Quantitative phase imaging using grating-based quadrature phase interferometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Jigang; Yaqoob, Zahid; Heng, Xin; Cui, Xiquan; Yang, Changhuei

    2007-02-01

    In this paper, we report the use of holographic gratings, which act as the free-space equivalent of the 3x3 fiber-optic coupler, to perform full field phase imaging. By recording two harmonically-related gratings in the same holographic plate, we are able to obtain nontrivial phase shift between different output ports of the gratings-based Mach-Zehnder interferometer. The phase difference can be adjusted by changing the relative phase of the recording beams when recording the hologram. We have built a Mach-Zehnder interferometer using harmonically-related holographic gratings with 600 and 1200 lines/mm spacing. Two CCD cameras at the output ports of the gratings-based Mach-Zehnder interferometer are used to record the full-field quadrature interferograms, which are subsequently processed to reconstruct the phase image. The imaging system has ~12X magnification with ~420μmx315μm field-of-view. To demonstrate the capability of our system, we have successfully performed phase imaging of a pure phase object and a paramecium caudatum.

  12. A reliability measure of protein-protein interactions and a reliability measure-based search engine.

    PubMed

    Park, Byungkyu; Han, Kyungsook

    2010-02-01

    Many methods developed for estimating the reliability of protein-protein interactions are based on the topology of protein-protein interaction networks. This paper describes a new reliability measure for protein-protein interactions, which does not rely on the topology of protein interaction networks, but expresses biological information on functional roles, sub-cellular localisations and protein classes as a scoring schema. The new measure is useful for filtering many spurious interactions, as well as for estimating the reliability of protein interaction data. In particular, the reliability measure can be used to search protein-protein interactions with the desired reliability in databases. The reliability-based search engine is available at http://yeast.hpid.org. We believe this is the first search engine for interacting proteins, which is made available to public. The search engine and the reliability measure of protein interactions should provide useful information for determining proteins to focus on.

  13. Plasma proteome response to severe burn injury revealed by 18O-labeled "universal" reference-based quantitative proteomics.

    PubMed

    Qian, Wei-Jun; Petritis, Brianne O; Kaushal, Amit; Finnerty, Celeste C; Jeschke, Marc G; Monroe, Matthew E; Moore, Ronald J; Schepmoes, Athena A; Xiao, Wenzhong; Moldawer, Lyle L; Davis, Ronald W; Tompkins, Ronald G; Herndon, David N; Camp, David G; Smith, Richard D

    2010-09-01

    A burn injury represents one of the most severe forms of human trauma and is responsible for significant mortality worldwide. Here, we present the first quantitative proteomics investigation of the blood plasma proteome response to severe burn injury by comparing the plasma protein concentrations of 10 healthy control subjects with those of 15 severe burn patients at two time-points following the injury. The overall analytical strategy for this work integrated immunoaffinity depletion of the 12 most abundant plasma proteins with cysteinyl-peptide enrichment-based fractionation prior to LC-MS analyses of individual patient samples. Incorporation of an 18O-labeled "universal" reference among the sample sets enabled precise relative quantification across samples. In total, 313 plasma proteins confidently identified with two or more unique peptides were quantified. Following statistical analysis, 110 proteins exhibited significant abundance changes in response to the burn injury. The observed changes in protein concentrations suggest significant inflammatory and hypermetabolic response to the injury, which is supported by the fact that many of the identified proteins are associated with acute phase response signaling, the complement system, and coagulation system pathways. The regulation of approximately 35 proteins observed in this study is in agreement with previous results reported for inflammatory or burn response, but approximately 50 potentially novel proteins previously not known to be associated with burn response or inflammation are also found. Elucidating proteins involved in the response to severe burn injury may reveal novel targets for therapeutic interventions as well as potential predictive biomarkers for patient outcomes such as multiple organ failure.

  14. Deriving quantitative dynamics information for proteins and RNAs using ROTDIF with a graphical user interface.

    PubMed

    Berlin, Konstantin; Longhini, Andrew; Dayie, T Kwaku; Fushman, David

    2013-12-01

    To facilitate rigorous analysis of molecular motions in proteins, DNA, and RNA, we present a new version of ROTDIF, a program for determining the overall rotational diffusion tensor from single- or multiple-field nuclear magnetic resonance relaxation data. We introduce four major features that expand the program's versatility and usability. The first feature is the ability to analyze, separately or together, (13)C and/or (15)N relaxation data collected at a single or multiple fields. A significant improvement in the accuracy compared to direct analysis of R2/R1 ratios, especially critical for analysis of (13)C relaxation data, is achieved by subtracting high-frequency contributions to relaxation rates. The second new feature is an improved method for computing the rotational diffusion tensor in the presence of biased errors, such as large conformational exchange contributions, that significantly enhances the accuracy of the computation. The third new feature is the integration of the domain alignment and docking module for relaxation-based structure determination of multi-domain systems. Finally, to improve accessibility to all the program features, we introduced a graphical user interface that simplifies and speeds up the analysis of the data. Written in Java, the new ROTDIF can run on virtually any computer platform. In addition, the new ROTDIF achieves an order of magnitude speedup over the previous version by implementing a more efficient deterministic minimization algorithm. We not only demonstrate the improvement in accuracy and speed of the new algorithm for synthetic and experimental (13)C and (15)N relaxation data for several proteins and nucleic acids, but also show that careful analysis required especially for characterizing RNA dynamics allowed us to uncover subtle conformational changes in RNA as a function of temperature that were opaque to previous analysis.

  15. Deriving Quantitative Dynamics Information for Proteins and RNAs using ROTDIF with a Graphical User Interface

    PubMed Central

    Berlin, Konstantin; Longhini, Andrew; Dayie, T. Kwaku; Fushman, David

    2013-01-01

    To facilitate rigorous analysis of molecular motions in proteins, DNA, and RNA, we present a new version of ROTDIF, a program for determining the overall rotational diffusion tensor from single-or multiple-field Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) relaxation data. We introduce four major features that expand the program’s versatility and usability. The first feature is the ability to analyze, separately or together, 13C and/or 15N relaxation data collected at a single or multiple fields. A significant improvement in the accuracy compared to direct analysis of R2/R1 ratios, especially critical for analysis of 13C relaxation data, is achieved by subtracting high-frequency contributions to relaxation rates. The second new feature is an improved method for computing the rotational diffusion tensor in the presence of biased errors, such as large conformational exchange contributions, that significantly enhances the accuracy of the computation. The third new feature is the integration of the domain alignment and docking module for relaxation-based structure determination of multi-domain systems. Finally, to improve accessibility to all the program features, we introduced a graphical user interface (GUI) that simplifies and speeds up the analysis of the data. Written in Java, the new ROTDIF can run on virtually any computer platform. In addition, the new ROTDIF achieves an order of magnitude speedup over the previous version by implementing a more efficient deterministic minimization algorithm. We not only demonstrate the improvement in accuracy and speed of the new algorithm for synthetic and experimental 13C and 15N relaxation data for several proteins and nucleic acids, but also show that careful analysis required especially for characterizing RNA dynamics allowed us to uncover subtle conformational changes in RNA as a function of temperature that were opaque to previous analysis. PMID:24170368

  16. Measurement of local rates of brain protein synthesis by quantitative autoradiography: validation with L-(/sup 3/H)valine

    SciTech Connect

    Dwyer, B.E.; Donatoni, P.; Wasterlain, C.G.

    1982-12-01

    Following the injection of 4-day old rats with 150 mM L-(3,4-/sup 3/H)valine (10 mumol/g, IP) the incorporation of /sup 3/H into protein was linear 2 hours. Valine specific activity in the brain acid-soluble fraction was constant between 30 and 120 min after injection with a mean value of 82.3% of the injectate. Significant amounts of tritated metabolites accumulated in the brain acid-soluble fraction (41.4% of radioactivity at 120 min) but do not prove an impediment to measuring rates of protein synthesis. The rate of protein synthesis in cerebral cortex of the 4-day old rat was measured by quantitative autoradiography using (/sup 3/H)valine and /sup 3/H-sensitive film. The measured rate shows excellent agreement with that found previously using L-(1-/sup 14/C)valine. Our results suggest that (/sup 3/H)valine can be a useful precursor to measure local rates of brain protein synthesis by quantitative autoradiography.

  17. Quantitative Assessment of RNA-Protein Interactions with High Throughput Sequencing - RNA Affinity Profiling (HiTS-RAP)

    PubMed Central

    Ozer, Abdullah; Tome, Jacob M.; Friedman, Robin C.; Gheba, Dan; Schroth, Gary P.; Lis, John T.

    2016-01-01

    Because RNA-protein interactions play a central role in a wide-array of biological processes, methods that enable a quantitative assessment of these interactions in a high-throughput manner are in great demand. Recently, we developed the High Throughput Sequencing-RNA Affinity Profiling (HiTS-RAP) assay, which couples sequencing on an Illumina GAIIx with the quantitative assessment of one or several proteins’ interactions with millions of different RNAs in a single experiment. We have successfully used HiTS-RAP to analyze interactions of EGFP and NELF-E proteins with their corresponding canonical and mutant RNA aptamers. Here, we provide a detailed protocol for HiTS-RAP, which can be completed in about a month (8 days hands-on time) including the preparation and testing of recombinant proteins and DNA templates, clustering DNA templates on a flowcell, high-throughput sequencing and protein binding with GAIIx, and finally data analysis. We also highlight aspects of HiTS-RAP that can be further improved and points of comparison between HiTS-RAP and two other recently developed methods, RNA-MaP and RBNS. A successful HiTS-RAP experiment provides the sequence and binding curves for approximately 200 million RNAs in a single experiment. PMID:26182240

  18. Direct real-time quantitative PCR for measurement of host-cell residual DNA in therapeutic proteins.

    PubMed

    Peper, Grit; Fankhauser, Alexander; Merlin, Thomas; Roscic, Ana; Hofmann, Matthias; Obrdlik, Petr

    2014-11-01

    Real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) is important for quantification of residual host cell DNA (resDNA) in therapeutic protein preparations. Typical qPCR protocols involve DNA extraction steps complicating sample handling. Here, we describe a "direct qPCR" approach without DNA extraction. To avoid interferences of DNA polymerase with a therapeutic protein, proteins in the samples were digested with proteinase K (PK) in the presence of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS). Tween 20 and NaCl were included to minimize precipitation of therapeutic proteins in the PK/SDS mix. After PK treatment, the solution was applied directly for qPCR. Inhibition of DNA polymerase by SDS was prevented by adding 2% (v/v) of Tween 20 to the final qPCR mix. The direct qPCR approach was evaluated for quantification of resDNA in therapeutic proteins manufactured in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) host cells. First, direct qPCR was compared with qPCR applied on purified DNA ("extraction qPCR"). For both qPCRs, the same CHO-specific primers and probes were used. Comparable residual DNA levels were detected with both PCR approaches in purified and highly concentrated drug proteins as well as in in-process-control samples. Finally, the CHO-specific direct qPCR protocol was validated according to ICH guidelines and applied for 25 different therapeutic proteins. The specific limits of quantification were 0.1-0.8ppb for 24 proteins, and 2.0ppb for one protein. General applicability of the direct qPCR was demonstrated by applying the sample preparation protocol for quantification of resDNA in therapeutic proteins manufactured in other hosts such as Escherichia coli and mouse cells.

  19. Quantitative double-label radiography of two-dimensional protein gels using color negative film and computer analysis.

    PubMed

    Goldman, R C; Trus, B L; Leive, L

    1983-04-01

    We have devised a method of data collection and computer analysis which allows utilization of the resolving power of two-dimensional gel electrophoresis of proteins, in conjunction with the versatility of using two different radionuclides simultaneously. Cultures of Escherichia coli growing with exponential growth rate constants (mu) of 0.32 and 1.43 were labeled with [3H]leucine and [14C]leucine, respectively; these samples were mixed, and cell protein was separated on a two-dimensional gel. Spacial and quantitative data for both radionuclides were recorded on color negative film by radiographic exposure. Data for 14C alone were then collected photographically from the red-light-sensitive layer of the film using a red filter, while data for 3H and spillover of 14C were collected photographically from the blue-light-sensitive layer using a blue filter. These two data sets were analyzed by CINT, a computer program for analysis of two-dimensional gels, and quantitative data for 3H were calculated after determination of spillover of 14C in a manner analogous to quantification of 3H and 14C by liquid scintillation counting. Quantitative data from over 1000 protein spots representing from 0.002% to 10% of the total 3H or 14C, respectively, are available in a matter of hours. We have used this method to analyze the effect of growth rate and medium composition on the relative levels of individual proteins in a pathogenic strain of E. coli which contains group 111 O-antigen. As expected, the relative levels of aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases, protein chain elongation factors, ribosomal proteins, and the alpha-subunit of RNA polymerase are all increased with increased growth rate; the magnitude of these changes agreed with previous data derived using other strains of E. coli. Alterations in the levels of other proteins identified on the two-dimensional gels could be interpreted in terms of changes in medium composition. When compared to manual data collection by excising

  20. Identification of protein-protein interactions by standard gal4p-based yeast two-hybrid screening.

    PubMed

    Wagemans, Jeroen; Lavigne, Rob

    2015-01-01

    Yeast two-hybrid (Y2H) screening permits identification of completely new protein interaction partners for a protein of interest, in addition to confirming binary protein-protein interactions. After discussing the general advantages and drawbacks of Y2H and existing alternatives, this chapter provides a detailed protocol for traditional Gal4p-based Y2H library screens in Saccharomyces cerevisiae AH109. This includes bait transformation, bait auto-activation testing, prey library transformation, Y2H evaluation, and subsequent identification of the prey plasmids. Moreover, a one-on-one mating protocol to confirm interactions between suspected partners is given. Finally, a quantitative α-galactosidase assay protocol to compare interaction strengths is provided.

  1. Applications of diagonal chromatography for proteome-wide characterization of protein modifications and activity-based analyses.

    PubMed

    Gevaert, Kris; Impens, Francis; Van Damme, Petra; Ghesquière, Bart; Hanoulle, Xavier; Vandekerckhove, Joël

    2007-12-01

    Numerous gel-free proteomics techniques have been reported over the past few years, introducing a move from proteins to peptides as bits of information in qualitative and quantitative proteome studies. Many shotgun proteomics techniques randomly sample thousands of peptides in a qualitative and quantitative manner but overlook the vast majority of protein modifications that are often crucial for proper protein structure and function. Peptide-based proteomic approaches have thus been developed to profile a diverse set of modifications including, but not at all limited, to phosphorylation, glycosylation and ubiquitination. Typical here is that each modification needs a specific, tailor-made analytical procedure. In this minireview, we discuss how one technique - diagonal reverse-phase chromatography - is applied to study two different types of protein modification: protein processing and protein N-glycosylation. Additionally, we discuss an activity-based proteome study in which purine-binding proteins were profiled by diagonal chromatography.

  2. Fluorescent protein-based biosensors: resolving spatiotemporal dynamics of signaling

    PubMed Central

    DiPilato, Lisa M.; Zhang, Jin

    2009-01-01

    Summary Cellular processes are orchestrated by the precise coordination and regulation of molecular events in the cell. Fluorescent protein-based biosensors coupled with live-cell imaging have enabled the visualization of these events in real time and helped shape some of the current concepts of signal transduction, such as spatial compartmentation. The quantitative information produced by these tools has been incorporated into mathematical models that are capable of predicting highly complex and dynamic behaviors of cellular signaling networks, thus providing a systems level understanding of how pathways interact to produce a functional response. Finally, with technological advances in high throughput and in vivo imaging, these molecular tools promise to continually engender significant contributions to our understanding of cellular processes under normal and diseased conditions. PMID:19910237

  3. Fluorescent protein-based biosensors: resolving spatiotemporal dynamics of signaling.

    PubMed

    DiPilato, Lisa M; Zhang, Jin

    2010-02-01

    Cellular processes are orchestrated by the precise coordination and regulation of molecular events in the cell. Fluorescent protein-based biosensors coupled with live-cell imaging have enabled the visualization of these events in real time and helped shape some of the current concepts of signal transduction, such as spatial compartmentation. The quantitative information produced by these tools has been incorporated into mathematical models that are capable of predicting highly complex and dynamic behaviors of cellular signaling networks, thus providing a systems level understanding of how pathways interact to produce a functional response. Finally, with technological advances in high-throughput and in vivo imaging, these molecular tools promise to continually engender significant contributions to our understanding of cellular processes under normal and diseased conditions.

  4. Comprehensive and Quantitative Proteomic Analysis of Metamorphosis-Related Proteins in the Veined Rapa Whelk, Rapana venosa

    PubMed Central

    Song, Hao; Wang, Hai-Yan; Zhang, Tao

    2016-01-01

    Larval metamorphosis of the veined rapa whelk (Rapana venosa) is a pelagic to benthic transition that involves considerable structural and physiological changes. Because metamorphosis plays a pivotal role in R. venosa commercial breeding and natural populations, the endogenous proteins that drive this transition attract considerable interest. This study is the first to perform a comprehensive and quantitative proteomic analysis related to metamorphosis in a marine gastropod. We analyzed the proteomes of competent R. venosa larvae and post-larvae, resulting in the identification of 5312 proteins, including 470 that were downregulated and 668 that were upregulated after metamorphosis. The differentially expressed proteins reflected multiple processes involved in metamorphosis, including cytoskeleton and cell adhesion, ingestion and digestion, stress response and immunity, as well as specific tissue development. Our data improve understanding of the physiological traits controlling R. venosa metamorphosis and provide a solid basis for further study. PMID:27314339

  5. Putative Alginate Assimilation Process of the Marine Bacterium Saccharophagus degradans 2-40 Based on Quantitative Proteomic Analysis.

    PubMed

    Takagi, Toshiyuki; Morisaka, Hironobu; Aburaya, Shunsuke; Tatsukami, Yohei; Kuroda, Kouichi; Ueda, Mitsuyoshi

    2016-02-01

    Quantitative proteomic analysis was conducted to assess the assimilation processes of Saccharophagus degradans cultured with glucose, pectin, and alginate as carbon sources. A liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry approach was used, employing our unique, long monolithic silica capillary column. In an attempt to select candidate proteins that correlated to alginate assimilation, the production of 23 alginate-specific proteins was identified by statistical analyses of the quantitative proteomic data. Based on the analysis, we propose that S. degradans has an alginate-specific gene cluster for efficient alginate utilization. The alginate-specific proteins of S. degradans were comprised of alginate lyases, enzymes related to carbohydrate metabolism, membrane transporters, and transcription factors. Among them, the short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase Sde_3281 annotated in the alginate-specific cluster showed 4-deoxy-L-erythro-5-hexoseulose uronic acid reductase (DehR) activity. Furthermore, we found two different genes (Sde_3280 and Sde_0939) encoding 2-keto-3-deoxy-D-gluconic acid (KDG) kinases (KdgK) that metabolize the KDG derived from alginate and pectin in S. degradans. S. degradans used Sde_3280 to phosphorylate the KDG derived from alginate and Sde_0939 to phosphorylate the KDG derived from pectin. The distinct selection of KdgKs provides an important clue toward the elucidation of how S. degradans recognizes and processes polysaccharides.

  6. Comparative quantitation for the protein content of diphtheria and tetanus toxoids by DC protein assay and Kjeldahl method.

    PubMed

    Doshi, J B; Ravetkar, S D; Ghole, V S; Rehani, K

    2003-09-01

    DPT, a combination vaccine against diphtheria, tetanus and pertussis is available since many years and still continued in the national immunisation schedule of many countries. Although highly potent, reactions to DPT vaccine are well known, mainly attributed to the factors like Pertussis component, aluminum adjuvant and lower purity of tetanus and diphtheria toxoids. The latter most important aspect has become a matter of concern, specially for the preparation of next generation combination vaccines with more number of antigens in combination with DPT. Purity of toxoid is expressed as Lf (Limes flocculation) per mg of protein nitrogen. The Kjeldahl method (KM) of protein nitrogen estimation suggested by WHO and British Pharmacopoeia is time consuming and less specific. Need has been felt to explore an alternative method which is quick and more specific for toxoid protein determination. DC (detergent compatible) protein assay, an improved Lowry's method, has been found to be much more advantageous than Kjeldahl method.

  7. Quantitative determination of protein molecular weight with an acoustic sensor; significance of specific versus non-specific binding.

    PubMed

    Mitsakakis, Konstantinos; Tsortos, Achilleas; Gizeli, Electra

    2014-08-21

    Surface acoustic wave sensors with integrated microfluidics for multi-sample sensing have been implemented in this work towards the quantitative correlation of the acoustic signal with the molecular weight of surface bound proteins investigating different interaction/binding conditions. The results are presented for: (i) four different biotinylated molecules (30 ≤ Mw ≤ 150 kDa) specifically binding to neutravidin; (ii) the same four non-biotinylated molecules, as well as neutravidin, adsorbing onto gold; and (iii) four cardiac marker proteins (86 ≤ Mw ≤ 540 kDa) specifically binding to their homologous antibodies. Surface plasmon resonance was employed as an independent optical mass sensor. A linear relationship was found to exist between the phase change of the acoustic signal and the molecular weight of the proteins in both cases of specific binding. In contrast, non-specific binding of proteins directly onto gold exhibited no such linear relationship. In all three cases phase change was correlated with the bound mass per area. The underlying mechanism behind the different behavior between specific and non-specific binding is discussed by taking into account the geometrical restrictions imposed by the size of the specific biorecognition molecule and the corresponding bound protein. Our results emphasize the quantitative nature of the phase of the acoustic signal in determining the Mw (in the case of specific binding) with a resolution of 15% and the mass of the bound proteins (in all cases), as well as the significance of the biorecognition molecules in deriving the molecular weight from acoustic or optical detectors.

  8. Protein markers of Bursaphelenchus xylophilus Steiner & Buhrer, 1934 (Nickle, 1970) populations using quantitative proteomics and character compatibility.

    PubMed

    Ciordia, Sergio; Robertson, Lee; Arcos, Susana C; González, María Rosa; Mena, María Del Carmen; Zamora, Paula; Vieira, Paulo; Abrantes, Isabel; Mota, Manuel; Castagnone-Sereno, Philippe; Navas, Alfonso

    2016-03-01

    The Pine Wood Nematode (PWN) Bursaphelenchus xylophilus is a severe forest pathogen in countries where it has been introduced and is considered a worldwide quarantine organism. In this study, protein markers for differentiating populations of this nematode were identified by studying differences among four selected Iberian and one American population. These populations were compared by quantitative proteomics (iTRAQ). From a total of 2860 proteins identified using the public database from the B. xylophilus genome project, 216 were unambiguous and significantly differentially regulated in the studied populations. Comparisons of their pairwise ratio were statistically treated and supported in order to convert them into discrete character states, suggesting that 141 proteins were not informative as population specific markers. Application of the Character Compatibility methodology on the remaining 75 proteins (belonging to families with different biological functions) excludes 27 which are incompatible among them. Considering only the compatible proteins, the method selects a subset of 30 specific unique protein markers which allowed the compared classification of the Iberian isolates. This approach makes it easier search for diagnostic tools and phylogenetic inference within species and populations of a pathogen exhibiting a high level of genetic diversity. PMID:26718462

  9. Protein markers of Bursaphelenchus xylophilus Steiner & Buhrer, 1934 (Nickle, 1970) populations using quantitative proteomics and character compatibility.

    PubMed

    Ciordia, Sergio; Robertson, Lee; Arcos, Susana C; González, María Rosa; Mena, María Del Carmen; Zamora, Paula; Vieira, Paulo; Abrantes, Isabel; Mota, Manuel; Castagnone-Sereno, Philippe; Navas, Alfonso

    2016-03-01

    The Pine Wood Nematode (PWN) Bursaphelenchus xylophilus is a severe forest pathogen in countries where it has been introduced and is considered a worldwide quarantine organism. In this study, protein markers for differentiating populations of this nematode were identified by studying differences among four selected Iberian and one American population. These populations were compared by quantitative proteomics (iTRAQ). From a total of 2860 proteins identified using the public database from the B. xylophilus genome project, 216 were unambiguous and significantly differentially regulated in the studied populations. Comparisons of their pairwise ratio were statistically treated and supported in order to convert them into discrete character states, suggesting that 141 proteins were not informative as population specific markers. Application of the Character Compatibility methodology on the remaining 75 proteins (belonging to families with different biological functions) excludes 27 which are incompatible among them. Considering only the compatible proteins, the method selects a subset of 30 specific unique protein markers which allowed the compared classification of the Iberian isolates. This approach makes it easier search for diagnostic tools and phylogenetic inference within species and populations of a pathogen exhibiting a high level of genetic diversity.

  10. Quantitative densitometry of proteins stained with coomassie blue using a Hewlett Packard scanjet scanner and Scanplot software.

    PubMed

    Vincent, S G; Cunningham, P R; Stephens, N L; Halayko, A J; Fisher, J T

    1997-01-01

    In the present study we evaluated the performance of a software/scanner system that employed the Hewlett Packard (HP) ScanJet Plus and Scanplot Software for densitometric quantification of protein loads stained with Coomassie Brilliant Blue following sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). Gels with bovine serum albumin (BSA) standards, ranging from 0.125 to 10 micrograms, were scanned using reflectance densitometry with 127 microns step size in both the x and y directions and a resolution of 200 dots per inch. Densitometric volume was calculated for each protein band from scanner output in the tagged image file format (TIFF) by a customized software package, Scanplot V. 4.05 (Cunningham Engineering). Protein loads between 0.125 and 10.0 micrograms vs. volume were fit by a second-order regression: Volume = -0.58 x protein load2 + 16.82 x protein load + 7.87 (r = 0.991, p < 0.01). The same gels were scanned and quantified using a transmittance laser densitometer; densitometric volumes measured by both systems were highly correlated (r2 = 0.981, p < 0.01). Additional gels of BSA, smooth muscle myosin heavy chain (myosin), and actin displayed linear relationships between protein loads up to 4.0 micrograms and densitometric volume reflecting unique dye binding properties. We conclude that accurate and reproducible quantitative densitometry of SDS-PAGE can be performed using the HP ScanJet Plus scanner and Scanplot software.

  11. Label-Free Quantitative Mass Spectrometry Reveals a Panel of Differentially Expressed Proteins in Colorectal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Nai-Jun; Gao, Jiang-Ling; Liu, Yan; Song, Wei; Zhang, Zhan-Yang; Gao, Chun-Fang

    2015-01-01

    To identify potential biomarkers involved in CRC, a shotgun proteomic method was applied to identify soluble proteins in three CRCs and matched normal mucosal tissues using high-performance liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry. Label-free protein profiling of three CRCs and matched normal mucosal tissues were then conducted to quantify and compare proteins. Results showed that 67 of the 784 identified proteins were linked to CRC (28 upregulated and 39 downregulated). Gene Ontology and DAVID databases were searched to identify the location and function of differential proteins that were related to the biological processes of binding, cell structure, signal transduction, cell adhesion, and so on. Among the differentially expressed proteins, tropomyosin-3 (TPM3), endoplasmic reticulum resident protein 29 (ERp29), 18 kDa cationic antimicrobial protein (CAMP), and heat shock 70 kDa protein 8 (HSPA8) were verified to be upregulated in CRC tissue and seven cell lines through western blot analysis. Furthermore, the upregulation of TPM3, ERp29, CAMP, and HSPA8 was validated in 69 CRCs byimmunohistochemistry (IHC) analysis. Combination of TPM3, ERp29, CAMP, and HSPA8 can identify CRC from matched normal mucosal achieving an accuracy of 73.2% using IHC score. These results suggest that TPM3, ERp29, CAMP, and HSPA8 are great potential IHC diagnostic biomarkers for CRC. PMID:25699276

  12. Quantitation of Protein Translation Rate In Vivo with Bioorthogonal Click-Chemistry.

    PubMed

    Belda-Palazón, Borja; Ferrando, Alejandro; Farràs, Rosa

    2016-01-01

    The development of novel bioorthogonal reactives that can be used to tag biomolecules in vivo has revolutionized the studies of cellular and molecular biology. Among those novel reactive substances, amino acid analogs can be used to label nascent proteins, thus opening new avenues for measuring protein translation rates in vivo with a limited manipulation of the sample. Here, we describe the use of Click-chemistry to tag and separate newly synthesized proteins in mammalian cells that can be used, coupled with western analysis, to estimate the translation rate of any protein of interest. PMID:27613050

  13. Protein Sensors Based on Optical Ring Resonators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, Ying; Ksendzov, Alexander

    2006-01-01

    Prototype transducers based on integrated optical ring resonators have been demonstrated to be useful for detecting the protein avidin in extremely dilute solutions. In an experiment, one of the transducers proved to be capable of indicating the presence of avidin at a concentration of as little as 300 pM in a buffer solution a detection sensitivity comparable to that achievable by previously reported protein-detection techniques. These transducers are serving as models for the further development of integrated-optics sensors for detecting small quantities of other proteins and protein-like substances. The basic principle of these transducers was described in Chemical Sensors Based on Optical Ring Resonators (NPO-40601), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 29, No. 10 (October 2005), page 32. The differences between the present transducers and the ones described in the cited prior article lie in details of implementation of the basic principle. As before, the resonator in a transducer of the present type is a closed-circuit dielectric optical waveguide. The outermost layer of this waveguide, analogous to the optical cladding layer on an optical fiber, consists of a layer comprising sublayers having indices of refraction lower than that of the waveguide core. The outermost sublayer absorbs the chemical of interest (in this case, avidin). The index of refraction of the outermost sublayer changes with the concentration of absorbed avidin. The resonator is designed to operate with relatively strong evanescent-wave coupling between the outer sublayer and the electromagnetic field propagating along the waveguide core. By virtue of this coupling, the chemically induced change in the index of refraction of the outermost sublayer causes a measurable change in the spectrum of the resonator output.

  14. A Quantitative Corpus-Based Approach to English Spatial Particles: Conceptual Symmetry and Its Pedagogical Implications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Alvin Cheng-Hsien

    2014-01-01

    The present study aims to investigate how conceptual symmetry plays a role in the use of spatial particles in English and to further examine its pedagogical implications via a corpus-based evaluation of the course books in senior high schools in Taiwan. More specifically, we adopt a quantitative corpus-based approach to investigate whether bipolar…

  15. Quantitative determination of proteins at nanogram levels by the resonance light-scattering technique with macromolecules nanoparticles of PS-AA.

    PubMed

    Wang, Leyu; Chen, Hongqi; Li, Ling; Xia, Tingting; Dong, Ling; Wang, Lun

    2004-03-01

    The polystyrene-acrylic acid (PS-AA) nanoparticles have been prepared by ultrasonic polymerization, characterized by FT-IR and TEM. It is the first report on the determination of proteins with macromolecules nanoparticles of PS-AA by resonance light-scattering (RLS). At pH 6.9, the RLS of macromolecules nanoparticles of PS-AA can be enhanced by proteins. Based on this, a novel quantitative assay of proteins at the nanogram levels has been proposed. At pH 6.9, the RLS signals of PS-AA were greatly enhanced by proteins in the region of 250-700 nm characterized by the peak at 342 nm. Under optimal conditions, the linear ranges of the calibration curves were 0.02-11.0 microgml-1, 0.04-10.0 microgml-1 and 0.03-10.0 microgml-1 for gamma-globulin (gamma-IgG), bovine serum albumin (BSA) and human serum albumin (HSA), respectively. The detection limits were 16.0 ngml-1, 19.0 ngml-1, and 15.0 ngml-1 for gamma-IgG, BSA and HSA, respectively. The method has been applied to the analysis of total proteins in human serum samples collected from the hospital and the results were in good agreement with those reported by the hospital, which indicates that the method presented here is not only sensitive, simple, but also reliable and suitable for practical application. PMID:15036083

  16. Quantitative Fragmentome Mapping Reveals Novel, Domain-specific Partners for the Modular Protein RepoMan (Recruits PP1 Onto Mitotic Chromatin at Anaphase)*

    PubMed Central

    Prévost, Michèle; Chamousset, Delphine; Nasa, Isha; Freele, Emily; Morrice, Nick; Moorhead, Greg; Trinkle-Mulcahy, Laura

    2013-01-01

    RepoMan is a protein phosphatase 1 (PP1) regulatory subunit that targets the phosphatase to key substrates throughout the cell cycle. Most work to date has focused on the mitotic roles of RepoMan/PP1, although equally important interphase role(s) have been demonstrated. Initial mapping of the interactome of nuclear RepoMan, both endogenous and tagged, was complicated by various factors, including antibody cross-reactivity and low sensitivity of the detection of chromatin-associated partners above the high background of proteins that bind nonspecifically to affinity matrices. We therefore adapted the powerful combination of fluorescence imaging with labeling-based quantitative proteomics to map the “fragmentomes” of specific regions of RepoMan. These regions demonstrate distinct localization patterns and turnover dynamics that reflect underlying binding events. The increased sensitivity and signal-to-noise ratio provided by this unique approach facilitated identification of a large number of novel RepoMan interactors, several of which were rigorously validated in follow-up experiments, including the association of RepoMan/PP1 with a specific PP2A-B56γ complex, interaction with ribosomal proteins and import factors involved in their nucleocytoplasmic transport and interaction with proteins involved in the response to DNA damage. This same strategy can be used to investigate the cellular roles of other modular proteins. PMID:23362328

  17. Quantitative proteomics using stable isotope labeling with amino acids in cell culture reveals protein and pathway regulation in porcine circovirus type 2 infected PK-15 cells.

    PubMed

    Fan, Huiying; Ye, Yu; Luo, Yongwen; Tong, Tiezhu; Yan, Guangrong; Liao, Ming

    2012-02-01

    The infection of host cells by porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) leads to extensive modulation of the gene expression levels of target cells. To uncover the pathogenesis and virus-host interactions of PCV2, a quantitative proteomic study using the stable isotope labeling with amino acids in cell culture (SILAC), coupled with mass spectrometry, was performed on PCV2-infected PK-15 cells. The SILAC-based approach identified 1341 proteins, 163 of which showed significant change in level at 72 h after infection (79 up-regulated and 84 down-regulated). The modulated proteins included a number of proteins involved in substrate transport, cytoskeletal changes, and the stress response. Changes in the expression levels of selected proteins were verified by Western blot analysis. Ingenuity Pathway Analysis was used to reveal protein and interactive pathway regulation in response to PCV2 infection. Functional network and pathway analyses could provide insights into the complexity and dynamics of virus-host cell interactions and may accelerate our understanding of the mechanisms of PCV2 infection.

  18. Identification and validation of quantitative trait loci for seed yield, oil and protein contents in two recombinant inbred line populations of soybean.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xianzhi; Jiang, Guo-Liang; Green, Marci; Scott, Roy A; Song, Qijian; Hyten, David L; Cregan, Perry B

    2014-10-01

    Soybean seeds contain high levels of oil and protein, and are the important sources of vegetable oil and plant protein for human consumption and livestock feed. Increased seed yield, oil and protein contents are the main objectives of soybean breeding. The objectives of this study were to identify and validate quantitative trait loci (QTLs) associated with seed yield, oil and protein contents in two recombinant inbred line populations, and to evaluate the consistency of QTLs across different environments, studies and genetic backgrounds. Both the mapping population (SD02-4-59 × A02-381100) and validation population (SD02-911 × SD00-1501) were phenotyped for the three traits in multiple environments. Genetic analysis indicated that oil and protein contents showed high heritabilities while yield exhibited a lower heritability in both populations. Based on a linkage map constructed previously with the mapping population and using composite interval mapping and/or interval mapping analysis, 12 QTLs for seed yield, 16 QTLs for oil content and 11 QTLs for protein content were consistently detected in multiple environments and/or the average data over all environments. Of the QTLs detected in the mapping population, five QTLs for seed yield, eight QTLs for oil content and five QTLs for protein content were confirmed in the validation population by single marker analysis in at least one environment and the average data and by ANOVA over all environments. Eight of these validated QTLs were newly identified. Compared with the other studies, seven QTLs for seed yield, eight QTLs for oil content and nine QTLs for protein content further verified the previously reported QTLs. These QTLs will be useful for breeding higher yield and better quality cultivars, and help effectively and efficiently improve yield potential and nutritional quality in soybean.

  19. Elastomeric Recombinant Protein-based Biomaterials

    PubMed Central

    Annabi, Nasim; Mithieux, Suzanne M.; Camci-Unal, Gulden; Dokmeci, Mehmet R.; Weiss, Anthony S.; Khademhosseini, Ali

    2013-01-01

    Elastomeric protein-based biomaterials, produced from elastin derivatives, are widely investigated as promising tissue engineering scaffolds due to their remarkable properties including substantial extensibility, long-term stability, self-assembly, high resilience upon stretching, low energy loss, and excellent biological activity. These elastomers are processed from different sources of soluble elastin such as animal-derived soluble elastin, recombinant human tropoelastin, and elastin-like polypeptides into various forms including three dimensional (3D) porous hydrogels, elastomeric films, and fibrous electrospun scaffolds. Elastin-based biomaterials have shown great potential for the engineering of elastic tissues such as skin, lung and vasculature. In this review, the synthesis and properties of various elastin-based elastomers with their applications in tissue engineering are described. PMID:23935392

  20. Quantitative proteomics reveals the effect of protein glycosylation in soybean root under flooding stress

    PubMed Central

    Mustafa, Ghazala; Komatsu, Setsuko

    2014-01-01

    Flooding stress has a negative impact on soybean cultivation because it severely impairs growth and development. To understand the flooding responsive mechanism in early stage soybeans, a glycoproteomic technique was used. Two-day-old soybeans were treated with flooding for 2 days and roots were collected. Globally, the accumulation level of glycoproteins, as revealed by cross-reaction with concanavalin A decreased by 2 days of flooding stress. Glycoproteins were enriched from total protein extracts using concanavalin A lectin resin and analyzed using a gel-free proteomic technique. One-hundred eleven and 69 glycoproteins were identified without and with 2 days of flooding stress, respectively. Functional categorization of these identified glycoproteins indicated that the accumulation level of proteins related to protein degradation, cell wall, and glycolysis increased, while stress-related proteins decreased under flooding stress. Also the accumulation level of glycoproteins localized in the secretory pathway decreased under flooding stress. Out of 23 common glycoproteins between control and flooding conditions, peroxidases and glycosyl hydrolases were decreased by 2 days of flooding stress. mRNA expression levels of proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum and N-glycosylation related proteins were downregulated by flooding stress. These results suggest that flooding might negatively affect the process of N-glycosylation of proteins related to stress and protein degradation; however glycoproteins involved in glycolysis are activated. PMID:25477889

  1. Java-based graphical user interface for the MRUI quantitation package.

    PubMed

    Naressi, A; Couturier, C; Devos, J M; Janssen, M; Mangeat, C; de Beer, R; Graveron-Demilly, D

    2001-05-01

    This article describes the Java-based version of the magnetic resonance user interface (MRUI) quantitation package. This package allows MR spectroscopists to easily perform time-domain analysis of in vivo MR spectroscopy data. We show that the Java programming language is very well suited for developing highly interactive graphical software applications such as the MRUI software. We have also established that MR quantitation algorithms, programmed in other languages, can easily be embedded into the Java-based MRUI by using the Java native interface (JNI). This new graphical user interface (GUI) has been conceived for the processing of large data sets and uses prior knowledge data-bases to make interactive quantitation algorithms more userfriendly.

  2. Protein-based nanotubes for biomedical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Komatsu, Teruyuki

    2012-03-01

    This review presents highlights of our latest results of studies directed at developing protein-based smart nanotubes for biomedical applications. These practical biocylinders were prepared using an alternate layer-by-layer (LbL) assembly of protein and oppositely charged poly(amino acid) into a nanoporous polycarbonate (PC) membrane (pore diameter, 400 nm), with subsequent dissolution of the template. The tube wall typically comprises six layers of poly-l-arginine (PLA) and human serum albumin (HSA) [(PLA/HSA)3]. The obtained (PLA/HSA)3 nanotubes (NTs) can be dispersed in aqueous medium and are hydrated significantly. Several ligands for HSA, such as zinc(ii) protoporphyrin IX (ZnPP), were bound to the HSA component in the cylindrical wall. Similar NTs comprising recombinant HSA mutant, which has a strong binding affinity for ZnPP, captured the ligand more tightly. The Fe3O4-coated NTs can be collected easily by exposure to a magnetic field. The hybrid NTs bearing a single avidin layer as an internal wall captured biotin-labeled nanoparticles into the central channel when their particle size is sufficiently small to enter the pores. The NTs with an antibody surface interior entrapped human hepatitis B virus with size selectivity. It is noteworthy that the infectious Dane particles were encapsulated completely into the hollows. Other HSA-based NTs having an α-glucosidase inner wall hydrolysed a glucopyranoside to yield α-d-glucose. A perspective of the practical use of the protein-based NTs is also described.

  3. PSEA-Quant: a protein set enrichment analysis on label-free and label-based protein quantification data.

    PubMed

    Lavallée-Adam, Mathieu; Rauniyar, Navin; McClatchy, Daniel B; Yates, John R

    2014-12-01

    The majority of large-scale proteomics quantification methods yield long lists of quantified proteins that are often difficult to interpret and poorly reproduced. Computational approaches are required to analyze such intricate quantitative proteomics data sets. We propose a statistical approach to computationally identify protein sets (e.g., Gene Ontology (GO) terms) that are significantly enriched with abundant proteins with reproducible quantification measurements across a set of replicates. To this end, we developed PSEA-Quant, a protein set enrichment analysis algorithm for label-free and label-based protein quantification data sets. It offers an alternative approach to classic GO analyses, models protein annotation biases, and allows the analysis of samples originating from a single condition, unlike analogous approaches such as GSEA and PSEA. We demonstrate that PSEA-Quant produces results complementary to GO analyses. We also show that PSEA-Quant provides valuable information about the biological processes involved in cystic fibrosis using label-free protein quantification of a cell line expressing a CFTR mutant. Finally, PSEA-Quant highlights the differences in the mechanisms taking place in the human, rat, and mouse brain frontal cortices based on tandem mass tag quantification. Our approach, which is available online, will thus improve the analysis of proteomics quantification data sets by providing meaningful biological insights. PMID:25177766

  4. Eubacterial phylogeny based on translational apparatus proteins.

    PubMed

    Brochier, Céline; Bapteste, Eric; Moreira, David; Philippe, Hervé

    2002-01-01

    Lateral gene transfers are frequent among prokaryotes, although their detection remains difficult. If all genes are equally affected, this questions the very existence of an organismal phylogeny. The complexity hypothesis postulates the existence of a core of genes (those involved in numerous interactions) that are unaffected by transfers. To test the hypothesis, we studied all the proteins involved in translation from 45 eubacterial taxa, and developed a new phylogenetic method to detect transfers. Few of the genes studied show evidence for transfer. The phylogeny based on the genes devoid of transfer is very consistent with the ribosomal RNA tree, suggesting that an eubacterial phylogeny does exist.

  5. Protein-based ultrafast photonic switching.

    PubMed

    Fábián, László; Heiner, Zsuzsanna; Mero, Mark; Kiss, Miklós; Wolff, Elmar K; Ormos, Pál; Osvay, Károly; Dér, András

    2011-09-26

    Several inorganic and organic materials have been suggested for utilization as nonlinear optical material performing light-controlled active functions in integrated optical circuits, however, none of them is considered to be the optimal solution. Here we present the first demonstration of a subpicosecond photonic switch by an alternative approach, where the active role is performed by a material of biological origin: the chromoprotein bacteriorhodopsin, via its ultrafast BR->K and BR->I transitions. The results may serve as a basis for the future realization of protein-based integrated optical devices that can eventually lead to a conceptual revolution in the development of telecommunications technologies.

  6. Quantitative phosphoproteomics identifies SnRK2 protein kinase substrates and reveals the effectors of abscisic acid action.

    PubMed

    Wang, Pengcheng; Xue, Liang; Batelli, Giorgia; Lee, Shinyoung; Hou, Yueh-Ju; Van Oosten, Michael J; Zhang, Huiming; Tao, W Andy; Zhu, Jian-Kang

    2013-07-01

    Sucrose nonfermenting 1 (SNF1)-related protein kinase 2s (SnRK2s) are central components of abscisic acid (ABA) signaling pathways. The snrk2.2/2.3/2.6 triple-mutant plants are nearly completely insensitive to ABA, suggesting that most of the molecular actions of ABA are triggered by the SnRK2s-mediated phosphorylation of substrate proteins. Only a few substrate proteins of the SnRK2s are known. To identify additional substrate proteins of the SnRK2s and provide insight into the molecular actions of ABA, we used quantitative phosphoproteomics to compare the global changes in phosphopeptides in WT and snrk2.2/2.3/2.6 triple mutant seedlings in response to ABA treatment. Among the 5,386 unique phosphorylated peptides identified in this study, we found that ABA can increase the phosphorylation of 166 peptides and decrease the phosphorylation of 117 peptides in WT seedlings. In the snrk2.2/2.3/2.6 triple mutant, 84 of the 166 peptides, representing 58 proteins, could not be phosphorylated, or phosphorylation was not increased under ABA treatment. In vitro kinase assays suggest that most of the 58 proteins can serve as substrates of the SnRK2s. The SnRK2 substrates include proteins involved in flowering time regulation, RNA and DNA binding, miRNA and epigenetic regulation, signal transduction, chloroplast function, and many other cellular processes. Consistent with the SnRK2 phosphorylation of flowering time regulators, the snrk2.2/2.3/2.6 triple mutant flowered significantly earlier than WT. These results shed new light on the role of the SnRK2 protein kinases and on the downstream effectors of ABA action, and improve our understanding of plant responses to adverse environments.

  7. Quantitative phosphoproteomics identifies SnRK2 protein kinase substrates and reveals the effectors of abscisic acid action

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Pengcheng; Xue, Liang; Batelli, Giorgia; Lee, Shinyoung; Hou, Yueh-Ju; Van Oosten, Michael J.; Zhang, Huiming; Tao, W. Andy; Zhu, Jian-Kang

    2013-01-01

    Sucrose nonfermenting 1 (SNF1)-related protein kinase 2s (SnRK2s) are central components of abscisic acid (ABA) signaling pathways. The snrk2.2/2.3/2.6 triple-mutant plants are nearly completely insensitive to ABA, suggesting that most of the molecular actions of ABA are triggered by the SnRK2s-mediated phosphorylation of substrate proteins. Only a few substrate proteins of the SnRK2s are known. To identify additional substrate proteins of the SnRK2s and provide insight into the molecular actions of ABA, we used quantitative phosphoproteomics to compare the global changes in phosphopeptides in WT and snrk2.2/2.3/2.6 triple mutant seedlings in response to ABA treatment. Among the 5,386 unique phosphorylated peptides identified in this study, we found that ABA can increase the phosphorylation of 166 peptides and decrease the phosphorylation of 117 peptides in WT seedlings. In the snrk2.2/2.3/2.6 triple mutant, 84 of the 166 peptides, representing 58 proteins, could not be phosphorylated, or phosphorylation was not increased under ABA treatment. In vitro kinase assays suggest that most of the 58 proteins can serve as substrates of the SnRK2s. The SnRK2 substrates include proteins involved in flowering time regulation, RNA and DNA binding, miRNA and epigenetic regulation, signal transduction, chloroplast function, and many other cellular processes. Consistent with the SnRK2 phosphorylation of flowering time regulators, the snrk2.2/2.3/2.6 triple mutant flowered significantly earlier than WT. These results shed new light on the role of the SnRK2 protein kinases and on the downstream effectors of ABA action, and improve our understanding of plant responses to adverse environments. PMID:23776212

  8. Quantitative Proteomics Analysis Reveals the Min System of Escherichia coli Modulates Reversible Protein Association with the Inner Membrane.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hsiao-Lin; Chiang, I-Chen; Liang, Suh-Yuen; Lee, Der-Yen; Chang, Geen-Dong; Wang, Kwan-Yu; Lin, Shu-Yu; Shih, Yu-Ling

    2016-05-01

    The Min system of Escherichia coli mediates placement of the division septum at the midcell. It oscillates from pole to pole to establish a concentration gradient of the division inhibition that is high at the poles but low at the midcell; the cell middle thereby becomes the most favorable site for division. Although Min oscillation is well studied from molecular and biophysical perspectives, it is still an enigma as to whether such a continuous, energy-consuming, and organized movement of the Min proteins would affect cellular processes other than the division site selection. To tackle this question, we compared the inner membrane proteome of the wild-type and Δmin strains using a quantitative approach. Forty proteins that showed differential abundance on the inner membrane of the mutant cells were identified and defined as proteins of interest (POIs). More than half of the POIs were peripheral membrane proteins, suggesting that the Min system affects mainly reversible protein association with the inner membrane. In addition, 6 out of 10 selected POIs directly interacted with at least one of the Min proteins, confirming the correlation between POIs and the Min system.Further analysis revealed a functional relationship between metabolism and the Min system. Metabolic enzymes accounted for 45% of the POIs, and there was a change of metabolites in the related reactions. We hypothesize that the Min system could alter the membrane location of proteins to modulate their enzymatic activity. Thus, the metabolic modulation in the Δmin mutant is likely an adaptive phenotype in cells of abnormal size and chromosome number due to an imbalanced abundance of proteins on the inner membrane. Taken together, the current work reports novel interactions of the Min system and reveals a global physiological impact of the Min system in addition to the division site placement.

  9. Quantitative Computed Tomography Protocols Affect Material Mapping and Quantitative Computed Tomography-Based Finite-Element Analysis Predicted Stiffness.

    PubMed

    Giambini, Hugo; Dragomir-Daescu, Dan; Nassr, Ahmad; Yaszemski, Michael J; Zhao, Chunfeng

    2016-09-01

    Quantitative computed tomography-based finite-element analysis (QCT/FEA) has become increasingly popular in an attempt to understand and possibly reduce vertebral fracture risk. It is known that scanning acquisition settings affect Hounsfield units (HU) of the CT voxels. Material properties assignments in QCT/FEA, relating HU to Young's modulus, are performed by applying empirical equations. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of QCT scanning protocols on predicted stiffness values from finite-element models. One fresh frozen cadaveric torso and a QCT calibration phantom were scanned six times varying voltage and current and reconstructed to obtain a total of 12 sets of images. Five vertebrae from the torso were experimentally tested to obtain stiffness values. QCT/FEA models of the five vertebrae were developed for the 12 image data resulting in a total of 60 models. Predicted stiffness was compared to the experimental values. The highest percent difference in stiffness was approximately 480% (80 kVp, 110 mAs, U70), while the lowest outcome was ∼1% (80 kVp, 110 mAs, U30). There was a clear distinction between reconstruction kernels in predicted outcomes, whereas voltage did not present a clear influence on results. The potential of QCT/FEA as an improvement to conventional fracture risk prediction tools is well established. However, it is important to establish research protocols that can lead to results that can be translated to the clinical setting. PMID:27428281

  10. Protein-nanoparticle interactions evaluation by immunomethods: Surfactants can disturb quantitative determinations.

    PubMed

    Fornaguera, Cristina; Calderó, Gabriela; Solans, Conxita; Vauthier, Christine

    2015-08-01

    The adsorption of proteins on nanoparticle surface is one of the first events that occur when nanoparticles enter in the blood stream, which influences nanoparticles lifetime and further biodistribution. Albumin, which is the most abundant protein in serum and which has been deeply characterized, is an interesting model protein to investigate nanoparticle-protein interactions. Therefore, the interaction of nanoparticles with serum albumin has been widely studied. Immunomethods were suggested for the investigation of adsorption isotherms because of their ease to quantify the non-adsorbed bovine serum albumin without the need of applying separation methods that could modify the balance between the adsorbed and non-adsorbed proteins. The present work revealed that this method should be applied with caution. Artifacts in the determination of free protein can be generated by the presence of surfactants such as polysorbate 80, widely used in the pharmaceutical and biomedical field, that are needed to preserve the stability of nanoparticle dispersions. It was shown that the presence of traces of polysorbate 80 in the dispersion leads to an overestimation of the amount of bovine serum albumin remaining free in the dispersion medium when determined by both radial immunodiffusion and rocket immunoelectrophoresis. However, traces of poloxamer 188 did not result in clear perturbed migrations. These methods are not appropriate to perform adsorption isotherms of proteins on nanoparticle dispersions containing traces of remaining free surfactant. They should only be applied on dispersions that are free of surfactant that is not associated with nanoparticles.

  11. Quantitative detection of Aspergillus spp. by real-time nucleic acid sequence-based amplification.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yanan; Perlin, David S

    2013-01-01

    Rapid and quantitative detection of Aspergillus from clinical samples may facilitate an early diagnosis of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA). As nucleic acid-based detection is a viable option, we demonstrate that Aspergillus burdens can be rapidly and accurately detected by a novel real-time nucleic acid assay other than qPCR by using the combination of nucleic acid sequence-based amplification (NASBA) and the molecular beacon (MB) technology. Here, we detail a real-time NASBA assay to determine quantitative Aspergillus burdens in lungs and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluids of rats with experimental IPA.

  12. A MALDI-MS-based quantitative analytical method for endogenous estrone in human breast cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Kyoung-Jin; Kim, Hee-Jin; Park, Han-Gyu; Hwang, Cheol-Hwan; Sung, Changmin; Jang, Kyoung-Soon; Park, Sung-Hee; Kim, Byung-Gee; Lee, Yoo-Kyung; Yang, Yung-Hun; Jeong, Jae Hyun; Kim, Yun-Gon

    2016-01-01

    The level of endogenous estrone, one of the three major naturally occurring estrogens, has a significant correlation with the incidence of post-menopausal breast cancer. However, it is challenging to quantitatively monitor it owing to its low abundance. Here, we develop a robust and highly sensitive mass-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS)-based quantitative platform to identify the absolute quantities of endogenous estrones in a variety of clinical specimens. The one-step modification of endogenous estrone provided good linearity (R2 > 0.99) and significantly increased the sensitivity of the platform (limit of quantitation: 11 fmol). In addition, we could identify the absolute amount of endogenous estrones in cells of the breast cancer cell line MCF-7 (34 fmol/106 cells) by using a deuterated estrone as an internal standard. Finally, by applying the MALDI-MS-based quantitative method to endogenous estrones, we successfully monitored changes in the metabolic expression level of estrones (17.7 fmol/106 letrozole-treated cells) in MCF-7 cells resulting from treatment with an aromatase inhibitor. Taken together, these results suggest that this MALDI-MS-based quantitative approach may be a general method for the targeted metabolomics of ketone-containing metabolites, which can reflect clinical conditions and pathogenic mechanisms. PMID:27091422

  13. Heteronuclear Adiabatic Relaxation Dispersion (HARD) for quantitative analysis of conformational dynamics in proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Traaseth, Nathaniel J.; Chao, Fa-An; Masterson, Larry R.; Mangia, Silvia; Garwood, Michael; Michaeli, Shalom; Seelig, Burckhard; Veglia, Gianluigi

    2012-06-01

    NMR relaxation methods probe biomolecular motions over a wide range of timescales. In particular, the rotating frame spin-lock R1ρ and Carr-Purcell-Meiboom-Gill (CPMG) R2 experiments are commonly used to characterize μs to ms dynamics, which play a critical role in enzyme folding and catalysis. In an effort to complement these approaches, we introduced the Heteronuclear Adiabatic Relaxation Dispersion (HARD) method, where dispersion in rotating frame relaxation rate constants (longitudinal R1ρ and transverse R2ρ) is created by modulating the shape and duration of adiabatic full passage (AFP) pulses. Previously, we showed the ability of the HARD method to detect chemical exchange dynamics in the fast exchange regime (kex ˜ 104-105 s-1). In this article, we show the sensitivity of the HARD method to slower exchange processes by measuring R1ρ and R2ρ relaxation rates for two soluble proteins (ubiquitin and 10C RNA ligase). One advantage of the HARD method is its nominal dependence on the applied radio frequency field, which can be leveraged to modulate the dispersion in the relaxation rate constants. In addition, we also include product operator simulations to define the dynamic range of adiabatic R1ρ and R2ρ that is valid under all exchange regimes. We conclude from both experimental observations and simulations that this method is complementary to CPMG-based and rotating frame spin-lock R1ρ experiments to probe conformational exchange dynamics for biomolecules. Finally, this approach is germane to several NMR-active nuclei, where relaxation rates are frequency-offset independent.

  14. Label-free Quantitative Analysis of Changes in Broiler Liver Proteins under Heat Stress using SWATH-MS Technology

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Xiangfang; Meng, Qingshi; Gao, Jie; Zhang, Sheng; Zhang, Hongfu; Zhang, Minhong

    2015-01-01

    High temperature is one of the key environmental stressors affecting broiler production efficiency and meat yield. Knowledge of broiler self-regulation mechanisms under heat stress is important for the modern scale of poultry breeding. In the present study, the SWATH strategy was employed to investigate the temporal response of the broiler liver to heat stress. A total of 4,271 proteins were identified and used to generate a reference library for SWATH analysis. During this analysis, 2,377 proteins were quantified, with a coefficient of variation ≤25% among technical and biological replicates. A total of 257 proteins showed differential expression between the control and heat stressed groups. Consistent results for 26 and 5 differential proteins were validated respectively by MRM and western blotting quantitative analyses. Bioinformatics analysis suggests that the up- and down-regulation of these proteins appear involved in the following three categories of cellular pathways and metabolisms: 1) inhibit the ERK signaling pathway; 2) affect broiler liver lipid and amino acid metabolism; 3) induce liver cell immune responses to adapt to the high temperatures and reduce mortality. The study reported here provides an insight into broiler self-regulation mechanisms and shed light on the improved broiler adaptability to high-temperature environments. PMID:26459884

  15. Quantitative evaluation of positive ϕ angle propensity in flexible regions of proteins from three-bond J couplings†

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jung Ho; Ying, Jinfa

    2015-01-01

    3JHNHα and 3JC′C′ couplings can be readily measured in isotopically enriched proteins and were shown to contain precise information on the backbone torsion angles, ϕ, sampled in disordered regions of proteins. However, quantitative interpretation of these couplings required the population of conformers with positive ϕ angles to be very small. Here, we demonstrate that this restriction can be removed by measurement of 3JC′Hα values. Even though the functional forms of the 3JC′Hα and 3JHNHα Karplus equations are the same, large differences in their coefficients enable accurate determination of the fraction of time that positive ϕ angles are sampled. A four-dimensional triple resonance HACANH[C′] E.COSY experiment is introduced to simultaneously measure 3JC′Hα and 3JHNC′ in the typically very congested spectra of disordered proteins. High resolution in these spectra is obtained by non-uniform sampling (in the 0.1-0.5% range). Application to the intrinsically disordered protein α-synuclein shows that while most residues have close-to-zero positive ϕ angle populations, up to 16% positive ϕ population is observed for Asn residues. Positive ϕ angle populations determined with the new approach agree closely with consensus values from protein coil libraries and prior analysis of a large set of other NMR parameters. The combination of 3JHNC′ and 3JC′C′ provides information about the amplitude of ϕ angle dynamics. PMID:26415896

  16. Reconstruction of Metabolic Pathways, Protein Expression, and Homeostasis Machineries across Maize Bundle Sheath and Mesophyll Chloroplasts: Large-Scale Quantitative Proteomics Using the First Maize Genome Assembly1[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Friso, Giulia; Majeran, Wojciech; Huang, Mingshu; Sun, Qi; van Wijk, Klaas J.

    2010-01-01

    Chloroplasts in differentiated bundle sheath (BS) and mesophyll (M) cells of maize (Zea mays) leaves are specialized to accommodate C4 photosynthesis. This study provides a reconstruction of how metabolic pathways, protein expression, and homeostasis functions are quantitatively distributed across BS and M chloroplasts. This yielded new insights into cellular specialization. The experimental analysis was based on high-accuracy mass spectrometry, protein quantification by spectral counting, and the first maize genome assembly. A bioinformatics workflow was developed to deal with gene models, protein families, and gene duplications related to the polyploidy of maize; this avoided overidentification of proteins and resulted in more accurate protein quantification. A total of 1,105 proteins were assigned as potential chloroplast proteins, annotated for function, and quantified. Nearly complete coverage of primary carbon, starch, and tetrapyrole metabolism, as well as excellent coverage for fatty acid synthesis, isoprenoid, sulfur, nitrogen, and amino acid metabolism, was obtained. This showed, for example, quantitative and qualitative cell type-specific specialization in starch biosynthesis, arginine synthesis, nitrogen assimilation, and initial steps in sulfur assimilation. An extensive overview of BS and M chloroplast protein expression and homeostasis machineries (more than 200 proteins) demonstrated qualitative and quantitative differences between M and BS chloroplasts and BS-enhanced levels of the specialized chaperones ClpB3 and HSP90 that suggest active remodeling of the BS proteome. The reconstructed pathways are presented as detailed flow diagrams including annotation, relative protein abundance, and cell-specific expression pattern. Protein annotation and identification data, and projection of matched peptides on the protein models, are available online through the Plant Proteome Database. PMID:20089766

  17. Duplex Quantitative PCR Assay for Detection of Haemophilus influenzae That Distinguishes Fucose- and Protein D-Negative Strains.

    PubMed

    de Gier, Camilla; Pickering, Janessa L; Richmond, Peter C; Thornton, Ruth B; Kirkham, Lea-Ann S

    2016-09-01

    We have developed a specific Haemophilus influenzae quantitative PCR (qPCR) that also identifies fucose-negative and protein D-negative strains. Analysis of 100 H. influenzae isolates, 28 Haemophilus haemolyticus isolates, and 14 other bacterial species revealed 100% sensitivity (95% confidence interval [CI], 96% to 100%) and 100% specificity (95% CI, 92% to 100%) for this assay. The evaluation of 80 clinical specimens demonstrated a strong correlation between semiquantitative culture and the qPCR (P < 0.001). PMID:27335148

  18. Large-scale inference of protein tissue origin in gram-positive sepsis plasma using quantitative targeted proteomics.

    PubMed

    Malmström, Erik; Kilsgård, Ola; Hauri, Simon; Smeds, Emanuel; Herwald, Heiko; Malmström, Lars; Malmström, Johan

    2016-01-06

    The plasma proteome is highly dynamic and variable, composed of proteins derived from surrounding tissues and cells. To investigate the complex processes that control the composition of the plasma proteome, we developed a mass spectrometry-based proteomics strategy to infer the origin of proteins detected in murine plasma. The strategy relies on the construction of a comprehensive protein tissue atlas from cells and highly vascularized organs using shotgun mass spectrometry. The protein tissue atlas was transformed to a spectral library for highly reproducible quantification of tissue-specific proteins directly in plasma using SWATH-like data-independent mass spectrometry analysis. We show that the method can determine drastic changes of tissue-specific protein profiles in blood plasma from mouse animal models with sepsis. The strategy can be extended to several other species advancing our understanding of the complex processes that contribute to the plasma proteome dynamics.

  19. Whole-genome scan to detect quantitative trait loci associated with milk protein composition in 3 French dairy cattle breeds.

    PubMed

    Sanchez, M P; Govignon-Gion, A; Ferrand, M; Gelé, M; Pourchet, D; Amigues, Y; Fritz, S; Boussaha, M; Capitan, A; Rocha, D; Miranda, G; Martin, P; Brochard, M; Boichard, D

    2016-10-01

    In the context of the PhénoFinLait project, a genome-wide analysis was performed to detect quantitative trait loci (QTL) that affect milk protein composition estimated using mid-infrared spectrometry in the Montbéliarde (MO), Normande (NO), and Holstein (HO) French dairy cattle breeds. The 6 main milk proteins (α-lactalbumin, β-lactoglobulin, and αS1-, αS2-, β-, and κ-caseins) expressed as grams per 100g of milk (% of milk) or as grams per 100g of protein (% of protein) were estimated in 848,068 test-day milk samples from 156,660 cows. Genotyping was performed for 2,773 MO, 2,673 NO, and 2,208 HO cows using the Illumina BovineSNP50 BeadChip (Illumina Inc., San Diego, CA). Individual test-day records were adjusted for environmental effects and then averaged per cow to define the phenotypes analyzed. Quantitative trait loci detection was performed within each breed using a linkage disequilibrium and linkage analysis approach. A total of 39 genomic regions distributed on 20 of the 29 Bos taurus autosomes (BTA) were significantly associated with milk protein composition at a genome-wide level of significance in at least 1 of the 3 breeds. The 9 most significant QTL were located on BTA2 (133 Mbp), BTA6 (38, 47, and 87 Mbp), BTA11 (103 Mbp), BTA14 (1.8 Mbp), BTA20 (32 and 58 Mbp), and BTA29 (8 Mbp). The BTA6 (87 Mbp), BTA11, and BTA20 (58 Mbp) QTL were found in all 3 breeds, and they had highly significant effects on κ-casein, β-lactoglobulin, and α-lactalbumin, expressed as a percentage of protein, respectively. Each of these QTL explained between 13% (BTA14) and 51% (BTA11) of the genetic variance of the trait. Many other QTL regions were also identified in at least one breed. They were located on 14 additional chromosomes (1, 3, 4, 5, 7, 15, 17, 19, 21, 22, 24, 25, 26, and 27), and they explained 2 to 8% of the genetic variance of 1 or more protein composition traits. Concordance analyses, performed between QTL status and sequence-derived polymorphisms from

  20. Whole-genome scan to detect quantitative trait loci associated with milk protein composition in 3 French dairy cattle breeds.

    PubMed

    Sanchez, M P; Govignon-Gion, A; Ferrand, M; Gelé, M; Pourchet, D; Amigues, Y; Fritz, S; Boussaha, M; Capitan, A; Rocha, D; Miranda, G; Martin, P; Brochard, M; Boichard, D

    2016-10-01

    In the context of the PhénoFinLait project, a genome-wide analysis was performed to detect quantitative trait loci (QTL) that affect milk protein composition estimated using mid-infrared spectrometry in the Montbéliarde (MO), Normande (NO), and Holstein (HO) French dairy cattle breeds. The 6 main milk proteins (α-lactalbumin, β-lactoglobulin, and αS1-, αS2-, β-, and κ-caseins) expressed as grams per 100g of milk (% of milk) or as grams per 100g of protein (% of protein) were estimated in 848,068 test-day milk samples from 156,660 cows. Genotyping was performed for 2,773 MO, 2,673 NO, and 2,208 HO cows using the Illumina BovineSNP50 BeadChip (Illumina Inc., San Diego, CA). Individual test-day records were adjusted for environmental effects and then averaged per cow to define the phenotypes analyzed. Quantitative trait loci detection was performed within each breed using a linkage disequilibrium and linkage analysis approach. A total of 39 genomic regions distributed on 20 of the 29 Bos taurus autosomes (BTA) were significantly associated with milk protein composition at a genome-wide level of significance in at least 1 of the 3 breeds. The 9 most significant QTL were located on BTA2 (133 Mbp), BTA6 (38, 47, and 87 Mbp), BTA11 (103 Mbp), BTA14 (1.8 Mbp), BTA20 (32 and 58 Mbp), and BTA29 (8 Mbp). The BTA6 (87 Mbp), BTA11, and BTA20 (58 Mbp) QTL were found in all 3 breeds, and they had highly significant effects on κ-casein, β-lactoglobulin, and α-lactalbumin, expressed as a percentage of protein, respectively. Each of these QTL explained between 13% (BTA14) and 51% (BTA11) of the genetic variance of the trait. Many other QTL regions were also identified in at least one breed. They were located on 14 additional chromosomes (1, 3, 4, 5, 7, 15, 17, 19, 21, 22, 24, 25, 26, and 27), and they explained 2 to 8% of the genetic variance of 1 or more protein composition traits. Concordance analyses, performed between QTL status and sequence-derived polymorphisms from

  1. Quantitative thermal characterization of microelectronic devices by using CCD-based thermoreflectance microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Dong Uk; Ryu, Seon Young; Kim, Jun Ki; Chang, Ki Soo

    2014-03-01

    A thermoreflectance microscopy (TRM) system has emerged as a non-destructive and non-contact tool for a high resolution thermal imaging technique for micro-scale electronic and optoelectronic devices. Quantitative imaging of the temperature distribution is necessary for elaborate thermal characterization under operating conditions, such as thermal profiling and performance and reliability analysis. We introduce here a straightforward TRM system to perform quantitative thermal characterization of microelectronics devices. The quantitative imaging of the surface temperature distribution of a polysilicon micro-resistor is obtained by a lock-in measurement technique and calibration process in the conventional CCD-based widefield microscope. To confirm the quantitative thermal measurement, the measured thermal information is compared to that obtained with an infrared thermography (IRT) system. In addition to quantitative surface temperature distribution, the sub-micron defects on microelectronic devices can be clearly distinguished from the thermoreflectance images, which are hardly perceptible with a conventional widefield microscopy system. The thermal resolution of the proposed TRM system is experimentally determined by measuring standard deviation values of thermoreflectance data with respect to the iteration number. The spatial and thermal resolutions of our system are measured ~670 nm and ~13 mK, respectively. We believe that quantitative thermal imaging in the TRM system can be used for improvement of microelectronic devices and integrated circuit (IC) designs.

  2. Quantitative protein profiling of tumor angiogenesis and metastasis biomarkers in mouse and human models

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tumor and stromal cells secrete a variety of proteins acting as extracellular signals and creating a supportive microenvironment for tumor development, angiogenesis, and metastasis. We used the Luminex immunoassay platform (including MILLIPLEX® MAP cytokine/chemokine, bone metabolism, adipocyte, M...

  3. Quantitative proteomics of Xenopus laevis embryos: expression kinetics of nearly 4000 proteins during early development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Liangliang; Bertke, Michelle M.; Champion, Matthew M.; Zhu, Guijie; Huber, Paul W.; Dovichi, Norman J.

    2014-03-01

    While there is a rich literature on transcription dynamics during the development of many organisms, protein data is limited. We used iTRAQ isotopic labeling and mass spectrometry to generate the largest developmental proteomic dataset for any animal. Expression dynamics of nearly 4,000 proteins of Xenopus laevis was generated from fertilized egg to neurula embryo. Expression clusters into groups. The cluster profiles accurately reflect the major events that mark changes in gene expression patterns during early Xenopus development. We observed decline in the expression of ten DNA replication factors after the midblastula transition (MBT), including a marked decline of the licensing factor XCdc6. Ectopic expression of XCdc6 leads to apoptosis; temporal changes in this protein are critical for proper development. Measurement of expression in single embryos provided no evidence for significant protein heterogeneity between embryos at the same stage of development.

  4. Rapid development of sensitive, high-throughput, quantitative and highly selective mass spectrometric targeted immunoassays for clinically important proteins in human plasma and serum

    PubMed Central

    Krastins, Bryan; Prakash, Amol; Sarracino, David A.; Nedelkov, Dobrin; Niederkofler, Eric E.; Kiernan, Urban A.; Nelson, Randall; Vogelsang, Maryann S.; Vadali, Gouri; Garces, Alejandra; Sutton, Jennifer N.; Peterman, Scott; Byram, Gregory; Darbouret, Bruno; Pérusse, Joëlle R.; Seidah, Nabil G.; Coulombe, Benoit; Gobom, Johan; Portelius, Erik; Pannee, Josef; Blennow, Kaj; Kulasingam, Vathany; Couchman, Lewis; Moniz, Caje; Lopez, Mary F.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to develop high-throughput, quantitative and highly selective mass spectrometric, targeted immunoassays for clinically important proteins in human plasma or serum. Design and methods The described method coupled mass spectrometric immunoassay (MSIA), a previously developed technique for immunoenrichment on a monolithic microcolumn activated with an anti-protein antibody and fixed in a pipette tip, to selected reaction monitoring (SRM) detection and accurate quantification of targeted peptides, including clinically relevant sequence or truncated variants. Results In this report, we demonstrate the rapid development of MSIA-SRM assays for sixteen different target proteins spanning seven different clinically important areas (including neurological, Alzheimer's, cardiovascular, endocrine function, cancer and other diseases) and ranging in concentration from pg/mL to mg/mL. The reported MSIA-SRM assays demonstrated high sensitivity (within published clinical ranges), precision, robustness and high-throughput as well as specific detection of clinically relevant isoforms for many of the target proteins. Most of the assays were tested with bona-fide clinical samples. In addition, positive correlations, (R2 0.67–0.87, depending on the target peptide), were demonstrated for MSIA-SRM assay data with clinical analyzer measurements of parathyroid hormone (PTH) and insulin growth factor 1 (IGF1) in clinical sample cohorts. Conclusions We have presented a practical and scalable method for rapid development and deployment of MS-based SRM assays for clinically relevant proteins and measured levels of the target analytes in bona fide clinical samples. The method permits the specific quantification of individual protein isoforms and addresses the difficult problem of protein heterogeneity in clinical proteomics applications. PMID:23313081

  5. Quantitative detection of bovine and porcine gelatin difference using surface plasmon resonance based biosensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wardani, Devy P.; Arifin, Muhammad; Suharyadi, Edi; Abraha, Kamsul

    2015-05-01

    Gelatin is a biopolymer derived from collagen that is widely used in food and pharmaceutical products. Due to some religion restrictions and health issues regarding the gelatin consumption which is extracted from certain species, it is necessary to establish a robust, reliable, sensitive and simple quantitative method to detect gelatin from different parent collagen species. To the best of our knowledge, there has not been a gelatin differentiation method based on optical sensor that could detect gelatin from different species quantitatively. Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) based biosensor is known to be a sensitive, simple and label free optical method for detecting biomaterials that is able to do quantitative detection. Therefore, we have utilized SPR-based biosensor to detect the differentiation between bovine and porcine gelatin in various concentration, from 0% to 10% (w/w). Here, we report the ability of SPR-based biosensor to detect difference between both gelatins, its sensitivity toward the gelatin concentration change, its reliability and limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ) of the sensor. The sensor's LOD and LOQ towards bovine gelatin concentration are 0.38% and 1.26% (w/w), while towards porcine gelatin concentration are 0.66% and 2.20% (w/w), respectively. The results show that SPR-based biosensor is a promising tool for detecting gelatin from different raw materials quantitatively.

  6. A gold nanoparticle-based semi-quantitative and quantitative ultrasensitive paper sensor for the detection of twenty mycotoxins.

    PubMed

    Kong, Dezhao; Liu, Liqiang; Song, Shanshan; Suryoprabowo, Steven; Li, Aike; Kuang, Hua; Wang, Libing; Xu, Chuanlai

    2016-03-01

    A semi-quantitative and quantitative multi-immunochromatographic (ICA) strip detection assay was developed for the simultaneous detection of twenty types of mycotoxins from five classes, including zearalenones (ZEAs), deoxynivalenols (DONs), T-2 toxins (T-2s), aflatoxins (AFs), and fumonisins (FBs), in cereal food samples. Sensitive and specific monoclonal antibodies were selected for this assay. The semi-quantitative results were obtained within 20 min by the naked eye, with visual limits of detection for ZEAs, DONs, T-2s, AFs and FBs of 0.1-0.5, 2.5-250, 0.5-1, 0.25-1 and 2.5-10 μg kg(-1), and cut-off values of 0.25-1, 5-500, 1-10, 0.5-2.5 and 5-25 μg kg(-1), respectively. The quantitative results were obtained using a hand-held strip scan reader, with the calculated limits of detection for ZEAs, DONs, T-2s, AFs and FBs of 0.04-0.17, 0.06-49, 0.15-0.22, 0.056-0.49 and 0.53-1.05 μg kg(-1), respectively. The analytical results of spiked samples were in accordance with the accurate content in the simultaneous detection analysis. This newly developed ICA strip assay is suitable for the on-site detection and rapid initial screening of mycotoxins in cereal samples, facilitating both semi-quantitative and quantitative determination.

  7. SILAC-Based Quantitative Proteomic Analysis of Human Lung Cell Response to Copper Oxide Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Edelmann, Mariola J.; Shack, Leslie A.; Naske, Caitlin D.; Walters, Keisha B.; Nanduri, Bindu

    2014-01-01

    Copper (II) oxide (CuO) nanoparticles (NP) are widely used in industry and medicine. In our study we evaluated the response of BEAS-2B human lung cells to CuO NP, using Stable isotope labeling by amino acids in cell culture (SILAC)-based proteomics and phosphoproteomics. Pathway modeling of the protein differential expression showed that CuO NP affect proteins relevant in cellular function and maintenance, protein synthesis, cell death and survival, cell cycle and cell morphology. Some of the signaling pathways represented by BEAS-2B proteins responsive to the NP included mTOR signaling, protein ubiquitination pathway, actin cytoskeleton signaling and epithelial adherens junction signaling. Follow-up experiments showed that CuO NP altered actin cytoskeleton, protein phosphorylation and protein ubiquitination level. PMID:25470785

  8. SILAC-based quantitative proteomic analysis of human lung cell response to copper oxide nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Edelmann, Mariola J; Shack, Leslie A; Naske, Caitlin D; Walters, Keisha B; Nanduri, Bindu

    2014-01-01

    Copper (II) oxide (CuO) nanoparticles (NP) are widely used in industry and medicine. In our study we evaluated the response of BEAS-2B human lung cells to CuO NP, using Stable isotope labeling by amino acids in cell culture (SILAC)-based proteomics and phosphoproteomics. Pathway modeling of the protein differential expression showed that CuO NP affect proteins relevant in cellular function and maintenance, protein synthesis, cell death and survival, cell cycle and cell morphology. Some of the signaling pathways represented by BEAS-2B proteins responsive to the NP included mTOR signaling, protein ubiquitination pathway, actin cytoskeleton signaling and epithelial adherens junction signaling. Follow-up experiments showed that CuO NP altered actin cytoskeleton, protein phosphorylation and protein ubiquitination level.

  9. Evaluation of Large Scale Quantitative Proteomic Assay Development Using Peptide Affinity-based Mass Spectrometry*

    PubMed Central

    Whiteaker, Jeffrey R.; Zhao, Lei; Abbatiello, Susan E.; Burgess, Michael; Kuhn, Eric; Lin, ChenWei; Pope, Matthew E.; Razavi, Morteza; Anderson, N. Leigh; Pearson, Terry W.; Carr, Steven A.; Paulovich, Amanda G.

    2011-01-01

    Stable isotope standards and capture by antipeptide antibodies (SISCAPA) couples affinity enrichment of peptides with stable isotope dilution and detection by multiple reaction monitoring mass spectrometry to provide quantitative measurement of peptides as surrogates for their respective proteins. In this report, we describe a feasibility study to determine the success rate for production of suitable antibodies for SISCAPA assays in order to inform strategies for large-scale assay development. A workflow was designed that included a multiplex immunization strategy in which up to five proteotypic peptides from a single protein target were used to immunize individual rabbits. A total of 403 proteotypic tryptic peptides representing 89 protein targets were used as immunogens. Antipeptide antibody titers were measured by ELISA and 220 antipeptide antibodies representing 89 proteins were chosen for affinity purification. These antibodies were characterized with respect to their performance in SISCAPA-multiple reaction monitoring assays using trypsin-digested human plasma matrix. More than half of the assays generated were capable of detecting the target peptide at concentrations of less than 0.5 fmol/μl in human plasma, corresponding to protein concentrations of less than 100 ng/ml. The strategy of multiplexing five peptide immunogens was successful in generating a working assay for 100% of the targeted proteins in this evaluation study. These results indicate it is feasible for a single laboratory to develop hundreds of assays per year and allow planning for cost-effective generation of SISCAPA assays. PMID:21245105

  10. Photobacterium profundum under Pressure: A MS-Based Label-Free Quantitative Proteomics Study

    PubMed Central

    Le Bihan, Thierry; Rayner, Joe; Roy, Marcia M.; Spagnolo, Laura

    2013-01-01

    Photobacterium profundum SS9 is a Gram-negative bacterium, originally collected from the Sulu Sea. Its genome consists of two chromosomes and a 80 kb plasmid. Although it can grow under a wide range of pressures, P. profundum grows optimally at 28 MPa and 15°C. Its ability to grow at atmospheric pressure allows for both easy genetic manipulation and culture, making it a model organism to study piezophily. Here, we report a shotgun proteomic analysis of P. profundum grown at atmospheric compared to high pressure using label-free quantitation and mass spectrometry analysis. We have identified differentially expressed proteins involved in high pressure adaptation, which have been previously reported using other methods. Proteins involved in key metabolic pathways were also identified as being differentially expressed. Proteins involved in the glycolysis/gluconeogenesis pathway were up-regulated at high pressure. Conversely, several proteins involved in the oxidative phosphorylation pathway were up-regulated at atmospheric pressure. Some of the proteins that were differentially identified are regulated directly in response to the physical impact of pressure. The expression of some proteins involved in nutrient transport or assimilation, are likely to be directly regulated by pressure. In a natural environment, different hydrostatic pressures represent distinct ecosystems with their own particular nutrient limitations and abundances. However, the only variable considered in this study was atmospheric pressure. PMID:23741291

  11. Design of improved membrane protein production experiments: Quantitation of the host response

    PubMed Central

    Bonander, Nicklas; Hedfalk, Kristina; Larsson, Christer; Mostad, Petter; Chang, Celia; Gustafsson, Lena; Bill, Roslyn M.

    2005-01-01

    Eukaryotic membrane proteins cannot be produced in a reliable manner for structural analysis. Consequently, researchers still rely on trial-and-error approaches, which most often yield insufficient amounts. This means that membrane protein production is recognized by biologists as the primary bottleneck in contemporary structural genomics programs. Here, we describe a study to examine the reasons for successes and failures in recombinant membrane protein production in yeast, at the level of the host cell, by systematically quantifying cultures in high-performance bioreactors under tightly-defined growth regimes. Our data show that the most rapid growth conditions of those chosen are not the optimal production conditions. Furthermore, the growth phase at which the cells are harvested is critical: We show that it is crucial to grow cells under tightly-controlled conditions and to harvest them prior to glucose exhaustion, just before the diauxic shift. The differences in membrane protein yields that we observe under different culture conditions are not reflected in corresponding changes in mRNA levels of FPS1, but rather can be related to the differential expression of genes involved in membrane protein secretion and yeast cellular physiology. PMID:15987902

  12. Periscope: quantitative prediction of soluble protein expression in the periplasm of Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Chang, Catherine Ching Han; Li, Chen; Webb, Geoffrey I; Tey, BengTi; Song, Jiangning; Ramanan, Ramakrishnan Nagasundara

    2016-01-01

    Periplasmic expression of soluble proteins in Escherichia coli not only offers a much-simplified downstream purification process, but also enhances the probability of obtaining correctly folded and biologically active proteins. Different combinations of signal peptides and target proteins lead to different soluble protein expression levels, ranging from negligible to several grams per litre. Accurate algorithms for rational selection of promising candidates can serve as a powerful tool to complement with current trial-and-error approaches. Accordingly, proteomics studies can be conducted with greater efficiency and cost-effectiveness. Here, we developed a predictor with a two-stage architecture, to predict the real-valued expression level of target protein in the periplasm. The output of the first-stage support vector machine (SVM) classifier determines which second-stage support vector regression (SVR) classifier to be used. When tested on an independent test dataset, the predictor achieved an overall prediction accuracy of 78% and a Pearson's correlation coefficient (PCC) of 0.77. We further illustrate the relative importance of various features with respect to different models. The results indicate that the occurrence of dipeptide glutamine and aspartic acid is the most important feature for the classification model. Finally, we provide access to the implemented predictor through the Periscope webserver, freely accessible at http://lightning.med.monash.edu/periscope/. PMID:26931649

  13. Periscope: quantitative prediction of soluble protein expression in the periplasm of Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Catherine Ching Han; Li, Chen; Webb, Geoffrey I.; Tey, BengTi; Song, Jiangning; Ramanan, Ramakrishnan Nagasundara

    2016-01-01

    Periplasmic expression of soluble proteins in Escherichia coli not only offers a much-simplified downstream purification process, but also enhances the probability of obtaining correctly folded and biologically active proteins. Different combinations of signal peptides and target proteins lead to different soluble protein expression levels, ranging from negligible to several grams per litre. Accurate algorithms for rational selection of promising candidates can serve as a powerful tool to complement with current trial-and-error approaches. Accordingly, proteomics studies can be conducted with greater efficiency and cost-effectiveness. Here, we developed a predictor with a two-stage architecture, to predict the real-valued expression level of target protein in the periplasm. The output of the first-stage support vector machine (SVM) classifier determines which second-stage support vector regression (SVR) classifier to be used. When tested on an independent test dataset, the predictor achieved an overall prediction accuracy of 78% and a Pearson’s correlation coefficient (PCC) of 0.77. We further illustrate the relative importance of various features with respect to different models. The results indicate that the occurrence of dipeptide glutamine and aspartic acid is the most important feature for the classification model. Finally, we provide access to the implemented predictor through the Periscope webserver, freely accessible at http://lightning.med.monash.edu/periscope/. PMID:26931649

  14. Quantitative Measurement of Intact Alpha-Synuclein Proteoforms from Post-Mortem Control and Parkinson's Disease Brain Tissue by Intact Protein Mass Spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kellie, John F.; Higgs, Richard E.; Ryder, John W.; Major, Anthony; Beach, Thomas G.; Adler, Charles H.; Merchant, Kalpana; Knierman, Michael D.

    2014-07-01

    A robust top down proteomics method is presented for profiling alpha-synuclein species from autopsied human frontal cortex brain tissue from Parkinson's cases and controls. The method was used to test the hypothesis that pathology associated brain tissue will have a different profile of post-translationally modified alpha-synuclein than the control samples. Validation of the sample processing steps, mass spectrometry based measurements, and data processing steps were performed. The intact protein quantitation method features extraction and integration of m/z data from each charge state of a detected alpha-synuclein species and fitting of the data to a simple linear model which accounts for concentration and charge state variability. The quantitation method was validated with serial dilutions of intact protein standards. Using the method on the human brain samples, several previously unreported modifications in alpha-synuclein were identified. Low levels of phosphorylated alpha synuclein were detected in brain tissue fractions enriched for Lewy body pathology and were marginally significant between PD cases and controls (p = 0.03).

  15. Quantitative measurement of intact alpha-synuclein proteoforms from post-mortem control and Parkinson's disease brain tissue by intact protein mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Kellie, John F; Higgs, Richard E; Ryder, John W; Major, Anthony; Beach, Thomas G; Adler, Charles H; Merchant, Kalpana; Knierman, Michael D

    2014-01-01

    A robust top down proteomics method is presented for profiling alpha-synuclein species from autopsied human frontal cortex brain tissue from Parkinson's cases and controls. The method was used to test the hypothesis that pathology associated brain tissue will have a different profile of post-translationally modified alpha-synuclein than the control samples. Validation of the sample processing steps, mass spectrometry based measurements, and data processing steps were performed. The intact protein quantitation method features extraction and integration of m/z data from each charge state of a detected alpha-synuclein species and fitting of the data to a simple linear model which accounts for concentration and charge state variability. The quantitation method was validated with serial dilutions of intact protein standards. Using the method on the human brain samples, several previously unreported modifications in alpha-synuclein were identified. Low levels of phosphorylated alpha synuclein were detected in brain tissue fractions enriched for Lewy body pathology and were marginally significant between PD cases and controls (p = 0.03). PMID:25052239

  16. Blu-ray Technology-Based Quantitative Assays for Cardiac Markers: From Disc Activation to Multiplex Detection.

    PubMed

    Weng, Samuel; Li, Xiaochun; Niu, Michelle; Ge, Bixia; Yu, Hua-Zhong

    2016-07-01

    Acute myocardial infarction (AMI) is the leading cause of mortality and morbidity globally. To reduce the number of mortalities, reliable and rapid point-of-care (POC) diagnosis of AMI is extremely critical. We herein present a Blu-ray technology-based assay platform for multiplex cardiac biomarker detection; not only off-the-shelf Blu-ray discs (BDs) were adapted as substrates to prepare standard immunoassays and DNA aptamer/antibody hybrid assays for the three key cardiac marker proteins (myoglobin, troponin I, and C-creative protein) but also an unmodified optical drive was directly employed to read the assay results digitally. In particular, we have shown that all three cardiac markers can be quantitated in their respective physiological ranges of interest, and the detection limits achieved are comparable with conventional enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kits. The Blu-ray assay platform was further validated by measuring real-world samples and establishing a linear correlation with the simultaneously obtained ELISA data. Without the need to modify either the hardware (Blu-ray discs and optical drives) or the software driver, this assay-on-a-BD technique promises to be a low-cost user-friendly quantitative tool for on-site chemical analysis and POC medical diagnosis.

  17. Blu-ray Technology-Based Quantitative Assays for Cardiac Markers: From Disc Activation to Multiplex Detection.

    PubMed

    Weng, Samuel; Li, Xiaochun; Niu, Michelle; Ge, Bixia; Yu, Hua-Zhong

    2016-07-01

    Acute myocardial infarction (AMI) is the leading cause of mortality and morbidity globally. To reduce the number of mortalities, reliable and rapid point-of-care (POC) diagnosis of AMI is extremely critical. We herein present a Blu-ray technology-based assay platform for multiplex cardiac biomarker detection; not only off-the-shelf Blu-ray discs (BDs) were adapted as substrates to prepare standard immunoassays and DNA aptamer/antibody hybrid assays for the three key cardiac marker proteins (myoglobin, troponin I, and C-creative protein) but also an unmodified optical drive was directly employed to read the assay results digitally. In particular, we have shown that all three cardiac markers can be quantitated in their respective physiological ranges of interest, and the detection limits achieved are comparable with conventional enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kits. The Blu-ray assay platform was further validated by measuring real-world samples and establishing a linear correlation with the simultaneously obtained ELISA data. Without the need to modify either the hardware (Blu-ray discs and optical drives) or the software driver, this assay-on-a-BD technique promises to be a low-cost user-friendly quantitative tool for on-site chemical analysis and POC medical diagnosis. PMID:27268387

  18. A Quantitative Approach to Evaluate the Impact of Fluorescent Labeling on Membrane-Bound HIV-Gag Assembly by Titration of Unlabeled Proteins.

    PubMed

    Gunzenhäuser, Julia; Wyss, Romain; Manley, Suliana

    2014-01-01

    The assembly process of the human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1) is driven by the viral polyprotein Gag. Fluorescence imaging of Gag protein fusions is widely performed and has revealed important information on viral assembly. Gag fusion proteins are commonly co-transfected with an unlabeled form of Gag to prevent labeling artifacts such as morphological defects and decreased infectivity. Although viral assembly is widely studied on individual cells, the efficiency of the co-transfection rescue has never been tested at the single cell level. Here, we first develop a methodology to quantify levels of unlabeled to labeled Gag in single cells using a fluorescent reporter protein for unlabeled Gag and fluorescence correlation spectroscopy. Using super-resolution imaging based on photoactivated localization microscopy (PALM) combined with molecular counting we then study the nanoscale morphology of Gag clusters as a function of unlabeled to labeled Gag ratios in single cells. We show that for a given co-transfection ratio, individual cells express a wide range of protein ratios, necessitating a quantitative read-out for the expression of unlabeled Gag. Further, we show that monomerically labeled Gag assembles into membrane-bound clusters that are morphologically indistinguishable from mixtures of unlabeled and labeled Gag.

  19. A Quantitative Approach to Evaluate the Impact of Fluorescent Labeling on Membrane-Bound HIV-Gag Assembly by Titration of Unlabeled Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Gunzenhäuser, Julia; Wyss, Romain; Manley, Suliana

    2014-01-01

    The assembly process of the human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1) is driven by the viral polyprotein Gag. Fluorescence imaging of Gag protein fusions is widely performed and has revealed important information on viral assembly. Gag fusion proteins are commonly co-transfected with an unlabeled form of Gag to prevent labeling artifacts such as morphological defects and decreased infectivity. Although viral assembly is widely studied on individual cells, the efficiency of the co-transfection rescue has never been tested at the single cell level. Here, we first develop a methodology to quantify levels of unlabeled to labeled Gag in single cells using a fluorescent reporter protein for unlabeled Gag and fluorescence correlation spectroscopy. Using super-resolution imaging based on photoactivated localization microscopy (PALM) combined with molecular counting we then study the nanoscale morphology of Gag clusters as a function of unlabeled to labeled Gag ratios in single cells. We show that for a given co-transfection ratio, individual cells express a wide range of protein ratios, necessitating a quantitative read-out for the expression of unlabeled Gag. Further, we show that monomerically labeled Gag assembles into membrane-bound clusters that are morphologically indistinguishable from mixtures of unlabeled and labeled Gag. PMID:25493438

  20. Identification of Proteins Related to Epigenetic Regulation in the Malignant Transformation of Aberrant Karyotypic Human Embryonic Stem Cells by Quantitative Proteomics

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Yi; Yang, Yixuan; Zeng, Sicong; Tan, Yueqiu; Lu, Guangxiu; Lin, Ge

    2014-01-01

    Previous reports have demonstrated th