Yun, Sung-Seob; Lee, Won-Jae; Kim, Jin-Wook; Ha, Ho-Kyung; Yoo, Michelle
Goat milk is highly nutritious and is consumed in many countries, but the development of functional foods from goat milk has been slow compared to that for other types of milk. The aim of this study was to develop a goat milk protein hydrolysate (GMPH) with enhanced digestibility and better hypoallergenic properties in comparison with other protein sources such as ovalbumin and soy protein. Goat milk protein was digested with four commercial food-grade proteases (separately) under various conditions to achieve the best hydrolysis of αs -casein and β-lactoglobulin. It was shown that treatment with alcalase (0.4%, 60℃ for 30 min) effectively degraded these two proteins, as determined by SDS-PAGE, measurement of nonprotein nitrogen content, and reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. Hydrolysis with alcalase resulted in a significant decrease in β-lactoglobulin concentration (almost to nil) and a ~40% reduction in the level of αs-casein. Quantification of histamine and TNF-α released from HMC-1 cells (human mast cell line) showed that the GMPH did not induce an allergic response when compared to the control. Hence, the GMPH may be useful for development of novel foods for infants, the elderly, and convalescent patients, to replace cow milk. PMID:27621693
Xing, H; Shao, B; Gu, Y Y; Yuan, Y G; Zhang, T; Zang, J; Cheng, Y
This study evaluates the relationship between the genotype and milk protein components in goats. Milk samples were collected from cloned goats and normal white goats during different postpartum (or abortion) phases. Two cloned goats, originated from the same somatic line of goat mammary gland epithelial cells, and three sexually reproduced normal white goats with no genetic relationships were used as the control. The goats were phylogenetically analyzed by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism. The milk protein components were identified by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The results indicated that despite the genetic fingerprints being identical, the milk protein composition differed between the two cloned goats. The casein content of cloned goat C-50 was significantly higher than that of cloned goat C-4. Conversely, although the genetic fingerprints of the normal white goats N-1, N-2, and N-3 were not identical, the milk protein profiles did not differ significantly in their milk samples (obtained on postpartum day 15, 20, 25, 30, and 150). These results indicated an association between milk protein phenotypes and genetic polymorphisms, epigenetic regulation, and/or non-chromosomal factors. This study extends the knowledge of goat milk protein polymorphisms, and provides new strategies for the breeding of high milk-yielding goats.
Windig, J J; Hoving, R A H; Priem, J; Bossers, A; van Keulen, L J M; Langeveld, J P M
Scrapie is a neurodegenerative disease occurring in goats and sheep. Several haplotypes of the prion protein increase resistance to scrapie infection and may be used in selective breeding to help eradicate scrapie. In this study, frequencies of the allelic variants of the PrP gene are determined for six goat breeds in the Netherlands. Overall frequencies in Dutch goats were determined from 768 brain tissue samples in 2005, 766 in 2008 and 300 in 2012, derived from random sampling for the national scrapie surveillance without knowledge of the breed. Breed specific frequencies were determined in the winter 2013/2014 by sampling 300 breeding animals from the main breeders of the different breeds. Detailed analysis of the scrapie-resistant K222 haplotype was carried out in 2014 for 220 Dutch Toggenburger goats and in 2015 for 942 goats from the Saanen derived White Goat breed. Nine haplotypes were identified in the Dutch breeds. Frequencies for non-wild type haplotypes were generally low. Exception was the K222 haplotype in the Dutch Toggenburger (29%) and the S146 haplotype in the Nubian and Boer breeds (respectively 7 and 31%). The frequency of the K222 haplotype in the Toggenburger was higher than for any other breed reported in literature, while for the White Goat breed it was with 3.1% similar to frequencies of other Saanen or Saanen derived breeds. Further evidence was found for the existence of two M142 haplotypes, M142 /S240 and M142 /P240 . Breeds vary in haplotype frequencies but frequencies of resistant genotypes are generally low and consequently selective breeding for scrapie resistance can only be slow but will benefit from animals identified in this study. The unexpectedly high frequency of the K222 haplotype in the Dutch Toggenburger underlines the need for conservation of rare breeds in order to conserve genetic diversity rare or absent in other breeds. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.
de Menezes, Erika Bezerra; van Tilburg, Mauricio; Plante, Geneviève; de Oliveira, Rodrigo V; Moura, Arlindo A; Manjunath, Puttaswamy
Seminal plasma Binder of SPerm (BSP) proteins bind to sperm at ejaculation and promote capacitation. When in excess, however, BSP proteins damage the sperm membrane. It has been suggested that milk components of semen extenders associate with BSP proteins, potentially protecting sperm. Thus, this study was conducted to investigate if milk proteins interact with BSP proteins and reduce BSP binding to goat sperm. Using gel filtration chromatography, milk was incubated with goat seminal plasma proteins and loaded onto columns with and without calcium. Milk was also fractionated into parts containing mostly whey proteins or mostly caseins, incubated with seminal plasma proteins and subjected to gel filtration. Eluted fractions were evaluated by immunoblot using anti-goat BSP antibodies, confirming milk protein-BSP protein interactions. As determined by ELISA, milk proteins coated on polystyrene wells bound to increasing of goat BSP proteins. Far-western dot blots confirmed that BSP proteins bound to caseins and β-lactoglobulin in a concentration-dependent manner. Then, cauda epididymal sperm from five goats was incubated with seminal plasma; seminal plasma followed by milk; and milk followed by seminal plasma. Sperm membrane proteins were extracted and evaluated by immunoblotting. The pattern of BSP binding to sperm membrane proteins was reduced by 59.3 % when epididymal sperm were incubated with seminal plasma and then with skimmed milk (p < 0.05). When epididymal sperm were treated with milk followed by seminal plasma, coating of sperm with BSP proteins was not significantly reduced (57.6 %; p > 0.05). In conclusion, goat BSP proteins have an affinity for caseins and whey proteins. Milk reduces BSP binding to goat sperm, depending whether or not sperm had been previously exposed to seminal plasma. Such events may explain the protective effect of milk during goat sperm preservation.
González, Félix H D; Hernández, Fuensanta; Madrid, Josefa; Martínez-Subiela, Silvia; Tvarijonaviciute, Asta; Cerón, José J; Tecles, Fernando
The present work aimed to study the behavior of acute phase proteins (haptoglobin, serum amyloid A, acid soluble glycoprotein, fibrinogen, and albumin) in fasting-induced pregnancy toxemia in goats and their relationship with classical indicators of this disorder such as beta-hydroxybutyrate and nonesterified fatty acids in the blood and decreased urine pH and ketonuria. Twelve adult Murciano-Granadina goats at the final stage of gestation were used in this experiment. Pregnancy toxemia was induced in 6 goats by fasting for 72 hr. The other 6 animals were used as control group. Ketonuria was present in 4 out of 5 fasting animals at 24 hr and in all fasting animals at 48 hr of fasting. Serum nonesterified fatty acids were significantly increased at 24, 48, and 72 hr of fasting. Beta-hydroxybutyrate and haptoglobin achieved significantly increased concentrations at 48 hr and 72 hr, respectively, remaining increased during the entire study. Serum amyloid A, acid soluble glycoprotein, fibrinogen, and albumin were not affected by fasting. In conclusion, acute phase proteins (including haptoglobin) seemed not to have an advantage over traditional markers in diagnosis of fasting-induced pregnancy toxemia in goats.
Ahmed, Ahmed S; El-Bassiony, Tawfik; Elmalt, Laila M; Ibrahim, Hisham R
Goat milk proteins have gained increasing attention especially the bioactive peptides released from the parent proteins by digestive enzymes. Specifically, the interest in bioactives of goat milk is intensifying due to its reduced allergenicity compared to bovine milk. In this study, proteins of goat milk were fractionated into caseins (GCP) and whey proteins (GWP), hydrolyzed by pepsin and the generated peptides were examined for radical scavenging activities. The hydrolysates of whey (P-GWP) and casein (P-GCP) proteins exhibited potent superoxide anion (O2(･-)) scavenging activity in a dose-dependent manner, as investigated using the natural xanthine/xanthine oxidase (X/XOD) system. The P-GWP and P-GCP dramatically quenched the O2(･-) flux but had negligible effect on the catalytic function of the enzyme, indicating specificity to scavenge O2(･-) but not oxidase inhibition. Further, both P-GWP and P-GCP were able to remarkably quench the chemical DPPH radical. Fractionation of hydrolysates by size-exclusion chromatography produced four fractions (F1-F4) from both hydrolysates, with variable O2(･-) scavenging activities. However, the slow eluting fractions (F4) of both hydrolysates and fast eluting fraction (F2) of P-GCP contained peptides with the highest scavenging activities. Peptides in the active fractions of P-GWP and P-GCP, isolated by reversed phase-HPLC, exhibited significantly strong O2(･-) scavenging activities. MALDI-TOF-MS allowed the identification of several antioxidant peptides derived from both caseins and whey proteins, with β-casein and β-lactoglobulin being the major contributors, respectively. The results demonstrate that digestion with pepsin generates multiple soluble peptides from goat milk protein fractions with remarkable ability to scavenge superoxide radicals and thus providing a fascinating opportunity for their potential candidacy as antioxidant bioactive peptides. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Prosser, Colin G; Mclaren, Robert D; Frost, Deborah; Agnew, Michael; Lowry, Dianne J
The non-protein nitrogen fraction of goat whole milk powder and of infant and follow-on formulae made from goat milk was characterized and compared with cow milk powder and formulae. Goat milk infant formula contained 10% non-protein nitrogen, expressed as a proportion of total nitrogen, compared with 7.1% for cow milk formula. Goat follow-on formula contained 9.3% and cow 7.4% non-protein nitrogen. Urea, at 30%, was quantitatively the most abundant component of the non-protein nitrogen fraction of goat milk and formulae, followed by free amino acids at 7%. Taurine, glycine and glutamic acid were the most abundant free amino acids in goat milk powders. Goat milk infant formula contained 4 mg/100 ml total nucleotide monophosphates, all derived from the goat milk itself. Goat milk has a very different profile of the non-protein nitrogen fraction to cow milk, with several constituents such as nucleotides at concentrations approaching those in human breast milk.
Reiten, Malin R; Bakkebø, Maren K; Brun-Hansen, Hege; Lewandowska-Sabat, Anna M; Olsaker, Ingrid; Tranulis, Michael A; Espenes, Arild; Boysen, Preben
The physiological role of the cellular prion protein (PrP(C)) is incompletely understood. The expression of PrP(C) in hematopoietic stem cells and immune cells suggests a role in the development of these cells, and in PrP(C) knockout animals altered immune cell proliferation and phagocytic function have been observed. Recently, a spontaneous nonsense mutation at codon 32 in the PRNP gene in goats of the Norwegian Dairy breed was discovered, rendering homozygous animals devoid of PrP(C). Here we report hematological and immunological analyses of homozygous goat kids lacking PrP(C) (PRNP(Ter/Ter) ) compared to heterozygous (PRNP (+/Ter)) and normal (PRNP (+/+)) kids. Levels of cell surface PrP(C) and PRNP mRNA in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) correlated well and were very low in PRNP (Ter/Ter), intermediate in PRNP (+/Ter) and high in PRNP (+/+) kids. The PRNP (Ter/Ter) animals had a shift in blood cell composition with an elevated number of red blood cells (RBCs) and a tendency toward a smaller mean RBC volume (P = 0.08) and an increased number of neutrophils (P = 0.068), all values within the reference ranges. Morphological investigations of blood smears and bone marrow imprints did not reveal irregularities. Studies of relative composition of PBMCs, phagocytic ability of monocytes and T-cell proliferation revealed no significant differences between the genotypes. Our data suggest that PrP(C) has a role in bone marrow physiology and warrant further studies of PrP(C) in erythroid and immune cell progenitors as well as differentiated effector cells also under stressful conditions. Altogether, this genetically unmanipulated PrP(C)-free animal model represents a unique opportunity to unveil the enigmatic physiology and function of PrP(C).
Gursel, A; Gursoy, A; Anli, E A K; Budak, S O; Aydemir, S; Durlu-Ozkaya, F
Goat milk yogurts were manufactured with the fortification of 2% (wt/vol) skim goat milk powder (SGMP), sodium caseinate (NaCn), whey protein concentrate (WPC), whey protein isolate (WPI), or yogurt texture improver (YTI). Yogurts were characterized based on compositional, microbiological, and textural properties; volatile flavor components (with gas chromatography); and sensory analyses during storage (21d at 5 °C). Compared with goat milk yogurt made by using SGMP, the other goat milk yogurt variants had higher protein content and lower acidity values. Goat milk yogurts with NaCn and WPC, in particular, had better physical characteristics. Using WPI caused the hardest structure in yogurt, leading to higher syneresis values. Acetaldehyde and ethanol formation increased with the incorporation of WPI, WPC, or YTI to yogurt milk. The tyrosine value especially was higher in the samples with NaCn and YTI than in the samples with WPC and WPI. Counts of Streptococcus thermophilus were higher than the counts of Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus, possibly due to a stimulatory effect of milk protein-based ingredients other than SGMP on the growth of S. thermophilus. Yogurt with NaCn was the best accepted among the yogurts. For the parameters used, milk protein-based products such as NaCn or WPC have promising features as suitable ingredients for goat milk yogurt manufacture.
Vysokogorskiĭ, V E; Gavrilova, N B; Arkhipenko, Iu A
Indices of free-radical peroxidation have been estimated: intensity of lipid per- oxidation and protein oxidative modification of goat and cow milk of specific breeds of forest-steppe zone of Omsk region. The obtained results indicate that processes of lipid peroxidation and protein oxidative destruction in goat and cow milk of different breeds occur with different gradation. The content of carbonile derivatives in goat milk of Saan breed 1.4 (0.95; 1.5) u/ml was lower than in cow's milk of black-and-white breed 4.6 (1.1; 6.0) u/ml (p = 0.005) what could be caused by large content of protein thiol groups of this kind of milk and lower quantity of amino acid residues that are available for carbonylation. This kind of milk is characterized by higher SH-group content than cow milk for 31% and Switzerland goat milk for 20% (p = 0.005). The content of cetodiens and attached triens in isopropanol phase of the lipid extract of goat milk of Swiss breed is lower by 30% than in cow milk. In isopropanol phase of the milk lipid extracts contain- ing phospholipids the level of Schiff grounding did not differ. The results obtained prove that goat milk contain less protein subjected to oxidative modification.
Shi, Hengbo; Zhu, Jiangjiang; Luo, Jun; Cao, Wenting; Shi, Huaiping; Yao, Dawei; Li, Jun; Sun, Yuting; Xu, Huifen; Yu, Kang; Loor, Juan J
Dairy goats serve as an important source of milk and also fulfill agricultural and economic roles in developing countries. Understanding the genetic background of goat mammary gland is important for research on the regulatory mechanisms controlling tissue function and the synthesis of milk components. We collected tissue at four different stages of goat mammary gland development and generated approximately 25 GB of data from Illumina de novo RNA sequencing. The combined reads were assembled into 51,361 unigenes, and approximately 60.07 % of the unigenes had homology to other proteins in the NCBI non-redundant protein database (NR). Functional classification through eukaryotic Ortholog Groups of Protein (KOG), gene ontology (GO), and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) revealed that the unigenes from goat mammary glands are involved in a wide range of biological processes and metabolic pathways, including lipid metabolism and lactose metabolism. The results of qPCR revealed that genes encoding FABP3, FASN, SCD, PLIN2, whey proteins (LALBA and BLG), and caseins (CSN1S1, CSN1S2, CSN2 and CSN3) at 100 and 310 days postpartum increased significantly compared with the non-lactating period. In addition to their role in lipid and protein synthesis, the higher expression at 310 days postpartum could contribute to mammary cell turnover during pregnancy. In conclusion, this is the first study to characterize the complete transcriptome of goat mammary glands and constitutes a comprehensive genomic resource available for further studies of ruminant lactation.
Wu, S C L; Luo, F H; Kong, Q F; Wu, Y J
The c-kit protein plays a major role in the regulation of germ cell development. Its expression and distribution in rodent testes have been widely reported. However, research regarding c-kit expression in domestic animals is scarce, and the expression pattern and distribution of c-kit in germ cells have not been clearly defined. In this study, a specific antigenic region for goat c-kit was designed, and a c-kit polyclonal antibody was prepared. This antibody was then applied in a study evaluating c-kit expression in Cashmere goat tissues. A Western blot analysis showed that three forms of c-kit were expressed in goat testes: precursor, mature, and soluble c-kit. Fluorescent immunohistochemical analyses showed that c-kit was primarily expressed in the spermatogonia and spermatocytes of goat testes. These results not only clarify the expression and localization of c-kit in the goat testis, but also accelerate further research regarding the function of c-kit in goat spermatogenesis.
Yang, Yongxin; Bu, Dengpan; Zhao, Xiaowei; Sun, Peng; Wang, Jiaqi; Zhou, Lingyun
To aid in unraveling diverse genetic and biological unknowns, a proteomic approach was used to analyze the whey proteome in cow, yak, buffalo, goat, and camel milk based on the isobaric tag for relative and absolute quantification (iTRAQ) techniques. This analysis is the first to produce proteomic data for the milk from the above-mentioned animal species: 211 proteins have been identified and 113 proteins have been categorized according to molecular function, cellular components, and biological processes based on gene ontology annotation. The results of principal component analysis showed significant differences in proteomic patterns among goat, camel, cow, buffalo, and yak milk. Furthermore, 177 differentially expressed proteins were submitted to advanced hierarchical clustering. The resulting clustering pattern included three major sample clusters: (1) cow, buffalo, and yak milk; (2) goat, cow, buffalo, and yak milk; and (3) camel milk. Certain proteins were chosen as characterization traits for a given species: whey acidic protein and quinone oxidoreductase for camel milk, biglycan for goat milk, uncharacterized protein (Accession Number: F1MK50 ) for yak milk, clusterin for buffalo milk, and primary amine oxidase for cow milk. These results help reveal the quantitative milk whey proteome pattern for analyzed species. This provides information for evaluating adulteration of specific specie milk and may provide potential directions for application of specific milk protein production based on physiological differences among animal species.
Li, Yan; Yuan, Cheng; Wang, LiKun; Lu, MingMin; Wang, YuJian; Wen, YuLing; Yan, RuoFeng; Xu, LiXin; Song, XiaoKai; Li, XiangRui
Recombinant galectins of male and female Haemonchus contortus (rHco-gal-m/f) have been recognized as significant regulators of the functions of goat peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). In previous research, transmembrane protein 63A (TMEM63A) was identified as a partner protein in the regulation associated with H. contortus infection. However, in the identification of binding partners for galectins of male and female H. contortus (Hco-gal-m/f) by yeast two-hybrid (YTH) screening, it was found that the transmembrane protein 147 (TMEM147) could also bind to Hco-gal-m/f. In this study, the functions of TMEM147 in the regulations of H. contortus galectin on the goat PBMC were investigated. To identify Hco-gal-m/f-interacting proteins, a yeast two-hybrid system to detect interactions was used. Co-immunoprecipitation and immunoblotting were used to validate the interaction between recombinant galectins of male H. contortus (rHco-gal-m) and candidate binding protein. The localization of TMEM147 in PBMC was explored by immunofluorescence in confocal imaging studies. Flow cytometry was used to determine the distribution of TMEM147 in T cells, B cells and monocytes in PBMC. The modulatory effects of rHco-gal-m and TMEM147 on cell proliferation, phagocytosis, nitric oxide production, migration, apoptosis and cytokine mRNA transcription were observed by co-incubation of rHco-gal-m and knockdown of the tmem147 gene. In this research, it was demonstrated that TMEM147 could bind to rHco-gal-m/f. Immunofluorescence assays showed that TMEM147 was localized to the cell membrane and within the cell membrane in goat PBMC. Flow cytometric analysis revealed that TMEM147 was expressed in all B cells and monocytes in goat PBMC. However, 3.8 % of T cells did not express this protein. Knockdown of the tmem147 gene using RNA interference (RNAi) showed that the interaction of galectin with TMEM147 mainly mediated cell proliferation, cell apoptosis, transcription of interleukin-10 (IL
Santos, A. B.; Pereira, M. L. A.; Silva, H. G. O.; Pedreira, M. S.; Carvalho, G. G. P.; Ribeiro, L. S. O.; Almeida, P. J. P.; Pereira, T. C. J.; Moreira, J. V.
This study aimed to evaluate urea excretion, nitrogen balance and microbial protein synthesis in lactating goats fed with diets containing different protein sources in the concentrate (soybean meal, cottonseed meal, aerial part of cassava hay and leucaena hay). Four Alpine goats whose mean body weight was 42.6±6.1 kg at the beginning of the experiment, a mean lactation period of 94.0±9.0 days and a production of 1.7±0.4 kg of milk were distributed in a 4×4 Latin square with four periods of 15 days. Diets were formulated to be isonitrogenous, containing 103.0 g/kg of CP, 400 g/kg of Tifton 85 hay and 600 g/kg of concentrate. Diet containing cottonseed meal provided (p<0.05) increased excretion of urea and urea nitrogen in the urine (g/d and mg/kg of BW) when compared with leucaena hay. The diets affected the concentrations of urea nitrogen in plasma (p<0.05) and excretion of urea nitrogen in milk, being that soybean meal and cottonseed meal showed (p<0.05) higher than the average aerial part of the cassava hay. The use of diets with cottonseed meal as protein source in the concentrate in feeding of lactating goats provides greater nitrogen excretion in urine and negative nitrogen balance, while the concentrate with leucaena hay as a source of protein, provides greater ruminal microbial protein synthesis. PMID:25050000
Souza, A P; St-Pierre, N R; Fernandes, M H R M; Almeida, A K; Vargas, J A C; Resende, K T; Teixeira, I A M A
Requirements for growth in the different sexes remain poorly quantified in goats. The objective of this study was to develop equations for estimating net protein (NPG) and net energy (NEG) for growth in Saanen goats of different sexes from 5 to 45 kg of body weight (BW). A data set from 7 comparative slaughter studies (238 individual records) of Saanen goats was used. Allometric equations were developed to determine body protein and energy contents in the empty BW (EBW) as dependent variables and EBW as the allometric predictor. Parameter estimates were obtained using a linearized (log-transformation) expression of the allometric equations using the MIXED procedure in SAS software (SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC). The model included the random effect of the study and the fixed effects of sex (intact male, castrated male, and female; n = 94, 73, and 71, respectively), EBW, and their interactions. Net requirements for growth were estimated as the first partial derivative of the allometric equations with respect to EBW. Additionally, net requirements for growth were evaluated based on the degree of maturity. Monte Carlo techniques were used to estimate the uncertainty of the calculated net requirement values. Sex affected allometric relationships for protein and energy in Saanen goats. The allometric equation for protein content in the EBW of intact and castrated males was log10 protein (g) = 2.221 (±0.0224) + 1.015 (±0.0165) × log10 EBW (kg). For females, the relationship was log10 protein (g) = 2.277 (±0.0288) + 0.958 (±0.0218) × log10 EBW (kg). Therefore, NPG for males was greater than for females. The allometric equation for the energy content in the EBW of intact males was log10 energy (kcal) = 2.988 (±0.0323) + 1.240 (±0.0238) × log10 EBW (kg); of castrated males, log10 energy (kcal) = 2.873 (±0.0377) + 1.359 (±0.0283) × log10 EBW (kg); and of females, log10 energy (kcal) = 2.820 (±0.0377) + 1.442 (±0.0281) × log10 EBW (kg). The NEG of castrated
Susceptibility of sheep to scrapie, a transmissible spongiform encephalopathy of small ruminants, is strongly influenced by polymorphisms of the prion protein gene (PRNP). Breeding programs have been implemented to increase scrapie resistance in sheep populations; though desirable, a similar approach has not yet been applied in goats. European studies have now suggested that several polymorphisms can modulate scrapie susceptibility in goats: in particular, PRNP variant K222 has been associated with resistance in case-control studies in Italy, France and Greece. In this study we investigated the resistance conferred by this variant using a natural Italian goat scrapie isolate to intracerebrally challenge five goats carrying genotype Q/Q 222 (wild type) and five goats carrying genotype Q/K 222. By the end of the study, all five Q/Q 222 goats had died of scrapie after a mean incubation period of 19 months; one of the five Q/K 222 goats died after 24 months, while the other four were alive and apparently healthy up to the end of the study at 4.5 years post-challenge. All five of these animals were found to be scrapie negative. Statistical analysis showed that the probability of survival of the Q/K 222 goats versus the Q/Q 222 goats was significantly higher (p = 0.002). Our study shows that PRNP gene mutation K222 is strongly associated with resistance to classical scrapie also in experimental conditions, making it a potentially positive target for selection in the frame of breeding programs for resistance to classical scrapie in goats. PMID:22296670
Acutis, Pier Luigi; Martucci, Francesca; D'Angelo, Antonio; Peletto, Simone; Colussi, Silvia; Maurella, Cristiana; Porcario, Chiara; Iulini, Barbara; Mazza, Maria; Dell'atti, Luana; Zuccon, Fabio; Corona, Cristiano; Martinelli, Nicola; Casalone, Cristina; Caramelli, Maria; Lombardi, Guerino
Susceptibility of sheep to scrapie, a transmissible spongiform encephalopathy of small ruminants, is strongly influenced by polymorphisms of the prion protein gene (PRNP). Breeding programs have been implemented to increase scrapie resistance in sheep populations; though desirable, a similar approach has not yet been applied in goats. European studies have now suggested that several polymorphisms can modulate scrapie susceptibility in goats: in particular, PRNP variant K222 has been associated with resistance in case-control studies in Italy, France and Greece. In this study we investigated the resistance conferred by this variant using a natural Italian goat scrapie isolate to intracerebrally challenge five goats carrying genotype Q/Q 222 (wild type) and five goats carrying genotype Q/K 222. By the end of the study, all five Q/Q 222 goats had died of scrapie after a mean incubation period of 19 months; one of the five Q/K 222 goats died after 24 months, while the other four were alive and apparently healthy up to the end of the study at 4.5 years post-challenge. All five of these animals were found to be scrapie negative. Statistical analysis showed that the probability of survival of the Q/K 222 goats versus the Q/Q 222 goats was significantly higher (p = 0.002). Our study shows that PRNP gene mutation K222 is strongly associated with resistance to classical scrapie also in experimental conditions, making it a potentially positive target for selection in the frame of breeding programs for resistance to classical scrapie in goats.
Hanovice-Ziony, Michal; Gollop, Nathan; Landau, Serge Yan; Ungar, Eugene David; Muklada, Hussein; Glasser, Tzach Aharon; Perevolotsky, Avi; Walker, John Withers
We investigated whether Mediterranean goats use salivary tannin-binding proteins to cope with tannin-rich forages by determining the affinity of salivary or parotid gland proteins for tannic acid or quebracho tannin. Mixed saliva, sampled from the oral cavity, or parotid gland contents were compared to the intermediate affinity protein bovine serum albumin with a competitive binding assay. Goats that consume tannin-rich browse (Damascus) and goats that tend to avoid tannins (Mamber) were sequentially fed high (Pistacia lentiscus L.), low (vetch hay), or zero (wheat hay) tannin forages. Affinity of salivary proteins for tannins did not differ between goat breeds and did not respond to presence or absence of tannins in the diet. Proteins in mixed saliva had slightly higher affinity for tannins than those in parotid saliva, but neither source contained proteins with higher affinity for tannins than bovine serum albumin. Similarly, 3 months of browsing in a tannin-rich environment had little effect on the affinity of salivary proteins for tannin in adult goats of either breed. We sampled mixed saliva from young kids before they consumed forage and after 3 months of foraging in a tannin-rich environment. Before foraging, the saliva of Mamber kids had higher affinity for tannic acid (but not quebracho tannin) than the saliva of Damascus kids, but there was no difference after 3 months of exposure to tannin-rich browse, and the affinity of the proteins was always similar to the affinity of bovine serum albumin. Our results suggest there is not a major role for salivary tannin-binding proteins in goats. Different tendencies of goat breeds to consume tannin-rich browse does not appear be related to differences in salivary tannin-binding proteins.
Jia, Y Y; Wang, S Q; Ni, Y D; Zhang, Y S; Zhuang, S; Shen, X Z
The aim of this study was to investigate changes of stress status in dairy goats induced to subacute ruminal acidosis (SARA). The level of acute phase proteins (APPs) including haptoglobin (HP) and serum amyloid A (SAA) in plasma and their mRNA expression in liver, as well as plasma cortisol and genes expression of key factors controlling cortisol synthesis in adrenal cortex were compared between SARA and control goats. SARA was induced by feeding high concentrate diet (60% concentrate of dry matter) for 3 weeks (SARA, n=6), while control goats (Con, n=6) received a low concentrate diet (40% concentrate of dry matter) during the experimental time. SARA goats showed ruminal pH below 5.8 for more than 3 h per day, which was significantly lower than control goats (pH>6.0). SARA goats demonstrated a significant increase of hepatic HP and SAA mRNA expression (P<0.05), and the level of HP but not SAA in plasma was markedly increased compared with control (P<0.05). The level of cortisol in plasma showed a trend to increase in SARA goats (0.05
goats. The contents of 3β-HSD and P450 side-chain cleavage protein were increased by 58.6% and 39.4%, respectively, but did not reach the statistical significance (P>0.05). These results suggested that SARA goats experienced a certain stress status, exhibiting an increase in HP production and cortisol secretion.
Zheng, W Y; Wang, Y; Zhang, Z C; Yan, F
We examined the immunological characteristics of outer membrane protein omp31 of goat Brucella and its monoclonal antibody. Genomic DNA from the M5 strain of goat Brucella was amplified by polymerase chain reaction and cloned into the prokaryotic expression vector pGEX-4T-1. The expression and immunological characteristics of the fusion protein GST-omp31 were subjected to preliminary western blot detection with goat Brucella rabbit immune serum. The Brucella immunized BALB/c mouse serum was detected using purified protein. The high-potency mouse splenocytes and myeloma Sp2/0 cells were fused. Positive clones were screened by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to establish a hybridoma cell line. Mice were inoculated intraperitoneally with hybridoma cells to prepare ascites. The mAb was purified using the n-caprylic acid-ammonium sulfate method. The characteristics of mAb were examined using western blotting and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. A 680-base pair band was observed after polymerase chain reaction. Enzyme digestion identification and sequencing showed that the pGEX-4T-1-omp31 prokaryotic expression vector was successfully established; a target band of approximately 57 kDa with an apparent molecular weight consistent with the size of the target fusion protein. At 25°C, the expression of soluble expression increased significantly; the fusion protein GST-omp31 was detected by western blotting. Anti-omp31 protein mAb was obtained from 2 strains of Brucella. The antibody showed strong specificity and sensitivity and did not cross-react with Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, or Bacillus pyocyaneus. The pGEX-4T-1-omp31 prokaryotic expression vector was successfully established and showed good immunogenicity. The antibody also showed strong specificity and good sensitivity.
Ozgo, M; Skrzypczak, W; Drzezdzon, D; Lepczynski, A; Dratwa-Chalupnik, A; Michalek, K; Herosimczyk, A
Urinary protein excretion occurs in neonates of many animal species, as well as in human neonates. However, the incidence, dynamics, and mechanism of proteinuria have not been unambiguously explained. The aims of this study were to investigate into excretion of selected protein fractions of molecular weight less than 69 kDa (LMW), evaluation of intensity and dynamics of changes during the first month of kids' life, and an attempt to explain the causes of neonatal proteinuria. The analysis were carried out on 16 kids of White Improved goats, over the period from birth until 30 days of age, using clearance methods. Urine proteins were separated electrophoretically (SDSPAGE), and their concentration and percentage content was determined by densitometric method with the use of archiving and image analysis software. The proteins found in the urine were grouped as HMW, LMW and albumin. For six fractions of LMW proteins, excretion rates and percentage content of the urinary total LMW protein pool were calculated. It has been demonstrated that neonatal proteinuria in goat kids is associated with a high level of excretion of proteins of lower molecular weight than albumin (69 kDa). A strong dynamics of changes in excretion of particular LMW protein fractions with age was observed, which may imply not only an increased permeability of glomerular filtration barrier, especially over the first days of life, but also a selectivity of reabsorption mechanisms in the nephrons. An increased permeability of glomerular filtration barrier for proteins during the first days of life may represent the adaptive mechanism for removal of protein excess from the organism. The urinary LMW protein pool may also contain proteins resulting from the hydrolysis in the tubular cells.
Kuhla, S; Rudolph, P E; Albrecht, D; Schoenhusen, U; Zitnan, R; Tomek, W; Huber, K; Voigt, J; Metges, C C
Soy protein is known to alter intestinal function and structure. We determined in young goats whether a diet partly containing soy protein differently affects intestinal morphology and the jejunal and hepatic proteome as compared with a milk diet. Fourteen male 2-wk-old White German dairy goat kids were fed comparable diets based on whole cow's milk in which 35% of the crude protein was casein (milk protein group; MP) or soy protein supplemented by indispensable AA (SPAA) for 34 d (n = 7/group). Body weight gain and food efficiency were not different. Jejunal and hepatic tissue was collected to determine intestinal morphology by microscopy and protein repertoire by 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry. Jejunal crypt depth was reduced and villus height to crypt depth ratio was higher in SPAA than in milk protein. Out of 131 proteins identified, 32 proteins were found to be differently expressed in both groups. In SPAA, down-regulated jejunal proteins were involved in processes related to cytoskeleton generation, protein, lipid, and energy metabolism. Downregulated hepatic proteins were related to glycolysis and Krebs cycle. Thirteen proteins were upregulated in SPAA. Among these, 2 hepatic proteins were related to carbohydrate breakdown. The other 11 jejunal proteins were involved in cytoskeleton assembly, proteolysis, and carbohydrate breakdown. In addition, glutathione-S-transferase was found to be upregulated in the medial jejunum. In conclusion, a SPAA diet as compared with a milk diet was related to changes in jejunal morphology and jejunal proteins relevant for protein turnover, energy metabolism, and cytoskeleton assembly with no apparent impact on animal BW gain.
Rout, P. K.; Thangraj, K.; Mandal, A.; Roy, R.
Jamunapari, a dairy goat breed of India, has been gradually declining in numbers in its home tract over the years. We have analysed genetic variation and population history in Jamunapari goats based on 17 microsatellite loci, 2 milk protein loci, mitochondrial hypervariable region I (HVRI) sequencing, and three Y-chromosomal gene sequencing. We used the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mismatch distribution, microsatellite data, and bottleneck tests to infer the population history and demography. The mean number of alleles per locus was 9.0 indicating that the allelic variation was high in all the loci and the mean heterozygosity was 0.769 at nuclear loci. Although the population size is smaller than 8,000 individuals, the amount of variability both in terms of allelic richness and gene diversity was high in all the microsatellite loci except ILST 005. The gene diversity and effective number of alleles at milk protein loci were higher than the 10 other Indian goat breeds that they were compared to. Mismatch analysis was carried out and the analysis revealed that the population curve was unimodal indicating the expansion of population. The genetic diversity of Y-chromosome genes was low in the present study. The observed mean M ratio in the population was above the critical significance value (Mc) and close to one indicating that it has maintained a slowly changing population size. The mode-shift test did not detect any distortion of allele frequency and the heterozygosity excess method showed that there was no significant departure from mutation-drift equilibrium detected in the population. However, the effects of genetic bottlenecks were observed in some loci due to decreased heterozygosity and lower level of M ratio. There were two observed genetic subdivisions in the population supporting the observations of farmers in different areas. This base line information on genetic diversity, bottleneck analysis, and mismatch analysis was obtained to assist the conservation
Villemure, Michèle; Lazure, Claude; Manjunath, Puttaswamy
A family of proteins designated BSP-A1, BSP-A2, BSP-A3 and BSP-30 kDa (collectively called BSP proteins for Bovine Seminal Plasma proteins) constitute the major protein fraction in the bull seminal plasma. These proteins interact with choline phospholipids on the sperm surface and play a role in the membrane stabilization (decapacitation) and destabilization (capacitation) process. Homologous proteins have been isolated from boar and stallion seminal plasma. In the current study we report the isolation and preliminary characterization of homologous proteins from goat seminal plasma. Frozen semen (-80°C) was thawed and centrifuged to remove sperm. The proteins in the supernatant were precipitated by the addition of cold ethanol. The precipitates were dissolved in ammonium bicarbonate and lyophilised. The lyophilised proteins were dissolved in phosphate buffer and loaded onto a gelatin-agarose column, which was previously equilibrated with the same buffer. The column was successively washed with phosphate buffer, with phosphate buffer saline and with 0.5 M urea in phosphate buffer saline to remove unadsorbed proteins, and the adsorbed proteins were eluted with 5 M urea in phosphate buffer saline. Analysis of pooled, dialysed and lyophilised gelatin-agarose adsorbed protein fraction by SDS-PAGE indicated the presence of four protein bands that were designated GSP-14 kDa, GSP-15 kDa, GSP-20 kDa and GSP-22 kDa (GSP, Goat Seminal Plasma proteins). Heparin-affinity chromatography was then used for the separation of GSP-20 and -22 kDa from GSP-14 and -15 kDa. Finally, HPLC separation permitted further isolation of each one from the other. Amino acid sequence analysis of these proteins indicated that they are homologous to BSP proteins. In addition, these BSP homologs bind to hen's egg-yolk low-density lipoproteins. These results together with our previous data indicate that BSP family proteins are ubiquitous in mammalian seminal plasma, exist in several forms in each
Yeom, K-H; Van Trierum, G; Hache, A; Lee, K-W; Beynen, A C
Two separate experiments were carried out to establish the effects of the protein:energy ratio in milk replacers on growth performance, plasma lipid concentrations and fatty acid composition in adipose tissue of male goat kids. In the first experiment there were 211 3-day- old goat kids and in the second experiment there were 121 kids aged 3-7 days. The animals were fed ad libitum for a period of 4 weeks on milk replacers containing either 11.5 or 9.5 g crude protein/MJ metabolizable energy. In essence, protein was exchanged with fat on a weight basis. Milk concentrations were increased from 160 to 190 g/l in experiment 1, from 150 to 180 g/l in experiment 2. There were significant increases in body weight and feed intake when the milk replacer with high protein : energy ratio was fed. Group mean average daily weight gain was 168 and 203 g for the groups with low and high dietary protein:energy ratio in experiment 1; for experiment 2 the values were 139 and 160 g. Average dry matter intake was 18 and 14% higher for the diet with high protein:energy ratio in experiments 1 and 2, respectively. There was no change in either feed conversion (feed:gain ratio) or energy conversion (weight gain:energy intake ratio). There were no consistent diet effects on plasma lipid concentrations. Dietary fatty acid composition was reflected by that of adipose tissue. The milk replacer with high protein:energy ratio produced a small increase in the contents of myristic and palmitic acid in adipose tissue.
Sanz Sampelayo, M R; Pérez, M L; Gil Extremera, F; Boza, J J; Boza, J
To establish the effect of the nature of four different protein sources [fababeans, 27.8% crude protein (CP); sunflower meal, 41.7% CP; corn gluten feed, 18.8% CP; and cottonseed, 18.3% CP] on milk protein production by goats, the ruminal degradation of these feeds was studied as was the amino acid (AA) composition of the original material and that of the undegradable fractions of the protein sources. Four diets were designed; 20% of their protein was supplied by each of the different sources. Four groups of 5 Granadina goats were used to study the utilization of these diets for milk production. No significant differences were observed in dry matter intake or milk production. The milk produced by goats fed the diet containing sunflower meal had the lowest protein concentration; the highest milk protein concentration was observed for goats fed the diet containing corn gluten feed. From a multivariate analysis, it was deduced that the quickly degradable protein fraction in the rumen and the ruminally undegradable protein fraction were the components of the protein sources most directly related to the milk protein produced. Given the similar AA profiles of the undegradable fractions of the different protein sources, the possible supplementation achieved from these ruminally undegradable fractions must be established by the amount of protein supplied regardless of AA composition.
Han, Xufeng; Wang, Lei; Li, Wei; Li, Bibo; Yang, Yuxin; Yan, Hailong; Qu, Lei; Chen, Yulin
The experiment aimed to specifically monitor the passage of lactobacilli in vivo after oral administration. The green fluorescent protein (GFP) gene was cloned downstream from the constitutive p32 promoter from L. lactis subsp. cremoris Wg2. The recombinant expression vector, pLEM415-gfp-p32, was electroporated into Lactobacillus plantarum (L. plantarum) isolated from goat. Green fluorescent protein (GFP) was successfully expressed in L. plantarum. After 2 h post-administration, transformed Lactobacillus could be detectable in all luminal contents. In the rumen, bacteria concentration initially decreased, reached the minimum at 42 h post-oral administration and then increased. However, this concentration decreased constantly in the duodenum. This result indicated that L. plantarum could colonize in the rumen but not in the duodenum.
Gadahi, Javaid Ali; Yongqian, Bu; Ehsan, Muhammad; Zhang, Zhen Chao; Wang, Shuai; Yan, Ruo Feng; Song, Xiao Kai; Xu, Li Xin; Li, Xiang Rui
Excretory and secretory products (ESPs) of nematode contain various proteins which are capable of inducing the instigation or depression of the host immune response and are involved in the pathogenesis of the worms. In the present study, Haemonchus contortus excretory and secretory products (HcESPs) were collected from the adult worms. Binding of HcESPs to goat peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) was confirmed by immune-fluorescence assay. Effects of the HcESPs on cytokine production, cell proliferation, cell migration and nitric oxide (NO) production of PBMCs were checked by co-incubation of HcESPs with goat PBMCs. The results indicated that the production of IL-4 and IFN-γ were significantly decreased by HcESPs in dose dependent manner. On the contrary, the production of IL-10 and IL-17 were increased. Cell migration was significantly enhanced by HcESPs, whereas, HcESPs treatment significantly suppressed the cell proliferation and NO production. These results indicated that the HcESPs played important suppressive regulatory roles on PBMCs and provided highlights to the understanding of the host-parasite interactions.
Gadahi, Javaid Ali; Yongqian, Bu; Ehsan, Muhammad; Zhang, Zhen Chao; Wang, Shuai; Yan, Ruo Feng; Song, Xiao Kai; Xu, Li Xin; Li, Xiang Rui
Excretory and secretory products (ESPs) of nematode contain various proteins which are capable of inducing the instigation or depression of the host immune response and are involved in the pathogenesis of the worms. In the present study, Haemonchus contortus excretory and secretory products (HcESPs) were collected from the adult worms. Binding of HcESPs to goat peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) was confirmed by immune-fluorescence assay. Effects of the HcESPs on cytokine production, cell proliferation, cell migration and nitric oxide (NO) production of PBMCs were checked by co-incubation of HcESPs with goat PBMCs. The results indicated that the production of IL-4 and IFN-γ were significantly decreased by HcESPs in dose dependent manner. On the contrary, the production of IL-10 and IL-17 were increased. Cell migration was significantly enhanced by HcESPs, whereas, HcESPs treatment significantly suppressed the cell proliferation and NO production. These results indicated that the HcESPs played important suppressive regulatory roles on PBMCs and provided highlights to the understanding of the host-parasite interactions. PMID:27229536
Malakar, Dhruba; Majumdar, A C
The aim of the present study was to isolate, identify and characterize the secretory proteins of IVM oocytes and IVMFC embryos to evaluate its immunogenecity. and identify of such proteins if any, in blood circulation of estrus and early pregnant goats. Oocytes were matured in TCM-199 with 1 microg/ml, estradiol-17beta; 0.5 microg/ml, FSH; 100 IU/ml, LH and 10% FCS on granulosa cell monolayer. After 18 hr of maturation, oocytes were further cultured in maturation medium containing 3 mg/ml polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) without serum and BSA for 12 hr and medium was collected. The IVF embryos of 4-8 cell stage were cultured in medium containing PVA without serum and BSA. Embryo culture medium was collected after 24 hr of culture and was pooled. The proteins were analyzed on SDS-PAGE (12.5%). Four secretory proteins of oocytes with approximately molecular weight of 45, 55, 65 and 95 kDa and three secretory proteins of embryos 45, 55 and 65 kDa were obtained on SDS-PAGE in silver staining. The protein profile of midluteal, estrus and early pregnant goat serum was similar and no variation was observed among the proteins on SDS-PAGE. Two secretory proteins of 55 and 65 kDa of both IVM oocytes and IVMFC embryos were observed on Western analysis. None of such proteins was observed in midluteal, estrus and early pregnant goat serum on western blotting. It can be concluded that IVM oocytes and IVMFC embryos secrete proteins in medium and two of them can develop antibody. The proteins secreted from embryos till morula stage was similar to that of oocytes. None of these oocyte/embryo released proteins were observed in blood circulation of estrus and early pregnant goats.
Fontanesi, L; Beretti, F; Riggio, V; Gómez González, E; Dall'Olio, S; Davoli, R; Russo, V; Portolano, B
In goats, classical genetic studies reported a large number of alleles at the Agouti locus with effects on coat color and pattern distribution. From these early studies, the dominant A(Wt) (white/tan) allele was suggested to cause the white color of the Saanen breed. Here, we sequenced the coding region of the goat ASIP gene in 6 goat breeds (Girgentana, Maltese, Derivata di Siria, Murciano-Granadina, Camosciata delle Alpi, and Saanen), with different coat colors and patterns. Five single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were identified, 3 of which caused missense mutations in conserved positions of the cysteine-rich carboxy-terminal domain of the protein (p.Ala96Gly, p.Cys126Gly, and p.Val128Gly). Allele and genotype frequencies suggested that these mutations are not associated or not completely associated with coat color in the investigated goat breeds. Moreover, genotyping and sequencing results, deviation from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, as well as allele copy number evaluation from semiquantitative fluorescent multiplex PCR, indicated the presence of copy number variation (CNV) in all investigated breeds. To confirm the presence of CNV and evaluate its extension, we applied a bovine-goat cross-species array comparative genome hybridization (aCGH) experiment using a custom tiling array based on bovine chromosome 13. aCGH results obtained for 8 goat DNA samples confirmed the presence of CNV affecting a region of less that 100 kb including the ASIP and AHCY genes. In Girgentana and Saanen breeds, this CNV might cause the A(Wt) allele, as already suggested for a similar structural mutation in sheep affecting the ASIP and AHCY genes, providing evidence for a recurrent interspecies CNV. However, other mechanisms may also be involved in determining coat color in these 2 breeds.
da Costa, Whyara Karoline Almeida; de Souza, Evandro Leite; Beltrão-Filho, Edvaldo Mesquita; Vasconcelos, Gracy Kelly Vieira; Santi-Gadelha, Tatiane; de Almeida Gadelha, Carlos Alberto; Franco, Octavio Luiz; Magnani, Marciane
The protein composition of goat milk differs between goat breeds and could present regional trends. The aim of this study was to comparatively analyze the protein composition of goat milk produced by the Alpine and Saanen breeds in northeastern Brazil and to evaluate the antibacterial activity of its protein fractions. SDS-PAGE, 2-DE electrophoresis and RP-HPLC analyses revealed the absence of αs1-casein in the milk of both breeds and no differences between the αs2-casein, β-casein, β-lactoglobulin and α-lactalbumin profiles. The amounts of soluble proteins and β-casein hydrolysis residues were higher in Saanen milk. Only the protein fraction containing the largest amounts of casein (F60–90%) inhibited bacterial growth, with MIC values between 50 and 100 mg/mL. This study describe for the first time three important points about the goat milk protein of two Brazilian goat breeders: absence of α-s1 casein in the protein profile, differences between the milk protein composition produced by goats of Alpine and Saanen breeders and antibacterial activity of unbroken proteins (casein-rich fraction) present in these milk. PMID:24675996
Teixeira, Dárcio Italo Alves; Melo, Luciana Magalhães; Gadelha, Carlos Alberto de Almeida; Cunha, Rodrigo Maranguape Silva da; Bloch, Carlos; Rádis-Baptista, Gandhi; Cavada, Benildo Sousa; Freitas, Vicente José de Figueirêdo
Mammalian seminal plasma contains among others, proteins called spermadhesins, which are the major proteins of boar and stallion seminal plasma. These proteins appear to be involved in capacitation and sperm-egg interaction. Previously, we reported the presence of a protein related to spermadhesins in goat seminal plasma. In the present study, we have further characterized this protein, and we propose ion-exchange chromatography to isolate this seminal protein. Semen was obtained from four adult Saanen bucks. Seminal plasma was pooled, dialyzed against distilled water and freeze-dried. Lyophilized proteins were loaded onto an ion-exchange chromatography column. Dialyzed-lyophilized proteins from the main peak of DEAE-Sephacel were applied to a C2/C18 column coupled to an RP-HPLC system, and the eluted proteins were lyophilized for electrophoresis. The N-terminal was sequenced and amino acid sequence similarity was determined using CLUSTAL W. Additionally, proteins from DEAE-Sephacel chromatography step were dialyzed and submitted to a heparin-Sepharose high-performance liquid chromatography. Goat seminal plasma after ion-exchange chromatography yielded 6.47 +/- 0.63 mg (mean +/- SEM) of the major retained fraction. The protein was designated BSFP (buck seminal fluid protein). BSFP exhibited N-terminal sequence homology to boar, stallion and bull spermadhesins. BSFP showed no heparin-binding capabilities. These results together with our previous data indicate that goat seminal plasma contains a protein that is structurally related to proteins of the spermadhesin family. Finally, this protein can be efficiently isolated by ion-exchange and reverse-phase chromatography.
Konwar, Priyanka; Tiwari, S P; Gohain, M; Kumari, Kiran
The aim of the present study was to assess the effect of dietary supplementation with different levels of protein on fecal egg counts and hematological parameters in goat kids with subclinical nematodosis under semi-intensive condition. 20 goat kids (3-5 months old with an average body weight of 8.90 kg) were randomly allocated to four groups: T1, served as a negative control, without receiving concentrate feed, and T2, T3, and T4 that received concentrate feed containing 16, 20, and 24% digestible crude protein, respectively. The experiment was carried out for 60 days. In this study, protein supplementation had a significant (p<0.05) effect on fecal egg counts even after 15 days; hemoglobin (Hb) (g/dl) after 45 days; total leukocyte count (10(3)/mm(3)) and total erythrocyte count (10(6)/mm(3)) after 30 days; packed cell volume (%), lymphocyte (%), and eosinophil (%) after 15 days of supplementation, whereas monocyte (%) and neutrophil (%) values were not significantly influenced by protein supplementation effect during the entire experiment. The values of mean corpuscular volume (fl) were affected significantly (p<0.05, p<0.01) due to protein supplementation after 30 days, mean corpuscular Hb (MCH) (pg) after 45 days, but MCH concentration (g/dl) was not significantly different among the experimental groups during the entire experiment. The dietary supplementation with different levels of protein significantly improved the hematological profiles and inhibited the nematodosis infection in the experimental goat kids.
Djuricic, D; Dobranic, T; Grizelj, J; Gracner, D; Harapin, I; Stanin, D; Folnozic, I; Getz, I; Cvitkovic, D; Samardzija, M
The metabolism of proteins in the blood serum in Boer and Saanen goats was investigated during puerperium. Twenty Boer goats (10 primiparous and 10 pluriparous) and 10 Saanen goats (five primiparous and five pluriparous) between 2 and 5 years of age were used in this research. Blood for analysis was taken every fourth day from day 3 until day 40 post-partum. Blood samples were collected by jugular puncture. In the obtained blood serum, the concentration of total proteins (PT) and albumin (ALB), and the activity of enzymes aspartate aminotransferase (AST) [the Enzyme Commission number (EC number) 2. 6. 1. 1.], gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT) (EC 2. 3. 2. 2.), creatine kinase (CK) (EC 2. 7. 3. 2.) and alkaline phosphatase (AP) (EC 3. 1. 3. 1.) were determined by spectrophotometry. These parameters were in physiological ranges in Boer goats and in Saanen goats, without significant differences according to number of kids per doe. According to the research results of the blood serum in goats during puerperium, there were no significant differences in the concentration of ALB. Boer goats had significant higher (p < 0.05) concentration of PT and enzyme activity of AP, CK and GGT. Saanen goats had only enzyme activity of AST significantly higher (p < 0.05). Enzyme activity of alkaline phosphatase was significant higher (p < 0.05) in pluriparous goats in both breeds than in primiparous. The obtained results may represent a contribution to a better understanding of protein metabolism during puerperium in dairy and meat goats and for diagnostic purposes.
Cooper, Caitlin A.; Garas Klobas, Lydia C.; Maga, Elizabeth A.; Murray, James D.
Childhood diarrhea is a significant problem in many developing countries and E. coli is a main causative agent of diarrhea in young children. Lysozyme is an antimicrobial protein highly expressed in human milk, but not ruminant milk, and is thought to help protect breastfeeding children against diarrheal diseases. We hypothesized that consumption of milk from transgenic goats which produce human lysozyme (hLZ-milk) in their milk would accelerate recovery from bacterial-induced diarrhea. Young pigs were used as a model for children and infected with enterotoxigenic E. coli. Once clinical signs of diarrhea developed, pigs were fed hLZ-milk or non-transgenic control goat milk three times a day for two days. Clinical observations and complete blood counts (CBC) were performed. Animals were euthanized and samples collected to assess differences in histology, cytokine expression and bacterial translocation into the mesenteric lymph node. Pigs consuming hLZ-milk recovered from clinical signs of infection faster than pigs consuming control milk, with significantly improved fecal consistency (p = 0.0190) and activity level (p = 0.0350). The CBC analysis showed circulating monocytes (p = 0.0413), neutrophils (p = 0.0219), and lymphocytes (p = 0.0222) returned faster to pre-infection proportions in hLZ-milk fed pigs, while control-fed pigs had significantly higher hematocrit (p = 0.027), indicating continuing dehydration. In the ileum, pigs fed hLZ-milk had significantly lower expression of pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-8 (p = 0.0271), longer intestinal villi (p<0.0001), deeper crypts (p = 0.0053), and a thinner lamina propria (p = 0.0004). These data demonstrate that consumption of hLZ-milk helped pigs recover from infection faster, making hLZ-milk an effective treatment of E. coli-induced diarrhea. PMID:23516474
Nomura, Koh; Yonezawa, Takahiro; Mano, Shuhei; Kawakami, Shigehisa; Shedlock, Andrew M.; Hasegawa, Masami; Amano, Takashi
Goats (Capra hircus) are one of the oldest domesticated species, and they are kept all over the world as an essential resource for meat, milk, and fiber. Although recent archeological and molecular biological studies suggested that they originated in West Asia, their domestication processes such as the timing of population expansion and the dynamics of their selection pressures are little known. With the aim of addressing these issues, the nearly complete mitochondrial protein-encoding genes were determined from East, Southeast, and South Asian populations. Our coalescent time estimations suggest that the timing of their major population expansions was in the Late Pleistocene and significantly predates the beginning of their domestication in the Neolithic era (≈10,000 years ago). The ω (ratio of non-synonymous rate/synonymous substitution rate) for each lineage was also estimated. We found that the ω of the globally distributed haplogroup A which is inherited by more than 90% of goats examined, turned out to be extremely low, suggesting that they are under severe selection pressure probably due to their large population size. Conversely, the ω of the Asian-specific haplogroup B inherited by about 5% of goats was relatively high. Although recent molecular studies suggest that domestication of animals may tend to relax selective constraints, the opposite pattern observed in our goat mitochondrial genome data indicates the process of domestication is more complex than may be presently appreciated and cannot be explained only by a simple relaxation model. PMID:23936295
Anguita, Begoña; Paramio, Maria-Teresa; Jiménez-Macedo, Ana R; Morató, Roser; Mogas, Teresa; Izquierdo, Dolors
The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between the developmental competence of oocytes and their total RNA and protein contents, and the level of Cyclin B1 transcription. Ovaries from prepubertal goats were collected from a slaughterhouse. Oocytes were recovered by slicing and those with two or more layers of cumulus cells and homogenous cytoplasm were matured in vitro (20-25 oocytes per drop) for 27 h. Both before and after IVM, samples of oocytes were denuded and categorised into four group treatments by diameter (<110 microm, 110-125 microm, 125-135 microm; >135 microm), separated into sub-groups of 10 oocytes per treatment-replicate and stored in liquid nitrogen until total RNA content analysis by spectophotometry, total protein content analysis by a colorimetric assay and Cyclin B1 transcription analysis by RT-PCR. For the study of developmental competence, the rest of the matured oocytes were fertilised in vitro in groups of 20-25 for 24 h. Presumptive zygotes were denuded, sorted into the four categories of diameter noted above, and placed into culture drops in groups of 18-25 for in vitro culture. Cleavage rate was evaluated at 48 hpi and embryo development at 8 d post-insemination. There were four replicates of each treatment for each assay or evaluation point of the experiment. There were no significant differences between the size categories of oocytes at collection in total RNA content, total protein content and Cyclin B1 mRNA. There were significant differences (P<0.05) in the expression of Cyclin B1 before IVM with oocytes in the >135 mm diameter category having the highest value for this variant. There were no significant differences in these characteristics between the categories of oocyte diameter after IVM except in respect of total RNA content, which was lower for the largest size of oocytes (>135 microm; mean+/-S.D.=12.3+/-1.84 ng/oocyte) than the other three size groups (19.2+/-1.38-22.1+/-4.44 ng/oocyte; P<0.05). Significant
Manthou, Eirini; Kanaki, Maria; Georgakouli, Kalliopi; Deli, Chariklia K.; Kouretas, Dimitrios; Koutedakis, Yiannis; Jamurtas, Athanasios Z.
In this study we examined the glycaemic index (GI) and glycaemic load (GL) of a functional food product, which contains ewe-goat whey protein and carbohydrates in a 1:1 ratio. Nine healthy volunteers, (age, 23.3 ± 3.9 years; body mass index, 24.2 ± 4.1 kg·m2; body fat %, 18.6 ± 10.0) randomly consumed either a reference food or amount of the test food both with equal carbohydrate content in two visits. In each visit, seven blood samples were collected; the first sample after an overnight fast and the remaining six at 15, 30, 45, 60, 90 and 120 min after the beginning of food consumption. Plasma glucose concentration was measured and the GI was determined by calculation of the incremental area under the curve. The GL was calculated using the equation: test food GI/100 g available carbohydrates per test food serving. The GI of the test food was found to be 5.18 ± 3.27, while the GL of one test food serving was 1.09 ± 0.68. These results indicate that the tested product can be classified as a low GI (<55) and low GL (<10) food. Given the health benefits of low glycaemic response foods and whey protein consumption, the tested food could potentially promote health beyond basic nutrition. PMID:24926525
Meier, Lorena; Torgerson, Paul R; Hertzberg, Hubertus
Forty goats, aged from 2 to 5 months were subjected to two different immunization protocols with a vaccine containing Haemonchus contortus gut membrane proteins H11/H-gal-GP to evaluate protection against H. contortus on pre-contaminated pastures. Goats were allocated to four groups of ten, three of them received their first vaccination before turnout. One group (V4) was then vaccinated at 4-week-intervals whereas another two groups (V6 and V6SEP) were vaccinated at 6-week-intervals. A control group (CTRL) remained unvaccinated. In May, after the second vaccination, all goats were turned out on pastures which had been previously contaminated with H. contortus eggs by seeder sheep for a period of six weeks. Goats of groups V4, V6 and CTRL were grazed together, whereas V6SEP was kept separately at an identical stocking rate. Clinical (PCV, FAMACHA, body weight), parasitological (faecal egg count, FEC) and serological (antibody titres) parameters were measured fortnightly. All goats were stabled in October, drenched with levamisole and two weeks later infected with 5000 L3 of H. contortus and slaughtered four weeks later for determination of abomasal worm burdens. Group mean FEC peaked 42-56days after turnout. Significantly lower FEC were observed in V6SEP vs CTRL between D 28 and 70 (p<0.01). Mean egg output of all groups decreased substantially and fluctuated at low levels until the end of the grazing period (D 154). Goats responded to vaccination with increasing antibody titres peaking after every booster. Mean worm burdens deriving from experimental infections were reduced by 89, 65 and 47% in groups V4, V6 and V6SEP, respectively, compared with the controls. The difference was significant for V4 (p<0.01). Antibody titres measured 14days before slaughter did not correlate statistically with the worm burdens. It was concluded that the vaccination protocol did not result in sufficient protection on pasture, as antibody titres were still low at the time the goats
Konold, Timm; Phelan, Laura J; Donnachie, Ben R; Chaplin, Melanie J; Cawthraw, Saira; González, Lorenzo
A study to investigate transmission of classical scrapie via goat milk was carried out in sheep: firstly, lambs were challenged orally with goat scrapie brain homogenate to confirm transmission of scrapie from goats to sheep. In the second study phase, milk from scrapie-infected goats was fed to lambs. Lambs were selected according to their prion protein gene (PRNP) genotype, which was either VRQ/VRQ or ARQ/ARQ, with or without additional polymorphisms at codon 141 (FF141, LF141 or LL141) of the ovine PRNP. This report describes the clinical, pathological and molecular phenotype of goat scrapie in those sheep that progressed to clinical end-stage. Ten sheep (six VRQ/VRQ and four ARQ/ARQ, of which three FF141 and one LL141) challenged with one of two scrapie brain homogenates, and six pairs of sheep (ARQ, of which five LL141 and seven LF141) fed milk from six different goats, developed clinical disease, which was characterised by a pruritic (all VRQ/VRQ and LL141 sheep) or a non-pruritic form (all LF141 and FF141 sheep). Immunohistochemical (IHC) examination revealed that the pattern of intra- and extracellular accumulation of disease-associated prion protein in the brain was also dependent on PRNP polymorphisms at codon 141, which was similar in VRQ and LL141 sheep but different from LF141 and FF141 sheep. The influence of codon 141 was also seen in discriminatory Western blot (WB), with LF141 and FF141 sheep showing a bovine spongiform encephalopathy-like profile (diminished reactivity with P4 antibody) on brain tissue. However, discriminatory WB in lymphoid tissues, and IHC pattern and profile both in lymphoid and brain tissue was consistent with classical scrapie in all sheep. This study provided further evidence that the clinical presentation and the pathological and molecular phenotypes of scrapie in sheep are influenced by PRNP polymorphisms, particularly at codon 141. Differences in the truncation of disease-associated prion protein between LL141 sheep and
Besu, Irina; Jankovic, Ljiljana; Konic-Ristic, Aleksandra; Damjanovic, Ana; Besu, Valeri; Juranic, Zorica
Recurrent aphthous ulcers (RAU) represent a very common, but poorly understood mucosal disorder. The connection between immunity to cow's milk proteins (CMP) and oral diseases was noted earlier. The goal of this study was to determine the prevalence of the increased levels of serum antibodies to goat's milk proteins (GMP), by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) test, in subjects who have RAU and proven increased immunity to CMP. Fifty subjects with RAU (36 with proven increased immunity to CMP and 14 without this increased immunity) were included in this research. Levels of serum IgA, IgG, and IgE antibodies to the same quantity of the examined antigens were determined by ELISA. The statistical analysis of data was performed by Wilcoxon rank-sum test and Mann-Whitney test. The levels of serum antifresh cow's milk IgA, IgG, and IgE antibodies were significantly higher than the levels of serum antifresh goat's milk, in subjects with RAU with proven increased immunoreactivity to CMP (P = 0.0003; P < 0.0001; P < 0.0001). These results indicate that patients with RAU with increased immunity to CMP could consider the use of goat's milk as the alternative protein source. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Freeman, S R; Poore, M H; Huntington, G B; Middleton, T F
Finding appropriate disposal techniques for waste products is one of many challenges facing the poultry-processing industry. One waste generated in significant quantities is dissolved air floatation sludge, a product of wastewater treatment. Converting dissolved air floatation sludge into a dry feed product (meal) for incorporation into livestock feed appears to be a viable solution. This meal, called secondary protein nutrients (SPN), is high in protein (45% CP), fat (28% crude fat), and minerals. The protein consists of 85% B(2) and B(3) fractions, which are moderately to slowly degradable in the rumen, and therefore may potentially escape ruminal degradation and be available for digestion in the lower gastrointestinal tract. The goal of this research was to evaluate SPN as an alternative to traditional protein sources for ruminants by substituting it on an equivalent N basis for soybean meal in cattle and meat goat diets (0, 25, 50, 75, and 100% for cattle; 0, 20, and 40% for goats). When included in corn silage-based steer diets, increasing SPN resulted in linear and quadratic declines in both DMI and ADG (P < 0.001). Dry matter intake diminished with inclusion rates above 50%, and ADG were reduced after inclusion of SPN reached 25% of added N. Feed efficiency (the reciprocal of the efficiency of gain, which is represented by G:F) declined linearly (P < 0.001) with each incremental increase in SPN. Addition of up to 40% added N as SPN in goat diets caused no change in DMI, digestibility of DM or fiber, or N retention. Ruminal VFA concentrations showed little variation in either species. Increasing the proportion of SPN in the feed caused linear declines in ruminal NH(3) in steers (P < 0.001). Increasing SPN in goat diets, however, resulted in only a trend toward reductions of this parameter (P = 0.14). The decreases observed may have resulted from decreasing ruminal protein degradability or increasing fat caused by increasing the proportion of SPN in the feed
Wan, Lu; Ma, Jisi; Xu, Gangyi; Wang, Daihua; Wang, Nianlu
Calcineurin, a Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein phosphatase, plays a critical role in controlling skeletal muscle fiber type. However, little information is available concerning the expression of calcineurin in goat. Therefore, protein phosphatase 3 catalytic subunit alpha isoform (PPP3CA) gene, also called calcineurin Aα, was cloned and its expression characterized in Tianfu goat muscle. Real time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) analyses revealed that Tianfu goat PPP3CA was detected in cardiac muscle, biceps femoris muscle, abdominal muscle, longissimus dors muscle, and soleus muscle. High expression levels were found in biceps femoris muscle, longissimus muscle and abdominal muscle (p < 0.01), and low expression levels were seen in cardiac muscle and soleus muscle (p > 0.05). In addition, the spatial-temporal mRNA expression levels showed different variation trends in different muscles with the age of the goats. Western blotting further revealed that PPP3CA protein was expressed in the above-mentioned tissues, with the highest level in biceps femoris muscle, and the lowest level in soleus muscle. In this study, we isolated the full-length coding sequence of Tianfu goat PPP3CA gene, analyzed its structure, and investigated its expression in different muscle tissues from different age stages. These results provide a foundation for understanding the function of the PPP3CA gene in goats.
Mirdhayati, Irdha; Hermanianto, Joko; Wijaya, Christofora H; Sajuthi, Dondin; Arihara, Keizo
The meat of Kacang goat has potential for production of a protein hydrolysate. Functional ingredients from protein hydrolysate of Kacang goat meat were determined by the consistency of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory activity and antihypertensive effect. This study examined the potency of Kacang goat protein hydrolysate in ACE inhibition and antihypertensive activity. Protein hydrolysates of Kacang goat meat were prepared using sequential digestion of endo-proteinase and protease complex at several concentrations and hydrolysis times. The highest ACE inhibitory activity resulted from a hydrolysate that was digested for 4 h with 5 g kg(-1) of both enzymes. An ACE inhibitory peptide was purified and a novel peptide found with a sequence of Phe-Gln-Pro-Ser (IC50 value of 27.0 µmol L(-1) ). Both protein hydrolysates and a synthesised peptide (Phe-Gln-Pro-Ser) demonstrated potent antihypertensive activities in spontaneously hypertensive rats. Protein hydrolysate of Kacang goat meat produced by sequential digestion with endo-proteinase and protease complex has great potential as a functional ingredient, particularly as an antihypertensive agent. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.
Serrano, Emmanuel; González, Francisco J; Granados, José E; Moço, Gisela; Fandos, Paulino; Soriguer, Ramón C; Pérez, Jesús M
Body condition in wild ungulates is traditionally evaluated during the necropsy of animals on the basis of the weight of fat stored around or within the vital organs, the weight of the organs themselves, and their derived indices. However, sometimes it is important to evaluate the nutritional status of the animal by means of blood and serum analyses and the interpretation of specific parameters. Only in a very few studies is the nutritional status of the animal obtained by blood biochemistry and, when obtained, compared with the values for body condition obtained by anatomic dissection. In this study, the usefulness of two serum parameters, total serum proteins (TSP) and serum triglycerides (ST), was assessed in the monitoring of the body condition of Iberian wild goats (Capra pyrenaica). In addition, their relationship with the kidney fat index (KFI) and its components, kidney mass without fat (KM) and kidney fat (KF) is evaluated. A total of 25 wild goats from the Sierra Nevada National Park (southern Iberian Peninsula) that were shot by hunters were used in this study. The parameter TSP was found to be correlated with KM, and ST was correlated with both KM and KFI. Hence, both TSP and ST can be used for monitoring physical condition in wild and captive Iberian wild goats.
Badaoui, B; D'Andrea, M; Pilla, F; Capote, J; Zidi, A; Jordana, J; Ferrando, A; Delgado, J V; Martínez, A; Vidal, O; Amills, M
Agouti signaling protein (ASIP) is one of the key players in the modulation of hair pigmentation in mammals. Binding to the melanocortin 1 receptor, ASIP induces the synthesis of phaeomelanin, associated with reddish brown, red, tan, and yellow coats. We have sequenced 2.8 kb of the goat ASIP gene in 48 individuals and identified two missense (Cys126Gly and Val128Gly) and two intronic polymorphisms. In silico analysis revealed that the Cys126Gly substitution may cause a structural change by disrupting a highly conserved disulfide bond. We studied its segregation in 12 Spanish and Italian goat breeds (N = 360) with different pigmentation patterns and found striking differences in the frequency of the putative loss-of-function Gly(126) allele (Italian 0.43, Spanish Peninsular 0.08), but we did not observe a clear association with coat color. This suggests that the frequency of this putative loss-of-function allele has evolved under the influence of demographic rather than selection factors in goats from these two geographical areas.
Liu, Jun-Hua; Xu, Ting-Ting; Zhu, Wei-Yun; Mao, Sheng-Yong
The omasal epithelial barrier plays important roles in maintaining nutrient absorption and immune homeostasis in ruminants. However, little information is currently available about the changes in omasal epithelial barrier function at the structural and molecular levels during feeding of a high-grain (HG) diet. Ten male goats were randomly assigned to two groups, fed either a hay diet (0% grain; n = 5) or HG diet (65% grain; n = 5). Changes in omasal epithelial structure and expression of tight junction (TJ) proteins were determined via electron microscopy and Western blot analysis. After 7 weeks on each diet, omasal contents in the HG group showed significantly lower pH (P <0.001) and significantly higher concentrations of free lipopolysaccharides (LPS; P = 0.001) than the hay group. The goats fed a HG diet showed profound alterations in omasal epithelial structure and TJ proteins, corresponding to depression of thickness of total epithelia, stratum granulosum, and the sum of the stratum spinosum and stratum basale, marked epithelial cellular damage, erosion of intercellular junctions and down-regulation in expression of the TJ proteins, claudin-4 and occludin. The study demonstrates that feeding a HG diet is associated with omasal epithelial cellular damage and changes in expression of TJ proteins. These research findings provide an insight into the possible significance of diet on the omasal epithelial barrier in ruminants.
Moreno-Montoro, Miriam; Olalla, Manuel; Giménez-Martínez, Rafael; Bergillos-Meca, Triana; Ruiz-López, María Dolores; Cabrera-Vique, Carmen; Artacho, Reyes; Navarro-Alarcón, Miguel
Goat milk has been reported to possess good nutritional and health-promoting properties. Usually, it must be concentrated before fermented products can be obtained. The aim of this study was to compare physicochemical and nutritional variables among raw (RM), skimmed (SM), and ultrafiltration-concentrated skimmed (UFM) goat milk. The density, acidity, ash, protein, casein, whey protein, Ca, P, Mg, and Zn values were significantly higher in UFM than in RM or SM. Dry extract and fat levels were significantly higher in UFM than in SM, and Mg content was significantly higher in UFM than in RM. Ultrafiltration also increased the solubility of Ca and Mg, changing their distribution in the milk. The higher concentrations of minerals and proteins, especially caseins, increase the nutritional value of UFM, which may therefore be more appropriate for goat milk yogurt manufacturing in comparison to RM or SM.
Weinstein, J A; Taylor, S J; Rosenberg, M; DePeters, E J
Previously, feeding whey protein gels containing polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) reduced their rumen biohydrogenation and increased their concentration in milk fat of Holstein cows. Our objective was to test the efficacy of whey protein isolate (WPI) gels produced in a steam tunnel as a method to alter the fatty acid (FA) composition of the milk lipids. Four primiparous Lamancha goats in midlactation were fed three diets in a 3 × 4 Latin square design. The WPI gels were added to a basal concentrate mix that contained one of three lipid sources: (i) 100% soya bean oil (S) to create (WPI/S), (ii) a 1:1 (wt/wt) mixture of S and linseed (L) oil to create (WPI/SL), or (iii) 100% L to create (WPI/L). Periods were 22 days with the first 10 days used as an adjustment phase followed by a 12-day experimental phase. During the adjustment phase, all goats received a rumen available source of lipid, yellow grease, to provide a baseline for milk FA composition. During the experimental phase, each goat received its assigned WPI. Milk FA concentration of C18:2 n-6 and C18:3 n-3 reached 9.3 and 1.64 g/100 g FA, respectively, when goats were fed WPI/S. Feeding WPI/SL increased the C18:2 n-6 and C18:3 n-3 concentration to 6.22 and 4.36 g/100 g FA, and WPI/L increased C18:2 n-6 and C18:3 n-3 to 3.96 and 6.13 g/100 g FA respectively. The adjusted transfer efficiency (%) of C18:3 n-3 to milk FA decreased significantly as dietary C18:3 n-3 intake increased. Adjusted transfer efficiency for C18:2 n-6 did not change with increasing intake of C18:2 n-6. The WPI gels were effective at reducing rumen biohydrogenation of PUFA; however, we observed a change in the proportion increase of C18:3 n-3 in milk FA suggesting possible regulation of n-3 FA to the lactating caprine mammary gland. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.
Sabow, Azad Behnan; Sazili, Awis Qurni; Aghwan, Zeiad Amjad; Zulkifli, Idrus; Goh, Yong Meng; Ab Kadir, Mohd Zainal Abidin; Nakyinsige, Khadijah; Kaka, Ubedullah; Adeyemi, Kazeem Dauda
Examined was the effect of post mortem refrigerated storage on microbial spoilage, lipid-protein oxidation and physicochemical traits of goat meat. Seven Boer bucks were slaughtered, eviscerated and aged for 24 h. The Longissimus lumborum (LL) and Semitendinosus (ST) muscles were excised and subjected to 13 days post mortem refrigerated storage. The pH, lipid and protein oxidation, tenderness, color and drip loss were determined in LL while microbiological analysis was performed on ST. Bacterial counts generally increased with increasing aging time and the limit for fresh meat was reached at day 14 post mortem. Significant differences were observed in malondialdehyde (MDA) content at day 7 of storage. The thiol concentration significantly reduced as aging time increased. The band intensities of myosin heavy chain (MHC) and troponin-T significantly decreased as storage progressed, while actin remained relatively stable. After 14 days of aging, tenderness showed significant improvement while muscle pH and drip loss reduced with increase in storage time. Samples aged for 14 days had higher lightness (P < 0.05) and lower (P < 0.05) yellowness and redness. Post mortem refrigerated storage influenced oxidative and microbial stability and physico-chemical properties of goat meat. © 2016 Japanese Society of Animal Science.
Gadahi, Javaid Ali; Wang, Shuai; Bo, Gao; Ehsan, Muhammad; Yan, RuoFeng; Song, XiaoKai; Xu, LiXin; Li, XiangRui
Haemonchus contortus is a parasitic gastrointestinal nematode, and its excretory and secretory products (HcESPs) interact extensively with the host cells. In this study, we report the interaction of proteins from HcESPs at different developmental stages to goat peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) in vivo using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. A total of 407 HcESPs that interacted with goat PBMCs at different time points were identified from a H. contortus protein database using SEQUEST searches. The L4 and L5 stages of H. contortus represented a higher proportion of the identified proteins compared with the early and late adult stages. Both stage-specific interacting proteins and proteins that were common to multiple stages were identified. Forty-seven interacting proteins were shared among all stages. The gene ontology (GO) distributions of the identified goat PBMC-interacting proteins were nearly identical among all developmental stages, with high representation of binding and catalytic activity. Cellular, metabolic and single-organism processes were also annotated as major biological processes, but interestingly, more proteins were annotated as localization processes at the L5 stage than at the L4 and adult stages. Based on the clustering of homologous proteins, we improved the functional annotations of un-annotated proteins identified at different developmental stages. Some unnamed H. contortus ATP-binding cassette proteins, including ADP-ribosylation factor and P-glycoprotein-9, were identified by STRING protein clustering analysis. PMID:27467391
Oliveira, H R; Silva, F F; Siqueira, O H G B D; Souza, N O; Junqueira, V S; Resende, M D V; Borquis, R R A; Rodrigues, M T
We proposed multiple-trait random regression models (MTRRM) combining different functions to describe milk yield (MY) and fat (FP) and protein (PP) percentage in dairy goat genetic evaluation by using Bayesian inference. A total of 3,856 MY, FP, and PP test-day records, measured between 2000 and 2014, from 535 first lactations of Saanen and Alpine goats, including their cross, were used in this study. The initial analyses were performed using the following single-trait random regression models (STRRM): third- and fifth-order Legendre polynomials (Leg3 and Leg5), linear B-splines with 3 and 5 knots, the Ali and Schaeffer function (Ali), and Wilmink function. Heterogeneity of residual variances was modeled considering 3 classes. After the selection of the best STRRM to describe each trait on the basis of the deviance information criterion (DIC) and posterior model probabilities (PMP), the functions were combined to compose the MTRRM. All combined MTRRM presented lower DIC values and higher PMP, showing the superiority of these models when compared to other MTRRM based only on the same function assumed for all traits. Among the combined MTRRM, those considering Ali to describe MY and PP and Leg5 to describe FP (Ali_Leg5_Ali model) presented the best fit. From the Ali_Leg5_Ali model, heritability estimates over time for MY, FP. and PP ranged from 0.25 to 0.54, 0.27 to 0.48, and 0.35 to 0.51, respectively. Genetic correlation between MY and FP, MY and PP, and FP and PP ranged from -0.58 to 0.03, -0.46 to 0.12, and 0.37 to 0.64, respectively. We concluded that combining different functions under a MTRRM approach can be a plausible alternative for joint genetic evaluation of milk yield and milk constituents in goats.
Alison M Goate is the Samuel & Mae S Ludwig Professor of Genetics in Psychiatry, Professor of Genetics and Professor of Neurology at Washington University School of Medicine in St Louis (MO, USA). Dr Goate studied for her undergraduate degree in biochemistry at the University of Bristol (UK) and received her graduate training at Oxford University (UK). She performed postdoctoral studies with Professor Theodore Puck, Professor Louis Lim and Dr John Hardy before receiving a Royal Society University Research Fellowship to support her independent research program at St Mary's Hospital Medical School in London. In 1991, Dr Goate and colleagues reported the first mutation linked to an inherited form of Alzheimer's disease, in the amyloid precursor protein (APP) gene on chromosome 21. The mutation was found to be linked to inherited cases of early-onset Alzheimer's disease. In 1992, Dr Goate moved to Washington University as an Associate Professor in Genetics and Psychiatry. Dr Goate and colleagues have since identified mutations in four other genes, including two that cause Alzheimer's disease and two that cause the related dementia frontotemporal dementia. In addition to her work on dementia, Dr Goate's laboratory also studies the genetics of alcohol and nicotine dependence. Dr Goate has received numerous awards including the Potamkin Award from the American Academy of Neurology, the Zenith Award from the Alzheimer's Association, the Senior Investigator Award from the Metropolitan Life Foundation, the St Louis Academy of Science Innovation Award and the Carl and Gerty Cori Faculty Achievement Award at Washington University. Dr Goate has been a member of many scientific Review Boards and currently serves on the Editorial Boards of several journals.
Elfers, Kristin; Marr, Isabell; Wilkens, Mirja R; Breves, Gerhard; Langeheine, Marion; Brehm, Ralph; Muscher-Banse, Alexandra S
Diets fed to ruminants should contain nitrogen (N) as low as possible to reduce feed costs and environmental pollution. Though possessing effective N-recycling mechanisms to maintain the N supply for rumen microbial protein synthesis and hence protein supply for the host, an N reduction caused substantial changes in calcium (Ca) and phosphate homeostasis in young goats including decreased intestinal transepithelial Ca absorption as reported for monogastric species. In contrast to the transcellular component of transepithelial Ca transport, the paracellular route has not been investigated in young goats. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to characterise the effects of dietary N and/or Ca reduction on paracellular transport mechanisms in young goats. Electrophysiological properties of intestinal epithelia were investigated by Ussing chamber experiments. The expression of tight junction (TJ) and adherens junction (AJ) proteins in intestinal epithelia were examined on mRNA level by qPCR and on protein level by western blot analysis. Dietary N reduction led to a segment specific increase in tissue conductances in the proximal jejunum which might be linked to concomitantly decreased expression of cadherin 17 mRNA. Expression of occludin (OCLN) and zonula occludens protein 1 was increased in mid jejunal epithelia of N reduced fed goats on mRNA and partly on protein level. Reduced dietary Ca supply resulted in a segment specific increase in claudin 2 and claudin 12 expression and decreased the expression of OCLN which might have been mediated at least in part by calcitriol. These data show that dietary N as well as Ca reduction affected expression of TJ and AJ proteins in a segment specific manner in young goats and may thus be involved in modulation of paracellular Ca permeability.
Wilkens, Mirja R.; Breves, Gerhard; Langeheine, Marion; Brehm, Ralph; Muscher-Banse, Alexandra S.
Diets fed to ruminants should contain nitrogen (N) as low as possible to reduce feed costs and environmental pollution. Though possessing effective N-recycling mechanisms to maintain the N supply for rumen microbial protein synthesis and hence protein supply for the host, an N reduction caused substantial changes in calcium (Ca) and phosphate homeostasis in young goats including decreased intestinal transepithelial Ca absorption as reported for monogastric species. In contrast to the transcellular component of transepithelial Ca transport, the paracellular route has not been investigated in young goats. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to characterise the effects of dietary N and/or Ca reduction on paracellular transport mechanisms in young goats. Electrophysiological properties of intestinal epithelia were investigated by Ussing chamber experiments. The expression of tight junction (TJ) and adherens junction (AJ) proteins in intestinal epithelia were examined on mRNA level by qPCR and on protein level by western blot analysis. Dietary N reduction led to a segment specific increase in tissue conductances in the proximal jejunum which might be linked to concomitantly decreased expression of cadherin 17 mRNA. Expression of occludin (OCLN) and zonula occludens protein 1 was increased in mid jejunal epithelia of N reduced fed goats on mRNA and partly on protein level. Reduced dietary Ca supply resulted in a segment specific increase in claudin 2 and claudin 12 expression and decreased the expression of OCLN which might have been mediated at least in part by calcitriol. These data show that dietary N as well as Ca reduction affected expression of TJ and AJ proteins in a segment specific manner in young goats and may thus be involved in modulation of paracellular Ca permeability. PMID:27120348
He, Z X; Sun, Z H; Beauchemin, K A; Yang, W Z; Tang, S X; Zhou, C S; Han, X F; Wang, M; Kang, J H; Tan, Z L
The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of maternal protein or energy restriction on hormonal and metabolic status of pregnant goats during late gestation and their postnatal male kids. Forty-five pregnant goats were fed a control (CON), 40% protein-restricted (PR) or 40% energy-restricted (ER) diet from 90 days of gestation until parturition. Plasma of mothers (90, 125 and 145 days of gestation) and kids (6 weeks of age) were sampled to determine metabolites and hormones. Glucose concentration for pregnant goats subjected to PR or ER was less (P < 0.001) than that of CON goats at 125 and 145 days of gestation. However, plasma nonesterified fatty acids concentration was greater (P < 0.01) at 125 and 145 days for PR and ER than CON. Protein restriction increased (P < 0.01) maternal cortisol concentration by 145 days of gestation, and ER decreased (P < 0.01) maternal insulin concentration at 125 days of gestation. Moreover, maternal amino acid (AA) concentrations were affected by nutritional restriction, with greater (P < 0.05) total AA (TAA) and nonessential AA (NEAA) for PR goats but less (P < 0.05) TAA and NEAA for ER goats at 125 days of gestation. After 6 weeks of nutritional recovery, plasma concentrations of most metabolic and hormonal parameters in restricted kids were similar to CON kids, except for reduced (P < 0.05) insulin concentration in ER, and reduced (P < 0.05) Asp concentration in PR and ER kids. These results provide information on potential metabolic mechanisms responsible for fetal programming.
Antai, A B; Eyong, E U; Eteng, M U; Itam, E H; Eko, M E; Ita, S O
The The potential hepatotoxic effects following oral administration of ethanolic leaf extract of Ageratum conyzoides (goat weed) was investigated in albino Wistar rats. Twenty eight (28) adult male Wistar rats were uniformly divided into four groups of seven rats each. Group 1 served as control while groups 2, 3 and 4 were respectively gavaged with 200 mg/kg body weight, 400 mg/kg body weight and 600 mg/kg body weight of the extract daily for 21 days. At the end of treatments, animals were sacrificed, serum and liver tissues obtained for assay of total protein concentration and levels of ALT, AST and ALP. Results showed that treatment of rats with the respective doses of the extract did not significantly alter the serum and liver levels of total protein, ALT, AST and ALP in all test groups. This result suggests that ingestion of the extract may not be toxic at the doses investigated.
Torres, Alexandr; Hernández-Castellano, Lorenzo-Enrique; Morales-delaNuez, Antonio; Sánchez-Macías, Davinia; Moreno-Indias, Isabel; Castro, Noemi; Capote, Juan; Argüello, Anastasio
Goats in Canary Islands are milked once a day by tradition, but in most countries with high technology on farms, goats are milked twice a day, which is known to improve milk yield. Therefore it is important to know whether the increase of milking frequency can improve the production without impairing milk quality. The objective of this study was to investigate the short term effects of three milking frequencies on milk yield, milk composition, somatic cell count (SCC) and milk protein profile in dairy goats traditionally milked once a day. Twelve Majorera goats in early lactation (48±4 d in milk) were used. During a 5-week period, goats were milked once a day (X1) in weeks 1 and 5, twice a day (X2) in weeks 2 and 4, and three times a day (X3) in week 3. Milk recording and sampling were done on the last day of each experimental week. Milk yield increased by 26% from X1 to X2. No differences were obtained when goats were switched from X2 to X3, and from X3 to X2. The goats recovered the production level when they returned to X1. Different patterns of changes in the milk constituents due to the milking frequency effect were observed. Fat percentage increased when switched from X1 to X2, then decreased from X2 to X3, and from X3 to X2, whereas it did not show significant differences from X2 to X1. Milking frequency did not affect the protein and lactose percentages. SCC values were unaffected when goats were milked X1, X2 and X3, but then they increased slightly when milking frequency was returned to X2 and X1. Finally, quantitative analysis showed an increase in intensities of milk protein bands from X1 to X2, but the intensities of casein bands (α(S1)-CN, α(S2)-CN, β-CN, κ-CN) and major whey proteins (α-La, β-Lg) decreased from X2 to X3.
Teixeira, I A M A; Fernandes, M H M R; Filho, J M Pereira; Canesin, R C; Gomes, R A; Resende, K T
We conducted a study in which body composition, energy and protein requirements, and efficiency of MP and ME were determined in F1 Boer × Saanen goat kids of 5 to 25 kg BW by using the comparative slaughter technique. Two experiments were performed: Exp. 1 estimated the maintenance requirements of kids from 15 to 25 kg BW, and Exp. 2 estimated the gain requirements of kids from 5 to 25 kg BW. In Exp. 1, 28 intact male F1 Boer × Saanen goat kids were utilized, with 7 kids slaughtered (BW of 15.0 ± 0.35 kg) at the onset for estimation of initial body composition and the remaining 21 kids assigned to a randomized block design. Within each block, kids were subjected to 3 levels of feed intake treatments (ad libitum [100%] or restricted to 70% or 40% ad libitum). All kids in each block were slaughtered when the animals fed ad libitum reached 25 kg BW. The NE, ME for maintenance, and partial efficiency of use of ME for NE were 321.6 kJ/kg BW, 525.9 kJ/kg BW, and 0.61, respectively. The net protein and MP for maintenance were 2.43 g/kg of BW and 4.41 g/kg of BW, respectively; thus, the estimated partial efficiency of MP for maintenance was 0.55. In Exp. 2, 32 intact male F1 Boer × Saanen goat kids were distributed in a completely randomized design and slaughtered at 5.6 ± 0.85 kg BW ( = 6), 10.0 ± 0.35 kg BW ( = 6), 15.3 ± 0.52 kg BW ( = 7), 20.4 ± 0.66 kg BW ( = 6), and 25 ± 0.46 kg BW ( = 7). Body composition was then fitted to allometric equations. Body fat composition increased from 37 to 114 g/kg empty BW (EBW; < 0.001), and body protein composition decreased by 10% (from 203.2 to 180.6 g/kg EBW; < 0.001) when kids grew from 5 to 25 kg BW. The NE increased by approximately 60% (from 7.2 to 11.5 MJ/kg of empty BW gain [EWG]; < 0.001), and the net protein for gain decreased by 10% (from 186 to 166 g/kg of EWG; < 0.001). The partial efficiency of the utilization of ME to NE for growth was 0.32 ( < 0.0001), and the partial efficiencies of the utilization of ME
Zhang, Tiehua; McCarthy, James; Wang, Guorong; Liu, Yanyan; Guo, Mingruo
There is a market demand for nonfat fermented goats' milk products. A nonfat goats' milk yogurt containing probiotics (Lactobacillus acidophilus, and Bifidobacterium spp.) was developed using heat-treated whey protein concentrate (HWPC) as a fat replacer and pectin as a thickening agent. Yogurts containing untreated whey protein concentrate (WPC) and pectin, and the one with only pectin were also prepared. Skim cows' milk yogurt with pectin was also made as a control. The yogurts were analyzed for chemical composition, water holding capacity (syneresis), microstructure, changes in pH and viscosity, mold, yeast and coliform counts, and probiotic survivability during storage at 4 °C for 10 wk. The results showed that the nonfat goats' milk yogurt made with 1.2% HWPC (WPC solution heated at 85 °C for 30 min at pH 8.5) and 0.35% pectin had significantly higher viscosity (P < 0.01) than any of the other yogurts and lower syneresis than the goats' yogurt with only pectin (P < 0.01). Viscosity and pH of all the yogurt samples did not change much throughout storage. Bifidobacterium spp. remained stable and was above 10(6) CFU g(-1) during the 10-wk storage. However, the population of Lactobacillus acidophilus dropped to below 10(6) CFU g(-1) after 2 wk of storage. Microstructure analysis of the nonfat goats' milk yogurt by scanning electron microscopy revealed that HWPC interacted with casein micelles to form a relatively compact network in the yogurt gel. The results indicated that HWPC could be used as a fat replacer for improving the consistency of nonfat goats' milk yogurt and other similar products.
Tonin, A A; Weber, A; Ribeiro, A; Camillo, G; Vogel, F F; Moura, A B; Bochi, G V; Moresco, R N; Da Silva, A S
The aim of this study was to assess and analyze the levels of nitric oxide (NO) and advanced oxidation protein products (AOPP) in serum of goats naturally infected by Toxoplasma gondii, Neospora caninum, or concomitantly infected by these two parasites. Thus, it was measured NOx and AOPP levels in twenty (n=20) sera samples of goats seronegative for T. gondii and N. caninum [negative control group (A)]; while the positive groups were composed by sera of infected animals, twelve (n=12) seropositive for N. caninum [group B]; eighteen (n=18) positive for T. gondii [group C]; and thirteen (n=13) seropositive for N. caninum and T. gondii [group D]. As results, it was observed that animals seropositive for N. caninum and T. gondii (Groups B to D) showed higher serum levels of NOx (P<0.001; F=9.5), when compared with seronegative animals. Additionally, it was observed a positive correlation between NOx levels and antibodies titrations for N. caninum (P<0.01; r=0.68) and T. gondii (P<0.05; r=0.56). AOPP levels were increase in groups C and D (P>0.05). Interestingly, group B did not show increase in AOPP, what led us to hypothesize that the major protein damage is linked to T. gondii infection. Therefore, our results showed an increased in NOx levels, which was probably related to the immune response, since it is an important inflammatory mediator; and AOPP were increased in groups where there was seropositivity for T. gondii, but not for the group composed only by animals seropositive for N. caninum, allowing us to suggest higher protein damage in toxoplasmosis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Galbraith, E A; McKellar, Q A
Flunixin was highly protein bound in the serum of dogs (92.2 per cent), goats (84.8 per cent) and horses (86.9 per cent). Meclofenamic acid was also highly protein bound, although there were larger differences between the extent of the binding in dogs (90.3 per cent), goats (84.7 per cent) and horses (99.8 per cent). Both flunixin and meclofenamic acid were potent inhibitors of the in vitro generation of thromboxane (Tx) B2 in blood. Flunixin inhibited the generation of TxB2 by 50 per cent of the maximum response (IC50) in dog, goat and horse blood at concentrations of 0.10, 0.02 and 0.04 microM respectively and by 100 per cent (Imax) at 2.07, 0.14 and 2.07 microM respectively. The IC50 values of meclofenamic acid in dogs, goats and horses were 0.77, 0.80 and 0.30 microM respectively and the Imax values were 3.93, 3.63 and 3.56 microM respectively. When the concentrations of flunixin were corrected for protein binding, it was estimated that the IC50 of the unbound fractions in dogs, goats and horses were 0.008, 0.003 and 0.005 microM, respectively. Similarly corrected values for meclofenamic acid were 0.075, 0.122 and 0.001 microM respectively.
Kerasioti, Efthalia; Stagos, Dimitrios; Tzimi, Aggeliki; Kouretas, Dimitrios
The aim of the present study was to investigate the molecular mechanisms through which sheep/goat whey protein exerts its antioxidant activity. Thus, it was examined whey protein's effects on the expression of transcription factor, nuclear factor-like 2 (Nrf2) and on the expression and activity of a number of antioxidant and phase II enzymes, superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1), synthase glutamyl cysteine (GCS) and glutathione-s-transferase (GST), in muscle C2C12 and EA.hy926 endothelial cells. C2C12 and EA.hy926 cells were treated with sheep/goat whey protein (0.78 and 3.12 mg/ml) and incubated for 3, 6, 12, 18 and 24 h. Whey protein increased significantly the expression of Nrf2 only in EA.hy926 cells. Also, the expression of SOD, HO-1, CAT and the activity of SOD, CAT and GST were increased significantly in both cells types. The expression of GCS was increased significantly only in C2C12 cells. Sheep/goat whey protein was shown for the first time to exert its antioxidant activity through Nrf2-dependent mechanism in endothelial cells and Nrf2-independent mechanism in muscle cells. Thus, Nrf2 could be a target for food supplements containing whey protein in order to prevent oxidative stress damages and diseases related to endothelium.
Goldmann, W; Marier, E; Stewart, P; Konold, T; Street, S; Langeveld, J; Windl, O; Ortiz-Pelaez, A
Scrapie in goats is a transmissible, fatal prion disease, which is endemic in the British goat population. The recent success in defining caprine PRNP gene variants that provide resistance to experimental and natural classical scrapie has prompted the authors to conduct a survey of PRNP genotypes in 10 goat breeds and 52 herds to find goats with the resistant K222 allele. They report here the frequencies in 1236 tested animals of the resistance-associated K222 and several other alleles by breed and herd. Eight animals were found to be heterozygous QK222 goats (0.64 per cent genotype frequency, 95 per cent CI 0.28 to 1.27 per cent) but no homozygous KK222 goats were detected. The K222 allele was found in Saanen, Toggenburg and Anglo-Nubian goats. The fact that only a few goats with the K222 allele have been identified does not preclude the possibility to design and implement successful breeding programmes at national level.
Goldmann, W.; Stewart, P.; Konold, T.; Street, S.; Langeveld, J.; Windl, O.; Ortiz-Pelaez, A.
Scrapie in goats is a transmissible, fatal prion disease, which is endemic in the British goat population. The recent success in defining caprine PRNP gene variants that provide resistance to experimental and natural classical scrapie has prompted the authors to conduct a survey of PRNP genotypes in 10 goat breeds and 52 herds to find goats with the resistant K222 allele. They report here the frequencies in 1236 tested animals of the resistance-associated K222 and several other alleles by breed and herd. Eight animals were found to be heterozygous QK222 goats (0.64 per cent genotype frequency, 95 per cent CI 0.28 to 1.27 per cent) but no homozygous KK222 goats were detected. The K222 allele was found in Saanen, Toggenburg and Anglo-Nubian goats. The fact that only a few goats with the K222 allele have been identified does not preclude the possibility to design and implement successful breeding programmes at national level. PMID:26755614
Triprisila, Lidwina Faraline; Suharjono, Suharjono; Christianto, Antonius; Fatchiyah, Fatchiyah
Background: Goat milk is reported to have antimicrobial activity of several pathogen bacteria that contained on food materials. The research related with antimicrobial activity of Alpha-S2 casein from goat milk is relatively less than other casein components. Herein, we reported the antimicrobial activity of caprine Alpha-S2 Casein (CSN1S2) protein from Ethawah breed goat milk and yoghurt in Gram positive (Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus cereus) and negative pathogen bacteria (Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhi and Shigella flexneri). Those bacteria were known as pathogens that caused gastrointestinal infection. Methods: Serial dilution and agar diffusion analysis with three different concentrations of caprine CSN1S2, 1.25 mg/ml, 2.5 mg/ml, and 5 mg/ml were used to test the inhibition effect of protein on the viability of bacteria cells. The inhibitory activity of caprine CSN1S2 was based on dose dependent manner. Agar diffusion analysis was showed the larger diameter of clear zone at B. cereus and S. flexneri. Results: The serial dilution analysis was shown the inhibition of almost in all groups of bacteria with concentration 5 mg/ml higher by CSN1S2 protein of goat fresh milk than yogurt. The inhibitory activity caprine CSN1S2 protein of fresh milk was shown a vary inhibition clear zone with optimal concentration 5 mg/ml, however CSN1S2 protein of goat yogurt intermediate effectively was only in gram negative bacteria. The weakness bacteria against inhibition activity caprine CSN1S2 protein was B. cereus (Gram positive) and S. flexneri (Gram negative). Meanwhile the strongest bacteria against inhibition activity caprine CSN1S2 protein was S. typhi (Gram negative), may cause in this bacteria has lipopolysaccharide prevent to interact with that protein as proper. Conclusion: This study result concluded that the caprine CSN1S2 protein has inhibition activity in opposition to pathogenic bacteria by optimal concentration 5 mg/ml in all
Kiani, A; Alstrup, L; Nielsen, M O
This study aimed to elucidate whether distinct endocrine and metabolic adaptations provide llamas superior ability to adapt to low protein content grass-based diets as compared with the true ruminants. Eighteen adult, nonpregnant females (6 llamas, 6 goats, and 6 sheep) were fed either green grass hay with (HP) or grass seed straw (LP) in a cross-over design experiment over 2 periods of 21 d. Blood samples were taken on day 21 in each period at -30, 60, 150, and 240 min after feeding the morning meal and analyzed for plasma contents of glucose, triglyceride, nonesterified fatty acids, β-hydroxy butyrate (BOHB), urea, creatinine, insulin, and leptin. Results showed that llamas vs sheep and goats had higher plasma concentrations of glucose (7.1 vs 3.5 and 3.6 ± 0.18 mmol/L), creatinine (209 vs 110 and 103 ± 10 μmol/L), and urea (6.7 vs 5.6 and 4.9 ± 0.5 mmol/L) but lower leptin (0.33 vs 1.49 and 1.05 ± 0.1 ng/mL) and BOHB (0.05 vs 0.26 and 0.12 ± 0.02 mmol/L), respectively. BOHB in llamas was extremely low for a ruminating animal. Llamas showed that hyperglycemia coexisted with hyperinsulinemia (in general on the HP diet; postprandially on the LP diet). Llamas were clearly hypercreatinemic compared with the true ruminants, which became further exacerbated on the LP diet, where they also sustained plasma urea at markedly higher concentrations. However, llamas had markedly lower leptin concentrations than the true ruminants. In conclusion, llamas appear to have an intrinsic insulin resistant phenotype. Augmentation of creatinine and sustenance of elevated plasma urea concentrations in llamas when fed the LP diet must reflect distinct metabolic adaptations of intermediary protein and/or nitrogen metabolism, not observed in the true ruminants. These features can contribute to explain lower metabolic rates in llamas compared with the true ruminants, which must improve the chances of survival on low protein content diets. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All
Low stability at high salt concentrations, iso-electric point, and high temperature restricted the application of proteins as stabilizers in nutraceutical encapsulation. Protein-polysaccharide conjugates made with Maillard reaction may be better alternatives. In this study, the characteristics of cu...
Zhou, Chuanshe; Chen, Liang; Tan, Zhiliang; Tang, Shaoxun; Han, Xuefeng; Wang, Min; Kang, Jinhe; Yan, Qiongxian
This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of the dietary ratio of ruminal degraded protein (RDP) to ruminal undegraded protein (RUP) and the dry matter intake (DMI) on the intestinal flows of endogenous nitrogen (N) and amino acids (AA) in goats. The experiment was designed as a 4×4 Latin square using four ruminally, duodenally and ileally cannulated goats. The treatments were arranged in a 2×2 factorial design; two ratios of RDP to RUP (65:35 and 45:55, RDP1 and RDP2, respectively) and two levels at 95% and 75% of voluntary feed intake (DMI1 and DMI2, respectively) were fed to the goats. There were no significant differences in the N intake, duodenal flow of total N, undegraded feed N, microbial N, endogenous N or ileal flow of endogenous N, but the duodenal and ileal flow of endogenous N numerically decreased by approximately 22% and 9%, respectively, when the feed intake changed from DMI1 (0.63 kg/d) to DMI2 (0.50 kg/d). The dietary ratio of RDP to RUP had significant effects (p<0.05) on the ileal flows of endogenous leucine, phenylalanine and cysteine. The present results implied that the duodenal flows of endogenous N and AA decreased when the dietary RDP to RUP ratio and DMI decreased, and the flow of endogenous AA at the ileum also decreased when the DMI decreased but increased with decreasing RDP to RUP ratios.
Oliveira, C H A; Silva, A M; Silva, L M; van Tilburg, M F; Fernandes, C C L; Velho, A L M C; Moura, A A; Moreno, F B M B; Monteiro-Moreira, A C O; Moreira, R A; Lima, I M T; Rondina, D
The present study was conducted to evaluate the effect of de-oiled castor cake on reproductive traits of crossbreed goats. Fourteen males were grouped into two lots (n = 7/group), as described: group without de-oiled castor cake (WCC) and group fed with de-oiled castor cake (CC). Goats received two diets containing a mixture of Bermudagrass hay and concentrates with the same energy (73% total digestive nutrients) and protein content (15% crude protein) during 150 days, corresponding to ages from 40 (puberty) to 60 weeks. Blood plasma concentrations of urea, albumin, lactate dehydrogenase, creatinine, alanine aminotransferase and testosterone were determined. We also evaluated scrotal circumference, sperm parameters, quantitative aspects of spermatogenesis and daily sperm production (DSP), as well as the proteome of seminal plasma and sperm membrane. Seminal fluid and sperm proteins were analyzed by 2D SDS-PAGE and mass spectrometry. After 150 days of castor cake feeding, animals had no changes in the biochemical composition of blood plasma, suggesting the absence of intoxication by ingestion of ricin. There were no alterations in dry mater intake, weight gain, testis size, peripheral concentrations of testosterone, sperm concentration, motility and morphology. Sertoli and germ cell populations in the testis and DSP were not affected either. However, there were significant variations in the expression of five seminal plasma proteins and four sperm membrane proteins. In conclusion, the replacement of soybean meal by castor cake (with ricin concentrations of 50mg/kg) did not interfere with the growth and core reproductive development of male goats. However, the diet with ricin altered the expression of certain seminal plasma and sperm membrane proteins, which play roles in sperm function and fertilization. Lower expression of these proteins may impair the ricin-fed animals to perform as high-fertility sires.
Rahman, Mohammad Mijanur; Abdullah, Ramli Bin; Wan Embong, Wan Khadijah; Nakagawa, Toshinori; Akashi, Ryo
The effects of palm kernel cake (PKC) as a protein source in a concentrate diet (comprising 35 % crushed maize, 30 % rice bran, 32 % PKC, 2 % vitamin mineral premix and 1 % salt) were examined on intake, live weight (LW) gain and digestibility in female goats (average LW of 12.4 ± 2.6 kg). Four goats were randomly allocated to each of the four treatment diets: (a) Napier grass (Pennisetum purpureum) offered ad libitum (T1), (b) T1 + concentrate at 0.5 % of LW (T2), (c) T1 + concentrate at 1.0 % of LW (T3) and (d) T1 + concentrate at 2.0 % of LW (T4). A 7-day digestibility trial and an 82-day growth experiment were conducted. No differences were observed among diets for intakes of roughage dry matter (DM), total DM, organic matter (OM) and neutral detergent fibre (NDF). The crude protein (CP) intake increased (P < 0.05) as the level of concentrate in the diets increased. Goats fed the T2, T3 and T4 diets gained 10.2, 34.1 and 52.5 g/head/day, respectively, while the control group (T1) lost weight (-12.7 g/head/day). The apparent digestibilities of DM, OM and CP were similar (P > 0.05) among treatments. The digestibility of dietary NDF decreased (P < 0.05) with increasing levels of concentrate, but there was no significant (P > 0.05) difference between T2 and T3 diets. Supplementing a basal diet of Napier grass with PKC-based concentrate improved CP intake and LW gain. The PKC-based concentrate diet can therefore be exploited for the use of local feed resources for goat production; however, further research is required to achieve the best growth response.
... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Goat's milk ice cream. 135.115 Section 135.115... Goat's milk ice cream. (a) Description. Goat's milk ice cream is the food prepared in the same manner... and hydrolyzed milk proteins may not be used; and paragraphs (f)(1) and (g) of § 135.110 shall not...
... and hydrolyzed milk proteins may not be used; and paragraphs (f)(1) and (g) of § 135.110 shall not... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Goat's milk ice cream. 135.115 Section 135.115... Goat's milk ice cream. (a) Description. Goat's milk ice cream is the food prepared in the same...
... and hydrolyzed milk proteins may not be used; and paragraphs (f)(1) and (g) of § 135.110 shall not... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Goat's milk ice cream. 135.115 Section 135.115... Goat's milk ice cream. (a) Description. Goat's milk ice cream is the food prepared in the same...
... and hydrolyzed milk proteins may not be used; and paragraphs (f)(1) and (g) of § 135.110 shall not... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Goat's milk ice cream. 135.115 Section 135.115... Goat's milk ice cream. (a) Description. Goat's milk ice cream is the food prepared in the same...
... and hydrolyzed milk proteins may not be used; and paragraphs (f)(1) and (g) of § 135.110 shall not... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Goat's milk ice cream. 135.115 Section 135.115... Goat's milk ice cream. (a) Description. Goat's milk ice cream is the food prepared in the same...
He, Z X; Wu, D Q; Sun, Z H; Tan, Z L; Qiao, J Y; Ran, T; Tang, S X; Zhou, C S; Han, X F; Wang, M; Kang, J H; Beauchemin, K A
The objective of this study was to examine the effects of maternal protein or energy restriction during late gestation on postnatal fetal growth and visceral organ mass of goats. Eighty pregnant goats with similar age (2.0 ± 0.3 yr) and body weight (BW, 20.0 ± 1.0 kg before pregnancy) were assigned to 3 dietary treatments during late gestation: control (CON), 40% protein restricted (PR) and 40% energy restricted (ER) diets until parturition, after which offspring received normal diets for nutritional recovery. Kids were killed and visceral tissues were harvested at birth and week 6. Maternal protein or energy restriction decreased (P < 0.05) birth weight, and the weights of thymus, heart, abomasums, small intestine. The length of fetus from PR and ER were all decreased (P < 0.05) compared with that from control. When expressed relative to BW, thymus and small intestine for PR and ER still remained less (P < 0.05) than that for control. After 6 weeks of nutritional recovery, there was no difference (P = 0.91) in BW among groups; the kids from nutritional restriction groups showed a greater (P < 0.05) growth rate compared with kids from CON. Moreover, liver (only in ER, P < 0.10) and kidney (only in ER, P < 0.05) were proportionally increased to BW at week 6. The results indicate that maternal protein or energy restriction programs the fetal growth in goats, particularly the proportional responses of fetal organs relative to BW, including thymus, small intestine, kidney and liver. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Gadahi, Javaid Ali; Li, Baojie; Ehsan, Muhammad; Wang, Shuai; Zhang, Zhenchao; Wang, Yujian; Hasan, Muhammad Waqqas; Yan, Ruofeng; Song, Xiaokai; Xu, Lixin; Li, Xiangrui
A 24 kDa protein is one of the important components in Haemonchus contortus (barber pole worm) excretory/secretory products (HcESPs), which was shown to have important antigenic function. However, little is known about the immunomodulatory effects of this proteinon host cell. In the present study gene encoding 24kDa excretory/secretory protein (HcES-24) was cloned. The recombinant protein of HcES-24 (rHcES-24) was expressed in a histidine-tagged fusion protein soluble form in Escherichia coli. Binding activity of rHcES-24 to goat PBMCs was confirmed by immunofluorescence assay (IFA) and its immunomudulatory effect on cytokine secretion, cell proliferation, cell migration and nitric oxide production were observed by co-incubation of rHcES-24. IFA results revealed that rHcES-24 could bind to the PBMCs. The interaction of rHcES-24 increased the production of IL4, IL10, IL17 and cell migration in dose dependent manner. However, rHcES-24 treatment significantly suppressed the production of IFNγ, proliferation of the PBMC and Nitric oxide (NO) production. Our findings showed that the rHcES-24 played important regulatory effects on the goat PBMCs.
Li, Baojie; Wang, Shuai; Zhang, Zhenchao; Wang, Yujian; Hasan, Muhammad Waqqas; Yan, Ruofeng; Song, Xiaokai; Xu, Lixin; Li, Xiangrui
A 24 kDa protein is one of the important components in Haemonchus contortus (barber pole worm) excretory/secretory products (HcESPs), which was shown to have important antigenic function. However, little is known about the immunomodulatory effects of this proteinon host cell. In the present study gene encoding 24kDa excretory/secretory protein (HcES-24) was cloned. The recombinant protein of HcES-24 (rHcES-24) was expressed in a histidine-tagged fusion protein soluble form in Escherichia coli. Binding activity of rHcES-24 to goat PBMCs was confirmed by immunofluorescence assay (IFA) and its immunomudulatory effect on cytokine secretion, cell proliferation, cell migration and nitric oxide production were observed by co-incubation of rHcES-24. IFA results revealed that rHcES-24 could bind to the PBMCs. The interaction of rHcES-24 increased the production of IL4, IL10, IL17 and cell migration in dose dependent manner. However, rHcES-24 treatment significantly suppressed the production of IFNγ, proliferation of the PBMC and Nitric oxide (NO) production. Our findings showed that the rHcES-24 played important regulatory effects on the goat PBMCs. PMID:27893414
Seasonal variation in plant secondary metabolites (PSM) can influence voluntary intake levels of one-seed juniper (Juniperus monosperma Englem. Sarg.) of sheep and goats. Supplemental nutrients could mitigate the deterrent effects of juniper PSM. We determined the concentration of mono-and sesqui- t...
Four recombinant antigens (85A, 85B, Superoxide dismutase [SOD] and a fusion polypeptide [74F] of Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis (MAP) were used along with adjuvant dimethydioctadecyl ammonium bromide (DDA) to assess the differential immune responses and protective efficacy in goat again...
Schneider, David A; Madsen-Bouterse, Sally A; Zhuang, Dongyue; Truscott, Thomas C; Dassanayake, Rohana P; O'Rourke, Katherine I
The placenta of domestic sheep plays a key role in horizontal transmission of classical scrapie. Domestic goats are frequently raised with sheep and are susceptible to classical scrapie, yet potential routes of transmission from goats to sheep are not fully defined. Sparse accumulation of disease-associated prion protein in cotyledons casts doubt about the role of the goat's placenta. Thus, relevant to mixed-herd management and scrapie-eradication efforts worldwide, we determined if the goat's placenta contains prions orally infectious to goat kids and lambs. A pooled cotyledon homogenate, prepared from the shed placenta of a goat with naturally acquired classical scrapie disease, was used to orally inoculate scrapie-naïve prion genotype-matched goat kids and scrapie-susceptible lambs raised separately in a scrapie-free environment. Transmission was detected in all four goats and in two of four sheep, which importantly identifies the goat's placenta as a risk for horizontal transmission to sheep and other goats.
Madsen-Bouterse, Sally A.; Zhuang, Dongyue; Truscott, Thomas C.; Dassanayake, Rohana P.; O'Rourke, Katherine I.
The placenta of domestic sheep plays a key role in horizontal transmission of classical scrapie. Domestic goats are frequently raised with sheep and are susceptible to classical scrapie, yet potential routes of transmission from goats to sheep are not fully defined. Sparse accumulation of disease-associated prion protein in cotyledons casts doubt about the role of the goat's placenta. Thus, relevant to mixed-herd management and scrapie-eradication efforts worldwide, we determined if the goat's placenta contains prions orally infectious to goat kids and lambs. A pooled cotyledon homogenate, prepared from the shed placenta of a goat with naturally acquired classical scrapie disease, was used to orally inoculate scrapie-naı¨ve prion genotype-matched goat kids and scrapie-susceptible lambs raised separately in a scrapie-free environment. Transmission was detected in all four goats and in two of four sheep, which importantly identifies the goat's placenta as a risk for horizontal transmission to sheep and other goats. PMID:25888622
Li, Hui; Zheng, Huiling; Sun, Yongsen; Yu, Qian; Li, Lihui
The signal transducer and activator of transcription 5a (Stat5a) modulates genes involved in proliferation and survival and plays pivotal roles in regulating the function of the mammary gland during pregnancy, lactation, and involution. However, there is little information about the effects of Stat5a on apoptosis of goat mammary gland epithelial cells (GMECs). In addition, parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP) is a key regulator in cellular calcium transport, mammary gland development and breast tumor biology. This study aimed to explore the interaction of Stat5a and PTHrP in GMEC apoptosis. Quantitative real time PCR (qRT-PCR) suggested that Stat5a was predominantly expressed in the mammary gland, lung, liver and spleen of goats. Treating the GMECs with pimozide, an inhibitor of Stat5a that decreases Stat5a tyrosine phosphorylation, increased PTHrP levels in GMECs in a dose-dependent manner and simultaneously promoted apoptosis of the GMECs. We also demonstrated that PTHrP inhibition induced GMEC apoptosis and restrained cell proliferation. In contrast, PTHrP overexpression protected GMECs from pimozide- and calcium-induced apoptosis, and promoted cell proliferation. Furthermore, pimozide and CaCl2 downregulated the antiapoptotic protein Bcl-2 mRNA expression, respectively, and these effects were protected by PTHrP overexpression. Interestingly, we also found that Stat5a suppressed the expression of matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9) which can induce goat mammary epithelial cell migration, but PTHrP increased MMP-9 mRNA level. Thus, Stat5a may regulate GMEC survival by regulating the expression of PTHrP.
Al-Kindi, Amal; Dickhoefer, Uta; Schlecht, Eva; Sundrum, Albert; Schiborra, Anne
Under irrigated arid conditions, organic fertiliser rich in slowly decomposable nitrogen (N) and carbon (C) is needed for soil fertility maintenance. Feeding ruminants with condensed tannins will lower ruminal protein degradation, reduce urinary N excretion and might increase the faecal fraction of slowly decomposable N. Supplementation with activated charcoal (AC) might enrich manure with slowly degrading C. Therefore, we investigated the effects of feeding quebracho tannin extract (QTE) and AC on the N balance of goats, the efficiency of microbial protein synthesis in the rumen (EMPS) and the composition of faeces. The feeding trial comprised three periods; in each period, 12 male Boer goats (28 ± 3.9 kg live weight) were assigned to six treatments: a Control diet (per kg diet 500 g grass hay and 500 g concentrate) and to further five treatments the Control diet was supplemented with QTE (20 g and 40 g/kg; diets QTE2 and QTE4, respectively), with AC (15 g and 30 g/kg, diets AC1.5 and AC3.0, respectively) and a mixture of QTE (20 g/kg) plus AC (15 g/kg) (diet QTEAC). In addition to the N balance, EMPS was calculated from daily excretions of purine derivatives, and the composition of faecal N was determined. There was no effect of QTE and AC supplementation on the intake of organic matter (OM), N and fibre, but apparent total tract digestibility of OM was reduced (p = 0.035). Feeding QTE induced a shift in N excretion from urine to faeces (p ≤ 0.001) without altering N retention. Total N excretion tended to decrease with QTE treatments (p = 0.053), but EMPS was not different between treatments. Faecal C excretion was higher in QTE and AC treatments (p = 0.001) compared with the Control, while the composition of faecal N differed only in concentration of undigested dietary N (p = 0.001). The results demonstrate that QTE can be included into diets of goats up to 40 g/kg, without affecting N utilisation, but simultaneously increasing the
Rohmah, Rista Nikmatu; Hardiyanti, Ferlany; Fatchiyah, Fatchiyah
Background: RA is a systemic inflammatory disease that causes developing comorbidity conditions. This condition can cause by overproduction of pro-inflammatory cytokine. In a previous study, we have found bioactive peptide CSN1S2 from Ethawah goat milk for anti-inflammatory for repair the ileum destruction. However, the signaling transduction cascade of bioactive peptides inhibits inflammation still not clear yet. Therefore, we analyzed the signaling transduction cascade via JAK-STAT3 pathway by in vivo and in silico. Methods: The ileum was isolated DNA and amplification with specific primer. The sequence was analyzed using the Sanger sequencing method. Modeling 3D-structure was predicted by SWISS-MODEL and virtual interaction was analyzed by docking system using Pymol and Discovery Studio 4.0 software. Results: This study showed that STAT3 has target gene 480bp. The normal group and normal treating- CSN1S2 of goat milk have similarity from gene bank. Whereas, RA group had transversion mutation that the purine change into pyrimidine even cause frameshift mutation. Interestingly, after treating with the CSN1S2 protein of goat milk shows reverse to the normal acid sequence group. Based on in silico study, from eight peptides, only three peptides of CSN1S2 protein, which carried by PePT1 to enter the small intestine. The fragments are PepT1-41-NMAIHPR-47; PepT1-182-KISQYYQK-189 and PepT1-214-TNAIPYVR-221. We have found just one bioactive peptide of f182-KISQYYQK-189 is able bind to STAT3. The energy binding of f182-KISQYYQK-189 and RA-STAT3 amino acid, it was Σ = -402.43 kJ/mol and the energy binding of f182-KISQYYQK-189 and RAS-STAT3 amino acid is decreasing into Σ = -407.09 kJ/mol. Conclusion: This study suggested that the fragment 182-KISQYYQK-189 peptides from Ethawah goat milk may act as an anti-inflammatory agent via JAK-STAT3 signal transduction cascade at the cellular level. PMID:26483598
Oem, Jae-Ku; Chung, Joon-Yee; Kim, Yong-Joo; Lee, Kyoung-Ki; Kim, Seong-Hee; Jung, Byeong-Yeal; Hyun, Bang-Hun
Five cases of orf virus infection in Korean black goats were diagnosed in our laboratory between 2010 and 2011. One orf virus (ORF/2011) was isolated from an ovine testis cell line (OA3.Ts) for use as a vaccine candidate. Sequences of the major envelope protein and orf virus interferon resistance genes were determined and compared with published reference sequences. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that orf viruses from Korean black goats were most closely related to an isolate (ORF/09/Korea) from dairy goats in Korea. This result indicates that the orf viruses might have been introduced from dairy goats into the Korean black goat population.
Acín, Cristina; Martín-Burriel, Inmaculada; Monleón, Eva; Lyahyai, Jaber; Pitarch, José Luis; Serrano, Carmen; Monzón, Marta; Zaragoza, Pilar; Badiola, Juan José
Classical scrapie is a neurological disorder of the central nervous system (CNS) characterized by the accumulation of an abnormal, partially protease resistant prion protein (PrP(sc)) in the CNS and in some peripheral tissues in domestic small ruminants. Whereas the pathological changes and genetic susceptibility of ovine scrapie are well known, caprine scrapie has been less well studied. We report here a pathological study of 13 scrapie-affected goats diagnosed in Spain during the last 9 years. We used immunohistochemical and biochemical techniques to discriminate between classical and atypical scrapie and bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE). All the animals displayed PrP(sc) distribution patterns and western blot characteristics compatible with classical scrapie. In addition, we determined the complete open reading frame sequence of the PRNP in these scrapie-affected animals. The polymorphisms observed were compared with those of the herd mates (n = 665) and with the frequencies of healthy herds (n = 581) of native Spanish goats (Retinta, Pirenaica and Moncaina) and other worldwide breeds reared in Spain (Saanen, Alpine and crossbreed). In total, sixteen polymorphic sites were identified, including the known amino acid substitutions at codons G37V, G127S, M137I, I142M, H143R, R151H, R154H, R211Q, Q222K, G232W, and P240S, and new polymorphisms at codons G74D, M112T, R139S, L141F and Q215R. In addition, the known 42, 138 and 179 silent mutations were detected, and one new one is reported at codon 122. The genetic differences observed in the population studied have been attributed to breed and most of the novel polymorphic codons show frequencies lower than 5%. This work provides the first basis of polymorphic distribution of PRNP in native and worldwide goat breeds reared in Spain.
Acín, Cristina; Martín-Burriel, Inmaculada; Monleón, Eva; Lyahyai, Jaber; Pitarch, José Luis; Serrano, Carmen; Monzón, Marta; Zaragoza, Pilar; Badiola, Juan José
Classical scrapie is a neurological disorder of the central nervous system (CNS) characterized by the accumulation of an abnormal, partially protease resistant prion protein (PrPsc) in the CNS and in some peripheral tissues in domestic small ruminants. Whereas the pathological changes and genetic susceptibility of ovine scrapie are well known, caprine scrapie has been less well studied. We report here a pathological study of 13 scrapie-affected goats diagnosed in Spain during the last 9 years. We used immunohistochemical and biochemical techniques to discriminate between classical and atypical scrapie and bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE). All the animals displayed PrPsc distribution patterns and western blot characteristics compatible with classical scrapie. In addition, we determined the complete open reading frame sequence of the PRNP in these scrapie-affected animals. The polymorphisms observed were compared with those of the herd mates (n = 665) and with the frequencies of healthy herds (n = 581) of native Spanish goats (Retinta, Pirenaica and Moncaina) and other worldwide breeds reared in Spain (Saanen, Alpine and crossbreed). In total, sixteen polymorphic sites were identified, including the known amino acid substitutions at codons G37V, G127S, M137I, I142M, H143R, R151H, R154H, R211Q, Q222K, G232W, and P240S, and new polymorphisms at codons G74D, M112T, R139S, L141F and Q215R. In addition, the known 42, 138 and 179 silent mutations were detected, and one new one is reported at codon 122. The genetic differences observed in the population studied have been attributed to breed and most of the novel polymorphic codons show frequencies lower than 5%. This work provides the first basis of polymorphic distribution of PRNP in native and worldwide goat breeds reared in Spain. PMID:23580248
Li, Hui; Sun, Yongsen; Zheng, Huiling; Li, Lihui; Yu, Qian; Yao, Xiaotong
Normal mammary gland epithelial cells and breast cancer cells express the calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR), which is the master regulator of systemic calcium metabolism. During lactation, activation of the CaSR in mammary epithelial cells downregulates parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP) levels in milk and in the circulation, and increases calcium transport into milk. However, very little information is available on the role of CaSR in goat mammary gland epithelial cells (GMECs) apoptosis. In this investigation, the full-length cDNA of CaSR from Xinong Saanen dairy goats was cloned, which contains an open-reading frame of 3,258 bp encoding 1,085 amino acids with a predicted molecular weight of 121.0 kDa and an isoelectric point of 5.65. The amino acid sequence is highly homologous with sheep, and the goat CaSR gene is mapped to chromosome 1. Quantitative real-time PCR suggested that CaSR was predominantly expressed in the heart, kidney and mammary gland. Then, we found the stimulation of CaSR with its activator gadolinium chloride (GdCl3) contributed to increase CaSR mRNA levels in GMECs and simultaneously promoted cell apoptosis, and these effects were abrogated partially by NPS2390 which is an inhibitor of CaSR. We also demonstrated that Ca(2+) increased CaSR mRNA levels and induced GMECs apoptosis and restrained cell proliferation. In contrast, PTHrP overexpression protected GMECs from calcium-induced apoptosis, and promoted cell proliferation. In conclusion, these results suggest that PTHrP overexpression protects GMECs from CaSR activation-induced apoptosis.
First-pass uptake and oxidation of glucose by the splanchnic tissue in young goats fed soy protein-based milk diets with or without amino acid supplementation: glucose metabolism in goat kids after soy feeding.
Schönhusen, U; Junghans, P; Flöter, A; Steinhoff-Wagner, J; Görs, S; Schneider, F; Metges, C C; Hammon, H M
The study was designed to examine whether feeding soy protein isolate as partial replacement of casein (CN) affects glucose metabolism in young goats and whether effects may be ameliorated by supplementation of those AA known to be lower concentrated in soy than in CN. Goat kids (d 20 of age) were fed comparable milk protein diets, in which 50% of the crude protein was either CN (control, CON), soy protein isolate (SPI), or soy protein isolate supplemented with AA (SPIA) for 43 d (n=8 per group). On d 62 of age, a single bolus dose of d-[(13)C6]glucose (10mg/kg of BW) was given with the morning diet, and simultaneously, a single bolus dose of d-[6,6-(2)H2]glucose (5mg/kg of BW) was injected into a jugular vein. Blood samples were collected between -30 and +420 min relative to the tracer administration to measure the (13)C and (2)H enrichments of plasma glucose and the (13)C enrichment of blood CO2. Glucose first-pass uptake by the splanchnic tissues was calculated from the rate of appearance of differentially labeled glucose tracer in plasma. Glucose oxidation was calculated from (13)C enrichment in blood CO2. In addition, plasma concentrations of triglycerides, nonesterified fatty acids, glucose, insulin, and glucagon were measured. On d 63 of age, kids were killed and jejunal mucosa and liver samples were collected to measure lactase mRNA levels and lactase and maltase activities in the jejunum and activities of pyruvate carboxylase and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) in the liver. Basal plasma glucose concentration tended to be higher in the CON than the SPIA group, whereas basal insulin was higher in the CON group than the SPI and SPIA groups, and glucagon was higher in the CON than the SPIA group. Plasma glucose and insulin concentrations increased during the first hour after feeding, whereas plasma glucagon increased immediately after feeding and after 1h of feeding. First-pass uptake and glucose oxidation were not affected by diet. Maltase
Parma, Pietro; Pietro, Parma; Feligini, Maria; Maria, Feligini; Greeppi, Gianfranco; Gianfranco, Greppi; Enne, Giuseppe; Giuseppe, Enne
The goat mtDNA sequences reported to date are fragmentary. By using both in silico cloning procedure and conventional molecular biology techniques we have determined the complete nucleotide sequence of the goat (Capra hircus) mitochondrial genome. The length of the sequence was 16.640 bp. Genes responsible for 12S and 16S rRNAs, 22 tRNAs and 13 protein-coding regions are found. The genome organization is conformed to those of other mitochondrial genomes. Comparison between the 13 protein coding genes of goat, cow and sheep reveals that the difference range from 1.2 to 12.2% with a mean of 7.3% between goat and cow and from 0 to 15.6% (mean 4.7%) between goat and sheep.
He, Z X; Sun, Z H; Yang, W Z; Beauchemin, K A; Tang, S X; Zhou, C S; Han, X F; Wang, M; Kang, J H; Tan, Z L
Knowledge of maternal malnutrition of ruminants and effects on development of the immune system of their offspring is lacking. A study was conducted to investigate the effects of maternal protein or energy restriction during late gestation on immune status of their offspring at different ages. Sixty-three pregnant goats (local breed, Liuyang black goat, 22.2 ± 1.5 kg at d 90 of gestation) were fed control (CON, ME = 9.34 MJ/kg and CP = 12.5%, DM basis), 40% protein restricted (PR), or 40% energy restricted (ER) diets from d 91 of gestation to parturition, after which all animals received an adequate diet for nutritional recovery. Plasma concentrations of complement components (C3, C4), C-reactive protein (CRP) and immunoglobulins (IgG and IgM), jejunum cytokines (IL-2, IL-6, and IL-10) expression levels and morphology in the offspring were measured. Additionally, plasma concentration of complement and IL-6, and cytokines expression levels in gastrointestinal tract obtained at 6 wk from young goats were assessed under saline or lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenging conditions. Maternal PR or ER decreased (P < 0.05) plasma C3, C4, IgG, and IgM concentrations, and IL-2 and IL-6 mRNA expression in the jejunum from neonatal kids, but did not alter (P > 0.05) plasma CRP concentration. The IL-10 mRNA expression of jejunum from PR kids was also less (P < 0.01) than that from CON kids. Moreover, jejunum villous height (P < 0.10 in PR, P < 0.05 in ER) and crypt depth (P < 0.05 both in PR and ER) were reduced in neonatal kids from malnourished mothers. At 6 wk of age, there were no differences (P > 0.05) in any plasma or tissue immune parameters among the 3 treatments. However, when given a LPS challenge, ER and PR kids had greater (P = 0.02) IL-6 concentration compared with CON kids. Our results suggest that both PR and ER during late gestation induced short-term as well as long-lasting alterations on immune responses in their offspring, which may make the animals more
Guo, XuDong; Yang, DongShan; Ao, XuDong; Wu, Xia; Li, GuangPeng; Wang, LingLing; Bao, Ming-Tao; Xue, Lian; Bou, ShorGan
In the present study, cashmere goat fetal fibroblasts were transfected with pCDsR-KI, a hair-follicle-cell specific expression vector for insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1) that contains two markers for selection (red fluorescent protein gene and neomycin resistant gene). The transgenic fibroblasts cell lines were obtained after G418 selection. Prior to the somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT), the maturation rate of caprine cumulus oocytes complexes (COCs) was optimized to an in vitro maturation time of 18 h. Parthenogenetic ooctyes were used as a model to investigate the effect of two activation methods, one with calcium ionophore IA23187 plus 6-DMAP and the other with ethanol plus 6-DMAP. The cleavage rates after 48 h were respectively 88.7% and 86.4%, with no significant difference (P>0.05). There was no significant difference between the cleavage rate and the blastocyst rate in two different media (SO-Faa and CR1aa; 86.3% vs 83.9%, P>0.05 and 23.1% vs 17.2%, P>0.05). The fusion rate of a 190 V/mm group (62.4%) was significantly higher than 130 V/mm (32.8%) and 200 V/mm (42.9%), groups (P>0.05). After transgenic somatic cell nuclear transfer (TSCNT) manipulation, 203 reconstructed embryos were obtained in which the cleavage rate after in vitro development (IVD) for 48 h was 79.3% (161/203). The blastocyst rate after IVD for 7 to 9 d was 15.3% (31/203). There were 17 embryos out of 31 strongly expressing red fluorescence. Two of the red fluorescent blastocysts were randomly selected to identify transgene by polymerase chain reaction. Both were positive. These results showed that: (i) RFP and Neo ( r ) genes were correctly expressed indicating that transgenic somatic cell lines and positive transgenic embryos were obtained; (ii) one more selection at the blastocyst stage was necessary although the donor cells were transgenic positive, because only partially transgenic embryos expressing red fluorescence were obtained; and (iii) through TSCNT manipulation and
Cow's milk is increasingly suggested to play a role in the development of chronic degenerative, non-communicable disorders whereas goat's milk is advocated as having several health benefits. Cow's milk is a rich and cheap source of protein and calcium, and a valuable food for bone health. Despite their high content in saturated fats, consumption of full-fat dairy products does not seem to cause significant changes in cardiovascular disease risk variables. Early introduction of cow's milk is a strong negative determinant of iron status. Unmodified cow's milk does not meet nutritional requirements of infants although it is acceptable to add small volumes of cow's milk to complementary foods. Cow's milk protein allergy has a prevalence ranging from 2 to 7%, and the age of recovery is usually around 2-3 years. The evidence linking cow's milk intake to a later risk of type 1 diabetes or chronic degenerative, non-communicable disorders (obesity, metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes, hypertension) is not convincing. Milk probably protects against colorectal cancer, diets high in calcium are a probable cause of prostate cancer, and there is limited evidence suggesting that high consumption of milk and dairy products increases the risk for prostate cancer. There is no evidence to support the use of a cow's milk-free diet as a primary treatment for individuals with autistic spectrum disorders. Unmodified goat's milk is not suitable for infants because of the high protein and minerals content and of a low folate content. Goat's milk has no clear nutritional advantage over cow's milk and is not less allergenic. The European Food Safety Authority recently stated that proteins from goat's milk can be suitable as a protein source for infant and follow-on formula, provided the final product complies with the compositional criteria laid down in Directive 2006/141/EC.
He, Z X; Sun, Z H; Tan, Z L; Tang, S X; Zhou, C S; Han, X F; Wang, M; Wu, D Q; Kang, J H; Beauchemin, K A
Maternal malnutrition can have temporary or long-lasting effects on development and physiological function of offspring. Our objective was to investigate whether maternal protein or energy restriction in late gestation affects the antioxidant status of plasma, immune organs (thymus and spleen), and natural barrier organs (jejunum) in neonatal goats and whether the effects could be reversed after nutritional recovery. Forty-five pregnant goats (Liuyang Blacks) of similar age (2.0 ± 0.3 yr) and BW (22.2 ± 1.5 kg at d 90 of gestation) were assigned to 3 dietary treatments during late gestation: control (ME = 9.34 MJ/kg and CP = 12.5%, DM basis), 40% protein restricted (PR), and 40% energy restricted (ER) until parturition, after which offspring received the normal diet for nutritional recovery. Plasma and tissues of kids were sampled to determine antioxidant enzymes [superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC), and catalase (CAT)] and gene expression of antioxidant enzymes (Cu/Zn-SOD [SOD1], CAT, and peroxiredoxin 2 [PRDX2]). Maternal protein or energy restriction decreased (P < 0.05) SOD activities in plasma, liver, thymus, and spleen and SOD1 expression in thymus, and maternal energy restriction also decreased (P < 0.05) plasma GSH-Px activity and expressions of SOD1 and CAT in liver at birth. After nutritional recovery of 6 wk, SOD activities in thymus (both in PR and ER) and spleen (only in PR) were greater (P < 0.05), but CAT activity of thymus (both in PR and ER) and CAT expression (only in ER) were less (P < 0.01) than those in control. After nutritional recovery of 22 wk, SOD1 and PRDX2 expression in thymus (both in PR and ER) and SOD1 expression in liver (only in ER) were greater (P < 0.05) whereas CAT expression in thymus (both in PR and ER) was less (P < 0.001) than in control. The current results indicate that maternal protein or energy restriction can decrease the antioxidant capacity of the neonatal
Xu, H F; Luo, J; Zhao, W S; Yang, Y C; Tian, H B; Shi, H B; Bionaz, M
Sterol regulatory element binding protein 1 (SREBP1; gene name SREBF1) is known to be the master regulator of lipid homeostasis in mammals, including milk fat synthesis. The major role of SREBP1 in controlling milk fat synthesis has been demonstrated in bovine mammary epithelial cells. Except for a demonstrated role in controlling the expression of FASN, a regulatory role of SREBP1 on milk fat synthesis is very likely, but has not yet been demonstrated in goat mammary epithelial cells (GMEC). To explore the regulatory function of SREBP1 on de novo fatty acids and triacylglycerol synthesis in GMEC, we overexpressed the mature form of SREBP1 (active NH2-terminal fragment) in GMEC using a recombinant adenovirus vector (Ad-nSREBP1), with Ad-GFP (recombinant adenovirus of green fluorescent protein) as control, and infected the GMEC for 48 h. In infected cells, we assessed the expression of 20 genes related to milk fat synthesis using real time-quantitative PCR, the protein abundance of SREBP1 and FASN by Western blot, the production of triacylglycerol, and the fatty acid profile. Expression of SREBF1 was modest in mammary compared with the other tissues in dairy goats but its expression increased approximately 30-fold from pregnancy to lactation. The overexpression of the mature form of SREBP1 was confirmed by >200-fold higher expression of SREBF1 in Ad-nSREBP1 compared with Ad-GFP. We observed no changes in amount of the precursor form of SREBP1 protein but a >10-fold increase of the mature form of SREBP1 protein with Ad-nSREBP1. Compared with Ad-GFP cells (control), Ad-nSREBP1 cells had a significant increase in expression of genes related to long-chain fatty acid activation (ACSL1), transport (FABP3), desaturation (SCD1), de novo synthesis of fatty acids (ACSS2, ACLY, IDH1, ACACA, FASN, and ELOVL6), and transcriptional factors (NR1H3 and PPARG). We observed a >10-fold increase in expression of INSIG1 but SCAP was downregulated by Ad-nSREBP1. Among genes related to
Ghezzo, F; Berta, G N; Bussolati, B; Bosio, A; Corvetti, G; Di Carlo, F; Bussolati, G; Guglielmone, R; Bartorelli, A
Chemically induced Syrian hamster cheek-pouch squamous cell carcinoma is very similar to the corresponding human tumour. This paper describes a blind study in which inhibition of dimethylbenzanthracene-induced cheek-pouch tumours by a goat liver extract denominated UK101 was investigated. Less than 40% of animals treated with UK101 developed tumours compared with 100% of the controls. Intermediate results (80%) were noted in a positive control group treated with Calmette–Guérin bacillus. Immunocytochemical testing of cheek-pouch mucosa by Mib5 showed significantly less proliferating cells in UK101 animals than in the controls. The effect of UK101 was completely reversed when dexamethasone was added in a third control group. A significant difference in complement-mediated cytotoxicity was noted in the sera of UK101-tested and control animals. These findings suggest that an immune mechanism is responsible for the inhibition of hamster cheek-pouch carcinoma by UK101. © 1999 Cancer Research Campaign PMID:10408693
Effects of supplementing a basal diet of Chloris gayana hay with one of three protein-rich legume hays of Cassia rotundifolia, Lablab purpureus and Macroptilium atropurpureum forage on some nutritional parameters in goats.
Mupangwa, J F; Ngongoni, N T; Topps, J H; Hamudikuwanda, H
Growth and digestibility experiments were conducted on growing East African type goats offered Chloris gayana hay supplemented with one of three high-protein (119-128 g CP/kg DM) legume hays, Cassia rotundifolia (cassia), Lablab purpureus (lablab) or Macroptilium atropurpureum (siratro), and crushed maize to investigate the feed intake, digestibility, growth and urinary excretion of purine derivatives. Goats in the supplemented groups had higher total dry matter and nitrogen intakes and higher N retention and body mass gains than unsupplemented counterparts. The digestibility of dry matter, organic matter and neutral detergent fibre were increased by protein supplementation. Animals on supplemented diets had higher fractional outflow rates of particulate matter from the rumen. The production of protein by ruminal microbes and the efficiency of microbial N production were increased by supplementation. It was concluded that a mixture of low-quality grass hay (61.9 CP/kg DM) and either cassia, lablab or siratro hay, and maize grain can provide a productive balanced diet for growing goats.
Basrur, P K
Congenital abnormalities of genetic and environmental causes constitute a striking proportion of the afflictions seen in goats. These include a variety of malformations and metabolic diseases that could occur in all breeds but tend to exhibit predisposition in some breeds of goats. Genetic abnormalities for which the carrier state is detectable with the aid of enzymes and surface protein markers can be eliminated from goat populations, whereas common polygenic disorders including udder problems in does and gynecomastia in bucks are more difficult to eradicate because the mutant genes responsible for these traits generally do not declare themselves until inbreeding brings together a critical concentration of liability genes to create a crisis. A substantial reduction of common abnormalities in this species, such as intersexuality in dairy breeds, abortion in Angora breed, and arthritis in the Pygmy breed, will require a change in breeders' preference and selection practice. In making these changes, however, the beneficial traits will have to be balanced against the undesirable effects of the selected mutant genes (pleiotropy), which hold the key to success or failure of a breed under domestication.
Lambs and kids weaned and pastured on bermudagrass (BG; Cynodon dactylon) may not receive enough protein to reach maximal growth during mid to late summer when protein in BG pastures declines. As an indicator of physiological status, leptin is an adipocyte-derived hormone that increases as body cond...
Adeyemi, Kazeem Dauda; Shittu, Rafiat Morolayo; Sabow, Azad Behnan; Ebrahimi, Mahdi; Sazili, Awis Qurni
This study appraised the effects of dietary blend of 80% canola oil and 20% palm oil and postmortem ageing on oxidative stability, fatty acids and quality attributes of gluteus medius (GM) muscle in goats. Twenty-four Boer bucks were randomly allotted to diet supplemented with 0, 4 and 8% oil blend, fed for 100 days and slaughtered, and the GM muscle was subjected to a 7 d chill storage (4±1°C). Diet had no effect (P> 0.05) on the colour, drip loss, thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) value, free thiol, carbonyl, myoglobin and metmyoglobin contents, metmyoglobin reducing activity (MRA), antioxidant enzyme activities and abundance of myosin heavy chain (MHC) and actin in the GM muscle in goats. The meat from goats fed 4 and 8% oil blend had higher (P< 0.05) concentration of α and γ-tocopherol and abundance of troponin T compared with that from the control goats. The GM muscle from the oil-supplemented goats had lower (P< 0.05) concentration of C16:0 and greater (P< 0.05) concentration of C18:1n-9, C18:3n-3 and C20:5n-3 compared with that from the control goats. Nonetheless, diet did not affect (P< 0.05) the total fatty acid in the GM muscle in goats. Regardless of the diet, the free thiol and myoglobin contents, concentration of tocopherol and total carotenoids, MHC and MRA in the GM muscle decreased (P< 0.05) while carbonyl content, TBARS, drip loss and metmyoglobin content increased over storage. Dietary blend of 80% canola oil and 20% palm oil beneficially altered tissue lipids without hampering the oxidative stability of chevon. PMID:27138001
Carro, M D; Cantalapiedra-Hijar, G; Ranilla, M J; Molina-Alcaide, E
The objective of this study was to compare N balance, microbial N flow (MNF) estimated from purine derivatives (PD) urinary excretion, and its variation when estimated using purine bases:N ratios in liquid associated bacteria (LAB) from models reported in the literature (MNF - response models) or measured ratios in liquid and solid-associated bacterial (SAB) pellets (MNF-LAB+SAB), diet digestibility, and rumen fermentation variables in sheep and goats fed 3 different practical, quality diets to study interspecies differences concerning N use as accurately as possible. Four mature female Merino sheep and 4 mature female Granadina goats, each fitted with a ruminal cannula, were used in 3 × 3 Latin square design with an extra animal. Two experimental diets had a forage-to-concentrate ratio of 70:30 (DM basis) with alfalfa hay (ALC) or grass hay (GRC) as forage, and the third diet contained 70% concentrate and 30% alfalfa hay (CAL). All animals were fed the diets at a daily rate of 56 g/kg BW(0.75) to minimize feed selection. Digestibility of nutrients was similar (P = 0.16 to 0.88) in the 2 species, but some animal species × diet interactions (P = 0.01 to 0.04) were detected. There were small differences between the fermentation patterns of both animal species. Goats showed decreased VFA concentrations (P = 0.005) and butyrate proportions (P = 0.04), and greater acetate proportions (P = 0.02) compared with sheep, whereas N intake and percentage of N intake excreted in feces were similar in both species (P = 0.58 and 0.15, respectively), the percentage excreted via the urine was greater in goats compared with sheep (P < 0.001). As a consequence, sheep had greater (P < 0.001) N retention than goats (averaged across diets, 32.6% and 16.1% of N intake, respectively). There were no differences (P = 0.95) between animal species in total PD excretion, but goats showed a greater excretion of allantoin (P = 0.01) and decreased excretion of xanthine (P = 0.008) and
A new, environmentally benign whey protein fractionation process was developed using supercritical CO2 (SCO2) as an acid aggregating agent to separate a-lactalbumin (a-LA) aggregates from soluble beta-lactoglobulin (beta-LG) protein in concentrated whey protein isolate (WPI) solutions. The process e...
... horny goat weed for sexual performance problems including erectile dysfunction (ED) and involuntary ejaculation. It is also used ... cholesterol and increase estradiol levels in postmenopausal women. Erectile dysfunction (ED). Ejaculation problems. Sexual problems. Fatigue. Memory loss. ...
Shen, Hong; Lu, Zhongyan; Xu, Zhihui; Chen, Zhan; Shen, Zanming
Diet-derived short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) in the rumen have broad effects on the health and growth of ruminants. The microbe-G-protein-coupled receptor (GPR) and microbe-histone deacetylase (HDAC) axes might be the major pathway mediating these effects. Here, an integrated approach of transcriptome sequencing and 16S rRNA gene sequencing was applied to investigate the synergetic responses of rumen epithelium and rumen microbiota to the increased intake of dietary non-fiber carbohydrate (NFC) from 15 to 30% in the goat model. In addition to the analysis of the microbial composition and identification of the genes and signaling pathways related to the differentially expressed GPRs and HDACs, the combined data including the expression of HDACs and GPRs, the relative abundance of the bacteria, and the molar proportions of the individual SCFAs were used to identify the significant co-variation of the SCFAs, clades, and transcripts. The major bacterial clades promoted by the 30% NFC diet were related to lactate metabolism and cellulose degradation in the rumen. The predominant functions of the GPR and HDAC regulation network, under the 30% NFC diet, were related to the maintenance of epithelium integrity and the promotion of animal growth. In addition, the molar proportion of butyrate was inversely correlated with the expression of HDAC1, and the relative abundance of the bacteria belonging to Clostridum_IV was positively correlated with the expression of GPR1. This study revealed that the effects of rumen microbiota-derived SCFA on epithelium growth and metabolism were mediated by the GPR and HDAC regulation network. An understanding of these mechanisms and their relationships to dietary components provides better insights into the modulation of ruminal fermentation and metabolism in the promotion of livestock production.
Montazer-Torbati, Fatemeh; Kocer, Ayhan; Auguste, Aurélie; Renault, Lauriane; Charpigny, Gilles; Pailhoux, Eric; Pannetier, Maëlle
The testis-determining gene SRY is not well-conserved among mammals, and particularly between mouse and other mammals. To evaluate SRY function in a nonrodent species, we produced an antibody against goat SRY and used it to investigate the expression pattern of SRY throughout goat testicular development. By contrast with the mouse, SRY is primarily expressed in most cells of XY genital-ridges and not solely in pre-Sertoli cells. Between cord formation and prepuberty, SRY remains expressed in both Sertoli and germinal cells. During adulthood, SRY expression declines and then disappears from meiotic germ cells, only remaining present at low levels in some spermatogonia. Unlike the germinal lineage, SRY continues to be highly expressed in adult Sertoli cells with a typical nuclear staining. Our data indicate that in goat, the role of SRY may not be limited to testis determination and could have other functions in testicular maintenance and hence male fertility.
Grazing provides most nutrients for growth in ruminants, however; there are times when nutritional needs of the animal exceed the nutritional quality of forages. Forages common to pastures in the South and Midwest may be insufficient in crude protein to meet the demands of growing lambs and meat goa...
Maia, Alex S C; Nascimento, Sheila T; Nascimento, Carolina C N; Gebremedhin, Kifle G
The effects of air temperature and relative humidity on thermal equilibrium of goats in a tropical region was evaluated. Nine non-pregnant Anglo Nubian nanny goats were used in the study. An indirect calorimeter was designed and developed to measure oxygen consumption, carbon dioxide production, methane production and water vapour pressure of the air exhaled from goats. Physiological parameters: rectal temperature, skin temperature, hair-coat temperature, expired air temperature and respiratory rate and volume as well as environmental parameters: air temperature, relative humidity and mean radiant temperature were measured. The results show that respiratory and volume rates and latent heat loss did not change significantly for air temperature between 22 and 26°C. In this temperature range, metabolic heat was lost mainly by convection and long-wave radiation. For temperature greater than 30°C, the goats maintained thermal equilibrium mainly by evaporative heat loss. At the higher air temperature, the respiratory and ventilation rates as well as body temperatures were significantly elevated. It can be concluded that for Anglo Nubian goats, the upper limit of air temperature for comfort is around 26°C when the goats are protected from direct solar radiation.
Martins, F S; Saraiva, M V A; Magalhães-Padilha, D M; Almeida, A P; Celestino, J J H; Padilha, R T; Cunha, R M S; Silva, J R V; Campello, C C; Figueiredo, J R
This study aimed to demonstrate the expression of growth hormone receptor (GH-R) mRNA and protein in goat ovarian follicles in order to investigate the effects of GH on the survival and development of preantral follicles. The ovaries were processed for the isolation of follicles to study GH-R mRNA expression or to localization of GH-R by immunohistochemical analysis. Pieces of ovarian cortex were cultured for 7 days in minimum essential medium(+) (MEM(+)) in the presence or absence of GH at different concentrations (1, 10, 50, 100, and 200 ng/mL). High expression levels of GH-R mRNA were observed in granulosa/theca cells from large antral follicles. However, preantral follicles do not express mRNA for GH-R. Immunohistochemistry demonstrated that the GH-R protein was expressed in the oocytes/granulosa cells of antral follicles, but any protein expression was observed in preantral follicles. The highest (P < 0.05) rate of normal follicles and intermediate follicles was observed after 7 days in MEM(+) plus 10 ng/mL GH (70%). In conclusion, GH-R mRNA and protein are expressed in caprine antral follicles, but not in preantral follicles. Moreover, GH maintains the survival of goat preantral follicles and promotes the development of primordial follicles. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Ammerdorffer, Anne; Roest, Hendrik-I J.; Dinkla, Annemieke; Post, Jacob; Schoffelen, Teske; van Deuren, Marcel; Sprong, Tom; Rebel, Johanna M.
In humans, infection with Coxiella burnetii, the causative agent of Q fever, leads to acute or chronic infection, both associated with specific clinical symptoms. In contrast, no symptoms are observed in goats during C. burnetii infection, although infection of the placenta eventually leads to premature delivery, stillbirth and abortion. It is unknown whether these differences in clinical outcome are due to the early immune responses of the goats. Therefore, peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were isolated from pregnant goats. In total, 17 goats were included in the study. Six goats remained naive, while eleven goats were infected with C. burnetii. Toll-like receptor (TLR) and cytokine mRNA expression were measured after in vitro stimulation with heat-killed C. burnetii at different time points (prior infection, day 7, 35 and 56 after infection). In naive goats an increased expression of interleukin (IL)-1β, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, IL-10 and interferon (IFN)-γ mRNA upon C. burnetii stimulation was detected. In addition, TLR2 expression was strongly up-regulated. In goats infected with C. burnetii, PBMCs re-stimulated in vitro with C. burnetii, expressed significantly more TNF-α mRNA and IFN-γ mRNA compared to naive goats. In contrast, IL-10 mRNA production capacity was down-regulated during C. burnetii infection. Interestingly, at day 7 after inoculation a decreased IFN-γ protein level was observed in stimulated leukocytes in whole blood from infected goats, whereas at other time-points increased production of IFN-γ protein was seen. Our study shows that goats initiate a robust pro-inflammatory immune response against C. burnetii in vitro. Furthermore, PBMCs from C. burnetii infected goats show augmented pro-inflammatory cytokine responses compared to PBMCs from non-infected goats. However, despite this pro-inflammatory response, goats are not capable of clearing the C. burnetii infection. PMID:25279829
Konold, Timm; Thorne, Leigh; Simmons, Hugh A; Hawkins, Steve A C; Simmons, Marion M; González, Lorenzo
Previous studies confirmed that classical scrapie can be transmitted via milk in sheep. The current study aimed to investigate whether scrapie can also be transmitted via goat milk using in vivo (new-born lambs fed milk from scrapie-affected goats due to the unavailability of goat kids from guaranteed scrapie-free herds) and in vitro methods (serial protein misfolding cyclic amplification [sPMCA] on milk samples). In an initial pilot study, new-born lambs of two different prion protein gene (PRNP) genotypes (six VRQ/VRQ and five ARQ/ARQ) were orally challenged with 5 g brain homogenate from two scrapie-affected goats to determine susceptibility of sheep to goat scrapie. All sheep challenged with goat scrapie brain became infected based on the immunohistochemical detection of disease-associated PrP (PrP(sc)) in lymphoid tissue, with an ARQ/ARQ sheep being the first to succumb. Subsequent feeding of milk to eight pairs of new-born ARQ/ARQ lambs, with each pair receiving milk from a different scrapie-affected goat, resulted in scrapie in the six pairs that received the largest volume of milk (38-87 litres per lamb), whereas two pairs fed 8-9 litres per lamb, and an environmental control group raised on sheep milk from healthy ewes, did not show evidence of infection when culled at up to 1882 days of age. Infection in those 12 milk recipients occurred regardless of the clinical status, PrP(sc) distribution, caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus infection status and PRNP polymorphisms at codon 142 (II or IM) of the donor goats, but survival time was influenced by PRNP polymorphisms at codon 141. Serial PMCA applied to a total of 32 milk samples (four each from the eight donor goats collected throughout lactation) detected PrP(sc) in one sample each from two goats. The scrapie agent was present in the milk from infected goats and was able to transmit to susceptible species even at early preclinical stage of infection, when PrP(sc) was undetectable in the brain of the
Fatet, Alice; Pellicer-Rubio, Maria-Teresa; Leboeuf, Bernard
Goats are spontaneously ovulating, polyoestrous animals. Oestrous cycles in goats are reviewed in this paper with a view to clarifying interactions between cyclical changes in tissues, hormones and behaviour. Reproduction in goats is described as seasonal; the onset and length of the breeding season is dependent on various factors such as latitude, climate, breed, physiological stage, presence of the male, breeding system and specifically photoperiod. In temperate regions, reproduction in goats is described as seasonal with breeding period in the fall and winter and important differences in seasonality between breeds and locations. In tropical regions, goats are considered continuous breeders; however, restricted food availability often causes prolonged anoestrous and anovulatory periods and reduced fertility and prolificacy. Different strategies of breeding management have been developed to meet the supply needs and expectations of consumers, since both meat and milk industries are subjected to growing demands for year-round production. Hormonal treatments, to synchronize oestrus and ovulation in combination with artificial insemination (AI) or natural mating, allow out-of-season breeding and the grouping of the kidding period. Photoperiodic treatments coupled with buck effect now allow hormone-free synchronization of ovulation but fertility results after AI are still behind those of hormonal treatments. The latter techniques are still under study and will help meeting the emerging social demand of reducing the use of hormones for the management of breeding systems.
Kang, Kihwa; Schmahl, Jennifer; Lee, Jong-Min; Garcia, Karen; Patil, Ketan; Chen, Amelia; Keene, Michelle; Murphy, Andrew; Sleeman, Mark W
Ghrelin is a unique peptide gut hormone that requires post-translational modification to stimulate both feeding and growth hormone release. Ghrelin O-acyltransferase (GOAT) was identified as a specific acyl-transferase for ghrelin, and recent genetic deletion studies of the Goat gene (Goat(-/-)) uncovered the role of ghrelin in the regulation of glucose homeostasis. To further understand the physiological functions of the GOAT/ghrelin system, we have conducted a metabolomic and microarray profile of Goat-null mice, as well as determined Goat expression in different tissues using the lacZ reporter gene. Serum metabolite profile analysis revealed that Goat(-/-) mice exhibited increased secondary bile acids >2.5-fold. This was attributed to increased mRNA and protein expression of the ileal sodium-dependent bile acid transporter (ISBT) in the intestinal and biliary tract. Increased expression of additional solute carrier proteins, including Slc5a12 (>10-fold) were also detected in the small intestine and bile duct. Goat staining was consistently observed in the pituitary glands, stomach, and intestines, and to a lesser extent in the gallbladder and pancreatic duct. This is the first report that the GOAT/ghrelin system regulates bile acid metabolism, and these findings suggest a novel function of GOAT in the regulation of intestinal bile acid reabsorption..
Atef, M; el-Banna, H A; Abd El-Aty, A M; Goudah, A
The pharmacokinetic properties of difloxacin following intravenous (i.v.) and intramuscular (i.m.) administration in goats were investigated. Difloxacin was administered in a single dose of 5 mg/kg body weight for both routes and was assayed in biological fluids (serum and urine) to determine its concentrations, kinetic behaviour and systemic availability. Following a single i.v. injection, the serum difloxacin level was best approximated to follow a two-compartment open model using weighted non-linear regression analysis. The elimination half-life (t1/2 beta) was 6.3 +/- 0.11 h. The volume of distribution at steady-state (Vdss) was 1.1 +/- 0.012 L/kg and the total body clearance (Cltot) was 0.13 +/- 0.001 L/kg/h. Following a single i.m. administration, difloxacin was rapidly absorbed and the mean peak serum concentration (4.1 +/- 0.23 micrograms/ml) was achieved 1 h post administration. The extent of serum protein binding of difloxacin in goats was 13.79 +/- 1.02% and the systemic availability was 95.4 +/- 1.17%. Following i.m. injection of difloxacin at a dose rate of 5 mg/kg b.wt for 5 consecutive days, the drug could not be detected in serum and urine at 4th day from the last injection.
Roncada, Paola; Gaviraghi, Alessandro; Liberatori, Sabrina; Canas, Benito; Bini, Luca; Greppi, Gian Franco
The importance of goat milk in infant diet is growing, because it is reported that goat's milk in some cases is less allergenic than cow's milk. This is due probably to the lower presence of caseins associated with a specific type of alpha(s1)-casein. In caprine breeds, four types of alpha(s1)-casein alleles are identified and associated with various amounts of this protein in milk. The contribution of strong alleles to the goat milk is approximately 3.6 g/L of alpha(s1)-casein, while for middle alleles is only 1.6 g/L, weak alleles 0.6 g/L. The contribution of null allele is very low (or non-existent). The quantity of total caseins in caprine milk is positively correlated with the amount of alpha(s1)-casein. Milk from animals possessing strong alleles contain significantly more total caseins than milk from animals without those alleles. This is important because animals with mild alleles can be employed to produce milk for allergic subjects while the other animals can be used to produce milk for the dairy industry. This work shows casein profiles of two types of classified goat milk (B, strong alpha(s1) allele, 0, null alpha(s1) allele) with two-dimensional electrophoresis coupled with matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry, and it confirms the different polymorphisms at locus alpha(s1) casein.
... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Goat. 65.150 Section 65.150 Agriculture Regulations of..., PORK, LAMB, CHICKEN, GOAT MEAT, PERISHABLE AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, MACADAMIA NUTS, PECANS, PEANUTS, AND GINSENG General Provisions Definitions § 65.150 Goat. Goat means meat produced from goats....
... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Goat. 65.150 Section 65.150 Agriculture Regulations of..., PORK, LAMB, CHICKEN, GOAT MEAT, PERISHABLE AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, MACADAMIA NUTS, PECANS, PEANUTS, AND GINSENG General Provisions Definitions § 65.150 Goat. Goat means meat produced from goats. ...
... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Goat. 65.150 Section 65.150 Agriculture Regulations of..., PORK, LAMB, CHICKEN, GOAT MEAT, PERISHABLE AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, MACADAMIA NUTS, PECANS, PEANUTS, AND GINSENG General Provisions Definitions § 65.150 Goat. Goat means meat produced from goats. ...
... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Goat. 65.150 Section 65.150 Agriculture Regulations of..., PORK, LAMB, CHICKEN, GOAT MEAT, PERISHABLE AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, MACADAMIA NUTS, PECANS, PEANUTS, AND GINSENG General Provisions Definitions § 65.150 Goat. Goat means meat produced from goats. ...
... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Goat. 65.150 Section 65.150 Agriculture Regulations of..., PORK, LAMB, CHICKEN, GOAT MEAT, PERISHABLE AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, MACADAMIA NUTS, PECANS, PEANUTS, AND GINSENG General Provisions Definitions § 65.150 Goat. Goat means meat produced from goats. ...
Peter R. Mount
Researchers at Tuskegee University have joined together to study the impact of grazing Angora goats on kudzu (Pueraria lobata). A pilot project funded by the Southern Forest Experiment Station of the USDA Forest Service was started in 1990. The problem was to find an environmentally acceptable way to control and eradicate kudzu in forest situations...
Summarizes Brock Cole's novel for young adolescents: "The Goats." Provides discussion questions and classroom activities in language arts, drama, research; mathematics, creative writing, similes; and presents an annotated bibliography of fiction for young adolescents dealing with runaways, self-reliance, family, friendship, courage, overweight,…
Uzal, F A; Kelly, W R
Enterotoxaemia of sheep and goats occurs worldwide, but the condition in goats is poorly understood. The disease in goats is mostly caused by Clostridium perfringens type D, although the role of the toxins of this microorganism in the pathogenesis of the disease is not fully understood. The disease occurs in three forms, peracute, acute and chronic, the cardinal clinical sign of the acute and chronic forms being diarrhoea. The main biochemical alterations are hyperglycaemia and glycosuria, while at necropsy the disease is often characterized by haemorrhagic colitis. The typical histological changes observed in the brain of sheep with enterotoxaemia are not considered to be a common feature of enterotoxaemia in goats. Although the pathogenesis of caprine enterotoxaemia has not yet been properly defined, it is usually accepted that the presence of C. perfringens type D in the small bowel, together with a sudden change to a diet rich in carbohydrates, is the main predisposing factor for the disease. Vaccination seems to be poorly effective in preventing caprine enterotoxaemia, which might be due to the fact that the enteric form of the disease is partially independent of circulating C. perfringens toxin. More studies are needed on caprine enterotoxaemia, especially of its pathogenesis and immunity, in order to develop more efficient control measures for this disease.
Summarizes Brock Cole's novel for young adolescents: "The Goats." Provides discussion questions and classroom activities in language arts, drama, research; mathematics, creative writing, similes; and presents an annotated bibliography of fiction for young adolescents dealing with runaways, self-reliance, family, friendship, courage, overweight,…
Li, Haijun; Meng, Xiangren; Zhang, Hao; Duan, Xiaoyue; Niu, Lili; Wang, Linjie; Li, Li; Zhang, Hongping; Wu, Hongda; Zhong, Tao
Nanjiang Yellow goat (Capra hircus) is the first cultured mutton breed in China. In this study, the complete mitochondrial genome sequence of Nanjiang Yellow goat has been identified for the first time. The total length of the mitochondrial genome was 16,639 bp, with the base composition of 33.54% A, 26.05% C, 13.11% G and 27.30% T. It contained 37 genes (22 transfer RNA genes, 2 ribosomal RNA genes, and 13 protein-coding genes) and a major non-coding control region (D-loop). Most of the genes have ATG initiation codons, whereas ND2, ND3 and ND5 start with ATA. The complete mitochondrial genome sequence of Nanjiang Yellow goat provides an important data set for further estimation on the phylogeographic structure of domestic goats.
Adombi, Caroline Mélanie; Lelenta, Mamadou; Lamien, Charles Euloge; Shamaki, David; Koffi, Yao Mathurin; Traoré, Abdallah; Silber, Roland; Couacy-Hymann, Emmanuel; Bodjo, Sanne Charles; Djaman, Joseph A.; Luckins, Antony George; Diallo, Adama
Peste des petits ruminants (PPR) is an important economically transboundary disease of sheep and goats caused by a virus which belongs to the genus Morbillivirus. This genus, in the family Paramyxoviridae, also includes the measles virus (MV), canine distemper virus (CDV), rinderpest virus (RPV), and marine mammal viruses. One of the main features of these viruses is the severe transient lymphopaenia and immunosuppression they induce in their respective hosts, thereby favouring secondary bacterial and parasitic infections. This lymphopaenia is probably accounted for by the fact that lymphoid cells are the main targets of the morbilliviruses. In early 2000, it was demonstrated that a transmembrane glycoprotein of the immunoglobulin superfamily which is present on the surface of lymphoid cells, the signalling lymphocyte activation molecule (SLAM), is used as cellular receptor by MV, CDV and RPV. Wild-type strains of these viruses can be isolated and propagated efficiently in non-lymphoid cells expressing this protein. The present study has demonstrated that monkey CV1 cells expressing goat SLAM are also highly efficient for isolating PPRV from pathological samples. This finding suggests that SLAM, as is in the case for MV, CDV and RPV, is also a receptor for PPRV. PMID:21371505
Adombi, Caroline Mélanie; Lelenta, Mamadou; Lamien, Charles Euloge; Shamaki, David; Koffi, Yao Mathurin; Traoré, Abdallah; Silber, Roland; Couacy-Hymann, Emmanuel; Bodjo, Sanne Charles; Djaman, Joseph A; Luckins, Antony George; Diallo, Adama
Peste des petits ruminants (PPR) is an important economically transboundary disease of sheep and goats caused by a virus which belongs to the genus Morbillivirus. This genus, in the family Paramyxoviridae, also includes the measles virus (MV), canine distemper virus (CDV), rinderpest virus (RPV), and marine mammal viruses. One of the main features of these viruses is the severe transient lymphopaenia and immunosuppression they induce in their respective hosts, thereby favouring secondary bacterial and parasitic infections. This lymphopaenia is probably accounted for by the fact that lymphoid cells are the main targets of the morbilliviruses. In early 2000, it was demonstrated that a transmembrane glycoprotein of the immunoglobulin superfamily which is present on the surface of lymphoid cells, the signalling lymphocyte activation molecule (SLAM), is used as cellular receptor by MV, CDV and RPV. Wild-type strains of these viruses can be isolated and propagated efficiently in non-lymphoid cells expressing this protein. The present study has demonstrated that monkey CV1 cells expressing goat SLAM are also highly efficient for isolating PPRV from pathological samples. This finding suggests that SLAM, as is in the case for MV, CDV and RPV, is also a receptor for PPRV.
Background As there is limited information about the clinical signs of BSE and scrapie in goats, studies were conducted to describe the clinical progression of scrapie and BSE in goats and to evaluate a short clinical protocol for its use in detecting scrapie-affected goats in two herds with previously confirmed scrapie cases. Clinical assessments were carried out in five goats intracerebrally infected with the BSE agent as well as five reported scrapie suspects and 346 goats subject to cull from the two herds, 24 of which were retained for further monitoring. The brain and selected lymphoid tissue were examined by postmortem tests for disease confirmation. Results The sensitivity and specificity of the short clinical protocol in detecting a scrapie case in the scrapie-affected herds was 3.9% and 99.6%, respectively, based on the presence of tremor, positive scratch test, extensive hair loss, ataxia and absent menace response. All BSE- and scrapie-affected goats displayed abnormalities in sensation (over-reactivity to external stimuli, startle responses, pruritus, absent menace response) and movement (ataxia, tremor, postural deficits) at an advanced clinical stage but the first detectable sign associated with scrapie or BSE could vary between animals. Signs of pruritus were not always present despite similar prion protein genotypes. Clinical signs of scrapie were also displayed by two scrapie cases that presented with detectable disease-associated prion protein only in lymphoid tissues. Conclusions BSE and scrapie may present as pruritic and non-pruritic forms in goats. Signs assessed for the clinical diagnosis of scrapie or BSE in goats should include postural and gait abnormalities, pruritus and visual impairment. However, many scrapie cases will be missed if detection is solely based on the display of clinical signs. PrPd accumulation in the brain appeared to be related to the severity of clinical disease but not to the display of individual neurological signs
Duan, Xiaoyue; Zhang, Hao; Li, Haijun; Niu, Lili; Wang, Linjie; Li, Li; Zhang, Hongping; Zhong, Tao
Meigu goat (Capra hircus) is one of the indigenous goat breeds in China. Our research findings revealed that the entire mitochondrial genome of Meigu goat was 16,643 bp in length. The contents of A, C, T and G in the mitochondrial genome were 33.59%, 26.05%, 27.31% and 13.05%, respectively. The mitogenome of meigu goat contained 13 protein-coding genes, 2 rRNA genes, 22 tRNA genes and 1 control region. Components of the Meigu goat's mitogenome were similar to those of other Capra hircus in gene arrangement and composition. These results could provide essential information for molecular phylogenetic and evolutionary analyses of domestic goats.
E, Guang-Xin; Huang, Yong-Fu; Liu, Nan; Zhao, Yong-Ju; He, Jian-Ning; Na, Ri-Su; Zhao, Zhong-Quan; Jiang, Cao-De; Zhang, Jia-Hua; Ma, Yue-Hui; Chen, Li-Peng; Qiu, Xiao-Yu; Sun, Ya-Wang; Zeng, Yan; Sun, Yuan-Zhi; Yu, Chang-Hui; Wei, Shu-Ya
Here, we describe the complete mitochondrial genome sequences of Jining Gray goat, Fushun black goat, Youzhou black-skin goat, and Hechuan white goat. The mitogenome of those four goats consisted of 16,640 nt, consisting of 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNA (tRNA) genes, 2 ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes and a control region. As in other mammals, most mitochondrial genes are encoded on the heavy strand, except for ND6 and eight tRNA genes, which are encoded on the light strand. The complete mitogenome of these four local breeds of Chinese native goats could provide an important data to further breed improvement and animal genetics resource conservation in China.
Salama, A A K; Caja, G; Albanell, E; Carné, S; Casals, R; Such, X
Nulliparous goats were used to evaluate the effects of a standard protocol for inducing lactation with or without using a prolactin-releasing agent (reserpine). Estrus was synchronized and goats were submitted to daily s.c. injections of estradiol-17beta and progesterone (0.5 and 1.25 mg/kg of body weight, respectively) for 7 d. The goats were divided into 2 groups and injected i.m. with 1 mg/d of reserpine (n = 7) or the vehicle (n = 7) on d 12, 14, 16, 18, and 20. Lactation was initiated by i.m. injections of dexamethasone (10 mg/d) from d 18 to 20. Goats were machine milked once daily from d 21 to 120, at which time they were mated with herd sires. Milk was measured and sampled daily during wk 1 of lactation and weekly thereafter. Udder traits were measured in all goats at d -2 (before the induction treatment) and on d 35 and 100 (during lactation). Goats initiated lactation on d 21 (100%) and milk yield increased thereafter. The milk yield of control and reserpine-treated goats increased as lactation advanced, peaking at wk 10 of lactation, when reserpine-treated goats yielded 1,079 +/- 89 mL/d of milk compared with 850 +/- 96 mL/d for control goats. Yet milk yield at the peak was only 55% of the peak milk yield observed in contemporary primiparous goats. The composition of initial milk (d 21) was different from that expected for colostrum. Milk composition stabilized after d 3 of lactation. There were no differences among groups for milk fat, protein, casein, or whey protein, but milk from control goats contained greater nonprotein nitrogen than that from reserpine-treated goats (0.48 +/- 0.02 vs. 0.41 +/- 0.02%). Teat length increased from 24.7 +/- 1.1 to 34.5 +/- 2.4 mm in control goats during mammogenesis (d -2 to 35), but stabilized in reserpine goats (25.2 +/- 2.2 mm). The distance between teats (11.5 +/- 0.4 cm), and the volume (922 +/- 63 mL) and depth (15.6 +/- 0.60 cm) of the udder increased similarly in both groups during mammogenesis and lactation
Glimp, H A
Production opportunities, management strategies, and marketing options for meat goats in the United States are reviewed in this manuscript. The basis for any expansion must be goat production systems that are biologically and economically sustainable, meeting both producer and consumer needs. Meat goats historically have been kept for brush control. Their use to control noxious plants and in vegetation management will continue to be their primary role in the future. Meat goats are rarely the primary animal production enterprise in the United States, but they are becoming increasingly important contributors to the income of many producers. Meat goat marketing is highly unstructured in the United States, yet prices are generally higher on a per unit of weight basis than other red meat-producing species. Efforts to organize marketing have had only limited success. Over 90% of the world's goats are in developing countries. Goats are increasingly important in these countries as subsistence food producers. Production systems range from goats being a part of nomadic multispecies herds on arid desert rangelands, in agropastoral production systems, to goats being the primary animal enterprise in smallholder farming systems.
Casas-Valdez, M; Hernández-Contreras, H; Marín-Alvarez, A; Aguila-Ramírez, R N; Hernández-Guerrero, C J; Sánchez-Rodríguez, I; Carrillo-Domínguez, S
The seaweed Sargassum (Sargassaceae) as tropical alternative for goats' feeding. The nutritive value of seaweed (Sargassum spp.) was studied in Baja California Sur, Mexico. Twenty female Nubian goats (43-weeks old) were randomly distributed into two groups of 10 goats each and were housed in individual pens. One group was fed with a control diet and the other with a diet supplemented with 25% of Sargassum spp. Feed and water intake were recorded daily and individually for 60 days. The weight of each goat was recorded every 15 days. The nutritional content of Sargassum spp. was 89% dry mater, 8% crude protein, 31% ash, 2% ether extract, and 39% carbohydrates. Fiber fractions, minerals, vitamins, fatty acids, and antinutritional factors were also determined. There were no significant differences in body weight (8.6 kg control and 9 kg experimental), feed intake (1.3 kg control and 1.6 kg experimental), and feed conversion rate (11.1 control and 12.6 experimental). Water consumption was greater in the goats that ate the Sargassum diet (5.3 1). From these results, Sargassum spp. can be considered as an alternative feedstuff for goats.
Wang, L J; Sun, X W; Guo, F Y; Zhao, Y J; Zhang, J H; Zhao, Z Q
Transcriptome analysis of Inner Mongolia Cashmere goat and Dazu black goat generated 38,772,947 and 38,771,668 clean pair end reads, respectively, which were assembled into 72,422 and 80,069 unigenes by Trinity, respectively. For Inner Mongolia Cashmere goat, 26,051 and 10,100 unigenes were assigned to gene ontology (GO) categories and clusters of orthologous groups, respectively. A total of 32,772 unigenes can comment to SWISS-Prot database, and the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes Pathway database (KEGG) mapped 24,420 unigenes. While annotating the unigenes about Dazu black goats, we found 29,444(45.42%), 11,271 (38.28%), 36,910(56.94%) and 27,766 (42.83%) unigenes were assigned to GO database, COG database, SWISS-Prot database and KEGG database, respectively. In addition, we performed the bioinformatics analysis of gene expression profiling aimed at the ovarian transcriptome difference between Inner Mongolia Cashmere goat and Dazu black goat. We obtained a sequencing depth of over 5.5 million and 5.8 million tags. There were 1,133 DEGs between two species, of which 632 genes upregulated in the Dazu black goat and 501 genes downregulated compared with which in Inner Mongolia Cashmere goat. By annotating the 1,133 DEGs into KEGG database, we found 525 DEGs. And there were 68 DEGs annotated in metabolic pathways, 31 DEGs annotated in ribosome, 28 DEGs annotated in focal adhesion, 27 DEGs annotated in phagosome, 26 DEGs annotated in pathways in cancer, 25 DEGs annotated in ECM-receptor interaction, 23 DEGs annotated in protein digestion and absorption, 20 DEGs annotated in oxidative phosphorylation, 17 DEGs annotated in lysosome, and 16 DEGs annotated in cell adhesion molecules. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.
Herm, G; Muscher-Banse, A S; Breves, G; Schröder, B; Wilkens, M R
In small ruminants, the renal excretion of calcium (Ca) and phosphate (Pi) is not modulated in response to dietary Ca restriction. Although this lack of adaptation was observed in both sheep and goats, differences in renal function between these species cannot be excluded. Recent studies demonstrated that compared with sheep, goats have a greater ability to compensate for challenges to Ca homeostasis, probably due to a more pronounced increase in calcitriol production. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to examine the effect of 1) dietary Ca restriction, 2) administration of calcitriol, and 3) lactation on Ca and Pi transport mechanisms and receptors as well as enzymes involved in vitamin D metabolism in renal tissues of sheep and goats. Whereas RNA expression of renal transient receptor potential vanilloid channel type 5 was unaffected by changes in dietary Ca content, a significant stimulation was observed with administration of calcitriol in both sheep (P < 0.001) and goats (P < 0.01). Calbindin-D28K was downregulated during dietary Ca restriction in goats (P < 0.05). Expression of the sodium/Ca exchanger type 1 was decreased by low Ca intake in sheep (P < 0.05) and upregulated by calcitriol treatment in goats (P < 0.05). A significant reduction in RNA expression of the cytosolic and the basolateral Ca transporting proteins was also demonstrated for lactating goats in comparison to dried-off animals. Species differences were found for vitamin D receptor expression, which was stimulated by calcitriol treatment in sheep (P < 0.01) but not in goats. As expected, expression of 1α-hydroxylase was upregulated by dietary Ca restriction (P < 0.001; P < 0.05) and inhibited by exogenous calcitriol (P < 001; P < 0.05) in both sheep and goats. However, whereas 24-hydroxylase expression was stimulated to the same extent by calcitriol treatment in sheep, irrespective of the diet (P < 0.001), a modulatory effect of dietary Ca supply on 24-hydroxylase induction was
Using the goat as a susceptible host and cattle as a resistant species to Fasciola hepatica infections, the humoral response of these animals to the surface of the newly excysted juvenile (NEJ) fluke was examined. Tegumental proteins of the NEJ were labeled with /sup 125/I by lactoperoxidase and analyzed after immunoprecipitation using a double antibody system. In addition, a comparison was made between the infected sera's capacity to immunoprecipitate surface antigens and their in vitro cytotoxic activity against the NEJ. In both goats and cattle the levels of NEJ surface antigens precipitated increased during the first 4 weeks PI. The peak immunoprecipitation of NEJ surface antigens by cattle sera (58%) was significantly higher than that of infected goat sera (33%). Immunoprecipitation of the available radiolabeled NEJ surface proteins by the infected cattle sera remained consistently higher than goat sera until the 16th week PI. The cytotoxic effects of these same caprine sera on NEJs in vitro was limited, while the cytotoxicity of the infected bovine sera closely approximated the sera's ability to precipitate NEJ surface antigens. There was also a qualitative difference between the species in their recognition of /sup 35/S and /sup 125/I radiolabeled NEJ surface antigens. Uninfected goat or cattle sera failed to precipitate any /sup 125/I or /sup 35/S-labeled surface proteins.
Yan, Long; Lei, Lei; Yang, Chunrong; Gao, Zhimin; Lei, Anmin; Ma, Xiaoling; Dou, Zhongying
Morulaes and blastocysts obtained from Guanzhong dairy goats 6-7 days after mating were treated with whole embryo cultivaton, enzymatic digestion and immunosurgery separately. The goat embryonic stem cells (ESC) were isolated and cultured on a feeder layer of mitomycin-inactivated mouse embryo fibroblasts (MEF). The characteristics of goat ESCs were analyzed by immunohistochemisty, RT-PCR and inducing differentiation in vitro. The results indicated that the embryos were easier to attach the culture dish and form primary colonies with whole embryo method. There were colonies that maintained undifferentiated for 18 passages. The ESCs expressed the protein of Nanog, Oct4 and SSEA-3, whereas the protein of SSEA-4 was absent and the protein of SSEA-1 was weakly expressed. In addition, the genes of Nanog, Oct4, TERT and CD117 were expressed in goat ESCs. The cells also could differentiate to myocardial cells when induced in vitro by DMSO. These results suggest that the goat ESCs have characteristics of ESCs.
Préaux, G; Braunitzer, G; Schrank, B; Stangl, A
The isolation of beta-lactoglobulin from milk of the goat is described. The purified protein was checked for purity and has been characterized by its gross composition and end groups. The native or the modified protein was then degraded by tryptic and cyanogen bromide cleavage. The cleavage products were isolated and sequenced in the sequenator using a Quadrol and propyne program. These data provide the complete sequence of beta-lactoglobulin of the goat. The results are discussed and compared particularly with bovine beta-lactoglobulin components AB. Some biological aspects are described.
Blood, Charles L.; Link, Martin
Based on the activities of the real Window Rock weaver, Glenmae, and her goat, Geraldine, this illustrated story incorporates authentic details relative to the Navajo art of rug weaving and is designed for children aged four to eight. Capitalizing on the humor inherent in Geraldine's point of view, the story centers on the goat's observation of…
Blood, Charles L.; Link, Martin
Based on the activities of the real Window Rock weaver, Glenmae, and her goat, Geraldine, this illustrated story incorporates authentic details relative to the Navajo art of rug weaving and is designed for children aged four to eight. Capitalizing on the humor inherent in Geraldine's point of view, the story centers on the goat's observation of…
Fatchiyah, Fatchiyah; Hardiyanti, Ferlany; Widodo, Nashi
Background: Advanced Glycation End Products (AGE) play a pivotal role in the development various degenerative diseases such as diabetes, cardiovascular disease, stroke, neuropathy, and nephropathy. Different studies have been done to employ AGEs as drug targets for the diseases therapy. In previous study, we have found bioactive peptide from Ethawah goat milk for anti-diabetic that may work through inhibition of AGE receptor function. However, the mechanism of bioactive peptides inhibits AGE- AGE receptor (RAGE) bonding still not clear yet. Therefore we investigated the inhibition mechanism by calculate the potential energy binding among the peptides, AGEs and RAGE using molecular docking system. Methods: Modeling 3D-structure was predicted by SWISS-MODEL web server. The virtual interaction was analyzed by docking system using HEX 8.0, Pymol and Discovery Studio 4.0 software. Results: this study showed that AGEs (Argypirimidine, Imidazole, Pentosidine and Pyrraline) bind to C-domain of RAGE. The total energy binding of RAGE with Argypirimidine, Imidazole, Pentosidine and Pyrraline were 378.35kJ/mol, -74.57kJ/mol, -301.25kJ/mol and -400.72kJ/mol, respectively. We have found three peptides among eight peptides from Ethawah goat milk, which are able bind to C-domain of RAGE, there are CSN1S2 f41-47, CSN1S2 f182-189, and CSN1S2 f214-221. The CSN1S22 f41-47 at arginine residue 47 interacts with proline162, leusine163 and leusine158 of RAGE. The total binding energy between CSN1S2 f41-47, CSN1S2 f182-189, and CSN1S2 f214-221 with RAGE were -378.35 kJ/mol, -359.97kJ/mol, -356.78 kJ/mol, respectively. Total binding energy and binding pattern indicated that RAGE more prefer bind with peptide and block AGE bind to functional site of RAGE. Further analysis showed that complex peptide-RAGE shifted binding site of AGE on function domain RAGE. Conclusion: This study suggested that the peptides from Ethawah goat milk may act as an inhibitor of AGEs-RAGE interaction that impaired
Influence of dietary canola oil and palm oil blend and refrigerated storage on fatty acids, myofibrillar proteins, chemical composition, antioxidant profile and quality attributes of semimembranosus muscle in goats.
Adeyemi, Kazeem D; Sabow, Azad B; Shittu, Rafiat M; Karim, Roselina; Sazili, Awis Q
Improving the unsaturated fatty acid content of ruminant meat is essential due to the generally saturated nature of fatty acids in ruminant meat and the negative effects this can have on human health. Nonetheless, enhancing the unsaturated fatty acid content of ruminant meat can have adverse effects on the shelf life and quality attributes of the meat. This study assessed the effects of dietary 80 % canola oil and 20 % palm oil blend (CPOB) on fatty acid composition, antioxidants, oxidative spoilage, cholesterol and physicochemical properties of semimembranosus (SM) muscle from goats. Twenty four Boer bucks were randomly assigned to diets containing on dry matter basis 0, 4 and 8 % CPOB, fed for 100 d and slaughtered. The carcasses were subjected to a 7 d postmortem refrigerated storage. All analyses were conducted on the SM muscle. Diet had no effect (P > 0.05) on the concentration of free thiol and carbonyl and the band intensity of myosin heavy chain, actin and troponin T. The muscle glycogen, pH, water holding capacity, tenderness, glutathione peroxidase (GPX) activity, total carotenoid, δ-tocopherol, cholesterol and proximate composition did not differ (P > 0.05) between diets. The SM muscle from goats fed 4 and 8 % CPOB had lower (P < 0.05) concentration of C14:0 and C16:0 and higher (P < 0.05) concentration of C18:1 trans-11, C18:1ω-9, C18:3ω-3, C20:5ω-3 and C22:5ω-3 than the SM muscle from the control goats. Dietary CPOB increased (P < 0.05) the concentration of α and γ tocopherol and meat redness (a*) on d 1 and 4 postmortem. Regardless of diet, antioxidant vitamins, and shear force decreased (P < 0.05) while drip loss, lipid and protein oxidation increased (P < 0.05) as postmortem storage progressed. Results evince that dietary CPOB can be used as a management tool to enhance the beneficial fatty acids and antioxidant contents of chevon without deleterious effects on its physicochemical properties and shelf life.
Aguilar-Calvo, Patricia; Fast, Christine; Tauscher, Kerstin; Espinosa, Juan-Carlos; Groschup, Martin H; Nadeem, Muhammad; Goldmann, Wilfred; Langeveld, Jan; Bossers, Alex; Andreoletti, Olivier; Torres, Juan-María
The prion protein-encoding gene (PRNP) is one of the major determinants for scrapie occurrence in sheep and goats. However, its effect on bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) transmission to goats is not clear. Goats harboring wild-type, R/Q211 or Q/K222 PRNP genotypes were orally inoculated with a goat-BSE isolate to assess their relative susceptibility to BSE infection. Goats were killed at different time points during the incubation period and after the onset of clinical signs, and their brains as well as several peripheral tissues were analyzed for the accumulation of pathological prion protein (PrP(Sc)) and prion infectivity by mouse bioassay. R/Q211 goats displayed delayed clinical signs compared with wild-type goats. Deposits of PrP(Sc) were detected only in brain, whereas infectivity was present in peripheral tissues too. In contrast, none of the Q/K222 goats showed any evidence of clinical prion disease. No PrP(Sc) accumulation was observed in their brains or peripheral tissues, but very low infectivity was detected in some tissues very long after inoculation (44-45 months). These results demonstrate that transmission of goat BSE is genotype dependent, and they highlight the pivotal protective effect of the K222 PRNP variant in the oral susceptibility of goats to BSE. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Baharuddin, Azan Azuwan; Abdullah, Aminah
Goat Meat (chevon) has been used as a source of protein and its demand for consumption is increasing yearly in Malaysia. The objective of the research was to determine proximate composition namely moisture, protein, fat and ash level in chevon from different type of breed i.e. Boer and Katjang. The goat breed proximate analyses were compared with sheep meat (mutton). The results for goat breeds were showing that the percentage of moisture, fat, protein and ash were of 73.06 - 74.99, 2.76 - 2.94, 20.81 - 22.47 and 0.97 - 1.21 respectively. Meanwhile the concentration of moisture, fat, protein and ash for mutton were 73.52, 5.06, 22.50 and 1.17 respectively. The pilot study on perception survey indicated that the highest respondent percentage on consumption of chevon was once in a month. Based on the survey, Boer was the most known breed compared to the other breed. Majority of respondents reported that chevon was fairly expensive meat but easier to obtain in the survey area.
... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Ground goat. 65.165 Section 65.165 Agriculture... OF BEEF, PORK, LAMB, CHICKEN, GOAT MEAT, PERISHABLE AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, MACADAMIA NUTS, PECANS, PEANUTS, AND GINSENG General Provisions Definitions § 65.165 Ground goat. Ground goat means...
... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Ground goat. 65.165 Section 65.165 Agriculture... OF BEEF, PORK, LAMB, CHICKEN, GOAT MEAT, PERISHABLE AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, MACADAMIA NUTS, PECANS, PEANUTS, AND GINSENG General Provisions Definitions § 65.165 Ground goat. Ground goat means comminuted...
... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Ground goat. 65.165 Section 65.165 Agriculture... OF BEEF, PORK, LAMB, CHICKEN, GOAT MEAT, PERISHABLE AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, MACADAMIA NUTS, PECANS, PEANUTS, AND GINSENG General Provisions Definitions § 65.165 Ground goat. Ground goat means comminuted...
... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Ground goat. 65.165 Section 65.165 Agriculture... OF BEEF, PORK, LAMB, CHICKEN, GOAT MEAT, PERISHABLE AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, MACADAMIA NUTS, PECANS, PEANUTS, AND GINSENG General Provisions Definitions § 65.165 Ground goat. Ground goat means comminuted...
... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Ground goat. 65.165 Section 65.165 Agriculture... OF BEEF, PORK, LAMB, CHICKEN, GOAT MEAT, PERISHABLE AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, MACADAMIA NUTS, PECANS, PEANUTS, AND GINSENG General Provisions Definitions § 65.165 Ground goat. Ground goat means comminuted...
Huang, Tian; Cao, Zhongyang; Yang, Yaohui; Cao, Gengsheng
The Cashmere goat is mainly used to produce cashmere, which is very popular for its delicate fiber, luscious softness and natural excellent warm property. Keratin associated protein (KAP) and bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) of the Cashmere goat play an important role in the proliferation and development of cashmere fiber follicle cells. Bacterial artificial chromosome containing kap6.3, kap8.1 and bmp4 genes were used to increase the production and quality of Cashmere. First, we constructed bacterial artificial chromosomes by homology recombination. Then Tol2 transposon was inserted into bacterial artificial chromosomes that were then transfected into Cashmere goat fibroblasts by Amaxa Nucleofector technology according to the manufacture's instructions. We successfully constructed the BAC-Tol2 vectors containing target genes. Each vector contained egfp report gene with UBC promoter, Neomycin resistant gene for cell screening and two loxp elements for resistance removing after transfected into cells. The bacterial artificial chromosome-Tol2 vectors showed a high efficiency of transfection that can reach 1% to 6% with a highest efficiency of 10%. We also obtained Cashmere goat fibroblasts integrated exogenous genes (kap6.3, kap8.1 and bmp4) preparing for the clone of Cashmere goat in the future. Our research demonstrates that the insertion of Tol2 transposons into bacterial artificial chromosomes improves the transfection efficiency and accuracy of bacterial artificial chromosome error-free recombination.
DeVaney, J A; Craig, T M; Rowe, L D
Efficacy of ivermectin on susceptible or resistant populations of the parasitic nematode Haemonchus contortus was determined in cattle and goats held in a barn. Goats were each infected with 3000 infective, ivermectin-susceptible or -resistant H. contortus larvae on day 0 and reinfected with 2000 infective larvae on day 24. Goats were treated orally with 600 micrograms kg-1 ivermectin on day 31. No significant differences were detected in blood packed cell volume (PCV) or total protein (TP), prepatent period, or epg among the four groups of goats that were each infected with one of four parasite strains (one susceptible, three resistant). There were no differences among the four parasite strains in the numbers of infective larvae that developed to the third larval stage from fecal cultures or in the viability of cultured infective larvae when held in the laboratory at 27 +/- 1 degrees C for 14 weeks. After treatment with ivermectin, there were significant differences among the parasite strains in PCV, TP, and epg. Total worm counts were reduced by 94 to 97% with three times the recommended dose. Immature and adult Skrjabinema ovis were also present in two treated goats. In a second test, one goat infected once with 10,000 infective larvae of a resistant strain of H. contortus and then treated with nine doses of ivermectin, increasing from 500 to 2000 micrograms kg-1 over a period of 133 days, had 35 adult worms at necropsy. In a third test, three calves were readily infected with an ivermectin-resistant strain of H. contortus from goats.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
Reina, D; Muñoz-Ojeda, M C; Serrano, F; Molina, J M; Navarrete, I
The susceptibility and distribution of Trichinella spiralis infection in goats were examined in ten autochthonous kids, 2 months old and about 10 kg body weight. The animals were divided into two groups: one experimental group with eight animals, infected with 10,000 T. spiralis 'T1' encysted larvae and a control group with two non-infected animals. All the animals of the experimental group infected by the parasite showed that Trichinella larvae have a special affinity for the tongue, masseters, diaphragm, flexor-extensor muscles, intercostal muscles and myocardium in decreasing order. The ELISA test carried out showed the first increments of optical density (OD) on Day 16 postinfection (p.i), peaking on Days 37-44 p.i. and remaining elevated from this day on, with a slight fall at the end of the experiment (Day 90 p.i.). No alterations were observed in the OD obtained in control animals throughout the experiment. The great muscular establishment of T. spiralis larvae and the sigmoidal evolution of antibody levels confirm the host character of the goat to the parasite.
Li, Lan; Shen, Wei; Pan, Qing-Yu; Min, Ling-Jiang; Sun, Yu-Jiang; Fang, Yong-Wei; Deng, Ji-Xian; Pan, Qing-Jie
Transgenic animal mammary gland bioreactors are being used to produce recombinant proteins with appropriate post-translational modifications, and nuclear transfer of transgenic somatic cells is a more powerful method to produce mammary gland bioreactor. Here we describe efficient gene transfer and nuclear transfer in goat somatic cells. Gene targeting vector pGBC2LF was constructed by cloning human lactoferrin (LF) gene cDNA into exon 2 of the milk goat beta-casein gene, and the endogenous start condon was replaced by that of human LF gene. Goat fetal fibroblasts were transfected with linearized pGBC2LF and 14 cell lines were positive according to PCR and Southern blot. The transgenic cells were used as donor cells of nuclear transfer, and some of reconstructed embryos could develop to blastocyst in vitro.
Amit, M; Cohen, I; Marcovics, A; Muklada, H; Glasser, T A; Ungar, E D; Landau, S Y
Primates self-medicate to alleviate symptoms caused by gastro-intestinal nematodes (GIN) by consuming plants that contain secondary compounds. Would goats display the same dietary acumen? Circumstantial evidence suggests they could: goats in Mediterranean rangelands containing a shrub - Pistacia lentiscus - with known anthelmintic properties consume significant amounts of the shrub, particularly in the fall when the probability of being infected with GIN is greatest, even though its tannins impair protein metabolism and deter herbivory. In order to test rigorously the self-medication hypothesis in goats, we conducted a controlled study using 21 GIN-infected and 23 non-infected goats exposed to browse foliage from P. lentiscus, another browse species - Phillyrea latifolia, or hay during the build-up of infection. GIN-infected goats showed clear symptoms of infection, which was alleviated by P. lentiscus foliage but ingesting P. lentiscus had a detrimental effect on protein metabolism in the absence of disease. When given a choice between P. lentiscus and hay, infected goats of the Mamber breed showed higher preference for P. lentiscus than non-infected counterparts, in particular if they had been exposed to Phillyrea latifolia before. This was not found in Damascus goats. Damascus goats, which exhibit higher propensity to consume P. lentiscus may use it as a drug prophylactically, whereas Mamber goats, which are more reluctant to ingest it, select P. lentiscus foliage therapeutically. These results hint at subtle trade-offs between the roles of P. lentiscus as a food, a toxin and a medicine. This is the first evidence of self-medication in goats under controlled conditions. Endorsing the concept of self-medication could greatly modify the current paradigm of veterinary parasitology whereby man decides when and how to treat GIN-infected animals, and result in transferring this decision to the animals themselves. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Rutherfurd, Shane M; Moughan, Paul J; Lowry, Dianne; Prosser, Colin G
The amino acid composition of goat milk formulations with varying protein and carbohydrate concentrations were determined. Proteins in goat milk infant formula, goat milk growing-up formula and goat whole milk powder were hydrolysed using multiple hydrolysis time intervals. A least-squares non-linear regression model was used to predict the free and protein bound amino acid concentrations. The amino acid composition of goat infant formula was compared with human milk reference values. There was good agreement between the multiple hydrolysis and single 24-h hydrolysis methods for approximately one-half of the amino acids. Tryptophan, aspartic acid, threonine, tyrosine, isoleucine, valine, serine and alanine contents were underestimated by 10.6, 5.6, 5.6, 4.7, 4.4, 3.7, 3.7 and 3.6%, respectively, by the single 24-h hydrolysis. The study provides accurate reference data on the amino acid composition of goat milk powders. Goat milk infant formula has amino acids in amounts similar to human milk reference values, when expressed on a per-energy basis.
Mead, Jim I.; Martin, Paul S.; Euler, Robert C.; Long, Austin; Jull, A. J. T.; Toolin, Laurence J.; Donahue, Douglas J.; Linick, T. W.
Keratinous horn sheaths of the extinct Harrington's mountain goat, Oreamnos harringtoni, were recovered at or near the surface of dry caves of the Grand Canyon, Arizona. Twenty-three separate specimens from two caves were dated nondestructively by the tandem accelerator mass spectrometer (TAMS). Both the TAMS and the conventional dates indicate that Harrington's mountain goat occupied the Grand Canyon for at least 19,000 years prior to becoming extinct by 11,160 ± 125 radiocarbon years before present. The youngest average radiocarbon dates on Shasta ground sloths, Nothrotheriops shastensis, from the region are not significantly younger than those on extinct mountain goats. Rather than sequential extinction with Harrington's mountain goat disappearing from the Grand Canyon before the ground sloths, as one might predict in view of evidence of climatic warming at the time, the losses were concurrent. Both extinctions coincide with the regional arrival of Clovis hunters.
Mead, J.I.; Martin, P.S.; Euler, R.C.; Long, A.; Jull, A.J.T.; Toolin, L.J.; Donahue, D.J.; Linick, T.W.
Keratinous horn sheaths of the extinct Harrington's mountain goat, Oreamnos harringtoni, were recovered at or near the surface of dry caves of the Grand Canyon, Arizona. Twenty-three separate specimens from two caves were dated nondestructively by the tandem accelerator mass spectrometer (TAMS). Both the TAMS and the conventional dates indicate that Harrington's mountain goat occupied the Grand Canyon for at least 19,000 years prior to becoming extinct by 11,160 +/- 125 radiocarbon years before present. The youngest average radiocarbon dates on Shasta ground sloths, Nothrotheriops shastensis, from the region are not significantly younger than those on extinct mountain goats. Rather than sequential extinction with Harrington's mountain goat disappearing from the Grand Canyon before the ground sloths, as one might predict in view of evidence of climatic warming at the time, the losses were concurrent. Both extinctions coincide with the regional arrival of Clovis hunters.
Mead, Jim I.; Martin, Paul S.; Euler, Robert C.; Long, Austin; Jull, A. J. T.; Toolin, Laurence J.; Donahue, Douglas J.; Linick, T. W.
Keratinous horn sheaths of the extinct Harrington's mountain goat, Oreamnos harringtoni, were recovered at or near the surface of dry caves of the Grand Canyon, Arizona. Twenty-three separate specimens from two caves were dated nondestructively by the tandem accelerator mass spectrometer (TAMS). Both the TAMS and the conventional dates indicate that Harrington's mountain goat occupied the Grand Canyon for at least 19,000 years prior to becoming extinct by 11,160 ± 125 radiocarbon years before present. The youngest average radiocarbon dates on Shasta ground sloths, Nothrotheriops shastensis, from the region are not significantly younger than those on extinct mountain goats. Rather than sequential extinction with Harrington's mountain goat disappearing from the Grand Canyon before the ground sloths, as one might predict in view of evidence of climatic warming at the time, the losses were concurrent. Both extinctions coincide with the regional arrival of Clovis hunters. Images PMID:16593655
Lacroux, Caroline; Perrin-Chauvineau, Cécile; Corbière, Fabien; Aron, Naima; Aguilar-Calvo, Patricia; Torres, Juan Maria; Costes, Pierrette; Brémaud, Isabelle; Lugan, Séverine; Schelcher, François; Barillet, Francis; Andréoletti, Olivier
In goats, several field studies have identified coding mutations of the gene encoding the prion protein (I/M142, N/D146, S/D146, R/Q211, and Q/K222) that are associated with a lower risk of developing classical scrapie. However, the data related to the levels of resistance to transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) of these different PRNP gene mutations are still considered insufficient for developing large-scale genetic selection against scrapie in this species. In this study, we inoculated wild-type (WT) PRNP (I142R154R211Q222) goats and homozygous and/or heterozygous I/M142, R/H154, R/Q211, and Q/K222 goats with a goat natural scrapie isolate by either the oral or the intracerebral (i.c.) route. Our results indicate that the I/M142 PRNP polymorphism does not provide substantial resistance to scrapie infection following intracerebral or oral inoculation. They also demonstrate that H154, Q211, and K222 PRNP allele carriers are all resistant to scrapie infection following oral exposure. However, in comparison to WT animals, the H154 and Q211 allele carriers displayed only moderate increases in the incubation period following i.c. challenge. After i.c. challenge, heterozygous K222 and a small proportion of homozygous K222 goats also developed the disease, but with incubation periods that were 4 to 5 times longer than those in WT animals. These results support the contention that the K222 goat prion protein variant provides a strong but not absolutely protective effect against classical scrapie.
Lacroux, Caroline; Perrin-Chauvineau, Cécile; Corbière, Fabien; Aron, Naima; Aguilar-Calvo, Patricia; Torres, Juan Maria; Costes, Pierrette; Brémaud, Isabelle; Lugan, Séverine; Schelcher, François; Barillet, Francis
In goats, several field studies have identified coding mutations of the gene encoding the prion protein (I/M142, N/D146, S/D146, R/Q211, and Q/K222) that are associated with a lower risk of developing classical scrapie. However, the data related to the levels of resistance to transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) of these different PRNP gene mutations are still considered insufficient for developing large-scale genetic selection against scrapie in this species. In this study, we inoculated wild-type (WT) PRNP (I142R154R211Q222) goats and homozygous and/or heterozygous I/M142, R/H154, R/Q211, and Q/K222 goats with a goat natural scrapie isolate by either the oral or the intracerebral (i.c.) route. Our results indicate that the I/M142 PRNP polymorphism does not provide substantial resistance to scrapie infection following intracerebral or oral inoculation. They also demonstrate that H154, Q211, and K222 PRNP allele carriers are all resistant to scrapie infection following oral exposure. However, in comparison to WT animals, the H154 and Q211 allele carriers displayed only moderate increases in the incubation period following i.c. challenge. After i.c. challenge, heterozygous K222 and a small proportion of homozygous K222 goats also developed the disease, but with incubation periods that were 4 to 5 times longer than those in WT animals. These results support the contention that the K222 goat prion protein variant provides a strong but not absolutely protective effect against classical scrapie. PMID:24284317
Haber, Benjamin M.; Green, Joseph J.
When doing mission analysis and design of an imaging system in orbit around the Earth, answering the fundamental question of imaging performance requires an understanding of the image products that will be produced by the imaging system. GOATS software represents a series of MATLAB functions to provide for geometric image projections. Unique features of the software include function modularity, a standard MATLAB interface, easy-to-understand first-principles-based analysis, and the ability to perform geometric image projections of framing type imaging systems. The software modules are created for maximum analysis utility, and can all be used independently for many varied analysis tasks, or used in conjunction with other orbit analysis tools.
AL-Suwaiegh, S. B.
Twenty Ardi lactating goats were used to investigate the effect of substituting 10%, 15%, and 20% of concentrate feed with date pits on milk production, composition, and blood parameters. Four isocaloric and isonitrogenous dietary treatments were used. Four levels (0% [control], 10%, 15%, and 20%) of date pits were used to replace concentrate feed. The forages to concentrate ratio used was 60 to 40. Dry matter intake (DMI) of goats fed diets containing 10% and 15% date pits was significantly (p<0.05) higher than those fed diets containing 0% and 20%. However, goats fed a diet containing 20% date pits were significantly (p<0.05) lower in DMI compared to those fed control diet. The protein percent was significantly higher for goats fed control diet compared to the other dietary treatments. Total solids percent was significantly the lowest for goats fed diet supplemented with 10% date pits. Goats fed a diet containing 20% date pits was significantly (p<0.05) higher in the total protein compared to those fed a diet containing 10%. In addition, goats fed a diet containing 15% date pits exhibited no significant differences in the total protein percent compared to those fed a diet containing 20% date pits. Triglyceride was significantly higher for goats fed diets containing 10% and 20% date pits compared to those fed 15% date pits. Results obtained in the present study suggest that date pits can be added up to 20% of the concentrate feeds into lactating Ardi goat diets without negative effects on their productive performance. PMID:26949951
Al-Suwaiegh, S B
Twenty Ardi lactating goats were used to investigate the effect of substituting 10%, 15%, and 20% of concentrate feed with date pits on milk production, composition, and blood parameters. Four isocaloric and isonitrogenous dietary treatments were used. Four levels (0% [control], 10%, 15%, and 20%) of date pits were used to replace concentrate feed. The forages to concentrate ratio used was 60 to 40. Dry matter intake (DMI) of goats fed diets containing 10% and 15% date pits was significantly (p<0.05) higher than those fed diets containing 0% and 20%. However, goats fed a diet containing 20% date pits were significantly (p<0.05) lower in DMI compared to those fed control diet. The protein percent was significantly higher for goats fed control diet compared to the other dietary treatments. Total solids percent was significantly the lowest for goats fed diet supplemented with 10% date pits. Goats fed a diet containing 20% date pits was significantly (p<0.05) higher in the total protein compared to those fed a diet containing 10%. In addition, goats fed a diet containing 15% date pits exhibited no significant differences in the total protein percent compared to those fed a diet containing 20% date pits. Triglyceride was significantly higher for goats fed diets containing 10% and 20% date pits compared to those fed 15% date pits. Results obtained in the present study suggest that date pits can be added up to 20% of the concentrate feeds into lactating Ardi goat diets without negative effects on their productive performance.
Lu, Jing; Liu, Lu; Pang, Xiaoyang; Zhang, Shuwen; Jia, Zhenhu; Ma, Changlu; Zhao, Lili; Lv, Jiaping
As an important nutrient source in large area of world, the composition and nutritional value of goat milk are not well deliberated. Detailed annotation of protein composition is essential to address the physiological and nutritional value of goat milk. In the present study, 423 colostrum and mature goat milk fat globule membrane (MFGM) proteins were identified. The abundance of 189 proteins was significantly different between colostrums and mature milk MFGM. The acute phase proteins were higher in colostrums MFGM than those in mature milk MFGM which protected newborns at the beginning of life. Proteins related to synthesis and secretion were conserved through lactation to ensure the milk production. Of note, long term depression (LTD) proteins were observed in colostrum and mature milk MFGM. Milk LTD proteins could be potential biomarkers for diagnosis of lactation related depressive syndromes and should be taken into considerations of their effects on newborns. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Brundige, Dottie R; Maga, Elizabeth A; Klasing, Kirk C; Murray, James D
Transgenesis provides a method of expressing novel proteins in milk to increase the functional benefits of milk consumption. Transgenic goats expressing human lysozyme (hLZ) at 67% of the concentration in human breast milk were produced, thereby enhancing the antimicrobial properties of goats' milk. The objective of this study was to investigate the impact of pasteurized milk containing hLZ on growth, the intestinal epithelium, and an enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) infection in young weaned pigs. Pigs were placed into 4 groups and fed a diet of solid food and either control (nontransgenic) goats' milk or milk from hLZ-transgenic goats. Growth was assessed by weight gain. Nonchallenged pigs were necropsied after 6 wk, whereas the remaining pigs were necropsied at 7 wk following bacterial challenge. We determined the numbers of total coliforms and E. coli and examined small intestinal histology for all pigs. Complete blood counts were also determined pre- and postchallenge. Challenged pigs receiving hLZ milk had fewer total coliforms (P = 0.029) and E. coli (P = 0.030) in the ileum than controls. hLZ-fed pigs also had a greater duodenal villi width (P = 0.029) than controls. Additionally, nonchallenged hLZ-fed pigs had fewer intraepithelial lymphocytes per micron of villi height (P = 0.020) than nonchallenged controls. These results indicate that the consumption of pasteurized hLZ goats' milk has the potential to improve gastrointestinal health and is protective against an EPEC in young weaned pigs. These same benefits may occur in young children if they were to consume milk from hLZ-transgenic goats.
... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Goats. 91.6 Section 91.6 Animals and... EXPORTATION Diagnostic Tests, Treatments § 91.6 Goats. (a) In order to be eligible for export, goats shall be...) Tuberculosis. All goats over 1 month of age shall be negative to a caudal intradermal tuberculin test using 0.1...
... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Goats. 91.6 Section 91.6 Animals and... EXPORTATION Diagnostic Tests, Treatments § 91.6 Goats. (a) In order to be eligible for export, goats shall be...) Tuberculosis. All goats over 1 month of age shall be negative to a caudal intradermal tuberculin test using 0.1...
Kapadiya, Dhartiben B; Prajapati, Darshna B; Jain, Amit Kumar; Mehta, Bhavbhuti M; Darji, Vijaykumar B; Aparnathi, Kishorkumar D
The study was undertaken to find out the gross composition, nitrogen distribution, and selected mineral content in Surti goat milk, and its comparison was made between cow and buffalo milk. Goat milk samples of Surti breed and buffalo milk samples were collected during the period from July to January 2014 at Reproductive Biology Research Unit, Anand Agricultural University (AAU), Anand. Cow milk samples of Kankrej breed were collected from Livestock Research Station, AAU, Anand. Samples were analyzed for gross composition such as total solids (TS), fat, solid not fat (SNF), protein, lactose, and ash. Samples were also analyzed for nitrogen distribution such as total nitrogen (TN), non-casein nitrogen (NCN), non-protein nitrogen (NPN), and selected minerals content such as calcium, magnesium, phosphorous, and chloride. Total five replications were carried out. Goat milk had the lowest TS, fat, protein, and lactose content among all three types of milk studied in the present investigation. On the other hand, the highest TS, fat, protein, and lactose content were found in buffalo milk. Buffalo milk had the highest SNF, calcium, magnesium, and phosphorous content, which was followed by goat milk and lowest in cow milk. The SNF, protein, TN, and calcium content of goat milk were statistically non-significant (p<0.05) with cow milk. The lactose content of goat milk was significantly lower (p>0.05) than that of the cow milk as well as buffalo milk. The goat milk had the highest ash and NCN content, which were followed by buffalo milk and lowest in cow milk. However, the differences in ash, NPN, and phosphorous content of three types of milk studied, viz., goat milk, cow milk, and buffalo milk were found statistically non-significant (p<0.05). The NCN content of buffalo milk was statistically non-significant (p<0.05) with cow milk as well as goat milk. The NCN and magnesium content of goat milk were significantly higher (p>0.05) than that of the cow milk. The magnesium
Madsen-Bouterse, Sally A; Zhuang, Dongyue; O'Rourke, Katherine I; Schneider, David A
The protein misfolding cyclic amplification (PMCA) assay allows for detection of prion protein misfolding activity in tissues and fluids from sheep with scrapie where it was previously undetected by conventional western blot and immunohistochemistry assays. Studies of goats with scrapie have yet to take advantage of PMCA, which could aid in discerning the risk of transmission between goats and goats to sheep. The aim of the current study was to adapt PMCA for evaluation of scrapie derived from goats. Diluted brain homogenate from scrapie-infected goats (i.e., the scrapie seed, PrP(Sc)) was subjected to PMCA using normal brain homogenate from ovinized transgenic mice (tg338) as the source of normal cellular prion protein (the substrate, PrP(C)). The assay end-point was detection of the proteinase K-resistant misfolded prion protein core (PrP(res)) by western blot. Protein misfolding activity was consistently observed in caprine brain homogenate diluted 10,000-fold after 5 PMCA rounds. Epitope mapping by western blot analyses demonstrated that PrP(res) post-PMCA was readily detected with an N-terminus anti-PrP monoclonal antibody (P4), similar to scrapie inoculum from goats. This was in contrast to limited detection of PrP(res) with P4 following mouse bioassay. The inverse was observed with a monoclonal antibody to the C-terminus (F99/97.6.1). Thus, brain homogenate prepared from uninoculated tg338 served as an appropriate substrate for serial PMCA of PrP(Sc) derived from goats. These observations suggest that concurrent PMCA and bioassay with tg338 could improve characterization of goat derived scrapie.
Dassanayake, Rohana P; Schneider, David A; Herrmann-Hoesing, Lynn M; Truscott, Thomas C; Davis, William C; O'Rourke, Katherine I
Although host-encoded prion protein (PrP(C)) expression in ovine PBMCs and prion infectivity in scrapie-infected sheep blood have been demonstrated, such studies have not been reported in goats. Therefore, this study characterized cell-surface expression of PrP(C) on PBMC subsets derived from normal goats and sheep, by flow cytometry, and determined prion infectivity in blood from a scrapie-infected goat using a transfusion bioassay in goat kids. Cell-surface PrP(C) expression was detected on all subsets of goat PBMCs. The highest PrP(C) cell-surface expression was found in CD2(+) T lymphocytes in goats. Transmission of infection was detected in all three recipients who received whole blood from a goat with classical scrapie. It was concluded that caprine PBMCs express PrP(C) similarly to sheep but with relative differences among PBMCs subsets, and that blood-borne infectious prions can be detected in scrapie-infected goats. Thus, similar to sheep, goat blood may be a suitable diagnostic target for the detection of scrapie infection.
Blanco, Ayelén Melisa; Gómez-Boronat, Miguel; Alonso-Gómez, Ángel Luis; Yufa, Roman; Unniappan, Suraj; Delgado, María Jesús; Valenciano, Ana Isabel
Ghrelin is the only known hormone posttranslationally modified with an acylation. This modification is crucial for most of ghrelin’s physiological effects and is catalyzed by the polytopic enzyme ghrelin O-acyltransferase (GOAT). The aim of this study was to characterize GOAT in a teleost model, goldfish (Carassius auratus). First, the full-length cDNA sequence was obtained by RT-PCR and rapid amplification of cDNA ends methods. Two highly homologous cDNAs of 1491 and 1413 bp, respectively, named goat-V1 and goat-V2 were identified. Deduced protein sequences (393 and 367 amino acids, respectively) are predicted to present 11 and 9 transmembrane regions, respectively, and both contain two conserved key residues proposed to be involved in catalysis: asparagine 273 and histidine 304. RT-qPCR revealed that both forms of goat mRNAs show a similar widespread tissue distribution, with the highest expression in the gastrointestinal tract and gonads and less but considerable expression in brain, pituitary, liver and adipose tissue. Immunostaining of intestinal sections showed the presence of GOAT immunoreactive cells in the intestinal mucosa, some of which colocalize with ghrelin. Using an in vitro approach, we observed that acylated ghrelin downregulates GOAT gene and protein levels in cultured intestine in a time-dependent manner. Finally, we found a rhythmic oscillation of goat mRNA expression in the hypothalamus, pituitary and intestinal bulb of goldfish fed at midday, but not at midnight. Together, these findings report novel data characterizing GOAT, and offer new information about the ghrelinergic system in fish. PMID:28178327
We tested the effect of feeding one-seed juniper on total intake, VFA profile, and plasma amino acids (AA) of 12 does and 12 ewes fed sudangrass and a basal diet with no protein supplement (Control; 5% CP) or rumen degradable (SBM; RDP 15% CP) or undegradable (FM; RUP 15% CP) protein supplement. Aft...
Scatamburlo, T M; Yamazi, A K; Cavicchioli, V Q; Pieri, F A; Nero, L A
Pseudomonas spp. are usually associated with spoilage microflora of dairy products due to their proteolytic potential. This is of particular concern for protein-based products, such as goat milk cheeses and fermented milks. Therefore, the goal of the present study was to characterize the proteolytic activity of Pseudomonas spp. isolated from goat milk. Goat milk samples (n=61) were obtained directly from bulk tanks on dairy goat farms (n=12), and subjected to a modified International Organization for Standardization (ISO) protocol to determine the number and proteolytic activity of Pseudomonas spp. Isolates (n=82) were obtained, identified by PCR, and subjected to pulsed-field gel electrophoresis with XbaI macro-restriction. Then, the isolates were subjected to PCR to detect the alkaline protease gene (apr), and phenotypic tests were performed to check proteolytic activity at 7°C, 25°C, and 35°C. Mean Pseudomonas spp. counts ranged from 2.9 to 4.8 log cfu/mL, and proteolytic Pseudomonas spp. counts ranged from 1.9 to 4.6 log cfu/mL. All isolates were confirmed to be Pseudomonas spp., and 41 were identified as Pseudomonas fluorescens, which clustered into 5 groups sharing approximately 82% similarity. Thirty-six isolates (46.9%) were positive for the apr gene; and 57 (69.5%) isolates presented proteolytic activity at 7°C, 82 (100%) at 25°C, and 64 (78%) at 35°C. The isolates were distributed ubiquitously in the goat farms, and no relationship among isolates was observed when the goat farms, presence of apr, pulsotypes, and proteolytic activity were taken into account. We demonstrated proteolytic activity of Pseudomonas spp. present in goat milk by phenotypic and genotypic tests and indicated their spoilage potential at distinct temperatures. Based on these findings and the ubiquity of Pseudomonas spp. in goat farm environments, proper monitoring and control of Pseudomonas spp. during production are critical.
Dong, Yang; Zhang, Xiaolei; Xie, Min; Arefnezhad, Babak; Wang, Zongji; Wang, Wenliang; Feng, Shaohong; Huang, Guodong; Guan, Rui; Shen, Wenjing; Bunch, Rowan; McCulloch, Russell; Li, Qiye; Li, Bo; Zhang, Guojie; Xu, Xun; Kijas, James W; Salekdeh, Ghasem Hosseini; Wang, Wen; Jiang, Yu
Domestic goats (Capra hircus) have been selected to play an essential role in agricultural production systems, since being domesticated from their wild progenitor, bezoar (Capra aegagrus). A detailed understanding of the genetic consequences imparted by the domestication process remains a key goal of evolutionary genomics. We constructed the reference genome of bezoar and sequenced representative breeds of domestic goats to search for genomic changes that likely have accompanied goat domestication and breed formation. Thirteen copy number variation genes associated with coat color were identified in domestic goats, among which ASIP gene duplication contributes to the generation of light coat-color phenotype in domestic goats. Analysis of rapidly evolving genes identified genic changes underlying behavior-related traits, immune response and production-related traits. Based on the comparison studies of copy number variation genes and rapidly evolving genes between wild and domestic goat, our findings and methodology shed light on the genetic mechanism of animal domestication and will facilitate future goat breeding.
Puschner, B; Holstege, D M; Lamberski, N
Six Nubian goats were exposed to an azalea branch (Rhododendron indica) at the Riverbanks Zoological Park in Columbia, South Carolina. The following day, 3 of the 6 goats were referred to the veterinary hospital of the Riverbanks Zoological Park with bloat, profuseregurgitation, and signs of depression, intermittent head pressing, and fine muscle tremors in the hind limbs. The goats were treated with magnesium hydroxide, activated charcoal, and lactated Ringer's solution and recovered within 24 hours. Definitive diagnosis of grayanotoxin exposure was accomplished by use of liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of urine and fecal samples. Rhododendron spp are members of the Ericaceae (Heath) family and may contain grayanotoxins, which exert toxic effects by binding to sodium channels in cell membranes and increasing the permeability of sodium ions in excitable membranes. Rhododendron poisoning should be considered in animals with clinical evidence of gastrointestinal tract irritation, cardiac arrhythmias, and neurologic signs.
Fresno Baquero, María; Álvarez Ríos, Sergio; Rodríguez Rodríguez, Elena; Díaz Romero, Carlos; Darias Martín, Jacinto
Dry matter, protein, fat, pH, mineral (Na, K, Ca and Mg) and trace elements (Fe, Cu, Zn and Se) concentrations were determined in samples of goats' milk and in fresh, semi-hard and hard cheeses to study the effect of the goats' diet and the type of rennet used for the cheese processing of the Palmero Protected Designation of Origin cheeses. Two groups of 20 Palmero goats were fed 2 different diets: a Palmero diet (PD supplied by native forages adapted to subhumid areas, which had a high ratio of long fibre to concentrates (65:35), and an actual diet (AD), the most commonly used by goat farmers, with a low ratio of long fibre to concentrates (35:65). In general, the cheese samples from goats fed with PD had higher mean Ca, Zn, Cu and Se concentrations than the samples obtained from AD fed goats. The diet exhibited a greater influence on the chemical composition of the cheeses than the rennet used in their production. Applying a stepwise linear discriminant analysis a complete percentage of correct classifications of the three types of cheeses according to the diet of the goats was observed.
Kung, M H; Lee, Y J; Hsu, J T; Huang, M C; Ju, Y T
Goat β-casein (CSN2) promoter has been extensively used to derive expression of recombinant therapeutic protein in transgenic goats; however, little direct evidence exists for signaling molecules and the cis-elements of goat CSN2 promoter in response to lactogenic hormone stimulation in goat mammary epithelial cells. Here, we use an immortalized caprine mammary epithelial cell line (CMC) to search for evidence of the above. Serial 5'-flanking regions deleted of promoter and intron 1 in goat CSN2 (-4,047 to +2,054) driven by firefly luciferase reporter gene were constructed and applied to measure promoter activity in CMC. The intron 1 region (+393 to +501) significantly decreased basal activity of the promoter. This finding contradicts other studies of the role of intron 1. The signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT)5a played a significant role in activating promoter activity by prolactin stimulation. Hydrocortisone enhanced and prolonged the activity of STAT5a and promoter in CMC, but was independent of the glucocorticoid receptor response element. The minimum length of the CSN2 promoter segment in response to lactogenic stimulation was confirmed by 5' serial deletions. A cis-element located from -300 to -90 in proximal goat CSN2 promoter that is absent in bovine and human CSN2 promoter was newly identified. We demonstrated the presence of a STAT5a binding site (-102 to -82) and preservation of the guanosine nucleotide at position -90 based on responses to the presence of lactogenic hormone using internal deletions and point mutations of the predicted STAT5a binding site, and chromatin immunoprecipitation assay. Together, these findings demonstrate that the proximal -300 bp of goat CSN2 promoter containing the STAT5a binding site (-102 to -82) is the response element for lactogenic hormone stimulation. Additionally, intron 1 may be required for tissue or developmental stage-specific expression in mammary gland. The role of the far-distal regions of
Cunsolo, Vincenzo; Fasoli, Elisa; Saletti, Rosaria; Muccilli, Vera; Gallina, Serafina; Righetti, Pier Giorgio; Foti, Salvatore
The goat whey proteome has been explored in depth via capture with combinatorial peptide ligand libraries (CPLLs) at three different pH values. A total of 452 unique species have been tabulated, a proteome discovery so far unmatched in any single other investigation of milk from any mammalian species. This massive discovery is probably related to: i) the extraordinary load of proteins onto the CPLL beads (i.e. 2 g for each different pH captures) vs. barely 100 μL of beads; ii) the high resolution/high mass accuracy of mass spectral data; and iii) the use of two complementary tools, Mascot and PEAKS, each one contributing to a set of unique protein IDs. Due to the relative paucity of available protein annotations for goat, only 10% of the identified proteins belong to the capra, whereas 52% are specific of sheep and 37% are homologous to that of bovine milk. This work reports the largest description so far of the goat milk proteome, which has been compared with cow's milk proteome and would thus help to understand the importance of low-abundance proteins with respect to the unique biological properties of this nutrient.
Abo el-Sooud, K
The pharmacokinetics of amikacin was studied in five lactating goats after single intravenous and intramuscular administrations of 7.5 mg kg-1 body weight. After intravenous injection, the plasma concentration-time curve of amikacin was characteristic of a two-compartment open model with a distribution half-life of 11.03 min and an elimination half-life of 114.81 min. The mean residence time was 142.96 min and the volume of the central compartment was 0.061 kg-1. Following intramuscular injection, amikacin was rapidly absorbed with an absorption half-life of 20.39 min. The peak plasma concentration was 34.48 micrograms ml-1 and was attained at 62.15 min. The elimination half-life of amikacin after intramuscular administration was 122.86 min and the corresponding mean residence time was 205.51 min. The systemic bioavailability of amikacin after intramuscular administration was 98.27%. Amikacin was not bound to plasma and milk proteins in vitro. Amikacin was detected only at low concentrations in the goat's milk 2-6 h after intravenous and intramuscular injections. Amikacin urine concentrations were much higher than those of plasma. Thus, amikacin is likely to be efficacious in the eradication of many Gram-negative urinary tract pathogens.
Haber, Benjamin M.; Green, Joseph J.
The GOATS Orbitology Component software was developed to specifically address the concerns presented by orbit analysis tools that are often written as stand-alone applications. These applications do not easily interface with standard JPL first-principles analysis tools, and have a steep learning curve due to their complicated nature. This toolset is written as a series of MATLAB functions, allowing seamless integration into existing JPL optical systems engineering modeling and analysis modules. The functions are completely open, and allow for advanced users to delve into and modify the underlying physics being modeled. Additionally, this software module fills an analysis gap, allowing for quick, high-level mission analysis trades without the need for detailed and complicated orbit analysis using commercial stand-alone tools. This software consists of a series of MATLAB functions to provide for geometric orbit-related analysis. This includes propagation of orbits to varying levels of generalization. In the simplest case, geosynchronous orbits can be modeled by specifying a subset of three orbit elements. The next case is a circular orbit, which can be specified by a subset of four orbit elements. The most general case is an arbitrary elliptical orbit specified by all six orbit elements. These orbits are all solved geometrically, under the basic problem of an object in circular (or elliptical) orbit around a rotating spheroid. The orbit functions output time series ground tracks, which serve as the basis for more detailed orbit analysis. This software module also includes functions to track the positions of the Sun, Moon, and arbitrary celestial bodies specified by right ascension and declination. Also included are functions to calculate line-of-sight geometries to ground-based targets, angular rotations and decompositions, and other line-of-site calculations. The toolset allows for the rapid execution of orbit trade studies at the level of detail required for the
Moreno-Fernandez, Jorge; Diaz-Castro, Javier; Pulido-Moran, Mario; Alferez, Maria J M; Nestares, Teresa; Lopez-Aliaga, Inmaculada
Anaemia is associated with fatigue and diminished muscular oxygenation, which may affect skeletal muscle (SM). No studies are available about the SM modifications during anaemia recovery; therefore, the aim of this study is to study SM homeostasis during anaemia recovery with fermented milks. Forty male Wistar rats were placed on a pre-experimental period of 40 days, divided in two groups (control group receiving normal-Fe diet and Fe-deficient group receiving low-Fe diet). Lately, rats were fed with fermented goat or cow milk-based diets, with normal-Fe content during 30 days. After feeding the fermented milks, leptin, adiponectin, non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) and protein expression (UCP1, PepT1 and irisin) within the SM were assessed. Adiponectin decreased in both groups of animals fed fermented goat milk, while leptin and NEFA increased. UCP1 protein expression increased in control and anaemic animals fed fermented goat milk. UCP1 also increased in both group of anaemic animals fed either fermented cow or goat milk in comparison with their controls. Irisin increased in both group of animals fed fermented goat milk. Finally, PepT1 also showed an increased expression in control and anaemic rats fed fermented goat milk and the anaemia also induced an over-expression of this transporter in animals fed either fermented cow or goat milk. Fermented goat milk consumption during anaemia recovery diminishes adiposity depots and enhances lipolysis, increasing UCP1, PepT1 and irisin protein expression, featuring an ergogenic effect in the SM which is an important endocrine regulator of body metabolism.
Dahlborn, K; Holtenius, K; Olsson, K
In five goats water deprivation for 26 h increased plasma osmolality, total plasma protein concentration, and plasma vasopressin (AVP) concentration to higher levels during lactation compared to nonlactation. At the end of the dehydration period intraruminal loads of saline or water (corresponding to 50% of the body weight loss) were given to lactating goats. The saline load decreased the plasma protein concentration below control levels, while plasma osmolality, Na concentration and AVP did not change. After the water load the plasma protein concentration stayed elevated. Plasma osmolality, Na concentration and AVP fell, but remained significantly above control levels. Both plasma renin activity (PRA) and aldosterone (PA) concentration increased after water, but decreased after saline administration. Three hours after the fluid loads the goats were offered water to drink. AVP decreased at the sight of water. After drinking, plasma osmolality, Na and AVP continued to decrease in water loaded animals, and fell also in saline loaded goats. PRA remained elevated, and PA increased in water loaded goats, while these hormones still were depressed in saline loaded goats. Mean renal 'free water clearance' became positive after drinking in both groups. It is concluded that the water losses with the milk cause lactating goats to become dehydrated more rapidly than non-lactating goats during water deprivation. Lowering of the plasma osmolality and Na concentration are more important than restoration of the plasma volume in suppressing the high plasma AVP concentration in the dehydrated lactating goat. The water diuresis, which occurred after voluntary drinking, indicates that the goats had not been able to anticipate their water deficit accurately.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
Bhanuprakash, V; Venkatesan, G; Balamurugan, V; Hosamani, M; Yogisharadhya, R; Chauhan, R S; Pande, A; Mondal, B; Singh, R K
Sheeppox and goatpox outbreaks occur often in India incurring huge economic loss to the small ruminant industry. This paper describes two sheeppox outbreaks, of which one occurred in an organized sheep breeding farm at Makhdoom (Uttar Pradesh), India, during 2007 and another in goats at the Central Institute of Research on Goats, Makhdoom (Uttar Pradesh), India during 2008. In the first outbreak, a local Muzaffarnagari sheep breed was affected (n=477) with morbidity and mortality rates, respectively, of 100% and 53.9% accompanied by significant productivity losses. In the 2008 outbreaks, a small number of goats were affected without any mortality. The tissue and swabs collected from both the outbreaks were processed and inoculated onto Vero cells, and the causative agent of the outbreaks, capripox virus (CaPV), was isolated. The identity of the virus was confirmed as CaPV based on electron microscopy, experimental pathogenesis in sheep, capripox-specific conventional and real-time PCRs. Sequence analysis of the P32 envelope protein gene revealed that the causative agent of both outbreaks was confirmed as sheeppox virus (SPPV) implying SPPV infection not only in sheep but also goats in India. © 2010 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.
The biochemical mechanisms that limit voluntary intake of one-seed juniper by browsing ruminants are not well understood. Twelve Rambouillet ewes (78 ± 2.3 kg BW) and 12 Boer-Spanish does (54 ± 1.4 kg BW) were used in a split-plot sequence design to investigate the effects of adding protein, quebrac...
We tested the effect of polyethylene glycol (PEG) on juniper and total intake, rumen fermentation, and plasma amino acids (AA) of 12 does and 12 ewes fed sudangrass and basal diets containing 10% quebracho tannins with no protein supplement (Control; 5% CP) or high rumen degradable (RDP 15% CP) or u...
Brown, R. Kipp
This guide provides information for 4-H Club members who have decided on a club goat project. Topics include general information in the following areas: show rules; facilities and equipment (barns/sheds, fences, feeders, water containers, and equipment); selection (structural correctness, muscle, volume and capacity, style and balance, and growth…
Minka, Salka Ndazo; Ayo, Joseph Olusegun
This study investigated the effects of 12 hr of road transportation during the hot-dry conditions and the modulating role of ascorbic acid (AA) on the hydration state of goats. Twenty goats who served as treatment goats received oral administration of 100 mg/kg body weight of AA, whereas another 20 control goats received sterile water; thereafter, the goats were loaded and transported. The study determined changes in skin thickness; albumin (Alb); total protein (TP); elimination of the gut content; fecal water; urine specific gravity (SG); and pH before, during, and after the transportation. The result obtained in the control goats showed significant (p < .05) increases in the values of TP, Alb, urine SG, and pH; elimination; and drinking behavior, whereas skin thickness decreased over transportation. In the treatment goats who were administered AA, the changes observed in the values were insignificant (p > .05). In conclusion, 12-hr road transportation of goats induced dehydration, which may affect the welfare and health status of the goats. The administration of AA ameliorated the risk of adverse effects of handling, loading, transportation, and hot-dry conditions on hydration state of goats.
Vaccari, Gabriele; Panagiotidis, Cynthia H.; Acin, Cristina; Peletto, Simone; Barillet, Francis; Acutis, Pierluigi; Bossers, Alex; Langeveld, Jan; van Keulen, Lucien; Sklaviadis, Theodoros; Badiola, Juan J.; Andréoletti, Olivier; Groschup, Martin H.; Agrimi, Umberto; Foster, James; Goldmann, Wilfred
Scrapie is a fatal, neurodegenerative disease of sheep and goats. It is also the earliest known member in the family of diseases classified as transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSE) or prion diseases, which includes Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in humans, bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE), and chronic wasting disease in cervids. The recent revelation of naturally occurring BSE in a goat has brought the issue of TSE in goats to the attention of the public. In contrast to scrapie, BSE presents a proven risk to humans. The risk of goat BSE, however, is difficult to evaluate, as our knowledge of TSE in goats is limited. Natural caprine scrapie has been discovered throughout Europe, with reported cases generally being greatest in countries with the highest goat populations. As with sheep scrapie, susceptibility and incubation period duration of goat scrapie are most likely controlled by the prion protein (PrP) gene (PRNP). Like the PRNP of sheep, the caprine PRNP shows significantly greater variability than that of cattle and humans. Although PRNP variability in goats differs from that observed in sheep, the two species share several identical alleles. Moreover, while the ARR allele associated with enhancing resistance in sheep is not present in the goat PRNP, there is evidence for the existence of other PrP variants related to resistance. This review presents the current knowledge of the epidemiology of caprine scrapie within the major European goat populations, and compiles the current data on genetic variability of PRNP. PMID:19505422
Bai, Ding-Ping; Yang, Ming-Ming; Qu, Lei; Chen, Yu-Lin
The development of transgenic technologies in the Cashmere goat (Capra hircus) has the potential to improve the quality of the meat and wool. The piggyBac (PB) transposon system is highly efficient and can be used to transpose specific target genes into the genome. Here, we developed a PB transposon system to produce transgenic Cashmere goat fetal fibroblasts (GFFs) with the enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP). We then used the genetically modified GFFs as nuclear donors to generate transgenic embryos by somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT). The embryos (n = 40) were implanted into female goats (n = 20). One transgenic kid that expressed EGFP throughout the surface features of its body was born. This result demonstrated the usefulness of PB transposon system in generating transgenic Cashmere goats. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Zhao, Lily; Zhang, Shuwen; Uluko, Hankie; Liu, Lu; Lu, Jing; Xue, Haixiao; Kong, Fanhua; Lv, Jiaping
The effects of ultrasound (US) pretreatment on goat milk before rennet-induced coagulation were studied in order to improve the milk coagulation properties. Skimmed goat milk was subjected to US at 800 W for different times (0-20 min) and various parameters were evaluated. The particle sizes in US pretreated goat milk under the transmission electron microscopy were smaller than in untreated samples. For US pretreated samples, the degree of whey protein denaturation, contents of soluble calcium and phosphorus increased by 9.57%, 16.90% and 13.68%, respectively. The gel firmness, coagulum strength, final storage modulus, cohesiveness, water holding capacity and cross-linking of gels demonstrated marked increase. The turbiscan stability index (TSI) also confirmed the improvement of goat milk coagulation properties with increasing duration of US pretreatment, whereas the gelation time was prolonged. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Moreno-Fernandez, Jorge; Diaz-Castro, Javier; Alférez, María Jm; Boesch, Christine; Nestares, Teresa; López-Aliaga, Inmaculada
Iron deficiency anemia (IDA) is one of the most common nutritional problems in the world, and it is accepted that reactive oxygen species (ROS) production is altered during IDA. The aim of this study was to assess the influence of fermented goat and cow milks on enzymatic antioxidant activities and gene expression, and their role in protecting from oxidative damage during anemia recovery. After feeding the fermented milks-based diets (cow or goat), a significant elevation of some antioxidant endogenous enzymes was found, together with an increase in total antioxidant status (TAS), and a decrease in 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) was recorded in animals consuming fermented goat milk-based diet. In contrast, DNA strand breaks, hydroperoxides, 15-F2t-isoprostanes and protein carbonyl groups were lower in some tissues in animals fed fermented goat milk-based diet, revealing an improvement in both systemic and cellular antioxidant activity of plasma and tissues due to fermented goat milk consumption. Fermented goat milk consumption induces a protective increase in TAS together with lower oxidative damage biomarkers, revealing that the milk protects main cell bioconstituents (lipids, protein, DNA, prostaglandins) from evoked oxidative damage during anemia recovery. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.
Moreno-Fernández, Jorge; Díaz-Castro, Javier; Alférez, Maria J M; Hijano, Silvia; Nestares, Teresa; López-Aliaga, Inmaculada
The aim of this study was to identify the differences between the main macro and micronutrients including proteins, fat, minerals and vitamins in cow and goat dehydrated fermented milks. Fermented goat milk had higher protein and lower ash content. All amino acids (except for Ala), were higher in fermented goat milk than in fermented cow milk. Except for the values of C11:0, C13:0, C16:0, C18:0, C20:5, C22:5 and the total quantity of saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids, all the other fatty acid studied were significantly different in both fermented milks. Ca, Mg, Zn, Fe, Cu and Se were higher in fermented goat milk. Fermented goat milk had lower amounts of folic acid, vitamin E and C, and higher values of vitamin A, D3, B6 and B12. The current study demonstrates the better nutritional characteristics of fermented goat milk, suggesting a potential role of this dairy product as a high nutritional value food.
Maestrale, Caterina; Cancedda, Maria G.; Pintus, Davide; Masia, Mariangela; Nonno, Romolo; Ru, Giuseppe; Carta, Antonello; Demontis, Francesca; Santucciu, Cinzia
ABSTRACT Thirty-seven goats carrying different prion protein genotypes (PRNP) were orally infected with a classical scrapie brain homogenate from wild-type (ARQ/ARQ) sheep and then mated to obtain 2 additional generations of offspring, which were kept in the same environment and allowed to be naturally exposed to scrapie. Occurrence of clinical or subclinical scrapie was observed in the experimentally infected goats (F0) and in only one (F1b) of the naturally exposed offspring groups. In both groups (F0 and F1b), goats carrying the R154H, H154H, R211Q, and P168Q-P240P dimorphisms died of scrapie after a longer incubation period than wild-type, G37V, Q168Q-P240P, and S240P goats. In contrast, D145D and Q222K goats were resistant to infection. The immunobiochemical signature of the scrapie isolate and its pathological aspects observed in the sheep donors were substantially maintained over 2 goat generations, i.e., after experimental and natural transmission. This demonstrates that the prion protein gene sequence, which is shared by sheep and goats, is more powerful than any possible but unknown species-related factors in determining scrapie phenotypes. With regard to genetics, our study confirms that the K222 mutation protects goats even against ovine scrapie isolates, and for the first time, a possible association of D145 mutation with scrapie resistance is shown. In addition, it is possible that the sole diverse frequencies of these genetic variants might, at least in part, shape the prevalence of scrapie among naturally exposed progenies in affected herds. IMPORTANCE This study was aimed at investigating the genetic and pathological features characterizing sheep-to-goat transmission of scrapie. We show that in goats with different prion protein gene mutations, the K222 genetic variant is associated with scrapie resistance after natural and experimental exposure to ovine prion infectivity. In addition, we observed for the first time a protective effect of the D145
Maestrale, Caterina; Cancedda, Maria G; Pintus, Davide; Masia, Mariangela; Nonno, Romolo; Ru, Giuseppe; Carta, Antonello; Demontis, Francesca; Santucciu, Cinzia; Ligios, Ciriaco
Thirty-seven goats carrying different prion protein genotypes (PRNP) were orally infected with a classical scrapie brain homogenate from wild-type (ARQ/ARQ) sheep and then mated to obtain 2 additional generations of offspring, which were kept in the same environment and allowed to be naturally exposed to scrapie. Occurrence of clinical or subclinical scrapie was observed in the experimentally infected goats (F0) and in only one (F1b) of the naturally exposed offspring groups. In both groups (F0 and F1b), goats carrying the R154H, H154H, R211Q, and P168Q-P240P dimorphisms died of scrapie after a longer incubation period than wild-type, G37V, Q168Q-P240P, and S240P goats. In contrast, D145D and Q222K goats were resistant to infection. The immunobiochemical signature of the scrapie isolate and its pathological aspects observed in the sheep donors were substantially maintained over 2 goat generations, i.e., after experimental and natural transmission. This demonstrates that the prion protein gene sequence, which is shared by sheep and goats, is more powerful than any possible but unknown species-related factors in determining scrapie phenotypes. With regard to genetics, our study confirms that the K222 mutation protects goats even against ovine scrapie isolates, and for the first time, a possible association of D145 mutation with scrapie resistance is shown. In addition, it is possible that the sole diverse frequencies of these genetic variants might, at least in part, shape the prevalence of scrapie among naturally exposed progenies in affected herds. This study was aimed at investigating the genetic and pathological features characterizing sheep-to-goat transmission of scrapie. We show that in goats with different prion protein gene mutations, the K222 genetic variant is associated with scrapie resistance after natural and experimental exposure to ovine prion infectivity. In addition, we observed for the first time a protective effect of the D145 goat variant against
Arsenos, G; Fortomaris, P; Papadopoulos, E; Sotiraki, S; Stamataris, C; Zygoyiannis, D
The effect of dietary protein and gastrointestinal nematode (GIN) parasitism on growth and meat quality of growing kids was assessed using sixty (60) kids in three groups (n=20); A: control, B: regularly treated with ALBENDAZOLE(®) and C: supplemented with dietary protein. The kids grazed in a pasture contaminated with L3 larvae of GIN. Growth and condition score were assessed at 21-day intervals. After 86days all kids were slaughtered. Carcasses were assessed for conformation, fatness, ultimate pH and other meat quality characteristics. Parasitic challenge was assessed by means of faecal egg counts (FEC), pasture larvae and adult nematodes in the GI tract of kids at slaughter. Groups C and B had higher growth rates and body condition score and produced significantly heavier (P<0.05) carcasses with better (P<0.01) conformation and fatness when compared to those of group A. Total unsaturated and monounsaturated fatty acids were higher (P<0.05) in fat tissue of groups B and C. Group A had the highest FEC and group C had the lowest (P<0.05) FEC. The parasitic challenge of L3 on pasture reached its highest point at 42days and there were significant (P<0.01) differences between the numbers of Teladorsagia spp., Trichostrongylus spp., Haemonchus contortus, Oesophagostomum spp. and Chabertia spp. found in the GI tract of kids between the three groups; group A had the highest numbers. Overall, the results showed that the increased protein content in the diet of growing kids grazing on a pasture contaminated with L3 nematode larvae resulted in the production of acceptable carcasses.
Huang, S Z; Huang, Y; Chen, M J; Zeng, F Y; Ren, Z R; Zeng, Y T
The production of valuable pharmaceutical proteins using transgenic animals as bioreactors has become one of the goals of biotechnology. However, the efficiency of producing transgenic animals by means of pronuclear microinjection is low. This may be attributed in part to the low integration rate of foreign DNA. Therefore, a large number of recipients are required to produce transgenic animals. We recently developed a transgenic procedure that combined the techniques of goat oocyte in vitro maturation (IVM), in vitro fertilization (IVF), microinjection, preimplantation selection of the transgenic embryos with nested PCR and transferring the transgenic embryos into the recipient goat uterus to produce transgenic goats. Thirty-seven transgenic embryos determined by nested PCR were transferred to thirty-two recipient goats. In the end, four live-born kids were produced. As predicted, all the live kids were transgenic as identified by PCR as well as Southern blot hybridization, The integration rate was 100% (4/4) which was completely in accordance with the results of embryo preimplantation detection. The results showed a significant decrease in the number of recipients required as only 8 recipients (32/4) were needed to obtain one live transgenic goat. We suggest that the transgenic system described herein may provide an improved way to efficiently produce transgenic goats on a large scale.
Vacca, G M; Pazzola, M; Pisano, C; Carcangiu, V; Diaz, M L; Nieddu, M; Robledo, R; Mezzanotte, R; Dettori, M L
The solute carrier family 11 member A1 (SLC11A1) gene is associated with resistance to infectious diseases. Chromosomal localisation, genomic regions corresponding to functional domains and the genetic variability of microsatellites in the 3' untranslated region (3'-UTR) of this gene were investigated in 427 goats (Capra hircus) of six breeds. Using dual colour fluorescence in situ hybridisation, SLC11A1 was localised to goat chromosome 2. Single strand conformation polymorphism was used to screen for polymorphisms in SLC11A1 exons 2, 10 and 15. There was no variation among goat breeds in the sarcoma homology 3 (SH3) binding motif, the protein kinase C phosphorylation site or the two N-linked glycosylation sites. Exon 15 exhibited variability due to the presence of two polymorphic microsatellites. Genotyping of the upstream guanine-thymine repeat (GTn) at 3'-UTR revealed eight alleles (GT11, GT12, GT14-GT19) in goats, whereas GT13 (present in cattle) was absent. Most goats carried the GT16 allele and no allele was found to be exclusive to only one breed. The coefficient of genetic differentiation value (G(ST)) was 0.084. This microsatellite appears to be an informative DNA marker for genetic linkage analysis in goats.
Zhang, Yan; Lv, Yali; Zhang, Feifei; Zhang, Wenjing; Wang, Jinhong; Cui, Yanyan; Wang, Rongjun; Jian, Fuchun; Zhang, Longxian; Ning, Changshen
Members of the genus Anaplasma are important emerging tick-borne pathogens in both humans and animals in tropical and subtropical areas. Here, we investigated the presence of Anaplasma spp. in 621 sheep and 710 goats from six provinces of China. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and DNA sequencing were conducted to determine the prevalence of Anaplasma (A.) phagocytophilum, A. ovis and A. bovis targeting the 16S ribosomal RNA or the major surface protein 4 gene. PCR revealed Anaplasma in 39.0% (240/621) of sheep and 45.5% (323/710) of goats. The most frequently detected species was A. ovis (88/621, 14.2% for sheep; 129/710, 18.2% for goats), followed by A. bovis (60/621, 9.7% for sheep; 74/710, 10.4% for goats) and A. phagocytophilum (33/621, 5.3% for sheep; 15/710, 2.1% for goats). Additionally, eight sheep and 20 goats were found to be infected with three pathogens simultaneously. DNA sequencing confirmed the presence of these three Anaplasma species in the investigated areas, and phylogenetic analysis indicated that there was geographic segregation to a certain extent, as well as a relationship between the host and cluster of A. ovis. The results of the present study provide valuable data that helps understand the epidemiology of anaplasmosis in ruminants from China.
Zhang, Yan; Lv, Yali; Zhang, Feifei; Zhang, Wenjing; Wang, Jinhong; Cui, Yanyan; Wang, Rongjun; Jian, Fuchun; Zhang, Longxian
Members of the genus Anaplasma are important emerging tick-borne pathogens in both humans and animals in tropical and subtropical areas. Here, we investigated the presence of Anaplasma spp. in 621 sheep and 710 goats from six provinces of China. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and DNA sequencing were conducted to determine the prevalence of Anaplasma (A.) phagocytophilum, A. ovis and A. bovis targeting the 16S ribosomal RNA or the major surface protein 4 gene. PCR revealed Anaplasma in 39.0% (240/621) of sheep and 45.5% (323/710) of goats. The most frequently detected species was A. ovis (88/621, 14.2% for sheep; 129/710, 18.2% for goats), followed by A. bovis (60/621, 9.7% for sheep; 74/710, 10.4% for goats) and A. phagocytophilum (33/621, 5.3% for sheep; 15/710, 2.1% for goats). Additionally, eight sheep and 20 goats were found to be infected with three pathogens simultaneously. DNA sequencing confirmed the presence of these three Anaplasma species in the investigated areas, and phylogenetic analysis indicated that there was geographic segregation to a certain extent, as well as a relationship between the host and cluster of A. ovis. The results of the present study provide valuable data that helps understand the epidemiology of anaplasmosis in ruminants from China. PMID:27456776
Turner, K E; Cassida, K A; Zerby, H N
This experiment was conducted in 2005-2007 to evaluate carcass and chevon (goat meat) quality parameters when meat-goat kids (n=72) were finished on alfalfa (Medicago sativa L; ALF); red clover (Trifolium pratense L.; RCG); or orchardgrass (Dactylis glomerata L.; OGR) pastures. Carcass conformation score was greater (P=0.08) when meat-goat kids were finished on ALF compared to OGR with RCG intermediate. Chevon meat samples from goats finished on the three pasture treatments did not differ in ash, intramuscular fat, or crude protein content or in concentrations of omega6 and omega3 fatty acids, or the omega6 to omega3 ratio. Goats finished on OGR had higher (P<0.001) 18:1 trans-11 fatty acids (FA) compared to ALF or RCG. Overall, meat-goat kids finished on ALF, RCG, or ORG produced desirable carcass weights for most niche markets in the USA. Chevon is a low-fat meat option with high desirable fatty acids for human diets.
Tahmoorespur, Mojtaba; Hosseini, Sayyed Morteza; Ostadhosseini, Somayyeh; Nasiri, Mohammad Reza; Nasr-Esfahani, Mohammad Hossein
Background: Little is understood about the regulation of gene expression during early goat embryo development. This study investigated the expression profile of 19 genes, known to be critical for early embryo development in mouse and human, at five different stages of goat in vitro embryo development (oocyte, 8-16 cell, morula, day-7 blastocyst, and day 14 blastocyst). Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, stage-specific profiling using real time-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) revealed robust and dynamic patterns of stage-specific gene activity that fall into four major clusters depending on their respective mRNA profiles. Results: The gradual pattern of reduction in the maternally stored transcripts without renewal thereafter (cluster-1: Lifr1, Bmpr1, Alk4, Id3, Ctnnb, Akt, Oct4, Rex1, Erk1, Smad1 and 5) implies that their protein products are essential during early cleavages when the goat embryo is silent and reliant to the maternal legacy of mRNA. The potential importance of transcription augment at day-3 (cluster-2: Fzd, c-Myc, Cdc25a, Sox2) or day- 14 (cluster-3: Fgfr4, Nanog) suggests that they are nascent embryonic mRNAs which intimately involved in the overriding of MET or regulation of blastocyst formation, respectively. The observation of two expression peaks at both day-3 and day-14 (cluster-4: Gata4, Cdx2) would imply their potential importance during these two critical stages of preand periimplantation development. Conclusion: Evolutionary comparison revealed that the selected subset of genes has been rewired in goat and human/goat similarity is greater than the mouse/goat or bovine/goat similarities. The developed profiles provide a resource for comprehensive understanding of goat preimplantation development and pluripotent stem cell engineering as well. PMID:27695614
Zhang, Fuxin; Wang, Zhaoxia; Lei, Feiyan; Wang, Bini; Jiang, Shuaiming; Peng, Qiannan; Zhang, Jiachao; Shao, Yuyu
In this study, the V3 and V4 regions of the 16S rRNA gene from metagenomic DNA were sequenced to identify differences in microbial diversity in raw milk of Saanen and Guanzhong goats from the Guanzhong area of China. The results showed that Proteobacteria was the predominant phylum, accounting for 71.31% of all phyla identified in milk from the 2 breeds, and Enterobacter was the predominant genus (24.69%) within the microbial community. Microbial alpha diversity from Saanen goat milk was significantly higher than that of Guanzhong goat milk based on bioinformatic analysis of indices of Chao1, Shannon, Simpson, observed species, and the abundance-based coverage estimator. Functional genes and their likely metabolic pathways were predicted, which demonstrated that the functional genes present in the bacteria in goat milk were enriched in pathways for amino acid metabolism and carbohydrate metabolism, which represented 11.93 and 11.23% of functional genes, respectively. Physicochemical properties such as pH, protein, fat, and AA levels were also determined and correlations made with microbial diversity. We detected a significant difference in the content of lactose and 6 AA, which were higher in Saanen milk than in Guanzhong milk, and positively correlated with microbial carbohydrate metabolism and AA metabolism. Lactococcus, Lactobacillus, Bifidobacterium, Enterococcus, and Streptococcus, which are lactose-utilizing genera, were more abundant in Saanen milk than in Guanzhong milk. Higher levels of lactose in Saanen goat milk may explain its greater microbial diversity. We also demonstrated that most of the AA metabolism-related bacterial genera (e.g., Massilia, Bacteroides, Lysobacter) were enriched in Saanen goat milk. In this research, both probiotic and pathogenic bacteria were identified in goat milk, which provided the microbial information necessary to direct the utilization of beneficial microbial resources and prevent the development of harmful organisms in
Ventura-Cordero, J; González-Pech, P G; Jaimez-Rodriguez, P R; Ortíz-Ocampo, G I; Sandoval-Castro, C A; Torres-Acosta, J F J
It is important to determine whether gastrointestinal nematodes (GINs) affect foliage choice of goats leading to confirm the expression of a self-medication behavior. This study investigated the effect of GIN infection on tropical foliage selection by goats. During experimental stage 1 (10 days), goats had a natural mixed GIN infection, and at stage 2 (10 days), goats were treated with effective anthelmintics to maintain them free of GIN infection. During stage 1 the twelve adult goats (32 ± 2.3 kg live weight [LW]) were assigned to three groups (n = 4) according to their initial GIN infection status: HI group, with fecal egg count (FEC) between 1450 and 2150 eggs per g/feces (EPG); MI group, medium FEC (592-1167 EPG); and the NI group, free from GIN infection. Fresh foliage of four tropical plants were offered to goats ad libitum for 1 h daily: Gymnopodium floribundum (high condensed tannin [CT] content, 37-40 %), Mimosa bahamensis (medium CT content, 16-17 %), Leucaena leucocephala (low CT content, 3-5 %), and Viguiera dentata (negligible CT content, 0.6-0.9 %). Jacobs' selection indexes (JSIs) were estimated for the experimental foliage based on dry matter (DM), CT, or crude protein (CP) intake. During both study stages, individual fecal egg counts were estimated. The JSI patterns of different plant species, based on DM, CT, or CP, were similar irrespective of infection level during stage 1 (HI, MI, and NI) or no GIN infection (stage 2). Thus, irrespective of GIN infection, goats actively selected M. bahamensis (high CT, low CP content) and V. dentata (negligible CT, high CP content) but avoided G. floribundum (high CT, low CP content) and L. leucocephala (medium CT and high CP content). Thus, natural GIN infection did not influence goats' foliage selection.
Salmon, Vianney M; Leclerc, Pierre; Bailey, Janice L
Artificial insemination is well-established in dairy cattle, with sires housed in commercial studs for processing. In some species, however, sires located on-farm are used for artificial insemination by shipping their semen to an off-site laboratory for processing within 24 h of collection. To expedite semen transport from the farm to laboratory, protocols must be uncomplicated. For goat semen, an obstacle is the seminal plasma, which must be removed because it contains proteins that impede sperm quality. Our objective is to develop a simple strategy to transiently store goat semen for 24 h prior to freezing. Cholesterol-loaded cyclodextrin (CLC) has been demonstrated to improve sperm tolerance to cryopreservation. Therefore, we hypothesized that CLC improves goat sperm resistance to seminal plasma damage, over 24 h prior to cryopreservation. We first evaluated the ability of CLC to protect goat sperm against seminal plasma damage by treating fresh semen with or without seminal plasma prior to cryopreservation. Second, fresh goat semen with seminal plasma was extended in skim milk-based extender ± CLC and held for 24 h at 5 °C prior to freezing. Our results indicate that CLC treatment improves goat sperm resistance to seminal plasma-mediated injury and protects sperm quality over 24 h prior to freezing (P < 0.05). Although the in vivo fertility of semen must first be assessed, it is possible that protocols for goat semen cryopreservation can be simplified by including CLC and eliminating seminal plasma removal. Processing and distribution of goat semen for AI would thereby be facilitated. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Lopes, Francisco Canindé; de Paiva, Kaliane Alessandra Rodrigues; Coelho, Wesley Adson Costa; Nunes, Francisco Vítor Aires; da Silva, Jardel Bezerra; de Gouveia Mendes da Escóssia Pinheiro, Carolina; de Macêdo Praça, Layanne; Silva, Jean Berg Alves; Alves Freitas, Carlos Iberê; Batista, Jael Soares
The present study aimed to evaluate the effects of Trypanosoma vivax infection on the shape of the lactation curve and the milk quality of dairy goats experimentally infected with T. vivax. In total, twenty Saanen goats, aged 26-30 months and the same number of calving (two calvings), were divided into two experimental groups: an infected group, consisting of ten goats intravenously infected with 0.5 ml of blood containing approximately 1.25 × 10(5) trypomastigotes of T. vivax and ten uninfected animals as the control group. Clinical tests and hematocrit, parasitemia, and serum biochemistry evaluations were performed on all of the goats. Milk production was measured daily for 152 days by hand milking the goats and weighing the milk. Every seven days, physiochemical analyses were performed to evaluate the milk. Wood's nonlinear model was used to analyze the lactation curve parameters. The infected goats had high levels of parasitemia and hyperthermia, significantly reduced hematocrit, serum total protein, albumin, and glucose levels and increased cholesterol and urea concentrations. Wood's model indicated that the milk production of goats in the infected group declined sharply over a short period of time and produced a flattened yield curve and significant difference (P < 0.05) in the rate of increase of peak milk production, rate of decrease of milk production after the peak, day of peak milk production, and maximum peak milk production compared with that of the control group. Trypanosomiasis also affected the persistency of lactation, which was significantly reduced in goats in the infected group. In addition, the physico-chemical properties of the milk, including the fat content, defatted dry extracts (DDE) and protein content, decreased significantly (P < 0.05) in the goats in the infected group compared with those in the control group. The T. vivax-infected goats showed reduction in milk production, persistence of lactation, and fat levels, the
Feng, Xiujing; Cao, Shaoxian; Wang, Huili; Meng, Chunhua; Li, Jingxin; Jiang, Jin; Qian, Yong; Su, Lei; He, Qiang; Zhang, Qingxiao
Production of human α-lactalbumin (hα-LA) transgenic cloned dairy goats has great potential in improving the nutritional value and perhaps increasing the yield of dairy goat milk. Here, a mammary-specific expression vector 5A, harboring goat β-lactoglobulin (βLG) promoter, the hα-LA gene, neo(r) and EGFP dual markers, was constructed. Then, it was effectively transfected into goat mammary epithelial cells (GMECs) and the expression of hα-LA was investigated. Both the hα-LA transcript and protein were detected in the transfected GMECs after the induction of hormonal signals. In addition, the 5A vector was introduced into dairy goat fetal fibroblasts (transfection efficiency ≈60-70%) to prepare competent transgenic donor cells. A total of 121 transgenic fibroblast clones were isolated by 96-well cell culture plates and screened with nested-PCR amplification and EGFP fluorescence. After being frozen for 8 months, the transgenic cells still showed high viabilities, verifying their ability as donor cells. Dairy goat cloned embryos were produced from these hα-LA transgenic donor cells by somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT), and the rates of fusion, cleavage, and the development to blastocyst stages were 81.8, 84.4, and 20.0%, respectively. A total of 726 reconstructed embryos derived from the transgenic cells were transferred to 74 recipients and pregnancy was confirmed at 90 days in 12 goats. Of six female kids born, two carried hα-LA and the hα-LA protein was detected in their milk. This study provides an effective system to prepare SCNT donor cells and transgenic animals for human recombinant proteins.
The protein misfolding cyclic amplification (PMCA) assay allows for detection of the disease associated isoform of the prion protein in tissues and fluids of sheep where it was previously undetected by conventional western blot and immunohistochemistry assays. Studies of goats with scrapie have yet ...
Vacca, G M; Paschino, P; Dettori, M L; Bergamaschi, M; Cipolat-Gotet, C; Bittante, G; Pazzola, M
Dairy goat farming is practiced worldwide, within a range of different farming systems. Here we investigated the effects of environmental factors and morphology on milk traits of the Sardinian goat population. Sardinian goats are currently reared in Sardinia (Italy) in a low-input context, similar to many goat farming systems, especially in developing countries. Milk and morphological traits from 1,050 Sardinian goats from 42 farms were recorded. We observed a high variability regarding morphological traits, such as coat color, ear length and direction, horn presence, and udder shape. Such variability derived partly from the unplanned repeated crossbreeding of the native Sardinian goats with exotic breeds, especially Maltese goats. The farms located in the mountains were characterized by the traditional farming system and the lowest percentage of crossbred goats. Explanatory factors analysis was used to summarize the interrelated measured milk variables. The explanatory factor related to fat, protein, and energy content of milk (the "Quality" latent variable) explained about 30% of the variance of the whole data set of measured milk traits followed by the "Hygiene" (19%), "Production" (19%), and "Acidity" (11%) factors. The "Quality" and "Hygiene" factors were not affected by any of the farm classification items, whereas "Production" and "Acidity" were affected only by altitude and size of herds, respectively, indicating the adaptation of the local goat population to different environmental conditions. The use of latent explanatory factor analysis allowed us to clearly explain the large variability of milk traits, revealing that the Sardinian goat population cannot be divided into subpopulations based on milk attitude The factors, properly integrated with genetic data, may be useful tools in future selection programs.
Wilson, Rona; King, Declan; Hunter, Nora; Goldmann, Wilfred; Barron, Rona M
Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) is a fatal neurodegenerative disorder of cattle, and its transmission to humans through contaminated food is thought to be the cause of the variant form of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. BSE is believed to have spread from the recycling in cattle of ruminant tissue in meat and bone meal (MBM). However, during this time, sheep and goats were also exposed to BSE-contaminated MBM. Both sheep and goats are experimentally susceptible to BSE, and while there have been no reported natural BSE cases in sheep, two goat BSE field cases have been documented. While cases of BSE are rare in small ruminants, the existence of scrapie in both sheep and goats is well established. In the UK, during 2006-2007, a serious outbreak of clinical scrapie was detected in a large dairy goat herd. Subsequently, 200 goats were selected for post-mortem examination, one of which showed biochemical and immunohistochemical features of the disease-associated prion protein (PrP(TSE)) which differed from all other infected goats. In the present study, we investigated this unusual case by performing transmission bioassays into a panel of mouse lines. Following characterization, we found that strain properties such as the ability to transmit to different mouse lines, lesion profile pattern, degree of PrP deposition in the brain and biochemical features of this unusual goat case were neither consistent with goat BSE nor with a goat scrapie herdmate control. However, our results suggest that this unusual case has BSE-like properties and highlights the need for continued surveillance.
Jin, Mei; Cao, Qian; Wang, Ruilong; Piao, Jun; Zhao, Fengqin; Piao, Jing’ai
Objective An experiment was conducted to determine the relationship between the KAP11.1 and the regulation wool fineness. Methods In previous work, we constructed a skin cDNA library and isolated a full-length cDNA clone termed KAP11.1. On this basis, we conducted a series of bioinformatics analysis. Tissue distribution of KAP11.1 mRNA was performed using semi-quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis. The expression of KAP11.1 mRNA in primary and secondary hair follicles was performed using real-time PCR (real-time polymerase chain reaction) analysis. The expression location of KAP11.1 mRNA in primary and secondary hair follicles was performed using in situ hybridization. Results Bioinformatics analysis showed that KAP11.1 gene encodes a putative 158 amino acid protein that exhibited a high content of cysteine, serine, threonine, and valine and has a pubertal mammary gland) structural domain. Secondary structure prediction revealed a high proportion of random coils (76.73%). Semi-quantitative RT-PCR showed that KAP11.1 gene was expressed in heart, skin, and liver, but not expressed in spleen, lung and kidney. Real time PCR results showed that the expression of KAP11.1 has a higher expression in catagen than in anagen in the primary hair follicles. However, in the secondary hair follicles, KAP11.1 has a significantly higher expression in anagen than in catagen. Moreover, KAP11.1 gene has a strong expression in inner root sheath, hair matrix, and a lower expression in hair bulb. Conclusion We conclude that KAP11.1 gene may play an important role in regulating the fiber diameter. PMID:27383810
Rice, C.G.; Jenkins, K.J.; Chang, W.-Y.
Unbiased estimates of mountain goat (Oreamnos americanus) populations are key to meeting diverse harvest management and conservation objectives. We developed logistic regression models of factors influencing sightability of mountain goat groups during helicopter surveys throughout the Cascades and Olympic Ranges in western Washington during summers, 20042007. We conducted 205 trials of the ability of aerial survey crews to detect groups of mountain goats whose presence was known based on simultaneous direct observation from the ground (n 84), Global Positioning System (GPS) telemetry (n 115), or both (n 6). Aerial survey crews detected 77 and 79 of all groups known to be present based on ground observers and GPS collars, respectively. The best models indicated that sightability of mountain goat groups was a function of the number of mountain goats in a group, presence of terrain obstruction, and extent of overstory vegetation. Aerial counts of mountain goats within groups did not differ greatly from known group sizes, indicating that under-counting bias within detected groups of mountain goats was small. We applied HorvitzThompson-like sightability adjustments to 1,139 groups of mountain goats observed in the Cascade and Olympic ranges, Washington, USA, from 2004 to 2007. Estimated mean sightability of individual animals was 85 but ranged 0.750.91 in areas with low and high sightability, respectively. Simulations of mountain goat surveys indicated that precision of population estimates adjusted for sightability biases increased with population size and number of replicate surveys, providing general guidance for the design of future surveys. Because survey conditions, group sizes, and habitat occupied by goats vary among surveys, we recommend using sightability correction methods to decrease bias in population estimates from aerial surveys of mountain goats.
Fragkiadaki, Eirini G; Vaccari, Gabriele; Ekateriniadou, Loukia V; Agrimi, Umberto; Giadinis, Nektarios D; Chiappini, Barbara; Esposito, Elena; Conte, Michela; Nonno, Romolo
One hundred and four scrapie positive and 77 negative goats from 34 Greek mixed flocks were analysed by prion protein gene sequencing and 17 caprine scrapie isolates from 11 flocks were submitted to molecular isolate typing. For the first time, the protective S146 variant was reported in Greece, while the protective K222 variant was detected in negative but also in five scrapie positive goats from heavily infected flocks. By immunoblotting six isolates, including two goat flockmates carrying the K222 variant, showed molecular features slightly different from all other Greek and Italian isolates co-analysed, possibly suggesting the presence of different scrapie strains in Greece.
Starke, S; Huber, K
In a previous study, in goats, we showed that apart from variations in dietary calcium (Ca) and phosphorus intake, also low dietary nitrogen (N) intake altered plasma concentrations of hormones, which regulate Ca and phosphate (Pi ) homeostasis. These hormonal responses in goats were in accordance with findings in monogastric animals and humans with low protein intake. In the aforementioned studies, alterations of electrolyte transport in the kidneys were also observed. However, whether renal electrolyte transport in goats is also involved in the adaptation of Ca and Pi homeostasis to low N intake remains unknown. Thus, the aim of the present study was to investigate whether in addition to the hormonal changes, as observed in our former study, renal Ca transport and renal Pi transport were also altered by low N intake in goats. Therefore, in kidney samples from the goats used in our former study, the protein expression of Ca and Pi transporters and of related regulatory proteins was examined. Furthermore, the uptake of Pi into isolated brush border membrane vesicles (BBMV) was detected. The results showed that the protein amount of the renal sodium-dependent Pi transporter NaPi IIa was elevated, and concomitantly, protein expression of its upstream regulators, the parathyroid hormone receptor and the extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2 was decreased. However, Pi uptake into renal BBMV was not enhanced. Furthermore, protein expression of the renal Ca channel, the transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily V member 5 (TRPV5) and of the vitamin D receptor was not influenced by dietary N reduction. We conclude that regulation of renal Pi transporter expression in goats is involved in the adaptation of electrolyte homeostasis to low N intake. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2013 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.
Montalbano, Maria; Segreto, Roberta; Di Gerlando, Rosalia; Mastrangelo, Salvatore; Sardina, Maria Teresa
The study was conducted to develop a high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method to quantify casein genetic variants (αs2-, β-, and κ-casein) in milk of homozygous individuals of Girgentana goat breed. For calibration experiments, pure genetic variants were extracted from individual milk samples of animals with known genotypes. The described HPLC approach was precise, accurate and highly suitable for quantification of goat casein genetic variants of homozygous individuals. The amount of each casein per allele was: αs2-casein A = 2.9 ± 0.8 g/L and F = 1.8 ± 0.4 g/L; β-casein C = 3.0 ± 0.8 g/L and C1 = 2.0 ± 0.7 g/L and κ-casein A = 1.6 ± 0.3 g/L and B = 1.1 ± 0.2 g/L. A good correlation was found between the quantities of αs2-casein genetic variants A and F, and β-casein C and C1 with other previously described method. The main important result was obtained for κ-casein because, till now, no data were available on quantification of single genetic variants for this protein.
Ménsua, C; Carrasco, L; Bautista, M J; Biescas, E; Fernández, A; Murphy, C L; Weiss, D T; Solomon, A; Luján, L
We describe the main pathologic changes in small ruminants affected by AA amyloidosis, together with the partial sequence of the protein involved. Twenty-one sheep and one goat were selected for presenting macroscopic kidney lesions compatible with systemic amyloidosis. Available tissue samples were studied by histologic, immunopathologic, and ultrastructural means. Renal lesions were characterized grossly by pale cortical surfaces with scattered, miliary, whitish-yellow foci and on cut cortical surfaces by straight, whitish-yellow striations. Gangrenous pneumonia was observed in 16 out of 21 affected sheep (76.2%), although other chronic inflammations were also observed. Amyloid was detected in all grossly affected kidneys using Congo red staining, lesions being most remarkable in glomeruli, affecting 95.5% of animals studied. Congophilic deposits were also observed in intertubular interstitium (68.2%) and medulla (57.1%). All amyloid-affected animals presented proximal convoluted tubule lesions, mostly characterized by an increase in diameter and by hyaline granular degeneration that were responsible for the macroscopic appearance of the kidney. Histologically, amyloid was also seen in blood vessels, spleen, liver, lymph nodes, gastrointestinal tract, and adrenal glands. All amyloid deposits demonstrated greenish-yellow birefringence with polarized light, and the antisera prepared against goat amyloid extracts specifically reacted with birefringent congophilic deposits of both sheep and goats. Ultrastructurally, these deposits were formed by masses of straight, nonbranching fibrils located predominantly in the basement membranes of glomerular capillaries and in the mesangium. Partial sequence of the protein in sheep and goats indicated a high degree of homology with the previously reported sequence of sheep Serum Amyloid A.
Olsen, S C; Cheville, N F; Stevens, M G; Houng, H H; Drazek, E S; Hadfield, T L; Warren, R L; Hoover, D L
The response to a Brucella melitensis purEK deletion mutant, delta purE201 (referred to as strain 201), was compared with the response to its parental strain, 16M, in juvenile goats. Proliferative responses to gamma-irradiated bacteria were detected earlier in strain 201-infected goats. Lymphocytes from strain 16M- or 201-infected goats proliferated in response to one-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis-separated proteins of similar mass isolated from strain 16M or Brucella abortus RB51. Data from this study suggest that some antigens stimulating cell-mediated responses are conserved among Brucella species, as 201- and 16M-infected goats recognized similar proteins expressed by RB51 and 16M.
Liu, Hai-gang; Li, Hong-mei; Wang, Shu-ying; Huang, Li-bo; Guo, Hui-jun
To clarify the molecular evolution and characteristic of beta estrogen receptor (ERβ) gene in Jining Gray goat in China, the entire ERβ gene from Jining Gray goat ovary was amplified, identified and sequenced, and the gene sequences were compared with those of other animals. Functional structural domains and variations in DNA binding domains (DBD) and ligand binding domains (LBD) between Jining Gray goat and Boer goat were analyzed. The results indicate that the ERβ gene in Jining Gray goat includes a 1584bp sequence with a complete open-reading-frame (ORF), encoding a 527 amino acid (aa) receptor protein. Compared to other species, the nucleotide homology is 73.9-98.9% and the amino acid homology is 79.5-98.5%. The main antigenic structural domains lie from the 97th aa to the 286th aa and from the 403rd aa to the 527th aa. The hydrophilicity and the surface probability of the structural domains are distributed throughout a range of amino acids. There are two different amino acids in the DBD and three different amino acids in the LBD between Jining Gray and Boer goats, resulting in dramatically different spatial structures for ERβ protein. These differences may explain the different biological activities of ERβ between the two goat species. This study firstly acquired the whole ERβ gene sequence of Jining Gray goat with a complete open reading frame, and analyzed its gene evolutionary relationship and predicted its mainly functional structural domains, which may very help for further understanding the genome evolution and gene diversity of goat ERβ. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Producing goats and lambs for ethnic markets offers an economic opportunity for small farm producers in the Appalachian Region of the U.S. There are a variety of forages used in goat and sheep production systems. Overall, nutrients available to ruminants depend upon the types and combinations of p...
Pasture-based finishing systems for meat goats, sheep and cattle are growing rapidly in the eastern USA. Increasing demand for pasture-raised meat and dairy products requires renewed efforts to communicate the best practical information in order to initiate mixed grazing with goats, sheep, and beef...
Niedermeyer, Susanne; Eiden, Martin; Toumazos, Pavlos; Papasavva-Stylianou, Penelope; Ioannou, Ioannis; Sklaviadis, Theodoros; Panagiotidis, Cynthia; Langeveld, Jan; Bossers, Alex; Kuczius, Thorsten; Kaatz, Martin; Groschup, Martin H; Fast, Christine
Scrapie and bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) are transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSE's) affecting sheep and goats. Susceptibility of goats to scrapie is influenced by polymorphisms of the prion protein gene (PRNP) of the host. Five polymorphisms are associated with reduced susceptibility to TSE's. In the study presented here caprine samples from a scrapie eradication program on Cyprus were genotyped and further characterized using BioRad TeSeE rapid test, histological, immunohistochemical and biochemical methods. In total 42 goats from 20 flocks were necropsied from which 25 goats showed a positive result in the rapid test, a spongiform encephalopathy and an accumulation of pathological prion protein (PrP(Sc)) in the obex. PrP(Sc) deposits were demonstrated in the placenta, peripheral nervous and lymphoreticular system. Two animals showed PrP(Sc)-accumulations in peripheral tissues only. By discriminatory immunoblots a scrapie infection could be confirmed for all cases. Nevertheless, slight deviations in the glycosylation pattern might indicate the presence of different scrapie strains. Furthermore scrapie samples from goats in the current study demonstrated less long term resistance to proteinase K than ovine or caprine BSE control samples. Reduced scrapie susceptibility according to the PRNP genotype was demonstrated (Fishers Exact test, p < 0.05) for the goats with at least one polymorphism (p = 0.023) at the six codons examined and in particular for those with polymorphisms at codon 146 (p = 0.016). This work characterizes scrapie in goats having implications for breeding and surveillance strategies.
Díaz-Aparicio, E; Marín, C; Alonso-Urmeneta, B; Aragón, V; Pérez-Ortiz, S; Pardo, M; Blasco, J M; Díaz, R; Moriyón, I
Five serological assays were evaluated for the diagnosis of brucellosis in goats: the rose bengal test (RBT), complement fixation test (CFT), radial immunodiffusion (RID) with Brucella and Yersinia enterocolitica O:9 polysaccharides, counterimmunoelectrophoresis (CIEP) with cytosol, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) with polyclonal and protein G conjugates and smooth lipopolysaccharide (S-LPS), native hapten polysaccharide (NH), or cytosol antigens. For optimal sensitivity, RBT had to be used with sera-antigen at a 3:1 dilution. In the RID test, Brucella melitensis biotype 1 NH could not be replaced by Brucella abortus biotype 1 or Y. enterocolitica 0:9 polysaccharides. In the ELISA, S-LPS and NH gave similar results and the protein G conjugate increased the specificity. With the sera from 55 B. melitensis culture-positive goats, the sensitivity was 100% for RBT, CFT (titer > or = 4), and ELISA with S-LPS or NH; 94% for RID; and 93% for CIEP. All tests were negative (100% specific) when testing the sera from 127 brucella-free goats. Larger discrepancies among the results of the serological tests were obtained with sera from goats of areas where brucellosis is endemic. When the sera of 20 young goats vaccinated subcutaneously (10(9) CFU of B. melitensis Rev 1) and bled 6 months later were examined, the specificities were as follows: NH ELISA, 60%; CFT and S-LPS ELISA, 75%; RBT, 80%; CIEP, 90%; and RID, 94%. With the sera from 10 young goats vaccinated conjunctivally (10(9) CFU of B. melitensis Rev 1) all tests were 100% specific 4 months after vaccination. The proportion of goats giving a positive reaction after vaccination decreased faster in RID than in other tests. PMID:8051240
Aguilar-Calvo, Patricia; Espinosa, Juan Carlos; Pintado, Belén; Gutiérrez-Adán, Alfonso; Alamillo, Elia; Miranda, Alberto; Prieto, Irene; Bossers, Alex; Andreoletti, Olivier
ABSTRACT The prion protein-encoding gene (prnp) strongly influences the susceptibility of small ruminants to transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs). Hence, selective breeding programs have been implemented to increase sheep resistance to scrapie. For goats, epidemiological and experimental studies have provided some association between certain polymorphisms of the cellular prion protein (PrPC) and resistance to TSEs. Among them, the Q/K polymorphism at PrPC codon 222 (Q/K222) yielded the most promising results. In this work, we investigated the individual effects of the K222-PrPC variant on the resistance/susceptibility of goats to TSEs. For that purpose, we generated two transgenic mouse lines, expressing either the Q222 (wild type) or K222 variant of goat PrPC. Both mouse lines were challenged intracerebrally with a panel of TSE isolates. Transgenic mice expressing the wild-type (Q222) allele were fully susceptible to infection with all tested isolates, whereas transgenic mice expressing similar levels of the K222 allele were resistant to all goat scrapie and cattle BSE isolates but not to goat BSE isolates. Finally, heterozygous K/Q222 mice displayed a reduced susceptibility to the tested panel of scrapie isolates. These results demonstrate a highly protective effect of the K222 variant against a broad panel of different prion isolates and further reinforce the argument supporting the use of this variant in breeding programs to control TSEs in goat herds. IMPORTANCE The objective of this study was to determine the role of the K222 variant of the prion protein (PrP) in the susceptibility/resistance of goats to transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs). Results showed that transgenic mice expressing the goat K222-PrP polymorphic variant are resistant to scrapie and bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) agents. This protective effect was also observed in heterozygous Q/K222 animals. Therefore, the single amino acid exchange from Q to K at codon
An overview of the progress for the Feed the Future funded African Goat Project will be presented. The overview will include progress on producing a goat genome assembly from a San Clemente goat. Additional progress will be reported for phnotype and sample collection from African goat populations an...
Huber, Korinna; Roesler, Uta; Muscher, Alexandra; Hansen, Kathrin; Widiyono, Irkham; Pfeffer, Ernst; Breves, Gerhard
The rapid development of precocial goats in the first weeks after birth requires an adequate adaptation of phosphate transport systems to maintain the P homeostasis at each developmental stage. Here we examined the age-related development of Na+-Pi transport systems in small intestines, kidneys, and parotid glands of goats. Kinetic parameters were determined by brush-border membrane vesicle uptake studies, and relative expression of NaPi type II mRNA and protein was recorded by molecular biological methods. High intestinal Pi transport capacity was already present on the first day of life. Within the first 3 wk of life there seemed to be a change in the type of Na+-dependent Pi transporter, and NaPi IIb was expressed increasingly up to the fifth month of life. Renal Na+-Pi transport capacity was also high at birth, and this was associated with high expression levels of NaPi IIa mRNA, indicating the important role of this transporter for renal Pi reabsorption. At weaning an increase in both intestinal and renal Na+-Pi transport balanced the increasing requirements for Pi to establish the endogenous Pi cycle. Salivary Pi concentration and parotid NaPi II mRNA rose markedly to guarantee an adequate Pi supply for rumen microbes. We concluded that the high demand for Pi in young goats was assured by high basal Na+-Pi transport capacity of small intestines and kidney expressed continuously during ontogenesis.
Chikwanda, Allen Tapiwa; Muchenje, Voster
Purpose was to determine the effects of grazing system and floor type on concentrations of blood metabolites, activity of creatine kinase, body weight and carcass characteristics of castrated Nguni goats. Forty eight, 7 month old goats were randomly allocated to herding and tethering treatments from 0800 to 1300 hours and accommodated on slatted and earth floors daily. Blood samples were collected by jugular venipuncture every fifteenth day for metabolite analysis. Slaughter was done at a commercial abattoir following 5 months of monitoring. Tethered goats had significantly higher concentrations of urea (5.19 mmol/L) (p< 0.001), creatinine (55.87 μmol/L) (p<0.05), total protein (64.60 g/L) (p<0.01), and globulin (49.79 g/L) (p<0.001), whereas herded goats had higher glucose (3.38 mmol/L) (p<0.001), albumin (15.33 g/L) (p<0.05), albumin/globulin ratio (0.34) (p<0.01), and body weight (24.87 kg) (p< 0.001). Slatted floors caused higher (p<0.01) albumin at 15.37 g/L. The interaction of grazing system and floor type affected creatinine, total protein, globulin at (p<0.01) and albumen/globulin ratio at (p<0.01). The least creatinine concentration and albumin/globulin ratio was in herded and tethered goats that were accommodated on earth floors, respectively. The highest total protein and globulin concentrations were in serum of tethered goats that were accommodated on earth floors. The highest (p<0.05) dressing percentage (45.26%) was in herded goats accommodated on slatted floors. Herding of goats lowered globulin concentration, improved estimated feed intake, blood glucose and albumin concentrations, albumin globulin ratio, increased body weights and weight related carcass characteristics. Floor type had very little effects on metabolites where earth floors only reduced albumin concentration. Tethering and housing goats on earth floors resulted in double stress that increased chronic infections.
Chikwanda, Allen Tapiwa; Muchenje, Voster
Objective Purpose was to determine the effects of grazing system and floor type on concentrations of blood metabolites, activity of creatine kinase, body weight and carcass characteristics of castrated Nguni goats. Methods Forty eight, 7 month old goats were randomly allocated to herding and tethering treatments from 0800 to 1300 hours and accommodated on slatted and earth floors daily. Blood samples were collected by jugular venipuncture every fifteenth day for metabolite analysis. Slaughter was done at a commercial abattoir following 5 months of monitoring. Results Tethered goats had significantly higher concentrations of urea (5.19 mmol/L) (p< 0.001), creatinine (55.87 μmol/L) (p<0.05), total protein (64.60 g/L) (p<0.01), and globulin (49.79 g/L) (p<0.001), whereas herded goats had higher glucose (3.38 mmol/L) (p<0.001), albumin (15.33 g/L) (p<0.05), albumin/globulin ratio (0.34) (p<0.01), and body weight (24.87 kg) (p< 0.001). Slatted floors caused higher (p<0.01) albumin at 15.37 g/L. The interaction of grazing system and floor type affected creatinine, total protein, globulin at (p<0.01) and albumen/globulin ratio at (p<0.01). The least creatinine concentration and albumin/globulin ratio was in herded and tethered goats that were accommodated on earth floors, respectively. The highest total protein and globulin concentrations were in serum of tethered goats that were accommodated on earth floors. The highest (p<0.05) dressing percentage (45.26%) was in herded goats accommodated on slatted floors. Conclusion Herding of goats lowered globulin concentration, improved estimated feed intake, blood glucose and albumin concentrations, albumin globulin ratio, increased body weights and weight related carcass characteristics. Floor type had very little effects on metabolites where earth floors only reduced albumin concentration. Tethering and housing goats on earth floors resulted in double stress that increased chronic infections. PMID:28002930
Sahlu, T; Dawson, L J; Gipson, T A; Hart, S P; Merkel, R C; Puchala, R; Wang, Z; Zeng, S; Goetsch, A L
Goat research in the United States has increased but at a rate less than that in production. Research on goat meat includes nutritional quality, packaging, color, sensory characteristics, and preslaughter management. Goat skins have value for leather, but quality of goat leather has not been extensively studied. Research in the production, quality, antibiotic residues, and sensory characteristics of goat milk and its products has aided development of the US dairy goat industry. Limited progress has been made in genetic improvement of milk or meat production. There is need to explore applications of genomics and proteomics and improve consistency in texture and functionality of goat cheeses. New goat meat and milk products are needed to increase demand and meet the diverse tastes of the American public. Despite research progress in control of mohair and cashmere growth, erratic prices and sale of raw materials have contributed to further declines in US production. Innovative and cooperative ventures are needed for profit sharing up to the consumer level. Internal parasites pose the greatest challenge to goat production in humid areas largely because of anthelmintic resistance. Study of alternative controls is required, including immunity enhancement via nutrition, vaccination, pasture management such as co-grazing with cattle, and genetic resistance. Similarly, the importance of health management is increasing related in part to a lack of effective vaccines for many diseases. Nutrition research should address requirements for vitamins and minerals, efficiencies of protein utilization, adjusting energy requirements for nutritional plane, acclimatization, and grazing conditions, feed intake prediction, and management practices for rapid-growth production systems. Moreover, efficient technology transfer methods are needed to disseminate current knowledge and that gained in future research.
Brogden, K A; Lehmkuhl, H D; Cutlip, R C
Respiratory infections which commonly occur in sheep and goats often result from adverse physical and physiological stress combined with viral and bacterial infections. Inevitably, Pasteurella haemolytica pneumonia occurs as a result of these interactions. In this review, we present recent advances in research on the complex etiology of pneumonia involving P. haemolytica. Initially stress, induced by factors such as heat, overcrowding, exposure to inclement weather, poor ventilation, handling and transport is a major predisposing factor. Respiratory viruses including parainfluenza 3 (PI-3) virus, adenovirus type 6 and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), and to a lesser extent bovine adenovirus type 2, ovine adenovirus types 1 and 5, and reovirus type 1 cause respiratory infections and pneumonia. More importantly these viruses also dramatically increase the susceptibility of sheep and goats to secondary P. haemolytica infection. Primary infection of the lower respiratory tract, with Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae and Bordetella parapertussis can increase the susceptibility of sheep and goats to secondary P. haemolytica infection. It is possible that initial infections with viral or primary bacterial agents break down the antimicrobial barrier consisting of beta defensins and anionic peptides found in epithelial cells, resident and inflammatory cells, and serous and mucous secretions of the respiratory tract. Loss of barrier integrity may release P. haemolytica from its usual commensal status. Once in the lung, P. haemolytica becomes opportunistic. To grow and colonize, P. haemolytica uses extracellular products like O-sialoglycoprotein endopeptidase, neuraminidase and RTX leukotoxin, as well as cell-associated products such as capsular polysaccharide, lipopolysaccharide, outer membrane proteins, proteins involved in iron acquisition and a periplasmic superoxide dismutase. In lambs and kids, pneumonic pasteurellosis can be acute, characterized by fever, listlessness, poor
Cavalcante, Antônio César Rocha; Teixeira, Marcel; Monteiro, Jomar Patrício; Lopes, Carlos Wilson Gomes
The focus of this work is to determine the distribution and identify species of Eimeria parasites of dairy goats in the livestock of the National Goat and Sheep Research Center in Sobral, State of Ceará, Northeast Brazil. Results showed the presence of multiple species in 196 of 215 analyzed samples (91.2%). Fifty five out of these were from kids (28%) and 141 from adult goats (72%). Eight different Eimeria species were identified and their prevalence in the herd was: Eimeria alijevi Musaev, 1970 (26.7%), E. arloingi (Marotel, 1905) Martin, 1909 (20.6%), E. hirci Chevalier, 1966 (18%), E. ninakohlyakimovae Yakimoff & Rastegaieff, 1930 (16.2%), E. jolchijevi Musaev, 1970 (8.7%), E. christenseni Levine, Ivens & Fritz, 1962 (6%), E. caprovina Lima, 1980 (2.8%) and E. caprina Lima, 1979 (1%). Moreover, E. ninakohlyakimovae showed higher prevalence in kids (97%), followed by E. arloingi and E. alijevi (88%). On the other hand, E. alijevi (77%) was more common in adult goats followed by E. hirci (74%) and E. ninakohlyakimovae (70%). The species E. caprina had low frequency in both kids (27%) and adult goats (13%). Data indicated that infection was relatively common among kids and adult goats. The implementation of a routine diagnostic strategy can be useful in maintaining Eimeria populations under monitoring and will enable the determination of its potential impact on dairy goat herds in Northeast Brazil.
Slosárková, S; Literák, I; Skrivánek, M; Svobodová, V; Suchý, P; Herzig, I
Toxoplasmosis was diagnosed in two goat herds in the Czech Republic. The 1996 outbreak in the herd of Angora goats was associated with abortions and births of weak kids. No apparent signs of toxoplasmosis were observed in the herd of White Short-Haired (WSH) goats reared under similar conditions. Seroprevalences of 60% and 66% tested by complement fixation and indirect fluorescent antibody tests, respectively, were found in the herd of Angora goats during the outbreak of clinical toxoplasmosis. Significantly lower values were recorded in this herd in years 1994 and 1997 and in the herd of WSH goats between years 1994-1996. Iodine deficiency was also demonstrated in the herd of Angora goats in 1996. Goitre was detected by clinical examination in 39% of animals and mean urinary iodine concentration was 8.0+/-4.65 microg per 11. This concentration rose significantly to 15.7+/-5.02 microg per 11 in the subsequent year. Effects of iodine deficiency on clinical manifestation of toxoplasmosis in Angora goats were discussed.
Cornish, Jennifer; Angelos, John; Puschner, Birgit; Miller, Grant; George, Lisle
A closed herd of 400 mixed-breed dairy goats was examined because of a decrease in milk production and increase in mortality rate. Nine animals had died within a 1-month period. Clinical signs were evident only in lactating goats and included anorexia and recumbency. In the most severely affected goats, signs progressed to neurologic abnormalities and death. Serum aspartate aminotransferase activity, gamma-glutamyltransferase activity, and total bilirubin concentration were high in clinically affected does, but no evidence of hemolysis was found. A diagnosis of copper toxicosis was made on the basis of high liver and kidney copper concentrations and histologic evidence of hepatic necrosis. Goats were found to have been fed a mineral mix containing 3,050 ppm copper for 9 months prior to the onset of copper toxicosis. Overall, there was no consistent relationship between serum hepatic enzyme activities, serum copper concentration, and liver copper concentration. Clinically affected goats were treated with penicillamine, ammonium molybdate, sodium thiosulfate, and vitamin E. Penicillamine increased urine copper excretion in treated does versus untreated control animals. An increased incidence of infectious disease was identified in the herd 9 months later. Liver vitamin E concentration was low in 10 of the 12 goats that underwent necropsy. Findings suggested that penicillamine may be an effective treatment for goats with copper toxicosis. Production losses months after the diagnosis was made suggested that the intoxication had a prolonged animal welfare and economic impacts.
Tharwat, Mohamed; Al-Sobayil, Fahd; Hashad, Mahmoud; Buczinski, Sébastien
This study describes the transabdominal ultrasonographic findings in 54 goats with confirmed Johne’s disease (JD). Compared with the control group (0.8 ± 0.4 mm thick), the test group presented with mild (2.8 ± 0.2 mm), moderate (4.2 ± 0.4 mm), and severe (6.9 ± 1.1 mm) thickening of the intestinal wall. The most outstanding ultrasonographic findings were pronounced enlargement of the mesenteric lymph nodes in 49 goats. In 36 goats, the enlarged lymph nodes showed a hypoechoic cortex and a hyperechoic medulla. In 7 goats, the cortex and medulla were hypoechoic. In 5 goats, the cortex and the medulla could not be differentiated. In the remaining cases, the cortex and medulla contained small hypoechoic lesions. Necropsy findings included enlarged mesenteric lymph nodes in 52 goats and thickening of the small intestinal wall in 30 goats. Compared with the postmortem results, the antemortem ultrasound sensitivity in detecting intestinal wall thickness and enlarged mesenteric lymph nodes was 80% and 94%, respectively. PMID:23543924
Silva, Liliana Machado Ribeiro da; Vila-Viçosa, Maria João Martins; Nunes, Telmo; Taubert, Anja; Hermosilla, Carlos; Cortes, Helder Carola Espiguinha
Coccidiosis caused by Eimeria species is a major form of intestinal infection affecting intensively and semi-intensively reared goats. The province of Alentejo is the main goat-producing area in Portugal. Therefore, all 15 Serpentina goat farms in Alentejo were analyzed regarding the occurrence and diversity of Eimeria species. Fecal samples obtained from 144 animals (52.1% dairy goats, 47.9% pre-pubertal goats) were examined using the modified McMaster technique to determine the number of oocysts per gram of feces. Eimeria spp. oocysts were present in 98.61% of the fecal samples and, overall, nine different Eimeria species were identified. The most prevalent species were E. ninakohlyakimovae (88%) and E. arloingi (85%), followed by E. alijevi (63%) and E. caprovina (63%). The average number of oocysts shed was significantly lower in dairy goats than in pre-adult animals. Astonishingly, no clinical signs of coccidiosis were observed in any of the animals examined, even though they were shedding high numbers of oocysts and were infected with highly pathogenic species. Thus, implementation of routine diagnostic investigation of the occurrence and diversity of caprine Eimeria species may be a useful tool for determination and better understanding of their potential economic impact on goat herds in southern Portugal.
O'Brien, T D; Raffe, M R; Cox, V S; Stevens, D L; O'Leary, T P
One goat anesthetized with thiamylal sodium, xylazine, and halothane for repair of an abominal hernia, and 7 of 29 goats similarly anesthetized for an experiment unrelated to considerations of anesthesia, developed signs of hepatic failure within 24 hours of anesthesia. Affected goats had high values for serum aspartate transaminase and serum total bilirubin by 12 to 24 hours after induction of anesthesia. Necropsy of the 8 affected goats revealed centrilobular to massive hepatic necrosis (8 of 8), brain lesions consistent with hepatic encephalopathy (3 of 4), and acute renal tubular necrosis (6 of 6). Two unaffected goats had no hepatic necrosis. Causes of hepatic necrosis other than those related to anesthesia (eg, infectious agents, toxins) were ruled out by lack of supporting necropsy findings or were considered unlikely because of lack of opportunity for exposure. Hepatic lesions in these goats closely resembled those described in human beings with halothane-associated hepatic injury, although in both species these lesions are nonspecific at the gross and light microscopic levels. The pathogenesis of halothane-associated hepatic injury in goats, as in human beings, remains to be determined.
Inglingstad, R A; Steinshamn, H; Dagnachew, B S; Valenti, B; Criscione, A; Rukke, E O; Devold, T G; Skeie, S B; Vegarud, G E
Two different types of pasture (cultivated and rangeland) and 2 different hay qualities (high and low quality) were examined for their effects on goat milk composition and rennet coagulation properties. Furthermore, the effect of dietary treatments in both the early and late grazing season was studied. As lactation stage is known to influence milk composition, the goats in the early and late grazing season were in the same lactation stage at the start of the experiment. The milk composition was influenced both by dietary treatment and season. Milk from goats on pasture was superior to those on hay by containing a higher content of protein and casein, and the goats on cultivated pasture had the highest milk yield. Casein composition was significantly influenced by forage treatment. Goats grazing on cultivated pasture had higher contents of αs1-casein and also of κ-casein compared with the other treatments, whereas goats grazing on rangeland had the highest content of β-casein. Factors such as milk yield, casein micelle size, αs2-casein, and calcium content were reduced in late compared with early season. More favorable rennet coagulation properties were achieved in milk from the early grazing season, with shorter firming time and higher curd firmness compared with milk from the late grazing season, but the firming time and curd firmness were not prominently influenced by forage treatment. The content of αs2-casein and calcium in the milk affected the firming time and the curd firmness positively. The influence of season and forage treatment on especially milk yield, casein content, and rennet coagulation properties is of economic importance for both the dairy industry and goat milk farmers. Copyright © 2014 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
a Mpalang, Rosette Kabwang; Boreux, Raphaël; Melin, Pierrette; Akir Ni Bitiang, Khang'Mate; Daube, Georges; De Mol, Patrick
The prevalence of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli was determined in goat and goat meat sold at retail outlets in Lubumbashi, Democratic Republic of Congo (DR Congo). A total of 644 samples, including 177 goat meat, 86 goat stomachs, 139 ready to eat (RTE) goat skewers, and 242 goat faecal samples were examined for the presence of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli using polymerase chain reaction. Overall, Campylobacter spp. were found in 34.6% of the examined samples. C. jejuni was isolated in 10.1% and C. coli in 26.7% of samples. Only 2.2% of all samples were positive for both species. There was a significant association between the prevalence of C. coli and the type of sample (p < 0.05). The overall prevalence of Campylobacter in different sample groups was 41.2%, 37.2%, 23.7%, and 35.1% for goat meat, goat stomachs, RTE goat skewers, and goat faecal samples, respectively. There was no significant difference (p > 0.05) between the prevalence observed in the rainy season (16.7%) and the dry season (20.0%). Moreover, the overall prevalence of Campylobacter in slaughter sites, open-air markets, warehouses, and semi-open-air markets was 28.2%, 34.2%, 35.4%, and 42.9%, respectively. Statistically, there was no influence of the sample collection site on the frequency of isolation of Campylobacter (p > 0.05). This study shows that, considering the relatively high prevalence of this pathogen, live goat and goat meat are major sources of human and environmental contamination by Campylobacter spp. in Lubumbashi.
Bachofen, Claudia; Vogt, Hans-Rudolf; Stalder, Hanspeter; Mathys, Tanja; Zanoni, Reto; Hilbe, Monika; Schweizer, Matthias; Peterhans, Ernst
Bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) is an economically important pathogen of cattle worldwide. Infection of a pregnant animal may lead to persistent infection of the foetus and birth of a persistently infected (PI) calf that sheds the virus throughout its life. However, BVD viruses are not strictly species specific. BVDV has been isolated from many domesticated and wild ruminants. This is of practical importance as virus reservoirs in non-bovine hosts may hamper BVDV control in cattle. A goat given as a social companion to a BVDV PI calf gave birth to a PI goat kid. In order to test if goat to goat infections were possible, seronegative pregnant goats were exposed to the PI goat. In parallel, seronegative pregnant goats were kept together with the PI calf. Only the goat to goat transmission resulted in the birth of a next generation of BVDV PI kids whereas all goats kept together with the PI calf aborted. To our knowledge, this is the first report which shows that a PI goat cannot only transmit BVD virus to other goats but that such transmission may indeed lead to the birth of a second generation of PI goats. Genetic analyses indicated that establishment in the new host species may be associated with step-wise adaptations in the viral genome. Thus, goats have the potential to be a reservoir for BVDV. However, the PI goats showed growth retardation and anaemia and their survival under natural conditions remains questionable.
Bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) is an economically important pathogen of cattle worldwide. Infection of a pregnant animal may lead to persistent infection of the foetus and birth of a persistently infected (PI) calf that sheds the virus throughout its life. However, BVD viruses are not strictly species specific. BVDV has been isolated from many domesticated and wild ruminants. This is of practical importance as virus reservoirs in non-bovine hosts may hamper BVDV control in cattle. A goat given as a social companion to a BVDV PI calf gave birth to a PI goat kid. In order to test if goat to goat infections were possible, seronegative pregnant goats were exposed to the PI goat. In parallel, seronegative pregnant goats were kept together with the PI calf. Only the goat to goat transmission resulted in the birth of a next generation of BVDV PI kids whereas all goats kept together with the PI calf aborted. To our knowledge, this is the first report which shows that a PI goat cannot only transmit BVD virus to other goats but that such transmission may indeed lead to the birth of a second generation of PI goats. Genetic analyses indicated that establishment in the new host species may be associated with step-wise adaptations in the viral genome. Thus, goats have the potential to be a reservoir for BVDV. However, the PI goats showed growth retardation and anaemia and their survival under natural conditions remains questionable. PMID:23675947
Mobuchon, Lenha; Marthey, Sylvain; Boussaha, Mekki; Le Guillou, Sandrine; Leroux, Christine; Le Provost, Fabienne
MicroRNAs (miRNA) are small endogenous non-coding RNA involved in the post-transcriptional regulation of specific mRNA targets. The first whole goat genome sequence became available in 2013, with few annotations. Our goal was to establish a list of the miRNA expressed in the mammary gland of lactating goats, thus enabling implementation of the goat miRNA repertoire and considerably enriching annotation of the goat genome. Here, we performed high throughput RNA sequencing on 10 lactating goat mammary glands. The bioinformatic detection of miRNA was carried out using miRDeep2 software. Three different methods were used to predict, quantify and annotate the sequenced reads. The first was a de novo approach based on the prediction of miRNA from the goat genome only. The second approach used bovine miRNA as an external reference whereas the last one used recently available goat miRNA. The three methods enabled the prediction and annotation of hundreds of miRNA, more than 95% were commonly identified. Using bovine miRNA, 1,178 distinct miRNA were detected, together with the annotation of 88 miRNA for which corresponding precursors could not be retrieved in the goat genome, and which were not detected using the de novo approach or with the use of goat miRNA. Each chromosomal coordinate of the precursors determined here were generated and depicted on a reference localisation map. Forty six goat miRNA clusters were also reported. The study revealed 263 precursors located in goat protein-coding genes, amongst which the location of 43 precursors was conserved between human, mouse and bovine, revealing potential new gene regulations in the goat mammary gland. Using the publicly available cattle QTL database, and cow precursors conserved in the goat and expressed in lactating mammary gland, 114 precursors were located within known QTL regions for milk production and composition. The results reported here represent the first major identification study on miRNA expressed in the
The primary findings and conclusions were synthesized from a series of papers published between 2006-2014 from studies conducted at CRLRC and the NMSU Campus Farm seeking to determine the feasibility of using sheep and goats to suppress oneseed juniper sapling encroachment. We found that protein sup...
Bomfim, G F; Merighe, G K F; de Oliveira, S A; Rodrigues, A D; Augusto, L; Teixeira, I A M A; de Resende, K T; Negrao, J A
The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of different levels of soya bean oil in the total diet on the growth rate, metabolic changes, and oestrogen and progesterone release in Saanen goats. After dietary adaptation, 21 prepubertal goats (weight of 29.12 ± 0.91 kg, 230 days old) were randomly distributed among three diets of D2: inclusion of 2% soya bean oil in the total diet; D3: basal diet - inclusion of 3% soya bean oil in the total diet; and D4: inclusion of 4% soya bean oil in the total diet. The basal diet (D3) was formulated to promote a daily gain of 0.140 kg. The goats were weighed, and their blood samples were collected weekly. Glucose, cholesterol, triglycerides, total protein, urea, non-esterified fatty acids, beta-hydroxybutyrate, oestrogen and progesterone in the plasma were measured. Prepubertal goats that were fed D4 exhibited a significantly lower dry matter intake, urea and cholesterol levels compared with the goats that were fed D2 and D3. Indeed, goats that were fed D4 displayed a significantly lower final weight than goats that were fed D2 and D3. In contrast, the inclusion of soya bean oil in the diet increased the progesterone and oestrogen concentrations, and goats that were fed D4 released a significantly higher concentration of progesterone than those that were fed D2 and D3. Furthermore, the percentage of goats with a progesterone level greater than 1 ng/ml (functional Corpus luteum) was significantly higher among the goats that were fed D3 and D4 than among those that were fed D2. In this study, although the inclusion of 4% soya bean oil in the diet decreased dry matter intake and growth rate, it increased progesterone concentration and the percentage of goats with a functional Corpus luteum, suggesting that the inclusion of soya bean oil accelerated puberty in prepubertal goats. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.
Bressani, F A; Tizioto, P C; Giglioti, R; Meirelles, S L C; Coutinho, R; Benvenuti, C L; Malagó-Jr, W; Mudadu, M A; Vieira, L S; Zaros, L G; Carrilho, E; Regitano, L C A
Cytokines are small cell-signaling proteins that play an important role in the immune system, participating in intracellular communication. Four candidate genes of the cytokine family (IL2, IL4, IL13, and IFNG) were selected to identify Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) that might be associated with resistance to gastrointestinal endoparasites in goats. A population of 229 goats, F2 offspring from an F1 intercross was produced by crossing pure Saanen goats, considered as susceptible to gastrointestinal endoparasites, with pure Anglo-Nubian goats, considered resistant. Blood was collected for DNA extraction and fecal samples were also collected for parasite egg count. Polymorphisms were prospected by sequencing animals with extreme phenotype for fecal egg count (FEC) distribution. The association between SNPs and phenotype was determined by using the Fisher exact test with correction for multiple tests. Three of the 10 SNPs were identified as significant (P ≤ 0.03). They were found in intron 1 of IL2 (ENSBTA00000020883), intron 3 of IL13 (ENSBTA00000015953) and exon 3 of IFNG (ENSBTA00000012529), suggesting an association between them and gastrointestinal endoparasite resistance. Further studies will help describe the effects of these markers accurately before implementing them in marker assisted selection. This study is the pioneer in describing such associations in goats.
Nowicka, Dorota; Czopowicz, Michał; Bagnicka, Emilia; Rzewuska, Magdalena; Strzałkowska, Nina; Kaba, Jarosław
Three-year cohort study was carried out to investigate the influence of small ruminant lentivirus (SRLV) infection on cheese yield in goats. For this purpose records of milk yield, milk composition and cheese yield were collected in a dairy goat herd. Cheese yield was recorded as the amount of fresh cheese obtained from 1 kg milk. All goats were serologically tested for SRLV infection twice a year. The analysis included 247 records in total (71 for seropositive and 176 from seronegative individuals) and was carried out with the use of the four-level hierarchical linear model (α = 0·05). SRLV infection proved to be a statistically significant independent factor reducing cheese yield (P = 0·013)--when other covariates were held constant cheese yield was reduced by 4·6 g per each 1 kg milk in an infected goat compared with an uninfected goat. Other statistically significant covariates positively associated with cheese yield were protein contents, fat contents and the 3rd stage of lactation (P < 0·001 for all).
Katongole, C B; Sabiiti, E N; Bareeba, F B; Ledin, I
The effect of feeding diets including market crop wastes (sweet potato vines (Ipomoea batatas) and scarlet eggplant (Solanum aethiopicum)) on growth and digestibility was studied using 32 indigenous intact growing male goats. Adding elephant grass (Pennisetum purpureum), maize bran and Leucaena leucocephala leaves, four isocaloric and isonitrogenous diets (Sweet potato vines, Solanum, Mixed and Control) were formulated. After the growth trial, 12 goats were randomly selected for a digestibility trial with the same diets, and 8 goats for a feed preference test comparing the market wastes and elephant grass. Crude protein (CP) intake was highest (P<0.05) for the Control (48 g/day) and lowest for the Sweet potato vines diet (23 g/day). Average daily gain was between 11.0 and 14.2 g/day, and similar between diets. The DM and CP digestibilities of the diets were 0.56 and 0.56 (Control), 0.62 and 0.56 (Mixed), 0.59 and 0.49 (Sweet potato vines), and 0.54 and 0.45 (Solanum), respectively. Faecal and urinary N excretions were highest in goats fed the Sweet potato vines and Solanum diets. Eggplant wastes were the least (P<0.05) preferred. On average the goats spent 5% of their 8-hour time eating eggplant wastes, 34% on sweet potato vines and 36% on elephant grass. Growth performance and N retention were low due to the low intake of feed, especially eggplant wastes.
Palmer, Brian; Jones, Raymond J; Poathong, Somsak; Chobtang, Jeerasak
The study assessed the value of Leucaena leucocephala bark in leucaena-grass hay diets fed to Thai goats. Thai goats in metabolism pens were fed diets containing leucaena leaf (55%) + pangola grass hay (hay, 45%); leucaena leaf (48%) + leucaena bark (9%) + hay (43%); leucaena bark (57%) + hay (43%); and hay only. Feed percentages are expressed on a dry weight basis. The digestibilities of dry matter (DM) and crude protein (CP) were measured for the four diets. Leucaena bark had lower CP concentration than the leaf (11.7 vs. 25.9), and the leucaena bark + hay diet had lower DM and CP digestibility than the other diets. The calculated bark digestibilities of DM and CP of 44.1% and 38.2%, respectively, were much lower than the values for the leucaena leaf of 62.9% and 89.1%, respectively. The lower than expected CP digestibility was attributed to higher tannin levels in the bark compared to the leaves. Despite this, the bark was well accepted by the goats and was often preferred to the hay. Stripping of the bark by goats also results in stems that dry quicker and have higher calorific value as fuel. However, if leucaena branches are fed as a sole diet, the goats may consume up to 30% of bark on a DM basis and this would reduce nutritive value and animal productivity.
Alcaide, M; Reina, D; Frontera, E; Navarrete, I
This survey was conducted to determine the chronobiology and seroprevalence of nasal bot infestation (Oestrus ovis) in Spain and to identify the risk factors associated with this disease in caprine herds. A total of 1590 sera from adult goats were collected at random on 175 farms in southwestern Spain. Sera were tested by ELISA, using crude protein from second stage larvae as antigen. The mean seroprevalence was 46.04% and mean percentage of optical densities was 41.83. These data indicate a high prevalence of this parasite in the investigated areas. The serological survey revealed that goats managed at higher altitudes, at meridians latitudes and on farms with small herds had a smaller probability of infestation. Eighty goat heads, obtained from abattoirs in the central region of Spain, were collected and examined for nasal botflies from February to October 2002. O. ovis larval stages were recovered from the nasal-sinus cavities of 23 goats, reaching a prevalence of 34.94%. The mean larval burden was 3.9 larvae per infested head. No first instars were found during February and March, when the second instar reached its larger count. The third instar was observed in very small number during the whole period of study, with one peak occurring in July--August. These data show the existence of a favourable period for the development of larval instars of O. ovis in goats that starts in February and finishes in September.
Boutoial, Khalid; García, Victor; Rovira, Silvia; Ferrandini, Eduardo; Abdelkhalek, Oussama; López, María Belén
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of feeding goats with distilled and non-distilled thyme leaves (Thymus zygis subsp. gracilis) on the physicochemical composition and technological properties of pasteurised goat milk, and on the physicochemical composition, phenolic content, oxidative stability, microbiology, sensory and texture profile of Murcia al Vino goat cheese. One group of goats was fed the basal diet (control), the second and third groups were fed with different levels of distilled (10 and 20%) or non-distilled (3·75 and 7·5%) thyme leaves. Goat milk physicochemical composition was significantly affected by the substitution of 7·5% of basal goat diet with non-distilled thyme leaves (increase in fat, protein, dry matter and PUFA content), while goat milk clotting time was increased significantly by the introduction of 20% distilled thyme leaves, which reduces its technological suitability. Microbiology, sensory and texture profiles were not affected by the introduction of distilled thyme leaves. The introduction of distilled and non-distilled thyme leaves as an alternative feed to diet can lead to an inhibition of lipids oxidation. The introduction of distilled and non-distilled thyme leaves into goat's diet can be successfully adopted as a strategy to reduce feeding costs and to take advantage of the waste from the production of essential oils, minimising waste removing costs and the environmental impact.
Schmidely, P; Lloret-Pujol, M; Bas, P; Rouzeau, A; Sauvant, D
The influence of diet (synchronized or not synchronized for the degradation rate of the carbohydrate and N fractions) and amount of feed offered [2.40 +/- 0.10 or 2.00 +/- 0.10 kg of dry matter (DM)/d] on milk yield and composition, N balance, and some plasma constituents was studied using 32 multiparous dairy goats (100 +/- 16 d in milk) that were fed a mixed diet for 9 wk. Diets were 40% concentrate with rapidly degraded starch and rapidly degraded N or highly digestible fibers and slowly degraded N. Nitrogen balance was determined at wk 4 and 8. Goats that were fed greater amounts of DM had higher yields of milk, fat-corrected milk, and protein, but lower milk fat concentrations during the whole trial. Raw milk yield was higher at wk 4 and from wk 6 to 7 for goats consuming the rapidly degraded diet than for goats fed the slowly degraded diet at a high feed intake. Concentrations of milk fat tended to be greater for goats fed the rapidly degraded diet at wk 5, 7, and 8. At wk 5 and 6, an interaction between feed intake and diet was observed for milk protein concentration. Nitrogen digestibility, milk N, and N balance were increased for goats fed at high intakes. The output of N in urine and the efficiency of N use for milk output was greater, and N balance was lower, for goats fed the rapidly degraded diet. Plasma concentrations of nonesterified fatty acids, beta-hydroxybutyrate, and urea (wk 2 to 6) were lower, and insulin concentrations were transiently increased, for goats fed at high intakes. Goats fed the rapidly degraded diet compared with goats fed the slowly degraded diet had higher plasma concentrations of urea, which may indicate inefficient use of ruminal N.
Windsor, P A
Paratuberculosis is a chronic insidious, often serious, disease of the global small ruminant industries, mainly causing losses from mortalities and reduced productivity on-farm, interference in trading and, in Australia, profound socio-economic impacts that have periodically compromised harmony of rural communities. The pathogenesis, diagnosis, impacts and disease management options for ovine and caprine paratuberculosis are reviewed, comparing current controls in the extensive management system for sheep in wool flocks in Australia with the semi-intensive system of dairy flocks/herds in Greece. Improved understanding of the immune and cellular profiles of sheep with varying paratuberculosis outcomes and the recognition of the need for prolonged vaccination and biosecurity is considered of relevance to future control strategies. Paratuberculosis in goats is also of global distribution although the prevalence, economic impact and strategic control options are less well recognized, possibly due to the relatively meagre resources available for goat industry research. Although there have been some recent advances, more work is required on developing control strategies for goats, particularly in dairy situations where there is an important need for validation of improved diagnostic assays and the recognition of the potential impacts for vaccination. For all species, a research priority remains the identification of tests that can detect latent and subclinical infections to enhance removal of future sources of infectious material from flocks/herds and the food chain, plus predict the likely outcomes of animals exposed to the organism at an early age. Improving national paratuberculosis control programs should also be a priority to manage disease risk from trade. The importance of strong leadership and communication, building trust within rural communities confused by the difficulties in managing this insidious disease, reflects the importance of change management
Lespine, A; Sutra, J F; Dupuy, J; Alvinerie, M
Eprinomectin is only available as a topically applied anthelmintic for dairy cattle. To determine whether eprinomectin can be administered in the goat as an injectable formulation, it was subcutaneously delivered to six goats and measured in the plasma at different times after administration. The area under the concentration-time curve (AUC) reported after subcutaneous administration of 0.2 mg kg(-1) eprinomectin (68.5+/-23.2 ng day(-1) ml(-1)) was similar to the AUC previously reported for goats after a pour-on administration of 0.5 mg kg(-1) eprinomectin. Thus, our results clearly show that subcutaneous administration is 2.5 times more effective than pour-on administration, in terms of amount of drug present in the organism. This work should encourage the development of a subcutaneous formulation of eprinomectin and should contribute to defining optimal therapeutic conditions for goat anthelmintic treatment.
Some particularities in anesthesia and surgical procedures are discussed. The combination of xylazine with ketamine is recommended for general anesthesia. Particular aspects of the castration of billy goats, deodorization and dehorning are also discussed.
Lipovetsky, G; Fenoglio, J J; Gieger, M; Srinivasan, M R; Dobelle, W H
The coronary arteries of the goat heart were studied using angiographic techniques and molds of the coronary vessel trees. Blood supplies to the left and right ventricles, interventricular septum, atrioventricular node, and apex of the caprine heart were studied. The goat possesses a left dominant pattern of coronary supply with relatively uniform coronary anatomy and may provide a good large animal model for testing cardiovascular assist devices.
White, Stephen N; Reynolds, James O; Waldron, Daniel F; Schneider, David A; O'Rourke, Katherine I
Scrapie is the transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE) of sheep and goats, and scrapie eradication in sheep is based in part on strong genetic resistance to classical scrapie. Goats may serve as a scrapie reservoir, and to date there has been no experimental inoculation confirming strong genetic resistance in goats. Two prion protein variants (amino acid substitutions S146 and K222) in goats have been significantly underrepresented in scrapie cases though present in scrapie-exposed flocks, and have demonstrated low cell-free protein conversion efficiency to the disease form (PrP(D)). To test degree of genetic resistance conferred in live animals with consistent exposure, we performed the first oral scrapie challenge of goats singly heterozygous for either PRNP S146 or K222. All N146-Q222 homozygotes became clinically scrapie positive by an average of 24months, but all S146 and K222 heterozygotes remain scrapie negative by both rectal biopsy and clinical signs at significantly longer incubation times (P<0.0001 for both comparisons). Recent reports indicate small numbers of S146 and K222 heterozygous goats have become naturally infected with scrapie, suggesting these alleles do not confer complete resistance in the heterozygous state but rather extend incubation. The oral challenge results presented here confirm extended incubation observed in a recent intracerebral challenge of K222 heterozygotes, and to our knowledge provide the first demonstration of extended incubation in S146 heterozygotes. These results suggest longer relevant trace-back histories in scrapie-eradication programs for animals bearing these alleles and strengthen the case for additional challenge experiments in both homozygotes to assess potential scrapie resistance.
Pienaar, J G; Basson, P A; du Plessis, J L; Collins, H M; Naude, T W; Boyazoglu, P A; Boomker, J; Reyers, F; Pienaar, W L
Unusual clinical and pathological observations in the field in goats and sheep suffering from Strongyloides papillosus infection prompted experimental work on this parasite. Goats were infected percutaneously with either single or multiple, low or high levels of S. papillosus. Young goats up to 12 months of age were found to be the most susceptible. Some animals, however, showed substantial resistance to infective doses. Clinical signs included transient diarrhoea, misshapen, elongated faecal pellets terminally, dehydration, anorexia, cachexia, gnashing of teeth, foaming at the mouth, anaemia and nervous signs such as ataxia, a wide-based stance, stupor and nystagmus. A 'pushing syndrome' was seen in 22% of the animals. The pathological changes are described and included enteritis, status spongiosus in the brain, hepatosis leading to rupture of the liver, nephrosis, pulmonary oedema, interstitial pneumonia and pneumonia. About 6% of the goats died acutely from fatal hepatic rupture. The development of an acquired immunity was determined. The immunity elicited an allergic skin reaction at the application site of larvae or injection sites of larval metabolites. This immunity, however, could be breached by large doses of larvae. The most profound clinicopathological changes induced by the parasites were an anaemia (most pronounced in the young goats) and hypophosphataemia. Trace element analyses provided evidence of Cu, Mn and possibly Se deficiencies in some goats.
Komara, M; Boutinaud, M; Ben Chedly, H; Guinard-Flament, J; Marnet, P G
Two experiments were conducted to determine the milk loss of high-yielding Alpine goats resulting from once-daily milking (ODM) and its relationship to udder cisternal size. We investigated the effects of application of this management strategy on milk yield, composition, and technological parameters: lipolysis, fat globule size, and cheese yield. In a second experiment, we investigated the effect of repeated periods of ODM management during lactation. Goats at the beginning of both experiments were at 25 d in milk on average and were previously milked twice daily (twice-daily milking; TDM). In experiment 1, which was conducted for 2 periods (P) of 9 wk (P1, P2), 48 goats were grouped (1, 2, 3, and 4) according to milk yield, parity, and somatic cell count (SCC). Over the 2 periods, goats from group 1 were managed with TDM and those from group 2 were managed with ODM. In group 3, goats were assigned to TDM during P1 and ODM during P2, conversely, those in group 4 were assigned to ODM in P1 and TDM in P2. During P1, the 12 goats from group 3 underwent 2 distinct morning machine milkings to measure milk repartition (cisternal and alveolar) in the udder based on the "atosiban method." On P1 plus the P2 period of 18 wk, milk loss caused by ODM (compared with TDM) was 16%. In our condition of 24-h milk accumulation, there was no correlation between milk loss and udder cisternal size. Milk fat content, fat globule size, or apparent laboratory cheese yield was not modified by ODM, but milk protein content (+2.7 g/kg), casein (+1.8 g/kg), milk soluble protein concentration (+1.0 g/kg), and SCC increased, whereas lipolysis decreased (-0.3 mEq/100 g of oleic acid). In experiment 2, which was conducted for 4 periods (P1, P2, P3, P4) of 5 wk each, 8 goats, blocked into 2 homogenous groups (5 and 6), were used to study the effects of a double inversion of milking frequency (TDM or ODM) for 20 wk of lactation. Milk loss was 17% and ODM did not modify milk fat or protein contents
McKinnon, Hilary; Kruger, Marlena; Prosser, Colin; Lowry, Dianne
There are two main proteins in milk; whey and casein. Casein contains casein phosphopeptides (CPP), which are released on digestion of the milk. These may increase calcium solubility by binding calcium in the small intestine. Thus increasing casein in the diet may help to stimulate bioavailability of calcium and increase bone density. The present study tested this hypothesis in growing male rats fed diets containing three different concentrations of casein from goat milk. Rats fed the diet containing no casein had significantly lower calcium absorption when compared to rats fed the diets that contained 80% and 57% of goat milk protein as casein; however, no significant difference was observed between rats fed diets with 80% and 57% casein. The varying amounts of casein had no effect on mineral uptake or retention in the femur. Biomechanical testing and mineral analysis of the femurs showed no differences between diet groups. The mechanism to explain this lack of retention remains unclear. The diets containing 80% and 57% of goat milk protein as casein delivered increased calcium absorption compared to the diet containing no casein, suggesting a minimum level of casein is needed to optimize calcium absorption from goat milk. Copyright (c) 2009 Society of Chemical Industry.
Liang, Li; Leng, Diana; Burk, Chad; Nakajima-Sasaki, Rie; Kayala, Matthew A.; Atluri, Vidya L.; Pablo, Jozelyn; Unal, Berkay; Ficht, Thomas A.; Gotuzzo, Eduardo; Saito, Mayuko; Morrow, W. John W.; Liang, Xiaowu; Baldi, Pierre; Gilman, Robert H.; Vinetz, Joseph M.; Tsolis, Renée M.; Felgner, Philip L.
Brucellosis is a widespread zoonotic disease that is also a potential agent of bioterrorism. Current serological assays to diagnose human brucellosis in clinical settings are based on detection of agglutinating anti-LPS antibodies. To better understand the universe of antibody responses that develop after B. melitensis infection, a protein microarray was fabricated containing 1,406 predicted B. melitensis proteins. The array was probed with sera from experimentally infected goats and naturally infected humans from an endemic region in Peru. The assay identified 18 antigens differentially recognized by infected and non-infected goats, and 13 serodiagnostic antigens that differentiate human patients proven to have acute brucellosis from syndromically similar patients. There were 31 cross-reactive antigens in healthy goats and 20 cross-reactive antigens in healthy humans. Only two of the serodiagnostic antigens and eight of the cross-reactive antigens overlap between humans and goats. Based on these results, a nitrocellulose line blot containing the human serodiagnostic antigens was fabricated and applied in a simple assay that validated the accuracy of the protein microarray results in the diagnosis of humans. These data demonstrate that an experimentally infected natural reservoir host produces a fundamentally different immune response than a naturally infected accidental human host. PMID:20454614
Liang, Li; Leng, Diana; Burk, Chad; Nakajima-Sasaki, Rie; Kayala, Matthew A; Atluri, Vidya L; Pablo, Jozelyn; Unal, Berkay; Ficht, Thomas A; Gotuzzo, Eduardo; Saito, Mayuko; Morrow, W John W; Liang, Xiaowu; Baldi, Pierre; Gilman, Robert H; Vinetz, Joseph M; Tsolis, Renée M; Felgner, Philip L
Brucellosis is a widespread zoonotic disease that is also a potential agent of bioterrorism. Current serological assays to diagnose human brucellosis in clinical settings are based on detection of agglutinating anti-LPS antibodies. To better understand the universe of antibody responses that develop after B. melitensis infection, a protein microarray was fabricated containing 1,406 predicted B. melitensis proteins. The array was probed with sera from experimentally infected goats and naturally infected humans from an endemic region in Peru. The assay identified 18 antigens differentially recognized by infected and non-infected goats, and 13 serodiagnostic antigens that differentiate human patients proven to have acute brucellosis from syndromically similar patients. There were 31 cross-reactive antigens in healthy goats and 20 cross-reactive antigens in healthy humans. Only two of the serodiagnostic antigens and eight of the cross-reactive antigens overlap between humans and goats. Based on these results, a nitrocellulose line blot containing the human serodiagnostic antigens was fabricated and applied in a simple assay that validated the accuracy of the protein microarray results in the diagnosis of humans. These data demonstrate that an experimentally infected natural reservoir host produces a fundamentally different immune response than a naturally infected accidental human host.
Contreras, A; Paape, M J; Miller, R H; Corrales, J C; Luengo, C; Sánchez, A
A 7 month prospective cohort study was designed to determine if feeding bromelain to dairy goats influenced the MSCC, milk yield, milk composition and the incidence of IMI. Forty-four clinically normal goats from 2nd to 6th parities were studied. Daily bromelain dosage was 7.4 grams/animal (185-mg/Kg weight). Samples for diagnostic bacteriology were collected from each udder half every 2 weeks. Samples for MSCC and composition were obtained every 42 days. Milk yield was also recorded every 42 days. Bromelain affected milk protein and fat but not MSCC, milk yield or milk lactose. Bromelain did not decrease the MSCC in healthy goats. Milk protein and fat increased in the bromelain treated group (P < 0.01), which is important for dairymen because premiums are paid milk fat and protein content. No clinical mastitis was detected in the goats for the total study period and incidence rate of subclinical IMI was 5.7%. Relative risk was 1.50 (0.28 < RR < 8.12) which means that the bromelain had no significant effect on IMI (P > 0.05). In addition, the use of pineapple by-products could be especially important in tropical countries were pineapple waste seems to be a pollution problem.
Yu, Z P; Xu, M; Liu, K; Yao, J H; Yu, H X; Wang, F
Four goats (30.1 ± 1.3 kg) with common bile duct re-entrant catheter and duodenal catheter were used to evaluate the effects of duodenal leucine infusion on pancreatic exocrine secretion and plasma parameters with two 4 × 4 Latin square design experiments. In the long-term infusion experiment, goats were fed twice daily [700 g/day, dry matter (DM) basis] at 8:00 and 18:00 hours and were duodenally infused with 0, 3, 6, 9 g/day leucine for 14 days. Pancreatic juice and jugular blood samples were collected over 1-h intervals for 6 h daily from d 11 to 14 days to encompass a 24-h day. In the short-term experiment, goats were infused leucine for 10 h continuously at the same infusion rate with Experiment 1 after feed deprivation for 24 h repeated every 10 days. Pancreatic juice and blood samples were collected at 0, 1, 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 h of infusion. The results showed that the long-term leucine infusion did not affect pancreatic juice secretion, protein output, trypsin and lipase secretion and plasma insulin concentration, but linearly increased α-amylase secretion. No changes in pancreatic protein and lipase secretion were observed in the short-term infusion. Pancreatic juice and α-amylase secretion responded quadratically, with the greatest values observed in the 3 and 6 g/day leucine respectively. Trypsin secretion linearly decreased, while plasma insulin concentration increased linearly with increased leucine infusion. The results demonstrated that duodenal leucine infusion dose and time dependently regulated pancreatic enzyme secretion not associated with the change in plasma insulin concentration.
Costa, Marion P; Frasao, Beatriz S; Rodrigues, Bruna L; Silva, Adriana Co; Conte-Junior, Carlos A
The aim of this Research Communication was to investigate the changes in physicochemical, colour, apparent viscosity and texture properties in low-fat goat milk yogurts prepared with cupuassu pulp by the addition of inulin (SI), maltodextrin (SM), whey protein (SW) and skim milk powder (SP). Three batches of each cupuassu goat milk yogurt were prepared and analysed on the 1st day of storage by pH, proximate composition, colour, apparent viscosity, and texture. In comparison to yogurts from whole (W) or skimmed milk (S), all of the fat replacers improved the physicochemical properties (P < 0·05). The addition of the carbohydrates (inulin and maltodextrin) and proteins (whey protein and skim milk powder) also influenced the colour of the low-fat cupuassu goat milk yogurt (P < 0·05). All fat replacer treatments (SI, SM, SW and SP) presented a higher (P < 0·05) apparent viscosity than W and S yogurts. However, only the addition of skim milk powder increased the texture parameters (firmness and consistency) (P < 0·05). These results suggest that skim milk powder can be used to improve the texture properties of low-fat cupuassu goat milk. Furthermore, inulin, maltodextrin, and whey protein can potentially be applied in the goat dairy industry to increase the viscosity of yogurts.
Salinas, L M; Casais, R; García Marín, J F; Dalton, K P; Royo, L J; Del Cerro, A; Gayo, E; Dagleish, M P; Alberdi, P; Juste, R A; de la Fuente, J; Balseiro, A
Spanish goat encephalitis virus (SGEV) is a recently described member of the genus Flavivirus belonging to the tick-borne encephalitis group of viruses, and is closely related to louping ill virus (LIV). Naturally acquired disease in goats results in severe, acute encephalitis and 100% mortality. Eighteen goats were challenged subcutaneously with SGEV; nine were vaccinated previously against LIV and nine were not. None of the vaccinated goats showed any clinical signs of disease or histological lesions, but all of the non-vaccinated goats developed pyrexia and 5/9 developed neurological clinical signs, primarily tremors in the neck and ataxia. All non-vaccinated animals developed histological lesions restricted to the central nervous system and consistent with a lymphocytic meningomyeloencephalitis. Vaccinated goats had significantly (P <0.003) greater concentrations of serum IgG and lower levels of IgM (P <0.0001) compared with unvaccinated animals. SGEV RNA levels were below detectable limits in the vaccinated goats throughout the experiment, but increased rapidly and were significantly (P <0.0001) greater 2-10 days post challenge in the non-vaccinated group. In conclusion, vaccination of goats against LIV confers highly effective protection against SGEV; this is probably mediated by IgG and prevents an increase in viral RNA load in serum such that vaccinated animals would not be an effective reservoir of the virus. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Kapadiya, Dhartiben B.; Prajapati, Darshna B.; Jain, Amit Kumar; Mehta, Bhavbhuti M.; Darji, Vijaykumar B.; Aparnathi, Kishorkumar D.
Aim: The study was undertaken to find out the gross composition, nitrogen distribution, and selected mineral content in Surti goat milk, and its comparison was made between cow and buffalo milk. Materials and Methods: Goat milk samples of Surti breed and buffalo milk samples were collected during the period from July to January 2014 at Reproductive Biology Research Unit, Anand Agricultural University (AAU), Anand. Cow milk samples of Kankrej breed were collected from Livestock Research Station, AAU, Anand. Samples were analyzed for gross composition such as total solids (TS), fat, solid not fat (SNF), protein, lactose, and ash. Samples were also analyzed for nitrogen distribution such as total nitrogen (TN), non-casein nitrogen (NCN), non-protein nitrogen (NPN), and selected minerals content such as calcium, magnesium, phosphorous, and chloride. Total five replications were carried out. Results: Goat milk had the lowest TS, fat, protein, and lactose content among all three types of milk studied in the present investigation. On the other hand, the highest TS, fat, protein, and lactose content were found in buffalo milk. Buffalo milk had the highest SNF, calcium, magnesium, and phosphorous content, which was followed by goat milk and lowest in cow milk. The SNF, protein, TN, and calcium content of goat milk were statistically non-significant (p<0.05) with cow milk. The lactose content of goat milk was significantly lower (p>0.05) than that of the cow milk as well as buffalo milk. The goat milk had the highest ash and NCN content, which were followed by buffalo milk and lowest in cow milk. However, the differences in ash, NPN, and phosphorous content of three types of milk studied, viz., goat milk, cow milk, and buffalo milk were found statistically non-significant (p<0.05). The NCN content of buffalo milk was statistically non-significant (p<0.05) with cow milk as well as goat milk. The NCN and magnesium content of goat milk were significantly higher (p>0.05) than
Caroprese, Mariangela; Ciliberti, Maria Giovana; Santillo, Antonella; Marino, Rosaria; Sevi, Agostino; Albenzio, Marzia
This study was undertaken to assess how diet supplemented with fish oil and linseed improve the immune profile, the production performance, and milk quality of grazing goats by a diet supplementation of fish oil or linseed. Twenty-four Garganica grazing goats were divided into three groups named control (CON), fish oil (FO) and linseed (LIN) according to the fat supplement received in their diet. In vivo immune responses were evaluated by monitoring cell-mediated and humoral immune responses in order to verify the effects of polyunsaturated fatty acids supplementation on goats' health status. Goat milk samples were analysed weekly to determine milk chemical composition, fatty acid profile, and somatic cell count. Diet based on linseed supplementation (LIN) significantly increased milk yield by 30%, milk fat yield by 67%, protein yield by 34%, and casein yield by 41% as compared with CON. Fat content increased by 30% in LIN milk as compared with CON milk, and by 12% as compared with FO milk. Linseed modified milk fatty acid profile; LIN milk showed lower SFA and higher PUFA than FO milk. The modified fatty acid composition of LIN milk resulted in lower AI and TI indexes than FO and CON milk. Linseed and fish oil administration can reduce humoral immunity of goats, but has no effect in their cellular immunity. Dietary linseed supplementation in grazing dairy goat supports feeding programs to improve milk composition and quality, and a modulation of their immune responses.
Colwell, Douglas D; Otranto, Domenico
The potential for cross-transmission of Hypoderma lineatum from cattle to domestic goats (Capra hircus) was examined using artificial infestation techniques. Two routes of infestation, subcutaneous injection and dermal penetration, were used to expose goats to newly hatched first instars. Presence of antibodies and appearance of circulating antigen (hypodermin C) were evaluated at selected intervals for up to 40 weeks post-infestation. In addition, immunoblots against H. lineatum first-instar proteins were conducted using sera taken at 10 weeks post-infestation. Goats were palpated for the presence of developing larvae at sub-dermal sites beginning at week 30 pi. No developing larvae were palpated at any time, regardless of the route of infestation nor was circulating antigen detected in any infested goats. Antibodies were present at weeks 6 and 10 and week 27 pi in both infested groups. Immunoblots indicated all infested goats produced antibodies to first instar H. lineatum antigens. H. lineatum appears to be incapable of completing development in domestic goats although the transient appearance of ELISA detectable antibodies and the presence of bands on immunoblots suggests that at least some larvae survive long-enough to engender a humoural response. The host specificity of H. lineatum is discussed in light of the general concepts of host-parasite relationships of oestrids.
Jan, Owais Qadir; Kamili, Neyaz; Ashraf, Ajmal; Iqbal, Asif; Sharma, R K; Rastogi, Ankur
The antihelminthic properties of tannin-rich plants are being explored as an alternative to chemical drugs to minimise the effects of gastro intestinal nematodes (GIN). The present study was, therefore, conducted to investigate the effect of condensed tannins (CT), obtained from regional tanniferous tree leaves, in the Haemonchus contortus infected goats on the heamatobiochemical parameters to assess the goat health. Twelve adult male goats were randomly divided into three equal groups, namely negative control, infected control and treatment. H. contortus infected goats were allocated into infected control and treatment groups and their feeds contained 0 and 1.96 % of CT, respectively. Feeding trial was conducted for the duration of 90 days during which haematological and serum biochemical parameters were monitored on fortnightly basis. The animals ingesting the CT-rich leaf meal mixture had increased levels of haemoglobin, packed cell volume, total protein, globulin, glucose and calcium, and decreased levels of blood urea; indicating a beneficial effect of CT supplementation at the selected level. However, the phosphorus balance, serum albumin levels and serum enzyme activity were not affected significantly. The study revealed that inclusion of CT in the diets of the adult male goats did not pose any threat to the health of the goats. Further, the CT based diet had beneficial impact on the haematological parameters and could therefore be included in small ruminant diets to minimize the impact of GIN.
Moreno-Fernandez, Jorge; Diaz-Castro, Javier; Alférez, M José M; Nestares, Teresa; Ochoa, Julio J; Sánchez-Alcover, Ana; López-Aliaga, Inmaculada
The aim of the current study was to assess the influence of fermented goat or cow milk on melatonin levels and antioxidant status and during anemia recovery. Eighty male Wistar rats were placed on a pre-experimental period of 40 days and randomly divided into two groups, a control group receiving normal-Fe diet (45 mg kg(-1)) and the Fe-deficient group receiving low-Fe diet (5 mg kg(-1)). Then, the rats were fed with fermented goat or cow milk-based diets with a normal-Fe content or Fe-overload (450 mg kg(-1)) for 30 days. After 30 days of feeding the fermented milks, the total antioxidant status (TAS) was higher in both groups of animals fed fermented goat milk with the normal-Fe content. Plasma and urine 8-OHdG were lower in control and anemic rats fed fermented goat milk. Melatonin and corticosterone increased in the anemic groups during Fe replenishment with both fermented milks. Urine isoprostanes were lower in both groups fed fermented goat milk. Lipid and protein oxidative damage were higher in all tissues with fermented cow milk. During anemia instauration, an increase in melatonin was observed, a fact that would improve the energy metabolism and impaired inflammatory signaling, however, during anemia recovery, fermented goat milk had positive effects on melatonin and TAS, even in the case of Fe-overload, limiting the evoked oxidative damage.
Gong, Jianhua; Wang, Zhongde; Polejaeva, Irina; Salgia, Ravi; Kao, Chien-Min; Chen, Chin-Tu; Chen, Guangchun; Chen, Liaohai
Humane use of preclinical large animal cancer models plays a critical role in understanding cancer biology and developing therapeutic treatments. Among the large animal candidates, goats have great potentials as sustainable sources for large animal cancer model development. Goats are easier to handle and cheaper to raise. The genome of the goats has been sequenced recently. It has been known that goats develop skin, adrenal cortex, breast and other types of cancers. Technically, goats are subject to somatic cell nuclear transfer more efficiently and exhibit better viability through the cloning process. Towards the development of a goat cancer model, we created a transgenic goat fetal fibroblast (GFF) cell as the donor cell for SCNT. Human mutated K-ras (hK-rasG12D) was chosen as the transgene, as it is present in 20% of cancers. Both hK-rasG12D and a herpes simplex viral thymidine kinase (HSV1-tk) reporter genes, flanked by a pair of LoxP sites, were knocked in the GFF endogenous K-ras locus through homologous recombination. Following Cre-mediated activation (with a 95% activation efficiency), hK-rasG12D and HSV1-tk were expressed in the transgenic GFF cells, evidently through the presence of corresponding mRNAs, and confirmed by HSV1-tk protein function assay. The hK-rasG12D expressing GFF cells exhibited enhanced proliferation rates and an anchorage-independent growth behavior. They were able to initiate tumor growth in athymic nude mice. In conclusion, after activating hK-rasG12D gene expression, hK-rasG12D transgenic GFF cells were transformed into tumorgenesis cells. Transgenic goats via SCNT using the above-motioned cells as the donor cells have been established.
Gong, Jianhua; Wang, Zhongde; Polejaeva, Irina; Salgia, Ravi; Kao, Chien-Min; Chen, Chin-Tu; Chen, Guangchun; Chen, Liaohai
Humane use of preclinical large animal cancer models plays a critical role in understanding cancer biology and developing therapeutic treatments. Among the large animal candidates, goats have great potentials as sustainable sources for large animal cancer model development. Goats are easier to handle and cheaper to raise. The genome of the goats has been sequenced recently. It has been known that goats develop skin, adrenal cortex, breast and other types of cancers. Technically, goats are subject to somatic cell nuclear transfer more efficiently and exhibit better viability through the cloning process. Towards the development of a goat cancer model, we created a transgenic goat fetal fibroblast (GFF) cell as the donor cell for SCNT. Human mutated K-ras (hK-rasG12D) was chosen as the transgene, as it is present in 20% of cancers. Both hK-rasG12D and a herpes simplex viral thymidine kinase (HSV1-tk) reporter genes, flanked by a pair of LoxP sites, were knocked in the GFF endogenous K-ras locus through homologous recombination. Following Cre-mediated activation (with a 95% activation efficiency), hK-rasG12D and HSV1-tk were expressed in the transgenic GFF cells, evidently through the presence of corresponding mRNAs, and confirmed by HSV1-tk protein function assay. The hK-rasG12D expressing GFF cells exhibited enhanced proliferation rates and an anchorage-independent growth behavior. They were able to initiate tumor growth in athymic nude mice. In conclusion, after activating hK-rasG12D gene expression, hK-rasG12D transgenic GFF cells were transformed into tumorgenesis cells. Transgenic goats via SCNT using the above-motioned cells as the donor cells have been established. PMID:24594684
Ghaffar, Ammarah; Tariq, Aamira
Pasteurella multocida represents a highly diverse group of bacteria infecting various hosts like the fowl, goat and buffalo leading to huge economic loss to the poultry and cattle industry. Previous reports indicated that the outer membrane proteins contribute significantly to the pathogenesis of Pasteurella multocida. The comparative in-silico genome wide analysis of four pathogenic Pasteurella multocida strains (Anand1-poultry, Anand1-goat, PMTB and VTCCBAA264) with their respective hosts was performed. A pipeline was developed to identify the list of non-homologous proteins of Pasteurella multocida strains and their hosts. The list was further analyzed for the identification of the essential outer membrane proteins responsible for the pathogenicity. Outer membrane proteins were further selected from these antigenic proteins on the basis of their pathogenic potential. A common B-cell epitope (TDYRNRDRS, ARRSVTSKEN, and KINDQWRW) determined via sequential and structural approach from the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) assembly outer membrane complex protein was predicted from fowl, goat and buffalo. Furthermore, we identified T-cell epitopes based on the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) assembly outer membrane complex protein via docking studies which were either similar to the B-cell epitopes or were occurring in the same patch except for MHC class II M fowl. We propose that this difference in epitope sequence is due to different interacting MHC class II protein predicted from the fowl. Hence, in the current study we found that a unique epitope based on the common antigenic lipopolysaccharide (LPS) outer membrane complex protein present in fowl, goat and buffalo can be a suitable target for vaccine development against the two economic devastating diseases; fowl cholera (FC) and hemorrhagic septicemia (HS).
6. Boathouse, looking northwest, southwest and southeast sides - Goat Island Light Station, Goat Island, next to entrance to Cape Porpoise Harbor, just south of Trott Island, Cape Porpoise, York County, ME
4. Light tower, interior from entrance, looking southeast - Goat Island Light Station, Goat Island, next to entrance to Cape Porpoise Harbor, just south of Trott Island, Cape Porpoise, York County, ME
Peixoto, P V; Brust, L C; Duarte, M D; Franca, T N; Duarte, V C; Barros, C S
Natural and experimental poisonings by Cestrum laevigatum are described in goats. Histologically, livers had marked centrolobular and midzonal coagulative necrosis and hemorrhage. Spontaneous toxicosis by this plant in goats has not been previously reported.
Akineden, Omer; Hassan, Abdulwahed Ahmed; Schneider, Elisabeth; Usleber, Ewald
Goats' milk cheeses (n=181) from the Hessian market (retail shops, weekly markets, farm markets) were quantitatively analysed for Staphylococcus (S.) aureus, and 14 were found positive. From these samples, 64 isolates of S. aureus were characterized biochemically and genetically, including their potential to produce staphylococcal enterotoxins (SE). SE genes sea to selo was studied by PCR and gene expression was evaluated by reverse transcriptase (RT)-PCR. SEA-SEE production in culture was determined by enzyme immunoassay (EIA). One isolate produced SEA, 18 isolates (from 4 samples) produced SEC, while SEB, SED, and SEE were not found. Toxin production was in agreement with PCR and RT-PCR results for the presence and expression, respectively, of the corresponding toxin genes. Trans-SE genes seg, sei, selm, seln, and selo were detected in 14 isolates from 4 cheese samples, exclusively as clusters. These samples were all from small-scale producers which directly or indirectly market their products regionally. No isolate was positive for seh or sej. RT-PCR detected the presence of the corresponding mRNA for all genes except selo, further indicating the possibility that respective proteins indeed have been produced in culture. These results suggest that S. aureus in goats' milk cheese potentially produces SE like proteins, besides SEA and SEC.
Elfers, Kristin; Breves, Gerhard; Muscher-Banse, Alexandra S
In ruminants, a decrease of dietary nitrogen (N) is an appropriate feeding concept to reduce environmental pollution and costs. In our previous study, when goats were kept on an N-reduced diet, a decrease of plasma urea concentration and an increase of renal urea transporters were demonstrated. Renal urea absorption plays a crucial role for renal water absorption and urine concentration. Renal collecting duct water absorption is mainly mediated by the water channel aquaporin 1 and 2 (AQP1 and AQP2). Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of a dietary N reduction on expression of renal AQP1 and AQP2 in young goats. Twenty male White Saanen goats, 3 months old, were divided equally into two feeding groups, receiving either a diet with an adequate or a reduced-N supply. Goats fed a reduced-N diet showed significantly higher amounts of AQP1 mRNA in cortical tissue, and the expression of AQP2 mRNA and protein were highly elevated in renal outer medulla. An increase of vasopressin concentrations in plasma were detected for the N-reduced fed goats. Therefore, a stimulation of renal water absorption can be assumed. This might be an advantage for ruminants in times of N reduction due to higher urea concentrations in the tubular fluid and which might result in higher absorption of urea by renal urea transporters. Therefore, interplay of aquaporin water channels and urea transporters in the kidney may occur to maintain urea metabolism in times of N scarcity in young goats.
Koda, Naoko; Kutsumi, Shiho; Hirose, Toshiya; Watanabe, Gen
Many Japanese elementary schools keep small animals for educational purposes, and the effects and challenges have been investigated. Although goats are medium-sized animals that are familiar to Japanese, few practical studies have been conducted on keeping goats in schools. This study investigated the effects and challenges of keeping goats in elementary schools and discussed its educational possibilities. A semi-structured interview survey was conducted with 11 personnel that were responsible for keeping goats in 6 elementary schools in urban areas. They described benefits, problems, and tips related to keeping goats. Participant observation was also conducted on daily human-goat interactions in these schools. The results indicated that children in all six grades were able to care for goats. Goats were used for various school subjects and activities. As a result of keeping goats, children developed affection for them, attitude of respect for living things, greater sense of responsibility, and enhanced interpersonal interactional skills. Stronger ties between the schools and parents and community were developed through cooperation in goat-keeping. Some anxieties existed about the risk of injury to children when interacting with goats. Other challenges included the burden of taking care of the goats on holidays and insufficient knowledge about treatment in case of their illness or injury. The results suggested similarities to the benefits and challenges associated with keeping small animals in elementary schools, although the responsibility and the burden on the schools were greater for keeping goats than small animals because of their larger size and the need for children to consider the goats' inner state and to cooperate with others when providing care. At the same time, goats greatly stimulated interest, cooperation, and empathy in children. Goats can expand educational opportunities and bring about many positive effects on child development.
El-Tarabany, Mahmoud S.; El-Tarabany, Akram A.; Atta, Mostafa A.
The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of thermal stress on milk production and physiological traits of Baladi goats under subtropical Egyptian conditions. Sixty dairy Baladi goats were exposed to three different levels of temperature-humidity index (THI), including low (less than 70), moderate (over 70 and up to 80), and high levels (over 80). The influence of THI on the milk composition and physiological, hematological, and biochemical traits was investigated. Rectal temperature and respiration rate were significantly greater at the higher THI than at low and moderate THI ( p = 0.016 and 0.002, respectively). Baladi goats had decreased daily milk yield in a rate of 27.3 and 19.3 % at high THI level, compared with low and moderate THI, respectively ( p = 0.031). On the contrary, no significant differences have been reported in protein, fat, and total solids percentages at different THI levels. Total leucocyte count, serum glucose, and total protein were significantly reduced at high THI in comparison with low and moderate THI levels ( p = 0.043, 0.001, and 0.001, respectively). However, dairy goats maintained relatively stable estimates for erythrocytes count, hemoglobin, serum triglycerides, cholesterol, catalase, total antioxidant capacity, and triiodothyronine at different THI levels. Our results indicate that dairy Baladi goats can tolerate THI levels up to 80; however, variable reduction in milk yield and few biochemical (serum total protein and glucose) and hematological (leucocytes count) parameters have been reported at a THI level higher than 80.
Kokkonen, U M; Riskilä, P; Roihankorpi, M T; Soveri, T
Circadian variation of plasma atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP), cortisol and fluid balance was studied in ten adult female goats. The concentrations of plasma antidiuretic hormone (ADH), electrolytes, creatinine and total protein, as well as plasma and urine osmolalities and renal electrolyte excretion and clearances (Cosm, CH2O, Ccrea), were used to evaluate fluid balance. At 3-h intervals, urine was collected from five goats and venous blood samples from all ten goats. Urethral catheterization had no effect on the results. Besides the lower plasma creatinine level in the dark than in daylight, no other changes were observed in relation to luminousness. Plasma concentrations of ANP, ADH, total protein and K, urine flow rate and osmolality, urine concentrations of Na, K and creatinine, renal Na and K excretion, Cosm, CH2O and Ccrea, and haematocrit showed no circadian variation. Circadian variation was observed in plasma osmolality (P < 0.05) and the concentrations of Na (P < 0.05) and creatinine (P < 0.05), with achrophases around 16:00 hours and nadirs between 01:00 and 07:00 hours. Changes in osmolality and Na followed the feeding schedule. There was a small elevation in plasma cortisol levels in six goats after midnight, which may be the consequence of circadian rhythm. In conclusion, the results suggest that in plasma ANP no circadian rhythm exists.
... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Brucellosis-reactor goats. 309.14 Section 309.14 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION ANTE-MORTEM INSPECTION § 309.14 Brucellosis-reactor goats. Goats which...
... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Brucellosis-reactor goats. 309.14 Section 309.14 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION ANTE-MORTEM INSPECTION § 309.14 Brucellosis-reactor goats. Goats which...
Hebert, D M; Samuel, W M; Smith, G W
Contagious ecthyma has been reported previously from mountain goat (Oreamnos americanus) in one restricted area of eastern British Columbia. A second focus of infection is reported for mountain goat from western British Columbia. Diagnosis was based on appearance of lesions at necropsy, histopathology and demonstration of poxvirus with the electron microscope. The epizootiology of this infection in mountain goat is discussed briefly.
Raising goats in settings that are highly contaminated with oocysts of Toxoplasma gondii may contribute significantly to human exposure to this zoonotic parasite. Increasing consumption of young goats in Romania, where goats are typically reared in backyards that are also home to cats (the definitiv...
Goats are used increasingly for weed control, fire fuel reduction and ecological restoration. The high stocking rates typical of these applications have been reported to decrease the rate of water infiltration in goat pastures. The hypothesis that annual goat browsing for weed control decreases infi...
Rao, V H; Sarmah, B C; Bhattacharyya, N K
Eggs from superovulated goats were surgically placed in the oviducts of pseudopregnant rabbits previously inseminated with goat semen. Out of 81 eggs, 30 (37%) exhibited two pronuclei or two blastomeres when recovered 24-36 h later. Transplantation of these embryos into foster nanny goats resulted in the birth of kids.
... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Brucellosis-reactor goats. 309.14 Section 309.14 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION ANTE-MORTEM INSPECTION § 309.14 Brucellosis-reactor goats. Goats which have...
... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Brucellosis-reactor goats. 309.14 Section 309.14 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION ANTE-MORTEM INSPECTION § 309.14 Brucellosis-reactor goats. Goats which have...
... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Brucellosis-reactor goats. 309.14 Section 309.14 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION ANTE-MORTEM INSPECTION § 309.14 Brucellosis-reactor goats. Goats which have...
Understanding the population structure and variation within the genome will assist with efforts to make genetic gains for meat goat production. A recently developed Illumina Goat 50K SNP panel containing 52,295 SNP loci was created primarily from SNPs identified in European dairy goat breeds and Asi...
Lanada, E B; Morris, R S; Jackson, R; Fenwick, S G
To investigate the epidemiology of Yersinia species in healthy goats in New Zealand, in particular to determine the prevalence of farms with infected goats, the prevalence of infected goats on those farms, the serotypes involved, and potential risk factors for carriage. A cross-sectional study of the prevalence of Yersinia infection in infected flocks in a study population of thirty commercial goat farms in the Manawatu region of New Zealand. Infection was detected on 60% of farms in an initial study. In a prevalence study on 18 infected farms, the study population comprised 6770 animals (mean of 376, median of 175 and range of 36 to 1295 goats/farm). Of 902 goats (296 < 1 year, 178 1 to 2 years, and 428 > 2 years) sampled from the study population, 135 (73 < 1 year, 21 1 to 2 years, and 41 > 2 years) were excreting Yersinia spp, giving an overall prevalence of 14.97% (95% confidence interval [CI]; 12.8 to 17.4) with individual farm prevalences ranging from 0.0 (+ 7.9) to 58.14% (95% Cl, 43.3 to 71.6). Goats < 1 year were more likely to be infected than 1-2 year and > 2 year old animals (relative risk [RR] = 2.1; 95% Cl, 1.3 to 3.3) and 2.6 (95% Cl, 1.8 to 3.6) respectively), but there was no significant difference between risks for 1 to 2 year and > 2 year goats (RR = 1.2; 95% CI, 0.7 to 2.0). Yersinia enterocolitica was the most common species isolated in the youngest age group, with prevalence declining with increasing age, while other species were more common in the older age groups. Yersinia infections were common in goats in the study region, with younger animals apparently more susceptible to infection and in particular to infection with Y enterocolitica. The prevalence on infected farms appeared to decrease as flock size increased and to increase as stocking rates and the number of paddocks grazed increased.
Doré, V; Dubuc, J; Bélanger, A M; Buczinski, S
A prospective cohort study was conducted on 1,081 dairy goats from 10 commercial herds in Québec (Canada) to define prepartum hyperketonemia based on optimal blood β-hydroxybutyrate acid threshold values for the early prediction of pregnancy toxemia (PT) and mortality in late-gestation dairy goats. All pregnant goats had blood sampled weekly during the last 5wk of pregnancy. The blood was analyzed directly on the farm for β-hydroxybutyrate acid quantification using a Precision Xtra meter (Abbott Diabetes Care, Saint-Laurent, QC, Canada). Body condition scores on the lumbar region and sternum were noted. Each goat was classified as being at low (n=973) or high risk (n=108) of having PT by producers based on a standardized definition. The optimal threshold for predicting a PT diagnosis or mortality for each week before kidding was determined based on the highest sum of sensitivity and specificity. The association between hyperketonemia and subsequent PT was tested using a multivariable logistic regression model considering hyperketonemia at wk 4 prepartum, litter size, and body condition score at wk 4 prepartum as covariates, and herd and parturition cohort as random effects. The association between mortality and hyperketonemia was also tested using a logistic regression model accounting for the presence or absence of treatment during the last month of pregnancy. The hyperketonemia definition based on PT varied between ≥0.4 and ≥0.9mmol/L during the last 5wk prepartum. Goats affected by hyperketonemia at wk 4 prepartum and with a large litter size (≥3 fetuses) had 2.1 and 40.5 times the odds, respectively, of subsequent PT than other goats. Hyperketonemia definitions based on mortality varied between ≥0.6 and ≥1.4mmol/L during the last 4wk prepartum, and was ≥1.7mmol/L during the first week postpartum. Goats affected by hyperketonemia and treated by producers had 3.4 and 11.8 times the odds, respectively, of subsequent mortality than did other goats
ABO EL-SOOUD, K; El-Banna, H A; Hanafy, M S; Goudah, A
The pharmacokinetics of cefuroxime sodium, 20 and 40 mg kg(-1), were studied after i.v. and intramuscular injections in goats. Following single i.v. injections the serum concentration time curves of cefuroxime sodium were best fitted to a two-compartment open model. The drug was rapidly distributed with half-lives of distribution (t(1/2 alpha)) of 0.250 hours and 0.266 hours, and rapidly eliminated with half-lives of elimination (t(1/2 beta)) of 1.482 hours and 1.416 hours, respectively, following single i.v. injections of 20 and 40 mg kg(-1)body weight. After single intramuscular injections of cefuroxime sodium at the same doses, the mean absorption time (MAT) values were 1.379 and 1.716 hours and the peak serum concentration, C(max), was 12.965 and 38.50 microg ml(-1), attained after 0.515 and 0.608 hours (t(max)), respectively. The elimination half-lives (t(1/2el)) were 2.088 and 2.114 hours and the mean residence times (MRT) were 3.198 and 3.237 hours for 20 and 40 mg kg(-1)body weight, respectively. After both i.v. and intramuscular injections of cefuroxime sodium, the concentrations of cefuroxime in urine were much higher than that in serum. Urinary drug concentrations decreased gradually to reach their lowest levels at 24 and 48 hours post-injection, respectively. The systemic bioavailability of cefuroxime sodium in goats after intramuscular injections of 20 and 40 mg kg(-1)body weight was 88.4 per cent and 103.5 per cent, respectively. In vitro protein binding of cefuroxime sodium in goat's serum was low, ranging from 13.3 per cent to 21.6 per cent with an average of 17.0 per cent. Copyright 2000 Harcourt Publishers Ltd.
Heath, M E; Jessen, C
1. Experiments were done in conscious goats to estimate the gain of brain temperature sensors and to evaluate that fraction of the thermosensitivity of the entire brain which can be determined by a thermode located in the hypothalamus. 2. The animals were implanted with local thermodes, carotid loops and intravascular heat exchangers permitting independent control of hypothalamic temperature, extrahypothalamic brain temperature and trunk core temperature. 3. Small and slow ramp-like displacements of hypothalamic temperature generated continuously increasing thermoregulatory responses without any dead band, if a negative feed-back from extrahypothalamic sources was suppressed. 4. The hypothalamic sensitivity determined by the metabolic response to slow ramp-like cooling of the thermode amounted to -1.4 W/(kg degrees C) and equalled approximately 30% of what had been found for total body core sensitivity in another series of experiments. 5. Total brain thermosensitivity was -1.6 W/(kg degrees C), which implies that a large thermode centred in the hypothalamus can detect approximately 85% of the thermosensitivity of the entire brain. PMID:3418538
The 4-H Goat Extravaganza maximizes limited resources to help youth and adults develop knowledge and skills in goat care and management. It capitalizes on the talents and interests of volunteers to efficiently combine a goat-themed art show, team presentation contest, quiz bowl, skillathon, and adult workshop into 1 day. This article outlines the…
The 4-H Goat Extravaganza maximizes limited resources to help youth and adults develop knowledge and skills in goat care and management. It capitalizes on the talents and interests of volunteers to efficiently combine a goat-themed art show, team presentation contest, quiz bowl, skillathon, and adult workshop into 1 day. This article outlines the…
Okpeku, Moses; Esmailizadeh, Ali; Adeola, Adeniyi C; Shu, Liping; Zhang, Yesheng; Wang, Yangzi; Sanni, Timothy M; Imumorin, Ikhide G; Peters, Sunday O; Zhang, Jiajin; Dong, Yang; Wang, Wen
The immune systems are fundamentally vital for evolution and survival of species; as such, selection patterns in innate immune loci are of special interest in molecular evolutionary research. The interferon regulatory factor (IRF) gene family control many different aspects of the innate and adaptive immune responses in vertebrates. Among these, IRF3 is known to take active part in very many biological processes. We assembled and evaluated 1356 base pairs of the IRF3 gene coding region in domesticated goats from Africa (Nigeria, Ethiopia and South Africa) and Asia (Iran and China) and the wild goat (Capra aegagrus). Five segregating sites with θ value of 0.0009 for this gene demonstrated a low diversity across the goats' populations. Fu and Li tests were significantly positive but Tajima's D test was significantly negative, suggesting its deviation from neutrality. Neighbor joining tree of IRF3 gene in domesticated goats, wild goat and sheep showed that all domesticated goats have a closer relationship than with the wild goat and sheep. Maximum likelihood tree of the gene showed that different domesticated goats share a common ancestor and suggest single origin. Four unique haplotypes were observed across all the sequences, of which, one was particularly common to African goats (MOCH-K14-0425, Poitou and WAD). In assessing the evolution mode of the gene, we found that the codon model dN/dS ratio for all goats was greater than one. Phylogenetic Analysis by Maximum Likelihood (PAML) gave a ω0 (dN/dS) value of 0.067 with LnL value of -6900.3 for the first Model (M1) while ω2 = 1.667 in model M2 with LnL value of -6900.3 with positive selection inferred in 3 codon sites. Mechanistic empirical combination (MEC) model for evaluating adaptive selection pressure on particular codons also confirmed adaptive selection pressure in three codons (207, 358 and 408) in IRF3 gene. Positive diversifying selection inferred with recent evolutionary changes in domesticated goat IRF3
Nwaokorie, Eugene E; Osborne, Carl A; Lulich, Jody P; Fletcher, Thomas F; Ulrich, Lisa K; Koehler, Lori A; Buettner, Michelle T
To identify demographic or signalment factors associated with calcium carbonate urolith formation in goats. Retrospective case series and case-control study. 354 goats with calcium carbonate uroliths (case animals) and 16,366 goats without urinary tract disease (control animals). Medical records of the Minnesota Urolith Center were reviewed to identify case goats for which samples were submitted between January 1, 1984, and December 31, 2012. Control goats evaluated at US veterinary teaching hospitals in the same time period were identified by searching Veterinary Medical Database records. Age, breed, sex, reproductive status, geographic location, season, and anatomic location of collected uroliths were analyzed to identify risk or protective factors associated with calcium carbonate urolithiasis. Nigerian dwarf goats had higher odds of developing calcium carbonate uroliths than did Pygmy goats (reference group). Several breeds had lower odds of this finding, compared with Pygmy goats; odds were lowest for mixed, Anglo-Nubian, and Toggenburg breeds. Breeds of African origin (Pygmy, Nigerian Dwarf, and Boer) comprised 146 of 275 (53%) case goats with data available. Goats of African descent had a higher risk of developing calcium carbonate uroliths than did goats of non-African descent (reference group). Males and neutered goats had higher odds of calcium carbonate urolithiasis, compared with females and sexually intact goats, respectively. Age category, geographic location, and season were associated with detection of calcium carbonate uroliths. Goats with calcium carbonate uroliths were typically neutered males, > 1 year of age, and of African descent. This study identified factors associated with calcium carbonate urolithiasis in goats; however, these associations do not allow conclusions regarding cause-and-effect relationships.
Koda, Naoko; Kutsumi, Shiho; Hirose, Toshiya; Watanabe, Gen
Many Japanese elementary schools keep small animals for educational purposes, and the effects and challenges have been investigated. Although goats are medium-sized animals that are familiar to Japanese, few practical studies have been conducted on keeping goats in schools. This study investigated the effects and challenges of keeping goats in elementary schools and discussed its educational possibilities. A semi-structured interview survey was conducted with 11 personnel that were responsible for keeping goats in 6 elementary schools in urban areas. They described benefits, problems, and tips related to keeping goats. Participant observation was also conducted on daily human–goat interactions in these schools. The results indicated that children in all six grades were able to care for goats. Goats were used for various school subjects and activities. As a result of keeping goats, children developed affection for them, attitude of respect for living things, greater sense of responsibility, and enhanced interpersonal interactional skills. Stronger ties between the schools and parents and community were developed through cooperation in goat-keeping. Some anxieties existed about the risk of injury to children when interacting with goats. Other challenges included the burden of taking care of the goats on holidays and insufficient knowledge about treatment in case of their illness or injury. The results suggested similarities to the benefits and challenges associated with keeping small animals in elementary schools, although the responsibility and the burden on the schools were greater for keeping goats than small animals because of their larger size and the need for children to consider the goats’ inner state and to cooperate with others when providing care. At the same time, goats greatly stimulated interest, cooperation, and empathy in children. Goats can expand educational opportunities and bring about many positive effects on child development. PMID:28083538
Seva, Juan I; Gómez, Serafin; Pallarés, Francisco J; Sánchez, Pedro; Bernabé, Antonio
An occipitoatlantoaxial malformation was diagnosed in a 1-year-old Murciano-Granadina goat. At clinical examination, the head and cranial part of the neck were deviated to the right. Clinical signs of spinal cord or brain disease were not observed. At necropsy, morphological abnormalities were seen in the craniovertebral junction and cervical vertebrae, characterized by a firm attachment and incomplete articulation between the occipital bone and the atlas, and scoliosis in the cervical regions. The definitive diagnosis was bilateral asymmetrical occipitoatlantoaxial fusion with rotation of the atlas and atlantoaxial subluxation. To the authors' knowledge, this case report is the second occipitoatlantoaxial malformation described in a goat and the first description in an adult goat.
Chen, Q; Ke, X; Zhang, J S; Lai, S Y; Fang, F; Mo, W M; Ren, Y P
Fraud in milk and dairy products occurs when cow milk is added to sheep and goat milk for economic reasons. No reliable, selective, and sensitive method exists for quantifying the milk percentage of different species. This work reports the development and validation of a proteomics-based method for the qualitative detection and quantitative determination of cow, sheep, and goat milks in the raw materials used for dairy products. β-Lactoglobulin was selected as the protein marker because it is a major protein in milk and whey powder. The tryptic peptides LSFNPTQLEEQCHI and LAFNPTQLEGQCHV were used as signature peptides for cow milk and for sheep and goat milks, respectively. The winged peptides LKALPMHIRLSFNPTQL*EEQCHI* and LKALPMHIRLAFNPTQL*EGQCHV* were designed and synthesized as internal standards. Validation of the method showed that it has good sensitivity, specificity, reproducibility, precision, and accuracy. This method is easily applicable in routine laboratory analysis without intensive proteomics background.
Migliore, Sergio; Agnello, Stefano; D'Avola, Salvatore; Goldmann, Wilfred; Di Marco Lo Presti, Vincenzo; Vitale, Maria
Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) are a group of neurodegenerative diseases affecting humans and animals, and scrapie in small ruminants is considered the archetype of TSEs. Derivata di Siria is a native dairy goat of Sicily (south Italy), which is related to Syrian goat breeds. Scrapie disease is considered endemic in Sicily since 1997, following the administration of an infected vaccine.Derivata di Siria goatswere involved in six of 66 scrapie-infected flocks in Sicily. Prion protein gene (PRNP) analysis revealed that none of the scrapie cases carried the p.Gln222Lys variant. Sequencing of PRNP in this goat population showed a high frequency (15%) of p.Gln222Lys variant confirming its association with scrapie resistance. PRNP polymorphisms were also analysed in the population of Pantelleria, a small Sicilian Island, where scrapie has never been reported. The native goat breed 'Pantesca' was maintained up to almost 80 years and the size of the sheep population on this island has historically been very low. Currently, a crossbreed goat population of 253 heads is present on the island. PRNP genotyping of Pantelleria goats showed genetic variation, with low presence of wild-type goats and the lack of protective alleles. These data reinforce the association between PRNP polymorphisms in small ruminants and scrapie incidence.
Baker, M A
1. Measurement of rectal temperature (Tr), sweat rate, respiratory frequency (f) and respiratory evaporation (Eresp) were made in one Nubian and four Alpine-Toggenberg goats while they stood for 90 min in a climate chamber at 40 degrees C ambient temperature (Ta). The animals were studied when they were hydrated, when they had been dehydrated by 48 h water deprivation, and when they were rehydrated by voluntary drinking of water or saline or by intraruminal water administration. Plasma osmolality (Posm), plasma protein concentration (PP) and haematocrit (Hct) were measured before every experiment and before and after voluntary drinking. 2. Hydrated animals increased evaporation by panting and sweating during heat exposure and Tr rose about 1 degree C. The rate of sweating was as high or higher than Eresp. Dehydrated animals had lower sweat rates and higher Tr than hydrated animals, but f and Eresp were the same in hydrated and dehydrated animals. 3. When dehydrated goats were allowed to drink after 60 min of heat exposure, sweating began abruptly within 3 min of the start of drinking in every animal whether water or saline was drunk. Sweat rate returned to hydrated levels or higher before any change occurred in Posm, PP or Hct. Respiratory frequency was higher after drinking than in dehydrated animals which were not allowed to drink. 4. When water was administered by rumen tube after 60 min of heat exposure, sweating in the Nubian occurred with a short latency, similar to the onset after drinking. In the other four animals, sweating onset occurred on average at 13 min 42 s after intraruminal water administration. 5. It is concluded that sweating is a significant avenue of evaporative heat loss in these goats when they are hydrated and exposed to high Ta. Sweat rate is markedly reduced after water deprivation but returns to hydrated levels within 3 min after the start of drinking. The rapid recovery of sweating after voluntary drinking is not initiated by changes in
Byler, D. M.; Purcell, James M.
Second derivative Fourier-transform infrared [DR2-FTIR] spectra of β-lactoglobulin [RIG], serum albumin [BSA], and a-lactalbumin [aLA], three proteins found in bovine whey, are markedly different before and after thermal denaturation. In no case, however, do the heat-treated proteins unfold as completely as does alkaline-denatured RLG . The spectra also suggest that, for RLG and BSA, formation of intermolecularly hydrogen-bonded (β-strands precedes the onset of heat-induced gelation.
GUZEL, Saime; YIBAR, Artun; BELENLI, Deniz; CETIN, Ismail; TANRIVERDI, Meltem
The main objectives of our study were to measure the major adipokines adiponectin, leptin and resistin in goat milk, to assess their interrelationships and to assess their relationships with the plasma and serum concentrations of total protein, cholesterol, total lipids, plasma C-reactive protein (CRP), milk somatic cell count (SCC), milk total aerobic colony and lactobacillus count, and milk components in lactating Saanen goats. The study was performed on eighteen lactating Saanen goats. Milk and blood samples were collected on days 20, 35, 50, 65 and 80 of lactation postpartum. The milk and plasma adiponectin levels on days 50, 65 and 80 postpartum were significantly higher than those on day 20. The milk and plasma leptin levels were lower on day 20 than on days 35, 50, 65 and 80. The milk concentrations of these major adipokines were positively intercorrelated. The milk and plasma concentrations of these three adipokines were also positively correlated. The plasma CRP concentrations correlated positively with milk leptin and resistin concentrations and inversely with milk adiponectin concentration. Milk adiponectin concentration was inversely related with its SCC. These data confirm that adiponectin, leptin and resistin are present in goat milk. The milk concentrations of these three adipokines were interrelated and interacted with the general inflammatory marker, CRP. The inverse relationship between milk adiponectin concentrations and its SCC suggests that variations in milk adiponectin might be involved in the udder health of lactating goats, but clinical trials are needed to support this hypothesis. PMID:28111374
Huang, Yue-Jin; Chretien, Nathalie; Bilodeau, Annie S; Zhou, Jiang Feng; Lazaris, Anthoula; Karatzas, Costas N
Background Uromodulin is the most abundant protein found in the urine of mammals. In an effort to utilize the uromodulin promoter in order to target recombinant proteins in the urine of transgenic animals we have cloned a goat uromodulin gene promoter fragment (GUM promoter) and used it to drive expression of GFP in the kidney of transgenic mice. Results The GUM-GFP cassette was constructed and transgenic mice were generated in order to study the promoter's tissue specificity, the GFP kidney specific expression and its subcellular distribution. Tissues collected from three GUM-GFP transgenic mouse lines, and analyzed for the presence of GFP by Western blotting and fluorescence confirmed that the GUM promoter drove expression of GFP specifically in the kidney. More specifically, by using immuno-histochemistry analysis of kidney sections, we demonstrated that GFP expression was co-localized, with endogenous uromodulin protein, in the epithelial cells of the thick ascending limbs (TAL) of Henle's loop and the early distal convoluted tubule in the kidney. Conclusion The goat uromodulin promoter is capable of driving recombinant protein expression in the kidney of transgenic mice. The goat promoter fragment cloned may be a useful tool in targeting proteins or oncogenes in the kidney of mammals. PMID:15823198
Maia, Alex Sandro Campos; da Silva, Roberto Gomes; Nascimento, Sheila Tavares; Nascimento, Carolina Cardoso Nagib; Pedroza, Heloisa Paula; Domingos, Herica Girlane Tertulino
Notwithstanding the solar radiation is recognized as a detrimental factor to the thermal balance and responses of animals on the range in tropical conditions, studies on the amount of thermal radiation absorbed by goats therein associated with data on their production and heat exchange are still lacking. Metabolic heat production and the heat exchange of goats in the sun and in the shade were measured simultaneously, aiming to observe its thermal equilibrium. The results showed that black goats absorb twice as much as the white goats under intense solar radiation (higher than 800 W m-2). This observation leads to a higher surface temperature of black goats, but it must not be seen as a disadvantage, because they increase their sensible heat flow in the coat-air interface, especially the convection heat flow at high wind speeds. In the shade, no difference between the coat colours was observed and both presented a lower absorption of heat and a lower sensible heat flow gain. When solar radiation levels increases from 300 to 1000 W m-2, we observed an increase of the heat losses through latent flow in both respiratory and cutaneous surface. Cutaneous evaporation was responsible for almost 90 % of the latent heat losses, independently of the coat colour. Goats decrease the metabolic heat production under solar radiation levels up to 800 W m-2, and increase in levels higher than this, because there is an increase of the respiratory rate and of the respiratory flow, but the fractions of consumed oxygen and produced carbon dioxide are maintained stable. The respiratory rate of black goats was higher than the white ones, under 300 W m-2 (55 and 45 resp min-1) and 1000 W m-2 (120 and 95 resp min-1, respectively). It was concluded that shade or any protection against solar radiation levels above 800 Wm-2 is critical to guarantee goat's thermal equilibrium. Strategies concerning the grazing period in accordance with the time of the day alone are not appropriate, because the
Maia, Alex Sandro Campos; da Silva, Roberto Gomes; Nascimento, Sheila Tavares; Nascimento, Carolina Cardoso Nagib; Pedroza, Heloisa Paula; Domingos, Herica Girlane Tertulino
Notwithstanding the solar radiation is recognized as a detrimental factor to the thermal balance and responses of animals on the range in tropical conditions, studies on the amount of thermal radiation absorbed by goats therein associated with data on their production and heat exchange are still lacking. Metabolic heat production and the heat exchange of goats in the sun and in the shade were measured simultaneously, aiming to observe its thermal equilibrium. The results showed that black goats absorb twice as much as the white goats under intense solar radiation (higher than 800 W m(-2)). This observation leads to a higher surface temperature of black goats, but it must not be seen as a disadvantage, because they increase their sensible heat flow in the coat-air interface, especially the convection heat flow at high wind speeds. In the shade, no difference between the coat colours was observed and both presented a lower absorption of heat and a lower sensible heat flow gain. When solar radiation levels increases from 300 to 1000 W m(-2), we observed an increase of the heat losses through latent flow in both respiratory and cutaneous surface. Cutaneous evaporation was responsible for almost 90 % of the latent heat losses, independently of the coat colour. Goats decrease the metabolic heat production under solar radiation levels up to 800 W m(-2), and increase in levels higher than this, because there is an increase of the respiratory rate and of the respiratory flow, but the fractions of consumed oxygen and produced carbon dioxide are maintained stable. The respiratory rate of black goats was higher than the white ones, under 300 W m(-2) (55 and 45 resp min(-1)) and 1000 W m(-2) (120 and 95 resp min(-1), respectively). It was concluded that shade or any protection against solar radiation levels above 800 Wm(-2) is critical to guarantee goat's thermal equilibrium. Strategies concerning the grazing period in accordance with the time of the day alone are not
Radi, Z A; Thomsen, B V; Summers, B A
Renal encephalopathy was diagnosed in a 2-year-old male boar goat with a history of chronic weight loss and ataxia. Histopathological examination of the brain revealed a striking myelin vacuolation distributed mainly in two patterns: (i) along the junction of the neocortex and corona radiata, and (ii) in the bundles of the internal capsule as it dissects through the basal nuclei. The kidneys had diffuse severe tubular and glomerular necrosis and degeneration. The neural lesions are consistent with renal (uremic) encephalopathy. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report of renal encephalopathy in a goat.
Cypher, Elizabeth Erin; van Amstel, Sarel R; Videla, Ricardo; Force Clark, Kyle; Anderson, David E
To describe a novel surgical technique for the correction of recurrent obstructive urolithiasis in male goats. Clinical case series. Castrated male goats (n = 4). Medical records of male goats having undergone vesicopreputial anastomosis (VPA) as a treatment for obstructive urolithiasis were reviewed for history, signalment, clinical signs, and intraoperative and postoperative complications. Long-term follow-up (≥12 months) was obtained by telephone interview with owners or by clinical examination. All goats had undergone at least one surgical procedure (median, 2.5, range 2-4) to correct obstructive urolithiasis before undergoing VPA. Postoperative complications included premature removal of the tube from the bladder (1 goat), bacterial cystitis (2), and abscess formation (1). One goat suffered stricture of the anastomosis site 3 months following the original procedure and underwent a second VPA and 1 goat died 7 months after surgery due to severe, acute hydronephrosis and renal failure. Long-term survival ≥12 months was good with 3/4 goats (75%) or 3/5 VPA procedures (60%) having unobstructed urine flow at 12 months. Vesicopreputial anastomosis is a feasible surgical procedure for the correction of recurrent obstructive urolithiasis in male goats and one that can result in a favorable clinical outcome. Further investigation in a larger population of goats is warranted for the evaluation of the suitability of VPA in male goats with obstructive urolithiasis. © 2017 The American College of Veterinary Surgeons.
Rumosa Gwaze, F; Chimonyo, M; Dzama, K
Despite the fact that about 64% of goats in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) are located in rural arid (38%) and semi-arid (26%) agro-ecological zones and that more than 90% of goats in these zones are indigenous, information on indigenous breeds is inadequate. This paper reviews the social and economic importance of goats to the communal farmer and assesses the potential of using goats in rural development in Southern Africa. Farmers in Southern Africa largely use the village goat management system. There are various goat breeds in Southern Africa, of which the Mashona, Matabele, Tswana, Nguni and the Landim are the dominant ones. It is, however, not clear if these breeds are distinct. Major constraints to goat production include high disease and parasite prevalence, low levels of management, limited forage availability and poor marketing management. Potential research areas that are required to ensure that goats are vehicles for rural development include evaluation of constraints to goat production, assessing the contribution of goats to household economies and food securities throughout the year, genetic and phenotypic characterisation of the indigenous breeds to identify appropriate strains and sustainable methods of goat improvement through either selection or crossbreeding.
Loftis, Amanda D; Levin, Michael L; Spurlock, J Paul
Ehrlichia spp. are not currently recognized as a cause of illness in goats in the USA, but three Ehrlichia are enzootic in lone star ticks (Amblyomma americanum) in the eastern USA, and related bacteria in other countries cause illness in goats. We exposed naïve goats to Ehrlichia-infected Amblyomma and demonstrated that infection and clinical illness can be caused by two USA species, E. ewingii and the recently discovered Panola Mountain Ehrlichia sp. Clinical features in all five goats are described; ehrlichioses were associated with pyrexia, serous nasal discharge, inappetance, lethargy, decreased alkaline phosphatase, and, in most cases, neutropenia. Goats remained chronically infected for several months following exposure to ehrlichiae and transmitted the pathogens to uninfected ticks. In the eastern USA, undifferentiated febrile illness in goats might be caused by previously unrecognized ehrlichial infections, and pastures housing-infected goats could become infested with a large number of infected ticks.
Ibáñez, Carla; Criscioni, Patricia; Arriaga, Haritz; Merino, Pilar; Espinós, Francisco Juan; Fernández, Carlos
The aim of this experiment was to study the effects of substituting dietary barley grain with orange pulp or soybean hulls on energy, nitrogen and carbon balance, methane emission and milk performance in dairy goats. Twelve Murciano-Granadina dairy goats in midlactation were selected and divided into three groups based on similar body weight (42.1 ± 1.2 kg) and milk yield (2.16 ± 0.060 kg/goat/day). The experiment was conducted in an incomplete crossover design where one group of four goats was fed a mixed ration of barley grain (BRL), another group of four goats replaced barley grain with orange pulp (OP) and the last group of four goats with soybean hulls (SH). After adaptation to diets, the goats were allocated to individual metabolism cages and intake, faeces, urine and milk were recorded and analysed. Then, gas exchange measurements were recorded by a mobile open-circuit indirect calorimetry system using a head box. Dry matter intake was similar for all three groups (2.03 kg/d, on average). No influence of the diet was observed for energy balance and the efficiency of use of metabolizable energy for milk production was 0.61. The OP and SH diets showed greater (P < 0.05) fat mobilization (-42.8 kJ/kg of BW0.75, on average) than BRL (19.2 kJ/kg of BW0.75). Pentadecanoic acid (15:0) and heptadecanoic acid (17:0) were potential biomarkers of rumen function because the higher contents found in the milk of OP and SH goats than BRL suggest a negative impact of these diets on rumen bacterial metabolism; probably linked to the lower nitrogen supply of diet OP to synthesize microbial protein and greater content of fat in diet SH. Replacement of cereal grain with fibrous by-products did not increased enteric methane emissions (54.7 L/goat per day, on average). Therefore, lactating goats could utilize dry orange pulp and soybean hulls diets with no detrimental effect on milk performance.
Ibáñez, Carla; Criscioni, Patricia; Arriaga, Haritz; Merino, Pilar; Espinós, Francisco Juan; Fernández, Carlos
The aim of this experiment was to study the effects of substituting dietary barley grain with orange pulp or soybean hulls on energy, nitrogen and carbon balance, methane emission and milk performance in dairy goats. Twelve Murciano-Granadina dairy goats in midlactation were selected and divided into three groups based on similar body weight (42.1 ± 1.2 kg) and milk yield (2.16 ± 0.060 kg/goat/day). The experiment was conducted in an incomplete crossover design where one group of four goats was fed a mixed ration of barley grain (BRL), another group of four goats replaced barley grain with orange pulp (OP) and the last group of four goats with soybean hulls (SH). After adaptation to diets, the goats were allocated to individual metabolism cages and intake, faeces, urine and milk were recorded and analysed. Then, gas exchange measurements were recorded by a mobile open-circuit indirect calorimetry system using a head box. Dry matter intake was similar for all three groups (2.03 kg/d, on average). No influence of the diet was observed for energy balance and the efficiency of use of metabolizable energy for milk production was 0.61. The OP and SH diets showed greater (P < 0.05) fat mobilization (-42.8 kJ/kg of BW0.75, on average) than BRL (19.2 kJ/kg of BW0.75). Pentadecanoic acid (15:0) and heptadecanoic acid (17:0) were potential biomarkers of rumen function because the higher contents found in the milk of OP and SH goats than BRL suggest a negative impact of these diets on rumen bacterial metabolism; probably linked to the lower nitrogen supply of diet OP to synthesize microbial protein and greater content of fat in diet SH. Replacement of cereal grain with fibrous by-products did not increased enteric methane emissions (54.7 L/goat per day, on average). Therefore, lactating goats could utilize dry orange pulp and soybean hulls diets with no detrimental effect on milk performance. PMID:26983120
Shu, Liping; Zhang, Yesheng; Wang, Yangzi; Sanni, Timothy M.; Imumorin, Ikhide G.; Peters, Sunday O.; Zhang, Jiajin; Dong, Yang; Wang, Wen
The immune systems are fundamentally vital for evolution and survival of species; as such, selection patterns in innate immune loci are of special interest in molecular evolutionary research. The interferon regulatory factor (IRF) gene family control many different aspects of the innate and adaptive immune responses in vertebrates. Among these, IRF3 is known to take active part in very many biological processes. We assembled and evaluated 1356 base pairs of the IRF3 gene coding region in domesticated goats from Africa (Nigeria, Ethiopia and South Africa) and Asia (Iran and China) and the wild goat (Capra aegagrus). Five segregating sites with θ value of 0.0009 for this gene demonstrated a low diversity across the goats’ populations. Fu and Li tests were significantly positive but Tajima’s D test was significantly negative, suggesting its deviation from neutrality. Neighbor joining tree of IRF3 gene in domesticated goats, wild goat and sheep showed that all domesticated goats have a closer relationship than with the wild goat and sheep. Maximum likelihood tree of the gene showed that different domesticated goats share a common ancestor and suggest single origin. Four unique haplotypes were observed across all the sequences, of which, one was particularly common to African goats (MOCH-K14-0425, Poitou and WAD). In assessing the evolution mode of the gene, we found that the codon model dN/dS ratio for all goats was greater than one. Phylogenetic Analysis by Maximum Likelihood (PAML) gave a ω0 (dN/dS) value of 0.067 with LnL value of -6900.3 for the first Model (M1) while ω2 = 1.667 in model M2 with LnL value of -6900.3 with positive selection inferred in 3 codon sites. Mechanistic empirical combination (MEC) model for evaluating adaptive selection pressure on particular codons also confirmed adaptive selection pressure in three codons (207, 358 and 408) in IRF3 gene. Positive diversifying selection inferred with recent evolutionary changes in domesticated goat
Morais, J S; Bezerra, L R; Silva, A M A; Araújo, M J; Oliveira, R L; Edvan, R L; Torreão, J N C; Lanna, D P D
This study evaluated the effects of replacing ground corn with buriti oil ( L.) on feed intake and digestibility and on the production, composition, fatty acid profile and sensory characteristics of goat milk. A double Latin square (4 × 4) was used; eight goats were distributed in a completely randomized design. The square comprised four periods and four buriti oil concentration (0.00; 1.50; 3.00 and 4.50% of total DM) replacing corn. Intakes of DM, CP, NDF, ADF, non-fibrous carboydrates (NFC) and TDN were not affected by the replacement of corn with oil in the diet. However, lipids intake was increased ( < 0.01) by 100% in the diet of goats with 4.50% oil inclusion, as total DM. DM and CP digestibility were similar between the buriti oil concentrations. However, lipid digestibility increased linearly ( = 0.01) and may have contributed to a quadratic reduction in NDF digestibility ( = 0.01) and a linear reduction of NFC ( = 0.04) with buriti oil content in the goat feed. Goat milk production, corrected production and chemical composition were not influenced by the concentration of buriti oil replacement; however, milk fat concentration ( = 0.04) and feed efficiency ( < 0.01) increased linearly with the amount of buriti oil in the diet. There was a linear reduction on hypercholesterolemic SFA such as C12:0 ( < 0.01) and C14:0 ( < 0.01) as well as the atherogenic index (AI; < 0.01) with buriti oil inclusion in goat's diet. In contrast, the fatty acids C18:0 ( < 0.01) and C18:1 9 ( < 0.01) increased linearly in the milk of goats that were fed with buriti oil. However, CLA ( < 0.01) varied quadratically; the maximum production of 0.62 g/100 g of fat was observed when using 1.50% buriti oil. The sensory characteristics of the milk were not changed ( > 0.05) by the replacement of corn with buriti oil in the goats' diet. It is recommended to replace corn with buriti oil in goat feed by up to 4.5% of total DM, resulting in improved feed efficiency and milk fat without
Tharwat, M; Al-Sobayil, F; Al-Sobayil, K
This study was designed to establish the reference range for the cardiac biomarkers cardiac troponin I (cTnI) and creatine kinase myocardial band (CK-MB) in nonpregnant and pregnant goats, goats with normal birth, goats with prolonged birth associated with dystocia, and goats with pregnancy toxemia. Fifty-seven does, categorized into three groups (G1 to G3), were used. These groups were comprised of 20 healthy does (G1), 19 does with prolonged birth (G2), and 18 does with pregnancy toxemia (G3). Six blood samples (T0 to T5) were collected from G1. The first blood sample (T0) was taken before insemination, the second (T1) at the first trimester, the third (T2) at the second trimester, the fourth (T3) at the last trimester, the fifth (T4) within 12 h of parturition, and the sixth blood sample (T5) was taken 10 days after parturition. A sample of blood was obtained from G2 and G3 upon admission to the hospital. At T0 to T3, no cTnI was detected in any of the 20 does in G1. At parturition (T4), seven of the 20 goats (35%) exhibited slightly elevated cTnI concentrations (range, 0.01 to 0.04 ng/mL). Ten days after parturition (T5), cTnI was not detected in any of the 20 goats. In 10 of the 19 goats (53%) with prolonged birth (G2), the cTnI was significantly elevated to a mean value of 0.094 ± 0.155 ng/mL, with a maximum value of 0.61 ng/mL. In 16 of the 18 goats (89%) with pregnancy toxemia (G3), the cTnI was significantly elevated to a value of 0.852 ± 1.472 ng/mL, with a maximum value of 5.219 ng/mL. Comparing the values of CK-MB in G1 (T0 to T5), G2 and G3 revealed nonsignificant differences. Only a slight elevation in the CK-MB levels in goats with prolonged birth (G2) was noted. We concluded that in healthy does, the cardiac biomarker cTnI is not elevated during normal pregnancy. The serum cTnI concentration may be elevated in a number of goats at normal vaginal or cesarean delivery. Finally, cTnI is significantly elevated in does with pregnancy toxemia and could
Al-Atiyat, R M; Aljumaah, R S
The present study aimed to analyze genetic relatedness and differentiation of common native goat populations in some countries of the Middle East. The populations were Ardi, Black Bedouin, and Damascus goats in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, Jordan, and Syria, respectively. Domesticated goats of the Middle East are mostly related to common ancestors, but there is limited molecular genetic evidence. Four microsatellite DNA markers were genotyped in 89 individuals of the three populations using an automated genetic analyzer. Ardi, Black Bedouin, and Damascus goats exhibited high average allele number and expected heterozygosity of 8.25, 9, and 7.25, and 0.750, 0.804, and 0.779, respectively. F-statistics for population differentiation showed 6.0% of total genetic variation, whereas 94.0% as differentiation between individuals within all populations. The least varied within populations was Ardi goats, then Damascus goats and finally Black Bedouin goats. Furthermore, the Damascus goat population was more differentiated from Black Bedouin goats than from Ardi goats. On the other hand, there was strong evidence of admixture between the majority of Ardi and Black Bedouin goat individuals but little with those of Damascus goats. Genetic distance between Ardi and Black Bedouin goats was the shortest, whereas it was the longest between Ardi and Damascus goats. The phylogenetic tree clearly revealed the expected degree of differentiation in the three populations. From a genetic conservation point of view, it is recommended to maintain the biodiversity of these distinct populations in case genetic migration of genetic resources and genetic conservation are absent.
Bhuiyan, Ali Akbar; Li, Jingjin; Wu, Zhenyang; Ni, Pan; Adetula, Adeyinka Abiola; Wang, Haiyan; Zhang, Cheng; Tang, Xiaohui; Bhuyan, Anjuman Ara; Zhao, Shuhong; Du, Xiaoyong
Gastrointestinal nematodes (GINs) are one of the most economically important parasites of small ruminants and a major animal health concern in many regions of the world. However, the molecular mechanisms of the host response to GIN infections in goat are still little known. In this study, two genetically distinct goat populations, one relatively resistant and the other susceptible to GIN infections, were identified in Yichang goat and then four individuals in each group were chosen to compare mRNA expression profiles using RNA-seq. Field experiment showed lower worm burden, delayed and reduced egg production in the relatively resistant group than the susceptible group. The analysis of RNA-seq showed that 2369 genes, 1407 of which were up-regulated and 962 down-regulated, were significantly (p < 0.001) differentially expressed between these two groups. Functional annotation of the 298 genes more highly expressed in the resistant group yielded a total of 46 significant (p < 0.05) functional annotation clusters including 31 genes (9 in innate immunity, 13 in immunity, and 9 in innate immune response) related to immune biosynthetic process as well as transforming growth factor (TGF)-β, mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), and cell adhesion molecules (CAMs) pathways. Our findings provide insights that are immediately relevant for the improvement of host resistance to GIN infections and which will make it possible to know the mechanisms underlying the resistance of goats to GIN infections.
Tan, C Y; Zhong, R Z; Tan, Z L; Han, X F; Tang, S X; Xiao, W J; Sun, Z H; Wang, M
This study was conducted to examine dietary tea catechins (TC) supplementation on the fatty acid composition of muscle and ruminal bacteria in goats fed a maize stover-based diet. Forty goats, 8 months old (16.2 ± 1.2 kg), were randomly divided into four equal groups (10 animals in each group) and assigned to four experiment diets with TC supplementation at four levels (0, 2,000, 3,000 and 4,000 mg TC/kg feed, namely TC0, TC2000, TC3000 and TC4000, respectively). After a 60-day feeding period, all the goats were slaughtered and sampled. The results showed that dietary TC inclusion increased the average daily gain (ADG), protein content in the semimembranosus muscle and dry matter in the longissimus dorsi muscle (LD). Dietary TC supplementation increased the ratio of n-6 to n-3 fatty acid, the ratio of polyunsaturated fatty acids to saturated fatty acids was higher in TC3000 and TC4000 than in TC0 and TC2000 for LD. The current results implied that dietary inclusion of a suitable TC dose could improve the growth performance and increase the proportions of unsaturated fatty acids in muscle, and the biohydrogenation of ruminal microorganisms might change the profiles of fatty acids in the muscle of growing goats.
Bhuiyan, Ali Akbar; Li, Jingjin; Wu, Zhenyang; Ni, Pan; Adetula, Adeyinka Abiola; Wang, Haiyan; Zhang, Cheng; Tang, Xiaohui; Bhuyan, Anjuman Ara; Zhao, Shuhong; Du, Xiaoyong
Gastrointestinal nematodes (GINs) are one of the most economically important parasites of small ruminants and a major animal health concern in many regions of the world. However, the molecular mechanisms of the host response to GIN infections in goat are still little known. In this study, two genetically distinct goat populations, one relatively resistant and the other susceptible to GIN infections, were identified in Yichang goat and then four individuals in each group were chosen to compare mRNA expression profiles using RNA-seq. Field experiment showed lower worm burden, delayed and reduced egg production in the relatively resistant group than the susceptible group. The analysis of RNA-seq showed that 2369 genes, 1407 of which were up-regulated and 962 down-regulated, were significantly (p < 0.001) differentially expressed between these two groups. Functional annotation of the 298 genes more highly expressed in the resistant group yielded a total of 46 significant (p < 0.05) functional annotation clusters including 31 genes (9 in innate immunity, 13 in immunity, and 9 in innate immune response) related to immune biosynthetic process as well as transforming growth factor (TGF)-β, mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), and cell adhesion molecules (CAMs) pathways. Our findings provide insights that are immediately relevant for the improvement of host resistance to GIN infections and which will make it possible to know the mechanisms underlying the resistance of goats to GIN infections. PMID:28368324
Mpanza, Thamsanqa Doctor Empire; Hassen, Abubeker
The inclusion of Stylosanthes scabra cv. Seca forage in the total mixed ration (TMR) as partial replacement of lucerne (alfalfa) was evaluated for its effects on voluntary feed intake, nutrient digestibility and nitrogen balance in Saanen goats. Three experimental diets were formulated having 0 % Seca (T1), 15 % Seca (T2) and 30 % Seca (T3) as partial replacement of lucerne forage in the TMR diet for goats. Eighteen Saanen goats of about 7 months old were divided into three groups of six animals per group. Each group was randomly assigned to one of the three dietary treatments in a complete randomised design, and the study lasted for a period of 21 days. There was an increase in fibre and mineral content of the diets as Seca inclusion increased, but this resulted in the decrease of crude protein contents and in vitro organic matter digestibility. Animals that were fed 15 % Seca recorded higher voluntary dry matter and nutrient (organic matter and fibres) intake, but the difference was not statistically significant (P > 0.05) as compared to the other treatments. Nutrient digestibility as well as nitrogen balance was not significantly different across the three diets. The lack of significant differences in feed intake, nutrient digestibility and nitrogen utilisation following the inclusion of Seca in the TMR suggests that S. scabra forage can partially replace lucerne in the TMR diet of goats.
Ling, Y. H.; Zhang, X. D.; Yao, N.; Ding, J. P.; Chen, H. Q.; Zhang, Z. J.; Zhang, Y. H.; Ren, C. H.; Ma, Y. H.; Zhang, X. R.
To investigate the genetic diversity of seven Chinese indigenous meat goat breeds (Tibet goat, Guizhou white goat, Shannan white goat, Yichang white goat, Matou goat, Changjiangsanjiaozhou white goat and Anhui white goat), explain their genetic relationship and assess their integrity and degree of admixture, 302 individuals from these breeds and 42 Boer goats introduced from Africa as reference samples were genotyped for 11 microsatellite markers. Results indicated that the genetic diversity of Chinese indigenous meat goats was rich. The mean heterozygosity and the mean allelic richness (AR) for the 8 goat breeds varied from 0.697 to 0.738 and 6.21 to 7.35, respectively. Structure analysis showed that Tibet goat breed was genetically distinct and was the first to separate and the other Chinese goats were then divided into two sub-clusters: Shannan white goat and Yichang white goat in one cluster; and Guizhou white goat, Matou goat, Changjiangsanjiaozhou white goat and Anhui white goat in the other cluster. This grouping pattern was further supported by clustering analysis and Principal component analysis. These results may provide a scientific basis for the characteristization, conservation and utilization of Chinese meat goats. PMID:25049548
Song, Yujie; Cui, Chenchen; Zhu, Hongmei; Li, Qian; Zhao, Fan; Jin, Yaping
Engineered zinc-finger nucleases (ZFNs) have been widely used for precise genome editing. ZFNs can induce DNA double-strand breaks at specific genomic locations and drive the introduction of an insertion or deletion of base pairs at the targeted region, consequently resulting in a loss-of-function mutation. In this study, we investigated the cloning, expression and purification of ZFN fusion proteins targeting the goat beta-lactoglobulin (BLG) gene and detected the cleavage activities of these ZFN proteins in vitro and in cells, respectively. The results showed that the pET-BLG-LFN and pET-BLG-RFN prokaryotic expression plasmids can be constructed correctly and expressed efficiently in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3) cells to produce the 6× His-tagged ZFN proteins that can be purified by Ni-IDA-Sefinose Column. The predetermined sequence of BLG can be recognized and excised both in vitro and in goat fibroblasts by the purified ZFN fusion proteins, which demonstrated that the purified ZFN fusion proteins can be used as gene modification tools to knock out the BLG gene. Furthermore, these results lay the foundation for eliminating allergen BLG from goat milk and improving the quality of goat milk products.
Hormaechea-Agulla, Daniel; Gómez-Gómez, Enrique; Ibáñez-Costa, Alejandro; Carrasco-Valiente, Julia; Rivero-Cortés, Esther; L-López, Fernando; Pedraza-Arevalo, Sergio; Valero-Rosa, José; Sánchez-Sánchez, Rafael; Ortega-Salas, Rosa; Moreno, María M; Gahete, Manuel D; López-Miranda, José; Requena, María J; Castaño, Justo P; Luque, Raúl M
Ghrelin-O-acyltransferase (GOAT) is the key enzyme regulating ghrelin activity, and has been proposed as a potential therapeutic target for obesity/diabetes and as a biomarker in some endocrine-related cancers. However, GOAT presence and putative role in prostate-cancer (PCa) is largely unknown. Here, we demonstrate, for the first time, that GOAT is overexpressed (mRNA/protein-level) in prostatic tissues (n = 52) and plasma/urine-samples (n = 85) of PCa-patients, compared with matched controls [healthy prostate tissues (n = 12) and plasma/urine-samples from BMI-matched controls (n = 28), respectively]. Interestingly, GOAT levels in PCa-patients correlated with aggressiveness and metabolic conditions (i.e. diabetes). Actually, GOAT expression was regulated by metabolic inputs (i.e. In1-ghrelin, insulin/IGF-I) in cultured normal prostate cells and PCa-cell lines. Importantly, ROC-curve analysis unveiled a valuable diagnostic potential for GOAT to discriminate PCa at the tissue/plasma/urine-level with high sensitivity/specificity, particularly in non-diabetic individuals. Moreover, we discovered that GOAT is secreted by PCa-cells, and that its levels are higher in urine samples from a stimulated post-massage vs. pre-massage prostate-test. In conclusion, plasmatic GOAT levels exhibit high specificity/sensitivity to predict PCa-presence compared with other PCa-biomarkers, especially in non-diabetic individuals, suggesting that GOAT holds potential as a novel non-invasive PCa-biomarker.
Funk, N D; Tabatabai, L B; Elzer, P H; Hagius, S D; Martin, B M; Hoffman, L J
Brucella melitensis is the cause of brucellosis in sheep and goats, which often results in abortion. Few cases of B. melitensis infection in goats have occurred in the United States over the last 25 years. However, vigilance must be maintained, as it is for the bovine milk industry, to ensure that brucellosis is not introduced into the U.S. goat population. The objective of this study was to develop a sensitive and specific indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (iELISA) for the detection of B. melitensis-specific antibodies in goat milk. Brucella salt-extractable protein extract was employed as an antigen, and a horseradish peroxidase-labeled polyclonal anti-goat antibody was used as an anti-species conjugate. Thirteen of 13 (100%) individual infected goat milk samples tested positive and 134 of 134 (100%) uninfected bulk milk samples tested negative by the developed iELISA. Three positive milk samples with high, medium, and low absorbance values were used to simulate one positive animal in an otherwise negative herd. By this estimation, one high-titer animal could be detected in a herd of >1,600 animals. Detection estimates for medium- and low-titer animals were one positive animal per herd of <200 and 50 animals, respectively. Based on this estimation, it is recommended that herds be sampled in groups of 50 animals or less for bulk milk testing. The iELISA developed for this study was found to be sensitive and specific and shows potential for use as a bulk milk test for the detection of B. melitensis-specific antibodies in goat milk.
Mechineni, A; Kommuru, D S; Gujja, S; Mosjidis, J A; Miller, J E; Burke, J M; Ramsay, A; Mueller-Harvey, I; Kannan, G; Lee, J H; Kouakou, B; Terrill, T H
High prevalence of anthelmintic-resistant gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN) in goats has increased pressure to find effective, alternative non-synthetic control methods, one of which is adding forage of the high condensed tannin (CT) legume sericea lespedeza (SL; Lespedeza cuneata) to the animal's diet. Previous work has demonstrated good efficacy of dried SL (hay, pellets) against small ruminant GIN, but information is lacking on consumption of fresh SL, particularly during the late summer-autumn period in the southern USA when perennial warm-season grass pastures are often low in quality. A study was designed to determine the effects of autumn (September-November) consumption of fresh SL forage, grass pasture (predominantly bermudagrass, BG; Cynodon dactylon), or a combination of SL+BG forage by young goats [intact male Spanish kids, 9 months old (20.7 ± 1.1 kg), n = 10/treatment group] on their GIN infection status. Three forage paddocks (0.40 ha) were set up at the Fort Valley State University Agricultural Research Station (Fort Valley, GA) for an 8-week trial. The goats in each paddock were supplemented with a commercial feed pellet at 0.45 kg/head/d for the first 4 weeks of the trial, and 0.27 kg/head/d for the final 4 weeks. Forage samples taken at the start of the trial were analyzed for crude protein (CP), neutral detergent fiber (NDF), and acid detergent fiber (ADF) content, and a separate set of SL samples was analyzed for CT in leaves, stems, and whole plant using the benzyl mercaptan thiolysis method. Animal weights were taken at the start and end of the trial, and fecal and blood samples were collected weekly for determination of fecal egg counts (FEC) and packed cell volume (PCV), respectively. Adult GIN was recovered from the abomasum and small intestines of all goats at the end of the experiment for counting and speciation. The CP levels were highest for SL forage, intermediate for SL+BG, and lowest for BG forage samples, while NDF and ADF values
Khan, F A; Bhat, M H; Yaqoob, S H; Waheed, S M; Naykoo, N A; Athar, H; Khan, H M; Fazili, M R; Ganai, N A; Singla, S K; Shah, R A
The gradual decline in the genetic diversity of farm animals has threatened their survival and risk of their extinction has increased many fold in the recent past. Endangered species could be rescued using interspecies embryo production. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of three different culture media on the development of Handmade cloned intraspecies (goat-goat) and interspecies (goat-sheep) embryo reconstructs. Research vitro cleave media (RVCL) yielded higher cleavage and morula-blastocyst development in intraspecies and interspecies nuclear transfer groups compared with G1.G2 and modified synthetic oviductal fluid (mSOFaaci). Cleavage frequency of intraspecies cloned embryos in RVCL, mSOFaaci, and G1.G2 did not differ significantly (87.12%, 82.45%, and 92.52%, respectively). However, the morula/blastocyst frequency in RVCL was greater in mSOFaaci and G1.G2 (51.18% vs. 38.28% vs. 36.50%, respectively). Cleavage and morula/blastocyst frequency in interspecies cloned embryos was greater in RVCL than in mSOFaaci and G1.G2 (76.14% and 42.3% vs. 65.9% and 38.3% vs. 58.56% and 33.1%, respectively). Goat oocytes were parthenogenetically activated and cultured in RVCL, mSOFaaci, and G1.G2 and kept as control. Cleavage and morula/blastocyst frequency in this group was greater in RVCL than in mSOFaaci and G1.G2 (89.66% and 65.26% vs. 85.44% and 48.05% vs. 86.58% and 42.06%, respectively). Conclusively, the results suggest that not only can the interspecies embryos of goat be produced using sheep oocytes as donor cytoplast but also the percentages can be improved by using RVCL media for culturing of the embryos.
Manat, Tanvi D; Chaudhary, Sandhya S; Singh, Virendra Kumar; Patel, Sanjay B; Puri, Gopal
The study was undertaken to find out the changes in hematobiochemical profile in post-partum Surti goats. The present study was conducted on 40 Surti goats out of which 20 goats who had undergone recent parturition acted as treatment group and 20 non-pregnant animals comprised control group. Blood samples were collected from the treatment group on 0, 7, 14, 21, 30, and 45 days post kidding and once from the control group. Blood samples were analyzed for hematological parameters such as hemoglobin (Hb), packed cell volume (PCV), total erythrocyte count (TEC), total leukocyte count (TLC), differential leukocyte count, and biochemical metabolites such as total protein (TP), albumin, globulin, total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA), glucose, and urea. Hb level was the highest on the 45(th) day and lowest on the day of parturition. Significantly low level of Hb, PCV, and lymphocyte was found on 0 day and significantly high level was found on the 45(th) day. TEC was also low on the 0 day and high on the 45(th) day post kidding, but the difference was non-significant. Mid-sized cells and granulocyte percentage decreased significantly from 0 to 45(th) day post-partum. TP, albumin, and urea were found to be lowest on 0 day and highest on 45(th) day post-partum. Urea concentration increased parallel to TP indicating an increase in urea production with catabolism of protein. The globulin concentration also increased from 0 to 45(th) day post-partum, but the difference was non-significant. TC, TG, and NEFA were the highest on 0 day and lowest on the 45(th) day post-partum. Decrease in TC and TG from 0 to 45(th) day post-partum indicates that the animals utilized the lipids for the supply of energy for milk production. High level of NEFA acts as an indicator of negative energy status but in the present study, the high glucose level on 0 day indicates that the animals were in positive energy status. The glucose concentration decreased up to
Moreno-Indias, I; Castro, N; Morales-delaNuez, A; Sánchez-Macías, D; Assunção, P; Capote, J; Argüello, A
To analyze differences in fat and protein content in cheese whey (CW) manufactured in cheese-making factories and farms, goat CW samples were obtained from 60 cheese-making farms and 20 cheese factories. Gross composition of samples was analyzed by using an MIRIS device (MIRIS Inc., Uppsala, Sweden), whey protein composition was subjected to electrophoretic analysis, and fatty acid composition was analyzed via gas chromatography. Goat CW from farms contained higher dry matter content (70.6 vs. 50.8 g/L, farms vs. cheese factories, respectively) and a higher fat percentage (10.5 vs. 1.2% over dry matter, farms vs. cheese factories, respectively) than CW from cheese factories. Analysis of individual proteins showed that CW from farms contained higher concentrations of lactoferrin (0.4 vs. 0.2 mg/mL of CW, farms vs. cheese factories, respectively) and caprine serum albumin (0.6 vs. 0.4 mg/mL of whey, farms vs. cheese factories, respectively) than CW from cheese factories. No differences were observed in the fatty acid profile. The main fatty acids present in goat CW were C16:0, C18:1, C14:0, and C18:0. Thus, the origin of CW affects gross composition and the protein profile, but not the fatty acid profile.
... exported if it is a scrapie-positive animal or an exposed animal, as defined in 9 CFR parts 54 and 79, or... and 79; or if it is the progeny, parent, or sibling of any scrapie-positive animal. (4) Goats...
Behboodi, Esmail; Memili, Erdogan; Melican, David T; Destrempes, Margaret M; Overton, Susan A; Williams, Jennifer L; Flanagan, Peter A; Butler, Robin E; Liem, Hetty; Chen, Li How; Meade, Harry M; Gavin, William G; Echelard, Yann
The current study was undertaken to evaluate the possibility of expanding transgenic goat herds by means of somatic cell nuclear transfer (NT) using transgenic goat cells as nucleus donors. Skin cells from adult, transgenic goats were first synchronized at quiescent stage (G0) by serum starvation and then induced to exit G0 and proceed into G1. Oocytes collected from superovulated donors were enucleated, karyoplast-cytoplast couplets were constructed, and then fused and activated simultaneously by a single electrical pulse. Fused couplets were either co-cultured with oviductal cells in TCM-199 medium (in vitro culture) or transferred to intermediate recipient goat oviducts (in vivo culture) until final transfer. The resulting morulae and blastocysts were transferred to the final recipients. Pregnancies were confirmed by ultrasonography 25-30 days after embryo transfer. In vitro cultured NT embryos developed to morulae and blastocyst stages but did not produce any pregnancies while 30% (6/20) of the in vivo derived morulae and blastocysts produced pregnancies. Two of these pregnancies were resorbed early in gestation. Of the four recipients that maintained pregnancies to term, two delivered dead fetuses 2-3 days after their due dates, and two recipients gave birth to healthy kids at term. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis confirmed that both kids were transgenic and had integration sites consistent with those observed in the adult cell line.
... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Goats. 91.6 Section 91.6 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EXPORTATION AND IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND HANDLING OF LIVESTOCK FOR...
... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Goats. 91.6 Section 91.6 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EXPORTATION AND IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND HANDLING OF LIVESTOCK FOR...
Cornall, Katherine; Wall, Richard
The goat industry in the UK has expanded rapidly in recent years, but at present there is only a poor understanding of the prevalence of parasitic diseases in this farming system. Here, a questionnaire survey of 110 goat owners was used to address this issue. Problems with louse infestation in the previous 12 months were reported by 23% of owners and 19% reported mange. Chorioptic mange was the most common form, with 14 of 21 cases. Sarcoptic mage accounted for only 3 cases and demodex and psoroptic mange each made up 2 cases. Only 53 farmers (48%) said that they took preventative measures to protect their animals against ectoparasite infestation; 20 of these relied on macrocyclic lactones (MLs), the most common product specified was ivermectin. Therapeutic treatment was used by all respondents who said that they had experienced ectoparasites, and again ivermectin was the most common treatment. The use of fipronil was specified by 3 respondents, including one commercial meat producer. Four farmers said that they used antibiotics as an ectoparasiticide. This pattern of treatment for ectoparasites, with reliance on MLs, has implications for the inadvertent selection of resistance in endoparasites. The results suggest that ectoparasites are a major problem for many goat owners, both commercial and non-commercial, but that there is a need for better information for the goat producing community about the optimum approaches to parasite prevention and treatment.
Tonpitak, Walaiporn; Sornklien, Chulabha; Chawanit, Mongkol; Pavasutthipaisit, Suvarin; Wuthiekanun, Vanaporn; Hantrakun, Viriya; Amornchai, Premjit; Thaipadungpanit, Janjira; Day, Nicholas P J; Yingst, Samuel; Peacock, Sharon J; Limmathurotsakul, Direk
Bangkok, Thailand, is a city considered to be at low risk for melioidosis. We describe 10 goats that died of melioidosis in Bangkok. Half of them were born and reared in the city. Multilocus sequence typing ruled out an outbreak. This finding challenges the assumption that melioidosis is rarely acquired in central Thailand.
Collier, Jessica R.; Byers, Stacey R.; Schaffer, Paula A.; Worley, Deanna R.; Ehrhart, E. J.; Duncan, Colleen G.; Grossman, Alicia N.; Holt, Timothy; Callan, Robert J.
An approximately 4-year-old castrated male, Saanen cross goat presented to the Colorado State University Veterinary Teaching Hospital for evaluation and removal of a 22 cm × 22 cm, dark red, thickened, and crusted cutaneous lesion along the left ventrolateral thorax. An initial incisional biopsy performed approximately 8 weeks earlier was suspicious for cutaneous hemangiosarcoma. Surgical excision was deemed to be the most appropriate treatment option for this goat. A complete physical exam, complete blood count, and chemistry profile were performed and results were within normal limits. Thoracic radiographs and abdominal ultrasound were performed to rule out metastatic disease and comorbid conditions; no metastatic lesions or other abnormalities were observed. En bloc surgical excision of the affected skin was performed and the entire tissue was submitted for histopathology. A final diagnosis of cutaneous hemangiolipoma was reached upon extensive sectioning and histologic examination of the larger tissue specimen. The goat recovered well from surgery and has had no further complications up to 9 months postoperatively. To our knowledge, this is the first case report of a hemangiolipoma in a goat and surgical excision for such lesions appears to be a viable treatment method. PMID:23956926
Sesquiterpene lactones (SL) in forage chicory (Cichorium intybus L.) may have anthelmintic activity against gastrointestinal parasites in sheep and goats, but have been implicated in poor palatability of forage. We used three levels of soil P fertilization to influence SL concentrations in three cu...
Dzikiti, T Brighton
Intravenous anaesthesia is gradually becoming popular in veterinary practice. Traditionally, general anaesthesia is induced with intravenous drugs and then maintained with inhalation agents. Inhalation anaesthetic agents cause more significant dose-dependent cardiorespiratory depression than intravenous anaesthetic drugs, creating a need to use less of the inhalation anaesthetic agents for maintenance of general anaesthesia by supplementing with intravenous anaesthesia drugs. Better still, if anaesthesia is maintained completely with intravenous anaesthetic drugs, autonomic functions remain more stable intra-operatively. Patient recovery from anaesthesia is smoother and there is less pollution of the working environment than happens with inhalation anaesthetic agents. Recently, a number of drugs with profiles (pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic) suitable for prolonged intravenous anaesthesia have been studied, mostly in humans and, to a certain extent, in dogs and horses. There is currently very little scientific information on total intravenous anaesthesia in goats, although, in the past few years, some scholarly scientific articles on drugs suitable for partial intravenous anaesthesia in goats have been published. This review article explored the information available on drugs that have been assessed for partial intravenous anaesthesia in goats, with the aim of promoting incorporation of these drugs into total intravenous anaesthesia protocols in clinical practice. That way, balanced anaesthesia, a technique in which drugs are included in anaesthetic protocols for specific desired effects (hypnosis, analgesia, muscle relaxation, autonomic stabilisation) may be utilised in improving the welfare of goats undergoing general anaesthesia.
Scrapie is a fatal neurodegenerative disorder of sheep and goats caused by post-translational conformational change in the host-encoded prion protein (PrPC). Susceptibility or resistance to scrapie has been associated with the presence of polymorphisms in the prion protein (PrP) gene. In the present study, we analyzed the PrP gene sequence to determine the frequency of polymorphisms in 56 sheep (28 each from Damani and Hashtnagri breeds) and 56 goats (28 each from Kamori and Local Hairy breeds). A total of 7 amino acid polymorphisms were detected in the PrP gene for sheep and 4 for goats. These amino acid polymorphisms were combined in 13 alleles and 15 genotypes in sheep and 5 alleles and 6 genotypes in goats. The overall frequency of the most sheep scrapie-resistant polymorphism (Q171R) was calculated to be 0.107. The most scrapie-susceptible polymorphism (A136V) was not detected in any of the studied sheep. The overall frequency of scrapie-associated polymorphism (H143R) in goats was found to be 0.152. Along with already known amino acid polymorphisms, two novel polymorphisms were also detected for each of sheep (Q171N and T191I) and goats (G22C and P63L). However, the overall frequency of these polymorphisms was extremely low. PMID:21595993
Tao, Hui; Chang, Guangjun; Xu, Tianle; Zhao, Huajian; Zhang, Kai; Shen, Xiangzhen
High concentrate diets are fed to early and mid-lactation stages dairy ruminants to meet the energy demands for high milk production in modern milk industry. The present study evaluated the effects of a high concentrate diet on milk fat and milk composition, especially, cis-9, trans-11 CLA content in milk and gene expression of lactating goats. Eight mid-lactating goats with rumen fistula were randomly assigned into a high concentrate diet (HCD) group and low concentrate diet (LCD) group. High concentrate diet feeding significantly increased lipopolysaccharides (LPS) in plasma and decreased milk fat content, vaccenic acid (VA) and cis-9, trans-11 CLA in milk of the lactating goats. The mRNA expression levels of sterol regulatory element binding protein B 1c (SREBP1c), lipoprotein lipase (LPL), fatty acid synthetase (FASN) and acetyl-CoA carboxylase α (ACACA, ACCα) involving in lipid metabolism were analyzed, and ACACA and LPL all decreased in their expression level in the mammary glands of goats fed a high concentrate diet. DNA methylation rate of stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD) was elevated and decreased, and SCD mRNA and protein expression was reduced significantly in the mammary glands of goats fed a high concentrate diet. In conclusion, feeding a high concentrate diet to lactating goats decreases milk fat and reduced expression of SCD in the mammary gland, which finally induced cis-9, trans-11 CLA content in milk.
May, Kimberly A; Moll, H David; Duncan, Robert B; Moon, Martha M; Pleasant, R Scott; Howard, Rick D
To evaluate the outcome of urinary bladder marsupialization in male goats. Prospective, experimental study. Six healthy mixed-breed male goats. After experimentally induced urethral obstruction, 6 male goats had urinary bladder marsupialization. Renal ultrasonography, complete blood count, and serum biochemical analysis were evaluated preoperatively (day 0), at 7 postoperative days, and then at 30-day intervals until 180 days. Stomal diameter was recorded immediately postoperatively and at each postoperative interval. Necropsy examination was performed on day 180 or when stomal stricture or death occurred. Stomal stricture occurred in 1 goat at 120 days. Another goat was found dead at 150 days; severe, suppurative cystitis was identified on necropsy. All goats had mild urine scald dermatitis. Serum biochemical values remained within normal limits, but significant decreases in white blood cell count, serum creatinine concentration, and stomal diameter occurred. At necropsy, all bladders were tubular in shape. Histological evidence of chronic suppurative cystitis and chronic, mild lymphoplasmacytic pyelitis occurred in all goats. Bacterial culture of renal tissue yielded growth in 3 goats, and bladder mucosal swabs yielded bacterial growth in all goats. Although clinical signs of ascending urinary tract infection were not observed in goats with patent stomata, urinary bladder marsupialization may result in ascending urinary tract inflammation or infection. Based on our results, urinary bladder marsupialization should be recommended with caution as the primary method for management of urinary tract obstruction in clinical cases. Copyright 2002 by The American College of Veterinary Surgeons
Aljumaah, R S; Alobre, M M; Al-Atiyat, R M
We investigated the potential of 17 microsatellite markers for assigning Saudi goat individuals to their breeds. Three local breeds, Bishi, Jabali, and Tohami were genotyped using these markers, and Somali goats were used as a reference breed. The majority of alleles were shared between the breeds, except for some that were specific to each breed. The Garza-Williamson index was lowest in the Bishi breed, indicating that a recent bottleneck event occurred. The overall results assigned the goat individuals (based on their genotypes) to the same breeds from which they were sampled, except in a few cases. The individuals' genotypes were sufficient to provide a clear distinction between the Somali goat breed and the others. In three factorial dimensions, the results of a correspondence analysis indicated that the total variation for the first and second factors was 48.85 and 31.43%, respectively. Consequently, Jabali, Bishi, and Tohami goats were in separate groups. The Jabali goat was closely related to the Bishi goat. Somali goats were distinguished from each other and from individuals of the other three goat breeds. The markers were successful in assigning individual goats to their breeds, based on the likelihood of a given individual's genotype.
Zhu, L Q; Bao, Z K; Hu, W W; Lin, J; Yang, Q; Yu, Q H
SWEETs are a recently discovered class of sugar transporters that mediate glucose uptake in the intestine and mammary glands. Our objectives were to clone goat SWEET1 and conduct a functional analysis of its effect on glucose efflux in goat mammary gland epithelial cells. We cloned and sequenced the goat SWEET1 gene from goat mammary glands, then conducted an analysis of the structure of goat SWEET1, including a prediction of the transmembrane helices and potential N-glycosylation sites. To investigate the biological function of goat SWEET1, we also generated goat SWEET1-transfected goat mammary gland epithelial cells using the eukaryotic expression vector pcDNA3.1-gSWEET1. Goat SWEET1 overexpression can reduce glucose absorption in mammary gland epithelial cells with increasing expression of GLUT1, GLUT4, and GLUT12, which may be attributed to glucose efflux arising from the leading role played by goat SWEET1. This study will improve our understanding of the glucose balance in mammary glands and the level of glucose in milk.
Oliveira, Diego M; Pimentel, Luciano A; Pessoa, André F; Dantas, Antônio F M; Uzal, Francisco; Riet-Correa, Franklin
Focal symmetrical encephalomalacia (FSE) is the most prominent lesion seen in the chronic form of enterotoxemia caused by Clostridium perfringens type D in sheep. However, this lesion has not been reported in goats. The current paper reports a case of FSE in a goat from the state of Paraíba in the Brazilian semiarid region. As reported by the farmer, 30, 4-48-month-old animals from a flock of 150 goats died after showing nervous signs, including blindness and recumbence, for periods varying between 1 and 14 days. The flock was grazing native pasture supplemented with wheat and corn bran. Additionally, lactating goats were supplemented with soybeans. A 4-month-old goat with nervous signs was examined clinically and then necropsied 3 days after the onset of clinical signs. Bilateral, focal, and symmetrical areas of brown discoloration were observed in the internal capsule and thalamus. Histologic lesions in these areas consisted of multifocal, bilateral malacia with a few neutrophils; endothelial cell swelling; perivascular edema; and hemorrhages. The etiology of these lesions was not determined. However, FSE is considered pathognomonic for C. perfringens type D enterotoxemia in sheep, and it is speculated that this microorganism was the etiologic agent in the present case. The flock had been vaccinated against type D enterotoxemia only once, approximately 3 months before the beginning of the outbreak. Insufficient immunity due to the incorrect vaccination protocol, low efficacy of the vaccine used, and a diet including large amounts of highly fermentable carbohydrates were suspected to be predisposing factors for this outbreak.
Ectopic expression of DAZL gene in goat bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells enhances the trans-differentiation to putative germ cells compared to the exogenous treatment of retinoic acid or bone morphogenetic protein 4 signalling molecules.
Yan, Guangyao; Fan, Yixuan; Li, Peizhen; Zhang, YanLi; Wang, Feng
The plasticity of human and murine bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) has been proven by their ability to trans-differentiate to multilineage cells, including germ cells. We have investigated ability of goat BMSCs to trans-differentiate to germ cells with extrinsic (e.g., retinoic acid [RA] and BMP4 signalling molecules) and intrinsic factor expression (e.g., DAZL gene ectopic expression). Having optimized the concentration of RA and BMP4, gBMSCs were treated with RA 1 µM) and BMP4 (25 ng/mL), individually and collectively. Both RA and BMP4 induced OCT4, MVH, DAZL, STELLA, NANOG and C-KIT expression, but RNF17, PIWIL2, STRA8, and SCP3 were only expressed after RA treatment. In terms of an endogenous factor, a germ cell specific gene, deleted in Azoospermia-like (DAZL), was overexpressed by plasmid and mRNA techniques. Compared with the RA treated group, DAZL ectopic expression upregulated the transcription and translation of MVH, and SCP3 was also increased at the mRNA level. The mRNA-based method had more effect on the germ cells gene expression compared to the plasmid method. Ectopic expression of the DAZL gene enhanced trans-differentiation compared to the RA-treated group. Knockdown experiments confirmed the pivotal role of DAZL in germ cell differentiation. This study provides further information on the mechanisms underlying the spermatogenesis, which will guide the derivation of post-meiotic germ cells from adult stem cells in vitro. © 2014 International Federation for Cell Biology.
Shome, Rajeswari; Krithiga, Natesan; Muttannagouda, Revanasiddappa Biradar; Veeregowda, Belamaranahalli Muniveerappa; Swati, Sahay; Shome, Bibek Ranjan; Vishnu, Udayakumar; Sankarasubramanian, Jagadesan; Sridhar, Jayavel; Gunasekaran, Paramasamy; Rahman, Habibur; Rajendhran, Jeyaprakash
Here, we report the draft genome sequence and annotation of the Brucella melitensis strain designated ADMAS-G1, isolated from placental fluids of an aborted goat. The length of the genome is 3,284,982 bp, with a 57.3% GC content. A total of 3,325 protein-coding genes and 63 RNA genes were predicted.
In most pasture-based meat-goat production systems, a major management challenge is control of gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN). Use of legumes and forbs that contain plant secondary compounds may reduce fecal egg count (FEC) and/or improve the overall protein nutrition to help animals better toler...
Moretti, D B; Nordi, W M; Lima, A L; Pauletti, P; Machado-Neto, R
The objective of this study was to investigate the development of the enteric, hepatic and muscle tissues in goat kids fed with lyophilized bovine colostrum in the transition period of passive immunity to early active immunity. At 0, 7 and 14 h of life, 15 male newborns received 5% of their body weight of lyophilized bovine colostrum and 14 male newborns received goat colostrum, both with 55 mg/ml of IgG. Samples of the duodenum, jejunum, ileum, liver and muscle were collected at 18, 36 and 96 h of life to quantify total protein, DNA and RNA contents. In the jejunum and ileum, the highest levels of total protein and higher protein/RNA ratio were observed at 18 h (p < 0.05). There were no differences in DNA contents in any intestinal segment (p > 0.05). At 96 h, maximum levels of RNA were observed in the jejunum and ileum (p < 0.05) and higher RNA/DNA ratio in the three intestinal segments (p < 0.05), showing increased ability to synthesize intracellular RNA and proteins. The LBC group showed higher protein content and higher protein/DNA and protein/RNA ratios in the jejunum, a higher DNA content in the liver (p < 0.05) and a higher protein/RNA ratio in the muscle tissue (p < 0.05). In the muscle, higher protein and DNA levels were also found at 96 h (p < 0.05). Indicators of cellular activity suggest greater absorption of proteins from lyophilized bovine colostrum and increased cell maturity in the enteric and muscle tissues in the first hours of goat kids' life.
Background Ghrelin is a 28 amino acid peptide hormone that is expressed in the stomach and a range of peripheral tissues, where it frequently acts as an autocrine/paracrine growth factor. Ghrelin is modified by a unique acylation required for it to activate its cognate receptor, the growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHSR), which mediates many of the actions of ghrelin. Recently, the enzyme responsible for adding the fatty acid residue (octanoyl/acyl group) to the third amino acid of ghrelin, GOAT (ghrelin O-acyltransferase), was identified. Methods We used cell culture, quantitative real-time reverse transcription (RT)-PCR and immunohistochemistry to demonstrate the expression of GOAT in prostate cancer cell lines and tissues from patients. Real-time RT-PCR was used to demonstrate the expression of prohormone convertase (PC)1/3, PC2 and furin in prostate cancer cell lines. Prostate-derived cell lines were treated with ghrelin and desacyl ghrelin and the effect on GOAT expression was measured using quantitative RT-PCR. Results We have demonstrated that GOAT mRNA and protein are expressed in the normal prostate and human prostate cancer tissue samples. The RWPE-1 and RWPE-2 normal prostate-derived cell lines and the LNCaP, DU145, and PC3 prostate cancer cell lines express GOAT and at least one other enzyme that is necessary to produce mature, acylated ghrelin from proghrelin (PC1/3, PC2 or furin). Finally, ghrelin, but not desacyl ghrelin (unacylated ghrelin), can directly regulate the expression of GOAT in the RWPE-1 normal prostate derived cell line and the PC3 prostate cancer cell line. Ghrelin treatment (100nM) for 6 hours significantly decreased GOAT mRNA expression two-fold (P < 0.05) in the PC3 prostate cancer cell line, however, ghrelin did not regulate GOAT expression in the DU145 and LNCaP prostate cancer cell lines. Conclusions This study demonstrates that GOAT is expressed in prostate cancer specimens and cell lines. Ghrelin regulates GOAT
Cui, Chenchen; Song, Yujie; Ge, Hengtao; Hu, Linyong; Li, Qian; Jin, Yaping; Zhang, Yong
Special value of goat milk in human nutrition and well being is associated with medical problems of food allergies which are caused by milk proteins such as β-lactoglobulin (BLG). Here, we employed transcription activator-like effector nuclease (TALEN)-assisted homologous recombination in goat fibroblasts to introduce human α-lactalbumin (hLA) genes into goat BLG locus. TALEN-mediated targeting enabled isolation of colonies with mono- and bi-allelic transgene integration in up to 10.1% and 1.1%, respectively, after selection. Specifically, BLG mRNA levels were gradually decreasing in both mo- and bi-allelic goat mammary epithelial cells (GMECs) while hLA demonstrated expression in GMECs in vitro. Gene-targeted fibroblast cells were efficiently used in somatic cell nuclear transfer, resulting in production of hLA knock-in goats directing down-regulated BLG expression and abundant hLA secretion in animal milk. Our findings provide valuable background for animal milk optimization and expedited development for agriculture and biomedicine. PMID:27258157
Orsel, K; van Amerongen, J J; Zadoks, R N; van Doorn, D C; Wensing, T
In this study, which was performed on a Dutch dairy goat farm, several aspects of the administration of colostrum to new-born goat kids were examined. Time of colostrum administration and amount and type of colostrum administered were compared. Effectiveness was measured as total serum protein content and gamma globulin fraction. No significant differences in serum gamma globulin titre were observed between kids that received colostrum at 30 or 60-90 minutes post partum, respectively. Titres were significantly lower in kids that received 100 ml of colostrum instead of 150-200 ml. The effect of sheep colostrum replacer or cow colostrum was also examined. Gamma globulin titres were significantly high with goat colostrum than with cow colostrum or sheep colostrum replacer, and titres were higher with cow colostrum than with sheep colostrum replacer. Based on the results of this experiment, the following protocol is suggested for colostrum administration to goat kids: single administration of 150-200 ml of goat colostrum within 90 minutes of birth. Use of cow colostrum is not advised because it may lead to transmission of paratuberculosis. Use of sheep colostrum replacer as a source of passive immunity is not recommended.
Moyo, Busani; Masika, Patrick J; Muchenje, Voster
The objective of the study was to determine the effect of supplementing Moringa oleifera leaves (MOL) on growth performance, carcass and non-carcass characteristics of crossbred Xhosa lop-eared goats. A total of 24 castrated goats aged 8 months, with a mean initial weight of 15.1 ± 2.3 kg, were randomly divided into three diet groups with eight goats in each. The duration of the trial was 60 days. All goats received a basal diet of grass hay (GH) ad libitum and wheat bran (200 g/day each). The MOL and sunflower cake (SC) groups were fed additional 200 g of dried M. oleifera leaves and 170 g of SC, respectively. The third group (GH) did not receive any additional ration. The crude protein of MOL (23.75%) and SC (23.27%) were higher (P < 0.05) than that of the GH diet (14.08%). The attained average daily weight gain for goats fed MOL, SC and GH were 103.3, 101.3 and 43.3 g, respectively (P < 0.05). Higher (P < 0.05) feed intakes observed were in SC (491.5 g) and MOL (490.75 g) compared with GH (404.5 g). The hot carcass weight was higher (P < 0.05) for SC (10.48 kg) and MOL (10.34 kg) than for the GH group (8.59 kg). The dressing percentage in SC (55.8%) and MOL (55.1%) were higher (P < 0.05) than that of the GH (52.9%). The growth performance and carcass characteristics of SC and MOL goats were not different. Feeding MOL or SC improved the growth performance and carcass characteristics of goats in an almost similar way, which indicates that M. oleifera could be used as an alternative protein supplement in goats.
Dassanayake, Rohana P; Orrú, Christina D; Hughson, Andrew G; Caughey, Byron; Graça, Telmo; Zhuang, Dongyue; Madsen-Bouterse, Sally A; Knowles, Donald P; Schneider, David A
Real-time quaking-induced conversion (RT-QuIC) is a rapid, specific and highly sensitive prion seeding activity detection assay that uses recombinant prion protein (rPrPSen) to detect subinfectious levels of the abnormal isoforms of the prion protein (PrPSc). Although RT-QuIC has been successfully used to detect PrPSc in various tissues from humans and animals, including sheep, tissues from goats infected with classical scrapie have not yet been tested. Therefore, the aims of the present study were to (1) evaluate whether prion seeding activity could be detected in the brain tissues of goats with scrapie using RT-QuIC, (2) optimize reaction conditions to improve scrapie detection in goats, and (3) compare the performance of RT-QuIC for the detection of PrPSc with the more commonly used ELISA and Western blot assays. We further optimized RT-QuIC conditions for sensitive and specific detection of goat scrapie seeding activity in brain tissue from clinical animals. When used with 200 mM sodium chloride, both full-length sheep rPrPSen substrates (PrP genotypes A136R154Q171 and V136R154Q171) provided good discrimination between scrapie-infected and normal goat brain samples at 10(- )3 dilution within 15 h. Our findings indicate that RT-QuIC was at least 10,000-fold more sensitive than ELISA and Western blot assays for the detection of scrapie seeding activity in goat brain samples. In addition to PRNP WT samples, positive RT-QuIC reactions were also observed with three PRNP polymorphic goat brain samples (G/S127, I/M142 and H/R143) tested. Taken together, these findings demonstrate that RT-QuIC sensitively detects prion seeding activity in classical scrapie-infected goat brain samples.
Atanasova, Jivka; Moncheva, Penka; Ivanova, Iskra
We examined 62 strains and 21 trade starter cultures from the collection of LB Bulgaricum PLC for proteolytic and antimicrobial activity of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) grown in goat milk. The aim of this study was to investigate the fermentation of caseins, α-lactalbumin and β-lactoglobulin by LAB, using the o-phthaldialdehyde (OPA) spectrophotometric assay and sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). The proteolysis targeted mainly caseins, especially β-casein. Whey proteins were proteolyzed, essentially β-lactoglobulin. The proteolytic activity of Lactococcus lactis l598, Streptococcus thermophilus t3D1, Dt1, Lactobacillus lactis 1043 and L. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus b38, b122 and b24 was notably high. The proteolysis process gave rise to medium-sized peptide populations. Most of the examined strains showed antimicrobial activity against some food pathogens, such as Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella cholere enteridis, Listeria monocytogenes, Listeria innocua and Enterobacter aerogenes. The most active producers of antimicrobial-active peptides were strains of L. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus and S. thermophilus, which are of practical importance. The starter cultures containing the examined species showed high proteolytic and antimicrobial activity in skimmed goat milk. The greatest antimicrobial activity of the cultures was detected against E. aerogenes. The obtained results demonstrated the significant proteolytic potential of the examined strains in goat milk and their potential for application in the production of dairy products from goat's milk. The present results could be considered as the first data on the proteolytic capacity of strains and starter cultures in goat milk for the purposes of trade interest of LB Bulgaricum PLC.
Edmonds, M D; Cloeckaert, A; Hagius, S D; Samartino, L E; Fulton, W T; Walker, J V; Enright, F M; Booth, N J; Elzer, P H
The Brucella melitensis mutant BM 25, which lacks the major 25 kDa outer membrane protein Omp25, has previously been found to be attenuated in the murine brucellosis model. In the present study, the capacity of the Deltaomp25 mutant to colonise and cause abortions in the caprine host was evaluated. The vaccine potential of BM 25 was also investigated in goats. Inoculation of nine pregnant goats in late gestation with the B. melitensis mutant resulted in 0/9 abortions, while the virulent parental strain, B. melitensis 16M, induced 6/6 dams to abort (P<0.001, n=6). BM 25 also colonised fewer adults (P<0.05, n=6) and kids (P<0.01, n=6) than strain 16M. The Deltaomp25 mutant was found capable of transient in vivo colonisation of non-pregnant goats for two weeks post-infection. Owing to the ability of BM 25 to colonise both non-pregnant and pregnant adults without inducing abortions, a vaccine efficacy study was performed. Vaccination of goats prior to breeding with either BM 25 or the current caprine vaccine B. melitensis strain Rev. 1 resulted in 100 per cent protection against abortion following challenge in late gestation with virulent strain 16M (P<0.05, n=7). However, unlike strain Rev. 1, BM 25 does not appear to cause abortions in late gestation based on this study with a small number of animals. The B. melitensis Deltaomp25 mutant, BM 25, may be a safe and efficacious alternative to strain Rev. 1 when dealing with goat herds of mixed age and pregnancy status.
Comunian, R; Paba, A; Dupré, I; Daga, E S; Scintu, M F
Antibiotics are widely used for therapeutic and prophylactic purposes in dairy animals. The presence of residual antibiotics in milk could cause potentially serious problems in human health and have technological implication in the manufacturing of dairy products. The aim of this study was to evaluate Delvotest Accelerator (DSM Food Specialties, Delft, the Netherlands), a new system for a fully automated microbial test to detect antibiotic residues in ewe and goat milk. Forty-three samples of raw, whole, refrigerated bulk-tank milk samples (22 of ewe milk and 21 of goat milk) were analyzed during the whole lactation period. Four concentrations of 4 antibiotics were diluted in milk: penicillin G at 1, 2, 3, and 4 μg/L; sulfadiazine at 25, 50, 100, and 200 μg/L; tetracycline at 50, 100, 200, and 400 μg/L; and gentamicin at 25, 50, 100, and 200 μg/L. The detection limit of the Delvotest Accelerator was calculated as the range of antibiotic concentrations within which 95% of positive result lie. The range of detection limit of penicillin G and sulfadiazine was easily detected by Delvotest Accelerator at or below the European Union maximum residue limits, both for ewe and goat milk samples. In contrast, the system showed a lower ability to detect tetracycline and gentamicin both for ewe and goat milk samples. Very low percentages of false-positive outcomes were obtained. Lactation phase did not seem to be a crucial factor affecting the ability of the Delvotest Accelerator to detect spiked milk samples. A higher detection ability was observed for goat milk samples compared with ewe milk samples. A negative correlation between the percentage of positive milk samples detected and milk fat, protein, and lactose contents was observed for gentamicin only.
Hakyemez, Basri H; Gokkus, Ahmet; Savas, Turker; Yurtman, Ismail Y
This study aimed at identifying changes in natural pastures during the grazing season and investigating the effects of these changes on pasture feeding potential for high yielding dairy goats. During the study, 12 dairy goats were grazed on a 1.5 ha natural pasture for three months from April to June in 2003, 2004 and 2005. The goats were fed 0.5 kg/day of concentrate as a supplement during the grazing season. Botanical composition, herbage production and intake, crude protein (CP), neutral detergent fiber (NDF) and acid detergent fiber (ADF) contents of the pasture were determined. Live weight, milk yield, milk dry matter (DM) and fat content of the goats were monitored. The data were analyzed using a linear model, which evaluated the effects of grazing seasons in each year. Based on the three-year average, 87% of pasture was herbaceous plants and the remaining was shrubs in DM basis with Cistus creticus, Quercus ithaburensis, Pistacia atlantica and Asparagus acutifolius being the major shrub species. The herbage yield in June was significantly lower than in other months in all years (P = 0.001). In all experimental years, the CP content of the pasture decreased but the structural carbohydrates increased as the grazing season proceeded. While live weight was not affected by grazing periods except for 2004 (P = 0.001), milk yield significantly decreased with advancing grazing period (P = 0.001). The results of the present study indicate that natural pasture has a supportive effect in April and May on the milk yield of lactating goats which are in mid-lactation, and suggested that supplementary feeding is required in consecutive grazing periods.
Ogundiyi, Alex I; Bemji, Martha Nchang; Adebambo, Olufunmilayo A; Dipeolu, Morenike A; Onagbesan, Okanlawon M; James, Ikechwuku J; Osinowo, Olusegun A
This study was carried out to assess the prevalence of mange in sheep and goats in five local government areas (LGAs) of Ogun State in South Western Nigeria. A total of 4,973 sheep and 7,902 goats of West African Dwarf breeds were sampled of which only 4 (0.08%) of sheep and 42 (0.53%) of goats were confirmed positive for mange infestation. In all the LGAs sampled, Odeda LGA had the highest concentration of sheep (39%) and goats (51%) while Abeokuta South had the least percentage of sheep (1%) and goats (1%). All the mange-infested cases in sheep were recorded in just one LGA (Ewekoro) which constituted 0.24% of the population within the location. For goats, three out of five LGAs namely: Obafemi Owode, Ewekoro and Abeokuta North had prevalence of 1.46%, 0.53% and 0.72% respectively. There was no significant (P > 0.05) difference between non-infested and infested animals in terms of packed cell volume (31.79 ± 0.87% vs. 31.41 ± 1.13%), haemoglobin (10.51 ± 0.21 g/100 ml vs. 10.28 ± 0.37 g/100 ml) and red blood cells (8.71 ± 0.29 × 10(12)/l vs. 9.40 ± 0.37 × 10(12)/l). The infested group however showed significantly (P < 0.01) higher white blood cells count (7.60 ± 0.22 × 10(9)/l) than the non-infested animals (6.81 ± 0.17 × 10(9)/l). Neutrophil, eosinophil, basophil and monocyte as well as chloride were not significantly affected by the health status of the animals. There existed significant (P < 0.01) difference between non-infested and infested animals in terms of total protein (5.42 ± 0.16 vs. 4.75 ± 0.20 g/dl), sodium (137.98 ± 1.53 vs. 128.92 ± 1.92 mEq/l) and potassium (4.04 ± 0.14 vs. 3.46 ± 0.18 mEq/l). It can be concluded from this study that the prevalence of mange mite infestation varied with location and was generally low or absent in some of the LGAs considered. Goats were particularly more susceptible to mange infestation than sheep. More concerted effort is needed to control mange in order to avoid spread since it is a contagious
Wang, Dingfa; Zhou, Luli; Zhou, Hanlin; Hou, Guanyu; Li, Mao; Shi, Liguang; Huang, Xianzhou; Guan, Song
This study assessed the effects of different nutrition levels of diets on growth performance and carcass characteristics of Hainan black goat. Twenty-four goats were divided into six diet treatments, which consisted of two levels of crude protein (CP; 15 and 17 %) and three levels of digestive energy (DE; 11.72, 12.55, and 13.39 MJ/kg). The results revealed that 17 % CP significantly (P < 0.05) increased ADG and improved FCR compared with 15 % CP. Therefore, the CP levels of diet affected growth performance. CP and DE levels in the diet had no significant effects (P > 0.05) on carcass characteristics of the goats. The mRNA expression levels of insulin-like growth factor 1 in muscle tissues increased with increasing CP and DE levels (P < 0.05).
Sabow, Azad Behnan; Sazili, Awis Qurni; Zulkifli, Idrus; Goh, Yong Meng; Ab Kadir, Mohd Zainal Abidin; Adeyemi, Kazeem Dauda
This study assessed the effect of halal slaughter and anesthesia pre-slaughter followed by bleeding on meat quality characteristics of goats. Eleven male Boer cross goats were divided into two groups and subjected to either halal slaughter (HS) or anesthesia with halothane and propofol pre-slaughter (AS). At pre-rigor, HS had significantly lower (P < 0.05) muscle pH and glycogen than AS. However, no significant difference was observed in the pH and glycogen content between the treatments on 1, 3 and 7 days post mortem. The drip loss of HS was significantly lower (P < 0.05) than that of AS at all aging periods. Treatment had no effect on sarcomere length, myofibrillar fragmentation index and shear force values, loss of thiol groups and degradation of major myofibrillar proteins. It can be concluded that HS did not have deleterious effect on meat quality traits of goat when compared to AS.
Costa-Júnior, Livio M; Costa, Jailson S; Lôbo, Ítala C P D; Soares, Alexandra M S; Abdala, Adibe L; Chaves, Daniel P; Batista, Zulmira S; Louvandini, Helder
In this study, the long-term effects of exposure to a drench containing condensed tannins (CTs) from Acacia mearnsii on gastrointestinal nematodes in goats were investigated. Male cross-bred Anglo-Nubian goat kids between 3 and 5 months of age were dewormed at the beginning of the experiment. The goat kids were divided into one group that received weekly 24 g oral doses of A. mearnsii bark extract dissolved in water containing 16.7% CTs (GCT group, n = 8) and a second group that did not receive CTs (GC group, n = 8). All of the animals were kept in an Andropogon gayanus pasture and grazed with a herd of 100 naturally infected adult goats. Each animal was supplemented daily with 200 g of a concentrated mixture containing 18% crude protein. Fecal egg counts (FECs) were performed weekly for 192 days, and weight measurements and blood collections were done at two-week intervals in this period. The packed cell volume of the blood was calculated, and the plasma was used to determine the total protein, albumin, and glucose concentrations. After 192 days, the animals were slaughtered and the carcasses evaluated, with nematodes harvested for identification and counting. The FECs of the animals treated with CTs from A. mearnsii (GCT group) remained lower than the FECs of the control group animals for the majority of the first half of the experimental period. An observed increase in the FECs for both groups coincided with increased rainfall in the region where the experiment was conducted. The worm burden, scrotal circumference, carcass weight, leg circumference, carcass size and blood analysis were not significantly different between the groups. The packed cell volume (PCV) was constant in all of the animals throughout the experiment. In conclusion, repeated and prolonged treatment of goats with CTs from A. mearnsii helped to maintain low FECs in a period of low challenge but did not reduce nematode infections in the goats.
Zheng, Y-M; He, X-Y; Zhang, Y
The aims of this study were (i) to establish a goat mammary gland epithelial (GMGE) cell line, and (ii) to determine if these GMGE cells could be maintained long-term in culture by continuous subculturing following transfection with a reporter gene, enhanced green fluorescence protein (EGFP). Primary culture of GMGE cells was achieved by outgrowth of migrating cells from the fragments of the mammary gland tissue of a lactating goat. The passage 16 GMGE cells were transfected with EGFP gene using lipofection. The expression of Cell keratins of epithelial cells in GMGE cells was test by immunofluorescence. Βeta-Casein gene mRNA was test for GMGE cells by RT-PCR. The results showed that when grown at low density on a plastic substratum, the GMGE cells formed islands, and when grown to confluency, the cells formed a monolayer and aggregated with the characteristic cobble-stone morphology of epithelial cells. GMGE cells could form dome-like structure which looked like nipple, and the lumen-like structures formed among the cells. Several blister-like structures appeared in the appearance of the cells. The GMGE cells contained different cell types, majority of the cells were short shuttle-like or polygon which were beehive-like. A part of cells were round and flat, a small number of cells were elongated. Some of the GMGE cells contained milk drops. The cell nuclei were round which had 2-4 obvious cores. The expression of Cell keratins demonstrated the property of epithelial cells in GMGE cells by immunofluorescence. The GMGE cells could express transcript encoding a Βeta-Casein protein. EGFP gene was successfully transferred into the GMGE cells, and the transfected cells could be maintained long-term in culture by continuous subculturing. In conclusion, we have established a EGFP gene transfected GMGE (ET-GMGE) cell line and maintained it long-term in culture by continuous subculturing.
Endo, Natsumi; Rahayu, Larasati Puji; Arakawa, Toshiya; Tanaka, Tomomi
Here, we report a new method for measuring behavioral patterns during estrus in goats based on video tracking analysis. Data were collected from cycling goats, which were in estrus (n = 8) or not in estrus (n = 8). An observation pen (2.5 m × 2.5 m) was set up in the corner of the female paddock with one side adjacent to a male paddock. The positions and movements of goats were tracked every 0.5 sec for 10 min by using a video tracking software, and the trajectory data were used for the analysis. There were no significant differences in the durations of standing and walking or the total length of movement. However, the number of approaches to a male and the duration of staying near the male were higher in goats in estrus than in goats not in estrus. The proposed evaluation method may be suitable for detailed monitoring of behavioral changes during estrus in goats.
Khan, A.T.; Diffay, B.C.; Forester, D.M.; Thompson, S.J.; Mielke, H.W.
Goat meat farming is increasing in popularity in southeastern region of United States. In order to monitor environmental contamination of heavy metals in goat meat, samples of liver, kidney, and muscle were collected from 20 goats on a goat farm in Notasulga, Alabama. These samples were analyzed by Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectroscopy. The copper concentration was significantly higher in livers than the concentration in kidneys and muscles. Lead, cadmium, and zinc levels did not show any significant differences between liver, kidney, and muscle samples. The concentrations of lead and copper in livers and cadmium in kidneys were significantly different in males when compared to females. However, in muscle, the concentrations of lead, cadmium, copper, and zinc showed no significant difference between male and female or between young and old goats. Further, the concentrations of lead in livers and cadmium in kidneys showed a significant difference between young and old goats.
Waki, A; Sasazaki, S; Kobayashi, E; Mannen, H
This study was a first analysis of paternal genetic diversity for extensive Asian domestic goats using SRY gene sequences. Sequencing comparison of the SRY 3'-untranslated region among 210 Asian goats revealed four haplotypes (Y1A, Y1B, Y2A and Y2B) derived from four variable sites including a novel substitution detected in this study. In Asian goats, the predominant haplotype was Y1A (62%) and second most common was Y2B (30%). Interestingly, the Y2B was a unique East Asian Y chromosomal variant, which differentiates eastern and western Eurasian goats. The SRY geographic distribution in Myanmar and Cambodia indicated predominant the haplotype Y1A in plains areas and a high frequency of Y2B in mountain areas. The results suggest recent genetic infiltration of modern breeds into South-East Asian goats and an ancestral SRY Y2B haplotype in Asian native goats.
Salem, A Z M; López, S; Ranilla, M J; González, J S
Eight Merino sheep (49.4 ± 4.23 kg BW) and 8 Alpine goats (53.2 ± 2.51 kg BW) were used to study the effect of ingestion of quebracho tannins on salivation. Four sheep and 4 goats were individually fed a daily allotment of 20 g DM of alfalfa hay/kg BW (Control). Another 4 sheep and 4 goats were also given 20 g DM of alfalfa hay/kg BW supplemented with 50 g of quebracho/kg DM (Tannin) for a period of 64 d. The saliva secretion from the left parotid gland was collected by insertion of a polyvinyl chloride catheter into the parotid duct and the amount of parotid saliva produced recorded over three 48-h periods on d 1 and 2 (P1), d 31 and 32 (P2), and d 61 and 62 (P3) after the tannin feeding was initiated. The total amount of saliva produced was estimated from rumen water kinetics determined on d 4, d 34, and d 64 of the experiment. Experimental design was completely randomized, with repeated measures on each experimental unit, performing separate analysis for sheep and goats. Parotid saliva production was not affected by the sampling period in either animal species receiving the Control diet. Corresponding values for sheep were 2.04, 2.12, and 2.27 L/d (P = 0.89) and for goats 1.65, 1.79, and 1.86 L/d (P = 0.95). Sheep fed the Tannin diet produced 55, 73, and 107% of the amount of saliva recorded in sheep fed the Control diet on P1, P2, or P3, respectively. Corresponding values in goats were 88, 130, and 134% on P1, P2, or P3, respectively. Estimated total saliva production was not affected (P = 0.50 for sheep and P = 0.97 for goats) by the ingestion of quebracho. There was no difference (P > 0.10) in osmotic pressure, P, Mg, Ca, urea, and protein concentrations in parotid saliva. There were, however, differences in Na and K concentrations in response to the ingestion of quebracho tannins, with Na concentrations increasing (P = 0.05) and K concentrations decreasing (P = 0.04) in sheep saliva and pH increasing (P = 0.05) in goat saliva. In conclusion, the inclusion
Costa, M P; Balthazar, C F; Franco, R M; Mársico, E T; Cruz, A G; Conte, C A
Goat milk yogurt is an excellent source of fatty acids, protein, and minerals; however, it is not well accepted by many consumers, due to its typical flavor derived from caprylic, capric, and caproic acids present in this milk and dairy products. Recently, the repeated-exposure test has been used to increase the consumption of particular foods. This methodology has been used to increase children's willingness to eat food in some settings and has also been used to reduce sodium in soup. Based on these considerations, the aim of this study was to investigate whether repeated exposures may increase acceptance of both goat milk yogurt and probiotic goat milk yogurt. In a pre-exposure session, a total of 45 panelists (28 females and 17 males) from southeastern Brazil, who were not used to consuming dairy goat milk, evaluated the expected taste perception and the perceived liking after tasting 3 yogurt preparations. Then, consumers were randomly divided into 3 groups and participated in rapidly repeated exposure sessions performed within 6 d. Each panelist consumed only the yogurt that he or she would be exposed to. The day after the exposure sessions, all panelists returned to participate in the postexposure session and were asked to evaluate acceptance, familiarity, and the "goaty taste" characteristic of each yogurt. Regarding the expected liking before tasting, results showed higher expectations for cow milk yogurt compared with goat milk yogurt, which proved that consumers were not familiar with the goat milk yogurt. Likewise, only cow milk yogurt presented high acceptance and familiarity rates, confirming that these panelists were used to consuming cow milk products. With respect to the rapidly repeated exposure, 6 d were enough to significantly increase the consumers' familiarity with goat milk yogurt and probiotic goat milk yogurt. However, this method was not suitable to significantly increase the acceptance of such products. Nonetheless, a correlation existed
Ghazal, S; Berthelot, V; Friggens, N C; Schmidely, P
The objective of this trial was to study the interaction between the supplementation of lipid-encapsulated conjugated linoleic acid (CLA; 4.5 g of cis-9,trans-11 C18:2 and 4.5 g of trans-10,cis-12 C18:2) and feeding level to test if milk performance or milk fatty acid (FA) profile are affected by the interaction between CLA and feeding level. Twenty-four dairy goats were used in an 8-wk trial with a 3-wk adaptation to the experimental ration that contained corn silage, beet pulp, barley, and a commercial concentrate. During the third week, goats were assigned into blocks of 2 goats according to their dry matter intake (DMI), raw milk yield, and fat yield. Each block was randomly allocated to control (45 g of Ca salt of palm oil/d) or CLA treatment. Within each block, one goat was fed to cover 100% (FL100) of the calculated energy requirements and the other was fed 85% of the DMI of the first goat (FL85). Individual milk production and composition were recorded weekly, and milk FA composition was analyzed in wk 3, 5, and 7. Conjugated linoleic acid supplementation reduced milk fat content and fat yield by 17 and 19%, respectively, independent of the feeding level. It reduced both the secretion of milk FA synthesized de novo, and those taken up from the blood. No interaction between CLA and feeding level was observed on milk secretion of any group of FA. The CLA supplementation had no effect on DMI, milk yield, protein, and lactose yields but it improved calculated net energy for lactation balance. Goats fed the FL100 × CLA diet tended to have the highest DMI and protein yield. The interaction between CLA and feeding level was not significant for any other variables. Compared with the goats fed FL100, those fed FL85 had lower DMI, lower net energy for lactation balance, and lower digestible protein in the intestine balance. The body weight; milk yield; milk fat, protein, and lactose yields; and fat, protein, lactose, and urea contents in milk were not affected by
Mutebi, Francis; Krücken, Jürgen; Mencke, Norbert; Feldmeier, Hermann; von Samson-Himmelstjerna, Georg; Waiswa, Charles
Tungiasis ensues from the penetration and burrowing of female sand fleas (Tunga spp.; Siphonaptera: Tungidae) in the skin of mammals. There are few case reports of severe tungiasis in goats and in these cases the Tunga species were not in most cases clearly identified. Two cases of severe tungiasis caused by Tunga penetrans in goat kids from tungiasis-endemic rural Uganda are reported. These are the first severe cases of tungiasis in goats reported from outside South America. PMID:27012871
Payne, J. M.; Sansom, B. F.
1. The effects of thyro-parathyroidectomy on calcium metabolism in the goat have been investigated using stable calcium balance techniques and the isotopes 45Ca, 47Ca and 85Sr. 2. Thyro-parathyroidectomized goats, whether receiving supplementary thyroxine or not, are in negative calcium balance, whereas normal or thyroidectomized animals are in positive balance. 3. Gastro-intestinal absorption of 45Ca is less in thyro-parathyroidectomized goats, whether receiving supplementary thyroxine or not, than in either normal goats or thyroidectomized goats receiving thyroxine supplements. 4. The rate of endogenous secretion of calcium into the gastro-intestinal tract is unchanged by either thyroidectomy or thyro-parathyroidectomy. Urinary excretion of calcium is also apparently unchanged. 5. The bone calcium accretion rate is reduced to approximately the same extent in thyroidectomized and thyro-parathyroidectomized goats. Thyroxine supplements restore the bone accretion rate of both groups of animals to normal or greater than normal levels. 6. The bone calcium resorption rate is greater in thyro-parathyroidectomized goats, whether receiving thyroxine supplements or not, than in either normal goats or thyroidectomized goats receiving thyroxine supplements. ImagesFig. 1 PMID:5921839
Akis, I; Oztabak, K; Mengi, A; Un, C
Anatolia has been an important region for civilizations and agricultural revolution as a major domestication centre for livestock species. Goats (Capra hircus) were among the earliest domesticated animals in this region. In this study, genetic diversity of Anatolian goat breeds was characterized by comparison of mitochondrial DNA hypervariable region 1. A total of 295 individuals, including 99 Anatolian Black goats, 96 Angora goats and 100 Kilis goats, were used. Haplogroup A was found to be the dominant haplogroup in all three breeds. The highest haplogroup diversity, including haplogroups A, B2, C and G, was observed in the Anatolian Black breed. Haplogroup D was only observed in Kilis and Angora goats. Haplogroup G was found in Angora and Anatolian Black breeds. The Anatolian goat breeds had high genetic diversity values and a weak phylogeographical structure. The nucleotide diversity values were found to be higher than those in previously studied goat breeds. The fact that Anatolia is a domestication centre and its geographical position as a junction of trade routes may have caused the higher genetic diversity of Anatolian goat breeds. © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.
Lee, C G; Cho, S H; Kim, J T; Lee, C Y
Closantel (Flukiver), a salicylanilide antiparasitic compound, was tested in Korean native goats infected with Fasciola hepatica. The goats were administered closantel once orally at a dose of 10 mg/kg body weight. Efficacy was monitored weekly by fecal examination of all infected animals starting the second week post-treatment and continuing for 3 weeks. Closantel elicited 80.3, 97.8 and 92.7% efficacy in goats with naturally-acquired fasciolosis at the second, third and fourth week post-treatment, respectively. It elicited a 100% efficacy in goats experimentally infected with F. hepatica metacercariae and treated at 18 weeks post-infection.
Luikart, Gordon; Gielly, Ludovic; Excoffier, Laurent; Vigne, Jean-Denis; Bouvet, Jean; Taberlet, Pierre
Domestic animals have played a key role in human history. Despite their importance, however, the origins of most domestic species remain poorly understood. We assessed the phylogenetic history and population structure of domestic goats by sequencing a hypervariable segment (481 bp) of the mtDNA control region from 406 goats representing 88 breeds distributed across the Old World. Phylogeographic analysis revealed three highly divergent goat lineages (estimated divergence >200,000 years ago), with one lineage occurring only in eastern and southern Asia. A remarkably similar pattern exists in cattle, sheep, and pigs. These results, combined with recent archaeological findings, suggest that goats and other farm animals have multiple maternal origins with a possible center of origin in Asia, as well as in the Fertile Crescent. The pattern of goat mtDNA diversity suggests that all three lineages have undergone population expansions, but that the expansion was relatively recent for two of the lineages (including the Asian lineage). Goat populations are surprisingly less genetically structured than cattle populations. In goats only ≈10% of the mtDNA variation is partitioned among continents. In cattle the amount is ≥50%. This weak structuring suggests extensive intercontinental transportation of goats and has intriguing implications about the importance of goats in historical human migrations and commerce. PMID:11344314
Sharma, Rekha; Ahlawat, Sonika; Maitra, A; Roy, Manoranjan; Mandakmale, S; Tantia, M S
Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) are members of the TGF-β (transforming growth factor-beta) superfamily, of which BMP4 is the most important due to its crucial role in follicular growth and differentiation, cumulus expansion and ovulation. Reproduction is a crucial trait in goat breeding and based on the important role of BMP4 gene in reproduction it was considered as a possible candidate gene for the prolificacy of goats. The objective of the present study was to detect polymorphism in intronic, exonic and 3' un-translated regions of BMP4 gene in Indian goats. Nine different goat breeds (Barbari, Beetal, Black Bengal, Malabari, Jakhrana (Twinning>40%), Osmanabadi, Sangamneri (Twinning 20-30%), Sirohi and Ganjam (Twinning<10%)) differing in prolificacy and geographic distribution were employed for polymorphism scanning. Cattle sequence (AC_000167.1) was used to design primers for the amplification of a targeted region followed by direct DNA sequencing to identify the genetic variations. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were not detected in exon 3, the intronic region and the 3' flanking region. A SNP (G1534A) was identified in exon 2. It was a non-synonymous mutation resulting in an arginine to lysine change in a corresponding protein sequence. G to A transition at the 1534 locus revealed two genotypes GG and GA in the nine investigated goat breeds. The GG genotype was predominant with a genotype frequency of 0.98. The GA genotype was present in the Black Bengal as well as Jakhrana breed with a genotype frequency of 0.02. A microsatellite was identified in the 3' flanking region, only 20 nucleotides downstream from the termination site of the coding region, as a short sequence with more than nineteen continuous and repeated CA dinucleotides. Since the gene is highly evolutionarily conserved, identification of a non-synonymous SNP (G1534A) in the coding region gains further importance. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a mutation in the coding
Harms, J.E.; Milton, D.J.; Ferguson, J.; Gilbert, D.J.; Harris, W.K.; Goleby, B.
Goat Paddock, a crater slightly over 5 km in diameter (18??20??? S, 126??40???E), lies at the north edge of the King Leopold Range/Mueller Range junction in the Kimberley district, Western Australia (Fig. 1). It was noted as a geological anomaly in 1964 during regional mapping by the Bureau of Mineral Resources, Geology and Geophysics and the Geological Survey of Western Australia. The possibility of its being a meteorite impact crater has been discussed1, although this suggestion was subsequently ignored2. Two holes were drilled by a mining corporation in 1972 to test whether kimberlite underlay the structure. Here we report the findings of five days of reconnaissance in August 1979 which established that Goat Paddock is a cryptoexplosion crater containing shocked rocks and an unusually well exposed set of structural features. ?? 1980 Nature Publishing Group.
Li, Mingzhao; Liu, Chao; Zhu, Haijing; Sun, Junwei; Yu, Meng; Niu, Zhiwei; Liu, Weishuai; Peng, Sha; Hua, Jinlian
Boule is a conserved gene in meiosis, which encodes RNA binding protein required for spermatocyte meiosis. Deletion of Boule was found to block meiosis in spermatogenesis, which contributes to infertility. Up to date, the expression and function of Boule in the goat testis are not known. The objectives of this study were to investigate the expression pattern of Boule in dairy goat testis and their function in male germline stem cells (mGSCs). The results first revealed that the expression level of Boule in adult testes was significantly higher than younger and immature goats, and azoospermia and male intersex testis. Over-expression of Boule promoted the expression of meiosis-related genes in dairy goat mGSCs. The expression of Stra8 was up-regulated by over-expression of Boule analyzed by Western blotting and Luciferase reporter assay. While, Cdc25a, the downstream regulator of Boule, was found not to affect the expression of Stra8, and our data illustrated that Cdc25a did not regulate meiosis via Stra8. The expression of Stra8 and Boule was up-regulated by RA induction. Taken together, results suggest the Boule plays an important role in dairy goat spermatogenesis and that over-expression of Boule may promote spermatogenesis and meiosis in dairy goat.
Markovics, A; Cohen, I; Muklada, H; Glasser, T A; Dvash, L; Ungar, E D; Azaizeh, H; Landau, S Y
Coccidiosis near weaning is a major cause of diarrhea, ill-thrift, and impaired performance in small ruminants. A recent survey showed that in villages of the Samaria Hills, Israel, shepherds treat young, weaned goat kids afflicted with diarrhea by cutting and feeding them the foliage of Pistacia lentiscus L. (lentisk) or by tethering them close to lentisk bushes which they browse. The aim of the present study was to assess whether lentisk leaves do indeed have anti-coccidial value, and, if positive, to ascertain the role of tannins in this effect. We monitored for 24 (Experiment 1) and 30 (Experiment 2) days the effect of lentisk feeding on the development of naturally occurring coccidiosis in weaned kids artificially infected with parasitic nematodes. In Experiment 1, kids were infected with nematodes and fed lentisk foliage (PIS) or cereal hay (HAY). Coccidiosis developed at the early stage of the nematode infection, when dietary treatments were initiated. Kids in the PIS group had a lower (P<0.02) concentration of oocysts per gram feces (opg). In Experiment 2, aimed at verifying if tannins are the active component in lentisk foliage, coccidiosis occurred at the peak of the nematode infection, before experimental diets were initiated. Dietary treatments were: cereal hay (HAY), or lentisk foliage consumed without (PIS) or with (PISPEG) a 20-g daily supplement of polyethylene glycol (PEG; MW 4000), a molecule that impairs tannin-bonding with proteins. Goats fed the PIS diet had lower fecal opg counts than counterparts of the HAY (P<0.001) and PISPEG (P<0.002) treatments. Fecal opg counts for the HAY and PISPEG treatments did not differ, suggesting that the anti-coccidial moiety in lentisk was indeed tannins. Our results strongly suggest that: (i) in agreement with the ethno-veterinary anecdotal evidence, exposure of young, weaned goat kids to lentisk foliage alleviates coccidiosis; and (ii) this positive effect is associated with tannins. As coccidiosis is a major
Apás, Ana Lidia; González, Silvia Nelina; Arena, Mario Eduardo
The mutagen binding ability of the goat probiotics (Lactobacillus reuteri DDL 19, Lactobacillus alimentarius DDL 48, Enterococcus faecium DDE 39, and Bifidobacterium bifidum DDBA) was evaluated. The oral administration of these probiotics reduced fecal mutagens and intestinal cancer markers in goats. Secondly, the effects of probiotics against the mutagenesis induced by sodium azide (SA), and Benzopyrene (B[α]P) by performing the modified Ames test using Salmonella typhimurium TA 100 was investigated. The capacity to bind benzopyrene and the stability of the bacterial-mutagen complex was analyzed by HPLC. The dismutagenic potential against both mutagens was proportional to probiotic concentration. Results showed that probiotic antimutagenic capacity against SA was ranging from 13 to 78%. The mixture of four goat probiotics (MGP) displayed higher antimutagenic activity against SA than any individual strains at the same cell concentration. This study shows that the highest diminution of mutagenicity in presence of B[α]P (74%) was observed in presence of MGP. The antimutagenic activity of nearly all the individual probiotic and the MGP were in concordance with the B[α]P binding determined by HPLC. According to our results, the B[α]P binding to probiotic was irreversible still after being washed with DMSO solution. The stability of the toxic compounds-bacterial cell binding is a key consideration when probiotic antimutagenic property is evaluated. MGP exhibits the ability to bind and detoxify potent mutagens, and this property can be useful in supplemented foods for goats since it can lead to the removal of potent mutagens and protect and enhance ruminal health and hence food safety of consumers.
adaptive, bi- and multi-static, passive and active sonar configurations for concurrent detection, classification and localization of subsea and bottom...classification and localization of subsea and bottom objects.. 15. SUBJECT TERMS 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT Same as...very shallow water (VSW). The fundamental approach of GOATS is the development of the concept of a network of AUVs as an array of Virtual Sensors
develop the OASES -3d modeling framework for target scattering and reverberation in shallow ocean waveguides. As has been the case for the autonomous...using Green’s functions using legacy environmental acoustic models such as OASES , CSNAP, and RAM. This new unique simulation environment allows for...MIT are being maintained and dissiminated under the GOATS grant. The OASES and CSNAP environmental acoustic modeling codes are used extensively in
Szaluś-Jordanow, O; Kaba, J; Czopowicz, M; Witkowski, L; Nowicki, M; Nowicka, D; Stefańska, I; Rzewuska, M; Sobczak-Filipiak, M; Binek, M; Frymus, T
Morel's disease caused by Staphylococcus aureus subsp. anaerobius was diagnosed for the first time in Poland in October 2006 in a goat flock. A second infected flock was found two months later. The course of the disease in both flocks was observed for 15-17 months. Clinical manifestation was confined to abscesses located near major superficial lymph nodes, mostly: superficial cervical, subiliac, parotid and mandibular. At necropsy no other lesions were found. The incubation period was estimated at 3 weeks. Clinical signs were seen both in young and adult goats and up to 7 abscesses in one animal were noted. Abscesses tended to persist for 1 to 5 months, then rupture and heal completely. The initial high in-flock point prevalence in both flocks (93.6% and 84.4%) dropped to approximately 10-30% during next 3-4 months. Until the end of the observation period the in-flock point prevalence remained at this level and only single abscesses were observed, mainly in young animals. No influence of the concurrent caprine arthritis encephalitis virus (CAEV) infection on the clinical course of Morel's disease was noticed. It is to be concluded that the clinical course of Morel's disease in a goat flock resembles caseous lymphadenitis (CLA). However, in Morel's disease abscesses occur more frequently in young goats and are located near, not inside, the lymph nodes, as in the case with CLA. Also, the incubation period of Morel's disease seems to be shorter (3 weeks versus 2-6 months in CLA).
Galatos, Apostolos D
Physical or chemical restraint, with or without local anesthesia, has been extensively used to perform diagnostic or minor surgical procedures in small ruminants. However, anesthetic and analgesic techniques are required when specific diagnostic procedures and painful surgery are to be performed. Apart from improving animal welfare standards, anesthesia and analgesia are essential to make the procedures easier and improve both animal and personnel safety. This article provides an overview of the anesthetic and analgesic agents and techniques commonly used in sheep and goats.
Hernández-Saldaña, Oscar F; Valencia-Posadas, Mauricio; de la Fuente-Salcido, Norma M; Bideshi, Dennis K; Barboza-Corona, José E
Currently, there are few reports on the isolation of microorganisms from goat milk and goat cheese that have antibacterial activity. In particular, there are no reports on the isolation of microorganisms with antibacterial activity from these products in central Mexico. Our objective was to isolate bacteria, from goat products, that synthesized antimicrobial peptides with activity against a variety of clinically significant bacteria. We isolated and identified Lactobacillus rhamnosus, L. plantarum, L. pentosus, L. helveticus and Enterococcus faecium from goat cheese, and Aquabacterium fontiphilum, Methylibium petroleiphilum, Piscinobacter aquaticus and Staphylococcus xylosus from goat milk. These bacteria isolated from goat cheese were able to inhibit Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, Escherichia coli, Listeria monocytogenes, L. inoccua, Pseudomona aeruginosa, Shigella flexneri, Serratia marcescens, Enterobacter cloacae and Klebsiella pneumoniae. In addition, bacteria from goat milk showed inhibitory activity against B. cereus, L. lactis, E. coli, S. flexneri, E. cloacae and K. pneumonia; S. aureus, L. innocua, S. agalactiae and S. marcescens. The bacteriocins produced by these isolates were shown to be acid stable (pH 2-6) and thermotolerant (up to 100 °C), but were susceptible to proteinases. When screened by PCR for the presence of nisin, pediocin and enterocin A genes, none was found in isolates recovered from goat milk, and only the enterocin A gene was found in isolates from goat cheese.
Hilario, Mario Cuchillo; Puga, Claudia Delgadillo; Wrage, Nicole; Pérez-Gil R, Fernando
The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of foraging on local scrubby rangeland versus stable feeding with high-protein concentrate as well as the compulsory pasteurization process on goats' milk and artisan soft cheese quality in terms of chemical composition and fatty acid profile. The results indicated that there were no significant differences in the energy, fat, or ash content of milk and cheese due to feeding; however, a significant influence of feeding on cheese protein and fatty acids in both milk and cheese was detected. Feeding on scrubby rangeland tended to increase the amounts of major polyunsaturated fatty acids in milk and cheese from goats. Pasteurization, which is mandatory in Mexico, did not alter the fatty acid concentrations in milk or cheese. Small goat-keepers using rangeland resources might claim better economical returns for products recognized as healthier. Further investigations to assure ecosystem sustainability of shrubby rangeland joined with economical evaluations and best animal management to avoid deleterious effects are recommended.
Wisløff, H; Flåøyen, A; Ottesen, N; Hovig, T
We studied the effects of Narthecium ossifragum on goat kidneys. Twenty-five Norwegian dairy goats, 5 weeks to 4 months of age, were orally dosed with an aqueous extract from N. ossifragum. In experiment 1, we studied microscopic and functional changes in 12 animals that were euthanatized 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6 days after treatment. In experiment 2, we included ultrastructural studies on serial renal biopsies and urine analysis from five extract-treated animals and two controls. In addition, urine samples were collected from four dosed and two control goats. Ultrasonography revealed perirenal and retroperitoneal fluids. Microscopic changes were observed after 6 hours. The findings, most obvious in the inner cortex and the outer medulla, consisted of cytoplasmic vacuolization, interstitial edema, and focal necrosis of tubular epithelial cells. Ultrastructurally, the tubules had loss of microvilli, irregular cytoplasmic vacuolization, mitochondrial swelling with loss of cristae, and irregular but continuous basement membranes even with necrosis. In the glomeruli, there were occasional endothelial damage and shortening and swelling of the foot processes. Peritubular capillaries had breaks in the vessel walls and irregular endothelial cell edema, and the interstitium had marked edema. The functional lesions included elevated serum urea, creatinine, and magnesium concentrations, a slight decrease in serum calcium concentration, elevated urine protein and urine protein-creatinine ratio, and increased activities of urine alkaline phosphatase and gamma glutamyl transferase. Our findings indicate a fast-acting toxic principle inducing damage by both direct toxic and secondary ischemic effects.
Linzell, J. L.
1. When goats were kept in continuous milk production for 2-4 yr the rate of milk secretion oscillated in a sinusoidal fashion with a mean wavelength of 49·7 ± 1 weeks, being highest in summer and lowest in winter. 2. Milk [Cl] tended to be higher in summer and [protein] highest in winter but there were no seasonal changes in [fat], [lactose], [Na] or [K]. 3. There were no seasonal oscillations in body weight but the udders were larger in summer than in winter although this did not solely account for the changes in milk yield. 4. Although the autumnal fall in yield and the rise in the spring coincided with the breeding season, seasonal variations also occurred in two ovariectomized animals. 5. Seasonal fluctuations were independent of diet, occurring equally in animals that had never eaten grass but were fed continuously on dry feed and hay ad libitum. 6. Annual oscillations in yield and udder size but not [protein] and [Cl] were also exhibited in two goats kept in a constant temperature chamber at 14 ± 2° C, fed every 2 hr and subjected continuously to 16 hr light and 8 hr dark. These observations have so far persisted for 2 yr in one goat and for 3 yr in the other. However, the wave-length was reduced to 45 ± 1 weeks. Oestrus was suppressed for 2 years. PMID:4702426
Silva, F A P; Amaral, D S; Guerra, I C D; Arcanjo, N M O; Bezerra, T K A; Ferreira, V C S; Araújo, I B S; Dalmás, P S; Madruga, M S
This study focused on the effect of two packaging formats (vacuum packaging and over-wrap packaging) on the shelf life of cooked sausage prepared with blood, heart, kidney and goat meat fragments under storage at 4±1°C for a period of 90 days. The storage time and type of packaging significantly affected the chemical (pH, moisture, protein and TBARS number), physical (shear force) and microbial (mould and yeast) parameters of cooked sausage. Vacuum packaging maintained the microbiological and chemical qualities of cooked goat blood sausage for a longer period of time (63 days) compared to over-wrap packaging (41 days) and could be a viable alternative to refrigerated storage of the product for quality maintenance.
Goto, T.; Hsieh, D.P.
A detailed fractionation of radioactivity in the milk of goats administered UC-aflatoxin B1 at low doses was performed. The milk collected in the first 24 h following dosing contained radioactivity equivalent to 0.45-1.1% of the dose given. The radioactivity in each sample was partitioned into 4 fractions: ether, protein, dichloromethane, and water-alcohol. Over 80% of the radioactivity was detected in the dichloromethane fraction, of which over 95% was attributable to aflatoxin M1. No aflatoxin B1 or other known aflatoxin metabolites were detected in any fraction. The results indicate that the major metabolite of aflatoxin B1 in goat milk is aflatoxin M1 and that other metabolites, including conjugates, are of minor significance.
Oliveira, C H A; Silva, A M; Silva, L M; van Tilburg, M F; Fernandes, C C L; Moura, A A; Moreno, F B M B; Monteiro-Moreira, A C O; Moreira, R A; Bezerra, F J; Rondina, D
Diet can influence both the qualitative and quantitative traits of ruminant meat. This study evaluated the effects of castor de-oiled cake on the meat of mixed-breed male goat kids. After 165days of diet treatment, no alterations (p>0.05) were observed in the in vivo performance, anatomic components, dissection and proximate composition of the Longissimus dorsi muscle, as well as in the color and pH of the carcasses. However, diet had an effect (p<0.05) on energy metabolites, fatty acid profile, and expression of certain proteins of the Longissimus dorsi muscle. To conclude, this study showed that the establishment of castor de-oiled cake diet for a long period to goats led to alterations in meat quality, without compromising its consumption qualities. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Mustafa, A I; Ali, B H; Hassan, T
Furazolidone (FZ) administered to goats orally at the recommended therapeutic dose (10 mg/kg body weight for 5 days) resulted in significant decreases in heart rate, pulse rate, and rectal temperature. No change was observed in respiratory rate or body weight, although a tendency towards a decrease in the latter was observed. An increase in the number of the erythrocytes was found. FZ also produced significant decreases in the pseudocholinesterase activity and plasma concentrations of total protein and ascorbic acid. A significant increase in the adrenal cholesterol concentration was observed while the weight of adrenal glands and their ascorbic acid concentration and content were unaffected. No significant histopathological changes were observed in treated goats.
Oem, Jae-Ku; Roh, In-Soon; Lee, Kyung-Hyun; Lee, Kyoung-Ki; Kim, Hye-Ryoung; Jean, Young-Hwa; Lee, O-Soo
An outbreak of orf virus infection in dairy goats in Korea was investigated. Suspected samples of the skin and lip of affected goats were sent to the laboratory for more exact diagnosis. Orf virus was detected by electron microscopy and viral DNA was identified by PCR. To reveal the genetic characteristics of the Korean strain (ORF/09/Korea), the sequences of the major envelope protein (B2L) and orf virus interferon resistance (VIR) genes were determined and then compared with published reference sequences. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the ORF/09/Korea strain was closest to the isolates (Taiping) from Taiwan. This is believed to be the first report on the molecular characterization of orf virus in Korea.
Maroteau, C; Palhière, I; Larroque, H; Clément, V; Ferrand, M; Tosser-Klopp, G; Rupp, R
Genetic parameters for 18 fatty acids or groups of fatty acids (FA), milk production traits, and somatic cell score (SCS) were estimated by restricted maximum likelihood with a repeatability animal model, using 45,259 test-day records from the first lactations of 13,677 Alpine and Saanen goats. Fatty acid data were collected as part of an extensive recording scheme (PhénoFinLait), and sample testing was based on mid-infrared spectra estimates. The total predicted FA content in milk was approximately 3.5% in Alpine and Saanen goats. Goat milk fat showed similar saturated FA to cattle and sheep, but higher contents of capric (C10:0) FA (~ 9.7 g/100g of milk fat). Heritability estimates ranged from 0.18 to 0.49 for FA and estimates were generally higher when FA were expressed in g/100g of milk fat compared with g/100g of milk. In general, the 3 specific short- and medium-chain goat FA, caproic acid (C6:0), caprylic acid (C8:0), and especially capric (C10:0) acid, had among the highest heritability estimates (from 0.21 to 0.37; average of 0.30). Heritability estimates for milk yield, fat and protein contents, and SCS were 0.22, 0.23, 0.39, 0.09, and 0.24, 0.20, 0.40, and 0.15, in Alpine and Saanen goats, respectively. When FA were expressed in g/100g of milk, genetic correlations between fat content and all FA were high and positive. Genetic correlations between the fat content and FA groups expressed in g/100g of fat led to further investigation of the association between fat content and FA profile within milk fat. Accordingly, in both Saanen and Alpine breeds, no significant genetic correlations were found between fat content and C16:0, whereas the correlations between fat content and specific goat FA (C6:0 to C10:0) were positive (0.17 to 0.59). In addition, the genetic correlation between fat content and C14:0 was negative (-0.17 to -0.35). The values of the genetic correlations between protein content and individual FA were similar, although genetic correlations
Al-Barzinji, Yousif M. S.; Hamad, Aram O.
The present study was conducted on different colors of local goat breeds. A number of 216 does were sampled from the seven groups. Genomic DNA was extracted from the blood samples. From the twenty used RAPD primers 12 of them were amplified, and presence of bands. The total fragment number of 12 primers over all the goat breed samples was 485 fragments. Out of the 485 fragments, 90 of them were Polymorphic fragments numbers (PFN). From all bands obtained, 20 of them possessed unique bands. The highest unique band was found in locus RAP 6 which has 4 unique bands, three of them in the Maraz Brown and one in the local Koor. Nei's gene diversity and Shanon's information index in this study were averaged 0.38 and 0.60, respectively. The genetic distance among several goat breeds ranged from 9.11 to 43.33%. The highest genetic distance 43.33% recorded between Maraz goat and other goat breeds and between local Koor and other goat (except Maraz goats) breeds (37.79%). However, the lowest genetic distance recorded between local white and Pnok. The distance between (local Black and Pnok) and (local Black and local white) was 22.75%. In conclusions, the high distance among these goat breeds, polymorphism and high numbers of unique bands found in present study indicates that these goat breeds have the required amount of genetic variation to made genetic improvement. This study helps us to clarify the image of the genetic diversity of the local goat breeds and the breeders can used it for mating system when need to make the crossing among these goat breeds.
Goldmann, Wilfred; Ryan, Kelly; Stewart, Paula; Parnham, David; Xicohtencatl, Rosa; Fernandez, Nora; Saunders, Ginny; Windl, Otto; González, Lorenzo; Bossers, Alex; Foster, James
The application of genetic breeding programmes to eradicate transmissible spongiform encephalopathies in goats is an important aim for reasons of animal welfare as well as human food safety and food security. Based on the positive impact of Prnp genetics on sheep scrapie in Europe in the past decade, we have established caprine Prnp gene variation in more than 1100 goats from the United Kingdom and studied the association of Prnp alleles with disease phenotypes in 150 scrapie-positive goats. This investigation confirms the association of the Met142 encoding Prnp allele with increased resistance to preclinical and clinical scrapie. It reveals a novel association of the Ser127 encoding allele with a reduced probability to develop clinical signs of scrapie in goats that are already positive for the accumulation of disease-specific prion protein in brain or periphery. A United Kingdom survey of Prnp genotypes in eight common breeds revealed eleven alleles in over thirty genotypes. The Met142 encoding allele had a high overall mean allele frequency of 22.6%, whereas the Ser127 encoding allele frequency was considerably lower with 6.4%. In contrast, a well known resistance associated allele encoding Lys222 was found to be rare (0.9%) in this survey. The analysis of Prnp genotypes in Mexican Criollas goats revealed nine alleles, including a novel Phe to Leu substitution in codon 201, confirming that high genetic variability of Prnp can be found in scrapie-free populations. Our study implies that it should be feasible to lower scrapie prevalence in goat herds in the United Kingdom by genetic selection.
The application of genetic breeding programmes to eradicate transmissible spongiform encephalopathies in goats is an important aim for reasons of animal welfare as well as human food safety and food security. Based on the positive impact of Prnp genetics on sheep scrapie in Europe in the past decade, we have established caprine Prnp gene variation in more than 1100 goats from the United Kingdom and studied the association of Prnp alleles with disease phenotypes in 150 scrapie-positive goats. This investigation confirms the association of the Met142 encoding Prnp allele with increased resistance to preclinical and clinical scrapie. It reveals a novel association of the Ser127 encoding allele with a reduced probability to develop clinical signs of scrapie in goats that are already positive for the accumulation of disease-specific prion protein in brain or periphery. A United Kingdom survey of Prnp genotypes in eight common breeds revealed eleven alleles in over thirty genotypes. The Met142 encoding allele had a high overall mean allele frequency of 22.6%, whereas the Ser127 encoding allele frequency was considerably lower with 6.4%. In contrast, a well known resistance associated allele encoding Lys222 was found to be rare (0.9%) in this survey. The analysis of Prnp genotypes in Mexican Criollas goats revealed nine alleles, including a novel Phe to Leu substitution in codon 201, confirming that high genetic variability of Prnp can be found in scrapie-free populations. Our study implies that it should be feasible to lower scrapie prevalence in goat herds in the United Kingdom by genetic selection. PMID:22040234
Shrimali, R. G.; Patel, M. D.; Patel, R. M.
Aim: Fasciolosis is a parasitic disease caused by Fasciola spp. of the family Fasciolidae (trematodes) characterized by bottle jaw, anemia, progressive debility, and potbelly condition. There are many aspects of fasciolosis remaining unknown thus hemato-biochemical alterations in closantel, triclabendazole + ivermectin, and oxyclozanide + levamisole treated goats were studied. Materials and Methods: A total of 40 naturally fasciolosis infected goats having egg per gram more than 100 were randomly divided into four groups. Goats of Group I-III were treated with three different anthelmintics, whereas, goats of Group-IV were kept as control or untreated. Whole blood, serum, and fecal samples were collected on 0, 7th, and 30th day of treatment. Results: During the study, values of hemoglobin, total erythrocyte count, pack cell volume, and total protein were significantly elevated to their normal levels in anthelmintics treated groups. Whereas, values of total leukocyte count, aspartate transaminase (AST), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT) were significantly reduced to their normal level in anthelmintics treated groups. The efficacy of closantel (T1), triclabendazole + ivermectin (T2), and oxyclozanide + levamisole (T3) was 99.63%, 100%, and 94.74% and 100%, 100%, and 97.38% on 7th and 30th day of treatment, respectively. Conclusions: Fasciolosis in goats can be diagnosed on the basis of fecal sample examination, but alterations in important biomarkers such as AST, GGT, and LDH are also helpful for early diagnosis. The use of newer anthelmintic either alone or in combination showed a higher therapeutic response in fasciolosis of goats. PMID:27284231
Jordán, Maria José; Moñino, María Inmaculada; Martínez, Cristina; Lafuente, Arturo; Sotomayor, José Antonio
The effect of the introduction of distilled rosemary leaves into the diet of the Murciano-Granadina goat on the polyphenolic profile of the goats' milk during the physiological stages of gestation and lactation was studied. The inclusion of rosemary leaves into the animal diet modified neither animal productivity (milk yield) nor milk quality. The following components were found in increased concentration (P < 0.05) in the goats' milk after the introduction of rosemary leaves into their diet: flavonoids hesperidin, naringin, and genkwanin; gallic acid; and phenolic diterpenes carnosol and carnosic acid. With regard to the transfer of polyphenols to the plasma of the suckling goat kid, a statistically significant increase (P < 0.05) in rosmarinic acid, carnosic acid, and carnosol concentrations was detected. From this point of view, distillate rosemary leaves can be proposed as an ingredient in ruminant feed because they both alter neither the yield nor the quality of Murciano-Granadina goats' milk and allow for an increased concentration of polyphenolic components in the goats' milk and in the plasma of the suckling goat kid.
Chen, Zhi; Luo, Jun; Ma, LiuAn; Wang, Hui; Cao, WenTing; Xu, HuiFei; Zhu, JiangJiang; Sun, YuTing; Li, Jun; Yao, DaWei; Kang, Kang; Gou, Deming
Fat metabolism is a complicated process regulated by a series of factors. microRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of negative regulator of proteins and play crucial roles in many biological processes; including fat metabolism. Although there have been some researches indicating that miRNAs could influence the milk fat metabolism through targeting some factors, little is known about the effect of miRNAs on goat milk fat metabolism. Here we utilized an improved miRNA detection assay, S-Poly-(T), to profile the expression of miRNAs in the goat mammary gland in different periods, and found that miR-130b was abundantly and differentially expressed in goat mammary gland. Additionally, overexpressing miR-130b impaired adipogenesis while inhibiting miR-130b enhanced adipogenesis in goat mammary epithelial cells. Utilizing 3’-UTR assay and Western Blot analusis, the protein peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor coactivator-1α (PGC1α), a major regulator of fat metabolism, was demonstrated to be a potential target of miR-130b. Interestingly, miR-130b potently repressed PGC1α expression by targeting both the PGC1α mRNA coding and 3’ untranslated regions. These findings have some insight of miR-130b in mediating adipocyte differentiation by repressing PGC1α expression and this contributes to further understanding about the functional significance of miRNAs in milk fat synthesis. PMID:26579707
Pettit, W.A.; DeLand, F.H.; Bennett, S.J.; Goldenberg, D.M.
A procedure has been developed whereby small amounts of protein - specifically human serum albumin and immunoglobulin G - can be labeled with Tc-99m. Artifactual problems associated with electrolytic and stannous chloride labeling procedures are virtually eliminated. The procedure is satisfactory for labeling human serum albumin, normal goat immunoglobulin G, and goat anti-carcinoembryonic antigen immunoglobulin G.
spider silk. Accomplishments: YEAR 1. Bacteria were genetically engineered to produce two spider silk protein variants composed of basic repeat...silk proteins. In another development with Nexia we have purchased most of the founder goats they produced in order to protect the genetics they...Nexia produced in order to protect the genetics they developed. After a 9 month odyssey of bureaucratic hassles we will brought the goats into othe
Danieli, P P; Ronchi, B
Recent reports on livestock environmental impact based on life cycle assessment (LCA) did not fully consider the case of the dairy goat. Assignment of an environmental impact (e.g. global warming potential) to a specific product needs to be related to the appropriate 'unitary amount' or functional unit (FU). For milk, the energy content may provide a common basis for a definition of the FU. To date, no ad hoc formulations for the FU of goat milk have been proposed. For these reasons, this study aimed to develop and test one or more predictive models (DPMs) for the gross energy (GE) content of goat milk, based on published compositional data, such as fat (F), protein, total solids (TS), solid non-fat matter (SNF), lactose (Lac) and ash. The DPMs were developed, selected and tested using a linear regression approach, as a meta-analysis (i.e. meta-regression) was not applicable. However, in the final stage, a control procedure for spurious findings was carried out using a Monte Carlo permutation test. Because several published predictive models (PPMs) for GE in cow milk and goat milk were found in the literature, they were tested on the same data set with which the DPMs were developed. The best-performing DPMs and PPMs were compared directly with a subset of the individual data retrieved from the literature. Overall, the paucity of direct measurements of the GE in goat milk was a limiting factor in collecting data from the literature; thus, only a small data set (n=26) was established, even though it was considered sufficiently representative of milks from different goat breeds. The three best PPMs based on F alone gave more biased estimates of the GE content of the goat milk than the three new DPMs based on F, F and SNF and F and TS, respectively. Accordingly, three different formulations of FU are proposed, depending on the availability of data including both F and TS (or F and SNF) or F alone. Even though several metrics can be used in defining the FU for milk to
Lewis, Shaye K; Farmer, Jennifer L; Burghardt, Robert C; Newton, Gary R; Johnson, Greg A; Adelson, David L; Bazer, Fuller W; Spencer, Thomas E
Galectins are a family of secreted animal lectins with biological roles in cell adhesion and migration. In sheep, galectin 15 (LGALS15) is expressed specifically in the endometrial luminal (LE) and superficial glandular (sGE) epithelia of the uterus in concert with blastocyst elongation during the peri-implantation period. The present study examined LGALS15 expression in the uterus of cattle, goats, and pigs. Although the bovine genome contains an LGALS15-like gene, expressed sequence tags encoding LGALS15 mRNA were found only for sheep, and full-length LGALS15 cDNAs were cloned only from endometrial total RNA isolated from pregnant sheep and goats, but not pregnant cattle or pigs. Ovine and caprine LGALS15 were highly homologous at the mRNA (95%) and protein (91%) levels, and all contained a conserved carbohydrate recognition domain and RGD recognition sequence for integrin binding. Endometrial LGALS15 mRNA levels increased after Day 11 of both the estrous cycle and pregnancy, and were considerably increased after Day 15 of pregnancy in goats. In situ hybridization detected abundant LGALS15 mRNA in endometrial LE and sGE of early pregnant goats, but not in cattle or pigs. Immunoreactive LGALS15 protein was present in endometrial epithelia and conceptus trophectoderm of goat uteri and detected within intracellular crystal structures in trophectoderm and LE. Recombinant ovine and caprine LGALS15 proteins elicited a dose-dependent increase in ovine trophectoderm cell attachment in vitro that was comparable to bovine fibronectin. These results support the hypothesis that LGALS15 is uniquely expressed in Caprinae endometria and functions as an attachment factor important for peri-implantation blastocyst elongation.
Traditional sheep (Ovis aries), hair sheep and meat goat (Capra hircus) industries are growing rapidly in the Appalachian Region to help produce meats for ethnic markets. This niche market offers an economic opportunity for owners of small farms. Control of gastrointestinal (GI) parasites in goats...
Prevalence of anthelmintic resistance in goats has necessitated studies for alternative means of gastrointestinal nematode (GIN) control. The objective was to determine the effectiveness of dietary copper sulfate for control of GIN in meat goats. Naturally infected buck kids received 0 (LC), 78 (M...
Goats provide vital food and economic security, particularly in developing countries. We created a database that is a nexus for all performance, type, geographic information system (GIS), production environment, and genome information on goats. This resource provides a platform for meta-analysis tha...
Numerous species of Sarcocystis have been reported from wild ruminants but none has been named from the Rocky Mountain goat (Oreamnos americanus). Mature sarcocysts were found in frozen muscle samples of 3 of 7 mountain goats from Alaska, USA. Two morphological types of sarcocysts were found; 1 had ...
Goats are economically important in many countries and little is known of caprine toxoplasmosis in Brazil. Antibodies to T. gondii were assayed in the sera of 143 goats from 3 Brazilian States, using modified agglutination test (MAT titer =1:25); 46 (32.2%) tested positive. Samples of brain, heart, ...
Kean, Michael H.; McNamara, Thomas C.
The "Goodbye To All That" (GOAT) Effect is introduced as a special research and evaluation "outcome" effect characterizing decision making unduly influenced by abandoning "write-off" tendencies. The "gradual refinement" approach offers an antidote to the GOAT Effect because it does not use the systems…
Li, Ziru; Mulholland, Michael; Zhang, Weizhen
Ghrelin O-acyltransferase (GOAT), a member of MBOATs family, is essential for octanoylation of ghrelin, which is required for active ghrelin to bind with and activate its receptor. GOAT is expressed mainly in the stomach, pancreas and hypothalamus. Levels of GOAT are altered by energy status. GOAT contains 11 transmembrane helices and one reentrant loop. Its invariant residue His-338 and conserved Asn-307 are located in the endoplasmic reticulum lumen and cytosol respectively. GOAT contributes to the regulation of food intake and energy expenditure, as well as glucose and lipids homeostasis. Deletion of GOAT blocks the acylation of ghrelin leading to subsequent impairment in energy homeostasis and survival when mice are challenged with high energy diet or severe caloric restriction. GO-CoA-Tat, a peptide GOAT inhibitor, attenuates acyl-ghrelin production and prevents weight gain induced by a medium-chain triglycerides-rich high fat diet. Further, GO-CoA-Tat increases glucose- induced insulin secretion. Overall, inhibition of GOAT is a novel strategy for treatment of obesity and related metabolic disorders.
J.L. Fox; C.A. Smith; J.W. Schoen
Mountain goats in southeastern Alaska occupy habitats providing abundant areas of highquality forage during summer but only limited feeding areas during winter because of deep snow. Winter is a period of severe utritional deprivation, and goats converge into areas with available forage, often within old-growth forest where relatively low snow depths and litterfall...
Daltabuit Test, M; de la Concha-Bermejillo, A; Espinosa, L E; Loza Rubio, E; Aguilar Setién, A
A lentivirus was isolated from 2 goats in Mexico that were seropositive to caprine arthritis encephalitis virus (CAEV) by the agar gel immunodiffusion (AGID) test. The lentivirus was identified as CAEV by the observation of giant multinucleated cells (syncytia) in goat synovial membrane (GSM) monolayers co-cultivated with blood mononuclear (BMN) cells from the seropositive goats, and by amplifying a DNA segment of the CAEV gag gene using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique. Subsequently, cell supernatants from the GSM cells co-cultivated with BMN cells were used to infect 2 CAEV-seronegative goats. These goats seroconverted to CAEV as determined by the AGID test, and CAEV was re-isolated from these goats. One of the goats developed polyarthritis 8 mo after inoculation. Previous serological surveys indicate that infection with CAEV is prevalent among goats in Mexico. To our knowledge this is the first report of CAEV isolation in Mexico. Because of globalization of markets and increased trading among nations, the rapid identification and reporting of diseases such as CAEV are important to prevent the dissemination of these diseases. Images Figure 1. Figure 2. PMID:10480464
Between 2007 and 2009, the largest human Q fever epidemic ever described occurred in the Netherlands. The source was traced back to dairy goat farms, where abortion storms had been observed since 2005. Since one putative cause of these abortion storms is the intensive husbandry systems in which the goats are kept, the objective of this study was to assess whether these could be explained by herd size, reproductive pattern and other demographic aspects of Dutch dairy goat herds alone. We adapted an existing, fully parameterized simulation model for Q fever transmission in French dairy cattle herds to represent the demographics typical for Dutch dairy goat herds. The original model represents the infection dynamics in a herd of 50 dairy cows after introduction of a single infected animal; the adapted model has 770 dairy goats. For a full comparison, herds of 770 cows and 50 goats were also modeled. The effects of herd size and goat versus cattle demographics on the probability of and time to extinction of the infection, environmental bacterial load and abortion rate were studied by simulation. The abortion storms could not be fully explained by demographics alone. Adequate data were lacking at the moment to attribute the difference to characteristics of the pathogen, host, within-herd environment, or a combination thereof. The probability of extinction was higher in goat herds than in cattle herds of the same size. The environmental contamination was highest within cattle herds, which may be taken into account when enlarging cattle farming systems. PMID:23621908
Kean, Michael H.; McNamara, Thomas C.
The "Goodbye To All That" (GOAT) Effect is introduced as a special research and evaluation "outcome" effect characterizing decision making unduly influenced by abandoning "write-off" tendencies. The "gradual refinement" approach offers an antidote to the GOAT Effect because it does not use the systems…
Rayless goldenrod (Isocoma pluriflora) occasionally poisons livestock causing myocardial and skeletal muscle degeneration and necrosis. The objectives of this study were to describe the resolution of the clinical and pathologic changes of rayless goldenrod poisoning in goats. Eight goats were gava...
Ganabadi, S; Halimatun, Y; Amelia Choong, K L; Nor Jawahir, A; Mohammed Hilmi, A
Selenium is an essential trace mineral that is required for many physiological functions in animals and the potential relevance of selenium to the reproductive system of livestock has been considered by many researchers. The objective of this study was to examine the effect of selenium supplementation on the spermatogenic cells of goat. Eight young male crossbred (Katjang x Boer) goats, aged between 9 to 11 months, were used in this study. The control group (CON; n = 4) was fed with a diet consisting of 60% Guinea grass and 40% concentrates while the treatment group (Se-SUP; n = 4) was fed with the same diet as the goats in the control group but with supplementation of 0.6mg selenium (sodium selenite powder) per goat daily for 100 days and were slaughtered on the 101st day. There were no significant differences (p>0.05) in the mean number of spermatogonium, spermatocytes, spermatozoa and the total number of spermatogenic cells between the CON and Se-SUP goat respectively. However, there was a significant increase (p< 0.05) of spermatid in Se-SUP goats. The mean percentage of spermatids was significantly increased (p< 0.05) while spermatozoa was significantly decreased (p< 0.05) in Se-SUP goats. In conclusion, selenium supplementation increased the percentages of spermatids and decreased the percentages of spermatozoa in the seminiferous tubules in goats.
Carrete, Martina; Serrano, David; Illera, Juan C; López, Guillermo; Vögeli, Matthias; Delgado, Antonio; Tella, José L
Exotic species can have devastating effects on recipient environments and even lead to the outbreak of emergent diseases. We present here several hidden effects that the introduction of goats has had on the Lesser Short-toed Lark, Calandrella rufescens, the commonest native bird inhabiting the island of Fuerteventura (Canary Islands). Vegetation structure varied with grazing pressure, and indeed, vegetation was all but eradicated from the locality with greatest goat densities, which was also where the lowest density of Lesser Short-toed Larks was recorded. The impact of habitat impoverishment, however, was partially compensated for by changes in the foraging behavior of birds, which benefited from the abundant food provided to goats on farms. Capture-resighting methods showed that birds visiting farms outnumbered the estimates for birds obtained in the surrounding natural habitat, suggesting that there was recruitment from a much larger area. Stable isotope analyses of feathers indicated that island birds feed largely on the maize supplied at goat farms, showing poorer body condition than birds from populations not associated with farms (peninsular Spain and Morocco). Moreover, larks from Fuerteventura had a very high prevalence of poxvirus lesions compared with other bird populations worldwide and may increase the risk of contracting the disease by feeding on farms, where they aggregate and coexist atypically with domestic birds. The island birds also had lower average productivity, which may be the consequence of the emergent disease and/or the poor nutritional state resulting from feeding on a low-protein diet. Diseased and non-diseased birds from Fuerteventura showed similar body condition and annual survival rates. However, the isotopic traces of delta 13C indicate that the diet of diseased birds was more uniform than that of non-diseased birds, being based on food from goat farms. Our results show how the combination of species frequently introduced onto
Ozawa, Takeyuki; Mukuda, Kumiko; Fujita, Masaru; Nishitani, Jiro
A consumer questionnaire conducted with the purpose of ascertaining the acceptability of goat milk and related products in Japan was carried out on 345 guarantees of Nippon Veterinary and Life Science University in December 2006. 275 effective responses (79%) representing middle class urban households were returned. The results revealed that (1) 30% of respondents have experienced drinking goat milk and only 10% are aware of the current retail situation of goat milk and related products; (2) over 70% of goat milk drinkers raised goats by hand at some point in their past and their first experience drinking goat milk was in infancy; (3) those with experience in drinking goat milk expressed a vague evaluation and minimal understanding of drinking goat milk; (4) respondents who were inexperienced goat milk drinkers expressed a strong desire to taste and a weak desire to purchase goat milk; (5) respondents expressed low recognition regarding retailed goat milk products, but those who had already purchased goat milk products expressed a high evaluation and strong desire to purchase these products again; and (6) recognition of goat milk characteristics is low, but those with high recognition also rate goat milk highly. Goats are perceived as being 'mild and familiar.' It is necessary for those who manage goat husbandry to present goat milk and related product tasting opportunities to consumers. The key point is to make the functional differences between cow and goat milk clear and present the advantages of goat milk at the fore of this promotion. Goat milk should not be promoted merely as a drink that is similar to cow milk, but must be positioned as a functional drink or health food in order to expand the Japanese goat milk market.
Robertson, Kimberly; Symes, Wymond; Garnham, Malcolm
The aim of this study was to assess the cradle-to-farm gate carbon footprint of indoor and outdoor dairy goat farming systems in New Zealand, identifying hotspots and discussing variability and methodology. Our study was based on the International Organization for Standardization standards for life cycle assessment, although only results for greenhouse gas emissions are presented. Two functional units were included: tonnes of CO2-equivalents (CO2e) per hectare (ha) and kilograms of CO2e per kilogram of fat- and protein-corrected milk (FPCM). The study covered 5 farms, 2 farming systems, and 3yr. Two methods for the calculation of enteric methane emissions were assessed. The Lassey method, as used in the New Zealand greenhouse gas inventory, provided a more robust estimate of emissions from enteric fermentation and was used in the final calculations. The alternative dry matter intake method was shown to overestimate emissions due to use of anecdotal assumptions around actual consumption of feed. Economic allocation was applied to milk and co-products. Scenario analysis was performed on the allocation method, nitrogen content of manure, manure management, and supplementary feed choice. The average carbon footprint for the indoor farms (n=3) was 11.05 t of CO2e/ha and 0.81kg of CO2e/kg of FPCM. For the outdoor farms (n=2), the average was 5.38 t of CO2e/ha and 1.03kg of CO2e/kg of FPCM. The average for all 5 farms was 8.78 t of CO2e/ha and 0.90kg of CO2e/kg of FPCM. The results showed relatively high variability due to differences in management practices between farms. The 5 farms covered 10% of the total dairy goat farms but may not be representative of an average farm. Methane from enteric fermentation was a major emission source. The use of supplementary feed was highly variable but an important contributor to the carbon footprint. Nitrous oxide can contribute up to 18% of emissions. Indoor goat farming systems produced milk with a significantly higher carbon
... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Moving goats, sheep, and horses to be... DESTROYED BECAUSE OF BRUCELLOSIS Indemnity for Sheep, Goats, and Horses § 51.28 Moving goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed. Goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed because of brucellosis must be...
... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Moving goats, sheep, and horses to be... DESTROYED BECAUSE OF BRUCELLOSIS Indemnity for Sheep, Goats, and Horses § 51.28 Moving goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed. Goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed because of brucellosis must be...
... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Moving goats, sheep, and horses to be... DESTROYED BECAUSE OF BRUCELLOSIS Indemnity for Sheep, Goats, and Horses § 51.28 Moving goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed. Goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed because of brucellosis must be...
... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Moving goats, sheep, and horses to be... DESTROYED BECAUSE OF BRUCELLOSIS Indemnity for Sheep, Goats, and Horses § 51.28 Moving goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed. Goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed because of brucellosis must be...
... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Moving goats, sheep, and horses to be... DESTROYED BECAUSE OF BRUCELLOSIS Indemnity for Sheep, Goats, and Horses § 51.28 Moving goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed. Goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed because of brucellosis must be...
Giadinis, Nektarios D; Papadopoulos, Elias; Lafi, Shawkat Q; Papanikolopoulou, Vasiliki; Karanikola, Sofia; Diakou, Anastasia; Vergidis, Vergos; Xiao, Lihua; Ioannidou, Evi; Karatzias, Harilaos
This study aimed at investigating the occurrence of Cryptosporidium spp. in diarrheic goat kids in Greece and the risk factors associated with cryptosporidiosis. Altogether, 292 diarrheic 4-15-day-old goat kids from 54 dairy goat herds of Northern Greece were examined. Oocysts of Cryptosporidium spp. were detected in 223 of 292 (76.4%) goat kids and the intensity of infection was scored as "high" in 142 samples, "moderate" in 45 samples, and "low" in 36 samples. Larger herds (>200 animals) had higher infection rates than smaller ones, although this difference was not statistically significant. Significantly higher infection rates were observed in herds during late kidding season (1 January to 30 April) compared to the early one (1 September to 31 December). These results suggest that cryptosporidiosis is very common in diarrheic goat kids in Greece, especially in large herds during the late parturition season.
Lin, B Z; Odahara, S; Ishida, M; Kato, T; Sasazaki, S; Nozawa, K; Mannen, H
The domestic goat is one of the most important livestock species, but its origins and genetic diversity still remain uncertain. Multiple highly divergent maternal lineages of goat have been reported in previous studies. Although one of the mitochondrial DNA lineages, lineage B, was detected only in eastern and southern Asia, the geographic distribution of these lineages was previously unclear. Here, we examine the genetic diversity and phylogeographic structure of Asian goats by mitochondrial DNA sequences and morphological characteristics. The analyses of a total of 1661 Asian goats from 12 countries revealed a high frequency of lineage B in Southeast Asia. The frequency of this lineage tended to be higher in mountain areas than in plain areas in Southeast Asian countries, and there was a significant correlation between its frequency and morphological traits. The results suggest an original predominance of lineage B in Southeast Asia and the recent infiltration of lineage A into Southeast Asian goats.
Yakubu, Abdulmojeed; Salako, Adebowale E; De Donato, Marcos; Peters, Sunday O; Takeet, Michael I; Wheto, Mathew; Okpeku, Moses; Imumorin, Ikhide G
Host defense in vertebrates depend on many secreted regulatory proteins such as major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II which provide important regulatory and effector functions of T cells. Gene polymorphism in the second exon of Capra-DRB gene in three major Nigerian goat breeds [West African Dwarf (WAD), Red Sokoto (RS), and Sahel (SH)] was analyzed by restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLP). Four restriction enzymes, BsaHI, AluI, HaeIII, and SacII, were utilized. The association between the polymorphic sites and some heat tolerance traits were also investigated in a total of 70 WAD, 90 RS, and 50 SH goats. Fourteen different types of alleles identified in the Nigerian goats, four of which were found in the peptide coding region (A57G, Q89R, G104D, and T112I), indicate a high degree of polymorphism at the DRB locus in this species. An obvious excess (P < 0.01) of non-synonymous substitutions than synonymous (dN/dS) in this locus is a reflection of adaptive evolution and positive selection. The phylogenetic trees revealed largely species-wise clustering in DRB gene. BsaHI, AluI, HaeIII, and SacII genotype frequencies were in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (P > 0.05), except AluI in RS goats and HaeIII in WAD goats (P < 0.05). The expected heterozygosity (H), which is a measure of gene diversity in the goat populations, ranged from 0.16 to 0.50. Genotypes AA (BsaHI), GG, GC and CC (AluI) and GG, GA, AA (HaeIII) appeared better in terms of heat tolerance. The heat-tolerant ability of SH and RS goats to the hot and humid tropical environment of Nigeria seemed better than that of the WAD goats. Sex effect (P < 0.05) was mainly on pulse rate and heat stress index, while there were varying interaction effects on heat tolerance. Variation at the DRB locus may prove to be important in possible selection and breeding for genetic resistance to heat stress in the tropics.
Classical scrapie is a natural prion disease of sheep in which the immediate postpartum period and, in particular, the placenta have long been known to play key roles in natural horizontal transmission. Goats, too, are a natural host of classical scrapie and are frequently raised with sheep; but the...
Bundza, A; Afshar, A; Dukes, T W; Myers, D J; Dulac, G C; Becker, S A
In order to study the pathomorphology and immunohistochemistry of peste des petits ruminants, four goats and two sheep were inoculated intranasally with the Malig-Yemen strain of peste des petits ruminants virus. The animals developed fever, nasal discharge, oral erosions, cough and diarrhea. One goat and one sheep died and one moribund goat was killed. Three animals survived the infection. At necropsy, erosive stomatitis, pneumonia and gastroenteritis were found. Histopathologically the pneumonocytes and epithelial cells of the ileum had eosinophilic cytoplasmic and nuclear inclusions. By an indirect immunoperoxidase method, the nuclei and cytoplasm of the ileal epithelial cells of one goat contained positively (brown) stained antigen, which corresponded to viral nucleocapsids by electron microscopy. Virus appeared to be released through the microvilli of the epithelial cells. We also confirmed the formation of giant cells due to peste des petits ruminants virus. Images Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. Fig. 7. Fig. 8. Fig. 9. Fig. 10. Fig. 11. Fig. 12. Fig. 13. Fig. 14. Fig. 15. Fig. 16. Fig. 17. Fig. 18.,Fig. 19.,Fig. 20. PMID:3280108
Freeman, S R; Poore, M H; Huntington, G B; Middleton, T F; Ferket, P R
To provide an economically viable and environmentally sound method for disposing of spent laying hens, we manufactured a proteinaceous meal from the hard tissue fraction of mechanically deboned laying hens (primarily feathers, bones, and connective tissue). We hydrolyzed the hard tissue and coextruded it with soybean hulls to create a novel feather and bone meal (FBM) containing 94.2% DM, 23.1% CP, 54.5% NDF, and 7.3% fat (DM basis). We evaluated the FBM in supplements for meat goats in which it provided 0, 20, 40, or 60% of the N added to the supplement compared with a negative control supplement with no added N source. The remainder of the N was contributed by soybean meal (SBM). Supplementation of N resulted in greater DMI than the negative control (P = 0.005), and DMI changed quadratically (P = 0.11) as FBM increased in the supplement. Digestibility of DM was similar in all diets, including the negative control (P > 0.10). Fiber digestibility increased linearly as dietary inclusion of FBM increased (P = 0.04 for NDF, P = 0.05 for ADF), probably as a result of the soybean hulls in the FBM. Nitrogen digestibility declined linearly from 60.5% with 0% FBM to 55.6% with 60% FBM (P = 0.07), but N retention changed by a quadratic function as FBM replaced SBM (P = 0.06). Negative control goats had less N digestibility (P < 0.001) and N retention (P = 0.008) than N-supplemented goats. Feather and bone meal had a greater proportion of ruminally undegradable B(3) protein than SBM (23.1 vs. 0.3% of CP, respectively). Ruminal VFA and pH were unaffected by replacing SBM with FBM, but supplying no source of N in the concentrate resulted in reduced total VFA in ruminal fluid (P = 0.04). Ruminal ammonia concentration increased quadratically (P = 0.07) as FBM increased, reflecting increased intake, and it was much less in unsupplemented goats (P < 0.001). Serum urea had less variation between 0 and 4 h after feeding in goats receiving 40 or 60% of added N as FBM in comparison
Expression, purification, and improved antigenic specificity of a truncated recombinant bp26 protein of Brucella melitensis M5-90: a potential antigen for differential serodiagnosis of brucellosis in sheep and goats.
Liu, Wen-xing; Hu, Sen; Qiao, Zu-jian; Chen, Wei-ye; Liu, Lin-tao; Wang, Fang-kun; Hua, Rong-hong; Bu, Zhi-gao; Li, Xiang-rui
Antibodies produced in animals vaccinated using live attenuated vaccines against Brucella spp. are indistinguishable using current conventional serological tests from those produced in infected animals. One potential approach is to develop marker vaccines in which specific genes have been deleted from parental vaccine strains that show good immunogenicity and vaccine efficacy. Corresponding methods of detection for antibodies raised by the marker vaccine should also be developed. A specific fragment of the bp26 gene of Brucella melitensis M5-90 was cloned into vector pQE32 to construct the recombinant plasmid (pQE32-rΔbp26). It was used to transform Escherichia coli M15 (pREP4) host cells, which expressed the rΔbp26 protein. Subsequently, the recombinant protein was purified by immobilized metal affinity chromatography and size-exclusion chromatography. The results of sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis showed that the purified rΔbp26 protein was represented by only one band, with a molecular weight of 14 kDa, and it showed good antigenic specificity on western blot and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The purified rΔbp26 protein was intended to be used as an antigen to develop a novel ELISA to differentiate animals vaccinated with bp26 mutants of Brucella spp. from those infected naturally and those vaccinated with the parental vaccine strains.
Chessa, S; Rignanese, D; Chiatti, F; Radeghieri, A; Gigliotti, C; Caroli, A
Most variability in goat caseins originates from the high number of genetic polymorphisms often affecting the specific protein expression, with strong effects on milk composition traits and technological properties. At least 7 alleles have been found in the goat alpha(S2)-CN gene (CSN1S2). Five of them (CSN1S2*A, CSN1S2*B, CSN1S2*C, CSN1S2*E, and CSN1S2*F) are widespread in most breeds, whereas the other 2 (CSN1S2*D and CSN1S2*0) are rarer alleles. Four different PCR-RFLP tests are needed to detect all of these variants at the DNA level. The objective of this study was to develop and validate a rapid method for typing 4 of the 5 most-common goat CSN1S2 alleles by means of PCR-single strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP). The method was validated by analyzing 37 goat samples at the protein and DNA level, respectively, by milk isoelectrofocusing and PCR-RFLP methods already described. The genotypes obtained using the PCR-SSCP approach were in full agreement with those obtained by the validation analyses. The newly developed PCR-SSCP approach provides an accurate and inexpensive assay highly suitable for genotyping goat CSN1S2.
Paengkoum, P; Paengkoum, S
A total of 12 crossbred (Boer × Anglo-Nubian) goats were chosen from a commercial farm on the basis of similar body weight (25.0 ± 3.1 kg). The goats were housed in individual pens and allowed 3 weeks to adapt to experimental conditions. The goats were randomly allocated to three treatments in a 3 × 3 Latin square experiment (replicated four times). Within each period, each goat was given rice straw as roughage plus the respective treatment diet. The diets were iso-nitrogenous and iso-energetic containing cassava pulp, molasses, urea and commercial mineral and vitamin mix. The experimental treatments were (i) soybean meal (SBM), (ii) partial substitution of SBM with Leucaena (Leucaena leucocephala) foliage and (iii) partial substitution of SBM with Madras thorn (Pithecellobium dulce) foliage. Nutrient intakes, ruminal characteristics (pH, ammonia nitrogen and volatile fatty acids), nitrogen balances, plasma urea nitrogen and microbial N supply were not significantly different among treatments. The results of this study indicate that protein foliages from locally grown shrubs and trees can substitute imported feedstuff concentrates (e.g. SBM) as protein supplement for goat production.
Mumme, Marcus; Steinitz, Amir; Nuss, Katja M; Klein, Karina; Feliciano, Sandra; Kronen, Peter; Jakob, Marcel; von Rechenberg, Brigitte; Martin, Ivan; Barbero, Andrea; Pelttari, Karoliina
Nasal chondrocytes (NC) were previously demonstrated to remain viable and to participate in the repair of articular cartilage defects in goats. Here, we investigated critical features of tissue-engineered grafts generated by NC in this large animal model, namely cell retention at the implantation site, architecture and integration with adjacent tissues, and effects on subchondral bone changes. In this study, isolated autologous goat NC (gNC) and goat articular chondrocytes (gAC, as control) were expanded, green fluorescent protein-labelled and seeded on a type I/III collagen membrane. After chondrogenic differentiation, tissue-engineered grafts were implanted into chondral defects (6 mm in diameter) in the stifle joint for 3 or 6 months. At the time of explantation, surrounding tissues showed no or very low (only in the infrapatellar fat pad <0.32%) migration of the grafted cells. In repair tissue, gNC formed typical structures of articular cartilage, such as flattened cells at the surface and column-like clusters in the middle layers. Semi-quantitative histological evaluation revealed efficient integration of the grafted tissues with the adjacent native cartilage and underlying subchondral bone. A significantly increased subchondral bone area, as a sign for the onset of osteoarthritis, was observed following treatment of cartilage defects with gAC-, but not with gNC-grafts. Our results reinforce the use of NC-based engineered tissue for articular cartilage repair and preliminarily indicate their potential for the treatment of early osteoarthritic defects.
Pirmohammadi, Rasoul; Anassori, Ehsan; Zakeri, Zahra; Tahmouzi, Mortaza
To evaluate the effects of garlic on some blood metabolites in pre-partum dairy goats, the ration was supplemented with raw garlic at the doses of 0, 30, 50 and 70 g kg-1 of Dry matter (DM) in eight pregnant Mahabadi breed goats (59 ± 1 kg initial live weight) in a replicated Latin square design during the last two months of pregnancy. Each experimental period lasted 14 days with the first 12 days used for diet adaptation and two days of data collection with a 3-days wash-out period between treatments. The results revealed a beneficial increasing effect of garlic (at the level of 70 g kg-1 of DM) on serum glucose concentration (p < 0.05). No effects of garlic supplementation on blood non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA), β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB), total triglycerides, total protein, and albumin concentration were observed, except for serum cholesterol concentration, which was reduced (p < 0.05) with 70 g kg-1 of DM of garlic supplementation. Dry matter intake was the same between the different treatment groups and throughout the trial period. Concerning the blood indicators of negative energy balance, no significant effects were found for NEFA and BHB in pre-partum goats however, serum glucose was improved significantly, which showed that garlic supplementation may improve the efficiency of feed utilization. In conclusion, garlic, as feed additives in ruminant nutrition, holds promise for improving feed efficiency and controlling the negative energy balance. PMID:25568720
An, Xiaopeng; Bai, Long; Hou, Jinxing; Zhao, Haibo; Peng, Jiayin; Song, Yunxuan; Wang, Jiangang; Cao, Binyun
In this study, we cloned the full coding region of NGF gene from the caprine ovary. Result showed the caprine NGF cDNA (GenBank Accession No. JQ308184) contained a 726 bp open reading frame encoding a protein with 241 amino acid residues. Bioinformatic analysis indicated that caprine NGF amino acid sequence was 83-99 % identical to that of mouse, pig, dog, human and bovine. It was predicted that caprine NGF contained nine serine phosphorylation loci, four threonine phosphorylation loci and nine specific PKC phosphorylation loci. The NGF mRNA expression pattern showed that NGF gene was expressed highly in ovary. This work provided an important experimental basis for further research on the function of NGF in goat. A single nucleotide polymorphism (A705G) in the coding region of NGF gene was detected by PCR-RFLP and DNA sequencing in 630 goats of three breeds. The frequencies of G allele were 0.52-0.61, and frequencies of A allele were 0.48-0.39 for SN, GZ and BG breeds, respectively. The does with GG genotype had higher litter size than those with GA and AA genotypes (P < 0.05). Hence, the biochemical and physiological functions, together with the results obtained in our investigation, suggest that the NGF gene could serve as a genetic marker for litter size in goat breeding.
Patel, Amrutlal K; Shah, Ravi K; Patel, Utsav A; Tripathi, Ajai K; Joshi, Chaitanya G
Activin receptor type IIB (ACVR2B) is a transmembrane receptor which mediates signaling of TGF beta superfamily ligands known to function in regulation of muscle mass, embryonic development and reproduction. ACVR2B antagonism has shown to enhance the muscle growth in several disease and transgenic models. Here, we show ACVR2B knockdown by RNA interference using muscle creatine kinase (MCK) promoter driven artificial microRNAs (amiRNAs). Among the various promoter elements tested, the ∼1.26 kb MCK promoter region showed maximum transcriptional activity in goat myoblasts cells. We observed up to 20% silencing in non-myogenic 293T cells and up to 32% silencing in myogenic goat myoblasts by MCK directed amiRNAs by transient transfection. Goat myoblasts stably integrated with MCK directed amiRNAs showed merely 8% silencing in proliferating myoblasts which was increased to 34% upon induction of differentiation at transcript level whereas up to 57% silencing at protein level. Knockdown of ACVR2B by 5'-UTR derived amiRNAs resulted in decreased SMAD2/3 signaling, increased expression of myogenic regulatory factors (MRFs) and enhanced proliferation and differentiation of myoblasts. Unexpectedly, knockdown of ACVR2B by 3'-UTR derived amiRNAs resulted in increased SMAD2/3 signaling, reduced expression of MRFs and suppression of myogenesis. Our study offers muscle specific knockdown of ACVR2B as a potential strategy to enhance muscle mass in the farm animal species.
Catunda, Karen Luanna Marinho; de Aguiar, Emerson Moreira; de Góes Neto, Pedro Etelvino; da Silva, José Geraldo Medeiros; Moreira, José Aparecido; do Nascimento Rangel, Adriano Henrique; de Lima Júnior, Dorgival Morais
The use of cactus is an alternative for sustainable production systems in Northeast Brazil. The objective of this research was to evaluate the influence of supplying five cacti species from the Brazilian semi-arid northeast region on the physical-chemical sensory characteristics and the profile of fatty acids of Saanen goat milk. Five multiparous goats were used, confined, and distributed in a Latin square 5 × 5 design, with five experimental diets and five periods. Treatments consisted of 473 to 501 g/kg of a cactaceous mix (Pilosocereus gounellei, Cereus jamacaru, Cereus squamosus, Nopalea cochenillifera, or Opuntia stricta) added to 187.8 to 197.9 g/kg of "Sabiá" (Mimosa caesalpiniifolia) hay and 311 to 329 g/kg of concentrate. No effects of experimental diets (P > 0.05) were evidenced in the physical and chemical composition of milk for fat, total solids, or salt levels. However, protein, lactose, solids-not-fat levels, and cryoscopy point were influenced by diet (P < 0.05). There was no significant difference (P > 0.05) in the profile of fatty acids between treatments for all acids found, except for butyric acid. Diets also did not (P > 0.05) confer sensory changes in milk characteristics. The use of the native cacti in the dairy goats' diet did not influence the sensory characteristics or lipid profile of milk.
Tendonkeng, Fernand; Fogang Zogang, Bienvenu; Sawa, Camara; Boukila, Benoît; Pamo, Etienne Tedonkeng
Recent investigations suggest that the development of multinutrient feed blocks with inclusion of tree and shrub leaves could improve the nutritive value and digestibility of straw. In order to test these possibilities, three types of multinutrient blocks (MNB) namely: MNB0 (wheat bran = 100%; Tithonia diversifolia leaf = 0%), MNB50 (wheat bran = 50%; T. diversifolia leaf = 50%) and MNB100 (wheat bran = 0%; T. diversifolia leaf = 100%) were fed for 15 days in a 3 × 3 Latin square arrangement to West African dwarf goats consuming Brachiaria ruziziensis straw. The blocks presented a good cohesion and a good hardness. The inclusion of T. diversifolia improved levels of crude protein, mineral, feed unit for milk production (UFL) and feed unit for meat production (UFV), but decreased palatability. The effects on the digestibility of B. ruziziensis straw were evaluated in nine West African dwarf goats fed individually with MNB0 + straw, MNB50 + straw and MNB100 + straw. The dry matter, organic matter and crude fibre digestibility of B. ruziziensis straw increased slightly with increasing level of inclusion of T. diversifolia. The apparent digestibility of nitrogen was comparable for all diets independent of the level of inclusion of T. diversifolia. This study showed that the inclusion of T. diversifolia leaves in the MNBs can be recommended to improve the feeding of goats during periods of drought.
Balehegn, Mulubrhan; Eik, Lars Olav; Tesfay, Yayneshet
Ficus thonningii (FT) is an important multipurpose fodder tree providing economic and ecological benefits across arid and semi-arid areas in Africa. Despite its availability in many Sub-Saharan African countries, there is lack of information on its effect on animal productivity. Twenty-four male weaned highland goats of age 7 ± 1.5 months were randomly assigned to four dietary treatments in a completely randomized block design. All animals were fed wheat straw, water, and salt licks ad libitum. The control group (T1) was fed concentrate mixture at 2 % of their body weight, while in T2, T3, and T4, 25, 50, and 75 % of the weight of concentrate (DM basis), respectively, was replaced by sun dried FT leaf meal. FT leaf meal had acceptable levels crude protein (CP), neutral detergent fiber (NDF), and tannins and has resulted in increased body weight in all treatments. Goats fed T3 diet showed significantly higher (P < 0.05) values in terms of feed intake, body weight gain, some carcass attributes, and local meat quality indicators than the rest of the treatments. An increase in proportion of FT leaf meal beyond 50 %, however, resulted in decreased body weight gain, and other carcass parameters, despite increased feed intake. Therefore, F. thonningii can be used to replace commercial concentrate mixture up to 50 % to improve feed intake and productivity of Ethiopian highland goats.
Arfuso, Francesca; Rizzo, Maria; Giannetto, Claudia; Giudice, Elisabetta; Fazio, Francesco; Piccione, Giuseppe
Thermoregulatory processes are induced not only by exposure to cold or heat but also by a variety of physiological situations including age, fasting and food intake that result in changes in body temperature. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the differences in serum mitochondrial uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1), rumen temperature (TRUMEN) and rectal temperature (TRECTAL) values between adult and kids goats. Ten adult male Maltese goats aged 3-5 years old (Group A) and 30 male kids, raised for meat, were enrolled in this study. The kids were equally divided into 3 groups according to their age: Group B included kids aged 3 months, Group C included kids aged 4 months and Group D included kids aged 5 months. Blood samples and measurements of TRUMEN and TRECTAL were obtained from each animal. One-way repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) was applied to evaluate the effect of age on the studied parameters. Statistically significant higher serum UCP1 levels (P<0.001) were found in Group A as compared to Groups B, C and D. Higher TRUMEN values (P<0.001) were found in Group A than in Groups B, C and D, and in Group B than in Groups C and D. Group A showed lower TRECTAL values (P<0.001) than Groups B, C and D. The Pearson's Correlation test was applied to assess significant relationship among studied parameters showing a statistically significant negative correlation between the values of TRECTAL and serum UCP1 in all studied Groups (P<0.001). These results indicate that goats have good control of body temperature suggesting that further details about the thermogenic capacity and the function of UCP1 in kids and adult goats are worth exploring.
Hua, Jinlian; Zhu, Haijing; Pan, Shaohui; Liu, Chao; Sun, Junwei; Ma, Xiaoling; Dong, Wuzi; Liu, Weishuai; Li, Wei
Male germline stem cells (mGSCs) are stem cells present in male testis responsible for spermatogenesis during their whole life. Studies have shown that mGSCs can be derived in vitro and resemble embryonic stem cells (ESCs) properties both in the mouse and humans. However, little is know about these cells in domestic animals. Here we report the first successful establishment of goat GSCs derived from 2-5-month fetal testis, and developmental potential assay of these cells both in vitro and in vivo. These cells express pluripotent markers such as Oct4, Sox2, C-myc, and Tert when cultured as human ESCs conditions. Embryoid bodies (EBs) formed by goat mGSCs were induced with 2 × 10(-6) M retinoic acid (RA). Immunofluorescence analysis showed that some cells inside of the EBs were positive for meiosis marker-SCP3, STRA8, and germ cell marker-VASA, and haploid marker-FE-J1, PRM1, indicating their germ cell lineage differentiation. Some cells become elongated sperm-like cells after induction. Approximately 34.88% (30/86) embryos showed cleavage and four embryos were cultured on murine fibroblast feeder and formed small embryonic stem like colonies. However, most stalled at four-cell stage after intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) of these cells. Transplantation of DAPI labeled mGSCs into the seminiferous tubules of busulfan-treated mice, and showed that mGSCs can colonize, self-renew, and differentiate into germ cells. Thus, we have established a goat GSC cell line and these cells could be differentiated into sperm-like cells in vivo and sperms in vitro, providing a promising platform for generation of transgenic goat for production of specific humanized proteins.
Tharwat, Mohamed; Al-Sobayil, Fahd; El-Sayed, Mehana
This study was designed to establish serum cardiac troponin I (cTnI) concentrations in healthy newborn goat kids and in those with cardiac nutritional muscular dystrophy (NMD). Thirty-five single full-term newborn goat kids (20 males and 15 females; age: 6.1 ± 3.5 h; weight 3.4 ± 0.68 kg), together with their respective mothers (Group 1; G1) were enrolled consecutively. Thirty-one goat kids (age: 9.5 ± 4.3 days) with NMD, together with 20 control goat kids (age: 7.8 ± 4.3 days) were also included in this study (Group 2; G2). Blood samples were collected from G1 within 12 h of birth and from G2 on admission. Serum samples were collected and analysed for cTnI. In G1, the mean serum concentration of cTnI in goat kids was 0.290 ± 0.37 ng/mL, with no statistically significant difference between male and female kids (P = 0.61). The mean cTnI concentration in the does was 0.017 ± 0.04, ng/mL. Serum values of cTnI in the goat kids and in their respective mothers differed significantly (P = 0.0001). In G2, the mean cTnI concentration was 0.02 ± 0.05 ng/mL in the control and 11.18 ± 20.07 ng/mL in the diseased goat kids, with a statistically significant difference between diseased and control goat kids (P = 0.017). Serum concentrations of cTnI are higher in goat kids than in their respective mothers. In conclusion, the cTnI assay appears to be a sensitive and specific marker for myocardial injury in goat kids.
Juste, Ramon A; Perez, Valentin
Control of paratuberculosis in small ruminants can be easily achieved by vaccination. Vaccination prevents clinical cases and thus may lead to increased production at a highly profitable benefit-to-cost ratio. Because bacterial shedding is greatly reduced, vaccination can help control the general contamination risks. There are no restrictions to vaccination in sheep, but potential interference with diagnosis of tuberculosis must be taken into account in goats. Other control strategies have failed, because of either high costs or lack of efficacy on a large scale. Copyright Â© 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
do Carmo, P M S; Portela, R A; de Oliveira-Filho, J C; Dantas, A F M; Simões, S V D; Garino, F; Riet-Correa, F
Nasal and cutaneous aspergillosis is reported in an adult goat. The clinical signs were severe respiratory distress due to partial nasal obstruction, bilateral mucopurulent nasal discharge, skin nodules on the ears and dorsal nasal region and focal depigmentation of the ventral commissure of the right nostril. At necropsy examination, sagittal sectioning of the head revealed a yellow irregular mass extending from the nasal vestibule to the frontal portion of the nasal cavity. Microscopically, there was pyogranulomatous rhinitis and dermatitis, with numerous intralesional periodic acid-Schiff-positive fungal hyphae morphologically suggestive of Aspergillus spp. Aspergillus niger was isolated by microbiological examination.
Manat, Tanvi D.; Chaudhary, Sandhya S.; Singh, Virendra Kumar; Patel, Sanjay B.; Puri, Gopal
Aim: The study was undertaken to find out the changes in hematobiochemical profile in post-partum Surti goats. Materials and Methods: The present study was conducted on 40 Surti goats out of which 20 goats who had undergone recent parturition acted as treatment group and 20 non-pregnant animals comprised control group. Blood samples were collected from the treatment group on 0, 7, 14, 21, 30, and 45 days post kidding and once from the control group. Blood samples were analyzed for hematological parameters such as hemoglobin (Hb), packed cell volume (PCV), total erythrocyte count (TEC), total leukocyte count (TLC), differential leukocyte count, and biochemical metabolites such as total protein (TP), albumin, globulin, total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA), glucose, and urea. Results: Hb level was the highest on the 45th day and lowest on the day of parturition. Significantly low level of Hb, PCV, and lymphocyte was found on 0 day and significantly high level was found on the 45th day. TEC was also low on the 0 day and high on the 45th day post kidding, but the difference was non-significant. Mid-sized cells and granulocyte percentage decreased significantly from 0 to 45th day post-partum. TP, albumin, and urea were found to be lowest on 0 day and highest on 45th day post-partum. Urea concentration increased parallel to TP indicating an increase in urea production with catabolism of protein. The globulin concentration also increased from 0 to 45th day post-partum, but the difference was non-significant. TC, TG, and NEFA were the highest on 0 day and lowest on the 45th day post-partum. Decrease in TC and TG from 0 to 45th day post-partum indicates that the animals utilized the lipids for the supply of energy for milk production. High level of NEFA acts as an indicator of negative energy status but in the present study, the high glucose level on 0 day indicates that the animals were in positive energy status. The glucose
Calvano, Cosima Damiana; De Ceglie, Cristina; Monopoli, Antonio; Zambonin, Carlo Giorgio
In dairy field, one of the most common frauds is the adulteration of higher value types of milk (sheep's and goat's) with milk of lower value (cow's milk). This illegal practice has an economic advantage for milk producers and poses a threat for consumers' health because of the presence of hidden allergens as, for example, cow milk proteins, in particular, α(s1)-casein and β-lactoglobulin. The urgent need of sensitive techniques to detect this kind of fraud brought to the development of chromatographic, immunoenzymatic, electrophoretic and mass spectrometric assays. In the current work, we present a fast, reproducible and sensitive method based on the direct matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) MS analysis of milk tryptic digests for the detection of milk adulteration by evaluating specie-specific markers in the peptide profiles. Several pure raw and commercial milk samples and binary mixtures containing cows' and goats', cows' and sheep's and goats' and sheep's milk (concentrations of each milk varied from 0% to 100%) were prepared, and tryptic digests were analyzed by MALDI-TOF MS. The use of the new MALDI matrix α-cyano-4-chlorocinnamic acid allowed to detect cow and goat milk peptide markers up to 5% level of adulteration. Finally, from preliminary data, it seems that the strategy could be successfully applied also to detect similar adulterations in cheese samples.
Shi, Huaiping; Shi, Hengbo; Luo, Jun; Wang, Wei; Haile, Abiel B; Xu, Huifen; Li, Jun
Although research on dairy goat mammary gland have referred extensively to molecular mechanisms, research on lines of dairy goat mammary epithelial cells (MECs) are still rare. This paper sought to establish an immortal MEC line by stable transfection of human telomerase. MECs from a lactating (45 days post-parturition) Xinong Saanen dairy goat were cultured purely and subsequently transfected with a plasmid carrying the sequence of human telomerase. Immortalized MECs by human telomerase (hT-MECs) exhibited a typical cobblestone morphology and activity and expression levels of telomerase resembled that of MCF-7 cells. hT-MECs on passage 42 grew vigorously and 'S' sigmoid curves of growth were observed. Moreover, hT-MECs maintained a normal chromosome modal number of 2n=60, keratin 8 and epithelial membrane antigen (EMA) were evidently expressed, and beta-casein protein was synthesized and secreted. Beta-casein expression was enhanced by prolactin (P<0.05). Lipid droplets were found in hT-MECs, and messenger RNA levels of PPARG, SREBP, FASN, ACC and SCD in hT-MECs (passage 40) were similar to MECs (passage 7). In conclusion, the obtained hT-MEC line retained a normal morphology, growth characteristics, cytogenetics and secretory characteristics as primary MECs. Hence, it can be a representative model cell line, for molecular and functional analysis, of dairy goat MECs for an extended period of time.
Feng, Xiaozhou; Liu, Juanjuan; Fan, Shuai; Liu, Fan; Li, Yadong; Jin, Yuanyuan; Bai, Liping; Yang, Zhaoyong
An anticancer bioactive peptide (ACBP), goat peroxiredoxin-5 (gPRDX5), was identified from goat-spleen extract after immunizing the goat with gastric cancer-cell lysate. Its amino acid sequence was determined by employing 2D nano-LC-ESI-LTQ-Orbitrap MS/MS combined with Mascot database search in the goat subset of the Uniprot database. The recombinant gPRDX5 protein was acquired by heterogeneous expression in Escherichia coli. Subsequently, the anti-cancer bioactivity of the peptide was measured by several kinds of tumor cells. The results indicated that the gPRDX5 was a good anti-cancer candidate, especially for killing B16 cells. However, the peptide was found to be unstable without modification with pharmaceutical excipients, which would be a hurdle for future medicinal application. In order to overcome this problem and find an effective way to evaluate the gPRDX5, nanoparticle formation, which has been widely used in drug delivery because of its steadiness in application, less side-effects and enhancement of drug accumulation in target issues, was used here to address the issues. In this work, the gPRDX5 was dispersed into nanoparticles before delivered to B16 cells. By the nanotechnological method, the gPRDX5 was stabilized by a fast and accurate procedure, which suggests a promising way for screening the peptide for further possible medicinal applications. PMID:27074889
Reed, B A; Brown, D L
Four cubed rations of similar chemical composition were fed ad libitum to 16 lactating yearling Alpine goats. The rations contained 0, 15, 25, and 35% almond hulls; 0, .5, 1, and 1% urea; and 58.4, 42.5, 32.0, and 22.0% alfalfa hay (DM basis). Chromic oxide was added as a digestibility marker. Average nutrient composition of diets was 91% DM, 20% CP, 32% NDF, 9% ash, and 4.39 Mcal gross energy/kg. Goats were randomly assigned to one of four diet orders in four replications of a 4 X 4 Latin square, blocked by goat and period. Data were collected in the 3rd wk of each period. Diets containing 25 and 35% almond hulls increased DM intake and reduced milk protein percent and digestibilities of DM, organic matter, ash, and NDF. Dry matter intake and weight gain were highest for the diet containing 35% almond hulls and 1% urea. Results indicate that almond hulls and urea can be fed to lactating goats up to these amounts without adversely affecting lactation.
Feng, Xiaozhou; Liu, Juanjuan; Fan, Shuai; Liu, Fan; Li, Yadong; Jin, Yuanyuan; Bai, Liping; Yang, Zhaoyong
An anticancer bioactive peptide (ACBP), goat peroxiredoxin-5 (gPRDX5), was identified from goat-spleen extract after immunizing the goat with gastric cancer-cell lysate. Its amino acid sequence was determined by employing 2D nano-LC-ESI-LTQ-Orbitrap MS/MS combined with Mascot database search in the goat subset of the Uniprot database. The recombinant gPRDX5 protein was acquired by heterogeneous expression in Escherichia coli. Subsequently, the anti-cancer bioactivity of the peptide was measured by several kinds of tumor cells. The results indicated that the gPRDX5 was a good anti-cancer candidate, especially for killing B16 cells. However, the peptide was found to be unstable without modification with pharmaceutical excipients, which would be a hurdle for future medicinal application. In order to overcome this problem and find an effective way to evaluate the gPRDX5, nanoparticle formation, which has been widely used in drug delivery because of its steadiness in application, less side-effects and enhancement of drug accumulation in target issues, was used here to address the issues. In this work, the gPRDX5 was dispersed into nanoparticles before delivered to B16 cells. By the nanotechnological method, the gPRDX5 was stabilized by a fast and accurate procedure, which suggests a promising way for screening the peptide for further possible medicinal applications.
Lee, Wonseok; Ahn, Sojin; Taye, Mengistie; Sung, Samsun; Lee, Hyun-Jeong; Cho, Seoae; Kim, Heebal
Goats (Capra hircus) are one of the oldest species of domesticated animals. Native Korean goats are a particularly interesting group, as they are indigenous to the area and were raised in the Korean peninsula almost 2,000 years ago. Although they have a small body size and produce low volumes of milk and meat, they are quite resistant to lumbar paralysis. Our study aimed to reveal the distinct genetic features and patterns of selection in native Korean goats by comparing the genomes of native Korean goat and crossbred goat populations. We sequenced the whole genome of 15 native Korean goats and 11 crossbred goats using next-generation sequencing (Illumina platform) to compare the genomes of the two populations. We found decreased nucleotide diversity in the native Korean goats compared to the crossbred goats. Genetic structural analysis demonstrated that the native Korean goat and crossbred goat populations shared a common ancestry, but were clearly distinct. Finally, to reveal the native Korean goat's selective sweep region, selective sweep signals were identified in the native Korean goat genome using cross-population extended haplotype homozygosity (XP-EHH) and a cross-population composite likelihood ratio test (XP-CLR). As a result, we were able to identify candidate genes for recent selection, such as the CCR3 gene, which is related to lumbar paralysis resistance. Combined with future studies and recent goat genome information, this study will contribute to a thorough understanding of the native Korean goat genome.
Nagamine, Itsuki; Sunagawa, Katsunori; Kishi, Tetsuya
Okinawan Awamori is produced by fermenting steamed indica rice with black mold, yeast, and water. Awamori-pressed lees is a by-product of the Awamori production process. Tofu lees is a by-product of the Tofu production process. This research consisted of two experiments conducted to elucidate whether or not dried Awamori-pressed lees and Tofu lees can be used as a mixed feed ingredient for raising female goats. In experiment 1, digestion trials were conducted to ascertain the nutritive values of dried Awamori-pressed lees and dried Tofu lees for goats. The digestible crude protein (DCP) and total digestible nutrients (TDN) contents of dried Awamori-pressed lees and Tofu lees were 22.5%, 22.5% (DCP), and 87.2%, 94.4% (TDN) respectively. In experiment 2, 18 female goats (Japanese Saanen×Nubian, three months old, body weight 15.4±0.53 kg) were divided into three groups of six animals (control feed group (CFG), Awamori-pressed lees mixed feed group (AMFG), Tofu lees mixed feed group (TMFG)). The CFG control used feed containing 20% soybean meal as the main protein source, while the AMFG and TMFG treatments used feed mixed with 20% dried Awamori-pressed lees or dried Tofu lees. The groups were fed mixed feed (volume to provide 100 g/d increase in body weight) twice a day (10:00, 16:00). The klein grass hay and water was given ad libitum. The hay intake was measured at 08:00 and 16:00. Body weight and size measurements were taken once a month. At the end of the experiment, a blood sample was drawn from the jugular vein of each animal. The DCP and TDN intakes in AMFG and TMFG showed no significant difference to the CFG. Cumulative measurements of growth in body weight, withers height, chest depth, chest girth, and hip width over the 10 mo period in the AMFG and TMFG were similar to the CFG. By contrast, cumulative growth in body length and hip height in the AMFG and TMFG tended to be larger than the CFG. Cumulative growth in chest width in the AMFG was significantly
Gharekhani, Jamal; Esmaeilnejad, Bijan; Rezaei, Hadi; Yakhchali, Mohammad; Heidari, Heidar; Azhari, Mahsa
Many species of animals play the role of intermediate host for Neospora caninum. Although the neosporosis has a global distribution, however there is no information on goats' infection in Iran. The main goal of present study was to determine the seroprevalence of N. caninum in goats of western Iran. A total of 450 sera were taken and analyzed for antibodies to N. caninum using ELISA technique. Of those, 28 (6.2%) examined goats were found to be seropositive (95%, CI=6.2±2.2%). In which male goats (11.1%) had the highest IgG against N. caninum with more than 2 years-old (54.4%). There was significant difference between prevalence and age. Positive association were in animals with history of abortion (18/30, 60%) and IgG against N. caninum. No correlations were found between male and female. This was the first report on N. caninum infection in Iranian goats and may be responsible for abortion and economic losses in goat husbandry in the region. goat, Neospora caninum, ELISA, Iran.
Díaz-Castro, Javier; Sánchez-Alcover, Ana; Hijano, Silvia; Alférez, María J M; Nestares, Teresa; Moreno, Miguel; Campos, Margarita S; López-Aliaga, Inmaculada
Fe overload is a common consequence of the anaemia treatment, increasing the oxidative stress and promoting the accumulation of damaged biomolecules, with the subsequently impairment of cell functions. Oxidative stress and the role of folic acid preventing free radical damage have been extensively studied; nevertheless, no studies are available about the influence of folic acid-supplemented goat milk consumption on the oxidative stress-mediated damage. The objective of the present study was to assess the influence of folic acid supplementation of goat milk- or cow milk-based diets, after Fe-overload treatment to palliate anaemia, on oxidative stress-mediated biomolecular damage in the liver, brain, erythrocytes, duodenal mucosa and plasma. Control and anaemic rats were fed goat milk- or cow milk-based diets, either with normal Fe or Fe overload (450 mg/kg), and normal folic acid (2 mg/kg) or folic acid supplemented (40 mg/kg) for 30 days. During chronic Fe repletion, background DNA damage was significantly lower in anaemic rats fed folic acid-supplemented goat milk-based diet, as revealed by tail DNA (%), and folic acid-supplemented goat milk also had a beneficial effect, reducing the extent of lipid peroxidation in liver, plasma, erythrocytes and especially in brain and duodenal mucosa. Furthermore, protein oxidative damage was lower in anaemic rat duodenal mucosa for all goat milk-based diets. Folic acid supplement in goat milk avoids the undesirable effects of Fe overload during anaemia recovery in all the tissues studied, especially in the liver and duodenal mucosa, which are the tissues with higher exposition to dietary Fe.
Yisehak, Kechero; Kibreab, Yoseph; Taye, Tolemariam; Lourenço, Marta Ribeiro Alves; Janssens, Geert Paul Jules
It has been suggested that goats (typical browser) are better adapted to digest tannin-rich diets than sheep (typical grazer). To evaluate this, Bonga sheep and Kaffa goats were used in a 2 × 3 randomized crossover design with two species, three diets, and three periods (15-day adaptation + 7-day collection). The dietary treatments consisted of grass-based hay only (tannin-free diet = FT), a high-tannin diet (36% Albizia schimperiana (AS) + 9% Ficus elastica (FE) + 55% FT (HT)), and HT + polyethylene glycol 6000 (PEG). Animals were individually fed at 50 g dry matter (DM)/kg body weight (BW) and had free access to clean drinking water and mineralized salt licks. Nutrient intake, apparent nutrient digestibility, nutrient conversion ratios, and live weight changes were determined. Condensed tannin concentrations in AS and FE were 110 and 191 g/kg DM, respectively. Both sheep and goats ate 47% more of HT than FT, and dry matter intake further increased by 9% when PEG was added, with clear difference in effect size between goats and sheep (P < 0.001). The effects of the tannin-rich diet and PEG addition were similarly positive for DM digestibility between sheep and goats, but crude protein (CP) digestibility was higher in HT + PEG-fed goats than in sheep fed the same diet. However, PEG addition induced a larger improvement in growth performance and feed efficiency ratio in sheep than in goat (P < 0.001). The addition of PEG as a tannin binder improved digestion and performance in both species, but with the highest effect size in sheep.
Bai, Wen L; Wang, Jiao J; Yin, Rong H; Dang, Yun L; Wang, Ze Y; Zhu, Yu B; Cong, Yu Y; Deng, Liang; Guo, Dan; Wang, Shi Q; Yang, Shu H; Xue, Hui L
Homeobox protein Hox-C8 (HOXC8) is a member of Hox family. It is expressed in the dermal papilla of the skin and is thought to be associated with the hair inductive capacity of dermal papilla cells. In the present study, we isolated and characterized a full-length open reading frame of HOXC8 cDNA from the skin tissue of Liaoning cashmere goat, as well as, established a phylogenetic relationship of goat HOXC8 with that of other species. Also, we investigated the effect of methylation status of HOXC8 exon 1 at anagen secondary hair follicle on the cashmere fiber traits in Liaoning cashmere goat. The sequence analysis indicated that the obtained cDNA was 1134-bp in length containing a complete ORF of 729-bp. It encoded a peptide of 242 amino acid residues in length. The structural analysis indicated that goat HOXC8 contained a typical homeobox domain. The phylogenetic analysis revealed that Capra hircus HOXC8 had a closer genetic relationship with that of Ovis aries, followed by Bos Taurus and Bubalus bubalis. The methylation analysis suggested that the methylation degree of HOXC8 exon 1 in anagen secondary hair follicle might be involved in regulating the growth of cashmere fiber in Liaoning cashmere goat. Our results provide new evidence for understanding the molecular structural and evolutionary characteristics of HOXC8 in Liaoning cashmere goat, as well as, for further insight into the role of methylation degree of HOXC8 exon 1 regulates the growth of cashmere fiber in goat.
Pharmacokinetic parameters which describe the distribution and elimination of chlorpromazine in goats were determined. Following the intravenous administration of a single dose (2.5 mg/kg), disposition of the drug was described in terms of the biexponential expression Cp = Ae-alpha t + Be-beta t. Based on total (free and bound) chlorpromazine levels in plasma, pseudo-distribution equilibrium was rapidly attained, and the elimination half-life was 1.51 +/- 0.48 h (mean +/- SD, n = 8). Total body clearance, which is the sum of all clearance processes, was 80 +/- 25 ml/min/kg. The curves of an animal representative of the group, based on individual rate constants associated with the two-compartment open model, showed that at 5 h after drug administration 8% and 6% of the dose were present in the peripheral and central compartments, respectively. The kinetic parameters of chlorpromazine determined at a dosage level of 10 mg/kg body weight in six goats showed that the drug followed first-order kinetics and kinetic parameters were similar after both dose levels. Based on these findings and therapeutic plasma levels, a satisfactory intravenous regimen should be 2.0-3.5 mg/kg and the drug action will persist for 5-6 h.
Taberlet, Pierre; Coissac, Eric; Pansu, Johan; Pompanon, François
Cattle, sheep and goats were domesticated about 10,000 years ago, spread out of the domestication centers in Europe, Asia, and Africa during the next few thousands years, and gave many populations locally adapted. After a very long period of soft selection, the situation changed dramatically 200 years ago with the emergence of the breed concept. The selection pressure strongly increased, and the reproduction among breeds was seriously reduced, leading to the fragmentation of the initial gene pool. More recently, the selection pressure was increased again via the use of artificial insemination, leading to a few industrial breeds with very high performances, but with low effective population sizes. Beside this performance improvement of industrial breeds, genetic resources are being lost, because of the replacement of traditional breeds by high performance industrial breeds at the worldwide level, and because of the loss of genetic diversity in these industrial breeds. Many breeds are already extinct, and genetic resources in cattle, sheep, and goats are thus highly endangered, particularly in developed countries. The recent development of next generation sequencing technologies opens new avenues for properly characterizing the genetic resources, not only in the very diverse domestic breeds, but also in their wild relatives. Based on sound genetic characterization, urgent conservation measures must be taken to avoid an irremediable loss of farm animal genetic resources, integrating economical, sociological, and political parameters.
Antognini, J F; Wood, R; Gronert, G A
Non-depolarizing muscle relaxants can facilitate surgery and anaesthesia in numerous species. and volatile inhalational anaesthetics such as isoflurane potentiate their action. We studied the effect of isoflurane on the pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics of metocurine in six goats. Each was studied twice: once during barbiturate-opiate anaesthesia and once during isoflurane anaesthesia. The evoked response to sciatic nerve stimulation was measured using a force transducer attached to the hoof. Metocurine was infused until approximately 80-90% blockade. Plasma metocurine concentration was determined by high-performance liquid chromatography. Isoflurane increased the potency of metocurine significantly; IC50 (the concentration in the effect compartment at 50% paralysis) was 70 +/- 15 ng/mL during isoflurane anaesthesia and 129 +/- 42 ng/mL during barbiturate-opiate anaesthesia (P < 0.03). Volume of distribution (63 +/- 18 mL/kg), clearance (1.6 +/- 0.4 mL/min.kg) and elimination half-life (99 +/- 9 min) during barbiturate-opiate anaesthesia were not significantly different during isoflurane anaesthesia: 64 +/- 25 mL/kg, 1.5 +/- 0.7 mL/kg.min, 116 +/- 16 min respectively. We conclude that, relative to barbiturate-opiate anaesthesia, isoflurane potentiates metocurine in goats.
Ayaz, Muhammad Mazhar; Raza, Muhammad Asif; Murtaza, Saeed; Akhtar, Saleem
The main purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence of helminths of goats such as Fasciola hepatica, Haemonchus contortus, Paramphistomum cervi, Oesophagostomum columbian, Cotylophoron cotylophorum, Monezia expansa, Oestertagia oestertagi and Oestertagia circumcincta. The overall prevalence of all species of helminthes was 52% in goat. The study was designed to investigate the factors of helminths prevalence on the basis of sex and age of goat with the help of Chi-square. All the results obtained were non-significant due to some factors which directly affects the prevalence of helminths.
Baipoledi, E K; Nyange, J F C; Hyera, J M K
The first severe case of caprine contagious ecthyma (parapox) in Tswana goats is described from Botswana. Affected animals were indigenous adult Tswana goats. The case involved a flock of 12 goats of which 4 (33.3%) were very severely affected but none died. The lesions were confined to the head and included swollen lips, swollen submandibular lymph nodes, gingivitis, glossitis, ulceration on lip and gum mucosae and scab formation on ulcerated areas. No lesions were found on other parts of the body. This case was clinically indistinguishable from bluetongue.
Han, Chengquan; Zhang, Hui; Wang, Yongsheng; Su, Jianmin; Quan, Fusheng; Gao, Mingqing; Zhang, Yong
The present study was conducted to determine whether recombinant human β-defensin-3 (rHBD3) in the milk of transgenic goats has an anti-bacterial activity against Escherichia coli (E. coli), Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) and Streptococcus agalactiae (S. agalactiae) that could cause mastitis. A HBD3 mammary-specific expression vector was transfected by electroporation into goat fetal fibroblasts which were used to produce fourteen healthy transgenic goats by somatic cell nuclear transfer. The expression level of rHBD3 in the milk of the six transgenic goats ranged from 98 to 121 µg/ml at 15 days of lactation, and was maintained at 90–111 µg/ml during the following 2 months. Milk samples from transgenic goats showed an obvious inhibitory activity against E. coli, S. aureus and S. agalactiae in vitro. The minimal inhibitory concentrations of rHBD3 in milk against E. coli, S. aureus and S. agalactiae were 9.5–10.5, 21.8–23.0 and 17.3–18.5 µg/mL, respectively, which was similar to those of the HBD3 standard (P>0.05). The in vivo anti-bacterial activities of rHBD3 in milk were examined by intramammary infusion of viable bacterial inoculums. We observed that 9/10 and 8/10 glands of non-transgenic goats infused with S. aureus and E. coli became infected. The mean numbers of viable bacteria went up to 2.9×103 and 95.4×103 CFU/ml at 48 h after infusion, respectively; the mean somatic cell counts (SCC) in infected glands reached up to 260.4×105 and 622.2×105 cells/ml, which were significantly higher than the SCC in uninfected goat glands. In contrast, no bacteria was presented in glands of transgenic goats and PBS-infused controls, and the SSC did not significantly change throughout the period. Moreover, the compositions and protein profiles of milk from transgenic and non-transgenic goats were identical. The present study demonstrated that HBD3 were an effective anti-bacterial protein to enhance the mastitis resistance of dairy animals. PMID:23799010