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Sample records for protein source effects

  1. Investigation of the effects of dietary protein source on copper and zinc bioavailability in rainbow trout

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Limited research has examined the effects that dietary protein sources have on copper (Cu) and Zinc (Zn) absorption, interactions and utilization in rainbow trout. Therefore, the objective of the first trial was to determine what effect protein source (plant vs. animal based), Cu source (complex vs....

  2. Effects of grain source, grain processing, and protein degradability on rumen kinetics and microbial protein synthesis in Boer kids.

    PubMed

    Brassard, M-E; Chouinard, P Y; Berthiaume, R; Tremblay, G F; Gervais, R; Martineau, R; Cinq-Mars, D

    2015-11-01

    Microbial protein synthesis in the rumen would be optimized when dietary carbohydrates and proteins have synchronized rates and extent of degradation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of varying ruminal degradation rate of energy and nitrogen sources on intake, nitrogen balance, microbial protein yield, and kinetics of nutrients in the rumen of growing kids. Eight Boer goats (38.2 ± 3.0 kg) were used. The treatments were arranged in a split-plot Latin square design with grain sources (barley or corn) forming the main plots (squares). Grain processing methods and levels of protein degradability formed the subplots in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement for a total of 8 dietary treatments. The grain processing method was rolling for barley and cracking for corn. Levels of protein degradability were obtained by feeding untreated soybean meal (SBM) or heat-treated soybean meal (HSBM). Each experimental period lasted 21 d, consisting of a 10-d adaptation period, a 7-d digestibility determination period, and a 4-d rumen evacuation and sampling period. Kids fed with corn had higher purine derivatives (PD) excretion when coupled with SBM compared with HSBM and the opposite occurred with barley-fed kids ( ≤ 0.01). Unprocessed grain offered with SBM led to higher PD excretion than with HSBM whereas protein degradability had no effect when processed grain was fed ( ≤ 0.03). Results of the current experiment with high-concentrate diets showed that microbial N synthesis could be maximized in goat kids by combining slowly fermented grains (corn or unprocessed grains) with a highly degradable protein supplement (SBM). With barley, a more rapidly fermented grain, a greater microbial N synthesis was observed when supplementing a low-degradable protein (HSBM).

  3. Food protein sources.

    PubMed

    Pirie, N W

    1976-07-01

    Work on food, planned by the U.M. (Use and Management) Section of the U.K. committe, was limited to sources of protein because we agreed that more problems calling for research were likely to arise in getting adequate supplies of protein than of other types of food. Deer meat can be produced on land too rough and exposed for sheep; parts of the work on their metabolism and food requirements necessitated building a mobile laboratory. The manner in which the nutritive value of maize is affected by changes in the ratios in which the component proteins are present, stimulated similar studies on barley and groundnut. There is good quality protein in coconuts and leaves but its use in human food is restricted by the presence of fibre. Methods for separating protein from fibre and other deleterious components were improved. In cooperation with scientists in India and Nigeria, the potential yield of protein-deficient foods. e.g. cassava, were 'ennobled' by growing micro-organisms on them with the addition of a cheap source of nitrogen.

  4. Effects of Dietary Protein Source and Quantity during Weight Loss on Appetite, Energy Expenditure, and Cardio-Metabolic Responses.

    PubMed

    Li, Jia; Armstrong, Cheryl L H; Campbell, Wayne W

    2016-01-26

    Higher protein meals increase satiety and the thermic effect of feeding (TEF) in acute settings, but it is unclear whether these effects remain after a person becomes acclimated to energy restriction or a given protein intake. This study assessed the effects of predominant protein source (omnivorous, beef/pork vs. lacto-ovo vegetarian, soy/legume) and quantity (10%, 20%, or 30% of energy from protein) on appetite, energy expenditure, and cardio-metabolic indices during energy restriction (ER) in overweight and obese adults. Subjects were randomly assigned to one protein source and then consumed diets with different quantities of protein (4 weeks each) in a randomized crossover manner. Perceived appetite ratings (free-living and in-lab), TEF, and fasting cardio-metabolic indices were assessed at the end of each 4-week period. Protein source and quantity did not affect TEF, hunger, or desire to eat, other than a modestly higher daily composite fullness rating with 30% vs. 10% protein diet (p = 0.03). While the 20% and 30% protein diets reduced cholesterol, triacylglycerol, and APO-B vs. 10% protein (p < 0.05), protein source did not affect cardio-metabolic indices. In conclusion, diets varying in protein quantity with either beef/pork or soy/legume as the predominant source have minimal effects on appetite control, energy expenditure and cardio-metabolic risk factors during ER-induced weight loss.

  5. Feed preference in pigs: effect of selected protein, fat, and fiber sources at different inclusion rates.

    PubMed

    Solà-Oriol, D; Roura, E; Torrallardona, D

    2011-10-01

    Three double-choice feeding experiments were conducted to study the effect of different feedstuffs on feed preference in pigs. Fifteen protein sources, 6 fat sources, and 3 fiber sources were evaluated in Exp. 1, 2, and 3, respectively. Pigs were offered a series of double choices between a common reference diet and the diet with the ingredient under evaluation. The reference diet contained a soybean meal product with 56% CP (SBM-56), sunflower oil, and wheat bran, which were considered as the feedstuffs of reference for the protein, fat, and fiber sources, respectively. Preference, expressed as percentage of the tested diet to total feed intake, was affected by feedstuff nature and by its inclusion rate. In Exp. 1, feeds with fish meal at 50 and 100 g·kg⁻¹, dried porcine hydrolyzed protein at 50 g·kg⁻¹, and lupine, soybean meal with 44% CP, and dried skim milk at 100 g·kg⁻¹ were preferred (P < 0.05) to the reference feed with SBM-56. On the contrary, relative to SBM-56, an avoidance (preference less than 50%) was observed for potato protein at all inclusion rates tested, rapeseed meal and acid milk whey at 100 and 200 g·kg⁻¹, and dried porcine hydrolyzed protein, soybean protein concentrate, wheat gluten, and sunflower meal at 200 g·kg(-1). The storage of dried skim milk, soybean protein concentrate, and potato protein for 10 mo resulted in a reduction (P < 0.001) of their preference values. In Exp. 2, the feed with palm oil (at 30 g·kg⁻¹) was preferred (P < 0.05), whereas feeds with linseed oil (at 30 and 100 g·kg⁻¹) and soybean oil (at 100 g·kg⁻¹) were avoided (P < 0.05) when contrasted with the reference feed with sunflower oil. Finally, in Exp. 3 diets with dehydrated alfalfa and sugar beet pulp at 130 g·kg⁻¹ had a reduced (P < 0.05) preference compared with the reference diet with wheat bran. It is concluded that feedstuff nature, inclusion rate, and freshness affect feed preference in pigs. Feedstuff preferences should be

  6. Effect of protein source and resistance training on body composition and sex hormones

    PubMed Central

    Kalman, Douglas; Feldman, Samantha; Martinez, Michele; Krieger, Diane R; Tallon, Mark J

    2007-01-01

    Background Evidence suggests an inverse relationship between soy protein intake and serum concentrations of male sex hormones. Anecdotal evidence indicates that these alterations in serum sex hormones may attenuate changes in lean body mass following resistance training. However, little empirical data exists regarding the effects of soy and milk-based proteins on circulating androgens and exercise induced body composition changes. Methods For 12 weeks 20 subjects were supplemented with 50 g per day of one of four different protein sources (Soy concentrate; Soy isolate; Soy isolate and whey blend, and Whey blend only) in combination with a resistance-training program. Body composition, testosterone, estradiol and sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) were measured at baseline and week 12. Results Protein supplementation resulted in a significant increase in lean body mass independent of protein source (0.5 ± 1.1 and 0.9 ± 1.4 kg, p = 0.006, p = 0.007). No significant differences were observed between groups for total and free testosterone, SHBG, percentage body fat, BMI or body weight. The Testosterone/Estradiol ratio increased across all groups (+13.4, p = 0.005) and estradiol decreased (p = 0.002). Within group analysis showed significant increases in the Testosterone/Estradiol ratio in soy isolate + whey blend group (+16.3, p = 0.030). Estradiol was significantly lower in the whey blend group (-9.1 ± 8.7 pg/ml, p = 0.033). Conclusion This investigation shows that 12 week supplementation with soy protein does not decrease serum testosterone or inhibit lean body mass changes in subjects engaged in a resistance exercise program. PMID:17908338

  7. Effects of Forage Sources on Rumen Fermentation Characteristics, Performance, and Microbial Protein Synthesis in Midlactation Cows

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Jun; Hou, Yujie; Yang, Hongbo; Shi, Renhuang; Wu, Caixia; Huo, Yongjiu; Zhao, Guoqi

    2014-01-01

    Eight multiparous Holstein cows (632±12 kg BW; 135±16 DIM) were used in a replicated 4×4 Latin square design to evaluate the effects of forage sources on rumen fermentation characteristics, performance, and microbial protein (MCP) synthesis. The forage portion of the diets contained alfalfa hay (AH), oat hay (OH), Leymus chinensis (LC), or rice straw (RS) as the primary source of fiber. Diets were isonitrogenous and isocaloric, and cows were fed four corn silages based total mixed rations with equivalent nonfiber carbohydrate (NFC) and forage neutral detergent fiber (NDF). Dry matter intake was not affected by the source of dietary forages, ranging from 18.83 to 19.20 kg/d, consequently, milk yield was similar among diets. Because of the numerical differences in milk fat and milk protein concentrations, 4% FCM and ECM yields were unchanged (p>0.05). Mean rumen pH, NH3-N content, and concentrations of volatile fatty acids in the rumen fluid were not affected by the treatments (p>0.05). Dietary treatments did not affect the total tract apparent digestibility of dry matter, organic matter, and crude protein (p>0.05); however, digestibility of NDF and acid detergent fiber in RS diet was higher compared with AH, OH, and LC diets (p<0.05). Total purine derivative excretion was higher in cows fed AH, OH, and LC diets compared with those fed RS diet (p<0.05), consequently, estimated MCP synthesis was 124.35 g/d higher in cows fed AH diet compared with those fed RS diet (p<0.05). The results indicated that cows fed AH, OH, LC, and RS diets with an equivalent forage NDF and NFC have no unfavourable effect on the ruminal fermentation and productive parameters. PMID:25050001

  8. A Systematic Review of the Effects of Plant Compared with Animal Protein Sources on Features of Metabolic Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Chalvon-Demersay, Tristan; Azzout-Marniche, Dalila; Arfsten, Judith; Egli, Léonie; Gaudichon, Claire; Karagounis, Leonidas G; Tomé, Daniel

    2017-03-01

    Dietary protein may play an important role in the prevention of metabolic dysfunctions. However, the way in which the protein source affects these dysfunctions has not been clearly established. The aim of the current systematic review was to compare the impact of plant- and animal-sourced dietary proteins on several features of metabolic syndrome in humans. The PubMed database was searched for both chronic and acute interventional studies, as well as observational studies, in healthy humans or those with metabolic dysfunctions, in which the impact of animal and plant protein intake was compared while using the following variables: cholesterolemia and triglyceridemia, blood pressure, glucose homeostasis, and body composition. Based on data extraction, we observed that soy protein consumption (with isoflavones), but not soy protein alone (without isoflavones) or other plant proteins (pea and lupine proteins, wheat gluten), leads to a 3% greater decrease in both total and LDL cholesterol compared with animal-sourced protein ingestion, especially in individuals with high fasting cholesterol concentrations. This observation was made when animal proteins were provided as a whole diet rather than given supplementally. Some observational studies reported an inverse association between plant protein intake and systolic and diastolic blood pressure, but this was not confirmed by intervention studies. Moreover, plant protein (wheat gluten, soy protein) intake as part of a mixed meal resulted in a lower postprandial insulin response than did whey. This systematic review provides some evidence that the intake of soy protein associated with isoflavones may prevent the onset of risk factors associated with cardiovascular disease, i.e., hypercholesterolemia and hypertension, in humans. However, we were not able to draw any further conclusions from the present work on the positive effects of plant proteins relating to glucose homeostasis and body composition.

  9. Effect of Starch Sources and Protein Content on Extruded Aquaculture Feed Containing DDGS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A 3x3 completely randomized design was used to investigate the extrusion cooking and product characteristics of DDGS, protein levels, and various starch sources in a laboratory scale single screw extruder. Cassava, corn, and potato starches with varying levels of DDGS (20, 30, and 40% wb) were extru...

  10. Protein turnover, amino acid profile and amino acid flux in juvenile shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei: effects of dietary protein source.

    PubMed

    Mente, Eleni; Coutteau, Peter; Houlihan, Dominic; Davidson, Ian; Sorgeloos, Patrick

    2002-10-01

    The effect of dietary protein on protein synthesis and growth of juvenile shrimps Litopenaeus vannamei was investigated using three different diets with equivalent protein content. Protein synthesis was investigated by a flooding dose of tritiated phenylalanine. Survival, specific growth and protein synthesis rates were higher, and protein degradation was lower, in shrimps fed a fish/squid/shrimp meal diet, or a 50% laboratory diet/50% soybean meal variant diet, than in those fed a casein-based diet. The efficiency of retention of synthesized protein as growth was 94% for shrimps fed the fish meal diet, suggesting a very low protein turnover rate; by contrast, the retention of synthesized protein was only 80% for shrimps fed the casein diet. The amino acid profile of the casein diet was poorly correlated with that of the shrimps. 4 h after a single meal the protein synthesis rates increased following an increase in RNA activity. A model was developed for amino acid flux, suggesting that high growth rates involve a reduction in the turnover of proteins, while amino acid loss appears to be high.

  11. Effect of dietary protein sources on production performance, egg quality, and plasma parameters of laying hens

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiaocui; Zhang, Haijun; Wang, Hao; Wang, Jing; Wu, Shugeng; Qi, Guanghai

    2017-01-01

    Objective This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary protein sources (soybean meal, SBM; low-gossypol cottonseed meal, LCSM; double-zero rapeseed meal, DRM) on laying performance, egg quality, and plasma parameters of laying hens. Methods A total of 432 32-wk-old laying hens were randomly divided into 6 treatments with 6 replicates of 12 birds each. The birds were fed diets containing SBM, LCSM100, or DRM100 individually or in combination with an equal amount of crude protein (CP) (LCSM50, DRM50, and LCSM50-DRM50). The experimental diets, which were isocaloric (metabolizable energy, 11.11 MJ/kg) and isonitrogenous (CP, 16.5%), had similar digestible amino acid profile. The feeding trial lasted 12 weeks. Results The daily egg mass was decreased in the LCSM100 and LCSM50-DRM50 groups (p<0.05) in weeks 41 to 44. The LCSM50 group did not affect egg production compared to the SBM group in weeks 41 to 44 (p>0.05) and showed increased yolk color at the end of the trial (p<0.05). Compared to the SBM group, the LCSM100 and LCSM50-DRM50 groups showed decreased albumen weight (p<0.05), CP weight in the albumen (p<0.05) and CP weight in the whole egg (p<0.05) at 44 weeks. Plasma total protein (TP) levels were lower in the LCSM100 group than in the SBM group at 44 weeks (p<0.05); however, TP, albumin, and globulin levels were not significantly different between the LCSM50 group and the SBM group or between the DRM50 group and the SBM group (p>0.05). Conclusion Together, our results suggest that the LCSM100 or DRM100 diets may produce the adverse effects on laying performance and egg quality after feeding for 8 more weeks. The 100.0 g/kg LCSM diet or the148.7 g/kg DRM diet has no adverse effects on laying performance and egg quality. PMID:27608634

  12. Dietary starch source and protein degradability in diets containing sucrose: effects on ruminal measures and proposed mechanism for degradable protein effects.

    PubMed

    Hall, Mary Beth

    2013-01-01

    A feeding study was conducted to evaluate ruminal effects of starch source (STA) and rumen-degradable dietary protein (RDP) in diets with added sucrose. The experimental design was an incomplete Latin square with three 21-d periods, 8 ruminally cannulated lactating cows, and a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments. Treatments were STA (dry ground corn or high-moisture corn) as more slowly and more rapidly fermenting starch sources, respectively, and relative amount of RDP (+RDP: added protein from soybean meal; -RDP: heat-treated expeller soybean product partially substituted for soybean meal). Diets were formulated to be isonitrogenous and similar in starch and neutral detergent fiber concentrations. Dry matter (DM) intake was 1 kg greater with +RDP compared with -RDP diets. For ruminal digesta measures made 2 h postfeeding, weight of digesta DM was unaffected by treatment; total kilograms of wet digesta and kilograms of liquid tended to be greater with +RDP than with -RDP, and no effect was observed of STA × RDP. Digesta DM percentage was greater with -RDP than with +RDP. At 2 h postfeeding, ruminal pool sizes (mol) of lactate and total AA were larger and those of total organic acids (OA) and ammonia tended to be larger with +RDP than with -RDP; no effects of STA or STA × RDP were detected. Rumen-degradable protein effects on lactate and OA pool sizes may be due to a protein-mediated increase in fermentation rate of carbohydrate. Organic acid concentrations at 2 h postfeeding did not show the same response pattern or significance as the pool size data; high-moisture corn tended to be greater than dry ground corn and no effect was observed for RDP or STA × RDP. Concentration and pool size for OA were more weakly correlated [coefficient of determination (R(2)) = 0.66] than was the case for other ruminal analytes (R(2) >0.80). Organic acid pool size and kilograms of digesta liquid were strongly correlated (R(2) = 0.79), whereas concentration and kilograms of

  13. Effect of supplemental protein source during the winter on pre- and postpartum glucose metabolism

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Circulating serum glucose concentrations as well as glucose utilization have been shown to be affected by forage quality. Supplemental protein provided to grazing range cows while consuming low quality forage may improve glucose metabolism. The objective of our study was to determine the effects of ...

  14. The effect of dietary protein and lipid source on dorsal fin erosion in rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barrows, F.T.; Lellis, W.A.

    1999-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine the effect of dietary protein and lipid source on dorsal fin erosion in rainbow trout. Seven diets were each fed to four replicate lots of 300 first-feeding fry cultured in 75 1 aluminum troughs for 8 weeks. Two basal diets were manufactured with approximately equal nutrient content, one using krill and squid meals and the other anchovy meal as the primary protein-containing ingredients. The meals used to manufacture the diets were separated into two fractions: lipid (ether-extractable); and protein/ash (non-ether-extractable) using a large soxhlet. The fractions were then recombined to create two additional diets; one containing anchovy protein/ash with krill/squid lipid, the other krill/squid protein/ash with fish lipid. A fifth diet recombined krill/squid protein/ash with krill/squid lipid to evaluate effects of the extraction process. Two additional treatments included a diet with a portion of the krill meal replaced by poultry by-product meal, and the basal anchovy meal diet supplemented with sodium, magnesium, and copper. Fish consuming diets containing anchovy meal as the primary protein source gained more weight (P < 0.05) than fish consuming krill/squid meal-based diets. Dorsal fin index (DFI, measured as mean dorsal fin height x 100/total fish length) was greater (P < 0.05) for fish consuming diets containing krill/squid meal protein/ash fraction (DFI = 9.9%-10.0%) than for fish consuming diets containing anchovy meal protein/ash fraction (DFI = 4.9%-5.3%), regardless of lipid source. Supplementation of the anchovy meal diet with sodium, magnesium, and copper improved (P < 0.05) DFI by approximately 20%, but not to the level supported by the krill/squid meal protein/ash fraction diets. The cost of the krill meal diet was reduced by inclusion of poultry by-product meal without affecting dorsal fin condition. These data indicate that the dietary agent contributing to dorsal fin erosion in rainbow trout is not present in

  15. Effects of dietary forage sources on rumen microbial protein synthesis and milk performance in early lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Zhu, W; Fu, Y; Wang, B; Wang, C; Ye, J A; Wu, Y M; Liu, J-X

    2013-03-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of dietary forage sources on milk performance, rumen microbial protein synthesis, and N utilization in early lactation dairy cows. Twelve primiparous Chinese Holstein dairy cows (45 ± 6.0 DIM) were used in a 3 × 3 Latin square design. Diets were isonitrogenous and isocaloric, with a forage-to-concentrate ratio of 45:55 [dry matter (DM) basis] and contained similar concentrate mixtures. Different forage sources were then added (on a DM basis): 21% corn silage, 19% corn stover, and 5% alfalfa hay (CS); 19% corn silage, 21% Chinese wild rye hay and 5% alfalfa hay (CWR); or 19% corn silage, 9% Chinese wild rye hay, and 17% alfalfa hay (AH). Each period lasted for 21 d, with the first 14 d for an adaptation period. Dry matter intake was not affected by the source of dietary forage. Milk yield was higher for cows fed AH than those fed CS, with an intermediate value for CWR. Milk protein content was higher in the cows fed AH compared with CWR (3.02 vs. 2.92%), with CS (2.95%) at an intermediate position. The contents of milk fat and lactose were not different among the treatments. However, milk efficiency (milk yield/DM intake) was higher for cows fed AH than those fed CS, with those fed CWR intermediate. Cows fed AH had higher microbial protein yield and metabolizable protein than those fed CS or CWR. The concentrations of urea N in the urine, blood, and milk were decreased for cows fed AH, indicating an increased N conversion. The results indicated that corn stover could replace Chinese wild rye grass in the diets for lactating cows and that a high proportion of alfalfa hay in the diet is beneficial for milk protein production by increasing microbial protein yield. This can be attributed to the improving the supply of rumen-available energy.

  16. Protective effect of soybeans as protein source in the diet against cadmium-aorta redox and morphological alteration.

    PubMed

    Pérez Díaz, Matías F F; Acosta, Mariano; Mohamed, Fabián H; Ferramola, Mariana L; Oliveros, Liliana B; Gimenez, María S

    2013-11-01

    We investigated the effects of cadmium exposition on thoracic aorta redox status and morphology, and the putative protective effect of soybeans in the diet. Male Wistar rats were separated into 6 groups: 3 fed with a diet containing casein and 3 containing soybeans, as protein source. Within each protein group, one was given tap water (control) and the other two tap water containing 15 and 100 ppm of Cd(2+), respectively, for two months. In rats fed with casein diet, 15 ppm of Cd induced an increase of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS), and of the catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities, which were even higher with 100 ppm of Cd(2+), in aorta. Also, 100 ppm Cd(2+) exposure increased superoxide dismutase (CuZnSOD) activity; CAT, GPX, SOD, Nrf2 and metallothioneine II mRNA expressions and CAT, GPx and NOX-2 protein levels, compared with control. Aorta endothelial and cytoplasmic alterations were observed. However, with the soybeans diet, 15 and 100 ppm of Cd(2+) did not modify TBARS levels; CAT, GPX and Nrf2 mRNA expressions; CAT, GPx and NOX-2 protein; and the aorta morphology, compared with control. The soybean diet attenuates the redox changes and protects against morphological alterations induced, in a dose-dependent way, by Cd in aorta.

  17. Oligodendrocytes Engineered With Migratory Proteins as Effective Graft Source for Cell Transplantation in Multiple Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    De La Pena, Ike; Pabon, Mibel; Acosta, Sandra; Sanberg, Paul R.; Tajiri, Naoki; Kaneko, Yuji; Borlongan, Cesar V.

    2014-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is characterized by widespread immunomodulatory demyelination of the central nervous system (CNS), resulting in nerve cell dysfunction. Accordingly, treatment strategies have been centered on immunodulation and remyelination, with the former primarily focused on reducing the pathology rather than enhancing myelin repair, which the latter targets. While conceding to the emerging view of heterogeneity in the pathology of MS, which precludes variations in degree of immune response (i.e., inflammation) and demyelination, the concept of enhancing myelin repair is appealing since it is likely to provide both disease-reducing and disease-inhibiting therapeutic approaches to MS. In this regard, we and several others have proposed that cell replacement therapy is an effective strategy to repair the myelin in MS. Here we hypothesize that transplantation of mouse bone marrow-derived oligodendrocytes (BMDOs) and BMDOs transfected with ephrin proteins (BMDO + ephrin), which are known to enhance cell and axonal migratory capacity, may produce therapeutic benefits in animal models of MS. PMID:24999443

  18. Chloroplasts as a nitric oxide cellular source. Effect of reactive nitrogen species on chloroplastic lipids and proteins.

    PubMed

    Jasid, Sebastián; Simontacchi, Marcela; Bartoli, Carlos G; Puntarulo, Susana

    2006-11-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) generation by soybean (Glycine max var. ADM 4800) chloroplasts was studied as an endogenous product assessed by the electron paramagnetic resonance spin-trapping technique. Nitrite and l-arginine (Arg) are substrates for enzymatic activities considered to be the possible sources of NO in plants. Soybean chloroplasts showed a NO production of 3.2 +/- 0.2 nmol min(-1) mg(-1) protein in the presence of 1 mm NaNO(2). Inhibition of photosynthetic electron flow by 3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1,1-dimethyl urea resulted in a lower rate (1.21 +/- 0.04 nmol min(-1) mg(-1) protein) of NO generation. Chloroplasts incubated with 1 mm Arg showed NO production of 0.76 +/- 0.04 nmol min(-1) mg(-1) protein that was not affected either by omission of Ca(2+) or by supplementation with Ca(2+) and calmodulin to the incubation medium. This production was inhibited when chloroplasts were incubated in the presence of NO synthase inhibitors N(omega)-nitro-l-Arg methyl ester hydrochloride and N(omega)-nitro-l-Arg. In vitro exposure of chloroplasts to an NO donor (250 mum S-nitrosoglutathione) decreased lipid radical content in membranes by 29%; however, incubation in the presence of 25 mum peroxynitrite (ONOO(-)) led to an increase in lipid-derived radicals (34%). The effect of ONOO(-) on protein oxidation was determined by western blotting, showing an increase in carbonyl content either in stroma or thylakoid proteins as compared to controls. Moreover, ONOO(-) treatment significantly affected both O(2) evolution and chlorophyll fluorescence in thylakoids. Data reported here suggest that NO is an endogenous metabolite in soybean chloroplasts and that reactive nitrogen species could exert either antioxidant or prooxidant effects on chloroplast macromolecules.

  19. Nitrogen utilization in growing lambs: effects of grain (starch) and protein sources with various rates of ruminal degradation.

    PubMed

    Matras, J; Bartle, S J; Preston, R L

    1991-01-01

    The potential interaction between grain (starch) and protein sources with varying ruminal degradation rates on N utilization in growing lambs was evaluated. Three grain sources with varying ruminal degradation rates, (barley greater than steam-flaked sorghum [SFSG] greater than dry-rolled sorghum [DRSG]) and three protein sources (urea greater than a 50:25:25 mixture of urea: blood meal:corn gluten meal [N basis, U/BC] greater than 50:50 mixture of meal:corn gluten meal [N basis, BC]), were evaluated in a 3 x 3 factorial arrangement. Supplemental protein sources provided 33% of dietary N (CP = 11.0%). For each grain-protein combination, a 3 x 3 Latin square metabolism trial was conducted using two sets of three lambs and three periods. Within-square treatments were 1.4, 1.7 and 2.0 times maintenance intake levels. No interactions were observed (P greater than .2) between dietary treatments and intake level. Grain sources did not differ (P greater than .2) in N balance or the proportion of N retained. Lambs fed urea diets retained less N (3.6 vs 4.2 and 4.1 g/d for urea vs U/BC and BC, respectively; linear, P = .07; quadratic, P = .12) and utilized N less efficiently (43.1 vs 51.9 and 52.5%, respectively; linear, P less than .001; quadratic, P = .10) than lambs fed BC diets. The grain x protein interaction was significant for most variables. Nitrogen utilization was most efficient (24 to 27% of N intake retained) when rapidly degraded sources (barley and urea) and slowly degraded sources (sorghum and BC) were fed together or when U/BC was the supplemental protein source (interaction P less than .08). An advantage was found for selection of starch and protein sources with similar ruminal degradation rates.

  20. Protective effect of soybeans as protein source in the diet against cadmium-aorta redox and morphological alteration

    SciTech Connect

    Pérez Díaz, Matías F.F.; Acosta, Mariano; Mohamed, Fabián H.; Ferramola, Mariana L.; Oliveros, Liliana B.; Gimenez, María S.

    2013-11-01

    We investigated the effects of cadmium exposition on thoracic aorta redox status and morphology, and the putative protective effect of soybeans in the diet. Male Wistar rats were separated into 6 groups: 3 fed with a diet containing casein and 3 containing soybeans, as protein source. Within each protein group, one was given tap water (control) and the other two tap water containing 15 and 100 ppm of Cd{sup 2+}, respectively, for two months. In rats fed with casein diet, 15 ppm of Cd induced an increase of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS), and of the catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities, which were even higher with 100 ppm of Cd{sup 2+}, in aorta. Also, 100 ppm Cd{sup 2+} exposure increased superoxide dismutase (CuZnSOD) activity; CAT, GPX, SOD, Nrf2 and metallothioneine II mRNA expressions and CAT, GPx and NOX-2 protein levels, compared with control. Aorta endothelial and cytoplasmic alterations were observed. However, with the soybeans diet, 15 and 100 ppm of Cd{sup 2+} did not modify TBARS levels; CAT, GPX and Nrf2 mRNA expressions; CAT, GPx and NOX-2 protein; and the aorta morphology, compared with control. The soybean diet attenuates the redox changes and protects against morphological alterations induced, in a dose-dependent way, by Cd in aorta. - Highlights: • Under casein diet, 100 ppm Cd{sup 2+} in drinking water induces oxidative stress in aorta. • Under casein diet, 100 ppm Cd{sup 2+} increases Nrf2, MT II and NOX2 expressions in aorta. • Under casein diet, 100 ppm Cd{sup 2+} induces morphological changes in rat aorta. • The soybean diet attenuates the redox changes induced by Cd in rat aorta. • The soybean diet attenuates morphological alterations induced by Cd in rat aorta.

  1. Effect of dietary energy source and level on nutrient digestibility, rumen microbial protein synthesis, and milk performance in lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Zhou, X Q; Zhang, Y D; Zhao, M; Zhang, T; Zhu, D; Bu, D P; Wang, J Q

    2015-10-01

    This study was conducted to examine the effects of dietary energy source and level on intake, digestion, rumen microbial protein synthesis, and milk production in lactating dairy cows, using corn stover as a forage source. Eight multiparous Holstein cows, 4 of which were fitted with rumen cannulas, were evaluated in a replicated 4 × 4 Latin square design, with each period lasting 21 d. The cows were randomly assigned into 4 treatment groups: low-energy (LE) ground corn (GC), LE steam-flaked corn (SFC), high-energy (HE) GC, and HE SFC. Changes to ruminal energy degradation rates were induced by feeding the cows diets of either finely ground corn or SFC as components of diets with the same total energy level. Milk yield, milk protein content and yield, and milk lactose yield all increased in response to higher levels of dietary energy, whereas contents of milk fat and lactose were unaffected. Cows fed HE diets had a higher crude microbial protein yield and total-tract apparent digestibility than those receiving LE diets. Milk yield, milk protein yield, and microbial protein yield were also higher when SFC replaced GC as the main energy source for lactating cows fed LE diets. These results suggest that an increased dietary energy level and ruminal degradation rate are beneficial to milk protein production, which we suggest is due to increased yields of microbial proteins, when cows are fed corn stover as a dietary forage source.

  2. Emerging Evidence for the Importance of Dietary Protein Source on Glucoregulatory Markers and Type 2 Diabetes: Different Effects of Dairy, Meat, Fish, Egg, and Plant Protein Foods.

    PubMed

    Comerford, Kevin B; Pasin, Gonca

    2016-07-23

    Observational studies provide evidence that a higher intake of protein from plant-based foods and certain animal-based foods is associated with a lower risk for type 2 diabetes. However, there are few distinguishable differences between the glucoregulatory qualities of the proteins in plant-based foods, and it is likely their numerous non-protein components (e.g., fibers and phytochemicals) that drive the relationship with type 2 diabetes risk reduction. Conversely, the glucoregulatory qualities of the proteins in animal-based foods are extremely divergent, with a higher intake of certain animal-based protein foods showing negative effects, and others showing neutral or positive effects on type 2 diabetes risk. Among the various types of animal-based protein foods, a higher intake of dairy products (such as milk, yogurt, cheese and whey protein) consistently shows a beneficial relationship with glucose regulation and/or type 2 diabetes risk reduction. Intervention studies provide evidence that dairy proteins have more potent effects on insulin and incretin secretion compared to other commonly consumed animal proteins. In addition to their protein components, such as insulinogenic amino acids and bioactive peptides, dairy products also contain a food matrix rich in calcium, magnesium, potassium, trans-palmitoleic fatty acids, and low-glycemic index sugars-all of which have been shown to have beneficial effects on aspects of glucose control, insulin secretion, insulin sensitivity and/or type 2 diabetes risk. Furthermore, fermentation and fortification of dairy products with probiotics and vitamin D may improve a dairy product's glucoregulatory effects.

  3. Emerging Evidence for the Importance of Dietary Protein Source on Glucoregulatory Markers and Type 2 Diabetes: Different Effects of Dairy, Meat, Fish, Egg, and Plant Protein Foods

    PubMed Central

    Comerford, Kevin B.; Pasin, Gonca

    2016-01-01

    Observational studies provide evidence that a higher intake of protein from plant-based foods and certain animal-based foods is associated with a lower risk for type 2 diabetes (T2DM). However, there are few distinguishable differences between the glucoregulatory qualities of the proteins in plant-based foods, and it is likely their numerous non-protein components (e.g., fibers and phytochemicals) that drive the relationship with T2DM risk reduction. Conversely, the glucoregulatory qualities of the proteins in animal-based foods are extremely divergent, with a higher intake of certain animal-based protein foods showing negative effects, and others showing neutral or positive effects on T2DM risk. Among the various types of animal-based protein foods, a higher intake of dairy products (such as milk, yogurt, cheese and whey protein) consistently shows a beneficial relationship with glucose regulation and/or T2DM risk reduction. Intervention studies provide evidence that dairy proteins have more potent effects on insulin and incretin secretion compared to other commonly consumed animal proteins. In addition to their protein components, such as insulinogenic amino acids and bioactive peptides, dairy products also contain a food matrix rich in calcium, magnesium, potassium, trans-palmitoleic fatty acids, and low-glycemic index sugars—all of which have been shown to have beneficial effects on aspects of glucose control, insulin secretion, insulin sensitivity and/or T2DM risk. Furthermore, fermentation and fortification of dairy products with probiotics and vitamin D may improve a dairy product’s glucoregulatory effects. PMID:27455320

  4. Effect of nitrogen source in high-concentrate, low-protein beef cattle diets on microbial fermentation studied in vivo and in vitro.

    PubMed

    Devant, M; Ferret, A; Calsamiglia, S; Casals, R; Gasa, J

    2001-07-01

    In Exp. 1, four Holstein heifers (112+/-5.5 kg BW) fitted with ruminal cannulas were used in a 4 x 4 Latin square to evaluate the effects of N source on ruminal fermentation and urinary excretion of purine derivatives. A 2 x 2 factorial arrangement of treatments was used; the factors were the type of protein source (soybean meal, SBM, vs a 50:50 mixture of fish meal and corn gluten meal, FMCGM) and the partial substitution of protein source by urea (with vs without). Heifers were allowed to consume concentrate and barley straw on an ad libitum basis. Barley straw:concentrate ratio (12:88) and average ruminal pH (6.25) were not affected (P > 0.05) by treatment. Ruminal NH3 N concentration and urinary excretion of purine derivatives were not affected (P > 0.05) by supplemental N source. In situ CP degradability of supplemented SBM was very low (50%). In Exp. 2, eight dual-flow continuous-culture fermenters were used to study diet effects on microbial fermentation and nutrient flow, using forage:concentrate ratio, solid and liquid passage rates, and pH fluctuation to simulate in vivo conditions. The treatment containing SBM without urea reached the greatest total VFA concentration (P < 0.01), molar percentage of acetate (P < 0.05), and NH3 N concentration (P < 0.05), followed by treatments with partial substitution of protein source by urea, and finally by the treatment containing FMCGM. True OM digestion tended to increase (P = 0.13) in treatments containing SBM. These results suggest that amino N from SBM and NH3 N concentration stimulated nutrient digestion. Microbial protein synthesis was lowest in treatments with FMCGM and without urea, indicating that rapidly available N limited microbial growth. The low CP degradability of SBM observed may have contributed to the limitation in N supply for microbial growth. Efficiency of microbial protein synthesis increased in treatments containing urea (P < 0.05). Protein source affected total (P < 0.05) and essential AA (P

  5. The effects of inulin supplementation of diets with or without hydrolysed protein sources on digestibility, faecal characteristics, haematology and immunoglobulins in dogs.

    PubMed

    Verlinden, A; Hesta, M; Hermans, J M; Janssens, G P J

    2006-11-01

    Dogs with food allergy are often treated by giving a diet with hydrolysed protein sources. Prebiotics might also be successful in prevention and treatment of allergic disease through their effect on the colonic microflora, analogous to studies on probiotics in allergic children. The present study was set up to investigate the effect of supplementing inulin (IN) to commercial hypoallergenic dog diets on apparent nutrient digestibility, faecal characteristics, haematology and Ig in dogs. Supplementation of 3 % IN did not affect faecal pH, food and water intake and urine production. Compared with the intact protein diet with a limited number of ingredients (L), the diet with a hydrolysed protein source (H) resulted in an increased water intake (P<0.001), which could be due to the osmotic effect of free amino acids. Faeces production was increased by IN due to increased faecal moisture content. Increased faeces production on the H diet was mainly due to a higher DM excretion. Subsequently, the apparent digestibility coefficient (ADC) of DM was lower in the H diet group. A similar result was noted for ADC of diethyl ether extract and crude ash. The ADC of crude protein was higher in the H diet group, whereas IN decreased the ADC of crude protein. Differences in the ADC of crude protein among the different diets disappeared after correction for a higher faecal biomass, except for the dogs fed the L+IN diet. Total faecal IgA concentrations were lower in the H group (P<0.05) because of lower antigenic stimulation of hydrolysed protein, which implies that hydrolysed protein is really hypoallergenic. The present study indicates that the use of hydrolysed protein diets for canine food allergy treatment can affect digestibility and that combination with IN affected apparent protein digestibility but not IgA response.

  6. Effect of dietary mineral sources and oil content on calcium utilization and kidney calcification in female Fischer rats fed low-protein diets.

    PubMed

    Ohtsuka, Shizuko; Aoyama, Yoshiko; Watanabe, Nobuhiro; Kajiwara, Tomoko; Azami, Shoji; Kitano, Takao

    2013-01-01

    We studied the effects of dietary mineral source and oil intake on kidney calcification in 4-wk-old female Fischer rats after consuming the AIN-76 purified diet (AIN-76). A modified AIN-76 mineral mixture was used, although the original calcium (Ca)/phosphorus (P) molar ratio remained unchanged. Rats were fed the modified diets for a period of 40 d before their kidneys were removed on the last day. Ca balance tests were performed on days 31 to 36 and biochemical analysis of urine was also studied. Kidney Ca, P, and magnesium (Mg) in the standard diet group (20% protein and 5% oil) were not affected by the mineral source. Kidney Ca, P, and Mg in the low-protein (10% protein) diet group, were found to be influenced by the dietary oil content and mineral source. In particular, the different mineral sources differentially increased kidney mineral accumulation. Pathological examination of the kidney showed that the degree of kidney calcification was proportional to the dietary oil content in the 10% dietary protein group, reflecting the calcium content of the kidney. The information gathered on mineral sources in this study will help future researchers studying the influence of dietary Ca/P molar ratios, and histological changes in the kidney.

  7. Effects of rumen-undegradable protein sources and supplemental 2-hydroxy-4-(methylthio)-butanoic acid and lysine-HCl on lactation performance in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Johnson-VanWieringen, L M; Harrison, J H; Davidson, D; Swift, M L; von Keyserlingk, M A G; Vazquez-Anon, M; Wright, D; Chalupa, W

    2007-11-01

    One hundred primiparous and multiparous Holstein cows were used in an experiment to evaluate the effect of supplementing diets with either a plant- or an animal-based source of rumen-undegradable protein (RUP), with or without AA supplementation, during the transition period and early lactation on milk production response. The experimental design was a randomized block design with approximately one-third of the cows being primiparous. Cows were assigned to 1 of 4 prepartum diets introduced 3 wk before the expected calving date and switched to the corresponding postpartum diet at calving. Diets 1 (AMI) and 2 (AMI+) included a vegetable RUP source (heat- and lignosulfonate-treated canola meal), with diet 2 containing supplemental Lys x HCl and Met hydroxy analog sources [D,L-2 hydroxy-4-(methylthio)-butanoic acid; Alimet feed supplement]. Diets 3 (PRO) and 4 (PRO+) consisted of a blend of animal RUP sources (blood meal, fish meal, feather meal, and porcine meat and bone meal), with diet 4 containing supplemental Lys x HCl and Met hydroxy analog sources [D,L-2 hydroxy-4-(methylthio)-butanoic acid; Alimet]. During the first 4 wk of lactation, dry matter intake was less when synthetic Lys x HCl and Alimet were supplemented, but this effect was no longer evident in wk 5 to 9 of the experiment. Interestingly, despite the initial decrease in dry matter intake in the cows fed AA-supplemented diets, there was no effect of treatment on milk production or the ratio of fat-corrected milk to dry matter intake throughout the 17 wk of the study. Undegradable protein source (vegetable vs. animal) did not affect dry matter intake, milk production, or 3.5% fat-corrected milk production for the first 17 wk of lactation. The results of this study indicate that heat- and lignosulfonate-treated canola meal can be used as a source of undegradable protein in place of high-quality rumen-undegradable animal protein sources without negative effects on milk production when diets are equivalent

  8. Natural proteins: Sources, isolation, characterization and applications

    PubMed Central

    Nehete, Jitendra Y.; Bhambar, Rajendra S.; Narkhede, Minal R.; Gawali, Sonali R.

    2013-01-01

    Worldwide, plant protein contributes substantially as a food resource because it contains essential amino acids for meeting human physiological requirements. However, many versatile plant proteins are used as medicinal agents as they are produced by using molecular tools of biotechnology. Proteins can be obtained from plants, animals and microorganism cells. The abundant economical proteins can be obtained from plant seeds. These natural proteins are obtained by isolation procedures depending on the physicochemical properties of proteins. Isolation and purification of single protein from cells containing mixtures of unrelated proteins is achievable due to the physical and chemical attributes of proteins. The following characteristics are unique to each protein: Amino acid composition, sequence, subunit structures, size, shape, net charge, isoelectric point, solubility, heat stability and hydrophobicity. Based on these properties, various methods of isolation exist, like salting out and isoionic precipitation. Purification of proteins is quiet challenging and, therefore, several approaches like sodium dodecyl sulfate gel electrophoresis and chromatography are available. Characterization of proteins can be performed by mass spectrometry/liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). The amino acid sequence of a protein can be detected by using tandem mass spectrometry. In this article, a review has been made on the sources, isolation, purification and characterization of natural proteins. PMID:24347918

  9. Effect of partial supplementation of sun-dried Azolla as a protein source on the immunity and antioxidant status of commercial broilers

    PubMed Central

    Chichilichi, Biswal; Mohanty, G. P.; Mishra, S. K.; Pradhan, C. R.; Behura, N. C.; Das, A.; Behera, K.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The present study was conducted to evaluate the effect of partial supplementation of sun-dried Azolla as a protein source on the immunity of commercial broilers in coastal Odisha. Materials and Methods: A 180 day-old broiler chicks were distributed in six dietary treatments viz. C1: Basal diet, C2: Basal diet + enzyme, T1: Basal diet +5% protein from Azolla, T2: Basal diet + 5% protein from Azolla + enzyme, T3: Basal diet +10% protein from Azolla, and T4: Basal diet + 10% protein from Azolla + enzyme. Cutaneous basophilc hypersensitivity (CBH) and humoral immunity response were determined at the 38th day of age. At 42nd day, the weight of lymphoid organs, an antioxidant enzyme, and lipid peroxidation activity were determined. Results: The CBH response did not differ significantly among the treated groups, but the sheep red blood cells response was significantly higher in T4. The weight of lymphoid organs or immune organs of all the treated groups did not differ significantly (p>0.05). The erythrocyte catalase level of T4 group was found to be significantly higher than rest of the treated groups except T3. Conclusion: It may be concluded that supplementation of Azolla at 10% of dietary protein requirement along with enzyme supplementation in an isonitrogenous diet showed a better immune response in broilers. PMID:27047208

  10. Developmental Block and Programmed Cell Death in Bos indicus Embryos: Effects of Protein Supplementation Source and Developmental Kinetics

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, Sheila Merlo; Marinho, Luciana Simões Rafagnin; Lunardelli, Paula Alvares; Seneda, Marcelo Marcondes; Meirelles, Flávio Vieira

    2015-01-01

    The aims of this study were to determine if the protein source of the medium influences zebu embryo development and if developmental kinetics, developmental block and programmed cell death are related. The culture medium was supplemented with either fetal calf serum or bovine serum albumin. The embryos were classified as Fast (n = 1,235) or Slow (n = 485) based on the time required to reach the fourth cell cycle (48 h and 90 h post insemination - hpi -, respectively). The Slow group was further separated into two groups: those presenting exactly 4 cells at 48 hpi (Slow/4 cells) and those that reached the fourth cell cycle at 90 hpi (Slow). Blastocyst quality, DNA fragmentation, mitochondrial membrane potential and signs of apoptosis or necrosis were evaluated. The Slow group had higher incidence of developmental block than the Fast group. The embryos supplemented with fetal calf serum had lower quality. DNA fragmentation and mitochondrial membrane potential were absent in embryos at 48 hpi but present at 90 hpi. Early signs of apoptosis were more frequent in the Slow and Slow/4 cell groups than in the Fast group. We concluded that fetal calf serum reduces blastocyst development and quality, but the mechanism appears to be independent of DNA fragmentation. The apoptotic cells detected at 48 hpi reveal a possible mechanism of programmed cell death activation prior to genome activation. The apoptotic cells observed in the slow-developing embryos suggested a relationship between programmed cell death and embryonic developmental kinetics in zebu in vitro-produced embryos. PMID:25760989

  11. Allergenicity assessment strategy for novel food proteins and protein sources.

    PubMed

    Verhoeckx, Kitty; Broekman, Henrike; Knulst, André; Houben, Geert

    2016-08-01

    To solve the future food insecurity problem, alternative and sustainable protein sources (e.g. insects, rapeseed, fava bean and algae) are now being explored for the production of food and feed. To approve these novel protein sources for future food a comprehensive risk assessment is needed according to the European food legislation. Allergenicity risk assessment might pose some major difficulties, since detailed guidance on how to assess the allergenic potential of novel foods is not available. At present, the approach relies mostly on the guidance of allergenicity assessment for genetically modified (GM) plant foods. The most recent one was proposed by EFSA (2010 and 2011); "weight-of-evidence approach". However this guidance is difficult to interpret, not completely applicable or validated for novel foods and therefore needs some adjustments. In this paper we propose a conceptual strategy which is based on the "weight-of-evidence approach" for food derived from GM plants and other strategies that were previously published in the literature. This strategy will give more guidance on how to assess the allergenicity of novel food proteins and protein sources.

  12. Effects of various plant protein sources in high-quality feed block on feed intake, rumen fermentation, and microbial population in swamp buffalo.

    PubMed

    Foiklang, Suban; Wanapat, Metha; Toburan, Wetchasit

    2011-12-01

    This study was designed to determine effect of various plant protein sources in high-quality feed block (HQFB) on feed intake, rumen fermentation, and microbial population in swamp buffalo. Four rumen-fistulated swamp buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) were randomly assigned according to a 4 × 4 Latin square design. Four kinds of plant protein sources (coarse rice bran (CRB), cassava hay (CH), Phaseolus calcaratus hay, and mulberry hay (MH)) were mixed in the HQFB. HQFBs were allowed to be licked at free choice, and urea-lime-treated rice straw (ULRS) were fed ad libitum. It was found that bacterial population and fungal zoospores in CH-fed group tended to be higher than those in other groups. Moreover, protozoal population in CH, P. calcaratus hay, and MH were lower than those in CRB supplemented group (P < 0.05). Cellulolytic bacterial population was highest in CH-fed group while proteolytic bacteria population was highest in P. calcaratus hay-fed group (P < 0.05). CH-fed group had higher ULRS intake than those in other groups (P < 0.05). Nutrient digestibility of CP, NDF, and ADF in CH-fed group was significantly higher than those in other groups (P < 0.05). Total VFA was highest in CH-fed group (P < 0.05). N absorption was highest in CH-fed group (P < 0.05). Based on this study, it could be concluded that cassava hay, P. calcaratus hay, and mulberry hay are potential to be used as protein sources in the HQFBs especially cassava hay.

  13. The effect of 2 liquid feeds and 2 sources of protein in starter on performance and blood metabolites in Holstein neonatal calves.

    PubMed

    Tahmasbi, A M; Heidari Jahan Abadi, S; Naserian, A A

    2014-01-01

    The aim of present study was to investigate the effect of 2 liquid feeds and 2 protein sources in starter on the performance and blood metabolite responses of Holstein neonatal calves from birth to 6 wk of age. Calves (20 males and 20 females) based on sex were randomly assigned to 4 treatments in a 2 × 2 × 2 factorial arrangement, including soybean meal (SBM) and meat and bone meal (MB) with either fermented colostrum (or fresh milk. Although sex and liquid feed had no significant effect on feed intake, calves consumed more feed intake on the diet containing SBM (15 ± 0.2 kg) than MB (13 ± 0.2 kg) during the experimental period; also, weight gain was affected by both liquid feed and starter. Liquid feed and starter had significant effects on calf body size, including pin width, hip width, withers height, hip height, and stomach size, but no significant effects were observed on calf body size between the sexes. Plasma glucose concentration was not affected by sex, liquid feed, or starter. Plasma urea nitrogen concentration decreased in the first 3 wk and then started to increase during the last 3 wk, but it was only affected by starter and calves receiving SBM (10.18 mg/dL) had a higher concentration of plasma urea nitrogen than calves receiving MB (9.6 mg/dL) at the end of the experiment. Plasma growth hormone and insulin-like growth factor I concentrations decreased in all treatment groups from d 0 to the end of the study. No significant effects were observed on plasma growth hormone and insulin-like growth factor I concentrations between the 2 sexes, but they were significantly affected by both liquid feed and starter. Results of the present study provide useful information to apply to Holstein neonatal calves during the first 6 wk of life when liquid feed and 2 sources of protein in starter are considered.

  14. Potential application of microalga Spirulina platensis as a protein source.

    PubMed

    Lupatini, Anne Luize; Colla, Luciane Maria; Canan, Cristiane; Colla, Eliane

    2017-02-01

    The high protein level of various microalgal species is one of the main reasons to consider them an unconventional source of this compound. Spirulina platensis stands out for being one of the richest protein sources of microbial origin (460-630 g kg(-1) , dry matter basis), having similar protein levels when compared to meat and soybeans. The use of S. platensis in food can bring benefits to human health owing to its chemical composition, since it has high levels of vitamins, minerals, phenolics, essential fatty acids, amino acids and pigments. Furthermore, the development of new protein sources to supply the shortage of this nutrient is an urgent need, and protein from S. platensis plays an important role in this scenario. In this sense, extraction processes that allow maximum protein yield and total utilization of biomass is an urgent need, and ultrasonic waves have proven to be an effective extraction technique. The number of scientific papers related to protein fraction from S. platensis is still limited; thus further studies on its functional and technological properties are needed. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  15. EFFECT OF PROTEIN SOURCE DURING WEIGHT LOSS ON BODY COMPOSITION, CARDIOMETABOLIC RISK AND PHYSICAL PERFORMANCE IN ABDOMINALLY OBESE, OLDER ADULTS: A PILOT FEEDING STUDY

    PubMed Central

    BEAVERS, K.M.; GORDON, M.M.; EASTER, L.; BEAVERS, D.P.; HAIRSTON, K.G.; NICKLAS, B.J.; VITOLINS, M.Z.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this pilot study was to begin to examine the effect of dietary protein source (soy protein versus non-soy protein) during weight loss on body composition, and cardiometabolic and functional decline risk factors in older, abdominally obese adults. Design Two-arm, single-blind, randomized, controlled trial. Setting Wake Forest School of Medicine, Winston-Salem NC 27157, USA. Participants 25 older (68.4±5.5 years, 88% female), abdominally obese (BMI: 35.1±4.3 kg/m2; WC: 101.4±13.1 cm) men and women were randomized to participate in the study. Intervention A 12-week weight loss intervention, with participants randomized to consume soy protein-based meal replacements (S; n=12) or non-soy protein-based meal replacements (NS; n=12), in addition to prepared meals, and all participants targeted to receive an individualized caloric deficit of 500 kcal/day. Measurements Body weight and composition (assessed via DXA and CT), conventional biomarkers of cardiometabolic risk, and physical performance measures were assessed pre- and post-intervention. Additional endpoints of feasibility (accrual, participation, retention, compliance, and safety) are reported. Results A total of 24 participants (87% female) completed the study (96% retention) and lost an average of 7.8±3.0 kg over the 12-week period, with no difference seen between groups (p=0.83). Although nearly all measures of global and regional body composition were significantly reduced following the 12-week intervention, differences were not observed between groups. Among cardiometabolic risk factors and physical performance measures, only diastolic blood pressure was significantly lower in the NS group compared to the S group (66.7±2.7 mmHg vs 73.5±2.7 mmHg, respectively; p=0.04). Interestingly, in groups combined, despite significant reductions in body weight and lean mass, no significant changes in 400-meter walk time (+5.3±43.4 s), short physical performance battery score (+0.1±1

  16. Developmental Genes Have Pleiotropic Effects on Plant Morphology and Source Capacity, Eventually Impacting on Seed Protein Content and Productivity in Pea1[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Burstin, Judith; Marget, Pascal; Huart, Myriam; Moessner, Annie; Mangin, Brigitte; Duchene, Christiane; Desprez, Bruno; Munier-Jolain, Nathalie; Duc, Gérard

    2007-01-01

    Increasing pea (Pisum sativum) seed nutritional value and particularly seed protein content, while maintaining yield, is an important challenge for further development of this crop. Seed protein content and yield are complex and unstable traits, integrating all the processes occurring during the plant life cycle. During filling, seeds are the main sink to which assimilates are preferentially allocated at the expense of vegetative organs. Nitrogen seed demand is satisfied partly by nitrogen acquired by the roots, but also by nitrogen remobilized from vegetative organs. In this study, we evaluated the respective roles of nitrogen source capacity and sink strength in the genetic variability of seed protein content and yield. We showed in eight genotypes of diverse origins that both the maximal rate of nitrogen accumulation in the seeds and nitrogen source capacity varied among genotypes. Then, to identify the genetic factors responsible for seed protein content and yield variation, we searched for quantitative trait loci (QTL) for seed traits and for indicators of sink strength and source nitrogen capacity. We detected 261 QTL across five environments for all traits measured. Most QTL for seed and plant traits mapped in clusters, raising the possibility of common underlying processes and candidate genes. In most environments, the genes Le and Afila, which control internode length and the switch between leaflets and tendrils, respectively, determined plant nitrogen status. Depending on the environment, these genes were linked to QTL of seed protein content and yield, suggesting that source-sink adjustments depend on growing conditions. PMID:17449650

  17. Effects of feeding canola meal or wheat dried distillers grains with solubles as a major protein source in low- or high-crude protein diets on ruminal fermentation, omasal flow, and production in cows.

    PubMed

    Mutsvangwa, T; Kiran, D; Abeysekara, S

    2016-02-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of feeding canola meal (CM) or wheat dried distillers grains with solubles (W-DDGS) as the major source of protein in diets varying in crude protein (CP) content on ruminal fermentation, microbial protein production, omasal nutrient flow, and production performance in lactating dairy cows. Eight lactating dairy cows were used in a replicated 4×4 Latin square design with 29-d periods (21 d of dietary adaptation and 8 d of measurements) and a 2×2 factorial arrangement of dietary treatments. Four cows in 1 Latin square were ruminally cannulated to allow ruminal and omasal sampling. The treatment factors were (1) source of supplemental protein (CM vs. W-DDGS) and (2) dietary CP content (15 vs. 17%; DM basis). Diets contained 50% forage and 50% concentrate, and were fed twice daily at 0900 and 1600 h as total mixed rations for ad libitum intake. Dry matter intake and milk yield were unaffected by dietary treatments; however, milk yield in cows that were fed CM was numerically greater (+1.1 kg/d) when compared with cows fed W-DDGS. Feeding CM increased milk lactose content compared with feeding W-DDGS. Milk urea nitrogen and ruminal NH3-N concentrations were greater in cows fed the high-CP compared with those fed the low-CP diet. The rumen-degradable protein supply was greater in cows fed the high-CP when compared with those fed the low-CP diet when diets contained CM, whereas rumen-degradable protein supply was lower in cows fed the high-CP when compared with those fed the low-CP diet when diets contained W-DDGS. Total N flow at the omasal canal was not affected by diet; however, omasal flow of NH3-N was greater in cows fed CM when compared with those fed W-DDGS. The rumen-undegradable protein supply was greater in cows fed the low-CP when compared with those fed the high-CP diet when diets contained CM, whereas rumen-undegradable protein supply was lower in cows fed the low-CP when compared with those fed the

  18. Effect of palm kernel cake as protein source in a concentrate diet on intake, digestibility and live weight gain of goats fed Napier grass.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Mohammad Mijanur; Abdullah, Ramli Bin; Wan Embong, Wan Khadijah; Nakagawa, Toshinori; Akashi, Ryo

    2013-03-01

    The effects of palm kernel cake (PKC) as a protein source in a concentrate diet (comprising 35 % crushed maize, 30 % rice bran, 32 % PKC, 2 % vitamin mineral premix and 1 % salt) were examined on intake, live weight (LW) gain and digestibility in female goats (average LW of 12.4 ± 2.6 kg). Four goats were randomly allocated to each of the four treatment diets: (a) Napier grass (Pennisetum purpureum) offered ad libitum (T1), (b) T1 + concentrate at 0.5 % of LW (T2), (c) T1 + concentrate at 1.0 % of LW (T3) and (d) T1 + concentrate at 2.0 % of LW (T4). A 7-day digestibility trial and an 82-day growth experiment were conducted. No differences were observed among diets for intakes of roughage dry matter (DM), total DM, organic matter (OM) and neutral detergent fibre (NDF). The crude protein (CP) intake increased (P < 0.05) as the level of concentrate in the diets increased. Goats fed the T2, T3 and T4 diets gained 10.2, 34.1 and 52.5 g/head/day, respectively, while the control group (T1) lost weight (-12.7 g/head/day). The apparent digestibilities of DM, OM and CP were similar (P > 0.05) among treatments. The digestibility of dietary NDF decreased (P < 0.05) with increasing levels of concentrate, but there was no significant (P > 0.05) difference between T2 and T3 diets. Supplementing a basal diet of Napier grass with PKC-based concentrate improved CP intake and LW gain. The PKC-based concentrate diet can therefore be exploited for the use of local feed resources for goat production; however, further research is required to achieve the best growth response.

  19. Investigating effects of sample pretreatment on protein stability using size-exclusion chromatography and high-resolution continuum source atomic absorption spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Rakow, Tobias; El Deeb, Sami; Hahne, Thomas; El-Hady, Deia Abd; AlBishri, Hassan M; Wätzig, Hermann

    2014-09-01

    In this study, size-exclusion chromatography and high-resolution atomic absorption spectrometry methods have been developed and evaluated to test the stability of proteins during sample pretreatment. This especially includes different storage conditions but also adsorption before or even during the chromatographic process. For the development of the size exclusion method, a Biosep S3000 5 μm column was used for investigating a series of representative model proteins, namely bovine serum albumin, ovalbumin, monoclonal immunoglobulin G antibody, and myoglobin. Ambient temperature storage was found to be harmful to all model proteins, whereas short-term storage up to 14 days could be done in an ordinary refrigerator. Freezing the protein solutions was always complicated and had to be evaluated for each protein in the corresponding solvent. To keep the proteins in their native state a gentle freezing temperature should be chosen, hence liquid nitrogen should be avoided. Furthermore, a high-resolution continuum source atomic absorption spectrometry method was developed to observe the adsorption of proteins on container material and chromatographic columns. Adsorption to any container led to a sample loss and lowered the recovery rates. During the pretreatment and high-performance size-exclusion chromatography, adsorption caused sample losses of up to 33%.

  20. Effect of protein source on amino acid supply, milk production, and metabolism of plasma nutrients in dairy cows fed grass silage.

    PubMed

    Korhonen, M; Vanhatalo, A; Huhtanen, P

    2002-12-01

    This study conducted according to a 4 x 4 Latin square with 28 d periods and four ruminally cannulated Finnish Ayrshire cows investigated the effect of protein supplements differing in amino acid (AA) profile and rumen undegradable protein content on postruminal AA supply and milk production. Mammary metabolism of plasma AA and other nutrients were also studied. The basal diet (Control; 13.4% crude protein) consisted of grass silage and barley in a ratio of 55:45 on a dry matter basis. The other three isonitrogenous diets (17.0% crude protein) were control + fishmeal (FM), control + soybean meal (SBM), and control + corn gluten meal (CGM). The protein supplements replaced portions of dry matter of the control diet maintaining the silage to barley ratio constant for all diets. Dry matter intake was limited to 95% of the preexperimental ad libitum intake and was similar (mean 19.8 kg/d dry matter) across the diets. Protein supplements increased milk, lactose, and protein yields but did not affect yields of energy-corrected milk or milk fat. Milk protein yield response was numerically lowest for diet SBM. Protein supplements increased milk protein concentration but decreased milk fat and lactose concentrations. Microbial protein synthesis and rumen fermentation parameters were similar across the diets, except for an increased rumen ammonia concentration for diets supplemented with protein feeds. Protein supplements increased N intake, ruminal organic matter and N, and total tract organic matter, N, and neutral detergent fiber digestibilities. Protein supplements also increased N and AA flows into the omasum, with SBM giving the lowest and CGM the highest flows. This was associated with an unchanged microbial N flow and a higher undegraded dietary N flow. The omasal flows of individual AA reflected differences in total N flow and AA profile of the experimental diets. Differences in AA flows did not always reflect plasma AA concentrations. The results indicated that AA

  1. Food Proteins as Source of Opioid Peptides-A Review.

    PubMed

    Garg, Swati; Nurgali, Kulmira; Mishra, Vijay Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Traditional opioids, mainly alkaloids, have been used in the clinical management of pain for a number of years but are often associated with numerous side-effects including sedation, dizziness, physical dependence, tolerance, addiction, nausea, vomiting, constipation and respiratory depression which prevent their effective use. Opioid peptides derived from food provide significant advantages as safe and natural alternative due to the possibility of their production using animal and plant proteins as well as comparatively less side-effects. This review aims to discuss the current literature on food-derived opioid peptides focusing on their production, methods of detection, isolation and purification. The need for screening more dietary proteins as a source of novel opioid peptides is emphasized in order to fully understand their potential in pain management either as a drug or as part of diet complementing therapeutic prescription.

  2. Short communication: Effect of canola meal use as a protein source in a starter mixture on feeding behavior and performance of calves during the weaning transition.

    PubMed

    Hadam, D; Kański, J; Burakowska, K; Penner, G B; Kowalski, Z M; Górka, P

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of canola meal use as a protein source in a starter mixture (SM) on feeding behavior and performance of calves during weaning transition. A total of 36 female Holstein calves of a mean age 14.9±1.6 d and body weight 40.1±4.2 kg (mean ± SD) were allocated to 1 of 3 treatments differing in the main source of protein for the SM (12 calves per treatment): (1) soybean meal (TSBM); (2) soybean meal and canola meal (TSBM/TCM); and (3) canola meal (TCM). The SM was offered for ad libitum consumption beginning on the first day of the study, whereas milk replacer (MR) was fed in amounts equal to 900 g (as fed) per day from d 1 to 35 and 450 g/d from d 36 to 42 of the study. Calves were completely weaned on d 43 of the study (57.9±1.6 d of age; mean ± SD), and their performance was monitored for an additional 2 wk. Calf body weight was recorded weekly, and MR and SM intake and fecal fluidity were recorded daily. Feeding behavior of calves during weaning transition, including frequency (no./d), time (min/d), and rate (g/min) of eating the SM as well as frequency and time of drinking water, was monitored on 6 calves per treatment for 2 consecutive days before MR step-down (d 34-35), at MR step-down (d 41-42), and after weaning (d 48-49 of study). Starter mixture intake tended to be higher for TSBM calves as compared with TSBM/TCM calves from d 1 to 35 of the study but was not different between TSBM and TCM calves and was not different between treatments in the whole study period. Calves from TCM treatment had reduced average daily gain (ADG) and feed efficiency (g of ADG/kg of dry matter intake) and a higher fecal score in the period from d 1 to 35 of the study and had lower feed efficiency and tended to have lower ADG in the whole study period as compared with TSBM calves. Average daily gain and feed efficiency did not differ between TSBM and TSBM/TCM calves. Frequency of eating the SM and drinking water as well as time

  3. Effects of corn-based diet starch content and neutral detergent fiber source on lactation performance, digestibility, and bacterial protein flow in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Fredin, S M; Akins, M S; Ferraretto, L F; Shaver, R D

    2015-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of corn-based dietary starch content and source of neutral detergent fiber (NDF) on lactation performance, nutrient digestion, bacterial protein flow, and ruminal parameters in lactating dairy cows. Eight ruminally cannulated multiparous Holstein cows averaging 193±11d in milk were randomly assigned to treatments in a replicated 4×4 Latin square design with 21-d periods. Treatment diets were high corn grain (HCG; 38% corn silage, 19% dry ground corn, and 4% soy hulls), high soy hulls (HSH; 38% corn silage, 11% dry ground corn, and 13% soy hulls), high corn silage (HCS; 50% corn silage, 6% dry ground corn, and 4% soy hulls), and low corn silage (LCS; 29% corn silage, 15% corn, and 19% soy hulls). The HCG, HSH, HCS, and LCS diets contained 29, 23, 24, and 22% starch; 27, 32, 30, and 32% total NDF; and 21, 21, 25, and 17% forage NDF (dry matter basis), respectively. Mean dry matter intake and milk yield were unaffected by treatment. Cows fed LCS had reduced milk fat content compared with HSH and HCS. The concentration of milk urea nitrogen was greater for cows fed HCS compared with the other treatments. Total-tract digestion of NDF was reduced for cows fed the HCG diet. Total-tract starch digestion was increased for cows fed the HSH and HCS compared with HCG and LCS diets. Bacterial protein flow was unaffected by treatment. Ruminal ammonia concentration was reduced in cows fed the HCG and LCS diets compared with the HCS diet. Ruminal propionate increased and the acetate:propionate ratio decreased in cows fed the LCS diet compared with the HCS diet. Ruminal pH was greater for cows fed the HCS diet compared with cows fed the LCS diet. Diet digestibility and performance of mid- to late-lactation cows fed reduced-starch diets by partially replacing corn grain with soy hulls or corn silage was similar to or improved compared with cows fed a normal-starch diet.

  4. Proteins interacting with cloning scars: a source of false positive protein-protein interactions.

    PubMed

    Banks, Charles A S; Boanca, Gina; Lee, Zachary T; Florens, Laurence; Washburn, Michael P

    2015-02-23

    A common approach for exploring the interactome, the network of protein-protein interactions in cells, uses a commercially available ORF library to express affinity tagged bait proteins; these can be expressed in cells and endogenous cellular proteins that copurify with the bait can be identified as putative interacting proteins using mass spectrometry. Control experiments can be used to limit false-positive results, but in many cases, there are still a surprising number of prey proteins that appear to copurify specifically with the bait. Here, we have identified one source of false-positive interactions in such studies. We have found that a combination of: 1) the variable sequence of the C-terminus of the bait with 2) a C-terminal valine "cloning scar" present in a commercially available ORF library, can in some cases create a peptide motif that results in the aberrant co-purification of endogenous cellular proteins. Control experiments may not identify false positives resulting from such artificial motifs, as aberrant binding depends on sequences that vary from one bait to another. It is possible that such cryptic protein binding might occur in other systems using affinity tagged proteins; this study highlights the importance of conducting careful follow-up studies where novel protein-protein interactions are suspected.

  5. Effect of bitter vetch (Vicia ervilia) seeds as a replacement protein source of soybean meal on performance and carcass characteristics of finishing Awassi lambs.

    PubMed

    Abdullah, Abdullah Y; Muwalla, Marwan M; Qudsieh, Rasha I; Titi, Hosam H

    2010-02-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of replacing the protein source of soybean meal (SBM) with different levels of bitter vetch seeds (BVS) in the diets of finishing Awassi ram lambs on performance, and carcass characteristics. Diets were designed based on replacing SBM with BVS as a percentage of the diet. Diets were: control (0% BVS), substituting 5% of SBM (5% BVS), 10% of SBM (10% BVS) and the entire SBM in the ration with BVS (15% BVS). Forty eight lambs (18.74 +/- 3.95 kg initial body weight and 70 days of age) were randomly assigned to 4 treatment diets (12 lambs/treatment). Lambs were given an adaptation period of 10 days and the experiment lasted for 84 days. At the end of the trial, a digestibility experiment was performed and 6 lambs from each treatment were slaughtered to evaluate carcass characteristics. Average daily gain tended (P = 0.07) to be higher for lambs fed 10% BVS when compared to the other diets. Neutral detergent fiber digestibility was higher (P < 0.01) in control diet compared to the other diets. Fat depth (C) and leg fat depth (L3) tended (0.05 < P < 0.1) to be affected by BVS levels in the diet. Leg total lean % was the highest (P < 0.05) in 5% BVS and 10% BVS diets. These results suggest that substituting SBM with BVS in the diets did not influence performance or carcass characteristics of lambs. However, the cost of ration formulation decreases since SBM is a very expensive component of the ration.

  6. Dietary protein source and level alters growth in neon tetras.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nutritional studies for aquarium fish like the neon tetra are sparse in comparison with those for food fish. To determine the optimum dietary protein level and source for growth of neon tetras, diets were formulated to contain 25, 35, 45 and 55% dietary protein from either marine animal protein or ...

  7. Differential Effects of Dietary Fat Content and Protein Source on Bone Phenotype and Fatty Acid Oxidation in Female C57Bl/6 Mice

    PubMed Central

    Sawin, Emily A.; Stroup, Bridget M.; Murali, Sangita G.; O’Neill, Lucas M.; Ntambi, James M.

    2016-01-01

    Background Glycomacropeptide (GMP) is a 64-amino acid glycophosphopeptide released from κ-casein during cheesemaking that promotes satiety, reduces body fat, increases bone mass and infers prebiotic and anti-inflammatory effects. The impact of adiposity and gender on bone health is unclear. Objective To determine how feeding female mice diets providing 60% Fat Kcal (high-fat) or 13% Fat Kcal (control) with either GMP or casein as the protein source impacts: body composition, ex vivo fatty acid oxidation, bone (femoral) biomechanical performance, and the relationship between body composition and bone. Methods Weanling female C57Bl/6 mice were fed high-fat (60% Fat Kcal) or control diets (13% Fat Kcal) with GMP or casein from 3 to 32 weeks of age with assessment of body weight and food intake. Body composition was assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Fatty acid oxidation was measured in liver, muscle, and fat tissues using 14C-palmitate. Plasma concentrations of hormones and cytokines were determined. Bone biomechanical performance was assessed by the 3-point bending test. Results Female mice fed high-fat diets showed increased fatty acid oxidation capacity in both gastrocnemius muscle and brown adipose tissue compared to mice fed the control diets with a lower fat content. Despite increased fat mass in mice fed the high-fat diets, there was little evidence of glucose impairment or inflammation. Mice fed the high-fat diets had significantly greater total body bone mineral density (BMD), femoral BMD, and femoral cross-sectional area than mice fed the control diets. Femora of mice fed the high-fat diets had increased yield load and maximum load before fracture, consistent with greater bone strength, but reduced post-yield displacement or ductility, consistent with bone brittleness. Female mice fed a high-fat GMP diet displayed increased fat oxidation capacity in subcutaneous fat relative to mice fed the high-fat casein diet. Regardless of dietary fat

  8. CombFunc: predicting protein function using heterogeneous data sources.

    PubMed

    Wass, Mark N; Barton, Geraint; Sternberg, Michael J E

    2012-07-01

    Only a small fraction of known proteins have been functionally characterized, making protein function prediction essential to propose annotations for uncharacterized proteins. In recent years many function prediction methods have been developed using various sources of biological data from protein sequence and structure to gene expression data. Here we present the CombFunc web server, which makes Gene Ontology (GO)-based protein function predictions. CombFunc incorporates ConFunc, our existing function prediction method, with other approaches for function prediction that use protein sequence, gene expression and protein-protein interaction data. In benchmarking on a set of 1686 proteins CombFunc obtains precision and recall of 0.71 and 0.64 respectively for gene ontology molecular function terms. For biological process GO terms precision of 0.74 and recall of 0.41 is obtained. CombFunc is available at http://www.sbg.bio.ic.ac.uk/combfunc.

  9. Effect of protein source and protease addition on performance, blood metabolites and nutrient digestibility of turkeys fed on low-protein diets from 28 to 55 d post hatch.

    PubMed

    Shahir, M H; Rahimi, R; Taheri, H R; Heidariniya, A; Baradaran, N; Asadi Kermani, Z

    2016-06-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of a monocomponent protease and dietary inclusion of canola meal (CM) and poultry by-product meal (PBM) on growth performance, carcass characteristics and blood metabolites of turkeys fed on low crude protein (CP) diets from 28 to 55 d post hatch. Experimental treatments included control, maize-soybean meal diet including 258.3 g/kg CP; negative control 1 (NC1), maize-soybean meal diet with reduced CP (232.4 g/kg); NC2, control diet (CP, 258.3 g/kg) including CM (80 g/kg) and PBM (80 g/kg); NC3, maize-soybean meal diet with reduced CP (232.4 g/kg) including CM (80 g/kg) and PBM (80 g/kg). Also, the NC1 + P and NC3 + P diets were created by addition of protease enzyme (30 000 units/kg of diet) to the NC1 and NC3 diets, respectively. The NC3 group had lower body weight gain (BWG) compared to those fed on the control diet, and no improvement with enzyme addition (NC3 + P) was achieved. The protease addition to the NC1 diet (NC1 + P) improved BWG to the level of the control diet. The NC1 group had higher feed conversion ratio (FCR) compared to the control and NC3 + P, but protease addition to the NC1 diet improved FCR. Protease addition to the low CP diets resulted in higher nitrogen (N) retention than in the control and NC2 groups. Also, the NC1 + P and NC3 + P diets increased apparent ileal digestibility (AID) of CP compared to the control group. It was concluded that addition of CM (up to 80 g/kg) and PBM (up to 80 g/kg) to turkey diets had no negative effect on growth performance from 28 to 55 d of age. The NC1 + P group achieved the BWG of the control group which was partially due to increases in N retention and AID of CP, but the NC3 + P group failed to recover the growth losses. This difference implies that the efficacy of the protease may depend upon the protein source in the ration.

  10. Brain protein deciphered at Advanced Light Source

    SciTech Connect

    2010-01-01

    This computer-generated model of a rat glutamate receptor is the first complete portrait of this important link in the nervous system. At the top of the Y-shaped protein, a pair of molecules splay outward like diverging prongs. The bottom section, which is embedded in a neuronal membrane, houses the ion channel. The resolution of this image is 3.6 angstroms per pixel, or just under four ten-billionths of a meter per image unit. http://newscenter.lbl.gov/feature-stories/2010/01/21/glutamate-receptor/

  11. CombFunc: predicting protein function using heterogeneous data sources

    PubMed Central

    Wass, Mark N.; Barton, Geraint; Sternberg, Michael J. E.

    2012-01-01

    Only a small fraction of known proteins have been functionally characterized, making protein function prediction essential to propose annotations for uncharacterized proteins. In recent years many function prediction methods have been developed using various sources of biological data from protein sequence and structure to gene expression data. Here we present the CombFunc web server, which makes Gene Ontology (GO)-based protein function predictions. CombFunc incorporates ConFunc, our existing function prediction method, with other approaches for function prediction that use protein sequence, gene expression and protein–protein interaction data. In benchmarking on a set of 1686 proteins CombFunc obtains precision and recall of 0.71 and 0.64 respectively for gene ontology molecular function terms. For biological process GO terms precision of 0.74 and recall of 0.41 is obtained. CombFunc is available at http://www.sbg.bio.ic.ac.uk/combfunc. PMID:22641853

  12. Effects of fasting and refeeding on the digestive tract of zebrafish (Danio rerio) fed with Spirulina (Arthrospira platensis), a high protein feed source.

    PubMed

    Lo Cascio, Patrizia; Calabrò, Concetta; Bertuccio, Clara; Paterniti, Irene; Palombieri, Deborah; Calò, Margherita; Albergamo, Ambrogina; Salvo, Andrea; Gabriella Denaro, Maria

    2017-01-03

    In the present work, morphological and molecular effects of short-term feed deprivation and refeeding with Spirulina (Arthrospira platensis) on zebrafish digestive tract were determined. Once elucidated the proximate composition of Spirulina feed, immunohistochemical and western blot analyses of peptide transporter (PepT1) and cholecystokinin (CCK8) were carried out in the gastrointestinal tract of zebrafish, previously morphologically investigated. Two and five fasting days caused not only morphostructural alterations, but also the downregulation of PepT1 and CCK8 proteins. Conversely, the recovery of normal morphological conditions, along with an increased PepT1 and CCK8 expression, were observed after refeeding with Spirulina. The increase of PepT1 expression in zebrafish may be responsible for the enhanced CCK8 secretion, so that both proteins may contribute to an improved digestion process during refeeding. These observations could be supported not only by compensatory mechanisms induced by fasting and refeeding but also by an higher protein quality of Spirulina-based diet.

  13. Protein source and nutrient density in the diets of male broilers from 8 to 21 d of age: Effects on small intestine morphology.

    PubMed

    Wang, X; Peebles, E D; Morgan, T W; Harkess, R L; Zhai, W

    2015-01-01

    In a companion study, high amino acid (AA) or apparent metabolizable energy (AME) densities in the diets of broilers from 8 to 21 d of age were found to improve feed conversion. A total of 1,120 male Ross×Ross 708 chicks were randomly allocated to 80 pens (8 treatments, 10 replications per treatment, 14 chicks per pen). A 2×2×2 factorial arrangement of treatments was used to investigate the interaction among the protein source (high distillers dried grains with solubles diet [hDDGS] or high meat and bone meal diet [hMBM]), AA density (moderate or high), and AME density (2,998 or 3,100 kcal/kg) of diets on small intestine morphology. Duodenum, jejunum, and ileum samples from 2 chicks per pen were collected and measured individually at 21 d. Jejunum sections were processed for histological analysis. Chicks fed hDDGS diets exhibited longer small intestines than did chicks fed hMBM diets. Particularly, when chicks were fed high AA density diets, jejuna were longer in groups fed hDDGS diets than groups fed hMBM diets. Dietary treatments did not affect jejunum villus height, width, area, crypt depth, villus to crypt ratio, goblet cell size, or cell density. In birds fed diets containing a moderate AA and a high AME density, jejunum muscle layers of chicks fed hDDGS diets were thicker than those fed hMBM diets. Chicks exhibited a lower feed conversion ratio (FCR) and a higher BW gain when their crypts were shorter. In conclusion, an hDDGS diet may facilitate small intestine longitudinal growth in broilers, which may subsequently improve dietary nutrient absorption. In addition, broiler chicks with shallow intestinal crypts exhibited better growth performance.

  14. Food proteins: new sources from seeds. Fortified and processed seed proteins have a role in satisfying human protein needs.

    PubMed

    Altschul, A M

    1967-10-13

    Adequate protein nutrition is possible at lower cost without the undermining of man's satisfaction with his food. This potential requires the upgrading of the proteins of cereals by supplementation with amino acids and the development of new protein foods from low-cost sources such as the oilseeds; infant malnutrition can be eliminated by such means. The more sophisticated new foods such as protein beverages and textured products are proving acceptable to man and will supplement meager supplies of animal protein.

  15. Muscle and liver protein synthesis in growing rats fed diets containing raw legumes as the main source of protein

    SciTech Connect

    Goena, M.; Santidrian, S.; Cuevillas, F.; Larralde, J.

    1986-03-01

    Although legumes are widely used as protein sources, their effects on protein metabolism remain quite unexplored. The authors have measured the rates of gastrocnemius muscle and liver protein synthesis in growing rats fed ad libitum over periods of 12 days on diets containing raw field bean (Vicia faba L.), raw kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), and raw bitter vetch (Vicia ervilia L.) as the major sources of protein. Diets were isocaloric and contained about 12% protein. Protein synthesis was evaluated by the constant-intravenous-infusion method, using L-//sup 14/C/-tyrosine, as well as by the determination of the RNA-activity (g of newly synthesized protein/day/g RNA). Results showed that, as compared to well-fed control animals, those fed the raw legume diets exhibited a marked reduction in the rate of growth with no changes in the amount of food intake (per 100 g b.wt.). These changes were accompanied by a significant reduction in the rate of muscle protein synthesis in all legume-treated rats, being this reduction greater in the animals fed the Ph. vulgaris and V. ervilia diets. Liver protein synthesis was slightly higher in the rats fed the V. faba and V. ervilia diets, and smaller in the Ph. vulgaris-fed rats. It is suggested that both sulfur amino acid deficiency and the presence of different anti-nutritive factors in raw legumes may account for these effects.

  16. MS-kNN: protein function prediction by integrating multiple data sources

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Protein function determination is a key challenge in the post-genomic era. Experimental determination of protein functions is accurate, but time-consuming and resource-intensive. A cost-effective alternative is to use the known information about sequence, structure, and functional properties of genes and proteins to predict functions using statistical methods. In this paper, we describe the Multi-Source k-Nearest Neighbor (MS-kNN) algorithm for function prediction, which finds k-nearest neighbors of a query protein based on different types of similarity measures and predicts its function by weighted averaging of its neighbors' functions. Specifically, we used 3 data sources to calculate the similarity scores: sequence similarity, protein-protein interactions, and gene expressions. Results We report the results in the context of 2011 Critical Assessment of Function Annotation (CAFA). Prior to CAFA submission deadline, we evaluated our algorithm on 1,302 human test proteins that were represented in all 3 data sources. Using only the sequence similarity information, MS-kNN had term-based Area Under the Curve (AUC) accuracy of Gene Ontology (GO) molecular function predictions of 0.728 when 7,412 human training proteins were used, and 0.819 when 35,622 training proteins from multiple eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms were used. By aggregating predictions from all three sources, the AUC was further improved to 0.848. Similar result was observed on prediction of GO biological processes. Testing on 595 proteins that were annotated after the CAFA submission deadline showed that overall MS-kNN accuracy was higher than that of baseline algorithms Gotcha and BLAST, which were based solely on sequence similarity information. Since only 10 of the 595 proteins were represented by all 3 data sources, and 66 by two data sources, the difference between 3-source and one-source MS-kNN was rather small. Conclusions Based on our results, we have several useful insights: (1

  17. Effect of dietary inclusion of toasted guar (Cyamopsis tetragonoloba) meal as a source of protein on performance of White Leghorn layers.

    PubMed

    Rao, S V Rama; Raju, M V L N; Prakash, B; Reddy, E Pradeep Kumar; Panda, A K

    2015-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to study the effect of including toasted (120°C/35 min) guar meal (GM, Cyamopsis tetragonoloba) in the diet on performance and egg shell quality of White Leghorn (WL) layers. Totals of 2376 and 2816 layer chickens (Babcock, BV 300) were randomly distributed into 27 and 32 replicates with 88 birds each in Experiments 1 and 2, respectively. Three diets in Experiment 1 (0, 50 and 100 g GM) and 4 diets in Experiment 2 (0, 50, 100 and 150 g GM/kg) were prepared having similar concentrations of energy and protein. Each diet was fed ad libitum to 9 and 8 replicates, respectively, in Experiments 1 (from 53 to 68 weeks) and 2 (35 to 46 weeks of age). Compared to soya bean meal (SBM) GM contained similar concentrations of protein, but was deficient in all essential amino acids except arginine, which was 70% higher than in SBM. Total non-starch polysaccharide (NSP) content in GM (166 g/kg) was lower than that of SBM (179 g/kg). Amongst different NSP fractions, GM contained higher levels of arabans, xylans, mannans and glucans compared to SBM. The galactomannan gum content in GM was 46 g/kg. Egg production (EP), body weight (BW), food intake (FI), food efficiency (FE) and egg quality (shell weight, shell per cent, shell thickness, Haugh unit score, egg density and egg breaking strength) parameters were not affected by incorporating GM up to 100 g/kg diet in Experiment 1. However, egg weight (EW) and egg mass (EM) were reduced significantly in groups fed on 100 g/kg diet. In Experiment 2, EP and FE were not affected by incorporating GM up to 100 g/kg, but were reduced at 150 g/kg diet. FI, EW, BW and egg quality parameters were not affected by incorporating toasted GM up to 150 g/kg diet. Based on the results of both experiments, it is concluded that toasted GM can be included in WL layer diets up to 100 g/kg without affecting EP, FE, EW, EM, Haugh unit score, BW and egg shell quality parameters.

  18. Sources of dietary protein and risk of hypertension in a general Dutch population.

    PubMed

    Altorf-van der Kuil, Wieke; Engberink, Mariëlle F; Geleijnse, Johanna M; Boer, Jolanda M A; Monique Verschuren, W M

    2012-11-28

    Evidence suggests a small beneficial effect of dietary protein on blood pressure (BP), especially for plant protein. We examined the relationship between several types of dietary protein (total, plant, animal, dairy, meat and grain) and the risk of hypertension in a general population of 3588 Dutch adults, aged 26-65 years, who were free of hypertension at baseline. Measurements were done at baseline and after 5 and 10 years of follow-up. Hazard ratios (HR), with 95 % CI, for incident hypertension were obtained in tertiles of energy-adjusted protein, using time-dependent Cox regression models. Models were adjusted for age, sex, BMI, education, smoking, baseline systolic BP, dietary confounders and protein from other sources (if applicable). Mean BP was 118/76 mmHg at baseline. Protein intake was 85 (sd 22) g/d (approximately 15 % of energy) with 62 % originating from animal sources. The main sources of protein were dairy products (28 %), meat (24 %) and grain (19 %). During the follow-up, 1568 new cases of hypertension were identified (44 % of the participants). Energy-adjusted intake of total protein, plant protein and animal protein was not significantly associated with hypertension risk (all HR approximately 1·00, P>0·60). Protein from grain showed a significant inverse association with incident hypertension, with a HR of 0·85 (95 % CI 0·73, 1·00, P trend = 0·04) for the upper tertile ( ≥ 18 g/d) v. the lower tertile ( < 14 g/d), whereas dairy protein and meat protein were not associated with incident hypertension. In conclusion, higher intake of grain protein may contribute to the prevention of hypertension, which warrants confirmation in other population-based studies and randomised controlled trials.

  19. Mixed compared with single-source proteins in high-protein diets affect kidney structure and function differentially in obese fa/fa Zucker rats.

    PubMed

    Devassy, Jessay G; Wojcik, Jennifer L; Ibrahim, Naser H M; Zahradka, Peter; Taylor, Carla G; Aukema, Harold M

    2017-02-01

    Questions remain regarding the potential negative effects of dietary high protein (HP) on kidney health, particularly in the context of obesity in which the risk for renal disease is already increased. To examine whether some of the variability in HP effects on kidney health may be due to source of protein, obese fa/fa Zucker rats were given HP (35% of energy from protein) diets containing either casein, soy protein, or a mixed source of animal and plant proteins for 12 weeks. Control lean and obese rats were given diets containing casein at normal protein (15% of energy from protein) levels. Body weight and blood pressure were measured, and markers of renal structural changes, damage, and function were assessed. Obesity alone resulted in mild renal changes, as evidenced by higher kidney weights, proteinuria, and glomerular volumes. In obese rats, increasing the protein level using the single, but not mixed, protein sources resulted in higher renal fibrosis compared with the lean rats. The mixed-protein HP group also had lower levels of serum monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, even though this diet further increased kidney and glomerular size. Soy and mixed-protein HP diets also resulted in a small number of damaged glomeruli, while soy compared with mixed-protein HP diet delayed the increase in blood pressure over time. Since obesity itself confers added risk of renal disease, an HP diet from mixed-protein sources that enables weight loss but has fewer risks to renal health may be advantageous.

  20. Laue diffraction protein crystallography at the National Synchrotron Light Source

    SciTech Connect

    Getzoff, E.D.; McRee, D.; Jones, K.W.; Spanne, P.; Sweet, R.M.; Moffat, K.; Ng, K.; Rivers, M.L.; Schildkamp, W.; Teng, T.Y.; Singer, P.T.; Westbrook, E.M.

    1992-12-31

    A new facility for the study of protein crystal structure using Laue diffraction has been established at the X26 beam line of the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS) at Brookhaven National Laboratory. The characteristics of the beam line and diffraction apparatus are described. Selected results of some of the initial experiments are discussed briefly by beam line users to illustrate the scope of the experimental program. Because the Laue method permits the recording of large data sets in a single shot, one goal in establishing this facility has been to develop the means to study time-resolved structures within protein crystals. Systems being studied include: the reactions catalyzed by trypsin; photolysis of carbonmonoxy myoglobin; and the photocycle of photoactive yellow protein.

  1. Laue diffraction protein crystallography at the National Synchrotron Light Source

    SciTech Connect

    Getzoff, E.D.; McRee, D. ); Jones, K.W.; Spanne, P.; Sweet, R.M. ); Moffat, K.; Ng, K.; Rivers, M.L.; Schildkamp, W.; Teng, T.Y. ); Singer, P.T.; Westbrook, E.M. )

    1992-01-01

    A new facility for the study of protein crystal structure using Laue diffraction has been established at the X26 beam line of the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS) at Brookhaven National Laboratory. The characteristics of the beam line and diffraction apparatus are described. Selected results of some of the initial experiments are discussed briefly by beam line users to illustrate the scope of the experimental program. Because the Laue method permits the recording of large data sets in a single shot, one goal in establishing this facility has been to develop the means to study time-resolved structures within protein crystals. Systems being studied include: the reactions catalyzed by trypsin; photolysis of carbonmonoxy myoglobin; and the photocycle of photoactive yellow protein.

  2. Use of different dietary protein sources for lactating goats: milk production and composition as functions of protein degradability and amino acid composition.

    PubMed

    Sanz Sampelayo, M R; Pérez, M L; Gil Extremera, F; Boza, J J; Boza, J

    1999-03-01

    To establish the effect of the nature of four different protein sources [fababeans, 27.8% crude protein (CP); sunflower meal, 41.7% CP; corn gluten feed, 18.8% CP; and cottonseed, 18.3% CP] on milk protein production by goats, the ruminal degradation of these feeds was studied as was the amino acid (AA) composition of the original material and that of the undegradable fractions of the protein sources. Four diets were designed; 20% of their protein was supplied by each of the different sources. Four groups of 5 Granadina goats were used to study the utilization of these diets for milk production. No significant differences were observed in dry matter intake or milk production. The milk produced by goats fed the diet containing sunflower meal had the lowest protein concentration; the highest milk protein concentration was observed for goats fed the diet containing corn gluten feed. From a multivariate analysis, it was deduced that the quickly degradable protein fraction in the rumen and the ruminally undegradable protein fraction were the components of the protein sources most directly related to the milk protein produced. Given the similar AA profiles of the undegradable fractions of the different protein sources, the possible supplementation achieved from these ruminally undegradable fractions must be established by the amount of protein supplied regardless of AA composition.

  3. Protein source and choice of anticoagulant decisively affect nanoparticle protein corona and cellular uptake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schöttler, S.; Klein, Katja; Landfester, K.; Mailänder, V.

    2016-03-01

    Protein adsorption on nanoparticles has been a focus of the field of nanocarrier research in the past few years and more and more papers are dealing with increasingly detailed lists of proteins adsorbed to a plethora of nanocarriers. While there is an urgent need to understand the influence of this protein corona on nanocarriers' interactions with cells the strong impact of the protein source on corona formation and the consequence for interaction with different cell types are factors that are regularly neglected, but should be taken into account for a meaningful analysis. In this study, the importance of the choice of protein source used for in vitro protein corona analysis is concisely investigated. Major and decisive differences in cellular uptake of a polystyrene nanoparticle incubated in fetal bovine serum, human serum, human citrate and heparin plasma are reported. Furthermore, the protein compositions are determined for coronas formed in the respective incubation media. A strong influence of heparin, which is used as an anticoagulant for plasma generation, on cell interaction is demonstrated. While heparin enhances the uptake into macrophages, it prevents internalization into HeLa cells. Taken together we can give the recommendation that human plasma anticoagulated with citrate seems to give the most relevant results for in vitro studies of nanoparticle uptake.Protein adsorption on nanoparticles has been a focus of the field of nanocarrier research in the past few years and more and more papers are dealing with increasingly detailed lists of proteins adsorbed to a plethora of nanocarriers. While there is an urgent need to understand the influence of this protein corona on nanocarriers' interactions with cells the strong impact of the protein source on corona formation and the consequence for interaction with different cell types are factors that are regularly neglected, but should be taken into account for a meaningful analysis. In this study, the importance

  4. Nutritional evaluation of poultry by-product meal as a protein source for ruminants: effects on performance and nutrient flow and disappearance in steers.

    PubMed

    Bohnert, D W; Larson, B T; Bauer, M L; Branco, A F; McLeod, K R; Harmon, D L; Mitchell, G E

    1998-09-01

    We conducted three studies with steers to evaluate poultry by-product meal (PBM) as a supplemental N source for ruminants. An in situ study compared the solubility, degradation rate, and ruminal escape of PBM N with blood meal (BM), corn gluten meal (CGM), and soybean meal (SBM) N. Additionally, an 84-d growth study (n = 95, 228+/-5 kg BW) and a digestion trial (6 x 6 Latin square) were conducted. The basal diet for the growth and digestion studies consisted of 49% corn silage, 36% cottonseed hulls, and 15% supplement (DM basis). Sources of supplemental N (% of total supplemental N) were 100% SBM and 0, 25, 50, 75, and 100% PBM, with urea used to balance for N. In situ ruminal escape N (25.2, 55.3, 86.7, and 98.9% for SBM, PBM, CGM, and BM, respectively) was greater (P < .05) for PBM than for SBM; however, a greater (P < .05) proportion of BM and CGM N escaped ruminal degradation compared with PBM. Dry matter intake, ADG and gain/ feed increased linearly (P < .003) as PBM increased; however, no differences (P > .48) were observed in these variables for 100% PBM compared with 100% SBM. Duodenal N flow and small intestinal N disappearance increased linearly (P < .05) as PBM increased in the diet. Bacterial N flow to the small intestine was not affected (P > .19) by treatment; however, 100% SBM decreased (P < .04) bacterial CP synthesis (g bacterial N/kg OM disappearance from the stomach) compared with 0 and 100% PBM. In vivo ruminal escape N of PBM and SBM was 40.6 and 13.7%, respectively. Ruminal NH3 N decreased linearly (P < .001) as PBM increased. These data suggest that PBM can replace SBM as a source of supplemental N for steer calves that consume a diet based on corn silage and cottonseed hulls.

  5. Combining heterogeneous data sources for accurate functional annotation of proteins

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Combining heterogeneous sources of data is essential for accurate prediction of protein function. The task is complicated by the fact that while sequence-based features can be readily compared across species, most other data are species-specific. In this paper, we present a multi-view extension to GOstruct, a structured-output framework for function annotation of proteins. The extended framework can learn from disparate data sources, with each data source provided to the framework in the form of a kernel. Our empirical results demonstrate that the multi-view framework is able to utilize all available information, yielding better performance than sequence-based models trained across species and models trained from collections of data within a given species. This version of GOstruct participated in the recent Critical Assessment of Functional Annotations (CAFA) challenge; since then we have significantly improved the natural language processing component of the method, which now provides performance that is on par with that provided by sequence information. The GOstruct framework is available for download at http://strut.sourceforge.net. PMID:23514123

  6. Proteins of Brassicaceae oilseeds and their potential as a plant protein source.

    PubMed

    Wanasundara, Janitha P D

    2011-08-01

    Among the commercially cultivated Brassicaceae (Cruciferae) plants, Brassica juncea, Brassica napus, Brassica rapa, and Sinapis alba store significant amounts of oil and protein in the seed. At present, Brassica seed proteins are primarily used for livestock feeding based on the nutritional value. The point of curiosity is whether the present knowledge on the protein structure, biochemical characteristics, nutritive value, and the recovery processes are inadequate to develop Brassica proteins into a usable plant protein source or these proteins are of substandard for uses beyond animal nutrition applications. Cruciferin (11S) and napin (2S) are the predominant storage proteins of Brassicaceae seeds that contribute to different properties and functions. A gamut of information is available on the chemistry, nutritional value, as well as the functionality in foods, and associated non-protein components of canola/rapeseed storage proteins. The intention of this article is to critically review what is known about the predominant storage proteins of commercially produced Brassicaceae seeds relative to the above aspects and identify the knowledge gaps.

  7. Dietary protein source influence on body size and composition in growing zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Smith, Daniel L; Barry, R Jeff; Powell, Mickie L; Nagy, Tim R; D'Abramo, L R; Watts, Stephen A

    2013-09-01

    The importance of nutritional components on growth and body composition outcomes has been demonstrated in multiple model organisms. Although zebrafish (Danio rerio) have an established role in research laboratories for its utility in understanding developmental biology and genetics, the influence of diet composition on basic growth outcomes is less well demonstrated. In the current study, four protein sources were tested in isolation using isonitrogenous diets or combined using a defined lab diet. Fish (n≈60/group) were group housed (n≤10 fish/1.8 L tank) and fed ad libitum three times daily for 12 weeks. Fish were assessed for effects on length, body weight, and body composition (lean and fat mass). Individuals fed wheat gluten protein were significantly shorter in length, with significantly lower body weight and lean mass in both male and female fish, although percent body fat was high compared with other diets. Casein-fed fish similarly had significantly reduced body length, body weight, and lean and fat mass in both male and female fish, with a low percent body fat compared with other diets (leanest). Fish protein hydrolysate-fed fish had significantly lower lean mass and a high percent body fat, whereas soy protein isolate diet performed similarly to a mixed-protein control diet for all measured outcomes. These results suggest that the protein source, with accompanying amino acid ratios or additional protein source differences, has a significant impact on growth and body composition outcomes in zebrafish when fed in a semipurified, defined diet background.

  8. Predicting protein-protein interactions from multimodal biological data sources via nonnegative matrix tri-factorization.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hua; Huang, Heng; Ding, Chris; Nie, Feiping

    2013-04-01

    Protein interactions are central to all the biological processes and structural scaffolds in living organisms, because they orchestrate a number of cellular processes such as metabolic pathways and immunological recognition. Several high-throughput methods, for example, yeast two-hybrid system and mass spectrometry method, can help determine protein interactions, which, however, suffer from high false-positive rates. Moreover, many protein interactions predicted by one method are not supported by another. Therefore, computational methods are necessary and crucial to complete the interactome expeditiously. In this work, we formulate the problem of predicting protein interactions from a new mathematical perspective--sparse matrix completion, and propose a novel nonnegative matrix factorization (NMF)-based matrix completion approach to predict new protein interactions from existing protein interaction networks. Through using manifold regularization, we further develop our method to integrate different biological data sources, such as protein sequences, gene expressions, protein structure information, etc. Extensive experimental results on four species, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Drosophila melanogaster, Homo sapiens, and Caenorhabditis elegans, have shown that our new methods outperform related state-of-the-art protein interaction prediction methods.

  9. Effect of dry- versus wet-autoclaving of spray-dried egg albumen compared with casein as protein sources on apparent nitrogen and energy balance, plasma urea nitrogen and glucose concentrations, and growth performance of neonatal swine.

    PubMed

    Watkins, K L; Veum, T L

    2010-08-01

    Forty crossbred neonatal pigs with an average initial age of 4 d and BW of 2.16 kg were used in a 28-d experiment to evaluate the nutritional effects of autoclaving a commercial sugar-free, spray-dried egg albumen (EA) compared with casein. Basal diet protein sources were lactic acid casein and EA. Two more dietary treatments were made by replacing the EA with dry-autoclaved EA (DAEA) or wet-autoclaved EA (WAEA, EA and water mixed in a 1.0:1.2 ratio before autoclaving). The DAEA and WAEA were autoclaved at 121 degrees C and 1.75 kg/cm(2) pressure for 30 min, and WAEA was oven-dried after autoclaving. Analyzed trypsin inhibitor units/mg of EA, DAEA, and WAEA were 535.0, 9.0, and 6.5, respectively. Pigs were fed the diets in gruel form to appetite in individual metabolism cages every 2 h during the experiment. Blood samples were taken on d 7, 14, and 21, and total urine and fecal grab-samples were collected from d 14 to 21 of the experiment. Response criteria were N and energy balance, plasma urea N (PUN) and glucose concentrations, and growth performance. The WAEA was a higher quality protein source for neonatal pigs than DAEA. Pigs fed the diet containing WAEA absorbed and retained more (P < 0.05) grams of N/d, had higher (P < 0.05) percentages of N and energy that were absorbed and retained/intake, had lower (P < 0.05) concentrations of PUN overall, and had higher (P < 0.05) ADG and G:F than pigs fed the diet containing DAEA. Most response criteria of pigs fed the diets containing DAEA or EA were not different, although pigs fed the diet containing DAEA had lower (P < 0.05) overall PUN concentrations, and pigs fed the diet containing EA had higher (P < 0.05) percentages of energy absorbed and retained/intake, and higher ADG and G:F than pigs fed the diet containing DAEA. Growth performance was not different for pigs fed the diets containing WAEA or casein. However, pigs fed the diet containing casein excreted less (P < 0.05) fecal N, retained more (P < 0/05) grams

  10. Interaction of protein percent with caloric density and protein source for lactating cows.

    PubMed

    Van Horn, H H; Blanco, O; Harris, B; Beede, D K

    1985-07-01

    Experiment 1 was to test effect of three ratios of energy to protein in complete mixed diets for 36 lactating cows in three, 28-d periods. Energy was varied with cottonseed hulls, pelleted ground corrugated boxes, and a mixture of the two. Crude protein was varied with soybean meal to give energy:crude protein of 5.7, 5.0, and 4.6 for each energy amount. Cottonseed meal was compared with soybean meal in corrugated box diets. Feed intake was much higher with cottonseed hulls, and appreciable feedlot bloat resulted from pelleted ground corrugated box diets. Data adjusted to equal feed intake showed significant effect of energy to crude protein ratio on milk yield and improved digestion of organic matter with soybean meal vs. cottonseed meal. Experiment 2 tested the hypothesis that lactating cows consuming high-protein alfalfa may benefit from supplemental protein. Diets were 50% forage. Six diets were 14 or 18% crude protein in three ratios of alfalfa hay to corn silage (0:100, 50:50, 100:0). Additional corn silage diets were to compare: 14 versus 18% protein from distiller's dried grains with solubles only and with .5 or .9% urea (four diets); two 14% protein diets compared .6% added potassium chloride with or without .5% urea. Thirty-six Holstein cows in early lactation received one of the 12 diets in each of three 28-d periods. Distiller's grains with solubles markedly depressed milk yield (2.2 kg/d) and milk protein (.22%); heat damage of distiller's grains was evident. Protein interacted with alfalfa so gain in milk from 18 versus 14% increased from .55 to 1.36 to 2.66 kg/d as alfalfa changed from 0 to 50 to 100%. Thus, crude protein of alfalfa was not as effective as that from soybean meal in supporting milk yield.

  11. Dietary protein source affects lipid metabolism in the European seabass (Dicentrarchus labrax).

    PubMed

    Dias, J; Alvarez, M J; Arzel, J; Corraze, G; Diez, A; Bautista, J M; Kaushik, S J

    2005-09-01

    The study was undertaken to evaluate the effects of dietary protein sources on lipogenesis and fat deposition in a marine teleost, the European seabass (Dicentrarchus labrax). Four isonitrogenous (crude protein (CP, Nx6.25), 44% DM) and isoenergetic (22-23 kJ/g DM) diets were formulated to contain one of the following as the major protein source: fish meal (FM), one of two soy protein concentrates (SPC) and corn gluten meal (CGM). Apparent digestibility coefficients of the diets and raw ingredients, as well as soluble nitrogen (ammonia and urea) and phosphorus excretion were measured. Growth rates of seabass fed plant protein-based diets were significantly lower than those fed fish meal based diet. The protein utilisation was strongly correlated to the dietary essential amino acids index. Measurements of N excretion (ammonia and urea nitrogen) confirmed these data. Daily fat gain at the whole body level ranged between 1.1 to 1.7 g/kg BW, with the highest values being recorded in fish fed the fish meal based diet. Levels of plasma triglycerides and cholesterol were lower in fish fed soy protein diets than in those fed the diet solely based on fish meal. Soy protein rich diets decreased the activities of selected hepatic lipogenic enzymes (glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase, malic enzyme, ATP-citrate lysase, acetylcoenzyme A carboxylase and fatty acid synthetase). Highest lipogenic enzyme activities where found in fish fed the fish meal diet, except for fatty acid synthetase which was increased in seabass fed the corn-gluten meal based diets. Overall data suggest that dietary protein sources affects fat deposition and the lipogenic potential in European seabass.

  12. High Power Josephson Effect Sources

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-09-01

    large spacing was nsed ,along with cooling water, os Iao a d$ to ensure the substrate temperature did not rise durn theCox flow Osiltr.adsaljnto ry~ h m...Here two arra’s. a 400 s.m Josephson effect detector and an SIS mixer are "I integrated on a single silicon substrate . One array func- tions as the...junction’s shunt resistor, on array’s output power and detector’s current- voltage characteristics are also discussed. I. INTRODUCTION - U Phb &z locked

  13. CHANGES IN DISULFIDE BOND CONTENT OF PROTEINS IN A YEAST STRAIN LACKING MAJOR SOURCES OF NADPH

    PubMed Central

    Minard, Karyl I.; Carroll, Christopher A.; Weintraub, Susan T.; Mc-Alister-Henn, Lee

    2006-01-01

    A yeast mutant lacking the two major cytosolic sources of NADPH, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (Zwf1p) and NADP+-specific isocitrate dehydrogenase (Idp2p), has been demonstrated to lose viability when shifted to medium with acetate or oleate as the carbon source. This loss in viability was found to correlate with an accumulation of endogenous oxidative byproducts of respiration and peroxisomal β-oxidation. To assess effects on cellular protein of endogenous versus exogenous oxidative stress, a proteomics approach was used to compare disulfide bond-containing proteins in the idp2Δzwf1Δ strain following shifts to acetate and oleate media with those in the parental strain following similar shifts to media containing hydrogen peroxide. Among prominent disulfide bond-containing proteins were several with known antioxidant functions. These and several other proteins were detected as multiple electrophoretic isoforms, with some isoforms containing disulfide bonds under all conditions and other isoforms exhibiting a redox-sensitive content of disulfide bonds, i.e., in the idp2Δzwf1Δ strain and in the hydrogen peroxide-challenged parental strain. The disulfide bond content of some isoforms of these proteins was also elevated in the parental strain grown on glucose, possibly suggesting a redirection of NADPH reducing equivalents to support rapid growth. Further examination of protein carbonylation in the idp2Δzwf1Δ strain shifted to oleate medium also led to identification of common and unique protein targets of endogenous oxidative stress. PMID:17157197

  14. The protein source determines the potential of high protein diets to attenuate obesity development in C57BL/6J mice

    PubMed Central

    Liisberg, Ulrike; Myrmel, Lene Secher; Fjære, Even; Rønnevik, Alexander K.; Bjelland, Susanne; Fauske, Kristin Røen; Holm, Jacob Bak; Basse, Astrid Linde; Hansen, Jacob B.; Liaset, Bjørn; Kristiansen, Karsten; Madsen, Lise

    2016-01-01

    abstract The notion that the obesogenic potential of high fat diets in rodents is attenuated when the protein:carbohydrate ratio is increased is largely based on studies using casein or whey as the protein source. We fed C57BL/6J mice high fat-high protein diets using casein, soy, cod, beef, chicken or pork as protein sources. Casein stood out as the most efficient in preventing weight gain and accretion of adipose mass. By contrast, mice fed diets based on pork or chicken, and to a lesser extent mice fed cod or beef protein, had increased adipose tissue mass gain relative to casein fed mice. Decreasing the protein:carbohydrate ratio in diets with casein or pork as protein sources led to accentuated fat mass accumulation. Pork fed mice were more obese than casein fed mice, and relative to casein, the pork-based feed induced substantial accumulation of fat in classic interscapular brown adipose tissue accompanied by decreased UCP1 expression. Furthermore, intake of a low fat diet with casein, but not pork, as a protein source reversed diet-induced obesity. Compared to pork, casein seems unique in maintaining the classical brown morphology in interscapular brown adipose tissue with high UCP1 expression. This was accompanied by increased expression of genes involved in a futile cycling of fatty acids. Our results demonstrate that intake of high protein diets based on other protein sources may not have similar effects, and hence, the obesity protective effect of high protein diets is clearly modulated by protein source. PMID:27386160

  15. Effects of diuretics on urinary proteins.

    PubMed

    Li, Xundou

    2015-01-01

    Biomarker is the measurable change associated with a physiological or pathophysiological process. Unlike blood which has mechanisms to keep the internal environment homeostatic, urine is more likely to reflect changes of the body. As a result, urine is likely to be a better biomarker source than blood. However, since the urinary proteome is affected by many factors, including diuretics, careful evaluation of those effects is necessary if urinary proteomics is used for biomarker discovery. The human orthologs of most of these 14 proteins affected are stable in the healthy human urinary proteome, and 10 of them are reported as disease biomarkers. Thus, our results suggest that the effects of diuretics deserve more attention in future urinary protein biomarker studies. Moreover, the distinct effects of diuretics on the urinary proteome may provide clues to the mechanisms of diuretics.

  16. Dietary Protein Source Influence on Body Size and Composition in Growing Zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Barry, R. Jeff; Powell, Mickie L.; Nagy, Tim R.; D'Abramo, L.R.; Watts, Stephen A.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract The importance of nutritional components on growth and body composition outcomes has been demonstrated in multiple model organisms. Although zebrafish (Danio rerio) have an established role in research laboratories for its utility in understanding developmental biology and genetics, the influence of diet composition on basic growth outcomes is less well demonstrated. In the current study, four protein sources were tested in isolation using isonitrogenous diets or combined using a defined lab diet. Fish (n≈60/group) were group housed (n≤10 fish/1.8 L tank) and fed ad libitum three times daily for 12 weeks. Fish were assessed for effects on length, body weight, and body composition (lean and fat mass). Individuals fed wheat gluten protein were significantly shorter in length, with significantly lower body weight and lean mass in both male and female fish, although percent body fat was high compared with other diets. Casein-fed fish similarly had significantly reduced body length, body weight, and lean and fat mass in both male and female fish, with a low percent body fat compared with other diets (leanest). Fish protein hydrolysate-fed fish had significantly lower lean mass and a high percent body fat, whereas soy protein isolate diet performed similarly to a mixed-protein control diet for all measured outcomes. These results suggest that the protein source, with accompanying amino acid ratios or additional protein source differences, has a significant impact on growth and body composition outcomes in zebrafish when fed in a semipurified, defined diet background. PMID:23656299

  17. A carnivorous sundew plant prefers protein over chitin as a source of nitrogen from its traps.

    PubMed

    Pavlovič, Andrej; Krausko, Miroslav; Adamec, Lubomír

    2016-07-01

    Carnivorous plants have evolved in nutrient-poor wetland habitats. They capture arthropod prey, which is an additional source of plant growth limiting nutrients. One of them is nitrogen, which occurs in the form of chitin and proteins in prey carcasses. In this study, the nutritional value of chitin and protein and their digestion traits in the carnivorous sundew Drosera capensis L. were estimated using stable nitrogen isotope abundance. Plants fed on chitin derived 49% of the leaf nitrogen from chitin, while those fed on the protein bovine serum albumin (BSA) derived 70% of its leaf nitrogen from this. Moreover, leaf nitrogen content doubled in protein-fed in comparison to chitin-fed plants indicating that the proteins were digested more effectively in comparison to chitin and resulted in significantly higher chlorophyll contents. The surplus chlorophyll and absorbed nitrogen from the protein digestion were incorporated into photosynthetic proteins - the light harvesting antennae of photosystem II. The incorporation of insect nitrogen into the plant photosynthetic apparatus may explain the increased rate of photosynthesis and plant growth after feeding. This general response in many genera of carnivorous plants has been reported in many previous studies.

  18. Variations in Protein Concentration and Nitrogen Sources in Different Positions of Grain in Wheat

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiangnan; Zhou, Longjing; Liu, Fulai; Zhou, Qin; Cai, Jian; Wang, Xiao; Dai, Tingbo; Cao, Weixing; Jiang, Dong

    2016-01-01

    The distribution patterns of total protein and protein components in different layers of wheat grain were investigated using the pearling technique, and the sources of different protein components and pearling fractions were identified using 15N isotope tracing methods. It was found that N absorbed from jointing to anthesis (JA) and remobilized to the grain after anthesis was the principal source of grain N, especially in the outer layer. For albumin and globulin, the amount of N absorbed during different stages all showed a decreasing trend from the surface layer to the center part. Whereas, for globulin and glutenin, the N absorbed after anthesis accounted for the main part indicating that for storage protein, the utilization of N assimilated after anthesis is greater than that of the stored N assimilated before anthesis. It is concluded that manipulation of the N application rate during different growth stages could be an effective approach to modulate the distribution of protein fractions in pearled grains for specific end-uses. PMID:27446169

  19. Lysine requirement of broiler chicks as affected by protein source and method of statistical evaluation.

    PubMed

    Barbour, G; Latshaw, J D; Bishop, B

    1993-09-01

    1. An experiment was designed to test if the lysine requirement, expressed as g lysine/kg CP, was the same for several protein sources. 2. Groundnut meal, groundnut meal adjusted with indispensable amino acids or sesame meal supplied the dietary CP at 180 g/kg diet. Increments of lysine (1.5 g/kg diet) were added to each of these diets. 3. The gain, food intake and food efficiency responses of broiler chicks were analysed using a quadratic equation and a two-slope method. An estimate of lysine requirements was also obtained from a survey of college students. 4. The different methods produced widely different estimates of lysine requirement. 5. The average lysine requirement was estimated at 50.1 g lysine/kg CP for groundnut meal, 61.7 for adjusted groundnut meal and 54.9 for sesame meal. 6. Reasons for the effect of statistical analysis and protein source on lysine requirement are discussed.

  20. Protein and lipid sources affect cholesterol concentrations of juvenile Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone).

    PubMed

    Cheng, Z J; Hardy, R W

    2004-04-01

    Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of protein and lipid sources on cholesterol, AA, and fatty acid content, and on biological performance of juvenile Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone). In Exp. 1, seven isonitrogenous and isocaloric diets were prepared using fish meal; soybean meal; casein; fish meal + soybean meal; fish meal + casein; soybean meal + casein; and fish meal + soybean meal + casein. In Exp. 2, seven isonitrogenous and isocaloric diets were prepared using fish oil; soy oil; poultry fat; fish oil + soy oil; fish oil + poultry fat; soy oil + poultry fat; and fish oil + soy oil + poultry fat. Nine shrimp (average BW 570 mg) were stocked per 60-L tank, with three tanks per diet in each experiment. Shrimp were fed to apparent satiation twice daily for 28 d. Protein sources affected shrimp cholesterol, feed consumption, feed efficiency, protein consumption, protein efficiency ratio, and crude body fat (P < or = 0.05), but not weight gain, survival, hepatosomatic index, body protein, ash, and AA composition. Body (without hepatopancreas) cholesterol concentrations were the highest in shrimp fed the diet containing fish meal (0.81%), lowest for those fed the casein diet (0.64%), and intermediate in the other dietary treatment groups (range 0.71 to 0.74%). Lipid source also affected shrimp body cholesterol, body fatty acid profiles, and fatty acid profiles in the hepatopancreas (P < or = 0.05), but not growth performance, body protein, fat, ash, and cholesterol concentrations in the hepatopancreas. Shrimp fed the fish oil diet had the highest body cholesterol (0.75%), whereas those fed the soy oil or poultry fat diets were lowest (0.66 and 0.65%, respectively). Results indicate that by replacing fish meal and fish oil with soybean meal and soy oil, shrimp growth performance is not affected, but body cholesterol concentration is reduced.

  1. Sources and Amounts of Animal, Dairy, and Plant Protein Intake of US Adults in 2007–2010

    PubMed Central

    Pasiakos, Stefan M.; Agarwal, Sanjiv; Lieberman, Harris R.; Fulgoni, Victor L.

    2015-01-01

    Dietary guidelines suggest consuming a mixed-protein diet, consisting of high-quality animal, dairy, and plant-based foods. However, current data on the distribution and the food sources of protein intake in a free-living, representative sample of US adults are not available. Data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), 2007–2010, were used in these analyses (n = 10,977, age ≥ 19 years). Several US Department of Agriculture (USDA) databases were used to partition the composition of foods consumed into animal, dairy, or plant components. Mean ± SE animal, dairy, and plant protein intakes were determined and deciles of usual intakes were estimated. The percentages of total protein intake derived from animal, dairy, and plant protein were 46%, 16%, and 30%, respectively; 8% of intake could not be classified. Chicken and beef were the primary food sources of animal protein intake. Cheese, reduced-fat milk, and ice cream/dairy desserts were primary sources of dairy protein intake. Yeast breads, rolls/buns, and nuts/seeds were primary sources of plant protein intake. This study provides baseline data for assessing the effectiveness of public health interventions designed to alter the composition of protein foods consumed by the American public. PMID:26308049

  2. Sources and Amounts of Animal, Dairy, and Plant Protein Intake of US Adults in 2007-2010.

    PubMed

    Pasiakos, Stefan M; Agarwal, Sanjiv; Lieberman, Harris R; Fulgoni, Victor L

    2015-08-21

    Dietary guidelines suggest consuming a mixed-protein diet, consisting of high-quality animal, dairy, and plant-based foods. However, current data on the distribution and the food sources of protein intake in a free-living, representative sample of US adults are not available. Data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), 2007-2010, were used in these analyses (n = 10,977, age ≥ 19 years). Several US Department of Agriculture (USDA) databases were used to partition the composition of foods consumed into animal, dairy, or plant components. Mean ± SE animal, dairy, and plant protein intakes were determined and deciles of usual intakes were estimated. The percentages of total protein intake derived from animal, dairy, and plant protein were 46%, 16%, and 30%, respectively; 8% of intake could not be classified. Chicken and beef were the primary food sources of animal protein intake. Cheese, reduced-fat milk, and ice cream/dairy desserts were primary sources of dairy protein intake. Yeast breads, rolls/buns, and nuts/seeds were primary sources of plant protein intake. This study provides baseline data for assessing the effectiveness of public health interventions designed to alter the composition of protein foods consumed by the American public.

  3. Effects of Supplementation of Mulberry (Morus alba) Foliage and Urea-rice Bran as Fermentable Energy and Protein Sources in Sheep Fed Urea-treated Rice Straw Based Diet.

    PubMed

    Yulistiani, Dwi; Jelan, Z A; Liang, J B; Yaakub, H; Abdullah, N

    2015-04-01

    A digestibility study was conducted to evaluate the effects of supplementing mulberry foliage and urea rice-bran as a source of fermentable energy and protein to 12 sheep fed diets based on urea-treated rice straw (TRS). The three dietary treatments were: T1, TRS with mulberry; T2, TRS with 50% mulberry replaced with rice bran and urea; and T3, TRS with rice bran and urea. The study was arranged in a completely randomized design with four replications for each treatment. The sheep were fed one of the three diets and the supplements were offered at 1.2% of the body weight (BW) and the TRS was provided ad libitum. There were no differences (p>0.05) among the three treatment groups with respect to dry matter (DM) intake (76.8±4.2 g/kg BW(0.75)) and DM, organic matter (OM), and crude protein (CP) digestibility (55.3±1.22; 69.9±0.85; 46.3±1.65% respectively for DM, OM, and CP). The digestibility of fiber (neutral detergent fiber [NDF] and acid detergent fiber) was significantly lower (p<0.05) for T3 (46.2 and 46.6 respectively) compared to T1 (55.8 and 53.7 respectively) and T2 (54.1 and 52.8 respectively). Nitrogen (N) intake by sheep on diet T3 was significantly (p<0.05) higher than sheep fed diet T1. However, N balance did not differ among the three diets (3.0±0.32 g/d). In contrast, the rumen ammonia (NH3-N) concentrations in sheep fed T2 and T3 were significantly (p<0.05) higher than in sheep fed T1. The NH3-N concentrations for all three diets were above the critical value required for optimum rumen microbial growth and synthesis. Total volatile fatty acid concentrations were highest (p<0.05) in T1 (120.3 mM), whilst the molar proportion of propionic acid was highest in T3 (36.9%). However, the microbial N supply in sheep fed T1 and T3 was similar but was significantly (p<0.05) higher than for sheep fed T2. It was concluded that mulberry foliage is a potential supplement of fermentable energy and protein for sheep fed TRS based diet. The suggested level of

  4. Effects of Supplementation of Mulberry (Morus alba) Foliage and Urea-rice Bran as Fermentable Energy and Protein Sources in Sheep Fed Urea-treated Rice Straw Based Diet

    PubMed Central

    Yulistiani, Dwi; Jelan, Z. A.; Liang, J. B.; Yaakub, H.; Abdullah, N.

    2015-01-01

    A digestibility study was conducted to evaluate the effects of supplementing mulberry foliage and urea rice-bran as a source of fermentable energy and protein to 12 sheep fed diets based on urea-treated rice straw (TRS). The three dietary treatments were: T1, TRS with mulberry; T2, TRS with 50% mulberry replaced with rice bran and urea; and T3, TRS with rice bran and urea. The study was arranged in a completely randomized design with four replications for each treatment. The sheep were fed one of the three diets and the supplements were offered at 1.2% of the body weight (BW) and the TRS was provided ad libitum. There were no differences (p>0.05) among the three treatment groups with respect to dry matter (DM) intake (76.8±4.2 g/kg BW0.75) and DM, organic matter (OM), and crude protein (CP) digestibility (55.3±1.22; 69.9±0.85; 46.3±1.65% respectively for DM, OM, and CP). The digestibility of fiber (neutral detergent fiber [NDF] and acid detergent fiber) was significantly lower (p<0.05) for T3 (46.2 and 46.6 respectively) compared to T1 (55.8 and 53.7 respectively) and T2 (54.1 and 52.8 respectively). Nitrogen (N) intake by sheep on diet T3 was significantly (p<0.05) higher than sheep fed diet T1. However, N balance did not differ among the three diets (3.0±0.32 g/d). In contrast, the rumen ammonia (NH3-N) concentrations in sheep fed T2 and T3 were significantly (p<0.05) higher than in sheep fed T1. The NH3-N concentrations for all three diets were above the critical value required for optimum rumen microbial growth and synthesis. Total volatile fatty acid concentrations were highest (p<0.05) in T1 (120.3 mM), whilst the molar proportion of propionic acid was highest in T3 (36.9%). However, the microbial N supply in sheep fed T1 and T3 was similar but was significantly (p<0.05) higher than for sheep fed T2. It was concluded that mulberry foliage is a potential supplement of fermentable energy and protein for sheep fed TRS based diet. The suggested level of

  5. Intestinal Fluid Permeability in Atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar L.) Is Affected by Dietary Protein Source

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Haibin; Kortner, Trond M.; Gajardo, Karina; Chikwati, Elvis; Tinsley, John; Krogdahl, Åshild

    2016-01-01

    In Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.), and also in other fish species, certain plant protein ingredients can increase fecal water content creating a diarrhea-like condition which may impair gut function and reduce fish growth. The present study aimed to strengthen understanding of the underlying mechanisms by observing effects of various alternative plant protein sources when replacing fish meal on expression of genes encoding proteins playing key roles in regulation of water transport across the mucosa of the distal intestine (DI). A 48-day feeding trial was conducted with five diets: A reference diet (FM) in which fish meal (72%) was the only protein source; Diet SBMWG with a mix of soybean meal (30%) and wheat gluten (22%); Diet SPCPM with a mix of soy protein concentrate (30%) and poultry meal (6%); Diet GMWG with guar meal (30%) and wheat gluten (14.5%); Diet PM with 58% poultry meal. Compared to fish fed the FM reference diet, fish fed the soybean meal containing diet (SBMWG) showed signs of enteritis in the DI, increased fecal water content of DI chyme and higher plasma osmolality. Altered DI expression of a battery of genes encoding aquaporins, ion transporters, tight junction and adherens junction proteins suggested reduced transcellular transport of water as well as a tightening of the junction barrier in fish fed the SBMWG diet, which may explain the observed higher fecal water content and plasma osmolality. DI structure was not altered for fish fed the other experimental diets but alterations in target gene expression and fecal water content were observed, indicating that alterations in water transport components may take place without clear effects on intestinal structure. PMID:27907206

  6. Micro-algae as a source of protein.

    PubMed

    Becker, E W

    2007-01-01

    About five decades ago, the mass production of certain protein-rich micro-algae was considered as a possibility to close the predicted so called "protein gap". Comprehensive analyses and nutritional studies have demonstrated that these algal proteins are of high quality and comparable to conventional vegetable proteins. However, due to high production costs as well as technical difficulties to incorporate the algal material into palatable food preparations, the propagation of algal protein is still in its infancy. To date, the majority of micro-algal preparations are marketed as health food, as cosmetics or as animal feed.

  7. [In vitro availability of minerals in infant foods with different protein source].

    PubMed

    Pérez-Llamas, F; Larqué, E; Marín, J F; Zamora, S

    2001-01-01

    As the result of the digestion process, it is produced at gastrointestinal level interactions between proteins-minerals and minerals-minerals that might modify the bioavailability of the nutrients initially designed for an adequate nutrition in infant formulas. The aim of the present study is to compare the in vitro availability of some minerals and trace elements (calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, iron and zinc) in infant formulas of initiation elaborated with different protein sources: formulas based on cow milk protein (whey-casein) versus vegetal protein (soy-based infant formulas). Also, for evaluating the effects of the different mineral supplementation in the availability of minerals, it was used infant formulas from two different manufacturers. Milk-protein based infant formulas showed for both manufacturers higher dialysis percentage (%) of phosphorus and zinc than the soy-protein based formulas. The availability of iron in the soy formula of the manufacturer A lowered significantly (P < 0.05) respect to the whey-casein based formula (9.6 +/- 2.3 versus 4.6 +/- 0.8), but not respect to the whey-casein formula of manufacturer B (9.6 +/- 1.1 versus 9.0 +/- 0.7), which might be due to the lowest proportion of phytic acid in this last commercial formula. Dialysability of all the minerals analysed from soy-protein based formulas showed significant differences depending on the manufacturer. The purification processes of the soy protein have a high repercussion in the mineral availability of soy-based infant formulas. It could be more interesting to use soy proteins more purified, with low level of phytic acid, in the elaboration of soy infants formulas, than the supplementation them with high amounts of minerals.

  8. Replacing soybean meal with gelatin extracted from cow skin and corn protein concentrate as a protein source in broiler diets.

    PubMed

    Khalaji, S; Manafi, M; Olfati, Z; Hedyati, M; Latifi, M; Veysi, A

    2016-02-01

    Two experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of replacing soybean meal with gelatin extracted from cow skin and corn protein concentrate as a protein source in broiler diets. Experiments were carried out as a completely randomized design where each experiment involved 4 treatments of 6 replicates and 10 chicks in each pen. Soybean meal proteins in a corn-soy control diet were replaced with 15, 30, and 45% of cow skin gelatin (CSG) or corn protein concentrate (CPC), respectively, in experiments 1 and 2. BW and cumulative feed intake were measured at 7, 21, and 42 d of age. Blood characteristics, relative organs weight and length, ileal digesta viscosity, ileal morphology, and cecal coliform and Salmonella population were measured at 42 d of age. Apparent total tract digestibility of protein was determined during 35 to 42 d of age. Replacement of soybean meal with CSG severely inhibited BW gain, decreased feed intake, and increased FCR in broilers during the experimental period (P ≤ 0.01). The inclusion of CPC reduced BW and increased FCR significantly (P ≤ 0.05) at 21 and 42 d of age without any consequence in feed intake. Protein digestibility was reduced and ileal digesta viscosity was increased linearly by increasing the amount of CSG and CPC in the control diet (P ≤ 0.01). Replacement of soybean meal with CSG and CPC did not significantly alter blood cell profile and plasma phosphorus, creatinine, blood urea nitrogen, Aspartate transaminase, and HDL and LDL cholesterol concentration. The inclusion of CSG linearly (P ≤ 0.05) increased plasma uric acid concentration and alkaline phosphatase activity. Triglyceride and cholesterol levels were decreased significantly (P ≤ 0.05) when the amount of CSG replacement was 15%. The results of this experiment showed that using CSG and CPC negatively affects broiler performance and therefore is not a suitable alternative to soybean meal in commercial diets.

  9. The impact of carbohydrate and protein level and sources on swine manure foaming properties

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study explored the impact of swine diet on the composition, methane production potential, and foaming properties of manure. Samples of swine manure were collected from controlled feeding trials with diets varying in protein and carbohydrate levels and sources. Protein sources consisted of corn ...

  10. The potential of blue lupins as a protein source, in the diets of laying hens.

    PubMed

    Lee, Michael R F; Parkinson, Sarah; Fleming, Hannah R; Theobald, Vince J; Leemans, Dave K; Burgess, Tony

    2016-12-01

    Layers diets typically contain 15-20% soya due to its high crude protein content (ca. 36%). Reliance on soya for protein can result in large increases in cost of feed due to the law of supply and demand as a global commodity. Lupin grains have high protein content (35-40%) but previous experience with white lupins has shown toxic effects in poultry due to high levels alkaloids and poor performance due to anti-nutritional Non-starch polysaccharides (NSP). Here blue lupins either processed or whole were trialled for their potential as a protein source. Point of lay chickens (64) at 16 weeks of age were weighed and allocated to 16 coops of four hens. Coops, as the experimental unit, were randomly allocated to four treatments: layers mash with soya (Control); or layers mash with 150 g of lupin/kg diet with the lupin either: whole (Whole); dehulled (Dehulled) or dehulled + a solid state fermentation enzyme extract (SSF; 150 g/tonne DM). All diets were ground and formulated to be balanced for energy, crude protein and essential amino acids using NIRS. No difference in growth rate, final hen weight, DM and water intake, eggs per day, mean egg weight, yellowness of yolk or chroma was found between treatments. There was a trend (P<0.1) for the SSF treatment to produce less heavy shells and a significant effect for the lupin treatments to have redder yolks (P<0.001). Fecal DM and bacterial counts were not different and there was no sign of enteritis or intestinal tissue hyperplasia from hen autopsies. Inclusion of blue lupins in the diet of laying hens at a rate of 150 g/kg DM resulted in no adverse effects in production or hen health and could be used as part of a balanced ration with inclusion of NSP degrading enzymes to reduce reliance on soya protein.

  11. Fermented ammoniated condensed whey as a crude protein source for feedlot cattle

    SciTech Connect

    Crickenberger, R.G.; Henderson, H.E.; Reddy, C.A.

    1981-04-01

    Four feeding trials were conducted to evaluate fermented ammoniated condensed whey as a crude protein supplement for finishing cattle fed corn silage or corn - corn silage diets. Feed efficiencies and daily gains with protein treatments were noted. The trials indicate that fermented ammoniated condensed whey is comparable to soybean meal as a crude protein source for feedlot cattle. (Refs. 18).

  12. Renal Diet for Vegetarians: Which Protein Sources Are Best?

    MedlinePlus

    ... main source of phosphorus in a typical diet. Dairy products can be replaced with unenriched rice or soy ... mind that the majority of potassium comes from dairy products, fruits and vegetables. So by limiting dairy and ...

  13. Underutilised legumes: potential sources for low-cost protein.

    PubMed

    Prakash, D; Niranjan, A; Tewari, S K; Pushpangadan, P

    2001-07-01

    Seeds of 104 leguminous species belonging to 17 genera were analysed for their protein contents. The promising ones were investigated for fibre, carbohydrate, ash, oil, fatty acids, amino acid profile and trypsin inhibitor activity (TIA). The variation of fibre contents was 4.1-8.9%, carbohydrate 18.4-49.2%, ash 1.8-7.2%, TIA 48.7-87.5 mg/g, oil 1.3-19.8% and protein 11.0-51.6%. The protein content (41-45%) in Acacia mellifera (41.6%), Albizzia lebbek (43.6%), Bauhinia triandra (42.7%), Lathyrus odoratus (42.8%), Parkinsonia aculeata (41.6%), Psophocarpus tetragonolobus (41.9%), Sesbania paludosa (41.2%) and S. sesban (43.8%) was in close proximity to soybean (42.8%), whereas Bauhinia retusa (51.6%), B. variegata (46.5%), Delonix elata (48.7%) and Gliricidia maculata (46.3%) showed higher percentages of protein than soybean. The essential amino acid composition of some of the seed proteins was reasonably well balanced (lysine up to 7.6%). The seeds of Bauhinia retusa (18.6%), B. triandra (16.5%), B. variegata (17.3%), Gliricidia maculata (16.2%), Parkia biglandulosa (18.9%) and Psophocarpus tetragonolobus (19.8%) had a good amount of oil, comparable to soybean (18-22%). The fatty acid composition of some genera/species was quite promising with high amount of unsaturated fatty acids.

  14. ASSOCIATIONS OF PROTEIN INTAKE AND PROTEIN SOURCE WITH BONE MINERAL DENSITY AND FRACTURE RISK: A POPULATION-BASED COHORT STUDY

    PubMed Central

    LANGSETMO, L.; BARR, S.I.; BERGER, C.; KREIGER, N.; RAHME, E.; ADACHI, J.D.; PAPAIOANNOU, A.; KAISER, S. M; PRIOR, J.C.; HANLEY, D.A.; KOVACS, C.S.; JOSSE, R.G.; GOLTZMAN, D.

    2016-01-01

    High dietary protein has been hypothesized to cause lower bone mineral density (BMD) and greater fracture risk. Previous results are conflicting and few studies have assessed potential differences related to differing protein sources. Objective To determine associations between total protein intake, and protein intake by source (dairy, non-dairy animal, plant) with BMD, BMD change, and incident osteoporotic fracture. Design/Setting Prospective cohort study (Canadian Multicentre Osteoporosis Study). Participants/Measures Protein intake was assessed as percent of total energy intake (TEI) at Year 2 (1997–99) using a food frequency questionnaire (N=6510). Participants were contacted annually to ascertain incident fracture. Total hip and lumbar spine BMD was measured at baseline and Year 5. Analyses were stratified by group (men 25–49 y, men 50+ y, premenopausal women 25–49 y, and postmenopausal women 50+ y) and adjusted for major confounders. Fracture analyses were limited to those 50+ y. Results Intakes of dairy protein (with adjustment for BMI) were positively associated with total hip BMD among men and women aged 50+ y, and in men aged 25–49. Among adults aged 50+ y, those with protein intakes of <12% TEI (women) and <11% TEI (men) had increased fracture risk compared to those with intakes of 15% TEI. Fracture risk did not significantly change as intake increased above 15% TEI, and was not significantly associated with protein source. Conclusions In contrast to hypothesized risk of high protein, we found that for adults 50+ y, low protein intake (below 15% TEI) may lead to increased fracture risk. Source of protein was a determinant of BMD, but not fracture risk. PMID:26412291

  15. Meals based on vegetable protein sources (beans and peas) are more satiating than meals based on animal protein sources (veal and pork) – a randomized cross-over meal test study

    PubMed Central

    Kristensen, Marlene D.; Bendsen, Nathalie T.; Christensen, Sheena M.; Astrup, Arne; Raben, Anne

    2016-01-01

    Background Recent nutrition recommendations advocate a reduction in protein from animal sources (pork, beef) because of environmental concerns. Instead, protein from vegetable sources (beans, peas) should be increased. However, little is known about the effect of these vegetable protein sources on appetite regulation. Objective To examine whether meals based on vegetable protein sources (beans/peas) are comparable to meals based on animal protein sources (veal/pork) regarding meal-induced appetite sensations. Design In total, 43 healthy, normal-weight, young men completed this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, three-way, cross-over meal test. The meals (all 3.5 MJ, 28 energy-% (E%) fat) were either high protein based on veal and pork meat, HP-Meat (19 E% protein, 53 E% carbohydrate, 6 g fiber/100 g); high protein based on legumes (beans and peas), HP-Legume (19 E% protein, 53 E% carbohydrate, 25 g fiber/100 g); or low-protein based on legumes, LP-Legume (9 E% protein, 62 E% carbohydrate, 10 g fiber/100 g). Subjective appetite sensations were recorded at baseline and every half hour using visual analog scales until the ad libitum meal 3 h after the test meal. Repeated measurements analyses and summary analyses were performed using ANCOVA (SAS). Results HP-Legume induced lower composite appetite score, hunger, prospective food consumption, and higher fullness compared to HP-Meat and LP-Legume (p<0.05). Furthermore, satiety was higher after HP-Legume than HP-Meat (p<0.05). When adjusting for palatability, HP-Legume still resulted in lower composite appetite scores, hunger, prospective consumption, and higher fullness compared to HP-Meat (p<0.05). Furthermore, HP-Legume induced higher fullness than LP-Legume (p<0.05). A 12% and 13% lower energy intake, respectively, was seen after HP-Legume compared to HP-Meat or LP-Legume (p<0.01). Conclusion Vegetable-based meals (beans/peas) influenced appetite sensations favorably compared to animal-based meals (pork

  16. The quality of new sources of protein and their suitability for weanlings and young children*

    PubMed Central

    Viteri, F. E.; Bressani, R.

    1972-01-01

    A number of formulated protein-rich mixtures have been developed with the objective of preventing protein deficiency in vulnerable population groups, particularly in weanlings and children of pre-school in the developing countries. This paper describes an investigation, by the nitrogen balance index method, of the protein quality of several such mixtures. The results indicate that most of the mixtures are suitable protein sources for children of pre-school age. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 3 PMID:4538543

  17. Effects of protein concentration and heat treatment on concentration of digestible and metabolizable energy and on amino acid digestibility in four sources of canola meal fed to growing pigs.

    PubMed

    Liu, Y; Song, M; Maison, T; Stein, H H

    2014-10-01

    Two experiments were conducted to determine DE and ME and the apparent ileal digestibility (AID) and the standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of CP and AA in 4 sources of canola meal (high-protein [CM-HP], high-temperature-processed [CM-HT], low-temperature-processed [CM-LT], and conventional [CM-CV] canola meal) and in conventional soybean meal (SBM) fed to growing pigs. In Exp. 1, 48 growing barrows (initial BW: 39.7 ± 1.58 kg) were individually housed in metabolism cages and randomly assigned to 6 treatments in a randomized complete block design with 2 blocks of 24 pigs and 8 replicate pigs per treatment. The 6 diets included a corn-based basal diet and 5 diets that were formulated by mixing corn and 1 of the sources of canola meal (39.0% inclusion) or SBM (28.5% inclusion). Feces and urine were collected for 5 d following a 5-d adaptation period. The DE and ME in each source of canola meal and in SBM were calculated using the difference procedure. The DE and ME in the 4 sources of canola meal were less (P < 0.05) than in corn and SBM (DE: 2,854, 2,680, 2,892, and 2,883 vs. 3,324 and 3,784 kcal/kg, respectively; ME: 2,540, 2,251, 2,681, and 2,637 vs. 3,213 and 3,523 kcal/kg, respectively). No differences in the concentrations of DE and ME were observed among the 4 sources of canola meal. In Exp. 2, 12 growing barrows (initial BW: 34.0 ± 1.41 kg) that had a T-cannula installed in the distal ileum were randomly allotted to a repeated 6 × 6 Latin square design with 6 diets and 6 periods in each square. Five diets that contained 35% SBM or 45% of 1 of the 4 sources of canola meal as the sole source of CP and AA were formulated, and a N-free diet was also used. Each period lasted 7 d and ileal digesta were collected on d 6 and 7 of each period. The AID and SID of CP and all AA in SBM were greater (P < 0.05) than in the 4 sources of canola meal. Compared with CM-CV, CM-HP had greater (P < 0.05) AID of Ile, Lys, Asp, Cys, and Pro and greater (P < 0.05) SID of Lys

  18. Dietary Protein Sources Affect Internal Quality of Raw and Cooked Shell Eggs under Refrigerated Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Wang, X. C.; Zhang, H. J.; Wu, S. G.; Yue, H. Y.; Wang, J.; Li, J.; Qi, G. H.

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of various protein sources (soybean meal, SBM; cottonseed protein, CSP; double-zero rapeseed meal, DRM) on the internal quality of refrigerated eggs. A total of 360 laying hens (32 wk of age) were randomly allotted to six treatment groups (five replicates per treatment) and fed diets containing SBM, CSP, or DRM individually or in combination with equal crude protein content (SBM-CSP, SBM-DRM, and CSP-DRM) as the protein ingredient(s). A 6×3 factorial arrangement was employed with dietary types and storage time (0 d, 2 wk, and 4 wk) as the main effects. After 12 wk of diet feeding, a total of 270 eggs were collected for egg quality determination. The egg Haugh unit (HU) in the CSP, SBM-DRM, and DRM groups were significantly lower than those in the SBM and SBM-CSP groups. The hardness and springiness of the cooked yolk in the CSP group were significantly higher than those in the other treatment groups. A lower HU, lower yolk index and higher albumen pH were observed in the DRM group compared to the SBM and SBM-CSP groups when the eggs were stored to 4 wk, and the HU was improved in the CSP-DRM group compared to the DRM group (p<0.05). Higher yolk hardness was observed in the CSP group compared to the other groups during storage (p<0.05), but the hardness of the cooked yolk in the SBM-CSP and CSP-DRM groups showed no difference in comparison to the SBM group. In conclusion, CSP may ameliorate the negative effects of DRM on the HU of refrigerated eggs, and SBM or DRM may alleviate the adverse effects of CSP on yolk hardness. PMID:26580286

  19. Cosolvent Effects on Protein Stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Canchi, Deepak R.; García, Angel E.

    2013-04-01

    Proteins are marginally stable, and the folding/unfolding equilibrium of proteins in aqueous solution can easily be altered by the addition of small organic molecules known as cosolvents. Cosolvents that shift the equilibrium toward the unfolded ensemble are termed denaturants, whereas those that favor the folded ensemble are known as protecting osmolytes. Urea is a widely used denaturant in protein folding studies, and the molecular mechanism of its action has been vigorously debated in the literature. Here we review recent experimental as well as computational studies that show an emerging consensus in this problem. Urea has been shown to denature proteins through a direct mechanism, by interacting favorably with the peptide backbone as well as the amino acid side chains. In contrast, the molecular mechanism by which the naturally occurring protecting osmolyte trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO) stabilizes proteins is not clear. Recent studies have established the strong interaction of TMAO with water. Detailed molecular simulations, when used with force fields that incorporate these interactions, can provide insight into this problem. We present the development of a model for TMAO that is consistent with experimental observations and that provides physical insight into the role of cosolvent-cosolvent interaction in determining its preferential interaction with proteins.

  20. Evaluation of Peanut Meal as an Alternative Dietary Protein Source for Channel Catfish

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Use of peanut meal as an alternative protein source in diets for channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus was evaluated in a 9-week study under controlled laboratory conditions. Five practical diets (28% crude protein and 6% crude lipid) were formulated to contain 0, 10, 15, 20, and 25% peanut meal as a ...

  1. Feasibility of partial replacement of fishmeal with proteins from different sources in diets of Korean rockfish ( Sebastes schlegeli)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Quangen; Zhu, Xiaoming; Yang, Yunxia; Han, Dong; Xie, Shouqi

    2014-12-01

    An 8-week feeding experiment was conducted in an indoor recirculation seawater system to investigate the effects of partial replacement of dietary fishmeal with proteins from five sources on the growth performance and feed utilization of Sebastes schlegeli. Six isonitrogenous and isoenergetic diets were formulated using fishmeal (FM, the control) as sole protein source, or proteins from five sources including poultry by-product meal (PBM), meat and bone meal (MBM), soybean meal (SBM), cottonseed meal (CSM) and canola meal (CNM). Fifteen percent of the crude protein provided by fish meal was replaced, respectively. The results showed that the differences in specific growth rate (SGR) and survival rate (SR) among fish fed PBM, MBM, SBM, CSM and whole FM diets were not significant. However, SGR and SR of fish fed CNM diet was significantly lower than that of other treatments. Feeding rate, feed conversion, nutrient retention showed similar patterns to that of growth. Fish fed CSM and CNM showed significantly lower apparent digestibility coefficient (ADC) of dry matter and gross energy than those fed others while fish fed CNM showed lower ADC of crude protein than those fed others ( P<0.05). These results suggested that it was feasible to substitute 15% dietary protein provided by fishmeal with PBM, MBM, SBM and CSM, respectively, but not with CNM as the replacement with CNM reduced fish growth and feed utilization.

  2. Palatability of water-soluble extracts of protein sources and replacement of fishmeal by a selected mixture of protein sources for juvenile turbot ( Scophthalmus maximus)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Chun; He, Gen; Mai, Kangsen; Zhou, Huihui; Xu, Wei

    2016-06-01

    Poor palatability is a limiting factor for replacing fishmeal with other protein sources in aquaculture. The water-soluble molecules with low molecular weights are the major determinants of the palatability of diets. The present study was conducted to investigate the palatability of water-soluble extracts from single protein source (single extract pellets) and the mixture of these extracts with different proportions (blended extract pellets) in juvenile turbot ( Scophthalmus maximus). Then according to the palatability of blended extract pellets, an optimal mixture proportion was selected, and a new protein source made from raw protein materials with the selected proportion was formulated to replace fishmeal. Summarily, the palatability of single extract pellets for turbot was descendent from fishmeal to pet-food grade poultry by-product meal, wheat gluten meal, soybean meal, peanut meal, meat and bone meal, and corn gluten meal. Subsequently, according to the palatability of single extract pellets, 52 kinds of blended extract pellets were designed to test their palatability. The results showed that the pellets presented remarkably different palatability, and the optimal one was diet 52 (wheat gluten meal: pet-food grade poultry by-product meal: meat and bone meal: corn gluten meal = 1:6:1:2). The highest ingestion ratio (the number of pellets ingested/the number of pellets fed) was 0.73 ± 0.03, which was observed in Diet 52. Then five isonitrogenous (52% crude protein) and isocaloric (20 kJ g-1 gross energy) diets were formulated by replacing 0 (control), 35%, 50%, 65% and 80% of fishmeal with No.52 blending proportion. After a 10-weeks feeding trial, a consistent feed intake was found among all replacement treatments. Replacement level of fishmeal up to 35% did not significantly influence final body weight, specific growth rate, feed efficiency ratio, and protein efficiency ratio of turbot. Therefore, the water-soluble extracts of protein sources play an

  3. Stabilizing effect of knots on proteins.

    PubMed

    Sułkowska, Joanna I; Sulkowski, Piotr; Szymczak, P; Cieplak, Marek

    2008-12-16

    Molecular dynamics studies within a coarse-grained, structure-based model were used on two similar proteins belonging to the transcarbamylase family to probe the effects of the knot in the native structure of a protein. The first protein, N-acetylornithine transcarbamylase, contains no knot, whereas human ormithine transcarbamylase contains a trefoil knot located deep within the sequence. In addition, we also analyzed a modified transferase with the knot removed by the appropriate change of a knot-making crossing of the protein chain. The studies of thermally and mechanically induced unfolding processes suggest a larger intrinsic stability of the protein with the knot.

  4. Effects of alternative reinforcement sources: A reevaluation

    PubMed Central

    Imam, Abdulrazaq A.; Lattal, Kennon A.

    1988-01-01

    The effects of two alternative sources of food delivery on the key-peck responding of pigeons were examined. Pecking was maintained by a variable-interval 3-min schedule. In the presence of this schedule in different conditions, either a variable-time 3-min schedule delivering food independently of responding or an equivalent schedule that required a minimum 2-s pause between a key peck and food delivery (a differential-reinforcement-of-other-behavior schedule) was added. The differential-reinforcement-of-other-behavior schedule reduced response rates more than did the variable-time schedule in most instances. The delay between a key peck and the next reinforcer consistently was longer under the differential-reinforcement-of-other-behavior schedule than under the variable-time schedule. Response rates and median delay between responses and reinforcers were negatively correlated. These results contradict earlier conclusions about the behavioral effects of alternative reinforcement. They suggest that an interpretation in terms of response–reinforcer contiguity is consistent with the data. PMID:16812558

  5. Molecular Origins of Internal Friction Effects on Protein Folding Rates

    PubMed Central

    Sirur, Anshul

    2014-01-01

    Recent experiments on protein folding dynamics have revealed strong evidence for internal friction effects. That is, observed relaxation times are not simply proportional to the solvent viscosity as might be expected if the solvent were the only source of friction. However, a molecular interpretation of this remarkable phenomenon is currently lacking. Here, we use all-atom simulations of peptide and protein folding in explicit solvent, to probe the origin of the unusual viscosity dependence. We find that an important contribution to this effect, explaining the viscosity dependence of helix formation and the folding of a helix-containing protein, is the insensitivity of torsion angle isomerization to solvent friction. The influence of this landscape roughness can, in turn, be quantitatively explained by a rate theory including memory friction. This insensitivity of local barrier crossing to solvent friction is expected to contribute to the viscosity dependence of folding rates in larger proteins. PMID:24986114

  6. Interactive source and message effects in persuasion.

    PubMed

    Siu, Wanda

    2010-04-01

    In this study, the influence of source and message frame on judgments of a public service announcement was examined. The participants in the experiment were 408 undergraduate students (126 men, 280 women, 2 unknown; M age=20.0, SD=2.5, range=18-23) of a Midwestern U.S. university. Message frame and source were manipulated in a between-subjects design. Two levels of the message frame were benefits of physical activity and costs of not engaging in regular physical activity; the source was a healthy or unhealthy individual. In the Healthy-source condition, "Kim Jones" set realistic goals for exercise and had a healthy lifestyle. Conversely, she was described as a sedentary individual who led an unhealthy lifestyle in the Sick-source condition. Results indicated that respondents in the conditions of gain frame-healthy source and cost frame-unhealthy source had more positive message judgment as compared to respondents in the conditions of gain frame-unhealthy source and cost frame-healthy source.

  7. Intestinal supply of amino acids in steers fed ruminally degradable and undegradable crude protein sources alone and in combination.

    PubMed

    Cecava, M J; Parker, J E

    1993-06-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the effect of combining ruminally degradable and undegradable CP sources on ruminal microbial protein synthesis and postruminal N and amino acid (AA) flows in steers. Six steers fitted with ruminal, duodenal, and ileal cannulas were fed diets containing corn silage and high-moisture corn supplemented with urea, soybean meal (SBM), dry corn gluten feed (DCGF), a combination of corn gluten meal and blood meal (CB), or SBM and DCGF in combination with CB. Estimated ruminal N escapes for SBM, DCGF, and CB were 32, 25, and 68%, respectively. Supplemental CP sources supplied 35 to 40% of diet CP (12.5% CP diets). Dry matter intake was adjusted to 2.3% of BW for each steer in each period. Total N flow at the duodenum decreased (P < .01) when the diet was supplemented with urea vs other proteins due to decreased (P < .01) flow of nonmicrobial N. However, microbial N and AA flows were greater (P < .05) for urea than for other protein supplements. Disappearance of OM and NDF in the stomach decreased (P < .07) or was numerically lower but nonmicrobial N at the duodenum increased (P < .08) as CB replaced SBM or DCGF in the diet. Protein source had little effect on ruminal fermentation characteristics except that ruminal ammonia N (NH3N) concentration was higher (P < .05) for urea than for other treatments. Total AA and essential AA flows to and disappearance from the small intestine increased (P < .06) as CB replaced DCGF. However, substituting CB for SBM had little effect on intestinal flows and disappearance of AA. These data suggest that source of ruminally degradable CP can influence the efficacy of feeding ruminally degradable and undegradable CP in combination. In general, source of supplemental CP had a greater effect on the quantity than on the profile of absorbable AA supplied to the duodenum.

  8. Effects of Epistemological Sensitization on Source Choices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porsch, Torsten; Bromme, Rainer

    2011-01-01

    The uneven distribution of knowledge within modern societies requires a reliance on sources (e.g., reference books, teachers, the Internet) in addition to own experience. Most scientific issues are far too complex to be understood in any depth by laypersons. Successful knowledge acquisition comprises the ability to vary the amount of sources used…

  9. Health effects of soy protein and isoflavones in humans.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Chao Wu

    2008-06-01

    Epidemiological investigations suggest that soy consumption may be associated with a lower incidence of certain chronic diseases. Clinical studies also show that ingestion of soy proteins reduces the risk factors for cardiovascular disease. This led to the approval of the food-labeling health claim for soy proteins in the prevention of coronary heart disease by the U.S. FDA in 1999. Similar health petitions for soy proteins have also been approved thereafter in the United Kingdom, Brazil, South Africa, the Philippines, Indonesia, Korea, and Malaysia. However, the purported health benefits are quite variable in different studies. The Nutrition Committee of the American Heart Association has assessed 22 randomized trials conducted since 1999 and found that isolated soy protein with isoflavones (ISF) slightly decreased LDL cholesterol but had no effect on HDL cholesterol, triglycerides, lipoprotein(a), or blood pressure. The other effects of soy consumption were not evident. Although the contributing factors to these discrepancies are not fully understood, the source of soybeans and processing procedures of the protein or ISF are believed to be important because of their effects on the content and intactness of certain bioactive protein subunits. Some studies have documented potential safety concerns on increased consumption of soy products. Impacts of soy products on thyroid and reproductive functions as well as on certain types of carcinogenesis require further study in this context. Overall, existing data are inconsistent or inadequate in supporting most of the suggested health benefits of consuming soy protein or ISF.

  10. Protein

    MedlinePlus

    ... Search for: Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health Email People Departments Calendar Careers Give my.harvard ... Nutrition Source Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health > The Nutrition Source > What Should I Eat? > Protein ...

  11. Proteome-wide quantitative multiplexed profiling of protein expression: carbon-source dependency in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Paulo, Joao A.; O’Connell, Jeremy D.; Gaun, Aleksandr; Gygi, Steven P.

    2015-01-01

    The global proteomic alterations in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae due to differences in carbon sources can be comprehensively examined using mass spectrometry–based multiplexing strategies. In this study, we investigate changes in the S. cerevisiae proteome resulting from cultures grown in minimal media using galactose, glucose, or raffinose as the carbon source. We used a tandem mass tag 9-plex strategy to determine alterations in relative protein abundance due to a particular carbon source, in triplicate, thereby permitting subsequent statistical analyses. We quantified more than 4700 proteins across all nine samples; 1003 proteins demonstrated statistically significant differences in abundance in at least one condition. The majority of altered proteins were classified as functioning in metabolic processes and as having cellular origins of plasma membrane and mitochondria. In contrast, proteins remaining relatively unchanged in abundance included those having nucleic acid–related processes, such as transcription and RNA processing. In addition, the comprehensiveness of the data set enabled the analysis of subsets of functionally related proteins, such as phosphatases, kinases, and transcription factors. As a resource, these data can be mined further in efforts to understand better the roles of carbon source fermentation in yeast metabolic pathways and the alterations observed therein, potentially for industrial applications, such as biofuel feedstock production. PMID:26399295

  12. Proteome-wide quantitative multiplexed profiling of protein expression: carbon-source dependency in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Paulo, Joao A; O'Connell, Jeremy D; Gaun, Aleksandr; Gygi, Steven P

    2015-11-05

    The global proteomic alterations in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae due to differences in carbon sources can be comprehensively examined using mass spectrometry-based multiplexing strategies. In this study, we investigate changes in the S. cerevisiae proteome resulting from cultures grown in minimal media using galactose, glucose, or raffinose as the carbon source. We used a tandem mass tag 9-plex strategy to determine alterations in relative protein abundance due to a particular carbon source, in triplicate, thereby permitting subsequent statistical analyses. We quantified more than 4700 proteins across all nine samples; 1003 proteins demonstrated statistically significant differences in abundance in at least one condition. The majority of altered proteins were classified as functioning in metabolic processes and as having cellular origins of plasma membrane and mitochondria. In contrast, proteins remaining relatively unchanged in abundance included those having nucleic acid-related processes, such as transcription and RNA processing. In addition, the comprehensiveness of the data set enabled the analysis of subsets of functionally related proteins, such as phosphatases, kinases, and transcription factors. As a resource, these data can be mined further in efforts to understand better the roles of carbon source fermentation in yeast metabolic pathways and the alterations observed therein, potentially for industrial applications, such as biofuel feedstock production.

  13. Monitoring Guidance for Determining the Effectiveness of Nonpoint Source Controls

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    A nonpoint source monitoring and evaluation guide written for use by those who monitor and those who evaluate monitoring proposals. It focuses on monitoring to determine the effectiveness of nonpoint source controls at the watershed and practice levels

  14. Effects of confinement on protein folding and protein stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ping, G.; Yuan, J. M.; Vallieres, M.; Dong, H.; Sun, Z.; Wei, Y.; Li, F. Y.; Lin, S. H.

    2003-05-01

    In a cell, proteins exist in crowded environments; these environments influence their stability and dynamics. Similarly, for an enzyme molecule encapsulated in an inorganic cavity as in biosensors or biocatalysts, confinement and even surface effects play important roles in its stability and dynamics. Using a minimalist model (two-dimensional HP lattice model), we have carried out Monte Carlo simulations to study confinement effects on protein stability. We have calculated heat capacity as a function of temperature using the histogram method and results obtained show that confinement tends to stabilize the folded conformations, consistent with experimental results (some reported here) and previous theoretical analyses. Furthermore, for a protein molecule tethered to a solid surface the stabilization effect can be even greater. We have also investigated the effects of confinement on the kinetics of the refolding and unfolding processes as functions of temperature and box size. As expected, unfolding time increases as box size decreases, however, confinement affects folding times in a more complicated way. Our theoretical results agree with our experimentally observed trends that thermal stability of horseradish peroxidase and acid phosphatase, encapsulated in mesoporous silica, increases as the pore size of the silica matrix decreases.

  15. In Silico Characterization of Pectate Lyase Protein Sequences from Different Source Organisms

    PubMed Central

    Dubey, Amit Kumar; Yadav, Sangeeta; Kumar, Manish; Singh, Vinay Kumar; Sarangi, Bijaya Ketan; Yadav, Dinesh

    2010-01-01

    A total of 121 protein sequences of pectate lyases were subjected to homology search, multiple sequence alignment, phylogenetic tree construction, and motif analysis. The phylogenetic tree constructed revealed different clusters based on different source organisms representing bacterial, fungal, plant, and nematode pectate lyases. The multiple accessions of bacterial, fungal, nematode, and plant pectate lyase protein sequences were placed closely revealing a sequence level similarity. The multiple sequence alignment of these pectate lyase protein sequences from different source organisms showed conserved regions at different stretches with maximum homology from amino acid residues 439–467, 715–816, and 829–910 which could be used for designing degenerate primers or probes specific for pectate lyases. The motif analysis revealed a conserved Pec_Lyase_C domain uniformly observed in all pectate lyases irrespective of variable sources suggesting its possible role in structural and enzymatic functions. PMID:21048874

  16. Developing column material for the separation of serum amyloid P and C reactive protein from biological sources.

    PubMed

    Ersöz, Arzu; Ünlüer, Özlem Biçen; Dönmez, Gülnur; Hür, Deniz; Say, R Dvan

    2014-10-01

    In this study, we have investigated the isolation of serum amyloid P (SAP) and C-reactive protein (CRP) from rainbow trout. It has recently been found that SAP is deposited in atherosclerotic lesions or neurofibrillary tangles, which are related to aging process and Alzheimer's disease. Given the importance of CRP, the CRP level in blood is becoming recognized as a potential means of monitoring cardiovascular risk. These two proteins, members of the pentraxin family of oligomeric serum proteins, were isolated from rainbow trout using N-methacryloyl-phosphoserine (MA-pSer) immobilized poly (2-hydroxy ethylmethacrylate) (PHEMA) cryogels as a column material in a fast protein liquid chromatography system. The separation process was verified in two steps. First, SAP and CRP proteins were isolated together from serum sample of rainbow trout using MA-pSer/PHEMA cryogel columns. Second, SAP protein was separated chromatographically from CRP protein using the Ca(2+) ion immobilized PHEMA cryogel column. According to the data, a new and effective technique has been developed for the isolation of SAP and CRP proteins from a biological source, rainbow trout. Finally, purified SAP and CRP were loaded using sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel and western blot analysis to investigate the purity of chromatographically isolated SAP and CRP compared with commertial SAP and CRP.

  17. ATTRACT and PTools: open source programs for protein-protein docking.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Sebastian; Saladin, Adrien; Fiorucci, Sébastien; Prévost, Chantal; Zacharias, Martin

    2012-01-01

    The prediction of the structure of protein-protein complexes based on structures or structural models of isolated partners is of increasing importance for structural biology and bioinformatics. The ATTRACT program can be used to perform systematic docking searches based on docking energy minimization. It is part of the object-oriented PTools library written in Python and C++. The library contains various routines to manipulate protein structures, to prepare and perform docking searches as well as analyzing docking results. It also intended to facilitate further methodological developments in the area of macromolecular docking that can be easily integrated. Here, we describe the application of PTools to perform systematic docking searches and to analyze the results. In addition, the possibility to perform multi-component docking will also be presented.

  18. Interaction between dietary protein content and the source of carbohydrates along the gastrointestinal tract of weaned piglets.

    PubMed

    Pieper, Robert; Boudry, Christelle; Bindelle, Jérôme; Vahjen, Wilfried; Zentek, Jürgen

    2014-01-01

    Although fermentable carbohydrates (CHO) can reduce metabolites derived from dietary protein fermentation in the intestine of pigs, the interaction between site of fermentation and substrate availability along the gut is still unclear. The current study aimed at determining the impact of two different sources of carbohydrates in diets with low or very high protein content on microbial metabolite profiles along the gastrointestinal tract of piglets. Thirty-six piglets (n = 6 per group) were fed diets high (26%, HP) or low (18%, LP) in dietary protein and with or without two different sources of carbohydrates (12% sugar beet pulp, SBP, or 8% lignocellulose, LNC) in a 2 × 3 factorial design. After 3 weeks, contents from stomach, jejunum, ileum, caecum, proximal and distal colon were taken and analysed for major bacterial metabolites (D-lactate, L-lactate, short chain fatty acids, ammonia, amines, phenols and indols). Results indicate considerable fermentation of CHO and protein already in the stomach. HP diets increased the formation of ammonia, amines, phenolic and indolic compounds throughout the different parts of the intestine with most pronounced effects in the distal colon. Dietary SBP inclusion in LP diets favoured the formation of cadaverine in the proximal parts of the intestine. SBP mainly increased CHO-derived metabolites such as SCFA and lactate and decreased protein-derived metabolites in the large intestine. Based on metabolite profiles, LNC was partly fermented in the distal large intestine and reduced mainly phenols, indols and cadaverine, but not ammonia. Multivariate analysis confirmed more diet-specific metabolite patterns in the stomach, whereas the CHO addition was the main determinant in the caecum and proximal colon. The protein level mainly influenced the metabolite patterns in the distal colon. The results confirm the importance of CHO source to influence the formation of metabolites derived from protein fermentation along the intestinal

  19. Lipid extracted algae as a source for protein and reduced sugar: a step closer to the biorefinery.

    PubMed

    Ansari, Faiz Ahmad; Shriwastav, Amritanshu; Gupta, Sanjay Kumar; Rawat, Ismail; Guldhe, Abhishek; Bux, Faizal

    2015-03-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the feasibility of using lipid extracted algae (LEA) as a source for protein and reduced sugar, and the effects of various procedural treatments on their yields. LEA provided comparable yields of protein and reduced sugars to those from total algae. Oven drying provided highest yields of all products followed by freeze drying, while sun drying significantly lowered their yields. Effective cell disruption by microwave and autoclave increased the lipid yields from algae, but resulted in increased loss of other compounds with lipid extracting solvents lowering their yields during sequential extraction. Relatively inefficient cell disruption by ultrasonication and osmotic shock lowered the amount of cell protein lost to the lipid extracting solvents. These results highlight the complexity of concurrent extraction of all value added products from algae, and the need for proper selection of the processes to achieve the objectives of integrated biorefinery.

  20. Potential sources of mouth drying in beverages fortified with dairy proteins: A comparison of casein- and whey-rich ingredients.

    PubMed

    Withers, C A; Lewis, M J; Gosney, M A; Methven, L

    2014-03-01

    Oral nutritional supplement drinks (ONS) are beverages high in dairy proteins that are prescribed to individuals at risk of malnutrition. Consumption of ONS is poor in elderly care facilities, with patients commenting that the sensory attributes of these drinks reduce their enjoyment and willingness to consume. Mouth drying is an attribute of ONS found to build with repeated consumption, which may further limit liking of these products. This study investigated the sources of drying sensations by sequential profiling, with a trained sensory panel rating a range of model milk systems and ONS over repeated sips and during after-effects. Sequential profiling found that fortification of milk with both caseinate and whey protein concentrate significantly increased the perception of mouth drying over repeated consumption, increasing by between 35 and 85% over consumption of 40mL. Enrichment of ONS with either whey protein concentrate or milk protein concentrate to a total protein content of 8.7% (wt/wt) resulted in whey and casein levels of 4.3:4.4% and 1.7:7.0% respectively. The product higher in whey protein was substantially more mouth drying, implying that whey proteins may be the most important contributor to mouth drying in ONS. However, efforts to mask mouth drying of protein-fortified milk by increasing sweetness or fat level were unsuccessful at the levels tested. Increasing the viscosity of protein-fortified milk led to a small but significant reduction in mouth drying. However, this approach was not successful when tested within complete ONS. Further analysis is required into the mechanism of protein-derived mouth drying to mask negative sensations and improve the enjoyment and consumption of protein-rich ONS.

  1. Silkworms culture as a source of protein for humans in space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Yunan; Tang, Liman; Tong, Ling; Liu, Hong

    2009-04-01

    This paper focuses on the problem about a configuration with complete nutrition for humans in a Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS) applied in the spacebases. The possibility of feeding silkworms to provide edible animal protein with high quality for taikonauts during long-term spaceflights and lunar-based missions was investigated from several aspects, including the nutrition structure of silkworms, feeding method, processing methods, feeding equipment, growing conditions and the influences on the space environmental condition changes caused by the silkworms. The originally inedible silk is also regarded as a protein source. A possible process of edible silk protein was brought forward in this paper. After being processed, the silk can be converted to edible protein for humans. The conclusion provides a promising approach to solving the protein supply problem for the taikonauts living in space during an extended exploration period.

  2. Effect of Stirring Method on Protein Crystallization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yaoi, Mari; Adachi, Hiroaki; Takano, Kazufumi; Matsumura, Hiroyoshi; Inoue, Tsuyoshi; Mori, Yusuke; Sasaki, Takatomo

    2004-10-01

    We previously proposed the use of solution stirring during the growth of protein crystals using the Micro-Stirring technique with a rotary shaker. In this paper, we report on the effects of a new type solution flow on the crystallization of hen egg-white lysozyme (HEWL) using a wave shaker. The time required for nucleation was reduced by wave stirring, but increased by rotary stirring. Nucleation was stimulated by wave stirring. This result indicates that protein crystal growth in a stirred solution is strongly dependent on the stirring method used and the solution flow. Therefore, optimized stirring conditions are essential for producing high-quality protein crystals.

  3. Detection of Missing Proteins Using the PRIDE Database as a Source of Mass Spectrometry Evidence

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The current catalogue of the human proteome is not yet complete, as experimental proteomics evidence is still elusive for a group of proteins known as the missing proteins. The Human Proteome Project (HPP) has been successfully using technology and bioinformatic resources to improve the characterization of such challenging proteins. In this manuscript, we propose a pipeline starting with the mining of the PRIDE database to select a group of data sets potentially enriched in missing proteins that are subsequently analyzed for protein identification with a method based on the statistical analysis of proteotypic peptides. Spermatozoa and the HEK293 cell line were found to be a promising source of missing proteins and clearly merit further attention in future studies. After the analysis of the selected samples, we found 342 PSMs, suggesting the presence of 97 missing proteins in human spermatozoa or the HEK293 cell line, while only 36 missing proteins were potentially detected in the retina, frontal cortex, aorta thoracica, or placenta. The functional analysis of the missing proteins detected confirmed their tissue specificity, and the validation of a selected set of peptides using targeted proteomics (SRM/MRM assays) further supports the utility of the proposed pipeline. As illustrative examples, DNAH3 and TEPP in spermatozoa, and UNCX and ATAD3C in HEK293 cells were some of the more robust and remarkable identifications in this study. We provide evidence indicating the relevance to carefully analyze the ever-increasing MS/MS data available from PRIDE and other repositories as sources for missing proteins detection in specific biological matrices as revealed for HEK293 cells. PMID:27581094

  4. Detection of Missing Proteins Using the PRIDE Database as a Source of Mass Spectrometry Evidence.

    PubMed

    Garin-Muga, Alba; Odriozola, Leticia; Martínez-Val, Ana; Del Toro, Noemí; Martínez, Rocío; Molina, Manuela; Cantero, Laura; Rivera, Rocío; Garrido, Nicolás; Dominguez, Francisco; Sanchez Del Pino, Manuel M; Vizcaíno, Juan Antonio; Corrales, Fernando J; Segura, Victor

    2016-11-04

    The current catalogue of the human proteome is not yet complete, as experimental proteomics evidence is still elusive for a group of proteins known as the missing proteins. The Human Proteome Project (HPP) has been successfully using technology and bioinformatic resources to improve the characterization of such challenging proteins. In this manuscript, we propose a pipeline starting with the mining of the PRIDE database to select a group of data sets potentially enriched in missing proteins that are subsequently analyzed for protein identification with a method based on the statistical analysis of proteotypic peptides. Spermatozoa and the HEK293 cell line were found to be a promising source of missing proteins and clearly merit further attention in future studies. After the analysis of the selected samples, we found 342 PSMs, suggesting the presence of 97 missing proteins in human spermatozoa or the HEK293 cell line, while only 36 missing proteins were potentially detected in the retina, frontal cortex, aorta thoracica, or placenta. The functional analysis of the missing proteins detected confirmed their tissue specificity, and the validation of a selected set of peptides using targeted proteomics (SRM/MRM assays) further supports the utility of the proposed pipeline. As illustrative examples, DNAH3 and TEPP in spermatozoa, and UNCX and ATAD3C in HEK293 cells were some of the more robust and remarkable identifications in this study. We provide evidence indicating the relevance to carefully analyze the ever-increasing MS/MS data available from PRIDE and other repositories as sources for missing proteins detection in specific biological matrices as revealed for HEK293 cells.

  5. Submerged monoxenic culture medium development for Heterorhabditis bacteriophora and its symbiotic bacterium Photorhabdus luminescens: protein sources.

    PubMed

    Cho, Chun-Hwi; Whang, Kyung Sook; Gaugler, Randy; Yoo, Sun Kyun

    2011-08-01

    Most medium formulations for improving culture of entomopathogenic nematodes (EPN) based on protein sources have used enriched media like animal feed such as dried egg yolk, lactalbumin, and liver extract, among other ingredients. Most results, however, showed unstable yields and longer production time. Many of the results do not show the detailed parameters of fermentation. Soy flour, cotton seed flour, corn gluten meal, casein powder, soytone, peptone, casein hydrolysates, and lactalbumin hydrolysate as protein sources were tested to determine the source to support optimal symbiotic bacteria and nematode growth. The protein hydrolysates selected did not improve bacterial cell mass compared with the yeast extract control, but soy flour was the best, showing 75.1% recovery and producing more bacterial cell number (1.4×10⁹/ml) than all other sources. The highest yield (1.85×10⁵ IJs/ml), yield coefficient (1.67×10⁶ IJs/g medium), and productivity (1.32×10⁷ IJs/l/day) were also achieved at enriched medium with soybean protein.

  6. Impact of dietary carbohydrate and protein source and content on swine manure foaming properties

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Diet ingredients are thought to contribute to foaming problems associated with swine deep-pit systems. Two experiments explored the impact of protein and carbohydrate sources in swine diets on the physicochemical properties, methane production potential, and foaming characteristics of swine manure. ...

  7. Physicochemical and Functional Properties of Vegetable and Cereal Proteins as Potential Sources of Novel Food Ingredients

    PubMed Central

    Soria-Hernández, Cintya; Serna-Saldívar, Sergio

    2015-01-01

    Summary Proteins from vegetable and cereal sources are an excellent alternative to substitute animal-based counterparts because of their reduced cost, abundant supply and good nutritional value. The objective of this investigation is to study a set of vegetable and cereal proteins in terms of physicochemical and functional properties. Twenty protein sources were studied: five soya bean flour samples, one pea flour and fourteen newly developed blends of soya bean and maize germ (five concentrates and nine hydrolysates). The physicochemical characterization included pH (5.63 to 7.57), electrical conductivity (1.32 to 4.32 mS/cm), protein content (20.78 to 94.24% on dry mass basis), free amino nitrogen (0.54 to 2.87 mg/g) and urease activity (0.08 to 2.20). The functional properties showed interesting differences among proteins: water absorption index ranged from 0.41 to 18.52, the highest being of soya and maize concentrates. Nitrogen and water solubility ranged from 10.14 to 74.89% and from 20.42 to 95.65%, respectively. Fat absorption and emulsification activity indices ranged from 2.59 to 4.72 and from 3936.6 to 52 399.2 m2/g respectively, the highest being of pea flour. Foam activity (66.7 to 475.0%) of the soya and maize hydrolysates was the best. Correlation analyses showed that hydrolysis affected solubility-related parameters whereas fat-associated indices were inversely correlated with water-linked parameters. Foam properties were better of proteins treated with low heat, which also had high urease activity. Physicochemical and functional characterization of the soya and maize protein concentrates and hydrolysates allowed the identification of differences regarding other vegetable and cereal protein sources such as pea or soya bean. PMID:27904358

  8. Synergistic effects of resistance training and protein intake: practical aspects.

    PubMed

    Guimarães-Ferreira, Lucas; Cholewa, Jason Michael; Naimo, Marshall Alan; Zhi, X I A; Magagnin, Daiane; de Sá, Rafaele Bis Dal Ponte; Streck, Emilio Luiz; Teixeira, Tamiris da Silva; Zanchi, Nelo Eidy

    2014-10-01

    Resistance training is a potent stimulus to increase skeletal muscle mass. The muscle protein accretion process depends on a robust synergistic action between protein intake and overload. The intake of protein after resistance training increases plasma amino acids, which results in the activation of signaling molecules leading to increased muscle protein synthesis (MPS) and muscle hypertrophy. Although both essential and non-essential amino acids are necessary for hypertrophy, the intake of free L-leucine or high-leucine whole proteins has been specifically shown to increase the initiation of translation that is essential for elevated MPS. The literature supports the use of protein intake following resistance-training sessions to enhance MPS; however, less understood are the effects of different protein sources and timing protocols on MPS. The sum of the adaptions from each individual training session is essential to muscle hypertrophy, and thus highlights the importance of an optimal supplementation protocol. The aim of this review is to present recent findings reported in the literature and to discuss the practical application of these results. In that light, new speculations and questions will arise that may direct future investigations. The information and recommendations generated in this review should be of benefit to clinical dietitians as well as those engaged in sports.

  9. Theory Of Salt Effects On Protein Solubility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dahal, Yuba; Schmit, Jeremy

    Salt is one of the major factors that effects protein solubility. Often, at low salt concentration regime, protein solubility increases with the salt concentration(salting in) whereas at high salt concentration regime, solubility decreases with the increase in salt concentration(salting out). There are no quantitative theories to explain salting in and salting out. We have developed a model to describe the salting in and salting out. Our model accounts for the electrostatic Coulomb energy, salt entropy and non-electrostatic interaction between proteins. We analytically solve the linearized Poisson Boltzmann equation modelling the protein charge by a first order multipole expansion. In our model, protein charges are modulated by the anion binding. Consideration of only the zeroth order term in protein charge doesn't help to describe salting in phenomenon because of the repulsive interaction. To capture the salting in behaviour, it requires an attractive electrostatic interaction in low salt regime. Our work shows that at low salt concentration, dipole interaction is the cause for salting in and at high salt concentration a salt-dependent depletion interaction dominates and gives the salting out. Our theoretical result is consistent with the experimental result for Chymosin protein NIH Grant No R01GM107487.

  10. Quantifying the Molecular Origins of Opposite Solvent Effects on Protein-Protein Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Vagenende, Vincent; Han, Alvin X.; Pek, Han B.; Loo, Bernard L. W.

    2013-01-01

    Although the nature of solvent-protein interactions is generally weak and non-specific, addition of cosolvents such as denaturants and osmolytes strengthens protein-protein interactions for some proteins, whereas it weakens protein-protein interactions for others. This is exemplified by the puzzling observation that addition of glycerol oppositely affects the association constants of two antibodies, D1.3 and D44.1, with lysozyme. To resolve this conundrum, we develop a methodology based on the thermodynamic principles of preferential interaction theory and the quantitative characterization of local protein solvation from molecular dynamics simulations. We find that changes of preferential solvent interactions at the protein-protein interface quantitatively account for the opposite effects of glycerol on the antibody-antigen association constants. Detailed characterization of local protein solvation in the free and associated protein states reveals how opposite solvent effects on protein-protein interactions depend on the extent of dewetting of the protein-protein contact region and on structural changes that alter cooperative solvent-protein interactions at the periphery of the protein-protein interface. These results demonstrate the direct relationship between macroscopic solvent effects on protein-protein interactions and atom-scale solvent-protein interactions, and establish a general methodology for predicting and understanding solvent effects on protein-protein interactions in diverse biological environments. PMID:23696727

  11. Silkworm pupae (Bombyx mori) are new sources of high quality protein and lipid.

    PubMed

    Tomotake, Hiroyuki; Katagiri, Mitsuaki; Yamato, Masayuki

    2010-01-01

    This study was performed to evaluate the nutritional value of silkworm pupae (Bombyx mori) and the content of α-glucosidase inhibitor. The percentages of total protein and lipid contents by dry weight were 55.6 and 32.2%, respectively. Silkworm pupae protein had high levels of essential amino acids such as valine, methionine and phenylalanine. The contents of essential amino acids in silkworm pupae protein satisfied the FAO/WHO/UNU suggested requirements (2007). In addition, they also possessed n-3 fatty acids, especially α-linolenic acid (36.3%), as a major component. The 50% ethanol extract of silkworm pupae contained 1-deoxynojirimycin (DNJ), which is a potent α-glucosidase inhibitor. These results suggest that silkworm pupae are a new source of high quality protein, lipid, and α-glucosidase inhibitor.

  12. Food proteins as a source of bioactive peptides with diverse functions.

    PubMed

    Rutherfurd-Markwick, Kay J

    2012-08-01

    In addition to supplying essential nutrients, some food proteins can confer additional health benefits beyond nutrition. The presence of bioactive proteins and peptides in different foods is a factor not currently taken into consideration when assessing the dietary quality of food proteins. The range of described physiological benefits attributed to bioactive proteins and peptides is diverse. Multiple factors can potentially impact on the ability of a bioactive peptide or protein to elicit an effect. Although some food proteins act directly in their intact form to elicit their effects, generally it is peptides derived from digestion, hydrolysis or fermentation that are of most interest. The levels of bioactive peptides generated must be sufficient to elicit a response, but should not be so high as to be unsafe, thus causing negative effects. In addition, some peptides cause systemic effects and therefore must be absorbed, again in sufficient amounts to elicit their action. Many studies to date have been carried out in vitro; therefore it is important that further trials are conducted in vivo to assess efficacy, dose response and safety of the peptides, particularly if health related claims are to be made. Therefore, methods must be developed and standardised that enable the measurement of health benefits and also the level of bioactive peptides which are absorbed into the bloodstream. Once standardised, such methods may provide a new perspective and an additional mechanism for analysing protein quality which is currently not encompassed by the use of the protein digestibility-corrected amino acid score (PDCAAS).

  13. Rising atmospheric CO2 is reducing the protein concentration of a floral pollen source essential for North American bees.

    PubMed

    Ziska, Lewis H; Pettis, Jeffery S; Edwards, Joan; Hancock, Jillian E; Tomecek, Martha B; Clark, Andrew; Dukes, Jeffrey S; Loladze, Irakli; Polley, H Wayne

    2016-04-13

    At present, there is substantive evidence that the nutritional content of agriculturally important food crops will decrease in response to rising levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide, Ca However, whether Ca-induced declines in nutritional quality are also occurring for pollinator food sources is unknown. Flowering late in the season, goldenrod (Solidago spp.) pollen is a widely available autumnal food source commonly acknowledged by apiarists to be essential to native bee (e.g. Bombus spp.) and honeybee (Apis mellifera) health and winter survival. Using floral collections obtained from the Smithsonian Natural History Museum, we quantified Ca-induced temporal changes in pollen protein concentration of Canada goldenrod (Solidago canadensis), the most wide spread Solidago taxon, from hundreds of samples collected throughout the USA and southern Canada over the period 1842-2014 (i.e. a Ca from approx. 280 to 398 ppm). In addition, we conducted a 2 year in situtrial of S. Canadensis populations grown along a continuous Ca gradient from approximately 280 to 500 ppm. The historical data indicated a strong significant correlation between recent increases in Ca and reductions in pollen protein concentration (r(2)= 0.81). Experimental data confirmed this decrease in pollen protein concentration, and indicated that it would be ongoing as Ca continues to rise in the near term, i.e. to 500 ppm (r(2)= 0.88). While additional data are needed to quantify the subsequent effects of reduced protein concentration for Canada goldenrod on bee health and population stability, these results are the first to indicate that increasing Ca can reduce protein content of a floral pollen source widely used by North American bees.

  14. Effective source approach to self-force calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vega, Ian; Wardell, Barry; Diener, Peter

    2011-07-01

    Numerical evaluation of the self-force on a point particle is made difficult by the use of delta functions as sources. Recent methods for self-force calculations avoid delta functions altogether, using instead a finite and extended 'effective source' for a point particle. We provide a review of the general principles underlying this strategy, using the specific example of a scalar point charge moving in a black hole spacetime. We also report on two new developments: (i) the construction and evaluation of an effective source for a scalar charge moving along a generic orbit of an arbitrary spacetime, and (ii) the successful implementation of hyperboloidal slicing that significantly improves on previous treatments of boundary conditions used for effective-source-based self-force calculations. Finally, we identify some of the key issues related to the effective source approach that will need to be addressed by future work.

  15. Dynamically polarized samples for neutron protein crystallography at the Spallation Neutron Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Jinkui; Pierce, Josh; Myles, Dean; Robertson, J. L.; Herwig, Kenneth W.; Standaert, Bob; Cuneo, Matt; Li, Le; Meilleur, Flora

    2016-09-01

    To prepare for the next generation neutron scattering instruments for the planned second target station at the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) and to broaden the scientific impact of neutron protein crystallography at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, we have recently ramped up our efforts to develop a dynamically polarized target for neutron protein crystallography at the SNS. Proteins contain a large amount of hydrogen which contributes to incoherent diffraction background and limits the sensitivity of neutron protein crystallography. This incoherent background can be suppressed by using polarized neutron diffraction, which in the same time also improves the coherent diffraction signal. Our plan is to develop a custom Dynamic Nuclear Polarization (DNP) setup tailored to neutron protein diffraction instruments. Protein crystals will be polarized at a magnetic field of 5 T and temperatures of below 1 K. After the dynamic polarization process, the sample will be brought to a frozen-spin mode in a 0.5 T holding field and at temperatures below 100 mK. In a parallel effort, we are also investigating various ways of incorporating polarization agents needed for DNP, such as site specific spin labels, into protein crystals.

  16. Does alpha-helix folding necessarily provide an energy source for the protein-lipid binding?

    PubMed

    Gursky, Olga

    2007-01-01

    Lipid-induced alpha-helix folding, which occurs in many lipid surface-binding proteins and peptides such as apolipoproteins and synucleins, has been proposed to provide an energy source for protein-lipid interactions. We propose that in a system comprised of a phospholipid surface and a small polypeptide that is unfolded in solution and binds reversibly to lipid surface, helical folding involves expenditure of free energy as compared to a similar polypeptide that is alpha-helical in solution. This is a consequence of the entropic cost of helix folding that is illustrated in a simple thermodynamic model and exemplifies the general "key-into-lock" paradigm of protein-ligand binding. Even though this simple model does not explicitly address the protein-induced lipid re-arrangement and may not directly apply to large proteins that undergo significant tertiary structural changes upon lipid binding, it suggests that the notion of helix folding as an energy source for lipid binding should be treated with caution.

  17. Rice Bran Protein as a Potent Source of Antimelanogenic Peptides with Tyrosinase Inhibitory Activity.

    PubMed

    Ochiai, Akihito; Tanaka, Seiya; Tanaka, Takaaki; Taniguchi, Masayuki

    2016-10-28

    Rice (Oryza sativa) is consumed as a staple food globally, and rice bran, the byproduct, is an unused biomass that is ultimately discarded as waste. Thus, in the present study, a technique for producing tyrosinase inhibitory peptides from rice bran protein (RBP) was developed. Simultaneous treatment of RBP with chymotrypsin and trypsin produced numerous peptides. Subsequently, six tyrosinase inhibitory peptides were isolated from the hydrolysate fractions in a multistep purification protocol, and their amino acid sequences were determined. Three of these peptides had a C-terminal tyrosine residue and exhibited significant inhibitory effects against tyrosinase-mediated monophenolase reactions. Furthermore, peptide CT-2 (Leu-Gln-Pro-Ser-His-Tyr) potently inhibited melanogenesis in mouse B16 melanoma cells without causing cytotoxicity, suggesting the potential of CT-2 as an agent for melanin-related skin disorder treatment. The present data indicate that RBP is a potent source of tyrosinase inhibitory peptides and that simultaneous treatment of RBP with chymotrypsin and trypsin efficiently produces these peptides.

  18. The effect of enamel proteins on erosion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baumann, T.; Carvalho, T. S.; Lussi, A.

    2015-10-01

    Enamel proteins form a scaffold for growing hydroxyapatite crystals during enamel formation. They are then almost completely degraded during enamel maturation, resulting in a protein content of only 1% (w/v) in mature enamel. Nevertheless, this small amount of remaining proteins has important effects on the mechanical and structural properties of enamel and on the electrostatic properties of its surface. To analyze how enamel proteins affect tooth erosion, human enamel specimens were deproteinated. Surface microhardness (SMH), surface reflection intensity (SRI) and calcium release of both deproteinated and control specimens were monitored while continuously eroding them. The deproteination itself already reduced the initial SMH and SRI of the enamel significantly (p < 0.001 and p < 0.01). During the course of erosion, the progression of all three evaluated parameters differed significantly between the two groups (p < 0.001 for each). The deproteinated enamel lost its SMH and SRI faster, and released more calcium than the control group, but these differences were only significant at later stages of erosion, where not only surface softening but surface loss can be observed. We conclude that enamel proteins have a significant effect on erosion, protecting the enamel and slowing down the progression of erosion when irreversible surface loss starts to occur.

  19. The effect of enamel proteins on erosion

    PubMed Central

    Baumann, T.; Carvalho, T. S.; Lussi, A.

    2015-01-01

    Enamel proteins form a scaffold for growing hydroxyapatite crystals during enamel formation. They are then almost completely degraded during enamel maturation, resulting in a protein content of only 1% (w/v) in mature enamel. Nevertheless, this small amount of remaining proteins has important effects on the mechanical and structural properties of enamel and on the electrostatic properties of its surface. To analyze how enamel proteins affect tooth erosion, human enamel specimens were deproteinated. Surface microhardness (SMH), surface reflection intensity (SRI) and calcium release of both deproteinated and control specimens were monitored while continuously eroding them. The deproteination itself already reduced the initial SMH and SRI of the enamel significantly (p < 0.001 and p < 0.01). During the course of erosion, the progression of all three evaluated parameters differed significantly between the two groups (p < 0.001 for each). The deproteinated enamel lost its SMH and SRI faster, and released more calcium than the control group, but these differences were only significant at later stages of erosion, where not only surface softening but surface loss can be observed. We conclude that enamel proteins have a significant effect on erosion, protecting the enamel and slowing down the progression of erosion when irreversible surface loss starts to occur. PMID:26468660

  20. Diet-induced weight loss: the effect of dietary protein on bone.

    PubMed

    Tang, Minghua; O'Connor, Lauren E; Campbell, Wayne W

    2014-01-01

    High-protein (>30% of energy from protein or >1.2 g/kg/day) and moderately high-protein (22% to 29% of energy from protein or 1.0 to 1.2 g/kg/day) diets are popular for weight loss, but the effect of dietary protein on bone during weight loss is not well understood. Protein may help preserve bone mass during weight loss by stimulating insulin-like growth factor 1, a potent bone anabolism stimulator, and increasing intestinal calcium absorption. Protein-induced acidity is considered to have minimal effect on bone resorption in adults with normal kidney function. Both the quantity and predominant source of protein influence changes in bone with diet-induced weight loss. Higher-protein, high-dairy diets may help attenuate bone loss during weight loss.

  1. Varying type of forage, concentration of metabolizable protein, and source of carbohydrate affects nutrient digestibility and production by dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Weiss, W P; St-Pierre, N R; Willett, L B

    2009-11-01

    The effects of forage source, concentration of metabolizable protein (MP), type of carbohydrate, and their interactions on nutrient digestibility and production were evaluated using a central composite treatment design. All diets (dry basis) contained 50% forage that ranged from 25:75 to 75:25 alfalfa silage:corn silage. Rumen-degradable protein comprised 10.7% of the dry matter (DM) in all diets, but undegradable protein ranged from 4.1 to 7.1%, resulting in dietary MP concentrations of 8.8 to 12.0% of the DM. Dietary starch ranged from 22 to 30% of the DM with a concomitant decrease in neutral detergent fiber concentrations. A total of 15 diets were fed to 36 Holstein cows grouped in 6 blocks. Each block consisted of three 21-d periods, and each cow was assigned a unique sequence of 3 diets, resulting in 108 observations. Milk production and composition, feed intake, and digestibility of major nutrients (via total collection of feces and urine) were measured. Few significant interactions between main effects were observed. Starch concentration had only minor effects on digestibility and production. Replacing corn silage with alfalfa decreased digestibility of N but increased digestibility of neutral detergent fiber. Increasing the concentration of MP increased N digestibility. The concentration (Mcal/kg) of dietary digestible energy (DE) increased linearly as starch concentration increased (very small effect) and was affected by a forage by MP interaction. At low MP, high alfalfa reduced DE concentration, but at high MP, increasing alfalfa increased DE concentration. Increasing alfalfa increased DM and DE intakes, which increased yields of energy-corrected milk, protein, and fat. Increasing MP increased yields of energy-corrected milk and protein. The response in milk protein to changes in MP was much less than predicted using the National Research Council (2001) model.

  2. Effects of Carbohydrate Source on Genetic Competence in Streptococcus mutans

    PubMed Central

    Moye, Zachary D.; Son, Minjun; Rosa-Alberty, Ariana E.; Zeng, Lin; Ahn, Sang-Joon

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The capacity to internalize and catabolize carbohydrates is essential for dental caries pathogens to persist and cause disease. The expression of many virulence-related attributes by Streptococcus mutans, an organism strongly associated with human dental caries, is influenced by the peptide signaling pathways that control genetic competence. Here, we demonstrate a relationship between the efficiency of competence signaling and carbohydrate source. A significant increase in the activity of the promoters for comX, comS, and comYA after exposure to competence-stimulating peptide (CSP) was observed in cells growing on fructose, maltose, sucrose, or trehalose as the primary carbohydrate source, compared to cells growing on glucose. However, only cells grown in the presence of trehalose or sucrose displayed a significant increase in transformation frequency. Notably, even low concentrations of these carbohydrates in the presence of excess glucose could enhance the expression of comX, encoding a sigma factor needed for competence, and the effects on competence were dependent on the cognate sugar:phosphotransferase permease for each carbohydrate. Using green fluorescent protein (GFP) reporter fusions, we observed that growth in fructose or trehalose resulted in a greater proportion of the population activating expression of comX and comS, encoding the precursor of comX-inducing peptide (XIP), after addition of CSP, than growth in glucose. Thus, the source of carbohydrate significantly impacts the stochastic behaviors that regulate subpopulation responses to CSP, which can induce competence in S. mutans. IMPORTANCE The signaling pathways that regulate development of genetic competence in Streptococcus mutans are intimately intertwined with the pathogenic potential of the organism, impacting biofilm formation, stress tolerance, and expression of known virulence determinants. Induction of the gene for the master regulator of competence, ComX, by competence

  3. Direct comparison of linear and macrocyclic compound libraries as a source of protein ligands.

    PubMed

    Gao, Yu; Kodadek, Thomas

    2015-03-09

    There has been much discussion of the potential desirability of macrocyclic molecules for the development of tool compounds and drug leads. But there is little experimental data comparing otherwise equivalent macrocyclic and linear compound libraries as a source of protein ligands. In this Letter, we probe this point in the context of peptoid libraries. Bead-displayed libraries of macrocyclic and linear peptoids containing four variable positions and 0-2 fixed residues, to vary the ring size, were screened against streptavidin and the affinity of every hit for the target was measured. The data show that macrocyclization is advantageous, but only when the ring contains 17 atoms, not 20 or 23 atoms. This technology will be useful for conducting direct comparisons between many different types of chemical libraries to determine their relative utility as a source of protein ligands.

  4. A smoother effective source for scalar self-force simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diener, Peter; Vega, Ian; Wardell, Barry

    2014-03-01

    In recent years the effective source approach to the self-force problem has had remarkable success culminating with the first self-consistent evolutions of a scalar charge around a Schwarzschild black hole. However, due primarily to the limited smoothness of the effective source used so far (it is continuous but not differentiable) the simulations have limited accuracy, significantly affecting their usefulness when comparing with other approaches. We will present new simulations with a smoother effective source (now twice differentiable) and contrast the accuracy and computational cost with the previous simulations. With support from NSF grant no 1307396.

  5. Persistent toxic substances: sources, fates and effects.

    PubMed

    Wong, Ming H; Armour, Margaret-Ann; Naidu, Ravi; Man, Ming

    2012-01-01

    Persistent toxic substances (PTS) include the Stockholm persistent organic pollutants, like dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane, polychlorinated biphenyls, dioxin/furan, etc., and organometallic compounds, like organomercury, organotin, and organolead, which all share the same characteristics of being persistent, toxic, bioaccumulative, and able to travel long distances through different media. The adverse health effects of some of the emerging chemicals like pentabromodiphenyl ether, bisphenol A, and di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate, which are widely used in daily appliances (e.g., TVs, computers, mobile phones, plastic baby bottles), have become a public health concern due to more evidence now available showing their adverse effects like disturbance of the endocrine system and cancer. This article is an attempt to review the current status of PTS in our environment, citing case studies in China and North America, and whether our existing drinking water treatment and wastewater treatment processes are adequate in removing them from water. Some management issues of these emerging chemicals of concern are also discussed.

  6. Effect of Mutations on HP Lattice Proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Guangjie; Vogel, Thomas; Landau, David; Li, Ying; Wüst, Thomas

    2013-03-01

    Using Wang-Landau sampling with approriate trial moves[2], we investigate the effect of different types of mutations on lattice proteins in the HP model. While exact studies have been carried out for short HP proteins[3], the systems we investigate are of much larger size and hence not accessible for exact enumerations. Based on the estimated density of states, we systematically analyse the changes in structure and degeneracy of ground states of particular proteins and measure thermodynamic quantities like the stability of ground states and the specific heat, for example. Both, neutral mutations, which do not change the structure and stability of ground states, as well as critical mutations, which do change the thermodynamic behavior qualitatively, have been observed. Research supported by NSF

  7. Suite of three protein crystallography beamlines with single superconducting bend magnet as the source

    SciTech Connect

    MacDowell, Alastair A.; Celestre, Richard S.; Howells, Malcolm; McKinney, Wayne; Krupnick, James; Cambie, Daniella; Domning, Edward E; Duarte, Robert M.; Kelez, Nicholas; Plate, David W.; Cork, Carl W.; Earnest, Thomas N.; Dickert, Jeffery; Meigs, George; Ralston, Corie; Holton, James M.; Alber, Thomas; Berger, James M.; Agard, David A.; Padmore, Howard A.

    2004-08-01

    At the Advanced Light Source (ALS), three protein crystallography (PX) beamlines have been built that use as a source one of the three 6 Tesla single pole superconducting bending magnets (superbends) that were recently installed in the ring. The use of such single pole superconducting bend magnets enables the development of a hard x-ray program on a relatively low energy 1.9 GeV ring without taking up insertion device straight sections. The source is of relatively low power, but due to the small electron beam emittance, it has high brightness. X-ray optics are required to preserve the brightness and to match the illumination requirements for protein crystallography. This was achieved by means of a collimating premirror bent to a plane parabola, a double crystal monochromator followed by a toroidal mirror that focuses in the horizontal direction with a 2:1 demagnification. This optical arrangement partially balances aberrations from the collimating and toroidal mirrors such that a tight focused spot size is achieved. The optical properties of the beamline are an excellent match to those required by the small protein crystals that are typically measured. The design and performance of these new beamlines are described.

  8. Development of a microsecond X-ray protein footprinting facility at the Advanced Light Source

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Sayan; Celestre, Richard; Petzold, Christopher J.; Chance, Mark R.; Ralston, Corie

    2014-01-01

    X-ray footprinting (XF) is an important structural biology tool used to determine macromolecular conformations and dynamics of both nucleic acids and proteins in solution on a wide range of timescales. With the impending shut-down of the National Synchrotron Light Source, it is ever more important that this tool continues to be developed at other synchrotron facilities to accommodate XF users. Toward this end, a collaborative XF program has been initiated at the Advanced Light Source using the white-light bending-magnet beamlines 5.3.1 and 3.2.1. Accessibility of the microsecond time regime for protein footprinting is demonstrated at beamline 5.3.1 using the high flux density provided by a focusing mirror in combination with a micro-capillary flow cell. It is further reported that, by saturating samples with nitrous oxide, the radiolytic labeling efficiency is increased and the imprints of bound versus bulk water can be distinguished. These results both demonstrate the suitability of the Advanced Light Source as a second home for the XF experiment, and pave the way for obtaining high-quality structural data on complex protein samples and dynamics information on the microsecond timescale. PMID:24971962

  9. Convection effects in protein crystal growth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberts, Glyn O.

    1988-01-01

    Protein crystals for X-ray diffraction study are usually grown resting on the bottom of a hanging drop of a saturated protein solution, with slow evaporation to the air in a small enclosed cell. The evaporation rate is controlled by hanging the drop above a reservoir of water, with its saturation vapor pressure decreased by a low concentration of a passive solute. The drop has a lower solute concentration, and its volume shrinks by evaporation until the molecular concentrations match. Protein crystals can also be grown from a seed crystal suspended or supported in the interior of a supersaturated solution. The main analysis of this report concerns this case because it is less complicated than hanging-drop growth. Convection effects have been suggested as the reason for the apparent cessation of growth at a certain rather small crystal size. It seeems that as the crystal grows, the number of dislocations increases to a point where further growth is hindered. Growth in the microgravity environment of an orbiting space vehicle has been proposed as a method for obtaining larger crystals. Experimental observations of convection effects during the growth of protein crystals have been reported.

  10. Denaturated proteins: Draining effect and molecular dimensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dondos, A.

    2010-09-01

    Using equations derived from the synthetic macromolecules, we calculate the dimensions in solution of the denaturated proteins. For these calculations, we use a value for the Flory’s parameter Φ obtained from an equation established for the polymers presenting a draining effect, and which is lower than the value of 2.6×10 23 (cgs) generally used. The obtained values for the dimensions of the denaturated proteins (end to end distance, statistical segment length and relation from the end to end distance and the number of residue) using the method proposed here are in good agreement with the values obtained from Flory and co-workers. On the contrary, the values obtained in this work are different from the values proposed by other authors who do not take into account the draining effect and use a value for Φ equal to 2.6×10 23.

  11. Isotopic Analysis of Sporocarp Protein and Structural Material Improves Resolution of Fungal Carbon Sources

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Janet; Hofmockel, Kirsten S.; Hobbie, Erik A.

    2016-01-01

    Fungal acquisition of resources is difficult to assess in the field. To determine whether fungi received carbon from recent plant photosynthate, litter or soil-derived organic (C:N bonded) nitrogen, we examined differences in δ13C among bulk tissue, structural carbon, and protein extracts of sporocarps of three fungal types: saprotrophic fungi, fungi with hydrophobic ectomycorrhizae, or fungi with hydrophilic ectomycorrhizae. Sporocarps were collected from experimental plots of the Duke Free-air CO2 enrichment experiment during and after CO2 enrichment. The differential 13C labeling of ecosystem pools in CO2 enrichment experiments was tracked into fungi and provided novel insights into organic nitrogen use. Specifically, sporocarp δ13C as well as δ15N of protein and structural material indicated that fungi with hydrophobic ectomycorrhizae used soil-derived organic nitrogen sources for protein carbon, fungi with hydrophilic ectomycorrhizae used recent plant photosynthates for protein carbon and both fungal groups used photosynthates for structural carbon. Saprotrophic fungi depended on litter produced during fumigation for both protein and structural material. PMID:28082951

  12. Convergence of carbohydrate-biased intake targets in caged worker honeybees fed different protein sources.

    PubMed

    Altaye, Solomon Z; Pirk, Christian W W; Crewe, Robin M; Nicolson, Susan W

    2010-10-01

    The nutritional needs of bees are supplied by nectar carbohydrates and by protein and other nutrients in pollen but little is known of how bees achieve nutritional balance. Using newly emerged caged worker honeybees (Apis mellifera scutellata), we investigated whether bees maintain their intake target when confined to pairs of imbalanced complementary diets varying in protein to carbohydrate (P:C) ratio. Diets were formulated using three protein sources [casein, royal jelly or Feed-Bee (a natural pollen substitute)] and sucrose. Within each protein type, honeybees switched between complementary diets and converged on the same P:C intake target. However, this target differed between protein types: P:C ratios were 1:12, 1:14 and 1:11 on casein, royal jelly and Feed-Bee diets, respectively. Except for an early peak in protein consumption on royal jelly diets, these strongly convergent ratios remained constant over the 14 day experiment. This is probably due to the absence of brood, reflected in relatively stable values measured for haemolymph protein concentration and hypopharyngeal gland activation in bees on Feed-Bee diets. Performance of caged workers was also assessed in terms of survival and ovarian activation. Survival was highest on casein diets and lowest on Feed-Bee diets but ovarian activation was highest on royal jelly diets and lowest on casein diets. This may be due to additional components in Feed-Bee and royal jelly (e.g. fatty acids), which are needed to activate the ovaries but also reduce survival. Nutrient intake of broodless workers is directly related to their own physiological requirements, and the strong carbohydrate bias may reflect the high metabolic rate of honeybees even under resting conditions.

  13. Protein Hydrolysates from Non-bovine and Plant Sources Replaces Tryptone in Microbiological Media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ranganathan, Yamini; Patel, Shifa; Pasupuleti, Vijai K.; Meganathan, R.

    Tryptone (pancreatic digest of casein) is a common ingredient in laboratory and fermentation media for growing wild-type and genetically modified microorganisms. Many of the commercially manufactured products such as human growth hormone, antibiotics, insulin, etc. are produced by recombinant strains grown on materials derived from bovine sources. With the emergence of Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE) and the consequent increase in Food and Drug Administration (FDA) regulations, elimination of materials of bovine origin from fermentation media is of paramount importance. To achieve this objective, a number of protein hydrolysates derived from non-bovine animal and plant sources were evaluated. Tryptone in Luria-Bertani (LB) broth was replaced with an equal quantity of alternate protein hydrolysates. Four of the six hydrolysates (one animal and three from plants) were found to efficiently replace the tryptone present in LB-medium as measured by growth rate and growth yield of a recombinant Escherichia coli strain. In addition, we have determined plasmid stability, inducibility and activity of the plasmid encoded β-galactosidase in the recombinant strain grown in the presence of various protein hydrolysates.

  14. Evaluation of plant and animal protein sources as partial or total replacement of fish meal in diets for juvenile Nile tilapia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A feeding trial was conducted in a closed system with Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) juveniles (mean weight, 2.84 g) to examine the effects of total replacement of fish meal (FM), with and without supplementation of DL-methionine (Met) and L-lysine (Lys), by plant protein sources. Fish were f...

  15. Effect of acute heat stress on plant nutrient metabolism proteins

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Abrupt heating decreased the levels (per unit total root protein) of all but one of the nutrient metabolism proteins examined, and for most of the proteins, effects were greater for severe vs. moderate heat stress. For many of the nutrient metabolism proteins, initial effects of heat (1 d) were r...

  16. Effects of tannin source and concentration from tree leaves on two species of tadpoles.

    PubMed

    Earl, Julia E; Semlitsch, Raymond D

    2015-01-01

    Vegetation in and around freshwater ecosystems can affect aquatic organisms through the production of secondary compounds, which are retained in leaves after senescence and are biologically active. Tannins can be toxic to tadpoles, but the plant source of tannins and tannin concentration have been confounded in experimental designs in previous studies. To examine the effects of the concentration and source of tannins (tree species), we examined the effects of 4 factors on tadpole survival, growth, and development: tannin source (red oak [Quercus rubra], white oak [Quercus alba], or sugar maple [Acer saccharum]); tannin concentration (including a control); diet protein level; and tadpole species (American toad [Anaxyrus americanus] and spring peepers [Pseudacris crucifer]). Tannin source and concentration affected spring peeper survival, but American toads had uniformly high survival. Spring peepers had a lower survival rate in high tannin concentrations of oak leachate but a high survival rate in both concentrations of sugar maple leachate. These differences in survival did not correspond with changes in dissolved oxygen, and no effect of dietary protein level on tadpole performance was observed. The presence of plant leachate resulted in increased tadpole growth in both species, but the mechanism for this finding is unclear. The results of the present study show that tannin concentration and source are important factors for tadpole performance, adding further evidence that plant chemistry can affect aquatic organisms.

  17. Human Protein Subcellular Localization with Integrated Source and Multi-label Ensemble Classifier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Xiaotong; Liu, Fulin; Ju, Ying; Wang, Zhen; Wang, Chunyu

    2016-06-01

    Predicting protein subcellular location is necessary for understanding cell function. Several machine learning methods have been developed for computational prediction of primary protein sequences because wet experiments are costly and time consuming. However, two problems still exist in state-of-the-art methods. First, several proteins appear in different subcellular structures simultaneously, whereas current methods only predict one protein sequence in one subcellular structure. Second, most software tools are trained with obsolete data and the latest new databases are missed. We proposed a novel multi-label classification algorithm to solve the first problem and integrated several latest databases to improve prediction performance. Experiments proved the effectiveness of the proposed method. The present study would facilitate research on cellular proteomics.

  18. Human Protein Subcellular Localization with Integrated Source and Multi-label Ensemble Classifier

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Xiaotong; Liu, Fulin; Ju, Ying; Wang, Zhen; Wang, Chunyu

    2016-01-01

    Predicting protein subcellular location is necessary for understanding cell function. Several machine learning methods have been developed for computational prediction of primary protein sequences because wet experiments are costly and time consuming. However, two problems still exist in state-of-the-art methods. First, several proteins appear in different subcellular structures simultaneously, whereas current methods only predict one protein sequence in one subcellular structure. Second, most software tools are trained with obsolete data and the latest new databases are missed. We proposed a novel multi-label classification algorithm to solve the first problem and integrated several latest databases to improve prediction performance. Experiments proved the effectiveness of the proposed method. The present study would facilitate research on cellular proteomics. PMID:27323846

  19. Examining near-source effects in the far field

    SciTech Connect

    App, F.N.; Bos, R.J.; Dey, T.N.; Jones, E.M.; Kamm, J.R.; Taylor, S.R.

    1995-09-01

    A fundamental objective of the S-6 (physical basis for discrimination) sub-task of the CTBT R&D Seismic Monitoring Program at Los Alamos is to analyze the sensitivity of the regional signal to source configuration, material properties, geologic layering and structure, along with complications along the path of the signal. Our approach is to combine the results of conventional analysis of field data from explosions and earthquakes with results of numerical models of actual and idealized situations. Existing first-principles, finite difference codes allow us to examine source effects in the non-linear regime; linking the results of these near-source calculations to finite difference, anelastic wave propagation codes allows us to examine the effect of various source region and propagation path characteristics on signals observed at regional distances. An investigation of discriminant differences for the DIVIDER and CORREO underground nuclear explosions is provided as an example of the approach used.

  20. Source effects in analyzer-based X-ray phase contrast imaging with conventional sources

    SciTech Connect

    Hoennicke, M. G.; Manica, J.; Mazzaro, I.; Cusatis, C.; Huang, X.-R.

    2012-11-15

    Several recent papers have shown the implementation of analyzer based X-ray phase contrast imaging (ABI) with conventional X-ray sources. The high flux is always a requirement to make the technique useful for bio-medical applications. Here, we present and discuss three important parameters, which need to be taken into account, when searching for the high flux ABI: anisotropic magnification, double image, and source size spread due to intrinsic dispersive diffraction by asymmetrically cut crystals. These parameters, if not well optimized, may cause important features in the acquired images which can mislead the interpretation. A few ways to minimize these effects are implemented and discussed, including some experimental results.

  1. Source effects in analyzer-based X-ray phase contrast imaging with conventional sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hönnicke, M. G.; Manica, J.; Mazzaro, I.; Cusatis, C.; Huang, X.-R.

    2012-11-01

    Several recent papers have shown the implementation of analyzer based X-ray phase contrast imaging (ABI) with conventional X-ray sources. The high flux is always a requirement to make the technique useful for bio-medical applications. Here, we present and discuss three important parameters, which need to be taken into account, when searching for the high flux ABI: anisotropic magnification, double image, and source size spread due to intrinsic dispersive diffraction by asymmetrically cut crystals. These parameters, if not well optimized, may cause important features in the acquired images which can mislead the interpretation. A few ways to minimize these effects are implemented and discussed, including some experimental results.

  2. Effect of Carbon and Energy Source on Bacterial Chromate Reduction

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, William Aaron; Apel, William Arnold; Petersen, J. N.; Peyton, Brent Michael

    2002-07-01

    Studies were conducted to evaluate carbon and energy sources suitable to support hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) reduction by a bacterial consortium enriched from dichromate-contaminated aquifer sediments. The consortium was cultured under denitrifying conditions in a minimal, synthetic groundwater medium that was amended with various individual potential carbon and energy sources. The effects of these individual carbon and energy sources on Cr(VI) reduction and growth were measured. The consortium was found to readily reduce Cr(VI) with sucrose, acetate, L-asparagine, hydrogen plus carbon dioxide, ethanol, glycerol, glycolate, propylene glycol, or D-xylose as a carbon and energy source. Minimal Cr(VI) reduction was observed when the consortium was cultured with citrate, 2-ketoglutarate, L-lactate, pyruvate, succinate, or thiosulfate plus carbon dioxide as a carbon and energy source when compared with abiotic controls. The consortium grew on all of the above carbon and energy sources, with the highest cell densities reached using D-xylose and sucrose, demonstrating that the consortium is metabolically diverse and can reduce Cr(VI) using a variety of different carbon and energy sources. The results suggest that the potential exists for the enrichment of Cr(VI)-reducing microbial populations in situ by the addition of a sucrose-containing feedstock such as molasses, which is an economical and readily available carbon and energy source.

  3. Depositional controls, distribution, and effectiveness of world's petroleum source rocks

    SciTech Connect

    Klemme, H.D.; Ulmishek, G.F.

    1989-03-01

    Six stratigraphic intervals representing one-third of Phanerozoic time contain source rocks that have provided more than 90% of the world's discovered oil and gas reserves (in barrels of oil equivalent). The six intervals include (1) Silurian (generated 9% of the world's reserves); (2) Upper Devonian-Tournaisian (8% of reserves); (3) Pennsylvanian-Lower Permian (8% of reserves); (4) Upper Jurassic (25% of reserves); (5) middle Cretaceous (29% of reserves); and (6) Oligocene-Miocene (12.5% of reserves). This uneven distribution of source rocks in time has no immediately obvious cyclicity, nor are the intervals exactly repeatable in the commonality of factors that controlled the formation of source rocks. In this study, source rocks of the six intervals have been mapped worldwide together with oil and gas reserves generated by these rocks. Analysis of the maps shows that the main factors affecting deposition of these source rocks and their spatial distribution and effectiveness in generating hydrocarbon reserves are geologic age, global and regional tectonics, paleogeography, climate, and biologic evolution. The effect of each of the factors on geologic setting and quality of source rocks has been analyzed. Compilation of data on maturation time for these source rocks demonstrated that the majority of discovered oil and gas is very young, more than 80% of the world's oil and gas reserves have been generated since Aptian time, and nearly half of the world's hydrocarbons have been generated and trapped since the Oligocene.

  4. Non-Einstein source effects in massive gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deser, S.; Waldron, A.

    2014-01-01

    We exhibit novel effects (absent in GR) of sources in massive gravity. First, we show that removing its ghost mode forces a field-current identity: The metric's trace is locally proportional to that of its stress tensor; a point source implies a metric singularity enhanced by the square of the graviton's range. Second, exterior solutions acquire spatial stress hair—their metric components depend on the interior Tij. Also, in contrast to naïve expectations, the Newtonian potential of a source is now determined by both its spatial stress and mass. Our explicit results are obtained at linear, Fierz-Pauli, level but qualitatively persist nonlinearly.

  5. Protein-fold recognition using an improved single-source K diverse shortest paths algorithm.

    PubMed

    Lhota, John; Xie, Lei

    2016-04-01

    Protein structure prediction, when construed as a fold recognition problem, is one of the most important applications of similarity search in bioinformatics. A new protein-fold recognition method is reported which combines a single-source K diverse shortest path (SSKDSP) algorithm with Enrichment of Network Topological Similarity (ENTS) algorithm to search a graphic feature space generated using sequence similarity and structural similarity metrics. A modified, more efficient SSKDSP algorithm is developed to improve the performance of graph searching. The new implementation of the SSKDSP algorithm empirically requires 82% less memory and 61% less time than the current implementation, allowing for the analysis of larger, denser graphs. Furthermore, the statistical significance of fold ranking generated from SSKDSP is assessed using ENTS. The reported ENTS-SSKDSP algorithm outperforms original ENTS that uses random walk with restart for the graph search as well as other state-of-the-art protein structure prediction algorithms HHSearch and Sparks-X, as evaluated by a benchmark of 600 query proteins. The reported methods may easily be extended to other similarity search problems in bioinformatics and chemoinformatics. The SSKDSP software is available at http://compsci.hunter.cuny.edu/~leixie/sskdsp.html.

  6. Studies on feeding peanut meal as a protein source for broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Costa, E F; Miller, B R; Pesti, G M; Bakalli, R I; Ewing, H P

    2001-03-01

    Four experiments were conducted to compare the performance of broilers fed soybean meal (SBM) versus peanut meal (PNM) as protein sources. Ross x Ross 208 broiler chickens were placed in battery brooders (Experiments 1 to 3, four replicates of 8 chicks per treatment) and floor pens (Experiment 4, four replicates of 34 chicks per treatment). In Experiment 1, addition of 0, 0.1, 0.2, and 0.3% Thr to a corn-PNM-based diet increased 0 to 18 d BW gain (BWG; 0.374c vs. 0.495b vs. 0.508b vs. 0.508b kg, respectively) and decreased feed conversion ratio (FCR; 2.09c vs. 1.63b vs. vs. 1.54b vs. 1.54b g/g, respectively) compared to the corn-SBM-based control diet (BWG = 0.593a and FCR = 1.36a). In Experiment 2, diets were formulated with the same amino acid minimums, and as the percentage of PNM increased in the diets (0, 10, 20, and 32%), BWG decreased (0.560a vs. 0.532a vs. 0.521a vs. 0.458b kg, respectively) and FCR increased (1.72b vs. 1.71b vs. 1.79bc vs. 1.86c g/g, respectively). In Experiment 3, addition of Thr to a corn-PNM-based diet increased BWG (-Thr = 0.284c vs. +Thr = 0.397b kg) and decreased FCR (-Thr = 1.60b vs. +Thr = 1.54b g/g). The BWG and FCR were best for the corn-SBM-based control diet (0.499a kg and 1.38a g/g, respectively). In Experiment 4, during the growing period (18 to 42 d), significant interactions occurred between protein source (PNM vs. SBM) and protein level (16 and 20% vs. 24%) for BW and FCR but not for carcass, breast, or leg quarter yield or fat pad weights (P < 0.05) at 42 d of age. Technical (not economic) performance of birds fed PNM was similar to SBM at the highest protein levels fed. PNM could be used as a protein source for broilers under appropriate economic conditions.

  7. Hypocholesterolemic and Anticarcinogenic Effect of Vicia faba Protein Hydrolyzates.

    PubMed

    León-Espinosa, Erika B; Sánchez-Chino, Xariss; Garduño-Siciliano, Leticia; Álvarez-González, Rosa I; Dávila-Ortiz, Gloria; Madrigal-Bujaidar, Eduardo; Téllez-Medina, Darío I; Jiménez-Martínez, Cristian

    2016-07-01

    In recent years, the consumption of vegetal-source proteins has been studied to determine their preventing effect on the development of several chronic diseases. The initial purpose of this report was to determine the effect of a hypercholesterolemic diet (HCD) given to mice, alone or with azoxymethane (AOM), on various obesity biochemical biomarkers, as well as on the induction of colon aberrant crypts (aberrant crypt foci; ACF). At the end of the 5-week assay, animals fed the HCD showed alterations in the level of total cholesterol, high- and low-density lipoproteins, and in the Atherogenic Index; besides, a significant elevation was observed in the number of ACF. Our second aim was to examine the effect of a Faba Protein Hydrolyzate (FPH) on mice fed the HCD. We first obtained protein hydrolyzates from the seeds of Vicia faba, determined the in vitro antioxidant potential with two tests, and, subsequently, evaluated the effect on obesity biomarkers and on the number of ACF. In the first case, we found that, generally, the best protective effect was obtained with the low dose of FPH (10 mg/kg) administered to animals fed the HCD, and injected AOM. With respect to the number of ACF, we observed that this dose was more effective, inhibiting such lesions to almost the level determined for the normocholesterolemic diet (NCD). Therefore, our results demonstrated the relevance of a HCD to develop anomalies in obesity biomarkers in mouse, as well as to increase the number of precarcinogenic lesions. Our results also showed a protective response with the administration of FPH, particularly with a specific dose, suggesting the need for extending research on the matter by widening the spectra of doses, in order to clearly define its potential to counteract the damage induced by the HCD, as well as to confirm if antioxidation in mice was involved in such an effect.

  8. An economical and highly productive cell-free protein synthesis system utilizing fructose-1,6-bisphosphate as an energy source.

    PubMed

    Kim, Tae-Wan; Keum, Jung-Won; Oh, In-Seok; Choi, Cha-Yong; Kim, Ho-Cheol; Kim, Dong-Myung

    2007-07-15

    In this study, we describe the development of a cost effective and highly productive cell-free protein synthesis system derived from Escherichia coli. Through the use of an optimal energy source and cell extract, approximately 1.3mg/mL of protein was generated from a single batch reaction at greatly reduced reagent costs. Compared to previously reported systems, the described method yields approximately 14-fold higher productivity per unit reagent cost making this cell-free synthesis technique a promising alternative for more efficient protein production.

  9. Milk proteins as a source of tryptophan-containing bioactive peptides.

    PubMed

    Nongonierma, Alice B; FitzGerald, Richard J

    2015-07-01

    Tryptophan (W) is an essential amino acid which is primarily required for protein synthesis. It also acts as a precursor of key biomolecules for human health (serotonin, melatonin, tryptamine, niacin, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD), phosphorylated NAD (NADP), quinolinic acid, kynureric acid, etc.). Among dietary proteins, milk proteins are particularly rich in W. W residues within milk proteins may be released by proteolytic/peptidolytic enzymes either as a free amino acid or as part of peptide sequences. Different W-containing peptides originating from milk proteins have been shown in vitro to display a wide range of bioactivities such as angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibition along with antioxidant, antidiabetic and satiating related properties. Free W has been shown in certain instances to have an effect on cognition and the aforementioned bioactive properties. However, a higher bioactive potency has generally been observed with specific W-containing peptides compared to free W. Since W is thermolabile, the impact of processing on the stability of W-containing peptides needs to be considered. Milk protein-derived W-containing peptides may have significant potential as natural health promoting agents in humans.

  10. The Effect of Codon Mismatch on the Protein Translation System.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Dinglin; Chen, Danfeng; Cao, Liaoran; Li, Guohui; Cheng, Hong

    2016-01-01

    Incorrect protein translation, caused by codon mismatch, is an important problem of living cells. In this work, a computational model was introduced to quantify the effects of codon mismatch and the model was used to study the protein translation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. According to simulation results, the probability of codon mismatch will increase when the supply of amino acids is unbalanced, and the longer is the codon sequence, the larger is the probability for incorrect translation to occur, making the synthesis of long peptide chain difficult. By comparing to simulation results without codon mismatch effects taken into account, the fraction of mRNAs with bound ribosome decrease faster along the mRNAs, making the 5' ramp phenomenon more obvious. It was also found in our work that the premature mechanism resulted from codon mismatch can reduce the proportion of incorrect translation when the amino acid supply is extremely unbalanced, which is one possible source of high fidelity protein synthesis after peptidyl transfer.

  11. Elderberries: a source of ribosome-inactivating proteins with lectin activity.

    PubMed

    Tejero, Jesús; Jiménez, Pilar; Quinto, Emiliano J; Cordoba-Diaz, Damián; Garrosa, Manuel; Cordoba-Diaz, Manuel; Gayoso, Manuel J; Girbés, Tomás

    2015-01-30

    Sambucus (Adoxaceae) species have been used for both food and medicine purposes. Among these, Sambucus nigra L. (black elder), Sambucus ebulus L. (dwarf elder), and Sambucus sieboldiana L. are the most relevant species studied. Their use has been somewhat restricted due to the presence of bioactive proteins or/and low molecular weight compounds whose ingestion could trigger deleterious effects. Over the last few years, the chemical and pharmacological characteristics of Sambucus species have been investigated. Among the proteins present in Sambucus species both type 1, and type 2 ribosome-inactivating proteins (RIPs), and hololectins have been reported. The biological role played by these proteins remains unknown, although they are conjectured to be involved in defending plants against insect predators and viruses. These proteins might have an important impact on the nutritional characteristics and food safety of elderberries. Type 2 RIPs are able to interact with gut cells of insects and mammals triggering a number of specific and mostly unknown cell signals in the gut mucosa that could significantly affect animal physiology. In this paper, we describe all known RIPs that have been isolated to date from Sambucus species, and comment on their antiviral and entomotoxic effects, as well as their potential uses.

  12. Environmental Impact of the Production of Mealworms as a Protein Source for Humans – A Life Cycle Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Oonincx, Dennis G. A. B.; de Boer, Imke J. M.

    2012-01-01

    The demand for animal protein is expected to rise by 70–80% between 2012 and 2050, while the current animal production sector already causes major environmental degradation. Edible insects are suggested as a more sustainable source of animal protein. However, few experimental data regarding environmental impact of insect production are available. Therefore, a lifecycle assessment for mealworm production was conducted, in which greenhouse gas production, energy use and land use were quantified and compared to conventional sources of animal protein. Production of one kg of edible protein from milk, chicken, pork or beef result in higher greenhouse gas emissions, require similar amounts of energy and require much more land. This study demonstrates that mealworms should be considered a more sustainable source of edible protein. PMID:23284661

  13. Environmental impact of the production of mealworms as a protein source for humans - a life cycle assessment.

    PubMed

    Oonincx, Dennis G A B; de Boer, Imke J M

    2012-01-01

    The demand for animal protein is expected to rise by 70-80% between 2012 and 2050, while the current animal production sector already causes major environmental degradation. Edible insects are suggested as a more sustainable source of animal protein. However, few experimental data regarding environmental impact of insect production are available. Therefore, a lifecycle assessment for mealworm production was conducted, in which greenhouse gas production, energy use and land use were quantified and compared to conventional sources of animal protein. Production of one kg of edible protein from milk, chicken, pork or beef result in higher greenhouse gas emissions, require similar amounts of energy and require much more land. This study demonstrates that mealworms should be considered a more sustainable source of edible protein.

  14. The Potential Source of B. licheniformis Contamination During Whey Protein Concentrate 80 Manufacture.

    PubMed

    Md Zain, Siti Norbaizura; Bennett, Rod; Flint, Steve

    2017-03-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the possible source of predominant Bacillus licheniformis contamination in a whey protein concentrate (WPC) 80 manufacturing plant. Traditionally, microbial contaminants of WPC were believed to grow on the membrane surfaces of the ultrafiltration plant as this represents the largest surface area in the plant. Changes from hot to cold ultrafiltration have reduced the growth potential for bacteria on the membrane surfaces. Our recent studies of WPCs have shown the predominant microflora B. licheniformis would not grow in the membrane plant because of the low temperature (10 °C) and must be growing elsewhere. Contamination of dairy products is mostly due to bacteria being released from biofilm in the processing plant rather from the farm itself. Three different reconstituted WPC media at 1%, 5%, and 20% were used for biofilm growth and our results showed that B. licheniformis formed the best biofilm at 1% (low solids). Further investigations were done using 3 different media; tryptic soy broth, 1% reconstituted WPC80, and 1% reconstituted WPC80 enriched with lactose and minerals to examine biofilm growth of B. licheniformis on stainless steel. Thirty-three B. licheniformis isolates varied in their ability to form biofilm on stainless steel with stronger biofilm in the presence of minerals. The source of biofilms of thermo-resistant bacteria such as B. licheniformis is believed to be before the ultrafiltration zone represented by the 1% WPC with lactose and minerals where the whey protein concentration is about 0.6%.

  15. Evaluation and use of disaccharides as energy source in protein-free mammalian cell cultures

    PubMed Central

    Leong, Dawn Sow Zong; Tan, Janice Gek Ling; Chin, Christine Lin; Mak, Shi Ya; Ho, Ying Swan; Ng, Say Kong

    2017-01-01

    Mammalian cells are generally considered to be unable to utilize polysaccharides for cell growth because the phospholipid bilayer in the cell membrane has very low permeability to sugars. With the recent discovery of the only known animal disaccharide transporter, a sucrose transporter, we considered the potential use of polysaccharides as energy source, because that can impact biopharmaceutical manufacturing by potentially increasing carbohydrate loading in the culture medium and decreasing lactate accumulation. In this study, we found that mammalian cells can utilize maltose for growth in the absence of glucose and successfully adapted CHO-K1, CHO-DG44 and HEK293 cells to grow in glucose-free, maltose-containing serum-free protein-free media. We then cultivated a non-adapted CHO-K1 producer cell line in media containing both glucose and maltose to show that the cells can utilize maltose in a biphasic manner, that maltose enters the cells, and that maltose utilization only took place in the presence of the cells. This is the first report of a protein-free mammalian cell culture using a disaccharide as energy source. PMID:28358044

  16. Evaluation and use of disaccharides as energy source in protein-free mammalian cell cultures.

    PubMed

    Leong, Dawn Sow Zong; Tan, Janice Gek Ling; Chin, Christine Lin; Mak, Shi Ya; Ho, Ying Swan; Ng, Say Kong

    2017-03-30

    Mammalian cells are generally considered to be unable to utilize polysaccharides for cell growth because the phospholipid bilayer in the cell membrane has very low permeability to sugars. With the recent discovery of the only known animal disaccharide transporter, a sucrose transporter, we considered the potential use of polysaccharides as energy source, because that can impact biopharmaceutical manufacturing by potentially increasing carbohydrate loading in the culture medium and decreasing lactate accumulation. In this study, we found that mammalian cells can utilize maltose for growth in the absence of glucose and successfully adapted CHO-K1, CHO-DG44 and HEK293 cells to grow in glucose-free, maltose-containing serum-free protein-free media. We then cultivated a non-adapted CHO-K1 producer cell line in media containing both glucose and maltose to show that the cells can utilize maltose in a biphasic manner, that maltose enters the cells, and that maltose utilization only took place in the presence of the cells. This is the first report of a protein-free mammalian cell culture using a disaccharide as energy source.

  17. Effects of soy protein and calcium levels on mineral bioaccessibility and protein digestibility from enteral formulas.

    PubMed

    Galán, María Gimena; Drago, Silvina Rosa

    2014-09-01

    Enteral formulas (EF) are complex food systems which have all the nutrients in their matrix for the complete human nourishment. However, there are components in EF which can interact with minerals, reducing their absorption, and thereof the EF nutritional quality. The effect of soy protein (SP) and Ca content on Fe, Zn, and Ca bioaccessibility and protein digestibility (%DP) was assessed using a response surface design in EF. Tested SP levels were 2.5-5.0 g/100 mL of total protein. Ca levels were adjusted with Ca citrate within a range between 50 and 100 mg/100 mL. SP content negatively influenced %DP and Fe, Zn and Ca bioaccessibility. As SP content increased, mineral bioaccessibility and %DP decreased, probably due to the increased levels of phytic acid and trypsin inhibitors from SP. Ca content only affected %DCa, which had a direct relationship with Ca levels, while did not affect Fe and Zn bioaccessibility or %DP. Since Ca citrate did not impair Fe and Zn bioaccessibility, it could be an appropriate Ca source for EF fortification.

  18. High whey protein intake delayed the loss of lean body mass in healthy old rats, whereas protein type and polyphenol/antioxidant supplementation had no effects.

    PubMed

    Mosoni, Laurent; Gatineau, Eva; Gatellier, Philippe; Migné, Carole; Savary-Auzeloux, Isabelle; Rémond, Didier; Rocher, Emilie; Dardevet, Dominique

    2014-01-01

    Our aim was to compare and combine 3 nutritional strategies to slow down the age-related loss of muscle mass in healthy old rats: 1) increase protein intake, which is likely to stimulate muscle protein anabolism; 2) use leucine rich, rapidly digested whey proteins as protein source (whey proteins are recognized as the most effective proteins to stimulate muscle protein anabolism). 3) Supplement animals with a mixture of chamomile extract, vitamin E, vitamin D (reducing inflammation and oxidative stress is also effective to improve muscle anabolism). Such comparisons and combinations were never tested before. Nutritional groups were: casein 12% protein, whey 12% protein, whey 18% protein and each of these groups were supplemented or not with polyphenols/antioxidants. During 6 months, we followed changes of weight, food intake, inflammation (plasma fibrinogen and alpha-2-macroglobulin) and body composition (DXA). After 6 months, we measured muscle mass, in vivo and ex-vivo fed and post-absorptive muscle protein synthesis, ex-vivo muscle proteolysis, and oxidative stress parameters (liver and muscle glutathione, SOD and total antioxidant activities, muscle carbonyls and TBARS). We showed that although micronutrient supplementation reduced inflammation and oxidative stress, the only factor that significantly reduced the loss of lean body mass was the increase in whey protein intake, with no detectable effect on muscle protein synthesis, and a tendency to reduce muscle proteolysis. We conclude that in healthy rats, increasing protein intake is an effective way to delay sarcopenia.

  19. Alternative Protein Sources in the Diet Modulate Microbiota and Functionality in the Distal Intestine of Atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar)

    PubMed Central

    Jaramillo-Torres, Alexander; Kortner, Trond M.; Merrifield, Daniel L.; Tinsley, John; Bakke, Anne Marie; Krogdahl, Åshild

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The present study aimed to investigate whether alternative dietary protein sources modulate the microbial communities in the distal intestine (DI) of Atlantic salmon, and whether alterations in microbiota profiles are reflected in modifications in host intestinal function and health status. A 48-day feeding trial was conducted, in which groups of fish received one of five diets: a reference diet in which fishmeal (diet FM) was the only protein source and four experimental diets with commercially relevant compositions containing alternative ingredients as partial replacements of fishmeal, i.e., poultry meal (diet PM), a mix of soybean meal and wheat gluten (diet SBMWG), a mix of soy protein concentrate and poultry meal (diet SPCPM), and guar meal and wheat gluten (diet GMWG). Samples were taken of DI digesta and mucosa for microbial profiling using high-throughput sequencing and from DI whole tissue for immunohistochemistry and expression profiling of marker genes for gut health. Regardless of diet, there were significant differences between the microbial populations in the digesta and the mucosa in the salmon DI. Microbial richness was higher in the digesta than the mucosa. The digesta-associated bacterial communities were more affected by the diet than the mucosa-associated microbiota. Interestingly, both legume-based diets (SBMWG and GMWG) presented high relative abundance of lactic acid bacteria in addition to alteration in the expression of a salmon gene related to cell proliferation (pcna). It was, however, not possible to ascertain the cause-effect relationship between changes in bacterial communities and the host's intestinal responses to the diets. IMPORTANCE The intestine of cultivated Atlantic salmon shows symptoms of compromised function, which are most likely caused by imbalances related to the use of new feed ingredients. Intestinal microbiota profiling may become in the future a valuable endpoint measurement in order to assess fish intestinal

  20. Alternative Protein Sources in the Diet Modulate Microbiota and Functionality in the Distal Intestine of Atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar).

    PubMed

    Gajardo, Karina; Jaramillo-Torres, Alexander; Kortner, Trond M; Merrifield, Daniel L; Tinsley, John; Bakke, Anne Marie; Krogdahl, Åshild

    2017-03-01

    The present study aimed to investigate whether alternative dietary protein sources modulate the microbial communities in the distal intestine (DI) of Atlantic salmon, and whether alterations in microbiota profiles are reflected in modifications in host intestinal function and health status. A 48-day feeding trial was conducted, in which groups of fish received one of five diets: a reference diet in which fishmeal (diet FM) was the only protein source and four experimental diets with commercially relevant compositions containing alternative ingredients as partial replacements of fishmeal, i.e., poultry meal (diet PM), a mix of soybean meal and wheat gluten (diet SBMWG), a mix of soy protein concentrate and poultry meal (diet SPCPM), and guar meal and wheat gluten (diet GMWG). Samples were taken of DI digesta and mucosa for microbial profiling using high-throughput sequencing and from DI whole tissue for immunohistochemistry and expression profiling of marker genes for gut health. Regardless of diet, there were significant differences between the microbial populations in the digesta and the mucosa in the salmon DI. Microbial richness was higher in the digesta than the mucosa. The digesta-associated bacterial communities were more affected by the diet than the mucosa-associated microbiota. Interestingly, both legume-based diets (SBMWG and GMWG) presented high relative abundance of lactic acid bacteria in addition to alteration in the expression of a salmon gene related to cell proliferation (pcna). It was, however, not possible to ascertain the cause-effect relationship between changes in bacterial communities and the host's intestinal responses to the diets.IMPORTANCE The intestine of cultivated Atlantic salmon shows symptoms of compromised function, which are most likely caused by imbalances related to the use of new feed ingredients. Intestinal microbiota profiling may become in the future a valuable endpoint measurement in order to assess fish intestinal health

  1. An assessment of soybeans and other vegetable proteins as source of salmonella contamination in pig production

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The impact of salmonella contaminated feed ingredients on the risk for spreading salmonella to pigs was assessed in response to two incidences when salmonella was spread by feed from two feed mills to 78 swine producing herds. Methods The assessment was based on results from the salmonella surveillance of feed ingredients before introduction to feed mills and from HACCP - based surveillance of the feed mills. Results from the mills of the Company (A) that produced the salmonella contaminated feed, were by the Chi. Square test compared to the results from all the other (B - E) feed producers registered in Sweden. Isolated serovars were compared to serovars from human cases of salmonellosis. Results Salmonella (28 serovars) was frequently isolated from imported consignments of soybean meal (14.6%) and rape seed meal (10.0%). Company A largely imported soybean meal from crushing plants with a history of unknown or frequent salmonella contamination. The risk for consignments of vegetable proteins to be salmonella contaminated was 2.4 times (P < 0.0006) larger for A when compared to the mills of the other companies which largely were supplied by soybean meal from a crushing plant with a low risk for salmonella contamination. Also the level of feed mill contamination of salmonella was higher for feed mills belonging to Company A in comparison to the other companies before and also after heat treatment. Four (10.5%) of the 38 serovars isolated from feed ingredients (28) and feed mills (10) were on the EU 2007 top ten list of human cases of salmonellosis and all but eight (78.9%) on a 12 year list (1997-2008) of cases of human salmonellosis in Sweden. Conclusions Salmonella contaminated feed ingredients are an important source for introducing salmonella into the feed and food chain. Effective HACCP-based control and associated corrective actions are required to prevent salmonella contamination of feed. Efforts should be taken to prevent salmonella contamination

  2. Integrated ultraviolet and tunable mid-infrared laser source for analyses of proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hazama, Hisanao; Takatani, Yoshiaki; Awazu, Kunio

    2007-02-01

    Mass spectrometry using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) technique is one of the most widely used method to analyze proteins in biological research fields. However, it is difficult to analyze insoluble proteins which have important roles in researches on disease mechanisms or in developments of drugs by using ultraviolet (UV) lasers which have commonly been used for MALDI. Recently, a significant improvement in MALDI process of insoluble proteins using a combination of a UV nitrogen laser and a tunable mid-infrared (MIR) free electron laser (FEL) was reported. Since the FEL is a very large and expensive equipment, we have developed a tabletop laser source which can generate both UV and tunable MIR lasers. A tunable MIR laser (5.5-10 μm) was obtained by difference frequency generation (DFG) between a Nd:YAG and a tunable Cr:forsterite lasers using two AgGaS II crystals. The MIR laser can generate pulses with an energy of up to 1.4 mJ at a repetition rate of 10 Hz. A UV laser was obtained by third harmonic generation of a Nd:YAG laser splitted from that used for DFG. A time interval between the UV and the MIR laser pulses can be adjusted with a variable optical delay.

  3. Acyl-acyl carrier protein as a source of fatty acids for bacterial bioluminescence

    SciTech Connect

    Byers, D.M.; Meighen, E.A.

    1985-09-01

    Pulse-chase experiments with (/sup 3/H)tetradecanoic acid and ATP showed that the bioluminescence-related 32-kDa acyltransferase from Vibrio harveyi can specifically catalyze the deacylation of a /sup 3/H-labeled 18-kDa protein observed in extracts of this bacterium. The 18-kDa protein has been partially purified and its physical and chemical properties strongly indicate that it is fatty acyl-acyl carrier protein (acyl-ACP). Both this V. harveyi (/sup 3/H)acylprotein and (/sup 3/H)palmitoyl-ACP from Escherichia coli were substrates in vitro for either the V. harveyi 32-kDa acyltransferase or the analogous enzyme (34K) from Photobacterium phosphoreum. TLC analysis indicated that the hexane-soluble product of the reaction is fatty acid. No significant cleavage of either E. coli or V. harveyi tetradecanoyl-ACP was observed in extracts of these bacteria unless the 32-kDa or 34K acyltransferase was present. Since these enzymes are believed to be responsible for the supply of fatty acids for reduction to form the aldehyde substrate of luciferase, the above results suggest that long-chain acyl-ACP is the source of fatty acids for bioluminescence.

  4. Effect of low emission sources on air quality in Cracow

    SciTech Connect

    Nedoma, J.

    1995-12-31

    The paper presents calculation of power engineering low emission and results of stimulation of the effect of this emission on air quality in Cracow, Poland. It has been stated that the segment of low emission in central areas of the town makes up ca. 40% of the observed concentration of sulfur dioxide. Furthermore it has been stated that the capital investment must be concentrated in the central part of the town in order to reach noticeable improvement of air quality in Cracow. Neither the output of a separate power source nor the emission level and its individual harmful effect, but the location of the source and especially packing density of the sources must decide the priority of upgrading actions.

  5. Evaluation of the fermentation dynamics of soluble crude protein from three protein sources in continuous culture fermenters.

    PubMed

    Bach, A; Ruiz Moreno, M; Thrune, M; Stern, M D

    2008-06-01

    Eight dual-flow continuous culture fermenters (1.03 +/- 0.05 L) were used to assess differences in microbial degradation of the soluble CP fraction of canola meal (CMSCP), soybean meal (SBMSCP), and fish meal (FMSCP) using a completely randomized design with two 9-d experimental periods and a solution of tryptone as a control treatment (control). All fermenters received the same basal diet (58% ground corn, 40% canary grass hay, 0.4% vitamin-mineral premix, 1% CaCO(3), 0.6% salt on a DM basis) in 8 equal portions daily. During sampling on the last 3 d of each period, 90-mL doses containing soluble CP were infused into the fermenters 30 min after the beginning of the first and last feedings of the day. The total amount of soluble CP supplied by the infusions of FMSCP, CMSCP, and SBMSCP was 3.2 g/d, representing 24% of the daily dietary CP intake. Infusion of FMSCP resulted in the greatest (P < 0.05) NH(3)-N concentration (4.6 +/- 0.40 mg/dL) compared with the other treatments (0.5 +/- 0.40 mg/dL). Microbial N flow (g/d) from the fermenters was also greatest (P < 0.05) with FMSCP (1.42 +/- 0.062) compared with the other soluble CP fractions (1.08 +/- 0.062). The efficiency of microbial protein synthesis tended to be lowest with the control diet, and the efficiency of N utilization was lowest with FMSCP treatment. These results indicate that N was limiting microbial growth in the control diet, and there was more rumen-available N with the FMSCP diet compared with the other dietary treatments. The extent of degradation of the soluble CP fraction from fish meal, soybean meal, and canola meal was determined to be 99, 30, and 37% of soluble CP, respectively. These results indicate that the soluble CP fraction is not 100% degraded in all feeds and that assuming a high degradation extent of the soluble CP fraction from soybean meal and canola meal may result in an underestimation of the supply of undegradable protein from these protein sources.

  6. Influence of using a blend of rennet casein and whey protein concentrate as protein source on the quality of Mozzarella cheese analogue.

    PubMed

    Dhanraj, Padhiyar; Jana, Atanu; Modha, Hiral; Aparnathi, K D

    2017-03-01

    The effect of incorporating whey protein concentrate (WPC) on the quality characteristics of Mozzarella cheese analogue (MCA) based on rennet casein (RC) was studied. The proportion of RC:WPC tried out were 95:5, 90:10, and 85:15 w/w. The formulation of MCA comprised of 23.5% of blend of RC and WPC, 15% specialty vegetable fat, 2.75% trisodium citrate + disodium hydrogen orthophosphate (2.5:1, w/w), 0.07% calcium chloride, 0.6% citric acid, 1.1% NaCl, 1.5% cheese bud flavoring, and rest water. Varying the proportion of RC and WPC had a significant influence on the composition, textural properties, baking qualities and sensory quality of MCA judged as a topping on pizza pie. MCA made using protein blends (RC:WPC-90:10 or 85:15) behaved satisfactorily during pizza baking trials. However, looking at the superiority of MCA made using RC:WPC (90:10) with regard to shred quality and marginal superiority in terms of the total sensory score of cheese, judged as pizza topping, the former blend (i.e. RC:WPC, 90:10) was selected. The MCA obtained employing such protein blend had composition similar to that of Pizza cheese prepared from cheese milk and had requisite baking characteristics needed as a pizza topping. It is recommended to use a blend of RC and WPC (90:10) as the protein source in the formulation of MCA to obtain nutritionally superior cheese product having desired functional properties for its end use in baking applications.

  7. Effect of starch sources on extruded aquaculture feed containing DDGS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aquaculture is one of the most rapidly growing sectors of agriculture, and is a reliable growth market for the prepared feeds. A Brabender laboratory-scale single screw extruder was used to study the effect of various starch sources (cassava, corn, and potato), DDGS levels (20, 30, and 40% (wb)), an...

  8. Fraunhofer Diffraction Effects on Total Power for a Planckian Source.

    PubMed

    Shirley, E L

    2001-01-01

    An algorithm for computing diffraction effects on total power in the case of Fraunhofer diffraction by a circular lens or aperture is derived. The result for Fraunhofer diffraction of monochromatic radiation is well known, and this work reports the result for radiation from a Planckian source. The result obtained is valid at all temperatures.

  9. The Effects of Sources of Motivation on Teachers' Motivation Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kocabas, Ibrahim

    2009-01-01

    This study, in which a descriptive scanning model is used, aims to determine the effects of motivational sources on teachers' motivation levels. The population sample for this study consists of teachers working in the Elazig city center in 2006-2007 academic year. A sample of 225 teachers was randomly selected from this population. Data obtained…

  10. Varying forage type, metabolizable protein concentration, and carbohydrate source affects manure excretion, manure ammonia, and nitrogen metabolism of dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Weiss, W P; Willett, L B; St-Pierre, N R; Borger, D C; McKelvey, T R; Wyatt, D J

    2009-11-01

    Effects of forage source, concentration of metabolizable protein (MP), and type of carbohydrate on manure excretion by dairy cows and production of ammonia from that manure were evaluated using a central composite experimental design. All diets (dry basis) contained 50% forage that ranged from 25:75 to 75:25 alfalfa silage:corn silage. Diets contained 10.7% rumen-degradable protein with variable concentrations of undegradable protein so that dietary MP ranged from 8.8 to 12%. Starch concentration ranged from 22 to 30% with a concomitant decrease in neutral detergent fiber. A total of 15 diets were fed to 36 Holstein cows grouped in 6 blocks. Each block was a replicated 3 x 3 Latin square resulting in 108 observations. Manure output (urine and feces) was measured using total collection, and fresh feces and urine were combined into slurries and incubated for 48 h to measure NH3-N production. Feces, urine, and manure output averaged 50.5, 29.5, and 80.1 kg/d, respectively. Manure output increased with increasing dry matter intake (approximately 3.5 kg of manure/kg of dry matter intake), increased concentrations of alfalfa (mostly via changes in urine output), and decreased concentrations of starch (mostly via changes in fecal output). The amount of NH3-N produced per gram of manure decreased with increasing alfalfa because excreted N shifted from urine to feces. Increasing MP increased NH3-N produced per gram of manure mainly because of increased urinary N, but increased fecal N also contributed to the manure NH3. Manure NH3-N production per cow (accounts for effects on manure production and NH3-N produced per unit of manure) was least and milk protein yields were maximal for diets with high alfalfa (75% of the forage), moderate MP (11% of diet dry matter), and high starch (30% of diet dry matter).

  11. Flavor and Functional Characteristics of Whey Protein Isolates from Different Whey Sources.

    PubMed

    Smith, T J; Foegeding, E A; Drake, M A

    2016-04-01

    This study evaluated flavor and functional characteristics of whey protein isolates (WPIs) from Cheddar, Mozzarella, Cottage cheese, and rennet casein whey. WPIs were manufactured in triplicate. Powders were rehydrated and evaluated in duplicate by descriptive sensory analysis. Volatile compounds were extracted by solid-phase microextraction followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Functional properties were evaluated by measurement of foam stability, heat stability, and protein solubility. WPI from Cheddar and Cottage cheese whey had the highest cardboard flavor, whereas sweet aromatic flavor was highest in Mozzarella WPI, and rennet casein WPI had the lowest overall flavor and aroma. Distinct sour taste and brothy/potato flavor were also noted in WPI from Cottage cheese whey. Consistent with sensory results, aldehyde concentrations were also highest in Cheddar and Cottage cheese WPI. Overrun, yield stress, and foam stability were not different (P > 0.05) among Cheddar, Mozzarella, and rennet casein WPI, but WPI foams from Cottage cheese whey had a lower overrun and air-phase fraction (P < 0.05). Cottage cheese WPI was more heat stable at pH 7 (P < 0.05) than other WPI in 4% protein solutions, and was the only WPI to not gel at 10% protein. Cottage cheese WPI was less soluble at pH 4.6 compared to other WPI (P < 0.05) and also exhibited higher turbidity loss at pH 3 to 7 compared to other WPI (P < 0.05). This study suggests that WPI produced from nontraditional whey sources could be used in new applications due to distinct functional and flavor characteristics.

  12. Protein function prediction by massive integration of evolutionary analyses and multiple data sources

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Accurate protein function annotation is a severe bottleneck when utilizing the deluge of high-throughput, next generation sequencing data. Keeping database annotations up-to-date has become a major scientific challenge that requires the development of reliable automatic predictors of protein function. The CAFA experiment provided a unique opportunity to undertake comprehensive 'blind testing' of many diverse approaches for automated function prediction. We report on the methodology we used for this challenge and on the lessons we learnt. Methods Our method integrates into a single framework a wide variety of biological information sources, encompassing sequence, gene expression and protein-protein interaction data, as well as annotations in UniProt entries. The methodology transfers functional categories based on the results from complementary homology-based and feature-based analyses. We generated the final molecular function and biological process assignments by combining the initial predictions in a probabilistic manner, which takes into account the Gene Ontology hierarchical structure. Results We propose a novel scoring function called COmbined Graph-Information Content similarity (COGIC) score for the comparison of predicted functional categories and benchmark data. We demonstrate that our integrative approach provides increased scope and accuracy over both the component methods and the naïve predictors. In line with previous studies, we find that molecular function predictions are more accurate than biological process assignments. Conclusions Overall, the results indicate that there is considerable room for improvement in the field. It still remains for the community to invest a great deal of effort to make automated function prediction a useful and routine component in the toolbox of life scientists. As already witnessed in other areas, community-wide blind testing experiments will be pivotal in establishing standards for the evaluation of

  13. Incidence of the enterococcal surface protein (esp) gene in human and animal fecal sources

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Whitman, R.L.; Przybyla-Kelly, K.; Shively, D.A.; Byappanahalli, M.N.

    2007-01-01

    The occurrence of the enterococcal surface protein (esp) gene in the opportunistic pathogens Enterococcus faecalis and E. faecium is well-documented in clinical research. Recently, the esp gene has been proposed as a marker of human pollution in environmental waters; however, information on its relative incidence in various human and animal fecal sources is limited. We have determined the occurrence of the esp gene in enterococci from human (n = 64) and animal (n = 233) fecal samples by polymerase chain reaction using two primer sets: one presumably specific for E. faecium (espfm) and the other for both E. faecalis and E. faecium (espfs/fm). We believe that this research is the first to explore the use of espfs/fm for the detection of human waste in natural environmental settings. The incidence in human sources was 93.1% espfm and 100% espfs/fm in raw sewage influent; 30% for both espfm and espfs/fm in septic waste; and 0% espfm and 80% espfs/fm in active pit toilets. The overall occurrence of the gene in animal feces was 7.7% (espfs/fm) and 4.7% (espfm); animal types with positive results included dogs (9/43, all espfm), gulls (10/34, espfs/fm; 2/34, espfm), mice (3/22, all espfs/fm), and songbirds (5/55, all espfs/fm). The esp gene was not detected in cat (0/34), deer (0/4), goose (0/18), or raccoon (0/23) feces. The inconsistent occurrence, especially in septic and pit toilet sewage, suggests a low statistical power of discrimination between animal and human sources, which means a large number of replicates should be collected. Both espfm and espfs/fm were common in raw sewage, but neither one efficiently differentiated between animal and other human sources.

  14. Dietary Protein Sources and Incidence of Breast Cancer: A Dose-Response Meta-Analysis of Prospective Studies

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Jing; Zeng, Rong; Huang, Junpeng; Li, Xufeng; Zhang, Jiren; Ho, James Chung-Man; Zheng, Yanfang

    2016-01-01

    Protein is important to the human body, and different sources of protein may have different effects on the risk of breast cancer. Thus, we conducted a meta-analysis to investigate the association between different dietary protein sources and breast cancer risk. PubMed and several databases were searched until December 2015. Relevant articles were retrieved according to specific searching criteria. Forty-six prospective studies were included. The summary relative risk (RR) for highest versus lowest intake was 1.07 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.01–1.14, I2 = 34.6%) for processed meat, 0.92 (95% CI 0.84–1.00, I2 = 0%) for soy food, 0.93 (95% CI 0.85–1.00, I2 = 40.1%) for skim milk, and 0.90 (95% CI 0.82–1.00, I2 = 0%) for yogurt. Similar conclusions were obtained in dose-response association for each serving increase: total red meat (RR: 1.07; 95% CI 1.01–1.14, I2 = 7.1%), fresh red meat (RR: 1.13; 95% CI 1.01–1.26, I2 = 56.4%), processed meat (RR: 1.09; 95% CI 1.02–1.17, I2 = 11.8%), soy food (RR: 0.91; 95% CI 0.84–1.00, I2 = 0%), and skim milk (RR: 0.96; 95% CI 0.92–1.00, I2 = 11.9%). There was a null association between poultry, fish, egg, nuts, total milk, and whole milk intake and breast cancer risk. Higher total red meat, fresh red meat, and processed meat intake may be risk factors for breast cancer, whereas higher soy food and skim milk intake may reduce the risk of breast cancer. PMID:27869663

  15. Physiological Effects of GLT1 Modulation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae Strains Growing on Different Nitrogen Sources.

    PubMed

    Brambilla, Marco; Adamo, Giusy Manuela; Frascotti, Gianni; Porro, Danilo; Branduardi, Paola

    2016-02-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae is one of the most employed cell factories for the production of bioproducts. Although monomeric hexose sugars constitute the preferential carbon source, this yeast can grow on a wide variety of nitrogen sources that are catabolized through central nitrogen metabolism (CNM). To evaluate the effects of internal perturbations on nitrogen utilization, we characterized strains deleted or overexpressed in GLT1, encoding for one of the key enzymes of the CNM node, the glutamate synthase. These strains, together with the parental strain as control, have been cultivated in minimal medium formulated with ammonium sulfate, glutamate, or glutamine as nitrogen source. Growth kinetics, together with the determination of protein content, viability, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation at the single cell level, revealed that GLT1 modulations do not significantly influence the cellular physiology, whereas the nitrogen source does. As important exceptions, GLT1 deletion negatively affected the scavenging activity of glutamate against ROS accumulation, when cells were treated with H2O2, whereas Glt1p overproduction led to lower viability in glutamine medium. Overall, this confirms the robustness of the CNM node against internal perturbations, but, at the same time, highlights its plasticity in respect to the environment. Considering that side-stream protein-rich waste materials are emerging as substrates to be used in an integrated biorefinery, these results underline the importance of preliminarily evaluating the best nitrogen source not only for media formulation, but also for the overall economics of the process.

  16. Food Sources of Protein and Risk of Incident Gout in the Singapore Chinese Health Study

    PubMed Central

    Teng, Gim Gee; Pan, An; Yuan, Jian-Min; Koh, Woon-Puay

    2016-01-01

    Objective Prospective studies evaluating diet in relation to the risk of gout in Asian populations are lacking. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between the consumption of dietary protein from each of its major sources and the risk of gout in a Chinese population. Methods We used data from the Singapore Chinese Health Study, a prospective cohort of 63,257 Chinese adults who were 45–74 years old at recruitment during the years 1993–1998. Habitual diet information was collected via a validated semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire, and physician-diagnosed gout was self-reported during 2 followup interviews up to the year 2010. Cox proportional hazards models were used to calculate the hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs), with adjustment for potential confounders, among 51,114 eligible study participants who were free of gout at baseline and responded to our followup interviews. Results A total of 2,167 participants reported physician-diagnosed gout during the followup period. The multivariate-adjusted HRs (with 95% CIs) of gout, comparing the first quartile with the fourth quartile, were as follows: 1.27 (1.12–1.44; P for trend < 0.001) for total protein, 1.27 (1.11–1.45; P for trend < 0.001) for poultry, 1.16 (1.02–1.32; P for trend = 0.006) for fish and shellfish, 0.86 (0.75–0.98; P for trend = 0.018) for soy food, and 0.83 (0.73–0.95; P for trend = 0.012) for nonsoy legumes. No statistically significant associations were found with protein intake from other sources (red meat, eggs, dairy products, grains, or nuts and seeds). Conclusion In this Chinese population living in Singapore, higher total dietary protein intake from mainly poultry and fish/shellfish was associated with an increased risk of gout, while dietary intake of soy and nonsoy legumes was associated with a reduced risk of gout. PMID:25808549

  17. Beneficial effects of soy protein consumption for renal function.

    PubMed

    Anderson, James W

    2008-01-01

    Alterations in dietary protein intake have an important role in prevention and management of several forms of kidney disease. Using soy protein instead of animal protein reduces development of kidney disease in animals. Reducing protein intake preserves kidney function in persons with early diabetic kidney disease. Our clinical observations led us to the soy-protein hypothesis that "substitution of soy protein for animal protein results in less hyperfiltration and glomerular hypertension with resulting protection from diabetic nephropathy." These components of soy protein may lead to the benefits: specific peptides, amino acids, and isoflavones. Substituting soy protein for animal protein usually decreases hyperfiltration in diabetic subjects and may reduce urine albumin excretion. Limited data are available on effects of soy peptides, isoflavones, and other soy components on renal function on renal function in diabetes. Further studies are required to discern the specific benefits of soy protein and its components on renal function in diabetic subjects.

  18. Optimization of native fluorescence detection of proteins using a pulsed nano laser excitation source

    PubMed Central

    Heywood, Matthew S.; Farnsworth, Paul B.

    2010-01-01

    We present a mathematical description of the S/N ratio in a fluorescence-based protein detector for capillary electrophoresis that uses a pulsed UV laser at 266 nm as an excitation source. The model accounts for photobleaching, detector volume, laser repetition rate, and analyte flow rate. We have experimentally characterized such a system, and present a comparison of the experimental data with the predictions of the model. Using the model, the system was optimized for test analytes tryptophan, tyrosine, BSA, and conalbumin, producing detection limits (3σ) of 0.67 nM, 5.7 nM, 0.9 nM, and 1.5 nM, respectively. Based on the photobleaching data, a photobleaching cross section of 1.4×10−18 cm2 at 266 nm was calculated for tryptophan. PMID:21073798

  19. Constraining the effective action by a method of external sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garbrecht, Björn; Millington, Peter

    2016-05-01

    We propose a novel method of evaluating the effective action, wherein the physical one- and two-point functions are obtained in the limit of non-vanishing external sources. We illustrate the self-consistency of this method by recovering the usual 2PI effective action due to Cornwall, Jackiw and Tomboulis, differing only by the fact that the saddle-point evaluation of the path integral is performed along the extremal quantum, rather than classical, path. As such, this approach is of particular relevance to situations where the dominant quantum and classical paths are non-perturbatively far away from one-another. A pertinent example is the decay of false vacua in radiatively-generated potentials, as may occur for the electroweak vacuum of the Standard Model. In addition, we describe how the external sources may instead be chosen so as to yield the two-particle-point-irreducible (2PPI) effective action of Coppens and Verschelde. Finally, in the spirit of the symmetry-improved effective action of Pilaftsis and Teresi, we give an example of how the external sources can be used to preserve global symmetries in truncations of the 2PI effective action. Specifically, in the context of an O (2) model with spontaneous symmetry breaking, we show that this approach allows the Hartree-Fock approximation to be re-organized, such that the Goldstone boson remains massless algebraically in the symmetry-broken phase and we obtain the correct second-order thermal phase transition.

  20. Low protein diets produce divergent effects on energy balance

    PubMed Central

    Pezeshki, Adel; Zapata, Rizaldy C.; Singh, Arashdeep; Yee, Nicholas J.; Chelikani, Prasanth K.

    2016-01-01

    Diets deficient in protein often increase food consumption, body weight and fat mass; however, the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. We compared the effects of diets varying in protein concentrations on energy balance in obesity-prone rats. We demonstrate that protein-free (0% protein calories) diets decreased energy intake and increased energy expenditure, very low protein (5% protein) diets increased energy intake and expenditure, whereas moderately low protein (10% protein) diets increased energy intake without altering expenditure, relative to control diet (15% protein). These diet-induced alterations in energy expenditure are in part mediated through enhanced serotonergic and β-adrenergic signaling coupled with upregulation of key thermogenic markers in brown fat and skeletal muscle. The protein-free and very low protein diets decreased plasma concentrations of multiple essential amino acids, anorexigenic and metabolic hormones, but these diets increased the tissue expression and plasma concentrations of fibroblast growth factor-21. Protein-free and very low protein diets induced fatty liver, reduced energy digestibility, and decreased lean mass and body weight that persisted beyond the restriction period. In contrast, moderately low protein diets promoted gain in body weight and adiposity following the period of protein restriction. Together, our findings demonstrate that low protein diets produce divergent effects on energy balance. PMID:27122299

  1. Protein source and dietary structure influence growth performance, gut morphology, and hindgut fermentation characteristics in broilers.

    PubMed

    Qaisrani, S N; Moquet, P C A; van Krimpen, M M; Kwakkel, R P; Verstegen, M W A; Hendriks, W H

    2014-12-01

    An experiment with 210 male (Ross 308) 1-d-old broilers was conducted to test the hypothesis that a coarse diet improves performance of broilers fed a poorly digestible protein source. A highly digestible diet based on soybean meal was gradually replaced by a low digestible diet based on rapeseed meal (RSM) in 5 steps (RSM-0%, RSM-25%, RSM-50%, RSM-75%, and RSM-100%). Two diet structures (fine and coarse) were used as an additional factor. These 2 factors and their interactions were tested at different ages in a factorial arrangement with 10 dietary treatments. An increase in indigestible dietary protein negatively affected feed intake (P = 0.003), BW gain (P = 0.008), and feed conversion ratio (P = 0.034). This increase in dietary indigestible protein contents resulted in a decrease (P = 0.001) in total cecal volatile fatty acid concentration from 209.1 to 125.9 mmol/kg of DM digesta in broilers with increasing RSM in diets. Increase in the indigestible protein level, from RSM-0% to RSM-100%, resulted in a decrease (P = 0.042) in villus heights (1,782 vs. 1,574 µm), whereas crypt depths increased (P = 0.021; 237 vs. 274 µm). A coarse diet improved feed intake (P = 0.006), BW gain (P = 0.014), and feed conversion ratio (P = 0.009). Broilers fed coarse diets had approximately 11, 24, and 10% lower relative empty weights of the crop, proventriculus, and jejunum, respectively, whereas a 15% heavier gizzard was found compared with those fed the fine diets. Dietary coarseness resulted in approximately 16% lower gizzard pH, 21% greater villus heights, 27% lower crypt depths, 24% reduced branched-chain fatty acids, and 12% lower biogenic amines in the cecal digesta compared with broilers fed fine diets. In conclusion, feeding coarse particles improved broiler performance irrespective of digestibility of the diet. Hindgut protein fermentation can be reduced by coarse grinding of the diet.

  2. Effect of the quality of the interaction data on predicting protein function from protein-protein interactions.

    PubMed

    Ni, Qing-Shan; Wang, Zheng-Zhi; Li, Gang-Guo; Wang, Guang-Yun; Zhao, Ying-Jie

    2009-03-01

    Protein function prediction is an important issue in the post-genomic era. When protein function is deduced from protein interaction data, the traditional methods treat each interaction sample equally, where the qualities of the interaction samples are seldom taken into account. In this paper, we investigate the effect of the quality of protein-protein interaction data on predicting protein function. Moreover, two improved methods, weight neighbour counting method (WNC) and weight chi-square method (WCHI), are proposed by considering the quality of interaction samples with the neighbour counting method (NC) and chi-square method (CHI). Experimental results have shown that the qualities of interaction samples affect the performances of protein function prediction methods seriously. It is also demonstrated that WNC and WCHI methods outperform NC and CHI methods in protein function prediction when example weights are chosen properly.

  3. Natural Photoreceptors as a Source of Fluorescent Proteins, Biosensors, and Optogenetic Tools

    PubMed Central

    Shcherbakova, Daria M.; Shemetov, Anton A.; Kaberniuk, Andrii A.; Verkhusha, Vladislav V.

    2015-01-01

    Genetically encoded optical tools have revolutionized modern biology by allowing detection and control of biological processes with exceptional spatiotemporal precision and sensitivity. Natural photoreceptors provide researchers with a vast source of molecular templates for engineering of fluorescent proteins, biosensors, and optogenetic tools. Here, we give a brief overview of natural photoreceptors and their mechanisms of action. We then discuss fluorescent proteins and biosensors developed from light-oxygen-voltage-sensing (LOV) domains and phytochromes, as well as their properties and applications. These fluorescent tools possess unique characteristics not achievable with green fluorescent protein–like probes, including near-infrared fluorescence, independence of oxygen, small size, and photo-sensitizer activity. We next provide an overview of available optogenetic tools of various origins, such as LOV and BLUF (blue-light-utilizing flavin adenine dinucleotide) domains, cryptochromes, and phytochromes, enabling control of versatile cellular processes. We analyze the principles of their function and practical requirements for use. We focus mainly on optical tools with demonstrated use beyond bacteria, with a specific emphasis on their applications in mammalian cells. PMID:25706899

  4. MALDI In-Source Decay of Protein: The Mechanism of c-Ion Formation

    PubMed Central

    Takayama, Mitsuo

    2016-01-01

    The in-source decay (ISD) phenomenon, the fragmentation at an N–Cα bond of a peptide backbone that occurs within several tens of nanoseconds in the ion-source in matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI MS), is discussed from the standpoints of the discovery and early publications dealing with MALDI-ISD, the formation of c-ions in energy-sudden desorption/ionization methods, the formation of radical species in a MALDI, model construction for ISD, and matrix materials that are suitable for use in MALDI-ISD. The formation of c-ions derived from peptides and proteins in MALDI-ISD can be rationalized by a mechanism involving intermolecular hydrogen transfer, denoted as the “Takayama’s model” by De Pauw’s group (Anal. Chem. 79: 8678–8685, 2007). It should be emphasized that the model for MALDI-ISD was constructed on the basis of X-ray crystallography and scanning probe microscopy (SPM) analyses of matrix crystals, as well as the use of isotopically-labelled peptides. PMID:27162707

  5. Effect of distributed heat source on low frequency thermoacoustic instabilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Lei; Yang, Lijun; Sun, Xiaofeng

    2013-06-01

    The problem of thermoacoustic instabilities in the combustor of modern air-breathing engines has become a topic of concern, which occurs as a result of unstable coupling between the heat release fluctuations and acoustic perturbations. A three-dimensional thermoacoustic model including the distributed non-uniform heat source and non-uniform flow is developed based on the domain decomposition spectral method. The importance of distributed heat source on combustion instabilities of longitudinal modes is analyzed with the help of a simplified geometrical configuration of combustor. The results show that the longitudinal distribution of heat source has a crucial effect on instabilities. In addition, the effect of circumferentially non-uniform heat source and non-uniform flow on longitudinal instabilities is also investigated. It can be found that the influence of circumferential non-uniformity can become significant on the lowest frequency instabilities, in particular, the oscillation frequency and growth rate are all evidently affected by temperature non-uniformity and time delay non-uniformity.

  6. Radiation thermometer size-of-source effect testing using aperture

    SciTech Connect

    Liebmann, F.; Kolat, T.

    2013-09-11

    Size-of-source effect is an important attribute of any radiation thermometer. The effects of this attribute may be quantified in a number of different ways to include field-of-view, distance ratio, or size-of-source effect. These parameters provide needed information for the user of a radiation thermometer, as they aid in determining whether the measured object is large enough for adequate radiation thermometry measurement. Just as important, these parameters provide needed information for calibration. This information helps to determine calibration geometry, and it is needed for calibration uncertainty determination. For determination of size-of-source effect, there are a limited number of test methods furnished by the standards available today. The test methods available may be cumbersome to perform due to the cost of the required equipment and the time needed to set-up and perform the test. Other methods have been proposed. This paper discusses one such method. This method uses a circular aperture such as that used in radiation thermometer calibration. It describes the method both theoretically and mechanically. It then discusses testing done to verify this method comparing the results to those obtained while performing steps in current standards. Finally, based on this testing, the basis for a new standard test method is presented.

  7. Quantitative Characterization of Local Protein Solvation To Predict Solvent Effects on Protein Structure

    PubMed Central

    Vagenende, Vincent; Trout, Bernhardt L.

    2012-01-01

    Characterization of solvent preferences of proteins is essential to the understanding of solvent effects on protein structure and stability. Although it is generally believed that solvent preferences at distinct loci of a protein surface may differ, quantitative characterization of local protein solvation has remained elusive. In this study, we show that local solvation preferences can be quantified over the entire protein surface from extended molecular dynamics simulations. By subjecting microsecond trajectories of two proteins (lysozyme and antibody fragment D1.3) in 4 M glycerol to rigorous statistical analyses, solvent preferences of individual protein residues are quantified by local preferential interaction coefficients. Local solvent preferences for glycerol vary widely from residue to residue and may change as a result of protein side-chain motions that are slower than the longest intrinsic solvation timescale of ∼10 ns. Differences of local solvent preferences between distinct protein side-chain conformations predict solvent effects on local protein structure in good agreement with experiment. This study extends the application scope of preferential interaction theory and enables molecular understanding of solvent effects on protein structure through comprehensive characterization of local protein solvation. PMID:22995508

  8. Generic effective source for scalar self-force calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wardell, Barry; Vega, Ian; Thornburg, Jonathan; Diener, Peter

    2012-05-01

    A leading approach to the modeling of extreme mass ratio inspirals involves the treatment of the smaller mass as a point particle and the computation of a regularized self-force acting on that particle. In turn, this computation requires knowledge of the regularized retarded field generated by the particle. A direct calculation of this regularized field may be achieved by replacing the point particle with an effective source and solving directly a wave equation for the regularized field. This has the advantage that all quantities are finite and require no further regularization. In this work, we present a method for computing an effective source which is finite and continuous everywhere, and which is valid for a scalar point particle in arbitrary geodesic motion in an arbitrary background spacetime. We explain in detail various technical and practical considerations that underlie its use in several numerical self-force calculations. We consider as examples the cases of a particle in a circular orbit about Schwarzschild and Kerr black holes, and also the case of a particle following a generic timelike geodesic about a highly spinning Kerr black hole. We provide numerical C code for computing an effective source for various orbital configurations about Schwarzschild and Kerr black holes.

  9. An analysis of source structure effects in radio interferometry measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, J. B.

    1980-01-01

    To begin a study of structure effects, this report presents a theoretical framework, proposes an effective position approach to structure corrections based on brightness distribution measurements, and analyzes examples of analytical and measured brightness distributions. Other topics include the effect of the frequency dependence of a brightness distribution on bandwidth synthesis (BWS) delay, the determination of the absolute location of a measured brightness distribution, and structure effects in dual frequency calibration of charged particle delays. For the 10 measured distributions analyzed, it was found that the structure effect in BWS delay at X-band (3.6 cm) can reach 30 cm, but typically falls in the range of 0 to 5 cm. A trial limit equation that is dependent on visibility was successfully tested against the 10 measured brightness distributions (seven sources). If the validity of this particular equation for an upper limit can be established for nearly all sources, the structure effect in BWS delay could be greatly reduced without supplementary measurements of brightness distributions.

  10. Incidence of the enterococcal surface protein (esp) gene in human and animal fecal sources.

    PubMed

    Whitman, Richard L; Przybyla-Kelly, Katarzyna; Shively, Dawn A; Byappanahalli, Muruleedhara N

    2007-09-01

    The occurrence of the enterococcal surface protein (esp) gene in the opportunistic pathogens Enterococcus faecalis and E. faecium is well-documented in clinical research. Recently, the esp gene has been proposed as a marker of human pollution in environmental waters; however, information on its relative incidence in various human and animal fecal sources is limited. We have determined the occurrence of the esp gene in enterococci from human (n=64) and animal (n=233) fecal samples by polymerase chain reaction using two primer sets: one presumably specific for E. faecium (esp(fm)) and the other for both E. faecalis and E. faecium (esp(fs/fm)). We believe that this research is the first to explore the use of esp(fs/fm) for the detection of human waste in natural environmental settings. The incidence in human sources was 93.1% esp(fm) and 100% esp(fs/fm) in raw sewage influent; 30% for both esp(fm) and esp(fs/fm) in septic waste; and 0% esp(fm) and 80% esp(fs/fm) in active pit toilets. The overall occurrence of the gene in animal feces was 7.7% (esp(fs/fm)) and 4.7% (esp(fm)); animal types with positive results included dogs (9/43, all esp(fm)), gulls (10/34, esp(fs/fm); 2/34, esp(fm)), mice (3/22, all esp(fs/fm)), and songbirds (5/55, all esp(fs/fm)). The esp gene was not detected in cat (0/34), deer (0/4), goose (0/18), or raccoon (0/23) feces. The inconsistent occurrence, especially in septic and pit toilet sewage, suggests a low statistical power of discrimination between animal and human sources, which means a large number of replicates should be collected. Both esp(fm) and esp(fs/fm) were common in raw sewage, but neither one efficiently differentiated between animal and other human sources.

  11. Effects of Whey, Caseinate, or Milk Protein Ingestion on Muscle Protein Synthesis after Exercise.

    PubMed

    Kanda, Atsushi; Nakayama, Kyosuke; Sanbongi, Chiaki; Nagata, Masashi; Ikegami, Shuji; Itoh, Hiroyuki

    2016-06-03

    Whey protein (WP) is characterized as a "fast" protein and caseinate (CA) as a "slow" protein according to their digestion and absorption rates. We hypothesized that co-ingestion of milk proteins (WP and CA) may be effective for prolonging the muscle protein synthesis response compared to either protein alone. We therefore compared the effect of ingesting milk protein (MP) to either WP or CA alone on muscle protein synthesis after exercise in rats. We also compared the effects of these milk-derived proteins to a control, soy protein (SP). Male Sprague-Dawley rats swam for two hours. Immediately after exercise, one of the following four solutions was administered: WP, CA, MP, or SP. Individual rats were euthanized at designated postprandial time points and triceps muscle samples collected for measurement of the protein fractional synthesis rate (FSR). FSR tended to increase in all groups post-ingestion, although the initial peaks of FSR occurred at different times (WP, peak time = 60 min, FSR = 7.76%/day; MP, peak time = 90 min, FSR = 8.34%/day; CA, peak time = 120 min, FSR = 7.85%/day). Milk-derived proteins caused significantly greater increases (p < 0.05) in FSR compared with SP at different times (WP, 60 min; MP, 90 and 120 min; CA, 120 min). Although statistical analysis could not be performed, the calculated the area under the curve (AUC) values for FSR following this trend were: MP, 534.61; CA, 498.22; WP, 473.46; and SP, 406.18. We conclude that ingestion of MP, CA or WP causes the initial peak time in muscle protein synthesis to occur at different times (WP, fast; MP, intermediate; CA, slow) and the dairy proteins have a superior effect on muscle protein synthesis after exercise compared with SP.

  12. Effects of Whey, Caseinate, or Milk Protein Ingestion on Muscle Protein Synthesis after Exercise

    PubMed Central

    Kanda, Atsushi; Nakayama, Kyosuke; Sanbongi, Chiaki; Nagata, Masashi; Ikegami, Shuji; Itoh, Hiroyuki

    2016-01-01

    Whey protein (WP) is characterized as a “fast” protein and caseinate (CA) as a “slow” protein according to their digestion and absorption rates. We hypothesized that co-ingestion of milk proteins (WP and CA) may be effective for prolonging the muscle protein synthesis response compared to either protein alone. We therefore compared the effect of ingesting milk protein (MP) to either WP or CA alone on muscle protein synthesis after exercise in rats. We also compared the effects of these milk-derived proteins to a control, soy protein (SP). Male Sprague-Dawley rats swam for two hours. Immediately after exercise, one of the following four solutions was administered: WP, CA, MP, or SP. Individual rats were euthanized at designated postprandial time points and triceps muscle samples collected for measurement of the protein fractional synthesis rate (FSR). FSR tended to increase in all groups post-ingestion, although the initial peaks of FSR occurred at different times (WP, peak time = 60 min, FSR = 7.76%/day; MP, peak time = 90 min, FSR = 8.34%/day; CA, peak time = 120 min, FSR = 7.85%/day). Milk-derived proteins caused significantly greater increases (p < 0.05) in FSR compared with SP at different times (WP, 60 min; MP, 90 and 120 min; CA, 120 min). Although statistical analysis could not be performed, the calculated the area under the curve (AUC) values for FSR following this trend were: MP, 534.61; CA, 498.22; WP, 473.46; and SP, 406.18. We conclude that ingestion of MP, CA or WP causes the initial peak time in muscle protein synthesis to occur at different times (WP, fast; MP, intermediate; CA, slow) and the dairy proteins have a superior effect on muscle protein synthesis after exercise compared with SP. PMID:27271661

  13. Specific ion and buffer effects on protein-protein interactions of a monoclonal antibody.

    PubMed

    Roberts, D; Keeling, R; Tracka, M; van der Walle, C F; Uddin, S; Warwicker, J; Curtis, R

    2015-01-05

    Better predictive ability of salt and buffer effects on protein-protein interactions requires separating out contributions due to ionic screening, protein charge neutralization by ion binding, and salting-in(out) behavior. We have carried out a systematic study by measuring protein-protein interactions for a monoclonal antibody over an ionic strength range of 25 to 525 mM at 4 pH values (5, 6.5, 8, and 9) in solutions containing sodium chloride, calcium chloride, sodium sulfate, or sodium thiocyante. The salt ions are chosen so as to represent a range of affinities for protein charged and noncharged groups. The results are compared to effects of various buffers including acetate, citrate, phosphate, histidine, succinate, or tris. In low ionic strength solutions, anion binding affinity is reflected by the ability to reduce protein-protein repulsion, which follows the order thiocyanate > sulfate > chloride. The sulfate specific effect is screened at the same ionic strength required to screen the pH dependence of protein-protein interactions indicating sulfate binding only neutralizes protein charged groups. Thiocyanate specific effects occur over a larger ionic strength range reflecting adsorption to charged and noncharged regions of the protein. The latter leads to salting-in behavior and, at low pH, a nonmonotonic interaction profile with respect to sodium thiocyanate concentration. The effects of thiocyanate can not be rationalized in terms of only neutralizing double layer forces indicating the presence of an additional short-ranged protein-protein attraction at moderate ionic strength. Conversely, buffer specific effects can be explained through a charge neutralization mechanism, where buffers with greater valency are more effective at reducing double layer forces at low pH. Citrate binding at pH 6.5 leads to protein charge inversion and the formation of attractive electrostatic interactions. Throughout the report, we highlight similarities in the measured

  14. Human gut endogenous proteins as a potential source of angiotensin-I-converting enzyme (ACE-I)-, renin inhibitory and antioxidant peptides.

    PubMed

    Dave, Lakshmi A; Hayes, Maria; Montoya, Carlos A; Rutherfurd, Shane M; Moughan, Paul J

    2016-02-01

    It is well known that endogenous bioactive proteins and peptides play a substantial role in the body's first line of immunological defence, immune-regulation and normal body functioning. Further, the peptides derived from the luminal digestion of proteins are also important for body function. For example, within the peptide database BIOPEP (http://www.uwm.edu.pl/biochemia/index.php/en/biopep) 12 endogenous antimicrobial and 64 angiotensin-I-converting enzyme (ACE-I) inhibitory peptides derived from human milk and plasma proteins are listed. The antimicrobial peptide database (http://aps.unmc.edu/AP/main.php) lists over 111 human host-defence peptides. Several endogenous proteins are secreted in the gut and are subject to the same gastrointestinal digestion processes as food proteins derived from the diet. The human gut endogenous proteins (GEP) include mucins, serum albumin, digestive enzymes, hormones, and proteins from sloughed off epithelial cells and gut microbiota, and numerous other secreted proteins. To date, much work has been carried out regarding the health altering effects of food-derived bioactive peptides but little attention has been paid to the possibility that GEP may also be a source of bioactive peptides. In this review, we discuss the potential of GEP to constitute a gut cryptome from which bioactive peptides such as ACE-I inhibitory, renin inhibitory and antioxidant peptides may be derived.

  15. Protein Traffic Disorders: an Effective High-Throughput Fluorescence Microscopy Pipeline for Drug Discovery

    PubMed Central

    Botelho, Hugo M.; Uliyakina, Inna; Awatade, Nikhil T.; Proença, Maria C.; Tischer, Christian; Sirianant, Lalida; Kunzelmann, Karl; Pepperkok, Rainer; Amaral, Margarida D.

    2015-01-01

    Plasma membrane proteins are essential molecules in the cell which mediate interactions with the exterior milieu, thus representing key drug targets for present pharma. Not surprisingly, protein traffic disorders include a large range of diseases sharing the common mechanism of failure in the respective protein to reach the plasma membrane. However, specific therapies for these diseases are remarkably lacking. Herein, we report a robust platform for drug discovery applied to a paradigmatic genetic disorder affecting intracellular trafficking – Cystic Fibrosis. This platform includes (i) two original respiratory epithelial cellular models incorporating an inducible double-tagged traffic reporter; (ii) a plasma membrane protein traffic assay for high-throughput microscopy screening; and (iii) open-source image analysis software to quantify plasma membrane protein traffic. By allowing direct scoring of compounds rescuing the basic traffic defect, this platform enables an effective drug development pipeline, which can be promptly adapted to any traffic disorder-associated protein and leverage therapy development efforts. PMID:25762484

  16. Effect of diet composition on protein requirements of children and adults in northern Mexico.

    PubMed

    Ballesteros, M N; Valencia, M E; Brown, D S

    1993-01-01

    The overall vegetable and animal protein combinations of the diet in Northern Mexico were determined through a dietary population survey. Vegetable sources made up 45% and animal protein was 55% (45V/55A). Further combinations of up to 100% vegetable protein dietary mixtures (100V) were studied to test the sensibility of the variations on protein requirements of pre-school, school children and adults. Diets were analyzed for amino acid composition and in vivo protein digestibility in rats to estimate true protein requirements according to FAO/WHO/UNU (1985). The effect on the pre-school group showed the widest variation with 1.46 g/kg/day in the 45V/55A to 2.63 in the 100V. For the school-aged children and adults the variations were 1.15-1.79 and 0.94-0.84 g/kg/day respectively.

  17. The Effect of Protein Impurities on Lysozyme Crystal Growth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Judge, Russell A.; Forsythe, Elizabeth L.; Pusey, Marc L.

    1998-01-01

    While bulk crystallization from impure solutions is used industrially as a purification step for a wide variety of materials, it is a technique that has rarely been used for proteins. Proteins have a reputation for being difficult to crystallize and high purity of the initial crystallization solution is considered paramount for success in the crystallization. Although little is written on the purifying capability of protein crystallization or of the effect of impurities on the various aspects of the crystallization process, recent published reports show that crystallization shows promise and feasibility as a purification technique for proteins. In order to further examine the issue of purity in macromolecule crystallization this study investigates the effect of the protein impurities, avidin, ovalbumin and conalbumin, at concentrations up to 50%, on the solubility, crystal face growth rates and crystal purity, of the protein lysozyme. Solubility was measured in batch experiments while a computer controlled video microscope system was used to measure the f {101} and {101} lysozyme crystal face growth rates. While little effect was observed on solubility and high crystal purity was obtained (>99.99%), the effect of the impurities on the face growth rates varied from no effect to a significant face specific effect leading to growth cessation, a phenomenon that is frequently observed in protein crystal growth. The results shed interesting light on the effect of protein impurities on protein crystal growth and strengthen the feasibility of using crystallization as a unit operation for protein purification.

  18. Effect of Ultrasound in Soybean Protein Extraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukase, Hirokazu; Ohdaira, Etsuzo; Masuzawa, Nobuyoshi; Ide, Masao

    1994-05-01

    Application of ultrasound for accelerating the extraction of nutriments in food processing has been attempted. However, conditions of exposure to ultrasound were not clear in previous studies. This paper reports on the relationship between the ultrasonic pressure and the amount of extracted protein from soybeans. Experiments were conducted using a beaker, in which the ultrasonic fields were precisely measured. Soybean flakes suspended in water were put in the beaker and placed in a water tank. The amount of extracted protein in water upon ultrasonic exposure was calculated by the Kjeldahl method. It was found that the amount of extracted protein increased in proportion to ultrasonic pressure up to the total amount of soybean protein soluble in water. Furthermore, this paper describes the denaturation of the protein produced by the ultrasonic cavitation.

  19. Effects of ultrasound on the thermal and structural characteristics of proteins in reconstituted whey protein concentrate.

    PubMed

    Chandrapala, Jayani; Zisu, Bogdan; Palmer, Martin; Kentish, Sandra; Ashokkumar, Muthupandian

    2011-09-01

    The sonication-induced changes in the structural and thermal properties of proteins in reconstituted whey protein concentrate (WPC) solutions were examined. Differential scanning calorimetry, UV-vis, fluorescence and circular dichroism spectroscopic techniques were used to determine the thermal properties of proteins, measure thiol groups and monitor changes to protein hydrophobicity and secondary structure, respectively. The enthalpy of denaturation decreased when WPC solutions were sonicated for up to 5 min. Prolonged sonication increased the enthalpy of denaturation due to protein aggregation. Sonication did not alter the thiol content but resulted in minor changes to the secondary structure and hydrophobicity of the protein. Overall, the sonication process had little effect on the structure of proteins in WPC solutions which is critical to preserving functional properties during the ultrasonic processing of whey protein based dairy products.

  20. Self-Heating Effects In Polysilicon Source Gated Transistors

    PubMed Central

    Sporea, R. A.; Burridge, T.; Silva, S. R. P.

    2015-01-01

    Source-gated transistors (SGTs) are thin-film devices which rely on a potential barrier at the source to achieve high gain, tolerance to fabrication variability, and low series voltage drop, relevant to a multitude of energy-efficient, large-area, cost effective applications. The current through the reverse-biased source barrier has a potentially high positive temperature coefficient, which may lead to undesirable thermal runaway effects and even device failure through self-heating. Using numerical simulations we show that, even in highly thermally-confined scenarios and at high current levels, self-heating is insufficient to compromise device integrity. Performance is minimally affected through a modest increase in output conductance, which may limit the maximum attainable gain. Measurements on polysilicon devices confirm the simulated results, with even smaller penalties in performance, largely due to improved heat dissipation through metal contacts. We conclude that SGTs can be reliably used for high gain, power efficient analog and digital circuits without significant performance impact due to self-heating. This further demonstrates the robustness of SGTs. PMID:26351099

  1. Competing Sound Sources Reveal Spatial Effects in Cortical Processing

    PubMed Central

    Maddox, Ross K.; Billimoria, Cyrus P.; Perrone, Ben P.; Shinn-Cunningham, Barbara G.; Sen, Kamal

    2012-01-01

    Why is spatial tuning in auditory cortex weak, even though location is important to object recognition in natural settings? This question continues to vex neuroscientists focused on linking physiological results to auditory perception. Here we show that the spatial locations of simultaneous, competing sound sources dramatically influence how well neural spike trains recorded from the zebra finch field L (an analog of mammalian primary auditory cortex) encode source identity. We find that the location of a birdsong played in quiet has little effect on the fidelity of the neural encoding of the song. However, when the song is presented along with a masker, spatial effects are pronounced. For each spatial configuration, a subset of neurons encodes song identity more robustly than others. As a result, competing sources from different locations dominate responses of different neural subpopulations, helping to separate neural responses into independent representations. These results help elucidate how cortical processing exploits spatial information to provide a substrate for selective spatial auditory attention. PMID:22563301

  2. Air Pollution in Megacities: Sources and Regional/Global Effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Artaxo, P.

    2007-12-01

    Air Pollution in Megacities is increasing significantly in all continents. The socio-economic and health problems are escalating, especially in developing countries. In terms of sources, urban transportation is relevant in most cities, as well as industrial pollution. In Latin American Cities such as Sao Paulo, Mexico City and Santiago, serious governmental efforts are being doing to reduce emissions and effects. Latin America has about 300 cities with population above 300.000 people. In Sao Paulo, the significant increase in the use of ethanol as fuel brings important increase in aldehyde concentrations. In all 3 Megacities, high aerosol concentrations are observed, with clear effects on population health. Large studies on aerosol source apportionment were done in these 3 cities, and detailed results will be presented. Quantification of aerosol sources is a problem, especially in the organic aerosol component that is high in most of Megacities. In Asia and Africa, the problems are similar as in Latin America, and the large emissions from these urban centers are relevant and needs to be taken into account in policies to reduce carbon dioxide emissions.

  3. The effect of light-activation sources on tooth bleaching

    PubMed Central

    Baroudi, Kusai; Hassan, Nadia Aly

    2014-01-01

    Vital bleaching is one of the most requested cosmetic dental procedures asked by patients who seek a more pleasing smile. This procedure consists of carbamide or hydrogen peroxide gel applications that can be applied in-office or by the patient (at-home/overnight bleaching system). Some in-office treatments utilise whitening light with the objective of speeding up the whitening process. The objective of this article is to review and summarise the current literature with regard to the effect of light-activation sources on in-office tooth bleaching. A literature search was conducted using Medline, accessed via the National Library of Medicine Pub Med from 2003 to 2013 searching for articles relating to effectiveness of light activation sources on in-office tooth bleaching. This study found conflicting evidence on whether light truly improve tooth whitening. Other factors such as, type of stain, initial tooth colour and subject age which can influence tooth bleaching outcome were discussed. Conclusions: The use of light activator sources with in-office bleaching treatment of vital teeth did not increase the efficacy of bleaching or accelerate the bleaching. PMID:25298598

  4. Effective protein extraction protocol for proteomics studies of Jerusalem artichoke leaves.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Meide; Shen, Shihua

    2013-07-01

    Protein extraction is a crucial step for proteomics studies. To establish an effective protein extraction protocol suitable for two-dimensional electrophoresis (2DE) analysis in Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus L.), three different protein extraction methods-trichloroacetic acid/acetone, Mg/NP-40, and phenol/ammonium acetate-were evaluated using Jerusalem artichoke leaves as source materials. Of the three methods, trichloroacetic acid/acetone yielded the best protein separation pattern and highest number of protein spots in 2DE analysis. Proteins highly abundant in leaves, such as Rubisco, are typically problematic during leaf 2DE analysis, however, and this disadvantage was evident using trichloroacetic acid/acetone. To reduce the influence of abundant proteins on the detection of low-abundance proteins, we optimized the trichloroacetic acid/acetone method by incorporating a PEG fractionation approach. After optimization, 363 additional (36.2%) protein spots were detected on the 2DE gel. Our results suggest that trichloroacetic acid/acetone method is a better protein extraction technique than Mg/NP-40 and phenol/ammonium acetate in Jerusalem artichoke leaf 2DE analysis, and that trichloroacetic acid/acetone method combined with PEG fractionation procedure is the most effective approach for leaf 2DE analysis of Jerusalem artichoke.

  5. Feeding value of field pea as a protein source in forage-based diets fed to beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Soto-Navarro, S A; Encinias, A M; Bauer, M L; Lardy, G P; Caton, J S

    2012-02-01

    Three studies were conducted to evaluate the feasibility of field peas as a protein source in diets for beef cattle. In the first study, 4 cultivars of field pea were incubated in situ to determine rate and extent of CP disappearance. Results indicate that field pea cultivars vary in CP content (22.6, 26.1, 22.6, and 19.4%, DM basis for Profi, Arvika, Carneval, and Trapper, respectively). Soluble protein fraction ranged from 34.9% for Trapper to 54.9% for Profi. Degradable CP fraction was greater (P = 0.01) for Trapper compared with the other cultivars, and no differences (P ≥ 0.25) were observed among Profi, Arvika, and Carneval. Rate of CP degradation differed (P ≤ 0.03) for all cultivars, with Profi being the greatest and Trapper the smallest (10.8, 10.0, 8.1, and 6.3 ± 1.4%/h for Profi, Carneval, Arvika, and Trapper, respectively). Estimated RDP was not different (P = 0.21) for all 4 cultivars. In the second study, 30 crossbred beef steers (301 ± 15 kg) were individually fed and used to evaluate effects of field pea processing (whole, rolled, or ground) on steer performance. Diets contained 40% field pea grain. Growing steers consuming whole field pea had greater ADG (P = 0.08) than those consuming processed field pea (1.69, 1.52, and 1.63 ± 0.05 kg/d, for whole, rolled, and ground, respectively). However, DMI (kg/d and as % of BW) and G:F were not different (P ≥ 0.24). In the third study, 35 individually fed gestating beef cows (694 ± 17 kg) were used to evaluate the use of field pea as a protein supplement for medium quality grass hay (9.3% CP). Treatments consisted of whole field peas at 1) 0 g (CON), 2) 680 g (FP680), 3) 1,360 g (FP1360), and 4) 2,040 g (FP2040), and 5) 1,360 g of 74% barley and 26% canola meal (BCM). Total intake (forage + supplement) of gestating beef cows increased with increasing field pea level (linear, P = 0.01; supplemented vs. nonsupplemented, P = 0.01). In summary, protein quantity and rate of ruminal protein degradation

  6. The Association Between Protein Intake by Source and Osteoporotic Fracture in Older Men: A Prospective Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Langsetmo, Lisa; Shikany, James M; Cawthon, Peggy M; Cauley, Jane A; Taylor, Brent C; Vo, Tien N; Bauer, Douglas C; Orwoll, Eric S; Schousboe, John T; Ensrud, Kristine E

    2017-03-01

    Dietary protein is a potentially modifiable risk factor for fracture. Our objectives were to assess the association of protein intake with incident fracture among older men and whether these associations varied by protein source or by skeletal site. We studied a longitudinal cohort of 5875 men (mean age 73.6 ± 5.9 years) in the Osteoporotic Fractures in Men (MrOS) study. At baseline, protein intake was assessed as percent of total energy intake (TEI) with mean intake from all sources = 16.1%TEI. Incident clinical fractures were confirmed by physician review of medical records. There were 612 major osteoporotic fractures, 806 low-trauma fractures, 270 hip fractures, 193 spine fractures, and 919 non-hip non-spine fractures during 15 years of follow-up. We used Cox proportional hazards models with age, race, height, clinical site, TEI, physical activity, marital status, osteoporosis, gastrointestinal surgery, smoking, oral corticosteroids use, alcohol consumption, and calcium and vitamin D supplements as covariates to compute hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs), all expressed per unit (SD = 2.9%TEI) increase. Higher protein intake was associated with a decreased risk of major osteoporotic fracture (HR = 0.92; 95% CI, 0.84 to 1.00) with a similar association found for low-trauma fracture. The association between protein and fracture varied by protein source; eg, increased dairy protein and non-dairy animal protein were associated with a decreased risk of hip fracture (HR = 0.80 [95% CI, 0.65 to 0.98] and HR = 0.84 [95% CI, 0.72 to 0.97], respectively), whereas plant-source protein was not (HR = 0.99 [95% CI, 0.78 to 1.24]). The association between protein and fracture varied by fracture site; total protein was associated with a decreased risk of hip fracture (HR = 0.84 [95% CI, 0.73 to 0.95]), but not clinical spine fracture (HR = 1.06 [95% CI, 0.92 to 1.22]). In conclusion, those with high protein intake

  7. Profile of new green fluorescent protein transgenic Jinhua pigs as an imaging source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawarasaki, Tatsuo; Uchiyama, Kazuhiko; Hirao, Atsushi; Azuma, Sadahiro; Otake, Masayoshi; Shibata, Masatoshi; Tsuchiya, Seiko; Enosawa, Shin; Takeuchi, Koichi; Konno, Kenjiro; Hakamata, Yoji; Yoshino, Hiroyuki; Wakai, Takuya; Ookawara, Shigeo; Tanaka, Hozumi; Kobayashi, Eiji; Murakami, Takashi

    2009-09-01

    Animal imaging sources have become an indispensable material for biological sciences. Specifically, gene-encoded biological probes serve as stable and high-performance tools to visualize cellular fate in living animals. We use a somatic cell cloning technique to create new green fluorescent protein (GFP)-expressing Jinhua pigs with a miniature body size, and characterized the expression profile in various tissues/organs and ex vivo culture conditions. The born GFP-transgenic pig demonstrate an organ/tissue-dependent expression pattern. Strong GFP expression is observed in the skeletal muscle, pancreas, heart, and kidney. Regarding cellular levels, bone-marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cells, hepatocytes, and islet cells of the pancreas also show sufficient expression with the unique pattern. Moreover, the cloned pigs demonstrate normal growth and fertility, and the introduced GFP gene is stably transmitted to pigs in subsequent generations. The new GFP-expressing Jinhua pigs may be used as new cellular/tissue light resources for biological imaging in preclinical research fields such as tissue engineering, experimental regenerative medicine, and transplantation.

  8. Hypocholesterolaemic effects of lupin protein and pea protein/fibre combinations in moderately hypercholesterolaemic individuals.

    PubMed

    Sirtori, Cesare R; Triolo, Michela; Bosisio, Raffaella; Bondioli, Alighiero; Calabresi, Laura; De Vergori, Viviana; Gomaraschi, Monica; Mombelli, Giuliana; Pazzucconi, Franco; Zacherl, Christian; Arnoldi, Anna

    2012-04-01

    The present study was aimed to evaluate the effect of plant proteins (lupin protein or pea protein) and their combinations with soluble fibres (oat fibre or apple pectin) on plasma total and LDL-cholesterol levels. A randomised, double-blind, parallel group design was followed: after a 4-week run-in period, participants were randomised into seven treatment groups, each consisting of twenty-five participants. Each group consumed two bars containing specific protein/fibre combinations: the reference group consumed casein+cellulose; the second and third groups consumed bars containing lupin or pea proteins+cellulose; the fourth and fifth groups consumed bars containing casein and oat fibre or apple pectin; the sixth group and seventh group received bars containing combinations of pea protein and oat fibre or apple pectin, respectively. Bars containing lupin protein+cellulose ( - 116 mg/l, - 4·2%), casein+apple pectin ( - 152 mg/l, - 5·3%), pea protein+oat fibre ( - 135 mg/l, - 4·7%) or pea protein+apple pectin ( - 168 mg/l, - 6·4%) resulted in significant reductions of total cholesterol levels (P<0·05), whereas no cholesterol changes were observed in the subjects consuming the bars containing casein+cellulose, casein+oat fibre or pea protein+cellulose. The present study shows the hypocholesterolaemic activity and potential clinical benefits of consuming lupin protein or combinations of pea protein and a soluble fibre, such as oat fibre or apple pectin.

  9. Effect of whey protein and glycomacropeptide on measures of satiety in normal-weight adult women.

    PubMed

    Chungchunlam, Sylvia M S; Henare, Sharon J; Ganesh, Siva; Moughan, Paul J

    2014-07-01

    Protein is the most satiating macronutrient and dairy whey protein is thought to be more satiating than other protein sources. The purported satiating effect of whey protein may be attributable to the presence of glycomacropeptide (GMP). The objective of this study was to investigate the role of GMP in the satiating effect of whey protein. Isoenergetic (~1600 kJ) preload drinks contained GMP isolate (86% GMP, "GMP"), whey protein isolate (WPI) with 21% naturally occurring GMP, WPI with 2% naturally present GMP, or maltodextrin carbohydrate ("carbohydrate"). Satiety was assessed in 22 normal-weight adult women by determining the consumption of a test meal provided ad libitum 120 min following ingestion of a preload drink, and also by using visual analogue scales (VAS) for rating feelings of hunger, desire to eat, prospective consumption and fullness (appetite). The ad libitum test meal intake was significantly different between the preload drinks (p = 0.0003), with food intake following ingestion of both WPI preload drinks (regardless of the amount of GMP) being ~18% lower compared with the beverages enriched with carbohydrate or GMP alone. There were no significant differences (p > 0.05) in the VAS-rated feelings of appetite among the four preload drinks. GMP alone did not reduce subsequent food intake compared with a drink enriched with carbohydrate, but whey protein had a greater satiating effect than carbohydrate. The presence of GMP in whey does not appear to be the cause of the observed effect of whey protein on satiety.

  10. Oxya hyla hyla (Orthoptera: Acrididae) as an Alternative Protein Source for Japanese Quail

    PubMed Central

    Das, Mousumi; Mandal, Suman Kalyan

    2014-01-01

    Nutrient composition of the grasshoppers Oxya hyla hyla showed that they are a rich nutrient source containing 687.7 g protein/kg of dry body weight. Their antinutrient values fell within nutritionally acceptable values of the poultry bird Coturnix japonica japonica (Japanese quail). The most required essential amino acids and fatty acids were also present in sufficient amount. For feeding trial nine diets were formulated on an equal crude protein (230 g/kg) basis with grasshopper meal, fish meal, and soybean meal. Three sets of diets with grasshopper meal were prepared with 50 g/kg, 100 g/kg, and 150 g/kg grasshopper of total feed. Similarly, other diet sets were prepared with fish meal and also with soybean meal. Results were compared with another group of Japanese quails fed on a reference diet that was considered as control. Two experiments were conducted with a total number of 600, seven-day-old, Japanese quails. In experiment 1 for determination of growth performance, quails were randomly distributed into ten groups of males and ten groups of females containing 30 birds each. In experiment 2 for determination of laying performance, identical ten groups were prepared in ten repetitions (2 females and 1 male in each group) from the six-week-old birds of experiment 1. Birds of diet set GM2 have gained the highest body weight (male 4.04 g/bird/day; female 5.01 g/bird/day) followed by birds of FM3 diet set (male 3.72 g/bird/day; female 4.40 g/bird/day), whereas birds of reference diet have gained 3.05 g/bird/day for male and 3.23 g/bird/day for female. Feed conversion ratio (FCR) of birds fed with GM2 was the lowest (male 3.33; female 2.97) whereas FCR of R group was higher (male 4.37; female 4.65) than grasshopper meal and fish meal based diets. Hen day production percentage was higher (72.2) in GM2 group, followed by FM3 (63.5) group. R group had lower 1st egg weight (9.0 g), weight gain (8.2 g), percentage of hen day production (41

  11. Protein-spanning water networks and implications for prediction of protein-protein interactions mediated through hydrophobic effects.

    PubMed

    Cui, Di; Ou, Shuching; Patel, Sandeep

    2014-12-01

    Hydrophobic effects, often conflated with hydrophobic forces, are implicated as major determinants in biological association and self-assembly processes. Protein-protein interactions involved in signaling pathways in living systems are a prime example where hydrophobic effects have profound implications. In the context of protein-protein interactions, a priori knowledge of relevant binding interfaces (i.e., clusters of residues involved directly with binding interactions) is difficult. In the case of hydrophobically mediated interactions, use of hydropathy-based methods relying on single residue hydrophobicity properties are routinely and widely used to predict propensities for such residues to be present in hydrophobic interfaces. However, recent studies suggest that consideration of hydrophobicity for single residues on a protein surface require accounting of the local environment dictated by neighboring residues and local water. In this study, we use a method derived from percolation theory to evaluate spanning water networks in the first hydration shells of a series of small proteins. We use residue-based water density and single-linkage clustering methods to predict hydrophobic regions of proteins; these regions are putatively involved in binding interactions. We find that this simple method is able to predict with sufficient accuracy and coverage the binding interface residues of a series of proteins. The approach is competitive with automated servers. The results of this study highlight the importance of accounting of local environment in determining the hydrophobic nature of individual residues on protein surfaces.

  12. Dual radio frequency plasma source: Understanding via electrical asymmetry effect

    SciTech Connect

    Bora, B.; Bhuyan, H.; Favre, M.; Wyndham, E.; Wong, C. S.

    2013-04-21

    On the basis of the global model, the influences of driving voltage and frequency on electron heating in geometrically symmetrical dual capacitively coupled radio frequency plasma have been investigated. Consistent with the experimental and simulation results, non-monotonic behavior of dc self bias and plasma heating with increasing high frequency is observed. In addition to the local maxima of plasma parameters for the integer values of the ratio between the frequencies ({xi}), ourstudies also predict local maxima for odd integer values of 2{xi} as a consequence of the electrical asymmetry effect produced by dual frequency voltage sources.

  13. Heating Has No Effect on the Net Protein Utilisation from Egg Whites in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Takahashi, Yayoi; Kimura, Mamoru; Masuda, Yasunobu; Kunou, Masaaki

    2017-01-01

    Egg whites (EW) are a good source of protein; however, they are typically heated prior to consumption. Therefore, we investigated the effects of different heating conditions on the protein utilisation rate of EW. Male Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 36, 198 ± 1 g) were divided into six groups and fed American Institute of Nutrition-76 chow containing unheated EW, soft-boiled EW, boiled EW, milk whey protein, soybean protein, or no protein over a 10-day period using pair-feeding. Urine and faeces were sampled daily beginning on day 5 to measure nitrogen content and the net protein utilisation (NPU) rate. The soybean protein group had a significantly lower level of food intake and was thus excluded from subsequent analyses. The NPU value was similar among the unheated, soft-boiled, and boiled EW groups (97.5 ± 0.4, 96.5 ± 0.1, and 96.5 ± 0.7, resp.). The EW group values were significantly higher than the whey group values (90.5 ± 1.0). These results show that EW serve as a good source of protein, irrespective of heating. PMID:28337477

  14. Determination of sulfur in human hair using high resolution continuum source graphite furnace molecular absorption spectrometry and its correlation with total protein and albumin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozbek, Nil; Baysal, Asli

    2017-04-01

    Human hair is a valuable contributor for biological monitoring. It is an information storage point to assess the effects of environmental, nutritional or occupational sources on the body. Human proteins, amino acids or other compounds are among the key components to find the sources of different effects or disorders in the human body. Sulfur is a significant one of these compounds, and it has great affinity to some metals and compounds. This property of the sulfur affects the human health positively or negatively. In this manuscript, sulfur was determined in hair samples of autistic and age-match control group children via molecular absorption of CS using a high-resolution continuum source graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometer. For this purpose, hair samples were appropriately washed and dried at 75 °C. Then samples were dissolved in microwave digestion using HNO3 for sulfur determination. Extraction was performed with HCl hydrolysation by incubation for 24 h at 110 °C for total protein and albumin determination. The validity of the method for the sulfur determination was tested using hair standard reference materials. The results were in the uncertainty limits of the certified values at 95% confidence level. Finally correlation of sulfur levels of autistic children's hair with their total protein and albumin levels were done.

  15. Rising atmospheric CO2 is reducing the protein concentration of a floral pollen source essential for North American bees

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Qualitative changes in floral pollen protein have been shown to be an important aspect of pollinator health. Flowering late in the season, goldenrod (Solidago spp.), provides an essential autumnal source of floral pollen for wild bee and honeybee populations prior to winter, with tall or Canada gol...

  16. Linking Aerosol Source Activities to Present and Future Climate Effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koch, D.; Bond, T. C.; Streets, D.; Menon, S.; Unger, N.

    2007-05-01

    Aerosol source sectors (transport, power, industry, residential, biomass burning) generate distinct mixtures of aerosol species. These mixtures in turn have different effects on climate. As sectoral emissions change in coming decades, whether by regulation or not, it is helpful to link pollution from source types to climate consequences. We do so, using our global (GISS GCM) aerosol model for present and future IPCC SRES scenarios. According to our model, residential and transport sectors have net positive 1995 aerosol forcings (0.04 and 0.03 W m-2) due to their large black carbon contents. However, the sulfate-dominated power and industry sectors have net negative 1995 forcings (-0.10 and -0.09 W m-2). Due to the near-balance of absorbing and scattering components, biomass burning forcing is small. For the 2050 SRES A1B scenario, the net (negative) aerosol forcing is double 1995 due primarily to increased sulfur emissions in the industry and power sectors. For 2050 B1 the net (negative) forcing decreases relative to 1995, as sulfur emissions are reduced. Both future scenarios project decreasing residential emissions. Yet transport emissions are expected to remain significant and thus become the dominant source of warming aerosols in the future. Aerosol pollution is projected to shift southward relative to the present, as the current industrialized regions generally reduce emissions and tropical and southern hemispheric regions continue to develop. Similar to these SRES scenarios, IIASA scenarios project a decline in residential emissions; however IIASA is more optimistic about transport sector emissions reductions. We will conduct present-day climate experiments, including aerosol direct and indirect effects, to study impacts of power and transport sectors on climate features such as air temperature and hydrologic cycle.

  17. Spectral properties of Hawaiian microearthquakes: source, site, and attenuation effects

    SciTech Connect

    Savage, M.K.

    1987-01-01

    Shear-wave spectra were determined for 397 Hawaiian earthquakes located near Kilauea Caldera, and on its south flank, with moments (M/sub 0/) from 10/sup 17.4/ to 10/sup 20.8/ dyne-cm. An inversion of the spectra averaged the path effects, and separated the source spectra from the effects of site response relative to assumed good stations. Large variations in site response explain the station dependence of corner frequencies and magnitude that were seen in earlier studies. The theoretical spectra for the Brune source model, modified by an assumed spectral decay parameter related to near-surface attenuation, were examined. Previous investigators hypothesized that the south flank of Kilauea is moving away from the rest of the island along the old oceanic sediment layer. The author suggests that this layer is divided into a rupture zone defined by the earthquakes at depths of 9 km, and one or two slide zones that allow sliding but not fracture. The smaller, shallower earthquakes may result from stresses in the block above the rupture zone, caused by motion of the block away from the rest of the island. The author speculates that near the rift zones, the old sedimentary layer has been strengthened and made capable of fracture by intrusion of sills into the sediments, or by thermal or hydrothermal alteration of sediments, or both.

  18. Mercury as a Global Pollutant: Sources, Pathways, and Effects

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Mercury (Hg) is a global pollutant that affects human and ecosystem health. We synthesize understanding of sources, atmosphere-land-ocean Hg dynamics and health effects, and consider the implications of Hg-control policies. Primary anthropogenic Hg emissions greatly exceed natural geogenic sources, resulting in increases in Hg reservoirs and subsequent secondary Hg emissions that facilitate its global distribution. The ultimate fate of emitted Hg is primarily recalcitrant soil pools and deep ocean waters and sediments. Transfers of Hg emissions to largely unavailable reservoirs occur over the time scale of centuries, and are primarily mediated through atmospheric exchanges of wet/dry deposition and evasion from vegetation, soil organic matter and ocean surfaces. A key link between inorganic Hg inputs and exposure of humans and wildlife is the net production of methylmercury, which occurs mainly in reducing zones in freshwater, terrestrial, and coastal environments, and the subsurface ocean. Elevated human exposure to methylmercury primarily results from consumption of estuarine and marine fish. Developing fetuses are most at risk from this neurotoxin but health effects of highly exposed populations and wildlife are also a concern. Integration of Hg science with national and international policy efforts is needed to target efforts and evaluate efficacy. PMID:23590191

  19. Observations of collective effects at the Advanced Light Source

    SciTech Connect

    Byrd, J.M.; Barry, W.; Corlett, J.N.; Fox, J.; Teytelman, D.

    1995-10-01

    We present a summary of measurements of single beam collective effects in the Advanced Light Source (ALS). We describe measurements of coupled-bunch instabilities, including some recent results using the newly commissioned feedback systems and the results of an initial search for the fast ion instability. Single bunch effects include bunch lengthening, energy spread increase, HOM loss measurements, head-tail damping rates, current dependent tune shifts, and transverse mode coupling instability threshold. The longitudinal measurements are consistent with a broadband impedance {vert_bar}{Zeta}{sub {parallel}}/{eta}{vert_bar}{sub eff} = 0.22{plus_minus}0.07 {Omega} and transverse measurements indicate broadband impedances of {Zeta}{sub y,eff} = 155 k{Omega}/m and Z{sub x,eff} = 58 k{Omega}/m.

  20. Combined intervention of dietary soybean proteins and swim training: effects on bone metabolism in ovariectomized rats.

    PubMed

    Figard, Hélène; Mougin, Fabienne; Gaume, Vincent; Berthelot, Alain

    2006-01-01

    Soybean proteins, a rich source of isoflavones, taken immediately after an ovariectomy prevent bone loss in rats. Exercise-induced stimuli are essential for bone growth. Few studies exist about the combined effects of swim training and soybean protein supplementation on bone metabolism. So, the purpose of this study was to investigate, in 48 female Sprague-Dawley rats (12 weeks old) the effects of an 8-week swim-training regimen (1 h/day, 5 days/week) and dietary soybean proteins (200 g/kg diet) on bone metabolism. Rats were randomly assigned to four groups: (1) ovariectomized fed with a semisynthetic control diet; (2) ovariectomized fed with a soybean protein-enriched semisynthetic diet; (3) ovariectomized trained to exercise and fed with control diet; (4) ovariectomized trained to exercise and fed with a soybean protein diet. Following the treatment period, body weight gain was identical in the four groups. Soybean protein supplementation increased bone calcium content, and reduced plasma osteocalcin values, without significant modification of calcium balance and net calcium absorption. Swim training enhanced plasma and bone calcium content and calcium balance and net calcium absorption. It did not modify either plasma osteocalcin values or urinary deoxypyridinoline excretion. Both exercise and soybean protein intake increased plasma on bone calcium without modifying net calcium absorption or bone markers. In conclusion, we demonstrated, in ovariectomized rats, that swimming exercise and dietary supplementation with soy proteins do not have synergistic effects on calcium metabolism and bone markers.

  1. Effects of Source Correlations on the Spectrum of Radiated Fields

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-09-01

    paraxial approximation, with a known result for far-zone radiant intensity of Gaussian Schell - model sources3. Spectral changes on propagation of...33 2.2 The radiation efficiency of planar Gaussian Schell - model sources ............ 34...increase in the source correlation length. Page 40. Figure 2.5: The radiation efficiency of Gaussian Schell - model sources as a function of the rms

  2. Contrasting effects of nanoparticle-protein attraction on amyloid aggregation.

    PubMed

    Radic, Slaven; Davis, Thomas P; Ke, Pu Chun; Ding, Feng

    2015-01-01

    Nanoparticles (NPs) have been experimentally found to either promote or inhibit amyloid aggregation of proteins, but the molecular mechanisms for such complex behaviors remain unknown. Using coarse-grained molecular dynamics simulations, we investigated the effects of varying the strength of nonspecific NP-protein attraction on amyloid aggregation of a model protein, the amyloid-beta peptide implicated in Alzheimer's disease. Specifically, with increasing NP-peptide attraction, amyloid aggregation on the NP surface was initially promoted due to increased local protein concentration on the surface and destabilization of the folded state. However, further increase of NP-peptide attraction decreased the stability of amyloid fibrils and reduced their lateral diffusion on the NP surface necessary for peptide conformational changes and self-association, thus prohibiting amyloid aggregation. Moreover, we found that the relative concentration between protein and NPs also played an important role in amyloid aggregation. With a high NP/protein ratio, NPs that intrinsically promote protein aggregation may display an inhibitive effect by depleting the proteins in solution while having a low concentration of the proteins on each NP's surface. Our coarse-grained molecular dynamics simulation study offers a molecular mechanism for delineating the contrasting and seemingly conflicting effects of NP-protein attraction on amyloid aggregation and highlights the potential of tailoring anti-aggregation nanomedicine against amyloid diseases.

  3. Effect of trehalose on protein structure

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Nishant Kumar; Roy, Ipsita

    2009-01-01

    Trehalose is a ubiquitous molecule that occurs in lower and higher life forms but not in mammals. Till about 40 years ago, trehalose was visualized as a storage molecule, aiding the release of glucose for carrying out cellular functions. This perception has now changed dramatically. The role of trehalose has expanded, and this molecule has now been implicated in a variety of situations. Trehalose is synthesized as a stress-responsive factor when cells are exposed to environmental stresses like heat, cold, oxidation, desiccation, and so forth. When unicellular organisms are exposed to stress, they adapt by synthesizing huge amounts of trehalose, which helps them in retaining cellular integrity. This is thought to occur by prevention of denaturation of proteins by trehalose, which would otherwise degrade under stress. This explanation may be rational, since recently, trehalose has been shown to slow down the rate of polyglutamine-mediated protein aggregation and the resultant pathogenesis by stabilizing an aggregation-prone model protein. In recent years, trehalose has also proved useful in the cryopreservation of sperm and stem cells and in the development of a highly reliable organ preservation solution. This review aims to highlight the changing perception of the role of trehalose over the last 10 years and to propose common mechanisms that may be involved in all the myriad ways in which trehalose stabilizes protein structures. These will take into account the structure of trehalose molecule and its interactions with its environment, and the explanations will focus on the role of trehalose in preventing protein denaturation. PMID:19177348

  4. Interactive effects of boron, selenium, and dietary protein on survival, growth and physiology in mallard ducklings

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hoffman, D.J.; Sanderson, C.J.; LeCaptain, L.J.; Cromartie, E.; Pendleton, G.W.

    1991-01-01

    High concentrations of boron (B) and selenium (Se) have been found in aquatic food chains associated with irrigation drainwater. Total biomass of invertebrates, a maJor source of protein for wild ducklings, is sometimes diminished in agricultural drainwater ponds contaminated with Se and B. Dayold mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) ducklings received an untreated diet (controls) containing 22% protein or diets containing 15 ppm (microgram/g) Se (as selenomethionine), 60 ppm Se, 1,000 ppm B (as boric acid), 15 ppm Se with 1,000 ppm B, or 60 ppm Se with 1,000 ppm B. In a concurrent experiment, the above sequence was repeated with a proteinrestricted (7%) but isocaloric diet. After four weeks, blood and tissue samples were collected for biochemical and histological examination. With 22% protein and 60 ppm Se in the diet, duckling survival and growth was reduced and histopathological lesions of the liver occurred. Boron alone caused some reduction in growth. Several interactive effects occurred between B and Se, including further reduction in growth, and increases in plasma glutathione reductase activity, hematocrit, hemoglobin and plasma protein concentrations. With 7% protein, the growth of controls was less than that with 22% protein, 60 ppm Se caused 100% mortality, and growth effects of 15 ppm Se and 1,000 ppm B alone were more pronounced than with 22% protein. Selenium accumulation increased in the liver with 7% protein. Interactive effects were greater for Se and B with 7% protein than with 22% protein and included significant mortality and enhanced accumulation of Se in the liver. These findings suggest the potential for more severe toxicological effects of Se and B independently and interactively on duckling survival and development when dietary protein is diminished.

  5. BIMOLECULAR FLUORESCENCE COMPLEMENTATION ANALYSIS OF INDUCIBLE PROTEIN INTERACTIONS: EFFECTS OF FACTORS AFFECTING PROTEIN FOLDING ON FLUORESCENT PROTEIN FRAGMENT ASSOCIATION

    PubMed Central

    Robida, Aaron M; Kerppola, Tom K

    2009-01-01

    Bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC) analysis enables visualization of the subcellular locations of protein interactions in living cells. We investigated the temporal resolution and the quantitative accuracy of BiFC analysis using fragments of different fluorescent proteins. We determined the kinetics of BiFC complex formation in response to the rapamycin-inducible interaction between the FK506 binding protein (FKBP) and the FKBP-rapamycin binding domain (FRB). Fragments of YFP fused to FKBP and FRB produced detectable BiFC complex fluorescence 10 minutes after rapamycin addition and a ten-fold increase in the mean fluorescence intensity in 8 hours. The N-terminal fragment of the Venus fluorescent protein fused to FKBP produced constitutive BiFC complexes with several C-terminal fragments fused to FRB. A chimeric N-terminal fragment containing residues from Venus and YFP produced either constitutive or inducible BiFC complexes depending on the temperature at which the cells were cultured. The concentrations of inducers required for half-maximal induction of BiFC complex formation by all fluorescent protein fragments tested were consistent with the affinities of the inducers for unmodified FKBP and FRB. Treatment of the FK506 inhibitor of FKBP-FRB interaction prevented the formation of BiFC complexes by FKBP and FRB fusions, but did not disrupt existing BiFC complexes. Proteins synthesized prior to rapamycin addition formed BiFC complexes with the same efficiency as newly synthesized proteins. Inhibitors of protein synthesis attenuated BiFC complex formation independent of their effects on fusion protein synthesis. The kinetics at which they inhibited BiFC complex formation suggest that they prevented association of the fluorescent protein fragments, but not the slow maturation of BiFC complex fluorescence. Agents that induce the unfolded protein response also reduced formation of BiFC complexes. The effects of these agents were suppressed by cellular

  6. Interactive effects of arsenate, selenium, and dietary protein on survival, growth, and physiology in mallard ducklings

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hoffman, D.J.; Sanderson, C.J.; LeCaptain, L.J.; Cromartie, E.; Pendleton, G.W.

    1992-01-01

    High concentrations of arsenic (As) and selenium (Se) have been found in aquatic food chains associated with irrigation drainwater. Total biomass of invertebrates, a maJor source of protein for wild ducklings, may vary in environments that are contaminated with selenium. Dayold mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) ducklings received an untreated diet (controls) containing 22% protein or diets containing 15 ppm Se (as selenomethionine), 60 ppm Se, 200 ppm As (as sodium arsenate), 15 ppm Se with 200 ppm As, or 60 ppm Se with 200 ppm As. In a concurrent experiment, the same sequence was repeated with a proteinrestricted (7%) but isocaloric diet. After 4 weeks, blood and tissue samples were collected for biochemical and histological examination. With 22% protein and 60 ppm Se in the diet, duckling survival and growth was reduced and livers had histopathological lesions. Arsenic alone caused some reduction in growth. Antagonistic interactive effects occurred between As and Se, including complete to partial alleviation of the following Se effects: mortality, impaired growth, hepatic lesions and lipid peroxidation, and altered glutathione and thiol status. With 7% protein, survival and growth of controls was less than that with 22% protein, Se (60 ppm) caused 100% mortality, and As (200 ppm) caused mortality, decreased growth, and liver histopathology. These findings suggest the potential for antagonistic effects of Se and As on duckling survival, growth, and physiology with adequate dietary protein but more severe toxicological effects when dietary protein is diminished.

  7. Effects of polyamines on prostatic chromatin- and non-histone-protein-associated protein kinase reactions.

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, K; Wilson, M J; Goueli, S A; Williams-Ashman, H G

    1978-01-01

    Studies are presented on the influence of polyamines on prostatic chromatin- and non-histone-protein-associated protein kinase reactions involving both exogenous and endogenous substrates. The activities toward the model acidic protein substrate, dephosphophosvitin, were maximal at 160--200mM-NaCl (or -KCl or -NH4Cl). Under these conditions, spermidine and spermine added in concentrations up to 2mM were essentially without effect. However, without addition of NaCl to the medium, marked stimulation of these reactions was elicited by these polyamines at 1--2mM concentrations. The stimulatory effects were not due to non-specific changes in the ionic strength or to substitution of spermine for Mg2+, as maximal stimulation by 1 mM-spermine was observed only at optimal (2--4mM) Mg2+ concentrations. Qualitatively similar effects of polyamines were observed with enzyme preparations from the prostates of castrated rats, and with chromatin and non-histone-protein preparations from other tissues besides ventral prostate. When phosphorylation of endogenous non-histone proteins of the chromatin was measured, spermine stimulated both the initial rates and the final extent of transphosphorylation, even in the presence of optimal concentration of NaCl. By contrast, spermine or spermidine had no effect on the chromatin- and non-histone-protein-associated protein kinase reactions determined with lysine-rich histones as substrates. Chemically NN-dimethylated dephosphophosvitin was a less active substrate for the chromatin-associated protein kinase, but its phosphorylation was more markedly stimulated by spermine in comparison with unmodified dephosphophosvitin. These observations hint that the polyamine stimulations of the various protein kinase reactions may be due to effects on the conformations of the non-histone protein substrates rather than on the kinases themselves. PMID:747650

  8. Macromolecular crowding effects on protein-protein binding affinity and specificity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Young C.; Best, Robert B.; Mittal, Jeetain

    2010-11-01

    Macromolecular crowding in cells is recognized to have a significant impact on biological function, yet quantitative models for its effects are relatively undeveloped. The influence of crowding on protein-protein interactions is of particular interest, since these mediate many processes in the cell, including the self-assembly of larger complexes, recognition, and signaling. We use a residue-level coarse-grained model to investigate the effects of macromolecular crowding on the assembly of protein-protein complexes. Interactions between the proteins are treated using a fully transferable energy function, and interactions of protein residues with the spherical crowders are repulsive. We show that the binding free energy for two protein complexes, ubiquitin/UIM1 and cytochrome c/cytochrome c peroxidase, decreases modestly as the concentration of crowding agents increases. To obtain a quantitative description of the stabilizing effect, we map the aspherical individual proteins and protein complexes onto spheres whose radii are calculated from the crowder-excluded protein volumes. With this correspondence, we find that the change in the binding free energy due to crowding can be quantitatively described by the scaled particle theory model without any fitting parameters. The effects of a mixture of different-size crowders—as would be found in a real cell—are predicted by the same model with an additivity ansatz. We also obtain the remarkable result that crowding increases the fraction of specific complexes at the expense of nonspecific transient encounter complexes in a crowded environment. This result, due to the greater excluded volume of the nonspecific complexes, demonstrates that macromolecular crowding can have subtle functional effects beyond the relative stability of bound and unbound complexes.

  9. Pollen source effects on growth of kernel structures and embryo chemical compounds in maize

    PubMed Central

    Tanaka, W.; Mantese, A. I.; Maddonni, G. A.

    2009-01-01

    Background and Aims Previous studies have reported effects of pollen source on the oil concentration of maize (Zea mays) kernels through modifications to both the embryo/kernel ratio and embryo oil concentration. The present study expands upon previous analyses by addressing pollen source effects on the growth of kernel structures (i.e. pericarp, endosperm and embryo), allocation of embryo chemical constituents (i.e. oil, protein, starch and soluble sugars), and the anatomy and histology of the embryos. Methods Maize kernels with different oil concentration were obtained from pollinations with two parental genotypes of contrasting oil concentration. The dynamics of the growth of kernel structures and allocation of embryo chemical constituents were analysed during the post-flowering period. Mature kernels were dissected to study the anatomy (embryonic axis and scutellum) and histology [cell number and cell size of the scutellums, presence of sub-cellular structures in scutellum tissue (starch granules, oil and protein bodies)] of the embryos. Key Results Plants of all crosses exhibited a similar kernel number and kernel weight. Pollen source modified neither the growth period of kernel structures, nor pericarp growth rate. By contrast, pollen source determined a trade-off between embryo and endosperm growth rates, which impacted on the embryo/kernel ratio of mature kernels. Modifications to the embryo size were mediated by scutellum cell number. Pollen source also affected (P < 0·01) allocation of embryo chemical compounds. Negative correlations among embryo oil concentration and those of starch (r = 0·98, P < 0·01) and soluble sugars (r = 0·95, P < 0·05) were found. Coincidently, embryos with low oil concentration had an increased (P < 0·05–0·10) scutellum cell area occupied by starch granules and fewer oil bodies. Conclusions The effects of pollen source on both embryo/kernel ratio and allocation of embryo chemicals seems to be related to the early

  10. The effect of nitrogen and carbon sources on proteinase production by Pseudomonas fluorescens.

    PubMed

    Fairbairn, D J; Law, B A

    1987-02-01

    Some factors influencing the production of an extracellular proteinase by Pseudomonas fluorescens NCDO 2085 were studied. Proteinase production was optimal at 20 degrees C and pH 6.9 in static culture when calcium was included in the medium. Proteinase was not detectable in basal medium but could be induced by organic nitrogen compounds. The proteinase was produced in the exponential phase of growth on protein substrates but not until early stationary phase during growth on amino acids. The organism did not utilize lactose, the most abundant carbohydrate in milk. Citrate was readily utilized as an energy source but had a strong repressive effect on proteinase production. A medium containing sodium caseinate and pyruvate supported good growth and enzyme production. All the amino acids utilized as a sole carbon source, with the exception of serine, could induce proteinase production. Asparagine was the most effective amino acid inducer. Particular combinations of amino acids could induce or repress proteinase production. The regulation of proteinase production by Ps. fluorescens NCDO 2085 appears to be based on a balance between induction by low concentrations of low molecular weight degradation products and sensitivity to end product catabolite repression. The results suggest that the function of the proteinase is to ensure a supply of carbon rather than amino acids for protein synthesis.

  11. Convective flow effects on protein crystal growth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosenberger, Franz; Monaco, Lisa A.

    1995-01-01

    During the fourth semi-annual period under this grant we have pursued the following activities: (1) crystal growth morphology and kinetics studies with tetragonal lysozyme. These clearly revealed the influence of higher molecular weight protein impurities on interface shape; (2) characterization of the purity and further purification of lysozyme solutions. These efforts have, for the first time, resulted in lysozyme free of higher molecular weight components; (3) continuation of the salt repartitioning studies with Seikagaku lysozyme, which has a lower protein impurity content that Sigma stock. These efforts confirmed our earlier findings of higher salt contents in smaller crystals. However, less salt is in corporated into the crystals grown from Seikagaku stock. This strongly suggests a dependence of salt repartitioning on the concentration of protein impurities in lysozyme. To test this hypothesis, repartitioning studies with the high purity lysozyme prepared in-house will be begun shortly; (4) numerical modelling of the interaction between bulk transport and interface kinetics. These simulations have produced interface shapes which are in good agreement with out experimental observations; and (5) light scattering studies on under- and supersaturated lysozyme solutions. A consistent interpretation of the static and dynamic data leaves little doubt that pre-nucleation clusters, claimed to exist even in undersaturated solutions, are not present. The article: 'Growth morphology response to nutrient and impurity nonuniformities' is attached.

  12. Effects of immunosuppressive treatment on protein expression in rat kidney

    PubMed Central

    Kędzierska, Karolina; Sporniak-Tutak, Katarzyna; Sindrewicz, Krzysztof; Bober, Joanna; Domański, Leszek; Parafiniuk, Mirosław; Urasińska, Elżbieta; Ciechanowicz, Andrzej; Domański, Maciej; Smektała, Tomasz; Masiuk, Marek; Skrzypczak, Wiesław; Ożgo, Małgorzata; Kabat-Koperska, Joanna; Ciechanowski, Kazimierz

    2014-01-01

    The structural proteins of renal tubular epithelial cells may become a target for the toxic metabolites of immunosuppressants. These metabolites can modify the properties of the proteins, thereby affecting cell function, which is a possible explanation for the mechanism of immunosuppressive agents’ toxicity. In our study, we evaluated the effect of two immunosuppressive strategies on protein expression in the kidneys of Wistar rats. Fragments of the rat kidneys were homogenized after cooling in liquid nitrogen and then dissolved in lysis buffer. The protein concentration in the samples was determined using a protein assay kit, and the proteins were separated by two-dimensional electrophoresis. The obtained gels were then stained with Coomassie Brilliant Blue, and their images were analyzed to evaluate differences in protein expression. Identification of selected proteins was then performed using mass spectrometry. We found that the immunosuppressive drugs used in popular regimens induce a series of changes in protein expression in target organs. The expression of proteins involved in drug, glucose, amino acid, and lipid metabolism was pronounced. However, to a lesser extent, we also observed changes in nuclear, structural, and transport proteins’ synthesis. Very slight differences were observed between the group receiving cyclosporine, mycophenolate mofetil, and glucocorticoids (CMG) and the control group. In contrast, compared to the control group, animals receiving tacrolimus, mycophenolate mofetil, and glucocorticoids (TMG) exhibited higher expression of proteins responsible for renal drug metabolism and lower expression levels of cytoplasmic actin and the major urinary protein. In the TMG group, we observed higher expression of proteins responsible for drug metabolism and a decrease in the expression of respiratory chain enzymes (thioredoxin-2) and markers of distal renal tubular damage (heart fatty acid-binding protein) compared to expression in the CMG

  13. Effect of temperature stress on protein methyl esters

    SciTech Connect

    Welch, W.; Kracaw, K.

    1986-05-01

    Protein methyl esters have been implicated in a number of physiological processes. They have measured the effect of temperature stress on the levels of protein methyl esters in the mesophilic fungus Penicillium chrysogenum (PCPS) and the thermophilic fungus P. duponti (PD). PD and PCPS were incubated with (methyl-/sup 3/H)methionine. The mycelia were collected by filtration, frozen in liquid nitrogen and ground to a fine powder. The nitrogen powder was extracted with either phosphate buffer or with SDS, glycerol, phosphate, 2-mercaptoethanol. Insoluble material was removed by centrifugation. The supernatants were assayed for protein methyl esters. The released (/sup 3/H)methanol was extracted into toluene:isoamyl alcohol (3:2) and quantitated by liquid scintillation. The production of volatile methanol was confirmed by use of Conway diffusion cells. Soluble proteins accounted for about one-fourth of the total protein methyl ester extracted by SDS. In PCPS, the SDS extracted proteins have about three times the level of esterification of the soluble proteins whereas in PD there is little difference between soluble and SDS extracted protein. The level of protein esterification in PD is about one-tenth that observed in PCPS. Temperature stress caused large changes in the level of protein esterification. The data suggest protein methyl esters may contribute to the adaptation to environmental stress.

  14. Influence of carbohydrate source on ruminal fermentation characteristics, performance, and microbial protein synthesis in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Gozho, G N; Mutsvangwa, T

    2008-07-01

    Eight multiparous Holstein cows (676 +/- 57 kg of body weight; 121 +/- 17 d-in-milk) were used in a replicated 4 x 4 Latin square design to determine the effects of 4 sources of carbohydrate on milk yield and composition, ruminal fermentation, and microbial N flow to the duodenum. Four cows in one of the Latin squares were fitted with permanent ruminal cannulae. Diets contained (DM basis) 50% forage in combinations of alfalfa hay and barley silage, and 50% concentrate. The concentrate portion of the diets contained barley, corn, wheat, or oats grain as the primary source of carbohydrate. Intake of DM ranged from 24.0 to 26.2 kg/d, and it tended to be lower in cows fed the wheat-based diet compared with those fed the barley-based diet; consequently, milk yield tended to be lower in cows fed the wheat-based diet compared with those fed the barley-based diet. Cows fed the barley- or wheat-based diets had a lower milk fat content compared with those fed the corn-based diet. Ruminal fermentation characteristics were largely unaffected by the source of dietary carbohydrate, with similar ruminal pH and volatile fatty acid and ammonia concentrations for the first 6 h after the morning feeding. Dietary treatment did not affect total tract apparent digestibility of DM, organic matter, and neutral detergent fiber; however, total tract apparent digestibility of starch in cows fed the oats-based diet was higher compared with those fed the corn-and wheat-based diets. Nitrogen that was used for productive purposes (i.e., N secreted in milk + N apparently retained by the cow) tended to be lower in cows fed the wheat-based diet compared with cows fed the barley-, corn-, or oats-based diets. Urinary purine derivative (PD) excretion was similar in cows fed the barley-, corn-, and wheat-based diets; however, purine derivative excretion was higher in cows fed the barley-based diet compared with those fed the oats-based diet. Consequently, estimated microbial N flow to the duodenum was

  15. Convective flow effects on protein crystal growth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosenberger, Franz; Monaco, Lisa A.

    1994-01-01

    A high-resolution microscopic interferometric setup for the monitoring of protein morphologies has been developed. Growth or dissolution of a crystal can be resolved with a long-term depth resolution of 200 A and a lateral resolution of 2 microns. This capability of simultaneously monitoring the interfacial displacement with high local depth resolution has yielded several novel results. We have found with lysozyme that (1) the normal growth rate is oscillatory, and (2) depending on the impurity content of the solution, the growth step density is either greater or lower at the periphery of a facet than in its center. The repartitioning of Na plus and Cl minus ions between lysozyme solutions and crystals was studied for a wide range of crystallization conditions. A nucleation-growth-repartitioning model was developed, to interpret the large body of data in unified way. The results strongly suggest that (1) the ion to lysozyne ratio in the crystal depends mostly on kinetic rather than crystallographic parameters, and (2) lysozyme crystals possess a salt-rich core with a diameter electron microscopy results appear to confirm this finding, which could have far-reaching consequences for x-ray diffraction studies. A computational model for diffusive-convective transport in protein crystallization has been applied to a realistic growth cell geometry, taking into account the findings of the above repartitioning studies and our kinetics data for the growth of lysozyme. The results show that even in the small cell employed, protein concentration nonuniformities and gravity-driven solutal convection can be significant. The calculated convection velocities are of the same order to magnitude as those found in earlier experiments. As expected, convective transport, i.e., at Og, lysozyme crystal growth remains kinetically limited. The salt distribution in the crystal is predicted to be non-uniform at both 1g and 0g, as a consequence of protein depletion in the solution. Static and

  16. A primer on cytokines: sources, receptors, effects, and inducers.

    PubMed Central

    Curfs, J H; Meis, J F; Hoogkamp-Korstanje, J A

    1997-01-01

    Protection against pathogens is a prerequisite for survival of most organisms. To cope with this continuous challenge, complex defense mechanisms have evolved. The construction, adaptation, and maintenance of these mechanisms are under control of an extensive network of regulatory proteins called cytokines. A great number of cytokines have been described over the last 2 decades. This review consists of an overview of cytokines that are involved in immune responses and describes some historical and general aspects as well as prospective clinical applications. Major biological effects together with information on cytokine receptors, producers, inducers, and biochemical and molecular characteristics are listed in tables. In addition, some basic information is given on cytokine receptor signal transduction. Finally, the recent discoveries of cytokine receptors functioning as coreceptors in the pathogenesis of human immunodeficiency virus are summarized. PMID:9336671

  17. Characterization of Source and Wave Propagation Effects of Volcano-seismic Events and Tremor Using the Amplitude Source Location Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumagai, H.; Londono, J. M.; López, C. M.; Ruiz, M. C.; Mothes, P. A.; Maeda, Y.

    2015-12-01

    We propose application of the amplitude source location (ASL) method to characterize source and wave propagation effects of volcano-seismic events and tremor observed at different volcanoes. We used this method to estimate the source location and source amplitude from high-frequency (5-10 Hz) seismic amplitudes under the assumption of isotropic S-wave radiation. We estimated the cumulative source amplitude (Is) as the offset value of the time-integrated envelope of the vertical seismogram corrected for geometrical spreading and medium attenuation in the 5-10 Hz band. We studied these parameters of tremor signals associated with eruptions and explosion events at Tungurahua volcano, Ecuador; long-period (LP) events at Cotopaxi volcano, Ecuador; and LP events at Nevado del Ruiz volcano, Colombia. We identified two types of eruption tremor at Tungurahua; noise-like inharmonic waveforms and harmonic oscillatory signals. We found that Is increased linearly with increasing source amplitude for explosion events and LP events, and that Is increased exponentially with increasing source amplitude for inharmonic eruption tremor signals. The source characteristics of harmonic eruption tremor signals differed from those of inharmonic tremor signals. The Is values we estimated for inharmonic eruption tremor were consistent with previous estimates of volumes of tephra fallout. The linear relationship between the source amplitude and Is for LP events can be explained by the wave propagation effects in the diffusion model for multiple scattering assuming a diffusion coefficient of 105 m2/s and an intrinsic Q factor of around 50. The resultant mean free path is approximately 100 m. Our results suggest that Cotopaxi and Nevado del Ruiz volcanoes have similar highly scattering and attenuating structures. Our approach provides a systematic way to compare the size of volcano-seismic signals observed at different volcanoes. The scaling relations among source parameters that we identified

  18. Effects of soy protein and isoflavones on insulin resistance and adiponectin in male monkeys.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Janice D; Zhang, Li; Shadoan, Melanie K; Kavanagh, Kylie; Chen, Haiying; Tresnasari, Kristianti; Kaplan, Jay R; Adams, Michael R

    2008-07-01

    Isoflavones may influence insulin action by means of their well-known receptor-mediated estrogenic activity. However, isoflavones also bind to peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) that are strongly associated with insulin action. Soy protein with its isoflavones has previously been shown to improve glycemic control in diabetic postmenopausal women and to improve insulin sensitivity in ovariectomized monkeys. The purpose of the current report was to extend our studies of dietary soy protein to male monkeys and determine effects of the soy isoflavones on insulin resistance. Two studies are reported here. Study one involved 91 male monkeys consuming 3 diets differing only by the source of protein (casein-lactalbumin, soy protein with a low isoflavone concentration, or soy protein with a high isoflavone concentration). Intravenous glucose tolerance tests were done, and plasma adiponectin and lipoprotein concentrations were determined after 25 months of study. Samples of visceral fat were obtained at 31 months for assessment of adiponectin and PPARgamma expression. The second study involved 8 monkeys in a Latin-square design that compared the effects of diets with casein/lactalbumin, soy protein with a high isoflavone concentration, or soy protein that was alcohol-washed to deplete the isoflavones. After 8 weeks of treatment, insulin sensitivity and plasma lipoproteins were assessed. At 10 weeks, a biopsy of the skeletal muscle was performed for determination of insulin receptor, PPARalpha, and PPARgamma content. The major findings were that consumption of isoflavone-containing soy protein dose-dependently increased insulin responses to the glucose challenge and decreased plasma adiponectin, whereas isoflavone-depleted soy protein decreased body weight and had no effect on plasma adiponectin concentrations. Muscle PPARalpha and gamma expression was also increased with the isoflavone-depleted soy relative to either casein or soy protein containing the

  19. Relating drug–protein interaction network with drug side effects

    PubMed Central

    Mizutani, Sayaka; Pauwels, Edouard; Stoven, Véronique; Goto, Susumu; Yamanishi, Yoshihiro

    2012-01-01

    Motivation: Identifying the emergence and underlying mechanisms of drug side effects is a challenging task in the drug development process. This underscores the importance of system–wide approaches for linking different scales of drug actions; namely drug-protein interactions (molecular scale) and side effects (phenotypic scale) toward side effect prediction for uncharacterized drugs. Results: We performed a large-scale analysis to extract correlated sets of targeted proteins and side effects, based on the co-occurrence of drugs in protein-binding profiles and side effect profiles, using sparse canonical correlation analysis. The analysis of 658 drugs with the two profiles for 1368 proteins and 1339 side effects led to the extraction of 80 correlated sets. Enrichment analyses using KEGG and Gene Ontology showed that most of the correlated sets were significantly enriched with proteins that are involved in the same biological pathways, even if their molecular functions are different. This allowed for a biologically relevant interpretation regarding the relationship between drug–targeted proteins and side effects. The extracted side effects can be regarded as possible phenotypic outcomes by drugs targeting the proteins that appear in the same correlated set. The proposed method is expected to be useful for predicting potential side effects of new drug candidate compounds based on their protein-binding profiles. Supplementary information: Datasets and all results are available at http://web.kuicr.kyoto-u.ac.jp/supp/smizutan/target-effect/. Availability: Software is available at the above supplementary website. Contact: yamanishi@bioreg.kyushu-u.ac.jp, or goto@kuicr.kyoto-u.ac.jp PMID:22962476

  20. Convective flow effects on protein crystal growth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosenberger, Franz; Monaco, Lisa A.

    1994-01-01

    The long-term stability of the interferometric setup for the monitoring of protein morphologies has been improved. Growth or dissolution of a crystal on a 100 A scale can now be clearly distinguished from dimensional changes occurring within the optical path of the interferometer. This capability of simultaneously monitoring the local interfacial displacement at several widely-spaced positions on the crystal surface with high local depth resolution, has already yielded novel results. We found with lysozyme that (1) the normal growth rate is oscillatory, and (2) the mean growth step density is greater at the periphery of a facet than in its center. The repartitioning of Na(+) and Cl(-) ions between lysozyme solutions and crystals was studied for a wide range of crystallization conditions. A nucleation-growth-repartitioning model was developed to interpret the large body of data in a unified way. The results strongly suggests that (1) the ion to lysozyme ratio in the crystal depends mostly on kinetic rather than crystallographic parameters, and (2) lysozyme crystals possess a salt-rich core with a diameter on the order of 10 microns. The computational model for diffusive-convective transport in protein crystallization (see the First Report) has been applied to a realistic growth cell geometry, taking into account the findings of the above repartitioning studies. These results show that some elements of a moving boundary problem must be incorporated into the model in order to obtain a more realistic description. Our experimental setup for light scattering investigations of aggregation and nucleation in protein solutions has been extensively tested. Scattering intensity measurements with a true Rayleigh scatterer produced systematically increased forward scattering, indicating problems with glare. These have been resolved. Preliminary measurements with supersaturated lysozyme solutions revealed that the scatterers grow with time. Work has begun on a computer program

  1. In-Source Decay and Pseudo-MS3 of Peptide and Protein Ions Using Liquid AP-MALDI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ait-Belkacem, Rima; Dilillo, Marialaura; Pellegrini, Davide; Yadav, Avinash; de Graaf, Erik L.; McDonnell, Liam A.

    2016-12-01

    Atmospheric pressure MALDI on a Q-Exactive instrument was optimized for in-source decay and pseudo-MS3. The dependence of AP-MALDI ISD on the MALDI liquid matrix was investigated for peptides and proteins. The liquid matrices enabled long-life ISD signal, and exhibited high fragment ion yield and signal stability. Extensive a-, b-, c-, y-, and z-type fragment series were observed depending on the matrix used but were most extensive with 2,5-DHB. Complete sequence coverage of small peptide and intact protein-terminus sequence tags were obtained and confirmed using HCD as a pseudo-MS3 method.

  2. N(α)-Acetylation of yeast ribosomal proteins and its effect on protein synthesis.

    PubMed

    Kamita, Masahiro; Kimura, Yayoi; Ino, Yoko; Kamp, Roza M; Polevoda, Bogdan; Sherman, Fred; Hirano, Hisashi

    2011-04-01

    N(α)-Acetyltransferases (NATs) cause the N(α)-acetylation of the majority of eukaryotic proteins during their translation, although the functions of this modification have been largely unexplored. In yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae), four NATs have been identified: NatA, NatB, NatC, and NatD. In this study, the N(α)-acetylation status of ribosomal protein was analyzed using NAT mutants combined with two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE) and mass spectrometry (MS). A total of 60 ribosomal proteins were identified, of which 17 were N(α)-acetylated by NatA, and two by NatB. The N(α)-acetylation of two of these, S17 and L23, by NatA was not previously observed. Furthermore, we tested the effect of ribosomal protein N(α)-acetylation on protein synthesis using the purified ribosomes from each NAT mutant. It was found that the protein synthesis activities of ribosomes from NatA and NatB mutants were decreased by 27% and 23%, respectively, as compared to that of the normal strain. Furthermore, we have shown that ribosomal protein N(α)-acetylation by NatA influences translational fidelity in the presence of paromomycin. These results suggest that ribosomal protein N(α)-acetylation is necessary to maintain the ribosome's protein synthesis function.

  3. Protein profile changes during porcine oocyte aging and effects of caffeine on protein expression patterns.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Guang-Jian; Wang, Ke; Miao, De-Qiang; Guo, Lei; Hou, Yi; Schatten, Heide; Sun, Qing-Yuan

    2011-01-01

    It has been shown that oocyte aging critically affects reproduction and development. By using proteomic tools, in the present study, changes in protein profiles during porcine oocyte aging and effects of caffeine on oocyte aging were investigated. By comparing control MII oocytes with aging MII oocytes, we identified 23 proteins that were up-regulated and 3 proteins that were down-regulated during the aging process. In caffeine-treated oocytes, 6 proteins were identified as up-regulated and 12 proteins were identified as down-regulated. A total of 38 differentially expressed proteins grouped into 5 regulation patterns were determined to relate to the aging and anti-aging process. By using the Gene Ontology system, we found that numerous functional gene products involved in metabolism, stress response, reactive oxygen species and cell cycle regulation were differentially expressed during the oocyte aging process, and most of these proteins are for the first time reported in our study, including 2 novel proteins. In addition, several proteins were found to be modified during oocyte aging. These data contribute new information that may be useful for future research on cellular aging and for improvement of oocyte quality.

  4. Sources by Which Students Perceive Professional Counselors' Effectiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Firmin, Michael W.; Wantz, Richard A.; Firmin, Ruth L.; Johnson, Courtney B.

    2012-01-01

    Using qualitative research methods, interviews were conducted with college students regarding the sources they used in generating perceptions of professional counselors. Respondents believed that information sources such as word of mouth, media sources and personal experiences were responsible for their understandings of professional counselors.…

  5. Effect of altering local protein fluctuations using artificial intelligence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishiyama, Katsuhiko

    2017-03-01

    The fluctuations in Arg111, a significantly fluctuating residue in cathepsin K, were locally regulated by modifying Arg111 to Gly111. The binding properties of 15 dipeptides in the modified protein were analyzed by molecular simulations, and modeled as decision trees using artificial intelligence. The decision tree of the modified protein significantly differed from that of unmodified cathepsin K, and the Arg-to-Gly modification exerted a remarkable effect on the peptide binding properties. By locally regulating the fluctuations of a protein, we may greatly alter the original functions of the protein, enabling novel applications in several fields.

  6. Zero Magnitude Effect for the Productivity of Triggered Tsunami Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geist, E. L.

    2013-12-01

    The Epidemic Type Aftershock Sequence (ETAS) model is applied to tsunami events to explain previously observed temporal clustering of tsunami sources. Tsunami events are defined by National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) tsunami database. For the ETAS analysis, the earthquake magnitude associated with each tsunami event in the NGDC database is replaced by the primary magnitude listed in the Centennial catalog up until 1976 and in the Global CMT catalog from 1976 through 2010. Tsunamis with a submarine landslide or volcanic component are included if they are accompanied by an earthquake, which is most often the case. Tsunami size is used as a mark for determining a tsunami-generating event, according to a minimum completeness level. The tsunami catalog is estimated to be complete for tsunami sizes greater than 1 m since 1900 and greater than 0.1 m since 1960. Of the five parameters in the temporal ETAS model (Ogata, 1988), the parameter that scales the magnitude dependence in the productivity of triggered events is the one that is most different from ETAS parameters derived from similar earthquake catalogs. Maximum likelihood estimates of this magnitude effect parameter is essentially zero, within 95% confidence, for both the 0.1 m and 1.0 m tsunami completeness levels. To explain this result, parameter estimates are determined for the Global CMT catalog under three tsunamigenic conditions: (1) M≥7 and focal depth ≤50 km, (2) submarine location, and (3) dominant component of dip slip. Successive subcatalogs are formed from the Global CMT catalog according to each of these conditions. The high magnitude threshold for tsunamigenesis alone (subcatalog 1) does not explain the zero magnitude effect. The zero magnitude effect also does not appear to be caused the smaller number of tsunamigenic events analyzed in comparison to earthquake catalogs with a similar magnitude threshold. ETAS parameter estimates from the subcatalog (3) with all three tsunamigenic conditions

  7. Effects of Maize Source and Complex Enzymes on Performance and Nutrient Utilization of Broilers

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Defu; Hao, Shengyan; Liu, Guohua; Nian, Fang; Ru, Yingjun

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of maize source and complex enzymes containing amylase, xylanase and protease on performance and nutrient utilization of broilers. The experiment was a 4×3 factorial design with diets containing four source maize samples (M1, M2, M3, and M4) and without or with two kinds of complex enzyme A (Axtra XAP) and B (Avizyme 1502). Nine hundred and sixty day old Arbor Acres broiler chicks were used in the trial (12 treatments with 8 replicate pens of 10 chicks). Birds fed M1 diet had better body weight gain (BWG) and lower feed/gain ratio compared with those fed M3 diet and M4 diet (p<0.05). Apparent ileal crude protein digestibility coefficient of M2 was higher than that of M3 (p<0.05). Apparent metabolisable energy (AME) and nitrogen corrected AME (AMEn) of M1 were significant higher than those of M4 (p<0.05). Supplementation of the basal diets with enzyme A or B improved the BWG by 8.6% (p<0.05) and 4.1% (p>0.05), respectively. The fresh feces output was significantly decreased by the addition of enzyme B (p<0.05). Maize source affects the nutrients digestibility and performance of broilers, and a combination of amylase, xylanase and protease is effective in improving the growth profiles of broilers fed maize-soybean-rapeseed-cotton mixed diets. PMID:25358370

  8. Effects of maize source and complex enzymes on performance and nutrient utilization of broilers.

    PubMed

    Tang, Defu; Hao, Shengyan; Liu, Guohua; Nian, Fang; Ru, Yingjun

    2014-12-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of maize source and complex enzymes containing amylase, xylanase and protease on performance and nutrient utilization of broilers. The experiment was a 4×3 factorial design with diets containing four source maize samples (M1, M2, M3, and M4) and without or with two kinds of complex enzyme A (Axtra XAP) and B (Avizyme 1502). Nine hundred and sixty day old Arbor Acres broiler chicks were used in the trial (12 treatments with 8 replicate pens of 10 chicks). Birds fed M1 diet had better body weight gain (BWG) and lower feed/gain ratio compared with those fed M3 diet and M4 diet (p<0.05). Apparent ileal crude protein digestibility coefficient of M2 was higher than that of M3 (p<0.05). Apparent metabolisable energy (AME) and nitrogen corrected AME (AMEn) of M1 were significant higher than those of M4 (p<0.05). Supplementation of the basal diets with enzyme A or B improved the BWG by 8.6% (p<0.05) and 4.1% (p>0.05), respectively. The fresh feces output was significantly decreased by the addition of enzyme B (p<0.05). Maize source affects the nutrients digestibility and performance of broilers, and a combination of amylase, xylanase and protease is effective in improving the growth profiles of broilers fed maize-soybean-rapeseed-cotton mixed diets.

  9. Convective flow effects on protein crystal growth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosenberger, Franz; Monaco, Lisa A.

    1993-01-01

    The experimental setup for the in-situ high resolution optical monitoring of protein crystal growth/dissolution morphologies was substantially improved. By augmenting the observation system with a temperature-controlled enclosure, laser illumination for the interferometric microscope, and software for pixel by pixel light intensity recording, a height resolution of about two unit cells for lysozyme can now be obtained. The repartitioning of Na(+) and Cl(-) ions between lysozyme solutions and crystals was studied. Quite unexpectedly, it was found that the longer crystals were in contact with their solution, the lower was their ion content. The development of a model for diffusive-convective transport and resulting distribution of the growth rate on facets was completed. Results obtained for a realistic growth cell geometry show interesting differences between 'growth runs' at 1g and 0g. The kinematic viscosity of lysozyme solutions of various supersaturations and salt concentrations was monitored over time. In contrast to the preliminary finding of other authors, no changes in viscosity were found over four days. The experimental setup for light scattering investigations of aggregation and nucleation in protein solutions was completed, and a computer program for the evaluation of multi-angle light scattering data was acquired.

  10. Effect of Protein Supercharging on Interaction with Polyelectrolytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olsen, Bradley; Obermeyer, Allie; Mills, Carolyn; Dong, Xuehui

    Complexation of proteins with polyelectrolytes can lead to a liquid-liquid phase separation to generate a viscous complex coacervate phase rich in protein and polyelectrolyte. However, many proteins do not readily coacervate at conditions near neutral pH and physiological ionic strength. Here, protein supercharging is used to systematically explore the effect of protein charge on the complex coacervation with polycations. Four model proteins were chemically modified to generate a panel of proteins with varying surface charge, with both the average charge and charge distribution quantified by mass spectrometry. Proteins phase separated with the qP4VP and qPDMAEMA polycations when the ratio of negatively charged residues to positively charged residues was greater than 1.1-1.2. Efficient partitioning of the protein into the coacervate phase required larger charge ratio (1.5-2.0). The model proteins were also encapsulated in complex coacervate core micelles. Dynamic light scattering was used to assess the formation of micelles with POEGMA- b-qP4VP and revealed micellar hydrodynamic radii of approximately 25-30 nm. Small angle neutron scattering and transmission electron microscopy were used to confirm the formation of spherical micelles.

  11. Utilization of glycerin byproduct derived from soybean oil biodiesel as a carbon source for heterologous protein production in Pichia pastoris.

    PubMed

    Anastácio, G S; Santos, K O; Suarez, P A Z; Torres, F A G; De Marco, J L; Parachin, N S

    2014-01-01

    Crude glycerol, also known as glycerin, is the main byproduct of the biodiesel industry. It has been estimated that up to 40,000 tons of glycerin will be produced each year by 2020. This study evaluated the value-added use of crude glycerol derived from soybean biodiesel preparation as a carbon source for heterologous protein production using the yeast Pichia pastoris. Eleven glycerin samples were obtained by methanolysis of soybean oil using different acids or bases as catalysts. Cell growth experiments showed that crude glycerol containing either potassium or sodium hydroxide resulted in 1.5-2 times higher final cell densities when compared to glycerol P.A. Finally, crude glycerol containing sodium hydroxide was successfully utilized for constitutive heterologous α-amylase production in P. pastoris. This study demonstrated that crude glycerol without any purification steps may be directly used as carbon source for protein production in P. pastoris.

  12. Effects of a Ground Source Heat Pump in Discontinuous Permafrost

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peterson, R.; Garber-Slaght, R.; Daanen, R. P.

    2015-12-01

    A ground source heat pump (GSHP) was installed in a discontinuous permafrost region of Fairbanks Alaska in 2013 with the primary aim of determining the effect of different ground cover options on the long-term subterranean temperature regime. Three different surface treatments were applied to separate loops of the GSHP; grass, sand, and gravel, and temperature monitoring was established at several depths above and below the heat sink loops. The GSHP has been actively utilized to supplement the heat in a hydronic heating system of a neighboring 5000 ft2 research facility. The ground immediately surrounding the GSHP was not permafrost when initially installed. Numerical modeling simulations were used to predict the long-term ground temperature regime surrounding the GSHP loops, and results indicate that permafrost would begin to form after the first year. A pseudo-steady state temperature regime would establish in approximately 8 years with a yearly fluctuation of -14°C to -2°C. Simulations also indicate that permafrost could be prevented with a 15 W/m recharge during the summer, such as from a solar thermal system. The ground surface treatments have negligible effect on the ground temperature below 1 meter and therefore have no long-term effect on the active region the GSHP. Data collected from thermistors in the two years since installation indicate that permafrost has not yet been established, although the ground is now becoming seasonally frozen due to the GSHP energy removal. Yearly average temperatures are declining, and extrapolation indicates that permafrost will establish in future years. The GSHP coefficient of performance (COP) was initially 3.6 and is declining with the decreasing ground temperatures. Economic modeling indicates that the system may become uneconomical in future years, although volatile energy costs have a substantial effect of the prediction.

  13. Mutual effects of disorder and order in fusion proteins between intrinsically disordered domains and fluorescent proteins.

    PubMed

    Lotti, Marina; Longhi, Sonia

    2012-01-01

    Intrinsically disordered proteins are being paid an increasing amount of interest due to the understanding of the crucial role that flexible regions play in molecular recognition and in signaling. Accordingly, reports focusing on the structural and functional characterization of intrinsically disordered proteins or regions are growing exponentially. Relatively few studies have however been reported on the mutual effects of ordered and disordered moieties in artificial fusion proteins. In this review, we focus on the few available experimental data based on the use of chimeras in which fluorescent proteins were fused to disordered domains of different lengths, compactness and propensity to form secondary structures. The impact of the artificial fusion on the conformational and functional properties of the resulting proteins is discussed.

  14. Effects of confinement and crowding on folding of model proteins.

    PubMed

    Wojciechowski, M; Cieplak, Marek

    2008-12-01

    We perform molecular dynamics simulations for a simple coarse-grained model of crambin placed inside of a softly repulsive sphere of radius R. The confinement makes folding at the optimal temperature slower and affects the folding scenarios, but both effects are not dramatic. The influence of crowding on folding are studied by placing several identical proteins within the sphere, denaturing them, and then by monitoring refolding. If the interactions between the proteins are dominated by the excluded volume effects, the net folding times are essentially like for a single protein. An introduction of inter-proteinic attractive contacts hinders folding when the strength of the attraction exceeds about a half of the value of the strength of the single protein contacts. The bigger the strength of the attraction, the more likely is the occurrence of aggregation and misfolding.

  15. Bioavailability of PAHs: effects of soot carbon and PAH source.

    PubMed

    Thorsen, Waverly A; Cope, W Gregory; Shea, Damian

    2004-04-01

    The bioavailability of 38 individual polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) compounds was determined through calculation of biota-sediment-accumulation factors (BSAF). BSAF values were calculated from individual PAH concentrations in freshwater mussel, marine clam, and sediment obtained from field and laboratory bioaccumulation studies. Sediment that was amended with different types of soot carbon (SC) was used in some of the bioaccumulation experiments. BSAF values for petrogenic PAH were greater than those for pyrogenic PAH (e.g., 1.57 +/- 0.53 vs 0.25 +/- 0.23, respectively), indicating that petrogenic PAH are more bioavailable than pyrogenic PAH (p < 0.05). This trend was consistent among marine and freshwater sites. Increased SC content of sediment resulted in a linear decrease in the bioavailability of pyrogenic PAHs (r2 = 0.85). The effect of increasing SC content on petrogenic PAH was negligible. SC was considered as an additional sorptive phase when calculating BSAF values, and using PAH-SC partition coefficients from the literature, we obtained unreasonably large BSAF values for all petrogenic PAH and some pyrogenic PAH. This led us to conclude that a quantitative model to assess bioavailability through a combination of organic carbon and soot carbon sorption is not applicable among field sites with a wide range of soot carbon fractions and PAH sources, at least given our current knowledge of PAH-SC partitioning. Our data offer evidence that many factors including analysis of a full suite of PAH analytes, PAH hydrophobicity, sediment organic carbon content, sediment soot carbon content, and PAH source are importantto adequately assess PAH bioavailability in the environment.

  16. Source and Path Effects on Regional Phases in China

    SciTech Connect

    Phillips, W.S., Randall, G.E., Hartse, H.E., Taylor, S.R., Patton, H.J.

    1997-12-31

    As part of the CTBT Research and Development regional characterization effort, we are assembling, organizing and analyzing geological, geophysical,and seismic data for inclusion in a knowledge base for China. We have collected seismic data from 11 Chinese Digital Seismic Network (CDSN) stations as well as IRIS stations AAK, TLY, ULN and NIL from adjoining regions. Using the published event locations and origin times, we identify Pn, Pg, Sn, and Lg phases,construct travel time curves, and estimate apparent velocities from broadband and short period seismograms. Following this, we collect amplitudes of regional seismic phases and associated noise levels using bandpassed waveforms. Studies of path specific propagation of the seismic phases have mapped blockages and have generated corrections useful in reducing scatter in magnitude estimates and in discriminant ratios. Such path corrections reduce RMS distance and mb- corrected Lg amplitude to as much as 60% of its original level (log{sub 10} domain). Path corrections are less effective with Pn data. We also study source scaling effects on these data which will allow us to refine path corrections further.

  17. Nonlinear simulations of particle source effects on edge localized mode

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, J.; Tang, C. J.; Chen, S. Y.; Wang, Z. H.

    2015-12-15

    The effects of particle source (PS) with different intensities and located positions on Edge Localized Mode (ELM) are systematically studied with BOUT++ code. The results show the ELM size strongly decreases with increasing the PS intensity once the PS is located in the middle or bottom of the pedestal. The effects of PS on ELM depend on the located position of PS. When it is located at the top of the pedestal, peeling-ballooning (P-B) modes can extract more free energy from the pressure gradient and grow up to be a large filament at the initial crash phase and the broadening of mode spectrum can be suppressed by PS, which leads to more energy loss. When it is located in the middle or bottom of the pedestal, the extraction of free energy by P-B modes can be suppressed, and a small filament is generated. During the turbulence transport phase, the broader mode spectrum suppresses the turbulence transport when PS is located in the middle, while the zonal flow plays an important role in damping the turbulence transport when PS is located at the bottom.

  18. Convective flow effects on protein crystal growth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosenberger, Franz

    1995-01-01

    During the fifth semi-annual period under this grant we have pursued the following activities: (1) Characterization of the purity and further purification of lysozyme solutions, these efforts are summarized in Section 2; (2) Crystal growth morphology and kinetics studies with tetragonal lysozyme, our observation on the dependence of lysozyme growth kinetics on step sources and impurities has been summarized in a manuscript which was accepted for publication in the Journal of Crystal Growth; (3) Numerical modelling of the interaction between bulk transport and interface kinetics, for a detailed summary of this work see the manuscript which was accepted for publication in the Journal of Crystal Growth; and (4) Light scattering studies, this work has been summarized in a manuscript that has been submitted for publication to the Journal of Chemical Physics.

  19. Effect of heparin on protein aggregation: inhibition versus promotion.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yisheng; Seeman, Daniel; Yan, Yunfeng; Sun, Lianhong; Post, Jared; Dubin, Paul L

    2012-05-14

    The effect of heparin on both native and denatured protein aggregation was investigated by turbidimetry and dynamic light scattering (DLS). Turbidimetric data show that heparin is capable of inhibiting and reversing the native aggregation of bovine serum albumin (BSA), β-lactoglobulin (BLG), and Zn-insulin at a pH near pI and at low ionic strength I; however, the results vary with regard to the range of pH, I, and protein-heparin stoichiometry required to achieve these effects. The kinetics of this process were studied to determine the mechanism by which interaction with heparin could result in inhibition or reversal of native protein aggregates. For each protein, the binding of heparin to distinctive intermediate aggregates formed at different times in the aggregation process dictates the outcome of complexation. This differential binding was explained by changes in the affinity of a given protein for heparin, partly due to the effects of protein charge anisotropy as visualized by electrostatic modeling. The heparin effect can be further extended to include inhibition of denaturing protein aggregation, as seen from the kinetics of BLG aggregation under conditions of thermally induced unfolding with and without heparin.

  20. Bioactive peptides and proteins from foods: indication for health effects.

    PubMed

    Möller, Niels Peter; Scholz-Ahrens, Katharina Elisabeth; Roos, Nils; Schrezenmeir, Jürgen

    2008-06-01

    Some dietary proteins cause specific effects going beyond nutrient supply. A number of proteins seem to act directly in the intestine, such as IGFs, lactoferrin and immunoglobulins. Many substances, however, are peptides encrypted in intact molecules and are released from their encrypted position by enzymes during gastrointestinal transit or by fermentation or ripening during food processing. Among food-derived bioactive proteins and peptides from plants and animals, those obtained from milk are known in particular. Numerous effects have been described after in vitro and animal trials for bioactive proteins and peptides, such as immunomodulating, antihypertensive, osteoprotective, antilipemic, opiate, antioxidative and antimicrobial. This article reviews the current knowledge of the existence of bioactive proteins and of in vitro bioactivity and the present evidence of health effects exerted by such substances or products containing bioactive compounds. For example, there is evidence for the antihypertensive effects of milk products fermented with Lactobacillus helveticus containing the tripeptides IPP and VPP, which inhibit angiotensin converting enzyme, and for osteoprotective effects by milk basic protein. There is less profound evidence on the immunomodulating effects of lactoferrin and postprandial triglyceride reduction by a hydrolysate of bovine hemoglobin.

  1. [Preparation and penetrating effect of the polyarginine-enhanced green fluorescence protein fusion protein].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Nan; Bai, Yin; Zhao, Jingzhuang; Ye, Xianlong; Wang, Wenfei; Ren, Guiping; Li, Deshan; Jing, Yan

    2013-11-01

    The aim of the study is to establish a platform to deliver therapeutic proteins into target cells through a polyarginine-based cell penetrating peptide. To facilitate the expression of therapeutic proteins, a pSUMO (Small Ubiquitin-like Modifier)-R9-EGFP (enhanced green fluorescence protein) prokaryotic expression vector was constructed. After induction, the fusion protein SUMO-R9-EGFP was efficiently expressed. To validate the cell penetrating ability of the fusion protein, HepG2 cells were incubated with the purified R9-EGFP or EGFP protein as control, internalization of the fluorescent proteins was examined by either flow cytometry or confocal microscopy. The result obtained by flow cytometry showed that the R9-EGFP fusion protein could efficiently penetrate into the HepG2 cells in a dose and time-dependent manner. In contrast, the fluorescence was barely detected in the HepG2 cells incubated with EGFP control. The fluorescence intensity of the R9-EGFP treated cells reached plateau phase after 1.5 h. The result obtained by confocal microscopy shows that R9-EGFP efficiently entered into the HepG2 cells and was exclusively located in the cytoplasm, whereas, no fluorescence was detected in the cells incubated with the EGFP control. The heparin inhibition experiment showed that heparin could inhibit penetrating effect of the R9-EGFP protein by about 50%, suggesting that the penetrating ability of the fusion protein is heparin-dependent. In summary, the study has established a platform to deliver therapeutic proteins into target cells through a polyarginine-based penetrating peptide.

  2. Soybean protein as a cost-effective lignin-blocking additive for the saccharification of sugarcane bagasse.

    PubMed

    Florencio, Camila; Badino, Alberto C; Farinas, Cristiane S

    2016-12-01

    Addition of surfactants, polymers, and non-catalytic proteins can improve the enzymatic hydrolysis of lignocellulosic materials by blocking the exposed lignin surfaces, but involves extra expense. Here, soybean protein, one of the cheapest proteins available, was evaluated as an alternative additive for the enzymatic hydrolysis of pretreated sugarcane bagasse. The effect of the enzyme source was investigated using enzymatic cocktails from A. niger and T. reesei cultivated under solid-state, submerged, and sequential fermentation. The use of soybean protein led to approximately 2-fold increases in hydrolysis, relative to the control, for both A. niger and T. reesei enzymatic cocktails from solid-state fermentation. The effect was comparable to that of BSA. Moreover, the use of soybean protein and a 1:1 combination of A. niger and T. reesei enzymatic cocktails resulted in 54% higher glucose release, compared to the control. Soybean protein is a potential cost-effective additive for use in the biomass conversion process.

  3. The effect of the unfolded protein response on the production of recombinant proteins in plants.

    PubMed

    Thomas, David Rhys; Walmsley, Amanda Maree

    2015-02-01

    Recombinant proteins are currently produced through a wide variety of host systems, including yeast, E. coli, insect and mammalian cells. One of the most recent systems developed uses plant cells. While considerable advances have been made in the yields and fidelity of plant-made recombinant proteins, many of these gains have arisen from the development of recombinant factors. This includes elements such as highly effective promoters and untranslated regions, deconstructed viral vectors, silencing inhibitors, and improved DNA delivery techniques. However, unlike other host systems, much of the work on recombinant protein production in plants uses wild-type hosts that have not been modified to facilitate recombinant protein expression. As such, there are still endogenous mechanisms functioning to maintain the health of the cell. The result is that these pathways, such as the unfolded protein response, can actively work to reduce recombinant protein production to maintain the integrity of the cell. This review examines how issues arising from the unfolded protein response have been addressed in other systems, and how these methods may be transferable to plant systems. We further identify several areas of host plant biology that present attractive targets for modification to facilitate recombinant protein production.

  4. Differential dehydration effects on globular proteins and intrinsically disordered proteins during film formation.

    PubMed

    Yoneda, Juliana Sakamoto; Miles, Andew J; Araujo, Ana Paula Ulian; Wallace, B A

    2017-04-01

    Globular proteins composed of different secondary structures and fold types were examined by synchrotron radiation circular dichroism spectroscopy to determine the effects of dehydration on their secondary structures. They exhibited only minor changes upon removal of bulk water during film formation, contrary to previously reported studies of proteins dehydrated by lyophilization (where substantial loss of helical structure and gain in sheet structure was detected). This near lack of conformational change observed for globular proteins contrasts with intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs) dried in the same manner: the IDPs, which have almost completely unordered structures in solution, exhibited increased amounts of regular (mostly helical) secondary structures when dehydrated, suggesting formation of new intra-protein hydrogen bonds replacing solvent-protein hydrogen bonds, in a process which may mimic interactions that occur when IDPs bind to partner molecules. This study has thus shown that the secondary structures of globular and intrinsically disordered proteins behave very differently upon dehydration, and that films are a potentially useful format for examining dehydrated soluble proteins and assessing IDPs structures.

  5. Differential dehydration effects on globular proteins and intrinsically disordered proteins during film formation

    PubMed Central

    Yoneda, Juliana Sakamoto; Miles, Andew J.; Araujo, Ana Paula Ulian

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Globular proteins composed of different secondary structures and fold types were examined by synchrotron radiation circular dichroism spectroscopy to determine the effects of dehydration on their secondary structures. They exhibited only minor changes upon removal of bulk water during film formation, contrary to previously reported studies of proteins dehydrated by lyophilization (where substantial loss of helical structure and gain in sheet structure was detected). This near lack of conformational change observed for globular proteins contrasts with intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs) dried in the same manner: the IDPs, which have almost completely unordered structures in solution, exhibited increased amounts of regular (mostly helical) secondary structures when dehydrated, suggesting formation of new intra‐protein hydrogen bonds replacing solvent‐protein hydrogen bonds, in a process which may mimic interactions that occur when IDPs bind to partner molecules. This study has thus shown that the secondary structures of globular and intrinsically disordered proteins behave very differently upon dehydration, and that films are a potentially useful format for examining dehydrated soluble proteins and assessing IDPs structures. PMID:28097742

  6. Effect of nanosilica and silicon sources on plant growth promoting rhizobacteria, soil nutrients and maize seed germination.

    PubMed

    Karunakaran, Gopalu; Suriyaprabha, Rangaraj; Manivasakan, Palanisamy; Yuvakkumar, Rathinam; Rajendran, Venkatachalam; Prabu, Periyasamy; Kannan, Narayanasamy

    2013-09-01

    The study was aimed at evaluating the effect of nanosilica and different sources of silicon on soil properties, total bacterial population and maize seed germination. Nanosilica was synthesised using rice husk and characterised. Silica powder was amorphous (50 nm) with >99.9% purity. Sodium silicate treated soil inhibited plant growth promoting rhizobacteria in contrast to nanosilica and other bulk sources. Surface property and effect of soil nutrient content of nanosilica treatment were improved. Colony forming unit (CFU) was doubled in the presence of nanosilica from 4 × 105 CFU (control) to 8 × 105 CFU per gram of soil. The silica and protein content of bacterial biomass clearly showed an increase in uptake of silica with an increase in nanosilica concentration. Nanosilica promoted seed germination percentage (100%) in maize than conventional Si sources. These studies show that nanosilica has favourable effect on beneficial bacterial population and nutrient value of soil.

  7. Effective protein-protein interaction from structure factor data of a lysozyme solution

    SciTech Connect

    Abramo, M. C.; Caccamo, C.; Costa, D.; Ruberto, R.; Wanderlingh, U.; Cavero, M.; Pellicane, G.

    2013-08-07

    We report the determination of an effective protein-protein central potential for a lysozyme solution, obtained from the direct inversion of the total structure factor of the system, as extracted from small angle neutron scattering. The inversion scheme rests on a hypernetted-chain relationship between the effective potential and the structural functions, and is preliminarily tested for the case of a Lennard-Jones interaction. The characteristics of our potential are discussed in comparison with current models of effective interactions in complex fluids. The phase behavior predictions are also investigated.

  8. Three-color femtosecond source for simultaneous excitation of three fluorescent proteins in two-photon fluorescence microscopy.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ke; Liu, Tzu-Ming; Wu, Juwell; Horton, Nicholas G; Lin, Charles P; Xu, Chris

    2012-09-01

    We demonstrate a fiber-based, three-color femtosecond source for simultaneous imaging of three fluorescent proteins (FPs) using two-photon fluorescence microscopy (2PM). The three excitation wavelengths at 775 nm, 864 nm and 950 nm, are obtained through second harmonic generation (SHG) of the 1550-nm pump laser and the 1728-nm and 1900-nm solitons generated through soliton self-frequency shift (SSFS) in a large-mode-area (LMA) fiber. These energetic pulses are well matched to the two-photon excitation peaks of red, cyan and yellow fluorescent proteins (TagRFPs, TagCFPs, and TagYFPs) for efficient excitation. We demonstrate simultaneous 2PM of human melanoma cells expressing a "rainbow" combination of these three fluorescent proteins.

  9. Attractive protein-polymer interactions markedly alter the effect of macromolecular crowding on protein association equilibria.

    PubMed

    Jiao, Ming; Li, Hong-Tao; Chen, Jie; Minton, Allen P; Liang, Yi

    2010-08-04

    The dependence of the fluorescence of catalase upon the concentration of added superoxide dismutase (SOD) indicates that SOD binds to saturable sites on catalase. The affinity of SOD for these sites varies with temperature, and with the concentration of each of three nominally inert polymeric additives--dextran 70, Ficoll 70, and polyethylene glycol 2000. At room temperature (25.0 degrees C) and higher, the addition of high concentrations of polymer is found to significantly enhance the affinity of SOD for catalase, but with decreasing temperature the enhancing effect of polymer addition diminishes, and at 8.0 degrees C, addition of polymer has little or no effect on the affinity of SOD for catalase. The results presented here provide the first experimental evidence for the existence of competition between a repulsive excluded volume interaction between protein and polymer, which tends to enhance association of dilute protein, and an attractive interaction between protein and polymer, which tends to inhibit protein association. The net effect of high concentrations of polymer upon protein associations depends upon the relative strength of these two types of interactions at the temperature of measurement, and may vary significantly between different proteins and/or polymers.

  10. Effective Source-to-Source Outlining to Support Whole Program Empirical Optimization

    SciTech Connect

    Liao, C; Quinlan, D J; Vuduc, R; Panas, T

    2009-07-17

    Although automated empirical performance optimization and tuning is well-studied for kernels and domain-specific libraries, a current research grand challenge is how to extend these methodologies and tools to significantly larger sequential and parallel applications. In this context, we present the ROSE source-to-source outliner, which addresses the problem of extracting tunable kernels out of whole programs, thereby helping to convert the challenging whole-program tuning problem into a set of more manageable kernel tuning tasks. Our outliner aims to handle large scale C/C++, Fortran and OpenMP applications. A set of program analysis and transformation techniques are utilized to enhance the portability, scalability, and interoperability of source-to-source outlining. More importantly, the generated kernels preserve performance characteristics of tuning targets and can be easily handled by other tools. Preliminary evaluations have shown that the ROSE outliner serves as a key component within an end-to-end empirical optimization system and enables a wide range of sequential and parallel optimization opportunities.

  11. Protein and Metalloprotein Distribution in Different Varieties of Beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.): Effects of Cooking.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Aline P; Andrade, Geyssa Ferreira; Mateó, Bianca S O; Naozuka, Juliana

    2017-01-01

    Beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) are among the main sources of protein and minerals. The cooking of the grains is imperative, due to reduction of the effect of some toxic and antinutritional substances, as well as increase of protein digestibility. In this study, the effects of cooking on albumins, globulins, prolamins, and glutelins concentration and determination of Fe associated with proteins for different beans varieties and on phaseolin concentration in common and black beans were evaluated. Different extractant solutions (water, NaCl, ethanol, and NaOH) were used for extracting albumins, globulins, prolamins, and glutelins, respectively. For the phaseolin separation NaOH, HCl, and NaCl were used. The total concentration of proteins was determined by Bradford method; Cu and Fe associated with phaseolin and other proteins were obtained by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry and by flame atomic absorption spectrometry, respectively. Cooking promoted a negative effect on (1) the proteins concentrations (17 (glutelin) to 95 (albumin) %) of common beans and (2) phaseolin concentration (90%) for common and black beans. Fe associated with albumin, prolamin, and glutelin was not altered. In Fe and Cu associated with phaseolin there was an increase of 20 and 37% for the common and black varieties, respectively.

  12. Protein and Metalloprotein Distribution in Different Varieties of Beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.): Effects of Cooking

    PubMed Central

    Oliveira, Aline P.; Andrade, Geyssa Ferreira; Mateó, Bianca S. O.

    2017-01-01

    Beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) are among the main sources of protein and minerals. The cooking of the grains is imperative, due to reduction of the effect of some toxic and antinutritional substances, as well as increase of protein digestibility. In this study, the effects of cooking on albumins, globulins, prolamins, and glutelins concentration and determination of Fe associated with proteins for different beans varieties and on phaseolin concentration in common and black beans were evaluated. Different extractant solutions (water, NaCl, ethanol, and NaOH) were used for extracting albumins, globulins, prolamins, and glutelins, respectively. For the phaseolin separation NaOH, HCl, and NaCl were used. The total concentration of proteins was determined by Bradford method; Cu and Fe associated with phaseolin and other proteins were obtained by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry and by flame atomic absorption spectrometry, respectively. Cooking promoted a negative effect on (1) the proteins concentrations (17 (glutelin) to 95 (albumin) %) of common beans and (2) phaseolin concentration (90%) for common and black beans. Fe associated with albumin, prolamin, and glutelin was not altered. In Fe and Cu associated with phaseolin there was an increase of 20 and 37% for the common and black varieties, respectively. PMID:28326316

  13. Parental source effect of inherited mutations in the dystrophin gene of mice and men

    SciTech Connect

    Kress, W.; Grimm, T.; Mueller, C.R.; Bittner, R.

    1994-09-01

    Skewed X-inactivation has been suspected the genetic cause for some manifesting female carriers of BMD and DMD. To test whether a parental source effect on the protein expression of the dystrophin gene exists, we have set up backcrosses of mdx mice to wild type strains, enabling us to study the effect of the well-defined origin of the mutation on the dystrophin expression. In skeletal muscle sections the immunohistological staining patterns of dystrophin antibodies were showing a significant difference in the proportion of dystrophin positive versus negative fibers, suggesting a lower expression of paternally inherited mdx mutations. These data are in concordance with the pyruvate kinase (PK) levels in the serum: PK levels were much higher when the mutation was of maternal origin as compared to PK levels in paternally derived mutations. In order to test this {open_quotes}paternal source effect{close_quotes} in humans, we checked obligatory carriers of Becker muscular dystrophy (BMD) for the origin of their mutations. Creatin kinase (CK) levels in 21 carriers with maternally derived mutations were compared to CK values from 8 heterozygotes with mutations of paternal origin: CK (mat) = 140.3 IU/1 versus CK (pat) = 48.6 IU/I. The difference is statistically significant at the 5% level. These observations suggest either a differential X-inactivation or an imprinting of the dystrophin gene in mice and men.

  14. Nonsense Mediated Decay Resistant Mutations Are a Source of Expressed Mutant Proteins in Colon Cancer Cell Lines with Microsatellite Instability

    PubMed Central

    Williams, David S.; Bird, Matthew J.; Jorissen, Robert N.; Yu, Yen Lin; Walker, Franscesa; Zhang, Hui Hua; Nice, Edouard C.; Burgess, Antony W.

    2010-01-01

    Background Frameshift mutations in microsatellite instability high (MSI-High) colorectal cancers are a potential source of targetable neo-antigens. Many nonsense transcripts are subject to rapid degradation due to nonsense-mediated decay (NMD), but nonsense transcripts with a cMS in the last exon or near the last exon-exon junction have intrinsic resistance to nonsense-mediated decay (NMD). NMD-resistant transcripts are therefore a likely source of expressed mutant proteins in MSI-High tumours. Methods Using antibodies to the conserved N-termini of predicted mutant proteins, we analysed MSI-High colorectal cancer cell lines for examples of naturally expressed mutant proteins arising from frameshift mutations in coding microsatellites (cMS) by immunoprecipitation and Western Blot experiments. Detected mutant protein bands from NMD-resistant transcripts were further validated by gene-specific short-interfering RNA (siRNA) knockdown. A genome-wide search was performed to identify cMS-containing genes likely to generate NMD-resistant transcripts that could encode for antigenic expressed mutant proteins in MSI-High colon cancers. These genes were screened for cMS mutations in the MSI-High colon cancer cell lines. Results Mutant protein bands of expected molecular weight were detected in mutated MSI-High cell lines for NMD-resistant transcripts (CREBBP, EP300, TTK), but not NMD-sensitive transcripts (BAX, CASP5, MSH3). Expression of the mutant CREBBP and EP300 proteins was confirmed by siRNA knockdown. Five cMS-bearing genes identified from the genome-wide search and without existing mutation data (SFRS12IP1, MED8, ASXL1, FBXL3 and RGS12) were found to be mutated in at least 5 of 11 (45%) of the MSI-High cell lines tested. Conclusion NMD-resistant transcripts can give rise to expressed mutant proteins in MSI-High colon cancer cells. If commonly expressed in primary MSI-High colon cancers, MSI-derived mutant proteins could be useful as cancer specific immunological

  15. Effect of acute smoke exposure on hepatic protein synthesis.

    PubMed

    Garrett, R J; Jackson, M A

    1979-05-01

    In vivo hepatic protein synthesis was monitored in female rats under control and smoke-exposed conditions. During the 15 min period after i.v. administration of [3H]proline protein synthesis was 206 +/- 35 nmol of proline per mg of DNA for sham-control animals. When animals were subjected to acute exposure to cigarette smoke, protein synthesis was inhibited and the extent of inhibition was positively correlated with the dosage of smoke (32%, 15 puffs; 66%, 60 puffs). The inhibitory effect of whole smoke on protein synthesis was unaltered by passing the smoke through either charcoal or cambridge filters. Carbon monoxide in smoke is not removed by either type of filter. At a level comparable to that in cigarette smoke carbon monoxide depressed hepatic protein synthesis to the same extent as did whole or filtered smoke.

  16. Resistance of platelet proteins to effects of ionizing radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Prodouz, K.N.; Habraken, J.W.; Moroff, G. )

    1990-12-01

    Gamma irradiation of blood components prevents lymphocyte-induced graft-versus-host disease after transfusion in immunocompromised individuals. In this report we demonstrate the resistance of blood platelet proteins to gamma radiation-induced protein cleavage and aggregate formation when platelet concentrates were treated with a dose of 5000 rad. Results of one- and two-dimensional sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of total platelet protein and cytoskeletal protein preparations indicate that platelet proteins are neither cleaved nor cross-linked under these conditions of irradiation. These results support those of a previous study that documented the lack of any adverse effect of 5000 rad gamma radiation on in vitro platelet properties.

  17. Steric exclusion is the principal source of the preferential hydration of proteins in the presence of polyethylene glycols.

    PubMed Central

    Bhat, R.; Timasheff, S. N.

    1992-01-01

    The preferential interactions of bovine serum albumin, lysozyme, chymotrypsinogen, ribonuclease A, and beta-lactoglobulin with polyethylene glycols (PEGs) of molecular weight 200-6,000 have been measured by dialysis equilibrium coupled with high precision densimetry. All the proteins were found to be preferentially hydrated in all the PEGs, and the magnitude of the preferential hydration increased with increasing PEG size for each protein. The change in the chemical potentials of the proteins with the addition of the PEGs had highly positive values, indicating a strong thermodynamic destabilization of the system by the PEGs. A viscosity study of the PEGs showed them to be randomly coiled polymers, as their radii of gyration were related to the molecular weight by Rg = aM0.55. The thickness of the effective shell impenetrable to PEG around protein molecules, calculated from the preferential hydration, was found to vary with PEG molecular weight in similar fashion as the PEG radius of gyration, supporting the proposal (Arakawa, T. & Timasheff, S.N., 1985a, Biochemistry 24, 6756-6762) that the preferential exclusion of PEGs from proteins is due principally to the steric exclusion of PEG from the protein domain, although favorable interactions with protein surface residues, in particular nonpolar ones, may compete with the exclusion. These thermodynamically unfavorable preferential exclusion interactions lead to the action of PEGs as precipitants, although they may destabilize protein structure at higher temperatures. PMID:1304392

  18. Lensless Ghost Diffraction with Partially Coherent Sources: Effects of the Source Size, Transverse Coherence, Detector Size and Defocusing Length

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Jie; Cheng, Jing

    2011-09-01

    Lensless ghost diffraction with partially coherent sources is investigated theoretically and numerically. Based on the classical optical coherent theory and the Gauss-Shell model of the partially coherent sources, we derive an analytical imaging formula of lensless ghost diffraction (LGD). Using this formula, we can see the effects of the transverse size and coherence of the sources, the detector size and defocusing length on the quality of LGD. Numerical results are presented to show that for different detector sizes and defocusing lengths, high quality LGD can be realized by using sources with appropriate transverse sizes and coherent widths. These findings can be used to choose the optimal parameters in the design of a realistic LGD system.

  19. Effect of Zinc Source on Hematological, Metabolic Parameters and Mineral Balance in Lambs.

    PubMed

    Aliarabi, Hassan; Fadayifar, Amir; Tabatabaei, Mohammad Mehdi; Zamani, Pouya; Bahari, Aliasghar; Farahavar, Abbas; Dezfoulian, Amir Hossein

    2015-11-01

    This experiment was conducted to study the effects of different sources of zinc (Zn) on blood metabolites and balances of some minerals in lambs. In the first part, 20 6-7-month-old lambs were randomly allotted to four treatments including (1) basal diet containing 22.47 mg Zn/kg DM without supplementary Zn (control), (2) basal diet + 40 mg Zn/kg DM as ZnSO4 (ZnSO4 40), (3) basal diet + 20 mg Zn/kg DM as Zn-proteinate (Zn-Pro 20), and (4) basal diet + 40 mg Zn/kg DM as Zn-proteinate (Zn-Pro 40). Blood samples were taken on days 0, 28, and 65 before morning feeding. In the second part, four lambs from each treatment were randomly transferred to metabolic cages to evaluate the effects of different sources of Zn on N, Zn, Fe, and Cu retentions. This trial consisted of 18 days, with the first 12 days as the adaptation period followed by 6 days of sample collection. The results of this study showed that the source of Zinc had no significant effect on the analyzed parameters. Average daily gain and feed efficiency were improved by Zn supplementation (P < 0.05). Daily feed intake, plasma glucose, Fe and Cu concentrations, serum total antioxidant capacity, red blood cell count, packed cell volume, and hemoglobin concentration did not differ significantly between treatments (P > 0.05). Plasma Zn concentration, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (BALP) activity, and white blood cell and lymphocyte count differed significantly between control and Zn-supplemented groups (P < 0.05) as Zn supplementation improved these parameters. Nitrogen, Fe, and Cu retentions did not differ between treatments (P > 0.05). Zinc retention showed a significant difference between control and Zn-supplemented groups (P < 0.05), but there were no significant differences among the Zn-supplemented groups. The results of this study show that Zn supplementation improved performance and zinc retention in lambs. However, there were no significant

  20. [Modification of placenta blood serum proteins under low temperature effect].

    PubMed

    Fal'ko, O V; Zemlianskikh, N G; Lipina, O V; Prokopiuk, O S

    2013-01-01

    Changes in environmental physical and chemical factors upon freeze-thawing and low temperature storage of biological samples can result in impairments of protein structures. This work specifies spontaneous and diamide-induced protein aggregations of placenta blood serum stored at -20 degrees and -196 degrees C during 2 years with SDS-PAGE. It was shown that storage of placenta blood serum at low temperatures did not cause any quantitative and qualitative changes in fraction distribution of proteins denatured with SDS in comparison to the native samples which were not frozen. Application of beta-mercaptoethanol revealed that placenta blood serum proteins upon freeze-thawing did not form spontaneous aggregates linked by disulphide bridges. Oxidation of amino acid sulfhydryl groups induced by diamide and accompanied by high molecular aggregate formation proved to be a quite effective way for indirect estimation of structural changes in protein upon low temperature effects. In samples thawed after low temperature storage the protein aggregation with 4 microM diamide was significantly higher than in native serum. These discrepancies between native and frozen-thawed samples are stipulated by impairments of protein structure under low temperature and increased in accessibility of reactive SH-groups of proteins for oxidation with diamide. Structural changes in placenta blood serum proteins, which caused by low temperatures and revealed by elevated sensibility to diamide-induced aggregate formation, did not depend on temperature (-20 degrees and -196 degrees C) and storage terms (2 years and 3 weeks). They reflect protein reaction to freeze-thawing processes and could be sequence of ice crystal formation which takes place in unprotected media.

  1. Modeling Grain Nitrogen Accumulation and Protein Composition to Understand the Sink/Source Regulations of Nitrogen Remobilization for Wheat

    PubMed Central

    Martre, Pierre; Porter, John R.; Jamieson, Peter D.; Triboï, Eugène

    2003-01-01

    A functional explanation for the regulation of grain nitrogen (N) accumulation in cereal by environmental and genetic factors remains elusive. Here, new mechanistic hypotheses of grain N accumulation are proposed and tested for wheat (Triticum aestivum). First, we tested experimentally the hypothesis that grain N accumulation is mostly source regulated. Four contrasting cultivars, in terms of their grain N concentrations and yield potentials, were grown with non-limiting N supply. Grain number per ear was reduced by removing the top part of the ear at anthesis. Reduction in grain number gave a significant increase in N content per grain for all cultivars, showing that grain N accumulation was source regulated. However, on a per ear basis, cultivars with a high grain number fully compensated their N accumulation for reduced grain number at anthesis. Cultivars with a lower grain number did not compensate completely, and grain N per ear was decreased by 16%. Second, new mechanistic hypotheses of the origins of grain N source regulation and its response to environment were tested by simulation. The hypotheses were: (a) The regulation by N sources of grain N accumulation applies only for the storage proteins (i.e. gliadin and glutenin fractions); (b) accumulation of structural and metabolic proteins (i.e. albumin-globulin and amphiphilic fractions) is sink-regulated; and (c) N partitioning between gliadins and glutenins is constant during grain development and unmodified by growing conditions. Comparison of experimental and simulation results of the accumulation of grain protein fractions under wide ranges of N fertilization, temperatures, and irrigation supported these hypotheses. PMID:14630962

  2. Content vs. Product: The Effects of Single Sourcing on the Teaching of Technical Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eble, Michelle F.

    2003-01-01

    Identifies and discusses the effects of single sourcing on the writing process. Provides suggestions for incorporating the teaching of single sourcing into technical communication courses. Concludes that educating students about the process of single sourcing is important if they are to become effective technical communicators in the industry. (SG)

  3. Effects of Glycosylation on the Stability of Protein Pharmaceuticals

    PubMed Central

    SOLÁ, RICARDO J.; GRIEBENOW, KAI

    2008-01-01

    In recent decades, protein-based therapeutics have substantially expanded the field of molecular pharmacology due to their outstanding potential for the treatment of disease. Unfortunately, protein pharmaceuticals display a series of intrinsic physical and chemical instability problems during their production, purification, storage, and delivery that can adversely impact their final therapeutic efficacies. This has prompted an intense search for generalized strategies to engineer the long-term stability of proteins during their pharmaceutical employment. Due to the well known effect that glycans have in increasing the overall stability of glycoproteins, rational manipulation of the glycosylation parameters through glycoengineering could become a promising approach to improve both the in vitro and in vivo stability of protein pharmaceuticals. The intent of this review is therefore to further the field of protein glycoengineering by increasing the general understanding of the mechanisms by which glycosylation improves the molecular stability of protein pharmaceuticals. This is achieved by presenting a survey of the different instabilities displayed by protein pharmaceuticals, by addressing which of these instabilities can be improved by glycosylation, and by discussing the possible mechanisms by which glycans induce these stabilization effects. PMID:18661536

  4. Ozone Effects on Protein Carbonyl Content in the Frontal ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Oxidative stress (OS) plays an important role in susceptibility and disease in old age. Understanding age-related susceptibility is a critical part of community-based human health risk assessment of chemical exposures. There is growing concern over a common air pollutant, ozone (03), and adverse health effects including dysfunction of the pulmonary, cardiac, and nervous systems. The objective of this study was to test whether OS plays a role in the adverse effects caused by 03 exposure, and if so, if effects were age-dependent. We selected protein carbonyl as an indicator of OS because carbonyl content of cells is a useful indicator of oxidative protein damage and has been linked to chemical-induced adverse effects. Male Brown Norway rats (4, 12, and 24 months) were exposed to 03 (0,0.25 or 1 ppm) via inhalation for 6 h/day, 2 days per week for 13 weeks. Frontal cortex (FC) and cerebellum (CB) were dissected, quick frozen on dry ice, and stored at -80°C. Protein carbonyls were assayed using commercial kits. Hydrogen peroxide, a positive control, increased protein carbonyls in cortical tissue in vitro in a concentration-dependent manner. Significant effects of age on protein carbonyls in FC and a significant effect of age and 03 dose on protein carbonyls in CB were observed. In control rats, there was an age-dependent increase in protein carbonyls indicating increased OS in 12 and 24 month old rats compared to 4 month old rats. Although 03 increase

  5. Cecotrophy behavior and use of urea as non-protein nitrogen (NPN) source for capybara (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris).

    PubMed

    Nogueira-Filho, Sérgio Luiz Gama; Mendes, Alcester; Tavares, Ellis Fernanda Kowalski; da Cunha Nogueira, Selene Siqueira

    2013-11-01

    Fifteen female adult capybaras, with initial average body weight (BW) of 32.7 (± 5.8) kg, were kept in individual pens to evaluate effect of supplementation of concentrate feed and its supply time on cecotrophy behavior frequency. The animals were allocated in a completely randomized design, with five animals per treatment, receiving three diets: grass only, grass and grain corn offered in a single meal, and grass and grain corn offered in two daily meals; all cecotrophy acts were recorded. Later, in a second experiment, five capybaras received five levels of urea in their diet: 0, 10, 20, 30, and 40 g urea/100 kg BW, replacing soybean meal as true protein source, in a 5 × 5 Latin square design. The animals were weighed and their blood was collected every 2 weeks. The frequency of cecotrophy (Ps < 0.05) was higher when the capybaras were fed grass only (0.5 ± 0.07 acts/h) than when they received grass and corn in a single meal (0.3 ± 0.05 acts/h) and grass and corn supplied in separate meals (0.1 ± 0.03 acts/h). With increased urea in their diet, the capybaras showed initial signs of chronic intoxication, together with increments in serum urea (r = 0.87, P < 0.05) and a decreasing trend in daily weight gain (r = -0.38, P = 0.06). Therefore, when including concentrate feeds in capybara diet, these must be mixed with roughage in a single meal to avoid high decrease in the frequency of cecotrophy behavior and increase in dry matter intake. The replacement of soybean meal with urea in capybara diet is not recommended.

  6. Skeletal response to diet with soya bean seeds used as primary source of protein in growing broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Olkowski, B; Charuta, A; Radzki, R; Bieńko, M; Toczko, R

    2016-08-01

    The study was conducted using 120 commercial broiler chicks (Ross 308) randomly allocated to two experimental groups. The experimental diets, differing only in protein source, either solvent-extracted soya bean meal (SBM) or traditional (non-genetically modified) full-fat soya bean seeds (FFS), were prepared using practical corn-based formulation designed to meet nutritional requirements of broilers. Performance parameters were monitored weekly. Also, the subjects were evaluated daily for overt changes in skeletal anatomy and gait physiology. Randomly selected chickens from each group (seven males and seven females) were euthanized at 2, 3, 4 and 6 weeks of age, and bone specimens were collected for further study. Bone mineral density (BMD) and bone mineral content (BMC) were determined in tibiotarsal bones. Broilers fed FFS diet showed retarded growth rate and decreased feed intake (both p < 0.001). Both BMD and BMC parameters were significantly lower (p < 0.05) in bones of chickens from the FFS group in comparison with the SBM group. The chickens fed the FFS diet showed higher incidence of skeletal pathology including angular deformities and torticollis (both p < 0.01). Of note, cases of torticollis were observed only in FFS group. In many cases, skeletal abnormalities resulted in considerable changes in gait pattern, and in some instances, the pathology of leg bones was so advanced that the affected individuals were unable to walk, but this deformity was not seen in SBM group. From this study, it can be inferred that raw soya beans contain factors that have some specific detrimental effects on skeletal system of chickens.

  7. Carbon and nitrogen source effects on basidiomycetes exopolysaccharide production.

    PubMed

    Elisashvili, V I; Kachlishvili, E T; Wasser, S P

    2009-01-01

    The capability to synthesize the extracellular polysaccharide (EPS) is widespread among eight mushroom species which accumulated 0.6-2.2 g/l of EPS in submerged cultivation. Glucose, maltose, and mannitol were the most appropriate carbon sources for biomass and EPS production. Organic nitrogen sources appeared to be the most suitable nitrogen sources for biomass and EPS accumulation. The cultivation process in shake flasks was successfully reproduced in a laboratory fermentor with enhanced EPS production. The highest yield of EPS (3.8-4.0 g/l) was achieved in cultivation of Agaricus nevoi and Inonotus levis.

  8. Green bean (Phaseolus vulgaris): a new source of IgE-binding lipid transfer protein.

    PubMed

    Pastorello, Elide A; Pravettoni, Valerio; Farioli, Laura; Primavesi, Laura; Scibilia, Joseph; Piantanida, Marta; Mascheri, Ambra; Conti, Amedeo

    2010-04-14

    Green beans belong to the Fabaceae family, which includes widely consumed species, such as beans, peanuts, and soybeans. In the literature, few cases have described allergic reactions upon the exposure to green bean boiling steam or ingestion. Here, we describe five patients reporting documented adverse reactions upon the ingestion of cooked green beans, and we characterize the responsible allergen. Fresh and cooked green beans were tested by a prick + prick technique. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and IgE immunoblotting were performed with boiled vegetable extract, and the N-terminal sequence of the immunoreactive protein was obtained by analyzing the excised band in a protein sequencer. Immunoblotting inhibition of cooked green bean with in-house-purified peach lipid transfer protein (LTP) Pru p 3 was performed. An interesting green bean protein was chromatographically purified, tested with a pool serum, and inhibited with Pru p 3. Moreover, its molecular mass was determined by mass spectrometry. Prick + prick tests with raw and cooked green beans were positive for all of the patients. IgE immunoblotting showed that all of the patients reacted toward a unique IgE-binding protein at about 9 kDa. The obtained N-terminal sequence revealed the following amino acids: Ala-Ile-Ser-X-Gly-Qln-Val-Thr-Ser-Ser-Leu-Ala, corresponding to an LTP. A complete inhibition of the IgE binding to this protein, in both raw and purified extract, was obtained by purified peach Pru p 3, confirming previous IgE immunoblotting results.

  9. Modeling effectiveness of gradual increases in source level to mitigate effects of sonar on marine mammals.

    PubMed

    Von Benda-Beckmann, Alexander M; Wensveen, Paul J; Kvadsheim, Petter H; Lam, Frans-Peter A; Miller, Patrick J O; Tyack, Peter L; Ainslie, Michael A

    2014-02-01

    Ramp-up or soft-start procedures (i.e., gradual increase in the source level) are used to mitigate the effect of sonar sound on marine mammals, although no one to date has tested whether ramp-up procedures are effective at reducing the effect of sound on marine mammals. We investigated the effectiveness of ramp-up procedures in reducing the area within which changes in hearing thresholds can occur. We modeled the level of sound killer whales (Orcinus orca) were exposed to from a generic sonar operation preceded by different ramp-up schemes. In our model, ramp-up procedures reduced the risk of killer whales receiving sounds of sufficient intensity to affect their hearing. The effectiveness of the ramp-up procedure depended strongly on the assumed response threshold and differed with ramp-up duration, although extending the duration of the ramp up beyond 5 min did not add much to its predicted mitigating effect. The main factors that limited effectiveness of ramp up in a typical antisubmarine warfare scenario were high source level, rapid moving sonar source, and long silences between consecutive sonar transmissions. Our exposure modeling approach can be used to evaluate and optimize mitigation procedures.

  10. Specific anion effects on the pressure dependence of the protein-protein interaction potential.

    PubMed

    Möller, Johannes; Grobelny, Sebastian; Schulze, Julian; Steffen, Andre; Bieder, Steffen; Paulus, Michael; Tolan, Metin; Winter, Roland

    2014-04-28

    We present a study on ion specific effects on the intermolecular interaction potential V(r) of dense protein solutions under high hydrostatic pressure conditions. Small-angle X-ray scattering in combination with a liquid-state theoretical approach was used to determine the effect of structure breaking/making salt anions (Cl(-), SO4(2-), PO4(3-)) on the intermolecular interaction of lysozyme molecules. It was found that besides the Debye-Hückel charge screening effect, reducing the repulsiveness of the interaction potential V(r) at low salt concentrations, a specific ion effect is observed at high salt concentrations for the multivalent kosmotropic anions, which modulates also the pressure dependence of the protein-protein interaction potential. Whereas sulfate and phosphate strongly influence the pressure dependence of V(r), chloride anions do not. The strong structure-making effect of the multivalent anions, dominating for the triply charged PO4(3-), renders the solution structure less bulk-water-like at high salt concentrations, which leads to an altered behavior of the pressure dependence of V(r). Hence, the particular structural properties of the salt solutions are able to influence the spatial organization and the intermolecular interactions of the proteins, in particular upon compression. These results are of interest for exploring the combined effects of ionic strength, temperature and pressure on the phase behavior of protein solutions, but may also be of relevance for understanding pressure effects on the hydration behavior of biological matter under extreme environmental conditions.

  11. Teaching Doppler Effect with a passing noise source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costa, Ivan F.; Mocellin, Alexandra

    2010-07-01

    The noise pitch variation of a passing noise source allows a low cost experimental approach to calculate speed and, for the first time, distance. We adjusted the recorded noise pitch variation to the Doppler shift equation for sound. We did this by taking into account the frequency delay due to the sound source displacement and performing a Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) of the noise signal using free software. This experimental method was successfully applied to aircraft and automobiles.

  12. Effect of Prolonged Simulated Microgravity on Metabolic Proteins in Rat Hippocampus: Steps toward Safe Space Travel.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yun; Javed, Iqbal; Liu, Yahui; Lu, Song; Peng, Guang; Zhang, Yongqian; Qing, Hong; Deng, Yulin

    2016-01-04

    Mitochondria are not only the main source of energy in cells but also produce reactive oxygen species (ROS), which result in oxidative stress when in space. This oxidative stress is responsible for energy imbalances and cellular damage. In this study, a rat tail suspension model was used in individual experiments for 7 and 21 days to explore the effect of simulated microgravity (SM) on metabolic proteins in the hippocampus, a vital brain region involved in learning, memory, and navigation. A comparative (18)O-labeled quantitative proteomic strategy was used to observe the differential expression of metabolic proteins. Forty-two and sixty-seven mitochondrial metabolic proteins were differentially expressed after 21 and 7 days of SM, respectively. Mitochondrial Complex I, III, and IV, isocitrate dehydrogenase and malate dehydrogenase were down-regulated. Moreover, DJ-1 and peroxiredoxin 6, which defend against oxidative damage, were up-regulated in the hippocampus. Western blot analysis of proteins DJ-1 and COX 5A confirmed the mass spectrometry results. Despite these changes in mitochondrial protein expression, no obvious cell apoptosis was observed after 21 days of SM. The results of this study indicate that the oxidative stress induced by SM has profound effects on metabolic proteins.

  13. Effects of osmolytes on protein folding and aggregation in cells.

    PubMed

    Ignatova, Zoya; Gierasch, Lila M

    2007-01-01

    Nature has developed many strategies to ensure that the complex and challenging protein folding reaction occurs in vivo with adequate efficiency and fidelity for the success of the organism. Among the strategies widely employed in a huge range of species and cell types is the elaboration of small organic molecules called osmolytes that offset the potentially damaging effects of osmotic stress. While considerable knowledge has been gained in vitro regarding the influence of osmolytes on protein structure and folding, it is of great interest to probe the effects of osmolytes in cells. We have developed an in-cell fluorescent-labeling method that enables the study of protein stability and also protein aggregation in vivo. We utilize a genetically encoded tag called a tetra-Cys motif that binds specifically to a bis-arsenical fluorescein-based dye "FlAsH"; we inserted the tetra-Cys motif into a protein of interest in such a way that the FlAsH signal reported on the state of folding or aggregation of the protein. Then, we designed protocols to assess how various osmolytes influence the stability and propensity to aggregate of our protein of interest. These are described here. Not only are there potential biotechnological applications of osmolytes in the quest to produce greater quantities of well-folded proteins, but also osmolytes may serve as tools and points of departure for therapeutic intervention in protein folding and aggregation diseases. Having in vivo methods to analyze how osmolytes affect folding and aggregation enhances our ability to further these goals greatly.

  14. Argonne News Brief: Two Key Zika Proteins Unlocked at Advanced Photon Source

    SciTech Connect

    2016-07-25

    The Zika virus is a global health emergency. Now two new studies have revealed the molecular structure of important Zika virus proteins, providing scientists around the globe with new information about how the virus replicates—and potential avenues for antiviral drugs or vaccines.

  15. Systematic identification of proteins that elicit drug side effects

    PubMed Central

    Kuhn, Michael; Al Banchaabouchi, Mumna; Campillos, Monica; Jensen, Lars Juhl; Gross, Cornelius; Gavin, Anne-Claude; Bork, Peer

    2013-01-01

    Side effect similarities of drugs have recently been employed to predict new drug targets, and networks of side effects and targets have been used to better understand the mechanism of action of drugs. Here, we report a large-scale analysis to systematically predict and characterize proteins that cause drug side effects. We integrated phenotypic data obtained during clinical trials with known drug–target relations to identify overrepresented protein–side effect combinations. Using independent data, we confirm that most of these overrepresentations point to proteins which, when perturbed, cause side effects. Of 1428 side effects studied, 732 were predicted to be predominantly caused by individual proteins, at least 137 of them backed by existing pharmacological or phenotypic data. We prove this concept in vivo by confirming our prediction that activation of the serotonin 7 receptor (HTR7) is responsible for hyperesthesia in mice, which, in turn, can be prevented by a drug that selectively inhibits HTR7. Taken together, we show that a large fraction of complex drug side effects are mediated by individual proteins and create a reference for such relations. PMID:23632385

  16. Evaluation of the hypocholesterolemic effect of vegetable proteins.

    PubMed

    Contaldo, F; Di Biase, G; Giacco, A; Pacioni, D; Moro, C O; Grasso, L; Mancini, M; Fidanza, F

    1983-01-01

    The hypocholesterolemic effect of dietary vegetable proteins was studied by comparing egg-white protein and fava bean protein concentrate in one normal and seven hypercholesterolemic (six type II A, one II B) persons; five completed the crossover design. To maintain stable body weight, subjects were kept on an isocaloric diet (20% protein, 48% carbohydrate (CH), 32% fat, P/S = 2) for 1 month and then hospitalized for two consecutive 18-day periods while receiving an isocaloric diet of different composition (15% protein, 50% CH, 26% fat, P/S = 2). Women were provided 50 g and men 70 g daily of egg-white or fava bean protein concentrate during the two crossover periods. Hematocrit and fasting plasma or serum were analyzed every 3 days for glucose, insulin, uric acid, creatinine, total and low-density lipoprotein (LDL), very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL), and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterols, and for total and VLDL triglyceride. Dietary adequacy of both proteins was evaluated by measuring plasma concentration of prealbumin, transferrin, and retinol-binding globulin. Insulin and hematocrit did not show any change, nor did any other biochemical variables show significant differences when results were compared at the end of each crossover period. Compared with baseline, fasting plasma glucose significantly decreased on the fava bean diet. Serum total and LDL cholesterol decreased during both diets but were statistically significant only on the egg-white diet. Serum HDL cholesterol significantly decreased only on the fava bean diet. Serum total and VLDL triglyceride did not show any significant change. Labile plasma protein concentration was significantly reduced only on the fava bean diet. In conclusion, the fava bean diet did not show a significant effect on lowering serum total and LDL cholesterol. Such an effect was mild but significant on the egg-white diet, compared with baseline.

  17. High-resolution wide-angle X-ray scattering of protein solutions: effect of beam dose on protein integrity.

    PubMed

    Fischetti, Robert F; Rodi, Diane J; Mirza, Ahmed; Irving, Thomas C; Kondrashkina, Elena; Makowski, Lee

    2003-09-01

    Wide-angle X-ray scattering patterns from proteins in solution contain information relevant to the determination of protein fold. At relevant scattering angles, however, these data are weak, and the degree to which they might be used to categorize the fold of a protein is unknown. Preliminary work has been performed at the BioCAT insertion-device beamline at the Advanced Photon Source which demonstrates that one can collect X-ray scattering data from proteins in solution to spacings of at least 2.2 A (q = 2.8 A(-1)). These data are sensitive to protein conformational states, and are in good agreement with the scattering predicted by the program CRYSOL using the known three-dimensional atomic coordinates of the protein. An important issue in the exploitation of this technique as a tool for structural genomics is the extent to which the high intensity of X-rays available at third-generation synchrotron sources chemically or structurally damage proteins. Various data-collection protocols have been investigated demonstrating conditions under which structural degradation of even sensitive proteins can be minimized, making this technique a viable tool for protein fold categorization, the study of protein folding, unfolding, protein-ligand interactions and domain movement.

  18. Glyceollin-elicited soy protein consumption induces distinct transcriptional effects as compared to standard soy protein

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Glyceollins are stress-induced compounds in soybeans with bioactive properties distinct from parent soy isoflavones. The goals of this study were to evaluate effects of dietary glyceollin-enriched and standard soy protein isolates and identify candidate target pathways of glyceollins on transcripti...

  19. The Effect of Transglutaminase Crosslinking Reactions on Soy Protein vs. Heated Soy Protein Dispersions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Previously, we created a thermally modified soy protein ingredient (mSPI) that was readily reconstituted in water and demonstrated improved heat stability and cold-set gel functionality compared to unheated SPI. Herein, we examined the effect of enzyme modification (microbial transglutaminase; mTGas...

  20. Plasma protein loss during surgery: beneficial effects of albumin substitution.

    PubMed

    Horstick, G; Lauterbach, M; Kempf, T; Ossendorf, M; Kopacz, L; Heimann, A; Lehr, H A; Bhakdi, S; Horstick, M; Meyer, J; Kempski, O

    2001-07-01

    Plasma protein loss during abdominal surgery is a known phenomenon, but its possible pathophysiological relevance has remained unknown. The present study evaluates the effects of albumin substitution on systemic and local hemodynamics and cellular interactions in the mesenteric microcirculation. Rats underwent median laparotomy and exteriorization of an ileal loop for intravital microscopy of the mesenteric microcirculation. Plasma protein concentrations, systemic and local hemodynamics were recorded during the follow up period, with or without albumin substitution. Depending on the time course of plasma protein loss in control experiments, 80% of the calculated protein loss was infused during the first 2 h of surgery, and the other 20% over the following 5 h of intravital microscopy. The control group received a continuous infusion of normal saline. Plasma protein loss was mainly due to loss of albumin. A significant increase in adherent and rolling leukocytes was observed during the course of mesenteric exteriorization, which was almost entirely reversed by albumin replacement. Albumin substitution led to stabilisation of mean arterial pressure and abdominal blood flow and also attenuated reductions in arterial base excess. Albumin infusions to replace plasma protein loss may be a simple and effective measure to attenuate microcirculatory disturbances and may be of benefit in patients undergoing abdominal surgery.

  1. Protective effects of dimethyl sulfoxide on labile protein interactions during electrospray ionization.

    PubMed

    Landreh, Michael; Alvelius, Gunvor; Johansson, Jan; Jörnvall, Hans

    2014-05-06

    Electrospray ionization mass spectrometry is a valuable tool to probe noncovalent interactions. However, the integrity of the interactions in the gas-phase is heavily influenced by the ionization process. Investigating oligomerization and ligand binding of transthyretin (TTR) and the chaperone domain from prosurfactant protein C, we found that dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) can improve the stability of the noncovalent interactions during the electrospray process, both regarding ligand binding and the protein quaternary structure. Low amounts of DMSO can reduce in-source dissociation of native protein oligomers and their interactions with hydrophobic ligands, even under destabilizing conditions. We interpret the effects of DMSO as being derived from its enrichment in the electrospray droplets during evaporation. Protection of labile interactions can arise from the decrease in ion charges to reduce the contributions from Coulomb repulsions, as well as from the cooling effect of adduct dissociation. The protective effects of DMSO on labile protein interactions are an important property given its widespread use in protein analysis by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS).

  2. DNA aptamer affinity ligands for highly selective purification of human plasma-related proteins from multiple sources.

    PubMed

    Forier, Cynthia; Boschetti, Egisto; Ouhammouch, Mohamed; Cibiel, Agnès; Ducongé, Frédéric; Nogré, Michel; Tellier, Michel; Bataille, Damien; Bihoreau, Nicolas; Santambien, Patrick; Chtourou, Sami; Perret, Gérald

    2017-03-17

    Nucleic acid aptamers are promising ligands for analytical and preparative-scale affinity chromatography applications. However, a full industrial exploitation requires that aptamer-grafted chromatography media provide a number of high technical standards that remained largely untested. Ideally, they should exhibit relatively high binding capacity associated to a very high degree of specificity. In addition, they must be highly resistant to harsh cleaning/sanitization conditions, as well as to prolonged and repeated exposure to biological environment. Here, we present practical examples of aptamer affinity chromatography for the purification of three human therapeutic proteins from various sources: Factor VII, Factor H and Factor IX. In a single chromatographic step, three DNA aptamer ligands enabled the efficient purification of their target protein, with an unprecedented degree of selectivity (from 0.5% to 98% of purity in one step). Furthermore, these aptamers demonstrated a high stability under harsh sanitization conditions (100h soaking in 1M NaOH). These results pave the way toward a wider adoption of aptamer-based affinity ligands in the industrial-scale purification of not only plasma-derived proteins but also of any other protein in general.

  3. Positive effects of duckweed polycultures on starch and protein accumulation.

    PubMed

    Li, Yang; Zhang, Fantao; Daroch, Maurycy; Tang, Jie

    2016-10-01

    The effect of duckweed species composition (Lemna aequinoctialis 5505, Landoltia punctata 5506 and Spirodela polyrhiza 5507) in polyculture and monoculture on biomass and starch/protein content were investigated at different levels of temperature, light intensity, nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations. The three growth parameters significantly affect duckweed biomass accumulation. Different combinations of duckweed species greatly varied in starch/protein content. Although all the polycultures showed a median relative growth rate and the majority of the polycultures showed a median and starch/protein content as compared with their respective monocultures, some of the polycultures were found to promote the accumulation of starch/protein at different growth conditions. These findings indicated that proper combination of duckweed species could facilitate desirable biomass accumulation and improve biomass quality. The present study provides useful references for future large-scale duckweed cultivation.

  4. Positive effects of duckweed polycultures on starch and protein accumulation

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yang; Zhang, Fantao; Daroch, Maurycy; Tang, Jie

    2016-01-01

    The effect of duckweed species composition (Lemna aequinoctialis 5505, Landoltia punctata 5506 and Spirodela polyrhiza 5507) in polyculture and monoculture on biomass and starch/protein content were investigated at different levels of temperature, light intensity, nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations. The three growth parameters significantly affect duckweed biomass accumulation. Different combinations of duckweed species greatly varied in starch/protein content. Although all the polycultures showed a median relative growth rate and the majority of the polycultures showed a median and starch/protein content as compared with their respective monocultures, some of the polycultures were found to promote the accumulation of starch/protein at different growth conditions. These findings indicated that proper combination of duckweed species could facilitate desirable biomass accumulation and improve biomass quality. The present study provides useful references for future large-scale duckweed cultivation. PMID:27515418

  5. Recognition forces in ligand-protein complexes: blending information from different sources.

    PubMed

    Ermondi, Giuseppe; Caron, Giulia

    2006-12-15

    A variety of ligands interact with proteins in many biological processes; shape complementarity, electrostatic forces and hydrophobicity are the main factors governing these interactions. Although this is accepted by the scientific community, confusion about the significance of certain terms (e.g. hydrophobicity, salt bridge) and the difficulty of discussing the balance of acting forces rather than their single contributions, are two of the main problems encountered by researchers working in the field. These difficulties are sometimes enhanced by the unskilled use of informatics tools, which give great help in understanding the topic (especially from the visual standpoint), but only if used critically. After explaining some general chemical concepts, the commentary discusses the main forces governing ligand-protein interactions, focusing on those generating confusion among scientists with different backgrounds. Three examples of ligand-protein interactions are then discussed to illustrate the advantages and drawbacks of some in silico tools, highlighting the main interactions responsible for complex formation. The same examples are used to point out the limits in separating forces that are mandatory for occurrence of a given interaction and additional forces.

  6. Silkworm feeding as the source of the animal protein for human

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yunan, Y.; Tang, L.; Liu, H.

    Controlled Ecological Life-Support System CELSS which is also called Bioregenerative Life Support System has been considered now as the most advanced and complicated Closed Ecological System in the world Based on the construction principle of the CELSS the resources could be permanently regenerated so the flexibility and security for long-term spaceflight and lunar-base missions could be improved The cost could be also decreased CELSS is more appropriated for long-term manned spaceflight and applied for the possibility of long-term space missions or planetary probe in the lower cost The increasing closure and reliability is considered as the development and integrality direction of Life-Support System LSS The LSS closure and configuration is mainly depended on the human space diet composition Vast researches have been carried on this aspect but these researches mainly concentrate on the space vegetable protein exploitation The animal protein supply is still a problem the solution should be found and the LSS constitution analysis also deserves being explored Many animals have been taken into account to provide the animal proteins nowadays world-wide animals selection mainly focus on the poultry for instance sheep chicken fish etc But the poultry feeding exist many problems such as the long growth periods low efficiency complex feeding procedures and capacious feeding space and these animals also cause the water and air pollution The complete food composition is often depended on the features of the nation diet habit Chinese have

  7. Corn steep liquor and fermented ammoniated condensed whey as protein sources for lactating cows and yearling heifers grazing winter native range

    SciTech Connect

    Wagner, J.J.; Lusby, K.S.; Horn, G.W.; Dvorak, M.J.

    1982-06-01

    Corn steep liquor (CSL) and fermented ammoniated condensed whey (FACW) were compared to cottonseed meal (CSM) as protein sources for wintering 61 lactating first-calf Hereford heifers and 32 yearling Hereford heifers on native range. Cattle were allotted by weight and individually fed 6 days per week for 12 weeks one of four protein treatments: negative control (NC), positive control (PC), CSL and FACW to provide .7, 1.5, .15 and 1.5 lb crude protein (CP) per day, respectively, to the lacating heifers and .2, .4, .4 and .4lb cP per day, respectively, to the yearling heifers. CMS was supplied in the CSL and FACW treatments at the same level as in the negative control. Lactating heifers fed the NC lost more (P less than .005) weight and body condition (120 lb and 1.6 units) than those fed the PC (45.8 lb and .9 units). Weight and condition losses were similar (P more than .05) for lactating heifers fed PC, CSL and FACW. Yearling heifers fed the NC lost more (P less than .005) weight than those fed the PC (49.4 vs 10.6 lb). Yearling heifers fed CSL and FACW gained more (P less than .005) weight than those fed the PC (17.6 and 9.3 vs - 10.6 lb). Feeding CSL resulted in signficantly lower rumen pH, lower ruminal acetate and higher ruminal butyrate, isovalerate and caproate levels than did feeding either control. Supplementing with FACW produced significantly lower rumen pH, higher rumen ammonia and soluble carbohydrate levels, lower ruminal acetate, and higher ruminal propionate and butyrate concentrations than did either control supplement. Corn steep liquor and FDCW appear to be effective protein sources for cows and heifers grazing winter native range.

  8. Costs and water quality effects of controlling point and nonpoint pollution sources

    SciTech Connect

    Macal, C.M.; Broomfield, B.J.

    1980-01-01

    Costs and water quality effects of controlling point and nonpoint pollution sources are compared for the DuPage River basin in northern Illinois. Costs are estimated for effluent standards for municipal wastewater treatment plants and for the alternative, controlling runoff from nonpoint sources such as streets, agricultural lands, and forests. A dynamic water-quality/hydrology simulation model is used to determine water quality effects of various treatment plant standards and nonpoint-source controls. Costs and water quality data are combined, and the point-source and nonpoint-source plans are compared on a cost-effectiveness basis. Nonpoint-source controls are found to be more cost-effective than stricter control of pollutants from point sources.

  9. Nucleation and convection effects in protein crystal growth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosenberger, Franz (Principal Investigator)

    1996-01-01

    The following activities are reported on: repartitioning of NaCl and protein impurities in lysozyme crystallization; dependence of lysozyme growth kinetics on step sources and impurities; facet morphology response to nonuniformities in nutrient and impurity supply; interactions in undersaturated and supersaturated lysozyme solutions; heterogeneity determination and purification of commercial hen egg white lysozyme; nonlinear response of layer growth dynamics in the mixed kinetics-bulk transport regime; development of a simultaneous multiangle light scattering technique; and x-ray topography of tetragonal lysozyme grown by the temperature-control technique.

  10. Flexibility damps macromolecular crowding effects on protein folding dynamics: Application to the murine prion protein (121-231)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergasa-Caceres, Fernando; Rabitz, Herschel A.

    2014-01-01

    A model of protein folding kinetics is applied to study the combined effects of protein flexibility and macromolecular crowding on protein folding rate and stability. It is found that the increase in stability and folding rate promoted by macromolecular crowding is damped for proteins with highly flexible native structures. The model is applied to the folding dynamics of the murine prion protein (121-231). It is found that the high flexibility of the native isoform of the murine prion protein (121-231) reduces the effects of macromolecular crowding on its folding dynamics. The relevance of these findings for the pathogenic mechanism are discussed.

  11. A randomised study on the effects of fish protein supplement on glucose tolerance, lipids and body composition in overweight adults.

    PubMed

    Vikøren, Linn A; Nygård, Ottar K; Lied, Einar; Rostrup, Espen; Gudbrandsen, Oddrun A

    2013-02-28

    The popularity of high-protein diets for weight reduction is immense. However, the potential benefits from altering the source of dietary protein rather than the amount is scarcely investigated. In the present study, we examined the effects of fish protein supplement on glucose and lipid metabolism in overweight adults. A total of thirty-four overweight adults were randomised to 8 weeks' supplementation with fish protein or placebo tablets (controls). The intake of fish protein supplement was 3 g/d for the first 4 weeks and 6 g/d for the last 4 weeks. In this study, 8 weeks of fish protein supplementation resulted in lower values of fasting glucose (P< 0·05), 2 h postprandial glucose (P< 0·05) and glucose-area under the curve (AUC) (five measurements over 2 h, P< 0·05) after fish protein supplementation compared to controls. Glucose-AUC was decreased after 8 weeks with fish protein supplement compared to baseline (P< 0·05), concomitant with increased 30 min and decreased 90 min and 2 h insulin C-peptide level (P< 0·05), and reduced LDL-cholesterol (P< 0·05). Body muscle % was increased (P< 0·05) and body fat % was reduced (P< 0·05) after 4 weeks' supplementation. Physical activity and energy and macronutrients intake did not change during the course of the study. In conclusion, short-term daily supplementation with a low dose of fish protein may have beneficial effects on blood levels of glucose and LDL-cholesterol as well as glucose tolerance and body composition in overweight adults. The long-term effects of fish protein supplementation is of interest in the context of using more fish as a protein source in the diet, and the effects of inclusion of fish in the diet of individuals with low glucose tolerance should be evaluated.

  12. Variations in Recollection: The Effects of Complexity on Source Recognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parks, Colleen M.; Murray, Linda J.; Elfman, Kane; Yonelinas, Andrew P.

    2011-01-01

    Whether recollection is a threshold or signal detection process is highly controversial, and the controversy has centered in part on the shape of receiver operating characteristics (ROCs) and z-transformed ROCs (zROCs). U-shaped zROCs observed in tests thought to rely heavily on recollection, such as source memory tests, have provided evidence in…

  13. 40 CFR 125.64 - Effect of the discharge on other point and nonpoint sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... § 125.64 Effect of the discharge on other point and nonpoint sources. (a) No modified discharge may result in any additional pollution control requirements on any other point or nonpoint source. (b) The... pollution control, or other requirement on any other point or nonpoint sources. The State...

  14. Effect of External Electric Field Stress on Gliadin Protein Conformation

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Ashutosh; Munshi, Shirin; Raghavan, Vijaya

    2013-01-01

    A molecular dynamic (MD) modeling approach was applied to evaluate the effect of external electric field on gliadin protein structure and surface properties. Static electric field strengths of 0.001 V/nm and 0.002 V/nm induced conformational changes in the protein but had no significant effect on its surface properties. The study of hydrogen bond evolution during the course of simulation revealed that the root mean square deviation, radius of gyration and secondary structure formation, all depend significantly on the number hydrogen bonds formed. This study demonstrated that it is necessary to gain insight into protein dynamics under external electric field stress, in order to develop the novel food processing techniques that can be potentially used to reduce or eradicate food allergens. PMID:28250397

  15. Effects of heat treatment parameters on liquid whole egg proteins.

    PubMed

    Uysal, Reyhan Selin; Boyacı, İsmail Hakkı; Soykut, Esra Acar; Ertaş, Nusret

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this study was to analyse the effect of heat treatment parameters on liquid whole egg (LWE) proteins by using ultraviolet-visible (UV-VIS) spectroscopy and capillary electrophoresis (CE). Heat treatment (at 60-68°C for 1-5min) was applied to LWE. Treated LWE was centrifuged and supernatant was taken for measurement of UV-VIS spectroscopy and CE. The change in UV absorbance showed loss of protein solubility depending on heat treatments parameters. Electropherograms of samples demonstrated the effect of treatment parameters on composition of LWE proteins. It was found that conalbumin and lysozyme were influenced by the treatment, while ovalbumin and ovomucoid were not affected. CE combined with principal component analysis (PCA) was used for classification of samples untreated or treated and treated at different treatment parameters. The results of the study revealed that the extent of heat treatment in LWE samples could be determined with PCA of the CE measurements.

  16. Effect of altered sink:source ratio on photosynthetic metabolism of source leaves

    SciTech Connect

    Plaut, Z.; Mayoral, M.L.; Reinhold, L.

    1987-11-01

    When seven crop species were grown under identical environmental conditions, decreased sink:source ratio led to a decreased photosynthetic rate within 1 to 3 days in Cucumis sativus L., Gossypium hirsutum L., and Raphanus sativus L., but not in Capsicum annuum L., Solanum melongena L., Phaseolus vulgaris L., or Ricinus communis L. The decrease was not associated with stomatal closure. In cotton and cucumbers, sink removal led to an increase in starch and sugar content, in glucose 6-phosphate and fructose 6-phosphate pools, and in the proportion of /sup 14/C detected in sugar phosphates and UDPglucose following /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ supply. When mannose was supplied to leaf discs to sequester cytoplasmic inorganic phosphate, promotion of starch synthesis, and inhibition of CO/sub 2/ fixation, were observed in control discs, but not in discs from treated plants. Phosphate buffer reduced starch synthesis in the latter, but not the former discs. The findings suggest that sink removal led to a decreased ratio inorganic phosphate:phosphorylated compounds. In beans /sup 14/C in sugar phosphates increased following sink removal, but without sucrose accumulation, suggesting tighter feedback control of sugar level. Starch accumulated to higher levels than in the other plants, but CO/sub 2/ fixation rate was constant for several days.

  17. Effects of pyrophosphate ions on protein adsorption onto calcium hydroxyapatite.

    PubMed

    Kandori, Kazuhiko; Oda, Shohei; Tsuyama, Shintaro

    2008-02-28

    The effects of pyrophosphate ions (PP: P2O7(4-)) on the adsorption of proteins onto calcium hydroxyapatite (Hap) were examined using typical proteins of bovine serum albumin (BSA: isoelectric point (iep) = 4.7, molecular mass (M(s)) = 67 200 Da, acidic protein), myoglobin (MGB: iep = 7.0, M(s) = 17 800 Da, neutral protein), and lysozyme (LSZ: iep = 11.1, M(s) = 14,600 Da, basic protein). The UV and CD measurements determined that both the secondary and the tertiary structures of protein molecules do not vary in the presence of PP. The adsorption of BSA was strongly depressed by the addition of PP in all the methods with changing the order of PP addition. Even if BSA was pre-adsorbed on the Hap surface, PP replaced BSA molecules by strong preferential adsorption onto Hap to reduce the amounts of adsorbed BSA. A similar effect was observed with the adsorption of MGB. On the other hand, the amount of adsorbed LSZ (n(LSZ)) was increased with an increase in the concentration of PP, and the n(LSZ) value showed a maximum point in each adsorption isotherm. This fact was explained by a compression of the electric double layer (EDL) around each LSZ molecule by PP. This compression of the EDL induced the reduction of lateral electrostatic repulsions between charged LSZ molecules on the Hap surface and enhanced the formation of closed-packed monolayers to raise the n(LSZ) value. However, since the number of PPs around a LSZ molecule is decreased by an increase in the LSZ concentration in each system, the thickness of the EDL may be increased. Hence, n(LSZ) was reduced again after the maximum point in each system. Tripolyphosphate (TPP: P3O10(5-)) ions exhibited similar effects on the adsorption behaviors of all proteins, but a much more pronounced effect was observed on the LSZ system. TPP with a higher eletronegativity shielded the EDL more highly than PP to increase the n(LSZ) value. The results of the zeta potential for all the protein systems supported the modes of protein

  18. Effect of Dietary Protein on Ammonia Emission from Dairy Manure

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this experiment was to investigate the effect of dietary crude protein concentration on ammonia (NH3) volatilization from dairy cow manure. Two types of manure were prepared by feeding lactating dairy cows diets with 16% (DM basis; HighCP) or 14% CP (LowCP). The manure was used in 2...

  19. Estimating the effect of fermentation yeast on distillers grains protein

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) is the key co-product of bio-ethanol production from grains. Major factors affecting its quality and market values include protein quantity (concentration) and quality (amino acid composition). Yet, the effect of fermentation yeast on DDGS quality has no...

  20. A simple quantitative model of macromolecular crowding effects on protein folding: Application to the murine prion protein(121-231)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergasa-Caceres, Fernando; Rabitz, Herschel A.

    2013-06-01

    A model of protein folding kinetics is applied to study the effects of macromolecular crowding on protein folding rate and stability. Macromolecular crowding is found to promote a decrease of the entropic cost of folding of proteins that produces an increase of both the stability and the folding rate. The acceleration of the folding rate due to macromolecular crowding is shown to be a topology-dependent effect. The model is applied to the folding dynamics of the murine prion protein (121-231). The differential effect of macromolecular crowding as a function of protein topology suffices to make non-native configurations relatively more accessible.

  1. Aliphatic peptidyl hydroperoxides as a source of secondary oxidation in hydroxyl radical protein footprinting.

    PubMed

    Saladino, Jessica; Liu, Mian; Live, David; Sharp, Joshua S

    2009-06-01

    Hydroxyl radical footprinting is a technique for studying protein structure and binding that entails oxidizing a protein system of interest with diffusing hydroxyl radicals, and then measuring the amount of oxidation of each amino acid. One important issue in hydroxyl radical footprinting is limiting amino acid oxidation by secondary oxidants to prevent uncontrolled oxidation, which can cause amino acids to appear more solvent accessible than they really are. Previous work suggested that hydrogen peroxide was the major secondary oxidant of concern in hydroxyl radical footprinting experiments; however, even after elimination of all hydrogen peroxide, some secondary oxidation was still detected. Evidence is presented for the formation of peptidyl hydroperoxides as the most abundant product upon oxidation of aliphatic amino acids. Both reverse phase liquid chromatography and catalase treatment were shown to be ineffective at eliminating peptidyl hydroperoxides. The ability of these peptidyl hydroperoxides to directly oxidize methionine is demonstrated, suggesting the value of methionine amide as an in situ protectant. Hydroxyl radical footprinting protocols require the use of an organic sulfide or similar peroxide scavenger in addition to removal of hydrogen peroxide to successfully eradicate all secondary oxidizing species and prevent uncontrolled oxidation of sulfur-containing residues.

  2. Effects of low urea concentrations on protein-water interactions.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Luisa A; Povarova, Olga I; Stepanenko, Olga V; Sulatskaya, Anna I; Madeira, Pedro P; Kuznetsova, Irina M; Turoverov, Konstantin K; Uversky, Vladimir N; Zaslavsky, Boris Y

    2017-01-01

    Solvent properties of aqueous media (dipolarity/polarizability, hydrogen bond donor acidity, and hydrogen bond acceptor basicity) were measured in the coexisting phases of Dextran-PEG aqueous two-phase systems (ATPSs) containing .5 and 2.0 M urea. The differences between the electrostatic and hydrophobic properties of the phases in the ATPSs were quantified by analysis of partitioning of the homologous series of sodium salts of dinitrophenylated amino acids with aliphatic alkyl side chains. Furthermore, partitioning of eleven different proteins in the ATPSs was studied. The analysis of protein partition behavior in a set of ATPSs with protective osmolytes (sorbitol, sucrose, trehalose, and TMAO) at the concentration of .5 M, in osmolyte-free ATPS, and in ATPSs with .5 or 2.0 M urea in terms of the solvent properties of the phases was performed. The results show unambiguously that even at the urea concentration of .5 M, this denaturant affects partitioning of all proteins (except concanavalin A) through direct urea-protein interactions and via its effect on the solvent properties of the media. The direct urea-protein interactions seem to prevail over the urea effects on the solvent properties of water at the concentration of .5 M urea and appear to be completely dominant at 2.0 M urea concentration.

  3. Effect of ash content on protein quality of meat and bone meal.

    PubMed

    Shirley, R B; Parsons, C M

    2001-05-01

    The effect of ash concentration on amino acid (AA) composition, true AA digestibility, and protein efficiency ratio (PER; weight gain per unit of protein intake) of meat and bone meal (MBM) was evaluated. Commercially rendered MBM samples containing 16 to 44% ash were obtained from two sources. Additional samples of MBM varying in ash from 9 to 63% were obtained by chloroform floatation or lab screening of a beef crax sample. Protein quality of selected MBM samples was assessed by determining true AA digestibility using the precision-fed cecectomized rooster assay and by a PER chick growth assay wherein chicks were fed 10% CP diets containing a MBM as the only source of dietary protein from 8 to 18 d of age. Increases in Ala, Pro, Gly, and Arg as a percentage of CP were observed in all MBM samples as ash percentage increased, with Pro and Gly accounting for most of the increase. In contrast, the levels (% of CP) of all essential AA, other than Arg, decreased as ash level increased. For example, Lys concentrations per unit of CP decreased from 5.7 to 4.0% as ash increased from 9 to 63%. There was little or no effect of ash content on AA digestibility of MBM varying in ash from 9 to 44%. The PER of MBM markedly decreased from 3.34 to 0.72 as ash increased from 16 to 44%, and most of the effects of ash on PER were not due to differences in dietary Ca and P levels. The results indicate that the reduction in protein quality of MBM as ash content increases is almost entirely due to a decrease in analyzed essential AA per unit of CP, not a decrease in digestibility of AA.

  4. Peripheral and splanchnic metabolism of dietary nitrogen are differently affected by the protein source in humans as assessed by compartmental modeling.

    PubMed

    Fouillet, Hélène; Mariotti, François; Gaudichon, Claire; Bos, Cécile; Tomé, Daniel

    2002-01-01

    We used a previously developed compartmental model to assess the postprandial distribution and metabolism of dietary nitrogen (N) in the splanchnic and peripheral areas after the ingestion of a single mixed meal containing either (15)N-labeled milk or soy purified protein. Although the lower whole-body retention of dietary N from soy protein was measured experimentally, the splanchnic retention of dietary N was predicted by the model not to be affected by the protein source, and its incorporation into splanchnic proteins was predicted to reach approximately 35% of ingested N at 8 h after both meals. However, dietary N intestinal absorption and its appearance in splanchnic free amino acids were predicted to be more rapid from soy protein and were associated with a higher deamination, concomitant with a higher efficiency of incorporation of dietary N into proteins in the splanchnic bed. In contrast, soy protein was predicted to cause a reduction in peripheral dietary N uptake, as a consequence of both similar splanchnic retention and increased oxidation compared with milk protein. In addition, protein synthesis efficiency was reduced in the peripheral area after soy protein intake, leading to dietary N incorporation in peripheral proteins that fell from 26 to 19% of ingested N 8 h after milk and soy protein ingestion, respectively. Such a model thus enables a description of the processes involved in the differential metabolic utilization of dietary proteins and constitutes a valuable tool for further definition of the notion of protein quality during the period of protein gain.

  5. Effective sampling range for protein-based lures

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Effective sampling range is defined as the maximum distance from which an insect can reach an attractive source in a given period of time. Information on sampling range is valuable for determining appropriate coverage of traps for use in population delimitation, mass trapping control strategies, or...

  6. Effect of wet corn gluten feed, supplemental protein, and tallow on steer finishing performance.

    PubMed

    Richards, C J; Stock, R A; Klopfenstein, T J; Shain, D H

    1998-02-01

    Two trials evaluated the effects of level of wet corn gluten feed (WCGF), type of supplemental protein, and supplemental tallow on steer finishing performance. In Trial 1, WCGF was fed at 0, 25 (two diets), or 50% of the dietary DM replacing dry-rolled corn (DRC), molasses, and a portion of the supplement. The DRC control diet and one 25% WCGF diet were supplemented with a combination of protein sources. The second 25% WCGF diet was supplemented with urea alone. The 50% WCGF diet contained no additional protein supplementation. No differences in DMI (P > .10) were observed. Calves fed 25% WCGF plus a combination of protein sources or 50% WCGF gained faster (P < .10) and more efficiently (P < .10) than calves fed the DRC control. Calves fed 25% WCGF plus urea gained faster (P < .10) and tended (P = .14) to be more efficient than calves fed the DRC control. In Trial 2, WCGF was fed to replace 0 or 50% of the DRC and the molasses-urea supplement (DM basis). Both diets were fed with or without 3% tallow. Steers fed WCGF gained faster (P < .01) and more efficiently (P < .01) than steers fed DRC. Inclusion of 3% tallow increased gain (P < .05) and improved efficiency (P < .05). Feed efficiency is improved by the addition of WCGF or tallow to DRC finishing diets.

  7. Effect of dairy proteins on appetite, energy expenditure, body weight, and composition: a review of the evidence from controlled clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Bendtsen, Line Q; Lorenzen, Janne K; Bendsen, Nathalie T; Rasmussen, Charlotte; Astrup, Arne

    2013-07-01

    Evidence supports that a high proportion of calories from protein increases weight loss and prevents weight (re)gain. Proteins are known to induce satiety, increase secretion of gastrointestinal hormones, and increase diet-induced thermogenesis, but less is known about whether various types of proteins exert different metabolic effects. In the Western world, dairy protein, which consists of 80% casein and 20% whey, is a large contributor to our daily protein intake. Casein and whey differ in absorption and digestion rates, with casein being a "slow" protein and whey being a "fast" protein. In addition, they differ in amino acid composition. This review examines whether casein, whey, and other protein sources exert different metabolic effects and targets to clarify the underlying mechanisms. Data indicate that whey is more satiating in the short term, whereas casein is more satiating in the long term. In addition, some studies indicate that whey stimulates the secretion of the incretin hormones glucagon-like peptide-1 and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide more than other proteins. However, for the satiety (cholecystokinin and peptide YY) and hunger-stimulating (ghrelin) hormones, no clear evidence exists that 1 protein source has a greater stimulating effect compared with others. Likewise, no clear evidence exists that 1 protein source results in higher diet-induced thermogenesis and promotes more beneficial changes in body weight and composition compared with other protein sources. However, data indicate that amino acid composition, rate of absorption, and protein/food texture may be important factors for protein-stimulated metabolic effects.

  8. Effect of Dairy Proteins on Appetite, Energy Expenditure, Body Weight, and Composition: a Review of the Evidence from Controlled Clinical Trials1

    PubMed Central

    Bendtsen, Line Q.; Lorenzen, Janne K.; Bendsen, Nathalie T.; Rasmussen, Charlotte; Astrup, Arne

    2013-01-01

    Evidence supports that a high proportion of calories from protein increases weight loss and prevents weight (re)gain. Proteins are known to induce satiety, increase secretion of gastrointestinal hormones, and increase diet-induced thermogenesis, but less is known about whether various types of proteins exert different metabolic effects. In the Western world, dairy protein, which consists of 80% casein and 20% whey, is a large contributor to our daily protein intake. Casein and whey differ in absorption and digestion rates, with casein being a “slow” protein and whey being a “fast” protein. In addition, they differ in amino acid composition. This review examines whether casein, whey, and other protein sources exert different metabolic effects and targets to clarify the underlying mechanisms. Data indicate that whey is more satiating in the short term, whereas casein is more satiating in the long term. In addition, some studies indicate that whey stimulates the secretion of the incretin hormones glucagon-like peptide-1 and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide more than other proteins. However, for the satiety (cholecystokinin and peptide YY) and hunger-stimulating (ghrelin) hormones, no clear evidence exists that 1 protein source has a greater stimulating effect compared with others. Likewise, no clear evidence exists that 1 protein source results in higher diet-induced thermogenesis and promotes more beneficial changes in body weight and composition compared with other protein sources. However, data indicate that amino acid composition, rate of absorption, and protein/food texture may be important factors for protein-stimulated metabolic effects. PMID:23858091

  9. Effect of source tampering in the security of quantum cryptography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Shi-Hai; Xu, Feihu; Jiang, Mu-Sheng; Ma, Xiang-Chun; Lo, Hoi-Kwong; Liang, Lin-Mei

    2015-08-01

    The security of source has become an increasingly important issue in quantum cryptography. Based on the framework of measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution (MDI-QKD), the source becomes the only region exploitable by a potential eavesdropper (Eve). Phase randomization is a cornerstone assumption in most discrete-variable (DV) quantum communication protocols (e.g., QKD, quantum coin tossing, weak-coherent-state blind quantum computing, and so on), and the violation of such an assumption is thus fatal to the security of those protocols. In this paper, we show a simple quantum hacking strategy, with commercial and homemade pulsed lasers, by Eve that allows her to actively tamper with the source and violate such an assumption, without leaving a trace afterwards. Furthermore, our attack may also be valid for continuous-variable (CV) QKD, which is another main class of QKD protocol, since, excepting the phase random assumption, other parameters (e.g., intensity) could also be changed, which directly determine the security of CV-QKD.

  10. Different cAMP sources are critically involved in G protein-coupled receptor CRHR1 signaling.

    PubMed

    Inda, Carolina; Dos Santos Claro, Paula A; Bonfiglio, Juan J; Senin, Sergio A; Maccarrone, Giuseppina; Turck, Christoph W; Silberstein, Susana

    2016-07-18

    Corticotropin-releasing hormone receptor 1 (CRHR1) activates G protein-dependent and internalization-dependent signaling mechanisms. Here, we report that the cyclic AMP (cAMP) response of CRHR1 in physiologically relevant scenarios engages separate cAMP sources, involving the atypical soluble adenylyl cyclase (sAC) in addition to transmembrane adenylyl cyclases (tmACs). cAMP produced by tmACs and sAC is required for the acute phase of extracellular signal regulated kinase 1/2 activation triggered by CRH-stimulated CRHR1, but only sAC activity is essential for the sustained internalization-dependent phase. Thus, different cAMP sources are involved in different signaling mechanisms. Examination of the cAMP response revealed that CRH-activated CRHR1 generates cAMP after endocytosis. Characterizing CRHR1 signaling uncovered a specific link between CRH-activated CRHR1, sAC, and endosome-based signaling. We provide evidence of sAC being involved in an endocytosis-dependent cAMP response, strengthening the emerging model of GPCR signaling in which the cAMP response does not occur exclusively at the plasma membrane and introducing the notion of sAC as an alternative source of cAMP.

  11. Biofield-effect protein-sensor: Plasma functionalization of polyaniline, protein immobilization, and sensing mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Chae-Ryong; Lee, Hyun-Uk; Ahn, Kyun; Jeong, Se-Young; Choi, Jun-Hee; Kim, Jinwoo; Cho, Jiung

    2014-06-01

    We report the fabrication of a biofield-effect protein-sensor (BioFEP) based on atmospheric-pressure plasma (AP) treatment of a conducting polyaniline (PANI) film. Successive H2 and O2 AP (OHAP) treatment generated dominant hydrophilic -OH and O=CO- functional groups on the PANI film surface, which served as strong binding sites to immobilize bovine serum albumin (BSA) protein molecules. The output current changes of the BioFEP as a function of BSA concentration were obtained. The resistance of the OHAP surface could be sensitively increased from 2.5 × 108 Ω to 2.0 × 1012 Ω with increasing BSA concentrations in the range of 0.025-4 μg/ml. The results suggest that the method is a simple and cost-effective tool to determine the concentration of BSA by measuring electrical resistance.

  12. Electrostatic coupling to pH-titrating sites as a source of cooperativity in protein-ligand binding.

    PubMed Central

    Spassov, V.; Bashford, D.

    1998-01-01

    This paper describes an alternative mechanism for the cooperative binding of charged ligands to proteins. The ligand-binding sites are electrostatically coupled to protein side chains that can undergo protonation and deprotonation. The binding of one ligand alters the protein's protonation equilibrium in a manner that makes the the binding of the second ligand more favorable. This mechanism requires no conformational change to produce a cooperative effect, although it is not exclusive of conformational change. We present a theoretical description of the mechanism, and calculations on three kinds of systems: A model system containing one protonation site and two ligand-binding sites; a model system containing two protonation sites and two ligand-binding sites; and calbindin D9k, which contains two Ca2+-binding sites and 30 protonation sites. For the one-protonation-site model, it is shown that the influence of the protonation site can only be cooperative. The competition of this effect with the anticooperative effect of ligand-ligand repulsion is studied in detail. For the two-protonation site model, the effect can be either cooperative or, in special cases, anticooperative. For calbindin D9k, the calculations predict that six protonation sites in or near the ligand-binding sites make a cooperative contribution that approximately cancels the anticooperative effect of Ca2+-Ca2+ repulsion, accounting for more than half of the total cooperative effect that is needed to overcome repulsion and produce the net cooperativity observed experimentally. We argue that cooperative mechanisms of the kind described here are likely when there is more than one ligand-binding site in a protein domain. PMID:9761483

  13. Dietary influence on the m. longissimus dorsi fatty acid composition of lambs in relation to protein source.

    PubMed

    Turner, T D; Karlsson, L; Mapiye, C; Rolland, D C; Martinsson, K; Dugan, M E R

    2012-08-01

    Dietary lipid effect, as a consequence of protein supplement, on lamb m. longissimus dorsi fatty acid composition was investigated, with emphasis on biohydrogenation intermediates. Crossbred lambs (White Swedish Landrace × Texel) were fed a barley-based diet without (CON) or with protein supplements including peas (PEA), rapeseed cake (RC) or hempseed cake (HC). The HC diet resulted in the highest muscle 22:6n-3 proportion, with the RC diet being similar (P<0.05). Protein supplement did not affect the c9,t11 conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) proportion, however the HC diet increased some minor CLA isomers, including t10,c12 CLA (P<0.05). The t10-18:1 and total trans-18:1 were lowest for the RC diet (P<0.05), likely relating to rumen conditions and precursor availability. The saturated, monounsaturated and branched-chain fatty acids were largely unaffected by protein supplement. In conclusion, feeding the RC diet lowered the t10-18:1 and total trans-18:1 in meat, and modestly increased 22:6n-3 content. The direction of these changes would be beneficial, making the RC diet the preferred protein supplement; however the magnitude of the changes in the present experiment may not be sufficient to have an impact on human health.

  14. Endothelial protein C receptor-dependent antichemotactic effects of canine protein C.

    PubMed

    Wong, Valerie M; Côté, Olivier; Bienzle, Dorothee; Hayes, M Anthony; Wood, R Darren

    2017-02-01

    OBJECTIVE To determine whether canine protein C (CnPC) had antichemotactic effects on canine neutrophils, whether endothelial protein C receptor (EPCR) was expressed on canine neutrophils, and the role of EPCR in neutrophil chemotaxis. SAMPLE Neutrophils isolated from blood samples from healthy dogs (n = 6) and sick dogs with (2) or without (3) an inflammatory leukogram. PROCEDURES Neutrophils were analyzed by reverse transcriptase PCR assay and flow cytometry for detection of EPCR mRNA and protein expression, respectively. Neutrophils were incubated with CnPC zymogen or canine activated protein C (CnAPC), with or without RCR-379 (an anti-human EPCR antibody). Neutrophils were then allowed to migrate through a filter membrane toward a chemokine. Untreated neutrophils served as positive control samples. Migration was quantified by fluorescence measurement, and chemotaxis index (Chx) values (fluorescence of test sample/fluorescence of positive control sample) were computed. RESULTS The cDNA for EPCR was amplified, and EPCR expression was detected on neutrophil surfaces. Obtained Chx values were significantly higher in cells treated with RCR-379 than in cells treated with CnPC or CnAPC alone. The Chx values for neutrophils treated with RCR-379 were not significantly different from 1, whereas those for neutrophils treated without RCR-379 were significantly less than 1. The effects of RCR-379 on neutrophil migration were independent of concentration or activation status of protein C. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Canine neutrophils expressed EPCR, and inhibition of neutrophil chemotaxis by CnPC and CnAPC depended on EPCR. Interventions with EPCR signaling may have therapeutic application in dogs.

  15. Hydrodynamic collective effects of active proteins in biological membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koyano, Yuki; Kitahata, Hiroyuki; Mikhailov, Alexander S.

    2016-08-01

    Lipid bilayers forming biological membranes are known to behave as viscous two-dimensional fluids on submicrometer scales; usually they contain a large number of active protein inclusions. Recently, it was shown [A. S. Mikhailov and R. Kapral, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 112, E3639 (2015), 10.1073/pnas.1506825112] that such active proteins should induce nonthermal fluctuating lipid flows leading to diffusion enhancement and chemotaxislike drift for passive inclusions in biomembranes. Here, a detailed analytical and numerical investigation of such effects is performed. The attention is focused on the situations when proteins are concentrated within lipid rafts. We demonstrate that passive particles tend to become attracted by active rafts and are accumulated inside them.

  16. Synergistic Effects of Toxic Elements on Heat Shock Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Mahmood, Khalid; Mahmood, Qaisar; Irshad, Muhammad; Hussain, Jamshaid

    2014-01-01

    Heat shock proteins show remarkable variations in their expression levels under a variety of toxic conditions. A research span expanded over five decades has revealed their molecular characterization, gene regulation, expression patterns, vast similarity in diverse groups, and broad range of functional capabilities. Their functions include protection and tolerance against cytotoxic conditions through their molecular chaperoning activity, maintaining cytoskeleton stability, and assisting in cell signaling. However, their role as biomarkers for monitoring the environmental risk assessment is controversial due to a number of conflicting, validating, and nonvalidating reports. The current knowledge regarding the interpretation of HSPs expression levels has been discussed in the present review. The candidature of heat shock proteins as biomarkers of toxicity is thus far unreliable due to synergistic effects of toxicants and other environmental factors. The adoption of heat shock proteins as “suit of biomarkers in a set of organisms” requires further investigation. PMID:25136596

  17. Synergistic effects of toxic elements on heat shock proteins.

    PubMed

    Mahmood, Khalid; Jadoon, Saima; Mahmood, Qaisar; Irshad, Muhammad; Hussain, Jamshaid

    2014-01-01

    Heat shock proteins show remarkable variations in their expression levels under a variety of toxic conditions. A research span expanded over five decades has revealed their molecular characterization, gene regulation, expression patterns, vast similarity in diverse groups, and broad range of functional capabilities. Their functions include protection and tolerance against cytotoxic conditions through their molecular chaperoning activity, maintaining cytoskeleton stability, and assisting in cell signaling. However, their role as biomarkers for monitoring the environmental risk assessment is controversial due to a number of conflicting, validating, and nonvalidating reports. The current knowledge regarding the interpretation of HSPs expression levels has been discussed in the present review. The candidature of heat shock proteins as biomarkers of toxicity is thus far unreliable due to synergistic effects of toxicants and other environmental factors. The adoption of heat shock proteins as "suit of biomarkers in a set of organisms" requires further investigation.

  18. Nucleation and Convection Effects in Protein Crystal Growth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosenberger, Franz

    1997-01-01

    Work during the second year under this grant (NAG8-1161) resulted in several major achievements. We have characterized protein impurities as well as microheterogeneities in the proteins hen egg white lysozyme and horse spleen apoferritin, and demonstrated the effects of these impurities on nucleation and crystallization. In particular, the purification of apoferritin resulted in crystals with an X-ray diffraction resolution of better than 1.8 A, i.e. a 1 A improvement over earlier work on the cubic form. Furthermore, we have shown, in association with studies of liquid-liquid phase separation, that depending on the growth conditions, lysozyme can produce all growth morphologies that have been observed with other proteins. Finally, in connection with our experimental and simulation work on growth step bunching, we have developed a system-dependent criterion for advantages and disadvantages of crystallization from solution under reduced gravity. In the following, these efforts are described in some detail.

  19. Effect of metal catalyzed oxidation in recombinant viral protein assemblies

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Protein assemblies, such as virus-like particles, have increasing importance as vaccines, delivery vehicles and nanomaterials. However, their use requires stable assemblies. An important cause of loss of stability in proteins is oxidation, which can occur during their production, purification and storage. Despite its importance, very few studies have investigated the effect of oxidation in protein assemblies and their structural units. In this work, we investigated the role of in vitro oxidation in the assembly and stability of rotavirus VP6, a polymorphic protein. Results The susceptibility to oxidation of VP6 assembled into nanotubes (VP6NT) and unassembled VP6 (VP6U) was determined and compared to bovine serum albumin (BSA) as control. VP6 was more resistant to oxidation than BSA, as determined by measuring protein degradation and carbonyl content. It was found that assembly protected VP6 from in vitro metal-catalyzed oxidation. Oxidation provoked protein aggregation and VP6NT fragmentation, as evidenced by dynamic light scattering and transmission electron microscopy. Oxidative damage of VP6 correlated with a decrease of its center of fluorescence spectral mass. The in vitro assembly efficiency of VP6U into VP6NT decreased as the oxidant concentration increased. Conclusions Oxidation caused carbonylation, quenching, and destruction of aromatic amino acids and aggregation of VP6 in its assembled and unassembled forms. Such modifications affected protein functionality, including its ability to assemble. That assembly protected VP6 from oxidation shows that exposure of susceptible amino acids to the solvent increases their damage, and therefore the protein surface area that is exposed to the solvent is determinant of its susceptibility to oxidation. The inability of oxidized VP6 to assemble into nanotubes highlights the importance of avoiding this modification during the production of proteins that self-assemble. This is the first time that the role of

  20. Dietary protein effects on hen performance and nitrogen excretion.

    PubMed

    Latshaw, J D; Zhao, L

    2011-01-01

    Because dietary nitrogen intake affects nitrogen content in manure, diet management has been recognized as a means to reduce ammonia emissions from poultry operations. The objectives of the present research were 1) to determine the extent to which the CP content of laying diets can be reduced, based on performance criteria, and 2) to determine how ash:nitrogen ratios of manure, eggs, and hens are affected by dietary protein changes. Egg-type hens were fed equal daily amounts of essential amino acids in diets that provided 13, 15, or 17 g of protein/d. Each diet was fed to 20 hens, with 2 hens/cage. The planned digestible lysine intake was 0.71 g/hen per day. Ratios of other digestible amino acids to lysine were methionine plus cysteine, 0.83; threonine, 0.68; and isoleucine, 0.94. The experiment began when hens were 29 wk old and continued until they were 57 wk old. Egg production averaged approximately 90%, and daily protein intake caused no effects on egg production or grams of egg per hen per day. Feed intake was higher for hens fed 13 g of protein than for hens in the other 2 treatments (P < 0.01). Average feed intake for the experiment was approximately 95 g/d. Composition of the eggs was not affected by protein intake. Average values were DM, 30.5%; ash, 31.0% of DM; and nitrogen, 6.31% of DM. The average manure DM production was 25.9 g/hen per day, with an ash content of 25.5% of DM. Manure nitrogen content ranged from 3.98% of DM for hens fed 13 g of protein to 5.68% for those fed 17 g of protein (P < 0.01). A method is outlined that uses the analysis of fresh manure and manure leaving the poultry operation to estimate the loss of nitrogen as ammonia.

  1. Effective polymer adjuvants for sustained delivery of protein subunit vaccines.

    PubMed

    Adams, Justin R; Haughney, Shannon L; Mallapragada, Surya K

    2015-03-01

    We have synthesized thermogelling cationic amphiphilic pentablock copolymers that have the potential to act as injectable vaccine carriers and adjuvants that can simultaneously provide sustained delivery and enhance the immunogenicity of released antigen. While these pentablock copolymers have shown efficacy in DNA delivery in past studies, the ability to deliver both DNA and protein for subunit vaccines using the same polymeric carrier can provide greater flexibility and efficacy. We demonstrate the ability of these pentablock copolymers, and the parent triblock Pluronic copolymers to slowly release structurally intact and antigenically stable protein antigens in vitro, create an antigen depot through long-term injection-site persistence and enhance the in vivo immune response to these antigens. We show release of the model protein antigen ovalbumin in vitro from the thermogelling block copolymers with the primary, secondary and tertiary structures of the released protein unchanged compared to the native protein, and its antigenicity preserved upon release. The block copolymers form a gel at physiological temperatures that serves as an antigenic depot and persists in vivo at the site of injection for over 50days. The pentablock copolymers show a significant fivefold enhancement in the immune response compared to soluble protein alone, even 6weeks after the administration, based on measurement of antibody titers. These results demonstrate the potential of these block copolymers hydrogels to persist for several weeks and sustain the release of antigen with minimal effects on protein stability and antigenicity; and their ability to be used simultaneously as a sustained delivery device as well as a subunit vaccine adjuvant platform.

  2. Desolvation effects and topology-dependent protein folding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferguson, Allison; Liu, Zhirong; Chan, Hue Sun

    2007-03-01

    As a protein folds, water molecules must be excluded from the hydrophobic core, and thus desolvation barriers between the protein's constituents must be crossed in order to reach the final folded state. Previous research on continuum Go-like protein models has demonstrated that pairwise-additive desolvation potentials lead to more thermodynamically and kinetically cooperative folding/unfolding transitions (Z. Liu and H. S. Chan, Phys. Biol. 2, S75-S85, 2005). The present work focuses on the role of this elementary desolvation potential in improving predictions of the well-known topology-folding rate relationship (K. W. Plaxco et al, J. Mol. Biol. 277, 985-994, 1998) of small single-domain proteins. Recent computational studies without desolvation barriers have shown (S. Wallin and H. S. Chan, J. Phys.: Condens. Matt. 18, S307-S328, 2006) that the observed correlation between topological parameters and folding rates is because these parameters may be proxies for rate-determining properties of the transition state, such as the activation free energy δG^ and activation conformational entropy δS^. Including the desolvation barrier in the model results in stronger correlations between measures of topology and simulated folding rates / transition state properties, reinforcing the theory that even simple representations of the desolvation effect are important for understanding crucial features of protein folding.

  3. Effect of high altitude on protein metabolism in Bolivian children.

    PubMed

    San Miguel, Jose L; Spielvogel, Hilde; Berger, Jacques; Araoz, Mauricio; Lujan, Carmen; Tellez, Wilma; Caceres, Esperanza; Gachon, Pierre; Coudert, Jean; Beaufrere, Bernard

    2002-01-01

    In Bolivia, malnutrition in children is a major health problem that may be caused by inadequate protein, energy, and micronutrient intake; exposure to bacterial and parasitic infections; and life in a multistress environment (high altitude, cold, cosmic radiation, low ambient humidity). However, no data on protein absorption and utilization at high altitude were available. Therefore, we evaluated the effect of altitude on protein metabolism in Bolivian children. We measured protein utilization using leucine labeled with a stable isotope ((13)C) in two groups of healthy prepubertal children matched for age. Group 1 (n = 10) was examined at high altitude (HA) in La Paz (3600 m), and group 2 (n = 10) at low altitude (LA) in Santa Cruz (420 m). The nutritional status did not differ between groups but, as was to be expected, the HA group had higher hemoglobin concentration than the LA group. The children consumed casein that was intrinsically labeled with L-(1-(13)C) leucine and expired (13)CO(2) was analyzed. Samples of expired air were measured by isotope ratio mass spectrometer in Clermont-Ferrand. It was found that cumulative leucine oxidation ((13)CO(2)) at 300 min after ingestion was 19.7 +/- 4.9% at HA and 25.2 +/- 3.2% at LA. These results showed that protein absorption and/or utilization is significantly affected by altitude.

  4. Effects of salt bridges on protein structure and design.

    PubMed Central

    Sindelar, C. V.; Hendsch, Z. S.; Tidor, B.

    1998-01-01

    Theoretical calculations (Hendsch ZS & Tidor B, 1994, Protein Sci 3:211-226) and experiments (Waldburger CD et al., 1995, Nat Struct Biol 2:122-128; Wimley WC et al., 1996, Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 93:2985-2990) suggest that hydrophobic interactions are more stabilizing than salt bridges in protein folding. The lack of apparent stability benefit for many salt bridges requires an alternative explanation for their occurrence within proteins. To examine the effect of salt bridges on protein structure and stability in more detail, we have developed an energy function for simple cubic lattice polymers based on continuum electrostatic calculations of a representative selection of salt bridges found in known protein crystal structures. There are only three types of residues in the model, with charges of -1, 0, or + 1. We have exhaustively enumerated conformational space and significant regions of sequence space for three-dimensional cubic lattice polymers of length 16. The results demonstrate that, while the more highly charged sequences are less stable, the loss of stability is accompanied by a substantial reduction in the degeneracy of the lowest-energy state. Moreover, the reduction in degeneracy is greater due to charges that pair than for lone charges that remain relatively exposed to solvent. We have also explored and illustrated the use of ion-pairing strategies for rational structural design using model lattice studies. PMID:9761471

  5. Effects of ruminal escape proteins and canola meal on nitrogen utilization by growing lambs.

    PubMed

    Matras, J; Bartle, S J; Preston, R L

    1990-08-01

    The effects of ruminal escape proteins and canola meal (CM) on N utilization by growing lambs were evaluated in two experiments. In both experiments, seven supplemental dietary protein treatments were fed. For each of these protein treatments a 3 x 3 Latin square metabolism trial was conducted, using two sets of three lambs and three periods. Within square treatments were 1.4, 1.7 and 2.0 times maintenance intake levels. In Exp. 1, protein treatments were control (7.0% CP, DM basis), urea fed at 9.5 or 12% dietary CP, CM fed at 9.5 or 12% dietary CP and a 50:50 (N basis) mixture of blood meal/corn gluten meal (BC) fed at 9.5 or 12% dietary CP. In Exp. 2, protein treatments were urea, 64% urea and 36% BC (all mixtures on a N basis), 36% urea and 64% BC, BC, 50% CM and 50% BC (CM/BC), CM and soybean meal (SBM), all at 10.5% CP. In Exp. 1, apparent N digestibility (AND) was lower for CM diets than for urea (P = .13) and BC (P less than .05) diets (49.0 vs 50.6 and 51.3%, respectively). Absorbed N was utilized with similar efficiencies for all supplemental protein sources. Dietary CP and digestible protein (DP) were closely related (DP = .879[CP%] -3.66; r2 = .91), indicating that for urea, CM and BC total tract N digestibility was not influenced by theoretical ruminal degradability. In Exp. 2, N balance and N utilization efficiency indicated that the optimal extent of ruminal protein degradation was about 50%. Nitrogen balance was similar for the CM, CM/BC and SBM treatments.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  6. Modeling and analysis of CSAMT field source effect and its characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Da, Lei; Xiaoping, Wu; Qingyun, Di; Gang, Wang; Xiangrong, Lv; Ruo, Wang; Jun, Yang; Mingxin, Yue

    2016-02-01

    Controlled-source audio-frequency magnetotellurics (CSAMT) has been a highly successful geophysical tool used in a variety of geological exploration studies for many years. However, due to the artificial source used in the CSAMT technique, two important factors are considered during interpretation: non-plane-wave or geometric effects and source overprint effects. Hence, in this paper we simulate the source overprint effects and analyzed the rule and characteristics of its influence on CSAMT applications. Two-dimensional modeling was carried out using an adaptive unstructured finite element method to simulate several typical models. Also, we summarized the characteristics and rule of the source overprint effects and analyzed its influence on the data taken over several mining areas. The results obtained from the study shows that the occurrence and strength of the source overprint effect is dependent on the location of the source dipole, in relation to the receiver and the subsurface geology. In order to avoid source overprint effects, three principle were suggested to determine the best location for the grounded dipole source in the field.

  7. Body Type and Sex of Receiver: Their Effects on Source Credibility.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eckman, Bruce K.; Rancer, Andrew S.

    This study focused on whether actual or stereotypic associations with a speaker's body type would affect his or her credibility. Effects on the source-credibility ratings submitted by a total of 165 students were investigated for three different sources' body types. A significant main effect was found for body type but not for the blocked…

  8. Universal distribution of mutational effects on protein stability, uncoupling of protein robustness from sequence evolution and distinct evolutionary modes of prokaryotic and eukaryotic proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faure, Guilhem; Koonin, Eugene V.

    2015-05-01

    Robustness to destabilizing effects of mutations is thought of as a key factor of protein evolution. The connections between two measures of robustness, the relative core size and the computationally estimated effect of mutations on protein stability (ΔΔG), protein abundance and the selection pressure on protein-coding genes (dN/dS) were analyzed for the organisms with a large number of available protein structures including four eukaryotes, two bacteria and one archaeon. The distribution of the effects of mutations in the core on protein stability is universal and indistinguishable in eukaryotes and bacteria, centered at slightly destabilizing amino acid replacements, and with a heavy tail of more strongly destabilizing replacements. The distribution of mutational effects in the hyperthermophilic archaeon Thermococcus gammatolerans is significantly shifted toward strongly destabilizing replacements which is indicative of stronger constraints that are imposed on proteins in hyperthermophiles. The median effect of mutations is strongly, positively correlated with the relative core size, in evidence of the congruence between the two measures of protein robustness. However, both measures show only limited correlations to the expression level and selection pressure on protein-coding genes. Thus, the degree of robustness reflected in the universal distribution of mutational effects appears to be a fundamental, ancient feature of globular protein folds whereas the observed variations are largely neutral and uncoupled from short term protein evolution. A weak anticorrelation between protein core size and selection pressure is observed only for surface residues in prokaryotes but a stronger anticorrelation is observed for all residues in eukaryotic proteins. This substantial difference between proteins of prokaryotes and eukaryotes is likely to stem from the demonstrable higher compactness of prokaryotic proteins.

  9. Universal distribution of mutational effects on protein stability, uncoupling of protein robustness from sequence evolution and distinct evolutionary modes of prokaryotic and eukaryotic proteins.

    PubMed

    Faure, Guilhem; Koonin, Eugene V

    2015-04-30

    Robustness to destabilizing effects of mutations is thought of as a key factor of protein evolution. The connections between two measures of robustness, the relative core size and the computationally estimated effect of mutations on protein stability (ΔΔG), protein abundance and the selection pressure on protein-coding genes (dN/dS) were analyzed for the organisms with a large number of available protein structures including four eukaryotes, two bacteria and one archaeon. The distribution of the effects of mutations in the core on protein stability is universal and indistinguishable in eukaryotes and bacteria, centered at slightly destabilizing amino acid replacements, and with a heavy tail of more strongly destabilizing replacements. The distribution of mutational effects in the hyperthermophilic archaeon Thermococcus gammatolerans is significantly shifted toward strongly destabilizing replacements which is indicative of stronger constraints that are imposed on proteins in hyperthermophiles. The median effect of mutations is strongly, positively correlated with the relative core size, in evidence of the congruence between the two measures of protein robustness. However, both measures show only limited correlations to the expression level and selection pressure on protein-coding genes. Thus, the degree of robustness reflected in the universal distribution of mutational effects appears to be a fundamental, ancient feature of globular protein folds whereas the observed variations are largely neutral and uncoupled from short term protein evolution. A weak anticorrelation between protein core size and selection pressure is observed only for surface residues in prokaryotes but a stronger anticorrelation is observed for all residues in eukaryotic proteins. This substantial difference between proteins of prokaryotes and eukaryotes is likely to stem from the demonstrable higher compactness of prokaryotic proteins.

  10. Light source effects on aerosol photoacoustic spectroscopy measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radney, James G.; Zangmeister, Christopher D.

    2017-01-01

    Photoacoustic spectroscopy measurements of flame-generated soot aerosol coated with small amounts of water yielded absorption enhancements that were dependent on the laser used: quasi-continuous wave (Q-CW, ≈650 ps pulse duration and 78 MHz repetition rate) versus continuous wave (CW). Water coating thickness was controlled by exposing the aerosol to a set relative humidity (RH). At ≈85% RH, the mass of the soot particles increased by an amount comparable to a monolayer of water being deposited and enhanced the measured absorption by 36% and 15% for the Q-CW and CW lasers, respectively. Extinction measurements were also performed using a cavity ring-down spectrometer (extinction equals the sum of absorption and scattering) with a CW laser and negligible enhancement was observed at all RH. These findings demonstrate that source choice can impact measurements of aerosols with volatile coatings and that the absorption enhancements at high RH previously measured by Radney and Zangmeister [1] are the result of laser source used (Q-CW) and not from an increase in the particle absorption cross section.

  11. Effects of Lambertian sources design on uniformity and measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cariou, Nadine; Durell, Chris; McKee, Greg; Wilks, Dylan; Glastre, Wilfried

    2014-10-01

    Integrating sphere (IS) based uniform sources are a primary tool for ground based calibration, characterization and testing of flight radiometric equipment. The idea of a Lambertian field of energy is a very useful tool in radiometric testing, but this concept is being checked in many ways by newly lowered uncertainty goals. At an uncertainty goal of 2% one needs to assess carefully uniformity in addition to calibration uncertainties, as even sources with a 0.5% uniformity are now substantial proportions of uncertainty budgets. The paper explores integrating sphere design options for achieving 99.5% and better uniformity of exit port radiance and spectral irradiance created by an integrating sphere. Uniformity in broad spectrum and spectral bands are explored. We discuss mapping techniques and results as a function of observed uniformity as well as laboratory testing results customized to match with customer's instrumentation field of view. We will also discuss recommendations with basic commercial instrumentation, we have used to validate, inspect, and improve correlation of uniformity measurements with the intended application.

  12. Chronologically sampled flight feathers permits recognition of individual molt-migrants due to varying protein sources

    PubMed Central

    Fox, Anthony D.; Daniel, Thomas; Kelly, Jeffrey F.

    2015-01-01

    This is a proof of concept paper based on chronological samples of growing feathers from geese thought to be molt-migrants. When molt-migrant birds initiate molt shortly after migrating to a new isoscape, isotope values measured along the length of their feathers should change continuously. To assess long-term changes and daily cycling in δ15N and δ13C values, we serially sampled a growing primary from three presumed molt-migrant geese. Two showed changing δ15N signatures along the length of their growing primary, indicating they were molt-migrants, while the third, presumably a resident, showed no change. We then resampled these feathers at closer intervals for evidence of the predicted diel cycle in the use of exogenous and endogenous protein for feather growth, generated by the diel feeding cycle of these geese. As predicted, a periodicity of ca. 24 h in δ15N values was found along the primary of the two equilibrating geese, but not in the other goose that was probably a resident. Our results demonstrate that chronological sampling along the length of individual primaries holds great potential for identifying individuals that are molt-migrants. PMID:25649835

  13. Assessment of source-specific health effects associated with an unknown number of major sources of multiple air pollutants: a unified Bayesian approach.

    PubMed

    Park, Eun Sug; Hopke, Philip K; Oh, Man-Suk; Symanski, Elaine; Han, Daikwon; Spiegelman, Clifford H

    2014-07-01

    There has been increasing interest in assessing health effects associated with multiple air pollutants emitted by specific sources. A major difficulty with achieving this goal is that the pollution source profiles are unknown and source-specific exposures cannot be measured directly; rather, they need to be estimated by decomposing ambient measurements of multiple air pollutants. This estimation process, called multivariate receptor modeling, is challenging because of the unknown number of sources and unknown identifiability conditions (model uncertainty). The uncertainty in source-specific exposures (source contributions) as well as uncertainty in the number of major pollution sources and identifiability conditions have been largely ignored in previous studies. A multipollutant approach that can deal with model uncertainty in multivariate receptor models while simultaneously accounting for parameter uncertainty in estimated source-specific exposures in assessment of source-specific health effects is presented in this paper. The methods are applied to daily ambient air measurements of the chemical composition of fine particulate matter ([Formula: see text]), weather data, and counts of cardiovascular deaths from 1995 to 1997 for Phoenix, AZ, USA. Our approach for evaluating source-specific health effects yields not only estimates of source contributions along with their uncertainties and associated health effects estimates but also estimates of model uncertainty (posterior model probabilities) that have been ignored in previous studies. The results from our methods agreed in general with those from the previously conducted workshop/studies on the source apportionment of PM health effects in terms of number of major contributing sources, estimated source profiles, and contributions. However, some of the adverse source-specific health effects identified in the previous studies were not statistically significant in our analysis, which probably resulted because we

  14. Influence of dietary protein content and source on colonic fermentative activity in dogs differing in body size and digestive tolerance.

    PubMed

    Nery, J; Goudez, R; Biourge, V; Tournier, C; Leray, V; Martin, L; Thorin, C; Nguyen, P; Dumon, H

    2012-08-01

    Low-consistency, high-moisture feces have been observed in large dogs (Canis lupus familiaris), compared with small dogs, and particularly in sensitive breeds (e.g., German Shepherd dogs). The aim of this work was to determine if greater colonic protein fermentation is responsible for poorer fecal quality in large sensitive dogs. Twenty-seven bitches were allotted to 4 groups based on size and digestive sensitivity: small, medium, large tolerant, and large sensitive. Five experimental diets varying in protein source [highly digestible wheat gluten (WG) vs. medium digestible poultry meal (PM), and protein concentration from 21.4 to 21.6 (LP) to 38.2 to 39.2% CP (HP)] were tested. Diets were fed for 14 d and followed by a 12-d transition period. Digestive fermentation by-products were investigated in fresh stools [ammonia, phenol, indole, and short chain fatty acids including acetate, propionate, and butyrate (C2 to C4 SCFA), branched-chain fatty acids (BCFA), and valerate] and in urine (phenol and indole). Bacterial populations in feces were identified. The PM diets resulted in greater fecal concentrations of ammonia, BCFA, valerate, indole, and C2 to C4 SCFA than WG diets (P = 0.002, P < 0.001, P = 0.039, P = 0.003, and P = 0.012, respectively). Greater concentrations of ammonia, BCFA, and valerate were found in the feces of dogs fed HP compared with LP diets (P < 0.001, P < 0.001, and P = 0.012, respectively). The concentrations of ammonia, valerate, phenol, and indole in feces of large sensitive dogs were greater (P < 0.001, P < 0.001, P = 0.002, and P = 0.019, respectively) compared with the other groups. The Enterococcus populations were greater in feces of dogs fed with PMHP rather than WGLP diets (P = 0.006). Urinary phenol and indole excretion was greater when dogs were fed PM than WG diets (P < 0.001 and P = 0.038, respectively) and HP than LP diets (P = 0.001 and P = 0.087, respectively). Large sensitive dogs were prone to excrete a greater quantity of

  15. Health effects of protein intake in healthy elderly populations: a systematic literature review

    PubMed Central

    Pedersen, Agnes N.; Cederholm, Tommy

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this systematic review is to assess the evidence behind the dietary requirement of protein and to assess the health effects of varying protein intake in healthy elderly persons in order to evaluate the evidence for an optimal protein intake. The literature search covered year 2000–2011. Prospective cohort, case–control, and intervention studies of a general healthy population in settings similar to the Nordic countries with protein intake from food-based sources were included. Out of a total of 301 abstracts, 152 full papers were identified as potentially relevant. After careful scrutiny, 23 papers were quality graded as A (highest, n=1), B (n=18), or C (n=4). The grade of evidence was classified as convincing, probable, suggestive, or inconclusive. The evidence is assessed as: probable for an estimated average requirement (EAR) of 0.66 g good-quality protein/kg body weight (BW)/day based on nitrogen balance (N-balance) studies and the subsequent recommended dietary allowance (RDA) of 0.83 g good-quality protein/kg BW/day representing the minimum dietary protein needs of virtually all healthy elderly persons. Regarding the optimal level of protein related to functional outcomes like maintenance of bone mass, muscle mass, and strength, as well as for morbidity and mortality, the evidence is ranging from suggestive to inconclusive. Results from particularly prospective cohort studies suggest a safe intake of up to at least 1.2–1.5 g protein/kg BW/day or approximately 15–20 E%. Overall, many of the included prospective cohort studies were difficult to fully evaluate since results mainly were obtained by food frequency questionnaires that were flawed by underreported intakes, although some studies were ‘calibrated’ to correct for under- or over-reporting. In conclusion, the evidence is assessed as probable regarding the EAR based on N-balance studies and suggestive to inconclusive regarding an optimal protein intake higher than the estimated

  16. Understanding source effects in ADHD rating scales: reply to DuPaul (2003).

    PubMed

    Burns, G Leonard; Gomez, Rapson; Walsh, James A; de Moura, Marcela Alves

    2003-03-01

    G. J. DuPaul (2003) offered two suggestions for additional research to understand the strong source effects reported by R. Gomez, G. L. Burns, J. A. Walsh, and M. A. de Moura (2003) in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) rating scales. The first suggestion was to determine whether the source effects represent mostly bias or accuracy. The second suggestion was to minimize source effects through the development of better ADHD rating scales. Because source effects can represent bias or accuracy, it is important to minimize the bias aspect through content validation procedures prior to attempts to determine whether source effects better reflect bias or accuracy. This comment offers various suggestions to reduce the bias in ADHD rating scales.

  17. The Effect of Protein Mass Modulation on Human Dihydrofolate Reductase

    PubMed Central

    Francis, Kevin; Sapienza, Paul J.; Lee, Andrew L.; Kohen, Amnon

    2016-01-01

    Dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) from Escherichia coli has long served as a model enzyme with which to elucidate possible links between protein dynamics and the catalyzed reaction. Such physical properties of its human counterpart have not been rigorously studied so far, but recent computer-based simulations suggest that these two DHFRs differ significantly in how closely coupled the protein dynamics and the catalyzed C-H→C hydride transfer step are. To test this prediction, two contemporary probes for studying the effect of protein dynamics on catalysis were combined here: temperature dependence of intrinsic kinetic isotope effects (KIEs) that are sensitive to the physical nature of the chemical step, and protein mass-modulation that slows down fast dynamics (femto- to picosecond timescale) throughout the protein. The intrinsic H/T KIEs of human DHFR, like those of E. coli DHFR, are shown to be temperature-independent in the range from 5–45 °C, indicating fast sampling of donor and acceptor distances (DADs) at the reaction’s transition state (or tunneling ready state – TRS). Mass modulation of these enzymes through isotopic labeling with 13C, 15N, and 2H at nonexchangeable hydrogens yield an 11% heavier enzyme. The additional mass has no effect on the intrinsic KIEs of the human enzyme. This finding indicates that the mass-modulation of the human DHFR affects neither DAD distribution nor the DAD’s conformational sampling dynamics. Furthermore, reduction in the enzymatic turnover number and the dissociation rate constant for the product indicate that the isotopic substitution affects kinetic steps that are not the catalyzed C-H→C hydride transfer. The findings are discussed in terms of fast dynamics and their role in catalysis, the comparison of calculations and experiments, and the interpretation of isotopically-modulated heavy enzymes in general. PMID:26813442

  18. Effects of high external electric fields on protein conformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pompa, Pier Paolo; Bramanti, Alessandro; Maruccio, Giuseppe; del Mercato, Loretta Laureana; Chiuri, Rocco; Cingolani, Roberto; Rinaldi, Ross

    2005-06-01

    Resistance of biomolecules to high electric fields is a main concern for nanobioelectronics/nanobiosensing applications, and it is also a relevant issue from a fundamental perspective, to understand the dielectric properties and structural dynamics of proteins. In nanoscale devices, biomolecules may experience electric fields as high as 107 V/m in order to elicit charge transport/transfer. Understanding the effects of such fields on their structural integrity is thus crucial to assess the reliability of biomolecular devices. In this study, we show experimental evidence for the retention of native-like fold pattern by proteins embedded in high electric fields. We have tested the metalloprotein azurin, deposited onto SiO2 substrates in air with proper electrode configuration, by applying high static electric fields (up to 106-107 V/m). The effects on the conformational properties of protein molecules have been determined by means of intrinsic fluorescence measurements. Experimental results indicate that no significant field-induced conformational alteration occurs. This behavior is also discussed and supported by theoretical predictions of the intrinsic intra-protein electric fields. As the general features of such inner fields are not peculiar of azurin, the conclusions presented here should have general validity.

  19. The effect of dietary selenium source on embryonic development in Turkeys.

    PubMed

    Stepińska, Monika; Mróz, Emilia; Jankowski, Jan

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of dietary selenium source on the growth and development of turkey embryos, and egg hatchability. White broad-breasted BUT Big 6 turkeys (1800 females and 150 males) were placed under optimum management conditions. Turkey diets were supplemented with organic selenium, and in the other with inorganic selenium, in the amount of 0.3 ppm. Eggs intended for incubation and examination were collected in week 2, 10, 18 and 23 of the laying season. The average egg weight was higher (p < or = 0.05) in laying hens fed a diet with organic selenium than in layers receiving inorganic selenium. The rate of yolk sac retraction was faster in embryos from the group fed a diet with inorganic selenium, and it reached 0.59 of the complete yolk sac on day 25 of incubation (p < or = 0.05). Selenium source had no effect on the hatching rates of fertilized eggs, which reached 79.61% and 79.84% in laying hens fed organic and inorganic selenium, respectively. In the flocks fed diets supplemented with organic selenium, dead embryos were more frequently characterized by problems with protein utilization (19.28%) and delayed pipping (10.83%). Embryo death rates at the first mortality peak were higher in layers fed inorganic selenium than in those receiving organic selenium (15% vs. 13.5%). The second embryo mortality peak occurred earlier (day 26) in laying hens fed inorganic selenium than in those fed organic selenium (day 28).

  20. Inhibitory effect of corcin on aggregation of 1N/4R human tau protein in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Karakani, Ali Mohammadi; Riazi, Gholamhossein; Mahmood Ghaffari, Seyed; Ahmadian, Shahin; Mokhtari, Farzad; Jalili Firuzi, Mahshad; Zahra Bathaie, Seyedeh

    2015-01-01

    Objective(s): Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is the most common age-related neurodegenerative disorder. One of the hallmarks of AD is an abnormal accumulation of fibril forms of tau protein which is known as a microtubule associated protein. In this regard, inhibition of tau aggregation has been documented to be a potent therapeutic approach in AD and tauopathies. Unfortunately, the available synthetic drugs have modest beneficial efficacy with several side effects. Therefore, pipeline drugs from natural sources with anti-aggregation properties can be useful in the prevention and treatment of AD. Among medicinal plants, saffron (Crocus sativus, L.), as a traditional herbal medicine has different pharmacological properties and can be used as treatment for several nervous system impairment including depression and dementia. Crocin as a major constituent of saffron is the glycosylated form of crocetin. Materials and Methods: In this study, we investigated the inhibitory effect of crocin on aggregation of recombinant human tau protein 1N/4R isoform using biochemical methods and cell culture. Results: Results revealed that tau protein under the fibrillation condition and in the presence of crocin had enough stability with low tendency for aggregation. Crocin inhibited tau aggregation with IC50 of 100 µg/ml. Furthermore, transmission electron microscopy images confirmed that crocin could suppress the formation of tau protein filaments. Conclusion: Inhibitory effect of crocin could be related to its interference with nucleation phase that led to increases in monomer species of tau protein. Based on our results, crocin is recommended as a proper candidate to be used in AD treatment. PMID:26124935

  1. Effect of osmolytes on pressure-induced unfolding of proteins: a high-pressure SAXS study.

    PubMed

    Krywka, Christina; Sternemann, Christian; Paulus, Michael; Tolan, Metin; Royer, Catherine; Winter, Roland

    2008-12-22

    Herein, we explore the effect of different types of osmolytes on the high-pressure stability and tertiary structure of a well-characterized monomeric protein, staphylococcal nuclease (SNase). Changes in the denaturation pressure and the radius of gyration are obtained in the presence of different concentrations of trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO), glycerol and urea. To reveal structural changes in the protein upon compression at various osmolyte conditions, small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) experiments were carried out. To this end, a new high-pressure cell suitable for high-precision SAXS studies at synchrotron sources was built, which allows one to carry out scattering experiments up to maximum pressures of about 7 kbar. Our data clearly indicate that the osmolytes that stabilize proteins against temperature-induced unfolding drastically increase their pressure stability and that the elliptically shaped curve of the pressure-temperature-stability diagram of proteins is shifted to higher temperatures and pressures with increasing osmolyte concentration. A drastic stabilization is observed for the osmolyte TMAO, which exhibits not only a significant stabilization against temperature-induced unfolding, but also a particularly strong stabilization of the protein against pressure. In fact, such findings are in accordance with in vivo studies (for example P. J. Yancey, J. Exp. Biol. 2005, 208, 2819-2830), where unusually high TMAO concentrations in some deep-sea animals were found. Conversely, chaotropic agents such as urea have a strong destabilizing effect on both the temperature and pressure stability of the protein. Our data also indicate that sufficiently high TMAO concentrations might be able to largely offset the destabilizing effect of urea. The different scenarios observed are discussed in the context of recent experimental and theoretical studies.

  2. Effect of Replacing Animal Protein with Plant Protein on Glycemic Control in Diabetes: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials

    PubMed Central

    Viguiliouk, Effie; Stewart, Sarah E.; Jayalath, Viranda H.; Ng, Alena Praneet; Mirrahimi, Arash; de Souza, Russell J.; Hanley, Anthony J.; Bazinet, Richard P.; Blanco Mejia, Sonia; Leiter, Lawrence A.; Josse, Robert G.; Kendall, Cyril W.C.; Jenkins, David J.A.; Sievenpiper, John L.

    2015-01-01

    Previous research on the effect of replacing sources of animal protein with plant protein on glycemic control has been inconsistent. We therefore conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) to assess the effect of this replacement on glycemic control in individuals with diabetes. We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane databases through 26 August 2015. We included RCTs ≥ 3-weeks comparing the effect of replacing animal with plant protein on HbA1c, fasting glucose (FG), and fasting insulin (FI). Two independent reviewers extracted relevant data, assessed study quality and risk of bias. Data were pooled by the generic inverse variance method and expressed as mean differences (MD) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Heterogeneity was assessed (Cochran Q-statistic) and quantified (I2-statistic). Thirteen RCTs (n = 280) met the eligibility criteria. Diets emphasizing a replacement of animal with plant protein at a median level of ~35% of total protein per day significantly lowered HbA1c (MD = −0.15%; 95%-CI: −0.26, −0.05%), FG (MD = −0.53 mmol/L; 95%-CI: −0.92, −0.13 mmol/L) and FI (MD = −10.09 pmol/L; 95%-CI: −17.31, −2.86 pmol/L) compared with control arms. Overall, the results indicate that replacing sources of animal with plant protein leads to modest improvements in glycemic control in individuals with diabetes. Owing to uncertainties in our analyses there is a need for larger, longer, higher quality trials. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov registration number: NCT02037321. PMID:26633472

  3. The importance of leaf- and litter-feeding invertebrates as sources of animal protein for the Amazonian Amerindians.

    PubMed Central

    Paoletti, M G; Dufour, D L; Cerda, H; Torres, F; Pizzoferrato, L; Pimentel, D

    2000-01-01

    At least 32 Amerindian groups in the Amazon basin use terrestrial invertebrates as food. Leaf- and litter-consuming invertebrates provide the more important, underestimated food sources for many Amerindian groups. Further, litter-consuming earthworms are also an important food resource for the Ye'Kuana (also known as Makiritare) in the Alto Orinoco (Amazonas, Venezuela). By selecting these small invertebrates the Amerindians are choosing their animal food from those food webs in the rainforest which have the highest energy flow and which constitute the greatest renewable stock of readily available nutrients. Here we show that the consumption of leaf- and litter-feeding invertebrates as a means of recovering protein, fat and vitamins by the forest-living peoples offers a new perspective for the development of sustainable animal food production within the paradigm of biodiversity maintenance. PMID:11413639

  4. Protein phase behavior and crystallization: Effect of glycerol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sedgwick, H.; Cameron, J. E.; Poon, W. C. K.; Egelhaaf, S. U.

    2007-09-01

    Glycerol is widely used as an additive to stabilize proteins in aqueous solution. We have studied the effect of up to 40wt% glycerol on the crystallization of lysozyme from brine. As the glycerol concentration increased, progressively larger amounts of salt were needed to crystallize the protein. Like previous authors, we interpret this as evidence for glycerol changing the interaction between lysozyme molecules. We quantitatively model the interprotein interaction using a Derjaguin-Landau-Verwey-Overbeek potential. We find that the effect of glycerol can be entirely accounted for by the way it modifies the dielectric constant and refractive index of the solvent. Quantifying the interprotein interaction by the second virial coefficient, B2, we find a universal crystallization boundary for all glycerol concentrations.

  5. Protein phase behavior and crystallization: effect of glycerol.

    PubMed

    Sedgwick, H; Cameron, J E; Poon, W C K; Egelhaaf, S U

    2007-09-28

    Glycerol is widely used as an additive to stabilize proteins in aqueous solution. We have studied the effect of up to 40 wt % glycerol on the crystallization of lysozyme from brine. As the glycerol concentration increased, progressively larger amounts of salt were needed to crystallize the protein. Like previous authors, we interpret this as evidence for glycerol changing the interaction between lysozyme molecules. We quantitatively model the interprotein interaction using a Derjaguin-Landau-Verwey-Overbeek potential. We find that the effect of glycerol can be entirely accounted for by the way it modifies the dielectric constant and refractive index of the solvent. Quantifying the interprotein interaction by the second virial coefficient, B(2), we find a universal crystallization boundary for all glycerol concentrations.

  6. Repeat-modulated population genetic effects in fungal proteins.

    PubMed

    Braun, F N; Liberles, D A

    2004-07-01

    A number of fungal lineages, notably N. crassa, have evolved a novel mechanism of processing genomic duplication events known as repeat-induced point (RIP) mutation. This mechanism appears, on the one hand, to act as a conservative genomic safeguard, by introducing stop codons into duplicated nucleotide sequences, thereby preempting consequences such as dosage effects. However, it also typically performs further nonsynonymous (i.e., amino acid-changing) nucleotide substitutions, the significance of which is unclear. We explore here the possibility that RIP-mutated genes which evade silencing may have some microevolutionary impact on functional sequences. Our approach focuses on structurally important hydrophobic/polar (HP) amino-acid substitutions effected by RIP. We exploit a simple generic protein folding model to predict the associated emergence of increased protein-structural stability and variance within a large population.

  7. Effect of whey protein isolate on rehydration after exercise.

    PubMed

    James, Lewis J; Mattin, Lewis; Aldiss, Peter; Adebishi, Rukayat; Hobson, Ruth M

    2014-05-01

    Studies have examined adding protein to carbohydrate-electrolyte rehydration drinks, but the effects of protein in isolation remain unknown. Ten subjects completed two trials in which they were dehydrated (~2 % of pre-exercise body mass) by intermittent cycling in the heat. Subjects then rehydrated (150 % total mass loss) over 1 h with mineral water (W) or mineral water plus 20 g L(-1) whey protein isolate (WP) and remained in the laboratory for a further 4 h. Blood and urine samples were provided pre-exercise, post-exercise, post-rehydration and every hour thereafter. From blood samples, serum osmolality, change in plasma volume and plasma albumin content was determined, whilst the volume and osmolality of urine samples were determined. There was no difference between trials for total urine volume [W: 1,234 (358) mL; WP: 1,306 (268) mL; P = 0.409], drink retention [W: 40 (14) %; WP: 37 (14) %; P = 0.322] or net fluid balance [W: -605 (318) mL; WP: -660 (274) mL; P = 0.792] 4-h post-rehydration. Plasma volume was greater 3 and 4 h post-drinking during WP, and plasma albumin content relative to pre-exercise was increased 1-4 h post-drinking in WP only. These results suggest that addition of 20 g L(-1) whey protein isolate neither enhances nor inhibits post-exercise rehydration, when a volume equivalent to 150 % of sweat losses is ingested in 1 h. As post-exercise nutritional requirements are multifactorial (rehydration, glycogen resynthesis, myofibrillar/mitochondrial protein synthesis), these data demonstrate that when post-exercise protein intake might benefit recovery or adaptation, this can be achieved without compromising rehydration.

  8. Comparative effectiveness of clinically used light sources for cutaneous protoporphyrin IX-based photodynamic therapy.

    PubMed

    Sayre, Robert M; Dowdy, John C; Gottschalk, Ronald W

    2011-04-01

    This report documents the optical characteristics of a number of photodynamic therapy (PDT) light sources of varied types, measured and indexed relative to estimated effectiveness for activation of the PDT chromaphore protoporphyrin IX (PpIX). PDT sources in use at several clinics, including intense pulsed light (IPL) sources, lasers, and continuous wave (CW) light sources, were spectroradiometrically measured and indexed relative to their overlap to an absorption spectrum of PpIX. The sources were highly disparate, varying in power from irradiance in the mW/cm(2) range for the CW sources up to ∼30 J/cm(2) per flash for the IPL sources. Our PpIX Index ranged by a factor of nearly 100 (0.008-0.630) in estimated PpIX PDT effectiveness following the distinct spectral characteristics of the light sources surveyed. Application of this PpIX Index, tempered with an understanding of the biology of the lesion being treated and effective spectrum of the light source reaching the lesion requiring therapy, provides a rational algorithm to approximate equivalent light doses prior to clinical protocols to establish equivalent patient outcomes employing alternative PDT light sources.

  9. Effects of error sources on the parallelism of an optical matrix-vector processor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perlee, Caroline J.; Casasent, David P.

    1990-01-01

    The error sources in a high accuracy optical matrix-vector processor are analyzed by numerical simulation in terms of their effects on the parallelism and speed of the processor. These effects are detailed for radices -2, -4 and -8. Radix -4 is shown to provide maximum parallel processing capabilities under the effects of the system's error sources. Processing speed is shown to be a function of matrix partitioning and the number of parallel processing channels. Consequently, radix -4 operation provides a higher processing speed than radix -2 and -8 for most matrix-vector multiplications when error source effects are considered.

  10. Glycerol effects on protein flexibility: a tryptophan phosphorescence study.

    PubMed Central

    Gonnelli, M.; Strambini, G. B.

    1993-01-01

    In exploring the dynamic properties of protein structure, numerous studies have focussed on the dependence of structural fluctuations on solvent viscosity, but the emerging picture is still not well defined. Exploiting the sensitivity of the phosphorescence lifetime of tryptophan to the viscosity of its environment we have used the delayed emission as an intrinsic probe of protein flexibility and investigated the effects of glycerol as a viscogenic cosolvent. The phosphorescence lifetime of alcohol dehydrogenase, alkaline phosphatase, apoazurin and RNase T1, as a function of glycerol concentration was studied at various temperatures. Flexibility data, which refer to rather rigid sites of the globular structures, point out that, for some concentration ranges glycerol, effects on the rate of structural fluctuations of alcohol dehydrogenase and RNase T1 do not obey Kramers' a power law on solvent viscosity and emphasize that cosolvent-induced structural changes can be important, even for inner cores of the macromolecule. When the data is analyzed in terms of Kramers' model, for the temperature range 0-30 degrees C one derives frictional coefficients that are relatively large (0.6-0.7) for RNase T1, where the probe is in a flexible region near the surface of the macromolecule and much smaller, less than 0.2, for the rigid sites of the other proteins. For the latter sites the frictional coefficient rises sharply between 40 and 60 degrees C, and its value correlates weakly with molecular parameters such as the depth of burial or the rigidity of a particular site. For RNase T1, coupling to solvent viscosity increases at subzero temperatures, with the coefficient becoming as large as 1 at -20 degrees C. Temperature effects were interpreted by proposing that solvent damping of internal protein motions is particularly effective for low frequency, large amplitude, structural fluctuations yielding highly flexible conformers of the macromolecule. PMID:8369422

  11. Response of lactating dairy cows to steam-flaked sorghum, steam-flaked corn, or steam-rolled corn and protein sources of differing degradability.

    PubMed

    Santos, J E; Huber, J T; Theurer, C B; Nussio, L G; Tarazon, M; Santos, F A

    1999-04-01

    Protein sources with different degradabilities were fed to 48 lactating Holstein cows receiving 37 or 39% of dietary dry matter as steam-flaked sorghum (360 g/L), steam-flaked corn (360 g/L), or steam-rolled corn (490 g/L) in a 3 x 2 factorial arrangement of treatments. Cows were fed an alfalfa-based diet with 7% soybean meal or 5% of an animal-marine protein blend and 37 or 39% grain. Although not significant, cows fed flaked grain yielded a mean of 1.5 kg/d more milk than did those fed rolled grain. Gross feed efficiency was not affected by grain processing or protein source, but diets with the animal-marine protein blend had 9% higher estimated net energy for lactation than did diets with soybean meal. The greater gains in body weight and increased digestibility of the diets with the animal-marine protein blend verify the higher energy concentration of those diets. Yield of milk protein was increased by flaked grain or the animal-marine protein blend, and flaked grain increased percentages of lactose and solids nonfat. Increasing the ratio of rumen-degradable starch to rumen-degradable protein increased milk protein content and yield linearly and increased contents of lactose and solids nonfat. A linear response of dry matter, organic matter, crude protein, and starch digestibilities was observed as the ratio of rumen-degradable starch to rumen-degradable protein increased. These data show improved performance of dairy cows fed a high rumen-undegradable protein source with diets high in rumen-degradable starch from steam-processed grains.

  12. Glia cell stimulating factor (GSF): a new lymphokine. Part 1. Cellular sources and partial purification of murine GSF, role of cytoskeleton and protein synthesis in its production.

    PubMed

    Fontana, A; Dubs, R; Merchant, R; Balsiger, S; Grob, P J

    1982-01-01

    The effect of activated-lymphocyte supernatant on glia cells was investigated. When treated in vitro with Concanavalin A (ConA), murine spleen cells released a soluble product, termed glia cell stimulating factor (GSF), which stimulated RNA and DNA synthesis in cultured murine glia cells. Furthermore, GSF appeared to promote the maturation of undifferentiated glia cells to astrocytes having a high content of glial fibrillary acidic protein. GSF secretion occurred after a lag period of 16 hours and proceeded at a constant rate for more than 48 hours. This GSF produced by ConA-stimulated murine lymphocytes has an apparent molecular weight between 60,000 and 80,000. Antigenic stimulation of primed lymph node cells with BGG resulted in a similar GSF production. Cellular sources of mitogen-induced GSF were investigated by using isolated lymphoid populations. GSF release by ConA-activated pure T-lymphocytes reconstituted with peritoneal macrophages was equivalent to that of unseparated spleen cells, whereas GSF production by T-lymphocytes alone was low. Macrophages alone did not elaborate detectable levels of GSF. GSF was also secreted by enriched -B-lymphocytes populations stimulated by Protein A. Formation of GSF was suppressed when cytochalasin B or cyclo-heximide was added to the cultures, while colchicine failed to have any effect. DNA synthesis is not required for GSF production as determined by resistence to treatment with mitomycin C. The data indicate that the GSF production and secretion mechanism is much like that described for other lymphokines.

  13. Sources of motivation, interpersonal conflict management styles, and leadership effectiveness: a structural model.

    PubMed

    Barbuto, John E; Xu, Ye

    2006-02-01

    126 leaders and 624 employees were sampled to test the relationship between sources of motivation and conflict management styles of leaders and how these variables influence effectiveness of leadership. Five sources of motivation measured by the Motivation Sources Inventory were tested-intrinsic process, instrumental, self-concept external, self-concept internal, and goal internalization. These sources of work motivation were associated with Rahim's modes of interpersonal conflict management-dominating, avoiding, obliging, complying, and integrating-and to perceived leadership effectiveness. A structural equation model tested leaders' conflict management styles and leadership effectiveness based upon different sources of work motivation. The model explained variance for obliging (65%), dominating (79%), avoiding (76%), and compromising (68%), but explained little variance for integrating (7%). The model explained only 28% of the variance in leader effectiveness.

  14. Training Reveals the Sources of Stroop and Flanker Interference Effects

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Antao; Tang, Dandan; Chen, Xuefei

    2013-01-01

    In the field of cognitive control, dimensional overlap and pathway automaticity are generally believed to be critical for the generation of congruency effects. However, their specific roles in the generation of congruency effects are unclear. In two experiments, with the 4∶2 mapping design, we investigated this issue by examining the training-related effects on congruency effects (the Stroop interference effect and the Flanker interference effect in Experiments 1 and 2, respectively) normally expressed as incongruent minus congruent difference and on their subcomponents (the stimulus interference and response interference). Experiment 1 revealed that the stimulus interference in the Stroop task, wherein the task-relevant (printed color of word) and the task-irrelevant (semantics of word) dimensions of the stimuli were processed in different pathways, was present during early training but was virtually eliminated at the late stage of training. This indicates that the two dimensions overlap at the early stage but separate at the late stage. In contrast, Experiment 2 showed that the response interference in a variant of the Flanker task, wherein the task-relevant (central color word printed in black font) and the task-irrelevant (flanking color words printed in black font) dimensions of the stimuli were processed in the same pathway, was enhanced after training. This indicates that the enhanced automaticity of irrelevant-dimension processing induces stronger response competition, which therefore results in the larger response interference. Taken together, the present study demonstrates that (1) dimensional overlap is necessary for the generation of congruency effects, (2) pathway automaticity can affect the size of congruency effects, and (3) training enhances the degree of automatic processing in a given pathway. PMID:24146892

  15. Limited effects of source population identity and number on seagrass transplant performance.

    PubMed

    Novak, Alyssa B; Plaisted, Holly K; Hays, Cynthia G; Hughes, Randall A

    2017-01-01

    Global declines in coastal foundation species highlight the importance of effective restoration. In this study, we examined the effects of source population identity and diversity (one vs. three sources per plot) on seagrass (Zostera marina) transplant success. The field experiment was replicated at two locations in Massachusetts with adjacent natural Zostera marina beds to test for local adaptation and source diversity effects on shoot density. We also collected morphological and genetic data to characterize variation within and among source populations, and evaluate whether they were related to performance. Transplants grew and expanded until six months post-transplantation, but then steadily declined at both sites. Prior to declines, we observed variation in performance among source populations at one site that was related to morphological traits: the populations with the longest leaves had the highest shoot densities, whereas the population with the shortest leaves performed the worst at six months post-transplantation. In addition, multiple source plots at this same transplant site consistently had similar or higher shoot densities than single source plots, and shoots from weak-performing populations showed improved performance in multiple source plots. We found no evidence for home site advantage or benefits of population-level genetic variation in early transplant performance at either site. Our results show limited effects of source population on early transplant performance and suggest that factors (e.g., morphology) other than home site advantage and population genetic variation serve a role. Based on our overall findings that transplant success varied among source populations and that population diversity at the plot level had positive but limited effects on individual and plot performance, we support planting shoots from multiple source sites in combination to enhance transplant success, particularly in the absence of detailed information on individual

  16. Limited effects of source population identity and number on seagrass transplant performance

    PubMed Central

    Plaisted, Holly K.; Hays, Cynthia G.; Hughes, Randall A.

    2017-01-01

    Global declines in coastal foundation species highlight the importance of effective restoration. In this study, we examined the effects of source population identity and diversity (one vs. three sources per plot) on seagrass (Zostera marina) transplant success. The field experiment was replicated at two locations in Massachusetts with adjacent natural Zostera marina beds to test for local adaptation and source diversity effects on shoot density. We also collected morphological and genetic data to characterize variation within and among source populations, and evaluate whether they were related to performance. Transplants grew and expanded until six months post-transplantation, but then steadily declined at both sites. Prior to declines, we observed variation in performance among source populations at one site that was related to morphological traits: the populations with the longest leaves had the highest shoot densities, whereas the population with the shortest leaves performed the worst at six months post-transplantation. In addition, multiple source plots at this same transplant site consistently had similar or higher shoot densities than single source plots, and shoots from weak-performing populations showed improved performance in multiple source plots. We found no evidence for home site advantage or benefits of population-level genetic variation in early transplant performance at either site. Our results show limited effects of source population on early transplant performance and suggest that factors (e.g., morphology) other than home site advantage and population genetic variation serve a role. Based on our overall findings that transplant success varied among source populations and that population diversity at the plot level had positive but limited effects on individual and plot performance, we support planting shoots from multiple source sites in combination to enhance transplant success, particularly in the absence of detailed information on individual

  17. The Source of the Symbolic Numerical Distance and Size Effects

    PubMed Central

    Krajcsi, Attila; Lengyel, Gábor; Kojouharova, Petia

    2016-01-01

    Human number understanding is thought to rely on the analog number system (ANS), working according to Weber’s law. We propose an alternative account, suggesting that symbolic mathematical knowledge is based on a discrete semantic system (DSS), a representation that stores values in a semantic network, similar to the mental lexicon or to a conceptual network. Here, focusing on the phenomena of numerical distance and size effects in comparison tasks, first we discuss how a DSS model could explain these numerical effects. Second, we demonstrate that the DSS model can give quantitatively as appropriate a description of the effects as the ANS model. Finally, we show that symbolic numerical size effect is mainly influenced by the frequency of the symbols, and not by the ratios of their values. This last result suggests that numerical distance and size effects cannot be caused by the ANS, while the DSS model might be the alternative approach that can explain the frequency-based size effect. PMID:27917139

  18. Protein kinase C and the antiviral effect of human interferon.

    PubMed

    Cernescu, C; Constantinescu, S N; Baltă, F; Popescu, L M; Cajal, N

    1989-01-01

    Protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitors: Hidaka's compounds H-7 (10 microM) and H-8 (20 microM), palmitoyl-carnitine (10 microM) and phloretin (50 microM), did not modify the antiviral effect of human natural or recombinant interferon alpha and of natural interferon beta. The tumor promoter 12-o-tetradecanoyl-phorbol-13-acetate (TPA) (200 nM), known as activator of PKC induced an antiviral state when tested on human embryo fibroblasts challenged with the vesicular stomatitis virus. The battery of PKC inhibitors used inhibited the antiviral effect induced by TPA. Palmitoyl-carnitine (10 microM) exerted a toxic effect that was reversed by interferon treatment (2,000 IU/ml interferon alpha). These results suggest that PKC, possibly activated by interferon-receptor interaction, is not essential for inducing the antiviral effect of interferon, but, probably, mediates the antiviral effect of TPA.

  19. Preclinical and Clinical Studies on Antioxidative, Antihypertensive and Cardioprotective Effect of Marine Proteins and Peptides—A Review

    PubMed Central

    Jensen, Ida-Johanne; Mæhre, Hanne K.

    2016-01-01

    High seafood consumption has traditionally been linked to a reduced risk of cardiovascular diseases, mainly due to the lipid lowering effects of the long chained omega 3 fatty acids. However, fish and seafood are also excellent sources of good quality proteins and emerging documentation show that, upon digestion, these proteins are sources for bioactive peptides with documented favorable physiological effects such as antioxidative, antihypertensive and other cardioprotective effects. This documentation is mainly from in vitro studies, but also animal studies are arising. Evidence from human studies evaluating the positive health effects of marine proteins and peptides are scarce. In one study, a reduction in oxidative stress after intake of cod has been documented and a few human clinical trials have been performed evaluating the effect on blood pressure. The results are, however, inconclusive. The majority of the human clinical trials performed to investigate positive health effects of marine protein and lean fish intake, has focused on blood lipids. While some studies have documented a reduction in triglycerides after intake of lean fish, others have documented no effects. PMID:27869700

  20. Complete genome of Pieris rapae, a resilient alien, a cabbage pest, and a source of anti-cancer proteins.

    PubMed

    Shen, Jinhui; Cong, Qian; Kinch, Lisa N; Borek, Dominika; Otwinowski, Zbyszek; Grishin, Nick V

    2016-01-01

    The Small Cabbage White ( Pieris rapae) is originally a Eurasian butterfly. Being accidentally introduced into North America, Australia, and New Zealand a century or more ago, it spread throughout the continents and rapidly established as one of the most abundant butterfly species. Although it is a serious pest of cabbage and other mustard family plants with its caterpillars reducing crops to stems, it is also a source of pierisin, a protein unique to the Whites that shows cytotoxicity to cancer cells. To better understand the unusual biology of this omnipresent agriculturally and medically important butterfly, we sequenced and annotated the complete genome from USA specimens. At 246 Mbp, it is among the smallest Lepidoptera genomes reported to date. While 1.5% positions in the genome are heterozygous, they are distributed highly non-randomly along the scaffolds, and nearly 20% of longer than 1000 base-pair segments are SNP-free (median length: 38000 bp). Computational simulations of population evolutionary history suggest that American populations started from a very small number of introduced individuals, possibly a single fertilized female, which is in agreement with historical literature. Comparison to other Lepidoptera genomes reveals several unique families of proteins that may contribute to the unusual resilience of Pieris. The nitrile-specifier proteins divert the plant defense chemicals to non-toxic products. The apoptosis-inducing pierisins could offer a defense mechanism against parasitic wasps. While only two pierisins from Pieris rapae were characterized before, the genome sequence revealed eight, offering additional candidates as anti-cancer drugs. The reference genome we obtained lays the foundation for future studies of the Cabbage White and other Pieridae species.

  1. Complete genome of Pieris rapae, a resilient alien, a cabbage pest, and a source of anti-cancer proteins

    PubMed Central

    Kinch, Lisa N.; Borek, Dominika; Otwinowski, Zbyszek; Grishin, Nick V.

    2016-01-01

    The Small Cabbage White ( Pieris rapae) is originally a Eurasian butterfly. Being accidentally introduced into North America, Australia, and New Zealand a century or more ago, it spread throughout the continents and rapidly established as one of the most abundant butterfly species. Although it is a serious pest of cabbage and other mustard family plants with its caterpillars reducing crops to stems, it is also a source of pierisin, a protein unique to the Whites that shows cytotoxicity to cancer cells. To better understand the unusual biology of this omnipresent agriculturally and medically important butterfly, we sequenced and annotated the complete genome from USA specimens. At 246 Mbp, it is among the smallest Lepidoptera genomes reported to date. While 1.5% positions in the genome are heterozygous, they are distributed highly non-randomly along the scaffolds, and nearly 20% of longer than 1000 base-pair segments are SNP-free (median length: 38000 bp). Computational simulations of population evolutionary history suggest that American populations started from a very small number of introduced individuals, possibly a single fertilized female, which is in agreement with historical literature. Comparison to other Lepidoptera genomes reveals several unique families of proteins that may contribute to the unusual resilience of Pieris. The nitrile-specifier proteins divert the plant defense chemicals to non-toxic products. The apoptosis-inducing pierisins could offer a defense mechanism against parasitic wasps. While only two pierisins from Pieris rapae were characterized before, the genome sequence revealed eight, offering additional candidates as anti-cancer drugs. The reference genome we obtained lays the foundation for future studies of the Cabbage White and other Pieridae species. PMID:28163896

  2. Mobile source emission control cost-effectiveness: Issues, uncertainties, and results

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, M.Q.

    1994-12-01

    Emissions from mobile sources undoubtedly contribute to US urban air pollution problems. Consequently, mobile source control measures, ranging from vehicle emission standards to reducing vehicle travel, have been adopted or proposed to help attain air quality standards. To rank various mobile source control measures, various government agencies and private organizations calculate cost-effectiveness in dollars per ton of emissions reduced. Arguments for or against certain control measures are often made on the basis of the calculated cost-effectiveness. Yet, different studies may yield significantly different cost-effectiveness results, because of the various methodologies used and assumptions regarding the values of costs and emission reductions. Because of the methodological differences, the cost-effectiveness results may not be comparable between studies. Use of incomparable cost-effectiveness results may result in adoption of ineffective control measures. This paper first discusses some important methodological issues involved in cost-effectiveness calculation for mobile sources and proposes appropriate, systematic methods for dealing with these issues. Various studies have been completed recently to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of mobile source emission control measures. These studies resulted in wide variations in the cost-effectiveness for same control measures. Methodological assumptions used in each study are presented and, based on the proposed methods for cost-effectiveness calculation, adjustments are applied to the original estimates in each study to correct inappropriate methodological assumptions and to make the studies comparable. Finally, mobile source control measures are ranked on the basis of the adjusted cost-effectiveness estimates.

  3. Milk Proteins, Peptides, and Oligosaccharides: Effects against the 21st Century Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Hsieh, Chia-Chien; Hernández-Ledesma, Blanca; Fernández-Tomé, Samuel; Weinborn, Valerie; Barile, Daniela; de Moura Bell, Juliana María Leite Nobrega

    2015-01-01

    Milk is the most complete food for mammals, as it supplies all the energy and nutrients needed for the proper growth and development of the neonate. Milk is a source of many bioactive components, which not only help meeting the nutritional requirements of the consumers, but also play a relevant role in preventing various disorders. Milk-derived proteins and peptides have the potential to act as coadjuvants in conventional therapies, addressing cardiovascular diseases, metabolic disorders, intestinal health, and chemopreventive properties. In addition to being a source of proteins and peptides, milk contains complex oligosaccharides that possess important functions related to the newborn's development and health. Some of the health benefits attributed to milk oligosaccharides include prebiotic probifidogenic effects, antiadherence of pathogenic bacteria, and immunomodulation. This review focuses on recent findings demonstrating the biological activities of milk peptides, proteins, and oligosaccharides towards the prevention of diseases of the 21st century. Processing challenges hindering large-scale production and commercialization of those bioactive compounds have been also addressed. PMID:25789308

  4. Effect of thermal treatment on meat proteins with special reference to heterocyclic aromatic amines (HAAs).

    PubMed

    Shabbir, Muhammad Asim; Raza, Ali; Anjum, Faqir Muhammad; Khan, Moazzam Rafiq; Suleria, Hafiz Ansar Rasul

    2015-01-01

    Meat is one of the most imperative protein sources available with respect to its production and consumption. It is the richest source of some valuable nutrients like proteins, essential amino acids, polyunsaturated fatty acids, vitamins, and minerals like iron, zinc, and selenium. Thermal treatment produces conformational changes in protein structure as well as flavor, texture, and appearance, and chemical properties of the ingredients are also changed. Heterocyclic aromatic amines (HAAs), potent mutagens/carcinogens, are formed during the cooking of meat at high temperature. The review paper highlights the effects of various cooking methods, i.e., pan-frying, deep-frying, charcoal grilling, and roasting, on the formation of HAAs. The levels of HAAs produced in cooked meats vary depending upon the cooking method, time of cooking, and the type of meat being cooked. Metabolic behavior of HAAs is very unique, they interfere in the activity of many enzymes, modify the metabolic pathways, and lead to the adduct formation of DNA. The application of black pepper and several other spices during processing may reduce the formation of these (HAAs) mutagenic compounds.

  5. The absence of protein--sparing effects utilizing crystalline amino acids in stressed patients.

    PubMed Central

    Ching, N; Mills, C J; Grossi, C; Angers, J W; Jham, G; Zurawinsky, H; Nealon, T F

    1979-01-01

    The protein-sparing effects of the peripheral infusion of crystalline amino acids (PAA) was studied metabolically in selected surgical patients subjected to various degrees of stress. Twenty-one patients (sixteen cancer patients receiving chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy, three with major abdominal traumatic injuries and four with paralytic ileus) were infused with 2 1/24 hours of a solution of 4.2% Travasol amino acids with only 5% glucose as a source of nonprotein calories. One-half of the cancer patients were also allowed ad libitum oral intake of a regular hospital diet or Vivonex-HN. The nutritional status was evaluated by measuring changes in body weight, serum albumin levels and nitrogen balance. Body weight decreased in only the trauma patients. When these solutions were the sole source of nutrients all patients were in negative nitrogen balance and had significant decreases in their serum albumin levels. Serum albumin levels were preserved only when extra sources of calories were provided. The infusion of the crystalline amino acids without adequate levels of nonprotein energy did not conserve protein in these stressed patients. PMID:116604

  6. Effects of high source flow and high pumping speed on gas source molecular beam epitaxy / chemical beam epitaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCollum, M. J.; Jackson, S. L.; Szafranek, I.; Stillman, G. E.

    1990-10-01

    We report the growth of GaAs by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE), gas source molecular beam epitaxy (GSMBE), and chemical beam epitaxy (CBE) in an epitaxial III-V reactor which features high pumping speed. The system is comprised of a modified Perkin-Elmer 430P molecular beam epitaxy system and a custom gas source panel from Emcore. The growth chamber is pumped with a 7000 1/s (He) diffusion pump (Varian VHS-10 with Monsanto Santovac 5 oil). The gas source panel includes pressure based flow controllers (MKS 1150) allowing triethylaluminum (TEA), triethylgallium (TEG), and trimethylindium (TMI) to be supplied without the use of hydrogen. All source lines, including arsine and phosphine, are maintained below atmospheric pressure. The high pumping speed allows total system flow rates as high as 100 SCCM and V/III ratios as high as 100. The purity of GaAs grown by MBE in this system increases with pumping speed. GaAs layers grown by GSMBE with arsine flows of 10 and 20 SCCM have electron concentrations of 1 × 10 15 cm -3 (μ 77=48,000 cm 2/V·) and 2 × 10 14 cm -3 (μ 77=78,000 cm 2/V·s) respectively. El ectron concentration varies with hydride injector temperature such that the minimum in electron concentration occurs for less than complete cracking. The effect of V/III ratio and the use of a metal eutectic bubbler on residual carrier concentration in GaAs grown by CBE is presented. Intentional Si and Be doping of CBE grown GaAs is demonstrated at a high growth rate of 5.4 μm/h.

  7. Heat shock protein coinducers with no effect on protein denaturation specifically modulate the membrane lipid phase

    PubMed Central

    Török, Zsolt; Tsvetkova, Nelly M.; Balogh, Gábor; Horváth, Ibolya; Nagy, Enikő; Pénzes, Zoltán; Hargitai, Judit; Bensaude, Olivier; Csermely, Péter; Crowe, John H.; Maresca, Bruno; Vígh, László

    2003-01-01

    The hydroxylamine derivative bimoclomol (BM) has been shown to activate natural cytoprotective homeostatic responses by enhancing the capability of cells to cope with various pathophysiological conditions. It exerts its effect in synergy with low levels of stress to induce the synthesis of members of major stress protein families. We show here that the presence of BM does not influence protein denaturation in the cells. BM and its derivatives selectively interact with acidic lipids and modulate their thermal and dynamic properties. BM acts as a membrane fluidizer at normal temperature, but it is a highly efficient membrane stabilizer, inhibiting the bilayer–nonbilayer phase transitions during severe heat shock. We suggest that BM and the related compounds modify those domains of membrane lipids where the thermally or chemically induced perturbation of lipid phase is sensed and transduced into a cellular signal, leading to enhanced activation of heat shock genes. BM may be a prototype for clinically safe membrane-interacting drug candidates that rebalance the level and composition of heat shock proteins. PMID:12615993

  8. EFFECTS OF NITROGEN SOURCE ON CRUDE OIL BIODEGRADATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The effects of NH4Cl and KNO3 on biodegradation of light Arabian crude oil by an oil-degrading enrichment culture were studied in respirometers. In poorly buffered sea salts medium, the pH decreased dramatically in cultures that contained NH4Cl, b...

  9. Cost Effectiveness of Current Awareness Sources in the Pharmaceutical Industry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashmole, R. F.; And Others

    1973-01-01

    The cost effectiveness of several commercial data bases, journal scanning by information scientists, and the impact of private communication are compared in this study. A previously developed technique for measuring the usefulness of commercial data bases is utilized. (21 references) (Author/KE)

  10. Golden Rice is an effective source for vitamin A

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genetically engineered "Golden Rice" contains up to 35 ug Beta-carotene per gram of rice. It is important to determine the vitamin A equivalency of Golden Rice Beta-carotene to project the potential effect of this biofortified grain in rice-consuming populations that commonly exhibit low vitamin A s...

  11. On Sources of the Word Length Effect in Young Readers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gagl, Benjamin; Hawelka, Stefan; Wimmer, Heinz

    2015-01-01

    We investigated how letter length, phoneme length, and consonant clusters contribute to the word length effect in 2nd- and 4th-grade children. They read words from three different conditions: In one condition, letter length increased but phoneme length did not due to multiletter graphemes (H"aus"-B"auch"-S"chach"). In…

  12. PLASMOSE - antimicrobial effects of modular atmospheric plasma sources

    PubMed Central

    Ehlbeck, Jörg; Brandenburg, Ronny; von Woedtke, Thomas; Krohmann, Udo; Stieber, Manfred; Weltmann, Klaus-Dieter

    2008-01-01

    The technological potential of non-thermal plasmas for the antimicrobial treatment of heat sensitive materials is well known and has been documented in a great number of research activities, but the realisation of industrial plasma-based decontamination processes remains a great challenge. One of the reasons for this situation is the fact that an antimicrobial treatment process needs to consider all properties of the product to be treated as well as the requirements of the complete procedure, e.g. a reprocessing of a medical instrument. The aim of the BMBF-funded network project PLASMOSE is to demonstrate the applicability of plasma-based processes for the antimicrobial treatment on selected, heat sensitive products. Modular and selective plasma sources, driven at atmospheric pressure are used. This basic approach shall combine the technological advantages of atmospheric pressure plasmas (avoidance of vacuum devices and batch processing) with the flexibility and handling properties of modular devices. Two different objectives were selected: the outer surface treatment of medical products and the treatment of hollow packaging for pharmaceutical products. The outer surface treatment of medical products, in particular catheters for intracardial electrophysiological studies, is investigated by means of RF-driven plasma jets in argon. Due to its compact design they are predestined for modularisation and can be adapted to nearly any complex 3-dimensional structure as given by the medical products. The realisation of an antimicrobial treatment process of hollow packaging for pharmaceutical products has quite different demands. Such a process is needed to be implemented in in-line filling procedures and to work without additional process gases. The idea is to use an atmospheric air, microwave-driven self propagating discharge. The plasma process is optimized for the decontamination of 200 ml bottles by field simulation studies combined with optical emissions spectroscopy

  13. Spirulina is an effective dietary source of zeaxanthin to humans.

    PubMed

    Yu, Bolan; Wang, Jie; Suter, Paolo M; Russell, Robert M; Grusak, Michael A; Wang, Yin; Wang, Zhixu; Yin, Shian; Tang, Guangwen

    2012-08-01

    Zeaxanthin is a predominant xanthophyll in human eyes and may reduce the risk of cataracts and age-related macular degeneration. Spirulina is an algal food that contains a high concentration of zeaxanthin. In order to determine the zeaxanthin bioavailability of spirulina for dietary supplementation in humans, spirulina was grown in nutrient solution with ²H₂O for carotenoid labelling. Single servings of ²H-labelled spirulina (4.0-5.0 g) containing 2.6-3.7 mg zeaxanthin were consumed by fourteen healthy male volunteers (four Americans and ten Chinese) with 12 g dietary fat. Blood samples were collected over a 45 d period. The serum concentrations of total zeaxanthin were measured using HPLC, and the enrichment of labelled zeaxanthin was determined using LC-atmospheric pressure chemical ionisation-MS (LC-APCI-MS). The results showed that intrinsically labelled spirulina zeaxanthin in the circulation was detected at levels as low as 10 % of the total zeaxanthin for up to 45 d after intake of the algae. A single dose of spirulina can increase mean serum zeaxanthin concentration in humans from 0.06 to 0.15 μmol/l, as shown in our study involving American and Chinese volunteers. The average 15 d area under the serum zeaxanthin response curve to the single dose of spirulina was 293 nmol × d/μmol (range 254-335) in American subjects, and 197 nmol × d/μmol (range 154-285) in Chinese subjects. It is concluded that the relative bioavailability of spirulina zeaxanthin can be studied with high sensitivity and specificity using ²H labelling and LC-APCI-MS methodology. Spirulina can serve as a rich source of dietary zeaxanthin in humans.

  14. The effects of majority versus minority source status on persuasion: a self-validation analysis.

    PubMed

    Horcajo, Javier; Petty, Richard E; Briñol, Pablo

    2010-09-01

    The present research proposes that sources in the numerical majority (vs. minority) can affect persuasion by influencing the confidence with which people hold their thoughts in response to the persuasive message. Participants received a persuasive message composed of either strong or weak arguments that was presented by a majority or a minority source. Consistent with the self-validation hypothesis, we predicted and found that the majority (vs. minority) status of the source increased the confidence with which recipients held their thoughts. As a consequence, majority (vs. minority) sources increased argument quality effects in persuasion when source status information followed message processing (Experiment 1). In contrast, when the information regarding source status preceded (rather than followed) the persuasive message, it validated the perception of the position advocated, reducing message processing. As a consequence of having more confidence in the position advocated before receiving the message, majority (vs. minority) sources reduced argument quality effects in persuasion (Experiment 2). Finally, Experiment 3 isolated the timing of the source status manipulation, revealing that sources in the numerical majority (vs. minority) can increase or decrease persuasion to strong arguments depending on whether source status is introduced before or after processing the message.

  15. [Broad beans (Vicia fava, L.) as an alternative source of protein in chick diets].

    PubMed

    Bezares, A; Cuca, M; Avila, E; Velásquez, C

    1980-03-01

    Three experiments were conducted to study the possibility of improving the nutritive value of broad beans (Vicia faba, L.) in poultry diets. In the first experiment, raw and autoclaved (1.0 kg/cm2/15 min) beans, with and without antibiotic supplementation, were studied. The results after 21 days showed no significant differences among treatments in regard to body weight. In feed conversion, however, a significant difference was observed when diets prepared with raw beans were supplemented with 20 ppm of flavomycin. In the second experiment raw and autoclaved beans were supplemented with 0, 10, and 20 ppm of virginiamycin and 200 and 400 ppm of flavomycin to study the effect of these two antibiotics. After 28 days, the results indicated no significant differences with antibiotic supplementation in either raw or autoclaved beans. However, a significant difference (P < 0.05) in body weight was found when beans were autoclaved. In the third experiment, two levels, 31 and 76% of raw and autoclaved beans, were included in the chick diets. The results in body weight, after 28 days, did not show any significant differences between raw and autoclaved beans fed at a 31% level. With the 76% level the autoclaved treatment, however, induced a significantly higher body weight than the diets containing raw beans.

  16. Effect of hyperammonemia on leucine and protein metabolism in rats.

    PubMed

    Holecek, M; Sprongl, L; Tichý, M

    2000-10-01

    The cause of muscle wasting and decreased plasma levels of branched chain amino acids (BCAA), valine, leucine, and isoleucine in liver cirrhosis is obscure. Here we have evaluated the effect of hyperammonemia. Rats were infused with either an ammonium acetate/bicarbonate mixture, a sodium acetate/bicarbonate mixture, or saline for 320 minutes. The parameters of leucine and protein metabolism were evaluated in the whole body and in several tissues using a primed constant intravenous infusion of L-[1-14C]leucine. Ammonium infusion caused an increase in ammonia and glutamine levels in plasma, a decrease in BCAA and alanine in plasma and skeletal muscle, a significant decrease in whole-body proteolysis and protein synthesis, and an increase in leucine oxidized fraction. A significant decrease in protein synthesis after ammonium infusion was observed in skeletal muscle while a nonsignificant effect was observed in liver, gut, heart, spleen, and kidneys. We conclude that the decrease in plasma BCAA after ammonia infusion is associated with decreased proteolysis and increased leucine oxidized fraction.

  17. Glycosylation of therapeutic proteins: an effective strategy to optimize efficacy.

    PubMed

    Solá, Ricardo J; Griebenow, Kai

    2010-02-01

    During their development and administration, protein-based drugs routinely display suboptimal therapeutic efficacies due to their poor physicochemical and pharmacological properties. These innate liabilities have driven the development of molecular strategies to improve the therapeutic behavior of protein drugs. Among the currently developed approaches, glycoengineering is one of the most promising, because it has been shown to simultaneously afford improvements in most of the parameters necessary for optimization of in vivo efficacy while allowing for targeting to the desired site of action. These include increased in vitro and in vivo molecular stability (due to reduced oxidation, cross-linking, pH-, chemical-, heating-, and freezing-induced unfolding/denaturation, precipitation, kinetic inactivation, and aggregation), as well as modulated pharmacodynamic responses (due to altered potencies from diminished in vitro enzymatic activities and altered receptor binding affinities) and improved pharmacokinetic profiles (due to altered absorption and distribution behaviors, longer circulation lifetimes, and decreased clearance rates). This article provides an account of the effects that glycosylation has on the therapeutic efficacy of protein drugs and describes the current understanding of the mechanisms by which glycosylation leads to such effects.

  18. Source Separation of Heartbeat Sounds for Effective E-Auscultation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geethu, R. S.; Krishnakumar, M.; Pramod, K. V.; George, Sudhish N.

    2016-03-01

    This paper proposes a cost effective solution for improving the effectiveness of e-auscultation. Auscultation is the most difficult skill for a doctor, since it can be acquired only through experience. The heart sound mixtures are captured by placing the four numbers of sensors at appropriate auscultation area in the body. These sound mixtures are separated to its relevant components by a statistical method independent component analysis. The separated heartbeat sounds can be further processed or can be stored for future reference. This idea can be used for making a low cost, easy to use portable instrument which will be beneficial to people living in remote areas and are unable to take the advantage of advanced diagnosis methods.

  19. Infrasound, Its Sources and Its Effects on Man

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-05-01

    that are harmful or even audible to man. Thus infrasound exposure is not one of mankinds more press- ling environmental problems. g SECURITY...unwarranted conclusions infrasound is not one of mankiuds more pressing about the effects of infrasound on man. The environmental problems. upper frequency... health and welfare is via all those many factors above 20 Hz could be eliminated, 1 baiieve there that make up the annoyance response. Now it is would be

  20. MWIR sensor well fill: sources, effects and mitigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Willers, Cornelius J.; Goss, Tristan M.

    2016-02-01

    Detailed radiometric analysis has shown that 3-5 µm medium wave infrared (MWIR) staring array well fill quickly reaches very high percentages, once hot optics, path radiance and inefficient f-number matching are taken into account. Well fill values of 90% plus are not unheard of. Likewise, the sensor noise eats away at the sensitivity. Therefore, it would appear that the very small signals often sought might not get sufficient dynamic bit-range to describe small signal flux propagating through poor atmospheres. This work presents a very detailed real-world model that includes all known factors that might compete for the bit resolution in a digitized sensor signal. The effect of different scene temperatures, atmospheric conditions and sensor design characteristics are briefly investigated. The effect of the various well fill contributors are shown in relation to each other in order to build an understanding of the nature of the total well fill. Finally, some mitigation measures are described to limit the negative effects of undue large well fill.

  1. The effect of microgravity on protein crystal growth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcpherson, Alexander; Greenwood, Aaron; Day, John

    1991-01-01

    Based on the results of microgravity crystallization experiments using the protein canavalin aboard four separate U.S. Space Shuttle missions, visual observations and diffraction data are presented that support the contention that protein crystals of improved quality can be obtained in a microgravity environment. With canavalin, no significant increase in resolution was noted, but an overall improvement in diffraction quality, as judged by statistical analyses of the data, was clear. This improvement in quality may be due primarily to the elimination of defects and dislocations rather than an overall enhancement of order. The mechanism for this improvement may be microgravity-stabilized depletion zones that develop around growing crystals that establish and maintain optimal growth conditions more rapidly following nucleation. Such zones would be destroyed by convective flow effects in earth's gravity.

  2. Effect of Single-Site Mutations on HP Lattice Proteins

    SciTech Connect

    Shi, Guangjie; Vogel, Thomas; Wuest, Thomas; Li, Ying Wai; Landau, David P

    2014-01-01

    We developed a heuristic method for determining the ground-state degeneracy of hydrophobic-polar (HP) lattice proteins, based on Wang-Landau and multicanonical sampling. It is applied during comprehensive studies of single-site mutations in specific HP proteins with different sequences. The effects in which we are interested include structural changes in ground-states, changes of ground-state energy, degeneracy, and thermodynamic properties of the system. With respect to mutations, both extremely sensitive and insensitive positions in the HP sequence have been found. That is, ground state energies and degeneracies, as well as other thermodynamic and structural quantities may be either largely unaffected or may change significantly due to mutation.

  3. Alternative Sources of Funding Early Childhood Education for School Effectiveness in Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olubor, Roseline O.; Inua, Ofe I.

    2015-01-01

    The authors examined the sources of funding early childhood education in existence in Nigeria with a view towards suggesting alternative sources to boost the revenue base for school effectiveness. The diminishing culture of the extended family system and the need for both parents to be in employment coupled with the need to provide access and…

  4. Nitrogen Source Effects on Soil Nitrous Oxide Emissions from No-Till Corn

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effect of N fertilizer source on soil nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions from a no-till, irrigated continuous corn field was evaluated near Fort Collins, CO in 2009 and 2010. Five N sources (urea, ESN, SuperU, UAN, UAN+AgrotainPlus) were surface band applied at 202 kg N/ha at corn emergence, includi...

  5. Nitrogen Source Effects on Nitrous Oxide Emissions from a Strip-Tilled Corn Field

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effects of N source on nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions from a strip-till, irrigated continuous corn field was evaluated near Fort Collins, CO. Six N fertilizer sources (urea, ESN, SuperU, UAN, UAN+AgrotainPlus, UAN+Nfusion) were surface band applied at 202 kg N/ha near the corn row at corn emerge...

  6. Effect of dietary alternative lipid sources on haematological parameters and serum constituents of Heterobranchus longifilis fingerlings.

    PubMed

    Babalola, T O O; Adebayo, M A; Apata, D F; Omotosho, J S

    2009-03-01

    The worldwide increase in aquaculture production and the decrease of wild fish stocks has made the replacement of fish oil (FO) in aquafeed industry a priority. Therefore, the use of terrestrial animal fats and vegetable oils, which has lower cost and larger supplies, may be good as substitute for FO. This study investigate the effects of total replacement of FO by two terrestrial animal fats (pork lard and poultry fat) and three vegetable oils (palm kernel oil, sheabutter oil and sunflower oil) on haematological and serum biochemical profile of Heterobranchus longifilis over 70 days. FO-diet was used as the control. The haematological parameters were significantly affected by dietary lipid sources. Serum total protein was not influenced by the dietary lipids. However, serum cholesterol was significantly higher in fish fed diet containing sunflower oil. Glucose and activities of liver enzymes in blood serum were significantly reduced in fish fed alternative lipids when compared with the control. These results indicate that FO can be replaced completely with alternative lipids without any serious negative health impacts.

  7. Effect of dietary fat source on lipoprotein composition and plasma lipid concentrations in pigs.

    PubMed

    Faidley, T D; Luhman, C M; Galloway, S T; Foley, M K; Beitz, D C

    1990-10-01

    Most studies of the effects of dietary fat sources on plasma lipid components have used diets with extreme fat compositions; the current study was designed to more nearly mimic human dietary fat intake. Young growing pigs were fed diets containing either 20 or 40% of energy as soy oil, beef tallow or a 50/50 blend of soy oil and tallow. Different dietary fats did not affect concentrations of cholesterol, triacylglycerol or protein in plasma or major lipoprotein fractions. The concentration of phospholipid was less in plasma and in very low density lipoproteins with soy oil feeding than with tallow feeding. The weight percentage of cholesteryl ester in the low density lipoprotein fraction tended to be greater with 40% than with 20% tallow and tended to be less with 40% than with 20% soy oil. Phospholipid as a weight percentage of low density lipoprotein was least in pigs fed soy oil. Tallow feeding increased the percentage of myristic, palmitic, palmitoleic and oleic acids in plasma, relative to both other groups. Soy oil feeding increased the percentage of linoleic and linolenic acids. These moderate diets were not hypercholesterolemic, but they did alter plasma fatty acid composition and phospholipid concentrations in plasma and very low density lipoprotein.

  8. ADHD diagnosis from multiple data sources with batch effects

    PubMed Central

    Olivetti, Emanuele; Greiner, Susanne; Avesani, Paolo

    2012-01-01

    The Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) affects the school-age population and has large social costs. The scientific community is still lacking a pathophysiological model of the disorder and there are no objective biomarkers to support the diagnosis. In 2011 the ADHD-200 Consortium provided a rich, heterogeneous neuroimaging dataset aimed at studying neural correlates of ADHD and to promote the development of systems for automated diagnosis. Concurrently a competition was set up with the goal of addressing the wide range of different types of data for the accurate prediction of the presence of ADHD. Phenotypic information, structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans and resting state fMRI recordings were provided for nearly 1000 typical and non-typical young individuals. Data were collected by eight different research centers in the consortium. This work is not concerned with the main task of the contest, i.e., achieving a high prediction accuracy on the competition dataset, but we rather address the proper handling of such a heterogeneous dataset when performing classification-based analysis. Our interest lies in the clustered structure of the data causing the so-called batch effects which have strong impact when assessing the performance of classifiers built on the ADHD-200 dataset. We propose a method to eliminate the biases introduced by such batch effects. Its application on the ADHD-200 dataset generates such a significant drop in prediction accuracy that most of the conclusions from a standard analysis had to be revised. In addition we propose to adopt the dissimilarity representation to set up effective representation spaces for the heterogeneous ADHD-200 dataset. Moreover we propose to evaluate the quality of predictions through a recently proposed test of independence in order to cope with the unbalancedness of the dataset. PMID:23060755

  9. Protein inference: A protein quantification perspective.

    PubMed

    He, Zengyou; Huang, Ting; Liu, Xiaoqing; Zhu, Peijun; Teng, Ben; Deng, Shengchun

    2016-08-01

    In mass spectrometry-based shotgun proteomics, protein quantification and protein identification are two major computational problems. To quantify the protein abundance, a list of proteins must be firstly inferred from the raw data. Then the relative or absolute protein abundance is estimated with quantification methods, such as spectral counting. Until now, most researchers have been dealing with these two processes separately. In fact, the protein inference problem can be regarded as a special protein quantification problem in the sense that truly present proteins are those proteins whose abundance values are not zero. Some recent published papers have conceptually discussed this possibility. However, there is still a lack of rigorous experimental studies to test this hypothesis. In this paper, we investigate the feasibility of using protein quantification methods to solve the protein inference problem. Protein inference methods aim to determine whether each candidate protein is present in the sample or not. Protein quantification methods estimate the abundance value of each inferred protein. Naturally, the abundance value of an absent protein should be zero. Thus, we argue that the protein inference problem can be viewed as a special protein quantification problem in which one protein is considered to be present if its abundance is not zero. Based on this idea, our paper tries to use three simple protein quantification methods to solve the protein inference problem effectively. The experimental results on six data sets show that these three methods are competitive with previous protein inference algorithms. This demonstrates that it is plausible to model the protein inference problem as a special protein quantification task, which opens the door of devising more effective protein inference algorithms from a quantification perspective. The source codes of our methods are available at: http://code.google.com/p/protein-inference/.

  10. Biases in the experimental annotations of protein function and their effect on our understanding of protein function space.

    PubMed

    Schnoes, Alexandra M; Ream, David C; Thorman, Alexander W; Babbitt, Patricia C; Friedberg, Iddo

    2013-01-01

    The ongoing functional annotation of proteins relies upon the work of curators to capture experimental findings from scientific literature and apply them to protein sequence and structure data. However, with the increasing use of high-throughput experimental assays, a small number of experimental studies dominate the functional protein annotations collected in databases. Here, we investigate just how prevalent is the "few articles - many proteins" phenomenon. We examine the experimentally validated annotation of proteins provided by several groups in the GO Consortium, and show that the distribution of proteins per published study is exponential, with 0.14% of articles providing the source of annotations for 25% of the proteins in the UniProt-GOA compilation. Since each of the dominant articles describes the use of an assay that can find only one function or a small group of functions, this leads to substantial biases in what we know about the function of many proteins. Mass-spectrometry, microscopy and RNAi experiments dominate high throughput experiments. Consequently, the functional information derived from these experiments is mostly of the subcellular location of proteins, and of the participation of proteins in embryonic developmental pathways. For some organisms, the information provided by different studies overlap by a large amount. We also show that the information provided by high throughput experiments is less specific than those provided by low throughput experiments. Given the experimental techniques available, certain biases in protein function annotation due to high-throughput experiments are unavoidable. Knowing that these biases exist and understanding their characteristics and extent is important for database curators, developers of function annotation programs, and anyone who uses protein function annotation data to plan experiments.

  11. Position-dependent effects of polylysine on Sec protein transport.

    PubMed

    Liang, Fu-Cheng; Bageshwar, Umesh K; Musser, Siegfried M

    2012-04-13

    The bacterial Sec protein translocation system catalyzes the transport of unfolded precursor proteins across the cytoplasmic membrane. Using a recently developed real time fluorescence-based transport assay, the effects of the number and distribution of positive charges on the transport time and transport efficiency of proOmpA were examined. As expected, an increase in the number of lysine residues generally increased transport time and decreased transport efficiency. However, the observed effects were highly dependent on the polylysine position in the mature domain. In addition, a string of consecutive positive charges generally had a more significant effect on transport time and efficiency than separating the charges into two or more charged segments. Thirty positive charges distributed throughout the mature domain resulted in effects similar to 10 consecutive charges near the N terminus of the mature domain. These data support a model in which the local effects of positive charge on the translocation kinetics dominate over total thermodynamic constraints. The rapid translocation kinetics of some highly charged proOmpA mutants suggest that the charge is partially shielded from the electric field gradient during transport, possibly by the co-migration of counter ions. The transport times of precursors with multiple positively charged sequences, or "pause sites," were fairly well predicted by a local effect model. However, the kinetic profile predicted by this local effect model was not observed. Instead, the transport kinetics observed for precursors with multiple polylysine segments support a model in which translocation through the SecYEG pore is not the rate-limiting step of transport.

  12. Effect of different forage sources on performance and feeding behavior of Holstein calves.

    PubMed

    Castells, Ll; Bach, A; Araujo, G; Montoro, C; Terré, M

    2012-01-01

    One hundred seventy-nine Holstein male calves [44.7 kg of body weight (BW) and 8.3 d of age] participated in a series of 3 experiments to evaluate the effect of different forage sources on performance, apparent digestibility, and feeding behavior. Animals in each study were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 different dietary treatments: control (CON) calves were fed starter feed without any forage provision (this treatment was repeated in each of the 3 experiments), and the 2 other treatments consisted of the same starter feed plus a forage source: chopped alfalfa (AH) or rye-grass hay (RH) in the first study; chopped oat hay (OH) or chopped barley straw (BS) in the second study; corn silage (CS) or triticale silage (TS) in the third study. All calves were offered 2L of milk replacer (MR) at 12.5% dry matter (DM) twice daily via a bottle until 50 d of age, and 2L of MR at 12.5% DM during the week before weaning (57 d of age). The study finished when calves were 71 d old. Starter feed, MR, and forage intakes were recorded daily and BW weekly. Calves were individually housed and bedded with wood shavings. Compared with CON, animals receiving OH, TS, and BS consumed more starter feed (0.88 vs. 1.14, 1.17, 1.06 kg/d, respectively) and had greater average daily gain (0.72 vs. 0.93, 0.88, 0.88 kg/d, respectively). Animals in treatments RH, BS, CS, and TS consumed less forage (51 g/d) than AH (120 g/d) and OH (101 g/d) calves. Apparent organic matter, DM, and neutral detergent fiber digestibilities did not differ among treatments (81.5, 81.1, and 54.4%, respectively). Apparent crude protein digestibility was greater in RH, CS, and AH treatments than in CON (80.5 vs. 76.4%, respectively). Compared with CON calves, animals in the AH treatment spent less time eating starter feed and lying, animals in AH and RH treatments spent more time ruminating, with odds ratios (OR) of 5.24 and 5.40, respectively. The AH and RH calves devoted less time to performing nonnutritive oral behaviors

  13. Effects of Two Different Levels of Dietary Protein on Body Composition and Protein Nutritional Status of Growing Rats

    PubMed Central

    Tirapegui, Julio; Ribeiro, Sandra Maria Lima; Pires, Ivanir Santana de Oliveira; Rogero, Marcelo Macedo

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effect of a high-protein diet on growth, body composition, and protein nutritional status of young rats. Newly-weaned Wistar rats, weighing 45–50 g, were distributed in two experimental groups, according to their diets, which contained 12% (G12) or 26% protein (G26), over a period of 3 weeks. The animals were euthanized at the end of this period and the following analyses were performed: chemical composition of the carcass, proteoglycan synthesis, IGF-I concentration (serum, muscle and cartilage), total tissue RNA, protein concentration (muscle and cartilage) and protein synthesis (muscle and cartilage). The high-protein diet was found to result in a higher fat-free mass and lower fat mass in the carcass, with no difference in growth or protein nutritional status. PMID:23112920

  14. Perchlorate in Water Supplies: Sources, Exposures, and Health Effects.

    PubMed

    Steinmaus, Craig M

    2016-06-01

    Perchlorate exposure occurs from ingestion of natural or man-made perchlorate in food or water. Perchlorate is used in a variety of industrial products including missile fuel, fireworks, and fertilizers, and industrial contamination of drinking water supplies has occurred in a number of areas. Perchlorate blocks iodide uptake into the thyroid and decreases the production of thyroid hormone, a critical hormone for metabolism, neurodevelopment, and other physiologic functions. Occupational and clinical dosing studies have not identified clear adverse effects, but may be limited by small sample sizes, short study durations, and the inclusion of mostly healthy adults. Expanding evidence suggests that young children, pregnant women, fetuses, and people co-exposed to similarly acting agents may be especially susceptible to perchlorate. Given the ubiquitous nature of perchlorate exposure, and the importance of thyroid hormone for brain development, studying the impact of perchlorate on human health could have far-reaching public health implications.

  15. Characterization of the sources of protein-ligand affinity: 1-sulfonato-8-(1')anilinonaphthalene binding to intestinal fatty acid binding protein.

    PubMed Central

    Kirk, W R; Kurian, E; Prendergast, F G

    1996-01-01

    1-Sulfonato-8-(1')anilinonaphthalene (1,8-ANS) was employed as a fluorescent probe of the fatty acid binding site of recombinant rat intestinal fatty acid binding protein (1-FABP). The enhancement of fluorescence upon binding allowed direct determination of binding affinity by fluorescence titration experiments, and measurement of the effects on that affinity of temperature, pH, and ionic strength. Solvent isotope effects were also determined. These data were compared to results from isothermal titration calorimetry. We obtained values for the enthalpy and entropy of this interaction at a variety of temperatures, and hence determined the change in heat capacity of the system consequent upon binding. The ANS-1-FABP is enthalpically driven; above approximately 14 degrees C it is entropically opposed, but below this temperature the entropy makes a positive contribution to the binding. The changes we observe in both enthalpy and entropy of binding with temperature can be derived from the change in heat capacity upon binding by integration, which demonstrates the internal consistency of our results. Bound ANS is displaced by fatty acids and can itself displace fatty acids bound to I-FABP. The binding site for ANS appears to be inside the solvent-containing cavity observed in the x-ray crystal structure, the same cavity occupied by fatty acid. From the fluorescence spectrum and from an inversion of the Debye-Hueckel formula for the activity coefficients as a function of added salt, we inferred that this cavity is fairly polar in character, which is in keeping with inferences drawn from the x-ray structure. The binding affinity of ANS is considered to be a consequence of both electrostatic and conditional hydrophobic effects. We speculate that the observed change in heat capacity is produced mainly by the displacement of strongly hydrogen-bonded waters from the protein cavity. PMID:8770188

  16. Proteomic Investigation of Protein Profile Changes and Amino Acid Residue Level Modification in Cooked Lamb Meat: The Effect of Boiling.

    PubMed

    Yu, Tzer-Yang; Morton, James D; Clerens, Stefan; Dyer, Jolon M

    2015-10-21

    Hydrothermal treatment (heating in water) is a common method of general food processing and preparation. For red-meat-based foods, boiling is common; however, how the molecular level effects of this treatment correlate to the overall food properties is not yet well-understood. The effects of differing boiling times on lamb meat and the resultant cooking water were here examined through proteomic evaluation. The longer boiling time was found to result in increased protein aggregation involving particularly proteins such as glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, as well as truncation in proteins such as in α-actinin-2. Heat-induced protein backbone cleavage was observed adjacent to aspartic acid and asparagine residues. Side-chain modifications of amino acid residues resulting from the heating, including oxidation of phenylalanine and formation of carboxyethyllysine, were characterized in the cooked samples. Actin and myoglobin bands from the cooked meat per se remained visible on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, even after significant cooking time. These proteins were also found to be the major source of observed heat-induced modifications. This study provides new insights into molecular-level modifications occurring in lamb meat proteins during boiling and a protein chemistry basis for better understanding the effect of this common treatment on the nutritional and functional properties of red-meat-based foods.

  17. An Air Quality Data Analysis System for Interrelating Effects, Standards and Needed Source Reductions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larsen, Ralph I.

    1973-01-01

    Makes recommendations for a single air quality data system (using average time) for interrelating air pollution effects, air quality standards, air quality monitoring, diffusion calculations, source-reduction calculations, and emission standards. (JR)

  18. Nitrate and Nitrogen Oxides: Sources, Health Effects and Their Remediation.

    PubMed

    Hakeem, Khalid Rehman; Sabir, Muhammad; Ozturk, Munir; Akhtar, Mohd Sayeed; Ibrahim, Faridah Hanum; Ashraf, Muhammad; Ahmad, Muhammad Sajid Aqeel

    2017-01-01

    Increased use of nitrogenous (N) fertilizers in agriculture has significantly altered the global N-cycle because they release nitrogenous gases of environmental concerns. The emission of nitrous oxide (N2O) contributes to the global greenhouse gas accumulation and the stratospheric ozone depletion. In addition, it causes nitrate leaching problem deteriorating ground water quality. The nitrate toxicity has been reported in a number of studies showing the health hazards like methemoglobinemia in infants and is a potent cause of cancer. Despite these evident negative environmental as well as health impacts, consumption of N fertilizer cannot be reduced in view of the food security for the teeming growing world population. Various agronomic and genetic modifications have been practiced to tackle this problem. Some agronomic techniques adopted include split application of N, use of slow-release fertilizers, nitrification inhibitors and encouraging the use of organic manure over chemical fertilizers. As a matter of fact, the use of chemical means to remediate nitrate from the environment is very difficult and costly. Particularly, removal of nitrate from water is difficult task because it is chemically non-reactive in dilute aqueous solutions. Hence, the use of biological means for nitrate remediation offers a promising strategy to minimize the ill effects of nitrates and nitrites. One of the important goals to reduce N-fertilizer application can be effectively achieved by choosing N-efficient genotypes. This will ensure the optimum uptake of applied N in a balanced manner and exploring the molecular mechanisms for their uptake as well as metabolism in assimilatory pathways. The objectives of this paper are to evaluate the interrelations which exist in the terrestrial ecosystems between the plant type and characteristics of nutrient uptake and analyze the global consumption and demand for fertilizer nitrogen in relation to cereal production, evaluate the various methods

  19. Golden Rice is an effective source of vitamin A1234

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Jian; Dolnikowski, Gregory G; Russell, Robert M; Grusak, Michael A

    2009-01-01

    Background: Genetically engineered “Golden Rice” contains up to 35 μg β-carotene per gram of rice. It is important to determine the vitamin A equivalency of Golden Rice β-carotene to project the potential effect of this biofortified grain in rice-consuming populations that commonly exhibit low vitamin A status. Objective: The objective was to determine the vitamin A value of intrinsically labeled dietary Golden Rice in humans. Design: Golden Rice plants were grown hydroponically with heavy water (deuterium oxide) to generate deuterium-labeled [2H]β-carotene in the rice grains. Golden Rice servings of 65–98 g (130–200 g cooked rice) containing 0.99–1.53 mg β-carotene were fed to 5 healthy adult volunteers (3 women and 2 men) with 10 g butter. A reference dose of [13C10]retinyl acetate (0.4–1.0 mg) in oil was given to each volunteer 1 wk before ingestion of the Golden Rice dose. Blood samples were collected over 36 d. Results: Our results showed that the mean (±SD) area under the curve for the total serum response to [2H]retinol was 39.9 ± 20.7 μg·d after the Golden Rice dose. Compared with that of the [13C10]retinyl acetate reference dose (84.7 ± 34.6 μg·d), Golden Rice β-carotene provided 0.24–0.94 mg retinol. Thus, the conversion factor of Golden Rice β-carotene to retinol is 3.8 ± 1.7 to 1 with a range of 1.9–6.4 to 1 by weight, or 2.0 ± 0.9 to 1 with a range of 1.0–3.4 to 1 by moles. Conclusion: β-Carotene derived from Golden Rice is effectively converted to vitamin A in humans. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00680355. PMID:19369372

  20. The effects of aging on ERP correlates of source memory retrieval for self-referential information.

    PubMed

    Dulas, Michael R; Newsome, Rachel N; Duarte, Audrey

    2011-03-04

    Numerous behavioral studies have suggested that normal aging negatively affects source memory accuracy for various kinds of associations. Neuroimaging evidence suggests that less efficient retrieval processing (temporally delayed and attenuated) may contribute to these impairments. Previous aging studies have not compared source memory accuracy and corresponding neural activity for different kinds of source details; namely, those that have been encoded via a more or less effective strategy. Thus, it is not yet known whether encoding source details in a self-referential manner, a strategy suggested to promote successful memory in the young and old, may enhance source memory accuracy and reduce the commonly observed age-related changes in neural activity associated with source memory retrieval. Here, we investigated these issues by using event-related potentials (ERPs) to measure the effects of aging on the neural correlates of successful source memory retrieval ("old-new effects") for objects encoded either self-referentially or self-externally. Behavioral results showed that both young and older adults demonstrated better source memory accuracy for objects encoded self-referentially. ERP results showed that old-new effects onsetted earlier for self-referentially encoded items in both groups and that age-related differences in the onset latency of these effects were reduced for self-referentially, compared to self-externally, encoded items. These results suggest that the implementation of an effective encoding strategy, like self-referential processing, may lead to more efficient retrieval, which in turn may improve source memory accuracy in both young and older adults.

  1. Antioxidant Effects of Sheep Whey Protein on Endothelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Kerasioti, Efthalia; Stagos, Dimitrios; Georgatzi, Vasiliki; Bregou, Erinda; Priftis, Alexandros; Kafantaris, Ioannis; Kouretas, Dimitrios

    2016-01-01

    Excessive production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) may cause endothelial dysfunction and consequently vascular disease. In the present study, the possible protective effects of sheep whey protein (SWP) from tert-butyl hydroperoxide- (tBHP-) induced oxidative stress in endothelial cells (EA.hy926) were assessed using oxidative stress biomarkers. These oxidative stress biomarkers were glutathione (GSH) and ROS levels determined by flow cytometry. Moreover, thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS), protein carbonyls (CARB), and oxidized glutathione (GSSG) were determined spectrophotometrically. The results showed that SWP at 0.78, 1.56, 3.12, and 6.24 mg of protein mL−1 increased GSH up to 141%, while it decreased GSSG to 46.7%, ROS to 58.5%, TBARS to 52.5%, and CARB to 49.0%. In conclusion, the present study demonstrated for the first time that SWP protected endothelial cells from oxidative stress. Thus, SWP may be used for developing food supplements or biofunctional foods to attenuate vascular disturbances associated with oxidative stress. PMID:27127549

  2. Effective stabilization of CLA by microencapsulation in pea protein.

    PubMed

    Costa, A M M; Nunes, J C; Lima, B N B; Pedrosa, C; Calado, V; Torres, A G; Pierucci, A P T R

    2015-02-01

    CLA was microencapsulated by spray drying in ten varied wall systems (WS) consisting of pea protein isolate or pea protein concentrate (PPC) alone at varied core:WS ratios (1:2; 1:3 and 1:4), or blended with maltodextrin (M) and carboxymethylcellulose at a pea protein:carbohydrate ratio of 3:1. The physical-chemical properties of the CLA microparticles were characterised by core retention, microencapsulation efficiency (ME), particle size and moisture. CLA:M:PPC (1:1:3) showed the most promising results, thus we evaluated the effect of M addition in the WS on other physical-chemical characteristics and oxidative stability (CLA isomer profile, quantification of CLA and volatile compounds by SPME coupled with CG-MS) during two months of storage at room temperature, CLA:PPC (1:4) was selected for comparisons. CLA:M:PPC (1:1:3) microparticles demonstrated better morphology, solubility, dispersibility and higher glass-transition temperature values. M addition did not influence the oxidative stability of CLA, however its presence improved physical-chemical characteristics necessary for food applications.

  3. The effect of starter culture and annatto on the flavor and functionality of whey protein concentrate.

    PubMed

    Campbell, R E; Miracle, R E; Drake, M A

    2011-03-01

    The flavor of whey protein can carry over into ingredient applications and negatively influence consumer acceptance. Understanding sources of flavors in whey protein is crucial to minimize flavor. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of annatto color and starter culture on the flavor and functionality of whey protein concentrate (WPC). Cheddar cheese whey with and without annatto (15 mL of annatto/454 kg of milk, annatto with 3% wt/vol norbixin content) was manufactured using a mesophilic lactic starter culture or by addition of lactic acid and rennet (rennet set). Pasteurized fat-separated whey was then ultrafiltered and spray dried into WPC. The experiment was replicated 4 times. Flavor of liquid wheys and WPC were evaluated by sensory and instrumental volatile analyses. In addition to flavor evaluations on WPC, color analysis (Hunter Lab and norbixin extraction) and functionality tests (solubility and heat stability) also were performed. Both main effects (annatto, starter) and interactions were investigated. No differences in sensory properties or functionality were observed among WPC. Lipid oxidation compounds were higher in WPC manufactured from whey with starter culture compared with WPC from rennet-set whey. The WPC with annatto had higher concentrations of p-xylene, diacetyl, pentanal, and decanal compared with WPC without annatto. Interactions were observed between starter and annatto for hexanal, suggesting that annatto may have an antioxidant effect when present in whey made with starter culture. Results suggest that annatto has a no effect on whey protein flavor, but that the starter culture has a large influence on the oxidative stability of whey.

  4. Effects of Convective Solute and Impurity Transport in Protein Crystal Growth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vekilov, Peter G.; Thomas, Bill R.; Rosenberger, Franz

    1998-01-01

    High-resolution optical interferometry was used to investigate the effects of forced solution convection on the crystal growth kinetics of the model protein lysozyme. Most experiments were conducted with 99.99% pure protein solutions. To study impurity effects, approx. 1% of lysozyme dimer (covalently bound) was added in some cases. We show that the unsteady kinetics, corresponding to bunching of growth steps, can be characterized by the Fourier components of time traces of the growth rate. Specific Fourier spectra are uniquely determined by the solution conditions (composition, temperature, and flow rate) and the growth layer source activity. We found that the average step velocity and growth rate increase by approx. I0% with increasing flow rate, as a result of the enhanced solute supply to the interface. More importantly, faster convective transport results in lower fluctuation amplitudes. This observation supports our rationale for system-dependent effects of transport on the structural perfection of protein crystals. We also found that solution flow rates greater than 500 microns/s result in stronger fluctuations while the average growth rate is decreased. This can lead to growth cessation at low supersaturations. With the intentionally contaminated solutions, these undesirable phenomena occurred at about half the flow rates required in pure solutions. Thus, we conclude that they are due to enhanced convective supply of impurities that are incorporated into the crystal during growth. Furthermore, we found that the impurity effects are reduced at higher crystal growth rates. Since the exposure time of terraces is inversely proportional to the growth rate, this observation suggests that the increased kinetics instability results from impurity adsorption on the interface. Finally, we provide evidence relating earlier observations of "slow protein crystal growth kinetics" to step bunch formation in response to nonsteady step generation.

  5. Protein conformational modifications and kinetics of water-protein interactions in milk protein concentrate powder upon aging: effect on solubility.

    PubMed

    Haque, Enamul; Bhandari, Bhesh R; Gidley, Michael J; Deeth, Hilton C; Møller, Sandie M; Whittaker, Andrew K

    2010-07-14

    Protein conformational modifications and water-protein interactions are two major factors believed to induce instability of protein and eventually affect the solubility of milk protein concentrate (MPC) powder. To test these hypotheses, MPC was stored at different water activities (a(w) 0.0-0.85) and temperatures (25 and 45 degrees C) for up to 12 weeks. Samples were examined periodically to determine solubility, change in protein conformation by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and principal component analysis (PCA), and water status (interaction of water with the protein molecule/surface) by measuring the transverse relaxation time (T(2)) with proton nuclear magnetic resonance ((1)H NMR). The solubility of MPC decreased significantly with aging, and this process was enhanced by increasing water activity (a(w)) and storage temperature. Minor changes in protein secondary structure were observed with FTIR, which indicated some degree of unfolding of protein molecules. PCA of the FTIR data was able to discriminate samples according to moisture content and storage period. Partial least-squares (PLS) analysis showed some correlation between FTIR spectral feature and solubility. The NMR T(2) results indicated the presence of three distinct populations of water molecules, and the proton signal intensity and T(2) values of proton fractions varied with storage conditions (humidity, temperature) and aging. Results suggest that protein/protein interactions may be initiated by unfolding of protein molecules that eventually affects solubility.

  6. Relative effectiveness of structures as protection from gamma radiation from cloud and fallout sources as a function of source energy

    SciTech Connect

    Fingerlos, J.P.

    1984-01-01

    In the event of a release of radioactive material, it is necessary to know the doses the public could receive in order to make decisions that minimize the public's risk. In order to determine what doses the public might receive if they try to evacuate or seek shelter, it is necessary to know how much protection structures such as homes and vehicles provide. This information is well known only for a few gamma ray spectra, such as that from weapon fallout. The research reported here transfers the knowledge gained from the previous weapon-fallout shielding work to realistic protection factors for possible accidental releases whatever the released spectrum might be. Point kernel models were developed for both the fallout and cloud sources. That development included a method of accurately combining buildup factors in multi-region problems over wide ranges of energy and photon mean free path. A generalized method for calculating the effect of ground roughness on the attentuation factor for fallout sources was also developed. The results were reported for the 1-hr weapon fallout, and TMI-2 cloud and fallout spectra, as well as for discrete energies from 15 KeV to 15 MeV. The structures given as examples include small wood frame and large brick houses.

  7. Interlaboratory study of the ion source memory effect in 36Cl accelerator mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavetich, Stefan; Akhmadaliev, Shavkat; Arnold, Maurice; Aumaître, Georges; Bourlès, Didier; Buchriegler, Josef; Golser, Robin; Keddadouche, Karim; Martschini, Martin; Merchel, Silke; Rugel, Georg; Steier, Peter

    2014-06-01

    Understanding and minimization of contaminations in the ion source due to cross-contamination and long-term memory effect is one of the key issues for accurate accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) measurements of volatile elements. The focus of this work is on the investigation of the long-term memory effect for the volatile element chlorine, and the minimization of this effect in the ion source of the Dresden accelerator mass spectrometry facility (DREAMS). For this purpose, one of the two original HVE ion sources at the DREAMS facility was modified, allowing the use of larger sample holders having individual target apertures. Additionally, a more open geometry was used to improve the vacuum level. To evaluate this improvement in comparison to other up-to-date ion sources, an interlaboratory comparison had been initiated. The long-term memory effect of the four Cs sputter ion sources at DREAMS (two sources: original and modified), ASTER (Accélérateur pour les Sciences de la Terre, Environnement, Risques) and VERA (Vienna Environmental Research Accelerator) had been investigated by measuring samples of natural 35Cl/37Cl-ratio and samples highly-enriched in 35Cl (35Cl/37Cl ∼ 999). Besides investigating and comparing the individual levels of long-term memory, recovery time constants could be calculated. The tests show that all four sources suffer from long-term memory, but the modified DREAMS ion source showed the lowest level of contamination. The recovery times of the four ion sources were widely spread between 61 and 1390 s, where the modified DREAMS ion source with values between 156 and 262 s showed the fastest recovery in 80% of the measurements.

  8. The requirements for rumen-degradable protein per unit of fermentable organic matter differ between fibrous feed sources

    PubMed Central

    Soliva, Carla R.; Amelchanka, Sergej L.; Kreuzer, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Ruminant feed evaluation systems use constant minimum requirements of rumen-degradable protein (RDP) and often relate this to apparently degradable organic matter (OM). However, studies with tropical forages indicate that RDP: apparently degraded OM might not be constant across high-fiber diets. This was tested with semi-continuous ruminal cultures (Rusitec) using dried contrasting low-protein fiber sources: brachiaria hay (high in fiber, medium lignified), apple pomace (medium in fiber, highly lignified), and sugar beet pulp (medium in fiber and lignification). Each feed was incubated at 14 g dry matter day−1 with 0, 0.85, 1.7, 3.4, 6.8, 13.6, or 27.2 mg g−1 urea. The amount of urea needed to reach a similar basal concentration of ammonia in the incubation fluid was tested for each feed in advance. Apparent fiber and OM degradability were determined after 48 h of incubation. Data was evaluated by regressions and analysis of variance. The response curve of incubation fluid ammonia to urea supplementation was similar in slope in all feeds. Plateaus in apparent OM degradability in relation to ammonia concentration were determined. The ammonia concentration where apparent OM and fiber degradability reached 95% of maximum was approached in the order of pomace < pulp < hay. With regard to fiber degradability, a plateau was reached at ≥ 80 g kg−1 crude protein only with hay and pomace, whilst a linear relationship existed between RDP and OM degradation for pulp. In hay the ratio RDP: OM degraded was equal to 1.6 but was only 1.0 in the other feeds. There was no obvious lack of branched short-chain fatty acids at low RDP. Thus, the hypothesis was confirmed but the demand for RDP seems even higher in tropical forage compared to food industrial byproducts. The efficiency of urea to promote apparent OM and fiber degradation was also variable. Thus, it seems that minimum thresholds of either RDP or ruminal ammonia concentration may not be reflected appropriately by

  9. ELISA detection of hazelnut proteins: effect of protein glycation in the presence or absence of wheat proteins.

    PubMed

    Cucu, T; Platteau, C; Taverniers, I; Devreese, B; de Loose, M; de Meulenaer, B

    2011-01-01

    Hazelnuts are widely used in the food industry, especially confectionary foods. Nevertheless, these nuts contain several allergenic proteins that may be unexpectedly present as contaminants in various foods and may pose a serious threat to allergic consumers. The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) is the preferred method to assess the level of hazelnut protein contamination. It is commonly used by both the food industry and enforcement agencies. Several ELISA kits are commercially available. However, protein detectability by ELISA may be affected by severe changes that proteins undergo during processing. The aim of this study is therefore to investigate the impact of processing on the ability to detect hazelnut protein by four commercial ELISA kits. Hazelnut proteins in the presence or absence of soluble wheat proteins were modified with glucose via the Maillard reaction. Changes in hazelnut proteins, such as the formation of protein-bound carbonyls, losses of reactive lysine residues and free amino groups, and severe aggregation dramatically affected the hazelnut protein detection by the commercial kits. The observed impact was highly dependent on the type of ELISA kit used.

  10. The effect of bone morphogenetic protein-2 on osteosarcoma metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Gill, Jonathan; Connolly, Patrick; Roth, Michael; Chung, So Hak; Zhang, Wendong; Piperdi, Sajida; Hoang, Bang; Yang, Rui; Guzik, Hillary; Gorlick, Richard; Geller, David S.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Bone Morphogenetic Protein-2 (BMP-2) may offer the potential to enhance allograft-host osseous union in limb-salvage surgery following osteosarcoma resection. However, there is concern regarding the effect of locally applied BMP-2 on tumor recurrence and metastasis. The purpose of this project was to evaluate the effect of exogenous BMP-2 on osteosarcoma migration and invasion across a panel of tumor cell lines in vitro and to characterize the effect of BMP-2 on pulmonary osteosarcoma metastasis within a xenograft model. Experimental design The effect of BMP-2 on in vitro tumor growth and development was assessed across multiple standard and patient-derived xenograft osteosarcoma cell lines. Tumor migration capacity, invasion, and cell proliferation were characterized. In addition, the effect on metastasis was measured using a xenograft model following tail-vein injection. The effect of exogenous BMP-2 on the development of metastases was measured following both single and multiple BMP-2 administrations. Results There was no significant difference in migration capacity, invasion, or cell proliferation between the BMP-2 treated and the untreated osteosarcoma cell lines. There was no significant difference in pulmonary metastases between either the single-dose or multi-dose BMP-2 treated animals and the untreated control animals. Conclusions In the model systems tested, the addition of BMP-2 does not increase osteosarcoma proliferation, migration, invasion, or metastasis to the lungs. PMID:28264040

  11. The effects of different sources of occupational stress on affective, motivational, and psychosomatic outcomes

    SciTech Connect

    Ovalle, N.K. II.

    1991-01-01

    The present study examined the effects of role conflict, role ambiguity, and five additional potential sources of occupational stress on an affective outcome (job satisfaction), a motivational outcome (intent to quit), and two psychosomatic outcomes (mental and physical anxiety). In addition to role conflict and role ambiguity, the five additional sources of occupational stress centered on job characteristics, work pressures, rewards and opportunities, interaction of the job and home life, and lack of job challenge. Data were collected from 85 technicians and managers in a service organization. The results of correlation and multiple regression analyses indicated that each of the sources of stress have significant yet different effects on the outcomes. Moreover, role conflict and ambiguity did not have as much of an effect across all outcomes as the other five sources of stress. These findings could be used to improve the measurement, understanding, and treatment of occupational stress. Other implications are discussed. 23 refs., 2 tabs.

  12. [Effects of nitrogen source and aeration mode on algae growth in freshwater].

    PubMed

    Liu, Chun-Guang; Jin, Xiang-Can; Sun, Ling; Sun, Hong-Wen; Zhu, Lin; Yu, Yang; Dai, Shu-Gui; Zhuang, Yuan-Yi

    2006-01-01

    Aquarium microcosms were used to study the effects of nitrogen source and aeration mode on the growth and species changes of algae in freshwater. Nitrate nitrogen(NO3(-) -N) and ammonia nitrogen(NH4(+) -N) were used as nitrogen sources. For each nitrogen source, four modes of aeration were selected, including control, continuous aeration, aeration during the day, and aeration at night. In the early stage of the experiment, algae in the NH4(+) -N treatment experiment grew well. In the later stage, algae in the NO3(-) -N treatment experiment grew better. For different aeration modes, continuous aeration show varied effects on algae growth in the two nitrogen source treatments. Day-only aeration had little effect on algae growth. Night-only aeration inhibited algae growth considerably. In NH(+) -N treatments, cyanophyta became dominant species easily. In contrast, chlorophyta dominated in NO3(-) -N treatments.

  13. Effectiveness of source documents for identifying fatal occupational injuries: a synthesis of studies.

    PubMed Central

    Stout, N; Bell, C

    1991-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The complete and accurate identification of fatal occupational injuries among the US work force is an important first step in developing work injury prevention efforts. Numerous sources of information, such as death certificates, Workers' Compensation files, Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) files, medical examiner records, state health and labor department reports, and various combinations of these, have been used to identify cases of work-related fatal injuries. Recent studies have questioned the effectiveness of these sources for identifying such cases. METHODS: At least 10 studies have used multiple sources to define the universe of fatal work injuries within a state and to determine the capture rates, or proportion of the universe identified, by each source. Results of these studies, which are not all available in published literature, are summarized here in a format that allows researchers to readily compare the ascertainment capabilities of the sources. RESULTS: The overall average capture rates of sources were as follows: death certificates, 81%; medical examiner records, 61%; Workers' Compensation reports, 57%; and OSHA reports 32%. Variations by state and value added through the use of multiple sources are presented and discussed. CONCLUSIONS: This meta-analysis of 10 state-based studies summarizes the effectiveness of various source documents for capturing cases of fatal occupational injuries to help researchers make informed decisions when designing occupational injury surveillance systems. PMID:1827569

  14. Analysis of Flexibility of Proteins by means of Positive and Negative Ion MALDI In-Source Decay Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Iimuro, Ryunosuke; Takayama, Mitsuo

    2014-01-01

    The amino acid residues susceptible to in-source decay (ISD) in matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) mass spectrometry have been identified from both positive and negative ion ISD spectra of cytochrome c, myoglobin, thioredoxin and bovine serum albumin. Backbone cleavages at the N–Cα bonds of Xxx–Asp, Xxx–Asn, Xxx–Cys, and Gly–Xxx residues gave discontinuous intense peaks of c-ions, independent of positive and negative ion mode. The intensity values for c-ions, Int(c), were defined to allow estimation of the discontinuous intense peaks of c-ions. The identities of the high intensity value residues Asp, Asn, Cys, and Gly were compared with those identified using other measures of flexibility such as the B-factor, turn preferential factor and protection factor. The comparison indicates that Asp, Asn, and Gly residues are common to all measures. Thus, the intensity values of c-ions can be adopted as a measure of protein flexibility. PMID:26819895

  15. Varying protein and starch in the diet of dairy cows. II. Effects on performance and nitrogen utilization for milk production.

    PubMed

    Ipharraguerre, I R; Clark, J H

    2005-07-01

    The main objective of this experiment was to examine the effects of the percentage and source of crude protein (CP) and the amount of starch in the diet of dairy cows on the lactational performance and use of N for milk production. Sixty multiparous Holstein cows were used in a 210-d lactational trial with a completely randomized design with a 2 x 3 factorial arrangement of treatments. Two sources of CP [solvent-extracted soybean meal (SBM) and a mixture of SBM and a blend of animal-marine protein supplements plus ruminally protected Met (AMB)] and 3 levels of dietary CP (means = 14.8, 16.8, and 18.7%) were combined into 6 treatments. On a dry matter (DM) basis, diets contained 25.0% corn silage, 20.0% alfalfa silage, 10.0% cottonseed, 26.7 to 37.0% corn grain, and 4.8 to 13.5% protein supplement, plus minerals and vitamins. Across the 210 d of lactation, the productive response of dairy cows to the source of supplemental CP depended on the concentration of CP in the diet. At 18.7% CP, cows fed SBM consumed more DM and produced more milk, 3.5% fat-corrected milk, fat, and true protein, but had lower efficiency of feed use and body condition score than cows fed AMB. At 16.8% CP, cows fed AMB produced more 3.5% fat-corrected milk, fat, and true protein than cows fed SBM. At 14.8% CP, cows fed SBM consumed more DM but produced less true protein and had lower feed efficiency than cows fed AMB. Across CP sources, cows fed 14.8% CP produced less fat-corrected milk and true protein than cows fed 16.8 and 18.7% CP. Across CP percentages, cows fed AMB produced more fat-corrected milk per kilogram of DM consumed than cows fed SBM. Despite these interactions, improvements in the gross efficiency of N use for milk production were achieved through reductions in the intake of N independently of the source of CP. Data suggest that the intake of N by high-producing dairy cows that consume sufficient energy and other nutrients to meet their requirements can be decreased to about

  16. Chemical composition, true nutrient digestibility, and true metabolizable energy of novel pet food protein sources using the precision-fed cecectomized rooster assay.

    PubMed

    Deng, P; Utterback, P L; Parsons, C M; Hancock, L; Swanson, K S

    2016-08-01

    A wide variety of animal protein-based ingredients is commonly used in the pet food products. The raw ingredients and processing procedures used may greatly affect protein quality. Testing the quality of alternative protein sources is necessary and contributes to the sustainability of pet foods. The objective of this study was to test the chemical composition of 8 protein sources intended for use in dog and cat foods (calamari meal, pork peptone, alligator meal, lamb meal, venison meal, chicken meal, and 2 duck meals), and evaluate their true nutrient digestibility and nitrogen-corrected true ME (TMEn) using the precision-fed cecectomized rooster assay. Calamari meal and pork peptone had lower ash (4.4 and 3.6% of DM, respectively) but greater CP (88.1 and 80.5% of DM, respectively) and either greater or similar GE (5.6 and 5.3 kcal/g of DM, respectively) compared with alligator, lamb, venison, chicken, and duck meals (11.8 to 24.5% ash, 58.7 to 65.9% CP, and 4.6 to 5.3 kcal GE/g). Acid-hydrolyzed fat (AHF) was lower in calamari meal (8.7% of DM) compared with the other proteins tested (15.5-22.1% of DM). True nutrient digestibility was variable among the protein sources (52 to 79% of DM, 60 to 83% of OM, 78 to 92% of AHF, and 70 to 89% of GE) with pork peptone having the highest DM, AHF, and GE digestibility and calamari meal having the highest OM digestibility. True indispensable AA digestibility was highest for calamari meal, with all AA having a digestibility greater than 90%. Except for histidine, all indispensable AA had a digestibility over 85% for pork peptone. In contrast, true indispensable AA digestibility was lowest for lamb meal, with histidine having digestibility less than 70% and the other entire indispensable AA having digestibility between 72 and 88%. The TMEn of calamari meal (4.82 kcal/g DM and 86.9% of GE) was greater ( < 0.05) than the other protein sources. The lamb meal had the lowest TMEn value (3.12 kcal/g DM and 66.9% of GE), with others

  17. The Effect of Malnutrition on Protein Glycosylation in Children

    PubMed Central

    Bilen, Oznur; Altun, Zekiye; Arslan, Nur; Onvural, Banu; Akan, Pinar; Coker, Canan

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The goal of this study was to evaluate the effect of protein energy malnutrition on protein glycosylation by investigating transferrin isoform pattern and its relationship to the degree of malnutrition and the biochemical markers of nutritional status in children. Methods: Forty one children with mild (n=23) and severely/moderately (n=18) acute malnutrition and 29 controls were enrolled in the study. Serum transferrin isoforms were determined by isoelectric focusing electrophoresis. Transferrin, prealbumin, zinc, iron and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) were measured using automated analyzers. Findings : Asialotransferrin and disialotransferrin were significantly higher in severely/moderately malnourished patients compared to controls (P=0.04 and P=0.04, respectively). Other transferrin isoform patterns were not different among three groups. Serum IGF-1, transferrin and iron levels of severely/ moderately malnourished group were significantly lower than tose of controls (P=0.001, 0.02 and 0.03, respectively). Serum prealbumin and zinc levels were similar in all three groups. Serum IGF-1, transferrin and iron levels, and all transferrin isoform patterns were not significantly different in mildly malnutrition group from other two groups. Conclusion: The changes in transferrin isoform pattern observed in malnourished patients may indicate that malnutrition is a catabolic state which has effects on glycosylation. PMID:25562020

  18. Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Protein Kinase Inhibitor Pyrrol Derivate

    PubMed Central

    Yena, Maryna S.; Kotlyar, Iryna P.; Ogloblya, Olexandr V.; Rybalchenko, Volodymyr K.

    2016-01-01

    In our previous studies we showed antitumor and anti-inflammatory activities of protein kinases inhibitor pyrrol derivate 1-(4-Cl-benzyl)-3-Cl-4-(CF3-fenylamino)-1H-pyrrol-2,5-dione (MI-1) on rat colon cancer model. Therefore anti-inflammatory effect of MI-1 on rat acetic acid induced ulcerative colitis (UC) model was aimed to be discovered. The anti-inflammatory effects of MI-1 (2.7 mg/kg daily) compared to reference drug Prednisolone (0.7 mg/kg daily) after 14-day usage were evaluated on macro- and light microscopy levels and expressed in 21-grade scale. Redox status of bowel mucosa was also estimated. It was shown that in UC group the grade of total injury (GTI) was equal to 9.6 (GTIcontrol = 0). Increase of malonic dialdehyde (MDA) by 89% and protein carbonyl groups (PCG) by 60% and decrease of superoxide dismutase (SOD) by 40% were also observed. Prednisolone decreased GTI to 3 and leveled SOD activity, but MDA and PCG remained higher than control ones by 52% and 42%, respectively. MI-1 restored colon mucosa integrity and decreased mucosa inflammation down to GTI = 0.5 and leveled PCG and SOD. Thus, MI-1 possessed anti-inflammatory properties, which were more expressed that Prednisolone ones, as well as normalized mucosa redox balance, and so has a prospect for correction of inflammatory processes. PMID:28101521

  19. A large solvent isotope effect on protein association thermodynamics.

    PubMed

    Eginton, Christopher; Beckett, Dorothy

    2013-09-24

    Solvent reorganization can contribute significantly to the energetics of protein-protein interactions. However, our knowledge of the magnitude of the energetic contribution is limited, in part, by a dearth of quantitative experimental measurements. The biotin repressor forms a homodimer as a prerequisite to DNA binding to repress transcription initiation. At 20 °C, the dimerization reaction, which is thermodynamically coupled to binding of a small ligand, bio-5'-AMP, is characterized by a Gibbs free energy of -7 kcal/mol. This modest net dimerization free energy reflects underlying, very large opposing enthalpic and entropic driving forces of 41 ± 3 and -48 ± 3 kcal/mol, respectively. The thermodynamics have been interpreted as indicating coupling of solvent release to dimerization. In this work, this interpretation has been investigated by measuring the effect of replacing H2O with D2O on the dimerization thermodynamics. Sedimentation equilibrium measurements performed at 20 °C reveal a solvent isotope effect of -1.5 kcal/mol on the Gibbs free energy of dimerization. Analysis of the temperature dependence of the reaction in D2O indicates enthalpic and entropic contributions of 28 and -37 kcal/mol, respectively, considerably smaller than the values measured in H2O. These large solvent isotope perturbations to the thermodynamics are consistent with a significant contribution of solvent release to the dimerization reaction.

  20. Effects of polyhydroxy compounds on beetle antifreeze protein activity

    PubMed Central

    Amornwittawat, Natapol; Wang, Sen; Banatlao, Joseph; Chung, Melody; Velasco, Efrain; Duman, John G.; Wen, Xin

    2016-01-01

    Antifreeze proteins (AFPs) noncolligatively depress the nonequilibrium freezing point of a solution and produce a difference between the melting and freezing points termed thermal hysteresis (TH). Some low-molecular-mass solutes can affect the TH values. The TH enhancement effects of selected polyhydroxy compounds including polyols and carbohydrates on an AFP from the beetle Dendroides canadensis were systematically investigated using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The number of hydroxyl groups dominates the molar enhancement effectiveness of polyhydroxy compounds having one to five hydroxyl groups. However, the above rule does not apply for polyhydroxy compounds having more than five hydroxyl groups. The most efficient polyhydroxy enhancer identified is trehalose. In a combination of enhancers the strongest enhancer plays the major role in determining the TH enhancement. Mechanistic insights into identification of highly efficient AFP enhancers are discussed. PMID:19038370

  1. Effect of stirring and seeding on whey protein fibril formation.

    PubMed

    Bolder, Suzanne G; Sagis, Leonard M C; Venema, Paul; van der Linden, Erik

    2007-07-11

    The effect of stirring and seeding on the formation of fibrils in whey protein isolate (WPI) solutions was studied. More fibrils of a similar length are formed when WPI is stirred during heating at pH 2 and 80 degrees C compared to samples that were heated at rest. Addition of seeds did not show an additional effect compared to samples that were stirred. We propose a model for fibril formation, including an activation, nucleation, growth, and termination step. The activation and nucleation steps are the rate-determining steps. Fibril growth is relatively fast but terminates after prolonged heating. Two processes that possibly induce termination of fibril growth are hydrolysis of nonassembled monomers and inactivation of the growth ends of the fibrils. Stirring may break up immature fibrils, thus producing more active fibrils. Stirring also seems to accelerate the kinetics of fibril formation, resulting in an increase of the number of fibrils formed.

  2. Effect of protein glycation in the presence or absence of wheat proteins on detection of soybean proteins by commercial ELISA.

    PubMed

    Platteau, C; Cucu, T; De Meulenaer, B; Devreese, B; De Loose, M; Taverniers, I

    2011-02-01

    Soybean (Glycine max) is the world's primary provider of protein and oil and is widely used in foodstuffs. However, the use of soybean in foodstuffs might pose a serious threat to allergic consumers since some proteins can cause allergic reactions. To date mostly ELISA methods are used for testing contamination of foodstuffs with soybean. In view of the complexity regarding allergen detection in foodstuffs and appropriate food product labelling, the aim of this study was to investigate the impact of the Maillard reaction on the detectability of soybean proteins using commercial ELISA kits. Accumulation of protein-bound carbonyls, modification of reactive lysine residues and severe aggregation as a result of incubation with glucose, in the presence or absence of soluble wheat proteins, were recorded. Moreover, detection of soybean proteins by means of three commercial ELISA kits was strongly altered and was highly dependent on the type of kit used.

  3. Proteins.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doolittle, Russell F.

    1985-01-01

    Examines proteins which give rise to structure and, by virtue of selective binding to other molecules, make genes. Binding sites, amino acids, protein evolution, and molecular paleontology are discussed. Work with encoding segments of deoxyribonucleic acid (exons) and noncoding stretches (introns) provides new information for hypotheses. (DH)

  4. Crowding and confinement effects on protein diffusion in vivo.

    PubMed

    Konopka, Michael C; Shkel, Irina A; Cayley, Scott; Record, M Thomas; Weisshaar, James C

    2006-09-01

    The first in vivo measurements of a protein diffusion coefficient versus cytoplasmic biopolymer volume fraction are presented. Fluorescence recovery after photobleaching yields the effective diffusion coefficient on a 1-mum-length scale of green fluorescent protein within the cytoplasm of Escherichia coli grown in rich medium. Resuspension into hyperosmotic buffer lacking K+ and nutrients extracts cytoplasmic water, systematically increasing mean biopolymer volume fraction, , and thus the severity of possible crowding, binding, and confinement effects. For resuspension in isosmotic buffer (osmotic upshift, or Delta, of 0), the mean diffusion coefficient, , in cytoplasm (6.1 +/- 2.4 microm2 s(-1)) is only 0.07 of the in vitro value (87 microm2 s(-1)); the relative dispersion among cells, sigmaD/ (standard deviation, sigma(D), relative to the mean), is 0.39. Both and sigmaD/ remain remarkably constant over the range of Delta values of 0 to 0.28 osmolal. For a Delta value of > or =0.28 osmolal, formation of visible plasmolysis spaces (VPSs) coincides with the onset of a rapid decrease in by a factor of 380 over the range of Delta values of 0.28 to 0.70 osmolal and a substantial increase in sigmaD/. Individual values of D vary by a factor of 9 x 10(4) but correlate well with f(VPS), the fractional change in cytoplasmic volume on VPS formation. The analysis reveals two levels of dispersion in D among cells: moderate dispersion at low Delta values for cells lacking a VPS, perhaps related to variation in phi or biopolymer organization during the cell cycle, and stronger dispersion at high Delta values related to variation in f(VPS). Crowding effects alone cannot explain the data, nor do these data alone distinguish crowding from possible binding or confinement effects within a cytoplasmic meshwork.

  5. Effect of salmon protein hydrolysate and spray-