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Sample records for protein-4 gene bmp4

  1. Runx1 contributes to the functional switching of bone morphogenetic protein 4 (BMP4) from neurite outgrowth promoting to suppressing in dorsal root ganglion.

    PubMed

    Yoshikawa, Masaaki; Masuda, Tomoyuki; Kobayashi, Azusa; Senzaki, Kouji; Ozaki, Shigeru; Aizawa, Shin; Shiga, Takashi

    2016-04-01

    The runt-related transcription factor Runx1 regulates cell-type specification and axonal projections of nociceptive dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons, whereas bone morphogenetic protein 4 (BMP4) is required for axonal growth during neuronal development. Although Runx1 has been shown to be involved in BMP4 signaling in non-neural tissues, the Runx1 function in BMP4-dependent regulation of neuronal development is unclear. To investigate interactions between Runx1 and BMP4 in neurite outgrowth, we cultured DRGs from wild-type and Runx1-deficient mouse embryos in the presence or absence of BMP4. Neurite outgrowth was decreased in BMP4-treated wild-type DRGs and untreated Runx1-deficient DRGs, suggesting the inhibitory effect of BMP4 and facilitatory effect of Runx1 on neurite outgrowth. In addition, the combination of BMP4 treatment and Runx1 deficiency increased neurite outgrowth, suggesting that Runx1 is required for BMP4-induced suppression of neurite outgrowth and that the loss of Runx1 results in a functional switch of BMP4 from neurite growth suppressing to neurite growth promoting. Both BMP4 treatment and Runx1 deficiency increased calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP)-positive neurons, and CGRP expression was not increased by BMP4 treatment in Runx1-deficient mice, suggesting that Runx1 contributes to BMP4-induced CGRP expression in DRG neurons. Thus, Runx1 contributes to BMP4 regulation of neurite outgrowth and CGRP expression in DRG and may control BMP4 functional switching during embryogenesis.

  2. Bone morphogenetic protein 4 (BMP4) promotes mammalian oogonial stem cell differentiation via Smad1/5/8 signaling

    PubMed Central

    Park, Eun-Sil; Woods, Dori C.; Tilly, Jonathan L.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To test whether bone morphogenetic protein 4 (BMP4) directly regulates differentiation of adult mouse ovary-derived oogonial stem cells (OSCs) in vitro. Design Animal study. Setting Research laboratory. Animal(s) Adult C57BL/6 female mice. Intervention(s) After purification from adult ovaries by fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS), OSCs were cultured without or with BMP4 in the absence or presence of the BMP4 antagonist, Noggin. Main outcome measure(s) Rates of in vitro-derived (IVD) oocyte formation and changes in gene expression were assessed. Result(s) Cultured OSCs expressed BMP receptor (BMPR) 1A (BMPR1A), BMPR1B and BMPR2, suggesting that BMP signaling can directly affect OSC function. In agreement with this, BMP4 significantly increased the number of IVD-oocytes formed by cultured OSCs in a dose-dependent manner, and this response was inhibited in a dose-dependent fashion by co-treatment with Noggin. Exposure of OSCs to BMP4 was associated with rapid phosphorylation of BMPR-regulated Smad1/5/8 protein, and this response was followed by increased expression of the meiosis initiation factors, stimulated by retinoic acid gene 8 (Stra8), muscle-segment homeobox 1 (Msx1) and Msx2. In keeping with the IVD-oocyte formation data, the ability of BMP4 to activate Smad1/5/8 signaling and meiotic gene expression in OSCs was abolished by co-treatment with Noggin. Conclusion(s) Engagement of BMP4-mediated signaling in adult mouse ovary-derived OSCs cultured in vitro drives differentiation of these cells into IVD-oocytes through Smad1/5/8 activation and transcriptional up-regulation of key meiosis-initiating genes. PMID:23993924

  3. Comparison of newly developed anti-bone morphogenetic protein 4 llama-derived antibodies with commercially available BMP4 inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Calpe, Silvia; Correia, Ana C. P.; Sancho-Serra, Maria del Carmen; Krishnadath, Kausilia K.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Due to improved understanding of the role of bone morphogenetic protein 4 (BMP4) in an increasing number of diseases, the development of selective inhibitors of BMP4 is an attractive therapeutic option. The currently available BMP4 inhibitors are not suitable as therapeutics because of their low specificity and low effectiveness. Here, we compared newly generated anti-BMP4 llama-derived antibodies (VHHs) with 3 different types of commercially available BMP4 inhibitors, natural antagonists, small molecule BMPR inhibitors and conventional anti-BMP4 monoclonal antibodies. We found that the anti-BMP4 VHHs were as effective as the natural antagonist or small molecule inhibitors, but had higher specificity. We also showed that commercial anti-BMP4 antibodies were inferior in terms of both specificity and effectiveness. These findings might result from the fact that the VHHs C4C4 and C8C8 target a small region within the BMPR1 epitope of BMP4, whereas the commercial antibodies target other areas of the BMP4 molecule. Our results show that the newly developed anti-BMP4 VHHs are promising antibodies with better specificity and effectivity for inhibition of BMP4, making them an attractive tool for research and for therapeutic applications. PMID:26967714

  4. Additive Effects of Retinoic Acid (RA) and Bone Morphogenetic Protein 4 (BMP-4) Apoptosis Signaling in Retinoblastoma Cell Lines.

    PubMed

    Müller, Patrick; Doliva, Rebekka; Busch, Maike; Philippeit, Claudia; Stephan, Harald; Dünker, Nicole

    2015-01-01

    Retinoids have been shown to serve promising therapeutic agents for human cancers, e.g. the treatment of neuroblastoma. Synthetic retinoids, specific for particular retinoic acid (RA) receptors, are tested as new therapy strategies. In the present study, application of recombinant retinoic acid (RA) lowers retinoblastoma (RB) cell viability and induces apoptosis in RB cell lines. Combined treatment of RA and bone morphogenetic protein 4 (BMP-4) increases the pro-apoptotic effect of RA in the RB cells lines WERI-Rb1, Y-79, RB355, RBL-30 and RBL-15, indicating an additive effect. We could show that in WERI-Rb1 cells RA/BMP-4 mediated cell death is at least partially caspase-dependent, whereby RA and BMP-4 additively increased (i) Apaf-1 mRNA levels, (ii) caspase-9 cleavage activity and (iii) the number of activated, cleaved caspase-3 positive cells. Compared to single application of RA and BMP-4, combined RA/BMP-4 treatment significantly augments mRNA levels of the retinoic acid receptors (RARs) RARα and RARß and the retinoic X receptor (RXR) RXRγ suggesting an interaction in the induction of these RA receptor subtypes in WERI-Rb1 cells. Agonist studies revealed that both, RARs and RXRs are involved in RA/BMP-4 mediated apoptosis in WERI-Rb1 retinoblastoma cells. Employing specific RAR subtype antagonists and a RXRß and RXRγ knockdown, we proved that RA/BMP-4 apoptosis signaling in WERI-Rb1 cells requires the RA receptor subtypes RARα, RARß, RXRß and RXRγ. Deciphering signaling mechanisms underlying apoptosis induction of RA and BMP-4 in WERI-Rb1 cells, our study provides useful starting-points for future retinoid-based therapy strategies in retinoblastoma.

  5. Additive Effects of Retinoic Acid (RA) and Bone Morphogenetic Protein 4 (BMP-4) Apoptosis Signaling in Retinoblastoma Cell Lines

    PubMed Central

    Müller, Patrick; Doliva, Rebekka; Busch, Maike; Philippeit, Claudia; Stephan, Harald; Dünker, Nicole

    2015-01-01

    Retinoids have been shown to serve promising therapeutic agents for human cancers, e.g. the treatment of neuroblastoma. Synthetic retinoids, specific for particular retinoic acid (RA) receptors, are tested as new therapy strategies. In the present study, application of recombinant retinoic acid (RA) lowers retinoblastoma (RB) cell viability and induces apoptosis in RB cell lines. Combined treatment of RA and bone morphogenetic protein 4 (BMP-4) increases the pro-apoptotic effect of RA in the RB cells lines WERI-Rb1, Y-79, RB355, RBL-30 and RBL-15, indicating an additive effect. We could show that in WERI-Rb1 cells RA/BMP-4 mediated cell death is at least partially caspase-dependent, whereby RA and BMP-4 additively increased (i) Apaf-1 mRNA levels, (ii) caspase-9 cleavage activity and (iii) the number of activated, cleaved caspase-3 positive cells. Compared to single application of RA and BMP-4, combined RA/BMP-4 treatment significantly augments mRNA levels of the retinoic acid receptors (RARs) RARα and RARß and the retinoic X receptor (RXR) RXRγ suggesting an interaction in the induction of these RA receptor subtypes in WERI-Rb1 cells. Agonist studies revealed that both, RARs and RXRs are involved in RA/BMP-4 mediated apoptosis in WERI-Rb1 retinoblastoma cells. Employing specific RAR subtype antagonists and a RXRß and RXRγ knockdown, we proved that RA/BMP-4 apoptosis signaling in WERI-Rb1 cells requires the RA receptor subtypes RARα, RARß, RXRß and RXRγ. Deciphering signaling mechanisms underlying apoptosis induction of RA and BMP-4 in WERI-Rb1 cells, our study provides useful starting-points for future retinoid-based therapy strategies in retinoblastoma. PMID:26173116

  6. Molecular characterization, expression and methylation status analysis of BMP4 gene in skin tissue of Liaoning cashmere goat during hair follicle cycle.

    PubMed

    Bai, Wen L; Dang, Yun L; Wang, Jiao J; Yin, Rong H; Wang, Ze Y; Zhu, Yu B; Cong, Yu Y; Xue, Hui L; Deng, Liang; Guo, Dan; Wang, Shi Q; Yang, Shu H

    2016-08-01

    Bone morphogenetic protein 4 (BMP4) is a member of the bone morphogenetic protein family (BMPs). It is involved in the development and cycle of hair follicle, as well as, is thought to be a potential candidate gene for cashmere traits in goats. In the present study, we isolated and characterized a full-length open reading frame (ORF) of BMP4 cDNA from the skin tissue of Liaoning cashmere goat, and investigated the transcriptional pattern and methylation status of BMP4 gene in skin tissue of this breed during different stages of hair follicle cycle. The sequence analysis indicated that the isolated cDNA was 1264-bp in length containing a complete ORF of 1230-bp. It encoded a precursor peptide of 409 amino acids with a signal peptide of 19 amino acids. The structural analysis indicated that goat BMP4 contains typical TGF-β propeptide and TGF-β domains. In skin tissue, BMP4 is generally transcribed in an ascendant pattern from anagen to telogen. The methylation level of 5' flanking regulatory region of BMP4 gene might be involved in its mRNA expression in skin tissue: a higher BMP4 methylation level in skin coincides with a lower expression of BMP4 mRNA. These results from the present work provided a foundation for further insight into the functional and regulatory characteristics of BMP4 in the development and cycle of hair follicle in Liaoning Cashmere goat.

  7. Effects of bone morphogenic protein 4 (BMP4) and its inhibitor, Noggin, on in vitro maturation and culture of bovine preimplantation embryos.

    PubMed

    La Rosa, Isabel; Camargo, Luiz S A; Pereira, Michele M; Fernandez-Martin, Rafael; Paz, Dante A; Salamone, Daniel F

    2011-02-01

    BMP4 is a member of the transforming growth factor beta (TGFbeta) superfamily and Noggin is a potent BMP inhibitor that exerts its function by binding to BMPs preventing interactions with its receptors. The aim of this work was to investigate the role of BMP4 and Noggin, on oocytes in vitro maturation (m experiments) and embryos in vitro development (c experiments) of bovine. For m experiments, COCs were collected from slaughterhouse ovaries and in vitro matured in TCM with 100 ng/ml of either BMP4 or Noggin. After 24 h, the nuclear stage of the oocytes was determined by staining with Hoechst 33342. In addition, RT-qPCR was performed on MII oocytes to study the relative concentration of ZAR1, GDF9, BAX, MATER and HSP70 transcripts. Treated oocytes were submitted to parthenogenic activation (PA) or in vitro fertilization (IVF) and cultured in CR2. For c experiments, non-treated matured oocytes were submitted to PA or IVF to generate embryos that were exposed to 100 ng/ml of BMP4 or Noggin in CR2 until day nine of culture. Cleavage, blastocyst and hatching rates, expression pattern of the transcription factor Oct-4 in blastocysts and embryo cell number at day two and nine post-activation or fertilization were evaluated. We found that Noggin, as BMP4, did not affect oocyte nuclear maturation. Noggin supplementation up-regulated the expression of HSP70 and MATER genes in matured oocytes. Moreover, BMP4 during maturation increased the proportion of Oct-4 positive cells in parthenogenic embryos. On the other hand, when Noggin was added to embryo culture medium, developmental rates of parthenogenic and in vitro fertilized embryos were reduced. However, BMP4 addition decreases the development only for in vitro fertilized embryos. BMP4 and Noggin during culture reduced the proportion of Oct-4-expressing cells. Our results show that BMP4 is implicated in bovine oocytes maturation and embryo development. Moreover, our findings demonstrate, for the first time, that a correct

  8. Haplotypes in BMP4 and FGF Genes Increase the Risk of Peri-Implantitis.

    PubMed

    Coelho, Renata Barboza; Gonçalves, Roberto; Villas-Boas, Ricardo de Mello; Bonato, Leticia Ladeira; Quinelato, Valquiria; Pinheiro, Aristides da Rosa; Machado, Aldir; Nunes, Carlos Henrique Ramirez; Gonçalves, Rackel; Vieira, Alexandre Resende; Granjeiro, José Mauro; Casado, Priscila Ladeira

    2016-01-01

    Despite the success of osseointegrated implants, failures have increased significantly, associated with development of peri-implantitis. Multiple factors influence the peri-implant bone loss, including environmental and genetic causes. BMPs (Bone morphogenetic proteins) are growth factors that induce bone formation. FGF (fibroblast growth factors) and their receptors (FGFRs) play important roles by controlling the levels of cell proliferation, differentiation and migration. BMP/FGF relationship is responsible for promoting bone regeneration and bone loss. The aim of this study was to analyze the correlation between BMP4, FGF3, FGF10 and FGFR1 genes and peri-implant bone loss. Two hundred and fifteen volunteers, with 754 dental implants, were submitted to oral examination and divided in healthy group (n=129) and peri-implantitis group (n=86). Thirteen polymorphisms in BMP4, FGF3, FGF10 and FGFR1 genes were analyzed individually and in haplotype. The chi-square test correlated genotypes, allelic and haplotype frequencies. Values of p<0.05 were considered significant. Volunteers with peri-implantitis demonstrated high incidence of total edentulism (p<0.0001) and thin peri-implant phenotype (p<0.04). Higher incidence of spontaneous bleeding, plaque and implant mobility was observed in peri-implantitis group (p<0.0001 for all). The TT polymorphic genotype for BMP4 rs2761884 was associated with healthy peri-implant (p=0.01). FGF3 rs4631909 (TT+CT genotype) also showed association with the control group (p=0.04). The frequency of C allele for FGF3 rs4631909 showed a tendency for association with peri-implantitis (p=0.08). FGF10 CCTG (p=0.03), BMP4 GAAA (p=0.05) and GGGA (p=0.02) haplotypes were associated with peri-implantitis (p=0.03). Therefore, it may be concluded that BMP4 and FGF10 haplotypes are associated with peri-implantitis.

  9. Polymorphism of BMP4 gene in Indian goat breeds differing in prolificacy.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Rekha; Ahlawat, Sonika; Maitra, A; Roy, Manoranjan; Mandakmale, S; Tantia, M S

    2013-12-10

    Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) are members of the TGF-β (transforming growth factor-beta) superfamily, of which BMP4 is the most important due to its crucial role in follicular growth and differentiation, cumulus expansion and ovulation. Reproduction is a crucial trait in goat breeding and based on the important role of BMP4 gene in reproduction it was considered as a possible candidate gene for the prolificacy of goats. The objective of the present study was to detect polymorphism in intronic, exonic and 3' un-translated regions of BMP4 gene in Indian goats. Nine different goat breeds (Barbari, Beetal, Black Bengal, Malabari, Jakhrana (Twinning>40%), Osmanabadi, Sangamneri (Twinning 20-30%), Sirohi and Ganjam (Twinning<10%)) differing in prolificacy and geographic distribution were employed for polymorphism scanning. Cattle sequence (AC_000167.1) was used to design primers for the amplification of a targeted region followed by direct DNA sequencing to identify the genetic variations. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were not detected in exon 3, the intronic region and the 3' flanking region. A SNP (G1534A) was identified in exon 2. It was a non-synonymous mutation resulting in an arginine to lysine change in a corresponding protein sequence. G to A transition at the 1534 locus revealed two genotypes GG and GA in the nine investigated goat breeds. The GG genotype was predominant with a genotype frequency of 0.98. The GA genotype was present in the Black Bengal as well as Jakhrana breed with a genotype frequency of 0.02. A microsatellite was identified in the 3' flanking region, only 20 nucleotides downstream from the termination site of the coding region, as a short sequence with more than nineteen continuous and repeated CA dinucleotides. Since the gene is highly evolutionarily conserved, identification of a non-synonymous SNP (G1534A) in the coding region gains further importance. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a mutation in the coding

  10. Scleraxis modulates bone morphogenetic protein 4 (BMP4)-Smad1 protein-smooth muscle α-actin (SMA) signal transduction in diabetic nephropathy.

    PubMed

    Abe, Hideharu; Tominaga, Tatsuya; Matsubara, Takeshi; Abe, Naoko; Kishi, Seiji; Nagai, Kojiro; Murakami, Taichi; Araoka, Toshikazu; Doi, Toshio

    2012-06-08

    Activation of mesangial cells (MCs), which is characterized by induction of smooth muscle α-actin (SMA) expression, contributes to a key event in various renal diseases; however, the mechanisms controlling MC differentiation are still largely undefined. Activated Smad1 induced SMA in a dose-dependent manner in MCs. As a direct regulating molecule for SMA, we identified and characterized scleraxis (Scx) as a new phenotype modulator in advanced glycation end product (AGE)-exposed MCs. Scx physically associated with E12 and bound the E-box in the promoter of SMA and negatively regulated the AGE-induced SMA expression. Scx induced expression and secretion of bone morphogenetic protein 4 (BMP4), thereby controlling the Smad1 activation in AGE-treated MCs. In diabetic mice, Scx was concomitantly expressed with SMA in the glomeruli. Inhibitor of differentiation 1 (Id1) was further induced by extended treatment with AGE, thereby dislodging Scx from the SMA promoter. These data suggest that Scx and Id1 are involved in the BMP4-Smad1-SMA signal transduction pathway besides the TGFβ1-Smad1-SMA signaling pathway and modulate phenotypic changes in MCs in diabetic nephropathy.

  11. Haploinsufficiency of BMP4 gene may be the underlying cause of Frías syndrome.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Fernández, María Luisa; Bermejo-Sánchez, Eva; Fernández, Belén; MacDonald, Alexandra; Fernández-Toral, Joaquín; Martínez-Frías, María Luisa

    2014-02-01

    In 2005, we reported on a family as having Frías syndrome (OMIM: 609640), with four affected members displaying a pattern of congenital defects nearly identical to those observed in a mother and son described by Frias [Frías et al. (1975). Birth Defects Orig Artic Ser 11:30-33]. These defects included growth deficiency, facial anomalies, and hand and foot alterations. We had the opportunity to study this family again due to the birth of another affected girl, who presented with similar facial characteristics to those of her elder half-sister and the rest of affected relatives, which consisted of mild exophthalmia, bilateral palpebral ptosis, downslanting palpebral fissures, and hypertelorism. We performed array-CGH, which identified an identical interstitial deletion of chromosome 14q22.1-q22.3 in the mother and two daughters. The deletion is 4.06 Mb in length and includes the BMP4 gene, a member of the bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) family of secreted proteins. A review of the literature showed that deletions or mutations of this gene underlie congenital defects affecting brain, eye, teeth, and digit development. Although the clinical manifestations of the current family correlate with the defects observed in patients having either 14q22-q23 deletions or mutations of BMP4, they show a milder phenotype. In order to understand the clinical variability, we evaluated the already known functional characteristics of the BMP gene members. This gene family plays an important role during early embryogenesis, and the complex synergistic functions and redundancies of the BMPs led us to conclude that haploinsufficiency of BMP4 is likely to be responsible for the clinical expression of Frías syndrome. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Arsenic trioxide regulates adipogenic and osteogenic differentiation in bone marrow MSCs of aplastic anemia patients through BMP4 gene.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Huan Chen; Liu, Sheng Wei; Li, Wei; Zhao, Xue Fei; Zhao, Xu; Cheng, Mei; Qiu, Lin; Ma, Jun

    2015-09-01

    The typical pathological feature of aplastic anemia (AA) is the rise in the number of fat cells and the reduction of osteoblasts in bone marrow. However, both fat cells and osteobalsts in bone marrow are derived from the mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). Generally, the adipogenic and osteogenic differentiation is a dynamic and balanceable process. The imbalance of the adipogenic and osteogenic differentiation may participate in the occurrence and progress of many diseases. Arsenic trioxide (ATO) could induce differentiation and apoptosis in tumor cells. In this study, Oil Red-O and Alizarin red were used to detect the adipogenic and osteogenic differentiation. The ability of adipogenic differentiation is much higher, whereas the osteogenic differentiation is much lower in the MSCs of AA patients compared with healthy controls. ATO inhibits adipogenic differentiation and promotes osteogenic differentiation in the MSC of AA patients. The expression of BMP4 is increased with ATO treatment. The ability of adipogenic differentiation is decreased, whereas the osteogenic differentiation is increased after transfection of BMP4 gene into the MSCs of AA patients. This study shows that ATO regulates the adipogenic and osteogenic differentiation balance of MSCs in AA, which provides a theoretical basis for the adjunctive therapy of ATO on AA. The BMP4 gene is involved in the ATO regulation of adipogenic and osteogenic differentiation balance, which provides a new target for the treatment of AA.

  13. MxA Is a Novel Regulator of Endosome-Associated Transcriptional Signaling by Bone Morphogenetic Proteins 4 and 9 (BMP4 and BMP9)

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Huijuan; Sehgal, Pravin B.

    2016-01-01

    There is confusion about the role that IFN-α plays in the pathogenesis of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) with different investigators reporting a causative or a protective role. There is now clear evidence in PAH pathogenesis for the involvement of BMP4 and BMP9 signaling, and its disruption by mutations in BMPR2. In the present study, we investigated MxA, an IFN-α-inducible cytoplasmic dynamin-family GTPase for effects on BMP4/9 signaling, including in the presence of PAH-disease-associated mutants of BMPR2. In human pulmonary arterial endothelial cells (HPAECs), IFN-α-induced endogenous as well as exogenously expressed MxA was associated with endosomes that aligned alongside microtubules and tubules of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Moreover, IFN-α and MxA stimulated basal and BMP4/9 signaling to a Smad1/5/8-responsive pBRE-Luc reporter. In HEK293T cells, immunoelectron microscopy confirmed the association of MxA with endosomes, and immunofluorescence methods showed these to be positive for early endosome markers (early endosomal antigen 1, clathrin light chain and Rab5) and RSmad1/5/8. Functionally, using different genetic and inhibitor approaches, we observed that clathrin-mediated endocytosis enhanced and caveolin-mediated endocytosis inhibited the transcriptional response to BMP4 and BMP9. MxA produced a further 3-4-fold enhancement of the BMP-induced response in a clathrin-endocytosis dependent manner. The microtubule inhibitor nocodazole and stabilizer paclitaxel respectively attenuated and enhanced the effect of MxA, implicating microtubule integrity in this process. MxA enhanced BMP-induced signaling in the presence of wild-type BMPR2, and partially rescued signaling from some PAH-disease-associated BMPR2 mutants. Taken together, the data identify MxA as a novel stimulator of BMP4 and BMP9 transcriptional signaling, and suggest it to be a candidate IFN-α-inducible mechanism that might have a protective role against development of PAH and

  14. [Regulations of berberine on gene expression of BMP4 transcriptional pathways to improve visceral white adipose tissues insulin resistance in type 2 diabetic hamsters].

    PubMed

    Li, Guo-Sheng; Liu, Xu-Han; Li, Xin-Yu; Gao, Zheng-Nan; Huang, Lan; Liu, Ya-Li

    2016-02-01

    To study the effects of berberine on the gene mRNA expressions of BMP4 transcriptional pathways and brown/white adipose tissue conversion transcriptional pathways in visceral white adipose tissues(VWAT) in type 2 diabetic hamsters and explore the relevant mechanisms. The obese insulin-resistant hamster model were induced by using high-fat diet, and then the type 2 diabetic hamster model was created through injection with low-dose streptozotocin in the obese insulin-resistant hamster model. After the modeling, the hamsters were randomly divided into normal control, obese insulin-resistant, type 2 diabetic and berberine-treated diabetic groups. After the nine-week treatment, real-time quantitative PCR was used to measure the changes in gene mRNA expressions of VWAT BMP4 transcriptional pathways, brown/white adipose tissue conversion transcriptional pathways and their target genes in different groups. The results showed that the gene mRNA expressions of BMP4, BMPRⅡ, BMPRlA, Smad1, Smad5, Smad8, p38/MAPK, ATF2, PRDM16, C/EBPβ, PGC1α, PPARγ and brown adipose tissue-specific genes was decreased and that of Smad6, Smurf1 and white adipose tissue-specific genes was increased in VWAT of model hamsters. Treatment with berberine regulated BMP4 transcriptional pathways and brown adipose tissue transcriptional pathways and induced the gene mRNA expression of brown adipose tissue-specific genes in VWAT to develop browning gene phenotype of white adipose tissues, and then improved fat-induced insulin resistance. These findings indicated that BMP4 transcriptional pathways involved in the formation of fat-induced visceral white adipose tissues insulin resistance (FIVWATIR) and the browning molecular mechanism of white adipose tissues induced by berberine. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  15. α1-adrenergic receptor signaling in osteoblasts regulates clock genes and bone morphogenetic protein 4 expression through up-regulation of the transcriptional factor nuclear factor IL-3 (Nfil3)/E4 promoter-binding protein 4 (E4BP4).

    PubMed

    Hirai, Takao; Tanaka, Kenjiro; Togari, Akifumi

    2014-06-13

    Several studies have demonstrated that the α1-adrenergic receptor (AR) plays an important role in regulating cell growth and function in osteoblasts. However, the physiological role of α1-AR signaling in bone metabolism is largely unknown. In this study, the stimulation of phenylephrine (PHE), a nonspecific α1-AR agonist, increased the transcriptional factor Nfil3/E4BP4 and led to the rhythmic expression of bone morphogenetic protein 4 (Bmp4) in MC3T3-E1 osteoblastic cells. We also showed that Bmp4 mRNA expression peaked in bone near zeitgeber time 8 in a 24-h rhythm. Furthermore, the expression of Nfil3 and Bmp4 displayed a circadian pattern with opposing phases, which suggested that Nfil3 repressed the expression of the Bmp4 gene during a circadian cycle. On a molecular level, both loss-of-function and gain-of-function experiments demonstrated that Nfil3/E4BP4 negatively regulated Bmp4 expression in osteoblasts. Furthermore, the systemic administration of PHE increased the expression of Nfil3 mRNA in bone, whereas it decreased that of Bmp4 mRNA. The expression of Bmp4 mRNA was decreased significantly by exposure to PHE, and this was concomitant with the increase in Nfil3 binding to the D-box-containing Bmp4 promoter region in MC3T3-E1 cells, which indicates that the expression of Nfil3 by α1-AR signaling can bind directly to the Bmp4 promoter and inhibit Bmp4 expression in osteoblasts. Our results suggest that α1-AR signaling regulates clock genes and Bmp4 expression in osteoblasts. Moreover, α1-AR signaling negatively regulated Bmp4 expression by up-regulating the transcriptional factor Nfil3/E4BP4 in osteoblasts.

  16. Transcription factor CP2 is involved in activating mBMP4 in mouse mesenchymal stem cells.

    PubMed

    Kang, Ho Chul; Chae, Ji Hyung; Kim, Beom Sue; Han, Su Youne; Kim, Sung-Hyun; Auh, Chung-Kyoon; Yang, Sung-Il; Kim, Chul Geun

    2004-06-30

    CP2 is a member of a family of transcription factors that regulate genes involved in events from early development to terminal differentiation. In an effort to understand how it selects its target genes we carried out a database search, and located several CP2 binding motifs in the promoter region of bone morphogenetic protein-4 (BMP4). BMP4 is a key regulator of cell fate and body patterning throughout development. For the CP2 binding motifs in BMP4 promoter region to be relevant in vivo, CP2 and BMP4 should be expressed together. We found that CP2b and CP2c, two potent transcriptional activators, are expressed in a manner similar to BMP4 during osteoblast differentiation of C3H10T1/2 cells. In in vitro assays, the CP2 proteins bound to two CP2 binding motifs (-715 to -676 and -147 to -118) in the BMP4 promoter, and luciferase reporter assays indicated that this binding was essential for transcription of BMP4 during osteoblast differentiation. Taken together, our data indicate that CP2b and CP2c play important roles during bone development by activating BMP4 transcription.

  17. BMP4 Cooperates with Retinoic Acid to Induce the Expression of Differentiation Markers in Cultured Mouse Spermatogonia.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yongguang; Feng, Yanmin; Feng, Xue; Liao, Shangying; Wang, Xiuxia; Gan, Haiyun; Wang, Lixian; Lin, Xiwen; Han, Chunsheng

    2016-01-01

    Spermatogenesis is sustained by the proliferation and differentiation of spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs). However, the molecules controlling these processes remain largely unknown. Here, we developed a simplified high concentration serum-containing system for the culture of mouse SSCs. Analysis of SSCs markers and transplantation results revealed that the cultured spermatogonia retained stem cell characteristics after long-term in vitro propagation. Using this culture system, the expression and function of bone morphogenetic protein 4 (BMP4) were explored. Immunostaining showed that BMP4 was predominantly expressed in germ cells and that its level increased as spermatogenesis progresses. BMP4 receptors BMPR1A and BMPRII were present in spermatogonia, spermatocytes, and round spermatids. Moreover, despite the mRNAs of these two genes being present in mouse Sertoli cells, only BMPRII was detected by using Western blotting assays. While exogenous BMP4 by itself did not induce the expression of Stra8 and c-Kit, two marker genes of differentiating spermatogonia, a significant cooperative effect of BMP4 and retinoic acid (RA) was observed. Moreover, pretreatment of cultured spermatogonia with the BMP4 antagonist Noggin could inhibit RA-induced expression of these two marker genes. In conclusion, BMP4 may exert autocrine effects and act cooperatively with RA to induce the differentiation of spermatogonia in vivo.

  18. BMP4 Cooperates with Retinoic Acid to Induce the Expression of Differentiation Markers in Cultured Mouse Spermatogonia

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Yanmin; Feng, Xue; Wang, Xiuxia; Gan, Haiyun; Wang, Lixian; Lin, Xiwen

    2016-01-01

    Spermatogenesis is sustained by the proliferation and differentiation of spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs). However, the molecules controlling these processes remain largely unknown. Here, we developed a simplified high concentration serum-containing system for the culture of mouse SSCs. Analysis of SSCs markers and transplantation results revealed that the cultured spermatogonia retained stem cell characteristics after long-term in vitro propagation. Using this culture system, the expression and function of bone morphogenetic protein 4 (BMP4) were explored. Immunostaining showed that BMP4 was predominantly expressed in germ cells and that its level increased as spermatogenesis progresses. BMP4 receptors BMPR1A and BMPRII were present in spermatogonia, spermatocytes, and round spermatids. Moreover, despite the mRNAs of these two genes being present in mouse Sertoli cells, only BMPRII was detected by using Western blotting assays. While exogenous BMP4 by itself did not induce the expression of Stra8 and c-Kit, two marker genes of differentiating spermatogonia, a significant cooperative effect of BMP4 and retinoic acid (RA) was observed. Moreover, pretreatment of cultured spermatogonia with the BMP4 antagonist Noggin could inhibit RA-induced expression of these two marker genes. In conclusion, BMP4 may exert autocrine effects and act cooperatively with RA to induce the differentiation of spermatogonia in vivo. PMID:27795714

  19. Regulation of myogenic progenitor proliferation in human fetal skeletal muscle by BMP4 and its antagonist Gremlin.

    PubMed

    Frank, Natasha Y; Kho, Alvin T; Schatton, Tobias; Murphy, George F; Molloy, Michael J; Zhan, Qian; Ramoni, Marco F; Frank, Markus H; Kohane, Isaac S; Gussoni, Emanuela

    2006-10-09

    Skeletal muscle side population (SP) cells are thought to be "stem"-like cells. Despite reports confirming the ability of muscle SP cells to give rise to differentiated progeny in vitro and in vivo, the molecular mechanisms defining their phenotype remain unclear. In this study, gene expression analyses of human fetal skeletal muscle demonstrate that bone morphogenetic protein 4 (BMP4) is highly expressed in SP cells but not in main population (MP) mononuclear muscle-derived cells. Functional studies revealed that BMP4 specifically induces proliferation of BMP receptor 1a-positive MP cells but has no effect on SP cells, which are BMPR1a-negative. In contrast, the BMP4 antagonist Gremlin, specifically up-regulated in MP cells, counteracts the stimulatory effects of BMP4 and inhibits proliferation of BMPR1a-positive muscle cells. In vivo, BMP4-positive cells can be found in the proximity of BMPR1a-positive cells in the interstitial spaces between myofibers. Gremlin is expressed by mature myofibers and interstitial cells, which are separate from BMP4-expressing cells. Together, these studies propose that BMP4 and Gremlin, which are highly expressed by human fetal skeletal muscle SP and MP cells, respectively, are regulators of myogenic progenitor proliferation.

  20. Oestrogen inhibits BMP4-induced BMP4 expression in cardiomyocytes: a potential mechanism of oestrogen-mediated protection against cardiac hypertrophy.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yu-Chun; Xiao, Xiao-Lin; Li, Na; Yang, Di; Xing, Yue; Huo, Rong; Liu, Ming-Yu; Zhang, Yan-Qiu; Dong, De-Li

    2015-12-01

    Oestrogen inhibits cardiac hypertrophy and bone morphogenetic protein-4 (BMP4) induces cardiac hypertrophy. Here we have studied the inhibition by oestrogen of BMP4 expression in cardiomyocytes. Cultures of neonatal rat cardiomyocytes were used in in vitro experiments. Bilatαl ovariectomy (OVX) was carried out in female Kunming mice and cardiac hypertrophy was induced by transverse aortic constriction (TAC). Oestrogen inhibited BMP4-induced cardiomyocyte hypertrophy and BMP4 expression in vitro. The inhibition of BMP4-induced BMP4 protein expression by oestrogen was prevented by the inhibitor of oestrogen receptor-β, PHTPP, but not by the inhibitor of oestrogen receptor-α MPP. BMP4 induced smad1/5/8 activation, which was not affected by oestrogen in cardiomyocytes. BMP4 induced JNK but not ERK1/2 and p38 activation, and activated JNK was inhibited by oestrogen. Treatment with the p38 inhibitor SB203580 or the JNK inhibitor SP600125 inhibited BMP4-induced BMP4 expression in cardiomyocytes, but the ERK1/2 inhibitor U0126 increased BMP4-induced BMP4 expression, indicating that JNK, ERK1/2 and p38 MAPKs were all involved, although only JNK activation contributed to the inhibition of BMP4-induced BMP4 expression by oestrogen. TAC induced significant heart hypertrophy in OVX mice in vivo and oestrogen replacement inhibited TAC-induced heart hypertrophy in OVX mice. In parallel with the data of heart hypertrophy, oestrogen replacement significantly reduced the increased BMP4 protein expression in TAC-treated OVX mice. Oestrogen treatment inhibited BMP4-induced BMP4 expression in cardiomyocytes through stimulating oestrogen receptor-β and inhibiting JNK activation. Our results provide a novel mechanism underlying oestrogen-mediated protection against cardiac hypertrophy. © 2014 The British Pharmacological Society.

  1. Differential gene expression profiling of human adipose stem cells differentiating into smooth muscle-like cells by TGFβ1/BMP4.

    PubMed

    Elçin, Ayşe Eser; Parmaksiz, Mahmut; Dogan, Arin; Seker, Sukran; Durkut, Serap; Dalva, Klara; Elçin, Yaşar Murat

    2017-03-15

    Regenerative repair of the vascular system is challenging from the perspectives of translational medicine and tissue engineering. There are fundamental hurdles in front of creating bioartificial arteries, which involve recaputilation of the three-layered structure under laboratory settings. Obtaining and maintaining smooth muscle characteristics is an important limitation, as the transdifferentiated cells fail to display mature phenotype. This study aims to shed light on the smooth muscle differentiation of human adipose stem cells (hASCs). To this end, we first acquired hASCs from lipoaspirate samples. Upon characterization, the cells were induced to differentiate into smooth muscle (SM)-like cells using a variety of inducer combinations. Among all, TGFβ1/BMP4 combination had the highest differentiation efficiency, based on immunohistochemical analyses. hSM-like cell samples were compared to hASCs and to the positive control, human coronary artery-smooth muscle cells (hCA-SMCs) through gene transcription profiling. Microarray findings revealed the activation of gene groups that function in smooth muscle differentiation, signaling pathways, extracellular modeling and cell proliferation. Our results underline the effectiveness of the growth factors and suggest some potential variables for detecting the SM-like cell characteristics. Evidence in transcriptome level was used to evaluate the TGFβ1/BMP4 combination as a previously unexplored effector for the smooth muscle differentiation of adipose stem cells. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Developmental expression of BMP4/ALK3/SMAD5 signaling pathway in the mouse testis: a potential role of BMP4 in spermatogonia differentiation.

    PubMed

    Pellegrini, Manuela; Grimaldi, Paola; Rossi, Pellegrino; Geremia, Raffaele; Dolci, Susanna

    2003-08-15

    It is well established that the c-kit gene plays an essential role in the proliferation of differentiating spermatogonia in prepuberal mice. However, the mechanisms that regulate the onset of spermatogenesis, i.e. differentiation of spermatogonial stem cells and c-kit expression, are poorly understood. Here we identify a novel signal transduction system in mouse prepuberal testis regulating this developmental event, involving bone morphogenetic protein 4 (BMP4) and its transduction machinery. BMP4 is produced by Sertoli cells very early in the postnatal life and is successively down regulated in peri-puberal Sertoli cells. Its receptor Alk3 and the R-Smad Smad5 are specifically expressed both in proliferating primordial germ cells and in postnatal spermatogonia. BMP4 stimulation of cultured spermatogonia induces Smad4/5 nuclear translocation and the formation of a DNA-binding complex with the transcriptional coactivator p300/CBP. In vitro exposure of undifferentiated spermatogonia to BMP4 exerts both mitogenic and differentiative effects, inducing [3H]thymidine incorporation and Kit expression. As a result of the latter event, Kit-negative spermatogonia acquire sensitivity to Stem Cell Factor.

  3. Enhanced in vivo osteogenesis by nanocarrier-fused bone morphogenetic protein-4

    PubMed Central

    Shiozaki, Yasuyuki; Kitajima, Takashi; Mazaki, Tetsuro; Yoshida, Aki; Tanaka, Masato; Umezawa, Akihiro; Nakamura, Mariko; Yoshida, Yasuhiro; Ito, Yoshihiro; Ozaki, Toshifumi; Matsukawa, Akihiro

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Bone defects and nonunions are major clinical skeletal problems. Growth factors are commonly used to promote bone regeneration; however, the clinical impact is limited because the factors do not last long at a given site. The introduction of tissue engineering aimed to deter the diffusion of these factors is a promising therapeutic strategy. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the in vivo osteogenic capability of an engineered bone morphogenetic protein-4 (BMP4) fusion protein. Methods BMP4 was fused with a nanosized carrier, collagen-binding domain (CBD), derived from fibronectin. The stability of the CBD-BMP4 fusion protein was examined in vitro and in vivo. Osteogenic effects of CBD-BMP4 were evaluated by computer tomography after intramedullary injection without a collagen–sponge scaffold. Recombinant BMP-4, CBD, or vehicle were used as controls. Expressions of bone-related genes and growth factors were compared among the groups. Osteogenesis induced by CBD-BMP4, BMP4, and CBD was also assessed in a bone-defect model. Results In vitro, CBD-BMP4 was retained in a collagen gel for at least 7 days while BMP4 alone was released within 3 hours. In vivo, CBD-BMP4 remained at the given site for at least 2 weeks, both with or without a collagen–sponge scaffold, while BMP4 disappeared from the site within 3 days after injection. CBD-BMP4 induced better bone formation than BMP4 did alone, CBD alone, and vehicle after the intramedullary injection into the mouse femur. Bone-related genes and growth factors were expressed at higher levels in CBD-BMP4-treated mice than in all other groups, including BMP4-treated mice. Finally, CBD-BMP4 potentiated more bone formation than did controls, including BMP4 alone, when applied to cranial bone defects without a collagen scaffold. Conclusion Altogether, nanocarrier-CBD enhanced the retention of BMP4 in the bone, thereby promoting augmented osteogenic responses in the absence of a scaffold. These results

  4. The role of gsc and BMP-4 in dorsal-ventral patterning of the marginal zone in Xenopus: a loss-of-function study using antisense RNA.

    PubMed Central

    Steinbeisser, H; Fainsod, A; Niehrs, C; Sasai, Y; De Robertis, E M

    1995-01-01

    The dorsal-specific homeobox gene goosecoid (gsc) and the bone morphogenetic protein 4 gene (BMP-4) are expressed in complementary regions of the Xenopus gastrula. Injection of gsc mRNA dorsalizes ventral mesodermal tissue and can induce axis formation in normal and UV-ventralized embryos. On the other hand, BMP-4 mRNA injection, which has a strong ventralizing effect on whole embryos, has been implicated in ventralization by UV, and can rescue tail structures in embryos dorsalized by LiCl. The above-mentioned putative roles for BMP-4 and gsc are based on gain-of-function experiments. In order to determine the in vivo role of these two genes in the patterning of the Xenopus mesoderm during gastrulation, partial loss-of-function experiments were performed using antisense RNA injections. Using marker genes that are expressed early in gastrulation, we show that antisense gsc RNA has a ventralizing effect on embryos, whereas antisense BMP-4 RNA dorsalizes mesodermal tissue. These loss-of-function studies also show a requirement for gsc and BMP-4 in the dorsalization induced by LiCl and in the ventralization generated by UV irradiation, respectively. Thus, both gain- and loss-of-function results for gsc and BMP-4 support the view that these two genes are necessary components of the dorsal and ventral patterning pathways in Xenopus embryos. Images PMID:7489713

  5. Lentiviral-based BMP4 in vivo gene transfer strategy increases pull-out tensile strength without an improvement in the osteointegration of the tendon graft in a rat model of biceps tenodesis.

    PubMed

    Coen, Michael J; Chen, Shin-Tai; Rundle, Charles H; Wergedal, Jon E; Lau, Kin-Hing William

    2011-10-01

    The present study aimed to develop a rat model of biceps tenodesis and to assess the feasibility of a lentiviral (LV)-based bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) 4 in vivo gene transfer strategy for healing of biceps tenodesis. A rat model of biceps tenodesis was developed with an interference-fit open surgical technique. A LV vector expressing a BMP4 gene or β-galactosidase (β-gal) control gene was applied to the bone tunnel and the tendon graft before its insertion into the bone tunnel. Osteointegration was assessed by histology and pull-out tensile strength was measured by a biomechanical test suitable for small rat biceps tendon grafts. Neo-chondrogenesis was seen at the tendon-bone interface of LV-BMP4-treated but not control rats. The LV-BMP4-treated rats showed 32% (p < 0.05) more newly-formed trabecular bone at the tendon-bone junction than the LV-β-gal-treated controls after 3 weeks. However, the sites of neo-chondrogenesis and new bone formation in the LV-BMP4-treated tenodesis were highly spotty. Although the LV-BMP4 strategy did not promote bony integration of the tendon graft, it yielded a 29.5 ± 11.8% (p = 0.066) increase in improvement the pull-out strength of rat biceps tendons compared to the LV-β-gal treatment after 5 weeks. Although the LV-BMP4 in vivo gene transfer strategy did not enhance osteointegration of the tendon graft, it yielded a marked improvement in the return of the pull-out strength of the tendon graft. This presumably was largely a result of the bone formation effect of BMP4 that traps or anchors the tendon graft onto the bony tunnel. Published 2011. This article is a US Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  6. Microparticle-Mediated Delivery of BMP4 for Generation of Meiosis-Competent Germ Cells from Embryonic Stem Cells.

    PubMed

    Esfandiari, Fereshteh; Ashtiani, Mohammad Kazemi; Sharifi-Tabar, Mehdi; Saber, Maryam; Daemi, Hamed; Ghanian, Mohammad Hossein; Shahverdi, Abdolhossein; Baharvand, Hossein

    2017-03-01

    Producing meiosis-competent germ cells (GCs) from embryonic stem cells (ESCs) is essential for developing advanced therapies for infertility. Here, a novel approach is presented for generation of GCs from ESCs. In this regard, microparticles (MPs) have been developed from alginate sulfate loaded with bone morphogenetic protein 4 (BMP4). The results here show that BMP4 release from alginate sulfate MPs is significantly retarded by the sulfated groups compared to neat alginate. Then, BMP4-laden MPs are incorporated within the aggregates during differentiation of GCs from ESCs. It is observed that BMP4-laden MPs increase GC differentiation from ESCs at least twofold compared to the conventional soluble delivery method. Interestingly, following meiosis induction, Dazl, an intrinsic factor that enables GCs to enter meiosis, and two essential meiosis genes (Stra8 and Smc1b) are upregulated significantly in MP-induced aggregates compared to aggregates, which are formed by the conventional method. Together, these data show that controlled delivery of BMP4 during ESC differentiation into GC establish meiosis-competent GCs which can serve as an attractive GC source for reproductive medicine. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Colorectal polyp model established by transplacental BMP4 RNAi

    PubMed Central

    JIN, XIN; CHEN, ZHONGMEI; XIANG, LI; LUO, QING; GUO, ZHENGHUA; DING, XIONGHUI; JIN, XIANQING

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that disruption of the bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling pathway is an important cause of intestinal cancer in human and animal models. Thus, the purpose of this study was to construct a Balb/C model of colorectal polyps. Pregnant mice at 9.5 days gestation were injected via the tail vein with the pSES-Si BMP4 plasmid bearing a fluorochrome (DsRed) reporter, in order to silence the BMP4 gene in the first generation (F1); this group of mice was named the pSES-BMP4 group Intestinal fluorescence was detected at 1-, 4- and 8-week-old F1 mice, and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and western-blotting assays were used to determine changes in the expression of BMP4. A dissecting microscope and hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining were used to observe the cell morphology and appearance of the polyps. DsRed fluorescence was observed in the intestines of 1-week-old F1 mice of the pSES-BMP4 group. BMP4 expression at the mRNA and protein level was reduced in 1-, 4- and 8-week-old F1 mice (P<0.05). However, the level of Smad4 mRNA was only reduced in 8-week-old F1 mice (P<0.05). Multiple hyperplasic polyps emerged in the colon and rectum of the intestines of 4-week-old F1 mice in the pSES-BMP4 group. The size of colorectal polyps increased at 8 weeks, when vessels and polyp pedicles became apparent. In conclusion, silencing of the BMP4 gene using transplacental RNAi injection can induce formation of colorectal polyps in mice. PMID:24806485

  8. Bmp4 from the optic vesicle specifies murine retina formation.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jie; Liu, Ying; Oltean, Alina; Beebe, David C

    2015-06-01

    Previous studies of mouse embryos concluded that after the optic vesicle evaginates from the ventral forebrain and contacts the surface ectoderm, signals from the ectoderm specify the distal region of the optic vesicle to become retina and signals from the optic vesicle induce the lens. Germline deletion of Bmp4 resulted in failure of lens formation. We performed conditional deletion of Bmp4 from the optic vesicle to test the function of Bmp4 in murine eye development. The optic vesicle evaginated normally and contacted the surface ectoderm. Lens induction did not occur. The optic cup failed to form and the expression of retina-specific genes decreased markedly in the distal optic vesicle. Instead, cells in the prospective retina expressed genes characteristic of the retinal pigmented epithelium. We conclude that Bmp4 is required for retina specification in mice. In the absence of Bmp4, formation of the retinal pigmented epithelium is the default differentiation pathway of the optic vesicle. Differences in the signaling pathways required for specification of the retina and retinal pigmented epithelium in chicken and mouse embryos suggest major changes in signaling during the evolution of the vertebrate eye.

  9. Delayed BMP4 exposure increases germ cell differentiation in mouse embryonic stem cells.

    PubMed

    Talaei-Khozani, Tahereh; Zarei Fard, Nehleh; Bahmanpour, Soghra; Jaberipour, Mansoureh; Hosseini, Ahmah; Esmaeilpour, Tahereh

    2014-01-01

    Fate mapping studies have revealed that bone morphogenetic protein 4 (BMP4) signaling has a key role in segregation of primordial germ cells from proximal epiblast. Adding BMP4 to the culture media of embryonic stem (ES) cells could induce expression of germ cell markers; however, to provide a desired number of germ cells has remained a challenge. In the current study, we intended to establish an in vitro system to obtain reliable germ cells derived from ES cells. Differentiation was induced in ES cells via embryoid body (EB) and monolayer culture system. Cells were cultured with BMP4 from the beginning (++BMP4) or after 48 hours (+BMP4) of culturing for five days. The cultures were assessed for alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, expression of Oct4, Mvh and c-kit. In EB culture protocol, the expression of Mvh, Oct4 and ALP activity significantly increased in +BMP4 culture condition, but a significant down-regulation in the expression of germ cell markers was shown in ++BMP4 condition compared with the control group. Parallel differentiation experiments using monolayer culture system indicated the number of putative germ cells did not change. In the current study, we compared two differentiation methods (EB and monolayer) to achieve an optimal germ cell production. The EBs with a short exposure time period to BMP4, showing typical characteristics of germ cells. Therefore, our approach provides a strategy for the production of germline cells from ES cells.

  10. New Roles and Mechanism of Action of BMP4 in Postnatal Tooth Cytodifferentiation

    PubMed Central

    Gluhak-Heinrich, J; Guo, D; Yang, W; Harris, MA; Lichtler, A; Kream, B; Zhang, J; Feng, JQ; Harris, SE

    2010-01-01

    During the phase of overt tooth cytodifferentiation that occurs after birth in the mouse and using the 3.6Collagen1a-Cre, the BMP4 floxed and BMP4 knock-out mice, the BMP4 gene was deleted in early collagen producing odontoblasts around postnatal day 1. BMP4 expression was reduced over 90% in alveolar osteoblasts and odontoblasts. There was decreased rate of predentin to dentin formation and decreased mature odontoblast differentiation reflected in reduced DMP1 expression and proper dentinal tubule formation, as well as reduced Collagen type I and Osteocalcin expression. We observed mutant dysmorphogenic odontoblasts that failed to properly elongate and differentiate. The consequence of this failed differentiation process lead to permanent loss of dentin thickness, apparent enlarged pulp chambers in the molars and reduced bone supporting the tooth structures in mice as old as 10–12 months. Deletion of the BMP4 gene in odontoblasts also indirectly disrupted the process of enamel formation that persisted throughout life. The mechanism for this altered differentiation program in the absence of the BMP4 gene in odontoblasts is from decreased BMP signaling, and decreased expression of three key transcription factors, Dlx3, Dlx5, and Osterix. BMP signaling, as well as Dlx3 and Amelogenin expression, are also indirectly reduced in the ameloblasts of the odontoblast BMP4 cKO mice. This supports a key paracrine or endocrine role of odontoblasts derived BMP4 postnatally on the proper amelogenesis and formation of the enamel. PMID:20206312

  11. The prodomain of BMP4 is necessary and sufficient to generate stable BMP4/7 heterodimers with enhanced bioactivity in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Neugebauer, Judith M.; Kwon, Sunjong; Kim, Hyung-Seok; Donley, Nathan; Tilak, Anup; Sopory, Shailaja; Christian, Jan L.

    2015-01-01

    Bone morphogenetic proteins 4 and 7 (BMP4 and BMP7) are morphogens that signal as either homodimers or heterodimers to regulate embryonic development and adult homeostasis. BMP4/7 heterodimers exhibit markedly higher signaling activity than either homodimer, but the mechanism underlying the enhanced activity is unknown. BMPs are synthesized as inactive precursors that dimerize and are then cleaved to generate both the bioactive ligand and prodomain fragments, which lack signaling activity. Our study reveals a previously unknown requirement for the BMP4 prodomain in promoting heterodimer activity. We show that BMP4 and BMP7 precursor proteins preferentially or exclusively form heterodimers when coexpressed in vivo. In addition, we show that the BMP4 prodomain is both necessary and sufficient for generation of stable heterodimeric ligands with enhanced activity and can enable homodimers to signal in a context in which they normally lack activity. Our results suggest that intrinsic properties of the BMP4 prodomain contribute to the relative bioactivities of homodimers versus heterodimers in vivo. These findings have clinical implications for the use of BMPs as regenerative agents for the treatment of bone injury and disease. PMID:25902523

  12. Gremlin negatively modulates BMP-4 induction of embryonic mouse lung branching morphogenesis.

    PubMed

    Shi, W; Zhao, J; Anderson, K D; Warburton, D

    2001-05-01

    Bone morphogenetic protein-4 (BMP-4) is a key morphogen for embryonic lung development that is expressed at high levels in the peripheral epithelium, but the mechanisms that modulate BMP-4 function in early mouse lung branching morphogenesis are unclear. Here, we studied the BMP-4 antagonist Gremlin, which is a member of the DAN family of BMP antagonists that can bind and block BMP-2/4 activity. The expression level of gremlin in embryonic mouse lungs is highest in the early embryonic pseudoglandular stage [embryonic days (E) 11.5-14.5] and is reduced during fetal lung maturation (E18.5 to postnatal day 1). In situ hybridization indicates that gremlin is diffusely expressed in peripheral lung mesenchyme and epithelium, but relatively high epithelial expression occurs in branching buds at E11.5 and in large airways after E16.5. In E11.5 lung organ culture, we found that exogenous BMP-4 dramatically enhanced peripheral lung epithelial branching morphogenesis, whereas reduction of endogenous gremlin expression with antisense oligonucleotides achieved the same gain-of-function phenotype as exogenous BMP-4, including increased epithelial cell proliferation and surfactant protein C expression. On the other hand, adenoviral overexpression of gremlin blocked the stimulatory effects of exogenous BMP-4. Therefore, our data support the hypothesis that Gremlin is a physiologically negative regulator of BMP-4 in lung branching morphogenesis.

  13. Comparison of osteogenic potentials of BMP4 transduced stem cells from autologous bone marrow and fat tissue in a rabbit model of calvarial defects.

    PubMed

    Lin, Lin; Shen, Qi; Wei, Xuelei; Hou, Yu; Xue, Tao; Fu, Xin; Duan, Xiaoning; Yu, Changlong

    2009-07-01

    We compared bone marrow stem cells (BMSCs) and adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) of adult rabbits under identical conditions in terms of their culture characteristics, proliferation capacity, osteogenic differentiation potentials induced by adenovirus-containing bone morphogenetic protein 4 (Ad-BMP4) in vitro, and capacity to repair calvarial defects in the rabbit model by autologous transplantation ex vivo. According to the results of growth curve, cell cycle, and telomerase activity analysis, ADSCs possess a higher proliferation potential. Both of the Ad-BMP4 transduced MSCs expressed BMP4 mRNA and protein and underwent osteogenic differentiation. Up-regulated mRNA expression of all osteogenic genes was observed in differentiated BMSCs and ADSCs, but with different patterns confirmed by real-time RT-PCR. Deposition of calcified extracellular matrix was significantly greater in differentiated ADSCs compared with differentiated BMSCs. X-ray and histological examination indicated significant bone regeneration in the calvarial defects transplanted with Ad-BMP4 transduced autologous MSCs compared to the control groups. There was no significant difference in new bone formation in Ad-BMP4 transduced MSCs based on quantitative digital analysis of histological sections. The use of ADSCs often resulted in the growth of fat tissue structures in the control groups, and the fat tissue structures were not seen with BMSC cells. Our data demonstrate that BMP4 can be potently osteoinductive in vivo, resulting in bone repair. ADSCs may be an attractive alternative to BMSCs for bone tissue engineering under appropriate stimuli. But the easy adipogenic differentiation needs to be considered when choosing adipose tissue for specific clinical application.

  14. Differential expression of a BMP4 reporter allele in anterior fungiform versus posterior circumvallate taste buds of mice

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Bone Morphogenetic Protein 4 (BMP4) is a diffusible factor which regulates embryonic taste organ development. However, the role of BMP4 in taste buds of adult mice is unknown. We utilized transgenic mice with LacZ under the control of the BMP4 promoter to reveal the expression of BMP4 in the tongues of adult mice. Further we evaluate the pattern of BMP4 expression with that of markers of specific taste bud cell types and cell proliferation to define and compare the cell populations expressing BMP4 in anterior (fungiform papillae) and posterior (circumvallate papilla) tongue. Results BMP4 is expressed in adult fungiform and circumvallate papillae, i.e., lingual structures composed of non-taste epithelium and taste buds. Unexpectedly, we find both differences and similarities with respect to expression of BMP4-driven ß-galactosidase. In circumvallate papillae, many fusiform cells within taste buds are BMP4-ß-gal positive. Further, a low percentage of BMP4-expressing cells within circumvallate taste buds is immunopositive for markers of each of the three differentiated taste cell types (I, II and III). BMP4-positive intragemmal cells also expressed a putative marker of immature taste cells, Sox2, and consistent with this finding, intragemmal cells expressed BMP4-ß-gal within 24 hours after their final mitosis, as determined by BrdU birthdating. By contrast, in fungiform papillae, BMP4-ß-gal positive cells are never encountered within taste buds. However, in both circumvallate and fungiform papillae, BMP4-ß-gal expressing cells are located in the perigemmal region, comprising basal and edge epithelial cells adjacent to taste buds proper. This region houses the proliferative cell population that gives rise to adult taste cells. However, perigemmal BMP4-ß-gal cells appear mitotically silent in both fungiform and circumvallate taste papillae, as we do not find evidence of their active proliferation using cell cycle immunomarkers and BrdU birthdating

  15. BMP4 acts as a dorsal telencephalic morphogen in a mouse embryonic stem cell culture system.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Momoko; Fung, Ernest S; Chan, Felicia B; Wong, Jessica S; Coutts, Margaret; Monuki, Edwin S

    2016-12-15

    The concept of a morphogen - a molecule that specifies two or more cell fates in a concentration-dependent manner - is paradigmatic in developmental biology. Much remains unknown, however, about the existence of morphogens in the developing vertebrate central nervous system (CNS), including the mouse dorsal telencephalic midline (DTM). Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) are candidate DTM morphogens, and our previous work demonstrated BMP4 sufficiency to induce one DTM cell fate - that of choroid plexus epithelial cells (CPECs) - in a mouse embryonic stem cell (mESC) culture system. Here we used BMP4 in a modified mESC culture system to derive a second DTM fate, the cortical hem (CH). CH and CPEC markers were induced by BMP4 in a concentration-dependent manner consistent with in vivo development. BMP4 concentrations that led to CH fate also promoted markers for Cajal-Retzius neurons, which are known CH derivatives. Interestingly, single BMP4 administrations also sufficed for appropriate temporal regulation of CH, CPEC, and cortical genes, with initially broad and overlapping dose-response profiles that sharpened over time. BMP4 concentrations that yielded CH- or CPEC-enriched populations also had different steady-state levels of phospho-SMAD1/5/8, suggesting that differences in BMP signaling intensity underlie DTM fate choice. Surprisingly, inactivation of the cortical selector gene Lhx2 did not affect DTM expression levels, dose-response profiles, or timing in response to BMP4, although neural progenitor genes were downregulated. These data indicate that BMP4 can act as a classic morphogen to orchestrate both spatial and temporal aspects of DTM fate acquisition, and can do so in the absence of Lhx2.

  16. BMP4 acts as a dorsal telencephalic morphogen in a mouse embryonic stem cell culture system

    PubMed Central

    Watanabe, Momoko; Fung, Ernest S.; Chan, Felicia B.; Wong, Jessica S.; Coutts, Margaret

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The concept of a morphogen – a molecule that specifies two or more cell fates in a concentration-dependent manner – is paradigmatic in developmental biology. Much remains unknown, however, about the existence of morphogens in the developing vertebrate central nervous system (CNS), including the mouse dorsal telencephalic midline (DTM). Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) are candidate DTM morphogens, and our previous work demonstrated BMP4 sufficiency to induce one DTM cell fate – that of choroid plexus epithelial cells (CPECs) – in a mouse embryonic stem cell (mESC) culture system. Here we used BMP4 in a modified mESC culture system to derive a second DTM fate, the cortical hem (CH). CH and CPEC markers were induced by BMP4 in a concentration-dependent manner consistent with in vivo development. BMP4 concentrations that led to CH fate also promoted markers for Cajal–Retzius neurons, which are known CH derivatives. Interestingly, single BMP4 administrations also sufficed for appropriate temporal regulation of CH, CPEC, and cortical genes, with initially broad and overlapping dose-response profiles that sharpened over time. BMP4 concentrations that yielded CH- or CPEC-enriched populations also had different steady-state levels of phospho-SMAD1/5/8, suggesting that differences in BMP signaling intensity underlie DTM fate choice. Surprisingly, inactivation of the cortical selector gene Lhx2 did not affect DTM expression levels, dose-response profiles, or timing in response to BMP4, although neural progenitor genes were downregulated. These data indicate that BMP4 can act as a classic morphogen to orchestrate both spatial and temporal aspects of DTM fate acquisition, and can do so in the absence of Lhx2. PMID:27815243

  17. Evidence for an early role for BMP4 signaling in thymus and parathyroid morphogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Gordon, Julie; Patel, Seema R.; Mishina, Yuji; Manley, Nancy R.

    2010-01-01

    The thymus and parathyroids are pharyngeal endoderm-derived organs that develop from common organ primordia, which undergo a series of morphological events resulting in separate organs in distinct locations in the embryo. Previous gene expression and functional analyses have suggested a role for BMP4 signaling in early thymus organogenesis. We have used conditional deletion of Bmp4 or Alk3 from the pharyngeal endoderm and/or the surrounding mesenchyme using Foxg1-Cre, Wnt1-Cre or Foxn1-Cre. Deleting Bmp4 from both neural crest cells (NCC) and early endoderm-derived epithelial cells in Foxg1-Cre;Bmp4 conditional mutants resulted in defects in thymus-parathyroid morphogenesis. Defects included reduced condensation of mesenchymal cells around the epithelium, partial absence of the thymic capsule, a delay in thymus and parathyroid separation, and failed or dramatically reduced organ migration. Patterning of the primordia and initial organ differentiation were not affected in any of the mutants. Deleting Bmp4 from NCC-derived mesenchyme or differentiating thymic epithelial cells (TECs) had no effects on thymus-parathyroid development, while loss of Alk3 from either neural crest cells or TECs resulted in only a mild thymic hypoplasia. These results show that the processes of cell specification and morphogenesis during thymus-parathyroid development are independently controlled, and suggest a specific temporal and spatial role for BMP4-mediated epithelial-mesenchymal interactions during early thymus and parathyroid morphogenesis. PMID:20043899

  18. BMP4-mediated brown fat-like changes in white adipose tissue alter glucose and energy homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Qian, Shu-Wen; Tang, Yan; Li, Xi; Liu, Yuan; Zhang, You-You; Huang, Hai-Yan; Xue, Rui-Dan; Yu, Hao-Yong; Guo, Liang; Gao, Hui-Di; Liu, Yan; Sun, Xia; Li, Yi-Ming; Jia, Wei-Ping; Tang, Qi-Qun

    2013-02-26

    Expression of bone morphogenetic protein 4 (BMP4) in adipocytes of white adipose tissue (WAT) produces "white adipocytes" with characteristics of brown fat and leads to a reduction of adiposity and its metabolic complications. Although BMP4 is known to induce commitment of pluripotent stem cells to the adipocyte lineage by producing cells that possess the characteristics of preadipocytes, its effects on the mature white adipocyte phenotype and function were unknown. Forced expression of a BMP4 transgene in white adipocytes of mice gives rise to reduced WAT mass and white adipocyte size along with an increased number of a white adipocyte cell types with brown adipocyte characteristics comparable to those of beige or brite adipocytes. These changes correlate closely with increased energy expenditure, improved insulin sensitivity, and protection against diet-induced obesity and diabetes. Conversely, BMP4-deficient mice exhibit enlarged white adipocyte morphology and impaired insulin sensitivity. We identify peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1-α (PGC1α) as the target of BMP signaling required for these brown fat-like changes in WAT. This effect of BMP4 on WAT appears to extend to human adipose tissue, because the level of expression of BMP4 in WAT correlates inversely with body mass index. These findings provide a genetic and metabolic basis for BMP4's role in altering insulin sensitivity by affecting WAT development.

  19. Lef1 expression is activated by BMP-4 and regulates inductive tissue interactions in tooth and hair development.

    PubMed

    Kratochwil, K; Dull, M; Farinas, I; Galceran, J; Grosschedl, R

    1996-06-01

    Targeted inactivation of the murine gene encoding the transcription factor LEF-1 abrogates the formation of organs that depend on epithelial-mesenchymal tissue interactions. In this study we have recombined epithelial and mesenchymal tissues from normal and LEF-1-deficient embryos at different stages of development to define the LEF-1-dependent steps in tooth and whisker organogenesis. At the initiation of organ development, formation of the epithelial primordium of the whisker but not tooth is dependent on mesenchymal Lef1 gene expression. Subsequent formation of a whisker and tooth mesenchymal papilla and completion of organogenesis require transient expression of Lef1 in the epithelium. These experiments indicate that the effect of Lef1 expression is transmitted from one tissue to the other. In addition, the finding that the expression of Lef1 can be activated by bone morphogenetic protein 4 (BMP-4) suggests a regulatory role of this transcription factor in BMP-mediated inductive tissue interactions.

  20. Shox2 mediates Tbx5 activity by regulating Bmp4 in the pacemaker region of the developing heart.

    PubMed

    Puskaric, Sandra; Schmitteckert, Stefanie; Mori, Alessandro D; Glaser, Anne; Schneider, Katja U; Bruneau, Benoit G; Blaschke, Rüdiger J; Steinbeisser, Herbert; Rappold, Gudrun

    2010-12-01

    Heart formation requires a highly balanced network of transcriptional activation of genes. The homeodomain transcription factor, Shox2, is essential for the formation of the sinoatrial valves and for the development of the pacemaking system. The elucidation of molecular mechanisms underlying the development of pacemaker tissue has gained clinical interest as defects in its patterning can be related to atrial arrhythmias. We have analyzed putative targets of Shox2 and identified the Bmp4 gene as a direct target. Shox2 interacts directly with the Bmp4 promoter in chromatin immunoprecipitation assays and activates transcription in luciferase-reporter assays. In addition, ectopic expression of Shox2 in Xenopus embryos stimulates transcription of the Bmp4 gene, and silencing of Shox2 in cardiomyocytes leads to a reduction in the expression of Bmp4. In Tbx5(del/+) mice, a model for Holt-Oram syndrome, and Shox2(-/-) mice, we show that the T-box transcription factor Tbx5 is a regulator of Shox2 expression in the inflow tract and that Bmp4 is regulated by Shox2 in this compartment of the embryonic heart. In addition, we could show that Tbx5 acts cooperatively with Nkx2.5 to regulate the expression of Shox2 and Bmp4. This work establishes a link between Tbx5, Shox2 and Bmp4 in the pacemaker region of the developing heart and thus contributes to the unraveling of the intricate interplay between the heart-specific transcriptional machinery and developmental signaling pathways.

  1. BMP4 regulation of human trophoblast development

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yingchun; Parast, Mana M.

    2017-01-01

    Since derivation of human embryonic stem cells, and subsequent generation of induced pluripotent stem cells, there has been much excitement about the ability to model and evaluate human organ development in vitro. The finding that these cells, when treated with BMP4, are able to generate the extraembryonic cell type, trophoblast, which is the predominant functional epithelium in the placenta, has not been widely accepted. This review evaluates this model, providing comparison to early known events during placentation in both human and mouse and addressing specific challenges. Keeping in mind the ultimate goal of understanding human placental development and pregnancy disorders, our aim here is two-fold: 1) to distinguish gaps in knowledge from mis- or over-interpretation of data, and 2) to recognize the limitations of both mouse and human models, but work within those limitations towards the ultimate goal. PMID:25023690

  2. Role of ID Proteins in BMP4 Inhibition of Profibrotic Effects of TGF-β2 in Human TM Cells

    PubMed Central

    Mody, Avani A.; Wordinger, Robert J.; Clark, Abbot F.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Increased expression of TGF-β2 in primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) aqueous humor (AH) and trabecular meshwork (TM) causes deposition of extracellular matrix (ECM) in the TM and elevated IOP. Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) regulate TGF-β2–induced ECM production. The underlying mechanism for BMP4 inhibition of TGF-β2–induced fibrosis remains undetermined. Bone morphogenic protein 4 induces inhibitor of DNA binding proteins (ID1, ID3), which suppress transcription factor activities to regulate gene expression. Our study will determine whether ID1and ID3 proteins are downstream targets of BMP4, which attenuates TGF-β2 induction of ECM proteins in TM cells. Methods Primary human TM cells were treated with BMP4, and ID1 and ID3 mRNA, and protein expression was determined by quantitative PCR (Q-PCR) and Western immunoblotting. Intracellular ID1 and ID3 protein localization was studied by immunocytochemistry. Transformed human TM cells (GTM3 cells) were transfected with ID1 or ID3 expression vectors to determine their potential inhibitory effects on TGF-β2–induced fibronectin and plasminogen activator inhibitor-I (PAI-1) protein expression. Results Basal expression of ID1-3 was detected in primary human TM cells. Bone morphogenic protein 4 significantly induced early expression of ID1 and ID3 mRNA (P < 0.05) and protein in primary TM cells, and a BMP receptor inhibitor blocked this induction. Overexpression of ID1 and ID3 significantly inhibited TGF-β2–induced expression of fibronectin and PAI-1 in TM cells (P < 0.01). Conclusions Bone morphogenic protein 4 induced ID1 and ID3 expression suppresses TGF-β2 profibrotic activity in human TM cells. In the future, targeting specific regulators may control the TGF-β2 profibrotic effects on the TM, leading to disease modifying IOP lowering therapies. PMID:28159972

  3. Bone morphogenic protein 4 produced in endothelial cells by oscillatory shear stress stimulates an inflammatory response

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sorescu, George P.; Sykes, Michelle; Weiss, Daiana; Platt, Manu O.; Saha, Aniket; Hwang, Jinah; Boyd, Nolan; Boo, Yong C.; Vega, J. David; Taylor, W. Robert; hide

    2003-01-01

    Atherosclerosis is now viewed as an inflammatory disease occurring preferentially in arterial regions exposed to disturbed flow conditions, including oscillatory shear stress (OS), in branched arteries. In contrast, the arterial regions exposed to laminar shear (LS) are relatively lesion-free. The mechanisms underlying the opposite effects of OS and LS on the inflammatory and atherogenic processes are not clearly understood. Here, through DNA microarrays, protein expression, and functional studies, we identify bone morphogenic protein 4 (BMP4) as a mechanosensitive and pro-inflammatory gene product. Exposing endothelial cells to OS increased BMP4 protein expression, whereas LS decreased it. In addition, we found BMP4 expression only in the selective patches of endothelial cells overlying foam cell lesions in human coronary arteries. The same endothelial patches also expressed higher levels of intercellular cell adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) protein compared with those of non-diseased areas. Functionally, we show that OS and BMP4 induced ICAM-1 expression and monocyte adhesion by a NFkappaB-dependent mechanism. We suggest that BMP4 is a mechanosensitive, inflammatory factor playing a critical role in early steps of atherogenesis in the lesion-prone areas.

  4. Bone morphogenic protein 4 produced in endothelial cells by oscillatory shear stress stimulates an inflammatory response

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sorescu, George P.; Sykes, Michelle; Weiss, Daiana; Platt, Manu O.; Saha, Aniket; Hwang, Jinah; Boyd, Nolan; Boo, Yong C.; Vega, J. David; Taylor, W. Robert; Jo, Hanjoong

    2003-01-01

    Atherosclerosis is now viewed as an inflammatory disease occurring preferentially in arterial regions exposed to disturbed flow conditions, including oscillatory shear stress (OS), in branched arteries. In contrast, the arterial regions exposed to laminar shear (LS) are relatively lesion-free. The mechanisms underlying the opposite effects of OS and LS on the inflammatory and atherogenic processes are not clearly understood. Here, through DNA microarrays, protein expression, and functional studies, we identify bone morphogenic protein 4 (BMP4) as a mechanosensitive and pro-inflammatory gene product. Exposing endothelial cells to OS increased BMP4 protein expression, whereas LS decreased it. In addition, we found BMP4 expression only in the selective patches of endothelial cells overlying foam cell lesions in human coronary arteries. The same endothelial patches also expressed higher levels of intercellular cell adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) protein compared with those of non-diseased areas. Functionally, we show that OS and BMP4 induced ICAM-1 expression and monocyte adhesion by a NFkappaB-dependent mechanism. We suggest that BMP4 is a mechanosensitive, inflammatory factor playing a critical role in early steps of atherogenesis in the lesion-prone areas.

  5. Roles of Bmp4 during tooth morphogenesis and sequential tooth formation

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Shihai; Zhou, Jing; Gao, Yang; Baek, Jin-A; Martin, James F.; Lan, Yu; Jiang, Rulang

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies have suggested that Bmp4 is a key Msx1-dependent mesenchymal odontogenic signal for driving tooth morphogenesis through the bud-to-cap transition. Whereas all tooth germs were arrested at the bud stage in Msx1–/– mice, we show that depleting functional Bmp4 mRNAs in the tooth mesenchyme, through neural crest-specific gene inactivation in Bmp4f/f;Wnt1Cre mice, caused mandibular molar developmental arrest at the bud stage but allowed maxillary molars and incisors to develop to mineralized teeth. We found that expression of Osr2, which encodes a zinc finger protein that antagonizes Msx1-mediated activation of odontogenic mesenchyme, was significantly upregulated in the molar tooth mesenchyme in Bmp4f/f;Wnt1Cre embryos. Msx1 heterozygosity enhanced maxillary molar developmental defects whereas Osr2 heterozygosity partially rescued mandibular first molar morphogenesis in Bmp4f/f;Wnt1Cre mice. Moreover, in contrast to complete lack of supernumerary tooth initiation in Msx1–/–Osr2–/– mice, Osr2–/–Bmp4f/f;Wnt1Cre compound mutant mice exhibited formation and subsequent arrest of supernumerary tooth germs that correlated with downregulation of Msx1 expression in the tooth mesenchyme. In addition, we found that the Wnt inhibitors Dkk2 and Wif1 were much more abundantly expressed in the mandibular than maxillary molar mesenchyme in wild-type embryos and that Dkk2 expression was significantly upregulated in the molar mesenchyme in Bmp4f/f;Wnt1Cre embryos, which correlated with the dramatic differences in maxillary and mandibular molar phenotypes in Bmp4f/f;Wnt1Cre mice. Together, these data indicate that Bmp4 signaling suppresses tooth developmental inhibitors in the tooth mesenchyme, including Dkk2 and Osr2, and synergizes with Msx1 to activate mesenchymal odontogenic potential for tooth morphogenesis and sequential tooth formation. PMID:23250216

  6. Bone morphogenetic protein 4 promotes mammalian oogonial stem cell differentiation via Smad1/5/8 signaling.

    PubMed

    Park, Eun-Sil; Woods, Dori C; Tilly, Jonathan L

    2013-11-01

    To test whether bone morphogenetic protein 4 (BMP4) directly regulates differentiation of adult mouse ovary-derived oogonial stem cells (OSCs) in vitro. Animal study. Research laboratory. Adult C57BL/6 female mice. After purification from adult ovaries by fluorescence-activated cell sorting, OSCs were cultured without or with BMP4 in the absence or presence of the BMP4 antagonist, Noggin. Rates of in vitro-derived (IVD) oocyte formation and changes in gene expression were assessed. Cultured OSCs expressed BMP receptor (BMPR) 1A (BMPR1A), BMPR1B, and BMPR2, suggesting that BMP signaling can directly affect OSC function. In agreement with this, BMP4 significantly increased the number of IVD oocytes formed by cultured OSCs in a dose-dependent manner, and this response was inhibited in a dose-dependent fashion by cotreatment with Noggin. Exposure of OSCs to BMP4 was associated with rapid phosphorylation of BMPR-regulated Smad1/5/8 proteins, and this response was followed by increased expression of the meiosis initiation factors, stimulated by retinoic acid gene 8 (Stra8), muscle-segment homeobox 1 (Msx1), and Msx2. In keeping with the IVD oocyte formation data, the ability of BMP4 to activate Smad1/5/8 signaling and meiotic gene expression in OSCs was abolished by cotreatment with Noggin. Engagement of BMP4-mediated signaling in adult mouse ovary-derived OSCs cultured in vitro drives differentiation of these cells into IVD oocytes through Smad1/5/8 activation and transcriptional up-regulation of key meiosis-initiating genes. Copyright © 2013 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Effects of BMP4/SMAD signaling pathway on mouse primordial follicle growth and survival via up-regulation of Sohlh2 and c-kit.

    PubMed

    Ding, Xiangyun; Zhang, Xiaoli; Mu, Yulan; Li, Yi; Hao, Jing

    2013-01-01

    Bone morphogenetic protein 4 (BMP4) is essential for the development of primordial follicles, although its underlying mechanism remains largely unknown. By using cultured ovaries, the effects of BMP4 and the potential signal transduction pathways were investigated. Ovaries from 3-day-old female mouse pups were maintained in organ culture in the absence (control) or presence of BMP4 (100 ng/ml). At different culture time, the effects of BMP4 on primordial follicle growth and survival were assayed by follicle count and TUNEL labeling. The expression of phospho-SMAD1/5/8, Sohlh2, and c-kit were measured by immunohistochemistry, RT-PCR, and Western blotting. Immunohistochemistry was also performed to determine the expression pattern of BMP4, pSMAD1/5/8, Sohlh2, and c-kit in vivo during ovarian development. The results showed treatments of ovaries with BMP4 resulted in a significant (P < 0.05) increase on the primordial-to-primary follicle transition. The oocytes of primordial follicles treated with BMP4 were also less likely to undergo apoptosis. BMP4 enhanced the phosphorylation of SMAD1/5/8 and up-regulated the expression of Sohlh2 and c-kit in primordial follicles. During ovarian development in vivo, Sohlh2, and c-kit exhibited similar expression patterns to BMP4 and pSMAD1/5/8 in primordial follicles. The present studies suggest that BMP4/SMAD signaling pathway initiate primordial follicle growth and prevented oocyte apoptosis via up-regulation of Sohlh2 and c-kit. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. BMP4 is a novel paracrine inhibitor of liver regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Do, Nhue; Zhao, Rong; Ray, Kevin; Ho, Karen; Dib, Martin; Ren, Xianghui; Kuzontkoski, Paula; Terwilliger, Ernest

    2012-01-01

    Transforming growth factor (TGF)-β family members exert strong effects on restoration of liver mass after injury. Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) are members of the TGF-β family and are found in the liver, suggesting that these proteins may play a role in liver regeneration. We examined BMP signaling in the liver during hepatectomy. We found that BMP4 is constitutively expressed in the peribiliary stroma and endothelial cells of the liver and that expression is decreased after hepatectomy. Mice driven to maintain BMP4 expression in the liver display inhibited hepatocyte proliferation and restoration of liver mass after hepatectomy, suggesting that reduced BMP4 is necessary for normal regeneration. Consistent with this finding, hepatocyte-specific deletion of the BMP receptor activin receptor-like kinase 3 (Alk3) enhances regeneration and reduces phosphorylation of SMAD1/5/8, a transducer of BMP signaling. In contrast to experiments in wild-type mice, maintaining BMP4 levels has no effect on liver regeneration in hepatocyte-specific Alk3 null mice, providing evidence that BMP4 signals through Alk3 to inhibit liver regeneration. Consistent with these findings, the BMP4 antagonist Noggin enhances regeneration. Furthermore, high-dose BMP4 inhibits proliferation of primary hepatocytes and HepG2 cells in culture. These findings elucidate a new, potentially clinically relevant paradigm in which a constitutively expressed paracrine inhibitory factor plays a critical role in liver regeneration. PMID:23019195

  9. Haplotype-based gene-gene interaction of bone morphogenetic protein 4 and interferon regulatory factor 6 in the etiology of non-syndromic cleft lip with or without cleft palate in a Chilean population.

    PubMed

    Blanco, Rafael; Colombo, Alicia; Pardo, Rosa; Suazo, José

    2017-04-01

    Non-syndromic cleft lip with or without cleft palate (NSCL/P) is the most common craniofacial birth defect in humans, the etiology of which can be dependent on the interactions of multiple genes. We previously reported haplotype associations for polymorphic variants of interferon regulatory factor 6 (IRF6), msh homeobox 1 (MSX1), bone morphogenetic protein 4 (BMP4), and transforming growth factor beta 3 (TGFB3) in Chile. Here, we analyzed the haplotype-based gene-gene interaction for markers of these genes and NSCL/P risk in the Chilean population. We genotyped 15 single nucleoptide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 152 Chilean patients and 164 controls. Linkage disequilibrium (LD) blocks were determined using the Haploview software, and phase reconstruction was performed by the Phase program. Haplotype-based interactions were evaluated using the multifactor dimensionality reduction (MDR) method. We detected two LD blocks composed of two SNPs from BMP4 (Block 1) and three SNPs from IRF6 (Block 2). Although MDR showed no statistical significance for the global interaction model involving these blocks, we found four combinations conferring a statistically significantly increased NSCL/P risk (Block 1-Block 2): T-T/T-G C-G-T/G-A-T; T-T/T-G C-G-C/C-G-C; T-T/T-G G-A-T/G-A-T; and T-T/C-G G-A-T/G-A-T. These findings may reflect the presence of a genomic region containing potential causal variants interacting in the etiology of NSCL/P and may contribute to disentangling the complex etiology of this birth defect. © 2017 Eur J Oral Sci.

  10. BMP4 density gradient in disk-shaped confinement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bozorgui, Behnaz; Teimouri, Hamid; Kolomeisky, Anatoly B.

    We present a quantitative model that explains the scaling of BMP4 gradients during gastrulation and the recent experimental observation that geometric confinement of human embryonic stem cells is sufficient to recapitulate much of germ layer patterning. Based on a assumption that BMP4 diffusion rate is much smaller than the diffusion rate of it's inhibitor molecules, our results confirm that the length-scale which defines germ layer territories does not depend on system size.

  11. Melatonin receptor activation suppresses adrenocorticotropin production via BMP-4 action by pituitary AtT20 cells.

    PubMed

    Tsukamoto, Naoko; Otsuka, Fumio; Ogura-Ochi, Kanako; Inagaki, Kenichi; Nakamura, Eri; Toma, Kishio; Terasaka, Tomohiro; Iwasaki, Yasumasa; Makino, Hirofumi

    2013-08-15

    The role of melatonin, a regulator of circadian rhythm, in adrenocorticotropin (ACTH) production by corticotrope cells has not been elucidated. In this study, we investigated the effect of melatonin on ACTH production in relation to the biological activity of bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-4 using mouse corticotrope AtT20 cells that express melatonin type-1 (MT1R) but not type-2 (MT2R) receptors. We previously reported that BMP-4 inhibits corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH)-induced ACTH production and proopiomelanocortin (POMC) transcription by inhibiting MAPK signaling. Both melatonin and an MT1R/MT2R agonist, ramelteon, suppressed CRH-induced ACTH production, POMC transcription and cAMP synthesis. The inhibitory effects of ramelteon on basal and CRH-induced POMC mRNA and ACTH levels were more potent than those of melatonin. Treatment with melatonin or ramelteon in combination with BMP-4 additively suppressed CRH-induced ACTH production. Of note, the level of MT1R expression was upregulated by BMP-4 stimulation. The suppressive effects of melatonin and ramelteon on POMC transcription and cAMP synthesis induced by CRH were not affected by an MT2R antagonist, luzindole. On the other hand, BMP-4-induced Smad1/5/8 phosphorylation and the expression of a BMP target gene, Id-1, were augmented in the presence of melatonin and ramelteon. Considering that the expression levels of BMP receptors, ALK-3/BMPRII, were increased by ramelteon, MT1R action may play an enhancing role in BMP-receptor signaling. Among the MT1R signaling pathways including AKT, ERK and JNK pathways, inhibition of AKT signaling functionally reversed the MT1R effects on both CRH-induced POMC transcription and BMP-4-induced Id-1 transcription. Collectively, MT1R signaling and BMP-4 actions were mutually augmented, leading to fine-tuning of ACTH production by corticotrope cells. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Genetic interaction between Bmp2 and Bmp4 reveals shared functions during multiple aspects of mouse organogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Goldman, Devorah C.; Donley, Nathan; Christian, Jan L.

    2010-01-01

    Vertebrate Bmp2 and Bmp4 diverged from a common ancestral gene and encode closely related proteins. Mice homozygous for null mutations in either gene show early embryonic lethality, thereby precluding analysis of shared functions. In the current studies, we present phenotypic analysis of compound mutant mice heterozygous for a null allele of Bmp2 in combination with null or hypomorphic alleles of Bmp4. Whereas mice lacking a single copy of Bmp2 or Bmp4 are viable and have subtle developmental defects, compound mutants show embryonic and postnatal lethality due to defects in multiple organ systems including the allantois, placental vasculature, ventral body wall, skeleton, eye and heart. Within the heart, BMP2 and BMP4 function coordinately to direct normal lengthening of the outflow tract, proper positioning of the outflow vessels, and septation of the atria, ventricle and atrioventricular canal. Our results identify numerous BMP4-dependent developmental processes that are also very sensitive to BMP2 dosage, thus revealing novel functions of Bmp2. PMID:19116164

  13. Involvement of over-expressed BMP4 in pentylenetetrazol kindling-induced cell proliferation in the dentate gyrus of adult rats

    SciTech Connect

    Yin Jinbo; Ma Yuxin; Yin Qing; Xu Haiwei . E-mail: haiweixu2001@yahoo.com.cn; An Ning; Liu Shiyong; Fan Xiaotang; Yang Hui . E-mail: huiyang64@yahoo.com

    2007-03-30

    The dentate gyrus (DG) of the hippocampus is one of a few regions in the adult mammalian brain characterized by ongoing neurogenesis. Proliferation of neural precursors in the granule cell layer of the DG has been identified in pentylenetetrazol (PTZ) kindling epilepsy model, however, little is known about the molecular mechanism. We previously reported that the expression pattern of bone morphogenetic proteins-4 (BMP4) mRNA in the hippocampus was developmentally regulated and mainly localized in the DG of the adult. To explore the role of BMP4 in epileptic activity, we detected BMP4 expression in the DG during PTZ kindling process and explore its correlation with cell proliferation combined with bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) labeling technique. We found that dynamic changes in BMP4 level and BrdU labeled cells dependent on the kindling stage of PTZ induced seizure-prone state. The number of BMP4 mRNA-positive cells and BrdU labeled cells reached the top level 1 day after PTZ kindled, then declined to base level 2 months later. Furthermore, there was a significant correlation between increased BMP4 mRNA expression and increased number of BrdU labeled cells. After effectively blocked expression of BMP4 with antisense oligodeoxynucleotides(ASODN), the BrdU labeled cells in the dentate gyrus subgranular zone(DG-SGZ) and hilus were significantly decreased 16d after First PTZ injection and 1, 3, 7, 14d after kindled respectively. These findings suggest that increased proliferation in the DG of the hippocampus resulted from kindling epilepsy elicited by PTZ maybe be modulated by BMP4 over-expression.

  14. BMP4 and FGF3 haplotypes increase the risk of tendinopathy in volleyball athletes.

    PubMed

    Salles, José Inácio; Amaral, Marcus Vinícius; Aguiar, Diego Pinheiro; Lira, Daisy Anne; Quinelato, Valquiria; Bonato, Letícia Ladeira; Duarte, Maria Eugenia Leite; Vieira, Alexandre Rezende; Casado, Priscila Ladeira

    2015-03-01

    To investigate whether genetic variants can be correlated with tendinopathy in elite male volleyball athletes. Case-control study. Fifteen single nucleotide polymorphisms within BMP4, FGF3, FGF10, FGFR1 genes were investigated in 138 elite volleyball athletes, aged between 18 and 35 years, who undergo 4-5h of training per day: 52 with tendinopathy and 86 with no history of pain suggestive of tendinopathy in patellar, Achilles, shoulder, and hip abductors tendons. The clinical diagnostic criterion was progressive pain during training, confirmed by magnetic resonance image. Genomic DNA was obtained from saliva samples. Genetic markers were genotyped using TaqMan real-time PCR. Chi-square test compared genotypes and haplotype differences between groups. Multivariate logistic regression analyzed the significance of covariates and incidence of tendinopathy. Statistical analysis revealed participant age (p=0.005) and years of practice (p=0.004) were risk factors for tendinopathy. A significant association between BMP4 rs2761884 (p=0.03) and tendinopathy was observed. Athletes with a polymorphic genotype have 2.4 times more susceptibility to tendinopathy (OR=2.39; 95%CI=1.10-5.19). Also, association between disease and haplotype TTGGA in BMP4 (p=0.01) was observed. The FGF3 TGGTA haplotype showed a tendency of association with tendinopathy (p=0.05), and so did FGF10 rs900379. FGFR1 showed no association with disease. These findings indicate that haplotypes in BMP4 and FGF3 genes may contribute to the tendon disease process in elite volleyball athletes. Copyright © 2014 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. BMP4 inhibits PDGF-induced proliferation and collagen synthesis via PKA-mediated inhibition of calpain-2 in pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Cai, Pengcheng; Kovacs, Laszlo; Dong, Sam; Wu, Guangyu; Su, Yunchao

    2017-05-01

    In the present study, we investigated the effect of bone morphogenetic protein 4 (BMP4) on PDGF-induced cell proliferation and collagen synthesis in pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells (PASMCs). Normal human PASMCs were incubated with and without PDGF-BB in the absence and presence of BMP4 for 0.5 to 24 h. The protein levels of collagen-I, p-Smad2/3, p-Smad1/5, and intracellular active TGF-β1, calpain activity, and cell proliferation were then measured. The results showed that BMP4 induced an increase in p-Smad1/5 but had no effect on the protein levels of collagen-I, p-Smad2/3, and intracellular active TGF-β1 and calpain activity in control PASMCs. Nevertheless, BMP4 attenuated increases in cell proliferation and protein levels of collagen-I, p-Smad2/3, and intracellular active TGF-β1 and calpain activity in PASMCs exposed to PDGF-BB. Moreover, BMP4 increased PKA activity and inhibition of PKA prevented the inhibitory effects of BMP4 on PDGF-BB-induced calpain activation in normal PASMCs. The PKA activator forskolin recapitulated the suppressive effect of BMP4 on PDGF-induced calpain activation. Furthermore, BMP4 prevented a PDGF-induced decrease in calpain-2 phosphorylation at serine-369 in normal PASMCs. Finally, BMP4 did not attenuate PDGF-induced increases in cell proliferation, collagen-I protein levels, and calpain activation and did not induce PKA activation and did not prevent a PDGF-induced decrease in calpain-2 phosphorylation at serine-369 in PASMCs from idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) patients. These data demonstrate that BMP4 inhibits PDGF-induced cell proliferation and collagen synthesis via PKA-mediated inhibition of calpain-2 in normal PASMCs. The inhibitory effects of BMP4 on PDGF-induced cell proliferation, collagen synthesis, and calpain-2 activation are impaired in PASMCs from PAH patients, which may contribute to pulmonary vascular remodeling in PAH.

  16. BMP4 signaling mediates Zeb family in developing mouse tooth.

    PubMed

    Shin, Jeong-Oh; Kim, Eun-Jung; Cho, Kyoung-Won; Nakagawa, Eizo; Kwon, Hyuk-Jae; Cho, Sung-Won; Jung, Han-Sung

    2012-06-01

    Tooth morphogenesis is regulated by sequential and reciprocal interaction between oral epithelium and neural-crest-derived ectomesenchyme. The interaction is controlled by various signal molecules such as bone morphogenetic protein (BMP), Hedgehog, fibroblast growth factor (FGF), and Wnt. Zeb family is known as a transcription factor, which is essential for neural development and neural-crest-derived tissues, whereas the role of the Zeb family in tooth development remains unclear. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the expression profiles of Zeb1 and Zeb2 during craniofacial development focusing on mesenchyme of palate, hair follicle, and tooth germ from E12.5 to E16.5. In addition, we examined the interaction between Zeb family and BMP4 during tooth development. Both Zeb1 and Zeb2 were expressed at mesenchyme of the palate, hair follicle, and tooth germ throughout the stages. In the case of tooth germ at the cap stage, the expression of Zeb1 and Zeb2 was lost in epithelium-separated dental mesenchyme. However, the expression of Zeb1 and Zeb2 in the dental mesenchyme was recovered by Bmp4 signaling via BMP4-soaked bead and tissue recombination. Our results suggest that Zeb1 and Zeb2, which were mediated by BMP4, play an important role in neural-crest-derived craniofacial organ morphogenesis, such as tooth development.

  17. Heightened potency of human pluripotent stem cell lines created by transient BMP4 exposure.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ying; Adachi, Katsuyuki; Sheridan, Megan A; Alexenko, Andrei P; Schust, Danny J; Schulz, Laura C; Ezashi, Toshihiko; Roberts, R Michael

    2015-05-05

    Human pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) show epiblast-type pluripotency that is maintained with ACTIVIN/FGF2 signaling. Here, we report the acquisition of a unique stem cell phenotype by both human ES cells (hESCs) and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) in response to transient (24-36 h) exposure to bone morphogenetic protein 4 (BMP4) plus inhibitors of ACTIVIN signaling (A83-01) and FGF2 (PD173074), followed by trypsin dissociation and recovery of colonies capable of growing on a gelatin substratum in standard medium for human PSCs at low but not high FGF2 concentrations. The self-renewing cell lines stain weakly for CDX2 and strongly for NANOG, can be propagated clonally on either Matrigel or gelatin, and are morphologically distinct from human PSC progenitors on either substratum but still meet standard in vitro criteria for pluripotency. They form well-differentiated teratomas in immune-compromised mice that secrete human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) into the host mouse and include small areas of trophoblast-like cells. The cells have a distinct transcriptome profile from the human PSCs from which they were derived (including higher expression of NANOG, LEFTY1, and LEFTY2). In nonconditioned medium lacking FGF2, the colonies spontaneously differentiated along multiple lineages, including trophoblast. They responded to PD173074 in the absence of both FGF2 and BMP4 by conversion to trophoblast, and especially syncytiotrophoblast, whereas an A83-01/PD173074 combination favored increased expression of HLA-G, a marker of extravillous trophoblast. Together, these data suggest that the cell lines exhibit totipotent potential and that BMP4 can prime human PSCs to a self-renewing alternative state permissive for trophoblast development. The results may have implications for regulation of lineage decisions in the early embryo.

  18. BMP4-induced differentiation of a rat spermatogonial stem cell line causes changes in its cell adhesion properties.

    PubMed

    Carlomagno, Gianfranco; van Bragt, Maaike P A; Korver, Cindy M; Repping, Sjoerd; de Rooij, Dirk G; van Pelt, Ans M M

    2010-11-01

    Spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs) are at the basis of the spermatogenic process and are essential for the continuous lifelong production of spermatozoa. Although several factors that govern SSC self-renewal and differentiation have been investigated, the direct effect of such factors on SSCs has not yet been studied, mainly because of the absence of markers to identify SSCs and the lack of effective methods to obtain and culture a pure population of SSCs. We now have used a previously established rat SSC cell line (GC-6spg) to elucidate the role of BMP4 in SSC differentiation. We found that GC-6spg cells cultured in the presence of BMP4 upregulate KIT expression, which is an early marker for differentiating spermatogonia. GC-6spg cells were found to express three BMP4 receptors and the downstream SMAD1/5/8 proteins were phosphorylated during BMP4-induced differentiation. A time-course DNA micro-array analysis revealed a total of 529 differentially regulated transcripts (≥2-fold), including several known downstream targets of BMP4 such as Id2 and Gata2. Pathway analysis revealed that the most affected pathways were those involved in adherens junctions, focal junctions, gap junctions, cell adhesion molecules, and regulation of actin cytoskeleton. Interestingly, among the genes belonging to the most strongly affected adhesion pathways was Cdh1 (known as E-cadherin), an adhesion molecule known to be expressed by a subpopulation of spermatogonia including SSCs. Overall, our results suggest that BMP4 induces early differentiation of SSCs in a direct manner by affecting cell adhesion pathways.

  19. The function of BMP4 during neurogenesis in the adult hippocampus in Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Xu, Haiwei; Huang, Wei; Wang, Yanjiang; Sun, Weizhong; Tang, Jun; Li, Dabing; Xu, Pei; Guo, Liang; Yin, Zheng Qin; Fan, Xiaotang

    2013-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is an age-related, progressive and irreversible neurodegenerative disease that results in the loss of selected neurons throughout the basal forebrain, amygdala, hippocampus, and cortical area as well as progressive deficits of cognition and memory. The subgranular zone (SGZ) of the hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG) is one of the regions where adult neurogenesis occurs in mammals, including humans and non-human primates. The new granule cells, which are the primary excitatory neurons in the DG, contribute to the processes of learning and memory. The changes in neurogenesis observed during the initial stages and progression of AD suggest that the modulation of the new production of neurons at neurogenic sites may exert profound effects on hippocampal function. Bone morphogenetic protein-4 (BMP4) and its antagonist Noggin contribute to the modulation of neurogenesis in the adult hippocampus, thereby affecting hippocampal function. This review focuses on the role of BMP4 and Noggin in the control of the stem and precursor cells in the adult hippocampus during AD and their potential as a possible therapeutic strategy for AD sufferers. It is helpful to extend the understanding of the control of stem cells in the normal and diseased hippocampus.

  20. Molecular cloning and characterization of the protein 4.1O gene, a novel member of the protein 4.1 family with focal expression in ovary.

    PubMed

    Ni, Xiaohua; Ji, Chaoneng; Cao, Gentao; Cheng, Haipeng; Guo, Lingchen; Gu, Shaohua; Ying, Kang; Zhao, Robert C; Mao, Yumin

    2003-01-01

    Protein 4.1 is an important structural protein that is expressed in erythroid and in a variety of nonerythroid tissues. In mammalian erythrocytes, it plays a key role in regulating the physical properties of mechanical stability and deformability in membranes by stabilizing the spectrin-actin interaction. The protein 4.1 family mainly comprises 4.1R, 4.1G (general type), 4.1B (brain type), and 4.1N (neuron type). We identified a novel human 4.1 ( 4.1O) gene that is 2312 bp in length and encodes a protein of 553 amino acid residues. The protein shared homology with mouse protein 4.1B (identity 38%, similarity 55%) with a FERM domain. The expression pattern of the human 4.1O gene in 16 tissues showed that there was a transcript only in ovary, whereas in the remaining 15 tissues, specific bands of the transcript could not be detected. In eight human fetal tissues, the specific bands of the transcript could be detected in skeletal muscle, with lower levels detected in thymus and brain. The 4.1O gene consists of 14 exons and 13 introns and was mapped to Chromosome 9q21-9q22 by bioinformatics analysis.

  1. Noggin and BMP4 co-modulate adult hippocampal neurogenesis in the APP(swe)/PS1(DeltaE9) transgenic mouse model of Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Tang, Jun; Song, Min; Wang, Yanyan; Fan, Xiaotang; Xu, Haiwei; Bai, Yun

    2009-07-31

    In addition to the subventricular zone, the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus is one of the few brain regions in which neurogenesis continues into adulthood. Perturbation of neurogenesis can alter hippocampal function, and previous studies have shown that neurogenesis is dysregulated in Alzheimer disease (AD) brain. Bone morphogenetic protein-4 (BMP4) and its antagonist Noggin have been shown to play important roles both in embryonic development and in the adult nervous system, and may regulate hippocampal neurogenesis. Previous data indicated that increased expression of BMP4 mRNA within the dentate gyrus might contribute to decreased hippocampal cell proliferation in the APP(swe)/PS1(DeltaE9) mouse AD model. However, it is not known whether the BMP antagonist Noggin contributes to the regulation of neurogenesis. We therefore studied the relative expression levels and localization of BMP4 and its antagonist Noggin in the dentate gyrus and whether these correlated with changes in neurogenesis in 6-12 mo old APP(swe)/PS1(DeltaE9) transgenic mice. Bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) was used to label proliferative cells. We report that decreased neurogenesis in the APP/PS1 transgenic mice was accompanied by increased expression of BMP4 and decreased expression of Noggin at both the mRNA and protein levels; statistical analysis showed that the number of proliferative cells at different ages correlated positively with Noggin expression and negatively with BMP4 expression. Intraventricular administration of a chimeric Noggin/Fc protein was used to block the action of endogenous BMP4; this resulted in a significant increase in the number of BrdU-labeled cells in dentate gyrus subgranular zone and hilus in APP/PS1 mice. These results suggest that BMP4 and Noggin co-modulate neurogenesis.

  2. Follistatin-like 1 (Fstl1) is a bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) 4 signaling antagonist in controlling mouse lung development

    PubMed Central

    Geng, Yan; Dong, Yingying; Yu, Mingyan; Zhang, Long; Yan, Xiaohua; Sun, Jingxia; Qiao, Long; Geng, Huixia; Nakajima, Masahiro; Furuichi, Tatsuya; Ikegawa, Shiro; Gao, Xiang; Chen, Ye-Guang; Jiang, Dianhua; Ning, Wen

    2011-01-01

    Lung morphogenesis is a well orchestrated, tightly regulated process through several molecular pathways, including TGF-β/bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling. Alteration of these signaling pathways leads to lung malformation. We investigated the role of Follistatin-like 1 (Fstl1), a secreted follistatin-module–containing glycoprotein, in lung development. Deletion of Fstl1 in mice led to postnatal lethality as a result of respiratory failure. Analysis of the mutant phenotype showed that Fstl1 is essential for tracheal cartilage formation and alveolar maturation. Deletion of the Fstl1 gene resulted in malformed tracheal rings manifested as discontinued rings and reduced ring number. Fstl1-deficient mice displayed septal hypercellularity and end-expiratory atelectasis, which were associated with impaired differentiation of distal alveolar epithelial cells and insufficient production of mature surfactant proteins. Mechanistically, Fstl1 interacted directly with BMP4, negatively regulated BMP4/Smad1/5/8 signaling, and inhibited BMP4-induced surfactant gene expression. Reducing BMP signaling activity by Noggin rescued pulmonary atelectasis of Fstl1-deficient mice. Therefore, we provide in vivo and in vitro evidence to demonstrate that Fstl1 modulates lung development and alveolar maturation, in part, through BMP4 signaling. PMID:21482757

  3. Phylogenetic relationships and the evolution of BMP4 in triggerfishes and filefishes (Balistoidea).

    PubMed

    McCord, Charlene L; Westneat, Mark W

    2016-01-01

    The triggerfishes (family Balistidae) and filefishes (family Monacanthidae) comprise a charismatic superfamily (Balistoidea) within the diverse order Tetraodontiformes. This group of largely marine fishes occupies an impressive ecological range across the world's oceans, and is well known for its locomotor and feeding diversity, unusual body shapes, small genome size, and ecological and economic importance. In order to investigate the evolutionary history of these important fish families, we used multiple phylogenetic methods to analyze molecular data from 86 species spanning the extant biodiversity of Balistidae and Monacanthidae. In addition to three gene regions that have been used extensively in phylogenetic analyses, we include sequence data for two mitochondrial regions, two nuclear markers, and the growth factor gene bmp4, which is involved with cranial development. Phylogenetic analyses strongly support the monophyly of the superfamily Balistoidea, the sister-family relationship of Balistidae and Monacanthidae, as well as three triggerfish and four filefish clades that are well resolved. A new classification for the Balistidae is proposed based on phylogenetic groups. Bayesian topology, as well as the timing of major cladogenesis events, is largely congruent with previous hypotheses of balistid phylogeny. However, we present a novel topology for major clades in the filefish family that illustrate the genera Aluterus and Stephanolepis are more closely related than previously posited. Molecular rates suggest a Miocene and Oligocene origin for the families Balistidae and Monacanthidae, respectively, and significant divergence of species in both families within the past 5 million years. A second key finding of this study is that, relative to the other protein-coding gene regions in our DNA supermatrix, bmp4 shows a rapid accumulation of both synonymous and non-synonymous substitutions, especially within the family Monacanthidae. Overall substitution patterns in

  4. Simvastatin nanoparticles attenuated intestinal ischemia/reperfusion injury by downregulating BMP4/COX-2 pathway in rats

    PubMed Central

    Tong, Fei; Dong, Bo; Chai, Rongkui; Tong, Ke; Wang, Yini; Chen, Shipiao; Zhou, Xinmei; Liu, Daojun

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of the research was to explore the therapeutic action of simvastatin-loaded poly(ethylene glycol)-b-poly(gamma-benzyl l-glutamate) (PEG-b-PBLG50) on intestinal ischemia/reperfusion injury (II/RI) through downregulating bone morphogenetic protein 4 (BMP4)/cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) pathway as compared to free simvastatin (Sim). Sprague Dawley rats were preconditioned with 20 mg/kg Sim or simvastatin/PEG-b-PBLG50 (Sim/P) compounds, and then subjected to 45 min of ischemia and 1 h of reperfusion. The blood and small intestines were collected, serum levels of interleukin-4 (IL-4), interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin-10 (IL-10), tumor necrosis factor-α, and nitric oxide (NO) were checked, and the dry/wet intestine ratios, superoxide dismutase activity, myeloperoxidase content, reactive oxygen species, endothelial nitric oxide synthase, protein 47 kDa phagocyte oxidase (p47phox), BMP4, COX-2, and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38MAPK) expressions were measured in intestinal tissues. Both Sim and Sim/P pretreatment reduced intestinal oxidative damnification, restricted inflammatory harm, and downregulated the BMP4 and COX-2 expressions as compared to II/RI groups, while Sim/P remarkably improved this effect. PMID:28408819

  5. Dynamics and Cellular Localization of Bmp2, Bmp4, and Noggin Transcription in the Postnatal Mouse Skeleton

    PubMed Central

    Pregizer, Steven K.; Mortlock, Douglas P.

    2015-01-01

    Transcription of Bone Morphogenetic Proteins (BMPs) and their antagonists in precise spatiotemporal patterns is essential for proper skeletal development, maturation, maintenance, and repair. Nevertheless, transcriptional activity of these molecules in skeletal tissues beyond embryogenesis has not been well-characterized. In this study, we used several transgenic reporter mouse lines to define the transcriptional activity of two potent BMP ligands, Bmp2 and Bmp4, and their antagonist Noggin in the postnatal skeleton. At 3–4 weeks of age, Bmp4 and Noggin reporter activity was readily apparent in most cells of the osteogenic or chondrogenic lineages, respectively, while Bmp2 reporter activity was strongest in terminally differentiated cells of both lineages. By 5–6 months, activity of the reporters had generally abated; however, the Noggin and Bmp2 reporters remained remarkably active in articular chondrocytes and persisted there indefinitely. We further found that endogenous Bmp2, Bmp4, and Noggin transcript levels in postnatal bone and cartilage mirrored the activity of their respective reporters in these tissues. Finally, we found that the activity of the Bmp2, Bmp4, and Noggin reporters in bone and cartilage at 3–4 weeks could be recapitulated in both osteogenic and chondrogenic culture models. These results reveal that Bmp2, Bmp4, and Noggin transcription persists to varying degrees in skeletal tissues postnatally, with each gene exhibiting its own cell-type specific pattern of activity. Illuminating these patterns and their dynamics will guide future studies aimed at elucidating both the causes and consequences of aberrant BMP signaling in the postnatal skeleton. PMID:25043193

  6. In vitro germ cell differentiation from embryonic stem cells of mice: induction control by BMP4 signalling

    PubMed Central

    Movahedin, Mansoureh; Forouzandeh-Moghadam, Mehdi

    2016-01-01

    The present study aims to confirm and analyse germ cell-related patterns and specific gene expressions at a very early stage of cell commitment. Following the XY cytogenetic confirmation of the CCE mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs) line, cells were cultured to form embryoid bodies (EBs). Expression pattern assessment of the mouse vasa homologue (Mvh), Stra8, α6 and β1 integrin genes in ESC and 1–3-day-old EB showed that all genes except α6 integrin were expressed in the ESC. The mean calibration of Mvh, Stra8 and α6 integrin expression significantly increased upon EB formation compared with the ESCs. During mouse embryogenesis, the signalling of bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) is essential for germ-line formation. To investigate its role in germ-line induction in vitro, mESCs were cultured as 1-day-old EB aggregates with BMP4 for 4 days in STO co-culture systems, in the presence and absence of 5 ng/ml BMP4. At the end of the culture period, colony assay (number and diameter) was performed and the viability percentage and proliferation rate was determined. There were no significant statistical differences in the abovementioned criteria between these two groups. Moreover, the expression of Mvh, α6 and β1 integrins, Stra8 and Piwil2 genes was evaluated in co-culture groups. The molecular results of co-culture groups showed higher–but insignificant–Piwil2 and significant α6 integrin expressions in BMP4 treated co-culture systems. These results confirmed that the EB system and the presence of BMP4 in a STO co-culture system improve the differentiation of ESCs to germ cell. PMID:27694305

  7. Intrasplicing coordinates alternative first exons with alternative splicing in the protein 4.1R gene

    SciTech Connect

    Conboy, John G.; Parra, Marilyn K.; Tan, Jeff S.; Mohandas, Narla; Conboy, John G.

    2008-11-07

    In the protein 4.1R gene, alternative first exons splice differentially to alternative 3' splice sites far downstream in exon 2'/2 (E2'/2). We describe a novel intrasplicing mechanism by which exon 1A (E1A) splices exclusively to the distal E2'/2 acceptor via two nested splicing reactions regulated by novel properties of exon 1B (E1B). E1B behaves as an exon in the first step, using its consensus 5' donor to splice to the proximal E2'/2 acceptor. A long region of downstream intron is excised, juxtaposing E1B with E2'/2 to generate a new composite acceptor containing the E1B branchpoint/pyrimidine tract and E2 distal 3' AG-dinucleotide. Next, the upstream E1A splices over E1B to this distal acceptor, excising the remaining intron plus E1B and E2' to form mature E1A/E2 product. We mapped branch points for both intrasplicing reactions and demonstrated that mutation of the E1B 5' splice site or branchpoint abrogates intrasplicing. In the 4.1R gene, intrasplicing ultimately determines N-terminal protein structure and function. More generally, intrasplicing represents a new mechanism whereby alternative promoters can be coordinated with downstream alternative splicing.

  8. Directed Bmp4 expression in neural crest cells generates a genetic model for the rare human bony syngnathia birth defect

    PubMed Central

    He, Fenglei; Hu, Xuefeng; Xiong, Wei; Li, Lu; Lin, Lisong; Shen, Bin; Yang, Ling; Gu, Shuping; Zhang, Yanding; Chen, YiPing

    2014-01-01

    Congenital bony syngnathia, a rare but severe human birth defect, is characterized by bony fusion of the mandible to the maxilla. However, the genetic mechanisms underlying this birth defect are poorly understood, largely due to limitation of available animal models. Here we present evidence that transgenic expression of Bmp4 in neural crest cells causes a series of craniofacial malformations in mice, including a bony fusion between the maxilla and hypoplastic mandible, resembling the bony syngnathia syndrome in humans. In addition, the anterior portion of the palatal shelves emerged from the mandibular arch instead of the maxilla in the mutants. Gene expression assays showed an altered expression of several facial patterning genes, including Hand2, Dlx2, Msx1, Barx1, Foxc2 and Fgf8, in the maxillary and mandibular processes of the mutants, indicating mis-patterned cranial neural crest (CNC) derived cells in the facial region. However, despite of formation of cleft palate and ectopic cartilage, forced expression of a constitutively active form of BMP receptor-Ia (caBmprIa) in CNC lineage did not produce the syngnathia phenotype, suggesting a non-cell autonomous effect of the augmented BMP4 signaling. Our studies demonstrate that aberrant BMP4-mediated signaling in CNC cells leads to mis-patterned facial skeleton and congenital bony syngnathia, and suggest an implication of mutations in BMP signaling pathway in human bony syngnathia. PMID:24785830

  9. Effects of TGF-beta2, BMP-4, and gremlin in the trabecular meshwork: implications for glaucoma.

    PubMed

    Wordinger, Robert J; Fleenor, Debra L; Hellberg, Peggy E; Pang, Iok-Hou; Tovar, Tara O; Zode, Gulab S; Fuller, John A; Clark, Abbot F

    2007-03-01

    The primary causative factor of primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) is elevated intraocular pressure (IOP) due to increased aqueous humor (AH) outflow resistance, which is associated with morphologic and biochemical changes in the trabecular meshwork (TM). Patients with glaucoma have elevated levels of transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta2 in their AH, and TGF-beta has been shown to increase TM extracellular matrix (ECM) production. The bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling pathway modifies TGF-beta signaling in several different tissues, and a prior study demonstrated that TM cells and tissues express members of the BMP gene family. The purpose of this study was to determine whether BMPs can alter TGF-beta2 signaling in the TM and whether there are defects in BMP signaling in glaucoma. ELISA, Western immunoblot analysis, and immunohistochemistry were used to evaluate the expression of BMP proteins in TM cells and tissues. ELISA was used to determine the effects of TGF-beta2 and BMPs on TM fibronectin (FN) secretion. Gene expression was determined by gene microarrays and quantitative (q)PCR. Perfusion-cultured human anterior segments were used to study the effects of altered BMP signaling on IOP. The human TM synthesized and secreted BMP-4 as well as expressed BMP receptor subtypes BMPRI and BMPRII. TM cells responded to exogenous BMP-4 by phosphorylating Smad signaling proteins. Cultured human TM cells treated with TGF-beta2 significantly increased FN levels, and BMP-4 blocked this FN induction. The expression of BMP family genes in normal and glaucomatous TM cells was profiled and significant elevation of mRNA and protein levels of the BMP antagonist gremlin were found in glaucomatous TM cells. In addition, Gremlin was present in human aqueous humor and in the perfusate medium of perfusion-cultured human eyes. Gremlin blocked the negative effect of BMP-4 on TGF-beta-induction of FN. Recombinant Gremlin added to the medium of ex vivo perfusion-cultured human

  10. mRNA Expression of Ovine Angiopoietin-like Protein 4 Gene in Adipose Tissues.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jing; Jing, Jiong-Jie; Jia, Xia-Li; Qiao, Li-Ying; Liu, Jian-Hua; Liang, Chen; Liu, Wen-Zhong

    2016-05-01

    Angiopoietin-like protein 4 (ANGPTL4) is involved in a variety of functions, including lipoprotein metabolism and angiogenesis. To reveal the role of ANGPTL4 in fat metabolism of sheep, ovine ANGPTL4 mRNA expression was analyzed in seven adipose tissues from two breeds with distinct tail types. Forty-eight animals with the gender ratio of 1:1 for both Guangling Large Tailed (GLT) and Small Tailed Han (STH) sheep were slaughtered at 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, and 12 months of age, respectively. Adipose tissues were collected from greater and lesser omental, subcutaneous, retroperitoneal, perirenal, mesenteric, and tail fats. Ontogenetic mRNA expression of ANGPTL4 in these adipose tissues from GTL and STH was studied by quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction. The results showed that ANGPTL4 mRNA expressed in all adipose tissues studied with the highest in subcutaneous and the lowest in mesenteric fat depots. Months of age, tissue and breed are the main factors that significantly influence the mRNA expression. These results provide new insights into ovine ANGPTL4 gene expression and clues for its function mechanism.

  11. mRNA Expression of Ovine Angiopoietin-like Protein 4 Gene in Adipose Tissues

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jing; Jing, Jiong-Jie; Jia, Xia-Li; Qiao, Li-Ying; Liu, Jian-Hua; Liang, Chen; Liu, Wen-Zhong

    2016-01-01

    Angiopoietin-like protein 4 (ANGPTL4) is involved in a variety of functions, including lipoprotein metabolism and angiogenesis. To reveal the role of ANGPTL4 in fat metabolism of sheep, ovine ANGPTL4 mRNA expression was analyzed in seven adipose tissues from two breeds with distinct tail types. Forty-eight animals with the gender ratio of 1:1 for both Guangling Large Tailed (GLT) and Small Tailed Han (STH) sheep were slaughtered at 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, and 12 months of age, respectively. Adipose tissues were collected from greater and lesser omental, subcutaneous, retroperitoneal, perirenal, mesenteric, and tail fats. Ontogenetic mRNA expression of ANGPTL4 in these adipose tissues from GTL and STH was studied by quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction. The results showed that ANGPTL4 mRNA expressed in all adipose tissues studied with the highest in subcutaneous and the lowest in mesenteric fat depots. Months of age, tissue and breed are the main factors that significantly influence the mRNA expression. These results provide new insights into ovine ANGPTL4 gene expression and clues for its function mechanism. PMID:26954186

  12. Wholemount imaging reveals abnormalities of the aqueous outflow pathway and corneal vascularity in Foxc1 and Bmp4 heterozygous mice.

    PubMed

    van der Merwe, Elizabeth L; Kidson, Susan H

    2016-05-01

    Mutations in the FOXC1/Foxc1 gene in humans and mice and Bmp4 in mice are associated with congenital anterior segment dysgenesis (ASD) and the development of the aqueous outflow structures throughout the limbus. The aim of this study was to advance our understanding of anterior segment abnormalities in mouse models of ASD using a 3-D imaging approach. Holistic imaging information combined with quantitative measurements were carried out on PECAM-1 stained individual components of the aqueous outflow vessels and corneal vasculature of Foxc1(+/-) on the C57BL/6Jx129 and ICR backgrounds, Bmp4(+/-) ICR mice, and wildtype mice from each background. In both wildtype and heterozygotes, singular, bifurcated and plexus forms of Schlemm's canal were noted. Of note, missing portions of the canal were seen in the heterozygous groups but not in wildtype animals. In general, we found the number of collector channels to be reduced in both heterozygotes. Lastly, we found a significant increase in the complexity of the corneal arcades and their penetration into the cornea in heterozygotes as compared with wild types. In conclusion, our 3-D imaging studies have revealed a more complex arrangement of both the aqueous vessels and corneal arcades in Foxc1(+/-) and Bmp4(+/-) heterozygotes, and further advance our understanding of how such abnormalities could impact on IOP and the aetiology of glaucoma.

  13. Bone Morphogenetic Protein 4 Promotes Vascular Smooth Muscle Contractility by Activating MicroRNA-21 (miR-21), which Down-regulates Expression of Family of Dedicator of Cytokinesis (DOCK) Proteins*

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Hara; Davis-Dusenbery, Brandi N.; Nguyen, Peter H.; Lal, Ashish; Lieberman, Judy; Van Aelst, Linda; Lagna, Giorgio; Hata, Akiko

    2012-01-01

    The bone morphogenetic protein 4 (BMP4) signaling pathway plays a critical role in the promotion and maintenance of the contractile phenotype in vascular smooth muscle cell (vSMC). Misexpression or inactivating mutations of the BMP receptor gene can lead to dedifferentiation of vSMC characterized by increased migration and proliferation that is linked to vascular proliferative disorders. Previously we demonstrated that vSMCs increase microRNA-21 (miR-21) biogenesis upon BMP4 treatment, which induces contractile gene expression by targeting programmed cell death 4 (PDCD4). To identify novel targets of miR-21 that are critical for induction of the contractile phenotype by BMP4, biotinylated miR-21 was expressed in vSMCs followed by an affinity purification of mRNAs associated with miR-21. Nearly all members of the dedicator of cytokinesis (DOCK) 180-related protein superfamily were identified as targets of miR-21. Down-regulation of DOCK4, -5, and -7 by miR-21 inhibited cell migration and promoted cytoskeletal organization by modulating an activity of small GTPase. Thus, this study uncovers a regulatory mechanism of the vSMC phenotype by the BMP4-miR-21 axis through DOCK family proteins. PMID:22158624

  14. Bone morphogenetic protein 4 promotes vascular smooth muscle contractility by activating microRNA-21 (miR-21), which down-regulates expression of family of dedicator of cytokinesis (DOCK) proteins.

    PubMed

    Kang, Hara; Davis-Dusenbery, Brandi N; Nguyen, Peter H; Lal, Ashish; Lieberman, Judy; Van Aelst, Linda; Lagna, Giorgio; Hata, Akiko

    2012-02-03

    The bone morphogenetic protein 4 (BMP4) signaling pathway plays a critical role in the promotion and maintenance of the contractile phenotype in vascular smooth muscle cell (vSMC). Misexpression or inactivating mutations of the BMP receptor gene can lead to dedifferentiation of vSMC characterized by increased migration and proliferation that is linked to vascular proliferative disorders. Previously we demonstrated that vSMCs increase microRNA-21 (miR-21) biogenesis upon BMP4 treatment, which induces contractile gene expression by targeting programmed cell death 4 (PDCD4). To identify novel targets of miR-21 that are critical for induction of the contractile phenotype by BMP4, biotinylated miR-21 was expressed in vSMCs followed by an affinity purification of mRNAs associated with miR-21. Nearly all members of the dedicator of cytokinesis (DOCK) 180-related protein superfamily were identified as targets of miR-21. Down-regulation of DOCK4, -5, and -7 by miR-21 inhibited cell migration and promoted cytoskeletal organization by modulating an activity of small GTPase. Thus, this study uncovers a regulatory mechanism of the vSMC phenotype by the BMP4-miR-21 axis through DOCK family proteins.

  15. bmp2b and bmp4 are dispensable for zebrafish tooth development.

    PubMed

    Wise, Sarah B; Stock, David W

    2010-10-01

    Bone morphogenetic protein (Bmp) signaling has been shown to play important roles in tooth development at virtually all stages from initiation to hard tissue formation. The specific ligands involved in these processes have not been directly tested by loss-of-function experiments, however. We used morpholino antisense oligonucleotides and mutant analysis in the zebrafish to reduce or eliminate the function of bmp2b and bmp4, two ligands known to be expressed in zebrafish teeth and whose mammalian orthologs are thought to play important roles in tooth development. Surprisingly, we found that elimination of function of these two genes singly and in combination did not prevent the formation of mature, attached teeth. The mostly likely explanation for this result is functional redundancy with other Bmp ligands, which may differ between the zebrafish and the mouse.

  16. BMP4 increases expression of HMGA2 in mesenchymal stem cells.

    PubMed

    Markowski, Dominique Nadine; Helmke, Burkhard Maria; Meyer, Frauke; von Ahsen, Inga; Nimzyk, Rolf; Nolte, Ingo; Bullerdiek, Jörn

    2011-12-01

    BMP4 has been linked to early steps of adipocyte lineage differentiation but only little is known about its corresponding downstream pathways. Herein, we have investigated whether or not the expression of high mobility group protein HMGA2, another protein linked to proliferation and differentiation within the process of adipogenesis, may be influenced by BMP4 signaling in adipose tissue derived stem cells. Compared to FGF1, a strong inducer of HMGA2 in immortalized pre-adipocytes, BMP4 was found moderately to induce the HMGA2 mRNA expression in serum starved adipose tissue derived stem cells and myometrial cells. In contrast, no such activity was noted in canine bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells. As to adipocyte lineage differentiation the functions of BMP4 and HMGA2 mechanistically overlap. Thus, we propose that in adipose tissue BMP4 acts in part by activating HMGA2 making this architectural transcription factor one of the major downstream players in that system.

  17. Retinol binding protein 4 as a candidate gene for type 2 diabetes and prediabetic intermediate traits.

    PubMed

    Craig, Rebekah L; Chu, Winston S; Elbein, Steven C

    2007-03-01

    Serum retinol binding protein 4 (RBP4) was recently described as a new adipokine that reduced peripheral and hepatic insulin sensitivity and increased hepatic gluconeogenesis. The RBP4 gene maps to 10q23-24, near a region linked to T2DM in Caucasian and Mexican American populations. Hence, sequence variants that alter RBP4 expression or function could increase T2DM susceptibility and reduce insulin sensitivity. We screened the 6 exons, flanking intronic sequence, and 5' and 3' flanking sequences in 48 Caucasian and 48 African American subjects. We identified 21 SNPs, of which 8 were unique to the African American population. Additional public database SNPs were chosen for regions not screened. We selected SNPs for typing based on frequency, linkage disequilibrium, and location in a putative functional or conserved region. We typed 10 SNPs in 191 Caucasians with T2DM and a family history of T2DM, and 188 euglycemic controls with no family history of diabetes. We similarly typed 14 variants in 182 controls and 353 diabetic individuals of African American ancestry. No single variant was associated with type 2 diabetes in either population (p>0.15 in African Americans, p>0.09 in Caucasians), but a haplotype of 8 common SNPs in Caucasians was significantly increased in type 2 diabetics compared with controls (0.137 vs. 0.076, p=0.008). Furthermore, SNPs -804 and +9476 were associated with reduced insulin secretion, (p=0.01 and 0.001, respectively), and SNP +390 with reduced insulin sensitivity (p=0.0005) in Caucasians. Our data suggest that noncoding SNPs may increase diabetes susceptibility in Caucasians and may contribute to insulin resistance and reduced insulin secretion.

  18. Abrogation of epithelial BMP2 and BMP4 causes Amelogenesis Imperfecta by reducing MMP20 and KLK4 expression.

    PubMed

    Xie, Xiaohua; Liu, Chao; Zhang, Hua; Jani, Priyam H; Lu, Yongbo; Wang, Xiaofang; Zhang, Bin; Qin, Chunlin

    2016-05-05

    Amelogenesis Imperfecta (AI) can be caused by the deficiencies of enamel matrix proteins, molecules responsible for the transportation and secretion of enamel matrix components, and proteases processing enamel matrix proteins. In the present study, we discovered the double deletion of bone morphogenetic protein 2 (Bmp2) and bone morphogenetic protein 4 (Bmp4) in the dental epithelium by K14-cre resulted in hypoplastic enamel and reduced density in X-ray radiography as well as shortened enamel rods under scanning electron microscopy. Such enamel phenotype was consistent with the diagnosis of hypoplastic amelogenesis imperfecta. Histological and molecular analyses revealed that the removal of matrix proteins in the mutant enamel was drastically delayed, which was coincided with the greatly reduced expression of matrix metalloproteinase 20 (MMP20) and kallikrein 4 (KLK4). Although the expression of multiple enamel matrix proteins was down-regulated in the mutant ameloblasts, the cleavage of ameloblastin was drastically impaired. Therefore, we attributed the AI primarily to the reduction of MMP20 and KLK4. Further investigation found that BMP/Smad4 signaling pathway was down-regulated in the K14-cre;Bmp2(f/f);Bmp4(f/f)ameloblasts, suggesting that the reduced MMP20 and KLK4 expression may be due to the attenuated epithelial BMP/Smad4 signaling.

  19. Abrogation of epithelial BMP2 and BMP4 causes Amelogenesis Imperfecta by reducing MMP20 and KLK4 expression

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Xiaohua; Liu, Chao; Zhang, Hua; Jani, Priyam H.; Lu, Yongbo; Wang, Xiaofang; Zhang, Bin; Qin, Chunlin

    2016-01-01

    Amelogenesis Imperfecta (AI) can be caused by the deficiencies of enamel matrix proteins, molecules responsible for the transportation and secretion of enamel matrix components, and proteases processing enamel matrix proteins. In the present study, we discovered the double deletion of bone morphogenetic protein 2 (Bmp2) and bone morphogenetic protein 4 (Bmp4) in the dental epithelium by K14-cre resulted in hypoplastic enamel and reduced density in X-ray radiography as well as shortened enamel rods under scanning electron microscopy. Such enamel phenotype was consistent with the diagnosis of hypoplastic amelogenesis imperfecta. Histological and molecular analyses revealed that the removal of matrix proteins in the mutant enamel was drastically delayed, which was coincided with the greatly reduced expression of matrix metalloproteinase 20 (MMP20) and kallikrein 4 (KLK4). Although the expression of multiple enamel matrix proteins was down-regulated in the mutant ameloblasts, the cleavage of ameloblastin was drastically impaired. Therefore, we attributed the AI primarily to the reduction of MMP20 and KLK4. Further investigation found that BMP/Smad4 signaling pathway was down-regulated in the K14-cre;Bmp2f/f;Bmp4f/fameloblasts, suggesting that the reduced MMP20 and KLK4 expression may be due to the attenuated epithelial BMP/Smad4 signaling. PMID:27146352

  20. Noggin and BMP4 co-modulate adult hippocampal neurogenesis in the APP{sub swe}/PS1{sub {Delta}E9} transgenic mouse model of Alzheimer's disease

    SciTech Connect

    Tang, Jun; Song, Min; Wang, Yanyan; Fan, Xiaotang; Xu, Haiwei; Bai, Yun

    2009-07-31

    In addition to the subventricular zone, the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus is one of the few brain regions in which neurogenesis continues into adulthood. Perturbation of neurogenesis can alter hippocampal function, and previous studies have shown that neurogenesis is dysregulated in Alzheimer disease (AD) brain. Bone morphogenetic protein-4 (BMP4) and its antagonist Noggin have been shown to play important roles both in embryonic development and in the adult nervous system, and may regulate hippocampal neurogenesis. Previous data indicated that increased expression of BMP4 mRNA within the dentate gyrus might contribute to decreased hippocampal cell proliferation in the APP{sub swe}/PS1{sub {Delta}E9} mouse AD model. However, it is not known whether the BMP antagonist Noggin contributes to the regulation of neurogenesis. We therefore studied the relative expression levels and localization of BMP4 and its antagonist Noggin in the dentate gyrus and whether these correlated with changes in neurogenesis in 6-12 mo old APP{sub swe}/PS1{sub {Delta}E9} transgenic mice. Bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) was used to label proliferative cells. We report that decreased neurogenesis in the APP/PS1 transgenic mice was accompanied by increased expression of BMP4 and decreased expression of Noggin at both the mRNA and protein levels; statistical analysis showed that the number of proliferative cells at different ages correlated positively with Noggin expression and negatively with BMP4 expression. Intraventricular administration of a chimeric Noggin/Fc protein was used to block the action of endogenous BMP4; this resulted in a significant increase in the number of BrdU-labeled cells in dentate gyrus subgranular zone and hilus in APP/PS1 mice. These results suggest that BMP4 and Noggin co-modulate neurogenesis.

  1. Activin and Bmp4 Signaling Converge on Wnt Activation during Odontogenesis.

    PubMed

    Kwon, H-J E; Jia, S; Lan, Y; Liu, H; Jiang, R

    2017-09-01

    Previous studies show that both activin and Bmp4 act as crucial mesenchymal odontogenic signals during early tooth development. Remarkably, mice lacking activin-βA ( Inhba(-/-)) and mice with neural crest-specific inactivation of Bmp4 ( Bmp4(ncko/ncko)) both exhibit bud-stage developmental arrest of the mandibular molar tooth germs while their maxillary molar tooth germs completed morphogenesis. In this study, we found that, whereas expression of Inhba and Bmp4 in the developing tooth mesenchyme is independent of each other, Bmp4(ncko/ncko)Inhba(-/-) compound mutant mice exhibit early developmental arrest of all tooth germs. Moreover, genetic inactivation of Osr2, a negative regulator of the odontogenic function of the Bmp4-Msx1 signaling pathway, rescues mandibular molar morphogenesis in Inhba(-/-) embryos. We recently reported that Osr2 and the Bmp4-Msx1 pathway control the bud-to-cap transition of tooth morphogenesis through antagonistic regulation of expression of secreted Wnt antagonists, including Dkk2 and Sfrp2, in the developing tooth mesenchyme. We show here that expression of Dkk2 messenger RNAs was significantly upregulated and expanded into the tooth bud mesenchyme in Inhba(-/-) embryos in comparison with wild-type littermates. Furthermore, in utero treatment with either lithium chloride, an agonist of canonical Wnt signaling, or the DKK inhibitor IIIC3a rescued mandibular molar tooth morphogenesis in Inhba(-/-) embryos. Together with our finding that the developing mandibular molar tooth bud mesenchyme expresses significantly higher levels of Dkk2 than the developing maxillary molar tooth mesenchyme, these data indicate that Bmp4 and activin signaling pathways converge on activation of the Wnt signaling pathway to promote tooth morphogenesis through the bud-to-cap transition and that the differential effects of loss of activin or Bmp4 signaling on maxillary and mandibular molar tooth morphogenesis are mainly due to the differential expression of Wnt

  2. Ectopic expression of DAZL gene in goat bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells enhances the trans-differentiation to putative germ cells compared to the exogenous treatment of retinoic acid or bone morphogenetic protein 4 signalling molecules.

    PubMed

    Yan, Guangyao; Fan, Yixuan; Li, Peizhen; Zhang, YanLi; Wang, Feng

    2015-01-01

    The plasticity of human and murine bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) has been proven by their ability to trans-differentiate to multilineage cells, including germ cells. We have investigated ability of goat BMSCs to trans-differentiate to germ cells with extrinsic (e.g., retinoic acid [RA] and BMP4 signalling molecules) and intrinsic factor expression (e.g., DAZL gene ectopic expression). Having optimized the concentration of RA and BMP4, gBMSCs were treated with RA 1 µM) and BMP4 (25 ng/mL), individually and collectively. Both RA and BMP4 induced OCT4, MVH, DAZL, STELLA, NANOG and C-KIT expression, but RNF17, PIWIL2, STRA8, and SCP3 were only expressed after RA treatment. In terms of an endogenous factor, a germ cell specific gene, deleted in Azoospermia-like (DAZL), was overexpressed by plasmid and mRNA techniques. Compared with the RA treated group, DAZL ectopic expression upregulated the transcription and translation of MVH, and SCP3 was also increased at the mRNA level. The mRNA-based method had more effect on the germ cells gene expression compared to the plasmid method. Ectopic expression of the DAZL gene enhanced trans-differentiation compared to the RA-treated group. Knockdown experiments confirmed the pivotal role of DAZL in germ cell differentiation. This study provides further information on the mechanisms underlying the spermatogenesis, which will guide the derivation of post-meiotic germ cells from adult stem cells in vitro. © 2014 International Federation for Cell Biology.

  3. Transcriptional regulation of bone morphogenetic protein 4 by tumor necrosis factor and its relationship with age-related macular degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Jing; Zhu, Danhong; He, Shikun; Spee, Christine; Ryan, Stephen J.; Hinton, David R.

    2011-01-01

    Bone morphogenetic protein-4 (BMP4) may be involved in the molecular switch that determines which late form of age-related macular degeneration (AMD) an individual develops. BMP4 expression is high in retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) cells in late, dry AMD patients, while BMP4 expression is low in the wet form of the disease, characterized by choroidal neovascularization (CNV). Here, we sought to determine the mechanism by which BMP4 is down-regulated in CNV. BMP4 expression was decreased within laser-induced CNV lesions in mice at a time when tumor necrosis factor (TNF) expression was high (7 d postlaser) and was reexpressed in RPE when TNF levels declined (14 d postlaser). We found that TNF, an important angiogenic stimulus, significantly down-regulates BMP4 expression in cultured human fetal RPE cells, ARPE-19 cells, and RPE cells in murine posterior eye cup explants. We identified two specificity protein 1 (Sp1) binding sites in the BMP4 promoter that are required for basal expression of BMP4 and its down-regulation by TNF. Through c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK) activation, TNF modulates Sp1 phosphorylation, thus decreasing its affinity to the BMP4 promoter. The down-regulation of BMP4 expression by TNF in CNV and mechanisms established might be useful for defining novel targets for AMD therapy.—Xu, J., Zhu, D., He, S., Spee, C., Ryan, S. J., Hinton, D. R. Transcriptional regulation of bone morphogenetic protein 4 by tumor necrosis factor and its relationship with age-related macular degeneration. PMID:21411747

  4. Characterization and cloning of a receptor for BMP-2 and BMP-4 from NIH 3T3 cells.

    PubMed Central

    Koenig, B B; Cook, J S; Wolsing, D H; Ting, J; Tiesman, J P; Correa, P E; Olson, C A; Pecquet, A L; Ventura, F; Grant, R A

    1994-01-01

    The bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) are a group of transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta)-related factors whose only receptor identified to date is the product of the daf-4 gene from Caenorhabditis elegans. Mouse embryonic NIH 3T3 fibroblasts display high-affinity 125I-BMP-4 binding sites. Binding assays are not possible with the isoform 125I-BMP-2 unless the positively charged N-terminal sequence is removed to create a modified BMP-2, 125I-DR-BMP-2. Cross-competition experiments reveal that BMP-2 and BMP-4 interact with the same binding sites. Affinity cross-linking assays show that both BMPs interact with cell surface proteins corresponding in size to the type I (57- to 62-kDa) and type II (75- to 82-kDa) receptor components for TGF-beta and activin. Using a PCR approach, we have cloned a cDNA from NIH 3T3 cells which encodes a novel member of the transmembrane serine/threonine kinase family most closely resembling the cloned type I receptors for TGF-beta and activin. Transient expression of this receptor in COS-7 cells leads to an increase in specific 125I-BMP-4 binding and the appearance of a major affinity-labeled product of approximately 64 kDa that can be labeled by either tracer. This receptor has been named BRK-1 in recognition of its ability to bind BMP-2 and BMP-4 and its receptor kinase structure. Although BRK-1 does not require cotransfection of a type II receptor in order to bind ligand in COS cells, complex formation between BRK-1 and the BMP type II receptor DAF-4 can be demonstrated when the two receptors are coexpressed, affinity labeled, and immunoprecipitated with antibodies to either receptor subunit. We conclude that BRK-1 is a putative BMP type I receptor capable of interacting with a known type II receptor for BMPs. Images PMID:8065329

  5. BMP2/BMP4 colorectal cancer susceptibility loci in northern and southern European populations.

    PubMed

    Fernandez-Rozadilla, Ceres; Palles, Claire; Carvajal-Carmona, Luis; Peterlongo, Paolo; Nici, Carmela; Veneroni, Silvia; Pinheiro, Manuela; Teixeira, Manuel R; Moreno, Victor; Lamas, Maria-Jesus; Baiget, Montserrat; Lopez-Fernandez, L A; Gonzalez, Dolors; Brea-Fernandez, Alejandro; Clofent, Juan; Bujanda, Luis; Bessa, Xavier; Andreu, Montserrat; Xicola, Rosa; Llor, Xavier; Jover, Rodrigo; Castells, Antoni; Castellvi-Bel, Sergi; Carracedo, Angel; Tomlinson, Ian; Ruiz-Ponte, Clara

    2013-02-01

    Genome-wide association studies have successfully identified 20 colorectal cancer susceptibility loci. Amongst these, four of the signals are defined by tagging single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) on regions 14q22.2 (rs4444235 and rs1957636) and 20p12.3 (rs961253 and rs4813802). These markers are located close to two of the genes involved in bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling (BMP4 and BMP2, respectively). By investigating these four SNPs in an initial cohort of Spanish origin, we found substantial evidence that minor allele frequencies (MAFs) may be different in northern and southern European populations. Therefore, we genotyped three additional southern European cohorts comprising a total of 2028 cases and 4273 controls. The meta-analysis results show that only one of the association signals (rs961253) is effectively replicated in the southern European populations, despite adequate power to detect all four. The other three SNPs (rs4444235, rs1957636 and rs4813802) presented discordant results in MAFs and linkage disequilibrium patterns between northern and southern European cohorts. We hypothesize that this lack of replication could be the result of differential tagging of the functional variant in both sets of populations. Were this true, it would have complex consequences in both our ability to understand the nature of the real causative variants, as well as for further study designs.

  6. RETRACTED: Bone morphogenetic protein 4 (BMP4) induces buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) embryonic stem cell differentiation into germ cells.

    PubMed

    Shah, Syed Mohmad; Saini, Neha; Ashraf, Syma; Singh, Manoj Kumar; Manik, Radhey Sham; Singla, Suresh Kumar; Palta, Prabhat; Chauhan, Manmohan Singh

    2015-12-01

    This article has been retracted: please see Elsevier Policy on Article Withdrawal (http://www.elsevier.com/locate/withdrawalpolicy). This article has been retracted at the request of the Editor-in-Chief. Problems related to images published in this paper in Figure 12 were brought to the authors' attention. Unfortunately this figure contains duplicate images for ESC controls for VASA, GDF9, and ZP4, which display identical patterns superimposed on varying intensities of background. Therefore, the authors retract the paper with the agreement of the editors and deeply regret this situation and apologize for any inconvenience to the editors and readers of Biochimie. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. and Société Française de Biochimie et Biologie Moléculaire (SFBBM). All rights reserved.

  7. Alternative polyadenylation in a family of paralogous EPB41 genes generates protein 4.1 diversity.

    PubMed

    Rangel, Laura; Lospitao, Eva; Ruiz-Sáenz, Ana; Alonso, Miguel A; Correas, Isabel

    2017-02-01

    Alternative polyadenylation (APA) is a step in mRNA 3'-end processing that contributes to the complexity of the transcriptome by generating isoforms that differ in either their coding sequence or their 3'-untranslated regions (UTRs). The EPB41 genes, EPB41, EPB41L2, EPB41L3 and EPB41L1, encode an impressively complex array of structural adaptor proteins (designated 4.1R, 4.1G, 4.1B and 4.1N, respectively) by using alternative transcriptional promoters and tissue-specific alternative pre-mRNA splicing. The great variety of 4.1 proteins mainly results from 5'-end and internal processing of the EPB41 pre-mRNAs. Thus, 4.1 proteins can vary in their N-terminal extensions but all contain a highly homologous C-terminal domain (CTD). Here we study a new group of EPB41-related mRNAs that originate by APA and lack the exons encoding the CTD characteristic of prototypical 4.1 proteins, thereby encoding a new type of 4.1 protein. For the EPB41 gene, this type of processing was observed in all 11 human tissues analyzed. Comparative genomic analysis of EPB41 indicates that APA is conserved in various mammals. In addition, we show that APA also functions for the EPB41L2, EPB41L3 and EPB41L1 genes, but in a more restricted manner in the case of the latter 2 than it does for the EPB41 and EPB41L2 genes. Our study shows alternative polyadenylation to be an additional mechanism for the generation of 4.1 protein diversity in the already complex EPB41-related genes. Understanding the diversity of EPB41 RNA processing is essential for a full appreciation of the many 4.1 proteins expressed in normal and pathological tissues.

  8. Lin28 regulates BMP4 and functions with Oct4 to affect ovarian tumor microenvironment

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Wei; Ma, Jing; Xu, Jie; Qiao, Chong; Branscum, Adam; Cardenas, Andres; Baron, Andre T.; Schwartz, Peter; Maihle, Nita J.; Huang, Yingqun

    2013-01-01

    Emerging evidence suggests that the tumor microenvironment plays a critical role in regulating cancer stem cells (CSCs) and tumor progression through both autocrine and paracrine signaling. Elevated production of bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) from human ovarian cancer cells and stroma has been shown to increase CSC proliferation and tumor growth. Here, we report that Lin28, a stem cell factor, binds to BMP4 mRNA in epithelial ovarian carcinoma cells, thereby promoting BMP4 expression at the post-transcriptional level. As co-expression of Lin28 and Oct4 (another stem cell factor) has been implicated in ovarian cancer CSCs, we also determined that high levels of Lin28 are associated with an unfavorable prognosis when co-expressed with high levels of Oct4. Together, these findings uncover a new level of regulation of BMP4 expression and imply a novel Lin28/Oct4/BMP4-mediated mechanism of regulating ovarian tumor cell growth, thus holding potential for the development of new strategies for the diagnosis and treatment of ovarian cancer. PMID:23255092

  9. BMP4 signalling directs primitive endoderm-derived XEN cells to an extraembryonic visceral endoderm identity

    PubMed Central

    Artus, Jérôme; Douvaras, Panagiotis; Piliszek, Anna; Isern, Joan; Baron, Margaret H.; Hadjantonakis, Anna-Katerina

    2011-01-01

    The visceral endoderm (VE) is an epithelial tissue in the early postimplantation mouse embryo that encapsulates the pluripotent epiblast distally and the extraembryonic ectoderm proximally. In addition to facilitating nutrient exchange before the establishment of a circulation, the VE is critical for patterning the epiblast. Since VE is derived from the primitive endoderm (PrE) of the blastocyst, and PrE-derived eXtraembryonic ENdoderm (XEN) cells can be propagated in vitro, XEN cells should provide an important tool for identifying factors that direct VE differentiation. In this study, we demonstrated that BMP4 signalling induces the formation of a polarized epithelium in XEN cells. This morphological transition was reversible, and was associated with the acquisition of a molecular signature comparable to extraembryonic (ex) VE. Resembling exVE which will form the endoderm of the visceral yolk sac, BMP4-treated XEN cells regulated hematopoiesis by stimulating the expansion of primitive erythroid progenitors. We also observed that LIF exerted an antagonistic effect on BMP4-induced XEN cell differentiation, thereby impacting the extrinsic conditions used for the isolation and maintenance of XEN cells in an undifferentiated state. Taken together, our data suggest that XEN cells can be differentiated towards an exVE identity upon BMP4 stimulation, and therefore represent a valuable tool for investigating PrE lineage differentiation. PMID:22051107

  10. BMP4 inhibits breast cancer metastasis by blocking myeloid-derived suppressor cell activity.

    PubMed

    Cao, Yuan; Slaney, Clare Y; Bidwell, Bradley N; Parker, Belinda S; Johnstone, Cameron N; Rautela, Jai; Eckhardt, Bedrich L; Anderson, Robin L

    2014-09-15

    The TGFβ growth factor family member BMP4 is a potent suppressor of breast cancer metastasis. In the mouse, the development of highly metastatic mammary tumors is associated with an accumulation of myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC), the numbers of which are reduced by exogenous BMP4 expression. MDSCs are undetectable in naïve mice but can be induced by treatment with granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF/Csf3) or by secretion of G-CSF from the tumor. Both tumor-induced and G-CSF-induced MDSCs effectively suppress T-cell activation and proliferation, leading to metastatic enhancement. BMP4 reduces the expression and secretion of G-CSF by inhibiting NF-κB (Nfkb1) activity in human and mouse tumor lines. Because MDSCs correlate with poor prognosis in patients with breast cancer, therapies based on activation of BMP4 signaling may offer a novel treatment strategy for breast cancer. Cancer Res; 74(18); 5091-102. ©2014 AACR.

  11. Ontogenic expression pattern and genetic polymorphisms of the retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4) gene in Erlang mountainous chickens.

    PubMed

    Yin, Hua-Dong; Gilbert, Elizabeth R; Chen, Shi-Yi; Li, Di-Yan; Zhang, Zhi-Chao; Wang, Yan; Liu, Yi-Ping; Zhu, Qing

    2013-09-10

    Retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4) is the only circulatory transport protein for vitamin A. Based on the essential role of vitamin A in chicken reproduction, we measured RBP4 mRNA abundance in Erlang mountainous chickens. We also identified and analyzed the gene polymorphism and its effect on reproduction traits among 349 chickens. The expression of RBP4 mRNA showed specific developmental changes and striking differences among tissues. The mRNA abundance was greatest (P<0.05) in the liver, intermediate in the ovary, kidney, small intestine, oviduct and heart, and lowest in the hypothalamus and pituitary, as compared to all other tissues (P<0.05). We detected one single nucleotide polymorphism (g.19942455C>G) in intron 2 of the RBP4 gene. Three genotypes (CC, CG and GG) were identified, with a significant effect of genotype on the age at first egg (AFE), first egg weight (FEW), total eggs at 300 days (TE300), highest continuous laying days (HCLD) and average laying interval (ALI). The GG genotype, where chickens display earlier AFE, more TE300, longer HCLD and shorter ALI, would be genetically advantageous and its selection may improve reproduction traits. These results suggested that the RBP4 gene might play an important role in reproduction traits in chickens.

  12. Boldine improves endothelial function in diabetic db/db mice through inhibition of angiotensin II-mediated BMP4-oxidative stress cascade

    PubMed Central

    Lau, Yeh Siang; Tian, Xiao Yu; Mustafa, Mohd Rais; Murugan, Dharmani; Liu, Jian; Zhang, Yang; Lau, Chi Wai; Huang, Yu

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Boldine is a potent natural antioxidant present in the leaves and bark of the Chilean boldo tree. Here we assessed the protective effects of boldine on endothelium in a range of models of diabetes, ex vivo and in vitro. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH Vascular reactivity was studied in mouse aortas from db/db diabetic and normal mice. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, angiotensin AT1 receptor localization and protein expression of oxidative stress markers in the vascular wall were evaluated by dihydroethidium fluorescence, lucigenin enhanced-chemiluminescence, immunohistochemistry and Western blot respectively. Primary cultures of mouse aortic endothelial cells, exposed to high concentrations of glucose (30 mmol L−1) were also used. KEY RESULTS Oral treatment (20 mg kg−1day−1, 7 days) or incubation in vitro with boldine (1 μmol L−1, 12 h) enhanced endothelium-dependent aortic relaxations of db/db mice. Boldine reversed impaired relaxations induced by high glucose or angiotensin II (Ang II) in non-diabetic mouse aortas while it reduced the overproduction of ROS and increased phosphorylation of eNOS in db/db mouse aortas. Elevated expression of oxidative stress markers (bone morphogenic protein 4 (BMP4), nitrotyrosine and AT1 receptors) were reduced in boldine-treated db/db mouse aortas. Ang II-stimulated BMP4 expression was inhibited by boldine, tempol, noggin or losartan. Boldine inhibited high glucose-stimulated ROS production and restored the decreased phosphorylation of eNOS in mouse aortic endothelial cells in culture. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS Boldine reduced oxidative stress and improved endothelium-dependent relaxation in aortas of diabetic mice largely through inhibiting ROS overproduction associated with Ang II-mediated BMP4-dependent mechanisms. PMID:23992296

  13. BMP4 is a peripherally-derived factor for motor neurons and attenuates glutamate-induced excitotoxicity in vitro.

    PubMed

    Chou, Hui-Ju; Lai, Dar-Ming; Huang, Cheng-Wen; McLennan, Ian S; Wang, Horng-Dar; Wang, Pei-Yu

    2013-01-01

    Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs), members of the transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β) superfamily, have been shown to play important roles in the nervous system, including neuronal survival and synaptogenesis. However, the physiological functions of BMP signaling in the mammalian neuromuscular system are not well understood. In this study, we found that proteins of the type II bone morphogenetic receptors (BMPRII) were detected at the neuromuscular junction (NMJ), and one of its ligands, BMP4, was expressed by Schwann cells and skeletal muscle fibers. In double-ligated nerves, BMP4 proteins accumulated at the proximal and distal portions of the axons, suggesting that Schwann cell- and muscle fiber-derived BMP4 proteins were anterogradely and retrogradely transported by motor neurons. Furthermore, BMP4 mRNA was down-regulated in nerves but up-regulated in skeletal muscles following nerve ligation. The motor neuron-muscle interactions were also demonstrated using differentiated C2C12 muscle cells and NG108-15 neurons in vitro. BMP4 mRNA and immunoreactivity were significantly up-regulated in differentiated C2C12 muscle cells when the motor neuron-derived factor, agrin, was present in the culture. Peripherally-derived BMP4, on the other hand, promotes embryonic motor neuron survival and protects NG108-15 neurons from glutamate-induced excitotoxicity. Together, these data suggest that BMP4 is a peripherally-derived factor that may regulate the survival of motor neurons.

  14. BMP4 and FGF strongly induce differentiation of mouse ES cells into oral ectoderm.

    PubMed

    Ochiai, Hiroshi; Suga, Hidetaka; Yamada, Tomiko; Sakakibara, Mayu; Kasai, Takatoshi; Ozone, Chikafumi; Ogawa, Koichiro; Goto, Motomitsu; Banno, Ryoichi; Tsunekawa, Shin; Sugimura, Yoshihisa; Arima, Hiroshi; Oiso, Yutaka

    2015-09-01

    During embryonic development, oral ectoderm differentiates into the adenohypophysis, dental epithelia, salivary glands, and nasal pit. Few reports exist concerning the induction of oral ectoderm from embryonic stem (ES) cells. Generally, any lot differences in fetal bovine serum (FBS) and serum replacer may affect the induction of ES cell-differentiation. Using a previously established culture strategy for differentiation, the proportion of cell aggregates containing Pitx1+ oral ectoderm varied widely between 9-36% when several different lots of FBS or serum replacer were used. We therefore tried to enhance the differentiation method. We found that bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) 4 and fibroblast growth factor (FGF) treatments improved oral ectoderm induction. Such treatment also improved the differentiation of oral ectoderm into the adenohypophysis. Furthermore, increased BMP4 treatment induced dental epithelium and mesenchyme. Such differentiation suggests that the Pitx1+ layer displays similar properties to oral ectoderm, as found in vivo. Differentiation of ES cells into oral ectoderm using different lots of FBS and serum replacer increased 78-90% after treatment with BMP4 and FGF. In summary, we have established a robust strategy for the induction of oral ectoderm differentiation from mouse ES cells. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. Regulation of Clock Genes by Adrenergic Receptor Signaling in Osteoblasts.

    PubMed

    Hirai, Takao

    2017-07-27

    The clock system has been identified as one of the major mechanisms controlling cellular functions. Circadian clock gene oscillations also actively participate in the functions of various cell types including bone-related cells. Previous studies demonstrated that clock genes were expressed in bone tissue and also that their expression exhibited circadian rhythmicity. Recent findings have shown that sympathetic tone plays a central role in biological oscillations in bone. Adrenergic receptor (AR) signaling regulates the expression of clock genes in cancellous bone. Furthermore, α1-AR signaling in osteoblasts is known to negatively regulate the expression of bone morphogenetic protein-4 (Bmp4) by up-regulating nuclear factor IL-3 (Nfil3)/e4 promoter-binding protein 4 (E4BP4). The ablation of α1B-AR signaling also increases the expression of the Bmp4 gene in bone. The findings of transient overexpression and siRNA experiments have supported the involvement of the transcription factor CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein delta (C/EBPδ, Cebpd) in Nfil3 and Bmp4 expression in MC3T3-E1 cells. These findings suggest that the effects of Cebpd are due to the circadian regulation of Bmp4 expression, at least in part, by the up-regulated expression of the clock gene Nfil3 in response to α1B-AR signaling in osteoblasts. Therefore, AR signaling appears to modulate cellular functionality through the expression of clock genes that are circadian rhythm regulators in osteoblasts. The expression of clock genes regulated by the sympathetic nervous system and clock-controlled genes that affect bone metabolism are described herein.

  16. Bone Morphogenic Protein 4-Smad-Induced Upregulation of Platelet-Derived Growth Factor AA Impairs Endothelial Function.

    PubMed

    Hu, Weining; Zhang, Yang; Wang, Li; Lau, Chi Wai; Xu, Jian; Luo, Jiang-Yun; Gou, Lingshan; Yao, Xiaoqiang; Chen, Zhen-Yu; Ma, Ronald Ching Wan; Tian, Xiao Yu; Huang, Yu

    2016-03-01

    Bone morphogenic protein 4 (BMP4) is an important mediator of endothelial dysfunction in cardio-metabolic diseases, whereas platelet-derived growth factors (PDGFs) are major angiogenic and proinflammatory mediator, although the functional link between these 2 factors is unknown. The present study investigated whether PDGF mediates BMP4-induced endothelial dysfunction in diabetes mellitus. We generated Ad-Bmp4 to overexpress Bmp4 and Ad-Pdgfa-shRNA to knockdown Pdgfa in mice through tail intravenous injection. SMAD4-shRNA lentivirus, SMAD1-shRNA, and SMAD5 shRNA adenovirus were used for knockdown in human and mouse endothelial cells. We found that PDGF-AA impaired endothelium-dependent vasodilation in aortas and mesenteric resistance arteries. BMP4 upregulated PDGF-AA in human and mouse endothelial cells, which was abolished by BMP4 antagonist noggin or knockdown of SMAD1/5 or SMAD4. BMP4-impared relaxation in mouse aorta was also ameliorated by PDGF-AA neutralizing antibody. Tail injection of Ad-Pdgfa-shRNA ameliorates endothelial dysfunction induced by Bmp4 overexpression (Ad-Bmp4) in vivo. Serum PDGF-AA was elevated in both diabetic patients and diabetic db/db mice compared with nondiabetic controls. Pdgfa-shRNA or Bmp4-shRNA adenovirus reduced serum PDGF-AA concentration in db/db mice. PDGF-AA neutralizing antibody or tail injection with Pdgfa-shRNA adenovirus improved endothelial function in aortas and mesenteric resistance arteries from db/db mice. The effect of PDGF-AA on endothelial function in mouse aorta was also inhibited by Ad-Pdgfra-shRNA to inhibit PDGFRα. The present study provides novel evidences to show that PDGF-AA impairs endothelium-dependent vasodilation and PDGF-AA mediates BMP4-induced adverse effect on endothelial cell function through SMAD1/5- and SMAD4-dependent mechanisms. Inhibition of PGDF-AA ameliorates vascular dysfunction in diabetic mice. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  17. BMP4 can generate primordial germ cells from bone-marrow-derived pluripotent stem cells.

    PubMed

    Shirazi, Reza; Zarnani, Amir Hassan; Soleimani, Masoud; Abdolvahabi, Mir Abbas; Nayernia, Karim; Ragerdi Kashani, Iraj

    2012-01-01

    Evidence of germ cell derivation from embryonic and somatic stem cells provides an in vitro model for the study of germ cell development, associated epigenetic modification and mammalian gametogenesis. More importantly, in vitro derived gametes also represent a potential strategy for treating infertility. In mammals, male and female gametes, oocyte and sperm, are derived from a specific cell population, PGCs (primordial germ cells) that segregate early in embryogenesis. We have isolated pluripotent SSEA-1+ (stage-specific embryonic antigen-1+) cells from mice bone marrow using a MACS (magnetic-activated cell sorting) system. SSEA-1+ cells were directly separated from the suspension of MMCs (murine mononuclear cells) harvested from bone marrow of 2-4-week-old mice. Flow-cytometry assay immediately after sorting and culturing under undifferentiated condition showed 55±7% and 87±4% purity respectively. RT-PCR (reverse transcription-PCR) analysis after differentiation of SSEA-1+ cells into derivations of three germ layers showed the pluripotency properties of isolated cells. SSEA-1+ cells were induced to differentiate along germ cell lineage by adding BMP4 (bone morphogenic factor-4) to the medium. Regarding the expression of germ cell markers (PGCs, male and female germ cell lineage), it was found that adding exogenous BMP4 to culture medium could differentiate pluripotent SSEA-1+ cells isolated from an adult tissue into gamete precursors, PGCs. Differentiated cells expressed specific molecular markers of PGCs, including Oct4, fragilis, Stella and Mvh (mouse vasa homologue). Therefore BMP4 is insufficient to induce SSEA-1+ cells derived from PGCs to develop further into late germ cells in vitro.

  18. Dynamic transcription programs during ES cell differentiation towards mesoderm in serum versus serum-freeBMP4 culture.

    PubMed

    Bruce, Stephen J; Gardiner, Brooke B; Burke, Les J; Gongora, M Milena; Grimmond, Sean M; Perkins, Andrew C

    2007-10-10

    Expression profiling of embryonic stem (ES) cell differentiation in the presence of serum has been performed previously. It remains unclear if transcriptional activation is dependent on complex growth factor mixtures in serum or whether this process is intrinsic to ES cells once the stem cell program has been inactivated. The aims of this study were to determine the transcriptional programs associated with the stem cell state and to characterize mesoderm differentiation between serum and serum-free culture. ES cells were differentiated as embryoid bodies in 10% FBS or serum-free media containing BMP4 (2 ng/ml), and expression profiled using 47 K Illumina(R) Sentrix arrays. Statistical methods were employed to define gene sets characteristic of stem cell, epiblast and primitive streak programs. Although the initial differentiation profile was similar between the two culture conditions, cardiac gene expression was inhibited in serum whereas blood gene expression was enhanced. Also, expression of many members of the Kruppel-like factor (KLF) family of transcription factors changed dramatically during the first few days of differentiation. KLF2 and KLF4 co-localized with OCT4 in a sub-nuclear compartment of ES cells, dynamic changes in KLF-DNA binding activities occurred upon differentiation, and strong bio-informatic evidence for direct regulation of many stem cell genes by KLFs was found. Down regulation of stem cell genes and activation of epiblast/primitive streak genes is similar in serum and defined media, but subsequent mesoderm differentiation is strongly influenced by the composition of the media. In addition, KLF family members are likely to be important regulators of many stem cell genes.

  19. Dynamic transcription programs during ES cell differentiation towards mesoderm in serum versus serum-freeBMP4 culture

    PubMed Central

    Bruce, Stephen J; Gardiner, Brooke B; Burke, Les J; Gongora, M Milena; Grimmond, Sean M; Perkins, Andrew C

    2007-01-01

    Background Expression profiling of embryonic stem (ES) cell differentiation in the presence of serum has been performed previously. It remains unclear if transcriptional activation is dependent on complex growth factor mixtures in serum or whether this process is intrinsic to ES cells once the stem cell program has been inactivated. The aims of this study were to determine the transcriptional programs associated with the stem cell state and to characterize mesoderm differentiation between serum and serum-free culture. Results ES cells were differentiated as embryoid bodies in 10% FBS or serum-free media containing BMP4 (2 ng/ml), and expression profiled using 47 K Illumina(R) Sentrix arrays. Statistical methods were employed to define gene sets characteristic of stem cell, epiblast and primitive streak programs. Although the initial differentiation profile was similar between the two culture conditions, cardiac gene expression was inhibited in serum whereas blood gene expression was enhanced. Also, expression of many members of the Kruppel-like factor (KLF) family of transcription factors changed dramatically during the first few days of differentiation. KLF2 and KLF4 co-localized with OCT4 in a sub-nuclear compartment of ES cells, dynamic changes in KLF-DNA binding activities occurred upon differentiation, and strong bio-informatic evidence for direct regulation of many stem cell genes by KLFs was found. Conclusion Down regulation of stem cell genes and activation of epiblast/primitive streak genes is similar in serum and defined media, but subsequent mesoderm differentiation is strongly influenced by the composition of the media. In addition, KLF family members are likely to be important regulators of many stem cell genes. PMID:17925037

  20. Pax9 regulates a molecular network involving Bmp4, Fgf10, Shh signaling and the Osr2 transcription factor to control palate morphogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Jing; Gao, Yang; Lan, Yu; Jia, Shihai; Jiang, Rulang

    2013-01-01

    Cleft palate is one of the most common birth defects in humans. Whereas gene knockout studies in mice have shown that both the Osr2 and Pax9 transcription factors are essential regulators of palatogenesis, little is known about the molecular mechanisms involving these transcription factors in palate development. We report here that Pax9 plays a crucial role in patterning the anterior-posterior axis and outgrowth of the developing palatal shelves. We found that tissue-specific deletion of Pax9 in the palatal mesenchyme affected Shh expression in palatal epithelial cells, indicating that Pax9 plays a crucial role in the mesenchyme-epithelium interactions during palate development. We found that expression of the Bmp4, Fgf10, Msx1 and Osr2 genes is significantly downregulated in the developing palatal mesenchyme in Pax9 mutant embryos. Remarkably, restoration of Osr2 expression in the early palatal mesenchyme through a Pax9Osr2KI allele rescued posterior palate morphogenesis in the absence of Pax9 protein function. Our data indicate that Pax9 regulates a molecular network involving the Bmp4, Fgf10, Shh and Osr2 pathways to control palatal shelf patterning and morphogenesis. PMID:24173808

  1. Pax9 regulates a molecular network involving Bmp4, Fgf10, Shh signaling and the Osr2 transcription factor to control palate morphogenesis.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jing; Gao, Yang; Lan, Yu; Jia, Shihai; Jiang, Rulang

    2013-12-01

    Cleft palate is one of the most common birth defects in humans. Whereas gene knockout studies in mice have shown that both the Osr2 and Pax9 transcription factors are essential regulators of palatogenesis, little is known about the molecular mechanisms involving these transcription factors in palate development. We report here that Pax9 plays a crucial role in patterning the anterior-posterior axis and outgrowth of the developing palatal shelves. We found that tissue-specific deletion of Pax9 in the palatal mesenchyme affected Shh expression in palatal epithelial cells, indicating that Pax9 plays a crucial role in the mesenchyme-epithelium interactions during palate development. We found that expression of the Bmp4, Fgf10, Msx1 and Osr2 genes is significantly downregulated in the developing palatal mesenchyme in Pax9 mutant embryos. Remarkably, restoration of Osr2 expression in the early palatal mesenchyme through a Pax9(Osr2KI) allele rescued posterior palate morphogenesis in the absence of Pax9 protein function. Our data indicate that Pax9 regulates a molecular network involving the Bmp4, Fgf10, Shh and Osr2 pathways to control palatal shelf patterning and morphogenesis.

  2. Correlation between apoptosis distribution and BMP-2 and BMP-4 expression in vestigial tooth primordia in mice.

    PubMed

    Peterková, R; Peterka, M; Vonesch, J L; Turecková, J; Viriot, L; Ruch, J V; Lesot, H

    1998-04-01

    The eutherian dental formula consists of three incisors, one canine, four premolars and three molars in each dental quadrant. Muroid evolution led to a reduction in the number of teeth, with one incisor separated from three molars by a long diastema. However, seven vestigial tooth primordia (D1-5, R1-2) have been detected in the embryonic diastemal area of the mouse maxilla between embryonic days (ED) 12.5 and 13.5. Computer-aided 3D reconstructions were used to analyse the temporo-spatial pattern of apoptosis during regression in the two largest and most distal vestiges (R1, R2). These structures have been widely considered as the primordium of the first upper molar and, accordingly, related molecular data have been interpreted exclusively in terms of progressive molar development. The spatial distribution of epithelial apoptosis, which affected the R1 and R2 rudiments in two consecutive waves on ED 12.5 and 13.5, respectively, was compared with our earlier data on expression of genes encoding bone morphogenetic proteins (BMP-2 and BMP-4). Similar temporo-spatial patterns of apoptosis and expression of BMP, specifically confined to the epithelium of the rudimentary tooth primordia, strongly support involvement of BMPs in the regulation of epithelial apoptosis during odontogenesis.

  3. Human carcinoma-associated mesenchymal stem cells promote ovarian cancer chemotherapy resistance via a BMP4/HH signaling loop.

    PubMed

    Coffman, Lan G; Choi, Yun-Jung; McLean, Karen; Allen, Benjamin L; di Magliano, Marina Pasca; Buckanovich, Ronald J

    2016-02-09

    The tumor microenvironment is critical to cancer growth and therapy resistance. We previously characterized human ovarian carcinoma-associated mesenchymal stem cells (CA-MSCs). CA-MSCs are multi-potent cells that can differentiate into tumor microenvironment components including fibroblasts, myofibroblasts and adipocytes. We previously reported CA-MSCs, compared to normal MSCs, express high levels of BMP proteins and promote tumor growth by increasing numbers of cancer stem-like cells (CSCs). We demonstrate here that ovarian tumor cell-secreted Hedgehog (HH) induces CA-MSC BMP4 expression. CA-MSC-derived BMP4 reciprocally increases ovarian tumor cell HH expression indicating a positive feedback loop. Interruption of this loop with a HH pathway inhibitor or BMP4 blocking antibody decreases CA-MSC-derived BMP4 and tumor-derived HH preventing enrichment of CSCs and reversing chemotherapy resistance. The impact of HH inhibition was only seen in CA-MSC-containing tumors, indicating the importance of a humanized stroma. These results are reciprocal to findings in pancreatic and bladder cancer, suggesting HH signaling effects are tumor tissue specific warranting careful investigation in each tumor type. Collectively, we define a critical positive feedback loop between CA-MSC-derived BMP4 and ovarian tumor cell-secreted HH and present evidence for the further investigation of HH as a clinical target in ovarian cancer.

  4. Human carcinoma-associated mesenchymal stem cells promote ovarian cancer chemotherapy resistance via a BMP4/HH signaling loop

    PubMed Central

    Coffman, Lan G.; Choi, Yun-Jung; McLean, Karen; Allen, Benjamin L.; di Magliano, Marina Pasca; Buckanovich, Ronald J.

    2016-01-01

    The tumor microenvironment is critical to cancer growth and therapy resistance. We previously characterized human ovarian carcinoma-associated mesenchymal stem cells (CA-MSCs). CA-MSCs are multi-potent cells that can differentiate into tumor microenvironment components including fibroblasts, myofibroblasts and adipocytes. We previously reported CA-MSCs, compared to normal MSCs, express high levels of BMP proteins and promote tumor growth by increasing numbers of cancer stem-like cells (CSCs). We demonstrate here that ovarian tumor cell-secreted Hedgehog (HH) induces CA-MSC BMP4 expression. CA-MSC-derived BMP4 reciprocally increases ovarian tumor cell HH expression indicating a positive feedback loop. Interruption of this loop with a HH pathway inhibitor or BMP4 blocking antibody decreases CA-MSC-derived BMP4 and tumor-derived HH preventing enrichment of CSCs and reversing chemotherapy resistance. The impact of HH inhibition was only seen in CA-MSC-containing tumors, indicating the importance of a humanized stroma. These results are reciprocal to findings in pancreatic and bladder cancer, suggesting HH signaling effects are tumor tissue specific warranting careful investigation in each tumor type. Collectively, we define a critical positive feedback loop between CA-MSC-derived BMP4 and ovarian tumor cell-secreted HH and present evidence for the further investigation of HH as a clinical target in ovarian cancer. PMID:26755648

  5. Bone ridge patterning during musculoskeletal assembly is mediated through SCX regulation of Bmp4 at the tendon-skeleton junction

    PubMed Central

    Blitz, Einat; Viukov, Sergey; Sharir, Amnon; Shwartz, Yulia; Galloway, Jenna L.; Price, Brian A.; Johnson, Randy L.; Tabin, Clifford J.; Schweitzer, Ronen; Zelzer, Elazar

    2011-01-01

    SUMMARY During the assembly of the musculoskeletal system, bone ridges provide a stable anchoring point and stress dissipation for the attachment of muscles via tendons to the skeleton. In this study, we investigate the development of the deltoid tuberosity as a model for bone ridge formation. We show that the deltoid tuberosity develops through endochondral ossification in a two-phase process: Initiation is regulated by a signal from the tendons, whereas the subsequent growth phase is muscle-dependent. We then show that the transcription factor scleraxis (SCX) regulates Bmp4 in tendon cells at their insertion site. The inhibition of deltoid tuberosity formation and several other bone ridges in embryos in which Bmp4 expression was blocked specifically in Scx-expressing cells implicates BMP4 as a key mediator of tendon effects on bone ridge formation. This study establishes a mechanistic basis for tendon-skeleton regulatory interactions during musculoskeletal assembly and bone secondary patterning. PMID:20059955

  6. BMP4 and CNTF are neuroprotective and suppress damage-induced proliferation of Müller glia in the retina.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Andy J; Schmidt, Michael; Schmidt, Mike; Omar, Ghezal; Reh, Thomas A

    2004-12-01

    In response to acute damage, Müller glia in the chicken retina have been shown to be a source of proliferating progenitor-like cells. The secreted factors and signaling pathways that regulate this process remain unknown. The purpose of this study was to test whether secreted factors, which are known to promote glial differentiation during development, regulate the ability of Müller glia to proliferate and become retinal progenitors in response to acute damage in mature retina. We made intraocular injections of BMP4, BMP7, EGF, NGF, BDNF, or CNTF before or after a single, toxic dose of N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) and assayed for proliferating progenitor-like cells within the retina. We found that injections of BMP4, BMP7, or CNTF, but not EGF, NGF, or BDNF, before NMDA treatment reduced the number of Müller glia that proliferated and gave rise to progenitor-like cells. CNTF and BMP4, but not NGF or BDNF, greatly reduced the number of cells destroyed by toxin treatment indicating that these factors protect retinal neurons from a severe excitotoxic insult. Injections of CNTF 5 days before NMDA treatment prevented neurotoxin-induced cell death and Müller glial proliferation, while injections of BMP4 had no protective effect. In addition, CNTF injected after NMDA treatment suppressed glial proliferation, while BMP4 did not. We conclude that BMP4 and CNTF, when applied before a toxic insult, act as neuroprotective agents and likely suppress the proliferative response of Müller glia to retinal damage by attenuating the retinal damage; protecting bipolar and amacrine neurons from NMDA-induced cell death. When applied after a toxic insult, CNTF suppressed glial proliferation independent of levels of retinal damage.

  7. Wnt/β-catenin signaling modulates corneal epithelium stratification via inhibition of Bmp4 during mouse development.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yujin; Yeh, Lung-Kun; Zhang, Suohui; Call, Mindy; Yuan, Yong; Yasunaga, Mayu; Kao, Winston W-Y; Liu, Chia-Yang

    2015-10-01

    The development of organs with an epithelial parenchyma relies on reciprocal mesenchymal-epithelial communication. Mouse corneal epithelium stratification is the consequence of a coordinated developmental process based on mesenchymal-epithelial interactions. The molecular mechanism underlying these interactions remains unclear. The Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway is involved in fundamental aspects of development through the regulation of various growth factors. Here, we show that conditional ablation of either β-catenin (Ctnnb1(cKO)) or co-receptors Lrp5/6 (Lrp5/6(cKO)) in corneal stromal cells results in precocious stratification of the corneal epithelium. By contrast, ectopic expression of a murine Ctnnb1 gain-of-function mutant (Ctnnb1(cGOF)) retards corneal epithelium stratification. We also discovered that Bmp4 is upregulated in the absence of β-catenin in keratocytes, which further triggers ERK1/2 (Mapk3/1) and Smad1/5 phosphorylation and enhances transcription factor p63 (Trp63) expression in mouse corneal basal epithelial cells and in a human corneal epithelial cell line (HTCE). Interestingly, mouse neonates given a subconjunctival BMP4 injection displayed a phenotype resembling that of Ctnnb1(cKO). Conditional ablation of Bmp4 eradicates the phenotype produced in Ctnnb1(cKO) mice. Furthermore, ChIP and promoter-luciferase assays show that β-catenin binds to and suppresses Bmp4 promoter activity. These data support the concept that cross-talk between the Wnt/β-catenin/Bmp4 axis (in the stromal mesenchyme) and Bmp4/p63 signaling (in the epithelium) plays a pivotal role in epithelial stratification during corneal morphogenesis.

  8. Relationship between in vitro growth of bovine oocytes and steroidogenesis of granulosa cells cultured in medium supplemented with bone morphogenetic protein-4 and follicle stimulating hormone.

    PubMed

    Sakaguchi, Kenichiro; Huang, Weiping; Yang, Yinghua; Yanagawa, Yojiro; Nagano, Masashi

    2017-07-15

    Bone morphogenetic protein-4 (BMP-4) and FSH play important regulatory roles in follicular growth and steroidogenesis in vivo. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of BMP-4 and FSH on in vitro growth (IVG) and steroidogenesis of bovine oocyte-cumulus-granulosa complexes (OCGCs). We cultured OCGCs collected from early antral follicles (0.5-1 mm) in medium without BMP-4 and FSH for 4 days and investigated the appearance of OCGCs and their steroidogenesis. During the first 4 days of IVG, morphologically normal OCGCs produced more estradiol-17β (E2), but less progesterone (P4). Morphologically normal OCGCs were subjected to an additional culture in medium supplemented with BMP-4 (0, 10, and 50 ng/mL) and FSH (0 and 0.5 ng/mL) until day 12. We examined the viability and steroidogenesis of OCGCs after 8 and 12 days of culture. Oocyte growth, characteristics of granulosa cells, and the maturational competence of oocytes were also investigated. On day 8, the viability of OCGCs cultured without FSH was higher in the 10 ng/mL BMP-4 group than in the 50 ng/mL BMP-4 group (P < 0.05). No significant difference was observed in the viability of groups cultured with FSH, regardless of the addition of BMP-4, and FSH improved the viability of 50 ng/mL BMP-4 group similar to 10 ng/mL BMP-4 group. The total number of granulosa cells was larger in 10 ng/mL BMP-4 group cultured with FSH than in 50 ng/mL BMP-4 group cultured with FSH on day 8 (P < 0.05). E2 production decreased from days 8-12, and P4 production increased throughout IVG culture, regardless of the addition of BMP-4 and FSH (P < 0.05). No significant differences in E2 production were observed between groups from days 4-8, regardless of whether BMP-4 was added without FSH; however, E2 production in the group cultured with 50 ng/mL BMP-4 was suppressed by FSH. BMP-4 suppressed E2 production from days 8-12, regardless of whether FSH was added. The group cultured with 10 ng/mL BMP-4

  9. Bone morphogenetic protein 4 and bone morphogenetic protein receptor expression in the pituitary gland of adult dogs in healthy condition and with ACTH-secreting pituitary adenoma.

    PubMed

    Sato, A; Ochi, H; Harada, Y; Yogo, T; Kanno, N; Hara, Y

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the expression of bone morphogenetic protein 4 (BMP4) and its receptors, bone morphogenetic protein receptor I (BMPRI) and BMPRII, in the pituitary gland of healthy adult dogs and in those with ACTH-secreting pituitary adenoma. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis showed that the BMP4 messenger RNA expression level in the ACTH-secreting pituitary adenoma samples was significantly lower than that in the normal pituitary gland samples (P = 0.03). However, there were no statistically significant differences between samples with respect to the messenger RNA expression levels of the receptors BMPRIA, BMPRIB, and BMPRII. Double-immunofluorescence analysis of the normal canine pituitary showed that BMP4 was localized in the thyrotroph (51.3 ± 7.3%) and not the corticotroph cells. By contrast, BMPRII was widely expressed in the thyrotroph (19.9 ± 5.2%) and somatotroph cells (94.7 ± 3.6%) but not in the corticotroph cells (P < 0.001, thyrotroph cells vs somatotroph cells). Similarly, in ACTH-secreting pituitary adenoma, BMP4 and BMPRII were not expressed in the corticotroph cells. Moreover, the percentage of BMP4-positive cells was also significantly reduced in the thyrotroph cells of the surrounding normal pituitary tissue obtained from the resected ACTH-secreting pituitary adenoma (8.3 ± 7.9%) compared with that in normal canine pituitary (P < 0.001). BMP4 has been reported to be expressed in corticotroph cells in the human pituitary gland. Therefore, the results of this study reveal a difference in the cellular pattern of BMP4-positive staining in the pituitary gland between humans and dogs and further revealed the pattern of BMPRII-positive staining in the dog pituitary gland. These species-specific differences regarding BMP4 should be considered when using dogs as an animal model for Cushing's disease.

  10. miR-762 promotes porcine immature Sertoli cell growth via the ring finger protein 4 (RNF4) gene

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Changping; Song, Huibin; Yu, Lei; Guan, Kaifeng; Hu, Pandi; Li, Yang; Xia, Xuanyan; Li, Jialian; Jiang, Siwen; Li, Fenge

    2016-01-01

    A growing number of reports have revealed that microRNAs (miRNAs) play critical roles in spermatogenesis. Our previous study showed that miR-762 is differentially expressed in immature and mature testes of Large White boars. Our present data shows that miR-762 directly binds the 3′ untranslated region (3′UTR) of ring finger protein 4 (RNF4) and down-regulates RNF4 expression. A single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the RNF4 3′UTR that is significantly associated with porcine sperm quality traits leads to a change in the miR-762 binding ability. Moreover, miR-762 promotes the proliferation of and inhibits apoptosis in porcine immature Sertoli cells, partly by accelerating DNA damage repair and by reducing androgen receptor (AR) expression. Taken together, these findings suggest that miR-762 may play a role in pig spermatogenesis by regulating immature Sertoli cell growth. PMID:27596571

  11. Multiple Common Susceptibility Variants near BMP Pathway Loci GREM1, BMP4, and BMP2 Explain Part of the Missing Heritability of Colorectal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Dobbins, Sara E.; Tenesa, Albert; Jones, Angela M.; Howarth, Kimberley; Palles, Claire; Broderick, Peter; Jaeger, Emma E. M.; Farrington, Susan; Lewis, Annabelle; Prendergast, James G. D.; Pittman, Alan M.; Theodoratou, Evropi; Olver, Bianca; Walker, Marion; Penegar, Steven; Barclay, Ella; Whiffin, Nicola; Martin, Lynn; Ballereau, Stephane; Lloyd, Amy; Gorman, Maggie; Lubbe, Steven; Howie, Bryan; Marchini, Jonathan; Ruiz-Ponte, Clara; Fernandez-Rozadilla, Ceres; Castells, Antoni; Carracedo, Angel; Castellvi-Bel, Sergi; Duggan, David; Conti, David; Cazier, Jean-Baptiste; Campbell, Harry; Sieber, Oliver; Lipton, Lara; Gibbs, Peter; Martin, Nicholas G.; Montgomery, Grant W.; Young, Joanne; Baird, Paul N.; Gallinger, Steven; Newcomb, Polly; Hopper, John; Jenkins, Mark A.; Aaltonen, Lauri A.; Kerr, David J.; Cheadle, Jeremy; Pharoah, Paul; Casey, Graham; Houlston, Richard S.; Dunlop, Malcolm G.

    2011-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified 14 tagging single nucleotide polymorphisms (tagSNPs) that are associated with the risk of colorectal cancer (CRC), and several of these tagSNPs are near bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) pathway loci. The penalty of multiple testing implicit in GWAS increases the attraction of complementary approaches for disease gene discovery, including candidate gene- or pathway-based analyses. The strongest candidate loci for additional predisposition SNPs are arguably those already known both to have functional relevance and to be involved in disease risk. To investigate this proposition, we searched for novel CRC susceptibility variants close to the BMP pathway genes GREM1 (15q13.3), BMP4 (14q22.2), and BMP2 (20p12.3) using sample sets totalling 24,910 CRC cases and 26,275 controls. We identified new, independent CRC predisposition SNPs close to BMP4 (rs1957636, P = 3.93×10−10) and BMP2 (rs4813802, P = 4.65×10−11). Near GREM1, we found using fine-mapping that the previously-identified association between tagSNP rs4779584 and CRC actually resulted from two independent signals represented by rs16969681 (P = 5.33×10−8) and rs11632715 (P = 2.30×10−10). As low-penetrance predisposition variants become harder to identify—owing to small effect sizes and/or low risk allele frequencies—approaches based on informed candidate gene selection may become increasingly attractive. Our data emphasise that genetic fine-mapping studies can deconvolute associations that have arisen owing to independent correlation of a tagSNP with more than one functional SNP, thus explaining some of the apparently missing heritability of common diseases. PMID:21655089

  12. Cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated protein 4 gene polymorphism is related to rheumatoid arthritis in Egyptian population.

    PubMed

    Fattah, Shaimaa A; Ghattas, Maivel H; Saleh, Samy M; Abo-Elmatty, Dina M

    2017-02-01

    Cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated protein 4 (CTLA-4) is a CD28-family receptor expressed on T-cells which suppresses T cell proliferation. CTLA-4 -318C/T polymorphism is involved in regulation of CTLA-4 expression. The study aimed to investigate the genetic association of CTLA-4 -318C/T polymorphism with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and the activity and severity of the disease in the Egyptian population. A single nucleotide polymorphism (rs5742909) in CTLA-4 was genotyped in 100 RA patients and 100 healthy controls using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism. Diagnostic tests were measured for RA patients. The frequency of T allele in RA patients was significantly higher than in the control subjects (p = 0.002). CT and TT genotypes had high C-reactive protein, erythrocyte sedimentation rate and disease activity score 28 while CC genotype had a high rheumatoid factor. A minor allele of CTLA-4 rs5742909 polymorphism was associated with RA and the activity but not the severity of the disease.

  13. Differential domain evolution and complex RNA processing in a family of paralogous EPB41 (protein 4.1) genes facilitates expression of diverse tissue-specific isoforms

    SciTech Connect

    Parra, Marilyn; Gee, Sherry; Chan, Nadine; Ryaboy, Dmitriy; Dubchak, Inna; Narla, Mohandas; Gascard, Philippe D.; Conboy, John G.

    2004-07-15

    The EPB41 (protein 4.1) genes epitomize the resourcefulness of the mammalian genome to encode a complex proteome from a small number of genes. By utilizing alternative transcriptional promoters and tissue-specific alternative pre-mRNA splicing, EPB41, EPB41L2, EPB41L3, and EPB41L1 encode a diverse array of structural adapter proteins. Comparative genomic and transcript analysis of these 140kb-240kb genes indicates several unusual features: differential evolution of highly conserved exons encoding known functional domains, interspersed with unique exons whose size and sequence variations contribute substantially to intergenic diversity: alternative first exons, most of which map far upstream of the coding regions; and complex tissue-specific alternative pre-mRNA splicing that facilitates synthesis of functionally different complements of 4.1 proteins in various cells. Understanding the splicing regulatory networks that control protein 4.1 expression will be critical to a full appreciation of the many roles of 4.1 proteins in normal cell biology and their proposed roles in human cancer.

  14. Gata4 expression in lateral mesoderm is downstream of BMP4 and isactivated directly by Forkhead and GATA transcription factors through adistal enhancer element

    SciTech Connect

    Rojas, Anabel; De Val, Sarah; Heidt, Analeah B.; Xu, Shan-Mei; Bristow, James; Black, Brian L.

    2005-05-20

    The GATA family of zinc-finger transcription factors plays key roles in the specification and differentiation of multiple cell types during development. GATA4 is an early regulator of gene expression during the development of endoderm and mesoderm, and genetic studies in mice have demonstrated that GATA4 is required for embryonic development.Despite the importance of GATA4 in tissue specification and differentiation, the mechanisms by which Gata4 expression is activated and the transcription factor pathways upstream of GATA4 remain largely undefined. To identify transcriptional regulators of Gata4 in the mouse,we screened conserved noncoding sequences from the mouse Gata4 gene for enhancer activity in transgenic embryos. Here, we define the regulation of a distal enhancer element from Gata4 that is sufficient to direct expression throughout the lateral mesoderm, beginning at 7.5 days of mouse embryonic development. The activity of this enhancer is initially broad but eventually becomes restricted to the mesenchyme surrounding the liver. We demonstrate that the function of this enhancer in transgenic embryos is dependent upon highly conserved Forkhead and GATA transcription factor binding sites, which are bound by FOXF1 and GATA4,respectively. Furthermore, the activity of the Gata4 lateral mesoderm enhancer is attenuated by the BMP antagonist Noggin, and the enhancer is not activated in Bmp4-null embryos. Thus, these studies establish that Gata4 is a direct transcriptional target of Forkhead and GATA transcription factors in the lateral mesoderm, and demonstrate that Gata4lateral mesoderm enhancer activation requires BMP4, supporting a model in which GATA4 serves as a downstream effector of BMP signaling in the lateral mesoderm.

  15. Tis21 is required for adult neurogenesis in the subventricular zone and for olfactory behavior regulating cyclins, BMP4, Hes1/5 and Ids

    PubMed Central

    Farioli-Vecchioli, Stefano; Ceccarelli, Manuela; Saraulli, Daniele; Micheli, Laura; Cannas, Sara; D’Alessandro, Francesca; Scardigli, Raffaella; Leonardi, Luca; Cinà, Irene; Costanzi, Marco; Mattera, Andrea; Cestari, Vincenzo; Tirone, Felice

    2014-01-01

    Bone morphogenic proteins (BMPs) and the Notch pathway regulate quiescence and self-renewal of stem cells of the subventricular zone (SVZ), an adult neurogenic niche. Here we analyze the role at the intersection of these pathways of Tis21 (Btg2/PC3), a gene regulating proliferation and differentiation of adult SVZ stem and progenitor cells. In Tis21-null SVZ and cultured neurospheres, we observed a strong decrease in the expression of BMP4 and its effectors Smad1/8, while the Notch anti-neural mediators Hes1/5 and the basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) inhibitors Id1-3 increased. Consistently, expression of the proneural bHLH gene NeuroD1 decreased. Moreover, cyclins D1/2, A2, and E were strongly up-regulated. Thus, in the SVZ Tis21 activates the BMP pathway and inhibits the Notch pathway and the cell cycle. Correspondingly, the Tis21-null SVZ stem cells greatly increased; nonetheless, the proliferating neuroblasts diminished, whereas the post-mitotic neuroblasts paradoxically accumulated in SVZ, failing to migrate along the rostral migratory stream to the olfactory bulb. The ability, however, of neuroblasts to migrate from SVZ explants was not affected, suggesting that Tis21-null neuroblasts do not migrate to the olfactory bulb because of a defect in terminal differentiation. Notably, BMP4 addition or Id3 silencing rescued the defective differentiation observed in Tis21-null neurospheres, indicating that they mediate the Tis21 pro-differentiative action. The reduced number of granule neurons in the Tis21-null olfactory bulb led to a defect in olfactory detection threshold, without effect on olfactory memory, also suggesting that within olfactory circuits new granule neurons play a primary role in odor sensitivity rather than in memory. PMID:24744701

  16. Bone morphogenetic protein-4 promotes induction of cardiomyocytes from human embryonic stem cells in serum-based embryoid body development.

    PubMed

    Takei, Shunsuke; Ichikawa, Hinako; Johkura, Kohei; Mogi, Akimi; No, Heesung; Yoshie, Susumu; Tomotsune, Daihachiro; Sasaki, Katsunori

    2009-06-01

    Cardiomyocytes derived from human embryonic stem (ES) cells are a potential source for cell-based therapy for heart diseases. We studied the effect of bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-4 in the presence of fetal bovine serum (FBS) on cardiac induction from human H1 ES cells during embryoid body (EB) development. Suspension culture for 4 days with 20% FBS produced the best results for the differentiation of early mesoderm and cardiomyocytes. The addition of Noggin reduced the incidence of beating EBs from 23.6% to 5.3%, which indicated the involvement of BMP signaling in the spontaneous cardiac differentiation. In this condition, treatment with 12.5-25 ng/ml BMP-4 during the 4-day suspension optimally promoted the cardiomyocyte differentiation. The incidence of beating EBs at 25 ng/ml BMP-4 reached 95.8% on day 6 of expansion and then plateaued until day 20. In real-time PCR analysis, the cardiac development-related genes MESP1 and Nkx2.5 were upregulated in the EB outgrowths by 25 ng/ml BMP-4. The activation of BMP signaling in EBs was confirmed by the increase in the phosphorylation of Smad1/5/8 and by the nuclear localization of phospho-Smad1/5/8 and Smad4. The addition of 150 ng/ml Noggin considerably decreased the incidence of beating EBs and Nkx2.5 expression, and Noggin alone increased Nestin expression and neural differentiation in EB outgrowths. The cardiomyocytes induced by 25 ng/ml BMP-4 showed proper cell biological characteristics and a course of differentiation as judged from isoproterenol administration, gene expression, protein assay, immunoreactivity, and subcellular structures. No remarkable change in the extent of apoptosis and proliferation in the cardiomyocytes was observed by BMP-4 treatment. These findings showed that BMP-4 in combination with FBS at the appropriate time and concentrations significantly promotes cardiomyocyte induction from human ES cells.

  17. Msx1 and Tbx2 antagonistically regulate Bmp4 expression during the bud-to-cap stage transition in tooth development.

    PubMed

    Saadi, Irfan; Das, Pragnya; Zhao, Minglian; Raj, Lakshmi; Ruspita, Intan; Xia, Yan; Papaioannou, Virginia E; Bei, Marianna

    2013-07-01

    Bmp4 expression is tightly regulated during embryonic tooth development, with early expression in the dental epithelial placode leading to later expression in the dental mesenchyme. Msx1 is among several transcription factors that are induced by epithelial Bmp4 and that, in turn, are necessary for the induction and maintenance of dental mesenchymal Bmp4 expression. Thus, Msx1(-/-) teeth arrest at early bud stage and show loss of Bmp4 expression in the mesenchyme. Ectopic expression of Bmp4 rescues this bud stage arrest. We have identified Tbx2 expression in the dental mesenchyme at bud stage and show that this can be induced by epithelial Bmp4. We also show that endogenous Tbx2 and Msx1 can physically interact in mouse C3H10T1/2 cells. In order to ascertain a functional relationship between Msx1 and Tbx2 in tooth development, we crossed Tbx2 and Msx1 mutant mice. Our data show that the bud stage tooth arrest in Msx1(-/-) mice is partially rescued in Msx1(-/-);Tbx2(+/-) compound mutants. This rescue is accompanied by formation of the enamel knot (EK) and by restoration of mesenchymal Bmp4 expression. Finally, knockdown of Tbx2 in C3H10T1/2 cells results in an increase in Bmp4 expression. Together, these data identify a novel role for Tbx2 in tooth development and suggest that, following their induction by epithelial Bmp4, Msx1 and Tbx2 in turn antagonistically regulate odontogenic activity that leads to EK formation and to mesenchymal Bmp4 expression at the key bud-to-cap stage transition.

  18. Cloning, nucleotide sequence, mutagenesis, and mapping of the Bacillus subtilis pbpD gene, which codes for penicillin-binding protein 4.

    PubMed Central

    Popham, D L; Setlow, P

    1994-01-01

    The gene encoding penicillin-binding protein 4 (PBP 4) of Bacillus subtilis, pbpD, was cloned by two independent methods. PBP 4 was purified, and the amino acid sequence of a cyanogen bromide digestion product was used to design an oligonucleotide probe for identification of the gene. An oligonucleotide probe designed to hybridize to genes encoding class A high-molecular-weight PBPs also identified this gene. DNA sequence analysis of the cloned DNA revealed that (i) the amino acid sequence of PBP 4 was similar to those of other class A high-molecular-weight PBPs and (ii) pbpD appeared to be cotranscribed with a downstream gene (termed orf2) of unknown function. The orf2 gene is followed by an apparent non-protein-coding region which exhibits nucleotide sequence similarity with at least two other regions of the chromosome and which has a high potential for secondary structure formation. Mutations in pbpD resulted in the disappearance of PBP 4 but had no obvious effect on growth, cell division, sporulation, spore heat resistance, or spore germination. Expression of a transcriptional fusion of pbpD to lacZ increased throughout growth, decreased during sporulation, and was induced approximately 45 min into spore germination. A single transcription start site was detected just upstream of pbpD. The pbpD locus was mapped to the 275 to 280 degrees region of the chromosomal genetic map. Images PMID:7961491

  19. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors-α and -γ, and cAMP-mediated pathways, control retinol-binding protein-4 gene expression in brown adipose tissue.

    PubMed

    Rosell, Meritxell; Hondares, Elayne; Iwamoto, Sadahiko; Gonzalez, Frank J; Wabitsch, Martin; Staels, Bart; Olmos, Yolanda; Monsalve, Maria; Giralt, Marta; Iglesias, Roser; Villarroya, Francesc

    2012-03-01

    Retinol binding protein-4 (RBP4) is a serum protein involved in the transport of vitamin A. It is known to be produced by the liver and white adipose tissue. RBP4 release by white fat has been proposed to induce insulin resistance. We analyzed the regulation and production of RBP4 in brown adipose tissue. RBP4 gene expression is induced in brown fat from mice exposed to cold or treated with peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) agonists. In brown adipocytes in culture, norepinephrine, cAMP, and activators of PPARγ and PPARα induced RBP4 gene expression and RBP4 protein release. The induction of RBP4 gene expression by norepinephrine required intact PPAR-dependent pathways, as evidenced by impaired response of the RBP4 gene expression to norepinephrine in PPARα-null brown adipocytes or in the presence of inhibitors of PPARγ and PPARα. PPARγ and norepinephrine can also induce the RBP4 gene in white adipocytes, and overexpression of PPARα confers regulation by this PPAR subtype to white adipocytes. The RBP4 gene promoter transcription is activated by cAMP, PPARα, and PPARγ. This is mediated by a PPAR-responsive element capable of binding PPARα and PPARγ and required also for activation by cAMP. The induction of the RBP4 gene expression by norepinephrine in brown adipocytes is protein synthesis dependent and requires PPARγ-coactivator-1-α, which acts as a norepinephine-induced coactivator of PPAR on the RBP4 gene. We conclude that PPARγ- and PPARα-mediated signaling controls RBP4 gene expression and releases in brown adipose tissue, and thermogenic activation induces RBP4 gene expression in brown fat through mechanisms involving PPARγ-coactivator-1-α coactivation of PPAR signaling.

  20. Cloning of the functional promoter for human insulin-like growth factor binding protein-4 gene: endogenous regulation.

    PubMed

    Dai, B; Widen, S G; Mifflin, R; Singh, P

    1997-01-01

    The majority of the colon cancers analyzed to-date express insulin-like growth factor binding protein (IGFBP)-4, and antisense inhibition of IGFBP-4 messenger RNA (mRNA) confers a growth advantage to the cells in response to endogenous and exogenous IGFs. We recently reported a significant up-regulation of IGFBP-4 expression in a human colon cancer cell line (CaCo2) on spontaneous differentiation of the cells in culture. This suggests that the expression of IGFBP-4 may be related to growth and differentiation of colon cancer cells. To study the endogenous factors involved in the transcriptional regulation of IGFBP-4, we have isolated and sequenced the human (h) IGFBP-4 promoter. The approximately 1.3 kilobase pair (kb) 5' flanking region of the IGFBP-4 gene is GC rich and possesses several potential regulatory elements. These elements include a typical TATA box with sequence TATAA, located -299 nt from the initiation ATG codon. The cap site is located 14 nt downstream of the TATA box as determined by primer extension analysis. A 1.4-kb DNA fragment including the 1.254 kb 5' flanking region of the hIGFBP-4 gene was subcloned into a luciferase reporter vector (pGL-2 basic) either in the sense (BP-4-S-pGL) (S) or antisense (BP-4-AS-pGL) (AS) (negative control) orientation, relative to the luciferase coding sequence in the vector. CaCo2 cells were transfected with either the S or the AS vectors on days 2-10 of culture; cotransfection with the SV40-beta-Galactidose (Gal) vector was used to correct for transfection efficiency. The ratio of luciferase/beta-Gal expression by CaCo2 cells transfected with the S vectors increased significantly from days 3 and 4 to days 5 and 6 of culture, followed by a sharp decline on days 7-9, resembling the pattern of endogenous expression of IGFBP-4 by the cells; the expression of luciferase by the AS vectors remained low and insignificant. These results thus suggest that the approximately 1.4 kb 5' flanking region of the IGFBP-4 gene

  1. The bovine fatty acid binding protein 4 gene is significantly associated with marbling and subcutaneous fat depth in Wagyu x Limousin F2 crosses.

    PubMed

    Michal, J J; Zhang, Z W; Gaskins, C T; Jiang, Z

    2006-08-01

    Fatty acid binding protein 4 (FABP4), which is expressed in adipose tissue, interacts with peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors and binds to hormone-sensitive lipase and therefore, plays an important role in lipid metabolism and homeostasis in adipocytes. The objective of this study was to investigate associations of the bovine FABP4 gene with fat deposition. Both cDNA and genomic DNA sequences of the bovine gene were retrieved from the public databases and aligned to determine its genomic organization. Primers targeting two regions of the FABP4 gene were designed: from nucleotides 5433-6106 and from nucleotides 7417-7868 (AAFC01136716). Direct sequencing of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) products on two DNA pools from high- and low-marbling animals revealed two single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs): AAFC01136716.1:g.7516G>C and g.7713G>C. The former SNP, detected by PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism using restriction enzyme MspA1I, was genotyped on 246 F2 animals in a Waygu x Limousin F2 reference population. Statistical analysis showed that the FABP4 genotype significantly affected marbling score (P = 0.0398) and subcutaneous fat depth (P = 0.0246). The FABP4 gene falls into a suggestive/significant quantitative trait loci interval for beef marbling that was previously reported on bovine chromosome 14 in three other populations.

  2. Cloning and characterization of 4.1G (EPB41L2), a new member of the skeletal protein 4.1 (EPB41) gene family.

    PubMed

    Parra, M; Gascard, P; Walensky, L D; Snyder, S H; Mohandas, N; Conboy, J G

    1998-04-15

    The prototypical erythrocyte membrane skeletal protein 4.1 (HGMW-approved symbol EPB41), here designated 4.1R, is encoded by a large, complexly spliced gene located on human chromosome 1p32-p33. In this paper we report evidence for a second 4.1 gene, 4.1G (HGMW-approved symbol EPB41L2), which maps to human chromosome 6q23 and is widely expressed among human tissues. The complete nucleotide sequence of 4.1G cDNA predicts a 113-kDa protein that exhibits three regions of high homology to 4.1R, including the membrane binding domain, the spectrinactin binding domain, and the C-terminal domain. Interspersed among the shared domains are unique sequences that may define functional differences between 4.1R and 4.1G. Specific isoforms of 4.1R and 4.1G exhibit differential subcellular localizations. These results expand the 4.1 gene superfamily and demonstrate that the diverse cellular complement of 4.1 isoforms results from both alternative splicing and expression of distinct genes.

  3. Morphogen and community effects determine cell fates in response to BMP4 signaling in human embryonic stem cells.

    PubMed

    Nemashkalo, Anastasiia; Ruzo, Albert; Heemskerk, Idse; Warmflash, Aryeh

    2017-09-01

    Paracrine signals maintain developmental states and create cell fate patterns in vivo and influence differentiation outcomes in human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) in vitro Systematic investigation of morphogen signaling is hampered by the difficulty of disentangling endogenous signaling from experimentally applied ligands. Here, we grow hESCs in micropatterned colonies of 1-8 cells ('µColonies') to quantitatively investigate paracrine signaling and the response to external stimuli. We examine BMP4-mediated differentiation in µColonies and standard culture conditions and find that in µColonies, above a threshold concentration, BMP4 gives rise to only a single cell fate, contrary to its role as a morphogen in other developmental systems. Under standard culture conditions BMP4 acts as a morphogen but this requires secondary signals and particular cell densities. We find that a 'community effect' enforces a common fate within µColonies, both in the state of pluripotency and when cells are differentiated, and that this effect allows a more precise response to external signals. Using live cell imaging to correlate signaling histories with cell fates, we demonstrate that interactions between neighbors result in sustained, homogenous signaling necessary for differentiation. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  4. BMP-4 Induction of Arrest and Differentiation of Osteoblast-Like Cells via p21CIP1 and p27KIP1 Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Shun-Fu; Chang, Ting-Kuo; Peng, Hsin-Hsin; Yeh, Yi-Ting; Lee, Ding-Yu; Yeh, Chiuan-Ren; Zhou, Jing; Cheng, Cheng-Kung; Chang, Cheng Allen; Chiu, Jeng-Jiann

    2009-01-01

    Cell cycle regulation by differentiation signals is critical for eukaryote development. We investigated the roles of bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-4, an important stimulator of osteoblast differentiation and bone formation, in regulating cell cycle distribution in four osteoblast-like cell lines and mouse primary osteoblasts, and the underlying mechanisms. In all cells used, BMP-4 induced G0/G1 arrest. The molecular basis of the BMP-4 effect was analyzed, and the presentation on molecular mechanism is focused on human MG63 cells. BMP-4 induced p21CIP1 and p27KIP1 expressions and hence cell differentiation but had no effects on the expressions of cyclins A, B1, D1, and E, cyclin-dependent protein kinase-2, -4, and -6. Using specific small interfering RNA (siRNA), we found that BMP-4-induced G0/G1 arrest, and p21CIP1 and p27KIP1 expressions were mediated by BMP receptor type IA (BMPRIA)-specific Sma- and Mad-related protein (Smad)1/5. BMP-4 induced transient phosphorylations of ERK; transfection of MG63 cells with ERK2, but not ERK1, -specific siRNA inhibited the BMP-4-induced responses in MG63 cells. Pretreatment of MG63 cells with Arg-Gly-Asp-Ser, which blocks the cell-extracellular matrix interaction, or transfection with β3 integrin-specific siRNA inhibited BMP-4-induced ERK and Smad1/5 phosphorylations. BMP-4 induced transient increases in associations of β3-integrin with focal adhesion kinase and Shc, the dominant-negative mutants of which inhibited BMP-4-induced ERK and Smad1/5 phosphorylations. Our results indicate that BMP-4 induces G0/G1 arrest and hence differentiation in osteoblast-like cells through increased expressions of p21CIP1 and p27KIP1, which are mediated by BMPRIA-specific Smad1/5. The extracellular matrix/β3 integrin/ focal adhesion kinase/Shc/ERK2 signaling pathway is involved in these BMP-4-induced responses in osteoblast-like cells. PMID:19819988

  5. Deficiency in pulmonary surfactant proteins in mice with fatty acid binding protein 4-Cre-mediated knockout of the tuberous sclerosis complex 1 gene.

    PubMed

    Xiang, Xinxin; Yuan, Fang; Zhao, Jing; Li, Ziru; Wang, Xian; Guan, Youfei; Tang, Chaoshu; Sun, Guang; Li, Yin; Zhang, Weizhen

    2013-03-01

    Tuberous sclerosis complex 1 (TSC1) forms a heterodimmer with tuberous sclerosis complex 2, to inhibit signalling by the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) complex 1 (mTORC1). The mTORC1 stimulates cell growth by promoting anabolic cellular processes, such as gene transcription and protein translation, in response to growth factors and nutrient signals. Originally designed to test the role of TSC1 in adipocyte function, mice in which the gene for TSC1 was specifically deleted by the fatty acid binding protein 4 (FABP4)-Cre (Fabp4-Tsc1cKO mice) died prematurely within 48 h after birth. The Fabp4-Tsc1cKO mouse revealed a much smaller phenotype relative to the wild-type littermates. Maternal administration of rapamycin, a classical mTOR inhibitor, significantly increased the survival time of Fabp4-Tsc1cKO mice for up to 23 days. Both macroscopic and microscopic haemorrhages were observed in the lungs of Fabp4-Tsc1cKO mice, while other tissues showed no significant changes. Levels of surfactant proteins A and B demonstrated a significant decrease in the Fabp4-Tsc1cKO mice, which was rescued by maternal injection of rapamycin. Co-localization of FABP4 or TSC1 with surfactant protein B was also detected in neonatal pulmonary tissues. Our study suggests that TSC1-mTORC1 may be critical for the synthesis of surfactant proteins A and B.

  6. Cloning and expression of retinoblastoma-binding protein 4 gene in embryo diapause termination and in response to salinity stress from brine shrimp Artemia sinica.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaolu; Yao, Feng; Liang, Xiaoyu; Zhu, Xiaolin; Zheng, Ren; Jia, Baolin; Hou, Lin; Zou, Xiangyang

    2016-10-15

    Retinoblastoma binding protein 4 (RBBP4) is a nuclear protein with four WD-repeat sequences and thus belongs to a highly conserved subfamily of proteins with such domains. This retinoblastoma-binding protein plays an important role in nucleosome assembly and histone modification, which influences gene transcription and regulates cell cycle and proliferation. Artemia sinica (brine shrimp) undergoes an unusual diapause process under stress conditions of high salinity and low temperature. However, the role of RBBP4 in diapause termination of embryo development in A. sinica remains unknown. Here, the full-length cDNA of the As-rbbp4 gene was obtained from A. sinica and found to contain 1411 nucleotides, including a 1281 bp open reading frame (ORF), 63 bp 5'-untranslated region (UTR) and a 67-bp 3'-UTR, which encodes a 427 amino acid (48 kDa) protein. Bioinformatic analysis indicated As-RBBP4 to be mainly located in the nucleus, with a theoretical isoelectric point of 4.79. Protein sequence domain analysis showed that As-RBBP4 is a conserved protein, especially in the WD40 domain. No specificity in expression of this gene was observed in tissues or organs by in situ hybridization. Real-time quantitative PCR and Western blot analyses of As-RBBP4 gene and protein expression, respectively, showed notably high levels at 10 h and a subsequent downward trend. Obvious trends in upregulation of As-RBBP4 were observed under conditions of low temperature and high salinity stress. As-E2F1 and As-CyclinE also presented similar trends as that of As-RBBP4 in Western blots. Analysis of the RBBP4 expression in early embryonic development of A. sinica indicated that this protein plays an important role in diapause termination and cell cycle regulation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Coupled transcription-splicing regulation of mutually exclusive splicing events at the 5′ exons of protein 4.1R gene

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Aeri; Norton, Stephanie; Liu, Eva S.; Park, Jennie; Zhou, Anyu; Munagala, Indira D.; Ou, Alexander C.; Yang, Guang; Wickrema, Amittha; Tang, Tang K.; Benz, Edward J.

    2009-01-01

    The tightly regulated production of distinct erythrocyte protein 4.1R isoforms involves differential splicing of 3 mutually exclusive first exons (1A, 1B, 1C) to the alternative 3′ splice sites (ss) of exon 2′/2. Here, we demonstrate that exon 1 and 2′/2 splicing diversity is regulated by a transcription-coupled splicing mechanism. We also implicate distinctive regulatory elements that promote the splicing of exon 1A to the distal 3′ ss and exon 1B to the proximal 3′ ss in murine erythroleukemia cells. A hybrid minigene driven by cytomegalovirus promoter mimicked 1B-promoter–driven splicing patterns but differed from 1A-promoter–driven splicing patterns, suggesting that promoter identity affects exon 2′/2 splicing. Furthermore, splicing factor SF2/ASF ultraviolet (UV) cross-linked to the exon 2′/2 junction CAGAGAA, a sequence that overlaps the distal U2AF35-binding 3′ ss. Consequently, depletion of SF2/ASF allowed exon 1B to splice to the distal 3′ ss but had no effect on exon 1A splicing. These findings identify for the first time that an SF2/ASF binding site also can serve as a 3′ ss in a transcript-dependent manner. Taken together, our results suggest that 4.1R gene expression involves transcriptional regulation coupled with a complex splicing regulatory network. PMID:19729518

  8. Expression of human membrane skeleton protein genes for protein 4.1 and betaIISigma2-spectrin assayed by real-time RT-PCR.

    PubMed

    Taylor-Harris, Pamela M; Felkin, Leanne E; Birks, Emma J; Franklin, Rodney C G; Yacoub, Magdi H; Baines, Anthony J; Barton, Paul J R; Pinder, Jennifer C

    2005-01-01

    The proteins, spectrin and 4.1 confer support and resilience to animal cell membranes, and promote assembly of multimeric, membrane-bound signalling complexes. Protein 4.1 also plays important roles in tumour suppression and the regulation of cell proliferation. To assess relative tissue expression of the four genes encoding human protein 4.1, we measured mRNA levels using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. We compared 4.1 expression with that of a major splice variant of spectrin, betaIISigma2 that has a shortened C-terminus lacking a pleckstrin homology domain. mRNA for 4.1R is four-fold higher in bone marrow than in tissues with the next highest prevalence: cerebellum, lung, testis and thymus. 4.1G mRNA is highly expressed in brain, spinal cord and testis; 4.1N in brain, spinal cord and adrenal gland; 4.1B in testis, brain, spinal cord, and kidney. Thus, 4.1N, 4.1B and 4.1G all show high accumulation in nervous tissues. mRNA for betaIISigma2-spectrin is ubiquitous, but most abundant in cardiac and nervous tissues. Comparative transcript abundance was analysed in heart and brain. betaIISigma2-spectrin was the most abundant transcript in heart with levels 5 fold greater than 4.1G or 4.1N and at least 9 fold greater than 4.1B. In brain, 4.1N was the most abundant transcript, with levels 2.4 fold greater than 4.1B and at least 4 fold greater than 4.1G or betaIISigma2-spectrin. 4.1R abundance was very low in both tissues. Whilst we expected that 4.1 mRNAs would feature highly in muscle and nerve, we note their high abundance in testis, indicating previously unsuspected functions in reproduction.

  9. Ectopic expression of Msx-2 in posterior limb bud mesoderm impairs limb morphogenesis while inducing BMP-4 expression, inhibiting cell proliferation, and promoting apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Ferrari, D; Lichtler, A C; Pan, Z Z; Dealy, C N; Upholt, W B; Kosher, R A

    1998-05-01

    expression of BMP-4, a secreted signaling molecule that is coexpressed with Msx-2 during normal limb development in the anterior limb mesoderm, the posterior necrotic zone, and interdigital mesenchyme. This indicates that Msx-2 regulates BMP-4 expression and that the suppressive effects of Msx-2 on limb morphogenesis might be mediated in part by BMP-4. These studies indicate that during normal limb development Msx-2 is a key component of a regulatory network that delimits the boundaries of the progress zone by suppressing the morphogenesis of the regions of the limb mesoderm in which it is highly expressed, thus restricting the outgrowth and formation of skeletal elements and associated structures to the progress zone. We also report that rather large numbers of apoptotic cells as well as proliferating cells are present throughout the AER during all stages of normal limb development we have examined, indicating that many of the cells of the AER are continuously undergoing programmed cell death at the same time that new AER cells are being generated by cell proliferation. Thus, a balance between cell proliferation and programmed cell death may play a very important role in maintaining the activity of the AER.

  10. Bone Regeneration Mediated by BMP4-Expressing Muscle-Derived Stem Cells Is Affected by Delivery System

    PubMed Central

    Usas, Arvydas; Ho, Andrew M.; Cooper, Gregory M.; Olshanski, Anne; Peng, Hairong

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the delivery of bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)4-secreting muscle-derived stem cells (MDSC-B4) capable of inducing bone formation in mice using collagen gel (CG), fibrin sealant (FS), and gelatin sponge carriers. After implanting these various cell-loaded scaffolds intramuscularly or into critical-size skull defects, we measured the extent of heterotopic ossification and calvarial defect healing over a 6-week period via radiographic, radiomorphometric, histological, and micro-computed tomography analyses. As expected, in the absence of MDSC-B4, there was no ectopic ossification and only minimal calvarial regeneration using each type of scaffold. Although CG and gelatin sponges loaded with BMP4-secreting cells produced the most ectopic bone, FS constructs produced bone with comparably less mineralization. In the mouse calvaria, we observed MDSC-B4-loaded scaffolds able to promote bone defect healing to a variable degree, but there were differences between these implants in the volume, shape, and morphology of regenerated bone. MDSC-B4 delivery in a gelatin sponge produced hypertrophic bone, whereas delivery in a CG and FS healed the defect with bone that closely resembled the quantity and configuration of native calvarium. In summary, hydrogels are suitable carriers for osteocompetent MDSCs in promoting bone regeneration, especially at craniofacial injury sites. PMID:19061430

  11. Specific Preferences in Lineage Choice and Phenotypic Plasticity of Glioma Stem Cells Under BMP4 and Noggin Influence.

    PubMed

    Videla Richardson, Guillermo Agustín; Garcia, Carolina Paola; Roisman, Alejandro; Slavutsky, Irma; Fernandez Espinosa, Damián Darío; Romorini, Leonardo; Miriuka, Santiago Gabriel; Arakaki, Naomi; Martinetto, Horacio; Scassa, María Elida; Sevlever, Gustavo Emilio

    2016-01-01

    Although BMP4-induced differentiation of glioma stem cells (GSCs) is well recognized, details of the cellular responses triggered by this morphogen are still poorly defined. In this study, we established several GSC-enriched cell lines (GSC-ECLs) from high-grade gliomas. The expansion of these cells as adherent monolayers, and not as floating neurospheres, enabled a thorough study of the phenotypic changes that occurred during their differentiation. Herein, we evaluated GSC-ECLs' behavior toward differentiating conditions by depriving them of growth factors and/or by adding BMP4 at different concentrations. After analyzing cellular morphology, proliferation and lineage marker expression, we determined that GSC-ECLs have distinct preferences in lineage choice, where some of them showed an astrocyte fate commitment and others a neuronal one. We found that this election seems to be dictated by the expression pattern of BMP signaling components present in each GSC-ECL. Additionally, treatment of GSC-ECLs with the BMP antagonist, Noggin, also led to evident phenotypic changes. Interestingly, under certain conditions, some GSC-ECLs adopted an unexpected smooth muscle-like phenotype. As a whole, our findings illustrate the wide differentiation potential of GSCs, highlighting their molecular complexity and paving a way to facilitate personalized differentiating therapies. © 2015 International Society of Neuropathology.

  12. Lung stem cell differentiation in mice directed by endothelial cells via a BMP4-NFATc1-Thrombospondin-1 axis

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Joo-Hyeon; Bhang, Dong Ha; Beede, Alexander; Huang, Tian Lian; Stripp, Barry R.; Bloch, Kenneth D.; Wagers, Amy J.; Tseng, Yu-Hua; Ryeom, Sandra; Kim, Carla F.

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Lung stem cells are instructed to produce lineage-specific progeny through unknown factors in their microenvironment. We used clonal three-dimensional (3D) co-cultures of endothelial cells and distal lung stem cells, bronchioalveolar stem cells (BASCs), to probe the instructive mechanisms. Single BASCs had bronchiolar and alveolar differentiation potential in lung endothelial cell co-cultures. Gain and loss of function experiments showed BMP4-Bmpr1a signaling triggers calcineurin/NFATc1-dependent expression of Thrombospondin-1 (Tsp1) in lung endothelial cells to drive alveolar lineage-specific BASC differentiation. Tsp1-null mice exhibited defective alveolar injury repair, confirming a crucial role for the BMP4-NFATc1-TSP1 axis in lung epithelial differentiation and regeneration in vivo. Discovery of this pathway points to methods to direct the derivation of specific lung epithelial lineages from multipotent cells. These findings elucidate a pathway that may be a critical target in lung diseases and provide new tools to understand the mechanisms of respiratory diseases at the single cell level. PMID:24485453

  13. GC Gene Polymorphism and Unbound Serum Retinol-Binding Protein 4 Are Related to the Risk of Insulin Resistance in Patients With Chronic Hepatitis C

    PubMed Central

    Mateos-Muñoz, Beatriz; García-Martín, Elena; Torrejón, María J.; Devesa-Medina, María J.; Esguevillas, Gara; Cárdenas, María C.; Fernández, Cristina; Carballo, Miguel; Agúndez, José A.; Ladero, José M.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Insulin resistance (IR) is found in chronic hepatitis C (CHC) more frequently than in other chronic liver diseases. Prospective cross-sectional study to evaluate a wide multitest panel to identify factors related with IR in CHC and their possible interactions. In 76 patients with CHC we performed a series of routine laboratory analysis as well as specifically designed serum biochemical tests [retinol, retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4), 25-OH vitamin D, Vitamin E, lipopolysaccharide-binding protein (LBP), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and cystatin C]. The single nucleotide polymorphisms rs7041 and rs4588 GC-DBP (group-specific component-Vitamin D-binding protein), rs738409 PNPLA3 (patatin-like phospholipase domain containing 3), and rs12979860 IL28B (interleukin-28 B) genes were determined. Insulin sensitivity was established with the HOMA-IR and IR was diagnosed when HOMA-IR > 3. Fibrosis staging was assessed with liver biopsy or transient elastography. After backward logistic regression analysis, independent variables associated with IR were Gc1s/Gc1s DBP phenotype, that results from the homozygous carriage of the rs7041G/rs4588C haplotype (P = 0.033); low retinol/RBP4 ratio, reflecting a greater rate of unbound RBP4 (P = 0.005); older age (P = 0.01); high serum tryglicerides (P = 0.026); and advanced (F3–F4) fibrosis stage. The AUROC provided by the multivariate model was 0.950 (95% CI = 0.906–0.993). In addition to previously known ones, the Gc1s/Gc1s phenotype variant of DBP and the unbound fraction of plasma RBP4 may be considered as factors related with the incidence, and possibly the risk, of IR in CHC patients. PMID:26962819

  14. Osterix plays a critical role in BMP4-induced promoter activity of connexin43.

    PubMed

    Han, Younho; Cho, Dong Hyeok; Chung, Dong Jin; Lee, Kwang Youl

    2016-09-16

    Osterix is an essential transcription factor for osteogenesis and is expressed in osteoblasts. Although Osterix has been shown to be induced by bone morphogenetic protein 4, the molecular mechanism underlying Osterix function during osteoblast differentiation remains unclear. Connexin43 (Cx43) is the most abundant gap junction protein in bone cells and plays a critical role in osteoblast differentiation. However, little is known about the functional interactions between Osterix and the Cx43 promoter. In the present study, we investigated the relationship between Osterix and Cx43 in HEK293 and C2C12 cells. Cx43 expression was significantly repressed by the addition of shRNA against Osterix, whereas overexpression of Osterix resulted in enhanced Cx43 expression. Furthermore, Osterix directly occupied the promoter region of Cx43 and subsequently increased Cx43 promoter activity in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, phosphorylation of the Ser76 and Ser80 residues in Osterix were found to be critical for its activity on the Cx43 promoter. Our results suggest that Osterix plays an important role in increasing bone morphogenetic protein 4-induced Cx43 activity.

  15. Deficiency in pulmonary surfactant proteins in mice with fatty acid binding protein 4-Cre-mediated knockout of the tuberous sclerosis complex 1 gene

    PubMed Central

    Xiang, Xinxin; Yuan, Fang; Zhao, Jing; Li, Ziru; Wang, Xian; Guan, Youfei; Tang, Chaoshu; Sun, Guang; Li, Yin; Zhang, Weizhen

    2013-01-01

    New findings What is the central question of this study? Does tuberous sclerosis complex 1–mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signalling regulate the synthesis of surfactant proteins A and B and, if so, can this contribute to the postnatal death of Fabp4-Tsc1cKO mice? What is the main finding and its importance? Our study reveals a novel mechanism for the regulation of alveolar surfactant proteins. Tuberous sclerosis complex 1–mTOR signalling contributes to the regulation of synthesis of surfactant proteins A and B. Deficiency of tuberous sclerosis complex 1 in alveolar epithelial cells may contribute to the postnatal death of Fabp4-Tsc1cKO mice. Tuberous sclerosis complex 1 (TSC1) forms a heterodimmer with tuberous sclerosis complex 2, to inhibit signalling by the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) complex 1 (mTORC1). The mTORC1 stimulates cell growth by promoting anabolic cellular processes, such as gene transcription and protein translation, in response to growth factors and nutrient signals. Originally designed to test the role of TSC1 in adipocyte function, mice in which the gene for TSC1 was specifically deleted by the fatty acid binding protein 4 (FABP4)-Cre (Fabp4-Tsc1cKO mice) died prematurely within 48 h after birth. The Fabp4-Tsc1cKO mouse revealed a much smaller phenotype relative to the wild-type littermates. Maternal administration of rapamycin, a classical mTOR inhibitor, significantly increased the survival time of Fabp4-Tsc1cKO mice for up to 23 days. Both macroscopic and microscopic haemorrhages were observed in the lungs of Fabp4-Tsc1cKO mice, while other tissues showed no significant changes. Levels of surfactant proteins A and B demonstrated a significant decrease in the Fabp4-Tsc1cKO mice, which was rescued by maternal injection of rapamycin. Co-localization of FABP4 or TSC1 with surfactant protein B was also detected in neonatal pulmonary tissues. Our study suggests that TSC1–mTORC1 may be critical for the synthesis of surfactant

  16. Gene expression profiling of human neural progenitor cells following the serum-induced astrocyte differentiation.

    PubMed

    Obayashi, Shinya; Tabunoki, Hiroko; Kim, Seung U; Satoh, Jun-ichi

    2009-05-01

    Neural stem cells (NSC) with self-renewal and multipotent properties could provide an ideal cell source for transplantation to treat spinal cord injury, stroke, and neurodegenerative diseases. However, the majority of transplanted NSC and neural progenitor cells (NPC) differentiate into astrocytes in vivo under pathological environments in the central nervous system, which potentially cause reactive gliosis. Because the serum is a potent inducer of astrocyte differentiation of rodent NPC in culture, we studied the effect of the serum on gene expression profile of cultured human NPC to identify the gene signature of astrocyte differentiation of human NPC. Human NPC spheres maintained in the serum-free culture medium were exposed to 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS) for 72 h, and processed for analyzing on a Whole Human Genome Microarray of 41,000 genes, and the microarray data were validated by real-time RT-PCR. The serum elevated the levels of expression of 45 genes, including ID1, ID2, ID3, CTGF, TGFA, METRN, GFAP, CRYAB and CSPG3, whereas it reduced the expression of 23 genes, such as DLL1, DLL3, PDGFRA, SOX4, CSPG4, GAS1 and HES5. Thus, the serum-induced astrocyte differentiation of human NPC is characterized by a counteraction of ID family genes on Delta family genes. Coimmunoprecipitation analysis identified ID1 as a direct binding partner of a proneural basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factor MASH1. Luciferase assay indicated that activation of the DLL1 promoter by MASH1 was counteracted by ID1. Bone morphogenetic protein 4 (BMP4) elevated the levels of ID1 and GFAP expression in NPC under the serum-free culture conditions. Because the serum contains BMP4, these results suggest that the serum factor(s), most probably BMP4, induces astrocyte differentiation by upregulating the expression of ID family genes that repress the proneural bHLH protein-mediated Delta expression in human NPC.

  17. Regulation of retinal progenitor cell differentiation by bone morphogenetic protein 4 is mediated by the smad/id cascade.

    PubMed

    Du, Yang; Xiao, Qi; Yip, Henry K

    2010-07-01

    PURPOSE. Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) are secreted signaling molecules that are implicated in the control of multiple events during mouse eye development. However, little is known about the mechanisms by which BMP signaling regulates these retinal developmental processes. METHODS. Real-time PCR, Western blot, and immunohistochemistry were used to investigate the expression of components of BMP signaling in the mouse retina. Retinal progenitor cells (RPCs) were used to study the effects of BMP4 on retinal cell differentiation and regulation of Id protein expression. RESULTS. Results showed that BMP2, -4, and -7; BMP receptor (BMPRIb) mRNAs; and proteins and downstream signaling molecule Smad1/5/8 proteins were all highly expressed in the mouse retina during the embryonic (E13.5-E18.5) and early postnatal (P)1 stage and that the expression was downregulated in the adult. On stimulation with BMP4, cultured mouse RPCs differentiated into neuronal lineage whereas astrocyte cell differentiation was inhibited. BMP4 mainly stimulated production of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs). Results also revealed that BMPs and BMPRIb were co-localized with inhibitors of differentiation (Id) (mainly Id1 and -3) in RGCs in the adult mouse retina. Exposure of RPCs to BMP4 upregulated Id1-3 expression levels, mediated through the phosphorylation of Smad1/5/8 proteins. CONCLUSIONS. These results suggest that Id genes are one of the potential targets of BMP signaling in the differentiation of RPCs.

  18. New association of bone morphogenetic protein 4 concentrations with fat distribution in obesity and Exenatide intervention on it.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xingchun; Chen, Jiaqi; Li, Liang; Zhu, Cui Ling; Gao, Jingyang; Rampersad, Sharvan; Bu, Le; Qu, Shen

    2017-04-04

    Bone morphogenetic protein 4 (BMP-4) has been proven to regulate white adipogensis. We aimed to demonstrate the correlation of BMP-4 with fat distribution and Exenatide treatment on it. We enrolled 69 obese patients. Anthropometric and metabolic indexes were collected. Fat distribution was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. BPM-4 levels were assessed using enzyme-link immunosorbent assay kit. 30 obese patients were treated with Exenatide twice a day. Change in body weight, metabolic-related indices and BPM-4 levels were evaluated after 18 weeks. 1) The mean(±SD) BMP-4 levels were 763.98 ± 324.11 pg/ml in the obese. BPM-4 levels were significantly positively correlated with estimated visceral adipose tissue mass in all subjects and also in females (r = 0.377, r = 0.625, respectively,all P < 0.05). BPM-4 levels were also significantly positively correlated with body mass index, hip circumference and total fat% in females (r = 0.375,r = 0.429,r = 0.493,respectively, all P < 0.05). BPM-4 levels were negatively correlated with total cholesterol(TC) in all subjects and males also (r = -0.373,r = -0.332,respectively, all P < 0.05). BPM-4 levels were also significantly positively correlated with free triiodothyronine in males (r = 0.441, P < 0.05). 3) Multivariate analyses showed that TC was risk factor of BMP-4 concentration in males and Est.VAT Area was risk factor of BMP-4 levels in females. 4) BMP-4 levels were significantly higher in the obesity with slightly increased thyroid stimulating hormone(TSH) than the obesity without slightly increased TSH (902.08 ± 354.74 pg/ml vs. 720.24 ± 306.41 pg/ml, P < 0.05). 5) Exenatide treatment leads to a significant decreased in BMP-4 from 860.05 ± 352.65 pg/ml to 649.44 + 277.49 pg/ml independent of weight loss(P < 0.05). BMP-4 levels were associated with the visceral adipose tissue and may play a certain role in fat distribution and subclinical hypothyroidism in obesity

  19. Bone Morphogenetic Protein-4 Inhibitor Gremlin Is Overexpressed in Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Koli, Katri; Myllärniemi, Marjukka; Vuorinen, Kirsi; Salmenkivi, Kaisa; Ryynänen, Merja J.; Kinnula, Vuokko L.; Keski-Oja, Jorma

    2006-01-01

    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), ie, usual interstitial pneumonia in histopathology, is a disease characterized by tissue destruction and active areas of fibroproliferation in the lung. Gremlin (Drm), a member of the cysteine knot family of bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) inhibitors, functions to antagonize BMP-4-mediated signals during lung development. We describe here consistent overexpression of gremlin in the lung interstitium of IPF patients. Quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction analyses revealed considerably higher levels of gremlin mRNA in lung biopsies from IPF patients, the highest level being 35-fold higher compared to controls. Lung fibroblasts isolated from IPF patients also expressed elevated levels of gremlin, which was associated with impaired responsiveness to endogenous and exogenous BMP-4. Transforming growth factor-β-induced epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition of A549 lung epithelial cells in culture was also associated with induction of gremlin mRNA expression. In addition, A549 cells transfected to overexpress gremlin were more susceptible to transforming growth factor-β-induced epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition. Gremlin-mediated inhibition of BMP-4 signaling pathways is likely to enhance the fibrotic response and reduce epithelial regeneration in the lung. The overexpression of this developmental gene in IPF may be a key event in the persistence of myofibroblasts in the lung interstitium and provides a potential target for therapeutic intervention. PMID:16816361

  20. Bone morphogenetic protein-4 inhibitor gremlin is overexpressed in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Koli, Katri; Myllärniemi, Marjukka; Vuorinen, Kirsi; Salmenkivi, Kaisa; Ryynänen, Merja J; Kinnula, Vuokko L; Keski-Oja, Jorma

    2006-07-01

    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), ie, usual interstitial pneumonia in histopathology, is a disease characterized by tissue destruction and active areas of fibroproliferation in the lung. Gremlin (Drm), a member of the cysteine knot family of bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) inhibitors, functions to antagonize BMP-4-mediated signals during lung development. We describe here consistent overexpression of gremlin in the lung interstitium of IPF patients. Quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction analyses revealed considerably higher levels of gremlin mRNA in lung biopsies from IPF patients, the highest level being 35-fold higher compared to controls. Lung fibroblasts isolated from IPF patients also expressed elevated levels of gremlin, which was associated with impaired responsiveness to endogenous and exogenous BMP-4. Transforming growth factor-beta-induced epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition of A549 lung epithelial cells in culture was also associated with induction of gremlin mRNA expression. In addition, A549 cells transfected to overexpress gremlin were more susceptible to transforming growth factor-beta-induced epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition. Gremlin-mediated inhibition of BMP-4 signaling pathways is likely to enhance the fibrotic response and reduce epithelial regeneration in the lung. The overexpression of this developmental gene in IPF may be a key event in the persistence of myofibroblasts in the lung interstitium and provides a potential target for therapeutic intervention.

  1. Identification of a third protein 4.1 tumor suppressor, protein 4.1R, in meningioma pathogenesis

    SciTech Connect

    Robb, Victoria A.; Li, Wen; Gascard, Philippe; Perry, Arie; Mohandas, Narla; Gutmann, David H.

    2003-06-11

    Meningiomas are common tumors of the central nervous system, however, the mechanisms under lying their pathogenesis are largely undefined. Two members of the Protein 4.1 super family, the neuro fibromatosis 2 (NF2) gene product (merlin/schwannomin) and Protein 4.1B have been implicated as meningioma tumor suppressors. In this report, we demonstrate that another Protein 4.1 family member, Protein 4.1R, also functions as a meningioma tumor suppressor. Based on the assignment of the Protein 4.1R gene to chromosome 1p32-36, a common region of deletion observed in meningiomas, we analyzed Protein 4.1R expression in meningioma cell lines and surgical tumor specimens. We observed loss of Protein 4.1R protein expression in two meningioma cell lines (IOMM-Lee, CH157-MN) by Western blotting as well as in 6 of 15 sporadic meningioma as by immuno histo chemistry (IHC). Analysis of a subset of these sporadic meningiomas by fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) with a Protein 4.1R specific probe demonstrated 100 percent concordance with the IHC results. In support of a meningioma tumor suppressor function, over expression of Protein 4.1R resulted in suppression of IOMM-Lee and CH157MN cell proliferation. Similar to the Protein 4.1B and merlin meningioma tumor suppressors, Protein 4.1R localization in the membrane fraction increased significantly under conditions of growth arrest in vitro. Lastly, Protein 4.1R interacted with some known merlin/Protein 4.1B interactors such as CD44 and bII-spectrin, but did not associate with the Protein 4.1B interactors 14-3-3 and PRMT3 or the merlin binding proteins SCHIP-1 and HRS. Collectively, these results suggest that Protein 4.1R functions as an important tumor suppressor important in the molecular pathogenesis of meningioma.

  2. Amplification of the bromodomain-containing protein 4 gene in ovarian high-grade serous carcinoma is associated with worse prognosis and survival

    PubMed Central

    UCAR, DUYGU; LIN, DOUGLAS I.

    2015-01-01

    High-grade serous carcinoma (HGSC) of the ovary is an aggressive and devastating neoplasm and the identification of novel therapeutic targets may result in a significant decrease in patient morbidity and mortality. Over the last few years, chromatin regulators have become attractive targets for cancer therapy. More specifically, bromodomain-containing protein 4 (BRD4), a protein that is associated with acetylated chromatin and transcriptional activation, has been shown to selectively regulate the transcription of key oncogenic drivers, such as CMYC, in several tumor types. The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) Project has molecularly characterized the genome of ovarian serous carcinomas, which enabled us to study the association of genomic alterations of BRD4 with patient survival and clinicopathological characteristics. Our analysis using clinical and genomic data from the TCGA ovarian carcinoma samples revealed that somatic amplification of BRD4 (observed in 12% of the cases) was correlated with increased BRD4 mRNA levels and is significantly associated with worse overall and progression-free survival compared to wild-type cases. These findings support the hypothesis that future studies and trials investigating newly developed BRD4 inhibitors are required in a subset of patients with ovarian HGSC. PMID:26807235

  3. BMP4 and BMP7 Suppress StAR and Progesterone Production via ALK3 and SMAD1/5/8-SMAD4 in Human Granulosa-Lutein Cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Han; Klausen, Christian; Zhu, Hua; Chang, Hsun-Ming; Leung, Peter C K

    2015-11-01

    Adequate production of progesterone by the corpus luteum is critical to the successful establishment of pregnancy. In animal models, bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) 4 and BMP7 have been shown to suppress either basal or gonadotropin-induced progesterone production, depending on the species examined. However, the effects of BMP4 and BMP7 on progesterone production in human granulosa cells are unknown. In the present study, we used immortalized (SVOG) and primary human granulosa-lutein cells to investigate the effects of BMP4 and BMP7 on steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) expression and progesterone production and to examine the underlying molecular mechanism. Treatment of primary and immortalized human granulosa cells with recombinant BMP4 or BMP7 decreased StAR expression and progesterone accumulation. In SVOG cells, the suppressive effects of BMP4 and BMP7 on StAR expression were blocked by pretreatment with inhibitors of activin receptor-like kinase (ALK)2/3/6 (dorsomorphin) or ALK2/3 (DMH1) but not ALK4/5/7 (SB-431542). Moreover, small interfering RNA-mediated depletion of ALK3, but not ALK2 or ALK6, reversed the effects of BMP4 and BMP7 on StAR expression. Likewise, BMP4- and BMP7-induced phosphorylation of SMAD 1/5/8 was reversed by treatment with DMH1 or small interfering RNA targeting ALK3. Knockdown of SMAD4, the essential common SMAD for BMP/TGF-β signaling, abolished the effects of BMP4 and BMP7 on StAR expression. Our results suggest that BMP4 and BMP7 down-regulate StAR and progesterone production via ALK3 and SMAD1/5/8-SMAD4 signaling in human granulosa-lutein cells.

  4. Modulation of Bmp4 signalling in the epithelial-mesenchymal interactions that take place in early thymus and parathyroid development in avian embryos.

    PubMed

    Neves, Hélia; Dupin, Elisabeth; Parreira, Leonor; Le Douarin, Nicole M

    2012-01-15

    Epithelial-mesenchymal interactions are crucial for the development of the endoderm of the pharyngeal pouches into the epithelia of thymus and parathyroid glands. Here we investigated the dynamics of epithelial-mesenchymal interactions that take place at the earliest stages of thymic and parathyroid organogenesis using the quail-chick model together with a co-culture system capable of reproducing these early events in vitro. The presumptive territories of thymus and parathyroid epithelia were identified in three-dimensionally preserved pharyngeal endoderm of embryonic day 4.5 chick embryos on the basis of the expression of Foxn1 and Gcm2, respectively: the thymic rudiment is located in the dorsal domain of the third and fourth pouches, while the parathyroid rudiment occupies a more medial/anterior pouch domain. Using in vitro quail-chick tissue associations combined with in ovo transplantations, we show that the somatopleural but not the limb bud mesenchyme, can mimic the role of neural crest-derived pharyngeal mesenchyme to sustain development of these glands up to terminal differentiation. Furthermore, mesenchymal-derived Bmp4 appears to be essential to promote early stages of endoderm development during a short window of time, irrespective of the mesenchymal source. In vivo studies using the quail-chick system and implantation of growth factor soaked-beads further showed that expression of Bmp4 by the mesenchyme is necessary during a 24 h-period of time. After this period however, Bmp4 is no longer required and another signalling factor produced by the mesenchyme, Fgf10, influences later differentiation of the pouch endoderm. These results show that morphological development and cell differentiation of thymus and parathyroid epithelia require a succession of signals emanating from the associated mesenchyme, among which Bmp4 plays a pivotal role for triggering thymic epithelium specification.

  5. BMP6 and BMP4 expression in patients with cancer-related anemia and its relationship with hepcidin and s-HJV.

    PubMed

    Shi, Y J; Pan, X T

    2016-03-31

    In the present study, we investigated BMP6 and BMP4 expression in patients with cancer-related anemia (CRA) as well as its relationship with hepcidin and s-HJV. The avidin-biotin system enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used to test serum levels of BMP6, BMP4, s-HJV, and hepcidin in 53 cancer patients with anemia and 52 control cancer patients without anemia. Serum levels of BMP6 and hepcidin in the anemia group were 434.53 ± 212.11 ng/mL and 5.68 ± 3.89 μg/L, respectively. In the non-anemia cancer group, serum BMP6 and hepcidin levels were 334.37 ± 171.32 ng/mL and 4.60 ± 2.28 μg/L, which were significantly lower than the levels for the CRA group (P < 0.05). In addition, the serum level of s-HJV was 0.69 ± 0.28 ng/mL in the CRA group, which was significantly lower compared to that for the non-anemia group (1.07 ± 1.00 ng/mL, P < 0.01). There were no significant differences in BMP4 expression between the two groups. BMP6 was negatively correlated with s-HJV and Hb (r = -0.2536 and -0.2949, P < 0.01), but was not correlated with hepcidin. Similarly, BMP4 expression was not correlated with Hb, s-HJV, or hepcidin. Our study shows that patients with CRA had high expression of BMP6 and hepcidin and low expression of s-HJV. BMP6 was found to be negatively correlated with s-HJV; both regulate hepcidin expression and play important roles in the development of anemia.

  6. Reduction of BMP4 activity by gremlin 1 enables ureteric bud outgrowth and GDNF/WNT11 feedback signalling during kidney branching morphogenesis.

    PubMed

    Michos, Odyssé; Gonçalves, Alexandre; Lopez-Rios, Javier; Tiecke, Eva; Naillat, Florence; Beier, Konstantin; Galli, Antonella; Vainio, Seppo; Zeller, Rolf

    2007-07-01

    Antagonists act to restrict and negatively modulate the activity of secreted signals during progression of embryogenesis. In mouse embryos lacking the extra-cellular BMP antagonist gremlin 1 (Grem1), metanephric development is disrupted at the stage of initiating ureteric bud outgrowth. Treatment of mutant kidney rudiments in culture with recombinant gremlin 1 protein induces additional epithelial buds and restores outgrowth and branching. All epithelial buds express Wnt11, and Gdnf is significantly upregulated in the surrounding mesenchyme, indicating that epithelial-mesenchymal (e-m) feedback signalling is restored. In the wild type, Bmp4 is expressed by the mesenchyme enveloping the Wolffian duct and ureteric bud and Grem1 is upregulated in the mesenchyme around the nascent ureteric bud prior to initiation of its outgrowth. In agreement, BMP activity is reduced locally as revealed by lower levels of nuclear pSMAD protein in the mesenchyme. By contrast, in Grem1-deficient kidney rudiments, pSMAD proteins are detected in many cell nuclei in the metanephric mesenchyme, indicative of excessive BMP signal transduction. Indeed, genetic lowering of BMP4 levels in Grem1-deficient mouse embryos completely restores ureteric bud outgrowth and branching morphogenesis. The reduction of BMP4 levels in Grem1 mutant embryos enables normal progression of renal development and restores adult kidney morphology and functions. This study establishes that initiation of metanephric kidney development requires the reduction of BMP4 activity by the antagonist gremlin 1 in the mesenchyme, which in turn enables ureteric bud outgrowth and establishment of autoregulatory GDNF/WNT11 feedback signalling.

  7. Coordinated regulation of dorsal bone morphogenetic protein 4 and ventral Sonic hedgehog signaling specifies the dorso-ventral polarity in the optic vesicle and governs ocular morphogenesis through fibroblast growth factor 8 upregulation.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Takuma; Yasuda, Kunio; Araki, Masasuke

    2010-05-01

    Dorsal and ventral specification in the early optic vesicle plays a crucial role in vertebrate ocular morphogenesis, and proper dorsal-ventral polarity in the optic vesicle ensures that distinct structures develop in separate domains within the eye primordium. The polarity is determined progressively during development by coordinated regulation of extraocular dorsal and ventral factors. In the present study, we cultured discrete portions of embryonic chick brains by preparing anterior cephalon, anterior dorsal cephalon and anterior ventral cephalon, and clearly demonstrate that bone morphogenetic protein 4 (BMP4) and Sonic hedgehog (Shh) constitute a dorsal-ventral signaling system together with fibroblast growth factor 8 (FGF8). BMP4 and Shh upregulate Tbx5 and Pax2, as reported previously, and at the same time Shh downregulates Tbx5, while BMP4 affects Pax2 expression to downregulate similarly. Shh induces Fgf8 expression in the ventral optic vesicle. This, in turn, determines the distinct boundary of the retinal pigmented epithelium and the neural retina by suppressing Mitf expression. The lens develops only when signals from both the dorsal and ventral regions come across together. Inverted deposition of Shh and BMP4 signals in organ-cultured optic vesicle completely re-organized ocular structures to be inverted. Based on these observations we propose a novel model in which the two signals govern the whole of ocular development when they encounter each other in the ocular morphogenic domain.

  8. Thyroid Hormone-Induced Hypertrophy in Mesenchymal Stem Cell Chondrogenesis Is Mediated by Bone Morphogenetic Protein-4

    PubMed Central

    Karl, Alexandra; Olbrich, Norman; Pfeifer, Christian; Berner, Arne; Zellner, Johannes; Kujat, Richard; Angele, Peter; Nerlich, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Chondrogenic differentiating mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) express markers of hypertrophic growth plate chondrocytes. As hypertrophic cartilage undergoes ossification, this is a concern for the application of MSCs in articular cartilage tissue engineering. To identify mechanisms that elicit this phenomenon, we used an in vitro hypertrophy model of chondrifying MSCs for differential gene expression analysis and functional experiments with the focus on bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling. Hypertrophy was induced in chondrogenic MSC pellet cultures by transforming growth factor β (TGFβ) and dexamethasone withdrawal and addition of triiodothyronine. Differential gene expression analysis of BMPs and their receptors was performed. Based on these results, the in vitro hypertrophy model was used to investigate the effect of recombinant BMP4 and the BMP inhibitor Noggin. The enhancement of hypertrophy could be shown clearly by an increased cell size, alkaline phosphatase activity, and collagen type X deposition. Upon induction of hypertrophy, BMP4 and the BMP receptor 1B were upregulated. Addition of BMP4 further enhanced hypertrophy in the absence, but not in the presence of TGFβ and dexamethasone. Thyroid hormone induced hypertrophy by upregulation of BMP4 and this induced enhancement of hypertrophy could be blocked by the BMP antagonist Noggin. BMP signaling is an important modulator of the late differentiation stages in MSC chondrogenesis and the thyroid hormone induces this pathway. As cartilage tissue engineering constructs will be exposed to this factor in vivo, this study provides important insight into the biology of MSC-based cartilage. Furthermore, the possibility to engineer hypertrophic cartilage may be helpful for critical bone defect repair. PMID:23937304

  9. Disruption of the gene encoding the latent transforming growth factor-beta binding protein 4 (LTBP-4) causes abnormal lung development, cardiomyopathy, and colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Sterner-Kock, Anja; Thorey, Irmgard S; Koli, Katri; Wempe, Frank; Otte, Jürgen; Bangsow, Thorsten; Kuhlmeier, Katharina; Kirchner, Thomas; Jin, Shenchu; Keski-Oja, Jorma; von Melchner, Harald

    2002-09-01

    Transforming growth factor-betas (TGF-betas) are multifunctional growth factors that are secreted as inactive (latent) precursors in large protein complexes. These complexes include the latency-associated propeptide (LAP) and a latent transforming growth factor-beta binding protein (LTBP). Four isoforms of LTBPs (LTBP-1-LTBP-4) have been cloned and are believed to be structural components of connective tissue microfibrils and local regulators of TGF-beta tissue deposition and signaling. By using a gene trap strategy that selects for integrations into genes induced transiently during early mouse development, we have disrupted the mouse homolog of the human LTBP-4 gene. Mice homozygous for the disrupted allele develop severe pulmonary emphysema, cardiomyopathy, and colorectal cancer. These highly tissue-specific abnormalities are associated with profound defects in the elastic fiber structure and with a reduced deposition of TGF-beta in the extracellular space. As a consequence, epithelial cells have reduced levels of phosphorylated Smad2 proteins, overexpress c-myc, and undergo uncontrolled proliferation. This phenotype supports the predicted dual role of LTBP-4 as a structural component of the extracellular matrix and as a local regulator of TGF-beta tissue deposition and signaling.

  10. Investigation of gene expressions in differentiated cell derived bone marrow stem cells during bone morphogenetic protein-4 treatments with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zafari, Jaber; Jouni, Fatemeh Javani; Ahmadvand, Ali; Abdolmaleki, Parviz; Soodi, Malihe; Zendehdel, Rezvan

    2017-02-01

    A model was set up to predict the differentiation patterns based on the data extracted from FTIR spectroscopy. For this reason, bone marrow stem cells (BMSCs) were differentiated to primordial germ cells (PGCs). Changes in cellular macromolecules in the time of 0, 24, 48, 72, and 96 h of differentiation, as different steps of the differentiation procedure were investigated by using FTIR spectroscopy. Also, the expression of pluripotency (Oct-4, Nanog and c-Myc) and specific genes (Mvh, Stella and Fragilis) were investigated by real-time PCR. However, the expression of genes in five steps of differentiation was predicted by FTIR spectroscopy. FTIR spectra showed changes in the template of band intensities at different differentiation steps. There are increasing changes in the stepwise differentiation procedure for the ratio area of CH2, which is symmetric to CH2 asymmetric stretching. An ensemble of expert methods, including regression tree (RT), boosting algorithm (BA), and generalized regression neural network (GRNN), was the best method to predict the gene expression by FTIR spectroscopy. In conclusion, the model was able to distinguish the pattern of different steps from cell differentiation by using some useful features extracted from FTIR spectra.

  11. Neuron-specific specificity protein 4 bigenomically regulates the transcription of all mitochondria- and nucleus-encoded cytochrome c oxidase subunit genes in neurons.

    PubMed

    Johar, Kaid; Priya, Anusha; Dhar, Shilpa; Liu, Qiuli; Wong-Riley, Margaret T T

    2013-11-01

    Neurons are highly dependent on oxidative metabolism for their energy supply, and cytochrome c oxidase (COX) is a key energy-generating enzyme in the mitochondria. A unique feature of COX is that it is one of only four proteins in mammalian cells that are bigenomically regulated. Of its thirteen subunits, three are encoded in the mitochondrial genome and ten are nuclear-encoded on nine different chromosomes. The mechanism of regulating this multisubunit, bigenomic enzyme poses a distinct challenge. In recent years, we found that nuclear respiratory factors 1 and 2 (NRF-1 and NRF-2) mediate such bigenomic coordination. The latest candidate is the specificity factor (Sp) family of proteins. In N2a cells, we found that Sp1 regulates all 13 COX subunits. However, we discovered recently that in primary neurons, it is Sp4 and not Sp1 that regulates some of the key glutamatergic receptor subunit genes. The question naturally arises as to the role of Sp4 in regulating COX in primary neurons. The present study utilized multiple approaches, including chromatin immunoprecipitation, promoter mutational analysis, knockdown and over-expression of Sp4, as well as functional assays to document that Sp4 indeed functionally regulate all 13 subunits of COX as well as mitochondrial transcription factors A and B. The present study discovered that among the specificity family of transcription factors, it is the less known neuron-specific Sp4 that regulates the expression of all 13 subunits of mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase (COX) enzyme in primary neurons. Sp4 also regulates the three mitochondrial transcription factors (TFAM, TFB1M, and TFB2M) and a COX assembly protein SURF-1 in primary neurons.

  12. Allogeneic Platelet Releasate Preparations Derived via a Novel Rapid Thrombin Activation Process Promote Rapid Growth and Increased BMP-2 and BMP-4 Expression in Human Adipose-Derived Stem Cells.

    PubMed

    McLaughlin, Michael; Gagnet, Paul; Cunningham, Elizabeth; Yeager, Randi; D'Amico, Michael; Guski, Katie; Scarpone, Michael; Kuebler, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    The administration of human adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) represents a promising regenerative therapy for the treatment of orthopedic injuries. While ASCs can be easily isolated from liposuction-derived adipose tissue, most clinical applications will likely require in vitro culture expansion of these cells using nonxenogeneic components. In this study, platelet releasate was generated using a novel rapid thrombin activation method (tPR). ASCs grown in media supplemented with tPR proliferated much faster than ASCs grown in media supplemented with 10% fetal bovine serum. The cells also retained the ability to differentiate along chondrogenic, adipogenic, and osteogenic lineages. The tPR cultured ASCs displayed elevated expression of BMP-4 (5.7 ± 0.97-fold increase) and BMP-2 (4.7 ± 1.3-fold increase) and decreased expression of PDGF-B (4.0 ± 1.4-fold decrease) and FGF-2 (33 ± 9.0-fold decrease). No significant changes in expression were seen with TGF-β and VEGF. This pattern of gene expression was consistent across different allogeneic tPR samples and different ASC lines. The use of allogeneic rapidly activated tPR to culture ASCs is associated with both an increased cell yield and a defined gene expression profile making it an attractive option for cell expansion prior to cell-based therapy for orthopedic applications.

  13. A single-nucleotide polymorphism in the 3'-UTR region of the adipocyte fatty acid binding protein 4 gene is associated with prognosis of triple-negative breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wenmiao; Yuan, Peng; Yu, Dianke; Du, Feng; Zhu, Anjie; Li, Qing; Zhang, Pin; Lin, Dongxin; Xu, Binghe

    2016-04-05

    Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is a subtype of breast cancer with poor prognosis and high heterogeneity. The aim of this study was to screen patients for single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with the prognosis of TNBC. Database-derived SNPs (NextBio, Ensembl, NCBI and MirSNP) located in the 3'-untranslated regions (3'-UTRs) of genes that are differentially expressed in breast cancer were selected. The possible associations between 111 SNPs and progression risk among 323 TNBC patients were investigated using a two-step case-control study with a discovery cohort (n=162) and a validation cohort (n=161). We identified the rs1054135 SNP in the adipocyte fatty acid binding protein 4 (FABP4) gene as a predictor of TNBC recurrence. The G allele of rs1054135 was associated with a reduced risk of disease progression as well as a prolonged disease-free survival time (DFS), with a hazard ratio (HR) for recurrence in the combined sample of 0.269 [95%CI: 0.098-0.735;P=0.001]. Notably, for individuals having the rs1054135 SNP with the AA/AG genotype, the magnitude of increased tumour recurrence risk for overweight patients (BMI≥25kg/m2) was significantly elevated (HR2.53; 95%CI: 1.06-6.03). Immunohistochemical staining of adipocytes adjacent to TNBC tissues showed that the expression level of FABP4 was statistically significantly lower in patients with the rs1054135-GG genotype and those in the disease-free group (P=0.0004 and P=0.0091, respectively). These results suggested that the expression of a lipid metabolism-related gene and an important SNP in the 3'-UTR of FABP4 are associated with TNBC prognosis, which may aid in the screening of high-risk patients with TNBC recurrence and the development of novel chemotherapeutic agents.

  14. A single-nucleotide polymorphism in the 3′-UTR region of the adipocyte fatty acid binding protein 4 gene is associated with prognosis of triple-negative breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Wenmiao; Yuan, Peng; Yu, Dianke; Du, Feng; Zhu, Anjie; Li, Qing; Zhang, Pin; Lin, Dongxin; Xu, Binghe

    2016-01-01

    Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is a subtype of breast cancer with poor prognosis and high heterogeneity. The aim of this study was to screen patients for single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with the prognosis of TNBC. Database-derived SNPs (NextBio, Ensembl, NCBI and MirSNP) located in the 3′-untranslated regions (3′-UTRs) of genes that are differentially expressed in breast cancer were selected. The possible associations between 111 SNPs and progression risk among 323 TNBC patients were investigated using a two-step case-control study with a discovery cohort (n=162) and a validation cohort (n=161). We identified the rs1054135 SNP in the adipocyte fatty acid binding protein 4 (FABP4) gene as a predictor of TNBC recurrence. The G allele of rs1054135 was associated with a reduced risk of disease progression as well as a prolonged disease-free survival time (DFS), with a hazard ratio (HR) for recurrence in the combined sample of 0.269 [95%CI: 0.098−0.735;P=0.001]. Notably, for individuals having the rs1054135 SNP with the AA/AG genotype, the magnitude of increased tumour recurrence risk for overweight patients (BMI≥25kg/m2) was significantly elevated (HR2.53; 95%CI: 1.06–6.03). Immunohistochemical staining of adipocytes adjacent to TNBC tissues showed that the expression level of FABP4 was statistically significantly lower in patients with the rs1054135-GG genotype and those in the disease-free group (P=0.0004 and P=0.0091, respectively). These results suggested that the expression of a lipid metabolism-related gene and an important SNP in the 3′-UTR of FABP4 are associated with TNBC prognosis, which may aid in the screening of high-risk patients with TNBC recurrence and the development of novel chemotherapeutic agents. PMID:26959740

  15. The effect of parathyroid hormone (1-84) treatment on serum bone morphogenetic protein 4 and vascular endothelial growth factor in postmenopausal women with established osteoporosis.

    PubMed

    Pepe, J; Cipriani, C; Cantatore, F P; Fabbri, A; Pola, E; Vinicola, V; Raimo, O; Biamonte, F; Pascone, R; Ferrara, C; Minisola, S

    2017-06-01

    To investigate the effect of 18 months' parathyroid hormone 1-84 (PTH 1-84) treatment on serum levels of bone morphogenetic protein 4 (BMP4) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), in postmenopausal women with established osteoporosis. Thirty-seven postmenopausal women with osteoporosis (mean age 72.9 ± 8.1 years old) and 23 healthy controls (mean age 68.9 ± 9.9 years old) were enrolled. Patients were treated with daily subcutaneous injections of PTH (1-84) 100 mcg for 18 months, plus calcium 1 gr and vitamin D 800 IU per os daily. Blood samples were taken every 6 months during the study. At baseline, there were no differences considering anthropometric parameters, co-morbidities, current medications used between patients and controls. Mean serum VEGF levels were significantly higher in osteoporotic patients compared to controls (436.7 ± 259.7 vs. 260.3 ± 184.3 pg/ml, p = 0.006), while there were no differences in mean serum values of BMP4 (5.3 ± 1.7 vs. 5.7 ± 1.6 pg/ml, p = 0.40). Serum VEGF levels increased by approximately 20% after 12 months of PTH (1-84) treatment compared to baseline (p = 0.03) and by 22% after 18 months (p = 0.01). A significant increase of 10% in mean serum BMP4 levels was observed after 18 months of PTH (1-84) treatment compared to baseline (p = 0.02). In the control group we found no differences after 18 months compared to baseline in BMP4 (5.7 ± 1.6 vs. 6.0 ± 1.5 pg/ml, p = 0.53) and VEGF (260.3 ± 184.3 vs. 257.4 ± 107.1 pg/ml, p = 0.94). PTH (1-84) treatment increased serum levels of VEGF and BMP4 in postmenopausal women with severe osteoporosis.

  16. Simulated Microgravity Regulates Gene Transcript Profiles of 2T3 Preosteoblasts: Comparison of the Random Positioning Machine and the Rotating Wall Vessel Bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patel, Mamta J.; Liu, Wenbin; Sykes, Michelle C.; Ward, Nancy E.; Risin, Semyon A.; Risin, Diana; Hanjoong, Jo

    2007-01-01

    Microgravity of spaceflight induces bone loss due in part to decreased bone formation by osteoblasts. We have previously examined the microgravity-induced changes in gene expression profiles in 2T3 preosteoblasts using the Random Positioning Machine (RPM) to simulate microgravity conditions. Here, we hypothesized that exposure of preosteoblasts to an independent microgravity simulator, the Rotating Wall Vessel (RWV), induces similar changes in differentiation and gene transcript profiles, resulting in a more confined list of gravi-sensitive genes that may play a role in bone formation. In comparison to static 1g controls, exposure of 2T3 cells to RWV for 3 days inhibited alkaline phosphatase activity, a marker of differentiation, and downregulated 61 genes and upregulated 45 genes by more than two-fold as shown by microarray analysis. The microarray results were confirmed with real time PCR for downregulated genes osteomodulin, bone morphogenic protein 4 (BMP4), runx2, and parathyroid hormone receptor 1. Western blot analysis validated the expression of three downregulated genes, BMP4, peroxiredoxin IV, and osteoglycin, and one upregulated gene peroxiredoxin I. Comparison of the microarrays from the RPM and the RWV studies identified 14 gravi-sensitive genes that changed in the same direction in both systems. Further comparison of our results to a published database showing gene transcript profiles of mechanically loaded mouse tibiae revealed 16 genes upregulated by the loading that were shown to be downregulated by RWV and RPM. These mechanosensitive genes identified by the comparative studies may provide novel insights into understanding the mechanisms regulating bone formation and potential targets of countermeasure against decreased bone formation both in astronauts and in general patients with musculoskeletal disorders.

  17. Arcuate nucleus transcriptome profiling identifies ankyrin repeat and suppressor of cytokine signalling box-containing protein 4 as a gene regulated by fasting in central nervous system feeding circuits.

    PubMed

    Li, J-Y; Kuick, R; Thompson, R C; Misek, D E; Lai, Y-M; Liu, Y-Q; Chai, B-X; Hanash, S M; Gantz, I

    2005-06-01

    The arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus is a primary site for sensing blood borne nutrients and hormonal messengers that reflect caloric status. To identify novel energy homeostatic genes, we examined RNA extracts from the microdissected arcuate nucleus of fed and 48-h fasted rats using oligonucleotide microarrays. The relative abundance of 118 mRNA transcripts was increased and 203 mRNA transcripts was decreased during fasting. One of the down-regulated mRNAs was ankyrin-repeat and suppressor of cytokine signalling box-containing protein 4 (Asb-4). The predicted structure of Asb-4 protein suggested that it might encode an intracellular regulatory protein, and therefore its mRNA expression was investigated further. Reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction was used to validate down-regulation of Asb-4 mRNA in the arcuate nucleus of the fasted Sprague-Dawley rat (relative expression of Asb-4 mRNA: fed = 4.66 +/- 0.26; fasted = 3.96 +/- 0.23; n = 4, P < 0.01). Down-regulation was also demonstrated in the obese fa/fa Zucker rat, another model of energy disequilibrium (relative expression of Asb-4 mRNA: lean Zucker = 3.91 +/- 0.32; fa/fa = 2.93 +/- 0.26; n = 5, P < 0.001). In situ hybridisation shows that Asb-4 mRNA is expressed in brain areas linked to energy homeostasis, including the arcuate nucleus, paraventricular nucleus, dorsomedial nucleus, lateral hypothalamus and posterodorsal medial amygdaloid area. Double in situ hybridisation revealed that Asb-4 mRNA colocalises with key energy homeostatic neurones. In the fed state, Asb-4 mRNA is expressed by 95.6% of pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) neurones and 46.4% of neuropeptide Y (NPY) neurones. By contrast, in the fasted state, the percentage of POMC neurones expressing Asb-4 mRNA drops to 73.2% (P < 0.001). Moreover, the density of Asb-4 mRNA per fasted POMC neurone is markedly decreased. Conversely, expression of Asb-4 mRNA by NPY neurones in the fasted state is modestly increased to 52.7% (P < 0

  18. A novel Foxn1(eGFP/+) mouse model identifies Bmp4-induced maintenance of Foxn1 expression and thymic epithelial progenitor populations.

    PubMed

    Barsanti, Marco; Lim, Joanna M C; Hun, Michael L; Lister, Natalie; Wong, Kahlia; Hammett, Maree V; Lepletier, Ailin; Boyd, Richard L; Giudice, Antonietta; Chidgey, Ann P

    2017-02-01

    Although forkhead-box n1 (Foxn1) is a critical thymic epithelial cell regulator in thymus organogenesis, its association with epithelial differentiation and homeostasis in the postnatal and aged thymic microenvironment remains conflicting. Consequently, we have generated a Foxn1(eGFP/+) knock-in mouse model that allows for refined investigation of the aging thymic epithelium. This reporter line differs from those previously published in that concomitant expression of enhanced green fluorescent protein enables live cell sorting of Foxn1(+) cell populations. Our heterozygotes did not exhibit haploinsufficiency, with Foxn1 expression resembling that of wild-type mice. Comparative analysis between Foxn1 and enhanced green fluorescent protein at both the transcriptional and translational levels revealed co-localization, with progressive down-regulation observed predominantly in the aging cortical epithelium. Supplementation with bone morphogenetic protein (Bmp)-4 enhanced Foxn1 expression and colony forming efficiency in both embryonic and adult progenitor 3D cultures. Strikingly, selective maintenance of immature cortical and medullary epithelial cells was observed which is consistent with the higher Bmp receptor 2 expression levels seen in these progenitor populations. This study demonstrates the significance of our mouse model in unraveling the role of this master regulator in thymus development, homeostasis and aging, providing a faithful reporter system for phenotypic and functional investigations. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Exogenous Fibroblast Growth Factor-10 Induces Cystic Lung Development with Altered Target Gene Expression in the Presence of Heparin in Cultures of Embryonic Rat Lung

    PubMed Central

    Hashimoto, Shuichi; Nakano, Hiroshi; Suguta, Yuko; Irie, Seiko; Jianhua, Luo; Katyal, Sikardar L.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Signaling by fibroblast growth factor (FGF) receptor (FGFR) 2IIIb regulates branching morphogenesis in the mammalian lung. FGFR2IIIb is primarily expressed in epithelial cells, whereas its ligands, FGF-10 and keratinocyte growth factor (KGF; FGF-7), are expressed in mesenchymal cells. FGF-10 null mice lack lungs, whereas KGF null animals have normal lung development, indicating that FGF-10 regulates lung branching morphogenesis. In this study, we determined the effects of FGF-10 on lung branching morphogenesis and accompanying gene expression in cultures of embryonic rat lungs. Methods Embryonic day 14 rat lungs were cultured with FGF-10 (0–250 ng/ml) in the absence or presence of heparin (30 ng/ml) for 4 days. Gene expression profiles were analyzed by Affymetrix microchip array including pathway analysis. Some of these genes, functionally important in FGF-10 signaling, were further analyzed by Northern blot, real-time PCR, in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry. Results Exogenous FGF-10 inhibited branching and induced cystic lung growth only in cultures containing heparin. In total, 252 upregulated genes and 164 downregulated genes were identified, and these included Spry1 (Sprouty-1), Spry2 (Sprouty-2), Spred-1, Bmp4 (bone morphogenetic protein-4, BMP-4), Shh(sonic hedgehog, SHH), Pthlh (parathyroid hormone-related protein, PTHrP), Dusp6 (MAP kinase phosphatase-3, MKP-3) and Clic4 (chloride intracellular channel-4, CLIC-4) among the upregulated genes and Igf1 (insulin-like growth factor-1, IGF-1), Tcf21 (POD), Gyg1 (glycogenin 1), Sparc (secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine, SPARC), Pcolce (procollagen C-endopeptidase enhancer protein, Pro CEP) and Lox (lysyl oxidase) among the downregulated genes. Gsk3β and Wnt2, which are involved in canonical Wnt signaling, were up- and downregulated, respectively. Conclusions Unlike FGF-7, FGF-10 effects on lung branching morphogenesis are heparin-dependent. Sprouty-2, BMP-4, SHH, IGF-1, SPARC

  20. Long-term exposure to bisphenol A or benzo(a)pyrene alters the fate of human mammary epithelial stem cells in response to BMP2 and BMP4, by pre-activating BMP signaling

    PubMed Central

    Clément, Flora; Xu, Xinyi; Donini, Caterina F; Clément, Alice; Omarjee, Soleilmane; Delay, Emmanuel; Treilleux, Isabelle; Fervers, Béatrice; Le Romancer, Muriel; Cohen, Pascale A; Maguer-Satta, Véronique

    2017-01-01

    Bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP2) and BMP4 are key regulators of the fate and differentiation of human mammary epithelial stem cells (SCs), as well as of their niches, and are involved in breast cancer development. We established that MCF10A immature mammary epithelial cells reliably reproduce the BMP response that we previously identified in human primary epithelial SCs. In this model, we observed that BMP2 promotes luminal progenitor commitment and expansion, whereas BMP4 prevents lineage differentiation. Environmental pollutants are known to promote cancer development, possibly by providing cells with stem-like features and by modifying their niches. Bisphenols, in particular, were shown to increase the risk of developing breast cancer. Here, we demonstrate that chronic exposure to low doses of bisphenol A (BPA) or benzo(a)pyrene (B(a)P) alone has little effect on SCs properties of MCF10A cells. Conversely, we show that this exposure affects the response of immature epithelial cells to BMP2 and BMP4. Furthermore, the modifications triggered in MCF10A cells on exposure to pollutants appeared to be predominantly mediated by altering the expression and localization of type-1 receptors and by pre-activating BMP signaling, through the phosphorylation of small mothers against decapentaplegic 1/5/8 (SMAD1/5/8). By analyzing stem and progenitor properties, we reveal that BPA prevents the maintenance of SC features prompted by BMP4, whereas promoting cell differentiation towards a myoepithelial phenotype. Inversely, B(a)P prevents BMP2-mediated luminal progenitor commitment and expansion, leading to the retention of stem-like properties. Overall, our data indicate that BPA and B(a)P distinctly alter the fate and differentiation potential of mammary epithelial SCs by modulating BMP signaling. PMID:27740625

  1. Bone Morphogenetic Protein 4 Signalling in Neural Stem and Progenitor Cells during Development and after Injury

    PubMed Central

    Cole, Alistair E.; Murray, Simon S.; Xiao, Junhua

    2016-01-01

    Substantial progress has been made in identifying the extracellular signalling pathways that regulate neural stem and precursor cell biology in the central nervous system (CNS). The bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs), in particular BMP4, are key players regulating neuronal and glial cell development from neural precursor cells in the embryonic, postnatal, and injured CNS. Here we review recent studies on BMP4 signalling in the generation of neurons, astrocytes, and oligodendroglial cells in the CNS. We also discuss putative mechanisms that BMP4 may utilise to influence glial cell development following CNS injury and highlight some questions for further research. PMID:27293450

  2. Bone morphogenetic protein-4 is overexpressed in colonic adenocarcinomas and promotes migration and invasion of HCT116 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Deng Haiyun; Makizumi, Ryouji; Ravikumar, T.S.; Dong Huali; Yang Wancai; Yang, W.-L. . E-mail: wlyang@nshs.edu

    2007-03-10

    Bone morphogenetic protein (BMP), a member of the TGF-{beta} superfamily, is involved in development, morphogenesis, cell proliferation and apoptosis. Dysregulation of BMP signaling has been suggested in tumorigenesis. In an analysis of human colon normal mucosa and tumors at different stages by immunohistochemistry, we observed that the intensity of BMP-4 staining in late-adenocarcinomas was stronger than that in normal mucosa and adenomas, while there was no difference in the staining of its receptors (BMPR-IA and BMPR-II) at all stages. The up-regulation of BMP-4 was further validated in another panel of tumor tissues by real-time RT-PCR, showing that BMP-4 mRNA levels in primary colonic carcinomas with liver metastasis were significantly higher than that in the matched normal mucosa. In order to understand the functional relevance of BMP-4 expression in colon cancer progression, BMP-4-overexpressing cell clones were generated from HCT116 cells. Overexpression of BMP-4 did not affect the HCT116 cell growth. The cells overexpressing BMP-4 became resistant to serum-starvation-induced apoptosis and exhibited enhanced migration and invasion characteristics. Overexpression of BMP-4 changed cell morphology to invasive spindle phenotype and induced the expression and activity of urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA). These results indicate that BMP-4 confers invasive phenotype during progression of colon cancer.

  3. Bone morphogenetic protein-4 strongly potentiates growth factor-induced proliferation of mammary epithelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Montesano, Roberto Sarkoezi, Rita; Schramek, Herbert

    2008-09-12

    Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) are multifunctional cytokines that elicit pleiotropic effects on biological processes such as cell proliferation, cell differentiation and tissue morphogenesis. With respect to cell proliferation, BMPs can exert either mitogenic or anti-mitogenic activities, depending on the target cells and their context. Here, we report that in low-density cultures of immortalized mammary epithelial cells, BMP-4 did not stimulate cell proliferation by itself. However, when added in combination with suboptimal concentrations of fibroblast growth factor (FGF)-2, FGF-7, FGF-10, epidermal growth factor (EGF) or hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), BMP-4 potently enhanced growth factor-induced cell proliferation. These results reveal a hitherto unsuspected interplay between BMP-4 and growth factors in the regulation of mammary epithelial cell proliferation. We suggest that the ability of BMP-4 to potentiate the mitogenic activity of multiple growth factors may contribute to mammary gland ductal morphogenesis as well as to breast cancer progression.

  4. Facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD) region gene 1 (FRG1) expression and possible function in mouse tooth germ development.

    PubMed

    Hasegawa, Kana; Wada, Hiroko; Nagata, Kengo; Fujiwara, Hiroaki; Wada, Naohisa; Someya, Hirotaka; Mikami, Yurie; Sakai, Hidetaka; Kiyoshima, Tamotsu

    2016-08-01

    Abnormal expression of Facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD) region gene 1 (FRG1) is involved in the pathogenesis of FSHD. FRG1 is also important for the normal muscular and vascular development. Our previous study showed that FRG1 is one of the highly expressed genes in the mandible on embryonic day 10.5 (E10.5) than on E12.0. In this study, we investigated the temporospatial expression pattern of FRG1 mRNA and protein during the development of the mouse lower first molar, and also evaluated the subcellular localization of the FRG1 protein in mouse dental epithelial (mDE6) cells. The FRG1 expression was identified in the dental epithelial and mesenchymal cells at the initiation and bud stages. It was detected in the inner enamel epithelium at the cap and early bell stages. At the late bell and root formation stages, these signals were detected in ameloblasts and odontoblasts during the formation of enamel and dentin matrices, respectively. The FRG1 protein was localized in the cytoplasm in the mouse tooth germ in vivo, while FRG1 was detected predominantly in the nucleus and faintly in the cytoplasm in mDE6 cells in vitro. In mDE6 cells treated with bone morphogenetic protein 4 (BMP4), the protein expression of FRG1 increased in cytoplasm, suggesting that FRG1 may translocate to the cytoplasm. These findings suggest that FRG1 is involved in the morphogenesis of the tooth germ, as well as in the formation of enamel and dentin matrices and that FRG1 may play a role in the odontogenesis in the mouse following BMP4 stimulation.

  5. Mutual interaction of kisspeptin, estrogen and bone morphogenetic protein-4 activity in GnRH regulation by GT1-7 cells.

    PubMed

    Terasaka, Tomohiro; Otsuka, Fumio; Tsukamoto, Naoko; Nakamura, Eri; Inagaki, Kenichi; Toma, Kishio; Ogura-Ochi, Kanako; Glidewell-Kenney, Christine; Lawson, Mark A; Makino, Hirofumi

    2013-12-05

    Reproduction is integrated by interaction of neural and hormonal signals converging on hypothalamic neurons for controlling gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH). Kisspeptin, the peptide product of the kiss1 gene and the endogenous agonist for the GRP54 receptor, plays a key role in the regulation of GnRH secretion. In the present study, we investigated the interaction between kisspeptin, estrogen and BMPs in the regulation of GnRH production by using mouse hypothalamic GT1-7 cells. Treatment with kisspeptin increased GnRH mRNA expression and GnRH protein production in a concentration-dependent manner. The expression levels of kiss1 and GPR54 were not changed by kisspeptin stimulation. Kisspeptin induction of GnRH was suppressed by co-treatment with BMPs, with BMP-4 action being the most potent for suppressing the kisspeptin effect. The expression of kisspeptin receptor, GPR54, was suppressed by BMPs, and this effect was reversed in the presence of kisspeptin. It was also revealed that BMP-induced Smad1/5/8 phosphorylation and Id-1 expression were suppressed and inhibitory Smad6/7 was induced by kisspeptin. In addition, estrogen induced GPR54 expression, while kisspeptin increased the expression levels of ERα and ERβ, suggesting that the actions of estrogen and kisspeptin are mutually enhanced in GT1-7 cells. Moreover, kisspeptin stimulated MAPKs and AKT signaling, and ERK signaling was functionally involved in the kisspeptin-induced GnRH expression. BMP-4 was found to suppress kisspeptin-induced GnRH expression by reducing ERK signaling activity. Collectively, the results indicate that the axis of kisspeptin-induced GnRH production is bi-directionally controlled, being augmented by an interaction between ERα/β and GPR54 signaling and suppressed by BMP-4 action in GT1-7 neuron cells.

  6. Bone morphogenetic protein-4 and 7 and receptors regulate vascular endothelial growth factor and receptors in human fetal leptomeninges.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Mahlon D; Reeder, Jay E; O'Connell, Mary

    2015-10-08

    Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMP) 4 and 7 have important roles in neuronal differentiation and cortical development in the murine brain. However BMP4 and BMP7 expression and functions in the developing human brain are unknown. In this study, frozen tissue human fetal leptomeninges, formalin-fixed tissue and primary fetal leptomeningeal cell cultures were studied. By western blot, BMP4, BMP7 and BMPRIa were demonstrated in 15, 17 20, 23 week (wk) human leptomeninges. BMP receptor II was detected at 15 and 17 wks. Immunohistochemically, BMP4 immunoreactivity was also found in 20 to 39 wk human leptomeninges. BMP4 significantly reduced basal DNA synthesis at 22 wks. BMP7 100 and 300 ng/ml stimulated basal DNA synthesis in the 15, 17 and 22 wk leptomeninges. BMP4 and BMP7 increased phosphorylation of SMAD-1, 5, 8 in most cells and had no effect on phosphorylation of p-38MAPK, or p44/42MAPK. BMP4 and BMP7 produced a decrease in VEGF RNA expression in 2 of 4 leptomeninges. BMP4 and BMP7 increased VEGFR1 RNA in 2 or 3 of 4 leptomeningeal cultures respectively. BMP4 produced a decrease in VEGFR2 RNA in 2 of 4 and BMP7 in 3 of 4 while BMP7 reduced VEGFR2 protein in the leptomeninges. The findings show, for the first time, BMP4, BMP7 and receptors are expressed and active in the human fetal leptomeninges. They suggest these BMPs influence vascular development in this tissue by regulating VEGF and its receptors. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Regulation of the human ether-a-go-go-related gene (hERG) channel by Rab4 protein through neural precursor cell-expressed developmentally down-regulated protein 4-2 (Nedd4-2).

    PubMed

    Cui, Zhi; Zhang, Shetuan

    2013-07-26

    The human ether-a-go-go-related gene (hERG) encodes the pore-forming α-subunit of the rapidly activating delayed rectifier K(+) channel in the heart, which plays a critical role in cardiac action potential repolarization. Dysfunction of IKr causes long QT syndrome, a cardiac electrical disorder that predisposes affected individuals to fatal arrhythmias and sudden death. The homeostasis of hERG channels in the plasma membrane depends on a balance between protein synthesis and degradation. Our recent data indicate that hERG channels undergo enhanced endocytic degradation under low potassium (hypokalemia) conditions. The GTPase Rab4 is known to mediate rapid recycling of various internalized proteins to the plasma membrane. In the present study, we investigated the effect of Rab4 on the expression level of hERG channels. Our data revealed that overexpression of Rab4 decreases the expression level of hERG in the plasma membrane. Rab4 does not affect the expression level of the Kv1.5 or EAG K(+) channels. Mechanistically, our data demonstrate that overexpression of Rab4 increases the expression level of endogenous Nedd4-2, a ubiquitin ligase that targets hERG but not Kv1.5 or EAG channels for ubiquitination and degradation. Nedd4-2 undergoes self- ubiquitination and degradation. Rab4 interferes with Nedd4-2 degradation, resulting in an increased expression level of Nedd4-2, which targets hERG. In summary, the present study demonstrates a novel pathway for hERG regulation; Rab4 decreases the hERG density at the plasma membrane by increasing the endogenous Nedd4-2 expression.

  8. Meiotic Competent Human Germ Cell-like Cells Derived from Human Embryonic Stem Cells Induced by BMP4/WNT3A Signaling and OCT4/EpCAM (Epithelial Cell Adhesion Molecule) Selection*

    PubMed Central

    Chuang, Ching-Yu; Lin, Kuo-I; Hsiao, Michael; Stone, Lee; Chen, Hsin-Fu; Huang, Yen-Hua; Lin, Shau-Ping; Ho, Hong-Nerng; Kuo, Hung-Chih

    2012-01-01

    The establishment of an effective germ cell selection/enrichment platform from in vitro differentiating human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) is crucial for studying the molecular and signaling processes governing human germ cell specification and development. In this study, we developed a germ cell-enriching system that enables us to identify signaling factors involved in germ cell-fate induction from differentiating hESCs in vitro. First, we demonstrated that selection through an OCT4-EGFP reporter system can successfully increase the percentage of meiotic-competent, germ cell-like cells from spontaneously differentiating hESCs. Furthermore, we showed that the pluripotency associated surface marker, epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM), is also expressed in human fetal gonads and can be used as an effective selection marker for germ cell enrichment from differentiating hESCs. Combining OCT4 and EpCAM selection can further enrich the meiotic-competent germ cell-like cell population. Also, with the percentage of OCT4+/EpCAM+ cells as readout, we demonstrated the synergistic effect of BMP4/pSMAD1/5/8 and WNT3A/β-CATENIN in promoting hESCs toward the germline fate. Combining BMP4/WNT3A induction and OCT4/EpCAM selection can significantly increase the putative germ cell population with meiotic competency. Co-transplantation of these cells with dissociated mouse neonatal ovary cells into SCID mice resulted in a homogenous germ cell cluster formation in vivo. The stepwise platform established in this study provides a useful tool to elucidate the molecular mechanisms of human germ cell development, which has implications not only for human fertility research but regenerative medicine in general. PMID:22396540

  9. Molecular and functional characterization of protein 4.1B, a novel member of the protein 4.1 family with high level, focal expression in brain.

    PubMed

    Parra, M; Gascard, P; Walensky, L D; Gimm, J A; Blackshaw, S; Chan, N; Takakuwa, Y; Berger, T; Lee, G; Chasis, J A; Snyder, S H; Mohandas, N; Conboy, J G

    2000-02-04

    Brain-enriched isoforms of skeletal proteins in the spectrin and ankyrin gene families have been described. Here we characterize protein 4.1B, a novel homolog of erythrocyte protein 4.1R that is encoded by a distinct gene. In situ hybridization revealed high level, focal expression of 4.1B mRNA in select neuronal populations within the mouse brain, including Purkinje cells of the cerebellum, pyramidal cells in hippocampal regions CA1-3, thalamic nuclei, and olfactory bulb. Expression was also detected in adrenal gland, kidney, testis, and heart. 4.1B protein exhibits high homology to the membrane binding, spectrin-actin binding, and C-terminal domains of 4.1R, including motifs for interaction with NuMA and FKBP13. cDNA characterization and Western blot analysis revealed multiple spliceoforms of protein 4.1B, with functionally relevant heterogeneity in the spectrin-actin and NuMA binding domains. Regulated alternative splicing events led to expression of unique 4. 1B isoforms in brain and muscle; only the latter possessed a functional spectrin-actin binding domain. By immunofluorescence, 4. 1B was localized specifically at the plasma membrane in regions of cell-cell contact. Together these results indicate that 4.1B transcription is selectively regulated among neuronal populations and that alternative splicing regulates expression of 4.1B isoforms possessing critical functional domains typical of other protein 4.1 family members.

  10. Erythrocyte Protein 4.1 Binds and Regulates Myosin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasternack, Gary R.; Racusen, Richard H.

    1989-12-01

    Myosin was recently identified in erythrocytes and was shown to partition both with membrane and cytosolic fractions, suggesting that it may be loosely bound to membranes [Fowler, V. M., Davis, J. Q. & Bennett, V. (1985) J. Cell Biol. 100, 47-55, and Wong, A. J., Kiehart, D. P. & Pollard, T. D. (1985) J. Biol. Chem. 260, 46-49]; however, the molecular basis for this binding was unclear. The present studies employed immobilized monomeric myosin to examine the interaction of myosin with erythrocyte protein 4.1. In human erythrocytes, protein 4.1 binds to integral membrane proteins and mediates spectrin-actin assembly. Protein 4.1 binds to rabbit skeletal muscle myosin with a Kd = 140 nM and a stoichiometry consistent with 1:1 binding. Heavy meromyosin competes for protein 4.1 binding with Ki = 36-54 nM; however, the S1 fragment (the myosin head) competes less efficiently. Affinity chromatography of partial chymotryptic digests of protein 4.1 on immobilized myosin identified a 10-kDa domain of protein 4.1 as the myosin-binding site. In functional studies, protein 4.1 partially inhibited the actin-activated Mg2+-ATPase activity of rabbit skeletal muscle myosin with Ki = 51 nM. Liver cytosolic and erythrocyte myosins preactivated with myosin light-chain kinase were similarly inhibited by protein 4.1. These studies show that protein 4.1 binds, modulates, and thus may regulate myosin. This interaction might serve to generate the contractile forces involved in Mg2+-ATP-dependent shape changes in erythrocytes and may additionally serve as a model for myosin organization and regulation in non-muscle cells.

  11. Bones Morphogenic Protein-4 and retinoic acid combined treatment comparative analysis for in vitro differentiation potential of murine mesenchymal stem cells derived from bone marrow and adipose tissue into germ cells.

    PubMed

    Shirzeily, Maryam H; Khanlarkhani, Neda; Amidi, Fardin; Shirzeily, Farshad H; Aval, Fereydoon S; Sobhani, Aligholi

    2017-09-18

    Nowadays, infertility is no longer considered as an unsolvable disorder due to progresses in germ cells derived from stem lineage with diverse origins. Technical and ethical challenges push researchers to investigate various tissue sources to approach more efficient gametes. The purpose of the current study is to investigate the efficacy of a combined medium, retinoic acid (RA) together with Bone Morphogenic Protein-4 (BMP4), on differentiation of Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cells (BMMSCs) and adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ADMSCs) into germ cells. Murine MSCs were obtained from both Bone Marrow (BM) and Adipose Tissue (AT) samples and were analyzed for surface markers to get further verification of their nature. BMMSCs and ADMSCs were induced into osteogenic and adipogenic lineage cells respectively, to examine their multipotency. They were finally differentiated into germ cells using media enriched with BMP4 for 4 days followed by addition of RA for 7 days (11 days in total). Analyzing of differentiation potential of BMMSCs- and ADMSCs were performed via Immunofluorescence, Flowcytometry and Real time-PCR techniques for germ cell-specific markers (Mvh, Dazl, Stra8 and Scp3). Mesenchymal surface markers (CD90 and CD44) were expressed on both BMMSCs and ADMSCs, while endothelial and hematopoietic cell markers (CD31 and CD45) had no expression. Finally, all germ-specific markers were expressed in both BM and AT. Although germ cells differentiated from ADMSCs showed faster growth and proliferation as well as easy collection, they significantly expressed germ-specific markers lower than BMMSCs. This suggests stronger differentiation potential of murine BMMSCs than ADMSCs. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Chordin-Like 1 Suppresses Bone Morphogenetic Protein 4-Induced Breast Cancer Cell Migration and Invasion

    PubMed Central

    Cyr-Depauw, Chanèle; Northey, Jason J.; Tabariès, Sébastien; Annis, Matthew G.; Dong, Zhifeng; Cory, Sean; Hallett, Michael; Rennhack, Jonathan P.; Andrechek, Eran R.

    2016-01-01

    ShcA is an important mediator of ErbB2- and transforming growth factor β (TGF-β)-induced breast cancer cell migration, invasion, and metastasis. We show that in the context of reduced ShcA levels, the bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) antagonist chordin-like 1 (Chrdl1) is upregulated in numerous breast cancer cells following TGF-β stimulation. BMPs have emerged as important modulators of breast cancer aggressiveness, and we have investigated the ability of Chrdl1 to block BMP-induced increases in breast cancer cell migration and invasion. Breast cancer-derived conditioned medium containing elevated concentrations of endogenous Chrdl1, as well as medium containing recombinant Chrdl1, suppresses BMP4-induced signaling in multiple breast cancer cell lines. Live-cell migration assays reveal that BMP4 induces breast cancer migration, which is effectively blocked by Chrdl1. We demonstrate that BMP4 also stimulated breast cancer cell invasion and matrix degradation, in part, through enhanced metalloproteinase 2 (MMP2) and MMP9 activity that is antagonized by Chrdl1. Finally, high Chrdl1 expression was associated with better clinical outcomes in patients with breast cancer. Together, our data reveal that Chrdl1 acts as a negative regulator of malignant breast cancer phenotypes through inhibition of BMP signaling. PMID:26976638

  13. Zebrafish Crip2 plays a critical role in atrioventricular valve development by downregulating the expression of ECM genes in the endocardial cushion.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jun-Dae; Kim, Hey-Jin; Koun, Soonil; Ham, Hyung-Jin; Kim, Myoung-Jin; Rhee, Myungchull; Huh, Tae-Lin

    2014-05-01

    The initial step of atrioventricular (AV) valve development involves the deposition of extracellular matrix (ECM) components of the endocardial cushion and the endocardial-mesenchymal transition. While the appropriately regulated expression of the major ECM components, Versican and Hyaluronan, that form the endocardial cushion is important for heart valve development, the underlying mechanism that regulates ECM gene expression remains unclear. We found that zebrafish crip2 expression is restricted to a subset of cells in the AV canal (AVC) endocardium at 55 hours post-fertilization (hpf). Knockdown of crip2 induced a heart-looping defect in zebrafish embryos, although the development of cardiac chambers appeared to be normal. In the AVC of Crip2-deficient embryos, the expression of both versican a and hyaluronan synthase 2 (has2) was highly upregulated, but the expression of bone morphogenetic protein 4 (bmp4) and T-box 2b (tbx2b) in the myocardium and of notch1b in the endocardium in the AVC did not change. Taken together, these results indicate that crip2 plays an important role in AV valve development by downregulating the expression of ECM components in the endocardial cushion.

  14. Bone Morphogenic Protein 4 Mediates NOX1-Dependent eNOS Uncoupling, Endothelial Dysfunction, and COX2 Induction in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus.

    PubMed

    Youn, Ji-Youn; Zhou, Jun; Cai, Hua

    2015-08-01

    We have recently shown that angiotensin II-mediated uncoupling of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) contributes to endothelial dysfunction in streptozotocin-induced type 1 diabetes mellitus. However, it has remained unclear whether and how eNOS uncoupling occurs in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and the consequences of such in regulating vascular function. Here we investigated a role of bone morphogenic protein (BMP)-4 in mediating eNOS uncoupling, endothelial dysfunction, and inflammation in db/db mice. Circulating levels of BMP4 were markedly elevated in db/db mice but not in mice with type 1 diabetes mellitus, in which angiotensin II levels were significantly increased. Infusion of BMP4 antagonist noggin into db/db mice (15 μg/kg/day, 4 weeks) abolished eNOS uncoupling activity while restoring tetrahydrobiopterin (H(4)B) bioavailability. The impaired endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation in db/db aortas was significantly improved by noggin infusion. Exposure of aortic endothelial cells to BMP4 (50 ng/mL, 24 hours) resulted in eNOS uncoupling, which was attenuated by H(4)B precursor sepiapterin or small interfering RNA silencing nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase isoform 1 (NOX1). Interestingly, BMP4-dependent NOX1 up-regulation was abrogated by sepiapterin, implicating a NOX1-uncoupled eNOS-NOX1 feed-forward loop. BMP4 induction of cyclooxygenase 2 (COX2) expression and vascular cell adhesion protein 1 was found in db/db mice. Consistently, COX2 was up-regulated by BMP4 in endothelial cells, which was attenuated by sepiapterin, implicating an upstream role of eNOS uncoupling in COX2-mediated inflammatory activation. Taken together, our data for the first time reveal a novel role of BMP4 in inducing NOX1-dependent eNOS uncoupling in T2DM, which may promote development of novel therapeutics restoring endothelial function in T2DM.

  15. A comparative examination of odontogenic gene expression in both toothed and toothless amniotes.

    PubMed

    Lainoff, Alexis J; Moustakas-Verho, Jacqueline E; Hu, Diane; Kallonen, Aki; Marcucio, Ralph S; Hlusko, Leslea J

    2015-05-01

    A well-known tenet of murine tooth development is that BMP4 and FGF8 antagonistically initiate odontogenesis, but whether this tenet is conserved across amniotes is largely unexplored. Moreover, changes in BMP4-signaling have previously been implicated in evolutionary tooth loss in Aves. Here we demonstrate that Bmp4, Msx1, and Msx2 expression is limited proximally in the red-eared slider turtle (Trachemys scripta) mandible at stages equivalent to those at which odontogenesis is initiated in mice, a similar finding to previously reported results in chicks. To address whether the limited domains in the turtle and the chicken indicate an evolutionary molecular parallelism, or whether the domains simply constitute an ancestral phenotype, we assessed gene expression in a toothed reptile (the American alligator, Alligator mississippiensis) and a toothed non-placental mammal (the gray short-tailed opossum, Monodelphis domestica). We demonstrate that the Bmp4 domain is limited proximally in M. domestica and that the Fgf8 domain is limited distally in A. mississippiensis just preceding odontogenesis. Additionally, we show that Msx1 and Msx2 expression patterns in these species differ from those found in mice. Our data suggest that a limited Bmp4 domain does not necessarily correlate with edentulism, and reveal that the initiation of odontogenesis in non-murine amniotes is more complex than previously imagined. Our data also suggest a partially conserved odontogenic program in T. scripta, as indicated by conserved Pitx2, Pax9, and Barx1 expression patterns and by the presence of a Shh-expressing palatal epithelium, which we hypothesize may represent potential dental rudiments based on the Testudinata fossil record. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. A comparative examination of odontogenic gene expression in both toothed and toothless amniotes

    PubMed Central

    Lainoff, Alexis J.; Moustakas-Verho, Jacqueline E.; Hu, Diane; Kallonen, Aki; Marcucio, Ralph S.; Hlusko, Leslea J.

    2015-01-01

    A well-known tenet of murine tooth development is that BMP4 and FGF8 antagonistically initiate odontogenesis, but whether this tenet is conserved across amniotes is largely unexplored. Moreover, changes in BMP4-signaling have previously been implicated in evolutionary tooth loss in Aves. Here we demonstrate that Bmp4, Msx1, and Msx2 expression is limited proximally in the red-eared slider turtle (Trachemys scripta) mandible at stages equivalent to those at which odontogenesis is initiated in mice, a similar finding to previously reported results in chicks. To address whether the limited domains in the turtle and the chicken indicate an evolutionary molecular parallelism, or whether the domains simply constitute an ancestral phenotype, we assessed gene expression in a toothed reptile (the American alligator, Alligator mississippiensis) and a toothed non-placental mammal (the gray short-tailed opossum, Monodelphis domestica). We demonstrate that the Bmp4 domain is limited proximally in M. domestica and that the Fgf8 domain is limited distally in A. mississippiensis just preceding odontogenesis. Additionally, we show that Msx1 and Msx2 expression patterns in these species differ from those found in mice. Our data suggest that a limited Bmp4 domain does not necessarily correlate with edentulism, and reveal that the initiation of odontogenesis in non-murine amniotes is more complex than previously imagined. Our data also suggest a partially conserved odontogenic program in T. scripta, as indicated by conserved Pitx2, Pax9, and Barx1 expression patterns and by the presence of a Shh-expressing palatal epithelium, which we hypothesize may represent potential dental rudiments based on the Testudinata fossil record. PMID:25678399

  17. Molecular characterization of a new member of the protein 4.1 family (brain 4.1) in rat brain.

    PubMed

    Yamakawa, H; Ohara, R; Nakajima, D; Nakayama, M; Ohara, O

    1999-07-05

    In addition to the well-known erythroid 4.1 gene, two human genes (KIAA0338 and 4.1G) have recently been identified as members of the protein 4.1 family of genes. We compared the expression levels of these three genes and found that the KIAA0338 gene was predominantly expressed in human brain. To further characterize this novel protein 4.1, called brain 4.1, we isolated rat brain 4.1 cDNA and analyzed its gene products in rat brain. The results indicated that the mRNA and protein products of the brain 4.1 gene were more abundant in brain compared to any other tissues examined. The brain 4.1 mRNA appeared as multiple bands with estimated sizes of 3.9 kb, 6.2 kb and 8.7 kb on RNA blotting analysis, and was found to consist of various alternative forms as reported previously for the erythroid 4. 1 gene. As for the brain 4.1 gene product, many isoforms discernible by immunoblotting analysis were also observed depending on the tissue type and the brain region. The existence of multiple forms of the brain 4.1 implies that it has multiple and diverse functions like the erythroid 4.1 gene product. Copyright 1999 Elsevier Science B.V.

  18. Overexpression of HE4 (human epididymis protein 4) enhances proliferation, invasion and metastasis of ovarian cancer

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Huimin; Tan, Mingzi; Schwab, Carlton L.; Deng, Lu; Gao, Jian; Hao, Yingying; Li, Xiao; Gao, Song; Liu, Juanjuan; Lin, Bei

    2016-01-01

    Overexpression of Human epididymis protein 4 (HE4) related with a role in ovarian cancer tumorigenesis while little is known about the molecular mechanism alteration by HE4 up regulation. Here we reported that overexpressed HE4 promoted ovarian cancer cells proliferation, invasion and metastasis. Furthermore, human whole genome gene expression profile microarrays revealed that 231 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were altered in response to HE4, in which MAPK signaling, ECM receptor, cell cycle, steroid biosynthesis pathways were involved. The findings suggested that overexpressed HE4 played an important role in ovarian cancer progression and metastasis and that HE4 has the potential to serve as a novel therapeutic target for ovarian cancer. PMID:26575020

  19. Bone morphogenetic protein-4 interacts with activin and GnRH to modulate gonadotrophin secretion in LbetaT2 gonadotrophs.

    PubMed

    Nicol, L; Faure, M-O; McNeilly, J R; Fontaine, J; Taragnat, C; McNeilly, A S

    2008-03-01

    We have shown previously that, in sheep primary pituitary cells, bone morphogenetic proteins (BMP)-4 inhibits FSHbeta mRNA expression and FSH release. In contrast, in mouse LbetaT2 gonadotrophs, others have shown a stimulatory effect of BMPs on basal or activin-stimulated FSHbeta promoter-driven transcription. As a species comparison with our previous results, we used LbetaT2 cells to investigate the effects of BMP-4 on gonadotrophin mRNA and secretion modulated by activin and GnRH. BMP-4 alone had no effect on FSH production, but enhanced the activin+GnRH-induced stimulation of FSHbeta mRNA and FSH secretion, without any effect on follistatin mRNA. BMP-4 reduced LHbeta mRNA up-regulation in response to GnRH (+/-activin) and decreased GnRH receptor expression, which would favour FSH, rather than LH, synthesis and secretion. In contrast to sheep pituitary gonadotrophs, which express only BMP receptor types IA (BMPRIA) and II (BMPRII), LbetaT2 cells also express BMPRIB. Smad1/5 phosphorylation induced by BMP-4, indicating activation of BMP signalling, was the same whether BMP-4 was used alone or combined with activin+/-GnRH. We hypothesized that activin and/or GnRH pathways may be modulated by BMP-4, but neither the activin-stimulated phosphorylation of Smad2/3 nor the GnRH-induced ERK1/2 or cAMP response element-binding phosphorylation were modified. However, the GnRH-induced activation of p38 MAPK was decreased by BMP-4. This was associated with increased FSHbeta mRNA levels and FSH secretion, but decreased LHbeta mRNA levels. These results confirm 1. BMPs as important modulators of activin and/or GnRH-stimulated gonadotrophin synthesis and release and 2. important species differences in these effects, which could relate to differences in BMP receptor expression in gonadotrophs.

  20. Large Ribosomal Protein 4 Increases Efficiency of Viral Recoding Sequences

    PubMed Central

    Green, Lisa; Houck-Loomis, Brian; Yueh, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    Expression of retroviral replication enzymes (Pol) requires a controlled translational recoding event to bypass the stop codon at the end of gag. This recoding event occurs either by direct suppression of termination via the insertion of an amino acid at the stop codon (readthrough) or by alteration of the mRNA reading frame (frameshift). Here we report the effects of a host protein, large ribosomal protein 4 (RPL4), on the efficiency of recoding. Using a dual luciferase reporter assay, we found that transfection of cells with a plasmid encoding RPL4 cDNA increases recoding efficiency in a dose-dependent manner, with a maximal enhancement of nearly twofold. Expression of RPL4 increases recoding of reporters containing retroviral readthrough and frameshift sequences, as well as the Sindbis virus leaky termination signal. RPL4-induced enhancement of recoding is cell line specific and appears to be specific to RPL4 among ribosomal proteins. Cotransfection of RPL4 cDNA with Moloney murine leukemia proviral DNA results in Gag processing defects and a reduction of viral particle formation, presumably caused by the RPL4-dependent alteration of the Gag-to-Gag-Pol ratio required for virion assembly and release. PMID:22718819

  1. Regulation of chick early B-cell factor-1 gene expression in feather development.

    PubMed

    El-Magd, Mohammed Abu; Sayed-Ahmed, Ahmed; Awad, Ashraf; Shukry, Mustafa

    2014-05-01

    The chick Ebf1 (early B-cell factor-1) gene is a member of a novel family of helix loop helix transcription factors. The expression profile, regulation and significance of this gene have been extensively studied in lymphatic, nervous, adipose and muscular tissues. However, cEbf1 expression, regulation and function in the feather of chick embryo have not yet been investigated. cEbf1 expression was first detected throughout the mesenchymal core of some few feather placodes (D7-D7.5). After feathers became mature and grew distally (D9 and D10), the mesenchymal expression of cEbf1 became confined to the caudal margin of the proximal half of all formed feather buds. Because this dynamic pattern of expression resembles that of Sonic Hedgehog (Shh) protein and bone morphogenetic protein (Bmp4) plus the crucial role of these two major signals in feather development, we hypothesized that cEbf1 expression in the feather may be regulated by Shh and Bmp4. In a feather explant culture system, Shh signals are necessary to initiate and maintain cEbf1 expression in the posterior half of the feather bud, while Bmp4 is crucial for the initial cEbf1 expression in the anterior half of the feather bud. Inhibition of Shh, not only down-regulates cEbf1, but also changes the morphology of feather buds, which become irregular and fused. This is the first study to demonstrate that cEbf1 expression in the feather bud is under the control of Shh and Bmp4 signals and that expression may play a role in the normal development of feathers.

  2. Protein 4.1 and the control of ion channels.

    PubMed

    Baines, Anthony J; Bennett, Pauline M; Carter, Edward W; Terracciano, Cesare

    2009-01-01

    The classical function of 4.1R in red blood cells is to contribute to the mechanochemical properties of the membrane by promoting the interaction between spectrin and actin. More recently, it has been recognized that 4.1R is required for the stable cell surface accumulation of a number of erythrocyte membrane proteins. 4.1R is one member of the mammalian 4.1 family - the others being 4.1N, 4.1G and 4.1B - and is expressed in many cell types other than erythrocytes. Recently we have examined the phenotype of hearts from 4.1R knockout mice. Although they had a generally normal morphology, these hearts exhibited bradycardia, and prolongation of both action potentials and QT intervals. Electrophysiological analysis revealed anomalies in a range of ion channel activities. In addition, the immunoreactivity of voltage-gated Na(+) channel NaV1.5 was reduced, indicating a role for 4.1R in the cellular accumulation of this ion channel. 4.1 proteins also have roles in the accumulation of at least two other classes of ion channel. In epithelia, 4.1 interacts with the store-operated channel TRPC4. In neurons, the ligand-gated channels GluR1 and GluR4 require 4.1 proteins for cell surface accumulation. The spectrum of transmembrane proteins that bind to 4.1 proteins overlaps with that of ankyrin. A hypothesis to investigate in the future is that differential regulation of 4.1 and ankyrins (e.g. by PIP(2)) allows highly selective control of cell surface accumulation and transport activity of a specific range of ion channels.

  3. Multidrug Resistance Protein-4 Influences Aspirin Toxicity in Human Cell Line

    PubMed Central

    Massimi, Isabella; Ciuffetta, Ambra; Temperilli, Flavia; Ferrandino, Francesca; Zicari, Alessandra; Pulcinelli, Fabio M.; Felli, Maria Pia

    2015-01-01

    Overexpression of efflux transporters, in human cells, is a mechanism of resistance to drug and also to chemotherapy. We found that multidrug resistance protein-4 (MRP4) overexpression has a role in reducing aspirin action in patients after bypass surgery and, very recently, we found that aspirin enhances platelet MRP4 levels through peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-α (PPARα). In the present paper, we verified whether exposure of human embryonic kidney-293 cells (Hek-293) to aspirin modifies MRP4 gene expression and its correlation with drug elimination and cell toxicity. We first investigated the effect of high-dose aspirin in Hek-293 and we showed that aspirin is able to increase cell toxicity dose-dependently. Furthermore, aspirin effects, induced at low dose, already enhance MRP4 gene expression. Based on these findings, we compared cell viability in Hek-293, after high-dose aspirin treatment, in MRP4 overexpressing cells, either after aspirin pretreatment or in MRP4 transfected cells; in both cases, a decrease of selective aspirin cell growth inhibition was observed, in comparison with the control cultures. Altogether, these data suggest that exposing cells to low nontoxic aspirin dosages can induce gene expression alterations that may lead to the efflux transporter protein overexpression, thus increasing cellular detoxification of aspirin. PMID:26491233

  4. Distinct distribution of specific members of protein 4.1 genefamily in the mouse nephron

    SciTech Connect

    Ramez, Mohamed; Blot-Chabaud, Marcel; Cluzeaud, Francoise; Chanan, Sumita; Patterson, Michael; Walensky, Loren D.; Marfatia, Shirin; Baines, Anthony J.; Chasis, Joel A.; Conboy, John G.; Mohandas, Narla; Gascard, Philippe

    2002-12-11

    Background: Protein 4.1 is an adapter protein which linksthe actin cytoskeleton to various transmembrane proteins. 4.1 proteinsare encoded by four homologous genes, 4.1R, 4.1G, 4.1N, and 4.1B, whichundergo complex alternative splicing. Here we performed a detailedcharacterization of the expression of specific 4.1 proteins in the mousenephron. Methods: Distribution of renal 4.1 proteins was investigated bystaining of paraformaldehyde fixed mouse kidney sections with antibodieshighly specific for each 4.1 protein. Major 4.1 splice forms, amplifiedfrom mouse kidney marathon cDNA, were expressed in transfected COS-7cells in order to assign species of known exon composition to proteinsdetected in kidney. Results: A 105kDa4.1R splice form, initiating atATG-2 translation initiation site and lacking exon 16, but including exon17B, was restricted to thick ascending limb of Henle's loop. A 95kDa 4.1Nspliceform,lacking exons 15 and 17D, was expressed in either descendingor ascending thin limb of Henle'sloop, distal convoluted tubule and allregions of the collecting duct system. A major 108kDa 4.1B spliceform,initiating at a newly characterized ATG translation initiation site, andlacking exons 15, 17B, and 21, was present only in Bowman's capsule andproximal convoluted tubule (PCT). There was no expression of 4.1G inkidney. Conclusion: Distinct distribution of 4.1 proteins along thenephron suggests their involvement in targeting of selected transmembraneproteins in kidney epithelium andtherefore in regulation of specifickidney functions.

  5. Natural bone fragmentation in the blind cave-dwelling fish, Astyanax mexicanus: candidate gene identification through integrative comparative genomics.

    PubMed

    Gross, Joshua B; Stahl, Bethany A; Powers, Amanda K; Carlson, Brian M

    2016-01-01

    Animals that colonize dark and nutrient-poor subterranean environments evolve numerous extreme phenotypes. These include dramatic changes to the craniofacial complex, many of which are under genetic control. These phenotypes can demonstrate asymmetric genetic signals wherein a QTL is detected on one side of the face but not the other. The causative gene(s) underlying QTL are difficult to identify with limited genomic resources. We approached this task by searching for candidate genes mediating fragmentation of the third suborbital bone (SO3) directly inferior to the orbit of the eye. We integrated positional genomic information using emerging Astyanax resources, and linked these intervals to homologous (syntenic) regions of the Danio rerio genome. We identified a discrete, approximately 6 Mb, conserved region wherein the gene causing SO3 fragmentation likely resides. We interrogated this interval for genes demonstrating significant differential expression using mRNA-seq analysis of cave and surface morphs across life history. We then assessed genes with known roles in craniofacial evolution and development based on GO term annotation. Finally, we screened coding sequence alterations in this region, identifying two key genes: transforming growth factor β3 (tgfb3) and bone morphogenetic protein 4 (bmp4). Of these candidates, tgfb3 is most promising as it demonstrates significant differential expression across multiple stages of development, maps close (<1 Mb) to the fragmentation critical locus, and is implicated in a variety of other animal systems (including humans) in non-syndromic clefting and malformations of the cranial sutures. Both abnormalities are analogous to the failure-to-fuse phenotype that we observe in SO3 fragmentation. This integrative approach will enable discovery of the causative genetic lesions leading to complex craniofacial features analogous to human craniofacial disorders. This work underscores the value of cave-dwelling fish as a

  6. Modulation of the nanometer pore size improves magnesium adsorption into mesoporous titania coatings and promotes bone morphogenic protein 4 expression in adhering osteoblasts.

    PubMed

    Cecchinato, Francesca; Atefyekta, Saba; Wennerberg, Ann; Andersson, Martin; Jimbo, Ryo; Davies, Julia R

    2016-07-01

    Mesoporous (MP) titania films used as implant coatings have recently been considered as release systems for controlled administration of magnesium to enhance initial osteoblast proliferation in vitro. Tuning of the pore size in such titania films is aimed at increasing the osteogenic potential through effects on the total loading capacity and the release profile of magnesium. In this study, evaporation-induced self-assembly (EISA) was used with different structure-directing agents to form three mesoporous films with average pore sizes of 2nm (MP1), 6nm (MP2) and 7nm (MP3). Mg adsorption and release was monitored using quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation (QCM-D). The film surfaces were characterized with atomic force microscopy (AFM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The effect of different Mg release on osteogenesis was investigated in human fetal osteoblasts (hFOB) using pre-designed osteogenesis arrays and real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Results showed a sustained release from all the films investigated, with higher magnesium adsorption into MP1 and MP3 films. No significant differences were observed in the surface nanotopography of the films, either with or without the presence of magnesium. MP3 films (7nm pore size) had the greatest effect on osteogenesis, up-regulating 15 bone-related genes after 1 week of hFOB growth and significantly promoting bone morphogenic protein (BMP4) expression after 3 weeks of growth. The findings indicate that the increase in pore width on the nano scale significantly enhanced the bioactivity of the mesoporous coating, thus accelerating osteogenesis without creating differences in surface roughness. Copyright © 2016 The Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. The Involvement of hybrid cluster protein 4, HCP4, in Anaerobic Metabolism in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii

    PubMed Central

    Olson, Adam C.; Carter, Clay J.

    2016-01-01

    The unicellular green algae Chlamydomonas reinhardtii has long been studied for its unique fermentation pathways and has been evaluated as a candidate organism for biofuel production. Fermentation in C. reinhardtii is facilitated by a network of three predominant pathways producing four major byproducts: formate, ethanol, acetate and hydrogen. Previous microarray studies identified many genes as being highly up-regulated during anaerobiosis. For example, hybrid cluster protein 4 (HCP4) was found to be one of the most highly up-regulated genes under anoxic conditions. Hybrid cluster proteins have long been studied for their unique spectroscopic properties, yet their biological functions remain largely unclear. To probe its role during anaerobiosis, HCP4 was silenced using artificial microRNAs (ami-hcp4) followed by extensive phenotypic analyses of cells grown under anoxic conditions. Both the expression of key fermentative enzymes and their respective metabolites were significantly altered in ami-hcp4, with nitrogen uptake from the media also being significantly different than wild-type cells. The results strongly suggest a role for HCP4 in regulating key fermentative and nitrogen utilization pathways. PMID:26930496

  8. The Involvement of hybrid cluster protein 4, HCP4, in Anaerobic Metabolism in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.

    PubMed

    Olson, Adam C; Carter, Clay J

    2016-01-01

    The unicellular green algae Chlamydomonas reinhardtii has long been studied for its unique fermentation pathways and has been evaluated as a candidate organism for biofuel production. Fermentation in C. reinhardtii is facilitated by a network of three predominant pathways producing four major byproducts: formate, ethanol, acetate and hydrogen. Previous microarray studies identified many genes as being highly up-regulated during anaerobiosis. For example, hybrid cluster protein 4 (HCP4) was found to be one of the most highly up-regulated genes under anoxic conditions. Hybrid cluster proteins have long been studied for their unique spectroscopic properties, yet their biological functions remain largely unclear. To probe its role during anaerobiosis, HCP4 was silenced using artificial microRNAs (ami-hcp4) followed by extensive phenotypic analyses of cells grown under anoxic conditions. Both the expression of key fermentative enzymes and their respective metabolites were significantly altered in ami-hcp4, with nitrogen uptake from the media also being significantly different than wild-type cells. The results strongly suggest a role for HCP4 in regulating key fermentative and nitrogen utilization pathways.

  9. Bone morphogenetic protein 4 inhibits TGF-beta2 stimulation of extracellular matrix proteins in optic nerve head cells: role of gremlin in ECM modulation.

    PubMed

    Zode, Gulab S; Clark, Abbot F; Wordinger, Robert J

    2009-05-01

    The characteristic cupping of the optic nerve head (ONH) in glaucoma is associated with elevated TGF-beta2 and increased synthesis and deposition of extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins. In addition to TGF-beta2, the human ONH also expresses bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) and BMP receptors, which are members of the TGF-beta superfamily. We examined the potential effects of BMP4 and the BMP antagonist gremlin on TGF-beta2 induction of ECM proteins in ONH cells. BMP-4 dose dependently inhibited TGF-beta2-induced fibronectin (FN) and PAI-1 expression in ONH astrocytes and lamina cribrosa (LC) cells and also reduced TGF-beta2 stimulation of collagen I, collagen VI, and elastin. Addition of gremlin blocked this BMP-4 response, increasing cellular and secreted FN as well as PAI-1 levels in both cell types. Gremlin was expressed in ONH tissues and ONH cells, and gremlin protein levels were significantly increased in the LC region of human glaucomatous ONH tissues. Interestingly, recombinant gremlin dose dependently increased ECM protein expression in cultured ONH astrocytes and LC cells. Gremlin stimulation of ECM required activation of TGF-beta receptor and R-Smad3. TGF-beta2 increased gremlin mRNA expression and protein levels in ONH cells. Inhibition of either the type I TGF-beta receptor or Smad3 phosphorylation blocked TGF-beta2-induced gremlin expression. In conclusion, BMP4 blocked the TGF-beta2 induction of ECM proteins in ONH cells. The BMP antagonist gremlin reversed this inhibition, allowing TGF-beta2 stimulation of ECM synthesis. Increased expression of gremlin in the glaucomatous ONH may further exacerbate TGF-beta2 effects on ONH ECM metabolism by inhibiting BMP-4 antagonism of TGF-beta2 signaling. Modulation of the ECM via gremlin provides a novel therapeutic target for glaucoma.

  10. Evidence that the red cell skeleton protein 4.2 interacts with the Rh membrane complex member CD47.

    PubMed

    Mouro-Chanteloup, Isabelle; Delaunay, Jean; Gane, Pierre; Nicolas, Virginie; Johansen, Mette; Brown, Eric J; Peters, Luanne L; Van Kim, Caroline Le; Cartron, Jean Pierre; Colin, Yves

    2003-01-01

    Rh(null) red cells are characteristically stomato-spherocytic. This and other evidence suggest that the Rh complex represents a major attachment site between the membrane lipid bilayer and the erythroid skeleton. As an attempt to identify the linking protein(s) between the red cell skeleton and the Rh complex, we analyzed the expression of Rh, RhAG, CD47, LW, and glycophorin B proteins in red cells from patients with hereditary spherocytosis associated with complete protein 4.2 deficiency but normal band 3 (4.2(-)HS). Flow cytometric and immunoblotting analysis revealed a severe reduction of CD47 (up to 80%) and a slower mobility of RhAG on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, possibly reflecting an overglycosylation state. Unexpectedly, 4.2(-/-) mice, which are anemic, displayed a normal red cell expression of CD47 and RhAG. These results suggest that human protein 4.2, through interaction with CD47, is involved in the skeleton linkage and/or membrane translocation of the Rh complex. However, these potential role(s) of protein 4.2 might be not conserved across species. Finally, the absence or low expression of red cell CD47 in CD47(-/-) mice and in some humans carrying RHCE gene variants (D--, D., and R(N)), respectively, had no detectable effect on protein 4.2 and RhAG expression. Since these cells are morphologically normal with no sign of hemolysis, it is assumed that CD47 deficiency per se is not responsible for the cell shape abnormalities and for the compensated hemolytic anemia typical of 4.2(-) and Rh(null) red cells.

  11. Functional characterization of protein 4.1 homolog in amphioxus: defining a cryptic spectrin-actin-binding site.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lixia; Wang, Yuan; Li, Zhaohe; Gao, Zhan; Zhang, Shicui

    2013-10-07

    Vertebrate 4.1 proteins have a spectrin-actin-binding (SAB) domain, which is lacking in all the invertebrate 4.1 proteins indentified so far, and it was therefore proposed that the SAB domain emerged with the advent of vertebrates during evolution. Here we demonstrated for the first time that amphioxus (an invertebrate chordate) protein 4.1, though lacking a recognizable SAB, was able to bind both spectrin and actin, with a binding capacity comparable to that of human protein 4.1. Detailed structure-activity analyses revealed that the unique domain U2/3 was a newly identified SAB-like domain capable of interacting with spectrin and actin, suggesting the presence of a "cryptic" SAB domain in amphioxus 4.1 protein. We also showed that amphioxus 4.1 protein gene was the common ancestor of vertebrate 4.1 protein genes, from which 4.1R, 4.1N, 4.1G, and 4.1B genes originated. This work will encourage further study on the structure-activity of invertebrate 4.1 protein and its interacting proteins.

  12. Drug Discovery Targeting Bromodomain-Containing Protein 4

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    BRD4, the most extensively studied member of the BET family, is an epigenetic regulator that localizes to DNA via binding to acetylated histones and controls the expression of therapeutically important gene regulatory networks through the recruitment of transcription factors to form mediator complexes, phosphorylating RNA polymerase II, and by its intrinsic histone acetyltransferase activity. Disrupting the protein–protein interactions between BRD4 and acetyl-lysine has been shown to effectively block cell proliferation in cancer, cytokine production in acute inflammation, and so forth. To date, significant efforts have been devoted to the development of BRD4 inhibitors, and consequently, a dozen have progressed to human clinical trials. Herein, we summarize the advances in drug discovery and development of BRD4 inhibitors by focusing on their chemotypes, in vitro and in vivo activity, selectivity, relevant mechanisms of action, and therapeutic potential. Opportunities and challenges to achieve selective and efficacious BRD4 inhibitors as a viable therapeutic strategy for human diseases are also highlighted. PMID:28195723

  13. Hepatic Induction of Fatty Acid Binding Protein 4 Plays a Pathogenic Role in Sepsis in Mice.

    PubMed

    Hu, Bingfang; Li, Yujin; Gao, Li; Guo, Yan; Zhang, Yiwen; Chai, Xiaojuan; Xu, Meishu; Yan, Jiong; Lu, Peipei; Ren, Songrong; Zeng, Su; Liu, Yulan; Xie, Wen; Huang, Min

    2017-03-06

    Sepsis is defined as the host's deleterious systemic inflammatory response to microbial infections. Herein, we report an essential role of the fatty acid binding protein 4 (FABP4; alias adipocyte protein 2 or aP2), a lipid-binding chaperone, in sepsis response. Bioinformatic analysis of the Gene Expression Omnibus data sets showed the level of FABP4 was higher in the nonsurvival sepsis patients' whole blood compared to the survival cohorts. The expression of Fabp4 was induced in a liver-specific manner in cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) and lipopolysaccharide treatment models of sepsis. The induction of Fabp4 may have played a pathogenic role, because ectopic expression of Fabp4 in the liver sensitized mice to CLP-induced inflammatory response and worsened the animal's survival. In contrast, pharmacological inhibition of Fabp4 markedly alleviated the CLP responsive inflammation and tissue damage and improved survival. We conclude that FABP4 is an important mediator of the sepsis response. Early intervention by pharmacological inhibition of FABP4 may help to manage sepsis in the clinic.

  14. Fatty acid binding protein 4 in circulating leucocytes reflects atherosclerotic lesion progression in Apoe(-/-) mice.

    PubMed

    Agardh, Hanna E; Gertow, Karl; Salvado, Dolores M; Hermansson, Andreas; van Puijvelde, Gijs H; Hansson, Göran K; n-Berne, Gabrielle Paulsso; Gabrielsen, Anders

    2013-02-01

    Discovery of novel biomarkers for atherosclerosis is important to aid in early diagnosis of pre-symptomatic patients at high risk of cardiovascular events. The aim of the present study was therefore to identify potential biomarkers in circulating cells reflecting atherosclerotic lesion progression in the vessel wall. We performed gene arrays on circulating leucocytes from atherosclerosis prone Apoe(-/-) mice with increasing ages, using C57BL/6 mice as healthy controls. We identified fatty acid binding protein 4 (FABP4) mRNA to be augmented in mice with established disease compared with young Apoe(-/-) or controls. Interestingly, the transcript FABP4 correlated significantly with lesion size, further supporting a disease associated increase. In addition, validation of our finding on protein level showed augmented FABP4 in circulating leucocytes whereas, importantly, no change could be observed in plasma. Immunofluorescence analysis demonstrated FABP4 to be present mainly in circulating neutrophils and to some extent in monocytes. Moreover, FABP4-positive neutrophils and macrophages could be identified in the subintimal space in the plaque. Using human circulating leucocytes, we confirmed the presence of FABP4 protein in neutrophils and monocytes. In conclusion, we have showed that cellular levels of FABP4 in circulating leucocytes associate with lesion development in the experimental Apoe(-/-) model. The increased expression is primarily localized to neutrophils, but also in monocytes. We have identified FABP4 in leucocytes as a potential and easy accessible biomarker of atherosclerosis which could be of future clinical relevance.

  15. Immunogenicity of Plasmodium yoelii merozoite surface protein 4/5 produced in transgenic plants.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lina; Webster, Diane E; Campbell, Alison E; Dry, Ian B; Wesselingh, Steve L; Coppel, Ross L

    2008-01-01

    Malaria is a major global health problem for which effective control measures are urgently needed. Considerable effort has been focused on the development of effective vaccines against the causative parasite and protective vaccine trials are now being reported. Due to the relative poverty and lack of infrastructure in malaria-endemic areas, a successful immunisation strategy will depend critically on cheap and scaleable methods of vaccine production, distribution and delivery. One promising technology is transgenic plants, both as a bioreactor for the vaccine-manufacturing process as well as a matrix for oral immunisation. In this study, we investigated the feasibility of using transgenic plants to induce protective immunity against malaria infection using Plasmodium yoelii merozoite surface protein 4/5 (PyMSP4/5) in a mouse model of malaria infection. Our data show that the PyMSP4/5 protein can be produced in plants in a configuration that reacts with protective antibodies. Optimisation of codon usage for the PyMSP4/5 gene resulted in significantly increased antigen expression in plants. PyMSP4/5 protein from the codon-optimised construct accumulated to 0.25% of total soluble protein, a sixfold increase over the native gene sequence. Tobacco-made PyMSP4/5 was able to induce antigen-specific antibodies in mice following parenteral delivery, as well as boost the antibody responses induced by DNA vaccination when delivered parenterally or orally. We believe this is the first report to show that plant-made malaria antigens are immunogenic. However, the antibody levels were not high enough to protect the immunised mice against a lethal challenge with P. yoelii. Further strategies are needed to achieve a protective dose, including improvements to antigen expression levels in plants and strategies to enhance the immunogenicity of the expressed antigen.

  16. Human erythrocyte dematin and protein 4.2 (pallidin) are ATP binding proteins.

    PubMed

    Azim, A C; Marfatia, S M; Korsgren, C; Dotimas, E; Cohen, C M; Chishti, A H

    1996-03-05

    Dematin and protein 4.2 are peripheral membrane proteins associated with the cytoplasmic surface of the human erythrocyte plasma membrane. Isoforms of dematin and protein 4.2 exist in many nonerythroid cells. In solution, dematin is a trimeric protein containing two subunits of 48 kDa and one subunit of 52 kDa. Recent determination of the primary structure of the 52 kDa subunit of dematin showed that it contains an additional 22-amino acid sequence in the headpiece domain. An alignment of the 22-amino acid insertion sequence revealed that the 52 kDa subunit of dematin shares a novel 11-amino acid motif with protein 4.2. In this communication, we report that the conserved 11-amino acid motif in dematin52 and protein 4.2 contains a nucleotide binding P-loop. Direct binding of ATP is demonstrated to the glutathione S-transferase fusion proteins containing corresponding segments of dematin52 and protein 4.2 as well as to purified protein 4.2. The binding of ATP to the recombinant domains of dematin52 and protein 4.2 is specific, saturable, and of high affinity. The nucleotide specificity of the P-loop is restricted to ATP since no detectable binding was observed with GTP. These results show that the 11-amino acid motif provides an ATP binding site in dematin52 and protein 4.2. Although the functional significance of ATP binding is not yet clear, our findings open new perspectives for the function of dematin and protein 4.2 in vivo.

  17. Limited Global Diversity of the Plasmodium vivax Merozoite Surface Protein 4 Gene

    PubMed Central

    Putaporntip, Chaturong; Jongwutiwes, Somchai; Ferreira, Marcelo U.; Kanbara, Hiroji; Udomsangpetch, Rachanee; Cui, Liwang

    2009-01-01

    Merozoite surface proteins (MSPs) of the malaria parasites are major candidates for vaccine development targeting asexual blood stages. However, the diverse antigenic repertoire of these antigens that induce strain-specific protective immunity in human is a major challenge for vaccine design and often determines the efficacy of a vaccine. Here we further assessed the genetic diversity of Plasmodium vivax MSP4 (PvMSP4) protein using 195 parasite samples collected mostly from Thailand, Indonesia and Brazil. Overall, PvMSP4 is highly conserved with only eight amino acid substitutions. The majority of the haplotype diversity was restricted to the two short tetrapeptide repeat arrays in exon 1 and 2, respectively. Selection and neutrality tests indicated that exon 1 and the entire coding region of PvMSP4 were under purifying selection. Despite the limited nucleotide polymorphism of PvMSP4, significant genetic differentiation among the three major parasite populations was detected. Moreover, microgeographical heterogeneity was also evident in the parasite populations from different endemic areas of Thailand. PMID:19409511

  18. Inhibitory role of REV-ERBα in the expression of bone morphogenetic protein gene family in rat uterus endometrium stromal cells.

    PubMed

    Tasaki, Hirotaka; Zhao, Lijia; Isayama, Keishiro; Chen, Huatao; Yamauchi, Nobuhiko; Shigeyoshi, Yasufumi; Hashimoto, Seiichi; Hattori, Masa-aki

    2015-04-01

    Uterus circadian rhythms have been implicated in the gestation processes of mammals through entraining of the clock proteins to numerous downstream genes. Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs), having clock-controlled regulatory sites in their gene promoters, are expressed in the uterus during decidualization, but the regulation of the Bmp gene expression is poorly understood. The present study was designed to dissect the physiological roles of the uterus oscillators in the Bmp expression using the uterus endometrial stromal cells (UESCs) isolated from Per2-dLuc transgenic rats on day 4.5 of gestation. The in vitro decidualization of UESCs was induced by medroxyprogesterone acetate and 2-O-dibutyryl cAMP. A significant decline of Per2-dLuc bioluminescence activity was induced in decidual cells, and concomitantly, the expression of canonical clock genes was downregulated. Conversely, the expression of the core Bmp genes Bmp2, Bmp4, Bmp6, and Bmp7 was upregulated. In UESCs transfected with Bmal1-specific siRNA, in which Rev-erbα expression was downregulated, Bmp genes, such as Bmp2, Bmp4, and Bmp6 were upregulated. However, Bmp1, Bmp7, and Bmp8a were not significantly affected by Bmal1 silencing. The expression of all Bmp genes was enhanced after treatment with the REV-ERBα antagonist (SR8278), although their rhythmic profiles were differed from each other. The binding of REV-ERBα to the proximal regions of the Bmp2 and Bmp4 promoters was revealed by chromatin immunoprecipitation-PCR analysis. Collectively, these results indicate that the Bmp genes are upregulated by the attenuation of the cellular circadian clock; in particular, its core component REV-ERBα functions as a transcriptional silencer in the Bmp gene family. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  19. Altered expression of genes of the Bmp/Smad and Wnt/calcium signaling pathways in the cone-only Nrl-/- mouse retina, revealed by gene profiling using custom cDNA microarrays.

    PubMed

    Yu, Jindan; He, Shirley; Friedman, James S; Akimoto, Masayuki; Ghosh, Debashis; Mears, Alan J; Hicks, David; Swaroop, Anand

    2004-10-01

    Many mammalian retinas are rod-dominant, and hence our knowledge of cone photoreceptor biology is relatively limited. To gain insights into the molecular differences between rods and cones, we compared the gene expression profile of the rod-dominated retina of wild type mouse with that of the cone-only retina of Nrl(-/-) (Neural retina leucine zipper knockout) mouse. Our analysis, using custom microarrays of eye-expressed genes, provided equivalent data using either direct or reference-based experimental designs, confirmed differential expression of rod- and cone-specific genes in the Nrl(-/-) retina and identified novel genes that could serve as candidates for retinopathies or for functional studies. In addition, we detected altered expression of several genes that encode cell signaling or structural proteins. Prompted by these findings, additional real-time PCR analysis revealed that genes belonging to the Bmp/Smad and Wnt/Ca(2+) signaling pathways are expressed in the mature wild type retina and that their expression is significantly altered in the Nrl(-/-) retina. Chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis of adult retina identified Bmp4 and Smad4, which are down-regulated in the Nrl(-/-) retina, as possible direct transcriptional targets of Nrl. Consistent with these studies, Bmp4 and Smad4 are expressed in the mature rod photoreceptors of mouse retina. Modulation of Bmp4 and/or Smad4 by Nrl may provide a mechanism for integrating diverse cell signaling networks in rods. We hypothesize that Bmp/Smad and Wnt/Ca(2+) pathways participate in cell-cell communication in the mature retina, and expression changes observed in the Nrl(-/-) retina reflect their biased utilization in rod versus cone homeostasis.

  20. Role of human epididymis protein 4 in chemoresistance and prognosis of epithelial ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seungho; Choi, Seowon; Lee, Yookyung; Chung, Donghae; Hong, Suntaek; Park, Nohhyun

    2017-01-01

    Human epididymis protein 4 (HE4) is a novel biomarker for epithelial ovarian cancer. This study was designed to evaluate the role of HE4 in chemo-response against anti-cancer drugs and prognosis of epithelial ovarian cancer. HE4-depleted cells and HE4-overexpressing cells were generated. The effect of HE4 gene silencing and overexpression was examined using a cell viability assay after exposure to chemotherapeutic agents and the signaling pathway. We studied the expression of HE4 in ovarian cancer tissue and the prognostic significance. Cytoplasmic staining was graded for intensity and percentage of positive cells. The grades were multiplied to determine an H-score. Knockdown of HE4 in OVCAR-3 cells resulted in reduction in cell growth and increased sensitivity to paclitaxel and cisplatin compared to control cells. This effect originated from the decreased activation of cell-growth-related signaling, such as AKT and Erk mediated by epidermal growth factor (EGF), while overexpression of HE4 resulted in enhanced cell growth and suppressed the anti-tumorigenic activity of paclitaxel. Activation of AKT and Erk pathways was enhanced in HE4-overexpressing cells compared to control cells. Based on the results of multivariate analysis, the risk of death was significantly higher in patients with an H-score > 4. HE4 induces chemoresistance against anti-cancer drugs and activates the AKT and Erk pathways to enhance tumor survival. HE4 expression in ovarian cancer tissue is associated with a worse prognosis for epithelial ovarian cancer patients. © 2016 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  1. Interaction of oxazaphosphorines with multidrug resistance-associated protein 4 (MRP4).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jing; Ng, Ka-Yun; Ho, Paul C

    2010-09-01

    Multidrug resistance-associated protein 4 (MRP4) is an organic anion efflux pump capable of transporting nucleoside, nucleotide analogs, and cyclic nucleotide. MRP4 could have an influence on the resistance and transport of the two oxazaphosphorines, cyclophosphamide (CP) and ifosfamide (IF). V/HepG2 (HepG2, hepatoma cells stably transfected with an empty vehicle plasmid) and MRP4/HepG2 (HepG2 cells stably expressing MRP4) were exposed to CP and IF in the absence or presence of various MRP4 inhibitors. HepG2 and HEK293 human kidney cells were also used to investigate the inducing potency of oxazaphosphorines on the MRP4 expression. In this study, insertion of MRP4 gene in HepG2 cells was found to confer significant resistance to CP and IF in the 48-h drug-exposure assays. In the presence of various MRP4 inhibitors, the resistance to CP and IF was then partially reversed. These indicate that CP and IF are highly possible substrates of MRP4. In addition, CP and clofibrate (CFB), a reported MRP4 inducer, in vivo significantly increased the MRP4 expression at both protein level and mRNA level in HEK293 cells at higher concentrations, while IF significantly decreased the MRP4 expression at mRNA level at lower concentration and had no effect at higher concentrations. However, all tested compounds (CP, IF, and CFB) did not change the MRP4 protein expression in HepG2 cells. CP and CFB are cell-specific and concentration-dependent MRP4 inducers. The finding may have implications in the CP- or IF-based chemotherapy.

  2. First-Trimester Serum Fatty Acid-Binding Protein 4 and Subsequent Gestational Diabetes Mellitus.

    PubMed

    Tu, Wen-Jun; Guo, Min; Shi, Xiao-Dong; Cai, Yan; Liu, Qiang; Fu, Chen-Wei

    2017-10-06

    To examine whether plasma fatty acid-binding protein 4 concentrations, measured in the first trimester, are associated with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). This prospective, multicenter cohort study was conducted at three maternity centers in two cities (Harbin and Beijing) in China from July 2015 to June 2016. Data for fasting plasma glucose and fatty acid-binding protein 4 concentrations in the first trimester and one-step GDM screening with a 75-g oral glucose tolerance test performed between 24 and 28 weeks of gestation were collected and analyzed. Plasma from women in the first trimester was available for 1,150 women, of whom 135 (11.7%) developed GDM. The GDM distribution across the fatty acid-binding protein 4 quartiles ranged from 3.8% (first quartile) to 21.6% (fourth quartile). In multivariate models comparing the second (quartile 2), third, and fourth quartiles against the first quartile of fatty acid-binding protein 4, concentrations of fatty acid-binding protein 4 in quartile 2, quartile 3, and quartile 4 were associated with the development of GDM with respective associated adjusted odds ratios (95% CIs) of 1.76 (1.21-2.58), 2.36 (1.55-4.29), and 3.57 (1.99-6.11). A significant difference in the area under receiver operating characteristic curve between established risk factors alone and the addition of fatty acid-binding protein 4 concentrations was observed (difference 0.042 [95% CI 0.028-0.055]; P=.03). Higher fatty acid-binding protein 4 concentrations in the first trimester visit were associated with increased risk of GDM and might be useful in identifying women at risk for GDM for early prevention strategies.

  3. Helicobacter pylori Infection Induces Anemia, Depletes Serum Iron Storage, and Alters Local Iron-Related and Adult Brain Gene Expression in Male INS-GAS Mice

    PubMed Central

    Burns, Monika; Muthupalani, Sureshkumar; Ge, Zhongming; Wang, Timothy C.; Bakthavatchalu, Vasudevan; Cunningham, Catriona; Ennis, Kathleen; Georgieff, Michael; Fox, James G.

    2015-01-01

    Iron deficiency anemia (IDA) affects > 500 million people worldwide, and is linked to impaired cognitive development and function in children. Helicobacter pylori, a class 1 carcinogen, infects about half of the world’s population, thus creating a high likelihood of overlapping risk. This study determined the effect of H. pylori infection on iron homeostasis in INS-GAS mice. Two replicates of INS-GAS/FVB male mice (n = 9-12/group) were dosed with H. pylori (Hp) strain SS1 or sham dosed at 6–9 weeks of age, and were necropsied at 27–29 weeks of age. Hematologic and serum iron parameters were evaluated, as was gene expression in gastric and brain tissues. Serum ferritin was lower in Hp SS1-infected mice than uninfected mice (p < 0.0001). Infected mice had a lower red blood cell count (p<0.0001), hematocrit (p < 0.001), and hemoglobin concentration (p <0.0001) than uninfected mice. Relative expression of gastric hepcidin antimicrobial peptide (Hamp) was downregulated in mice infected with Hp SS1 compared to sham-dosed controls (p<0.001). Expression of bone morphogenic protein 4 (Bmp4), a growth factor upstream of hepcidin, was downregulated in gastric tissue of Hp SS1-infected mice (p<0.001). Hp SS1-infected mice had downregulated brain expression of tyrosine hydroxylase (Th) (p = 0.02). Expression of iron-responsive genes involved in myelination (myelin basic protein (Mbp) and proteolipid protein 2 (Plp2)) was downregulated in infected mice (p = 0.001 and p = 0.02). Expression of synaptic plasticity markers (brain derived neurotrophic factor 3 (Bdnf3), Psd95 (a membrane associated guanylate kinase), and insulin-like growth factor 1 (Igf1)) was also downregulated in Hp SS1-infected mice (p = 0.09, p = 0.04, p = 0.02 respectively). Infection of male INS-GAS mice with Hp SS1, without concurrent dietary iron deficiency, depleted serum ferritin, deregulated gastric and hepatic expression of iron regulatory genes, and altered iron-dependent neural processes. The use

  4. Helicobacter pylori Infection Induces Anemia, Depletes Serum Iron Storage, and Alters Local Iron-Related and Adult Brain Gene Expression in Male INS-GAS Mice.

    PubMed

    Burns, Monika; Muthupalani, Sureshkumar; Ge, Zhongming; Wang, Timothy C; Bakthavatchalu, Vasudevan; Cunningham, Catriona; Ennis, Kathleen; Georgieff, Michael; Fox, James G

    2015-01-01

    Iron deficiency anemia (IDA) affects > 500 million people worldwide, and is linked to impaired cognitive development and function in children. Helicobacter pylori, a class 1 carcinogen, infects about half of the world's population, thus creating a high likelihood of overlapping risk. This study determined the effect of H. pylori infection on iron homeostasis in INS-GAS mice. Two replicates of INS-GAS/FVB male mice (n = 9-12/group) were dosed with H. pylori (Hp) strain SS1 or sham dosed at 6-9 weeks of age, and were necropsied at 27-29 weeks of age. Hematologic and serum iron parameters were evaluated, as was gene expression in gastric and brain tissues. Serum ferritin was lower in Hp SS1-infected mice than uninfected mice (p < 0.0001). Infected mice had a lower red blood cell count (p<0.0001), hematocrit (p < 0.001), and hemoglobin concentration (p <0.0001) than uninfected mice. Relative expression of gastric hepcidin antimicrobial peptide (Hamp) was downregulated in mice infected with Hp SS1 compared to sham-dosed controls (p<0.001). Expression of bone morphogenic protein 4 (Bmp4), a growth factor upstream of hepcidin, was downregulated in gastric tissue of Hp SS1-infected mice (p<0.001). Hp SS1-infected mice had downregulated brain expression of tyrosine hydroxylase (Th) (p = 0.02). Expression of iron-responsive genes involved in myelination (myelin basic protein (Mbp) and proteolipid protein 2 (Plp2)) was downregulated in infected mice (p = 0.001 and p = 0.02). Expression of synaptic plasticity markers (brain derived neurotrophic factor 3 (Bdnf3), Psd95 (a membrane associated guanylate kinase), and insulin-like growth factor 1 (Igf1)) was also downregulated in Hp SS1-infected mice (p = 0.09, p = 0.04, p = 0.02 respectively). Infection of male INS-GAS mice with Hp SS1, without concurrent dietary iron deficiency, depleted serum ferritin, deregulated gastric and hepatic expression of iron regulatory genes, and altered iron-dependent neural processes. The use of Hp

  5. Effect of angiopoietin-like protein 4 on rat pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells exposed to LPS

    PubMed Central

    WANG, YUXI; CHEN, HAILONG; LI, HAILONG; ZHANG, JINGWEN; GAO, YANYAN

    2013-01-01

    Pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells (PMVECs) possess highly proliferative and angiogenic capacities and are localized at the critical interface between the blood and microvessel wall; they are the primary targets of inflammatory cytokines during lung inflammation. Angiopoietin-like protein 4 (Angptl4) is a circulating protein that has recently been implicated in the regulation of angiogenesis and metastasis. This study aimed to investigate the effect of Angptl4 on rat PMVECs (RPMVECs) exposed to lipopolysaccharide (LPS). The cell culture was stimulated with LPS. Total Angptl4 cDNA was obtained from Source BioScience. The PCR product was cloned into the pcDNA3.1-eGFP or the pcDNA3.1-eGFP-Angptl4 vector, which were then transfected into the RPMVECs using SuperFect transfection reagent. The Angptl4 mRNA levels, protein levels and cell morphology of the RPMVECs in the experimental groups were detected using real time-PCR, western blot analysis, MTT assay, ELISA and confocal microscopy methods, respectively. The Angptl4 expression vector, pcDNA3.1-eGFP-Angptl4, was successfully constructed. The Angptl4 mRNA level in the LPS-pcDNA3.1-eGFP-transfected group (blank control) was slightly increased and was significantly higher in the experimental group compared with the empty vector and blank control group with significant differences. Pro-apoptotic caspase-8, -9 and Bax protein were inhibited, while p-AKT/AKT and p-MEK1/2 protein expression was also decreased. The rosiglitazone group had significantly decreased levels of the inflammatory cytokine, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α (P<0.01). The overexpression of Angptl4 inhibited the LPS-induced increase in the permeability of the RPMVECs, which was associated with the depolymerization of central F-actin in the RPMVECs. In conclusion, our study demonstrates that the overexpression of Angptl4 exerts protective, anti-inflammatory and anti-angiogenic effects. It represents a novel therapeutic target gene for the treatment

  6. CASK and protein 4.1 support F-actin nucleation on neurexins.

    PubMed

    Biederer, T; Sudhof, T C

    2001-12-21

    Rearrangements of the actin cytoskeleton are involved in a variety of cellular processes from locomotion of cells to morphological alterations of the cell surface. One important question is how local interactions of cells with the extracellular space are translated into alterations of their membrane organization. To address this problem, we studied CASK, a member of the membrane-associated guanylate kinase homologues family of adaptor proteins. CASK has been shown to bind the erythrocyte isoform of protein 4.1, a class of proteins that promote formation of actin/spectrin microfilaments. In neurons, CASK also interacts via its PDZ domain with the cytosolic C termini of neurexins, neuron-specific cell-surface proteins. We now show that CASK binds a brain-enriched isoform of protein 4.1, and nucleates local assembly of actin/spectrin filaments. These interactions can be reconstituted on the cytosolic tail of neurexins. Furthermore, CASK can be recovered with actin filaments prepared from rat brain extracts, and neurexins are recruited together with CASK and protein 4.1 into these actin filaments. Thus, analogous to the PDZ-domain protein p55 and glycophorin C at the erythrocyte membrane, a similar complex comprising CASK and neurexins exists in neurons. Our data suggest that intercellular junctions formed by neurexins, such as junctions initiated by beta-neurexins with neuroligins, are at least partially coupled to the actin cytoskeleton via an interaction with CASK and protein 4.1.

  7. Increased expression of fatty acid binding protein 4 and leptin in resident macrophages characterises atherosclerotic plaque rupture

    PubMed Central

    Lee, K.; Santibanez-Koref, M.; Polvikoski, T.; Birchall, D.; Mendelow, A.D.; Keavney, B.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Resident macrophages play an important role in atheromatous plaque rupture. The macrophage gene expression signature associated with plaque rupture is incompletely defined due to the complex cellular heterogeneity in the plaque. We aimed to characterise differential gene expression in resident plaque macrophages from ruptured and stable human atheromatous lesions. Methods and results We performed genome-wide expression analyses of isolated macrophage-rich regions of stable and ruptured human atherosclerotic plaques. Plaques present in carotid endarterectomy specimens were designated as stable or ruptured using clinical, radiological and histopathological criteria. Macrophage-rich regions were excised from 5 ruptured and 6 stable plaques by laser micro-dissection. Transcriptional profiling was performed using Affymetrix microarrays. The profiles were characteristic of activated macrophages. At a false discovery rate of 10%, 914 genes were differentially expressed between stable and ruptured plaques. The findings were confirmed in fourteen further stable and ruptured samples for a subset of eleven genes with the highest expression differences (p < 0.05). Pathway analysis revealed that components of the PPAR/Adipocytokine signaling pathway were the most significantly upregulated in ruptured compared to stable plaques (p = 5.4 × 10−7). Two key components of the pathway, fatty-acid binding-protein 4 (FABP4) and leptin, showed nine-fold (p = 0.0086) and five-fold (p = 0.0012) greater expression respectively in macrophages from ruptured plaques. Conclusions We found differences in gene expression signatures between macrophages isolated from stable and ruptured human atheromatous plaques. Our findings indicate the involvement of FABP4 and leptin in the progression of atherosclerosis and plaque rupture, and suggest that down-regulation of PPAR/adipocytokine signaling within plaques may have therapeutic potential. PMID:23122912

  8. A Novel Cancer Testis Antigen, A-Kinase Anchor Protein 4 (AKAP4) Is a Potential Biomarker for Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Saini, Shikha; Jagadish, Nirmala; Gupta, Anju; Bhatnagar, Amar; Suri, Anil

    2013-01-01

    Background Breast cancer is the second leading cause of cancer related deaths in women worldwide. Reports about the early diagnosis of breast cancer are suggestive of an improved clinical outcome and overall survival rate in cancer patients. Therefore, cancer screening biomarker for early detection and diagnosis is urgently required for timely treatment and better cancer management. In this context, we investigated an association of cancer testis antigen, A-Kinase anchor protein 4 (AKAP4) with breast carcinoma. Methodology/Findings We first compared the AKAP4 gene and protein expression in four breast cancer cells (MCF7, MDA-MB-231, SK-BR3 and BT474) and normal human mammary epithelial cells. In addition, 91 clinical specimens of breast cancer patients of various histotypes including ductal carcinoma in situ, infiltrating ductal carcinoma and infiltrating lobular carcinoma and 83 available matched adjacent non-cancerous tissues were examined for AKAP4 gene and protein expression by employing in situ RNA hybridization and immunohistochemistry respectively. Humoral response against AKAP4 was also investigated in breast cancer patients employing ELISA. Our in vitro studies in all breast cancer cells revealed AKAP4 gene and protein expression whereas, normal human mammary epithelial cells failed to show any expression. Using in situ RNA hybridization and immunohistochemistry, 85% (77/91) tissue specimens irrespective of histotypes, stages and grades of breast cancer clinical specimens revealed AKAP4 gene and protein expression. However, matched adjacent non-cancerous tissues failed to display any AKAP4 gene and protein expression. Furthermore, humoral response was observed in 79% (72/91) of total breast cancer patients. Interestingly, we observed that 94% (72/77) of breast cancer patients found positive for AKAP4 protein expression generated humoral response against AKAP4 protein. Conclusions Collectively, our data suggests that AKAP4 may be used as serum based

  9. Aberrant gene expression in organs of bovine clones that die within two days after birth.

    PubMed

    Li, Shijie; Li, Yanxin; Du, Weihua; Zhang, Lei; Yu, Shuyang; Dai, Yunping; Zhao, Chunjiang; Li, Ning

    2005-02-01

    Cloning by somatic nuclear transfer is an inefficient process in which some of the cloned animals die shortly after birth and display organ abnormalities. In an effort to determine the possible genetic causes of neonatal death and organ abnormalities, we used real-time quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction to examine expression patterns of eight developmentally important genes (PCAF, Xist, FGFR2, PDGFRa, FGF10, BMP4, Hsp70.1, and VEGF) in six organs (heart, liver, spleen, lung, kidney, and brain) of both cloned bovines that died soon after birth (n=9) and normal control calves produced by artificial insemination. In somatic cloning of cattle, fibroblasts have often been used for doner nuclei, and the effect of the age of the fibroblast donor cells on gene expression profiles was investigated. Aberrant expressions of seven genes were found in these clones. The majority of aberrantly expressed genes were common in clones derived from adult fibroblast (AF) and in clones derived from fetal fibroblast (FF) compared to controls, whereas some genes were dysregulated either in AF cell-derived or in FF cell-derived clones. For the studied genes, kidney was the organ least affected by gene dysregulation, and heart was the organ most affected, in which five genes were aberrant. Most dysregulations (12 of 19) were up-regulation, but PDGFRa only showed down-regulation. VEGF, BMP-4, PCAF, and Hsp70.1 were extremely dysregulated, whereas the other four genes had a low level of gene dysregulation. Our results suggest that the aberrant gene expression occurred in most tissues of cloned bovines that died soon after birth. For each specific gene, aberrant expression resulting from nuclear transfer was tissue-specific. Because these genes play important roles in embryo development and organogenesis, the aberrant transcription patterns detected in these clones may contribute to the defects of organs reported in neonatal death of clones.

  10. Water temperature induces jaw deformity and bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) gene expression in golden pompano Trachinotus ovatus larvae.

    PubMed

    Ma, Zhenhua; Zhang, Nan; Qin, Jian G; Fu, Mingjun; Jiang, Shigui

    2016-01-01

    Golden pompano Trachinotus ovatus larvae were kept at 26, 29 and 33 °C for 15 days from 3-day post hatching (DPH) to 18 DPH to test temperature-dependent growth and jaw malformation. The growth, survival, jaw deformity and the gene expressions of bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) were used as criteria to examine the fish response to temperature manipulation. The growth rate of fish at 29 or 33 °C was significantly faster than fish at 26 °C, while fish survival at 29 °C was significantly higher than fish at 33 °C. Jaw deformity was significantly affected by water temperature. The highest jaw deformity occurred on fish at 33 °C, and the lowest jaw deformity was at 26 °C. The expressions of all BMP genes except BMP10 were significantly affected by water temperature. The highest gene expression of BMP2 was on fish at 29 °C, and the lowest expression was at 33 °C. For the BMP4 gene, the highest and lowest expressions were found on fish at 33 and 26 °C, respectively. The present study indicates that jaw deformity of golden pompano larvae increases with increasing temperature, and the gene expression of BMP4 proteins coincides with high jaw deformity and water temperature elevation.

  11. Bone morphogenetic protein 4 and retinoic acid trigger bovine VASA homolog expression in differentiating bovine induced pluripotent stem cells.

    PubMed

    Malaver-Ortega, Luis F; Sumer, Huseyin; Jain, Kanika; Verma, Paul J

    2016-02-01

    Primordial germ cells (PGCs) are the earliest identifiable and completely committed progenitors of female and male gametes. They are obvious targets for genome editing because they assure the transmission of desirable or introduced traits to future generations. PGCs are established at the earliest stages of embryo development and are difficult to propagate in vitro--two characteristics that pose a problem for their practical application. One alternative method to enrich for PGCs in vitro is to differentiate them from pluripotent stem cells derived from adult tissues. Here, we establish a reporter system for germ cell identification in bovine pluripotent stem cells based on green fluorescent protein expression driven by the minimal essential promoter of the bovine Vasa homolog (BVH) gene, whose regulatory elements were identified by orthologous modelling of regulatory units. We then evaluated the potential of bovine induced pluripotent stem cell (biPSC) lines carrying the reporter construct to differentiate toward the germ cell lineage. Our results showed that biPSCs undergo differentiation as embryoid bodies, and a fraction of the differentiating cells expressed BVH. The rate of differentiation towards BVH-positive cells increased up to tenfold in the presence of bone morphogenetic protein 4 or retinoic acid. Finally, we determined that the expression of key PGC genes, such as BVH or SOX2, can be modified by pre-differentiation cell culture conditions, although this increase is not necessarily mirrored by an increase in the rate of differentiation. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Adipocyte fatty acid binding protein 4 (FABP4) inhibitors. A comprehensive systematic review.

    PubMed

    Floresta, Giuseppe; Pistarà, Venerando; Amata, Emanuele; Dichiara, Maria; Marrazzo, Agostino; Prezzavento, Orazio; Rescifina, Antonio

    2017-09-29

    Small molecule inhibitors of adipocyte fatty acid binding protein 4 (FABP4) have attracted interest following the recent publications of beneficial pharmacological effects of these compounds. FABP4 is predominantly expressed in macrophages and adipose tissue where it regulates fatty acids (FAs) storage and lipolysis and is an important mediator of inflammation. In the past years, hundreds FABP4 inhibitors have been synthesized for effective atherosclerosis and diabetes treatments, including derivatives of niacin, quinoxaline, aryl-quinoline, bicyclic pyridine, urea, aromatic compounds and other novel heterocyclic compounds. This review provides an overview of the synthesized and discovered molecules as adipocyte fatty acid binding protein 4 inhibitors (FABP4is) since the synthesis of the putative FABP4i, BMS309403, highlighting the interactions of the different classes of inhibitors with the targets. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. Gene therapy for bone healing.

    PubMed

    Evans, Christopher H

    2010-06-23

    Clinical problems in bone healing include large segmental defects, spinal fusions, and the nonunion and delayed union of fractures. Gene-transfer technologies have the potential to aid healing by permitting the local delivery and sustained expression of osteogenic gene products within osseous lesions. Key questions for such an approach include the choice of transgene, vector and gene-transfer strategy. Most experimental data have been obtained using cDNAs encoding osteogenic growth factors such as bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2), BMP-4 and BMP-7, in conjunction with both nonviral and viral vectors using in vivo and ex vivo delivery strategies. Proof of principle has been convincingly demonstrated in small-animal models. Relatively few studies have used large animals, but the results so far are encouraging. Once a reliable method has been developed, it will be necessary to perform detailed pharmacological and toxicological studies, as well as satisfy other demands of the regulatory bodies, before human clinical trials can be initiated. Such studies are very expensive and often protracted. Thus, progress in developing a clinically useful gene therapy for bone healing is determined not only by scientific considerations, but also by financial constraints and the ambient regulatory environment.

  14. Gene therapy for bone healing

    PubMed Central

    Evans, Christopher H.

    2015-01-01

    Clinical problems in bone healing include large segmental defects, nonunion and delayed union of fractures, and spinal fusions. Gene-transfer technologies have the potential to aid healing by permitting the local delivery and sustained expression of osteogenic gene products within osseous lesions. Key questions for such an approach include the choice of transgene, vector and gene-transfer strategy. Most experimental data have been obtained using cDNAs encoding osteogenic growth factors such as bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2), BMP-4 and BMP-7, in conjunction with both nonviral and viral vectors using in vivo and ex vivo delivery strategies. Proof of principle has been convincingly demonstrated in small-animal models. Relatively few studies have used large animals, but the results so far are encouraging. Once a reliable method has been developed, it will be necessary to perform detailed pharmacological and toxicological studies, as well as satisfy other demands of the regulatory bodies, before human clinical trials can be initiated. Such studies are very expensive and often protracted. Thus, progress in developing a clinically useful gene therapy for bone healing is determined not only by scientific considerations, but also by financial constraints and the ambient regulatory environment. PMID:20569532

  15. Id gene regulation and function in the prosensory domains of the chicken inner ear: a link between Bmp signaling and Atoh1.

    PubMed

    Kamaid, Andrés; Neves, Joana; Giráldez, Fernando

    2010-08-25

    Bone morphogenetic proteins (Bmps) regulate the expression of the proneural gene Atoh1 and the generation of hair cells in the developing inner ear. The present work explored the role of Inhibitor of Differentiation genes (Id1-3) in this process. The results show that Id genes are expressed in the prosensory domains of the otic vesicle, along with Bmp4 and Bmp7. Those domains exhibit high levels of the phosphorylated form of Bmp-responding R-Smads (P-Smad1,5,8), and of Bmp-dependent Smad transcriptional activity as shown by the BRE-tk-EGFP reporter. Increased Bmp signaling induces the expression of Id1-3 along with the inhibition of Atoh1. Conversely, the Bmp antagonist Noggin or the Bmp-receptor inhibitor Dorsomorphin elicit opposite effects, indicating that Bmp signaling is necessary for Id expression and Atoh1 regulation in the otocyst. The forced expression of Id3 is sufficient to reduce Atoh1 expression and to prevent the expression of hair cell differentiation markers. Together, these results suggest that Ids are part of the machinery that mediates the regulation of hair cell differentiation exerted by Bmps. In agreement with that, during hair cell differentiation Bmp4 expression, P-Smad1,5,8 levels and Id expression are downregulated from hair cells. However, Ids are also downregulated from the supporting cells which contrarily to hair cells exhibit high levels of Bmp4 expression, P-Smad1,5,8, and BRE-tk-EGFP activity, suggesting that in these cells Ids escape from Bmp/Smad signaling. The differential regulation of Ids in time and space may underlie the multiple functions of Bmp signaling during sensory organ development.

  16. The molecular signature of AML mesenchymal stromal cells reveals candidate genes related to the leukemogenic process.

    PubMed

    Binato, Renata; de Almeida Oliveira, Nathalia Correa; Du Rocher, Barbara; Abdelhay, Eliana

    2015-12-01

    Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is a heterogeneous disease characterized by myeloid precursor proliferation in the bone marrow, apoptosis reduction and differentiation arrest. Although there are several studies in this field, events related to disease initiation and progression remain unknown. The malignant transformation of hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) is thought to generate leukemic stem cells, and this transformation could be related to changes in mesenchymal stromal cell (hMSC) signaling. Thus, the aim of this work was to analyze the gene expression profile of hMSC from AML patients (hMSC-AML) compared to healthy donors hMSCs (hMSC-HD). The results showed a common molecular signature for all hMSC-AML. Other assays were performed with a large number of patients and the results confirmed a molecular signature that is capable of distinguishing hMSC-AML from hMSC-HD. Moreover, CCL2 and BMP4 genes encode secreted proteins that could affect HSCs. To verify whether these proteins are differentially expressed in AML patients, ELISA was performed with plasma samples. CCL2 and BMP4 proteins are differentially expressed in AML patients, indicating changes in hMSC-AML signaling. Altogether, hMSCs-AML signaling alterations could be an important factor in the leukemic transformation process.

  17. Effect of complete protein 4.1R deficiency on ion transportproperties of murine erythrocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Rivera, Alicia; De Franceschi, Lucia; Peters, Luanne L.; Gascard,Philippe; Mohandas, Narla; Brugnara, Carlo

    2006-06-02

    Moderate hemolytic anemia, abnormal erythrocyte morphology(spherocytosis), and decreased membrane stability are observed in micewith complete deficiency of all erythroid protein 4.1 protein isoforms(4.1-/-; Shi TS et al., J. Clin. Invest. 103:331,1999). We have examinedthe effects of erythroid protein 4.1 (4.1R) deficiency on erythrocytecation transport and volume regulation. 4.1-/- mice exhibited erythrocytedehydration that was associated with reduced cellular K and increased Nacontent. Increased Na permeability was observed in these mice, mostlymediated by Na/H exchange with normal Na-K pump and Na-K-2Cl cotransportactivities. The Na/H exchange of 4.1-/- erythrocytes was markedlyactivated by exposure to hypertonic conditions (18.2+- 3.2 in 4.1 -/- vs.9.8 +- 1.3 mmol/1013 cell x h in control mice), with an abnormaldependence on osmolarity, (K0.5=417 +- 42 in 4.1 -/- vs. 460 +- 35 mOsmin control mice) suggestive of an up-regulated functional state. Whilethe affinity for internal protons was not altered (K0.5= 489.7 +- 0.7 vs.537.0+- 0.56 nM in control mice), the Vmax of the H-induced Na/H exchangeactivity was markedly elevated in 4.1-/- erythrocytes (Vmax 91.47Moderatehemolytic anemia, abnormal erythrocyte morphology (spherocytosis), anddecreased membrane stability are observed in mice with completedeficiency of all erythroid protein 4.1 protein isoforms (4.1-/-; Shi TSet al., J. Clin. Invest. 103:331,1999). We have examined the effects oferythroid protein 4.1 (4.1R) deficiency on erythrocyte cation transportand volume regulation. 4.1-/- mice exhibited erythrocyte dehydration thatwas associated with reduced cellular K and increased Na content.Increased Na permeability was observed in these mice, mostly mediated byNa/H exchange with normal Na-K pump and Na-K-2Cl cotransport activities.The Na/H exchange of 4.1-/- erythrocytes was markedly activated byexposure to hypertonic conditions (18.2 +- 3.2 in 4.1 -/- vs. 9.8 +- 1.3mmol/1013 cell x h in control mice), with an

  18. Nuclear actin and protein 4.1: Essential interactions during nuclear assembly in vitro

    SciTech Connect

    Krauss, Sharon Wald; Chen, Cynthia; Penman, Sheldon; Heald, Rebecca

    2003-06-11

    Structural protein 4.1, which has crucial interactions within the spectin-actin lattice of the human red cell membrane skeleton, also is widely distributed at diverse intracellular sites in nucleated cells. We previously showed that 4.1 is essential for assembly of functional nuclei in vitro and that the capacity of 4.1 to bind actin is required. Here we report that 4.1 and actin colocalize in mammalian cell nuclei using fluorescence microscopy and, by higher resolution cell whole mount electron microscopy, are associated on nuclear filaments. We also devised a cell-free assay using Xenopus egg extract containing fluorescent actin to follow actin during nuclear assembly. By directly imaging actin under non-perturbing conditions, the total nuclear actin population is retained and is visualized in situ relative to intact chromatin. We detected actin initially when chromatin and nuclear pores began assembling. As the nuclear lamina assembled, but preceding DNA synthesis, a discrete actin network formed throughout the nucleus. Protein 4.1 epitopes also were detected when actin began to accumulate in nuclei, producing a diffuse coincident pattern. As nuclei matured, actin was detected both coincident with and also independent of 4.1 epitopes. To test whether acquisition of nuclear actin is required for nuclear assembly, the actin inhibitor latrunculin A was added to Xenopus egg extracts during nuclear assembly. Latrunculin A strongly perturbed nuclear assembly and produced distorted nuclear structures containing neither actin nor protein 4.1. Our results suggest that actin as well as 4.1 is necessary for nuclear assembly and that 4.1-actin interactions may be critical.

  19. Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus Accessory Protein 4a Is a Type I Interferon Antagonist

    PubMed Central

    Niemeyer, Daniela; Zillinger, Thomas; Muth, Doreen; Zielecki, Florian; Horvath, Gabor; Suliman, Tasnim; Barchet, Winfried; Weber, Friedemann

    2013-01-01

    Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) causes severe acute respiratory infection with as yet unclear epidemiology. We previously showed that MERS-CoV counteracts parts of the innate immune response in human bronchiolar cells. Here we analyzed accessory proteins 3, 4a, 4b, and 5 for their abilities to inhibit the type I interferon response. Accessory protein 4a was found to block interferon induction at the level of melanoma differentiation-associated protein 5 (MDA5) activation presumably by direct interaction with double-stranded RNA. PMID:24027320

  20. Silencing of the inhibitor of DNA binding protein 4 (ID4) contributes to the pathogenesis of mouse and human CLL

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Shih-Shih; Claus, Rainer; Lucas, David M.; Yu, Lianbo; Qian, Jiang; Ruppert, Amy S.; West, Derek A.; Williams, Katie E.; Johnson, Amy J.; Sablitzky, Fred

    2011-01-01

    Inhibitor of DNA binding protein 4 (ID4) is a member of the dominant-negative basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor family that lacks DNA binding activity and has tumor suppressor function. ID4 promoter methylation has been reported in acute myeloid leukemia and chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), although the expression, function, and clinical relevance of this gene have not been characterized in either disease. We demonstrate that the promoter of ID4 is consistently methylated to various degrees in CLL cells, and increased promoter methylation in a univariable analysis correlates with shortened patient survival. However, ID4 mRNA and protein expression is uniformly silenced in CLL cells irrespective of the degree of promoter methylation. The crossing of ID4+/− mice with Eμ-TCL1 mice triggers a more aggressive murine CLL as measured by lymphocyte count and inferior survival. Hemizygous loss of ID4 in nontransformed TCL1-positive B cells enhances cell proliferation triggered by CpG oligonucleotides and decreases sensitivity to dexamethasone-mediated apoptosis. Collectively, this study confirms the importance of the silencing of ID4 in murine and human CLL pathogenesis. PMID:21098398

  1. Myotubularin-related Protein 4 (MTMR4) Attenuates BMP/Dpp Signaling by Dephosphorylation of Smad Proteins*

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Junjing; He, Xiaomeng; Chen, Ye-Guang; Hao, Yan; Yang, Shuo; Wang, Lei; Pan, Lei; Tang, Hong

    2013-01-01

    Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) signaling essentially regulates a wide range of biological responses. Although multiple regulators at different layers of the receptor-effectors axis have been identified, the mechanisms of homeostatic BMP signaling remain vague. Herein we demonstrated that myotubularin-related protein 4 (MTMR4), a FYVE domain-containing dual-specificity protein phosphatase (DUSP), preferentially associated with and dephosphorylated the activated R-Smads in cytoplasm, which is a critical checkpoint in BMP signal transduction. Therefore, transcriptional activation by BMPs was tightly controlled by the expression level and the intrinsic phosphatase activity of MTMR4. More profoundly, ectopic expression of MTMR4 or its Drosophila homolog CG3632 genetically interacted with BMP/Dpp signaling axis in regulation of the vein development of Drosophila wings. By doing so, MTMR4 could interact with and dephosphorylate Mothers against Decapentaplegic (Mad), the sole R-Smad in Drosophila BMP pathway, and hence affected the target genes expression of Mad. In conclusion, this study has suggested that MTMR4 is a necessary negative modulator for the homeostasis of BMP/Dpp signaling. PMID:23150675

  2. Fatty acid binding protein 4 in circulating leucocytes reflects atherosclerotic lesion progression in Apoe−/− mice

    PubMed Central

    Agardh, Hanna E; Gertow, Karl; Salvado, Dolores M; Hermansson, Andreas; Puijvelde, Gijs H; Hansson, Göran K; n-Berne, Gabrielle Paulsso; Gabrielsen, Anders

    2013-01-01

    Discovery of novel biomarkers for atherosclerosis is important to aid in early diagnosis of pre-symptomatic patients at high risk of cardiovascular events. The aim of the present study was therefore to identify potential biomarkers in circulating cells reflecting atherosclerotic lesion progression in the vessel wall. We performed gene arrays on circulating leucocytes from atherosclerosis prone Apoe−/− mice with increasing ages, using C57BL/6 mice as healthy controls. We identified fatty acid binding protein 4 (FABP4) mRNA to be augmented in mice with established disease compared with young Apoe−/− or controls. Interestingly, the transcript FABP4 correlated significantly with lesion size, further supporting a disease associated increase. In addition, validation of our finding on protein level showed augmented FABP4 in circulating leucocytes whereas, importantly, no change could be observed in plasma. Immunofluorescence analysis demonstrated FABP4 to be present mainly in circulating neutrophils and to some extent in monocytes. Moreover, FABP4-positive neutrophils and macrophages could be identified in the subintimal space in the plaque. Using human circulating leucocytes, we confirmed the presence of FABP4 protein in neutrophils and monocytes. In conclusion, we have showed that cellular levels of FABP4 in circulating leucocytes associate with lesion development in the experimental Apoe−/− model. The increased expression is primarily localized to neutrophils, but also in monocytes. We have identified FABP4 in leucocytes as a potential and easy accessible biomarker of atherosclerosis which could be of future clinical relevance. PMID:23387955

  3. Genetic effects of sterol regulatory element binding proteins and fatty acid-binding protein4 on the fatty acid composition of Korean cattle (Hanwoo)

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Dong-Yep; Lee, Jea-Young; Jang, Ji-Eun; Lee, Seung-Uk

    2017-01-01

    Objective This study identifies single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) or gene combinations that affect the flavor and quality of Korean cattle (Hanwoo) by using the SNP Harvester method. Methods Four economic traits (oleic acid [C18:1], saturated fatty acids), monounsaturated fatty acids, and marbling score) were adjusted for environmental factors in order to focus solely on genetic effects. The SNP Harvester method was used to investigate gene combinations (two-way gene interactions) associated with these economic traits. Further, a multifactor dimensionality reduction method was used to identify superior genotypes in gene combinations. Results Table 3 to 4 show the analysis results for differences between superior genotypes and others for selected major gene combinations using the multifactor dimensionality reduction method. Environmental factors were adjusted for in order to evaluate only the genetic effect. Table 5 shows the adjustment effect by comparing the accuracy before and after correction in two-way gene interactions. Conclusion The g.3977-325 T>C and (g.2988 A>G, g.3977-325 T>C) combinations of fatty acid-binding protein4 were the superior gene, and the superior genotype combinations across all economic traits were the CC genotype at g.3977-325 T>C and the AACC, GACC, GGCC genotypes of (g.2988 A>G, g.3977-325 T>C). PMID:27492349

  4. MicroRNA-181b inhibits cellular proliferation and invasion of glioma cells via targeting Sal-like protein 4.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yu; Peng, Yong; Liu, Min; Jiang, Yugang

    2016-11-17

    MicroRNAs (miRs), a class of 18-25 nucleotides in length non-coding RNAs, are able to suppress gene expression by targeting complementary regions of mRNAs and inhibiting protein translation Recently, miR-181b was found to playa suppressive role in glioma, but the regulatory mechanism of miR-181b in the malignant phenotypes of glioma cells remains largely unclear. Here we found that miR-181b was significantly downregulated in glioma tissues when compared with normal brain tissues, and decreased miR-181b levels were significantly associated with high pathology grade and poor prognosis of patients with glioma. Moreover, miR-181b was also downregulated in glioma cell lines (U87, SHG44, U373, and U251) compared to normal astrocytes. Overexpression of miR-181b significantly decreased the proliferation, migration, and invasion of glioma U251 cells. Sal-like protein 4 (SALL4) was identified as a novel target gene of miR-181b in U251 cells. The expression of SALL4 was significantly upregulated in glioma tissues and cell lines, and an inverse correlation was observed between the miR-181b and SALL4 expression levels in glioma. Further investigation showed that the protein expression of SALL4 was negatively regulated by miR-181b in U251 cells. Knockdown of SALL4 significantly inhibited the proliferation, migration and invasion of U251 cells, while overexpression of SALL4 effectively reversed the suppressive effects of miR-181b on these malignant phenotypes of U251 cells. In conclusion, our study demonstrates that miR-181b has suppressive effects on the malignant phenotypes of glioma cells, partly at least, via directly targeting SALL4. Therefore, the miR-181b/SALL4 axis may become a potential therapeutic target for glioma.

  5. Alternative 5' exons and differential splicing regulate expression of protein 4.1R isoforms with distinct n-termini

    SciTech Connect

    Parra, Marilyn K.; Gee, Sherry L.; Koury, Mark J.; Mohandas, Narla; Conboy, John G.

    2003-03-25

    Among the alternative pre-mRNA splicing events that characterize protein 4.1R gene expression, one involving exon 2' plays a critical role in regulating translation initiation and N-terminal protein structure. Exon 2' encompasses translation initiation site AUG1 and is located between alternative splice acceptor sites at the 5' end of exon 2; its inclusion or exclusion from mature 4.1R mRNA regulates expression of longer or shorter isoforms of 4.1R protein, respectively. The current study reports unexpected complexity in the 5' region of the 4.1R gene that directly affects alternative splicing of exon 2'. Three mutually exclusive alternative 5' exons, designated 1A, 1B, and 1C, were identified far upstream of exon 2 in both mouse and human genomes; all three are associated with strong transcriptional promoters in the flanking genomic sequence. Importantly, exons 1A and 1B splice differentially with respect to exon 2', generating transcripts with different 5' ends and distinct N-terminal protein coding capacity. Exon 1A-type transcripts splice so as to exclude exon 2' and therefore utilize the downstream AUG2 for translation of 80kD 4.1R protein, whereas exon 1B transcripts include exon 2' and initiate at AUG1 to synthesize 135kD isoforms. RNA blot analyses revealed that 1A transcripts increase in abundance in late erythroblasts, consistent with the previously demonstrated upregulation of 80kD 4.1R during terminal erythroid differentiation. Together these results suggest that synthesis of structurally distinct 4.1R protein isoforms in various cell types is regulated by a novel mechanism requiring coordination between upstream transcription initiation events and downstream alternative splicing events.

  6. Human epididymis protein 4 (HE4) plays a key role in ovarian cancer cell adhesion and motility

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Renquan; Sun, Xinghui; Xiao, Ran; Zhou, Lei; Gao, Xiang; Guo, Lin

    2012-03-09

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We generated stable transduced HE4 overexpression and knockdown cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer HE4 was associated with EOC cell adhesion and motility. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer HE4 might have some effects on activation of EGFR-MAPK signaling pathway. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer HE4 play an important role in EOC tumorigenicity. -- Abstract: Human epididymis protein 4 (HE4) is a novel and specific biomarker for epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC). We previously demonstrated that serum HE4 levels were significantly elevated in the majority of EOC patients but not in subjects with benign disease or healthy controls. However, the precise mechanism of HE4 protein function is unknown. In this study, we generated HE4-overexpressing SKOV3 cells and found that stably transduced cells promoted cell adhesion and migration. Knockdown of HE4 expression was achieved by stable transfection of SKOV3 cells with a construct encoding a short hairpin DNA directed against the HE4 gene. Correspondingly, the proliferation and spreading ability of HE4-expressed cells were inhibited by HE4 suppression. Mechanistically, impaired EGFR and Erk1/2 phosphorylation were observed in cells with HE4 knockdown. The phosphorylation was restored when the knockdown cells were cultured in conditioned medium containing HE4. Moreover, in vivo tumorigenicity showed that HE4 suppression markedly inhibited the growth of tumors. This suggests that expression of HE4 is associated with cancer cell adhesion, migration and tumor growth, which can be related to its effects on the EGFR-MAPK signaling pathway. Our results provide evidence of the cellular and molecular mechanisms that may underlie the motility-promoting role of HE4 in EOC progression. The role of HE4 as a target for gene-based therapy might be considered in future studies.

  7. Downregulation of Protein 4.1R impairs centrosome function,bipolar spindle organization and anaphase

    SciTech Connect

    Spence, Jeffrey R.; Go, Minjoung M.; Bahmanyar, S.; Barth,A.I.M.; Krauss, Sharon Wald

    2006-03-17

    Centrosomes nucleate and organize interphase MTs and areinstrumental in the assembly of the mitotic bipolar spindle. Here wereport that two members of the multifunctional protein 4.1 family havedistinct distributions at centrosomes. Protein 4.1R localizes to maturecentrioles whereas 4.1G is a component of the pericentriolar matrixsurrounding centrioles. To selectively probe 4.1R function, we used RNAinterference-mediated depletion of 4.1R without decreasing 4.1Gexpression. 4.1R downregulation reduces MT anchoring and organization atinterphase and impairs centrosome separation during prometaphase.Metaphase chromosomes fail to properly condense/align and spindleorganization is aberrant. Notably 4.1R depletion causes mislocalizationof its binding partner NuMA (Nuclear Mitotic Apparatus Protein),essential for spindle pole focusing, and disrupts ninein. Duringanaphase/telophase, 4.1R-depleted cells have lagging chromosomes andaberrant MT bridges. Our data provide functional evidence that 4.1R makescrucial contributions to centrosome integrity and to mitotic spindlestructure enabling mitosis and anaphase to proceed with the coordinatedprecision required to avoid pathological events.

  8. Maternal diabetes induces congenital heart defects in mice by altering the expression of genes involved in cardiovascular development.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Srinivasan Dinesh; Dheen, S Thameem; Tay, Samuel Sam Wah

    2007-10-30

    Congenital heart defects are frequently observed in infants of diabetic mothers, but the molecular basis of the defects remains obscure. Thus, the present study was performed to gain some insights into the molecular pathogenesis of maternal diabetes-induced congenital heart defects in mice. We analyzed the morphological changes, the expression pattern of some genes, the proliferation index and apoptosis in developing heart of embryos at E13.5 from streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice. Morphological analysis has shown the persistent truncus arteriosus combined with a ventricular septal defect in embryos of diabetic mice. Several other defects including defective endocardial cushion (EC) and aberrant myofibrillogenesis have also been found. Cardiac neural crest defects in experimental embryos were analyzed and validated by the protein expression of NCAM and PGP 9.5. In addition, the protein expression of Bmp4, Msx1 and Pax3 involved in the development of cardiac neural crest was found to be reduced in the defective hearts. The mRNA expression of Bmp4, Msx1 and Pax3 was significantly down-regulated (p < 0.001) in the hearts of experimental embryos. Further, the proliferation index was significantly decreased (p < 0.05), whereas the apoptotic cells were significantly increased (p < 0.001) in the EC and the ventricular myocardium of the experimental embryos. It is suggested that the down-regulation of genes involved in development of cardiac neural crest could contribute to the pathogenesis of maternal diabetes-induced congenital heart defects.

  9. Plasma Levels of Fatty Acid-Binding Protein 4, Retinol-Binding Protein 4, High-Molecular-Weight Adiponectin, and Cardiovascular Mortality Among Men With Type 2 Diabetes: A 22-Year Prospective Study.

    PubMed

    Liu, Gang; Ding, Ming; Chiuve, Stephanie E; Rimm, Eric B; Franks, Paul W; Meigs, James B; Hu, Frank B; Sun, Qi

    2016-11-01

    To examine select adipokines, including fatty acid-binding protein 4, retinol-binding protein 4, and high-molecular-weight (HMW) adiponectin in relation to cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality among patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Plasma levels of fatty acid-binding protein 4, retinol-binding protein 4, and HMW adiponectin were measured in 950 men with type 2 diabetes mellitus in the Health Professionals Follow-up Study. After an average of 22 years of follow-up (1993-2015), 580 deaths occurred, of whom 220 died of CVD. After multivariate adjustment for covariates, higher levels of fatty acid-binding protein 4 were significantly associated with a higher CVD mortality: comparing extreme tertiles, the hazard ratio and 95% confidence interval of CVD mortality was 1.78 (1.22-2.59; P trend=0.001). A positive association was also observed for HMW adiponectin: the hazard ratio (95% confidence interval) was 2.07 (1.42-3.06; P trend=0.0002), comparing extreme tertiles, whereas higher retinol-binding protein 4 levels were nonsignificantly associated with a decreased CVD mortality with an hazard ratio (95% confidence interval) of 0.73 (0.50-1.07; P trend=0.09). A Mendelian randomization analysis suggested that the causal relationships of HMW adiponectin and retinol-binding protein 4 would be directionally opposite to those observed based on the biomarkers, although none of the Mendelian randomization associations achieved statistical significance. These data suggest that higher levels of fatty acid-binding protein 4 and HMW adiponectin are associated with elevated CVD mortality among men with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Biological mechanisms underlying these observations deserve elucidation, but the associations of HMW adiponectin may partially reflect altered adipose tissue functionality among patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  10. Paracrine Secreted Frizzled-Related Protein 4 Inhibits Melanocytes Differentiation in Hair Follicle

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Haiying; Lei, Mingxing; Li, Yuhong; Liu, Yingxin; Tang, Yinhong; Xing, Yizhan; Deng, Fang

    2017-01-01

    Wnt signaling plays crucial role in regulating melanocyte stem cells/melanocyte differentiation in the hair follicle. However, how the Wnt signaling is balanced to be overactivated to control follicular melanocytes behavior remains unknown. Here, by using immunofluorescence staining, we showed that secreted frizzled-related protein 4 (sFRP4) is preferentially expressed in the skin epidermal cells rather than in melanocytes. By overexpression of sFRP4 in skin cells in vivo and in vitro, we found that sFRP4 attenuates activation of Wnt signaling, resulting in decrease of melanocytes differentiation in the regenerating hair follicle. Our findings unveiled a new regulator that involves modulating melanocytes differentiation through a paracrine mechanism in hair follicle, supplying a hope for potential therapeutic application to treat skin pigmentation disorders. PMID:28337220

  11. Molecular Characterization and Tissue Distribution of Feline Retinol-Binding Protein 4

    PubMed Central

    SASAKI, Noriyasu; ISHIBASHI, Miwa; SOETA, Satoshi

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4) is a specific transporter of retinol and was recently identified as an adipokine potentially involved in type 2 diabetes in humans and rodents. However, the function and structure of feline RBP4 have not been reported. In this study, we describe the molecular cloning and expression analysis of feline RBP4. The complete feline RBP4 cDNA encodes a precursor protein comprising an 18 amino acid signal peptide and a 183 amino acid mature protein. Feline RBP4 was mapped to chromosome D2. Mature feline RBP4 is 83–94% homologous to the RBPs of humans, cows and rodents. RT-PCR analysis revealed feline RBP4 expression in liver and adipose tissues. PMID:23719693

  12. Retinoblastoma-binding Protein 4-regulated Classical Nuclear Transport Is Involved in Cellular Senescence*

    PubMed Central

    Tsujii, Akira; Miyamoto, Yoichi; Moriyama, Tetsuji; Tsuchiya, Yuko; Obuse, Chikashi; Mizuguchi, Kenji; Oka, Masahiro; Yoneda, Yoshihiro

    2015-01-01

    Nucleocytoplasmic trafficking is a fundamental cellular process in eukaryotic cells. Here, we demonstrated that retinoblastoma-binding protein 4 (RBBP4) functions as a novel regulatory factor to increase the efficiency of importin α/β-mediated nuclear import. RBBP4 accelerates the release of importin β1 from importin α via competitive binding to the importin β-binding domain of importin α in the presence of RanGTP. Therefore, it facilitates importin α/β-mediated nuclear import. We showed that the importin α/β pathway is down-regulated in replicative senescent cells, concomitant with a decrease in RBBP4 level. Knockdown of RBBP4 caused both suppression of nuclear transport and induction of cellular senescence. This is the first report to identify a factor that competes with importin β1 to bind to importin α, and it demonstrates that the loss of this factor can trigger cellular senescence. PMID:26491019

  13. Retinol Binding Protein 4 in Relation to Diet, Inflammation, Immunity, and Cardiovascular Diseases12

    PubMed Central

    Zabetian-Targhi, Fateme; Mahmoudi, Mohammad J; Rezaei, Nima; Mahmoudi, Maryam

    2015-01-01

    Retinol binding protein 4 (RBP4), previously called retinol binding protein (RBP), is considered a specific carrier of retinol in the blood. It is also an adipokine that has been implicated in the pathophysiology of insulin resistance. RBP4 seems to be correlated with cardiometabolic markers in inflammatory chronic diseases, including obesity, type 2 diabetes, metabolic syndrome, and cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). It has recently been suggested that inflammation produced by RBP4 induces insulin resistance and CVD. The clinical relevance of this hypothesis is discussed in this review. Knowledge concerning the association of RBP4 with inflammation markers, oxidative stress, and CVDs as well as concerning the role of diet and antioxidants in decreasing RBP4 concentrations are discussed. Special attention is given to methodologies used in previously published studies and covariates that should be controlled when planning new studies on this adipokine. PMID:26567199

  14. Retinol binding protein 4 in relation to diet, inflammation, immunity, and cardiovascular diseases.

    PubMed

    Zabetian-Targhi, Fateme; Mahmoudi, Mohammad J; Rezaei, Nima; Mahmoudi, Maryam

    2015-11-01

    Retinol binding protein 4 (RBP4), previously called retinol binding protein (RBP), is considered a specific carrier of retinol in the blood. It is also an adipokine that has been implicated in the pathophysiology of insulin resistance. RBP4 seems to be correlated with cardiometabolic markers in inflammatory chronic diseases, including obesity, type 2 diabetes, metabolic syndrome, and cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). It has recently been suggested that inflammation produced by RBP4 induces insulin resistance and CVD. The clinical relevance of this hypothesis is discussed in this review. Knowledge concerning the association of RBP4 with inflammation markers, oxidative stress, and CVDs as well as concerning the role of diet and antioxidants in decreasing RBP4 concentrations are discussed. Special attention is given to methodologies used in previously published studies and covariates that should be controlled when planning new studies on this adipokine.

  15. Deciphering the nuclear import pathway for the cytoskeletal red cell protein 4.1R.

    PubMed

    Gascard, P; Nunomura, W; Lee, G; Walensky, L D; Krauss, S W; Takakuwa, Y; Chasis, J A; Mohandas, N; Conboy, J G

    1999-06-01

    The erythroid membrane cytoskeletal protein 4.1 is the prototypical member of a genetically and topologically complex family that is generated by combinatorial alternative splicing pathways and is localized at diverse intracellular sites including the nucleus. To explore the molecular determinants for nuclear localization, we transfected COS-7 cells with epitope-tagged versions of natural red cell protein 4.1 (4.1R) isoforms as well as mutagenized and truncated derivatives. Two distant topological sorting signals were required for efficient nuclear import of the 4.1R80 isoform: a basic peptide, KKKRER, encoded by alternative exon 16 and acting as a weak core nuclear localization signal (4.1R NLS), and an acidic peptide, EED, encoded by alternative exon 5. 4.1R80 isoforms lacking either of these two exons showed decreased nuclear import. Fusion of various 4.1R80 constructs to the cytoplasmic reporter protein pyruvate kinase confirmed a requirement for both motifs for full NLS function. 4.1R80 was efficiently imported in the nuclei of digitonin-permeabilized COS-7 cells in the presence of recombinant Rch1 (human importin alpha2), importin beta, and GTPase Ran. Quantitative analysis of protein-protein interactions using a resonant mirror detection technique showed that 4.1R80 bound to Rch1 in vitro with high affinity (KD = 30 nM). The affinity decreased at least 7- and 20-fold, respectively, if the EED motif in exon 5 or if 4.1R NLS in exon 16 was lacking or mutated, confirming that both motifs were required for efficient importin-mediated nuclear import of 4.1R80.

  16. Genes of the transforming growth factor-beta signalling pathway are associated with pre-implantation embryonic development in cattle.

    PubMed

    Li, Geng; Khateeb, Karam; Schaeffer, Erin; Zhang, Bao; Khatib, Hasan

    2012-08-01

    One of the main factors affecting cattle fertility is pre-implantation development of the bovine embryo, which is a complex process regulated by various signal-transduction pathways. The transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) signalling system, which is responsible for many biological processes including cell proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis, also is involved in embryo development. We hypothesized that altered expression of TGF-β genes in pre-implantation bovine embryos is associated with morphological abnormalities of these embryos. To test this hypothesis, we produced embryos in vitro and classified them at the blastocyst stage as either normally developed blastocysts or degenerates (growth-arrested embryos). The expression patterns of 25 genes from the TGF-β pathway were assessed using quantitative real time PCR. Ten genes showed differential expression between the two embryo groups, four genes displayed similar expressional profiles, and 11 genes had no detectable expression. An altered expression profile was statistically significant for 10 of the 14 expressed genes, and all were up-regulated in degenerate embryos vs. blastocysts. Furthermore, genomic association analysis of the cows from which embryos were produced revealed a significant association of ID3 and BMP4 polymorphisms--two of the most significant differentially expressed genes--with fertilization rate and blastocyst rate, respectively. Taken together, we conclude that TGF-β pathway genes, especially BMP4 and ID3 play a vital function in the regulation of pre-implantation embryo development at both embryo and maternal levels. Hence, these genes may be suitable as genetic markers for embryo development and fertility in cattle.

  17. An Integrative Transcriptomic Analysis for Identifying Novel Target Genes Corresponding to Severity Spectrum in Spinal Muscular Atrophy

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Chung-Wei; Chen, Chien-Lin; Chou, Wei-Chun; Lin, Ho-Chen; Jong, Yuh-Jyh; Tsai, Li-Kai; Chuang, Chun-Yu

    2016-01-01

    Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is an inherited neuromuscular disease resulting from a recessive mutation in the SMN1 gene. This disease affects multiple organ systems with varying degrees of severity. Exploration of the molecular pathological changes occurring in different cell types in SMA is crucial for developing new therapies. This study collected 39 human microarray datasets from ArrayExpress and GEO databases to build an integrative transcriptomic analysis for recognizing novel SMA targets. The transcriptomic analysis was conducted through combining weighted correlation network analysis (WGCNA) for gene module detection, gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA) for functional categorization and filtration, and Cytoscape (visual interaction gene network analysis) for target gene identification. Seven novel target genes (Bmp4, Serpine1, Gata6, Ptgs2, Bcl2, IL6 and Cntn1) of SMA were revealed, and are all known in the regulation of TNFα for controlling neural, cardiac and bone development. Sequentially, the differentially expressed patterns of these 7 target genes in mouse tissues (e.g., spinal cord, heart, muscles and bone) were validated in SMA mice of different severities (pre-symptomatic, mildly symptomatic, and severely symptomatic). In severely symptomatic SMA mice, TNFα was up-regulated with attenuation of Bmp4 and increase of Serpine1 and Gata6 (a pathway in neural and cardiac development), but not in pre-symptomatic and mildly symptomatic SMA mice. The severely symptomatic SMA mice also had the elevated levels of Ptgs2 and Bcl2 (a pathway in skeletal development) as well as IL6 and Cntn1 (a pathway in nervous system development). Thus, the 7 genes identified in this study might serve as potential target genes for future investigations of disease pathogenesis and SMA therapy. PMID:27331400

  18. Hypoxia and DNA-damaging agent bleomycin both increase the cellular level of the protein 4E-BP.

    PubMed

    Le Bouffant, Ronan; Cormier, Patrick; Mulner-Lorillon, Odile; Bellé, Robert

    2006-09-01

    The 4E-binding proteins (4E-BPs) regulate the cap-dependent eukaryotic initiation factor 4E (eIF4E). The level of 4E-BP protein is regulated during early development of sea urchin embryos. Fertilization leads to the rapid disappearance of the protein that reappears later in development. We show that two important cellular stresses, hypoxia and bleomycin prolonged checkpoint mobilization provoked the overexpression of the protein 4E-BP in developing sea urchin embryos. Hypoxia resulted after 1 h in a reversible gradual increase in the protein 4E-BP level. At 20 h, the protein 4E-BP had reached the level existing in the unfertilized eggs. Bleomycin used as a DNA-damaging agent for checkpoint activation, provoked cell cycle inhibition and after prolonged exposure (20 h), induced the expression of the protein 4E-BP. The effect of bleomycin on 4E-BP protein overexpression was dose-dependent between 0.4 and 1.2 mM. The role of the overexpression of the protein 4E-BP is discussed in relation with cellular stress responses.

  19. Human epididymis protein 4 and secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor in vaginal fluid: relation to vaginal components and bacterial composition.

    PubMed

    Orfanelli, Theofano; Jayaram, Aswathi; Doulaveris, Georgios; Forney, Larry J; Ledger, William J; Witkin, Steven S

    2014-04-01

    Human epididymis protein 4 (HE4) is a protease inhibitor and a recently identified serum biomarker for ovarian cancer. Properties of HE4 in the genital tract of healthy women have not been evaluated. We evaluated associations between HE4 and a second vaginal protease inhibitor, secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor (SLPI), with vaginal concentrations of innate immune mediators or proteases and with the types of vaginal bacterial communities. Vaginal secretions were collected from 18 healthy reproductive age women and assayed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for concentrations of HE4, SLPI, kallikrein 5, cathepsin B, interleukin 1β (IL-1), IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1 ra), mannose-binding lectin (MBL), the inducible 70-kDa heat shock protein, and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-8. The species composition of vaginal bacterial communities in 16 women was characterized by sequencing amplicons derived from 16S bacterial ribosomal RNA genes. Correlations between any 2 assays were analyzed by the Spearman rank correlation tests. Differences in the concentrations of HE4 and SLPI, and between soluble components and vaginal community types, were analyzed by the Mann-Whitney U tests. Vaginal HE4 concentrations, but not SLPI levels, were positively correlated with levels of IL-1β (P = .0152), IL-1ra (P = .0061), MBL (P = .0100), and MMP-8 (P = .0315). The median vaginal HE4 level, as well as concentrations of MBL, IL-1β, IL-1ra, and MMP-8, was highest when Gardnerella vaginalis dominated a vaginal community. The association between HE4, elevated levels of proteases, immune mediators and high proportions of G vaginalis strongly suggests that HE4 is a component of the proinflammatory immune response in the female genital tract.

  20. Comprehensive characterization of expression patterns of protein 4.1 family members in mouse adrenal gland: implications for functions.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hua; Liu, Congrong; Debnath, Gargi; Baines, Anthony J; Conboy, John G; Mohandas, Narla; An, Xiuli

    2010-10-01

    The members of the protein 4.1 family, 4.1R, 4.1G, 4.1N, and 4.1B, are encoded by four genes, all of which undergo complex alternative splicing. It is well established that 4.1R, the prototypical member of the family, serves as an adapter that links the spectrin-actin based cytoskeleton to the plasma membrane in red cells. It is required for mechanical resilience of the membrane, and it ensures the cell surface accumulation of selected membrane proteins. However, the function of 4.1 proteins outside erythrocytes remains under-explored, especially in endocrine tissues. Transcripts of all 4.1 homologs have previously been documented to be abundantly expressed in adrenal gland. In order to begin to decipher the function of 4.1 proteins in adrenal gland, we performed a detailed characterization of the expression pattern of various 4.1 proteins and their cellular localization. We show that 4.1R (~80 and ~135 kDa) splice forms are expressed on the membrane of all cells, while a ~160 kDa 4.1G splice form is distributed in the cytoplasm and the membrane of zona glomerulosa and of medullary cells. Two 4.1N splice forms, ~135 and ~95 kDa, are present in the peri-nuclear region of both zona glomerulosa and medullary cells, while a single ~130 kDa 4.1B splice form, is detected in all layers of adrenal gland in both the cytoplasm and the membrane. The characterization of distinct splice forms of various 4.1 proteins with diverse cellular and sub-cellular localization indicates multiple functions for this family of proteins in endocrine functions of adrenal gland.

  1. Genes

    MedlinePlus

    ... Search Search MedlinePlus GO GO About MedlinePlus Site Map FAQs Customer Support Health Topics Drugs & Supplements Videos & Tools Español You Are Here: Home → Medical Encyclopedia → Genes URL of this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/ ...

  2. Gene and microRNA expression reveals sensitivity to paclitaxel in laryngeal cancer cell line

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Cheng-Zhi; Xie, Jin; Jin, Bin; Chen, Xin-Wei; Sun, Zhen-Feng; Wang, Bao-Xing; Dong, Pin

    2013-01-01

    Paclitaxel is a widely used chemotherapy drug for advanced laryngeal cancer patients. However, the fact that there are 20-40% of advanced laryngeal cancer patients do not response to paclitaxel makes it necessary to figure out potential biomarkers for paclitaxel sensitivity prediction. In this work, Hep2, a laryngeal cancer cell line, untreated or treated with lower dose of paclitaxel for 24 h, was applied to DNA microarray chips for gene and miR expression profile analysis. Expression of eight genes altered significantly following paclitaxel treatment, which was further validated by quantitative real-time PCR. Four up-regulated genes were ID2, BMP4, CCL4 and ACTG2, in which ID2 and BMP4 were implicated to be involved in several drugs sensitivity. While the down-regulated four genes, MAPK4, FASN, INSIG1 and SCD, were mainly linked to the endoplasmic reticulum and fatty acid biosynthesis, these two cell processes that are associated with drug sensitivity by increasing evidences. After paclitaxel treatment, expression of 49 miRs was significantly altered. Within these miRs, the most markedly expression-changed were miR-31-star, miR-1264, miR-3150b-5p and miR-210. While the miRs putatively modulated the mRNA expression of the most significantly expression-altered genes were miR-1264, miR-130a, miR-27b, miR-195, miR-1291, miR-214, miR-1277 and miR-1265, which were obtained by miR target prediction and miRNA target correlation. Collectively, our study might provide potential biomarkers for paclitaxel sensitivity prediction and drug resistance targets in laryngeal cancer patients. PMID:23826416

  3. α1-Antitrypsin Combines with Plasma Fatty Acids and Induces Angiopoietin-like Protein 4 Expression.

    PubMed

    Frenzel, Eileen; Wrenger, Sabine; Brügger, Britta; Salipalli, Sandeep; Immenschuh, Stephan; Aggarwal, Nupur; Lichtinghagen, Ralf; Mahadeva, Ravi; Marcondes, A Mario Q; Dinarello, Charles A; Welte, Tobias; Janciauskiene, Sabina

    2015-10-15

    α1-Antitrypsin (A1AT) purified from human plasma upregulates expression and release of angiopoietin-like protein 4 (Angptl4) in adherent human blood monocytes and in human lung microvascular endothelial cells, providing a mechanism for the broad immune-regulatory properties of A1AT independent of its antiprotease activity. In this study, we demonstrate that A1AT (Prolastin), a potent inducer of Angptl4, contains significant quantities of the fatty acids (FA) linoleic acid (C18:2) and oleic acid (C18:1). However, only trace amounts of FAs were present in preparations that failed to increase Angplt4 expression, for example, A1AT (Zemaira) or M-type A1AT purified by affinity chromatography. FA pull-down assays with Western blot analysis revealed a FA-binding ability of A1AT. In human blood-adherent monocytes, A1AT-FA conjugates upregulated expression of Angptl4 (54.9-fold, p < 0.001), FA-binding protein 4 (FABP4) (11.4-fold, p < 0.001), and, to a lesser degree, FA translocase (CD36) (3.1-fold, p < 0.001) relative to A1AT devoid of FA (A1AT-0). These latter effects of A1AT-FA were blocked by inhibitors of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) β/δ (ST247) and PPARγ (GW9662). When compared with controls, cell pretreatment with ST247 diminished the effect of A1AT-LA on Angptl4 mRNA (11.6- versus 4.1-fold, p < 0.001) and FABP4 mRNA (5.4- versus 2.8-fold, p < 0.001). Similarly, preincubation of cells with GW9662 inhibited inducing effect of A1AT-LA on Angptl4 mRNA (by 2-fold, p < 0.001) and FABP4 mRNA (by 3-fold, p < 0.001). Thus, A1AT binds to FA, and it is this form of A1AT that induces Angptl4 and FABP4 expression via a PPAR-dependent pathway. These findings provide a mechanism for the unexplored area of A1AT biology independent of its antiprotease properties.

  4. Microfibrillar associated protein 4 mfap4 genes in catfish play a novel role in innate immune responses

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The lectin pathway of the complement system is characterized by two groups of soluble pattern recognition molecules, mannose-binding lectins (MBLs) and ficolins. These molecules recognize and bind carbohydrates in pathogens and activate complement leading to opsonization, leukocyte activation, and d...

  5. New insights into potential functions for the protein 4.1 superfamily of proteins in kidney epithelium.

    PubMed

    Calinisan, Venice; Gravem, Dana; Chen, Ray Ping-Hsu; Brittin, Sachi; Mohandas, Narla; Lecomte, Marie-Christine; Gascard, Philippe

    2006-05-01

    Members of the protein 4.1 family of adapter proteins are expressed in a broad panel of tissues including various epithelia where they likely play an important role in maintenance of cell architecture and polarity and in control of cell proliferation. We have recently characterized the structure and distribution of three members of the protein 4.1 family, 4.1B, 4.1R and 4.1N, in mouse kidney. We describe here binding partners for renal 4.1 proteins, identified through the screening of a rat kidney yeast two-hybrid system cDNA library. The identification of putative protein 4.1-based complexes enables us to envision potential functions for 4.1 proteins in kidney: organization of signaling complexes, response to osmotic stress, protein trafficking, and control of cell proliferation. We discuss the relevance of these protein 4.1-based interactions in kidney physio-pathology in the context of their previously identified functions in other cells and tissues. Specifically, we will focus on renal 4.1 protein interactions with beta amyloid precursor protein (beta-APP), 14-3-3 proteins, and the cell swelling-activated chloride channel pICln. We also discuss the functional relevance of another member of the protein 4.1 superfamily, ezrin, in kidney physio-pathology.

  6. New insights into potential functions for the protein 4.1superfamily of proteins in kidney epithelium

    SciTech Connect

    Calinisan, Venice; Gravem, Dana; Chen, Ray Ping-Hsu; Brittin,Sachi; Mohandas, Narla; Lecomte, Marie-Christine; Gascard, Philippe

    2005-06-17

    Members of the protein 4.1 family of adapter proteins are expressed in a broad panel of tissues including various epithelia where they likely play an important role in maintenance of cell architecture and polarity and in control of cell proliferation. We have recently characterized the structure and distribution of three members of the protein 4.1 family, 4.1B, 4.1R and 4.1N, in mouse kidney. We describe here binding partners for renal 4.1 proteins, identified through the screening of a rat kidney yeast two-hybrid system cDNA library. The identification of putative protein 4.1-based complexes enables us to envision potential functions for 4.1 proteins in kidney: organization of signaling complexes, response to osmotic stress, protein trafficking, and control of cell proliferation. We discuss the relevance of these protein 4.1-based interactions in kidney physio-pathology in the context of their previously identified functions in other cells and tissues. Specifically, we will focus on renal 4.1 protein interactions with beta amyloid precursor protein (beta-APP), 14-3-3 proteins, and the cell swelling-activated chloride channel pICln. We also discuss the functional relevance of another member of the protein 4.1 superfamily, ezrin, in kidney physiopathology.

  7. The role of human epididymis protein 4 in the diagnosis of epithelial ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Jia, L-T; Zhang, Y-C; Li, J; Tian, Y; Li, J-F

    2016-03-01

    Epithelial ovarian cancer is one of the most lethal female genital tract cancers. Early diagnosis of EOC would benefit the patients a lot. Human epididymis protein 4 (HE4) has been regarded as a new powerful biomarker in diagnosis of EOC; we hope to obtain system knowledge of HE4 and understand the role of HE4 in diagnosis of epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC). We searched Pubmed, Embase, Medline, and Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) for articles that included HE4's origin, characteristics, detection methods, clinical efficacy alone or combined with CA125, the risk of malignancy index, and the risk of ovarian malignancy algorithm. The diagnostic performance for the EOC and the role in the recurrence and procession in EOC were also discussed. We got 83 most related articles and found that there were significantly difference existing among the studies, such as the clinical characteristics of patients, the methodology for measuring HE4, the different cut-offs for HE4 and so on. HE4 is a promising biomarker for the early diagnosis of EOC. However, each lab should establish its own reference internal of HE4.

  8. AKAP-9 promotes colorectal cancer development by regulating Cdc42 interacting protein 4.

    PubMed

    Hu, Zhi-Yan; Liu, Yan-Ping; Xie, Lin-Ying; Wang, Xiao-Yan; Yang, Fang; Chen, Shi-You; Li, Zu-Guo

    2016-06-01

    Our previous studies have shown that PRKA kinase anchor protein 9 (AKAP-9) is involved in colorectal cancer (CRC) cell proliferation and migration in vitro. However, whether or not AKAP-9 is important for CRC development or metastasis in vivo remains unknown. In the present study, we found that AKAP-9 expression was significantly higher in human colorectal cancer tissues than the paired normal tissues. In fact, AKAP-9 level correlated with the CRC infiltrating depth and metastasis. Moreover, the higher AKAP-9 expression was associated with the lower survival rate in patients. In cultured CRC cells, knockdown of AKAP-9 inhibited cell proliferation, invasion, and migration. AKAP-9 deficiency also attenuated CRC tumor growth and metastasis in vivo. Mechanistically, AKAP-9 interacted with cdc42 interacting protein 4 (CIP4) and regulated its expression. CIP4 levels were interrelated to the AKAP-9 level in CRC cells. Functionally, AKAP-9 was essential for TGF-β1-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition of CRC cells, and CIP4 played a critical role in mediating the function of AKAP-9. Importantly, CIP4 expression was significantly up-regulated in human CRC tissues. Taken together, our results demonstrated that AKAP-9 facilitates CRC development and metastasis via regulating CIP4-mediated epithelial-mesenchymal transition of CRC cells.

  9. Machine-Learning-Assisted Approach for Discovering Novel Inhibitors Targeting Bromodomain-Containing Protein 4.

    PubMed

    Xing, Jing; Lu, Wenchao; Liu, Rongfeng; Wang, Yulan; Xie, Yiqian; Zhang, Hao; Shi, Zhe; Jiang, Hao; Liu, Yu-Chih; Chen, Kaixian; Jiang, Hualiang; Luo, Cheng; Zheng, Mingyue

    2017-07-24

    Bromodomain-containing protein 4 (BRD4) is implicated in the pathogenesis of a number of different cancers, inflammatory diseases and heart failure. Much effort has been dedicated toward discovering novel scaffold BRD4 inhibitors (BRD4is) with different selectivity profiles and potential antiresistance properties. Structure-based drug design (SBDD) and virtual screening (VS) are the most frequently used approaches. Here, we demonstrate a novel, structure-based VS approach that uses machine-learning algorithms trained on the priori structure and activity knowledge to predict the likelihood that a compound is a BRD4i based on its binding pattern with BRD4. In addition to positive experimental data, such as X-ray structures of BRD4-ligand complexes and BRD4 inhibitory potencies, negative data such as false positives (FPs) identified from our earlier ligand screening results were incorporated into our knowledge base. We used the resulting data to train a machine-learning model named BRD4LGR to predict the BRD4i-likeness of a compound. BRD4LGR achieved a 20-30% higher AUC-ROC than that of Glide using the same test set. When conducting in vitro experiments against a library of previously untested, commercially available organic compounds, the second round of VS using BRD4LGR generated 15 new BRD4is. Moreover, inverting the machine-learning model provided easy access to structure-activity relationship (SAR) interpretation for hit-to-lead optimization.

  10. Essential role of microfibrillar-associated protein 4 in human cutaneous homeostasis and in its photoprotection

    PubMed Central

    Kasamatsu, Shinya; Hachiya, Akira; Fujimura, Tsutomu; Sriwiriyanont, Penkanok; Haketa, Keiichi; Visscher, Marty O.; Kitzmiller, William J.; Bello, Alexander; Kitahara, Takashi; Kobinger, Gary P.; Takema, Yoshinori

    2011-01-01

    UVB-induced cutaneous photodamage/photoaging is characterized by qualitative and quantitative deterioration in dermal extracellular matrix (ECM) components such as collagen and elastic fibers. Disappearance of microfibrillar-associated protein 4 (MFAP-4), a possible limiting factor for cutaneous elasticity, was documented in photoaged dermis, but its function is poorly understood. To characterize its possible contribution to photoprotection, MFAP-4 expression was either augmented or inhibited in a human skin xenograft photodamage murine model and human fibroblasts. Xenografted skin with enhanced MFAP-4 expression was protected from UVB-induced photodamage/photoaging accompanied by the prevention of ECM degradation and aggravated elasticity. Additionally, remarkably increased or decreased fibrillin-1-based microfibril development was observed when fibroblasts were treated with recombinant MFAP-4 or with MFAP-4-specific siRNA, respectively. Immunoprecipitation analysis confirmed direct interaction between MFAP-4 and fibrillin-1. Taken together, our findings reveal the essential role of MFAP-4 in photoprotection and offer new therapeutic opportunities to prevent skin-associated pathologies. PMID:22355679

  11. Retinol-binding protein-4 and hs-CRP levels in patients with migraine.

    PubMed

    Tanik, Nermin; Celikbilek, Asuman; Metin, Aslı; Gocmen, Ayse Yesim; Inan, Levent Ertugrul

    2015-10-01

    Retinol-binding protein-4 (RBP4) and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) levels are associated with inflammation in patients with migraine. The release of proinflammatory cytokines during migraine results in recurrent sterile neurogenic inflammation. This study aimed to determine the correlation between RBP4 and hs-CRP levels, and migraine, which is considered an inflammatory disease. The study included 48 migraine patients and 40 age- and gender-matched controls. Migraine was diagnosed according to International Classification of Headache Disorders-II. The serum RBP4 level was measured using a commercial ELISA kit and hs-CRP was measured using an enzyme immunoassay test kit. The serum RBP4 level was significantly lower in the migraine patients than in the controls (P < 0.001), whereas the hs-CRP level was significantly higher in the migraine patients (P < 0.001). RBP4 and hs-CRP levels did not differ between the migraine patients with and without aura (P > 0.05). Migraine headache severity, frequency and duration were not correlated with serum RBP or hs-CRP levels (P > 0.05). The observed high hs-CRP level and low RBP4 level in migraine patients suggest that vitamin A might play a major role in the pathogenesis of migraine. It is known that inflammation is a key factor in many diseases. Additional research might result in a better understanding of the anti-inflammatory effects of vitamin A.

  12. R-Flurbiprofen Traps Prostaglandins within Cells by Inhibition of Multidrug Resistance-Associated Protein-4

    PubMed Central

    Wobst, Ivonne; Ebert, Lisa; Birod, Kerstin; Wegner, Marthe-Susanna; Hoffmann, Marika; Thomas, Dominique; Angioni, Carlo; Parnham, Michael J.; Steinhilber, Dieter; Tegeder, Irmgard; Geisslinger, Gerd; Grösch, Sabine

    2016-01-01

    R-flurbiprofen is the non-COX-inhibiting enantiomer of flurbiprofen and is not converted to S-flurbiprofen in human cells. Nevertheless, it reduces extracellular prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) in cancer or immune cell cultures and human extracellular fluid. Here, we show that R-flurbiprofen acts through a dual mechanism: (i) it inhibits the translocation of cPLA2α to the plasma membrane and thereby curtails the availability of arachidonic acid and (ii) R-flurbiprofen traps PGE2 inside of the cells by inhibiting multidrug resistance–associated protein 4 (MRP4, ABCC4), which acts as an outward transporter for prostaglandins. Consequently, the effects of R-flurbiprofen were mimicked by RNAi-mediated knockdown of MRP4. Our data show a novel mechanism by which R-flurbiprofen reduces extracellular PGs at physiological concentrations, particularly in cancers with high levels of MRP4, but the mechanism may also contribute to its anti-inflammatory and immune-modulating properties and suggests that it reduces PGs in a site- and context-dependent manner. PMID:28042832

  13. Plasma Fatty Acid Binding Protein 4 and Risk of Sudden Cardiac Death in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Djoussé, Luc; Maziarz, Marlena; Biggs, Mary L.; Ix, Joachim H.; Zieman, Susan J.; Kizer, Jorge R.; Lemaitre, Rozenn N.; Mozaffarian, Dariush; Tracy, Russell P.; Mukamal, Kenneth J.; Siscovick, David S.; Sotoodehnia, Nona

    2013-01-01

    Although fatty acid binding protein 4 (FABP4) may increase risk of diabetes and exert negative cardiac inotropy, it is unknown whether plasma concentrations of FABP4 are associated with incidence of sudden cardiac death (SCD). We prospectively analyzed data on 4,560 participants of the Cardiovascular Health Study. FABP4 was measured at baseline using ELISA, and SCD events were adjudicated through review of medical records. We used Cox proportional hazards to estimate effect measures. During a median followup of 11.8 years, 146 SCD cases occurred. In a multivariable model adjusting for demographic, lifestyle, and metabolic factors, relative risk of SCD associated with each higher standard deviation (SD) of plasma FABP4 was 1.15 (95% CI: 0.95–1.38), P = 0.15. In a secondary analysis stratified by prevalent diabetes status, FABP4 was associated with higher risk of SCD in nondiabetic participants, (RR per SD higher FABP4: 1.33 (95% CI: 1.07–1.65), P = 0.009) but not in diabetic participants (RR per SD higher FABP4: 0.88 (95% CI: 0.62–1.27), P = 0.50), P for diabetes-FABP4 interaction 0.049. In summary, a single measure of plasma FABP4 obtained later in life was not associated with the risk of SCD in older adults overall. Confirmation of our post-hoc results in nondiabetic people in other studies is warranted. PMID:24455402

  14. Secreted frizzled-related protein 4 predicts progression of autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Zschiedrich, Stefan; Budde, Klemens; Nürnberger, Jens; Wanner, Christoph; Sommerer, Claudia; Kunzendorf, Ulrich; Banas, Bernhard; Hoerl, Walter H; Obermüller, Nicholas; Arns, Wolfgang; Pavenstädt, Hermann; Gaedeke, Jens; Lindner, Tom H; Faerber, Lothar; Wimmer, Peter; Stork, Roland; Eckardt, Kai-Uwe; Walz, Gerd

    2016-02-01

    Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is a common autosomal dominant condition associated with renal cysts and development of renal failure. With the availability of potential therapies, one major obstacle remains the lack of readily available parameters that identify patients at risk for disease progression and/or determine the efficacy of therapeutic interventions within short observation periods. Increased total kidney volume (TKV) correlates with disease progression, but it remains unknown how accurate this parameter can predict disease progression at early stages. To identify additional parameters that help to stratify ADPKD patients, we measured secreted frizzled-related protein 4 (sFRP4) serum concentrations at baseline and over the course of 18 months in 429 ADPKD patients. Serum creatinine and sFRP4 as well as TKV increased over time, and were significantly different from baseline values within 1 year. Elevated sFRP4 levels at baseline predicted a more rapid decline of renal function at 2, 3 and 5 years suggesting that sFRP4 serum levels may provide additional information to identify ADPKD patients at risk for rapid disease progression. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of ERA-EDTA. All rights reserved.

  15. Increased Expression of Secreted Frizzled-Related Protein 4 in Polycystic Kidneys

    PubMed Central

    Romaker, Daniel; Puetz, Michael; Teschner, Sven; Donauer, Johannes; Geyer, Marcel; Gerke, Peter; Rumberger, Brigitta; Dworniczak, Bernd; Pennekamp, Petra; Buchholz, Björn; Neumann, H.P.H.; Kumar, Rajiv; Gloy, Joachim; Eckardt, Kai-Uwe; Walz, Gerd

    2009-01-01

    Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is a common hereditary disease associated with progressive renal failure. Although cyst growth and compression of surrounding tissue may account for some loss of renal tissue, the other factors contributing to the progressive renal failure in patients with ADPKD are incompletely understood. Here, we report that secreted frizzled-related protein 4 (sFRP4) is upregulated in human ADPKD and in four different animal models of PKD, suggesting that sFRP4 expression is triggered by a common mechanism that underlies cyst formation. Cyst fluid from ADPKD kidneys activated the sFRP4 promoter and induced production of sFRP4 protein in renal tubular epithelial cell lines. Antagonism of the vasopressin 2 receptor blocked both promoter activity and tubular sFRP4 expression. In addition, sFRP4 selectively influenced members of the canonical Wnt signaling cascade and promoted cystogenesis of the zebrafish pronephros. sFRP4 was detected in the urine of both patients and animals with PKD, suggesting that sFRP4 may be a potential biomarker for monitoring the progression of ADPKD. Taken together, these observations suggest a potential role for SFRP4 in the pathogenesis of ADPKD. PMID:18945944

  16. Structure of human monocyte chemoattractant protein 4 (MCP-4/CCL13)

    SciTech Connect

    Barinka, Cyril; Prahl, Adam; Lubkowski, Jacek

    2008-04-02

    Monocyte chemoattractant proteins (MCPs) belong to the CC chemokine family and are involved in many (patho)physiological processes characterized by mononuclear cell infiltration, including tissue remodeling, atherosclerosis and cancer metastasis. Here, the crystal structure of human monocyte chemoattractant protein 4 (MCP-4) refined at 1.70 {angstrom} resolution is reported with crystallographic values R = 0.180 and R{sub free} = 0.212. The overall MCP-4 fold reveals the typical tertiary features of the CC chemokine family. A central three-stranded antiparallel {beta}-sheet is C-terminally flanked by an overlaying {alpha}-helix, while the N-terminal part of the molecule forms an extended loop that is anchored to the rest of the molecule via two disulfide bridges, Cys11-Cys35 and Cys12-Cys51. The crystal packing suggests the existence of MCP-4 dimers with a dimerization interface similar to those previously reported for the X-ray structures of MCP-1 and MCP-2.

  17. Antibodies against low-density lipoprotein receptor–related protein 4 induce myasthenia gravis

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Chengyong; Lu, Yisheng; Zhang, Bin; Figueiredo, Dwight; Bean, Jonathan; Jung, Jiung; Wu, Haitao; Barik, Arnab; Yin, Dong-Min; Xiong, Wen-Cheng; Mei, Lin

    2013-01-01

    Myasthenia gravis (MG) is the most common disorder affecting the neuromuscular junction (NMJ). MG is frequently caused by autoantibodies against acetylcholine receptor (AChR) and a kinase critical for NMJ formation, MuSK; however, a proportion of MG patients are double-negative for anti-AChR and anti-MuSK antibodies. Recent studies in these subjects have identified autoantibodies against low-density lipoprotein receptor–related protein 4 (LRP4), an agrin receptor also critical for NMJ formation. LRP4 autoantibodies have not previously been implicated in MG pathogenesis. Here we demonstrate that mice immunized with the extracellular domain of LRP4 generated anti-LRP4 antibodies and exhibited MG-associated symptoms, including muscle weakness, reduced compound muscle action potentials (CMAPs), and compromised neuromuscular transmission. Additionally, fragmented and distorted NMJs were evident at both the light microscopic and electron microscopic levels. We found that anti-LRP4 sera decreased cell surface LRP4 levels, inhibited agrin-induced MuSK activation and AChR clustering, and activated complements, revealing potential pathophysiological mechanisms. To further confirm the pathogenicity of LRP4 antibodies, we transferred IgGs purified from LRP4-immunized rabbits into naive mice and found that they exhibited MG-like symptoms, including reduced CMAP and impaired neuromuscular transmission. Together, these data demonstrate that LRP4 autoantibodies induce MG and that LRP4 contributes to NMJ maintenance in adulthood. PMID:24200689

  18. Macrophages are novel sites of expression and regulation of retinol binding protein-4 (RBP4).

    PubMed

    Broch, M; Ramírez, R; Auguet, M T; Alcaide, M J; Aguilar, C; Garcia-Espana, A; Richart, C

    2010-01-01

    Obesity is linked to a low-level chronic inflammatory state that may contribute to the development of associated metabolic complications. Retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4) is an adipokine associated with parameters of obesity including insulin resistance indices, body mass index, waist circumference, lipid profile, and recently, with circulating inflammatory factors. Due to the infiltration of adipose tissue in obesity by macrophages derived from circulating monocytes and, on the other hand, the existence of a close genetic relationship between adipocytes and macrophages, we decided to examine if RBP4 is expressed in monocytes and/or primary human macrophages. While we did not detect expression of RBP4 in undifferentiated monocytes, RBP4 expression became evident during the differentiation of monocytes into macrophages and was highest in differentiated macrophages. Once we demonstrated the expression of RBP4 in macrophages, we checked if RBP4 expression could be regulated by inflammatory stimuli such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), interleukin-6 (IL-6), or the endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS). We observed that while RBP4 expression was strongly inhibited by TNF-alpha and LPS, it was not affected by IL-6. Our results highlight the complexity behind the regulation of this adipokine and demonstrate that RBP4 expression in macrophages could be modulated by inflammatory stimuli.

  19. Relation between retinol, retinol-binding protein 4, transthyretin and carotid intima media thickness.

    PubMed

    Bobbert, Thomas; Raila, Jens; Schwarz, Franziska; Mai, Knut; Henze, Andrea; Pfeiffer, Andreas F H; Schweigert, Florian J; Spranger, Joachim

    2010-12-01

    Retinol is transported in a complex with retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4) and transthyretin (TTR) in the circulation. While retinol is associated with various cardiovascular risk factors, the relation between retinol, RBP4, TTR and carotid intima media thickness (IMT) has not been analysed yet. Retinol, RBP4 and TTR were measured in 96 individuals and their relation to mean and maximal IMT was determined. Mean IMT correlated with RBP4 (r=0.335, p<0.001), retinol (r=-0.241, p=0.043), RBP/TTR ratio (r=0.254, p=0.025) and retinol/RBP4 ratio (r=-0.549, p<0.001). Adjustment for age, sex, BMI, blood pressure, HDL/total cholesterol ratio, triglyceride, diabetes and smoking revealed that the retinol/RBP4 ratio was strongly and independently associated with mean IMT. Similar results were found for maximal IMT, which included the measurement of plaques. The data support that the transport complex of vitamin A is associated with the IMT, an established parameter of atherosclerosis. Changes in RBP4 saturation with retinol may link renal dysfunction and insulin resistance to atherosclerosis. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Retinol binding protein 4 induces mitochondrial dysfunction and vascular oxidative damage.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jingjing; Chen, Hongen; Liu, Yan; Zhou, Wenjing; Sun, Ruifang; Xia, Min

    2015-06-01

    Mitochondrial dysfunction has been implicated in cardiovascular diseases. Elevation of serum retinol binding protein 4 (RBP4) in patients has been linked to cardiovascular disease. However, the role of RBP4 on mitochondrial oxidative stress and vascular oxidative damage is not well demonstrated. Therefore, we evaluated the impact of RBP4 on the mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) and dynamics in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases. RBP4 treatment increased mitochondrial superoxide generation in a dose-dependent manner in human aortic endothelial cells (HAECs). Exposure to RBP4 also promoted mitochondrial dysfunction as determined by decreased mitochondrial content and integrity as well as membrane potential in HAECs. Incubation with RBP4 suppressed mitofusin (Mfn)-1 protein expression, but enhanced dynamin-related protein-1 (Drp1) and fission-1 (Fis1) protein expression in HAECs, suggesting an impairment of mitochondrial fusion and fission dynamics. Moreover, RBP4 treatment significantly induced endothelial apoptosis, increased the expression of Cytochrome C and Bax, but decreased the expression of Bcl-2. Furthermore, RBP4 stimulation suppressed phosphatidyl inositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt signaling in HAECs. Finally, RBP4-Tg mice exhibited severe mitochondrial dysfunction and vascular oxidative damage in aorta compared with wide-type C57BL/6J mice. The present study uncovers a novel mechanism through which RBP4 induces vascular oxidative damage and accelerates the development of atherosclerosis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Fatty acid transport protein 4 is dispensable for intestinal lipid absorption in mice.

    PubMed

    Shim, Jien; Moulson, Casey L; Newberry, Elizabeth P; Lin, Meei-Hua; Xie, Yan; Kennedy, Susan M; Miner, Jeffrey H; Davidson, Nicholas O

    2009-03-01

    FA transport protein 4 (FATP4), one member of a multigene family of FA transporters, was proposed as a major FA transporter in intestinal lipid absorption. Due to the fact that Fatp4(-/-) mice die because of a perinatal skin defect, we rescued the skin phenotype using an FATP4 transgene driven by a keratinocyte-specific promoter (Fatp4(-/-);Ivl-Fatp4(tg/+) mice) to elucidate the role of intestinal FATP4 in dietary lipid absorption. Fatp4(-/-);Ivl-Fatp4(tg/+) mice and wild-type littermates displayed indistinguishable food consumption, growth, and weight gain on either low or high fat (Western) diets, with no differences in intestinal triglyceride (TG) absorption or fecal fat losses. Cholesterol absorption and intestinal TG absorption kinetics were indistinguishable between the genotypes, although Western diet fed Fatp4(-/-);Ivl-Fatp4(tg/+) mice showed a significant increase in enterocyte TG and FA content. There was no compensatory upregulation of other FATP family members or any other FA or cholesterol transporters in Fatp4(-/-);Ivl-Fatp4(tg/+) mice. Furthermore, although serum cholesterol levels were lower in Fatp4(-/-);Ivl-Fatp4(tg/+) mice, there was no difference in hepatic VLDL secretion in-vivo or in hepatic lipid content on either a chow or Western diet. Taken together, our studies find no evidence for a physiological role of intestinal FATP4 in dietary lipid absorption in mice.

  2. Microtubule-associated protein-4 controls nanovesicle dynamics and T cell activation.

    PubMed

    Bustos-Morán, Eugenio; Blas-Rus, Noelia; Martin-Cófreces, Noa Beatriz; Sánchez-Madrid, Francisco

    2017-04-01

    The immune synapse (IS) is a specialized structure formed at the contact area between T lymphocytes and antigen-presenting cells (APCs) that is essential for the adaptive immune response. Proper T cell activation requires its polarization towards the APC, which is highly dependent on the tubulin cytoskeleton. Microtubule-associated protein-4 (MAP4) is a microtubule (MT)-stabilizing protein that controls MTs in physiological processes, such as cell division, migration, vesicular transport or primary cilia formation. In this study, we assessed the role of MAP4 in T cell activation. MAP4 decorates the pericentrosomal area and MTs of the T cell, and it is involved in MT detyrosination and stable assembly in response to T cell activation. In addition, MAP4 prompts the timely translocation of the MT-organizing center (MTOC) towards the IS and the dynamics of signaling nanovesicles that sustains T cell activation. However, MAP4 acts as a negative regulator of other T cell activation-related signals, including diacylglycerol (DAG) production and IL2 secretion. Our data indicate that MAP4 acts as a checkpoint molecule that balances positive and negative hallmarks of T cell activation.

  3. Retinol binding protein 4 and incident diabetes – the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study (ARIC Study)

    PubMed Central

    Luft, Vivian C.; Pereira, Mark; Pankow, James S.; Ballantyne, Christie; Couper, David; Heiss, Gerardo; Duncan, Bruce B.

    2016-01-01

    Background Retinol binding protein 4 (RBP4) has been described as a link between impaired glucose uptake in adipocytes and systemic insulin sensitivity. Objective To determine whether RBP4 fasting levels predict the development of type 2 diabetes. Methods Using a case-cohort design, we followed 543 middle-aged individuals who developed diabetes and 537 who did not over ~9 years within the population-based Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study. Weighted Cox proportional hazards analyses permitted statistical inference of the RBP4 – incident diabetes associations to the entire cohort. Results Women in the highest tertile of RBP4 presented greater risk of developing diabetes (HR=1.74; 95%CI 1.03–2.94) in analyses adjusted for age, ethnicity, study center, parental history of diabetes, hypertension, glomerular filtration rate, body mass index, waist-hip ratio, nonesterified fatty acids, adiponectin, leptin, triglycerides and HDL-C. When additionally adjusted for fasting insulin, this association’s significance became borderline (HR=1.68; 95%CI 1.00–2.82). No association between RBP4 levels and incident diabetes was found in men. Conclusion These findings suggest that RBP4 levels may be directly involved in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes in women. PMID:24142010

  4. Mechanochemistry of the alternatively spliced spectrin-actin binding domain in membrane skeletal protein 4.1.

    PubMed

    Discher, D; Parra, M; Conboy, J G; Mohandas, N

    1993-04-05

    Protein 4.1's interaction with the erythroid skeletal proteins spectrin and actin and its essential role in regulating membrane strength are both attributable to expression of an alternatively spliced 63-nucleotide exon. The corresponding 21-amino acid (21-aa) cassette is within the previously identified spectrin-actin binding domain (10 kDa molecular mass) of erythroid protein 4.1. This cassette is absent, however, in several isoforms that are generated by tissue- and development-specific RNA splicing. Four isoforms of the 10-kDa domain were constructed for comparative assessment of functions particularly relevant to red cells. In vitro translated isoforms containing the 21-aa cassette, denoted 10k21 and 10k19,21, were able to bind spectrin, stabilize spectrin-actin complexes, and associate with red cell membrane. Isoforms replacing or lacking the 21-aa cassette, 10k19 and 10k0, did not function in these assays. A bacterially expressed fusion protein with glutathione-S-transferase, designated GST-10k21, congealed spectrin-actin into a network in vitro as found with purified protein 4.1. Additionally, incorporation of GST-10k21 into mechanically weak, 4.1-deficient membranes increased mechanical strength of these membranes to normal. GST-10k19 did not function in these assays. These results show that the 21-aa sequence in protein 4.1 is critical to mechanical integrity of the red cell membrane. These results also allow the role of protein 4.1 in membrane mechanics to be interpreted primarily in terms of its spectrin-actin binding function. Alternatively expressed sequences within the 10-kDa domain of nonerythroid protein 4.1 are suggested to have different, yet to be defined functions.

  5. Bromodomain-Containing Protein 4: The Epigenetic Origin of Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension.

    PubMed

    Meloche, Jolyane; Potus, François; Vaillancourt, Mylène; Bourgeois, Alice; Johnson, Ian; Deschamps, Laure; Chabot, Sophie; Ruffenach, Grégoire; Henry, Sarah; Breuils-Bonnet, Sandra; Tremblay, Ève; Nadeau, Valérie; Lambert, Caroline; Paradis, Renée; Provencher, Steeve; Bonnet, Sébastien

    2015-08-28

    Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a vasculopathy characterized by enhanced pulmonary artery (PA) smooth muscle cell (PASMC) proliferation and suppressed apoptosis. Decreased expression of microRNA-204 has been associated to this phenotype. By a still elusive mechanism, microRNA-204 downregulation promotes the expression of oncogenes, including nuclear factor of activated T cells, B-cell lymphoma 2, and Survivin. In cancer, increased expression of the epigenetic reader bromodomain-containing protein 4 (BRD4) sustains cell survival and proliferation. Interestingly, BRD4 is a predicted target of microRNA-204 and has binding sites on the nuclear factor of activated T cells promoter region. To investigate the role of BRD4 in PAH pathogenesis. BRD4 is upregulated in lungs, distal PAs, and PASMCs of patients with PAH compared with controls. With mechanistic in vitro experiments, we demonstrated that BRD4 expression in PAH is microRNA-204 dependent. We further studied the molecular downstream targets of BRD4 by inhibiting its activity in PAH-PASMCs using a clinically available inhibitor JQ1. JQ1 treatment in PAH-PASMCs increased p21 expression, thus triggering cell cycle arrest. Furthermore, BRD4 inhibition, by JQ1 or siBRD4, decreased the expression of 3 major oncogenes, which are overexpressed in PAH: nuclear factor of activated T cells, B-cell lymphoma 2, and Survivin. Blocking this oncogenic signature led to decreased PAH-PASMC proliferation and increased apoptosis in a BRD4-dependent manner. Indeed, pharmacological JQ1 or molecular (siRNA) inhibition of BRD4 reversed this pathological phenotype in addition to restoring mitochondrial membrane potential and to increasing cells spare respiratory capacity. Moreover, BRD4 inhibition in vivo reversed established PAH in the Sugen/hypoxia rat model. BRD4 plays a key role in the pathological phenotype in PAH, which could offer new therapeutic perspectives for patients with PAH. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  6. Increased expression of fatty acid binding protein 4 in preeclamptic Placenta and its relevance to preeclampsia.

    PubMed

    Yan, Yuying; Peng, Huilian; Wang, Peng; Wang, Hanzhi; Dong, Minyue

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this investigation was to determine the expression of fatty acid binding protein 4 (FABP4) in the placenta from women with preeclampsia and normal pregnancy, and to delineate the regulatory effects on thophoblast cell by FABP4. We determined the expression of FABP4 by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) or enzyme-linked immunesorbent assay (ELISA) and Western blotting for protein. Small interference of ribonucleic acid (siRNA) and specific FABP4 inhibitor were used to inhibit FABP4. The proliferation, migration and invasion of trophoblastic cells (Swan-71 and Jar) were evaluated with cell counting kit-8, wound-healing test and transwell analysis respectively. We found the expression of FABP4 was significantly higher in the placenta of preeclamptic women than that of women with normal pregnancy (t = 4.244, P < 0.001 for mRNA; t = 4.536, P < 0.001 for protein). FABP4 siRNA significantly reduced the proliferation of trophoblasts (P < 0.001). The specific inhibition of FABP4 inhibited the proliferation of trophoblasts in a dose-dependent manner (P < 0.001) and the inhibitory effect increased as the concentration of inhibitor increased. FABP4 siRNA and specific inhibitor significantly decreased the migration (P < 0.001) and invasion (P < 0.001) of trophoblasts. We concluded the increase in placental FABP4 expression in preeclampsia may affect the function of trophoblast, and this increase may have a role in the pathogenesis of preeclampsia. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Serum retinol-binding protein 4 is independently associated with pediatric NAFLD and fasting triglyceride level.

    PubMed

    Huang, Shu-Ching; Yang, Yao-Jong

    2013-02-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is identified as a major liver disease in children. The present study aimed to identify the prevalence and predictors of pediatric NAFLD and the correlation between serum retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4) levels and metabolic characteristics in children. A total of 748 schoolchildren, ages 6 to 12 years, were enrolled in 2009. The body weight and height were measured in the morning before intake. Laboratory tests included overnight fasting serum lipids, insulin, liver enzymes, and RBP4 levels. Hepatic steatosis was determined by ultrasound in 219 volunteers. The rates of NAFLD were 3% in the normal-weight, 25% in the overweight, and 76% in the obese children. Twenty (22%) of obese children had abnormal alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels. In children with NAFLD, younger age and higher body mass index (BMI), insulin/homeostasis model of assessment, and male sex rate were associated with abnormal liver function. Stepwise increments in BMI, insulin, homeostasis model of assessment, and ALT were found in children with normal livers to simple steatosis, and to steatosis with abnormal ALT. Multiple logistic regression analysis confirmed that serum RBP4 levels (P = 0.048), ALT (P = 0.048), and BMI (P < 0.001) were independently predictors of pediatric NAFLD. Moreover, multiple linear regression analysis revealed that only serum triglycerides levels were positively related to RBP4 levels (P < 0.001). Higher RBP4 and ALT levels as well as BMI are independently associated with pediatric NAFLD in Taiwan. In addition, an increment in RBP4 levels was positively correlated to hypertriglyceridemia in children.

  8. Characterization of spontaneous air space enlargement in mice lacking microfibrillar-associated protein 4.

    PubMed

    Holm, Anne Trommelholt; Wulf-Johansson, Helle; Hvidsten, Svend; Jorgensen, Patricia Troest; Schlosser, Anders; Pilecki, Bartosz; Ormhøj, Maria; Moeller, Jesper Bonnet; Johannsen, Claus; Baun, Christina; Andersen, Thomas; Schneider, Jan Philipp; Hegermann, Jan; Ochs, Matthias; Götz, Alexander A; Schulz, Holger; de Angelis, Martin Hrabě; Vestbo, Jørgen; Holmskov, Uffe; Sorensen, Grith Lykke

    2015-06-01

    Microfibrillar-associated protein 4 (MFAP4) is localized to elastic fibers in blood vessels and the interalveolar septa of the lungs and is further present in bronchoalveolar lavage. Mfap4 has been previously suggested to be involved in elastogenesis in the lung. We tested this prediction and aimed to characterize the pulmonary function changes and emphysematous changes that occur in Mfap4-deficient (Mfap4(-/-)) mice. Significant changes included increases in total lung capacity and compliance, which were evident in Mfap4(-/-) mice at 6 and 8 mo but not at 3 mo of age. Using in vivo breath-hold gated microcomputed tomography (micro-CT) in 8-mo-old Mfap4(-/-) mice, we found that the mean density of the lung parenchyma was decreased, and the low-attenuation area (LAA) was significantly increased by 14% compared with Mfap4(+/+) mice. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) did not reveal differences in the organization of elastic fibers, and there was no difference in elastin content, but a borderline significant increase in elastin mRNA expression in 3-mo-old mice. Stereological analysis showed that alveolar surface density in relation to the lung parenchyma and total alveolar surface area inside of the lung were both significantly decreased in Mfap4(-/-) mice by 25 and 15%, respectively. The data did not support an essential role of MFAP4 in pulmonary elastic fiber organization or content but indicated increased turnover in young Mfap4(-/-) mice. However, Mfap4(-/-) mice developed a spontaneous loss of lung function, which was evident at 6 mo of age, and moderate air space enlargement, with emphysema-like changes.

  9. Association of retinol-binding protein-4 (RBP4) with lipid parameters in obese women.

    PubMed

    Broch, Montserrat; Gómez, José Manuel; Auguet, Ma Teresa; Vilarrasa, Nuria; Pastor, Rosa; Elio, Iñaki; Olona, Montserrat; García-España, Antonio; Richart, Cristóbal

    2010-09-01

    Although the adipokine retinol-binding protein-4 (RBP4) has been implicated in the development of obesity-related insulin resistance, its role in human obesity is still unclear. Our objectives were to find out the effect on RBP4 systemic levels of a weight loss induced by gastric bypass surgery and to analyze RBP4 relationships with insulin resistance, parameters of body composition, lipid metabolism, and inflammation. Sixty-three obese women were analyzed before and 12 months after surgery of systemic concentrations of RBP4, fasting glucose, insulin, lipid profile molecules, and inflammation-related proteins (C-reactive protein, tumor necrosis factor-alpha receptors 1 and 2, interleukin-18, and adiponectin), and waist and hip circumference measurements, body mass index calculation, and insulin resistance index by homeostasis model assessment were also made. We found that RBP4 levels were lower after weight reduction by gastric bypass surgery (p < 0.0001). We found RBP4 associated with triglycerides before (beta = 0.37, p = 0.02) and after surgery (beta = 0.59, p < 0.0001) and negatively with weight loss after surgery (beta = -0.37, p = 0.003). When expressed as a percentage of change, the decrease of RBP4 was related to the reduction in the levels of triglycerides and with the increase in HDL-cholesterol (beta = 0.73, p = 0.02 and beta = 0.62, p = 0.04, respectively). Others parameters analyzed, including inflammatory markers, were not related to RBP4. This study shows that, in obese women and after a substantial weight loss due to bariatric surgery, RBP4 was related to weight status and lipid parameters rather than to insulin sensitivity or inflammatory markers.

  10. A new marker for breast cancer diagnosis, human epididymis protein 4: A preliminary study

    PubMed Central

    Gündüz, Umut Riza; Gunaldi, Meral; Isiksacan, Nilgun; Gündüz, Seyda; Okuturlar, Yildiz; Kocoglu, Hakan

    2016-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most frequently diagnosed cancer type in women. Tumor markers have been widely used for assessing the treatment response and early diagnosis of recurrence. Human epididymis protein 4 (HE4) is expressed in ductal carcinoma of the breast tissue; however, its serum levels and their diagnostic and prognostic potential in breast cancer have not been investigated, which was therefore the aim of the present study. The serum levels of HE4 were determined in 36 breast cancer patients, 11 ovarian cancer patients and 16 healthy volunteers. The association between clinicopathological characteristics of breast cancer and serum HE4 levels was investigated. A significant difference in the median serum levels of HE4 was identified between breast cancer patients, ovarian cancer patients and healthy volunteers (P=0.013). The cutoff value for the prediction of breast cancer was determined at >13.24 pmol/l for HE4, with a sensitivity of 61.11%, specificity of 68.75%, positive predictive value of 81.48%, negative predictive value of 44.0% and accuracy of 63.46%. Furthermore, a positive correlation between the serum levels of HE4 and cancer antigen 15–3 was determined (r=0.399, P=0.026). To the best of our knowledge, the present study was the first to determine the diagnostic value of serum HE4 for breast cancer. A significant elevation of serum HE4 levels in patients with breast cancer compared with that in healthy controls was identified. HE4 may serve as a novel biomarker for the diagnosis of breast cancer. PMID:27446579

  11. Retinol-binding protein 4 expression in visceral and subcutaneous fat in human obesity.

    PubMed

    Bajzová, M; Kováciková, M; Vítková, M; Klimcáková, E; Polák, J; Kovácová, Z; Viguerie, N; Vedral, T; Mikulásek, L; Srámková, P; Srp, A; Hejnová, J; Langin, D; Stich, V

    2008-01-01

    Retinol binding protein 4 (RBP4) is a novel adipokine which might be involved in the development of insulin resistance. The aim of the study was to investigate the expression of RBP4 mRNA in subcutaneous and visceral fat depots and the relationship between RBP4 plasma and mRNA levels relative to indices of adiposity and insulin resistance. In 59 Caucasian women (BMI 20 to 49 kg/m(2)) paired samples of subcutaneous and visceral fat were obtained for RBP4, leptin and GLUT 4 mRNA analysis using reverse transcription-quantitative PCR. Euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp and computed tomography scans were performed. RBP4 mRNA levels as well as GLUT 4 mRNA and leptin mRNA levels were lower (P<0.001, P<0.01 and P<0.001, respectively) in visceral compared to subcutaneous fat. No differences were found in RBP4 mRNA expression in the two fat depots or in RBP4 plasma levels between subgroups of non-obese subjects (n=26), obese subjects without metabolic syndrome (n=17) and with metabolic syndrome (n=16). No correlations between RBP4 mRNA or plasma levels relative to adiposity, glucose disposal rate and GLUT 4 mRNA expression in adipose tissue were found. There was a weak positive correlation between plasma RBP4 and plasma triglycerides (r = 0.30, p<0.05) and between plasma RBP4 and blood glucose (r = 0.26, p<0.05). Regardless of the state of adiposity or insulin resistance, RBP4 expression in humans was lower in visceral than in subcutaneous fat. We found no direct relationship between either RBP4 mRNA or its plasma levels and the adiposity or insulin resistance.

  12. Increased plasma retinol binding protein 4 levels in patients with inflammatory cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Bobbert, Peter; Weithäuser, Alice; Andres, Janin; Bobbert, Thomas; Kühl, Uwe; Schultheiss, Heinz Peter; Rauch, Ursula; Skurk, Carsten

    2009-12-01

    Chronic heart failure (CHF) is associated with a higher risk for diabetes mellitus. Retinol binding protein 4 (RBP 4) is an adipose tissue-derived protein with pro-diabetogenic effects. A complete understanding of the association of CHF and insulin resistance remains elusive. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between CHF and diabetes mellitus. Plasma levels of RBP 4, insulin, and interleukins (IL) 2, 8, and 10, were assessed in patients with dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM, n = 53), dilated inflammatory cardiomyopathy (DCMi, n = 54), and controls (n = 20). In addition, a possible mechanism of RBP 4 regulation was examined in adipocytes in vitro. Plasma levels of RBP 4 and insulin were measured by a specific ELISA. Interleukin concentrations were obtained by multiplex ELISA. Cell culture with 3T3-L1 adipocytes was performed to measure RBP 4 mRNA expression after stimulation with IL-8. RBP 4 levels were significantly increased in patients with DCMi (52.95 +/- 20.42 microg/mL) compared with DCM (35.54 +/- 23.08 microg/mL) and the control group (27.3 +/- 18.51 microg/mL). RBP 4 was positively correlated with IL-8 (r=0.416, P < 0.05) in human plasma in patients with DCMi. Moreover, increased insulin resistance was observed in patients with DCMi compared with the control and DCM groups. In vitro, IL-8 induced a significant upregulation of RBP 4 mRNA expression in adipocytes. Elevated RBP 4 plasma concentrations, induced by IL-8, might be one mechanism leading to a higher incidence of diabetes in patients with DCMi.

  13. Circulating Retinol-Binding Protein-4 Concentration Might Reflect Insulin Resistance–Associated Iron Overload

    PubMed Central

    Fernández-Real, José Manuel; Moreno, José María; Ricart, Wifredo

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVES—The mechanisms behind the association between retinol-binding protein-4 (RBP4) and insulin resistance are not well understood. An interaction between iron and vitamin A status, of which RBP4 is a surrogate, has long been recognized. We hypothesized that iron-associated insulin resistance could be behind the impaired insulin action caused by RBP4. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS—Serum ferritin and RBP4 concentration and insulin resistance were evaluated in a sample of middle-aged men (n = 132) and in a replication independent study. Serum RBP4 was also studied before and after iron depletion in patients with type 2 diabetes. Finally, the effect of iron on RBP4 release was evaluated in vitro in adipose tissue. RESULTS—A positive correlation between circulating RBP4 and log serum ferritin (r = 0.35 and r = 0.61, respectively; P < 0.0001) was observed in both independent studies. Serum RBP4 concentration was higher in men than women in parallel to increased ferritin levels. On multiple regression analyses to predict serum RBP4, log serum ferritin contributed significantly to RBP4 variance after controlling for BMI, age, and homeostasis model assessment value. Serum RBP4 concentration decreased after iron depletion in type 2 diabetic patients (percent mean difference −13.7 [95% CI −25.4 to −2.04]; P = 0.024). The iron donor lactoferrin led to increased dose-dependent adipose tissue release of RBP4 (2.4-fold, P = 0.005) and increased RBP4 expression, while apotransferrin and deferoxamine led to decreased RBP4 release. CONCLUSIONS—The relationship between circulating RBP4 and iron stores, both cross-sectional and after iron depletion, and in vitro findings suggest that iron could play a role in the RBP4–insulin resistance relationship. PMID:18426863

  14. Maternal Plasma Retinol Binding Protein 4 in Acute Pyelonephritis during Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Vaisbuch, Edi; Romero, Roberto; Mazaki-Tovi, Shali; Kusanovic, Juan Pedro; Chaiworapongsa, Tinnakorn; Dong, Zhong; Kim, Sun Kwon; Ogge, Giovanna; Gervasi, Maria Teresa; Hassan, Sonia S.

    2010-01-01

    Objective Adipokines have been implicated in metabolic regulation and the immune response thus providing a molecular mechanism for the interaction between these two systems. Retinol binding protein 4 (RBP4) is a novel adipokine that plays a role in the pathophysiology of obesity-induced insulin resistance, as well as in the modulation of inflammation. The aim of this study was to determine whether there are changes in maternal plasma concentrations of RBP4 in pregnant women with acute pyelonephritis. Study design This cross-sectional study included pregnant women in the following groups: 1) normal pregnancy (n=80); 2) pyelonephritis (n=39). Maternal plasma RBP4 concentrations were determined by enzyme-linked immunoassays. Non-parametric statistics were used for analyses. Results 1) The median maternal plasma RBP4 concentration was lower in patients with acute pyelonephritis than in those with a normal pregnancy (3709.6 ng/mL, IQR 2917.7-5484.2 vs. 9167.6 ng/mL, IQR 7496.1-10384.1, p<0.001; 2) the median maternal plasma RBP4 concentration did not differ significantly between patients with acute pyelonephritis who had a positive blood culture and those with a negative culture (3285.3 ng/mL, IQR 2274.1-4741.1 vs. 3922.6 ng/mL, IQR 3126.8-5547.1, respectively, p=0.2); and 3) lower maternal plasma RBP4 concentrations were independently associated with pyelonephritis after adjustment for confounding factors. Conclusions In contrast to what has been reported in preeclampsia, acute pyelonephritis during pregnancy is associated with lower maternal plasma RBP4 concentrations than in normal pregnancy. This finding suggests that the acute maternal inflammatory process associated with pyelonephritis is fundamentally different from that of the chronic systemic inflammatory process suggested in preeclampsia, in which RBP4 concentrations were found to be elevated. PMID:20163326

  15. Functional analysis of keratinocyte and fibroblast gene expression in skin and keloid scar tissue based on deviation analysis of dynamic capabilities

    PubMed Central

    Li, Mingming; Wu, Lei

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to select key genes that are associated with fibroblasts and keratinocytes during keloid scar progression and development. The gene expression profile of GSE44270, which includes 32 samples, was downloaded from the Gene Expression Omnibus database. Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in case samples compared with control samples were screened using the Limma R package followed by hierarchical clustering analysis. Protein-protein interaction (PPI) networks of the total selected DEGs were constructed using Cytoscape. Moreover, the Gene Ontology biological processes and significant Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathways of the total selected DEGs were enriched using the Database for Annotation, Visualization and Integrated Discovery. Significant pathways that may be associated with keloid scar were analyzed using deviation analysis of dynamic capabilities. There were 658 DEGs in fibroblast keloid vs. normal, 112 DEGs in fibroblast non-lesion vs. normal, 439 DEGs in fibroblast keloid vs. non-lesion, 523 DEGs in keratocyte keloid vs. normal, 186 DEGs in keratocyte non-lesion vs. normal, and 963 DEGs in keratocyte keloid vs. non-lesion groups. HOXA9, BMP4, CDKN1A and SMAD2 in fibroblasts, and HOXA7, MCM8, PSMA4 and PSMB2 in keratinocytes were key genes in the PPI networks. Moreover, the amino sugar and nucleotide sugar metabolism pathway, cell cycle, and extracellular matrix (ECM)-receptor interaction pathway were significant pathways. This study suggests that several key genes (BMP4, HOXA9, SMAD2, CDKN1A, HOXA7, PSMA4 and PSMB2) that participate in some significant pathways (cell cycle and ECM-receptor interaction pathways) may be potential therapeutic targets for keloid scars. PMID:28101157

  16. A Golgi-associated protein 4.1B variant is required for assimilation of proteins in the membrane.

    PubMed

    Kang, Qiaozhen; Wang, Ting; Zhang, Huizheng; Mohandas, Narla; An, Xiuli

    2009-04-15

    The archetypal membrane skeleton is that of the erythrocyte, consisting predominantly of spectrin, actin, ankyrin R and protein 4.1R. The presence in the Golgi of a membrane skeleton with a similar structure has been inferred, based on the identification of Golgi-associated spectrin and ankyrin. It has long been assumed that a Golgi-specific protein 4.1 must also exist, but it has not previously been found. We demonstrate here that a hitherto unknown form of protein 4.1, a 200 kDa 4.1B, is associated with the Golgi of Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) and human bronchial epithelial (HBE) cells. This 4.1B variant behaves like a Golgi marker after treatment with Brefeldin A and during mitosis. Depletion of the protein in HBE cells by siRNA resulted in disruption of the Golgi structure and failure of Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase, ZO-1 and ZO-2 to migrate to the membrane. Thus, this newly identified Golgi-specific protein 4.1 appears to have an essential role in maintaining the structure of the Golgi and in assembly of a subset of membrane proteins.

  17. Middle East Respiratory Coronavirus Accessory Protein 4a Inhibits PKR-Mediated Antiviral Stress Responses

    PubMed Central

    Rabouw, Huib H.; Canton, Javier; Sola, Isabel; Enjuanes, Luis; Bredenbeek, Peter J.; Kikkert, Marjolein; de Groot, Raoul J.; van Kuppeveld, Frank J. M.

    2016-01-01

    Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) causes severe respiratory infections that can be life-threatening. To establish an infection and spread, MERS-CoV, like most other viruses, must navigate through an intricate network of antiviral host responses. Besides the well-known type I interferon (IFN-α/β) response, the protein kinase R (PKR)-mediated stress response is being recognized as an important innate response pathway. Upon detecting viral dsRNA, PKR phosphorylates eIF2α, leading to the inhibition of cellular and viral translation and the formation of stress granules (SGs), which are increasingly recognized as platforms for antiviral signaling pathways. It is unknown whether cellular infection by MERS-CoV activates the stress response pathway or whether the virus has evolved strategies to suppress this infection-limiting pathway. Here, we show that cellular infection with MERS-CoV does not lead to the formation of SGs. By transiently expressing the MERS-CoV accessory proteins individually, we identified a role of protein 4a (p4a) in preventing activation of the stress response pathway. Expression of MERS-CoV p4a impeded dsRNA-mediated PKR activation, thereby rescuing translation inhibition and preventing SG formation. In contrast, p4a failed to suppress stress response pathway activation that is independent of PKR and dsRNA. MERS-CoV p4a is a dsRNA binding protein. Mutation of the dsRNA binding motif in p4a disrupted its PKR antagonistic activity. By inserting p4a in a picornavirus lacking its natural PKR antagonist, we showed that p4a exerts PKR antagonistic activity also under infection conditions. However, a recombinant MERS-CoV deficient in p4a expression still suppressed SG formation, indicating the expression of at least one other stress response antagonist. This virus also suppressed the dsRNA-independent stress response pathway. Thus, MERS-CoV interferes with antiviral stress responses using at least two different mechanisms, with p4a

  18. Serum concentrations of retinol-binding protein 4 in women with and without gestational diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Zemany, L.; Krugluger, W.; Schernthaner, G. H.; Mittermayer, F.; Schnack, C.; Rahman, R.; Brix, J.; Kahn, B. B.; Schernthaner, G.

    2009-01-01

    Aims/hypothesis Pregnancy is characterised by temporarily increased insulin resistance. Gestational diabetes occurs when pancreatic beta cell function is unable to compensate for this insulin resistance. Retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4) could be related to insulin resistance. We hypothesised that RBP4 is elevated in gestational diabetes. Methods Serum RBP4, transthyretin and retinol were cross-sectionally measured in 42 women with gestational diabetes and 45 pregnant controls. Of these, 20 women with and 22 without gestational diabetes were included in an additional longitudinal study. RBP4 was determined by enzyme immunometric assay (EIA) and western blot. Results Women with gestational diabetes had lower RBP4 EIA and western blot levels than controls (median 6.8 [interquartile range, 3.9–14.3] vs 11.3 [7.8–19.9] μg/ml, p<0.001 and 25.1 [21.7–29.6] vs 26.6 [23.5–32.2] μg/ml, p=0.026). Transthyretin and the RBP4:transthyretin molar ratio were comparable between the groups. Serum retinol was lower (p<0.001) and the RBP4 Western blot level: retinol molar ratio was higher in women with gestational diabetes (p=0.044). RBP4 was not associated with the glucose or homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), but in gestational diabetes the RBP4:retinol molar ratio correlated with blood glucose and negatively with 2 h post-load insulin. The RBP4:transthyretin ratio correlated with HOMA-IR and fasting insulin in controls. In women with gestational diabetes RBP4 EIA and western blot levels increased after delivery. Retinol increased in both groups, while transthyretin and the RBP4:transthyretin ratio were not altered after parturition. Conclusions/interpretation RBP4 measured by two different techniques is not elevated, but the RBP4:retinol molar ratio is higher and correlates with fasting blood glucose in women with gestational diabetes. Thus, the RBP4:retinol ratio and the RBP4:transthyretin ratio are more informative than RBP4 levels alone when

  19. Retinol-binding protein 4 and its potential roles in hypercholesterolemia revealed by proteomics

    PubMed Central

    Jugnam-ang, Watcharapong; Pannengpetch, Supitcha; Isarankura-Na-Ayudhya, Patcharee; Thippakorn, Chadinee; Isarankura-Na-Ayudhya, Chartchalerm; Lawung, Ratana; Prachayasittiku, Virapong

    2015-01-01

    Effects of hypercholesterolemia on alterations of serum proteins have not been fully elucidated. Herein, using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) in conjunction with LC-MS searching has successfully been carried out to investigate the change of protein expression profiles as consequences of raised blood cholesterol at different levels (normal group: total cholesterol 200 mg/dL; borderline high group: total cholesterol 200-239 mg/dL; and high group: total cholesterol ≥ 240 mg/dL) (n = 45). Results revealed that down-regulation of retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4) (-2.26 fold), transthyretin (-1.25 fold) and gelsolin (-1.47 fold) was observed in the high group. Meanwhile, the other proteins such as haptoglobin, complement factor B and CD5 antigen-like protein were up-regulated upto +3.24, +1.96 and +2.04 fold, respectively. Confirmation by Western blotting revealed a significant reduction of RBP4 (approximately 50 %) in individual samples derived from the high group. Presumptive conclusion can be drawn that down-regulation of RBP4 might be attributable to the inflammation of adipocytes caused by the release of proinflammatory cytokines (e.g. tumor necrosis factor α and interleukin-1β) from adipose tissues. Moreover, the decrease of transthyretin might also be taken into accounts since it is known that the transthyretin usually forms complex with RBP4 to prevent glomerular filtration and excretion through the kidney. The suppressing effect on RBP4 should be potentiated by the increase of complement factor B and CD5 antigen-like protein, which rendered the adipose tissues to overwhelm the liberation of RBP4 to blood circulation by metabolic and inflammatory processes. Such inflammation could further modulate the induction of cytokine release (e.g. IL-6 and IL-1β), resulting in the synthesis of acute phase protein, in particular, haptoglobin and C-reactive proteins from hepatocytes. However, the mechanism of gelsolin reduction remains unclear. Among these

  20. Human Epididymis Protein 4: A Novel Serum Inflammatory Biomarker in Cystic Fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Nagy, Béla; Nagy, Béla; Fila, Libor; Clarke, Luka A; Gönczy, Ferenc; Bede, Olga; Nagy, Dóra; Újhelyi, Rita; Szabó, Ágnes; Anghelyi, Andrea; Major, Miklós; Bene, Zsolt; Fejes, Zsolt; Antal-Szalmás, Péter; Bhattoa, Harjit Pal; Balla, György; Kappelmayer, János; Amaral, Margarida D; Macek, Milan; Balogh, István

    2016-09-01

    Increased expression of the human epididymis protein 4 (HE4) was previously described in lung biopsy samples from patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). It remains unknown, however, whether serum HE4 concentrations are elevated in CF. Seventy-seven children with CF from six Hungarian CF centers and 57 adult patients with CF from a Czech center were enrolled. In addition, 94 individuals with non-CF lung diseases and 117 normal control subjects with no pulmonary disorders were analyzed. Serum HE4 levels were measured by using an immunoassay, and their expression was further investigated via the quantification of HE4 messenger RNA by using quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction in CF vs non-CF respiratory epithelium biopsy specimens. The expression of the potential regulator miR-140-5p was analyzed by using an UPL-based quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction assay. HE4 was measured in the supernatants from unpolarized and polarized cystic fibrosis bronchial epithelial cells expressing wild-type or F508del-CFTR. Median serum HE4 levels were significantly elevated in children with CF (99.5 [73.1-128.9] pmol/L) compared with control subjects (36.3 [31.1-43.4] pmol/L; P < .0001). This observation was replicated in adults with CF (115.7 [77.8-148.7] pmol/L; P < .0001). In contrast, abnormal but lower HE4 concentrations were found in cases of severe bronchitis, asthma, pneumonia, and bronchiectasis. In patients with CF, the concentrations of HE4 were positively correlated with overall disease severity and C-reactive protein concentrations, whereas a significant inverse relationship was found between HE4 and the spirometric FEV1 value. Relative HE4 mRNA levels were significantly upregulated (P = .011) with a decreased miR-140-5p expression (P = .020) in the CF vs non-CF airway biopsy specimens. Twofold higher HE4 concentrations were recorded in the supernatant of polarized F508del-CF transmembrane conductance regulator

  1. Retinol Binding Protein 4 – A Novel Association with Early-Onset Preeclampsia

    PubMed Central

    Vaisbuch, Edi; Romero, Roberto; Mazaki-Tovi, Shali; Erez, Offer; Kim, Sun Kwon; Chaiworapongsa, Tinnakorn; Gotsch, Francesca; Than, Nandor Gabor; Dong, Zhong; Pacora, Percy; Lamont, Ronald; Yeo, Lami; Hassan, Sonia S.; Kusanovic, Juan Pedro

    2010-01-01

    Objective Dysregulation of maternal circulating adipokines has been implicated in several “great obstetrical syndromes” including preeclampsia (PE), small-for-gestational age (SGA) neonate and fetal death (FD). It has been suggested that adipokines provide a molecular link between metabolic derangements and inflammatory response in complicated pregnancies. Retinol binding protein 4 (RBP4), a novel adipokine, plays a role in obesity-related disorders, as well as in the regulation of the immune response. The aim of this study was to determine whether there are changes in maternal plasma concentrations of RBP4 in patients with PE and in those with an SGA neonate or FD. Study design This cross-sectional study included patients in the following groups: 1) normal pregnancy (n=134); 2) PE (n=104); 3) SGA neonate (n=28); and 4) FD (n=37). Maternal plasma RBP4 concentrations were determined by ELISA. Non-parametric statistics were used for analysis. Results 1) The median maternal plasma RBP4 concentration was higher among patients with PE than in those with a normal pregnancy (p=0.03); 2) The median maternal plasma RBP4 concentrations of patients with preterm PE (<37 weeks) was higher than that of those with term PE (p=0.017) and than that of those with a normal pregnancy (p=0.002); 3) The median maternal plasma RBP4 concentration did not differ significantly between patients with a normal pregnancy and those with an SGA neonate or with an FD; 4) Among normal pregnant women, the maternal plasma RBP4 concentrations did not correlate with pre-pregnancy body mass index, gestational age at blood sampling and neonatal birthweight. Conclusions 1) Preeclampsia, but not pregnancy with an SGA neonate or an FD, is associated with a higher median maternal plasma concentration of RBP4 than normal pregnancy; 2) Preterm PE, and specifically early-onset PE, is associated with higher median RBP4 concentrations in maternal plasma compared to term PE. These findings suggest a role for

  2. Nonsyndromic cleft lip with or without cleft palate: Increased burden of rare variants within Gremlin-1, a component of the bone morphogenetic protein 4 pathway.

    PubMed

    Al Chawa, Taofik; Ludwig, Kerstin U; Fier, Heide; Pötzsch, Bernd; Reich, Rudolf H; Schmidt, Gül; Braumann, Bert; Daratsianos, Nikolaos; Böhmer, Anne C; Schuencke, Hannah; Alblas, Margrieta; Fricker, Nadine; Hoffmann, Per; Knapp, Michael; Lange, Christoph; Nöthen, Markus M; Mangold, Elisabeth

    2014-06-01

    The genes Gremlin-1 (GREM1) and Noggin (NOG) are components of the bone morphogenetic protein 4 pathway, which has been implicated in craniofacial development. Both genes map to recently identified susceptibility loci (chromosomal region 15q13, 17q22) for nonsyndromic cleft lip with or without cleft palate (nsCL/P). The aim of the present study was to determine whether rare variants in either gene are implicated in nsCL/P etiology. The complete coding regions, untranslated regions, and splice sites of GREM1 and NOG were sequenced in 96 nsCL/P patients and 96 controls of Central European ethnicity. Three burden and four nonburden tests were performed. Statistically significant results were followed up in a second case-control sample (n = 96, respectively). For rare variants observed in cases, segregation analyses were performed. In NOG, four rare sequence variants (minor allele frequency < 1%) were identified. Here, burden and nonburden analyses generated nonsignificant results. In GREM1, 33 variants were identified, 15 of which were rare. Of these, five were novel. Significant p-values were generated in three nonburden analyses. Segregation analyses revealed incomplete penetrance for all variants investigated. Our study did not provide support for NOG being the causal gene at 17q22. However, the observation of a significant excess of rare variants in GREM1 supports the hypothesis that this is the causal gene at chr. 15q13. Because no single causal variant was identified, future sequencing analyses of GREM1 should involve larger samples and the investigation of regulatory elements. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Identification of Genes Related to Beak Deformity of Chickens Using Digital Gene Expression Profiling

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Yanyan; Liu, Ranran; Liu, Nian; Li, Dongli; Wen, Jie; Chen, Jilan

    2014-01-01

    Frequencies of up to 3% of beak deformity (normally a crossed beak) occur in some indigenous chickens in China, such as and Beijing-You. Chickens with deformed beaks have reduced feed intake, growth rate, and abnormal behaviors. Beak deformity represents an economic as well as an animal welfare problem in the poultry industry. Because the genetic basis of beak deformity remains incompletely understood, the present study sought to identify important genes and metabolic pathways involved in this phenotype. Digital gene expression analysis was performed on deformed and normal beaks collected from Beijing-You chickens to detect global gene expression differences. A total of >11 million cDNA tags were sequenced, and 5,864,499 and 5,648,877 clean tags were obtained in the libraries of deformed and normal beaks, respectively. In total, 1,156 differentially expressed genes (DEG) were identified in the deformed beak with 409 being up-regulated and 747 down-regulated in the deformed beaks. qRT-PCR using eight genes was performed to verify the results of DGE profiling. Gene ontology (GO) analysis highlighted that genes of the keratin family on GGA25 were abundant among the DEGs. Pathway analysis showed that many DEGs were linked to the biosynthesis of unsaturated fatty acids and glycerolipid metabolism. Combining the analyses, 11 genes (MUC, LOC426217, BMP4, ACAA1, LPL, ALDH7A1, GLA, RETSAT, SDR16C5, WWOX, and MOGAT1) were highlighted as potential candidate genes for beak deformity in chickens. Some of these genes have been identified previously, while others have unknown function with respect to thus phenotype. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first genome-wide study to investigate the transcriptome differences in the deformed and normal beaks of chickens. The DEGs identified here are worthy of further functional characterization. PMID:25198128

  4. Identification of genes related to beak deformity of chickens using digital gene expression profiling.

    PubMed

    Bai, Hao; Zhu, Jing; Sun, Yanyan; Liu, Ranran; Liu, Nian; Li, Dongli; Wen, Jie; Chen, Jilan

    2014-01-01

    Frequencies of up to 3% of beak deformity (normally a crossed beak) occur in some indigenous chickens in China, such as and Beijing-You. Chickens with deformed beaks have reduced feed intake, growth rate, and abnormal behaviors. Beak deformity represents an economic as well as an animal welfare problem in the poultry industry. Because the genetic basis of beak deformity remains incompletely understood, the present study sought to identify important genes and metabolic pathways involved in this phenotype. Digital gene expression analysis was performed on deformed and normal beaks collected from Beijing-You chickens to detect global gene expression differences. A total of >11 million cDNA tags were sequenced, and 5,864,499 and 5,648,877 clean tags were obtained in the libraries of deformed and normal beaks, respectively. In total, 1,156 differentially expressed genes (DEG) were identified in the deformed beak with 409 being up-regulated and 747 down-regulated in the deformed beaks. qRT-PCR using eight genes was performed to verify the results of DGE profiling. Gene ontology (GO) analysis highlighted that genes of the keratin family on GGA25 were abundant among the DEGs. Pathway analysis showed that many DEGs were linked to the biosynthesis of unsaturated fatty acids and glycerolipid metabolism. Combining the analyses, 11 genes (MUC, LOC426217, BMP4, ACAA1, LPL, ALDH7A1, GLA, RETSAT, SDR16C5, WWOX, and MOGAT1) were highlighted as potential candidate genes for beak deformity in chickens. Some of these genes have been identified previously, while others have unknown function with respect to thus phenotype. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first genome-wide study to investigate the transcriptome differences in the deformed and normal beaks of chickens. The DEGs identified here are worthy of further functional characterization.

  5. The daf-4 gene encodes a bone morphogenetic protein receptor controlling C. elegans dauer larva development.

    PubMed

    Estevez, M; Attisano, L; Wrana, J L; Albert, P S; Massagué, J; Riddle, D L

    1993-10-14

    The bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) family is a conserved group of signalling molecules within the transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) superfamily. This group, including the Drosophila decapentaplegic (dpp) protein and the mammalian BMPs, mediates cellular interactions and tissue differentiation during development. Here we show that a homologue of human BMPs controls a developmental switch in the life cycle of the free-living soil nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. Starvation and overcrowding induce C. elegans to form a developmentally arrested, third-stage dauer larva. The daf-4 gene, which acts to inhibit dauer larva formation and promote growth, encodes a receptor protein kinase similar to the daf-1, activin and TGF-beta receptor serine/threonine kinases. When expressed in monkey COS cells, the daf-4 receptor binds human BMP-2 and BMP-4. The daf-4 receptor is the first to be identified for any growth factor in the BMP family.

  6. The promoter of brain-specific angiogenesis inhibitor 1-associated protein 4 drives developmentally targeted transgene expression mainly in adult cerebral cortex and hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Kim, Mi-Young; Ahn, Kyu Youn; Lee, Seon Min; Koh, Jeong Tae; Chun, Byeong Jo; Bae, Choon Sang; Lee, Kee Sook; Kim, Kyung Keun

    2004-05-21

    Restricting transgene expression to specific cell types and maintaining long-term expression are major goals for gene therapy. Previously, we cloned brain-specific angiogenesis inhibitor 1-associated protein 4 (BAI1-AP4), a novel brain-specific protein that interacts with BAI1, and found that it was developmentally upregulated in the adult brain. In this report, we isolated 5 kb of the 5' upstream sequence of the mouse BAI1-AP4 gene and analyzed its promoter activity. Functional analyses demonstrated that an Sp1 site was the enhancer, and the region containing the transcription initiation site and an AP2-binding site was the basal promoter. We examined the ability of the BAI1-AP4 promoter to drive adult brain-specific expression by using it to drive lacZ expression in transgenic (TG) mice. Northern blot analyses showed a unique pattern of beta-galactosidase expression in TG brain, peaking at 1 month after birth, like endogenous BAI1-AP4. Histological analyses demonstrated the same localization and developmental expression of beta-galactosidase and BAI1-AP4 in most neurons of the cerebral cortex and hippocampus. Our data indicate that TG mice carrying the BAI1-AP4 promoter could be a valuable model system for region-specific brain diseases.

  7. Phylogenetic Relationships and the Evolution of Regulatory Gene Sequences in the Parrotfishes

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Lydia L.; Fessler, Jennifer L.; Alfaro, Michael E.; Streelman, J. Todd; Westneat, Mark W.

    2008-01-01

    Regulatory genes control the expression of other genes and are key components of developmental processes such as segmentation and embryonic construction of the skull in vertebrates. Here we examine the variability and evolution of three vertebrate regulatory genes, addressing issues of their utility for phylogenetics and comparing the rates of genetic change seen in regulatory loci to the rates seen in other genes in the parrotfishes. The parrotfishes are a diverse group of colorful fishes from coral reefs and seagrasses worldwide and have been placed phylogenetically within the family Labridae. We tested phylogenetic hypotheses among the parrotfishes, with a focus on the genera Chlorurus and Scarus, by analyzing eight gene fragments for 42 parrotfishes and eight outgroup species. We sequenced mitochondrial 12s rRNA (967 bp), 16s rRNA (577 bp), and cytochrome b (477 bp). From the nuclear genome, we sequenced part of the protein-coding genes rag2 (715 bp), tmo4c4 (485 bp), and the developmental regulatory genes otx1 (672 bp), bmp4 (488 bp), and dlx2 (522 bp). Bayesian, likelihood, and parsimony analyses on the resulting 4903 bp of DNA sequence produced similar topologies that confirm the monophyly of the scarines and provide a phylogeny at the species level for portions of the genera Scarus and Chlorurus. Four major clades of Scarus were recovered, with three distributed in the Indo-Pacific and one containing Caribbean/Atlantic taxa. Molecular rates suggest a Miocene origin of the parrotfishes (22 mya) and a recent divergence of species within Scarus and Chlorurus, within the past 5 million years. Developmentally important genes made a significant contribution to phylogenetic structure, and rates of genetic evolution were high in bmp4, similar to other coding nuclear genes, but low in otx1 and the dlx2 exons. Synonymous and nonsynonymous substitution patterns in developmental regulatory genes support the hypothesis of stabilizing selection during the history of

  8. Molecular basis for the role of Staphylococcus aureus penicillin binding protein 4 in antimicrobial resistance.

    PubMed

    Navratna, Vikas; Nadig, Savitha; Sood, Varun; Prasad, K; Arakere, Gayathri; Gopal, B

    2010-01-01

    Penicillin binding proteins (PBPs) are membrane-associated proteins that catalyze the final step of murein biosynthesis. These proteins function as either transpeptidases or carboxypeptidases and in a few cases demonstrate transglycosylase activity. Both transpeptidase and carboxypeptidase activities of PBPs occur at the D-Ala-D-Ala terminus of a murein precursor containing a disaccharide pentapeptide comprising N-acetylglucosamine and N-acetyl-muramic acid-L-Ala-D-Glu-L-Lys-D-Ala-D-Ala. Beta-lactam antibiotics inhibit these enzymes by competing with the pentapeptide precursor for binding to the active site of the enzyme. Here we describe the crystal structure, biochemical characteristics, and expression profile of PBP4, a low-molecular-mass PBP from Staphylococcus aureus strain COL. The crystal structures of PBP4-antibiotic complexes reported here were determined by molecular replacement, using the atomic coordinates deposited by the New York Structural Genomics Consortium. While the pbp4 gene is not essential for the viability of S. aureus, the knockout phenotype of this gene is characterized by a marked reduction in cross-linked muropeptide and increased vancomycin resistance. Unlike other PBPs, we note that expression of PBP4 was not substantially altered under different experimental conditions, nor did it change across representative hospital- or community-associated strains of S. aureus that were examined. In vitro data on purified recombinant S. aureus PBP4 suggest that it is a beta-lactamase and is not trapped as an acyl intermediate with beta-lactam antibiotics. Put together, the expression analysis and biochemical features of PBP4 provide a framework for understanding the function of this protein in S. aureus and its role in antimicrobial resistance.

  9. Gene expression analysis in calcific tendinopathy of the rotator cuff.

    PubMed

    Oliva, F; Barisani, D; Grasso, A; Maffulli, N

    2011-06-20

    We evaluated the expression of several genes involved in tissue remodelling and bone development in patients with calcific tendinopathy of the rotator cuff. Biopsies from calcified and non-calcified areas were obtained from 10 patients (8 women and 2 men; average age: 55 years; range: 40-68) with calcific tendinopathy of the rotator cuff. To evaluate the expression of selected genes, RNA extraction, cDNA synthesis and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) were performed. A significantly increased expression of tissue transglutaminase (tTG)2 and its substrate, osteopontin, was detected in the calcific areas compared to the levels observed in the normal tissue from the same subject with calcific tendinopathy, whereas a modest increase was observed for catepsin K. There was also a significant decrease in mRNA expression of Bone Morphogenetic Protein (BMP)4 and BMP6 in the calcific area. BMP-2, collagen V and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) did not show significant differences. Collagen X and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 were not detectable. A variation in expression of these genes could be characteristic of this form tendinopathy, since an increased level of these genes has not been detected in other forms of tendon lesions.

  10. Conserved deployment of genes during odontogenesis across osteichthyans.

    PubMed

    Fraser, Gareth J; Graham, Anthony; Smith, Moya M

    2004-11-22

    Odontogenesis has only been closely scrutinized at the molecular level in the mouse, an animal with an extremely restricted dentition of only two types and one set. However, within osteichthyans many species display complex and extensive dentitions, which questions the extent to which information from the mouse is applicable to all osteichthyans. We present novel comparative molecular and morphological data in the rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) that show that three genes, essential for murine odontogenesis, follow identical spatial-temporal expression. Thus, at all tooth bud sites, epithelial genes Pitx-2 and Shh initiate the odontogenic cascade, resulting in dental mesenchymal Bmp-4 expression, importantly, including the previously unknown formation of replacement teeth. Significantly, this spatial-temporal sequence is the same for marginal and lingual dentitions, but we find notable differences regarding the deployment of Pitx-2 in the developing pharyngeal dentition. This difference may be highly significant in relation to the theory that dentitions may have evolved from pharyngeal tooth sets in jawless fishes. We have provided the first data on operational genes in tooth development to show that the same signalling genes choreograph this evolutionary stable event in fishes since the osteichthyan divergence 420 Myr ago, with the identical spatial-temporal expression as in mammals.

  11. Conserved deployment of genes during odontogenesis across osteichthyans.

    PubMed Central

    Fraser, Gareth J.; Graham, Anthony; Smith, Moya M.

    2004-01-01

    Odontogenesis has only been closely scrutinized at the molecular level in the mouse, an animal with an extremely restricted dentition of only two types and one set. However, within osteichthyans many species display complex and extensive dentitions, which questions the extent to which information from the mouse is applicable to all osteichthyans. We present novel comparative molecular and morphological data in the rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) that show that three genes, essential for murine odontogenesis, follow identical spatial-temporal expression. Thus, at all tooth bud sites, epithelial genes Pitx-2 and Shh initiate the odontogenic cascade, resulting in dental mesenchymal Bmp-4 expression, importantly, including the previously unknown formation of replacement teeth. Significantly, this spatial-temporal sequence is the same for marginal and lingual dentitions, but we find notable differences regarding the deployment of Pitx-2 in the developing pharyngeal dentition. This difference may be highly significant in relation to the theory that dentitions may have evolved from pharyngeal tooth sets in jawless fishes. We have provided the first data on operational genes in tooth development to show that the same signalling genes choreograph this evolutionary stable event in fishes since the osteichthyan divergence 420 Myr ago, with the identical spatial-temporal expression as in mammals. PMID:15556883

  12. Pepper pathogenesis-related protein 4c is a plasma membrane-localized cysteine protease inhibitor that is required for plant cell death and defense signaling.

    PubMed

    Kim, Nak Hyun; Hwang, Byung Kook

    2015-01-01

    Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria (Xcv) type III effector AvrBsT triggers programmed cell death (PCD) and activates the hypersensitive response (HR) in plants. Here, we isolated and identified the plasma membrane localized pathogenesis-related (PR) protein 4c gene (CaPR4c) from pepper (Capsicum annuum) leaves undergoing AvrBsT-triggered HR cell death. CaPR4c encodes a protein with a signal peptide and a Barwin domain. Recombinant CaPR4c protein expressed in Escherichia coli exhibited cysteine protease-inhibitor activity and ribonuclease (RNase) activity. Subcellular localization analyses revealed that CaPR4c localized to the plasma membrane in plant cells. CaPR4c expression was rapidly and specifically induced by avirulent Xcv (avrBsT) infection. Transient expression of CaPR4c caused HR cell death in pepper leaves, which was accompanied by enhanced accumulation of H2 O2 and significant induction of some defense-response genes. Deletion of the signal peptide from CaPR4c abolished the induction of HR cell death, indicating a requirement for plasma membrane localization of CaPR4c for HR cell death. CaPR4c silencing in pepper disrupted both basal and AvrBsT-triggered resistance responses, and enabled Xcv proliferation in infected leaves. H2 O2 accumulation, cell-death induction, and defense-response gene expression were distinctly reduced in CaPR4c-silenced pepper. CaPR4c overexpression in transgenic Arabidopsis plants conferred greater resistance against infection by Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato and Hyaloperonospora arabidopsidis. These results collectively suggest that CaPR4c plays an important role in plant cell death and defense signaling.

  13. Biochemical analysis of potential sites for protein 4.1-mediated anchoring of the spectrin-actin skeleton to the erythrocyte membrane.

    PubMed

    Workman, R F; Low, P S

    1998-03-13

    Erythrocyte protein 4.1 has been hypothesized to link the spectrin-actin junctional complex directly to the cytoplasmic domain of glycophorin C, but this bridging function has never been directly demonstrated. Because an alternative protein-mediated bridge between the junctional complex and the cytoplasmic domain of band 3 is also plausible, we have undertaken to characterize the membrane sites to which protein 4.1 can anchor the spectrin and actin skeleton. We demonstrate that proteolytic removal of the cytoplasmic domain of band 3 has minimal effect on the ability of protein 4.1 to promote 125I-labeled spectrin and actin binding to KI-stripped erythrocyte membrane vesicles. We also show that quantitative blockade of all band 3 sites with either monoclonal or polyclonal antibodies to band 3 is equally ineffective in preventing protein 4.1-mediated association of spectrin and actin with the membrane. In contrast, obstruction of protein 4.1 binding to its docking site on the cytoplasmic pole of glycophorin C is demonstrated to reduce the same protein 4.1 bridging function by approximately 85%. We conclude from these data that (i) glycophorin C contributes the primary anchoring site of the protein 4.1-mediated bridge to the spectrin-actin skeleton; (ii) band 3 is incapable of serving the same function; and (iii) additional minor protein 4.1 bridging sites may exist on the human erythrocyte membrane.

  14. Overexpression of Latent TGFβ Binding Protein 4 in Muscle Ameliorates Muscular Dystrophy through Myostatin and TGFβ.

    PubMed

    Lamar, Kay-Marie; Bogdanovich, Sasha; Gardner, Brandon B; Gao, Quan Q; Miller, Tamari; Earley, Judy U; Hadhazy, Michele; Vo, Andy H; Wren, Lisa; Molkentin, Jeffery D; McNally, Elizabeth M

    2016-05-01

    Latent TGFβ binding proteins (LTBPs) regulate the extracellular availability of latent TGFβ. LTBP4 was identified as a genetic modifier of muscular dystrophy in mice and humans. An in-frame insertion polymorphism in the murine Ltbp4 gene associates with partial protection against muscular dystrophy. In humans, nonsynonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms in LTBP4 associate with prolonged ambulation in Duchenne muscular dystrophy. To better understand LTBP4 and its role in modifying muscular dystrophy, we created transgenic mice overexpressing the protective murine allele of LTBP4 specifically in mature myofibers using the human skeletal actin promoter. Overexpression of LTBP4 protein was associated with increased muscle mass and proportionally increased strength compared to age-matched controls. In order to assess the effects of LTBP4 in muscular dystrophy, LTBP4 overexpressing mice were bred to mdx mice, a model of Duchenne muscular dystrophy. In this model, increased LTBP4 led to greater muscle mass with proportionally increased strength, and decreased fibrosis. The increase in muscle mass and reduction in fibrosis were similar to what occurs when myostatin, a related TGFβ family member and negative regulator of muscle mass, was deleted in mdx mice. Supporting this, we found that myostatin forms a complex with LTBP4 and that overexpression of LTBP4 led to a decrease in myostatin levels. LTBP4 also interacted with TGFβ and GDF11, a protein highly related to myostatin. These data identify LTBP4 as a multi-TGFβ family ligand binding protein with the capacity to modify muscle disease through overexpression.

  15. Identification of a fatty acid binding protein4-UCP2 axis regulating microglial mediated neuroinflammation.

    PubMed

    Duffy, Cayla M; Xu, Hongliang; Nixon, Joshua P; Bernlohr, David A; Butterick, Tammy A

    2017-02-16

    Hypothalamic inflammation contributes to metabolic dysregulation and the onset of obesity. Dietary saturated fats activate microglia via a nuclear factor-kappa B (NFκB) mediated pathway to release pro-inflammatory cytokines resulting in dysfunction or death of surrounding neurons. Fatty acid binding proteins (FABPs) are lipid chaperones regulating metabolic and inflammatory pathways in response to fatty acids. Loss of FABP4 in peripheral macrophages via either molecular or pharmacologic mechanisms results in reduced obesity-induced inflammation via a UCP2-redox based mechanism. Despite the widespread appreciation for the role of FABP4 in mediating peripheral inflammation, the expression of FABP4 and a potential FABP4-UCP2 axis regulating microglial inflammatory capacity is largely uncharacterized. To that end, we hypothesized that microglial cells express FABP4 and that inhibition would upregulate UCP2 and attenuate palmitic acid (PA)-induced pro-inflammatory response. Gene expression confirmed expression of FABP4 in brain tissue lysate from C57Bl/6J mice and BV2 microglia. Treatment of microglial cells with an FABP inhibitor (HTS01037) increased expression of Ucp2 and arginase in the presence or absence of PA. Moreover, cells exposed to HTS01037 exhibited attenuated expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) compared to PA alone indicating reduced NFκB signaling. Hypothalamic tissue from mice lacking FABP4 exhibit increased UCP2 expression and reduced iNOS, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), and ionized calcium-binding adapter molecule 1 (Iba1; microglial activation marker) expression compared to wild type mice. Further, this effect is negated in microglia lacking UCP2, indicating the FABP4-UCP2 axis is pivotal in obesity induced neuroinflammation. To our knowledge, this is the first report demonstrating a FABP4-UCP2 axis with the potential to modulate the microglial inflammatory response.

  16. Secreted Frizzled-Related Protein 4 (SFRP4) is Elevated in Patients with Diabetes Mellitus.

    PubMed

    Brix, J M; Krzizek, E C; Hoebaus, C; Ludvik, B; Schernthaner, G; Schernthaner, G H

    2016-05-01

    Recently, SFRP4 was identified as a molecular link between islet inflammation and defective insulin secretion. Gene co-expression analysis detected a molecule associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D), elevated HbA1c, and reduced insulin secretion in mice as well as in a pilot sample of humans. To our knowledge SFRP4 has never been investigated in patients with different types of diabetes. We included 179 patients: 46 with type 1 diabetes (T1D), 30 age matched healthy controls for patients with T1D (CO-T1D), 55 with T2D, 37 with latent autoimmune diabetes of the adult (LADA) and 30 healthy controls (CO) for patients with T2D and LADA. Apart from anthropometric data, lipids and renal parameters were assessed. SFRP4 levels were measured by a commercial ELISA. Patients with diabetes had significant higher SFRP4 levels than CO: T2D vs. CO: 37.1±26.7 vs. 8.8±3.0 ng/ml, p<0.001; LADA vs. CO: 15.6±6.2 vs. 8.7±3.0 ng/ml, p<0.001; T1D vs. CO-T1D: 24.6±17.9 vs. 16.9±4.5 ng/ml, p=0.011. SFRP4 levels were correlated with age, BMI, HbA1c, HDL-cholesterol, and triglycerides. A multivariate model revealed HDL-cholesterol, triglycerides and BMI as predictors for SFRP4. This is the first study demonstrating that SFRP4 is significantly increased in patients with different types of diabetes suggesting that this protein is generally involved in islet dysfunction and potentially subclinical inflammation irrespective of type of diabetes.

  17. Overexpression of Latent TGFβ Binding Protein 4 in Muscle Ameliorates Muscular Dystrophy through Myostatin and TGFβ

    PubMed Central

    Gardner, Brandon B.; Gao, Quan Q.; Hadhazy, Michele; Vo, Andy H.; Wren, Lisa; Molkentin, Jeffery D.; McNally, Elizabeth M.

    2016-01-01

    Latent TGFβ binding proteins (LTBPs) regulate the extracellular availability of latent TGFβ. LTBP4 was identified as a genetic modifier of muscular dystrophy in mice and humans. An in-frame insertion polymorphism in the murine Ltbp4 gene associates with partial protection against muscular dystrophy. In humans, nonsynonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms in LTBP4 associate with prolonged ambulation in Duchenne muscular dystrophy. To better understand LTBP4 and its role in modifying muscular dystrophy, we created transgenic mice overexpressing the protective murine allele of LTBP4 specifically in mature myofibers using the human skeletal actin promoter. Overexpression of LTBP4 protein was associated with increased muscle mass and proportionally increased strength compared to age-matched controls. In order to assess the effects of LTBP4 in muscular dystrophy, LTBP4 overexpressing mice were bred to mdx mice, a model of Duchenne muscular dystrophy. In this model, increased LTBP4 led to greater muscle mass with proportionally increased strength, and decreased fibrosis. The increase in muscle mass and reduction in fibrosis were similar to what occurs when myostatin, a related TGFβ family member and negative regulator of muscle mass, was deleted in mdx mice. Supporting this, we found that myostatin forms a complex with LTBP4 and that overexpression of LTBP4 led to a decrease in myostatin levels. LTBP4 also interacted with TGFβ and GDF11, a protein highly related to myostatin. These data identify LTBP4 as a multi-TGFβ family ligand binding protein with the capacity to modify muscle disease through overexpression. PMID:27148972

  18. Novel mechanism of regulation of protein 4.1G binding properties through Ca2+/calmodulin-mediated structural changes.

    PubMed

    Nunomura, Wataru; Jinbo, Yuji; Isozumi, Noriyoshi; Ohki, Shinya; Izumi, Yoshinobu; Matsushima, Norio; Takakuwa, Yuichi

    2013-07-01

    Protein 4.1G (4.1G) is a widely expressed member of the protein 4.1 family of membrane skeletal proteins. We have previously reported that Ca(2+)-saturated calmodulin (Ca(2+)/CaM) modulates 4.1G interactions with transmembrane and membrane-associated proteins through binding to Four.one-ezrin-radixin-moesin (4.1G FERM) domain and N-terminal headpiece region (GHP). Here we identify a novel mechanism of Ca(2+)/CaM-mediated regulation of 4.1G interactions using a combination of small-angle X-ray scattering, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and circular dichroism spectroscopy analyses. We document that GHP intrinsically disordered coiled structure switches to a stable compact structure upon binding of Ca(2+)/CaM. This dramatic conformational change of GHP inhibits in turn 4.1G FERM domain interactions due to steric hindrance. Based upon sequence homologies with the Ca(2+)/CaM-binding motif in protein 4.1R headpiece region, we establish that the 4.1G S(71)RGISRFIPPWLKKQKS peptide (pepG) mediates Ca(2+)/CaM binding. As observed for GHP, the random coiled structure of pepG changes to a relaxed globular shape upon complex formation with Ca(2+)/CaM. The resilient coiled structure of pepG, maintained even in the presence of trifluoroethanol, singles it out from any previously published CaM-binding peptide. Taken together, these results show that Ca(2+)/CaM binding to GHP, and more specifically to pepG, has profound effects on other functional domains of 4.1G.

  19. Retinol-binding protein 4 and its membrane receptor STRA6 control adipogenesis by regulating cellular retinoid homeostasis and retinoic acid receptor α activity.

    PubMed

    Muenzner, Matthias; Tuvia, Neta; Deutschmann, Claudia; Witte, Nicole; Tolkachov, Alexander; Valai, Atijeh; Henze, Andrea; Sander, Leif E; Raila, Jens; Schupp, Michael

    2013-10-01

    Retinoids are vitamin A (retinol) derivatives and complex regulators of adipogenesis by activating specific nuclear receptors, including the retinoic acid receptor (RAR) and retinoid X receptor (RXR). Circulating retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4) and its membrane receptor STRA6 coordinate cellular retinol uptake. It is unknown whether retinol levels and the activity of RAR and RXR in adipocyte precursors are linked via RBP4/STRA6. Here, we show that STRA6 is expressed in precursor cells and, dictated by the apo- and holo-RBP4 isoforms, mediates bidirectional retinol transport that controls RARα activity and subsequent adipocyte differentiation. Mobilization of retinoid stores in mice by inducing RBP4 secretion from the liver activated RARα signaling in the precursor cell containing the stromal-vascular fraction of adipose tissue. Retinol-loaded holo-RBP4 blocked adipocyte differentiation of cultured precursors by activating RARα. Remarkably, retinol-free apo-RBP4 triggered retinol efflux that reduced cellular retinoids, RARα activity, and target gene expression and enhanced adipogenesis synergistically with ectopic STRA6. Thus, STRA6 in adipocyte precursor cells links nuclear RARα activity to the circulating RBP4 isoforms, whose ratio in obese mice was shifted toward limiting the adipogenic potential of their precursors. This novel cross talk identifies a retinol-dependent metabolic function of RBP4 that may have important implications for the treatment of obesity.

  20. The linker histone in Saccharomyces cerevisiae interacts with actin-related protein 4 and both regulate chromatin structure and cellular morphology.

    PubMed

    Georgieva, Milena; Staneva, Dessislava; Uzunova, Katya; Efremov, Toni; Balashev, Konstantin; Harata, Masahiko; Miloshev, George

    2015-02-01

    Chromatin structure promotes important epigenetic mechanisms that regulate cellular fate by organizing, preserving and controlling the way by which the genetic information works. Our understanding of chromatin and its functions is sparse and not yet well defined. The uncertainty comes from the complexity of chromatin and is induced by the existence of a large number of nuclear proteins that influence it. The intricate interaction among all these structural and functional nuclear proteins has been under extensive study in the recent years. Here, we show that Saccharomyces cerevisiae linker histone physically interacts with Arp4p (actin-related protein 4) which is a key subunit of three chromatin modifying complexes - INO80, SWR1 and NuA4. A single - point mutation in the actin - fold domain of Arp4p together with the knock-out of the gene for the linker histone in S. cerevisiae severely abrogates cellular and nuclear morphology and leads to complete disorganizing of the higher levels of chromatin organization. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Natural antisense transcript TPM1-AS regulates the alternative splicing of tropomyosin I through an interaction with RNA-binding motif protein 4.

    PubMed

    Huang, Guo-Wei; Zhang, Ying-Li; Liao, Lian-Di; Li, En-Min; Xu, Li-Yan

    2017-09-01

    LncRNAs play a vital role in alternative splicing of target genes. However, the mechanisms underlying lncRNAs involvement in splicing are poorly understood. In the present study, we identified a previously uncharacterized lncRNA, which is denoted as TPM1-AS, is reverse-transcribed from the fourth intronic region of the tropomyosin I (TPM1). In situ hybridization and RNA immunoprecipitation assays demonstrated that TPM1-AS was located in the nucleus and interacted with RNA-binding motif protein 4 (RBM4) in human esophageal cancer cells. TPM1-AS overexpression or RBM4 knockdown decreased endogenous exon 2a expression of TPM1, resulting in specifically down-regulation of TPM1variant V2 and V7 in human esophageal cancer cells. Mechanismly, the interaction of TPM1-AS with RBM4 hindered binding of RBM4 to TPM1 pre-mRNA and inhibited RBM4 to promote endogenous exon 2a inclusion of TPM1. Importantly, overexpression of TPM1-AS inhibited migration and filopodium formation, whereas TPM1variant V2 and V7 promoted these behaviors of human esophageal cancer cells. Taken together, the results suggest that a natural antisense TPM1-AS regulates the alternative splicing of TPM1 through an interaction with RBM4 and involves in TPM1-mediated filopodium formation and migration of cancer cells. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Oxysterol-binding protein-related protein 4L promotes cell proliferation by sustaining intracellular Ca2+ homeostasis in cervical carcinoma cell lines

    PubMed Central

    Lou, Ning; Ma, Hong-Ling; Zhu, Bi-Ying; Zhong, Wen-Bin; Yan, Dao-Guang

    2016-01-01

    Oxsterol binding protein-related protein 4 (ORP4) is essential for cell proliferation, but the underlying mechanism is unclear. ORP4 is expressed as three variants, ORP4L, ORP4M and ORP4S. Here, we reported that silencing of ORP4L with specific small interfering RNA (siRNA) inhibited the proliferation of human cervical cancer cell lines C33A, HeLa and CaSki, the reverse effect being observed in ORP4L overexpressing cells. For molecular insight, we found that ORP4L maintained intracellular Ca2+ homeostasis. Through this mechanism, ORP4L activated nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT) activity and thus promoted expression of a gene cluster which supported cell proliferation. Of note, ORP4L sustained inositol-1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor 1 (IP3R1) expression at both mRNA and protein levels via Ca2+-dependent NFAT3 activation, which offered a mechanic explanation for the role of ORP4L intracellular Ca2+ homeostasis. Furthermore, ORP4L knockdown markedly inhibited tumor growth in a C33A cell xenograft mouse model. To conclude, our results reveal that ORP4L promotes cell proliferation through maintaining intracellular Ca2+ homeostasis. PMID:27588468

  3. Retinol binding protein-4 circulating levels were higher in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease vs. histologically normal liver from morbidly obese women.

    PubMed

    Terra, Ximena; Auguet, Teresa; Broch, Montserrat; Sabench, Fàtima; Hernández, Mercè; Pastor, Rosa M; Quesada, Isabel M; Luna, Anna; Aguilar, Carmen; del Castillo, Daniel; Richart, Cristóbal

    2013-01-01

    We aimed to analyze the retinol binding protein-4 (RBP4) messenger RNA (mRNA) expression profiles in adipose tissues and liver of morbidly obese (MO) women with or without nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), and to study the relationships with other pro- and anti-inflammatory adipokines in vivo and in vitro. We performed a cross-sectional analysis of subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT), visceral adipose tissue (VAT) and liver samples from four lean and 45 MO women with or without NAFLD by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and real-time reverse transcription-PCR. We also studied RBP4 expression in HepG2 hepatocytes under various inflammatory stimuli. Circulating RBP4 levels were higher in MO women, and specifically, in MO subjects with NAFLD compared with normal liver controls (lean and MO). RBP4 liver expression was higher in nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH)-moderate/severe than in NASHmild. Overall RBP4 gene expression was higher in liver than in adipose tissues. Among them, the higher expression corresponded to SAT. VAT expression was lower in the MO cohort. In HepG2, RBP4 mRNA expression was reduced by tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and increased by adiponectin treatment. The results obtained in MO women with NAFLD, brings up the use of RBP4 and other adipokines as a panel of noninvasive molecular biomarkers when NAFLD is suspected. Further studies are needed with other obesity groups. Copyright © 2012 The Obesity Society.

  4. An internal ribosome entry site element directs the synthesis of the 80 kDa isoforms of protein 4.1R

    PubMed Central

    Lospitao, Eva; Pérez-Ferreiro, Carmen M; Gosálbez, Altea; Alonso, Miguel A; Correas, Isabel

    2008-01-01

    . Conclusion Our study is the first demonstration of an internal ribosome entry site as a mechanism ensuring the production of 80 kDa isoforms of protein 4.1R. This mechanism might also account for the generation of 60 kDa isoforms of 4.1R from a downstream AUG3. Our results reveal an additional level of control to 4.1R gene expression pathways and will contribute to the understanding of the biology of proteins 4.1R and their homologues, comprising an ample family of proteins involved in cytoskeletal organization. PMID:19055807

  5. Activation of Mitochondrial Uncoupling Protein 4 and ATP-Sensitive Potassium Channel Cumulatively Decreases Superoxide Production in Insect Mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Slocińska, Malgorzata; Rosinski, Grzegorz; Jarmuszkiewicz, Wieslawa

    2016-01-01

    It has been evidenced that mitochondrial uncoupling protein 4 (UCP4) and ATP-regulated potassium channel (mKATP channel) of insect Gromphadorhina coqereliana mitochondria decrease superoxide anion production. We elucidated whether the two energy-dissipating systems work together on a modulation of superoxide level in cockroach mitochondria. Our data show that the simultaneous activation of UCP4 by palmitic acid and mKATP channel by pinacidil revealed a cumulative effect on weakening mitochondrial superoxide formation. The inhibition of UCP4 by GTP (and/or ATP) and mKATP channel by ATP elevated superoxide production. These results suggest a functional cooperation of both energy-dissipating systems in protection against oxidative stress in insects.

  6. Development and investigation of recombinant immunotoxin protein 4D5scFv-mCherry-PE(40).

    PubMed

    Shilova, O N; Souslova, E A; Pilunov, A M; Deyev, S M; Petrov, R V

    2016-11-01

    Development of agents for theranostics implies combining the targeting module, the effector module, and the detection module within the same complex or recombinant protein. We have constructed, isolated, and characterized the 4D5scFv-mCherry-PE(40) protein, which exhibits fluorescent properties and specifically binds to cancer cells expressing the HER2 receptor and reduces their viability. The ability of the obtained targeted antitumor agent 4D5scFv-mCherry-PE(40) to selectively stain the HER2-positive cells and its highly selective cytotoxicity against these cells make the obtained targeted recombinant protein 4D5scFv-mCherry-PE(40) a promising theranostic agent for the diagnostics and therapy of HER2-positive human tumors.

  7. Evidence that red blood cell protein p55 may participate in the skeleton-membrane linkage that involves protein 4.1 and glycophorin C.

    PubMed

    Alloisio, N; Dalla Venezia, N; Rana, A; Andrabi, K; Texier, P; Gilsanz, F; Cartron, J P; Delaunay, J; Chishti, A H

    1993-08-15

    Human erythrocyte p55 is a peripheral membrane protein that contains three distinct domains in its primary structure: an N-terminal domain, an SH3 motif, and a C-terminal guanylate kinase domain. We used naturally mutated red blood cells (RBCs) with primary genetic defects resulting in the absence of protein 4.1 (4.1[-] hereditary elliptocytosis) or glycophorin C (Leach elliptocytosis). The absence of either protein was associated with the absence of p55. On a stoichiometric basis, the reduction in glycophorin C (about 80%) was concomitant to the lack of p55 in RBCs devoid of protein 4.1. Similarly, the reduction of protein 4.1 (about 20%) was equivalent to the absence of p55 in RBCs devoid of glycophorin C. These correlations suggest that p55 is associated, in precise proportions, with the protein 4.1-glycophorin-C complex, linking the skeleton and the membrane. The protein 4.1-glycophorin-C cross-bridge is known to be critically important for the stability and mechanical properties of human RBC plasma membrane. Because isoforms of protein 4.1, glycophorin C, and p55 exist in many tissues, these results provide evidence of a linkage between the skeleton and the membrane that may have implications in many nonerythroid cells.

  8. Dual-function synthetic peptide derived from BMP4 for highly efficient tumor targeting and antiangiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Suk Hyun; Lee, Jue Yeon; Suh, Jin Sook; Park, Yoon Shin; Chung, Chong Pyoung; Park, Yoon Jeong

    2016-01-01

    Angiogenesis plays a critical role in the growth and metastasis of cancer, and growth factors released from cancer promote blood-vessel formation in the tumor microenvironment. The angiogenesis is accelerated via interactions of growth factors with the high-affinity receptors on cancer cells. In particular, heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs) on the surface of cancer cells have been shown to be important in many aspects of determining a tumor’s phenotype and development. Specifically, the regulation of the interactions between HSPGs and growth factors results in changes in tumor progression. A peptide with heparin-binding (HBP) activity has been developed and synthesized to inhibit tumor growth via the prevention of angiogenesis. We hypothesized that HBP could inhibit the interaction of growth factors and HSPGs on the surface of cancer cells, decrease paracrine signaling in endothelial cells (ECs), and finally decrease angiogenesis in the tumor microenvironment. In this study, we found that HBP had antiangiogenic effects in vitro and in vivo. The conditioned media obtained from a breast cancer cell line treated with HBP were used to culture human umbilical vein ECs (HUVECs) to evaluate the antiangiogenic effect of HBP on ECs. HBP effectively inhibited the migration, invasion, and tube formation of HUVECs in vitro. In addition, the expressions of angiogenesis-mediating factors, including ERK, FAK, and Akt, were considerably decreased. HBP also decreased the levels of invasive factors, including MMP2 and MMP9, secreted by the HUVECs. We demonstrated significant suppression of tumor growth in a breast cancer xenograft model and enhanced distribution of HBP at the site of tumors. Taken together, our results show that HBP has antiangiogenic effects on ECs, and suggest that it may serve as a potential antitumor agent through control of the tumor microenvironment. PMID:27695323

  9. The Akt inhibitor ISC-4 activates Prostate apoptosis response protein-4 and reduces colon tumor growth in a nude mouse model

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Arun K.; Kline, Christina L; Berg, Arthur; Amin, Shantu; Irby, Rosalyn B.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose Prostate apoptosis response protein-4 (Par-4) sensitizes cells to chemotherapy; however, Akt1 inactivates Par-4. Previously we showed that Par-4 overexpressing colon cancer cells responded more readily to 5-FU than did wild type counterparts. In this study we investigated: 1) the effects of the Akt inhibitor, phenylbutyl isoselenocyanate (ISC-4), on tumor growth in nude mice and 2) bystander effect of Par-4 overexpressing cells on wild type tumor growth. Experimental design Mice (80) were injected with wild type HT29 human colon cancer cells in the right flank. Forty of the mice were also injected in the left flank with HT29 cells engineered to overexpress Par-4. Mice were treated with 5-FU, ISC-4, a combination, or vehicle. Results ISC-4 reduced tumor growth, with or without 5-FU. When Par-4 overexpressing tumors were present, wild type tumors grew more slowly than when no Par-4 overexpressing tumors were present. The level of Par-4 protein as well as the Par-4 binding protein, GRP78, was increased in wild type cells growing in the same mouse as Par-4 overexpressing tumors compared to wild type tumors growing without Par-4 overexpressing tumors. Conclusions Par-4 overexpressing tumors exhibited a bystander effect on wild type tumors growing distally in the same mouse. This suggests that gene therapy need not achieve total penetration to have a positive effect on tumor treatment. Inhibition of Akt with ISC-4 inhibited tumor growth and had a greater effect on cells overexpressing Par-4. The data indicate ISC-4 alone or in combination with Par-4 can greatly reduce tumor growth. PMID:21555373

  10. Loss of Secreted Frizzled-Related Protein 4 Correlates with an Aggressive Phenotype and Predicts Poor Outcome in Ovarian Cancer Patients

    PubMed Central

    Nixdorf, Sheri; Ford, Caroline E.; Olivier, Jake; Caduff, Rosmarie; Scurry, James P.; Guertler, Rea; Hornung, Daniela; Mueller, Renato; Fink, Daniel A.; Hacker, Neville F.; Heinzelmann-Schwarz, Viola A.

    2012-01-01

    Background Activation of the Wnt signaling pathway is implicated in aberrant cellular proliferation in various cancers. In 40% of endometrioid ovarian cancers, constitutive activation of the pathway is due to oncogenic mutations in β-catenin or other inactivating mutations in key negative regulators. Secreted frizzled-related protein 4 (SFRP4) has been proposed to have inhibitory activity through binding and sequestering Wnt ligands. Methodology/Principal Findings We performed RT-qPCR and Western-blotting in primary cultures and ovarian cell lines for SFRP4 and its key downstream regulators activated β-catenin, β-catenin and GSK3β. SFRP4 was then examined by immunohistochemistry in a cohort of 721 patients and due to its proposed secretory function, in plasma, presenting the first ELISA for SFRP4. SFRP4 was most highly expressed in tubal epithelium and decreased with malignant transformation, both on RNA and on protein level, where it was even more profound in the membrane fraction (p<0.0001). SFRP4 was expressed on the protein level in all histotypes of ovarian cancer but was decreased from borderline tumors to cancers and with loss of cellular differentiation. Loss of membrane expression was an independent predictor of poor survival in ovarian cancer patients (p = 0.02 unadjusted; p = 0.089 adjusted), which increased the risk of a patient to die from this disease by the factor 1.8. Conclusions/Significance Our results support a role for SFRP4 as a tumor suppressor gene in ovarian cancers via inhibition of the Wnt signaling pathway. This has not only predictive implications but could also facilitate a therapeutic role using epigenetic targets. PMID:22363760

  11. Inhibition of HCV Replication by Oxysterol-Binding Protein-Related Protein 4 (ORP4) through Interaction with HCV NS5B and Alteration of Lipid Droplet Formation

    PubMed Central

    Wen, Yahong; Liu, Ziqing; Ridgway, Neale D.; Kao, C. Cheng; He, Johnny J.

    2013-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) RNA replication involves complex interactions among the 3’x RNA element within the HCV 3’ untranslated region, viral and host proteins. However, many of the host proteins remain unknown. In this study, we devised an RNA affinity chromatography /2D/MASS proteomics strategy and identified nine putative 3’ X-associated host proteins; among them is oxysterol-binding protein-related protein 4 (ORP4), a cytoplasmic receptor for oxysterols. We determined the relationship between ORP4 expression and HCV replication. A very low level of constitutive ORP4 expression was detected in hepatocytes. Ectopically expressed ORP4 was detected in the endoplasmic reticulum and inhibited luciferase reporter gene expression in HCV subgenomic replicon cells and HCV core expression in JFH-1-infected cells. Expression of ORP4S, an ORP4 variant that lacked the N-terminal pleckstrin-homology domain but contained the C-terminal oxysterol-binding domain also inhibited HCV replication, pointing to an important role of the oxysterol-binding domain in ORP4-mediated inhibition of HCV replication. ORP4 was found to associate with HCV NS5B and its expression led to inhibition of the NS5B activity. ORP4 expression had little effect on intracellular lipid synthesis and secretion, but it induced lipid droplet formation in the context of HCV replication. Taken together, these results demonstrate that ORP4 is a negative regulator of HCV replication, likely via interaction with HCV NS5B in the replication complex and regulation of intracellular lipid homeostasis. This work supports the important role of lipids and their metabolism in HCV replication and pathogenesis. PMID:24069433

  12. Protein 4.1R is Involved in the Transport of 5-Aminolevulinic Acid by Interaction with GATs in MEF Cells.

    PubMed

    Ning, Shuwei; Kang, Qiaozhen; Fan, Dandan; Liu, Jingjing; Xue, Chaoyue; Zhang, Xiaolin; Ding, Cong; Zhang, Jianying; Peng, Qian; Ji, Zhenyu

    2017-09-07

    5-aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA)-based photodynamic therapy (PDT) has been successfully used in the treatment of cancers. However, the mechanism of 5-ALA transportation into cancer cells is still not fully elucidated. Previous studies have confirmed that the efficiency of 5-ALA-PDT could be affected by the membrane skeleton protein 4.1R. In this study we investigated the role of 4.1R in the transport of 5-ALA into cells. Wild-type (4.1R(+/+) ) and 4.1R gene knockout (4.1R(-/-) ) mouse embryonic fibroblast (MEF) cells were incubated with 1 mM 5-ALA and different concentrations of specific inhibitors of GABA transporters GAT(1-3). Our results showed that the inhibition of GAT1 and GAT2 in particular markedly attenuated the intracellular PpIX production, reactive oxygen species (ROS) level and 5-ALA-induced photodamage. However, the inhibition of GAT3 did not show such effects. Further research showed that 4.1R(-/-) MEF cells had a lower expression of GAT1 and GAT2 than 4.1R(+/+) MEF cells. Additionally, 4.1R directly bound to GAT1 and GAT2. Taken together, GAT1 and GAT2 transporters are involved in the uptake of 5-ALA by the MEF cells. 4.1R plays an important role in transporting 5-ALA into cells via at least partly interaction with GAT1 and GAT2 transporters in 5-ALA-PDT. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  13. Nonstructural Protein 4 of Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus Modulates Cell Surface Swine Leukocyte Antigen Class I Expression by Downregulating β2-Microglobulin Transcription

    PubMed Central

    Qi, Pengfei; Liu, Ke; Wei, Jianchao; Li, Yuming; Li, Beibei; Shao, Donghua; Wu, Zhuanchang; Shi, Yuanyuan; Tong, Guangzhi

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is the causative agent of PRRS, which has important impacts on the pig industry. PRRSV infection results in disruption of the swine leukocyte antigen class I (SLA-I) antigen presentation pathway. In this study, highly pathogenic PRRSV (HP-PRRSV) infection inhibited transcription of the β2-microglobulin (β2M) gene (B2M) and reduced cellular levels of β2M, which forms a heterotrimeric complex with the SLA-I heavy chain and a variable peptide and plays a critical role in SLA-I antigen presentation. HP-PRRSV nonstructural protein 4 (Nsp4) was involved in the downregulation of β2M expression. Exogenous expression of Nsp4 downregulated β2M expression at both the mRNA and the protein level and reduced SLA-I expression on the cell surface. Nsp4 bound to the porcine B2M promoter and inhibited its transcriptional activity. Domain III of Nsp4 and the enhancer PAM element of the porcine B2M promoter were identified as essential for the interaction between Nsp4 and B2M. These findings demonstrate a novel mechanism whereby HP-PRRSV may modulate the SLA-I antigen presentation pathway and provide new insights into the functions of HP-PRRSV Nsp4. IMPORTANCE PRRSV modulates the host response by disrupting the SLA-I antigen presentation pathway. We show that HP-PRRSV downregulates SLA-I expression on the cell surface via transcriptional inhibition of B2M expression by viral Nsp4. The interaction between domain III of Nsp4 and the enhancer PAM element of the porcine B2M promoter is essential for inhibiting B2M transcription. These observations reveal a novel mechanism whereby HP-PRRSV may modulate SLA-I antigen presentation and provide new insights into the functions of viral Nsp4. PMID:28003480

  14. Collapsin response mediator protein 4 affects the number of tyrosine hydroxylase-immunoreactive neurons in the sexually dimorphic nucleus in female mice.

    PubMed

    Iwakura, Takashi; Sakoh, Miyuki; Tsutiya, Atsuhiro; Yamashita, Naoya; Ohtani, Akiko; Tsuda, Mumeko C; Ogawa, Sonoko; Tsukahara, Shinji; Nishihara, Masugi; Shiga, Takashi; Goshima, Yoshio; Kato, Tomohiro; Ohtani-Kaneko, Ritsuko

    2013-07-01

    In the sexually dimorphic anteroventral periventricular nucleus (AVPV) of the hypothalamus, females have a greater number of tyrosine hydroxylase-immunoreactive (TH-ir) and kisspeptin-immunoreactive (kisspeptin-ir) neurons than males. In this study, we used proteomics analysis and gene-deficient mice to identify proteins that regulate the number of TH-ir and kisspeptin-ir neurons in the AVPV. Analysis of protein expressions in the rat AVPV on postnatal day 1 (PD1; the early phase of sex differentiation) using two-dimensional fluorescence difference gel electrophoresis followed by MALDI-TOF-MS identified collapsin response mediator protein 4 (CRMP4) as a protein exhibiting sexually dimorphic expression. Interestingly, this sexually differential expressions of CRMP4 protein and mRNA in the AVPV was not detected on PD6. Prenatal testosterone exposure canceled the sexual difference in the expression of Crmp4 mRNA in the rat AVPV. Next, we used CRMP4-knockout (CRMP4-KO) mice to determine the in vivo function of CRMP4 in the AVPV. Crmp4 knockout did not change the number of kisspeptin-ir neurons in the adult AVPV in either sex. However, the number of TH-ir neurons was increased in the AVPV of adult female CRMP4-KO mice as compared with the adult female wild-type mice. During development, no significant difference in the number of TH-ir neurons was detected between sexes or genotypes on embryonic day 15, but a female-specific increase in TH-ir neurons was observed in CRMP4-KO mice on PD1, when the sex difference was not yet apparent in wild-type mice. These results indicate that CRMP4 regulates the number of TH-ir cell number in the female AVPV.

  15. Amplified pathogenic actions of angiotensin II in cysteine-rich LIM-only protein 4-negative mouse hearts.

    PubMed

    Straubinger, Julia; Boldt, Karsten; Kuret, Anna; Deng, Lisa; Krattenmacher, Diana; Bork, Nadja; Desch, Matthias; Feil, Robert; Feil, Susanne; Nemer, Mona; Ueffing, Marius; Ruth, Peter; Just, Steffen; Lukowski, Robert

    2017-04-01

    LIM domain proteins have been identified as essential modulators of cardiac biology and pathology; however, it is unclear which role the cysteine-rich LIM-only protein (CRP)4 plays in these processes. In studying CRP4 mutant mice, we found that their hearts developed normally, but lack of CRP4 exaggerated multiple parameters of the cardiac stress response to the neurohormone angiotensin II (Ang II). Aiming to dissect the molecular details, we found a link between CRP4 and the cardioprotective cGMP pathway, as well as a multiprotein complex comprising well-known hypertrophy-associated factors. Significant enrichment of the cysteine-rich intestinal protein (CRIP)1 in murine hearts lacking CRP4, as well as severe cardiac defects and premature death of CRIP1 and CRP4 morphant zebrafish embryos, further support the notion that depleting CRP4 is incompatible with a proper cardiac development and function. Together, amplified Ang II signaling identified CRP4 as a novel antiremodeling factor regulated, at least to some extent, by cardiac cGMP.-Straubinger, J., Boldt, K., Kuret, A., Deng, L., Krattenmacher, D., Bork, N., Desch, M., Feil, R., Feil, S., Nemer, M., Ueffing, M., Ruth, P., Just, S., Lukowski, R. Amplified pathogenic actions of angiotensin II in cysteine-rich LIM-only protein 4 negative mouse hearts.

  16. Fatty Acid-Binding Protein 4 (FABP4): Pathophysiological Insights and Potent Clinical Biomarker of Metabolic and Cardiovascular Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Furuhashi, Masato; Saitoh, Shigeyuki; Shimamoto, Kazuaki; Miura, Tetsuji

    2014-01-01

    Over the past decade, evidences of an integration of metabolic and inflammatory pathways, referred to as metaflammation in several aspects of metabolic syndrome, have been accumulating. Fatty acid-binding protein 4 (FABP4), also known as adipocyte FABP (A-FABP) or aP2, is mainly expressed in adipocytes and macrophages and plays an important role in the development of insulin resistance and atherosclerosis in relation to metaflammation. Despite lack of a typical secretory signal peptide, FABP4 has been shown to be released from adipocytes in a non-classical pathway associated with lipolysis, possibly acting as an adipokine. Elevation of circulating FABP4 levels is associated with obesity, insulin resistance, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, cardiac dysfunction, atherosclerosis, and cardiovascular events. Furthermore, ectopic expression and function of FABP4 in several types of cells and tissues have been recently demonstrated. Here, we discuss both the significant role of FABP4 in pathophysiological insights and its usefulness as a biomarker of metabolic and cardiovascular diseases. PMID:25674026

  17. The Relationship of Retinol Binding Protein 4 to Changes in Insulin Resistance and Cardiometabolic Risk in Overweight Black Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Graham, Timothy E; Dolan, Lawrence M.; Daniels, Stephen R.; Goodman, Eric R.; Kahn, Barbara B.

    2008-01-01

    Objective To assess, among overweight non-Hispanic black adolescents the relationship of changes in plasma retinol binding protein 4 (RBP4) over three years to changes in insulin resistance (IR) and four associated cardiometabolic risks. Design Nested, retrospective study of 51 overweight, post-pubertal non-Hispanic black participants in the Princeton School District Study. Participants were in the top (worsening IR) or bottom (improved IR) quartile for 3-year change in IR. RBP4 was measured by quantitative western blot using frozen plasma. Regression analyses adjusted for age, gender, adiposity (baseline and change). Three measures of adiposity were assessed (waist circumference, BMI, weight) in separate regression models. Results RBP4 increased in one-third (N=17). In logistic regression analyses, increased RBP4 was associated with significantly higher odds of worsening as opposed to improved IR independent of age, gender, or adiposity. Odds ratios were 5.6 (weight, p=0.024), 6.0 (BMI, p=0.025) and 7.4 (waist circumference, p=0.015). Initial RBP4 (β=0.81,p=0.005) and Δ RBP4 (β=0.56, p=0.046) also predicted Δ triglycerides, but not Δ HDL-cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol or fibrinogen. Conclusion This retrospective cohort study provides evidence that RBP4 may be a mechanism through which obesity influences insulin resistance and hypertriglyceridemia in overweight post-pubertal black youth and suggests utility of RBP4 as a biomarker of risk. PMID:18783798

  18. Suppression of Poly(rC)-Binding Protein 4 (PCBP4) reduced cisplatin resistance in human maxillary cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Ito, Yumi; Narita, Norihiko; Nomi, Nozomi; Sugimoto, Chizuru; Takabayashi, Tetsuji; Yamada, Takechiyo; Karaya, Kazuhiro; Matsumoto, Hideki; Fujieda, Shigeharu

    2015-01-01

    Cisplatin plays an important role in the therapy for human head and neck cancers. However, cancer cells develop cisplatin resistance, leading to difficulty in treatment and poor prognosis. To analyze cisplatin-resistant mechanisms, a cisplatin-resistant cell line, IMC-3CR, was established from the IMC-3 human maxillary cancer cell line. Flow cytometry revealed that, compared with IMC-3 cells, cisplatin more dominantly induced cell cycle G2/M arrest rather than apoptosis in IMC-3CR cells. That fact suggests that IMC-3CR cells avoid cisplatin-induced apoptosis through induction of G2/M arrest, which allows cancer cells to repair damaged DNA and survive. In the present study, we specifically examined Poly(rC)-Binding Protein 4 (PCBP4), which reportedly induces G2/M arrest. Results showed that suppression of PCBP4 by RNAi reduced cisplatin-induced G2/M arrest and enhanced apoptosis in IMC-3CR cells, resulting in the reduction of cisplatin resistance. In contrast, overexpression of PCBP4 in IMC-3 cells induced G2/M arrest after cisplatin treatment and enhanced cisplatin resistance. We revealed that PCBP4 combined with Cdc25A and suppressed the expression of Cdc25A, resulting in G2/M arrest. PCBP4 plays important roles in the induction of cisplatin resistance in human maxillary cancers. PCBP4 is a novel molecular target for the therapy of head and neck cancers, especially cisplatin-resistant cancers. PMID:26196957

  19. Sorting Nexin 27 Interacts with Multidrug Resistance-associated Protein 4 (MRP4) and Mediates Internalization of MRP4*

    PubMed Central

    Hayashi, Hisamitsu; Naoi, Sotaro; Nakagawa, Takayuki; Nishikawa, Toru; Fukuda, Hiroyuki; Imajoh-Ohmi, Shinobu; Kondo, Ayano; Kubo, Kiyotaka; Yabuki, Takashi; Hattori, Asami; Hirouchi, Masakazu; Sugiyama, Yuichi

    2012-01-01

    Multidrug resistance-associated protein 4 (MRP4/ABCC4) makes a vital contribution to the bodily distribution of drugs and endogenous compounds because of its cellular efflux abilities. However, little is known about the mechanism regulating its cell surface expression. MRP4 has a PDZ-binding motif, which is a potential sequence that modulates the membrane expression of MRP4 via interaction with PDZ adaptor proteins. To investigate this possible relationship, we performed GST pull-down assays and subsequent analysis with matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry. This method identified sorting nexin 27 (SNX27) as the interacting PDZ adaptor protein with a PDZ-binding motif of MRP4. Its interaction was confirmed by a coimmunoprecipitation study using HEK293 cells. Knockdown of SNX27 by siRNA in HEK293 cells raised MRP4 expression on the plasma membrane, increased the extrusion of 6-[14C]mercaptopurine, an MRP4 substrate, and conferred resistance against 6-[14C]mercaptopurine. Cell surface biotinylation studies indicated that the inhibition of MRP4 internalization was responsible for these results. Immunocytochemistry and cell surface biotinylation studies using COS-1 cells showed that SNX27 localized to both the early endosome and the plasma membrane. These data suggest that SNX27 interacts with MRP4 near the plasma membrane and promotes endocytosis of MRP4 and thereby negatively regulates its cell surface expression and transport function. PMID:22411990

  20. RBFOX2 Promotes Protein 4.1R Exon 16 Selection via U1 snRNP Recruitment

    PubMed Central

    Ou, Alexander C.; Park, Jennie; Yu, Faye; Yu, Brian; Lee, Angela; Yang, Guang; Zhou, Anyu; Benz, Edward J.

    2012-01-01

    The erythroid differentiation-specific splicing switch of protein 4.1R exon 16, which encodes a spectrin/actin-binding peptide critical for erythrocyte membrane stability, is modulated by the differentiation-induced splicing factor RBFOX2. We have now characterized the mechanism by which RBFOX2 regulates exon 16 splicing through the downstream intronic element UGCAUG. Exon 16 possesses a weak 5′ splice site (GAG/GTTTGT), which when strengthened to a consensus sequence (GAG/GTAAGT) leads to near-total exon 16 inclusion. Impaired RBFOX2 binding reduces exon 16 inclusion in the context of the native weak 5′ splice site, but not the engineered strong 5′ splice site, implying that RBFOX2 achieves its effect by promoting utilization of the weak 5′ splice site. We further demonstrate that RBFOX2 increases U1 snRNP recruitment to the weak 5′ splice site through direct interaction between its C-terminal domain (CTD) and the zinc finger region of U1C and that the CTD is required for the effect of RBFOX2 on exon 16 splicing. Our data suggest a novel mechanism for exon 16 5′ splice site activation in which the binding of RBFOX2 to downstream intronic splicing enhancers stabilizes the pre-mRNA–U1 snRNP complex through interactions with U1C. PMID:22083953

  1. Retinol Binding Protein 4 in children with Inflammatory Bowel Disease: a negative correlation with the disease activity.

    PubMed

    Roma, E; Krini, M; Hantzi, E; Sakka, S; Panayiotou, I; Margeli, A; Papassotiriou, I; Kanaka-Gantenbein, C

    2012-10-01

    Retinol Binding Protein-4 (RBP-4), the action of which was initially thought to be only the transport of vitamin A, is a major circulating adipocytokine involved in the inflammation. We evaluated the serum RBP-4 levels in children with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and correlated them with transthyretin (TTR), inflammation markers, disease activity, and body mass index (BMI). In 41 children of mean age 11.9 ± 3.6 years (range 5-17.7 y) with IBD (19 with Crohn's disease (CD) and 22 with Ulcerative colitis (UC) serum RBP-4, TTR, Amyloid A (SAA), C-Reactive Protein (CRP), Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate (ESR), disease activity and BMI were prospectively determined and compared with those of 42 matched controls. No difference in the RBP-4 and TTR serum levels, between patients and controls as well as between active and remission state of the disease was noticed. A negative correlation of serum RBP-4 with the disease activity, SAA and ESR and a positive correlation with TTR was found, but no significant correlation with CRP or BMI was found. Inflammation markers were significantly increased in patients compared to controls and had a positive correlation with the disease activity. RBP-4 negatively correlated with disease activity of children with IBD probably indicating a protective anti-inflammatory mechanism of action in addition to transport of vitamin A.

  2. Acute-phase protein α1-antitrypsin--a novel regulator of angiopoietin-like protein 4 transcription and secretion.

    PubMed

    Frenzel, Eileen; Wrenger, Sabine; Immenschuh, Stephan; Koczulla, Rembert; Mahadeva, Ravi; Deeg, H Joachim; Dinarello, Charles A; Welte, Tobias; Marcondes, A Mario Q; Janciauskiene, Sabina

    2014-06-01

    The angiopoietin-like protein 4 (angptl4, also known as peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor [PPAR]γ-induced angiopoietin-related protein) is a multifunctional protein associated with acute-phase response. The mechanisms accounting for the increase in angptl4 expression are largely unknown. This study shows that human α1-antitrypsin (A1AT) upregulates expression and release of angplt4 in human blood adherent mononuclear cells and in primary human lung microvascular endothelial cells in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. Mononuclear cells treated for 1 h with A1AT (from 0.1 to 4 mg/ml) increased mRNA of angptl4 from 2- to 174-fold, respectively, relative to controls. In endothelial cells, the maximal effect on angptl4 expression was achieved at 8 h with 2 mg/ml A1AT (11-fold induction versus controls). In 10 emphysema patients receiving A1AT therapy (Prolastin), plasma angptl4 levels were higher relative to patients without therapy (nanograms per milliliter, mean [95% confidence interval] 127.1 [99.5-154.6] versus 76.8 [54.8-98.8], respectively, p = 0.045) and correlated with A1AT levels. The effect of A1AT on angptl4 expression was significantly diminished in cells pretreated with a specific inhibitor of ERK1/2 activation (UO126), irreversible and selective PPARγ antagonist (GW9662), or genistein, a ligand for PPARγ. GW9662 did not alter the ability of A1AT to induce ERK1/2 phosphorylation, suggesting that PPARγ is a critical mediator in the A1AT-driven angptl4 expression. In contrast, the forced accumulation of HIF-1α, an upregulator of angptl4 expression, enhanced the effect of A1AT. Thus, acute-phase protein A1AT is a physiological regulator of angptl4, another acute-phase protein.

  3. Human epididymis protein 4 immunostaining of malignant ascites differentiates cancer of Müllerian origin from gastrointestinal cancer.

    PubMed

    Stiekema, Anna; Van de Vijver, Koen K; Boot, Henk; Broeks, Annegien; Korse, Catharina M; van Driel, Willemien J; Kenter, Gemma G; Lok, Christianne A R

    2017-03-01

    An accurate diagnosis of cancer of Müllerian origin is required before the initiation of treatment. An overlap in clinical presentation and cytological, histological, or imaging studies with other nongynecological tumors does occur. Therefore, immunocytochemistry markers are used to determine tumor origin. Human epididymis protein 4 (HE4) is overexpressed in tissue of epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC). It has shown to be a sensitive and specific serum marker for EOC and to be of value for the differentiation between EOC and ovarian metastases of gastrointestinal origin. The objective of the current study was to evaluate HE4 immunocytochemistry in malignant ascites for differentiation between cancer of Müllerian origin, including EOC, and adenocarcinomas of the gastrointestinal tract. Cytological specimens of 115 different adenocarcinomas (45 EOCs, 46 cases of gastric cancer, and 24 cases of colorectal cancer) were stained for HE4, paired box 8 (PAX8), and other specific markers. 91% of the ascites samples from patients with EOC stained for both HE4 and PAX8. The 4 samples without HE4 staining were a clear cell carcinoma, a low-grade serous adenocarcinoma, an undifferentiated adenocarcinoma, and a neuroendocrine carcinoma. All high-grade serous adenocarcinomas (n = 37, 100%) stained with HE4, compared with 94% that stained positively for PAX8. In cases of gastric or colorectal cancer, 25% and 21% of cases, respectively, stained positive for HE4. No PAX8 staining was observed in colorectal or gastric adenocarcinomas. HE4 staining in ascites is feasible and appears to have a high sensitivity for high-grade serous ovarian cancer. HE4 is a useful addition to the current panel of immunocytochemistry markers for the diagnosis of EOC and for differentiation with gastrointestinal adenocarcinomas. Cancer Cytopathol 2017;125:197-204. © 2016 American Cancer Society. © 2017 American Cancer Society.

  4. Retinol binding protein 4 concentrations are influenced by renal function in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Masaki, Takayuki; Anan, Futoshi; Tsubone, Tetsuo; Gotoh, Koro; Chiba, Seiichi; Katsuragi, Isao; Nawata, Tomoko; Kakuma, Tetsuya; Yoshimatsu, Hironobu

    2008-10-01

    Retinol binding protein 4 (RBP-4), a newly discovered adipocytokine, has been involved in glucose and lipid metabolism. We assess the impacts of renal function on plasma RBP-4 levels in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus with a wide range of nephropathy. Plasma RBP-4 levels were measured using the enzyme immunoassay method in 38 type 2 diabetes mellitus patients with nephropathy and were compared with those in 20 patients with normoalbuminuria. The levels of plasma RBP-4 were increased by 1.4- and 3.3-fold in patients with renal disease with macroalbuminuria (P = .04) and end-stage renal disease (plasma creatinine level >2.0 mg/dL) (P < .0001) compared with those in patients with normal renal function. In addition, RBP-4 levels were correlated with the creatinine level and 24-hour creatinine clearance (Ccr) on simple and multiple regression analyses in all patients. Furthermore, in patients having Ccr of more than 60 mL/min, RBP-4 levels were correlated with the homeostasis model assessment (HOMA)-r index and triglyceride (TGL) both on simple and multiple regression analyses. Interestingly, in patients having Ccr of less than 60 mL/min, RBP-4 levels were not correlated with the HOMA-r index and TGL on simple regression analysis. The RBP-4 concentrations are influenced by renal function in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients. In addition, RBP-4 levels were correlated with HOMA-r and TGL in diabetic subjects without end-stage renal disease.

  5. Effect of rosiglitazone on visfatin and retinol-binding protein-4 plasma concentrations in HIV-positive patients.

    PubMed

    Haider, D G; Schindler, K; Mittermayer, F; Müller, M; Nowotny, P; Rieger, A; Luger, A; Ludvik, B; Wolzt, M

    2007-04-01

    Thiazolidinediones (TZD) may improve insulin resistance in patients with diabetes and HIV. The novel adipocytokines visfatin and retinol-binding protein-4 (RBP-4) have been proposed to influence the development of impaired glucose tolerance. The impact of TZD on these cytokines is yet unknown. In this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled parallel group study, 37 lean HIV-positive subjects aged 19-50 years were treated with 8 mg/day rosiglitazone (n=20) or placebo (n=17) for 6 months. Insulin sensitivity was estimated from the homeostasis model assessment (HOMA) index. Fasting visfatin, RBP-4, leptin, and adiponectin plasma concentrations were analyzed by immunoassays. Rosiglitazone had no effect on impaired insulin sensitivity, but increased median plasma visfatin from 6.2 ng/ml (95% CI: 5.9; 6.5) to 13.7 ng/ml (12.6; 19.1) (P<0.001) and adiponectin from 3.2 ng/ml (2.2; 4.0) to 4.0 ng/ml (3.3; 8.5; P<0.001). RBP-4 was lowered from 21.0 ng/ml (19.6; 23.1) to 16.3 ng/ml (15.2; 17.0; P<0.001), and leptin concentrations were unchanged. Adipocytokine concentrations were stable in subjects receiving placebo, where a deterioration in insulin sensitivity was detectable (P<0.05). Changes in visfatin and RBP-4 were correlated in subjects receiving rosiglitazone (r=-0.64, P<0.01) but not placebo (r=0.12, P=0.15). TZD treatment affects circulating adipocytokine concentrations in subjects with HIV. Reductions in RBP-4 and increases in visfatin may contribute to the pharmacodynamic action of TZD on glucose homeostasis. Quantification of adipocytokines might be useful to assess TZD treatment effectiveness in insulin-resistant subjects with HIV.

  6. Increase in cell-surface localization of parathyroid hormone receptor by cytoskeletal protein 4.1G

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    The cell-surface localization of GPCRs (G-protein-coupled receptors) has emerged as one of critical factors of the GPCR-mediated signal transduction. It has been reported that the C-termini of GPCRs contain the sequences for sorting the receptors to cell surface. In the present study, we have searched for proteins that interact with the C-terminus of PTH (parathyroid hormone)/PTH-related protein receptor (PTHR) by using the yeast two-hybrid system, and identified a cytoskeletal protein 4.1G (generaltype 4.1 protein) as an interactant with the C-terminus. Immunohistochemical study revealed that both PTHR and 4.1G were co-localized on plasma membranes, when they were transiently expressed in COS-7 cells. When 4.1G or the C-terminal domain of 4.1G (4.1G-CTD), a dominant-negative form of 4.1G, was co-expressed with PTHR in COS-7 cells, 4.1G, but not 4.1G-CTD, facilitated the cell-surface localization of PTHR, determined by cell-surface biotinylation assay. PTH-(1–34) caused phosphorylation of ERK (extracellular-signal-regulated kinase) 1/2 in PTHR-expressed cells mainly mediated through EGF (epidermal growth factor) receptor. The phosphorylation was enhanced by the expression of 4.1G, but not 4.1G-CTD. PTH-(1–34) elevated [Ca2+]i (intracellular Ca2+ concentration) independent of EGF receptor activation, and the elevation was enhanced by the expression of 4.1G, but not 4.1G-CTD. These data indicate that 4.1G facilitates the cell-surface localization of PTHR through its interaction with the C-terminus of the receptor, resulting in the potentiation of PTHR-mediated signal transduction. PMID:16029167

  7. Metformin reduces lipid accumulation in macrophages by inhibiting FOXO1-mediated transcription of fatty acid-binding protein 4

    SciTech Connect

    Song, Jun; Ren, Pingping; Zhang, Lin; Wang, Xing Li; Chen, Li; Shen, Ying H.

    2010-02-26

    Objective: The accumulation of lipids in macrophages contributes to the development of atherosclerosis. Strategies to reduce lipid accumulation in macrophages may have therapeutic potential for preventing and treating atherosclerosis and cardiovascular complications. The antidiabetic drug metformin has been reported to reduce lipid accumulation in adipocytes. In this study, we examined the effects of metformin on lipid accumulation in macrophages and investigated the mechanisms involved. Methods and results: We observed that metformin significantly reduced palmitic acid (PA)-induced intracellular lipid accumulation in macrophages. Metformin promoted the expression of carnitine palmitoyltransferase I (CPT-1), while reduced the expression of fatty acid-binding protein 4 (FABP4) which was involved in PA-induced lipid accumulation. Quantitative real-time PCR showed that metformin regulates FABP4 expression at the transcriptional level. We identified forkhead transcription factor FOXO1 as a positive regulator of FABP4 expression. Inhibiting FOXO1 expression with FOXO1 siRNA significantly reduced basal and PA-induced FABP4 expression. Overexpression of wild-type FOXO1 and constitutively active FOXO1 significantly increased FABP4 expression, whereas dominant negative FOXO1 dramatically decreased FABP4 expression. Metformin reduced FABP4 expression by promoting FOXO1 nuclear exclusion and subsequently inhibiting its activity. Conclusions: Taken together, these results suggest that metformin reduces lipid accumulation in macrophages by repressing FOXO1-mediated FABP4 transcription. Thus, metformin may have a protective effect against lipid accumulation in macrophages and may serve as a therapeutic agent for preventing and treating atherosclerosis in metabolic syndrome.

  8. Elevated Serum Triglyceride and Retinol-Binding Protein 4 Levels Associated with Fructose-Sweetened Beverages in Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Te-Fu; Lin, Wei-Ting; Chen, Yi-Ling; Huang, Hsiao-Ling; Yang, Wei-Zeng; Lee, Chun-Ying; Chen, Meng-Hsueh; Wang, Tsu-Nai; Huang, Meng-Chuan; Chiu, Yu-Wen; Huang, Chun-Chi; Tsai, Sharon; Lin, Chih-Lung; Lee, Chien-Hung

    2014-01-01

    Background The metabolic effect of fructose in sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB) has been linked to de novo lipogenesis and uric acid (UA) production. Objectives This study investigated the biological effects of SSB consumption on serum lipid profiles and retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4) among Taiwanese adolescents. Methods We evaluated the anthropometric parameters and biochemical outcomes of 200 representative adolescents (98 boys and 102 girls) who were randomly selected from a large-scale cross-sectional study. Data were analyzed using multiple regression models adjusted for covariates. Results Increased SSB consumption was associated with increased waist and hip circumferences, body mass index (BMI) values and serum UA, triglyceride (TG) and RBP4 levels. Adolescents who consumed >500 ml/day of beverages half-to-heavily sweetened with high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS) exhibited TG and RBP4 levels 22.7 mg/dl and 13.92 ng/ml higher than non-drinkers, respectively. HFCS drinkers with hyperuricemia had higher TG levels than HFCS drinkers with normal UA levels (98.6 vs. 81.6 mg/dl). The intake of HFCS-rich SSBs and high value of BMI (≥24) interactively reinforced RBP4 levels among overweight/obese adolescents. Circulating RBP4 levels were significantly correlated with weight-related outcomes and TG and UA concentration among HFCS drinkers (r = 0.253 to 0.404), but not among non-drinkers. Conclusions High-quantity HFCS-rich beverage consumption is associated with higher TG and RBP4 levels. Hyperuricemia is likely to intensify the influence of HFCS-rich SSB intake on elevated TG levels, and in overweight and obese adolescents, high BMI may modify the action of fructose on higher circulating levels of RBP4. PMID:24475021

  9. Characterization of human reflex tear proteome reveals high expression of lacrimal proline-rich protein 4 (PRR4).

    PubMed

    Perumal, Natarajan; Funke, Sebastian; Wolters, Dominik; Pfeiffer, Norbert; Grus, Franz H

    2015-10-01

    In-depth studies on the proteome of reflex tears are still inadequate. Hence, further studies on this subject will unravel the key proteins which are conjectured to possess vital functions in the protection of the ocular surface. Therefore, this study investigated the differences in the expression levels in proteome of reflex compared to basal tears. Basal (n = 10) and reflex (n = 10) tear samples from healthy subjects were collected employing the capillary method, subsequently pooled and the proteomes were characterized employing 1DE combined with LC-ESI-MS/MS strategy for label-free quantitative (LFQ) analysis. The differentially expressed proteins were validated by 2DE combined with LC-ESI-MS/MS and targeted-MS approach called accurate inclusion mass screening (AIMS) strategies. The analysis of the reflex tear proteome demonstrated increased abundance in proline-rich protein 4 (PRR4) and zymogen granule protein 16 homolog B (ZG16B) for the first time. Other abundant lacrimal proteins, e.g. lactotransferrin and lysozyme remained constant. Predominantly, the lacrimal gland-specific PRR4 represents the major increased protein in reflex tears in an attempt to wash out irritants that come into contact with the eye. Conversely, decreased abundance in Ig alpha-1 chain C, polymeric immunoglobulin receptor, cystatin S/SN, clusterin and mammaglobin were observed. This study had further unraveled the intricate proteome regulation during reflex tearing, especially the potential role of PRR4, which may be the key player in the protection and maintenance of dynamic balance of the ocular surface. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Fatty acid binding protein 4 expression marks a population of adipocyte progenitors in white and brown adipose tissues.

    PubMed

    Shan, Tizhong; Liu, Weiyi; Kuang, Shihuan

    2013-01-01

    Adipose tissues regulate metabolism, reproduction, and life span. The development and growth of adipose tissue are due to increases of both adipocyte cell size and cell number; the latter is mediated by adipocyte progenitors. Various markers have been used to identify either adipocyte progenitors or mature adipocytes. The fatty acid binding protein 4 (FABP4), commonly known as adipocyte protein 2 (aP2), has been extensively used as a marker for differentiated adipocytes. However, whether aP2 is expressed in adipogenic progenitors is controversial. Using Cre/LoxP-based cell lineage tracing in mice, we have identified a population of aP2-expressing progenitors in the stromal vascular fraction (SVF) of both white and brown adipose tissues. The aP2-lineage progenitors reside in the adipose stem cell niche and express adipocyte progenitor markers, including CD34, Sca1, Dlk1, and PDGFRα. When isolated and grown in culture, the aP2-expressing SVF cells proliferate and differentiate into adipocytes upon induction. Conversely, ablation of the aP2 lineage greatly reduces the adipogenic potential of SVF cells. When grafted into wild-type mice, the aP2-lineage progenitors give rise to adipose depots in recipient mice. Therefore, the expression of aP2 is not limited to mature adipocytes, but also marks a pool of undifferentiated progenitors associated with the vasculature of adipose tissues. Our finding adds to the repertoire of adipose progenitor markers and points to a new regulator of adipose plasticity.

  11. Circulating retinol-binding protein-4, insulin sensitivity, insulin secretion, and insulin disposition index in obese and nonobese subjects.

    PubMed

    Broch, Montserrat; Vendrell, Joan; Ricart, Wifredo; Richart, Cristóbal; Fernández-Real, José-Manuel

    2007-07-01

    Recent investigations disclosed an upregulation of retinol-binding protein-4 (RBP4) in the adipose tissue of several insulin-resistant mouse models and increased serum RBP4 concentration in subjects with obesity and type 2 diabetes in association with insulin resistance. There is some experimental evidence that RBP4 also could been linked to insulin secretion. We aimed to evaluate insulin secretion, insulin sensitivity, insulin disposition index (minimal model analysis), and circulating RBP4 (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) in nondiabetic men with a wide range of obesity (n = 107). Serum RBP4 concentration was nonsignificantly different among lean, overweight, and obese subjects. Circulating RBP4 was not associated with age, BMI, waist-to-hip ratio, or metabolic parameters, including insulin sensitivity (r = -0.03, P = 0.6). On the contrary, circulating RBP4 was negatively associated with insulin secretion, especially in obese subjects (r = -0.48, P = 0.007), in whom RBP4 also was linked to insulin disposition index (r = -0.44, P = 0.01). On multiple regression analyses to predict insulin secretion (acute insulin response [AIR(g)]), insulin sensitivity was the only factor that contributed to 17% of AIR(g) variance in nonobese subjects. In obese subjects, however, RBP4 emerged as an independent factor that contributed independently to AIR(g) variance (23%). Our results suggest that oversecretion of RBP4 may negatively affect beta-cell function directly or by preventing the binding of transthyretin to its receptor. These mechanisms could be behind the association between increased circulating RBP4 and type 2 diabetes. RBP4 could be one signal from insulin-resistant tissues that impacts on beta-cell secretion.

  12. Adipose tissue angiopoietin-like protein 4 messenger RNA changes with altered energy balance in lactating Holstein cows.

    PubMed

    Koltes, D A; Spurlock, D M

    2012-11-01

    Negative energy balance at the onset of lactation is unfavorably associated with fitness traits in high-producing dairy cows. Angiopoietin-like protein 4 (ANGPTL4) is an adipokine that has been associated with the regulation of lipid metabolism through the inhibition of lipoprotein lipase activity and regulation of lipolysis. Expression of ANGPTL4 messenger RNA (mRNA) increases during early lactation, but its regulation with changing energy status is currently unknown. Accordingly, the objective of this study was to determine whether ANGPTL4 mRNA abundance is responsive to declining energy balance induced by the transition from pregnancy to lactation, feed restriction, and GH administration in lactating dairy cows. The mRNA abundance of leptin, adiponectin, and adiponectin receptor 2 were also measured to compare adipokine mRNA profiles during changes in energy metabolism. Repeated adipose tissue biopsies were taken from different cows during transition from late pregnancy to lactation (n = 26), feed restriction (n = 19), and GH administration (n = 20). As expected, milk yield increased with the onset of lactation and GH administration (P < 0.01) but declined during feed restriction. Energy balance declined in each experiment, resulting in negative energy balance at the onset of lactation and after feed restriction. Abundance of ANGPTL4 mRNA expression increased 2- to 6-fold with declining energy balance in each experiment. Leptin mRNA declined with feed restriction, and adiponectin mRNA decreased with the onset of lactation. The consistency and magnitude of the increase in ANGPTL4 mRNA across multiple models of altered energy balance identifies it as an adipokine that is uniquely responsive to changes in energy balance in the lactating dairy cow. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Inflammation increases plasma angiopoietin-like protein 4 in patients with the metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Tjeerdema, Nathanja; Georgiadi, Anastasia; Jonker, Jacqueline T; van Glabbeek, Marjolijn; Dehnavi, Reza Alizadeh; Tamsma, Jouke T; Smit, Johannes W A; Kersten, Sander; Rensen, Patrick C N

    2014-01-01

    Background Angiopoietin-like protein 4 (ANGPTL4) inhibits lipoprotein lipase and associates with dyslipidemia. The expression of ANGPTL4 is regulated by free fatty acids (FFA) that activate lipid-sensing peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs), but FFA can also activate pattern recognition receptors including Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) in macrophages. Objective To assess whether systemic low-grade inflammation is a determinant for plasma ANGPTL4 levels in patients with the metabolic syndrome (MetS) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Design We studied 335 male participants: healthy controls (Controls), patients with the MetS without inflammation (MetS−I) and with low-grade inflammation (MetS+I), and patients with T2DM. All patients without diabetes included in the present study were initially matched for waist circumference. In plasma, ANGPTL4, C reactive protein (CRP) and metabolic parameters were determined. Underlying mechanisms were examined using human macrophages in vitro. Results As compared with Controls, plasma ANGPTL4 levels were increased in patients with MetS−I, MetS+I, and T2DM. Furthermore, ANGPTL4 was increased in T2DM compared with MetS−I. In fact, plasma CRP correlated positively with plasma ANGPTL4. In vitro studies showed that TLR 3/4 activation largely increased the expression and release of ANGPTL4 by macrophages. Conclusions Plasma ANGPTL4 levels in humans are predicted by CRP, a marker of inflammation, and ANGPTL4 expression by macrophages is increased by inflammatory stimuli. PMID:25512873

  14. [Selective regulation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors on fatty acid binding protein-4 in human syncytiotrophoblast cells].

    PubMed

    Li, Yuan; Gu, Hang

    2012-10-01

    To observe the selective regulation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPAR) on fatty acid binding protein-4 (FABP4) in human syncytiotrophoblasts. Cultivate normal human syncytiotrophoblast cells, and put in the specific antagonists and agonists of PPAR each subtypes receptors, then observe the different expression of FABP4 mRNA and protein. Pretreated the human syncytiotrophoblast cells with the agonists (GW7647, GW0742) and antagonists (GW6471, GSK0660) of PPARα and PPARβ receptors, the expression of the FABP4 was not significantly change (P > 0.05). However pretreated with PPAR γ agonists (rosiglitazone, 1×10(-9), 1×10(-8), 1×10(-7) and 1×10(-6) mol/L), the expression of FABP4 mRNA and protein could be dose dependent-promoted significantly (mRNA: 1.27 ± 0.12, 1.45 ± 0.14, 1.57 ± 0.14, 1.72 ± 0.12, protein:1.10 ± 0.08, 1.37 ± 0.09, 1.60 ± 0.13, 1.79 ± 0.14; P < 0.05), furthermore, the promotion can be dose dependent-reversed by specific antagonists GW9662 (mRNA:0.92 ± 0.06, 0.77 ± 0.06, 0.64 ± 0.05, 0.55 ± 0.05, protein:0.91 ± 0.03, 0.78 ± 0.06, 0.70 ± 0.07, 0.55 ± 0.06; P < 0.05). In normal human syncytiotrophoblast cells, FABP4 is a target factor of PPARγ. PPARγ regulated the expression of FABP4 mRNA and protein selectively. And the regulation will not be influenced by the other two PPAR subtypes.

  15. Circulating FABP4 (Fatty Acid-Binding Protein 4) Is a Novel Prognostic Biomarker in Patients With Acute Ischemic Stroke.

    PubMed

    Tu, Wen-Jun; Zeng, Xian-Wei; Deng, Aijun; Zhao, Sheng-Jie; Luo, Ding-Zhen; Ma, Guo-Zhao; Wang, Hong; Liu, Qiang

    2017-06-01

    FABP4 (fatty acid-binding protein 4) is an intracellular lipid chaperone involved in coordination of lipid transportation and atherogenesis. This study aimed at observing the effect of FABP4 on the 3-month outcomes in Chinese patients with acute ischemic stroke. In a prospective multicenter observational study, serum concentrations of FABP4 were on admission measured in plasma of 737 consecutive patients with acute ischemic stroke. Serum concentrations of FABP4, National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score, and conventional risk factors were evaluated to determine their value to predict functional outcome and mortality within 3 months. During follow-up, an unfavorable functional outcome was found in 260 patients (35.3%), and 94 patients (12.8%) died. In multivariate models comparing the third and fourth quartiles to the first quartile of FABP4, the concentrations of FABP4 were associated with poor functional outcome and mortality. Compared with the reference category (Q1-Q3), the concentrations of FABP4 in Q4 had a relative risk of 4.77 (95% confidence interval [CI], 2.02-8.15; P<0.001) for poor functional outcome and mortality (odds ratio, 6.15; 95% CI, 3.43-12.68) after adjusting for other significant outcome predictors in univariate logistic regression analysis. Receiver-operating characteristic curves to predict poor functional outcome and mortality demonstrated areas under the curve of FABP4 of 0.78 (95% CI, 0.75-0.82) and 0.83 (95% CI, 0.79-0.88), which improved the prognostic accuracy of National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score with combined areas under the curve of 0.83 (95% CI, 0.76-0.89; P<0.01) and 0.86 (95% CI, 0.81-0.92), respectively. Data show that FABP4 is a novel independent prognostic marker improving the currently used risk stratification of stroke patients. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  16. Elevated Serum Levels of Retinol-Binding Protein 4 Are Associated with Breast Cancer Risk: A Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Aiguo; Li, Na; Si, Hongzong

    2016-01-01

    Background Retinol binding protein 4 (RBP4) is a recently identified adipokine that is elevated in patients with obesity or type 2 diabetes. A growing body of research has shown that RBP4 is associated with several types of cancer. However, no studies have investigated the relationship between serum RBP4 levels and breast cancer risk. We performed a case-control study to evaluate the association between serum RBP4 levels and the risk of breast cancer. Methods From August 2012 to December 2013, four-hundred subjects including 200 patients diagnosed with primary breast cancer and 200 matched healthy women were consecutively enrolled from Affiliated Hospital of Qingdao University Medical College. Blood samples were collected from healthy controls and breast cancer patients before commencement of treatment. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used to evaluate the serum RBP4 levels in separated serum samples. Meanwhile, the characteristics of breast cancer cases and controls were collected from medical records and pathological data. Results The serum levels of RBP4 were significantly higher in patients with breast cancer than that in the healthy control group (33.77±9.92 vs. 28.77±6.47μg/ml, P < 0.05). Compared to the subjects in the lowest quartile of serum RBP4 level, the adjusted ORs (95% CIs) is 2.16(1.01–4.61) and 2.07 (1.07–4.00) for women in the second and highest RBP4 tertile, respectively. For breast cancer patients, patients with PR or ER negative displayed significantly higher serum RBP4 levels than those with PR or ER positive. Conclusion Our results for the first time suggested serum RBP4 levels could be associated with the risk of breast cancer. However, further prospective studies are essential to confirm these observed results. PMID:28002423

  17. Retinol Binding Protein-4 Levels and Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease: A community-based cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xuechen; Shen, Tianran; Li, Qing; Chen, Xu; Li, Yanping; Li, Dan; Chen, Gengdong; Ling, Wenhua; Chen, Yu-ming

    2017-01-01

    Previous reports on the association between retinol binding protein 4 (RBP4) and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) were controversial. This study aimed to investigate the association between the serum RBP4 levels and occurrence of NAFLD in Chinese population. In total, 2938 participants aged 40–75 years were involved in this community-based cross-sectional study. General information, lifestyle factors, serum levels of RBP4 and the presence of NAFLD were determined. Patients with NAFLD had significantly higher concentrations of RBP4 (37.9 ± 6.8 μg/ml) than did non-NAFLD controls (35.0 ± 6.7 μg/ml) (P < 0.001). The odds ratios (ORs) of NAFLD for the highest (vs. lowest) quartile of RBP4 were 1.884 (95% CI: 1.391, 2.551) for females (P < 0.001), and 2.107 (95% CI: 1.357, 3.273) for male participants (P < 0.01) after adjusting for related factors. The serum RBP4 levels were positively associated with the prevalence of NAFLD in middle-aged and elderly Chinese people, and Homeostatic model assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), trunk fat, the waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), systolic blood pressure (SBP), fasting insulin, high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and triglycerides (TG) might be implicated in the pathogenesis of RBP4 in NAFLD. PMID:28332619

  18. Prognostic Importance of Vitamins A, E and Retinol-binding Protein 4 in Renal Cell Carcinoma Patients.

    PubMed

    Sobotka, Roman; Čapoun, Otakar; Kalousová, Marta; Hanuš, Tomáš; Zima, Tomáš; Koštířová, Milada; Soukup, Viktor

    2017-07-01

    To assess the prognostic importance of serum levels of retinol, retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4) and vitamin E at the time of diagnosis in patients with renal cell carcinoma (RCC). In this prospective study, in a cohort of 102 renal cell carcinoma patients, relationships between serum levels of the aforementioned markers and recurrence-free survival (RFS), overall survival (OS), as well as cancer-specific survival (CSS), were evaluated. The vitamin A and vitamin E levels were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), while the RBP4 level by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The median follow-up period was 39 months. Renal cell carcinoma recurred in 9 patients; 23 patients died with 12 of them from RCC. The preoperative vitamin E level was associated to RFS (p=0.02). We found a significant relationship between OS and the level of RBP4 (p=0.002), retinol (p=0.037) and vitamin E (p=0.007). The CSS period was significantly associated with the level of RBP4 (p=0.0001) and retinol (p=0.0003). Patients with an RBP4 level less than 21.0 mg/l at the time of diagnosis had a 13.5-times higher risk of death due to RCC progression; this risk was up to 7.7-times higher with vitamin A levels under 0.52 mg/l. Low levels of vitamin A, E and RBP4 at the time of RCC diagnosis are associated with a poorer prognosis after surgery. Copyright© 2017, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.

  19. Prompt increases in retinol-binding protein 4 and endothelial progenitor cells during acute exercise load in diabetic subjects.

    PubMed

    Aoki, Atsushi; Murata, Miho; Asano, Tomoko; Ikoma, Aki; Sasaki, Masami; Saito, Tomoyuki; Otani, Taeko; Jinbo, Sachimi; Ikeda, Nahoko; Kawakami, Masanobu; Ishikawa, San-E

    2012-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to determine whether acute exercise load alters serum retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4) and numbers of endothelial progenitor cells (EPC) in diabetic subjects. Sixty-two subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus were enrolled in the present study. They were 50 males and 12 females with the ages of 65.1±8.1 (mean ± SD) years. Cardio-pulmonary exercise stress test (CPX) was carried out, and the numbers of EPC and serum RBP4 levels before and after the CPX were measured. RBP4 is a cytokine synthesized in hepatocytes, white adipose tissues and skeletal muscles, and serum RBP4 was determined by ELISA. EPC was determined as CD34(+)/133(+) cells by FACS. The subjects were subgrouped into two groups with or without nephropathy. Serum RBP4 levels promptly increased from 48.2±4.3 (mean±SEM) to 54.3±4.2 μg/mL after the CPX (mean exercise time of 8 min) in the diabetic subjects without nephropathy (p=0.0006), but did not in those with nephropathy. There was a positive correlation between changes in serum RBP4 during the exercise and estimated glomerular filtration rate (r=0.30, p=0.018). Also, an acute exercise load promptly increased the number of EPCs in the diabetic subjects with and without nephropathy. These findings suggest that a prompt increase in exercise-induced RBP4 is retarded by progression of nephropathy, and that an exercise-induced mobilization of EPCs could maintain endothelial cells in diabetic subjects.

  20. Overexpression of Lewis y antigen promotes human epididymis protein 4-mediated invasion and metastasis of ovarian cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Zhuang, Huiyu; Hu, Zhenhua; Tan, Mingzi; Zhu, Liancheng; Liu, Juanjuan; Liu, Dawo; Yan, Limei; Lin, Bei

    2014-10-01

    To study Human epididymis protein 4 (HE4) surface fucosylation and to determine the effects and significance of Lewis y antigen on HE4-mediated invasion and metastasis of ovarian cancer cells, we investigated four types of ovarian cancer cells and found that six fucosylated antigens (Lewis y, Lewis x, Lewis a, Lewis b, sLewis a, and sLewis x) were identified on HE4 in ovarian cancer cells. Moreover, modification of the type II sugar chain (Lewis y, Lewis x, and sLewis x) was significantly higher than the type I sugar chain (Lewis a, Lewis b, sLewis a) of the lactose series. To confirm the effects of Lewis y antigen on HE4-mediated invasion and metastasis of ovarian cancer cells, the CaoV-3 cells with high Lewis y antigen on the HE4 surface and ES-2 cells, with high Lewis x antigen but low Lewis y antigen, were investigated. We found that the expression levels of HE4 and Lewis y increased in both cell lines while the level of Lewis x didn't have any change after transfection. Furthermore, the high expression of Lewis y antigen significantly enhanced the HE4-mediated invasion and metastasis of ovarian cancer cells. The invasion and metastasis capacities were significantly decreased after Lewis y antibody blocking. This study demonstrates that overexpression of the Lewis y antigen on HE4 promotes ovarian cancer cell invasion and metastasis, which is likely to be used as a target for the clinical treatment of ovarian cancer. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. Production, characterization, and immunogenicity of a secreted form of Plasmodium falciparum merozoite surface protein 4 produced in Bacillus subtilis.

    PubMed

    Chittibabu, G; Ma, Charles; Netter, Hans J; Noronha, Santosh B; Coppel, Ross L

    2014-04-01

    Plasmodium falciparum is the causative agent of the most serious form of malaria. Although a combination of control measures has significantly limited malaria morbidity and mortality in the last few years, it is generally agreed that sustained control or even eradication will require additional tools including an effective malaria vaccine. Merozoite surface protein 4, MSP4, which is present during the asexual stage of P. falciparum, is a recognized target that would be useful in a subunit vaccine against blood stages of malaria. Falciparum malaria is most prevalent in developing countries, and this in turn leads to a requirement for safe, low-cost vaccines. We have attempted to utilize the nonpathogenic, gram-positive organism Bacillus subtilis to produce PfMSP4. PfMSP4 was secreted into the culture medium at a yield of 4.5 mg/L. Characterization studies including SDS-PAGE, mass spectrometry, and N-terminal sequencing indicated that the B. subtilis expression system secreted a full length PfMSP4 protein compared to a truncated version in Escherichia coli. Equivalent amounts of purified B. subtilis and E. coli-derived PfMSP4 were used for immunization studies, resulting in statistically significant higher mean titer values for the B. subtilis-derived immunogen. The mouse antibodies raised against B. subtilis produced PfMSP4 that were reactive to parasite proteins as evidenced by immunoblotting on parasite lysate and indirect immunofluorescence assays of fixed parasites. The B. subtilis expression system, in contrast to E. coli, expresses higher amounts of full length PfMSP4 products, decreased levels of aggregates, and allows the development of simplified downstream processing procedures.

  2. Molecular cloning of mouse erythrocyte protein 4.2: a membrane protein with strong homology with the transglutaminase supergene family.

    PubMed

    Rybicki, A C; Schwartz, R S; Qiu, J J; Gilman, J G

    1994-07-01

    We report the molecular cloning and characterization of mouse erythrocyte protein 4.2 (P4.2). Mouse erythrocyte P4.2 is a 691-amino-acid protein with a predicted MW of 77 kDa. Northern blot analysis detected a 2.2-kb transcript in mouse reticulocytes, compared with a 2.4- to 2.5-kb transcript in human reticulocytes, which is consistent with the absence of the 30-amino-acid splicing insert in mouse erythrocyte P4.2 that is found in the human protein (isoform I). Like the human erythrocyte P4.2, mouse erythrocyte P4.2 contains regions strikingly homologous with the transglutaminase (TGase) proteins although it too most likely lacks TGase crosslinking activity. Mouse P4.2 is on average 73% identical with human erythrocyte P4.2, although regional variations exist, with greatest conservation in the regions of the molecule that contain the TGase active site, the TGase calcium-binding site, and a band 3 binding site. Hydropathy analysis reveals a protein containing a series of hydrophobic domains, similar to the situation for human P4.2 and consistent with its tight binding to the membrane, although the mouse P4.2 is missing both the strongly hydrophilic region and adjacent highly charged region that are present in the human protein, suggesting that the two proteins could differ in their physical characteristics, binding associations, or functional properties. The availability of the complete mouse erythrocyte P4.2 cDNA should help in the design of P4.2-deficient animal models (for example, ribozyme or homologous recombinant "knockout" models) that should accelerate the understanding of P4.2 function in both erythroid and non-erythroid cells.

  3. Effects of Aerobic Exercise on Serum Retinol Binding Protein4, Insulin Resistance and Blood Lipids in Obese Women

    PubMed Central

    TAGHIAN, Farzaneh; ZOLFAGHARI, Maryam; HEDAYATI, Mehdi

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background Retinol binding protein4 (RBP4) is a type of adipokine which transports vitamin A to serum. RBP4 could be a bridge between obesity and insulin resistance. This study aimed to investigate the effects of aerobic exercises on RBP4 serum’s concentration and metabolic syndrome risk factors in obese women. Methods Twenty obese women with body max index 35.81±3.67Kg/m2, fat percentage 43.98±4.02, and waist to hip ratio 1.03±0.05 were included and were randomly assigned to experimental and control groups. The experimental group received aerobic exercises for a period of 12 weeks each three sessions on treadmill workout. The treadmill speed were based on a 60-65 and 80-85 maximal heart rate percentage and duration of 15-20 and 45-50 minutes, at the beginning and the end of exercise, respectively. Body composition, serum glucose, insulin, TG, LDL-C, HDL-C, total cholesterol, and RBP4, were measured in both groups before and after the treatment by ELISA method. Insulin resistance was measured by HOMA-IR. To compare within group differences and between group comparisons t-correlated and t-independent tests were used, respectively. Results After 12 week aerobic exercises; weight, fat percentage, WHR, and BMI in the experimental group was significantly decreased (P<0.05). RBP4, insulin, insulin resistance, TG and HDL-C had significant differences between two groups. The cholesterol level, LDL-C and glucose did not have any significant changes. Conclusion The aerobic exercises can decrease body composition, insulin resistance, TG, and RBP4, so it can be beneficial for obese women’s health, because it. PMID:26060767

  4. Fatty Acid binding protein 4 is associated with carotid atherosclerosis and outcome in patients with acute ischemic stroke.

    PubMed

    Holm, Sverre; Ueland, Thor; Dahl, Tuva B; Michelsen, Annika E; Skjelland, Mona; Russell, David; Nymo, Ståle H; Krohg-Sørensen, Kirsten; Clausen, Ole Petter; Atar, Dan; Januzzi, James L; Aukrust, Pål; Jensen, Jesper K; Halvorsen, Bente

    2011-01-01

    Fatty acid binding protein 4 (FABP4) has been shown to play an important role in macrophage cholesterol trafficking and associated inflammation. To further elucidate the role of FABP4 in atherogenesis in humans, we examined the regulation of FABP4 in carotid atherosclerosis and ischemic stroke. We examined plasma FABP4 levels in asymptomatic (n = 28) and symptomatic (n = 31) patients with carotid atherosclerosis, as well as in 202 subjects with acute ischemic stroke. In a subgroup of patients we also analysed the expression of FABP4 within the atherosclerotic lesion. In addition, we investigated the ability of different stimuli with relevance to atherosclerosis to regulate FABP4 expression in monocytes/macrophages. FABP4 levels were higher in patients with carotid atherosclerosis, both systemically and within the atherosclerotic lesion, with particular high mRNA levels in carotid plaques from patients with the most recent symptoms. Immunostaining of carotid plaques localized FABP4 to macrophages, while activated platelets and oxidized LDL were potent stimuli for FABP4 expression in monocytes/macrophages in vitro. When measured at the time of acute ischemic stroke, high plasma levels of FABP4 were significantly associated with total and cardiovascular mortality during follow-up, although we did not find that addition of FABP4 to the fully adjusted multivariate model had an effect on the prognostic discrimination for all-cause mortality as assessed by c-statistics. FABP4 is linked to atherogenesis, plaque instability and adverse outcome in patients with carotid atherosclerosis and acute ischemic stroke.

  5. [Increased expression of fatty acid binding protein 4 in lungs of preterm rats after hyperoxic lung injury].

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei; Cui, Zhi-Rui; Cai, Li-Xia; Luo, Xiao-Ping

    2014-11-01

    To study the expression of fatty acid binding protein 4 (FABP4) in lungs and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) of preterm rats exposed to 60% O2 and to elucidate the relationship between the changes of FABP4 expression and the pathogenesis of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD). Hyperoxic lung injury was induced by exposing to 60% O2 in Spraque-Dawley rats within 6 hours after birth. Rats exposed to air were used as the control group. The lungs from groups aged postnatal days 3, 7 and 14 were removed and dissected from the main bronchi for analysis. Eight rats of each group were used to assess expression of FABP4 in lungs by immunohistochemistry and ELISA. Lung FABP4 mRNA levels were measured by semi-quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. The levels of FABP4 in BALF were measured using ELISA. FABP4 immunoreactivity was detected in the majority of alveolar macrophages, bronchial epithelial cells and endothelial cells. FABP4 protein levels in lung tissues in the hyperoxic exposure group increased significantly compared with the control group on days 3, 7 and 14 after birth (P<0.05), and FABP4 mRNA levels in lung tissues also increased significantly in the hyperoxic exposure group compared with the control group on days 7 and 14 after birth (P<0.05). The hyperoxic exposure group demonstrated increased FABP4 levels in BALF compared with the control group on days 7 and 14 after birth (P<0.05). FABP4 levels increase in preterm rat lungs after hyperoxic lung injury, which may contribute to the pathogenesis of BPD.

  6. Microfibrillar-Associated Protein 4: A Potential Biomarker for Screening for Liver Fibrosis in a Mixed Patient Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Sækmose, Susanne Gjørup; Mössner, Belinda; Christensen, Peer Brehm; Lindvig, Kristoffer; Schlosser, Anders; Holst, René; Barington, Torben; Holmskov, Uffe; Sorensen, Grith Lykke

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims A method for assessment of liver fibrosis and cirrhosis without the need for a liver biopsy is desirable. Microfibrillar-associated protein 4 (MFAP4) is a suggested biomarker for identification of high-risk patients with severe fibrosis stages. This study aimed to examine associations between plasma MFAP4 (pMFAP4) and transient elastography or chronic hepatitis C virus infection in drug users and in a mixed patient cohort with increased risk of liver disease. Moreover, the study aimed to identify comorbidities that significantly influence pMFAP4. Methods pMFAP4 was measured in samples from 351 drug users attending treatment centres and from 248 acutely hospitalized medical patients with mixed diagnoses. Linear and logistic multivariate regression analyses were performed and nonparametric receiver operating characteristic-curves for cirrhosis were used to estimate cut-off points for pMFAP4. Univariate and subgroup analyses were performed using non-parametric methods. Results pMFAP4 increased significantly with liver fibrosis score. pMFAP4 was significantly associated with chronic viral infection in the drug users and with transient elastography in both cohorts. In the mixed patient cohort, pMFAP4 was significantly increased among patients with a previous diagnosis of liver disease or congestive heart failure compared to patients with other diagnoses. Conclusions pMFAP4 has the potential to be used as an outreach-screening tool for liver fibrosis in drug users and in mixed medical patients. pMFAP4 level is positively associated with transient elastography, but additional studies are warranted to validate the possible use of pMFAP4 in larger cohorts and in combination with transient elastography. PMID:26460565

  7. Growth regulation, imprinting, and epigenetic transcription-related gene expression differs in lung of deceased transgenic cloned and normal goats.

    PubMed

    Meng, Li; Jia, Ruo-Xin; Sun, Yan-Yan; Wang, Zi-Yu; Wan, Yong-Jie; Zhang, Yan-Li; Zhong, Bu-Shuai; Wang, Feng

    2014-02-01

    Somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) is a promising technique to produce mammalian transgenic clones. Only a small proportion of manipulated embryos, however, can develop into viable offspring. The abnormal growth and development of cloned animals, furthermore, are accompanied by aberrant lung development. Our objective was to investigate molecular background of lung developmental problems in transgenic (random insertion of exogenous DNA) cloned goats. We examined expression of 15 genes involved in growth regulation, imprinting, and epigenetic transcription in lung tissue of deceased transgenic cloned and normal goats of various ages. Compared with normal goats of the same age from conventional reproduction, expression of 13 genes (BMP4, FGF10, GHR, HGFR, PDGFR, RABP, VEGF, H19, CDKNIC, PCAF, MeCP2, HDAC1, and Dnmt3b) decreased in transgenic cloned goats that died at or shortly after birth; Expression of eight genes (FGF10, PDGFR, RABP, VEGF, PCAF, HDAC1, MeCP2, and Dnmt3b) decreased in fetal death of transgenic cloned goats. Expression of two epigenetic transcription genes (PCAF and Dnmt3b) decreased in disease death of transgenic cloned goats (1-4 months old). Disruptions in gene expression might be associated with the high neonatal mortality in transgenic cloned animals. These findings have implications in understanding the low efficiency of transgenic cloning. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. High expression of BMP pathway genes distinguishes a subset of atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumors associated with shorter survival.

    PubMed

    Birks, Diane K; Donson, Andrew M; Patel, Purvi R; Dunham, Christopher; Muscat, Andrea; Algar, Elizabeth M; Ashley, David M; Kleinschmidt-Demasters, B K; Vibhakar, Rajeev; Handler, Michael H; Foreman, Nicholas K

    2011-12-01

    Molecular profiling of tumors has proven to be a valuable tool for identification of prognostic and diagnostic subgroups in medulloblastomas, glioblastomas, and other cancers. However, the molecular landscape of atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumors (AT/RTs) remains largely unexplored. To address this issue, we used microarrays to measure the gene expression profiles of 18 AT/RTs and performed unsupervised hierarchical clustering to determine molecularly similar subgroups. Four major subgroups (clusters) were identified. These did not conform to sex, tumor location, or presence of monosomy 22. Clusters showed distinct gene signatures and differences in enriched biological processes, including elevated expression of some genes associated with choroid plexus lineage in cluster 4. In addition, survival differed significantly by cluster, with shortest survival (mean, 4.7 months) in both clusters 3 and 4, compared with clusters 1 and 2 (mean, 28.1 months). Analysis showed that multiple bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) pathway genes were upregulated in the short survival clusters, with BMP4 showing the most significant upregulation (270-fold). Thus, high expression of BMP pathway genes was negatively associated with survival in this dataset. Our study indicates that molecular subgroups exist in AT/RTs and that molecular profiling of these comparatively rare tumors may be of diagnostic, prognostic, and therapeutic value.

  9. Identification of Differentially Expressed Genes Between Osteoblasts and Osteocytes

    PubMed Central

    Paic, Frane; Igwe, John C.; Ravi, Nori; Kronenberg, Mark S.; Franceschetti, Tiziana; Harrington, Patrick; Kuo, Lynn; Shin, Don-Guk; Rowe, David W.; Harris, Stephen E.; Kalajzic, Ivo

    2009-01-01

    Osteocytes represent the most abundant cellular component of mammalian bones with important functions in bone mass maintenance and remodeling. To elucidate the differential gene expression between osteoblasts and osteocytes we completed a comprehensive analysis of their gene profiles. Selective identification of these two mature populations was achieved by utilization of visual markers of bone lineage cells. We have utilized dual GFP reporter mice in which osteocytes are expressing GFP (topaz) directed by the DMP1 promoter, while osteoblasts are identified by expression of GFP (cyan) driven by 2.3kb of the Col1a1 promoter. Histological analysis of 7-day-old neonatal calvaria confirmed the expression pattern of DMP1GFP in osteocytes and Col2.3 in osteoblasts and osteocytes. To isolate distinct populations of cells we utilized fluorescent activated cell sorting (FACS). Cells suspensions were subjected to RNA extraction, in vitro transcription and labeling of cDNA and gene expression was analyzed using the Illumina WG-6v1 BeadChip. Following normalization of raw data from four biological replicates, 3444 genes were called present in all three sorted cell populations: GFP negative, Col2.3cyan+ (osteoblasts), and DMP1topaz+(preosteocytes and osteocytes). We present the genes that showed in excess of a 2-fold change for gene expression between DMP1topaz+ and Col2.3cyan+ cells. The selected genes were classified and grouped according to their associated gene ontology terms. Genes clustered to osteogenesis and skeletal development such as Bmp4, Bmp8a, Dmp1, Enpp1, Phex and Ank were highly expressed in DMP1topaz+cells. Most of the genes encoding extracellular matrix components and secreted proteins had lower expression in DMP1topaz+ cells, while most of the genes encoding plasma membrane proteins were increased. Interestingly a large number of genes associated with muscle development and function and with neuronal phenotype were increased in DMP1topaz+ cells, indicating

  10. Evolution of gremlin 2 in cetartiodactyl mammals: gene loss coincides with lack of upper jaw incisors in ruminants

    PubMed Central

    Zavala, Kattina; Krall, Paola; Arias, Rodrigo A.

    2017-01-01

    Understanding the processes that give rise to genomic variability in extant species is an active area of research within evolutionary biology. With the availability of whole genome sequences, it is possible to quantify different forms of variability such as variation in gene copy number, which has been described as an important source of genetic variability and in consequence of phenotypic variability. Most of the research on this topic has been focused on understanding the biological significance of gene duplication, and less attention has been given to the evolutionary role of gene loss. Gremlin 2 is a member of the DAN gene family and plays a significant role in tooth development by blocking the ligand-signaling pathway of BMP2 and BMP4. The goal of this study was to investigate the evolutionary history of gremlin 2 in cetartiodactyl mammals, a group that possesses highly divergent teeth morphology. Results from our analyses indicate that gremlin 2 has experienced a mixture of gene loss, gene duplication, and rate acceleration. Although the last common ancestor of cetartiodactyls possessed a single gene copy, pigs and camels are the only cetartiodactyl groups that have retained gremlin 2. According to the phyletic distribution of this gene and synteny analyses, we propose that gremlin 2 was lost in the common ancestor of ruminants and cetaceans between 56.3 and 63.5 million years ago as a product of a chromosomal rearrangement. Our analyses also indicate that the rate of evolution of gremlin 2 has been accelerated in the two groups that have retained this gene. Additionally, the lack of this gene could explain the high diversity of teeth among cetartiodactyl mammals; specifically, the presence of this gene could act as a biological constraint. Thus, our results support the notions that gene loss is a way to increase phenotypic diversity and that gremlin 2 is a dispensable gene, at least in cetartiodactyl mammals. PMID:28149683

  11. Evolution of gremlin 2 in cetartiodactyl mammals: gene loss coincides with lack of upper jaw incisors in ruminants.

    PubMed

    Opazo, Juan C; Zavala, Kattina; Krall, Paola; Arias, Rodrigo A

    2017-01-01

    Understanding the processes that give rise to genomic variability in extant species is an active area of research within evolutionary biology. With the availability of whole genome sequences, it is possible to quantify different forms of variability such as variation in gene copy number, which has been described as an important source of genetic variability and in consequence of phenotypic variability. Most of the research on this topic has been focused on understanding the biological significance of gene duplication, and less attention has been given to the evolutionary role of gene loss. Gremlin 2 is a member of the DAN gene family and plays a significant role in tooth development by blocking the ligand-signaling pathway of BMP2 and BMP4. The goal of this study was to investigate the evolutionary history of gremlin 2 in cetartiodactyl mammals, a group that possesses highly divergent teeth morphology. Results from our analyses indicate that gremlin 2 has experienced a mixture of gene loss, gene duplication, and rate acceleration. Although the last common ancestor of cetartiodactyls possessed a single gene copy, pigs and camels are the only cetartiodactyl groups that have retained gremlin 2. According to the phyletic distribution of this gene and synteny analyses, we propose that gremlin 2 was lost in the common ancestor of ruminants and cetaceans between 56.3 and 63.5 million years ago as a product of a chromosomal rearrangement. Our analyses also indicate that the rate of evolution of gremlin 2 has been accelerated in the two groups that have retained this gene. Additionally, the lack of this gene could explain the high diversity of teeth among cetartiodactyl mammals; specifically, the presence of this gene could act as a biological constraint. Thus, our results support the notions that gene loss is a way to increase phenotypic diversity and that gremlin 2 is a dispensable gene, at least in cetartiodactyl mammals.

  12. Gender-specific association between the cytoplasmic poly(A) binding protein 4 rs4660293 single nucleotide polymorphism and serum lipid levels.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jian; Yin, Rui-Xing; Guo, Tao; Lin, Quan-Zhen; Shen, Shao-Wen; Sun, Jia-Qi; Shi, Guang-Yuan; Wu, Jin-Zhen; Yang, De-Zhai; Lin, Wei-Xiong

    2015-09-01

    Cytoplasmic poly(A) binding protein 4 (PABPC4) is an RNA-processing protein which has an important role in regulating gene expression. The association of the PABPC4 rs4660293 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) and serum lipid profiles has, to the best of our knowledge, not previously been studied in the Chinese population. The present study aimed to investigate the association between the PABPC4 rs4660293 SNP and several environmental factors with serum lipid levels in the Mulao and Han populations. A total of 727 individuals of Mulao nationality and 729 individuals of Han nationality were randomly selected from stratified randomized samples from a previous study by our group. Genotypes of the PABPC4 rs4660293 SNP were determined via polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism analyses and subsequently confirmed by direct sequencing. Serum levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and apolipoprotein (Apo) B were higher in the Mulao group than those in the Han group (P<0.01 for each). The genotypic and allelic frequencies of the PABPC4 rs4660293 SNP were significantly different between males and females in the Mulao population (P<0.05 for each), while no significant difference was detected between those of males and females amongst the Han population. The frequency of the G allele was higher in Mulao males than in Mulao females (22.12 vs. 13.44%). The G allele carriers were found to have higher total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and ApoAI levels in Han females but not in Han males, and lower TC and HDL-C levels in Mulao females but not in Mulao males than those of the G allele non-carriers (P<0.05 for all). These associations were confirmed by multiple linear regression analysis (P<0.05‑0.001). Serum lipid parameters were also correlated with multiple environmental factors (P<0.05‑0.001). The PABPC4 rs4660293 SNP was associated with serum TC, HDL-C, LDL-C and ApoAI levels in these study

  13. Making teeth to order: conserved genes reveal an ancient molecular pattern in paddlefish (Actinopterygii)

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Moya M.; Johanson, Zerina; Butts, Thomas; Ericsson, Rolf; Modrell, Melinda; Tulenko, Frank J.; Davis, Marcus C.; Fraser, Gareth J.

    2015-01-01

    Ray-finned fishes (Actinopterygii) are the dominant vertebrate group today (+30 000 species, predominantly teleosts), with great morphological diversity, including their dentitions. How dental morphological variation evolved is best addressed by considering a range of taxa across actinopterygian phylogeny; here we examine the dentition of Polyodon spathula (American paddlefish), assigned to the basal group Acipenseriformes. Although teeth are present and functional in young individuals of Polyodon, they are completely absent in adults. Our current understanding of developmental genes operating in the dentition is primarily restricted to teleosts; we show that shh and bmp4, as highly conserved epithelial and mesenchymal genes for gnathostome tooth development, are similarly expressed at Polyodon tooth loci, thus extending this conserved developmental pattern within the Actinopterygii. These genes map spatio-temporal tooth initiation in Polyodon larvae and provide new data in both oral and pharyngeal tooth sites. Variation in cellular intensity of shh maps timing of tooth morphogenesis, revealing a second odontogenic wave as alternate sites within tooth rows, a dental pattern also present in more derived actinopterygians. Developmental timing for each tooth field in Polyodon follows a gradient, from rostral to caudal and ventral to dorsal, repeated during subsequent loss of teeth. The transitory Polyodon dentition is modified by cessation of tooth addition and loss. As such, Polyodon represents a basal actinopterygian model for the evolution of developmental novelty: initial conservation, followed by tooth loss, accommodating the adult trophic modification to filter-feeding. PMID:25788604

  14. ADP-ribosylation factor-like protein 4C (ARL4C) interacts with galectin-3 during oocyte development and embryogenesis in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    ADP-ribosylation factor-like protein 4 (ARL4) is a GTP-binding protein which belongs to the ADP-ribosylation factor protein (ARF) superfamily of small GTPases. ARL4 has been shown to be mainly related to the development of male germ cells and embryogenesis in mouse. To investigate the role of ARL4 i...

  15. Serum level and polymorphisms of retinol-binding protein-4 and risk for gestational diabetes mellitus: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Hu, Shimin; Liu, Qian; Huang, Xin; Tan, Hongzhuan

    2016-03-14

    Retinol-binding protein-4 (RBP4) has been reported to be potentially involved in the pathogenesis of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM); however, the findings are inconsistent. Our aims were to review the studies that investigated the association of serum levels and polymorphisms of RBP4 with GDM risk, and to provide recommendations for future research. The databases PubMed, EBSCO, ScienceDirect, and Web of Knowledge were searched up to October 2015 to find out studies evaluating the relationship between serum RBP4 level/ RBP4 polymorphisms and GDM risk. In the meta-analysis of serum RBP4 levels the key inclusion was that studies were designed as BMI-matched studies or had observed non-significant differences in BMI between cases and controls. Fourteen case-control studies (647 cases and 620 controls) reporting the association between serum RBP4 level and GDM risk, and three studies (1012 cases and 1605 controls) investigating the association between RBP4 polymorphisms and GDM risk were involved. Our results showed that high serum RBP4 levels represent a risk factor for GDM (pooled standardized mean difference =0.758, 95% confidence interval [0.387, 1.128]). The results of subgroup analyses based on "gestational age at blood sampling" or "diagnostic criteria" are consistent with the overall results. However, the postpartum subgroup and "before 24 weeks" subgroup both only include one article and indicate no association between serum RBP4 level and GDM risk. The meta-analysis on the association between rs3758539 polymorphism and GDM risk shows that RBP4 rs3758539 polymorphism is not associated with the development of GDM. The results of this meta-analysis support the hypothesis that RBP4 is a modest independent risk factor for GDM (i.e., nonobese patients with GDM might express RBP4 at abnormal levels). The serum RBP4 level is associated with the risk of GDM. However, the association in the first-trimester and postpartum period should be validated by further

  16. Antiproliferative factor (APF) binds specifically to sites within the cytoskeleton-associated protein 4 (CKAP4) extracellular domain.

    PubMed

    Chavda, Burzin; Ling, Jun; Majernick, Thomas; Planey, Sonia Lobo

    2017-09-11

    Antiproliferative factor (APF) is a sialoglycopeptide elevated in the urine of patients with interstitial cystitis-a chronic, painful bladder disease. APF inhibits the proliferation of normal bladder epithelial cells and cancer cells in vitro, presumably by binding to its cellular receptor, cytoskeleton associated-protein 4 (CKAP4); however, the biophysical interaction of APF with CKAP4 has not been characterized previously. In this study, we used surface plasmon resonance (SPR) to explore the binding kinetics of the interaction of APF and as-APF (a desialylated APF analogue with full activity) to CKAP4. We immobilized non-glycosylated APF (TVPAAVVVA) to the Fc1 channel as the control and as-APF to Fc2 channel as the ligand in order to measure the binding of CKAP4 recombinant proteins encompassing only the extracellular domain (Aa 127-602) or the extracellular domain plus the transmembrane domain (Aa 106-602). Positive binding was detected to both CKAP4126-602 and CKAP4106-602, suggesting that as-APF can bind specifically to CKAP4 and that the potential binding site(s) are located within the extracellular domain. To identify the primary APF binding site(s) within the CKAP4 extracellular domain, deletion mutants were designed according to structural predictions, and the purified recombinant proteins were immobilized on a CM5 chip through amine-coupling to measure as-APF binding activity. Importantly, both CKAP4127-360 and CKAP4361-524 exhibited a fast association rate (k on ) and a slow dissociation rate (k off ), thus generating high binding affinity and suggesting that both regions contribute relatively equally to overall as-APF binding. Therefore, two or more as-APF binding sites may exist within the Aa 127-524 region of the CKAP4 extracellular domain. We determined that the CKAP4127-360 and CKAP4361-524 mutants exhibit improved binding activity to as-APF as compared to the full-length extracellular domain, making it possible to detect low concentrations of as

  17. In vivo functional and molecular characterization of the Penicillin-Binding Protein 4 (DacB) of Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Aguilera Rossi, Cristian Gustavo; Gómez-Puertas, Paulino; Ayala Serrano, Juan Alfonso

    2016-10-06

    Community and nosocomial infections by Pseudomonas aeruginosa still create a major therapeutic challenge. The resistance of this opportunist pathogen to β-lactam antibiotics is determined mainly by production of the inactivating enzyme AmpC, a class C cephalosporinase with a regulation system more complex than those found in members of the Enterobacteriaceae family. This regulatory system also participates directly in peptidoglycan turnover and recycling. One of the regulatory mechanisms for AmpC expression, recently identified in clinical isolates, is the inactivation of LMM-PBP4 (Low-Molecular-Mass Penicillin-Binding Protein 4), a protein whose catalytic activity on natural substrates has remained uncharacterized until now. We carried out in vivo activity trials for LMM-PBP4 of Pseudomonas aeruginosa on macromolecular peptidoglycan of Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The results showed a decrease in the relative quantity of dimeric, trimeric and anhydrous units, and a smaller reduction in monomer disaccharide pentapeptide (M5) levels, validating the occurrence of D,D-carboxypeptidase and D,D-endopeptidase activities. Under conditions of induction for this protein and cefoxitin treatment, the reduction in M5 is not fully efficient, implying that LMM-PBP4 of Pseudomonas aeruginosa presents better behaviour as a D,D-endopeptidase. Kinetic evaluation of the direct D,D-peptidase activity of this protein on natural muropeptides M5 and D45 confirmed this bifunctionality and the greater affinity of LMM-PBP4 for its dimeric substrate. A three-dimensional model for the monomeric unit of LMM-PBP4 provided structural information which supports its catalytic performance. LMM-PBP4 of Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a bifunctional enzyme presenting both D,D-carboxypeptidase and D,D-endopeptidase activities; the D,D-endopeptidase function is predominant. Our study provides unprecedented functional and structural information which supports the proposal of this protein as a

  18. Usefulness of human epididymis protein 4 in predicting cytoreductive surgical outcomes for advanced ovarian tubal and peritoneal carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Zhijian; Chang, Xiaohong; Ye, Xue; Li, Yi; Cheng, Hongyan

    2015-01-01

    Objective Human epididymis protein 4 (HE4) is a promising biomarker of epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC). But its role in assessing the primary optimal debulking (OD) of EOC remains unknown. The purpose of this study is to elucidate the ability of preoperative HE4 in predicting the primary cytoreductive outcomes in advanced EOC, tubal or peritoneal carcinoma. Methods We reviewed the records of 90 patients with advanced ovarian, tubal or peritoneal carcinoma who underwent primary cytoreduction at the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology of Peking University People’s Hospital between November 2005 and October 2010. Preoperative serum HE4 and CA125 levels were detected with EIA kit. A receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was used to determine the most useful HE4 cut-off value. Logistic regression analysis was performed to identify significant preoperative clinical characteristics to predict optimal primary cytoreduction. Results OD was achieved in 47.7% (43/48) of patients. The median preoperative HE4 level for patients with OD vs. suboptimal debulking was 423 and 820 pmol/L, respectively (P<0.001). The areas under the ROC curve for HE4 and CA125 were 0.716 and 0.599, respectively (P=0.080). The most useful HE4 cut-off value was 473 pmol/L. Suboptimal cytoreduction was obtained in 66.7% (38/57) of cases with HE4 ≥473 pmol/L compared with only 27.3% (9/33) of cases with HE4 <473 pmol/L. At this threshold, the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) for diagnosing suboptimal debulking were 81%, 56%, 67%, and 73%, respectively. Logistic regression analysis showed that the patients with HE4 ≥473 pmol/L were less likely to achieve OD (odds ratio =5.044, P=0.002). Conclusions Preoperative serum HE4 may be helpful to predict whether optimal cytoreductive surgery could be obtained or whether extended cytoreduction would be needed by an interdisciplinary team. PMID:26157328

  19. Plasmatic retinol-binding protein 4 and glial fibrillary acidic protein as biomarkers to differentiate ischemic stroke and intracerebral hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Llombart, Víctor; García-Berrocoso, Teresa; Bustamante, Alejandro; Giralt, Dolors; Rodriguez-Luna, David; Muchada, Marian; Penalba, Anna; Boada, Cristina; Hernández-Guillamon, Mar; Montaner, Joan

    2016-01-01

    A rapid differentiation of acute ischemic stroke and intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is essential for an adequate treatment and to promote a better outcome. Our aim was to identify new plasma biomarkers to differentiate stroke subtypes and to combine their diagnostic ability with other biomarkers already described for this clinical indication. Plasma samples of ischemic stroke patients (36) and ICH patients (10) were screened using a 177 antibodies library, and 11 showed different concentrations among stroke subtypes (p < 0.05), mainly chemokines, growth factors and angiogenic factors. Five proteins were selected for replication in 16 ischemic stroke patients and 16 ICH patients, and retinol-binding protein 4 (RPB4), apolipoprotein B100 and pigment epithelial-derived factor were replicated (p < 0.05). These proteins, together with glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and receptor for advanced glycation end product, were tested in 38 ischemic stroke and 28 ICH samples. Finally, RBP4 >61 μg/mL and GFAP <0.07 ng/mL showed a specificity of 100% for both subtypes. Moreover, after multivariate logistic regression analysis, RBP4 >48.75 μg/mL (ORadj : 6.09 (1.3-28.57), p = 0.02) and GFAP <0.07 ng/mL (ORadj : 0.03 (0.003-0.31), p = 0.003) resulted in independent predictors of stroke subtype, improving discrimination by 29% (p < 0.0001). Both biomarkers might be useful as diagnostic biomarkers to differentiate ischemic stroke and ICH. A rapid differentiation of ischemic stroke from intracerebral hemorrhage is essential to provide the appropriate treatment. We describe the discovery and subsequent replications of RBP4 and its combination with circulating GFAP as plasmatic biomarkers for hyperacute stroke subtype differentiation. The combination of these biomarkers and others might aid to speed up the discrimination of both stroke subtypes improving the outcome of patients.

  20. Thiazolidinedione addition reduces the serum retinol-binding protein 4 in type 2 diabetic patients treated with metformin and sulfonylurea.

    PubMed

    Lin, Kun-Der; Chang, Yu-Hung; Wang, Chiao-Ling; Yang, Yi-Hsin; Hsiao, Pi-Jung; Li, Tzu-Hui; Shin, Shyi-Jang

    2008-06-01

    Retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4) has been found to induce insulin resistance and to be increased in type 2 diabetes. Thiazolidinediones (TZDs) can improve insulin sensitivity through the activation of peroxisome proliferators-activated receptor-gamma (PPAR-gamma) and have been suggested as an adjunct to metformin (MF) and sulfonylurea (SU) in type 2 diabetes in a consensus statement from the ADA and EASD. Therefore, we investigated whether TZD could affect serum RBP4 level in type 2 diabetes already treated with MF and/or SU. Eighty-one type 2 diabetic patients were divided into 2 groups: (1) TZD group (n = 55): Pioglitazone 30 mg/day was given as an add-on medication; (2) SU group (n = 26): Gliclazide MR 30-120 mg or glimepiride 2-8 mg/day was prescribed. The average period of study was 97.1 days. Serum RBP4 and adiponectin were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and radioimmunoassay, respectively. The addition of pioglitazone (TZD group) markedly decreased homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) (P = 0.021) compared with the SU group (P = 0.688). The change of RBP4 in the TZD group (-3.87 +/- 11.27 microg/mL) significantly differed from that in the SU group (2.52 +/- 8.24 microg/mL, P < 0.012). The increase of adiponectin in the TZD group (11.49 +/- 7.85 microg/mL) was apparently higher than that in the SU group (1.54 +/- 5.62 microg/mL, P < 0.001). Despite the change of glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) did not differ (-0.77 +/- 1.3 vs -0.50 +/- 1.7, P = 0.446), the addition of pioglitazone could significantly lower serum RBP4 and HOMA-IR values, whereas an increased dosage of sulfonylurea agents did not alter HOMA-IR, RBP4, or adiponectin in type 2 diabetic patients who had been treated with metformin and/or sulfonylurea.

  1. Dual-stage growth factor release within 3D protein-engineered hydrogel niches promotes adipogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Greenwood-Goodwin, Midori; Teasley, Eric S.; Heilshorn, Sarah C.

    2014-01-01

    Engineered biomimetic microenvironments from hydrogels are an emerging strategy to achieve lineage-specific differentiation in vitro. In addition to recapitulating critical matrix cues found in the native three-dimensional (3D) niche, the hydrogel can also be designed to deliver soluble factors that are present within the native inductive microenvironment. We demonstrate a versatile materials approach for the dual-stage delivery of multiple soluble factors within a 3D hydrogel to induce adipogenesis. We use a Mixing-Induced Two-Component Hydrogel (MITCH) embedded with alginate microgels to deliver two pro-adipogenic soluble factors, fibroblast growth factor 1 (FGF-1) and bone morphogenetic protein 4 (BMP-4) with two distinct delivery profiles. We show that dual-stage delivery of FGF-1 and BMP-4 to human adipose-derived stromal cells (hADSCs) significantly increases lipid accumulation compared with the simultaneous delivery of both growth factors together. Furthermore, dual-stage growth factor delivery within a 3D hydrogel resulted in substantially more lipid accumulation compared to identical delivery profiles in 2D cultures. Gene expression analysis shows upregulation of key adipogenic markers indicative of brown-like adipocytes. These data suggest that dual-stage release of FGF-1 and BMP-4 within 3D microenvironments can promote the in vitro development of mature adipocytes. PMID:25309741

  2. Differential expression of two TEF-1 (TEAD) genes during Xenopus laevis development and in response to inducing factors.

    PubMed

    Naye, François; Tréguer, Karine; Soulet, Fabienne; Faucheux, Corinne; Fédou, Sandrine; Thézé, Nadine; Thiébaud, Pierre

    2007-01-01

    Transcription enhancer factors 1 (TEF-1 or TEAD) make a highly conserved family of eukaryotic DNA binding proteins that activate not only viral regulatory elements but muscle specific genes and are involved in several developmental processes. In this study, we report the identification and the expression pattern of NTEF-1 (TEAD1) and DTEF-1 (TEAD3), two members of this family in Xenopus laevis. Both X. laevis NTEF-1 (XNTEF-1 or XTEAD1) and DTEF-1 (XDTEF-1 or XTEAD3) possess a 72 amino acid TEA domain characteristic of TEF-1 proteins. XNTEF-1 is a 426 amino acid protein that has 96% identity with the avian or the mammalian NTEF-1 proteins while XDTEF-1 is a 433 amino acid protein with 77 to 80% identity with the avian and mammalian DTEF-1 sequences respectively. Temporal expression analysis by RT-PCR indicated that the two genes are expressed maternally and throughout embryonic development. In the adult, the two genes are broadly expressed although they showed differences of expression between tissues. Spatial expression analysis by whole mount in situ hybridization showed that the XNTEF-1 and XDTEF-1 mRNAS were predominantly detected in eye, embryonic brain, somites and heart. In animal cap assay, the two genes are activated by bFGF but are differently regulated by BMP4, and the muscle regulatory factor Mef2d.

  3. Expression of programmed cell death protein 4 (PDCD4) and miR-21 in urothelial carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Fischer, Nicolas; Goeke, Friederike; Splittstoesser, Vera; Lankat-Buttgereit, Brigitte; Mueller, Stefan C.; Ellinger, Joerg

    2012-01-06

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The tumor suppressor gene PDCD4 is down-regulated in many tumorous entities. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We investigate the impact of PDCD4 and its regulating factor miR-21 in urothelial carcinoma. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We confirm PDCD4 as a tumor suppressor gene and it could be a diagnostic marker for this tumor. -- Abstract: Background: We investigated the role of the programmed cell death 4 (PDCD4) tumor suppressor gene in specimens of transitional cell carcinoma and of healthy individuals. Methods: PDCD4 immunohistochemical expression was investigated in 294 cases in histologically proven transitional cell carcinoma in different tumorous stages (28 controls, 122 non-muscle invasive urothelial carcinoma, stages Tis-T1, 119 invasive transitional cell carcinoma stages T2-T4 and 25 metastases). MiR-21 expression, an important PDCD4 regulator, was assessed with real-time PCR analysis and showed inverse correlation to tissue PDCD4 expression. Results: Nuclear and cytoplasmatic PDCD4 immunostaining decreased significantly with histopathological progression of the tumor (p < 0001). Controls showed strong nuclear and cytoplasmatic immunohistochemical staining. MiR-21 up regulation in tissue corresponded to PDCD4 suppression. Conclusions: These data support a decisive role for PDCD4 down regulation in transitional cell carcinoma and confirm miR-21 as a negative regulator for PDCD4. Additionally, PDCD4 immunohistochemical staining turns out to be a possible diagnostic marker for transitional cell carcinoma.

  4. Adenovirus-mediated efficient gene transfer into cultured three-dimensional organoids.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ning; Zhang, Hongyu; Zhang, Bing-Qiang; Liu, Wei; Zhang, Zhonglin; Qiao, Min; Zhang, Hongmei; Deng, Fang; Wu, Ningning; Chen, Xian; Wen, Sheng; Zhang, Junhui; Liao, Zhan; Zhang, Qian; Yan, Zhengjian; Yin, Liangjun; Ye, Jixing; Deng, Youlin; Luu, Hue H; Haydon, Rex C; Liang, Houjie; He, Tong-Chuan

    2014-01-01

    Three-dimensional organoids have been recently established from various tissue-specific progenitors (such as intestinal stem cells), induced pluripotent stem cells, or embryonic stem cells. These cultured self-sustaining stem cell-based organoids may become valuable systems to study the roles of tissue-specific stem cells in tissue genesis and disease development. It is thus conceivable that effective genetic manipulations in such organoids may allow us to reconstruct disease processes and/or develop novel therapeutics. Recombinant adenoviruses are one of the most commonly used viral vectors for in vitro and in vivo gene deliveries. In this study, we investigate if adenoviruses can be used to effectively deliver transgenes into the cultured "mini-gut" organoids derived from intestinal stem cells. Using adenoviral vectors that express fluorescent proteins, we demonstrate that adenoviruses can effectively deliver transgenes into the cultured 3-D "mini-gut" organoids. The transgene expression can last at least 10 days in the cultured organoids. As a proof-of-principle experiment, we demonstrate that adenovirus-mediated noggin expression effectively support the survival and self-renewal of mini-gut organoids, while adenovirus-mediated expression of BMP4 inhibits the self-sustainability and proliferation of the organoids. Thus, our results strongly suggest that adenovirus vectors can be explored as effective gene delivery vehicles to introduce genetic manipulations in 3-D organoids.

  5. Male mice are susceptible to high fat diet-induced hyperglycaemia and display increased circulatory retinol binding protein 4 (RBP4) levels and its expression in visceral adipose depots.

    PubMed

    Asha, G V; Raja Gopal Reddy, M; Mahesh, M; Vajreswari, A; Jeyakumar, S M

    2016-01-01

    Vitamin A and its metabolites are known to modulate adipose tissue development and its associated complications. Here, we assessed the vitamin A status and its metabolic pathway gene expression in relation to sexual dimorphism by employing 35 days old C57BL/6J male and female mice, which were fed either stock or high fat (HF) diet for 26 weeks. HF diet feeding increased body weight/weight gain and white adipose tissue (WAT) of visceral and subcutaneous regions, however, increase in vitamin A levels observed only in subcutaneous WAT. Further, the expression of most of the vitamin A metabolic pathway genes showed no sexual dimorphism. The observed HF diet-induced hyperglycaemia in male corroborates with increased retinol binding protein 4 (RBP4) levels in plasma and its expression in visceral adipose depots. In conclusion, the male mice are susceptible to high fat diet-induced hyperglycaemia and display higher plasma RBP4 levels, possibly due to its over-expression in visceral adipose depots.

  6. Prepartum maternal diets supplemented with oilseeds alter the fatty acid profile in bovine neonatal plasma possibly through reduced placental expression of fatty acid transporter protein 4 and fatty acid translocase.

    PubMed

    Salehi, Reza; Ambrose, Divakar J

    2016-12-12

    In the present study, we determined the effects of maternal dietary fat and the type of fat on plasma fatty acids and the expression of placental fatty acid transporter genes. In Experiment 1, Holstein cows in the last 35 days of gestation received diets containing sunflower seed (n=8; high in linoleic acid (LA)), canola seed (n=7; high in oleic acid (OLA)) or no oilseed (n=7; control). Fatty acids were quantified in dam and neonate plasma at calving. In Experiment 2, placental cotyledons were collected (LA: n=4; OLA: n=4; control: n=5) to quantify gene expression. Maternal long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, neonatal total n-3 fatty acids and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) declined, whereas docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and total fat tended to decline following fat supplementation prepartum. Feeding of LA versus OLA prepartum tended to increase peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARA) expression, whereas peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor δ (PPARD) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARG) expression tended to be higher in OLA- than LA-fed cows. Expression of fatty acid transporter protein 4 (FATP4) and fatty acid translocase (FAT/CD36) expression was lower in placental tissue of cows fed fat compared with control cows. Reduced total n-3 fatty acids, EPA and DHA in neonates born of dams fed fat prepartum is likely due to changes in PPARs and reduced expression of placental FATP4 and FAT/CD36.

  7. Multivalent interactions of the SUMO-interaction motifs in RING finger protein 4 determine the specificity for chains of the SUMO.

    PubMed

    Keusekotten, Kirstin; Bade, Veronika N; Meyer-Teschendorf, Katrin; Sriramachandran, Annie Miriam; Fischer-Schrader, Katrin; Krause, Anke; Horst, Christiane; Schwarz, Günter; Hofmann, Kay; Dohmen, R Jürgen; Praefcke, Gerrit J K

    2014-01-01

    RNF4 (RING finger protein 4) is a STUbL [SUMO (small ubiquitin-related modifier)-targeted ubiquitin ligase] controlling PML (promyelocytic leukaemia) nuclear bodies, DNA double strand break repair and other nuclear functions. In the present paper, we describe that the sequence and spacing of the SIMs (SUMO-interaction motifs) in RNF4 regulate the avidity-driven recognition of substrate proteins carrying SUMO chains of variable length.

  8. Abnormal oxidant sensitivity and beta-chain structure of spectrin in hereditary spherocytosis associated with defective spectrin-protein 4.1 binding.

    PubMed Central

    Becker, P S; Morrow, J S; Lux, S E

    1987-01-01

    Hereditary spherocytosis (HS) is an inherited disorder of erythrocyte shape associated with spectrin deficiency and hemolytic anemia. In a subset of patients with the autosomal dominant form of HS, spectrin displays a reduced capacity to bind protein 4.1 and, therefore, actin; both functions that are critical to the membrane skeleton. A specific structural defect has not been identified in the spectrin from these patients. Chymotryptic digestion of the isolated spectrin chains shows impaired cleavage of the distal peptide of the beta subunit, the beta IV domain. In previous work, we have shown that mild oxidation markedly diminishes the binding capacity of normal spectrin for protein 4.1. Here we observe that chemical reduction of freshly isolated, untreated HS spectrin dramatically improves its function. Thus, a primary structural defect in the beta subunit of spectrin in this subtype of HS may lead to oxidant sensitivity, and secondarily, to a functional defect in the binding of spectrin to protein 4.1 and actin. Images PMID:3611357

  9. The function of Msx1 gene in promoting meiosis of dairy goat male germline stem cells (mGSCs).

    PubMed

    Mu, Hailong; Wu, Jiang; Zhu, Haijing; Li, Na; Tang, Furong; Yao, Xi; Yang, Churong; Peng, Sha; Li, Guangpeng; Hua, Jinlian

    2013-12-01

    During sequential stages of meiosis, numerous cytoplasmic and nuclear events take place in which many germline and non-germline genes involved. It is demonstrated that the germline gene Stra8 and synaptonemal complex protein 3 (Scp3) play an important role in the meiosis. Recently, studies showed Msx1, a DNA-binding protein taking part in the skeletal development, also having a functional attractive factor to Stra8 and Scp3 in the meiosis. In this study, we cloned the gene Msx1 then transfected the Msx1 constructed recombination plasmid, pMsx1-Ires2-AcGFP, into the dairy goat germline stem cells (male germline stem cells) and analysed the effects of Msx1 on the expression of Stra8 and Scp3. The results showed that Msx1 could enhance the expression of Stra8 and Scp3 and promote the meiosis in goat testicular cells. Bmp4 activated the expression of Msx1 and Stra8. This study suggests that Msx1 plays an important role in spermatogenesis and meiosis.

  10. Transcriptome Analysis Reveals Altered Expression of Memory and Neurotransmission Associated Genes in the REM Sleep Deprived Rat Brain

    PubMed Central

    Narwade, Santosh C.; Mallick, Birendra N.; Deobagkar, Deepti D.

    2017-01-01

    Sleep disorders are associated with cognitive impairment. Selective rapid eye movement sleep (REMS) deprivation (REMSD) alters several physiological processes and behaviors. By employing NGS platform we carried out transcriptomic analysis in brain samples of control rats and those exposed to REMSD. The expression of genes involved in chromatin assembly, methylation, learning, memory, regulation of synaptic transmission, neuronal plasticity and neurohypophysial hormone synthesis were altered. Increased transcription of BMP4, DBH and ATP1B2 genes after REMSD supports our earlier findings and hypothesis. Alteration in the transcripts encoding histone subtypes and important players in chromatin remodeling was observed. The mRNAs which transcribe neurotransmitters such as OXT, AVP, PMCH and LNPEP and two small non-coding RNAs, namely RMRP and BC1 were down regulated. At least some of these changes are likely to regulate REMS and may participate in the consequences of REMS loss. Thus, the findings of this study have identified key epigenetic regulators and neuronal plasticity genes associated to REMS and its loss. This analysis provides a background and opens up avenues for unraveling their specific roles in the complex behavioral network particularly in relation to sustained REMS-loss associated changes. PMID:28367113

  11. Increased expression of latent TGF-β-binding protein 4 affects the fibrotic process in scleroderma by TGF-β/SMAD signaling.

    PubMed

    Lu, Jiaying; Liu, Qingmei; Wang, Lei; Tu, Wenzhen; Chu, Haiyan; Ding, Weifeng; Jiang, Shuai; Ma, Yanyun; Shi, Xiangguang; Pu, Weilin; Zhou, Xiaodong; Jin, Li; Wang, Jiucun; Wu, Wenyu

    2017-03-06

    Scleroderma is a fibrosis-related disorder characterized by cutaneous and internal organ fibrosis, and excessive collagen deposition in extracellular matrix (ECM) is a major cause of fibrosis. Transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β)/SMAD signaling has a central role in the pathogenesis of fibrosis by inducing abnormal collagen accumulation in ECM, and latent TGF-β-binding protein 4 (LTBP-4) affects the secretion of latent TGF-β to ECM. A previous study indicated that bleomycin (BLM) treatment increased LTBP-4 expression in lung fibroblasts of Thy-1 knockout mice with lung fibrosis, and LTBP-4 further promoted TGF-β bioavailability as well as SMAD3 phosphorylation. However, the expression and function of LTBP-4 in human scleroderma remain unclear. We aimed to investigate the potential role of LTBP-4 in scleroderma through clinical, in vivo and in vitro studies. LTBP-4 and TGF-β expressions were significantly upregulated in systemic scleroderma (SSc) patients' plasma compared with normal controls (LTBP-4, 1,215±100.2 vs 542.8±41.7 ng/ml, P<0.0001; TGF-β, 1.5±0.2 vs 0.7±0.1 ng/ml, P=0.0031), while no significant difference was found between localized scleroderma (LSc) and normal controls. The plasma concentrations of LTBP-4 and TGF-β were even higher in SSc patients with lung fibrosis (LTBP-4, 1462± 137.3 vs 892.8±113.4 ng/ml, P=0.0037; TGF-β, 2.0±0.4 vs 0.9±0.2 ng/ml, P=0.0212) and esophagus involvement (1390±134.4 vs 940.7±127.0 ng/ml, P=0.0269; TGF-β, 1.9±0.3 vs 0.9±0.2 ng/ml, P=0.0426). The area under receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curve of LTBP-4 was 0.86. Immunohistochemistry measurement also demonstrated a higher LTBP-4 expression in sclerotic skin tissue of LSc and SSc compared with normal controls. More positive fibroblasts were also found in BLM-induced scleroderma mouse model than the saline-treated group. In in vitro studies, knockdown of LTBP-4 in SSc skin fibroblasts prominently reduced downstream COL1A1, COL1A2

  12. Genes and Gene Therapy

    MedlinePlus

    ... correctly, a child can have a genetic disorder. Gene therapy is an experimental technique that uses genes to ... or prevent disease. The most common form of gene therapy involves inserting a normal gene to replace an ...

  13. Topology based identification and comprehensive classification of four-transmembrane helix containing proteins (4TMs) in the human genome.

    PubMed

    Attwood, Misty M; Krishnan, Arunkumar; Pivotti, Valentina; Yazdi, Samira; Almén, Markus Sällman; Schiöth, Helgi B

    2016-03-31

    Membrane proteins are key components in a large spectrum of diverse functions and thus account for the major proportion of the drug-targeted portion of the genome. From a structural perspective, the α-helical transmembrane proteins can be categorized into major groups based on the number of transmembrane helices and these groups are often associated with specific functions. When compared to the well-characterized seven-transmembrane containing proteins (7TM), other TM groups are less explored and in particular the 4TM group. In this study, we identify the complete 4TM complement from the latest release of the human genome and assess the 4TM structure group as a whole. We functionally characterize this dataset and evaluate the resulting groups and ubiquitous functions, and furthermore describe disease and drug target involvement. We classified 373 proteins, which represents ~7 % of the human membrane proteome, and includes 69 more proteins than our previous estimate. We have characterized the 4TM dataset based on functional, structural, and/or evolutionary similarities. Proteins that are involved in transport activity constitute 37 % of the dataset, 23 % are receptor-related, and 13 % have enzymatic functions. Intriguingly, proteins involved in transport are more than double the 15 % of transporters in the entire human membrane proteome, which might suggest that the 4TM topological architecture is more favored for transporting molecules over other functions. Moreover, we found an interesting exception to the ubiquitous intracellular N- and C-termini localization that is found throughout the entire membrane proteome and 4TM dataset in the neurotransmitter gated ion channel families. Overall, we estimate that 58 % of the dataset has a known association to disease conditions with 19 % of the genes possibly involved in different types of cancer. We provide here the most robust and updated classification of the 4TM complement of the human genome as a platform to further

  14. Misexpression of BRE gene in the developing chick neural tube affects neurulation and somitogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Guang; Li, Yan; Wang, Xiao-Yu; Chuai, Manli; Yeuk-Hon Chan, John; Lei, Jian; Münsterberg, Andrea; Lee, Kenneth Ka Ho; Yang, Xuesong

    2015-01-01

    The brain and reproductive expression (BRE) gene is expressed in numerous adult tissues and especially in the nervous and reproductive systems. However, little is known about BRE expression in the developing embryo or about its role in embryonic development. In this study, we used in situ hybridization to reveal the spatiotemporal expression pattern for BRE in chick embryo during development. To determine the importance of BRE in neurogenesis, we overexpressed BRE and also silenced BRE expression specifically in the neural tube. We established that overexpressing BRE in the neural tube indirectly accelerated Pax7+ somite development and directly increased HNK-1+ neural crest cell (NCC) migration and TuJ-1+ neurite outgrowth. These altered morphogenetic processes were associated with changes in the cell cycle of NCCs and neural tube cells. The inverse effect was obtained when BRE expression was silenced in the neural tube. We also determined that BMP4 and Shh expression in the neural tube was affected by misexpression of BRE. This provides a possible mechanism for how altering BRE expression was able to affect somitogenesis, neurogenesis, and NCC migration. In summary, our results demonstrate that BRE plays an important role in regulating neurogenesis and indirectly somite differentiation during early chick embryo development. PMID:25568339

  15. Misexpression of BRE gene in the developing chick neural tube affects neurulation and somitogenesis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Guang; Li, Yan; Wang, Xiao-Yu; Chuai, Manli; Yeuk-Hon Chan, John; Lei, Jian; Münsterberg, Andrea; Lee, Kenneth Ka Ho; Yang, Xuesong

    2015-03-01

    The brain and reproductive expression (BRE) gene is expressed in numerous adult tissues and especially in the nervous and reproductive systems. However, little is known about BRE expression in the developing embryo or about its role in embryonic development. In this study, we used in situ hybridization to reveal the spatiotemporal expression pattern for BRE in chick embryo during development. To determine the importance of BRE in neurogenesis, we overexpressed BRE and also silenced BRE expression specifically in the neural tube. We established that overexpressing BRE in the neural tube indirectly accelerated Pax7(+) somite development and directly increased HNK-1(+) neural crest cell (NCC) migration and TuJ-1(+) neurite outgrowth. These altered morphogenetic processes were associated with changes in the cell cycle of NCCs and neural tube cells. The inverse effect was obtained when BRE expression was silenced in the neural tube. We also determined that BMP4 and Shh expression in the neural tube was affected by misexpression of BRE. This provides a possible mechanism for how altering BRE expression was able to affect somitogenesis, neurogenesis, and NCC migration. In summary, our results demonstrate that BRE plays an important role in regulating neurogenesis and indirectly somite differentiation during early chick embryo development.

  16. Dragon (repulsive guidance molecule b, RGMb) is a novel gene that promotes colorectal cancer growth

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Ying; Chen, Guo-Bin; Huang, Xiao-Xiao; Xiao, Chuan-Xing; Wang, Huan-Huan; Li, Ye-Sen; Zhang, Jin-Fang; Li, Shao; Xia, Yin; Ren, Jian-Lin; Guleng, Bayasi

    2015-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most commonly diagnosed cancers and a major cause of cancer death. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying CRC initiation, growth and metastasis are poorly understood. Dragon (RGMb), a member of the repulsive guidance molecule (RGM) family, has been recently identified as a co-receptor for bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling, but the role of Dragon in CRC development is undefined. Here, we show that Dragon expression was increased in colon cancer tissues compared to control tissues in CAC mouse model and in human patients. Dragon promoted proliferation of CT26.WT and CMT93 colon cancer cells and accelerated tumor growth in the xenograft mouse model. Dragon's action on colon cancer development was mediated via the BMP4-Smad1/5/8 and Erk1/2 pathways. Therefore, our results have revealed that Dragon is a novel gene that promotes CRC growth through the BMP pathway. Dragon may be exploited as a potential therapeutic target for CRC treatment. PMID:26029998

  17. Dragon (repulsive guidance molecule b, RGMb) is a novel gene that promotes colorectal cancer growth.

    PubMed

    Shi, Ying; Chen, Guo-Bin; Huang, Xiao-Xiao; Xiao, Chuan-Xing; Wang, Huan-Huan; Li, Ye-Sen; Zhang, Jin-Fang; Li, Shao; Xia, Yin; Ren, Jian-Lin; Guleng, Bayasi

    2015-08-21

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most commonly diagnosed cancers and a major cause of cancer death. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying CRC initiation, growth and metastasis are poorly understood. Dragon (RGMb), a member of the repulsive guidance molecule (RGM) family, has been recently identified as a co-receptor for bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling, but the role of Dragon in CRC development is undefined. Here, we show that Dragon expression was increased in colon cancer tissues compared to control tissues in CAC mouse model and in human patients. Dragon promoted proliferation of CT26.WT and CMT93 colon cancer cells and accelerated tumor growth in the xenograft mouse model. Dragon's action on colon cancer development was mediated via the BMP4-Smad1/5/8 and Erk1/2 pathways. Therefore, our results have revealed that Dragon is a novel gene that promotes CRC growth through the BMP pathway. Dragon may be exploited as a potential therapeutic target for CRC treatment.

  18. Gene Expression Profiling Reveals New Potential Players of Gonad Differentiation in the Chicken Embryo

    PubMed Central

    Carré, Gwenn-Aël; Couty, Isabelle; Hennequet-Antier, Christelle; Govoroun, Marina S.

    2011-01-01

    Background In birds as in mammals, a genetic switch determines whether the undifferentiated gonad develops into an ovary or a testis. However, understanding of the molecular pathway(s) involved in gonad differentiation is still incomplete. Methodology/Principal Findings With the aim of improving characterization of the molecular pathway(s) involved in gonad differentiation in the chicken embryo, we developed a large scale real time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction approach on 110 selected genes for evaluation of their expression profiles during chicken gonad differentiation between days 5.5 and 19 of incubation. Hierarchical clustering analysis of the resulting datasets discriminated gene clusters expressed preferentially in the ovary or the testis, and/or at early or later periods of embryonic gonad development. Fitting a linear model and testing the comparisons of interest allowed the identification of new potential actors of gonad differentiation, such as Z-linked ADAMTS12, LOC427192 (corresponding to NIM1 protein) and CFC1, that are upregulated in the developing testis, and BMP3 and Z-linked ADAMTSL1, that are preferentially expressed in the developing ovary. Interestingly, the expression patterns of several members of the transforming growth factor β family were sexually dimorphic, with inhibin subunits upregulated in the testis, and bone morphogenetic protein subfamily members including BMP2, BMP3, BMP4 and BMP7, upregulated in the ovary. This study also highlighted several genes displaying asymmetric expression profiles such as GREM1 and BMP3 that are potentially involved in different aspects of gonad left-right asymmetry. Conclusion/Significance This study supports the overall conservation of vertebrate sex differentiation pathways but also reveals some particular feature of gene expression patterns during gonad development in the chicken. In particular, our study revealed new candidate genes which may be potential actors of chicken gonad

  19. A bicistronic DNA vaccine containing apical membrane antigen 1 and merozoite surface protein 4/5 can prime humoral and cellular immune responses and partially protect mice against virulent Plasmodium chabaudi adami DS malaria.

    PubMed

    Rainczuk, A; Scorza, T; Spithill, T W; Smooker, P M

    2004-10-01

    The ultimate malaria vaccine will require the delivery of multiple antigens from different stages of the complex malaria life cycle. In order to efficiently deliver multiple antigens with use of DNA vaccine technology, new antigen delivery systems must be assessed. This study utilized a bicistronic vector construct, containing an internal ribosome entry site, expressing a combination of malarial candidate antigens: merozoite surface protein 4/5 (MSP4/5) (fused to a monocyte chemotactic protein 3 chemoattractant sequence) and apical membrane antigen 1 (AMA-1) (fused to a tissue plasminogen activator secretion signal). Transfection of COS 7 cells with bicistronic plasmids resulted in production and secretion of both AMA-1 and MSP4/5 in vitro. Vaccination of BALB/c mice via intraepidermal gene gun and intramuscular routes against AMA-1 and MSP4/5 resulted in antibody production and significant in vitro proliferation of splenocytes stimulated by both AMA-1 and MSP4/5. Survival of BALB/c mice vaccinated with bicistronic constructs after lethal Plasmodium chabaudi adami DS erythrocytic-stage challenge was variable, although significant increases in survival and reductions in peak parasitemia were observed in several challenge trials when the vaccine was delivered by the intramuscular route. This study using a murine model demonstrates that the delivery of malarial antigens via bicistronic vectors is feasible. Further experimentation with bicistronic delivery systems is required for the optimization and refinement of DNA vaccines to effectively prime protective immune responses against malaria.

  20. The N-terminal Region of Chromodomain Helicase DNA-binding Protein 4 (CHD4) Is Essential for Activity and Contains a High Mobility Group (HMG) Box-like-domain That Can Bind Poly(ADP-ribose)*

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Ana P. G.; Ryan, Daniel P.; Galanty, Yaron; Low, Jason K. K.; Vandevenne, Marylene; Jackson, Stephen P.; Mackay, Joel P.

    2016-01-01

    Chromodomain Helicase DNA-binding protein 4 (CHD4) is a chromatin-remodeling enzyme that has been reported to regulate DNA-damage responses through its N-terminal region in a poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-dependent manner. We have identified and determined the structure of a stable domain (CHD4-N) in this N-terminal region. The-fold consists of a four-α-helix bundle with structural similarity to the high mobility group box, a domain that is well known as a DNA binding module. We show that the CHD4-N domain binds with higher affinity to poly(ADP-ribose) than to DNA. We also show that the N-terminal region of CHD4, although not CHD4-N alone, is essential for full nucleosome remodeling activity and is important for localizing CHD4 to sites of DNA damage. Overall, these data build on our understanding of how CHD4-NuRD acts to regulate gene expression and participates in the DNA-damage response. PMID:26565020

  1. Differential gene expression of human chondrocytes cultured under short-term altered gravity conditions during parabolic flight maneuvers.

    PubMed

    Wehland, Markus; Aleshcheva, Ganna; Schulz, Herbert; Saar, Katrin; Hübner, Norbert; Hemmersbach, Ruth; Braun, Markus; Ma, Xiao; Frett, Timo; Warnke, Elisabeth; Riwaldt, Stefan; Pietsch, Jessica; Corydon, Thomas Juhl; Infanger, Manfred; Grimm, Daniela

    2015-03-20

    Chondrocytes are the main cellular component of articular cartilage. In healthy tissue, they are embedded in a strong but elastic extracelluar matrix providing resistance against mechanical forces and friction for the joints. Osteoarthritic cartilage, however, disrupted by heavy strain, has only very limited potential to heal. One future possibility to replace damaged cartilage might be the scaffold-free growth of chondrocytes in microgravity to form 3D aggregates. To prepare for this, we have conducted experiments during the 20th DLR parabolic flight campaign, where we fixed the cells after the first (1P) and the 31st parabola (31P). Furthermore, we subjected chondrocytes to isolated vibration and hypergravity conditions. Microarray and quantitative real time PCR analyses revealed that hypergravity regulated genes connected to cartilage integrity (BMP4, MMP3, MMP10, EDN1, WNT5A, BIRC3). Vibration was clearly detrimental to cartilage (upregulated inflammatory IL6 and IL8, downregulated growth factors EGF, VEGF, FGF17). The viability of the cells was not affected by the parabolic flight, but showed a significantly increased expression of anti-apoptotic genes after 31 parabolas. The IL-6 release of chondrocytes cultured under conditions of vibration was not changed, but hypergravity (1.8 g) induced a clear elevation of IL-6 protein in the supernatant compared with corresponding control samples. Taken together, this study provided new insights into the growth behavior of chondrocytes under short-term microgravity.

  2. Induction of insulin resistance by the adipokines resistin, leptin, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 and retinol binding protein 4 in human megakaryocytes

    PubMed Central

    Gerrits, Anja J.; Gitz, Eelo; Koekman, Cornelis A.; Visseren, Frank L.; van Haeften, Timon W.; Akkerman, Jan Willem N.

    2012-01-01

    Background In normal platelets, insulin inhibits agonist-induced Ca2+ mobilization by raising cyclic AMP. Platelet from patients with type 2 diabetes are resistant to insulin and show increased Ca2+ mobilization, aggregation and procoagulant activity. We searched for the cause of this insulin resistance. Design and Methods Platelets, the megakaryocytic cell line CHRF-288-11 and primary megakaryocytes were incubated with adipokines and with plasma from individuals with a disturbed adipokine profile. Thrombin-induced Ca2+ mobilization and signaling through the insulin receptor and insulin receptor substrate 1 were measured. Abnormalities induced by adipokines were compared with abnormalities found in platelets from patients with type 2 diabetes. Results Resistin, leptin, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 and retinol binding protein 4 left platelets unchanged but induced insulin resistance in CHRF-288-11 cells. Interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor-α and visfatin had no effect. These results were confirmed in primary megakaryocytes. Contact with adipokines for 2 hours disturbed insulin receptor substrate 1 Ser307-phosphorylation, while contact for 72 hours caused insulin receptor substrate 1 degradation. Plasma with a disturbed adipokine profile also made CHRF-288-11 cells insulin-resistant. Platelets from patients with type 2 diabetes showed decreased insulin receptor substrate 1 expression. Conclusions Adipokines resistin, leptin, plasminogen activator-1 and retinol binding protein 4 disturb insulin receptor substrate 1 activity and expression in megakaryocytes. This might be a cause of the insulin resistance observed in platelets from patients with type 2 diabetes. PMID:22491740

  3. Protein 4.1N acts as a potential tumor suppressor linking PP1 to JNK-c-Jun pathway regulation in NSCLC.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zi; Ma, Bianyin; Li, Hui; Xiao, Xiaojuan; Zhou, Weihua; Liu, Feng; Zhang, Bin; Zhu, Min; Yang, Qin; Zeng, Yayue; Sun, Yang; Sun, Shuming; Wang, Yanpeng; Zhang, Yibin; Weng, Haibo; Chen, Lixiang; Ye, Mao; An, Xiuli; Liu, Jing

    2016-01-05

    Protein 4.1N is a member of protein 4.1 family and has been recognized as a potential tumor suppressor in solid tumors. Here, we aimed to investigate the role and mechanisms of 4.1N in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). We confirmed that the expression level of 4.1N was inversely correlated with the metastatic properties of NSCLC cell lines and histological grade of clinical NSCLC tissues. Specific knockdown of 4.1N promoted tumor cell proliferation, migration and adhesion in vitro, and tumor growth and metastasis in mouse xenograft models. Furthermore, we identified PP1 as a novel 4.1N-interacting molecule, and the FERM domain of 4.1N mediated the interaction between 4.1N and PP1. Further, ectopic expression of 4.1N could inactivate JNK-c-Jun signaling pathway through enhancing PP1 activity and interaction between PP1 and p-JNK. Correspondingly, expression of potential downstream metastasis targets (ezrin and MMP9) and cell cycle targets (p53, p21 and p19) of JNK-c-Jun pathway were also regulated by 4.1N. Our data suggest that down-regulation of 4.1N expression is a critical step for NSCLC development and that repression of JNK-c-Jun signaling through PP1 is one of the key anti-tumor mechanisms of 4.1N.

  4. A posttranslational modification of beta-actin contributes to the slow dissociation of the spectrin-protein 4.1-actin complex of irreversibly sickled cells

    PubMed Central

    1995-01-01

    Irreversibly sickled cells (ISCs) remain sickled even under conditions where they are well oxygenated and hemoglobin is depolymerized. In our studies we demonstrate that triton extracted ISC core skeletons containing only spectrin, protein 4.1, and actin also retain their sickled shape; while reversibly sickled cell (RSC) skeletons remodel to a round or biconcave shape. We also demonstrate that these triton extracted ISC core skeletons dissociate more slowly upon incubation at 37 degrees C than do RSC or control (AA) core skeletons. This observation may supply the basis for the inability of the ISC core skeleton to remodel its shape. Using an in vitro ternary complex dissociation assay, we demonstrate that a modification in beta-actin is the major determinant of the slow dissociation of the spectrin-protein 4.1-actin complex isolated from the ISC core skeleton. We demonstrate that the difference between ISC and control beta-actin is the inaccessibility of two cysteine residues in ISC beta-actin to labeling by thiol reactive reagents; due to the formation of a disulfide bridge between cysteine284 and cysteine373 in ISC beta-actin, or alternatively another modification of cysteine284 and cysteine373 which is reversible with DTT and adds less than 100 D to the molecular weight of beta-actin. PMID:7876306

  5. Altered cytokine gene expression in peripheral blood monocytes across the menstrual cycle in primary dysmenorrhea: a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Ma, Hongyue; Hong, Min; Duan, Jinao; Liu, Pei; Fan, Xinsheng; Shang, Erxin; Su, Shulan; Guo, Jianming; Qian, Dawei; Tang, Yuping

    2013-01-01

    Primary dysmenorrhea is one of the most common gynecological complaints in young women, but potential peripheral immunologic features underlying this condition remain undefined. In this paper, we compared 84 common cytokine gene expression profiles of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from six primary dysmenorrheic young women and three unaffected controls on the seventh day before (secretory phase), and the first (menstrual phase) and the fifth (regenerative phase) days of menstruation, using a real-time PCR array assay combined with pattern recognition and gene function annotation methods. Comparisons between dysmenorrhea and normal control groups identified 11 (nine increased and two decreased), 14 (five increased and nine decreased), and 15 (seven increased and eight decreased) genes with ≥ 2-fold difference in expression (P<0.05) in the three phases of menstruation, respectively. In the menstrual phase, genes encoding pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL1B, TNF, IL6, and IL8) were up-regulated, and genes encoding TGF-β superfamily members (BMP4, BMP6, GDF5, GDF11, LEFTY2, NODAL, and MSTN) were down-regulated. Functional annotation revealed an excessive inflammatory response and insufficient TGF-β superfamily member signals with anti-inflammatory consequences, which may directly contribute to menstrual pain. In the secretory and regenerative phases, increased expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and decreased expression of growth factors were also observed. These factors may be involved in the regulation of decidualization, endometrium breakdown and repair, and indirectly exacerbate primary dysmenorrhea. This first study of cytokine gene expression profiles in PBMCs from young primary dysmenorrheic women demonstrates a shift in the balance between expression patterns of pro-inflammatory cytokines and TGF-β superfamily members across the whole menstrual cycle, underlying the peripheral immunologic features of primary dysmenorrhea.

  6. Altered Cytokine Gene Expression in Peripheral Blood Monocytes across the Menstrual Cycle in Primary Dysmenorrhea: A Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Hongyue; Hong, Min; Duan, Jinao; Liu, Pei; Fan, Xinsheng; Shang, Erxin; Su, Shulan; Guo, Jianming; Qian, Dawei; Tang, Yuping

    2013-01-01

    Primary dysmenorrhea is one of the most common gynecological complaints in young women, but potential peripheral immunologic features underlying this condition remain undefined. In this paper, we compared 84 common cytokine gene expression profiles of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from six primary dysmenorrheic young women and three unaffected controls on the seventh day before (secretory phase), and the first (menstrual phase) and the fifth (regenerative phase) days of menstruation, using a real-time PCR array assay combined with pattern recognition and gene function annotation methods. Comparisons between dysmenorrhea and normal control groups identified 11 (nine increased and two decreased), 14 (five increased and nine decreased), and 15 (seven increased and eight decreased) genes with ≥2-fold difference in expression (P<0.05) in the three phases of menstruation, respectively. In the menstrual phase, genes encoding pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL1B, TNF, IL6, and IL8) were up-regulated, and genes encoding TGF-β superfamily members (BMP4, BMP6, GDF5, GDF11, LEFTY2, NODAL, and MSTN) were down-regulated. Functional annotation revealed an excessive inflammatory response and insufficient TGF-β superfamily member signals with anti-inflammatory consequences, which may directly contribute to menstrual pain. In the secretory and regenerative phases, increased expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and decreased expression of growth factors were also observed. These factors may be involved in the regulation of decidualization, endometrium breakdown and repair, and indirectly exacerbate primary dysmenorrhea. This first study of cytokine gene expression profiles in PBMCs from young primary dysmenorrheic women demonstrates a shift in the balance between expression patterns of pro-inflammatory cytokines and TGF-β superfamily members across the whole menstrual cycle, underlying the peripheral immunologic features of primary dysmenorrhea. PMID:23390521

  7. Compartmentalized accumulation of cAMP near complexes of multidrug resistance protein 4 (MRP4) and cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) contributes to drug-induced diarrhea.

    PubMed

    Moon, Changsuk; Zhang, Weiqiang; Ren, Aixia; Arora, Kavisha; Sinha, Chandrima; Yarlagadda, Sunitha; Woodrooffe, Koryse; Schuetz, John D; Valasani, Koteswara Rao; de Jonge, Hugo R; Shanmukhappa, Shiva Kumar; Shata, Mohamed Tarek M; Buddington, Randal K; Parthasarathi, Kaushik; Naren, Anjaparavanda P

    2015-05-01

    Diarrhea is one of the most common adverse side effects observed in ∼7% of individuals consuming Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved drugs. The mechanism of how these drugs alter fluid secretion in the gut and induce diarrhea is not clearly understood. Several drugs are either substrates or inhibitors of multidrug resistance protein 4 (MRP4), such as the anti-colon cancer drug irinotecan and an anti-retroviral used to treat HIV infection, 3'-azido-3'-deoxythymidine (AZT). These drugs activate cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR)-mediated fluid secretion by inhibiting MRP4-mediated cAMP efflux. Binding of drugs to MRP4 augments the formation of MRP4-CFTR-containing macromolecular complexes that is mediated via scaffolding protein PDZK1. Importantly, HIV patients on AZT treatment demonstrate augmented MRP4-CFTR complex formation in the colon, which defines a novel paradigm of drug-induced diarrhea.

  8. The association of retinol-binding protein 4 with metabolic syndrome and obesity in adolescents: the effects of gender and sex hormones.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chin-Jung; Chu, Nain Feng; Hung, Yi-Jen; Chang, Jin-Biou; He, Chih-Tsueng; Hsiao, Fone-Ching; Hsieh, Chang-Hsun

    2013-01-01

    Retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4) has a role in the development of insulin resistance (IR), type 2 diabetes, obesity, and metabolic syndrome among adults. However, data among adolescents are limited, and the effects of gender and sex hormones on RBP4 are not well defined. A total of 1082 adolescents were enrolled and categorized based on their body mass index. Blood samples were collected, and biochemical characteristics, sex hormones, RBP4 concentrations, and IR were determined. Testosterone and estradiol were not directly correlated with RBP4 concentrations in both genders. Multivariate regression analysis revealed that fasting plasma glucose (FPG), triglyceride (TG), and testosterone levels were independently associated with RBP4 concentrations in boys; also, there was a trend of increasing RBP4 levels with the severity of obesity. Plasma RBP4 concentrations correlated with obesity and cardiovascular risk factors, predominantly evident in boys. Testosterone, FPG, and TG levels were independent predictors of RBP4 concentrations.

  9. Lack of Relationship between Cord Serum Angiopoietin-Like Protein 4 (ANGPTL4) and Lipolytic Activity in Human Neonates Born by Spontaneous Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Ortega-Senovilla, Henar; Schaefer-Graf, Ute; Meitzner, Katrin; Graf, Kristof; Abou-Dakn, Michael; Herrera, Emilio

    2013-01-01

    Background Ligands of peroxisome-proliferator activated receptors (PPARs), such as non-esterified fatty acids (NEFAs), induce expression of angiopoietin-like protein 4 (ANGPTL4). Recently ANGPTL4 has been reported to be a mediator of intracellular adipose lipolysis induced by glucocorticoids. Objective To determine the concentrations of ANGPTL4 in cord serum of neonates born by spontaneous vaginal delivery (SVD) and by pre-labor cesarean section (CS) from healthy women, and to relate them to parameters of neonatal lipolytic activity at birth. Measurements In 54 neonates born by SVD and in 56 neonates born by CS, arterial cord blood was drawn to determine insulin, cortisol, triacylglycerols (TAGs), glycerol, non-esterified fatty acids (NEFAs), individual fatty acids, ANGPTL4, adiponectin, retinol binding protein 4 (RBP4) and leptin. Results Birth weight and neonatal fat mass in SVD and CS showed no difference, but the concentrations of glycerol, adiponectin, RBP4, NEFAs and most individual fatty acids were higher in cord serum of neonates born by SVD compared to CS, indicating a higher adipose tissue breakdown in the SVD group. The concentrations of TAG and cortisol were also higher and that of insulin was lower in cord serum of SVD compared to the CS group. However, the concentration in cord serum of ANGPTL4 did not differ between the two groups and no positive correlation with either NEFA or glycerol concentrations were detected. Conclusion ANGPTL4 is known to stimulate lipolysis in adults, but does not appear to mediate the increased activity in SVD, indicating the presence of different regulatory inputs. PMID:24324678

  10. High ω-3:ω-6 fatty acids ratio increases fatty acid binding protein 4 and extracellular secretory phospholipase A2IIa in human ectopic endometrial cells

    PubMed Central

    Khanaki, Korosh; Sadeghi, Mohammad Reza; Akhondi, Mohammad Mehdi; Darabi, Masoud; Mehdizadeh, Amir; Shabani, Mahdi; Rahimipour, Ali; Nouri, Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    Background: Endometriosis, a common chronic inflammatory disorder, is defined by the atypical growth of endometrium- like tissue outside of the uterus. Secretory phospholipase A2 group IIa (sPLA2-IIa) and fatty acid binding protein4 (FABP4) play several important roles in the inflammatory diseases. Objective: Due to reported potential anti-inflammatory effects of ω-3 and ω-6 fatty acids, the purpose of the present study was to investigate the effects of ω-3 and ω-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) on fatty acid binding protein 4 and extracellular secretory phospholipase A2IIa in cultured endometrial cells. Materials and Methods: Ectopic and eutopic endometrial tissues obtained from 15 women were snap frozen. After thawing and tissue digestion, primary mixed stromal and endometrial epithelial cell culture was performed for 8 days in culture mediums supplemented with normal and high ratios of ω-3 and ω-6 PUFA. sPLA2-IIa in the culture medium and FABP4 level was determined using enzyme immuno assay (EIA) technique. Results: Within ectopic endometrial cells group, the level of cellular FABP4 and extracellular sPLA2-IIa were remarkably increased under high ω-3 PUFA exposure compared with control condition (p=0.014 and p=0.04 respectively). Conclusion: ω-3 PUFAs may increase the level of cellular FABP4 and extracellular sPLA2-IIa in ectopic endometrial cells, since sPLAIIa and FABP4 may affect endometriosis via several mechanisms, more relevant studies are encouraged to know the potential effect of increased cellular FABP4 and extracellular sPLA2-IIa on endometriosis. PMID:25709631

  11. Previous miscarriages and GLI2 are associated with anorectal malformations in offspring.

    PubMed

    van de Putte, Romy; Wijers, Charlotte H W; de Blaauw, Ivo; Marcelis, Carlo L M; Sloots, Cornelius E J; Brooks, Alice S; Broens, Paul M A; Roeleveld, Nel; van der Zanden, Loes F M; van Rooij, Iris A L M

    2017-02-01

    Are anorectal malformations (ARMs) associated with previous miscarriages or single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the Bone Morphogenetic Protein 4 (BMP4) and GLI family zinc finger 2 (GLI2) genes? The SNP rs3738880 in GLI2 and miscarriages were associated with ARM, especially in patients with multiple congenital anomalies (MCA). ARM are one of the most common birth defects of the gastrointestinal tract. The etiology is likely to be multifactorial, involving both environmental and genetic factors. SNPs in BMP4 and GLI2 genes were associated with ARM in non-Caucasian populations. During a patient information day, several mothers of ARM patients reported their concerns about previous miscarriages. A case-control study was performed among 427 ARM patients and 663 population-based controls. We examined the associations of ARM with SNPs in GLI2 and BMP4 using DNA samples of the children and associations with previous miscarriages using parental questionnaires. In addition, gene-gene and gene-environment interaction analyses were performed. The SNP rs3738880 in GLI2 was associated with ARM, especially in patients with MCA (homozygous GG-genotype: odds ratio (OR): 2.1; 95% CI: 1.2, 3.7). We identified previous miscarriages as a new risk factor for ARM, especially when occurring in the pregnancy directly preceding the index pregnancy and in patients with MCA (OR: 2.1; 95% CI: 1.3, 3.5). No association with rs17563 in BMP4, nor gene-gene or gene-environment interactions were found. The possibility of recall errors for previous miscarriage, but we expect these errors to be limited, as a miscarriage is a major life event. In addition, potential misclassification regarding miscarriages and stillbirth, but sensitivity analyses showed that this did not influence our results. This study showed associations of ARM with rs3738880 in GLI2 and with previous miscarriages. Both associations were stronger in patients with MCA, showing the importance of stratifying the analyses by

  12. Brachyury and SMAD signalling collaboratively orchestrate distinct mesoderm and endoderm gene regulatory networks in differentiating human embryonic stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Faial, Tiago; Bernardo, Andreia S.; Mendjan, Sasha; Diamanti, Evangelia; Ortmann, Daniel; Gentsch, George E.; Mascetti, Victoria L.; Trotter, Matthew W. B.; Smith, James C.; Pedersen, Roger A.

    2015-01-01

    The transcription factor brachyury (T, BRA) is one of the first markers of gastrulation and lineage specification in vertebrates. Despite its wide use and importance in stem cell and developmental biology, its functional genomic targets in human cells are largely unknown. Here, we use differentiating human embryonic stem cells to study the role of BRA in activin A-induced endoderm and BMP4-induced mesoderm progenitors. We show that BRA has distinct genome-wide binding landscapes in these two cell populations, and that BRA interacts and collaborates with SMAD1 or SMAD2/3 signalling to regulate the expression of its target genes in a cell-specific manner. Importantly, by manipulating the levels of BRA in cells exposed to different signalling environments, we demonstrate that BRA is essential for mesoderm but not for endoderm formation. Together, our data illuminate the function of BRA in the context of human embryonic development and show that the regulatory role of BRA is context dependent. Our study reinforces the importance of analysing the functions of a transcription factor in different cellular and signalling environments. PMID:26015544

  13. Cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated protein 4 +49A/G polymorphisms contribute to the risk of type 1 diabetes in children: An updated systematic review and meta-analysis with trial sequential analysis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Bo; Du, Wei; Jia, Yutao; Zhang, Xiaobai; Ma, Guorui

    2017-02-07

    Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is a heritable disease associated with multiple genetic variants. This systematic review and meta-analysis assessed the correlation between cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated protein 4(CTLA-4) +49A/G polymorphisms and the risk of T1D in children. The random effects model was used to estimate the related odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Trial sequential analysis (TSA) was used to determine whether the currently available evidence was sufficient and conclusive. Our results indicated that CTLA-4 gene polymorphisms significantly increased the risk of childhood T1D in an allelic model (G vs. A: OR=1.33, 95%CI=1.19-1.48; I2=44.0% and P=0.001for heterogeneity) and a codominant model (GG vs. AA: OR=1.75, 95%CI=1.37-2.24; I2=57.5% and P=0.001for heterogeneity; GA vs. AA: OR=1.26, 95%CI=1.09-1.46; I2=40.4% and P=0.036for heterogeneity). Subgroup analysis results indicated that the ORs were higher in the Asian population (ORallelic model=1.60, ORGG vs. AA=2.46 and ORGA vs. AA=1.58) than the Caucasian population (ORallelic model==1.24, ORGG vs. AA=1.55 and ORGA vs. AA=1.19). The TSA results indicated that the evidence of the effect was sufficient. In conclusion, CTLA4 +49A/G polymorphisms increased the risk of T1D in children, and CTLA4 +49A/G can be considered to be a genetic marker for T1D in children.

  14. The product of ORF O located within the domain of herpes simplex virus 1 genome transcribed during latent infection binds to and inhibits in vitro binding of infected cell protein 4 to its cognate DNA site

    PubMed Central

    Randall, Glenn; Lagunoff, Michael; Roizman, Bernard

    1997-01-01

    The partially overlapping ORF P and ORF O are located within the domains of the herpes simplex virus 1 genome transcribed during latency. Earlier studies have shown that ORF P is repressed by infected cell protein 4 (ICP4), the major viral regulatory protein, binding to its cognate site at the transcription initiation site of ORF P. The ORF P protein binds to p32, a component of the ASF/SF2 alternate splicing factors; in cells infected with a recombinant virus in which ORF P was derepressed there was a significant decrease in the expression of products of key regulatory genes containing introns. We report that (i) the expression of ORF O is repressed during productive infection by the same mechanism as that determining the expression of ORF P; (ii) in cells infected at the nonpermissive temperature for ICP4, ORF O protein is made in significantly lower amounts than the ORF P protein; (iii) the results of insertion of a sequence encoding 20 amino acids between the putative initiator methionine codons of ORF O and ORF P suggest that ORF O initiates at the methionine codon of ORF P and that the synthesis of ORF O results from frameshift or editing of its RNA; and (iv) glutathione S-transferase–ORF O fusion protein bound specifically ICP4 and precluded its binding to its cognate site on DNA in vitro. These and earlier results indicate that ORF P and ORF O together have the capacity to reduce the synthesis or block the expression of regulatory proteins essential for viral replication in productive infection. PMID:9294219

  15. Chondro/Osteoblastic and Cardiovascular Gene Modulation in Human Artery Smooth Muscle Cells That Calcify in the Presence of Phosphate and Calcitriol or Paricalcitol

    PubMed Central

    Shalhoub, V; Shatzen, EM; Ward, SC; Young, J-I; Boedigheimer, M; Twehues, L; McNinch, J; Scully, S; Twomey, B; Baker, D; Kiaei, P; Damore, MA; Pan, Z; Haas, K; Martin, D

    2010-01-01

    Vitamin D sterol administration, a traditional treatment for secondary hyperparathyroidism, may increase serum calcium and phosphorus, and has been associated with increased vascular calcification (VC). In vitro studies suggest that in the presence of uremic concentrations of phosphorus, vitamin D sterols regulate gene expression associated with trans-differentiation of smooth muscle cells (SMCs) to a chondro/osteoblastic cell type. This study examined effects of vitamin D sterols on gene expression profiles associated with phosphate-enhanced human coronary artery SMC (CASMC) calcification. Cultured CASMCs were exposed to phosphate-containing differentiation medium (DM) with and without calcitriol, paricalcitol, or the calcimimetic R-568 (10−11–10−7 M) for 7 days. Calcification of CASMCs, determined using colorimetry following acid extraction, was dose dependently increased (1.6- to 1.9-fold) by vitamin D sterols + DM. In contrast, R-568 did not increase calcification. Microarray analysis demonstrated that, compared with DM, calcitriol (10−8 M) + DM or paricalcitol (10−8 M) + DM similarly and significantly (P < 0.05) regulated genes of various pathways including: metabolism, CYP24A1; mineralization, ENPP1; apoptosis, GIP3; osteo/chondrogenesis, OPG, TGFB2, Dkk1, BMP4, BMP6; cardiovascular, HGF, DSP1, TNC; cell cycle, MAPK13; and ion channels, SLC22A3 KCNK3. R-568 had no effect on CASMC gene expression. Thus, SMC calcification observed in response to vitamin D sterol + DM may be partially mediated through targeting mineralization, apoptotic, osteo/chondrocytic, and cardiovascular pathway genes, although some gene changes may protect against calcification. Further studies to determine precise roles of these genes in development of, or protection against VC and cardiovascular disease are required. J. Cell. Biochem. 111: 911–921, 2010. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc. PMID:20665672

  16. CHIR99021 promotes self-renewal of mouse embryonic stem cells by modulation of protein-encoding gene and long intergenic non-coding RNA expression

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Yongyan; Ai, Zhiying; Yao, Kezhen; Cao, Lixia; Du, Juan; Shi, Xiaoyan; Guo, Zekun; Zhang, Yong

    2013-10-15

    Embryonic stem cells (ESCs) can proliferate indefinitely in vitro and differentiate into cells of all three germ layers. These unique properties make them exceptionally valuable for drug discovery and regenerative medicine. However, the practical application of ESCs is limited because it is difficult to derive and culture ESCs. It has been demonstrated that CHIR99021 (CHIR) promotes self-renewal and enhances the derivation efficiency of mouse (m)ESCs. However, the downstream targets of CHIR are not fully understood. In this study, we identified CHIR-regulated genes in mESCs using microarray analysis. Our microarray data demonstrated that CHIR not only influenced the Wnt/β-catenin pathway by stabilizing β-catenin, but also modulated several other pluripotency-related signaling pathways such as TGF-β, Notch and MAPK signaling pathways. More detailed analysis demonstrated that CHIR inhibited Nodal signaling, while activating bone morphogenetic protein signaling in mESCs. In addition, we found that pluripotency-maintaining transcription factors were up-regulated by CHIR, while several developmental-related genes were down-regulated. Furthermore, we found that CHIR altered the expression of epigenetic regulatory genes and long intergenic non-coding RNAs. Quantitative real-time PCR results were consistent with microarray data, suggesting that CHIR alters the expression pattern of protein-encoding genes (especially transcription factors), epigenetic regulatory genes and non-coding RNAs to establish a relatively stable pluripotency-maintaining network. - Highlights: • Combined use of CHIR with LIF promotes self-renewal of J1 mESCs. • CHIR-regulated genes are involved in multiple pathways. • CHIR inhibits Nodal signaling and promotes Bmp4 expression to activate BMP signaling. • Expression of epigenetic regulatory genes and lincRNAs is altered by CHIR.

  17. The effect of experimental diabetes and glycaemic control on guided bone regeneration: histology and gene expression analyses.

    PubMed

    Retzepi, M; Calciolari, E; Wall, I; Lewis, M P; Donos, N

    2017-07-18

    To investigate the effect of experimental diabetes and metabolic control on intramembranous bone healing following guided bone regeneration (GBR). Ninety-three Wistar rats were allocated to three experimental groups, healthy (H), uncontrolled diabetes (D) and controlled diabetes (CD). Twenty one days following diabetes induction, a standardised 5-mm defect was created at the mid-portion of each parietal bone. In 75 animals (25H, 25D, 25CD), one defect was treated with an intracranial and extracranial membrane according to the GBR principle, and one defect was left empty (control); five animals per group were then randomly sacrificed at 3, 7, 15, 30 and 60 days and processed for decalcified histology. In 18 animals (6H, 6D, 6CD), both defects were treated according to the GBR principle; three animals from each group were then randomly sacrificed at 7 and 15 days of healing and employed for gene expression analysis. Application of the GBR therapeutic principle led to significant bone regeneration even in the D group. However, at 15 and 30 days, the osteogenesis process was impaired by uncontrolled diabetes, as shown by the significant reduction in terms of defect closure (38-42%) and newly formed bone (54-61%) compared to the healthy group. The comparison of the D vs. H group at 15 days of healing yielded the largest number of genes with significantly differential expression, among which various genes associated with the ossification process (bmp4, ltbp4, thra and cd276) were identified. Uncontrolled diabetes seems to affect early phases of the bone regeneration following GBR. A misregulation of genes and pathways related to cell division, energy production, inflammation and osteogenesis may account for the impaired regeneration process in D rats. Further studies are warranted to optimise the GBR process in this medically compromised patient population. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Identification and functional analysis of novel facial patterning genes in the duplicated beak chicken embryo.

    PubMed

    Nimmagadda, Suresh; Buchtová, Marcela; Fu, Katherine; Geetha-Loganathan, Poongodi; Hosseini-Farahabadi, Sara; Trachtenberg, Alexander J; Kuo, Winston Patrick; Vesela, Iva; Richman, Joy M

    2015-11-15

    Cranial neural crest cells form the majority of the facial skeleton. However exactly when the pattering information and hence jaw identity is established is not clear. We know that premigratory neural crest cells contain a limited amount of information about the lower jaw but the upper jaw and facial midline are specified later by local tissue interactions. The environmental signals leading to frontonasal identity have been explored by our group in the past. Altering the levels of two signaling pathways (Bone Morphogenetic Protein) and retinoic acid (RA) in the chicken embryo creates a duplicated midline on the side of the upper beak complete with egg tooth in place of maxillary derivatives (Lee et al., 2001). Here we analyze the transcriptome 16 h after bead placement in order to identify potential mediators of the identity change in the maxillary prominence. The gene list included RA, BMP and WNT signaling pathway genes as well as transcription factors expressed in craniofacial development. There was also cross talk between Noggin and RA such that Noggin activated the RA pathway. We also observed expression changes in several poorly characterized genes including the upregulation of Peptidase Inhibitor-15 (PI15). We tested the functional effects of PI15 overexpression with a retroviral misexpression strategy. PI15 virus induced a cleft beak analogous to human cleft lip. We next asked whether PI15 effects were mediated by changes in expression of major clefting genes and genes in the retinoid signaling pathway. Expression of TP63, TBX22, BMP4 and FOXE1, all human clefting genes, were upregulated. In addition, ALDH1A2, ALDH1A3 and RA target, RARβ were increased while the degradation enzyme CYP26A1 was decreased. Together these changes were consistent with activation of the RA pathway. Furthermore, PI15 retrovirus injected into the face was able to replace RA and synergize with Noggin to induce beak transformations. We conclude that the microarrays have generated a

  19. Protein 4.1R Exon 16 3' Splice Site Activation Requires Coordination among TIA1, Pcbp1, and RBM39 during Terminal Erythropoiesis.

    PubMed

    Huang, Shu-Ching; Zhang, Henry S; Yu, Brian; McMahon, Ellen; Nguyen, Dan T; Yu, Faye H; Ou, Alexander C; Ou, Jennie Park; Benz, Edward J

    2017-05-01

    Exon 16 of protein 4.1R encodes a spectrin/actin-binding peptide critical for erythrocyte membrane stability. Its expression during erythroid differentiation is regulated by alternative pre-mRNA splicing. A UUUUCCCCCC motif situated between the branch point and the 3' splice site is crucial for inclusion. We show that the UUUU region and the last three C residues in this motif are necessary for the binding of splicing factors TIA1 and Pcbp1 and that these proteins appear to act in a collaborative manner to enhance exon 16 inclusion. This element also activates an internal exon when placed in a corresponding intronic position in a heterologous reporter. The impact of these two factors is further enhanced by high levels of RBM39, whose expression rises during erythroid differentiation as exon 16 inclusion increases. TIA1 and Pcbp1 associate in a complex containing RBM39, which interacts with U2AF65 and SF3b155 and promotes U2 snRNP recruitment to the branch point. Our results provide a mechanism for exon 16 3' splice site activation in which a coordinated effort among TIA1, Pcbp1, and RBM39 stabilizes or increases U2 snRNP recruitment, enhances spliceosome A complex formation, and facilitates exon definition through RBM39-mediated splicing regulation. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  20. Human Phosphatidylethanolamine-Binding Protein 4 Promoted the Radioresistance of Human Rectal Cancer by Activating Akt in an ROS-Dependent Way

    PubMed Central

    Qiu, Jianming; Yang, Guangen; Lin, Ali; Shen, Zhong; Wang, Dong; Ding, Lei

    2014-01-01

    Human phosphatidylethanolamine-binding protein 4(hPEBP4) is a novel anti-apoptosis molecule associated with the resistance of tumors to apoptotic agents. Here we sought to investigate the role of hPEBP4 in the radioresistance of rectal cancer. Immunohistochemistry analysis showed hPEBP4 was expressed in 27/33 of rectal cancer specimens, but only in 2/33 of neighboring normal mucosa. Silencing the expression of hPEBP4 with siRNA significantly reduced the clonogenic survival and enhanced the apoptosis of rectal cancer cells on irradiation. Instead, forced overexpression of hPEBP4 promoted its survival and decreased the apoptosis. Western blot showed hPEBP4 could increase the radiation-induced Akt activation, for which reactive oxygen specimen(ROS) was required. The radioresistance effect of hPEBP4 was reversed after given LY-294002 to inhibit Akt activation or antioxidant to abolish the ROS production. We also confirmed that effect of hPEBP4 in vivo with nude mice. Thus we concluded that hPEBP4, specifically expressed in rectal cancer cells, is associated with radioresistance of rectal cancer, implying that modulation of hPEBP4 may have important therapeutic implications in radiotherapy of rectal cancer. PMID:24594691

  1. High fat diet induced insulin resistance and elevated retinol binding protein 4 in female rats; treatment and protection with Berberis vulgaris extract and vitamin A.

    PubMed

    El-Sayed, Mohamed Mohammed; Ghareeb, Doaa Ahmad; Talat, Heba Allah; Sarhan, Eman Mohammed

    2013-11-01

    This research was conducted to investigate two main aims; the first aim was to find if there is a relationship between insulin resistance (IR) and retinol binding protein 4 (RBP4). The second aim was to use berberis vulgaris extract and vitamin A as protective and/or curative agents against insulin resistance. IR was developed by feeding the female rats a high fat diet (HFD) for six weeks then treating or protecting them with b. vulgaris extract (0.2 g/Kg body weight) or vitamin A (12.8μg/Kg/day) for two weeks. HFD intake elevated insulin level and RBP4 expression that associated with hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia. Co-administration of vitamin A and B. vulgaris extracts reduced blood glucose level, insulin, body weight and RBP4 expression before, during and after HFD. Furthermore, vitamin A reduced the blood glucose, triglycerides (TG) and cholesterol levels. IR syndrome associated with the RBP 4 alteration that gives high indication about the role of RBP4 expression in the IR progression and development. Furthermore, the treatment with vitamin A and/or b. vulgaris alleviated the IR syndrome through the action on RBP4 and Insulin secretion. On the other hand, vitamin A must be avoided for the predisposed IR and prediabetic patients.

  2. Hippocampal expression of aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator 2 and neuronal PAS domain protein 4 in a rat model of depression.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhaohui; Fei, Pengge; Mu, Junlin; Li, Wenqiang; Song, Jinggui

    2014-02-01

    The transcription factors aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator 2 (ARNT2) and neuronal PAS domain protein 4 (NPAS4) may influence emotion and cognitive function by regulating brain-derived neurotrophic factor expression in the hippocampus. We estimated hippocampal ARNT2 and NPAS4 expression in chronic unexpected mild stress (CUMS) rat model. The possible association was investigated between expression of these transcription factors and depressive behaviors. Behavioral tests were conducted before, during, and after 28 days of group housing or isolation plus CUMS. The sucrose solution consumption test was used to assess changes in interest and pleasure-seeking, and the open field test (OFT) was conducted to measure spontaneous activity and exploratory behavior. Expression levels of ARNT2 and NPAS4 were estimated by semiquantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Compared to controls, rats subjected to isolation plus CUMS exhibited significantly reduced weight gain (t = 9.317, P = 0.000), sucrose consumption (t = 3.756, P = 0.003), horizontal ambulation (t = 2.362, P = 0.041), and number of rearings (vertical motion) (t = 2.268, P = 0.040). Relative hippocampal NPAS4 expression was significantly lower in depression model rats compared to controls (t = 2.995, P = 0.010) but there was no significant difference in hippocampal ARNT2 expression between groups (t = 0.091, P = 0.929). The relationship between the CUMS model of depression and NPAS4 expression requires further exploration.

  3. Plasma visfatin and retinol binding protein-4 levels in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and their relationship to adiposity and fatty liver.

    PubMed

    Shaker, Olfat; El-Shehaby, Amal; Zakaria, Abir; Mostafa, Naglaa; Talaat, Soha; Katsiki, Niki; Mikhailidis, Dimitri P