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Sample records for proteolytic enzyme bromelain

  1. Effect of Proteolytic Enzymes and Ginger Extract on Tenderization of M. pectoralis profundus from Holstein Steer.

    PubMed

    Moon, Sung Sil

    2018-02-01

    The effects of proteolytic enzymes (bromelain and bromelain+papain) and a ginger extract were assessed on collagen content and solubility, thermal shrinkage temperature of connective tissue, pH, cooking loss, drip loss, and Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF) of M. pectoralis profundus isolated from the beef brisket cut. Both proteolytic enzymes and ginger extract led to a significant increase in cooking loss and collagen solubility compared with untreated controls. On the other hand, the peak ( T p ) thermal shrinkage temperature markedly decreased in all treatments compared with those in controls. Samples treated with bromelain, bromelain + papain, and ginger extract showed a significant decrease in WBSF by 36%, 40%, and 37%, respectively, compared with untreated controls. Our findings suggest that ginger extract are useful for postmortem tenderization of meat containing high levels of collagen, compared to control even though, bromelain and bromelain + papain treatments have higher collagen solubility than ginger extract.

  2. Bromelain: a natural proteolytic for intra-abdominal adhesion prevention.

    PubMed

    Sahbaz, Ahmet; Aynioglu, Oner; Isik, Hatice; Ozmen, Ulku; Cengil, Osman; Gun, Banu Dogan; Gungorduk, Kemal

    2015-02-01

    Peritoneal adhesions are pathological fibrous connections between peritoneal surfaces resulting from incomplete peritoneal repair. Adhesions cause various health problems ranging from pelvic pain and bowel obstruction to infertility. To date, no effective agent exists for intra-abdominal adhesion prevention. Bromelain is the crude extract of the pineapple and it has fibrinolytic, antithrombotic, and anti-inflammatory properties. Bromelain has been shown to be effective for removing necrotic tissues and has been found to be effective for treating various wounds, inflammatory conditions, and thrombotic pathologies. In the present study, we evaluated bromelain as a novel agent for preventing intra-abdominal adhesions. Group 1 (control group): Adhesions were produced by cecal abrasion method, and no treatment was applied. Group 2 (i.p. bromelain-treated group): After adhesion formation, 10 mg/kg/BW of bromelain dissolved in 1 mL saline solution was applied intraperitoneally for 10 days. Group 3 (i.p. saline-treated group): After adhesion formation, 1 mL saline solution was applied intraperitoneally for 10 days. On postoperative day 10, all animals were sacrificed. All 30 rats survived surgery. Throughout the follow-up period, no complications were observed. Statistically significant differences were found between the groups with regards to macroscopic adhesion scores, inflammation, fibrosis and neo-vascularization (p < 0.001, <0.001, p = 0.001, p = 0.002, respectively). Macroscopic and histopathologic (inflammation, fibrosis, neo-vascularization) adhesion scores were lowest in the bromelain-treated group. Bromelain, acting through its barrier, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and proteolytic effects and without increasing bleeding tendency or having any adverse effects on wound healing, may be a suitable agent for intra-abdominal adhesion prevention. Copyright © 2015 Surgical Associates Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Bromelain: from production to commercialisation.

    PubMed

    Ramli, Aizi Nor Mazila; Aznan, Tuan Norsyalieza Tuan; Illias, Rosli Md

    2017-03-01

    Bromelain is a mixture of proteolytic enzymes found in pineapple (Ananas comosus) plants. It can be found in several parts of the pineapple plant, including the stem, fruit, leaves and peel. High demand for bromelain has resulted in gradual increases in bromelain production. These increases have led to the need for a bromelain production strategy that yields more purified bromelain at a lower cost and with fewer production steps. Previously, bromelain was purified by conventional centrifugation, ultrafiltration and lyophilisation. Recently, the development of more modern purification techniques such as gel filtration, ion exchange chromatography, affinity chromatography, aqueous two-phase extraction and reverse micelle chromatography has resulted in increased industrial bromelain production worldwide. In addition, recombinant DNA technology has emerged as an alternative strategy for producing large amounts of ultrapure bromelain. An up-to-date compilation of data regarding the commercialisation of bromelain in the clinical, pharmaceutical and industrial fields is provided in this review. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  4. Stability Test of Partially Purified Bromelain from Pineapple (Ananas comosus (L.) Merr) Core Extract in Artificial Stomach Fluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Setiasih, S.; Adimas, A. Ch. D.; Dzikria, V.; Hudiyono, S.

    2018-01-01

    This study aimed to isolate and purify bromelain from pineapple core (Ananascomosus (L.) Merr) accompanied by a stability test of its enzyme activity in artificial gastric juice. Purification steps start with fractionation by a precipitation method were carried out stepwise using several concentration of ammonium sulfate salt, followed by dialysis prosess and ion exchange chromatography on DEAE-cellulose column. Each step of purification produced an increasing specific activity in enzyme fraction, starting with crude extract, respectively: 0.276 U/mg; 14.591 U/mg; and 16.05 U/mg. Bromelain fraction with the highest level of purity was obtained in 50-80% ammonium sulphate fraction after dialyzed in the amount of 58.15 times compared to the crude extract. Further purification of the enzyme by DEAE-cellulose column produced bromelain which had a purity level 160-fold compared to crude enzyme. The result of bromelain stability test in artificial stomach juice by milk clotting units assay bromelain fraction have proteolytic activity in clotting milk substrate. Exposing bromelain fraction in artificial stomach juice which gave the highest core bromelain proteolytic activity was achieved at estimated volume of 0.4-0.5 mL. Exposure in a period of reaction time to artificial stomach juice that contained pepsin showed relatively stable proteolytic activity in the first 4 hours.

  5. Antibacterial activity of papain and bromelain on Alicyclobacillus spp.

    PubMed

    dos Anjos, Márcia Maria; da Silva, Angela Aparecida; de Pascoli, Isabela Carolini; Mikcha, Jane Martha Graton; Machinski, Miguel; Peralta, Rosane Marina; de Abreu Filho, Benício Alves

    2016-01-04

    Alicyclobacillus spp. are spore forming bacteria that are often related to the deterioration of acidic products such as beverages and citrus juices. After the process of industrial pasteurization, the spore produced by the bacteria can germinate and the microorganism can grow, causing sensory abnormalities in the product. Alternative biopreservatives, such as the antimicrobial compounds, are of considerable importance to the food industry. Papain and bromelain are proteolytic enzymes derived frompapaya and pineapple, respectively. These enzymes are widely used in medicine and in the pharmaceutical and food industries, but while some studies have described their antibacterial action, no studies of the Alicyclobacillus spp. exist. The aimof this studywas to analyze the antibacterial effect of papain and bromelain on Alicyclobacillus spp. through 1) determining minimum inhibitory and bactericidal concentration (MIC and MBC); 2) determining the death time curve of the micro-organism in the presence and absence of enzymes; and 3) investigating the enzymatic mechanism on the microorganism. The antibacterial activity of enzymes in combination with nisin was also evaluated. The results showed that for the Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestris strain, the MIC of papain was 0.98 μg/mL and the MBC was 3.91 μg/mL, while theMIC of bromelain was 62.5 μg/mL and the MBCwas 250 μg/mL. The concentration of 4 ×MIC for both the enzymes was sufficient to eliminate 4 logs of the micro-organism after 24 h of incubation. Through the use of enzyme inhibitors specific for cysteine proteases, it was found that the antibacterial activity of papain and bromelain is not related to its proteolytic activity, butmay be related to other activities, such as amidse and esterase. The synergistic activity of the enzymes revealed a fractional inhibitory concentration (FIC) level of 0.16. Combination with nisin revealed an FIC of 0.25 for papain and 0.19 for bromelain, indicating synergism between both

  6. Effect of wine inhibitors on free pineapple stem bromelain activity in a model wine system.

    PubMed

    Esti, Marco; Benucci, Ilaria; Liburdi, Katia; Garzillo, Anna Maria Vittoria

    2011-04-13

    The influence of potential inhibitors, naturally present in wine, on the activity of stem bromelain was investigated in order to evaluate the applicability of this enzyme for protein stabilization in white wine. Bromelain proteolytic activity was tested against a synthetic substrate (Bz-Phe-Val-Arg-pNA) in a model wine system after adding ethanol, sulfur dioxide (SO(2)), skin, seed, and gallic and ellagic tannins at the average range of their concentration in wine. All the inhibitors of stem bromelain activity tested turned out to be reversible. Ethanol was a competitive inhibitor with a rather limited effect. Gallic and ellagic tannins have no inhibitory effect on stem bromelain activity, while both seed and skin tannins were uncompetitive inhibitors. The strongest inhibition effect was revealed for sulfur dioxide, which was a mixed-type inhibitor for the enzyme activity. This study provides useful information relative to a future biotechnological application of stem bromelain in winemaking.

  7. Application of an aqueous two-phase micellar system to extract bromelain from pineapple (Ananas comosus) peel waste and analysis of bromelain stability in cosmetic formulations.

    PubMed

    Spir, Lívia Genovez; Ataide, Janaína Artem; De Lencastre Novaes, Letícia Celia; Moriel, Patrícia; Mazzola, Priscila Gava; De Borba Gurpilhares, Daniela; Silveira, Edgar; Pessoa, Adalberto; Tambourgi, Elias Basile

    2015-01-01

    Bromelain is a set of proteolytic enzymes found in pineapple (Ananas comosus) tissues such as stem, fruit and leaves. Because of its proteolytic activity, bromelain has potential applications in the cosmetic, pharmaceutical, and food industries. The present study focused on the recovery of bromelain from pineapple peel by liquid-liquid extraction in aqueous two-phase micellar systems (ATPMS), using Triton X-114 (TX-114) and McIlvaine buffer, in the absence and presence of electrolytes CaCl2 and KI; the cloud points of the generated extraction systems were studied by plotting binodal curves. Based on the cloud points, three temperatures were selected for extraction: 30, 33, and 36°C for systems in the absence of salts; 40, 43, and 46°C in the presence of KI; 24, 27, and 30°C in the presence of CaCl2 . Total protein and enzymatic activities were analyzed to monitor bromelain. Employing the ATPMS chosen for extraction (0.5 M KI with 3% TX-114, at pH 6.0, at 40°C), the bromelain extract stability was assessed after incorporation into three cosmetic bases: an anhydrous gel, a cream, and a cream-gel formulation. The cream-gel formulation presented as the most appropriate base to convey bromelain, and its optimal storage conditions were found to be 4.0 ± 0.5°C. The selected ATPMS enabled the extraction of a biomolecule with high added value from waste lined-up in a cosmetic formulation, allowing for exploration of further cosmetic potential. © 2015 American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

  8. Polymer-based alternative method to extract bromelain from pineapple peel waste.

    PubMed

    Novaes, Letícia Celia de Lencastre; Ebinuma, Valéria de Carvalho Santos; Mazzola, Priscila Gava; Pessoa, Adalberto

    2013-01-01

    Bromelain is a mixture of proteolytic enzymes present in all tissues of the pineapple (Ananas comosus Merr.), and it is known for its clinical therapeutic applications, food processing, and as a dietary supplement. The use of pineapple waste for bromelain extraction is interesting from both an environmental and a commercial point of view, because the protease has relevant clinical potential. We aimed to study the optimization of bromelain extraction from pineapple waste, using the aqueous two-phase system formed by polyethylene glycol (PEG) and poly(acrylic acid). In this work, bromelain partitioned preferentially to the top/PEG-rich phase and, in the best condition, achieved a yield of 335.27% with a purification factor of 25.78. The statistical analysis showed that all variables analyzed were significant to the process. © 2013 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  9. Bromelain-induced apoptosis in GI-101A breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Dhandayuthapani, Sivanesan; Perez, Honey Diaz; Paroulek, Alexandra; Chinnakkannu, Panneerselvam; Kandalam, Umadevi; Jaffe, Mark; Rathinavelu, Appu

    2012-04-01

    Bromelain is a proteolytic enzyme extracted from the stems and the immature fruits of pineapple that was found to be antitumorigenic in different in vitro models. Bromelain has been reported to promote apoptosis, particularly in breast cancer cells, with the up-regulation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase and p38 kinase. Our study was designed to determine if bromelain could induce apoptosis in GI-101A breast cancer cells. GI-101A cells were treated with increasing concentrations of bromelain for 24 hours. The effect of bromelain for inducing cell death via activation of the apoptosis mechanism in GI-101A cells was further determined by using caspase-9 and caspase-3 assays along with the M30-Apoptosense assay to measure cytokeratin 18 (CK18) levels in the cytoplasm of the cultured cancer cells. A dose-dependent increase in the activities of caspase-9 and caspase-3 coinciding with elevation of CK18 levels was found in bromelain-treated cells compared with control cells. Furthermore, the apoptosis induction by bromelain was confirmed by DNA fragmentation analysis and 4,6'-diamino-2-phenylindole dihydrochloride fluorescence staining of the nucleus. Our results indicate an increase in apoptosis-related cell death in breast cancer cells with increasing concentrations of bromelain.

  10. Evaluation of the enzymatic activity and stability of commercial bromelain incorporated in topical formulations.

    PubMed

    Lourenço, C B; Ataide, J A; Cefali, L C; Novaes, L C D L; Moriel, P; Silveira, E; Tambourgi, E B; Mazzola, P G

    2016-10-01

    Bromelain is a mixture of proteolytic enzymes found in various tissues of the pineapple plant (Ananas comosus) and other species of Bromeliaceae. Owing to its proteolytic activity, bromelain has been used in the food, medical, pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries, for its cell renewal, anti-ageing, whitening and anti-cellulite properties. This study evaluated the stability of bromelain (commercial powder) incorporated in topical formulations. Bromelain was incorporated at three concentrations, 0.5%, 1.0% and 2.0%, in oil-in-water emulsion and gel, and stored for six months at varying stress conditions. Stability was accessed by measuring the changes in the protein content, enzymatic activity, viscosity, rheology, pH and colour of the selected formulations. The colour of all the samples changed after 180 days of incubation, indicating the concentration-dependence and temperature-sensitive nature of these formulations. No relationship was observed between the changes in the pH, temperature and luminosity exposure in all the samples. Gels proved to be the least preferred base for incorporation of bromelain for use as a topical formulation, owing to its inability to maintain the integrity of bromelain, thereby affecting the formulation characteristics. The emulsion-based formulations at all the concentrations of bromelain were more stable than the gel-based formulation over 180 days of evaluation, at a temperature of 5°C, protected from light. © 2016 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.

  11. Possibilities for developing texture-modified beef steaks suitable for older consumers using fruit-derived proteolytic enzymes.

    PubMed

    Botinestean, Cristina; Gomez, Carolina; Nian, Yingqun; Auty, Mark A E; Kerry, Joseph P; Hamill, Ruth M

    2018-06-01

    Meat intakes in the older population are commonly reduced because the relatively tough texture of meat can impair mastication. Fruit-derived proteolytic enzymes have been reported to have beneficial effects on tenderness, by causing significant degradation of myofibrillar proteins and collagen. Three treatments including: papain, bromelain, and a 50:50 mixture of papain/bromelain, alongside one control were applied to beef M. semitendinosus steaks. Effects on Warner-Bratzler shear force, texture parameters, color, and cook loss were determined. Both enzymatic treatments that included papain significantly reduced Warner-Bratzler shear force values (p < .05) and increased cook loss. Beef steaks tenderized with papain and papain/bromelain offer potential for inclusion in older consumers' diets, but improvement in tenderization may be associated with a reduction in processing yield. Meat processors have a role to play in enhancing the availability of appropriate foodstuffs for older people, through developing targeted products that will meet the specialized nutritional and chemosensory needs of this cohort. Meat intakes in the older population are commonly reduced because the relatively tough texture of meat can impair mastication. In this study, beef steaks tenderized with papain and papain: bromelain (50:50) were demonstrated to produce more tender meat products, with a lower cook loss compared with tenderization with bromelain alone, which has relevance to the development of texture-optimized meat products that appeal to older adults with difficulty in mastication. This information could help meat processors to develop strategies for optimization of texture-modified beef products within their own businesses. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Anticancer property of bromelain with therapeutic potential in malignant peritoneal mesothelioma.

    PubMed

    Pillai, Krishna; Akhter, Javed; Chua, Terence C; Morris, David Lawson

    2013-05-01

    Bromelain is a mixture of proteolytic enzymes that is capable of hydrolyzing glycosidic linkages in glycoprotein. Glycoprotein's are ubiquitously distributed throughout the body and serve a variety of physiologic functions. Faulty glycosylation of proteins may lead to cancer. Antitumor properties of bromelain have been demonstrated in both, in vitro and in vivo studies, along with scanty anecdotal human studies. Various mechanistic pathways have been proposed to explain the anticancer properties of bromelain. However, proteolysis by bromelain has been suggested as a main pathway by some researchers. MUC1 is a glycoprotein that provides tumor cells with invasive, metastatic, and chemo-resistant properties. To date, there is no study that examines the effect of bromelain on MUC1. However, the viability of MUC1 expressing pancreatic and breast cancer cells are adversely affected by bromelain. Further, the efficacy of cisplatin and 5-FU are enhanced by adjuvant treatment with bromelain, indicating that the barrier function of MUC1 may be affected. Other studies have also indicated that there is a greater accumulation of 5-FU in the cell compartment on treatment with 5-FU and bromelain. Malignant peritoneal mesothelioma (MPM) expresses MUC1 and initial studies have shown that the viability of MPM cells is adversely affected by exposure to bromelain. Further, bromelain in combination with either 5-FU or cisplatin, the efficacy of the chemotherapeutic drug is enhanced. Hence, current evidence indicates that bromelain may have the potential of being developed into an effective anticancer agent for MPM.

  13. Anti-inflammatory activity of Bromelia hieronymi: comparison with bromelain.

    PubMed

    Errasti, María E; Caffini, Néstor O; Pelzer, Lilian E; Rotelli, Alejandra E

    2013-03-01

    Some plant proteases (e. g., papain, bromelain, ficin) have been used as anti-inflammatory agents for some years, and especially bromelain is still being used as alternative and/or complementary therapy to glucocorticoids, nonsteroidal antirheumatics, and immunomodulators. Bromelain is an extract rich in cysteine endopeptidases obtained from Ananas comosus. In this study the anti-inflammatory action of a partially purified extract of Bromelia hieronymi fruits, whose main components are cysteine endopeptidases, is presented. Different doses of a partially purified extract of B. hieronymi were assayed on carrageenan-induced and serotonine-induced rat paw edema, as well as in cotton pellet granuloma model. Doses with equal proteolytic activity of the partially purified extract and bromelain showed significantly similar anti-inflammatory responses. Treatment of the partially purified extract and bromelain with E-64 provoked loss of anti-inflammatory activity on carrageenan-induced paw edema, a fact which is consistent with the hypothesis that the proteolytic activity would be responsible for the anti-inflammatory action. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  14. Bromelain down-regulates myofibroblast differentiation in an in vitro wound healing assay.

    PubMed

    Aichele, Kathrin; Bubel, Monika; Deubel, Gunther; Pohlemann, Tim; Oberringer, Martin

    2013-10-01

    Bromelain, a pineapple-derived enzyme mixture, is a widely used drug to improve tissue regeneration. Clinical and experimental data indicate a better outcome of soft tissue healing under the influence of bromelain. Proteolytic, anti-bacterial, anti-inflammatory, and anti-oedematogenic effects account for this improvement on the systemic level. It remains unknown, whether involved tissue cells are directly influenced by bromelain. In order to gain more insight into those mechanisms by which bromelain modulates tissue regeneration at the cellular level, we applied a well-established in vitro wound healing assay. Two main players of soft tissue healing--fibroblasts and microvascular endothelial cells--were used as mono- and co-cultures. Cell migration, proliferation, apoptosis, and the differentiation of fibroblasts to myofibroblasts as well as interleukin-6 were quantified in response to bromelain (36 × 10(-3) IU/ml) under normoxia and hypoxia. Bromelain attenuated endothelial cell and fibroblast proliferation in a moderate way. This proliferation decrease was not caused by apoptosis, rather, by driving cells into the resting state G0 of the cell cycle. Endothelial cell migration was not influenced by bromelain, whereas fibroblast migration was clearly slowed down, especially under hypoxia. Bromelain led to a significant decrease of myofibroblasts under both normoxic (from 19 to 12 %) and hypoxic conditions (from 22 to 15 %), coincident with higher levels of interleukin-6. Myofibroblast differentiation, a clear sign of fibrotic development, can be attenuated by the application of bromelain in vitro. Usage of bromelain as a therapeutic drug for chronic human wounds thus remains a very promising concept for the future.

  15. Generation of recombinant pandemic H1N1 influenza virus with the HA cleavable by bromelain and identification of the residues influencing HA bromelain cleavage.

    PubMed

    Wang, Weijia; Suguitan, Amorsolo L; Zengel, James; Chen, Zhongying; Jin, Hong

    2012-01-20

    The proteolytic enzyme bromelain has been traditionally used to cleave the hemagglutinin (HA) protein at the C-terminus of the HA2 region to release the HA proteins from influenza virions. The bromelain cleaved HA (BHA) has been routinely used as an antigen to generate antiserum that is essential for influenza vaccine product release. The HA of the 2009 pandemic H1N1 influenza A/California/7/2009 (CA09) virus could not be cleaved efficiently by bromelain. To ensure timely delivery of BHA for antiserum production, we generated a chimeric virus that contained the HA1 region from CA09 and the HA2 region from the seasonal H1N1 A/South Dakota/6/2007 (SD07) virus that is cleavable by bromelain. The BHA from this chimeric virus was antigenically identical to CA09 and induced high levels of HA-specific antibodies and protected ferrets from wild-type H1N1 CA09 virus challenge. To determine the molecular basis of inefficient cleavage of CA09 HA by bromelain, the amino acids that differed between the HA2 of CA09 and SD07 were introduced into recombinant CA09 virus to assess their effect on bromelain cleavage. The D373N or E374G substitution in the HA2 stalk region of CA09 HA enabled efficient cleavage of CA09 HA by bromelain. Sequence analysis of the pandemic H1N1-like viruses isolated from 2010 revealed emergence of the E374K change. We found that K374 enabled the HA to be cleaved by bromelain and confirmed that the 374 residue is critical for HA bromelain cleavage. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Bromelain enzyme from pineapple: in vitro activity study under different micropropagation conditions.

    PubMed

    Vilanova Neta, Jaci Lima; da Silva Lédo, Ana; Lima, Aloisio André Bonfim; Santana, José Carlos Curvelo; Leite, Nadjma Souza; Ruzene, Denise Santos; Silva, Daniel Pereira; de Souza, Roberto Rodrigues

    2012-09-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the activity of bromelain in pineapple plants (Ananas comosus var. Comosus), Pérola cultivar, produced in vitro in different culture conditions. This enzyme, besides its pharmacological effects, is also employed in food industries, such as breweries and meat processing. In this work, the enzymatic activity was evaluated in the tissues of leaves and stems of plants grown in culture medium without plant growth regulator. The most significant levels of bromelain were observed in leaf tissue after 4 months of culture in vitro in medium with a filter paper bridge, followed by medium gelled by the agar. The results of this study, regarding the different structures of the pineapple (leaves and stems) in vitro showed that the activity of bromelain varied depending on the culture conditions, the time and structure of which was quantified, ensuring a viable strategy in the production of seedlings with high levels of bromelain in subsequent phases of micropropagation.

  17. The proteolytic system of pineapple stems revisited: Purification and characterization of multiple catalytically active forms.

    PubMed

    Matagne, André; Bolle, Laetitia; El Mahyaoui, Rachida; Baeyens-Volant, Danielle; Azarkan, Mohamed

    2017-06-01

    Crude pineapple proteases extract (aka stem bromelain; EC 3.4.22.4) is an important proteolytic mixture that contains enzymes belonging to the cysteine proteases of the papain family. Numerous studies have been reported aiming at the fractionation and characterization of the many molecular species present in the extract, but more efforts are still required to obtain sufficient quantities of the various purified protease forms for detailed physicochemical, enzymatic and structural characterization. In this work, we describe an efficient strategy towards the purification of at least eight enzymatic forms. Thus, following rapid fractionation on a SP-Sepharose FF column, two sub-populations with proteolytic activity were obtained: the unbound (termed acidic) and bound (termed basic) bromelain fractions. Following reversible modification with monomethoxypolyethylene glycol (mPEG), both fractions were further separated on Q-Sepharose FF and SP-Sepharose FF, respectively. This procedure yielded highly purified molecular species, all titrating ca. 1 mol of thiol group per mole of enzyme, with distinct biochemical properties. N-terminal sequencing allowed identifying at least eight forms with proteolytic activity. The basic fraction contained previously identified species, i.e. basic bromelain forms 1 and 2, ananain forms 1 and 2, and comosain (MEROPS identifier: C01.027). Furthermore, a new proteolytic species, showing similarities with basic bomelain forms 1 and 2, was discovered and termed bromelain form 3. The two remaining species were found in the acidic bromelain fraction and were arbitrarily named acidic bromelain forms 1 and 2. Both, acidic bromelain forms 1, 2 and basic bromelain forms 1, 2 and 3 are glycosylated, while ananain forms 1 and 2, and comosain are not. The eight protease forms display different amidase activities against the various substrates tested, namely small synthetic chromogenic compounds (DL-BAPNA and Boc-Ala-Ala-Gly-pNA), fluorogenic compounds

  18. 21 CFR 184.1024 - Bromelain.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1024 Bromelain. (a) Bromelain (CAS Reg. No. 9001-00-7) is an enzyme... amorphous powder. Its characterizing enzyme activity is that of a peptide hydrolase (EC 3.4.22.32). (b) The ingredient meets the general requirements and additional requirements for enzyme preparations in the Food...

  19. Heterologous expression of the plant cysteine protease bromelain and its inhibitor in Pichia pastoris.

    PubMed

    Luniak, Nora; Meiser, Peter; Burkart, Sonja; Müller, Rolf

    2017-01-01

    Expression of proteases in heterologous hosts remains an ambitious challenge due to severe problems associated with digestion of host proteins. On the other hand, proteases are broadly used in industrial applications and resemble promising drug candidates. Bromelain is an herbal drug that is medicinally used for treatment of oedematous swellings and inflammatory conditions and consists in large part of proteolytic enzymes. Even though various experiments underline the requirement of active cysteine proteases for biological activity, so far no investigation succeeded to clearly clarify the pharmacological mode of action of bromelain. The potential role of proteases themselves and other molecules of this multi-component extract currently remain largely unknown or ill defined. Here, we set out to express several bromelain cysteine proteases as well as a bromelain inhibitor molecule in order to gain defined molecular entities for subsequent studies. After cloning the genes from its natural source Ananas comosus (pineapple plant) into Pichia pastoris and subsequent fermentation and purification, we obtained active protease and inhibitor molecules which were subsequently biochemically characterized. Employing purified bromelain fractions paves the way for further elucidation of pharmacological activities of this natural product. © 2016 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 33:54-65, 2017. © 2016 American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

  20. Purification of anti-bromelain antibodies by affinity precipitation using pNIPAm-linked bromelain.

    PubMed

    Mahmood, Rubab

    2016-01-01

    Affinity precipitation has emerged as a very useful technique for the purification of proteins. Here it has been employed for the purification of anti-bromelain antibodies from rabbit serum. A system has been developed for reversibly binding and thermoprecipitating antibodies. Anti-bromelain antibodies were raised in rabbit by immunizing it with bromelain. Poly-N-isopropylacrylamide (pNIPAm)-bromelain conjugate was prepared and incubated with rabbit serum. After that the temperature was raised for thermal precipitation of the polymer. Antibodies were then eluted from the complex by incubating it with a small volume of buffer, pH 3.0. This method is very effective in concentrating the antibodies. Purity and specificity of the antibodies were checked by gel electrophoresis and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), respectively. The study of the effect of pH and temperature on the binding of the antibodies to the conjugate showed that the optimum binding occurred at pH 8.0 and 25°C.The polymer enzyme conjugate was further used for another cycle.

  1. Bromelain protects piglets from diarrhoea caused by oral challenge with K88 positive enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Chandler, D; Mynott, T

    1998-01-01

    Background—K88 positive enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (K88+ ETEC) is an important cause of diarrhoea in young piglets. K88+ ETEC pathogenesis relies on attachment to specific glycoprotein receptors located on the intestinal mucosa. Proteolytic treatment of these receptors in vitro and in vivo prevents attachment of K88+ ETEC to piglet small intestines and may be of clinical use to prevent K88+ ETEC pathogenesis. 
Aims—To determine whether bromelain, a proteolytic extract obtained from pineapple stems, would protect piglets against K88+ ETEC diarrhoea and to confirm and extend earlier findings on the effects of bromelain on K88+ ETEC receptors in vivo. 
Methods—Bromelain (0, 12.5, or 125 mg) was orally administered to just weaned piglets for 10 days. One day following commencement of bromelain treatment, piglets were challenged with K88+ ETEC (5 × 1010 K88ac:0149) for seven days. Intestinal contents from unchallenged piglets were obtained via an intestinal fistula, and tested for their ability to bind K88+ ETEC before and after bromelain treatment. 
Results—Both doses of bromelain were successful in reducing the incidence of K88+ ETEC diarrhoea and protected piglets from life threatening disease. Bromelain treated pigs also had significantly increased weight gain compared with untreated pigs. Bromelain only temporarily inhibited K88+ ETEC receptor activity, with receptor activity being regenerated 30 hours following treatment, consistent with the regeneration of new enterocytes. 
Conclusion—Results show that bromelain can temporarily inactivate ETEC receptors in vivo and protect against ETEC induced diarrhoea. Bromelain may therefore be an effective prophylaxis against ETEC infection. 

 Keywords: enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli; K88 ETEC; ETEC receptors; diarrhoea; bromelain PMID:10189844

  2. Therapeutic efficacy of bromelain in impacted third molar surgery: a randomized controlled clinical study.

    PubMed

    Ordesi, Paolo; Pisoni, Luca; Nannei, Pierluigi; Macchi, Maurizia; Borloni, Roberto; Siervo, Sandro

    2014-09-01

    Bromelain is the name given to a family of proteolytic enzymes obtained from Ananas comosus, the pineapple plant. It is considered a potent anti-inflammatory and antiedematous substance. Surgery of impacted third molars in the outpatient setting is one of the procedures most often associated with postoperative pain and swelling. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of bromelain in reducing postoperative pain and swelling. 80 patients were recruited to the study from patients attending the Maxillofacial Surgery Unit of the Istituto Stomatologico Italiano, Milan, Italy, for impacted third molar surgery. At time 0 when surgery was performed, patients started simultaneous antibiotic and analgesic therapy. On the following day, patients were divided into two groups. Patients in group 1 were prescribed bromelain. Patients in group 2 were prescribed only the analgesic if required. Three parameters were evaluated: pain, edema, and erythema. The first evaluation visit was performed 3 hours after surgery, the second 48 hours after surgery, and the final evaluation 7 days after surgery. Postoperative pain, edema, and erythema were significantly lower in the study group than in the control group. Analgesic consumption, both in terms of days of treatment and number of tablets taken, was slightly lower in the study group. Only one adverse event was recorded, which occurred in a patient in the control group. The present study demonstrates an important anti-inflammatory and anti-edematous effect of bromelain. Statistical analysis shows that in the group treated with bromelain the inflammatory response was significantly less than in the control group.

  3. Bromelain treatment decreases neutrophil migration to sites of inflammation.

    PubMed

    Fitzhugh, David J; Shan, Siqing; Dewhirst, Mark W; Hale, Laura P

    2008-07-01

    Bromelain, a mixture of proteases derived from pineapple stem, has been reported to have therapeutic benefits in a variety of inflammatory diseases, including murine inflammatory bowel disease. The purpose of this work was to understand potential mechanisms for this anti-inflammatory activity. Exposure to bromelain in vitro has been shown to remove a number of cell surface molecules that are vital to leukocyte trafficking, including CD128a/CXCR1 and CD128b/CXCR2 that serve as receptors for the neutrophil chemoattractant IL-8 and its murine homologues. We hypothesized that specific proteolytic removal of CD128 molecules by bromelain would inhibit neutrophil migration to IL-8 and thus decrease acute responses to inflammatory stimuli. Using an in vitro chemotaxis assay, we demonstrated a 40% reduction in migration of bromelain- vs. sham-treated human neutrophils in response to rhIL-8. Migration to the bacterial peptide analog fMLP was unaffected, indicating that bromelain does not induce a global defect in leukocyte migration. In vivo bromelain treatment generated a 50-85% reduction in neutrophil migration in 3 different murine models of leukocyte migration into the inflamed peritoneal cavity. Intravital microscopy demonstrated that although in vivo bromelain treatment transiently decreased leukocyte rolling, its primary long-term effect was abrogation of firm adhesion of leukocytes to blood vessels at the site of inflammation. These changes in adhesion were correlated with rapid re-expression of the bromelain-sensitive CD62L/L-selectin molecules that mediate rolling following in vivo bromelain treatment and minimal re-expression of CD128 over the time period studied. Taken together, these studies demonstrate that bromelain can effectively decrease neutrophil migration to sites of acute inflammation and support the specific removal of the CD128 chemokine receptor as a potential mechanism of action.

  4. Bromelain Treatment Decreases Neutrophil Migration to Sites of Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Fitzhugh, David J.; Shan, Siqing; Dewhirst, Mark W.; Hale, Laura P.

    2008-01-01

    Bromelain, a mixture of proteases derived from pineapple stem, has been reported to have therapeutic benefits in a variety of inflammatory diseases, including murine inflammatory bowel disease. The purpose of this work was to understand potential mechanisms for this anti-inflammatory activity. Exposure to bromelain in vitro has been shown to remove a number of cell surface molecules that are vital to leukocyte trafficking, including CD128a/CXCR1 and CD128b/CXCR2 that serve as receptors for the neutrophil chemoattractant IL-8 and its murine homologues. We hypothesized that specific proteolytic removal of CD128 molecules by bromelain would inhibit neutrophil migration to IL-8 and thus decrease acute responses to inflammatory stimuli. Using an in vitro chemotaxis assay, we demonstrated a 40% reduction in migration of bromelain- vs. sham-treated human neutrophils in response to rhIL-8. Migration to the bacterial peptide analog fMLP was unaffected, indicating that bromelain does not induce a global defect in leukocyte migration. In vivo bromelain treatment generated a 50 – 85% reduction in neutrophil migration in 3 different murine models of leukocyte migration into the inflamed peritoneal cavity. Intravital microscopy demonstrated that although in vivo bromelain treatment transiently decreased leukocyte rolling, its primary long-term effect was abrogation of firm adhesion of leukocytes to blood vessels at the site of inflammation. These changes in adhesion were correlated with rapid re-expression of the bromelain-sensitive CD62L/L-selectin molecules that mediate rolling following in vivo bromelain treatment and minimal re-expression of CD128 over the time period studied. Taken together, these studies demonstrate that bromelain can effectively decrease neutrophil migration to sites of acute inflammation and support the specific removal of the CD128 chemokine receptor as a potential mechanism of action. PMID:18482869

  5. Cloning of gene-encoded stem bromelain on system coming from Pichia pastoris as therapeutic protein candidate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yusuf, Y.; Hidayati, W.

    2018-01-01

    The process of identifying bacterial recombination using PCR, and restriction, and then sequencing process was done after identifying the bacteria. This research aimed to get a yeast cell of Pichia pastoris which has an encoder gene of stem bromelain enzyme. The production of recombinant stem bromelain enzymes using yeast cells of P. pastoris can produce pure bromelain rod enzymes and have the same conformation with the enzyme’s conformation in pineapple plants. This recombinant stem bromelain enzyme can be used as a therapeutic protein in inflammatory, cancer and degenerative diseases. This study was an early stage of a step series to obtain bromelain rod protein derived from pineapple made with genetic engineering techniques. This research was started by isolating the RNA of pineapple stem which was continued with constructing cDNA using reserve transcriptase-PCR technique (RT-PCR), doing the amplification of bromelain enzyme encoder gene with PCR technique using a specific premiere couple which was designed. The process was continued by cloning into bacterium cells of Escherichia coli. A vector which brought the encoder gene of stem bromelain enzyme was inserted into the yeast cell of P. pastoris and was continued by identifying the yeast cell of P. pastoris which brought the encoder gene of stem bromelain enzyme. The research has not found enzyme gene of stem bromelain in yeast cell of P. pastoris yet. The next step is repeating the process by buying new reagent; RNase inhibitor, and buying liquid nitrogen.

  6. Stability, purification, and applications of bromelain: A review.

    PubMed

    de Lencastre Novaes, Letícia Celia; Jozala, Angela Faustino; Lopes, André Moreni; de Carvalho Santos-Ebinuma, Valéria; Mazzola, Priscila Gava; Pessoa Junior, Adalberto

    2016-01-01

    Bromelain is a cysteine protease found in pineapple tissue. Because of its anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer activities, as well as its ability to induce apoptotic cell death, bromelain has proved useful in several therapeutic areas. The market for this protease is growing, and several studies exploring various properties of this molecule have been reported. This review aims to compile this data, and summarize the main findings on bromelain in the literature to date. The physicochemical properties and stability of bromelain under different conditions are discussed. Several studies on the purification of bromelain from crude extracts using a wide range of techniques such as liquid-liquid extractions by aqueous two-phase system, ultrafiltration, precipitation, and chromatography, have been reported. Finally, the various applications of bromelain are presented. This review therefore covers the main properties of bromelain, aiming to provide an up-to-date compilation of the data reported on this enzyme. © 2015 American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

  7. Bromelain Treatment Decreases Secretion of Pro-Inflammatory Cytokines and Chemokines by Colon Biopsies In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Onken, Jane E.; Greer, Paula K.; Calingaert, Brian; Hale, Laura P.

    2008-01-01

    Oral bromelain has been anecdotally reported to decrease inflammation in ulcerative colitis (UC). Proteolytically active bromelain is known to decrease expression of mRNAs encoding pro-inflammatory cytokines by human leukocytes in vitro. To assess the effect of bromelain on mucosal secretion of cytokines in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), endoscopic colon biopsies from patients with UC, Crohn’s disease (CD), and non-IBD controls were treated in vitro with bromelain or media, then cultured. Secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines was measured. Significant increases in granulocyte colony stimulating factor (G-CSF), interferon (IFN)-γ, interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF) were detected in the media from actively inflamed areas in UC and CD as compared with non-inflamed IBD tissue and non-IBD controls. In vitro bromelain treatment decreased secretion of G-CSF, granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF), IFN-γ, CCL4/macrophage inhibitory protein (MIP)-1β, and TNF by inflamed tissue in IBD. Bromelain may be a novel therapy for IBD. PMID:18160345

  8. Bromelain-Functionalized Multiple-Wall Lipid-Core Nanocapsules: Formulation, Chemical Structure and Antiproliferative Effect Against Human Breast Cancer Cells (MCF-7).

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Catiúscia P; Prado, Willian A; Lavayen, Vladimir; Büttenbender, Sabrina L; Beckenkamp, Aline; Martins, Bruna S; Lüdtke, Diogo S; Campo, Leandra F; Rodembusch, Fabiano S; Buffon, Andréia; Pessoa, Adalberto; Guterres, Silvia S; Pohlmann, Adriana R

    2017-02-01

    This study was conducted a promising approach to surface functionalization developed for lipid-core nanocapsules and the merit to pursue new strategies to treat solid tumors. Bromelain-functionalized multiple-wall lipid-core nanocapsules (Bro-MLNC-Zn) were produced by self-assembling following three steps of interfacial reactions. Physicochemical and structural characteristics, in vitro proteolytic activity (casein substrate) and antiproliferative activity (breast cancer cells, MCF-7) were determined. Bro-MLNC-Zn had z-average diameter of 135 nm and zeta potential of +23 mV. The complex is formed by a Zn-N chemical bond and a chelate with hydroxyl and carboxyl groups. Bromelain complexed at the nanocapsule surface maintained its proteolytic activity and showed anti-proliferative effect against human breast cancer cells (MCF-7) (72.6 ± 1.2% at 1.250 μg mL -1 and 65.5 ± 5.5% at 0.625 μg mL -1 ). Comparing Bro-MLNC-Zn and bromelain solution, the former needed a dose 160-folds lower than the latter for a similar effect. Tripan blue dye assay corroborated the results. The surface functionalization approach produced an innovative formulation having a much higher anti-proliferative effect than the bromelain solution, even though both in vitro proteolytic activity were similar, opening up a great opportunity for further studies in nanomedicine.

  9. Bromelain, a cysteine protease from pineapple (Ananas comosus) stem, is an inhibitor of fungal plant pathogens.

    PubMed

    López-García, B; Hernández, M; Segundo, B S

    2012-07-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effect of bromelain, a cysteine protease isolated from pineapple (Ananas comosus), on growth of several agronomically important fungal pathogens. Purification of bromelain from pineapple stems was carried out by chromatography techniques, and its antimicrobial activity was tested against the fungal pathogens Fusarium verticillioides, Fusarium oxysporum and Fusarium proliferatum by broth microdilution assay. A concentration of 0.3 μmol l(-1) of bromelain was sufficient for 90% growth inhibition of F. verticillioides. The capability of bromelain to inhibit fungal growth is related to its proteolytic activity. The study demonstrates that stem bromelain exhibits a potent antifungal activity against phytopathogens and suggests its potential use as an effective agent for crop protection. The results support the use of a natural protease that accumulates at high levels in pineapple stems as alternative to the use of chemical fungicides for crop protection. © 2012 The Authors. Letters in Applied Microbiology © 2012 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  10. 21 CFR 184.1024 - Bromelain.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... practice conditions of use: (1) The ingredient is used as an enzyme as defined in § 170.3(o)(9) of this... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Bromelain. 184.1024 Section 184.1024 Food and... amorphous powder. Its characterizing enzyme activity is that of a peptide hydrolase (EC 3.4.22.32). (b) The...

  11. 21 CFR 184.1024 - Bromelain.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... practice conditions of use: (1) The ingredient is used as an enzyme as defined in § 170.3(o)(9) of this... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Bromelain. 184.1024 Section 184.1024 Food and... characterizing enzyme activity is that of a peptide hydrolase (EC 3.4.22.32). (b) The ingredient meets the...

  12. Proteolytic Enzymes Clustered in Specialized Plasma-Membrane Domains Drive Endothelial Cells’ Migration

    PubMed Central

    Salamone, Monica; Carfì Pavia, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    In vitro cultured endothelial cells forming a continuous monolayer establish stable cell-cell contacts and acquire a “resting” phenotype; on the other hand, when growing in sparse conditions these cells acquire a migratory phenotype and invade the empty area of the culture. Culturing cells in different conditions, we compared expression and clustering of proteolytic enzymes in cells having migratory versus stationary behavior. In order to observe resting and migrating cells in the same microscopic field, a continuous cell monolayer was wounded. Increased expression of proteolytic enzymes was evident in cell membranes of migrating cells especially at sprouting sites and in shed membrane vesicles. Gelatin zymography and western blotting analyses confirmed that in migrating cells, expression of membrane-bound and of vesicle-associated proteolytic enzymes are increased. The enzymes concerned include MMP-2, MMP-9, MT1-MMP, seprase, DPP4 (DiPeptidyl Peptidase 4) and uPA. Shed membrane vesicles were shown to exert degradative activity on ECM components and produce substrates facilitating cell migration. Vesicles shed by migrating cells degraded ECM components at an increased rate; as a result their effect on cell migration was amplified. Inhibiting either Matrix Metallo Proteases (MMPs) or Serine Integral Membrane Peptidases (SIMPs) caused a decrease in the stimulatory effect of vesicles, inhibiting the spontaneous migratory activity of cells; a similar result was also obtained when a monoclonal antibody acting on DPP4 was tested. We conclude that proteolytic enzymes have a synergistic stimulatory effect on cell migration and that their clustering probably facilitates the proteolytic activation cascades needed to produce maximal degradative activity on cell substrates during the angiogenic process. PMID:27152413

  13. Bromelain limits airway inflammation in an ovalbumin-induced murine model of established asthma.

    PubMed

    Secor, Eric R; Shah, Sonali J; Guernsey, Linda A; Schramm, Craig M; Thrall, Roger S

    2012-01-01

    Allergic asthma continues to increase despite new pharmacological advances for both acute treatment and chronic-disease management. Asthma is a multifactorial disease process with genetic, allergic, infectious, environmental, and dietary origins. Researchers are investigating the benefits of lifestyle changes and alternative asthma treatments, including the ability of bromelain to inhibit inflammation. Bromelain is a commonly used, proteolytically active pineapple extract. The present study intended to determine the ability of bromelain to reduce the inflammation of preexisting asthma via an ovalbumin (OVA)-induced murine model of allergic airway disease (AAD). The research team designed a study examining the effects of bromelain in a control group of mice that received phosphate buffered saline (PBS) only and in an intervention group that received bromelain in PBS. Setting The study took place in the Department of Immunology at the University of Connecticut's School of Medicine, Farmington. Intervention The research team sensitized female C57BL/6J mice with intraperitoneal OVA/alum and then challenged them with OVA aerosolization for 10 consecutive days. On day 4, the team began administering daily doses of PBS to the control group (n = 10) and bromelain (6mg/kg) in PBS to the bromelain (intervention) group (n = 10). The primary measures included bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) cellular differential, cellular phenotype via flow cytometry, and lung histology. Additional outcomes included testing for serum cytokines and immunoglobulin. Bromelain treatment of AAD mice (bromelain group) resulted in significant anti-inflammatory activity as indicated by reduced BAL total leukocytes (P < .05), eosinophils (P < .05), and cellular infiltrates via lung pathology (P < .005), as compared to the control group. In addition, bromelain significantly reduced BAL CD4+ and CD8+ T cells without affecting cell numbers in the spleen or hilar lymph node. The study found decreased

  14. Dietary supplementation with fresh pineapple juice decreases inflammation and colonic neoplasia in IL-10-deficient mice with colitis.

    PubMed

    Hale, Laura P; Chichlowski, Maciej; Trinh, Chau T; Greer, Paula K

    2010-12-01

    Bromelain, a mixture of proteolytic enzymes typically derived from pineapple stem, decreases production of proinflammatory cytokines and leukocyte homing to sites of inflammation. We previously showed that short-term oral treatment with bromelain purified from pineapple stem decreased the severity of colonic inflammation in C57BL/6 Il10(-/-) mice with chronic colitis. Since fresh pineapple fruit contains similar bromelain enzymes but at different proportions, this study aimed to determine whether long-term dietary supplementation with pineapple (supplied as juice) could decrease colon inflammation and neoplasia in Il10(-/-) mice with chronic colitis as compared with bromelain derived from stem. Colitis was triggered in Il10(-/-) mice by exposure to the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug piroxicam. Mice with colitis were supplemented with fresh vs. boiled pineapple juice or bromelain purified from stem for up to 6 months. Experimental mice readily consumed fresh pineapple juice at a level that generated mean stool proteolytic activities equivalent to 14 mg bromelain purified from stem, while control mice received boiled juice with inactive enzymes. Survival was increased in the group supplemented with fresh rather than boiled juice (P = 0.01). Mice that received fresh juice also had decreased histologic colon inflammation scores and a lower incidence of inflammation-associated colonic neoplasia (35% versus 66%; P < 0.02), with fewer neoplastic lesions/colon (P = 0.05). Flow cytometric analysis of murine splenocytes exposed to fresh pineapple juice in vitro demonstrated proteolytic removal of cell surface molecules that can affect leukocyte trafficking and activation. These results demonstrate that long-term dietary supplementation with fresh or unpasteurized frozen pineapple juice with proteolytically active bromelain enzymes is safe and decreases inflammation severity and the incidence and multiplicity of inflammation-associated colonic neoplasia in this commonly

  15. Bromelain decreases neutrophil interactions with P-selectin, but not E-selectin, in vitro by proteolytic cleavage of P-selectin glycoprotein ligand-1.

    PubMed

    Banks, Jessica M; Herman, Christine T; Bailey, Ryan C

    2013-01-01

    Stem bromelain, a cysteine protease isolated from pineapples, is a natural anti-inflammatory treatment, yet its mechanism of action remains unclear. Curious as to whether bromelain might affect selectin-mediated leukocyte rolling, we studied the ability of bromelain-treated human neutrophils to tether to substrates presenting immobilized P-selectin or E-selectin under shear stress. Bromelain treatment attenuated P-selectin-mediated tethering but had no effect on neutrophil recruitment on E-selectin substrates. Flow cytometric analysis of human neutrophils, using two antibodies against distinct epitopes within the P-selectin glycoprotein ligand-1 (PSGL-1) active site, revealed that bromelain cleaves PSGL-1 to remove one of two sites required for P-selectin binding, while leaving the region required for E-selectin binding intact. These findings suggest one molecular mechanism by which bromelain may exert its anti-inflammatory effects is via selective cleavage of PSGL-1 to reduce P-selectin-mediated neutrophil recruitment.

  16. Bromelain Decreases Neutrophil Interactions with P-Selectin, but Not E-Selectin, In Vitro by Proteolytic Cleavage of P-Selectin Glycoprotein Ligand-1

    PubMed Central

    Bailey, Ryan C.

    2013-01-01

    Stem bromelain, a cysteine protease isolated from pineapples, is a natural anti-inflammatory treatment, yet its mechanism of action remains unclear. Curious as to whether bromelain might affect selectin-mediated leukocyte rolling, we studied the ability of bromelain-treated human neutrophils to tether to substrates presenting immobilized P-selectin or E-selectin under shear stress. Bromelain treatment attenuated P-selectin-mediated tethering but had no effect on neutrophil recruitment on E-selectin substrates. Flow cytometric analysis of human neutrophils, using two antibodies against distinct epitopes within the P-selectin glycoprotein ligand-1 (PSGL-1) active site, revealed that bromelain cleaves PSGL-1 to remove one of two sites required for P-selectin binding, while leaving the region required for E-selectin binding intact. These findings suggest one molecular mechanism by which bromelain may exert its anti-inflammatory effects is via selective cleavage of PSGL-1 to reduce P-selectin-mediated neutrophil recruitment. PMID:24244398

  17. Dietary Supplementation with Fresh Pineapple Juice Decreases Inflammation and Colonic Neoplasia in IL-10-deficient Mice with Colitis

    PubMed Central

    Hale, Laura P.; Chichlowski, Maciej; Trinh, Chau T.; Greer, Paula K.

    2010-01-01

    Background Bromelain, a mixture of proteolytic enzymes typically derived from pineapple stem, decreases production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and leukocyte homing to sites of inflammation. We previously showed that short-term oral treatment with bromelain purified from pineapple stem decreased the severity of colonic inflammation in C57BL/6 Il10−/− mice with chronic colitis. Since fresh pineapple fruit contains similar bromelain enzymes but at different proportions, this study aimed to determine whether long-term dietary supplementation with pineapple (supplied as juice) could decrease colon inflammation and neoplasia in Il10−/− mice with chronic colitis as compared with bromelain derived from stem. Results Experimental mice readily consumed fresh pineapple juice at a level that generated mean stool proteolytic activities equivalent to 16 mg bromelain purified from stem, while control mice received boiled juice with inactive enzymes. Survival was increased in the group supplemented with fresh rather than boiled juice (p = 0.01). Mice that received fresh juice also had decreased histologic colon inflammation scores and a lower incidence of inflammation-associated colonic neoplasia (35% vs. 66%; p< 0.02), with fewer neoplastic lesions/colon (p = 0.05). Flow cytometric analysis of murine splenocytes exposed to fresh pineapple juice in vitro demonstrated proteolytic removal of cell surface molecules that can affect leukocyte trafficking and activation. Conclusions These results demonstrate that long-term dietary supplementation with fresh or unpasteurized frozen pineapple juice with proteolytically active bromelain enzymes is safe and decreases inflammation severity and the incidence and multiplicity of inflammation-associated colonic neoplasia in this commonly used murine model of inflammatory bowel disease. PMID:20848493

  18. Proteolytic enzyme activities in Cheddar cheese juice made using lactococcal starters of differing autolytic properties.

    PubMed

    Sheehan, A; Cuinn, G O'; Fitzgerald, R J; Wilkinson, M G

    2006-04-01

    To determine proteolytic enzyme activities released in Cheddar cheese juice manufactured using lactococcal starter strains of differing autolytic properties. The activities of residual chymosin, cell envelope proteinase and a range of intracellular proteolytic enzymes were determined during the first 70 days of ripening when starter lactococci predominate the microbial flora. In general, in cell free extracts (CFE) of the strains, the majority of proteolytic activities was highest for Lactococcus lactis HP, intermediate for L. lactis AM2 and lowest for L. lactis 303. However, in cheese juice, as ripening progressed, released proteolytic activities were highest for the highly autolytic strain L. lactis AM2, intermediate for L. lactis 303 and lowest for L. lactis HP. These results indicate that strain related differences in autolysis influence proteolytic enzyme activities released into Cheddar cheese during ripening. No correlation was found between proteolytic potential of the starter strains measured in CFE prior to cheese manufacture and levels of activities released in cheese juice. The findings further support the importance of autolysis of lactococcal starters in determining the levels of proteolytic activities present in cheese during initial stages of ripening.

  19. The structure and mechanism of stem bromelain. Evaluation of the homogeneity of purified stem bromelain, determination of the molecular weight and kinetic analysis of the bromelain-catalysed hydrolysis of N-benzyloxycarbonyl-l-phenylalanyl-l-serine methyl ester

    PubMed Central

    Wharton, Christopher W.

    1974-01-01

    1. Purified stem bromelain (EC 3.4.22.4) was eluted from Sephadex G-100 as a single peak. The specific activity across the elution peak was approximately constant towards p-nitrophenyl hippurate but increased with elution volume with N2-benzoyl-l-arginine ethyl ester as substrate. 2. The apparent molecular weight, determined by elution analysis on Sephadex G-100, is 22500±1500, an anomalously low value. 3. Purified stem bromelain was eluted from CM-cellulose CM-32 as a single peak and behaved as a single species during column electrophoresis on Sephadex G-100. 4. Purified stem bromelain migrates as a single band during polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis under a wide variety of conditions. 5. The molecular weight determined by polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis in the presence of sodium dodecyl sulphate is 28500±1000. 6. Sedimentation-velocity and equilibrium-ultracentrifugation experiments, under a variety of conditions, indicate that bromelain is an apparently homogeneous single peptide chain of mol.wt. 28400±1400. 7. The N-terminal amino acid composition is 0.64±0.04mol of valine and 0.36±0.04mol of alanine per mol of enzyme of mol.wt. 28500. (The amino acid recovery of the cyanate N-terminal amino acid analysis was standardized by inclusion of carbamoyl-norleucine at the cyclization stage.) 8. The pH-dependence of the Michaelis parameters of the bromelain-catalysed hydrolysis of N-benzyloxycarbonyl-l-phenylalanyl-l-serine methyl ester was determined. 9. The magnitude and pH-dependence of the Michaelis parameters have been interpreted in terms of the mechanism of the enzyme. 10. The enzyme is able to bind N-benzyloxycarbonyl-l-phenylalanyl-l-serine methyl ester relatively strongly but seems unable to make use of the binding energy to promote catalysis. PMID:4462742

  20. Stain removal effect of novel papain- and bromelain-containing gels applied to enamel.

    PubMed

    Münchow, Eliseu A; Hamann, Henry J; Carvajal, M Teresa; Pinal, Rodolfo; Bottino, Marco C

    2016-11-01

    The aims of the study are to prepare novel stain removal gel-based formulations containing papain or bromelain and to investigate their stain removal effect when applied to enamel. Experimental bromelain- and papain-based stain removal gels were prepared. Next, enamel/dentin tooth samples (6 × 6 mm 2 , 4 mm in thickness) were obtained from bovine teeth, stained in coffee solution for 1 week, and measured with a digital spectrophotometer (Easyshade, Vita Zahnfabrik) for color assessment (baseline). The samples were then randomly allocated into four groups (n = 7), according to the stain removal agent applied: ContrastPM+ (Discus Dental, LLC), which is based on 20 wt.% carbamide peroxide (positive control); bromelain-based; papain-based; and no agent (negative control). The materials were applied once a week, three times per day, during 4 weeks, and following the directions of use from positive control. The samples were measured again with the Easyshade and using the CIEL * a * b * color system. The color change (ΔE * ) results were obtained by subtracting the baseline values from the final color values obtained at each time point. The data were statistically analyzed using two-way repeated-measures analysis of variance and Student Newman Keuls's test as a post hoc test (α = 5 %). All stain removal agents produced greater color change than the negative control (p < .001), with the positive control demonstrating greater ΔE * values when compared to the experimental gels (p ≤ .004). The second application of all gels resulted in greater ΔE * values compared to the first application (p ≤ .025), although no color change was observed after the third application (p ≥ .051), regardless of the material evaluated. The proposed gels containing proteolytic enzymes (bromelain or papain) of vegetal origin may hold significant clinical potential as active agents for the preparation of stain removal agents free of hydrogen/carbamide peroxide.

  1. Hexafluoroisopropanol-induced helix-sheet transition of stem bromelain: correlation to function.

    PubMed

    Dave, Sandeep; Dkhar, H Kitdorlang; Singh, Manvendra Pratap; Gupta, Garima; Chandra, Vemika; Mahajan, Sahil; Gupta, Pawan

    2010-06-01

    Stem bromelain is a proteolytic phytoprotein with a variety of therapeutic effects. Understanding its structural properties could provide insight into the mechanisms underlying its clinical utility. Stem bromelain was evaluated for its conformational and folding properties at the pH conditions it encounters when administered orally. It exists as a partially folded intermediate at pH 2.0. The conformational changes to this intermediate state were evaluated using fluorinated alcohols known to induce changes similar to those seen in vivo. Studies using circular dichroism, fluorescence emission spectroscopy, binding of the hydrophobic dye 1-anilino-8-naphthalene sulfonic acid and mass spectrometry indicate that treatment with 10-30% hexafluoroisopropanol induces the partially folded intermediate to adopt much of the native protein's secondary structure, but only a rudimentary tertiary structure, characteristic of the molten globule state. Addition of slightly higher concentrations of hexafluoroisopropanol caused transformation from an alpha-helix to a beta-sheet and induced formation of a compact nonnative structure. This nonnative form was more inhibitory of cell survival than either the native or the partially folded intermediate forms, as measured by enhanced suppression of proliferative cues (e.g., extracellular-signal-regulated kinase) and initiation of apoptotic events. The nonnative form also showed better antitumorigenic properties, as evaluated using an induced two-stage mouse skin papilloma model. In contrast, the nonnative state showed only a fraction of the proteolytic activity of the native form. This study demonstrates that hexafluoroisopropanol can induce a conformational change in stem bromelain to a form with potentially useful therapeutic properties different from those of the native protein. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Plant proteolytic enzyme papain abrogates angiogenic activation of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) in vitro

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a key regulator of physiologic and pathogenic angiogenesis in diseases such as cancer and diabetic retinopathy. It is known that cysteine proteases from plants, like bromelain and papain are capable to suppress inflammatory activation. Recent studies have demonstrated that they may interfere with angiogenesis related pathways as well. The aim of this study was to investigate the anti-angiogenic effects of papain on human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) in vitro. Methods Cell viability after prolonged treatment with papain was investigated by life cell staining and lactate dehydrogenase release assay. Angiogenic activation was assessed by ELISA against phosphorylated proteins AKT, MEK1/2, ERK1/2, SAPK/JNK and p38-MAPK. Growth inhibition was determined by means of an MTT-assay and cell migration by means of a scratch assay. Capability to form a capillary network was investigated using a tube formation assay. Results Papain did not induce proteolysis or cell detachment of HUVEC in a concentration range between 0 and 25 μg/mL. Four hours treatment with 10 μg/mL papain resulted in a reduced susceptibility of endothelial cells to activation by VEGF as determined by phosphorylation levels of Akt, MEK1/2, SAPK/JNK. Papain exerted a distinct inhibitory effect on cell growth, cell migration and tube formation with inhibition of tube formation detectable at concentrations as low as 1 μg/mL. Bromelain and ficin displayed similar effects with regard to cell growth and tube formation. Conclusion Papain showed a strong anti-angiogenic effect in VEGF activated HUVEC. This effect may be due to interference with AKT, MEK1/2 and SAPK/JNK phosphorylation. Two other plant derived cysteine proteases displayed similar inhibition of HUVEC cell growth and tube formation. These findings indicate that plant proteolytic enzymes may have potential as preventive and therapeutic agents against angiogenesis related human diseases

  3. Effects of Geroprotectors on Age-Related Changes in Proteolytic Digestive Enzyme Activities at Different Lighting Conditions.

    PubMed

    Morozov, A V; Khizhkin, E A; Svechkina, E B; Vinogradova, I A; Ilyukha, V A; Anisimov, V N; Khavinson, V Kh

    2015-10-01

    We studied the effect of melatonin and epithalon on age-related changes in proteolytic digestive enzyme activity in the pancreas and gastric mucosa of rats kept under different lighting conditions. In rats kept under standard illumination, pepsin activity and the total proteolytic activity in the stomach and pancreas increased by the age of 12 months, but then decreased. Constant and natural lighting disturbed the age dynamics of proteolytic digestive enzyme activity. Administration of melatonin and epithalon to animals exposed to constant lighting restored age dynamics of pepsin activity and little affected total proteolytic activity.

  4. Effect of linoleic-acid modified carboxymethyl chitosan on bromelain immobilization onto self-assembled nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Yu-long; Liu, Chen-guang; Yu, Le-jun; Chen, Xi-guang

    2008-06-01

    Hydrogel nanoparticles could be prepared by using linoleic acid (LA) modified carboxymethyl chitosan (CMCS) after sonication. Bromelain could be loaded onto nanoparticles of LA-CMCS. Factors affecting the activity of the immobilized enzyme, including temperature, storage etc., were investigated in this study. The results showed that the stability of bromelain for heat and storage was improved after immobilization on nanoparticles. The Michaelis constant ( K m) of the immobilized enzyme was smaller than that of free enzyme, indicating that the immobilization could promote the stability of the enzyme and strengthen the affinity of the enzyme for the substrate.

  5. Bacterial and Fungal Proteolytic Enzymes: Production, Catalysis and Potential Applications.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Ronivaldo Rodrigues

    2017-09-01

    Submerged and solid-state bioprocesses have been extensively explored worldwide and employed in a number of important studies dealing with microbial cultivation for the production of enzymes. The development of these production technologies has facilitated the generation of new enzyme-based products with applications in pharmaceuticals, food, bioactive peptides, and basic research studies, among others. The applicability of microorganisms in biotechnology is potentiated because of their various advantages, including large-scale production, short time of cultivation, and ease of handling. Currently, several studies are being conducted to search for new microbial peptidases with peculiar biochemical properties for industrial applications. Bioprospecting, being an important prerequisite for research and biotechnological development, is based on exploring the microbial diversity for enzyme production. Limited information is available on the production of specific proteolytic enzymes from bacterial and fungal species, especially on the subgroups threonine and glutamic peptidases, and the seventh catalytic type, nonhydrolytic asparagine peptide lyase. This gap in information motivated the present study about these unique biocatalysts. In this study, the biochemical and biotechnological aspects of the seven catalytic types of proteolytic enzymes, namely aspartyl, cysteine, serine, metallo, glutamic, and threonine peptidase, and asparagine peptide lyase, are summarized, with an emphasis on new studies, production, catalysis, and application of these enzymes.

  6. [Treatment of surface burns with proteolytic enzymes: mathematic description of lysis kinetics].

    PubMed

    Domogatskaia, A S; Domogatskiĭ, S P; Ruuge, E K

    2003-01-01

    The lysis of necrotic tissue by a proteolytic enzyme applied to the surface of a burn wound was studied. A mathematical model was proposed, which describes changes in the thickness of necrotic tissue as a function of the proteolytic activity of the enzyme. The model takes into account the inward-directed diffusion of the enzyme, the counterflow of interstitial fluid (exudates) containing specific inhibitors, and the extracellular matrix proteolysis. It was shown in terms of the quasi-stationary approach that the thickness of the necrotic tissue layer decreases exponentially with time; i.e., the lysis slows down as the thickness of the necrotic tissue layer decreases. The dependence of the characteristic time of this decrease on enzyme concentration was obtained. It was shown that, at high enzyme concentrations (more than 5 mg/ml), the entire time of lysis (after the establishment of quasi-stationary equilibrium) is inversely proportional to the concentration of the enzyme.

  7. 21 CFR 184.1024 - Bromelain.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... defined in § 170.3(o)(9) of this chapter to hydrolyze proteins or polypeptides. (2) The ingredient is used... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Bromelain. 184.1024 Section 184.1024 Food and... amorphous powder. Its characterizing enzyme activity is that of a peptide hydrolase (EC 3.4.22.32). (b) The...

  8. 21 CFR 184.1024 - Bromelain.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... defined in § 170.3(o)(9) of this chapter to hydrolyze proteins or polypeptides. (2) The ingredient is used... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Bromelain. 184.1024 Section 184.1024 Food and Drugs... amorphous powder. Its characterizing enzyme activity is that of a peptide hydrolase (EC 3.4.22.32). (b) The...

  9. [Extracellular proteolytic enzymes of Azospirillum brasilensis strain Sp7 and regulation of their activity by a homologous lectin].

    PubMed

    Chernyshova, M P; Alen'kina, S A; Nikitina, V E; Ignatov, V V

    2005-01-01

    It was found that Azospirillum brasilensis strain Sp7 is able to produce extracellular proteolytic enzymes. The enzymes were active within a broad range of pH values, with two peaks of activity being located in the acid and alkaline pH areas; required calcium ions; and exhibited substrate specificity with respect to azogelatin. Zymography allowed at least four proteolytic enzymes with molecular weights of 32, 45, 52, and 174 kDa to be detected in A. brasilense Sp7 culture liquid. It was shown that the lectin from A. brasilense Sp7 can inhibit proteolytic enzymes.

  10. Inhibitory effects of bromelain, a cysteine protease derived from pineapple stem (Ananas comosus), on intestinal motility in mice.

    PubMed

    Borrelli, F; Capasso, R; Severino, B; Fiorino, F; Aviello, G; De Rosa, G; Mazzella, M; Romano, B; Capasso, F; Fasolino, I; Izzo, A A

    2011-08-01

    Bromelain (BR) is a cysteine protease with inhibitory effects on intestinal secretion and inflammation. However, its effects on intestinal motility are largely unexplored. Thus, we investigated the effect of this plant-derived compound on intestinal contractility and transit in mice. Contractility in vitro was evaluated by stimulating the mouse isolated ileum, in an organ bath, with acetylcholine, barium chloride, or electrical field stimulation. Motility in vivo was measured by evaluating the distribution of an orally administered fluorescent marker along the small intestine. Transit was also evaluated in pathophysiologic states induced by the pro-inflammatory compound croton oil or by the diabetogenic agent streptozotocin. Bromelain inhibited the contractions induced by different spasmogenic compounds in the mouse ileum with similar potency. The antispasmodic effect was reduced or counteracted by the proteolytic enzyme inhibitor, gabexate (15 × 10(-6)  mol L(-1) ), protease-activated receptor-2 (PAR-2) antagonist, N(1) -3-methylbutyryl-N(4) -6-aminohexanoyl-piperazine (10(-4) mol L(-1) ), phospholipase C (PLC) inhibitor, neomycin (3 × 10(-3) mol L(-1) ), and phosphodiesterase 4 (PDE4) inhibitor, rolipram (10(-6)  mol L(-1) ). In vivo, BR preferentially inhibited motility in pathophysiologic states in a PAR-2-antagonist-sensitive manner. Our data suggest that BR inhibits intestinal motility - preferentially in pathophysiologic conditions - with a mechanism possibly involving membrane PAR-2 and PLC and PDE4 as intracellular signals. Bromelain could be a lead compound for the development of new drugs, able to normalize the intestinal motility in inflammation and diabetes. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  11. Impact of proteolytic enzymes in colorectal cancer development and progression.

    PubMed

    Herszényi, László; Barabás, Loránd; Hritz, István; István, Gábor; Tulassay, Zsolt

    2014-10-07

    Tumor invasion and metastasis is a highly complicated, multi-step phenomenon. In the complex event of tumor progression, tumor cells interact with basement membrane and extracellular matrix components. Proteolytic enzymes (proteinases) are involved in the degradation of extracellular matrix, but also in cancer invasion and metastasis. The four categories of proteinases (cysteine-, serine-, aspartic-, and metalloproteinases) are named and classified according to the essential catalytic component in their active site. We and others have shown that proteolytic enzymes play a major role not only in colorectal cancer (CRC) invasion and metastasis, but also in malignant transformation of precancerous lesions into cancer. Tissue and serum-plasma antigen concentrations of proteinases might be of great value in identifying patients with poor prognosis in CRC. Our results, in concordance with others indicate the potential tumor marker impact of proteinases for the early diagnosis of CRC. In addition, proteinases may also serve as potential target molecules for therapeutic agents.

  12. Kinetics studies with fruit bromelain (Ananas comosus) in the presence of cysteine and divalent ions.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Tajwinder; Kaur, Amandeep; Grewal, Ravneet K

    2015-09-01

    The kinetics of cysteine and divalent ion modulation viz. Ca(2+), Cu(2+), Hg(2+) of fruit bromelain (EC 3.4.22.33) have been investigated in the present study. Kinetic studies revealed that at pH 4.5, cysteine induced V-type activation of bromelain catalyzed gelatin hydrolysis. At pH 3.5, Ca(2+) inhibited the enzyme noncompetitively, whereas, both K-and V-type activations of bromelain were observed in the presence of 0.5 mM Ca(2+) at pH 4.5 and 7.5. Bromelain was inhibited competitively at 0.6 mM Cu(2+) ions at pH 3.5, which changed to an uncompetitive inhibition at pH 4.5 and 7.5. An un-competitive inhibition of bromelain catalyzed gelatin hydrolysis was observed in the presence of 0.6 mM Hg(2+) at pH 3.5 and 4.5. These findings suggest that divalent ions modulation of fruit bromelain is pH dependent.

  13. Enzymes in Fermented Fish.

    PubMed

    Giyatmi; Irianto, H E

    Fermented fish products are very popular particularly in Southeast Asian countries. These products have unique characteristics, especially in terms of aroma, flavor, and texture developing during fermentation process. Proteolytic enzymes have a main role in hydrolyzing protein into simpler compounds. Fermentation process of fish relies both on naturally occurring enzymes (in the muscle or the intestinal tract) as well as bacteria. Fermented fish products processed using the whole fish show a different characteristic compared to those prepared from headed and gutted fish. Endogenous enzymes like trypsin, chymotrypsin, elastase, and aminopeptidase are the most involved in the fermentation process. Muscle tissue enzymes like cathepsins, peptidases, transaminases, amidases, amino acid decarboxylases, glutamic dehydrogenases, and related enzymes may also play a role in fish fermentation. Due to the decreased bacterial number during fermentation, contribution of microbial enzymes to proteolysis may be expected prior to salting of fish. Commercial enzymes are supplemented during processing for specific purposes, such as quality improvement and process acceleration. In the case of fish sauce, efforts to accelerate fermentation process and to improve product quality have been studied by addition of enzymes such as papain, bromelain, trypsin, pepsin, and chymotrypsin. © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Circular dichroism of stem bromelain: a third spectral class within the family of cysteine proteinases.

    PubMed Central

    Arroyo-Reyna, A; Hernandez-Arana, A; Arreguin-Espinosa, R

    1994-01-01

    Two forms of stem bromelain (EC 3.4.22.4) were isolated from commercial, crude and chromatographically purified preparations of the enzyme by means of gel-filtration and cation-exchange liquid chromatography. These forms possess nearly identical secondary and tertiary structures, as judged from their circular dichroism (c.d.) spectra. The spectral characteristics of stem bromelain suggest that this enzyme belongs to the alpha + beta protein class, as other cysteine proteinases do. In agreement with these results, quantitative estimation of secondary structures yielded amounts similar to those for papain and proteinase omega. However, the bromelain c.d. curve is clearly distinguishable from those reported for papain and proteinase omega, on one hand, and that of chymopapain, on the other. Thus, it is apparent that there are at least three types of c.d. spectra associated with the family of cysteine proteinases. PMID:8198520

  15. Pineapple stem bromelain immobilized on different supports: catalytic properties in model wine.

    PubMed

    Ilaria, Benucci; Marco, Esti; Katia, Liburdi; Maria Vittoria, Garzillo Anna

    2012-01-01

    Bromelain from pineapple stem has been covalently immobilized on different supports to select the more efficient biocatalyst that should be applied toward unstable proteins in real white wine. In this preliminary study, catalytic properties of different immobilized bromelain forms were compared under wine-like conditions, against a synthetic substrate (Bz-Phe-Val-Arg-pNA).Covalent immobilization affected protease kinetic properties, even if all immobilized forms presented both a better substrate affinity and higher half-life (with the exception of a few procedures) with respect to the free enzyme. Stem bromelain was successfully immobilized on chitosan beads without glutaraldehyde thus yielding a food-safe and promising biocatalyst for unstable real wine future application. Copyright © 2012 American Institute of Chemical Engineers (AIChE).

  16. Proteolytic Enzymes in Detergents: Evidence of Their Presence through Activity Measurements Based on Electrophoresis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saperas, Nuria; Fonfria-Subiros, Elsa

    2011-01-01

    This laboratory exercise uses a problem-based approach to expose students to some basic concepts relating to proteins and enzymes. One of the main applications of enzymes at the industrial level is their use in the detergent market. The students examine a detergent sample to ascertain whether proteolytic enzymes are a component and, if so, which…

  17. Bromelain in the early phase of healing in acute crush Achilles tendon injury.

    PubMed

    Aiyegbusi, A I; Duru, F I O; Anunobi, C C; Noronha, C C; Okanlawon, A O

    2011-01-01

    Bromelain, an enzyme extracted from the stem of the pineapple plant has been proposed as a treatment for reducing pain and swelling following acute muscle injuries but studies are yet to be done on its effect on tendon healing. This study therefore investigated the effects of bromelain on tenocyte proliferation and the tendon malondialdehyde (MDA) level in the early stage of healing in a crush injury to the Achilles tendon of Sprague-Dawley rats. Twenty four male rats were divided randomly into three groups; groups 2 and 3 had induced crush injury to the left Achilles tendon. Group 1; nil injury and nil treatment, Group 2; nil treatment, Group 3; oral bromelain treatment. Bromelain was given at a dosage of 7 mg/kg body weight daily over the first 14 days post-injury. On day 15 post injury, the animals were killed and the tendons excised and processed for histological study and MDA assay. The results showed a significant increase in the tenocyte population in the bromelain group; p < 0.05. There was, however, no significant difference in the MDA level. Based on this study, 600 GDU bromelain given once daily in acute tendon injury at a dosage of 7 mg/kg promoted healing by stimulating tenocyte proliferation. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Extraction of bromelain from pineapple peels.

    PubMed

    Ketnawa, S; Chaiwut, P; Rawdkuen, S

    2011-08-01

    Large amount of pineapple peels (by-products) is left over after processing and they are a potential source for bromelain extraction. Distilled water (DI), DI containing cysteine and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) (DI-CE), sodium phosphate buffer pH 7.0 (PB) and PB containing cysteine and EDTA (PB-CE) were used as extractants for bromelain from the pineapple peels. The highest bromelain activity was obtained when it was extracted with PB-CE (867 and 1032 units for Nang Lae and Phu Lae cultv, respectively). The PB could maintain the pH of the extract (pH 5.1-5.7) when compared with others. Under sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, the extract showed protein bands in the range 24-28 kDa. The protein band with a molecular weight of ∼28 kDa exposed the clear zone on blue background under the casein-substrate gel electrophoresis. The effects of the bromelain extract on the protein patterns of beef, chicken and squid muscles were also determined. Trichloroacetic acid soluble peptide content of all the treated muscles increased when the amount of bromelain extract increased. Decrease in myosin heavy chains and actin was observed in all the muscle types when bromelain extract was used. The best extractant for bromelain from pineapple peels was PB-CE. Moreover, bromelain extract could be used as a muscle food tenderizing agent in food industries.

  19. Stem bromelain-induced macrophage apoptosis and activation curtail Mycobacterium tuberculosis persistence.

    PubMed

    Mahajan, Sahil; Chandra, Vemika; Dave, Sandeep; Nanduri, Ravikanth; Gupta, Pawan

    2012-08-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the causative agent of tuberculosis, has a remarkable ability to usurp its host's innate immune response, killing millions of infected people annually. One approach to manage infection is prevention through the use of natural agents. In this regard, stem bromelain (SBM), a pharmacologically active member of the sulfhydryl proteolytic enzyme family, obtained from Ananas comosus and possessing a remarkable ability to induce the innate and acquired immune systems, is important. We evaluated SBM's ability to induce apoptosis and free-radical generation in macrophages. We also studied antimycobacterial properties of SBM and its effect on foamy macrophages. SBM treatment of peritoneal macrophages resulted in the upregulation of proapoptotic proteins and downregulation of antiapoptotic proteins. Additionally, SBM treatment activated macrophages, curtailed the levels of free glutathione, and augmented the production of hydrogen peroxide, superoxide anion, peroxynitrite, and nitric oxide. SBM cleaves CD36 and reduced the formation of foam cells, the hallmark of M. tuberculosis infection. These conditions created an environment for the increased clearance of M. tuberculosis. Together these data provide a mechanism for antimycobacterial activity of SBM and provide important insights for the use of cysteine proteases as immunomodulatory agents.

  20. Poly(N-Isopropylacrylamide)-co-Acrylamide Hydrogels for the Controlled Release of Bromelain from Agroindustrial Residues of Ananas comosus.

    PubMed

    Croisfelt, Fernanda; Martins, Bianca C; Rescolino, Robson; Coelho, Diego F; Zanchetta, Beatriz; Mazzola, Priscila G; Goulart, Luis Ricardo; Pessoa, Adalberto; Tambourgi, Elias B; Silveira, Edgar

    2015-12-01

    This works reports the purification of bromelain extracted from Ananas comosus industrial residues by ethanol purification, its partial characterization from the crude extract as well as the ethanol purified enzyme, and its application onto poly(N-isopropylacrylamide)-co-acrylamide hydrogels. Bromelain was recovered within the 30-70 % ethanol fraction, which achieved a purification factor of 3.12-fold, and yielded more than 90 % of its initial activity. The resulting purified bromelain contained more than 360 U · mg(-1), with a maximum working temperature of 60 °C and pH of 8.0. Poly(N-isopropylacrylamide)-co-acrylamide hydrogels presented a swelling rate of 125 %, which was capable of loading 56 % of bromelain from the solution, and was able to release up to 91 % of the retained bromelain. Ethanol precipitation is suitable for bromelain recovery and application onto poly(N-isopropylacrylamide)-co-acrylamide hydrogels based on its processing time and the applied ethanol prices. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  1. Effects on fibrinogen, fibrin, and blood coagulation of proteolytic extracts from fruits of Pseudananas macrodontes, Bromelia balansae, and B. hieronymi (Bromeliaceae) in comparison with bromelain.

    PubMed

    Errasti, María E; Prospitti, Anabela; Viana, Carolina A; Gonzalez, Mariana M; Ramos, Márcio V; Rotelli, Alejandra E; Caffini, Néstor O

    2016-06-01

    Extracts rich in cysteine proteases obtained from fruits of Pseudananas macrodontes (Pm), Bromelia balansae (Bb), and B. hieronymi (Bh) have previously shown an anti-inflammatory effect on animal models. Given the close relationship between hemostasis and inflammation, it is attractive to investigate therapeutic agents capable of modulating both systems. The aim of this work was to study the effect of Pm, Bb, and Bh on fibrin(ogen) and blood coagulation compared with stem bromelain (Bro). Action on fibrinogen was electrophoretically and spectrophotometrically evaluated, fibrinolytic activity was measured both electrophoretically and by the fibrin plate assay, and the effect on blood coagulation was studied by conventional coagulation tests (PT and APPT). All extracts showed the same proteolytic preference for fibrinogen subunits, that is Aα > Bβ, whereas γ was partially hydrolyzed by 100-fold concentration increase. Unlike Bro, cysteine proteases of Pm, Bb, and Bh increased absorbance at 540 nm of fibrinogen solution, suggesting thrombin-like activity, which was time-dependent and reached maximum values at lower concentration. All extracts showed the same proteolytic preference for fibrin subunits; however Pm, Bb, and Bh showed lower fibrinolytic activity than Bro at the assayed concentrations. Although Bb acted only as anticoagulant, Pm, Bh, and unexpectedly Bro showed dual action on blood coagulation: at low concentration showed procoagulant effect and at high concentration anticoagulant effect. Results reveal new plant species as potential sources of pharmacological agents for the treatment of a wide range of hemostatic disorders as well as to wound healing.

  2. Improved WOMAC score following 16-week treatment with bromelain for knee osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Kasemsuk, Thitima; Saengpetch, Nadhaporn; Sibmooh, Nathawut; Unchern, Supeenun

    2016-10-01

    Treatment with bromelain-containing enzyme preparation for 3-4 weeks is effective for treatment of knee osteoarthritis (OA). Here, we aimed to assess 16-week treatment with bromelain in mild-to-moderate knee OA patients. We performed a randomized, single-blind, active-controlled pilot study. Forty knee OA patients were randomized to receive oral bromelain (500 mg/day) or diclofenac (100 mg/day). Primary outcome was the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) analyzed by Wilcoxon signed rank test. Secondary outcome was the short-form 36 (SF-36). Plasma malondialdehyde (MDA) and nitrite were measured as oxidative stress markers. There was no difference in WOMAC and SF-36 scores compared between bromelain and diclofenac groups after 4 weeks. At week 4, the improvement of total WOMAC and pain subscales from baseline was observed in both groups; however, two patients given diclofenac had adverse effects leading to discontinuation of diclofenac. However, observed treatment difference was inconclusive. At week 16 of bromelain treatment, the patients had improved total WOMAC scores (12.2 versus 25.5), pain subscales (2.4 versus 5.6), stiffness subscales (0.8 versus 2.0), and function subscales (9.1 versus 17.9), and physical component of SF-36 (73.3 versus 65.4) as compared with baseline values. OA patients had higher plasma MDA, nitrite, and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated whole blood but lower plasma α-tocopherol than control subjects. Plasma MDA and LPS-stimulated PGE2 production were decreased at week 16 of bromelain treatment. Bromelain has no difference in reducing symptoms of mild-to-moderate knee OA after 4 weeks when compared with diclofenac.

  3. Functional characterization of recombinant bromelain of Ananas comosus expressed in a prokaryotic system.

    PubMed

    George, Susan; Bhasker, Salini; Madhav, Harish; Nair, Archana; Chinnamma, Mohankumar

    2014-02-01

    Bromelain (BRM) is a defense protein present in the fruit and stem of pineapple (Ananas comosus) and it is grouped as a cysteine protease enzyme with diversified medicinal uses. Based on its therapeutic applications, bromelain has got sufficient attention in pharmaceutical industries. In the present study, the full coding gene of bromelain in pineapple stem (1,093 bp) was amplified by RT-PCR. The PCR product was cloned, sequenced, and characterized. The sequence analysis of the gene revealed the single nucleotide polymorphism and its phylogenetic relatedness. The peptide sequence deduced from the gene showed the amino acid variations, physicochemical properties and secondary and tertiary structural features of the protein. The full BRM gene was transformed to prokaryotic vector pET32b and expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 DE3pLysS host cells successfully. The identity of the recombinant bromelain (rBRM) protein was confirmed by Western blot analysis using anti-BRM-rabbit IgG antibody. The activity of recombinant bromelain compared with purified native bromelain was determined by protease assay. The inhibitory effect of rBRM compared with native BRM in the growth of Gram-positive and Gram-negative strains of Streptococcus agalactiae and Escherichia coli O111 was evident from the antibacterial sensitivity test. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report showing the bactericidal property of rBRM expressed in a prokaryotic system.

  4. An Extended AE-Rich N-Terminal Trunk in Secreted Pineapple Cystatin Enhances Inhibition of Fruit Bromelain and Is Posttranslationally Removed during Ripening1[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Neuteboom, Leon W.; Matsumoto, Kristie O.; Christopher, David A.

    2009-01-01

    Phytocystatins are potent inhibitors of cysteine proteases and have been shown to participate in senescence, seed and organ biogenesis, and plant defense. However, phytocystatins are generally poor inhibitors of the cysteine protease, bromelain, of pineapple (Ananas comosus). Here, we demonstrated that pineapple cystatin, AcCYS1, inhibited (>95%) stem and fruit bromelain. AcCYS1 is a unique cystatin in that it contains an extended N-terminal trunk (NTT) of 63 residues rich in alanine and glutamate. A signal peptide preceding the NTT is processed in vitro by microsomal membranes giving rise to a 27-kD species. AcCYS1 mRNA was present in roots and leaves but was most abundant in fruit. Using immunofluorescence and immunoelectron microscopy with an AcCYS1-specific antiserum, AcCYS1 was found in the apoplasm. Immunoblot analysis identified a 27-kD protein in fruit, roots, and leaves and a 15-kD species in mature ripe fruit. Ripe fruit extracts proteolytically removed the NTT of 27-kD AcCYS1 in vitro to produce the 15-kD species. Mass spectrometry analysis was used to map the primary cleavage site immediately after a conserved critical glycine-94. The AE-rich NTT was required to inhibit fruit and stem bromelain (>95%), whereas its removal decreased inhibition to 20% (fruit) and 80% (stem) and increased the dissociation equilibrium constant by 1.8-fold as determined by surface plasmon resonance assays. We propose that proteolytic removal of the NTT results in the decrease of the inhibitory potency of AcCYS1 against fruit bromelain during fruit ripening to increase tissue proteolysis, softening, and degradation. PMID:19648229

  5. Resistance of bromelain to SDS binding.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharya, Reema; Bhattacharyya, Debasish

    2009-04-01

    Interaction of the plant cysteine protease bromelain with SDS has been studied using CD spectroscopy, intrinsic fluorescence emission, extrinsic fluorescence probe pyrene, isothermal calorimetric (ITC) investigations and inhibition of hydrolyzing activity. Results exhibit number of synchronous transitions when plotted against the total SDS concentration. SDS at submicellar level caused conformation change of bromelain leading to a stable entity. ITC and pyrene experiments suggest that the structural modifications below 5 mM, the cmc(app) of SDS solutions containing bromelain, are the result of alterations of solvent hydrophobicity or non-specific weak binding and/or adsorption of SDS monomers. Melting temperature (T(m)) and the free energy change for thermal unfolding (DeltaG(unf)) of the SDS induced conformers was decreased by 5 degrees C and 0.5 kcal/mol respectively, compared to native bromelain. Below 5 mM, SDS caused large decrease in V(max) without affecting K(m) for the substrate Z-Arg-Arg-NHMec. Analysis of kinetic data imply that SDS acts as a partial non-competitive inhibitor since even at 100 mM, the residual activity of bromelain was retained by 3%. Inhibition studies show an IC(50) of 0.55 mM and a high K(i) of 0.145 mM. These demonstrate that bromelain is resistant to SDS binding and denaturation, a property known for beta-sheet rich kinetically stable proteins.

  6. [No clinical evidence for an enhanced bleeding tendency due to perioperative treatment with bromelain].

    PubMed

    Johann, K; Eschmann, K; Meiser, P

    2011-06-01

    Systemic enzyme therapy with bromelain resembles a sensible alternative to nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs for the treatment of sports injuries, with particular consideration of therapeutic benefits and possible risks. Beyond aftertreatment of sports injuries, bromelain is used postoperatively as well. Besides the desired effects remission of oedema and pain relief, however, the postoperative use of bromelain raises uncertainty in some patients and physicians since an enhanced bleeding tendency in case of concomitant therapy with anticoagulants was described as a possible interaction. Therefore, the goal of this study was to investigate the clinical relevance of this interaction. In two non-interventional studies, altogether 260 patients were peri- or postoperatively (cruciate ligament- or coxarthrosis surgery) treated with bromelain (n = 129, 1000 - 3000 F. I. P. units/day) or diclofenac (n = 131; 150 mg/day) under concomitant thrombosis prophylaxis with low molecular weight heparin. Parameters tested were prothrombin time, thrombin time, activated partial thromboplastin time, fibrinogen and tolerability of the medication. Only marginal changes and a low variability of coagulation parameters were observed in both treatment groups (bromelain vs. diclofenac) in both studies. Elevated laboratory parameters were observed in both treatment groups for thrombin time which is very likely attributable to the therapy with low molecular weight heparin, due to the substantially parallel course of this parameter in both treatment groups. Therapy with bromelain was superior to the treatment with diclofenac concerning the number and the severity of undesirable effects, as was expected. The presented studies therefore support the previous clinical evidence that a perioperative treatment with bromelain is well tolerated and does not lead to an increased risk of haemorrhage when used concomitantly with low molecular weight heparin. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New

  7. Bromelain Reversibly Inhibits Invasive Properties of Glioma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Tysnes, Berit B; Maurer, H Rainer; Porwol, Torsten; Probst, Beatrice; Bjerkvig, Rolf; Hoover, Frank

    2001-01-01

    Abstract Bromelain is an aqueous extract from pineapple stem that contains proteinases and exhibits pleiotropic therapeutic effects, i.e., antiedematous, antiinflammatory, antimetastatic, antithrombotic, and fibrinolytic activities. In this study, we tested bromelain's effects on glioma cells to assess whether bromelain could be a potential contributor to new antiinvasive strategies for gliomas. Several complementary assays demonstrated that bromelain significantly and reversibly reduced glioma cell adhesion, migration, and invasion without affecting cell viability, even after treatment periods extending over several months. Immunohistochemistry and immunoblotting experiments demonstrated that α3 and β1 integrin subunits and hyaluronan receptor CD44 protein levels were reduced within 24 hours of bromelain treatment. These effects were not reflected at the RNA level because RNA profiling did not show any significant effects on gene expression. Interestingly, metabolic labelling with 35-S methionine demonstrated that de novo protein synthesis was greatly attenuated by bromelain, in a reversible manner. By using a trans-activating signaling assay, we found that CRE-mediated signaling processes were suppressed. These results indicate that bromelain exerts its antiinvasive effects by proteolysis, signaling cascades, and translational attenuation. PMID:11774029

  8. Surface Plasmon Resonance Imaging biosensor for cystatin determination based on the application of bromelain, ficin and chymopapain.

    PubMed

    Gorodkiewicz, Ewa; Breczko, Joanna; Sankiewicz, Anna

    2012-04-24

    A Surface Plasmon Resonance Imaging (SPRI) sensor based on bromelain or chymopapain or ficin has been developed for specific cystatin determination. Cystatin was captured from a solution by immobilized bromelain or chymopapain or ficin due to the formation of an enzyme-inhibitor complex on the biosensor surface. The influence of bromelain, chymopapain or ficin concentration, as well as the pH of the interaction on the SPRI signal, was investigated and optimized. Sensor dynamic response range is between 0-0.6 μg/ml and the detection limit is equal to 0.1 μg/ml. In order to demonstrate the sensor potential, cystatin was determined in blood plasma, urine and saliva, showing good agreement with the data reported in the literature.

  9. Pancreatic Proteolytic Enzyme Therapy Compared With Gemcitabine-Based Chemotherapy for the Treatment of Pancreatic Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Chabot, John A.; Tsai, Wei-Yann; Fine, Robert L.; Chen, Chunxia; Kumah, Carolyn K.; Antman, Karen A.; Grann, Victor R.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose Conventional medicine has had little to offer patients with inoperable pancreatic adenocarcinoma; thus, many patients seek alternative treatments. The National Cancer Institute, in 1998, sponsored a randomized, phase III, controlled trial of proteolytic enzyme therapy versus chemotherapy. Because most eligible patients refused random assignment, the trial was changed in 2001 to a controlled, observational study. Methods All patients were seen by one of the investigators at Columbia University, and patients who received enzyme therapy were seen by the participating alternative practitioner. Of 55 patients who had inoperable pancreatic cancer, 23 elected gemcitabine-based chemotherapy, and 32 elected enzyme treatment, which included pancreatic enzymes, nutritional supplements, detoxification, and an organic diet. Primary and secondary outcomes were overall survival and quality of life, respectively. Results At enrollment, the treatment groups had no statistically significant differences in patient characteristics, pathology, quality of life, or clinically meaningful laboratory values. Kaplan-Meier analysis found a 9.7-month difference in median survival between the chemotherapy group (median survival, 14 months) and enzyme treatment groups (median survival, 4.3 months) and found an adjusted-mortality hazard ratio of the enzyme group compared with the chemotherapy group of 6.96 (P < .001). At 1 year, 56% of chemotherapy-group patients were alive, and 16% of enzyme-therapy patients were alive. The quality of life ratings were better in the chemotherapy group than in the enzyme-treated group (P < .01). Conclusion Among patients who have pancreatic cancer, those who chose gemcitabine-based chemotherapy survived more than three times as long (14.0 v 4.3 months) and had better quality of life than those who chose proteolytic enzyme treatment. PMID:19687327

  10. Proteolytic enzymes from Bromelia antiacantha as tools for controlled tissue hydrolysis in entomology.

    PubMed

    Macció, Laura; Vallés, Diego; Cantera, Ana Maria

    2013-12-01

    A crude extract with high proteolytic activity (78.1 EU/mL), prepared from ripe fruit of Bromelia antiacantha was used to hydrolyze and remove soft tissues from the epigyne of Apopyllus iheringi. This enzymatic extract presented four actives isoforms which have a broad substrate specificity action. Enzyme action on samples was optimized after evaluation under different conditions of pH, enzyme-substrate ratio and time (parameters selected based on previous studies) of treatment (pH 4.0, 6.0 and 8.0 at 42°C with different amount of enzyme). Scanning electron microscopy was used to evaluate conditions resulting in complete digestion of epigyne soft tissues. Optimal conditions for soft tissue removal were 15.6 total enzyme units, pH 6.0 for 18 h at 42°C.

  11. Bromelain: an overview of industrial application and purification strategies.

    PubMed

    Arshad, Zatul Iffah Mohd; Amid, Azura; Yusof, Faridah; Jaswir, Irwandi; Ahmad, Kausar; Loke, Show Pau

    2014-09-01

    This review highlights the use of bromelain in various applications with up-to-date literature on the purification of bromelain from pineapple fruit and waste such as peel, core, crown, and leaves. Bromelain, a cysteine protease, has been exploited commercially in many applications in the food, beverage, tenderization, cosmetic, pharmaceutical, and textile industries. Researchers worldwide have been directing their interest to purification strategies by applying conventional and modern approaches, such as manipulating the pH, affinity, hydrophobicity, and temperature conditions in accord with the unique properties of bromelain. The amount of downstream processing will depend on its intended application in industries. The breakthrough of recombinant DNA technology has facilitated the large-scale production and purification of recombinant bromelain for novel applications in the future.

  12. Potential role of bromelain in clinical and therapeutic applications

    PubMed Central

    Rathnavelu, Vidhya; Alitheen, Noorjahan Banu; Sohila, Subramaniam; Kanagesan, Samikannu; Ramesh, Rajendran

    2016-01-01

    Pineapple has been used as part of traditional folk medicine since ancient times and it continues to be present in various herbal preparations. Bromelain is a complex mixture of protease extracted from the fruit or stem of the pineapple plant. Although the complete molecular mechanism of action of bromelain has not been completely identified, bromelain gained universal acceptability as a phytotherapeutic agent due to its history of safe use and lack of side effects. Bromelain is widely administered for its well-recognized properties, such as its anti-inflammatory, antithrombotic and fibrinolytic affects, anticancer activity and immunomodulatory effects, in addition to being a wound healing and circulatory improvement agent. The current review describes the promising clinical applications and therapeutic properties of bromelain. PMID:27602208

  13. Cytokinetic study of MCF-7 cells treated with commercial and recombinant bromelain.

    PubMed

    Fouz, Nour; Amid, Azura; Hashim, Yumi Zuhanis Has-Yun

    2014-01-01

    Breast cancer is a leading cause of death in women. The available chemotherapy drugs have been associated with many side effects. Bromelain has novel medicinal qualities including anti-inflammatory, anti-thrombotic, fibrinolytic and anti-cancer functions. Commercially available bromelain is obtained through tedious methods; therefore, recombinant bromelain may provide a cheaper and simpler choice with similar quality. This study aimed to assess the effects of commercial and recombinant bromelain on the cytokinetic behavior of MCF-7 breast cancer cells and their potential as therapeutic alternatives in cancer treatment. Cytotoxic activities of commercial and recombinant bromelain were determined using (sulforhodamine) SRB assay. Next, cell viability assays were conducted to determine effects of commercial and recombinant bromelain on MCF-7 cell cytokinetic behavior. Finally, the established growth kinetic data were used to modify a model that predicts the effects of commercial and recombinant bromelain on MCF-7 cells. Commercial and recombinant bromelain exerted strong effects towards decreasing the cell viability of MCF-7 cells with IC50 values of 5.13 μg/mL and 6.25 μg/mL, respectively, compared to taxol with an IC50 value of 0.063 μg/mL. The present results indicate that commercial and recombinant bromelain both have anti-proliferative activity, reduced the number of cell generations from 3.92 to 2.81 for commercial bromelain and to 2.86 for recombinant bromelain, while with taxol reduction was to 3.12. Microscopic observation of bromelain-treated MCF-7 cells demonstrated detachment. Inhibition activity was verified with growth rates decreased dynamically from 0.009 h-1 to 0.0059 h-1 for commercial bromelain and to 0.0063 h-1 for recombinant bromelain. Commercial and recombinant bromelain both affect cytokinetics of MCF-7 cells by decreasing cell viability, demonstrating similar strength to taxol.

  14. Toxicity reduction and MMP-2 stimulation of papain and bromelain loaded in elastic niosomes.

    PubMed

    Manosroi, Aranya; Chankhampan, Charinya; Manosroi, Worapaka; Manosroi, Jiradej

    2012-10-01

    The elastic niosomes (Tween 61/cholesterol/sodium cholate at 1:1:0.1 molar ratio) loaded with the protease enzymes (papain and bromelain) gave the vesicular sizes of 109.5 to 143.9 nm with the negative zeta potential of -14.7 to -30.1 mv. The elastic niosomes loaded with the standard papain (PS), extracted papain (PE), standard bromelain (BS) and extracted bromelain (BE) showed deformability index (DI values) of 1.35, 1.81, 1.22 and 1.61 times higher than their corresponding non-elastic niosomes, respectively. The elastic niosomes did not only improve the entrapment efficiency of the enzymes over the non-elastic niosomes of about 1.35 times, but also reduced the toxicity on skin human fibroblasts by SRB assay of the PS, PE, BS and BE at 1.68, 2.10, 1.56 and 1.52 times, respectively. The relative MMP-2 stimulation of PS, PE, BS and BE loaded in elastic niosomes were 1.26 +/- 0.14, 1.34 +/- 0.15, 1.09 +/- 0.09 and 1.20 +/- 0.04 for the pro MMP-2 and 1.26 +/- 0.12, 1.41 +/- 0.23, 1.01 +/- 0.08 and 1.03 +/- 0.12 for the active MMP-2, respectively in comparing to the control which were similar activity to their free enzymes. The PE loaded in elastic niosomes gave superior characteristics (low cytotoxicity and high MMP-2 stimulation) to other enzymes. The elastic niosomes can enhance the chemical stability of PE, which exhibited higher remaining contents than the free PE of 1.36 times when kept at 27 +/- 2 degrees C after 8 weeks. Therefore, the extracted papain loaded in elastic niosomes appeared to have potential to be developed as a topical product for scar treatment.

  15. Substrate-permeable encapsulation of enzymes maintains effective activity, stabilizes against denaturation, and protects against proteolytic degradation.

    PubMed

    Nasseau, M; Boublik, Y; Meier, W; Winterhalter, M; Fournier, D

    2001-12-05

    How can enzymes be protected against denaturation and proteolysis while keeping them in a fully functional state? One solution is to encapsulate the enzymes into liposomes, which enhances their stability against denaturation and proteases. However, the permeability barrier of the lipid membrane drastically reduces the activity of enzyme entrapped in the liposome by reducing the internal concentration of the substrate. To overcome this problem, we permeabilized the wall of the liposome by reconstitution of a porin from Escherichia coli. In this way, we recovered the full functionality of the enzyme while retaining the protection against denaturation and proteolytic enzymes. Copyright 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  16. Production of Proteolytic Enzymes by a Keratin-Degrading Aspergillus niger

    PubMed Central

    Lopes, Fernanda Cortez; Silva, Lucas André Dedavid e; Tichota, Deise Michele; Daroit, Daniel Joner; Velho, Renata Voltolini; Pereira, Jamile Queiroz; Corrêa, Ana Paula Folmer; Brandelli, Adriano

    2011-01-01

    A fungal isolate with capability to grow in keratinous substrate as only source of carbon and nitrogen was identified as Aspergillus niger using the sequencing of the ITS region of the rDNA. This strain produced a slightly acid keratinase and an acid protease during cultivation in feather meal. The peak of keratinolytic activity occurred in 48 h and the maximum proteolytic activity in 96 h. These enzymes were partly characterized as serine protease and aspartic protease, respectively. The effects of feather meal concentration and initial pH on enzyme production were evaluated using a central composite design combined with response surface methodology. The optimal conditions were determined as pH 5.0 for protease and 7.8 for keratinase and 20 g/L of feather meal, showing that both models were predictive. Production of keratinases by A. niger is a less-exploited field that might represent a novel and promising biotechnological application for this microorganism. PMID:22007293

  17. A Comparative Study of New Aspergillus Strains for Proteolytic Enzymes Production by Solid State Fermentation

    PubMed Central

    Ortiz, Gastón Ezequiel; Noseda, Diego Gabriel; Ponce Mora, María Clara; Recupero, Matías Nicolás; Blasco, Martín; Albertó, Edgardo

    2016-01-01

    A comparative study of the proteolytic enzymes production using twelve Aspergillus strains previously unused for this purpose was performed by solid state fermentation. A semiquantitative and quantitative evaluation of proteolytic activity were carried out using crude enzymatic extracts obtained from the fermentation cultures, finding seven strains with high and intermediate level of protease activity. Biochemical, thermodynamics, and kinetics features such as optimum pH and temperature values, thermal stability, activation energy (E a), quotient energy (Q 10), K m, and V max were studied in four enzymatic extracts from the selected strains that showed the highest productivity. Additionally, these strains were evaluated by zymogram analysis obtaining protease profiles with a wide range of molecular weight for each sample. From these four strains with the highest productivity, the proteolytic extract of A. sojae ATCC 20235 was shown to be an appropriate biocatalyst for hydrolysis of casein and gelatin substrates, increasing its antioxidant activities in 35% and 125%, respectively. PMID:26989505

  18. Spatial characterization of proteolytic enzyme activity in the foregut region of the adult necrophagous fly, Protophormia terraenovae.

    PubMed

    Rivers, David B; Acca, Gillian; Fink, Marc; Brogan, Rebecca; Schoeffield, Andrew

    2014-08-01

    The spatial distribution of proteolytic enzymes in the adult foregut of Protophormia terraenovae was studied in the context of protein digestion and regurgitation. Based on substrate specificity, pH optima, and use of specific protease inhibitors, all adults tested displayed enzyme activity in the foregut consistent with pepsin, trypsin and chymotrypsin. Chymotrypsin-like and trypsin-like enzyme activity were detected in all gut fluids and tissues tested, with chymotrypsin displaying the highest activity in saliva and salivary gland tissue, whereas maximal trypsin activity was evident in the crop. Pepsin-like activity was only evident in crop fluids and tissues. The activity of all three enzymes was low or undetectable (pepsin) in the fluids and tissue homogenates derived from the esophagus and cardia of any of the adults assayed. Fed adult females displayed higher enzyme activities than fed males, and the activity of all three enzymes were much more prevalent in fed adults than starved. The pH optimum of the trypsin-like enzyme was between pH 7.0 and 8.0; chymotrypsin was near pH 8.0; and maximal pepsin-like activity occurred between pH 1.0 and 2.0. Regurgitate from fed adult females displayed enzyme activity consistent with the proteolytic enzymes detected in crop gut fluids. Enzymes in regurgitate were not derived from food sources based on assays of bovine liver samples. These latter observations suggest that adult flies release fluids from foregut when encountering dry foods, potentially as a means to initiate extra-oral digestion. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. The role of proteolytic enzymes in degradation of plant tissues: Summary report

    SciTech Connect

    Lewosz, J.; Kelman, A.; Sequeira, L.

    1989-01-01

    The proteolytic enzymes produced by Erwinia carotovora subsp. carotovora (Ecc-strain SR 394) grown on various media were examined by isoelectrofocusing in polyacrylamide gels over a pH range of 3-10. In addition to the main protease present in culture filtrates, low concentrations of several other proteases were present in extracts from potato tubers infected by Ecc. Proteases from all these sources were similar and had the following properties: pH optimum near 8.0, calcium dependent, insensitive to serine proteinase and SH-proteinase inhibitors, inhibited by EDTA, and highly thermostable. These enzymes degraded gelatin, soluble collagen and Hide Powder Azure, and showed weak activitymore » on casein, but did not degrade insoluble collagen or elastin.« less

  20. Optimization of Bromelain-Aided Production of Angiotensin I-Converting Enzyme Inhibitory Hydrolysates from Stone Fish Using Response Surface Methodology.

    PubMed

    Muhammad Auwal, Shehu; Zarei, Mohammad; Abdul-Hamid, Azizah; Saari, Nazamid

    2017-03-31

    The stone fish is an under-utilized sea cucumber with many nutritional and ethno-medicinal values. This study aimed to establish the conditions for its optimum hydrolysis with bromelain to generate angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE)-inhibitory hydrolysates. Response surface methodology (RSM) based on a central composite design was used to model and optimize the degree of hydrolysis (DH) and ACE-inhibitory activity. Process conditions including pH (4-7), temperature (40-70 °C), enzyme/substrate (E/S) ratio (0.5%-2%) and time (30-360 min) were used. A pH of 7.0, temperature of 40 °C, E/S ratio of 2% and time of 240 min were determined using a response surface model as the optimum levels to obtain the maximum ACE-inhibitory activity of 84.26% at 44.59% degree of hydrolysis. Hence, RSM can serve as an effective approach in the design of experiments to improve the antihypertensive effect of stone fish hydrolysates, which can thus be used as a value-added ingredient for various applications in the functional foods industries.

  1. Debriding effect of bromelain on firearm wounds in pigs.

    PubMed

    Hu, Wei; Wang, Ai-Min; Wu, Si-Yu; Zhang, Bo; Liu, Shuai; Gou, Yuan-Bin; Wang, Jian-Min

    2011-10-01

    Wound excision is the standard treatment for firearm wounds. However, achieving a satisfactory curative effect is difficult because of the traumatic mechanism of high-velocity projectiles. We propose a new therapy by using topical bromelain as a supplement to wound incision for the debridement of firearm wounds. We clarified the debriding effect of bromelain on firearm wounds in pigs. In vitro, muscle tissues around the wound track and normal muscle were incubated in bromelain solutions of different concentrations. Tissue hydrolization was estimated by measuring tissue weight and the release of total amino acids. In vivo, the hind limbs of 15 pigs were wounded with high-velocity projectiles. Five groups were classified as follows: wound excision (E), wound incision (I), bromelain (B), incision + bromelain (IB), and control (C). Debriding effectiveness was estimated using bacterial content, histopathologic examination, and wound healing time. In vitro, hydrolization of wound tissue was significantly more intensive than that of normal tissue. Bromelain solution (10 mg/mL) hydrolyzed wound tissue rapidly with minimal proteolysis of normal tissue. In vivo, the wound-track bacterial content of group IB was similar to that of group E and was significantly lower than that of groups I, B, and C. The wound healing time of group IB was also shorter. Bromelain is effective in the debridement of uncomplicated firearm wounds if used as a supplement to simple wound incision. This new therapy shows notable advantages over conventional surgical debridement as it greatly simplifies the procedures.

  2. Sensitive microplate assay for the detection of proteolytic enzymes using radiolabeled gelatin

    SciTech Connect

    Robertson, B.D.; Kwan-Lim, G.E.; Maizels, R.M.

    1988-07-01

    A sensitive, microplate assay is described for the detection of a wide range of proteolytic enzymes, using radio-iodine-labeled gelatin as substrate. The technique uses the Bolton-Hunter reagent to label the substrate, which is then coated onto the wells of polyvinyl chloride microtiter plates. By measuring the radioactivity released the assay is able to detect elastase, trypsin, and collagenase in concentrations of 1 ng/ml or less, while the microtiter format permits multiple sample handling and minimizes sample volumes required for analysis.

  3. In vivo antitumoral activity of stem pineapple (Ananas comosus) bromelain.

    PubMed

    Báez, Roxana; Lopes, Miriam T; Salas, Carlos E; Hernández, Martha

    2007-10-01

    Stem bromelain (EC 3.4.22.32) is a major cysteine proteinase, isolated from pineapple ( Ananas comosus) stem. Its main medicinal use is recognized as digestive, in vaccine formulation, antitumoral and skin debrider for the treatment of burns. To verify the identity of the principle in stem fractions responsible for the antitumoral effect, we isolated bromelain to probe its pharmacological effects. The isolated bromelain was obtained from stems of adult pineapple plants by buffered aqueous extraction and cationic chromatography. The homogeneity of bromelain was confirmed by reverse phase HPLC, SDS-PAGE and N-terminal sequencing. The in vivo antitumoral/antileukemic activity was evaluated using the following panel of tumor lines: P-388 leukemia, sarcoma (S-37), Ehrlich ascitic tumor (EAT), Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC), MB-F10 melanoma and ADC-755 mammary adenocarcinoma. Intraperitoneal administration of bromelain (1, 12.5, 25 mg/kg), began 24 h after tumor cell inoculation in experiments in which 5-fluorouracil (5-FU, 20 mg/kg) was used as positive control. The antitumoral activity was assessed by the survival increase (% survival index) following various treatments. With the exception of MB-F10 melanoma, all other tumor-bearing animals had a significantly increased survival index after bromelain treatment. The largest increase ( approximately 318 %) was attained in mice bearing EAT ascites and receiving 12.5 mg/kg of bromelain. This antitumoral effect was superior to that of 5-FU, whose survival index was approximately 263 %, relative to the untreated control. Bromelain significantly reduced the number of lung metastasis induced by LLC transplantation, as observed with 5-FU. The antitumoral activity of bromelain against S-37 and EAT, which are tumor models sensitive to immune system mediators, and the unchanged tumor progression in the metastatic model suggests that the antimetastatic action results from a mechanism independent of the primary antitumoral effect.

  4. In Vivo antiplatelet activity aggregation assay of bromelain fractionate by ethanol from extract pineapple core (Ananas comosus [l.] merr.)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Musfiroh, F. F.; Setiasih, S.; Handayani, S.; Hudiyono, S.; Ilyas, N. M.

    2018-01-01

    Processed fruit from pineapple is one of largest commodities tropical fruit production in Indonesia and will bring the waste from the skin and core. This study aims to isolate bromelain from the pineapple core (Ananas comusus) are purified by fractionation using ethanol and continued by activity test as an antiplatelets agent by in vivo method using white mice male ddy type with acetosal as positive control. Fractionation of crude enzyme bromelain with ethanol produces highest specific activity on ethanol 30-60% fraction (fraction 2) 3.107 Unit/mg and the protein content 61.25 mg with the degree of purity of 155 times compared to crude enzyme. Antiplatelet aggregation tests from in vivo method shows that faction of bromelain with doses 70 μg/KgBW, 140 μg/KgBW, and 210 μg/KgBW can increase a meaningful bleeding time. The highest percentage of increase shown by the isolate at a dose of 210 μg/KgBW in the amount of 515.10 ± 182.23%, when compared to aspirin (231.20 ± 140.66), the value is relatively higher.

  5. Online intelligent controllers for an enzyme recovery plant: design methodology and performance.

    PubMed

    Leite, M S; Fujiki, T L; Silva, F V; Fileti, A M F

    2010-12-27

    This paper focuses on the development of intelligent controllers for use in a process of enzyme recovery from pineapple rind. The proteolytic enzyme bromelain (EC 3.4.22.4) is precipitated with alcohol at low temperature in a fed-batch jacketed tank. Temperature control is crucial to avoid irreversible protein denaturation. Fuzzy or neural controllers offer a way of implementing solutions that cover dynamic and nonlinear processes. The design methodology and a comparative study on the performance of fuzzy-PI, neurofuzzy, and neural network intelligent controllers are presented. To tune the fuzzy PI Mamdani controller, various universes of discourse, rule bases, and membership function support sets were tested. A neurofuzzy inference system (ANFIS), based on Takagi-Sugeno rules, and a model predictive controller, based on neural modeling, were developed and tested as well. Using a Fieldbus network architecture, a coolant variable speed pump was driven by the controllers. The experimental results show the effectiveness of fuzzy controllers in comparison to the neural predictive control. The fuzzy PI controller exhibited a reduced error parameter (ITAE), lower power consumption, and better recovery of enzyme activity.

  6. Pineapple bromelain induces autophagy, facilitating apoptotic response in mammary carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Bhui, Kulpreet; Tyagi, Shilpa; Prakash, Bharti; Shukla, Yogeshwer

    2010-01-01

    Bromelain, from pineapple, possesses potent anticancer effects. We investigated autophagic phenomenon in mammary carcinoma cells (estrogen receptor positive and negative) under bromelain treatment and also illustrated the relationship between autophagy and apoptosis in MCF-7 cells. MCF-7 cells exposed to bromelain showed delayed growth inhibitory response and induction of autophagy, identified by monodansylcadaverine localization. It was succeeded by apoptotic cell death, evident by sub-G1 cell fraction and apoptotic features like chromatin condensation and nuclear cleavage. 3-Methyladenine (MA, autophagy inhibitor) pretreatment reduced the bromelain-induced autophagic level, also leading to decline in apoptotic population, indicating that here autophagy facilitates apoptosis. However, addition of caspase-9 inhibitor Z-LEHD-FMK augmented the autophagy levels, inhibited morphological apoptosis but did not prevent cell death. Next, we found that bromelain downregulated the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase ½ (ERK½), whereas that of c-jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and p38 kinase were upregulated. Also, MA had no influence on bromelain-suppressed ERK½ activation, yet, it downregulated JNK and p38 activation. Also, addition of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) inhibitors enhanced the autophagic ratios, which suggested the role of MAP kinases in bromelain-induced autophagy. All three MAPKs were seen to be constantly activated over the time. Bromelain was seen to induce the expressions of autophagy-related proteins, light chain 3 protein B II (LC3BII), and beclin-1. Using ERK½ inhibitor, expressions of LC3BII and beclin-1 increased, whereas p38 and JNK inhibitors decreased this protein expression, indicating that bromelain-induced autophagy was positively regulated by p38 and JNK but negatively regulated by ERK½. Autophagy-inducing property of bromelain can be further exploited in breast cancer therapy. Copyright © 2010 International Union

  7. Bromelain treatment reduces CD25 expression on activated CD4+ T cells in vitro✩

    PubMed Central

    Secor, Eric R.; Singh, Anurag; Guernsey, Linda A.; McNamara, Jeff T.; Zhan, Lijun; Maulik, Nilanjana; Thrall, Roger S.

    2009-01-01

    Bromelain (Br), an extract from pineapple stem with cysteine protease activity, exerts anti-inflammatory effects in a number of inflammatory models. We have previously shown that Br treatment decreased activated CD4+ T cells and has a therapeutic role in an ovalbumin-induced murine model of allergic airway disease. The current study was designed to determine the effect of Br on CD4+ T cell activation, specifically the expression of CD25 in vitro. CD25 is up regulated upon T cell activation, found as a soluble fraction (sCD25) and is a therapeutic target in inflammation, autoimmunity and allergy. Br treatment of anti-CD3 stimulated CD4+ T cells reduced CD25 expression in a dose and time dependent manner. This reduction of CD25 was dependent on the proteolytic action of Br as the addition of E64 (a cysteine protease inhibitor) abrogated this response. The concentration of sCD25 was increased in supernatants of Br treated activated CD4+ T cells as compared to control cells, suggesting that Br proteolytically cleaved cell-surface CD25. This novel mechanism of action identifies how Br may exert its therapeutic benefits in inflammatory conditions. PMID:19162239

  8. Bromelain Loading and Release from a Hydrogel Formulated Using Alginate and Arabic Gum.

    PubMed

    Ataide, Janaína Artem; Cefali, Letícia Caramori; Rebelo, Marcia de Araujo; Spir, Lívia Genovez; Tambourgi, Elias Basile; Jozala, Angela Faustino; Chaud, Marco Vinícius; Silveira, Edgar; Gu, Xiaochen; Gava Mazzola, Priscila

    2017-07-01

    An ideal wound dressing ensures a moist environment around the wound area and absorbs exudates from the wound surface. Topical application of bromelain to incised wounds has been shown to reprogram the wound microenvironment to promote effective tissue repair. Combining the characteristics of hydrogels and bromelain is therefore of great interest. Herein, we describe the development of a hydrogel, formulated using alginate and Arabic gum, for bromelain loading and release. The hydrogel formulation was evaluated using response surface methodology, considering the pH value and the concentration of alginate and Arabic gum. Bromelain loading and release were evaluated based on passive diffusion. Differential scanning calorimetry and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy were performed to confirm bromelain immobilization in the hydrogel. The final hydrogel formulation had a swelling ratio of 227 % and incorporated 19 % of bromelain from a bromelain solution. Bromelain immobilization in the hydrogel was the result of hydrogen bond formation and was optimal at 4 °C after 4 h of contact. This evidence suggests that bromelain entrapment into a hydrogel is a promising strategy for the development of wound dressings that support the debridement of burns and wounds. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  9. Azocasein Substrate for Determination of Proteolytic Activity: Reexamining a Traditional Method Using Bromelain Samples.

    PubMed

    Coêlho, Diego F; Saturnino, Thais Peron; Fernandes, Fernanda Freitas; Mazzola, Priscila Gava; Silveira, Edgar; Tambourgi, Elias Basile

    2016-01-01

    Given the importance of protease's worldwide market, the determination of optimum conditions and the development of a standard protocol are critical during selection of a reliable method to determine its bioactivity. This paper uses quality control theory to validate a modified version of a method proposed by Charney and Tomarelli in 1947. The results obtained showed that using azocasein substrate bromelain had its optimum at 45°C and pH 9 (Glycine-NaOH 100 mM). We also quantified the limit of detection (LoD) and limit of quantification (LoQ) in the above-mentioned optimum (0.072 and 0.494 mg·mL(-1) of azocasein, resp.) and a calibration curve that correlates optical density with the amount of substrate digested. In all analysed samples, we observed a significant decrease in response after storage (around 17%), which suggests its use must be immediately after preparation. Thus, the protocol presented in this paper offers a significant improvement, given that subjective definitions are commonly used in the literature and this simple mathematical approach makes it clear and concise.

  10. Evidence for histidine in the active sites of ficin and stem-bromelain

    PubMed Central

    Husain, S. S.; Lowe, G.

    1968-01-01

    1. Ficin and stem-bromelain are irreversibly inhibited by 1,3-dibromoacetone, a reagent designed to react first with the active-site cysteine residue and subsequently with a second nucleophile. Evidence is presented that establishes that a histidine residue is within a 5Å locus of the active-site cysteine residue in both enzymes. The histidine residue in both enzymes is alkylated at N-1 by dibromoacetone. It is suggested that, as with papain, the thiol and imidazole groups act in concert in the hydrolysis of substrates by these enzymes. 2. The inhibition of thiol-subtilisin with 1,3-dibromoacetone is shown to be due to the alkylation of a cysteine residue only. PMID:5722692

  11. Optimization of Bromelain-Aided Production of Angiotensin I-Converting Enzyme Inhibitory Hydrolysates from Stone Fish Using Response Surface Methodology

    PubMed Central

    Auwal, Shehu Muhammad; Zarei, Mohammad; Abdul-Hamid, Azizah; Saari, Nazamid

    2017-01-01

    The stone fish is an under-utilized sea cucumber with many nutritional and ethno-medicinal values. This study aimed to establish the conditions for its optimum hydrolysis with bromelain to generate angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE)-inhibitory hydrolysates. Response surface methodology (RSM) based on a central composite design was used to model and optimize the degree of hydrolysis (DH) and ACE-inhibitory activity. Process conditions including pH (4–7), temperature (40–70 °C), enzyme/substrate (E/S) ratio (0.5%–2%) and time (30–360 min) were used. A pH of 7.0, temperature of 40 °C, E/S ratio of 2% and time of 240 min were determined using a response surface model as the optimum levels to obtain the maximum ACE-inhibitory activity of 84.26% at 44.59% degree of hydrolysis. Hence, RSM can serve as an effective approach in the design of experiments to improve the antihypertensive effect of stone fish hydrolysates, which can thus be used as a value-added ingredient for various applications in the functional foods industries. PMID:28362352

  12. Upgrading food wastes by means of bromelain and papain to enhance growth and immunity of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella).

    PubMed

    Choi, W M; Lam, C L; Mo, W Y; Wong, M H

    2016-04-01

    The fast growing of global aquaculture industry accompanied with increasing pressure on the supply and price of traditional feed materials (e.g., fish meal and soy bean meal). This circumstance has urged the need to search alternative sources of feed stuff. Food waste was used as feed stuff in rearing fish which possess substantial protein and lipid. Grass carp are major species reared in Hong Kong with lower nutritional requirements; it is also an ideal species for investigating the feasibility of using food waste as fish feeds for local aquaculture industry. The growth and immunity, reflected by total protein, total immunologlobulin (IgI), and nitroblue tetrazolium (NBT) activity of grass carp blood, were depressed when feeding with food waste feeds without enzymes. However, the supplementation of bromelain and papain in fish feed enhanced the efficient use of food waste by grass carp, which in turn improved the fish immunity. The present results indicated that the addition of those enzymes could enhance the feed utilization by fish and hematological parameters of grass carp, and the improvement on growth and immunity superior to the control (commercial feed) was observed with the addition of bromelain and papain supplement. Addition of 1 and 2 % mixture of bromelain and papain could significantly enhance the lipid utilization in grass carp.

  13. Ameliorative potential of stem bromelain on lead-induced toxicity in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Al-Otaibi, Wedad Refaiea; Virk, Promy; Elobeid, Mai

    2015-06-01

    The present study investigates the protective efficacy of stem bromelain against lead-induced toxicity in male Wistar rats. There were six experimental groups; Group I was negative control, Group II was administered only 20 mg/kg of stem bromelain. Group III and V were orally exposed to 30 mg/kg/day and 60 mg/kg/day of lead acetate, respectively. Group IV and Group VI were exposed to both low and high dose of lead acetate, respectively, and treated with 20 mg/kg stem bromelain. The experimental period was 21 days. The end points evaluated were, lead accumulation in kidney, liver and spleen, alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) activity, serum malonaldehyde (MDA) cholesterol and triglycerides levels. Co-administration of stem bromelain with lead markedly reduced the lead accumulation in the kidney and spleen. The treatment of stem bromelain also reduced the serum MDA levels in the group exposed to lower dose of lead and serum triglyceride level in the group exposed to higher dose of lead. The lead-induced modulated levels of serum ALT and AST were also alleviated by bromelain treatment. Our key findings suggest a chelating potential of stem bromelain for combating lead toxicity and oxidative stress. Bromelain represents a novel approach to the treatment of metal toxicity and metabolic disorders with a limited therapeutic window.

  14. Serine proteases as candidates for proteolytic processing of angiotensin-I converting enzyme.

    PubMed

    Aragão, Danielle S; de Andrade, Maria Claudina C; Ebihara, Fabiana; Watanabe, Ingrid K M; Magalhães, Dayane C B P; Juliano, Maria Aparecida; Hirata, Izaura Yoshico; Casarini, Dulce Elena

    2015-01-01

    Somatic angiotensin-I converting enzyme (sACE) is a broadly distributed peptidase which plays a role in blood pressure and electrolyte homeostasis by the conversion of angiotensin I into angiotensin II. N-domain isoforms (nACE) with 65 and 90 kDa have been described in body fluids, tissues and mesangial cells (MC), and a 90 kDa nACE has been described only in spontaneously hypertensive rats. The aim of this study was to investigate the existence of proteolytic enzymes that may act in the hydrolysis of sACE generating nACEs in MC. After the confirmation of the presence of ACE sheddases in Immortalized MC (IMC), we purified and characterized these enzymes using fluorogenic substrates specifically designed for ACE sheddases. Purified enzyme identified as a serine protease by N-terminal sequence was able to generate nACE. In the present study, we described for the first time the presence of ACE sheddases in IMC, identified as serine proteases able to hydrolyze sACE in vitro. Further investigations are necessary to elucidate the mechanisms responsible for the expression and regulation of ACE sheddases in MC and their roles in the generation of nACEs, especially the 90 kDa form possibly related to hypertension. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. The role of enzyme supplementation in digestive disorders.

    PubMed

    Roxas, Mario

    2008-12-01

    This article reviews various forms of enzyme supplementation used clinically in digestive and absorption disorders. Enzyme supplementation plays an integral role in the management of various digestive disorders, particularly with regard to exocrine pancreatic insufficiency. However, application of enzymes may also be beneficial for other conditions associated with poor digestion including lactose intolerance. Historically, porcine and bovine pancreatic enzymes have been the preferred form of supplementation for exocrine pancreatic insufficiency. Use of microbe-derived lipase has shown promise with studies indicating benefit similar to pancreatic enzymes, but at a lower dosage concentration and with a broader pH range. Safety and efficacy of enzymes derived from microbial species in the treatment of conditions such as malabsorption and lactose intolerance is promising. Plant-based enzymes, such as bromelain from pineapple, serve as effective digestive aids in the breakdown of proteins. Synergistic effects have been observed using a combination of animal-based enzymes and microbe-derived enzymes or bromelain.

  16. Azocasein Substrate for Determination of Proteolytic Activity: Reexamining a Traditional Method Using Bromelain Samples

    PubMed Central

    Mazzola, Priscila Gava

    2016-01-01

    Given the importance of protease's worldwide market, the determination of optimum conditions and the development of a standard protocol are critical during selection of a reliable method to determine its bioactivity. This paper uses quality control theory to validate a modified version of a method proposed by Charney and Tomarelli in 1947. The results obtained showed that using azocasein substrate bromelain had its optimum at 45°C and pH 9 (Glycine-NaOH 100 mM). We also quantified the limit of detection (LoD) and limit of quantification (LoQ) in the above-mentioned optimum (0.072 and 0.494 mg·mL−1 of azocasein, resp.) and a calibration curve that correlates optical density with the amount of substrate digested. In all analysed samples, we observed a significant decrease in response after storage (around 17%), which suggests its use must be immediately after preparation. Thus, the protocol presented in this paper offers a significant improvement, given that subjective definitions are commonly used in the literature and this simple mathematical approach makes it clear and concise. PMID:26925415

  17. Proteolytic enzymes in seawater: contribution of prokaryotes and protists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obayashi, Y.; Suzuki, S.

    2016-02-01

    Proteolytic enzyme is one of the major catalysts of microbial processing of organic matter in biogeochemical cycle. Here we summarize some of our studies about proteases in seawater, including 1) distribution of protease activities in coastal and oceanic seawater, 2) responses of microbial community and protease activities in seawater to organic matter amending, and 3) possible contribution of heterotrophic protists besides prokaryotes to proteases in seawater, to clarify cleared facts and remaining questions. Activities of aminopeptidases, trypsin-type and chymotrypsin-type proteases were detected from both coastal and oceanic seawater by using MCA-substrate assay. Significant activities were detected from not only particulate (cell-associated) fraction but also dissolved fraction of seawater, especially for trypsin-type and chymotrypsin-type proteases. Hydrolytic enzymes in seawater have been commonly thought to be mainly derived from heterotrophic prokaryotes; however, it was difficult to determine actual source organisms of dissolved enzymes in natural seawater. Our experiment with addition of dissolved protein to subtropical oligotrophic Pacific water showed drastically enhancement of the protease activities especially aminopeptidases in seawater, and the prokaryotic community structure simultaneously changed to be dominant of Bacteroidetes, indicating that heterotrophic bacteria were actually one of the sources of proteases in seawater. Another microcosm experiment with free-living marine heterotrophic ciliate Paranophrys marina together with an associated bacterium showed that extracellular trypsin-type activity was mainly attributed to the ciliate. The protist seemed to work in organic matter digestion in addition to be a grazer. From the results, we propose a system of organic matter digestion by prokaryotes and protists in aquatic environments, although their actual contribution in natural environments should be estimated in future studies.

  18. Online Intelligent Controllers for an Enzyme Recovery Plant: Design Methodology and Performance

    PubMed Central

    Leite, M. S.; Fujiki, T. L.; Silva, F. V.; Fileti, A. M. F.

    2010-01-01

    This paper focuses on the development of intelligent controllers for use in a process of enzyme recovery from pineapple rind. The proteolytic enzyme bromelain (EC 3.4.22.4) is precipitated with alcohol at low temperature in a fed-batch jacketed tank. Temperature control is crucial to avoid irreversible protein denaturation. Fuzzy or neural controllers offer a way of implementing solutions that cover dynamic and nonlinear processes. The design methodology and a comparative study on the performance of fuzzy-PI, neurofuzzy, and neural network intelligent controllers are presented. To tune the fuzzy PI Mamdani controller, various universes of discourse, rule bases, and membership function support sets were tested. A neurofuzzy inference system (ANFIS), based on Takagi-Sugeno rules, and a model predictive controller, based on neural modeling, were developed and tested as well. Using a Fieldbus network architecture, a coolant variable speed pump was driven by the controllers. The experimental results show the effectiveness of fuzzy controllers in comparison to the neural predictive control. The fuzzy PI controller exhibited a reduced error parameter (ITAE), lower power consumption, and better recovery of enzyme activity. PMID:21234106

  19. Comparative study of antitumor effects of bromelain and papain in human cholangiocarcinoma cell lines.

    PubMed

    Müller, Alena; Barat, Samarpita; Chen, Xi; Bui, Khac Cuong; Bozko, Przemyslaw; Malek, Nisar P; Plentz, Ruben R

    2016-05-01

    Cholangiocarcinoma (CC) worldwide is the most common biliary malignancy with poor prognostic value and new systemic treatments are desirable. Plant extracts like bromelain and papain, which are cysteine proteases from the fruit pineapple and papaya, are known to have antitumor activities. Therefore, in this study for the first time we investigated the anticancer effect of bromelain and papain in intra- and extrahepatic human CC cell lines. The effect of bromelain and papain on human CC cell growth, migration, invasion and epithelial plasticity was analyzed using cell proliferation, wound healing, invasion and apoptosis assay, as well as western blotting. Bromelain and papain lead to a decrease in the proliferation, invasion and migration of CC cells. Both plant extracts inhibited NFκB/AMPK signalling as well as their downstream signalling proteins such as p-AKT, p-ERK, p-Stat3. Additionally, MMP9 and other epithelial-mesenchymal-transition markers were partially found to be downregulated. Apoptosis was induced after bromelain and papain treatment. Interestingly, bromelain showed an overall more effective inhibition of CC as compared to papain. siRNA mediated silencing of NFκB on CC cells indicated that bromelain and papain have cytotoxic effects on human CC cell lines and bromelain and partially papain in comparison impair tumor growth by NFκB/AMPK signalling. Especially bromelain can evolve as promising, potential therapeutic option that might open new insights for the treatment of human CC.

  20. Bromelain has paradoxical effects on blood coagulability: a study using thromboelastography.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Harmanpreet; Corscadden, Kathryn; Lott, Carlene; Elbatarny, Hisham S; Othman, Maha

    2016-10-01

    Bromelain is a crude extract from pineapple that is known for a wide array of pharmacological effects including protein digestion, fibrinolytic and anti-immune inflammatory effects and has been popularly used as a phytotherapeutic drug. However, its clinical values and applications remain understudied. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of bromelain on the coagulability of blood using thromboelastography (TEG). We identified 0.4 U/ml as the minimum concentration of bromelain that results in modification of a normal TEG tracing. We studied the effects of this dose on whole blood samples obtained from normal and hypercoagulable individuals using TEG and evaluated their plasma using conventional tests including prothrombin time (PT) and activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT). We extended this analysis to investigate the effect of bromelain on platelet aggregation in normal blood and on the coagulability of mice blood in vivo in response to a clinically relevant dose injected intraperitoenally. The addition of bromelain ex vivo reduced coagulability of both normal and hypercoagulable blood significantly and resulted in 47 and 22% prolongation of PT and 20 and 10% prolongation of APTT in normal and hypercoagulable samples, respectively and inhibited adenosine di-phosphate (ADP)-induced platelet aggregation by 19%. In vivo, there was a considerable variation in TEG parameters in blood obtained from mice and unexpectedly a paradoxical effect toward hypercoagulability was shown in response to 1.5 mg/kg bromelain injected intraperitoneally into seven different animals. However, these results were not statistically significant when compared with the saline-injected animals. Although the in-vitro findings in this small study indicate a potential anticoagulant effect for bromelain, this needs to be interpreted with caution as neither an oral nor intravenous routes were evaluated. The paradoxical in-vivo data following intraperitoneal administration

  1. The 53-kDa proteolytic product of precursor starch-hydrolyzing enzyme of Aspergillus niger has Taka-amylase-like activity.

    PubMed

    Ravi-Kumar, K; Venkatesh, K S; Umesh-Kumar, S

    2007-04-01

    The 53-kDa amylase secreted by Aspergillus niger due to proteolytic processing of the precursor starch-hydrolyzing enzyme was resistant to acarbose, a potent alpha-glucosidase inhibitor. The enzyme production was induced when A. niger was grown in starch medium containing the inhibitor. Antibodies against the precursor enzyme cross-reacted with the 54-kDa Taka-amylase protein of A. oryzae. It resembled Taka-amylase in most of its properties and also hydrolyzed starch to maltose of alpha-anomeric configuration. However, it did not degrade maltotriose formed during the reaction and was not inhibited by zinc ions.

  2. Bromelain surface modification increases the diffusion of silica nanoparticles in the tumor extracellular matrix.

    PubMed

    Parodi, Alessandro; Haddix, Seth G; Taghipour, Nima; Scaria, Shilpa; Taraballi, Francesca; Cevenini, Armando; Yazdi, Iman K; Corbo, Claudia; Palomba, Roberto; Khaled, Sm Z; Martinez, Jonathan O; Brown, Brandon S; Isenhart, Lucas; Tasciotti, Ennio

    2014-10-28

    Tumor extracellular matrix (ECM) represents a major obstacle to the diffusion of therapeutics and drug delivery systems in cancer parenchyma. This biological barrier limits the efficacy of promising therapeutic approaches including the delivery of siRNA or agents intended for thermoablation. After extravasation due to the enhanced penetration and retention effect of tumor vasculature, typical nanotherapeutics are unable to reach the nonvascularized and anoxic regions deep within cancer parenchyma. Here, we developed a simple method to provide mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSN) with a proteolytic surface. To this extent, we chose to conjugate MSN to Bromelain (Br-MSN), a crude enzymatic complex, purified from pineapple stems, that belongs to the peptidase papain family. This surface modification increased particle uptake in endothelial, macrophage, and cancer cell lines with minimal impact on cellular viability. Most importantly Br-MSN showed an increased ability to digest and diffuse in tumor ECM in vitro and in vivo.

  3. Anticancer effect of bromelain with and without cisplatin or 5-FU on malignant peritoneal mesothelioma cells.

    PubMed

    Pillai, Krishna; Ehteda, Anahid; Akhter, Javid; Chua, Terence C; Morris, David L

    2014-02-01

    Malignant peritoneal mesothelioma (MPM) is a rare neoplasm of the peritoneum, causally related to asbestos exposure. Nonspecific symptoms with a late diagnosis results in poor survival (<1 year). Treatment with cytoreductive surgery and hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy has improved survival in some patients (median 3-5 years). Hence, new therapies are urgently needed. MUC1 is a glycosylation-dependent protein that confers tumours with invasiveness, metastasis and chemoresistance. Bromelain (cysteine proteinase) hydrolyses glycosidic bonds. Therefore, we investigated the antitumour effect of bromelain on MUC1-expressing MPM cell lines. MUC1 expressions in cells were assessed using immunofluorescent probes with cells grown on cover slips and western blot analysis on cell lysates. The cell lines were treated with various concentrations of bromelain and after 4 and 72 h, their viability was assessed using standard sulforhodamine assays. The cells were also treated with combinations of bromelain and cytotoxic drugs (cisplatin or 5-FU) and their viability was assessed at 72 h. Finally, with western blotting, the effects of bromelain on cellular survival proteins were investigated. PET cells expressed more MUC1 compared with YOU cells. The cell viability of both PET and YOU cells was adversely affected by bromelain, with PET cells being slightly resistant. The addition of bromelain increased the cytotoxicity of cisplatin significantly in both cell lines. However, 5-FU with bromelain did not show any significant increase in cytotoxicity. Bromelain-induced cell death is by apoptosis and autophagy. Bromelain has the potential of being developed as a therapeutic agent in MPM.

  4. Placebo-controlled randomized clinical trial on the immunomodulating activities of low- and high-dose bromelain after oral administration - new evidence on the antiinflammatory mode of action of bromelain.

    PubMed

    Müller, Silke; März, Reinhard; Schmolz, Manfred; Drewelow, Bernd; Eschmann, Klaus; Meiser, Peter

    2013-02-01

    Bromelain has been used for treatment of inflammatory diseases for decades. However, the exact mechanism of action remains poorly understood. While in vitro investigations have shown conflicting effects on the release of various cytokines, no in vivo data were available. In this study, the effects on inflammation-related cytokines of two doses of bromelain were tested in a single dose placebo-controlled 3 × crossover randomized clinical trial. Cytokine circadian profiles were used to investigate the effects of bromelain on the human immune system by using stimulated whole-blood leukocytes. The effects seen in these cultures demonstrated a significant shift in the circadian profiles of the Th1 cell mediator interferon gamma (IFNγ; p < 0.043) after bromelain 3000 FIP (Fédération Internationale Pharmaceutique) units, and trends in those of the Th2-type cytokine IL-5 as well as the immunosuppressive cytokine interleukin (IL)-10. This suggests a general effect on the antigen-specific (T cell) compartment of the human immune system. This is the first time that bromelain has been shown to modulate the cellular responses of lymphocyte after oral use. It is postulated that the immunomodulating effect of bromelain observed in this trial is part of its known antiinflammatory activities. Further investigations will be necessary to verify the relevance of these findings to a diseased immune system. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. A review of the use of bromelain in cardiovascular diseases.

    PubMed

    Ley, Chit Moy; Tsiami, Amalia; Ni, Qing; Robinson, Nicola

    2011-07-01

    In 2004 an estimated 17.1 million people died from cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) worldwide, representing 29% of all global deaths. According to the American Heart Association, heart disease and stroke are the main cause of death and disability among people with type 2 diabetes. Additional safe and effective approaches are needed for the prevention and management of CVDs which may include nutritional supplements. To identify the potential of bromelain (a food supplement) on the risk factors associated with CVDs. An electronic and manual search was conducted during November 2009 to March 2010. The databases searched included: Ovid MEDLINE; All EBM Reviews-Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (Cochrane DSR), American College of Physicians (ACP) Journal Club, Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE), Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CCTR), Cochrane Methodology Register (CMR), Health Technology Assessment (HTA) and National Health Service Economic Evaluation Database (NHSEED); Allied and Complementary Medicine (AMED); British Nursing Index and Archive; EMBASE; Health Management Information Consortium (HMIC); Science Direct and Electronic Thesis Online Services (ETHOS). Only papers in the English language were included. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs), human studies, animal studies and experimental studies related to bromelain for CVDs. The quality assessment of all the selected studies was conducted by the authors. Data from 3 animal trials and 3 human trials were included in the review. Data collected included: type of trial, drug dosage, duration, outcome measures, characteristics of bromelain used, significance of results and conclusion. Out of 223 papers retrieved, 6 papers met the inclusion criteria and could be included in the review. These comprised of 3 animal and 3 human trials, each of which investigated the use of bromelain for CVDs. Results suggested that bromelain could be used for treating acute thrombophlebitis, as it

  6. A comparative study of the effects of bromelain and fresh pineapple juice on the early phase of healing in acute crush achilles tendon injury.

    PubMed

    Aiyegbusi, Ayoola I; Olabiyi, Olaleye O; Duru, Francis I O; Noronha, Cressie C; Okanlawon, Abayomi O

    2011-04-01

    Bromelain, an enzyme extracted from the stem of the pineapple plant, has been reported to reduce pain and swelling in acute soft tissue injuries, but no study has been done to compare its effect with that of fresh pineapple juice on the healing of acute tendon injuries. This study compared the effects of commercial bromelain and fresh pineapple juice on tenocyte proliferation and the malondialdehyde (MDA) level in the early stage of healing in a crush injury to the Achilles tendon of Sprague-Dawley rats. Twenty-four male rats were divided randomly into three groups of eight rats each; all the rats had induced crush injury to the Achilles tendon: Group 1 (control), no treatment; Group 2, oral bromelain treatment at a dosage of 7 mg/kg of body weight daily; and Group 3, fresh diluted pineapple juice at a dosage of 30 mg/kg of body weight. Treatment was given over the first 14 days post-injury. On day 15 post-injury, the animals were sacrificed, and the tendons were excised and processed for histological study and MDA assay. Results show a significant difference in the tenocyte population between the bromelain group and the control (P < .05), whereas pineapple juice also increased the tenocyte population, although not significantly (P = .36). Pineapple juice, however, significantly lowered the MDA level compared with both the control and bromelain-treated groups. Based on this study, 600 GDU bromelain given at a dosage of 7 mg/kg had a better effect on tenocyte proliferation than fresh pineapple juice given once daily in acute tendon injury.

  7. The biochemical characterization, stabilization studies and the antiproliferative effect of bromelain against B16F10 murine melanoma cells.

    PubMed

    São Paulo Barretto Miranda, Íngara Keisle; Fontes Suzart Miranda, Anderson; Souza, Fernanda Vidigal Duarte; Vannier-Santos, Marcos André; Pirovani, Carlos Priminho; Pepe, Iuri Muniz; Rodowanski, Ivanoé João; Ferreira, Katiúcia Tícila de Souza Eduvirgens; Mendes Souza Vaz, Luciano; de Assis, Sandra Aparecida

    2017-06-01

    The current study aims to extract bromelain from different parts (stem, crown, peels, pulp and leaves) of Ananas comosus var. comosus AGB 772; to determine of optimum pH and temperature; to test bromelain stability in disodium EDTA and sodium benzoate, and to investigate its pharmacological activity on B16F10 murine melanoma cells in vitro. The highest enzymatic activity was found in bromelain extracted from the pulp and peel. The optimum bromelain pH among all studied pineapple parts was 6.0. The optimum temperature was above 50 °C in all bromelain extracts. The fluorescence analysis confirmed the stability of bromelain in the presence of EDTA and sodium benzoate. Bromelain was pharmacologically active against B16F10 melanoma cells and it was possible verifying approximately 100% inhibition of tumor cell proliferation in vitro. Since bromelain activity was found in different parts of pineapple plants, pineapple residues from the food industry may be used for bromelain extraction.

  8. Bromelain induces cardioprotection against ischemia-reperfusion injury through Akt/FOXO pathway in rat myocardium

    PubMed Central

    Juhasz, Bela; Thirunavukkarasu, Mahesh; Pant, Rima; Zhan, Lijun; Penumathsa, Suresh Varma; Secor, Eric R.; Srivastava, Sapna; Raychaudhuri, Utpal; Menon, Venugopal P.; Otani, Hajime; Thrall, Roger S.; Maulik, Nilanjana

    2008-01-01

    Bromelain (Br), a proteolytic enzyme extracted from the stem of the pineapple, is known to possess anti-inflammatory activity and has been shown to reduce blood viscosity, prevent the aggregation of blood platelets, and improve ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury in a skeletal muscle model. We investigated the capacity of Br to limit myocardial injury in a global I/R model. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into two groups: control (PBS) and Br at 10 mg/kg in PBS administered via intraperitoneal injection (twice/day) for 15 consecutive days. On day 16, the hearts were excised and subjected to 30 min of global ischemia followed by 2 h of reperfusion. Br treatment showed higher left ventricular functional recovery throughout reperfusion compared with the controls [maximum rate of rise in intraventricular pressure (dP/dtmax), 2,225 vs. 1,578 mmHg/s at 2 h reperfusion]. Aortic flow was also found to be increased in Br treatment when compared with that in untreated rats (11 vs. 1 ml). Furthermore, Br treatment reduced both the infarct size (34% vs. 43%) and the degree of apoptosis (28% vs. 37%) compared with the control animals. Western blot analysis showed an increased phosphorylation of both Akt and FOXO3A in the treatment group compared with the control. These results demonstrated for the first time that Br triggers an Akt-dependent survival pathway in the heart, revealing a novel mechanism of cardioprotective action and a potential therapeutic target against I/R injury. PMID:18192224

  9. Comparative study of two methods of fractionation bromelain from pineapple core extract (Ananas comosus)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Febriani, K.; Wahyuni, I.; Setiasih, S.; Hudiyono, S.

    2017-07-01

    The enzyme can be purified by fractional precipitation. This can be done by salt or organic solvent. In this research, purification of bromelain from pineapple core by fractional precipitation was done by 2 compounds, ammonium sulfate, and ethanol. Fractional precipitation by ammonium sulfate proved to be more effective as it yielded a higher specific activity. Specific activity by ethanol and ammonium sulfate is 4.6480 U/mg at 0-60 % saturation and 8.2243 U/mg at 50-80 % saturation.

  10. Bromelain and cardiovascular risk factors in diabetes: An exploratory randomized, placebo controlled, double blind clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Ley, Chit Moy; Ni, Qing; Liao, Xing; Gao, Huai-Lin; Robinson, Nicola

    2016-10-01

    To assess whether the dietary supplement (bromelain) has the potential to reduce plasma fibrinogen and other cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors in patients with diabetes. This randomized placebo controlled, double blind, parallel design, efficacy study was carried out in China and investigated the effect of 12 weeks of bromelain (1,050 mg/day) on plasma fibrinogen. This randomized controlled trial (RCT) recruited 68 Chinese diabetic patients [32 males and 36 females; Han origin, mean age of 61.26 years (standard deviation (SD), 12.62 years)] with at least one CVD risk factor. Patients were randomized into either bromelain or placebo group. While bromelain group received bromelain capsule, the placebo group received placebo capsule which consisted inert ingredient and has no treatment effect. Subjects were required to take 1,050 mg (3×350 mg) of either bromelain or starch-filled placebo capsules, two to be taken (2×350 mg) after breakfast and another (350 mg) after dinner, daily for 12 weeks. Plasma fibrinogen, CVD risk factors and anthropometric indicators were determined at baseline and at 12 weeks. The change in the fibrinogen level in the bromelain group at the end of the study showed a mean reduction of 0.13 g/L (standard deviation (SD) 0.86g/L) compared with the mean reduction of 0.36 g/L (SD 0.96 g/L) for the placebo group. However, there was no significant difference in the mean change in fibrinogen between the placebo and bromelain groups (mean difference=0.23g/L (SD 0.22 g/L), =0.291). Similarly, the difference in mean change in other CVD risk factors (blood lipids, blood pressure), blood glucose, C-reactive protein and anthropometric measures between the bromelain and placebo groups was also not statistically significant. Statistical differences in fibrinogen between bromelain and placebo groups before the trial despite randomization may have influenced the results of this study. This RCT failed to show a beneficial effect in reducing fibrinogen

  11. Bromelain Surface Modification Increases the Diffusion of Silica Nanoparticles in the Tumor Extracellular Matrix

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Tumor extracellular matrix (ECM) represents a major obstacle to the diffusion of therapeutics and drug delivery systems in cancer parenchyma. This biological barrier limits the efficacy of promising therapeutic approaches including the delivery of siRNA or agents intended for thermoablation. After extravasation due to the enhanced penetration and retention effect of tumor vasculature, typical nanotherapeutics are unable to reach the nonvascularized and anoxic regions deep within cancer parenchyma. Here, we developed a simple method to provide mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSN) with a proteolytic surface. To this extent, we chose to conjugate MSN to Bromelain (Br–MSN), a crude enzymatic complex, purified from pineapple stems, that belongs to the peptidase papain family. This surface modification increased particle uptake in endothelial, macrophage, and cancer cell lines with minimal impact on cellular viability. Most importantly Br–MSN showed an increased ability to digest and diffuse in tumor ECM in vitro and in vivo. PMID:25119793

  12. Bacoside A and bromelain relieve dichlorvos induced changes in oxidative responses in mice serum.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Sonam; Chaudhary, Bharti; Bist, Renu

    2016-07-25

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) may be involved in the pathogenesis of serum induced by dichlorvos. Therefore, the rationale of present research was to evaluate the ameliorative efficacy of bacoside A and bromelain on oxidative stress biomarkers in serum of dichlorvos intoxicated mice. Also the level of serum antioxidants viz. catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and reduced glutathione (GSH) were measured. For experiments, mice were allocated into six groups. First group received saline as a vehicle; second group was administered with dichlorvos (40 mg/kg b.w.); third group was administered with bromelain (70 mg/kg b.w.), fourth group received dose of bacoside A (5 mg/kg b.w.), fifth group was given concomitant exposure of bacoside A and bromelain both and mice of sixth group were exposed to bacoside A, bromelain and dichlorvos for 21 days consecutively. Oxidative stress biomarkers thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and protein carbonyl content (PCC) and antioxidants (CAT, SOD, GPx and GSH) level of serum was determined to elucidate the protective potential of bacoside A and bromelain against dichlorvos intoxication. Significantly increased TBARS and PCC level in second group suggests that dichlorvos enhances the production of free radicals in serum of mice (p < 0.05). Antioxidants treatment significantly decreased the levels of TBARS and PCC (p < 0.05). Dichlorvos administration causes a significant reduction in the level of CAT, SOD, GPx and GSH (p < 0.05) which was restored significantly by co-administration of bromelain and bacoside A in dichlorvos exposed mice (p < 0.05). The bacoside A and bromelain are attributed with antioxidant properties. Finding of research conclude that concomitant exposure of bacoside A and bromelain was much effective in combating oxidative stress induced by dichlorvos. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Effect of bromelain on milk yield, milk composition and mammary health in dairy goats.

    PubMed

    Contreras, A; Paape, M J; Miller, R H; Corrales, J C; Luengo, C; Sánchez, A

    2009-04-01

    A 7 month prospective cohort study was designed to determine if feeding bromelain to dairy goats influenced the MSCC, milk yield, milk composition and the incidence of IMI. Forty-four clinically normal goats from 2nd to 6th parities were studied. Daily bromelain dosage was 7.4 grams/animal (185-mg/Kg weight). Samples for diagnostic bacteriology were collected from each udder half every 2 weeks. Samples for MSCC and composition were obtained every 42 days. Milk yield was also recorded every 42 days. Bromelain affected milk protein and fat but not MSCC, milk yield or milk lactose. Bromelain did not decrease the MSCC in healthy goats. Milk protein and fat increased in the bromelain treated group (P < 0.01), which is important for dairymen because premiums are paid milk fat and protein content. No clinical mastitis was detected in the goats for the total study period and incidence rate of subclinical IMI was 5.7%. Relative risk was 1.50 (0.28 < RR < 8.12) which means that the bromelain had no significant effect on IMI (P > 0.05). In addition, the use of pineapple by-products could be especially important in tropical countries were pineapple waste seems to be a pollution problem.

  14. Bromelain exerts anti-inflammatory effects in an ovalbumin-induced murine model of allergic airway disease ☆

    PubMed Central

    Secor, Eric R.; Carson, William F.; Cloutier, Michelle M.; Guernsey, Linda A.; Schramm, Craig M.; Wu, Carol A.; Thrall, Roger S.

    2008-01-01

    Objective Bromelain, a clinically used pineapple extract and natural product, has reported anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory activities. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of bromelain treatment in an ovalbumin (OVA)-induced murine model of allergic airway disease (AAD). Methods To establish AAD, mice were sensitized with intraperitoneal (i.p.) OVA/alum and challenged with daily OVA aerosols. Mice were treated i.p. with either saline, 2 or 6 mg/kg bromelain, twice daily for four consecutive days. Bronchoalveolar lavage leukocytes and cytokines, lung histology, airway hyperresponsiveness, and lymphocyte populations via flow cytometry were compared between groups. Results Bromelain treatment of AAD mice resulted in reduced total BAL leukocytes, eosinophils, CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocytes, CD4+/CD8+ T cell ratio, and IL-13. Conclusion Bromelain attenuated development of AAD while altering CD4+ to CD8+ T lymphocyte populations. The reduction in AAD outcomes suggests that bromelain may have similar effects in the treatment of human asthma and hypersensitivity disorders. PMID:16337164

  15. Proteolytic regulation of metabolic enzymes by E3 ubiquitin ligase complexes: lessons from yeast.

    PubMed

    Nakatsukasa, Kunio; Okumura, Fumihiko; Kamura, Takumi

    2015-01-01

    Eukaryotic organisms use diverse mechanisms to control metabolic rates in response to changes in the internal and/or external environment. Fine metabolic control is a highly responsive, energy-saving process that is mediated by allosteric inhibition/activation and/or reversible modification of preexisting metabolic enzymes. In contrast, coarse metabolic control is a relatively long-term and expensive process that involves modulating the level of metabolic enzymes. Coarse metabolic control can be achieved through the degradation of metabolic enzymes by the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS), in which substrates are specifically ubiquitinated by an E3 ubiquitin ligase and targeted for proteasomal degradation. Here, we review select multi-protein E3 ligase complexes that directly regulate metabolic enzymes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The first part of the review focuses on the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane-associated Hrd1 and Doa10 E3 ligase complexes. In addition to their primary roles in the ER-associated degradation pathway that eliminates misfolded proteins, recent quantitative proteomic analyses identified native substrates of Hrd1 and Doa10 in the sterol synthesis pathway. The second part focuses on the SCF (Skp1-Cul1-F-box protein) complex, an abundant prototypical multi-protein E3 ligase complex. While the best-known roles of the SCF complex are in the regulation of the cell cycle and transcription, accumulating evidence indicates that the SCF complex also modulates carbon metabolism pathways. The increasing number of metabolic enzymes whose stability is directly regulated by the UPS underscores the importance of the proteolytic regulation of metabolic processes for the acclimation of cells to environmental changes.

  16. PHYSICOCHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF THE PROTEOLYTIC ENZYME FROM THE LATEX OF THE MILKWEED, ASCLEPIAS SPECIOSA TORR. SOME COMPARISONS WITH OTHER PROTEASES

    PubMed Central

    Winnick, Theodore; Davis, Alva R.; Greenberg, David M.

    1940-01-01

    1. A study has been made of the properties of a hitherto unreported proteolytic enzyme from the latex of the milkweed, Asclepias speciosa. The new protease has been named asclepain by the authors. 2. The results of chemical, diffusion, and denaturation tests indicate that asclepain is a protein. 3. Like papain, asclepain dots milk and digests most proteins, particularly if they are dissolved in concentrated urea solution. Unlike papain, asclepain did not clot blood. 4. The activation and inhibition phenomena of asclepain resemble those of papain, and seem best explained on the assumption that free sulfhydryl in the enzyme is necessary for proteolytic activity. The sulfhydryl of asclepain appears more labile than that of papain. 5. The measurement of pH-activity curves of asclepain on casein, ovalbumin, hemoglobin, edestin, and ovovitellin showed no definite digestion maxima for most of the undenatured proteins, while in urea solution there were well defined maxima near pH 7.0. Native hemoglobin and ovovitellin were especially undigestible, while native casein was rapidly attacked. 6. Temperature-activity curves were determined for asclepain on hemoglobin, casein, and milk solutions. The optimum temperature was shown to increase with decreasing time of digestion. PMID:19873154

  17. Resonance light-scattering spectrometric study of interaction between enzyme and MPA-modified CdTe nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Juan; Li, Minjie; Tang, Jieli; Li, Xiaozhou; Zhang, Hanqi; Zhang, Yihua

    2008-08-01

    This paper described a novel assay of enzyme based on the measurement of enhanced resonance light-scattering (RLS) signals resulting from the electrostatic and coordination interaction of functionalized CdTe nanoparticles with enzyme. The CdTe nanoparticles which were modified with 3-mercaptocarboxylic acid (MPA) have abundant carboxylic groups ( sbnd COOH). So the nanoparticles are water-soluble, stable and biocompatible. At pH 8.3 phosphate buffered saline (PBS), the RLS signals of functionalized nano-CdTe are greatly enhanced by bromelain and papain in the region of 220-800 nm characterized by the peak around 318-314 nm, respectively. The optimization conditions of the reaction were also examined and selected. Under the selected conditions, the enhanced RLS intensity is linearly proportional to the concentration of bromelain and papain. The liner range is (0.09-0.9) × 10 -6 mol/L for bromelain and (0.048-0.702) × 10 -6 mol/L for papain. The influences of some foreign substances were also examined. This method can be applied to the determination of enzyme.

  18. Enhancement of anti-inflammatory activity of bromelain by its encapsulation in katira gum nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Bernela, Manju; Ahuja, Munish; Thakur, Rajesh

    2016-06-05

    Bromelain-loaded katira gum nanoparticles were synthesized using 3 level optimization process and desirability approach. Nanoparticles of the optimized batch were characterized using particle size analysis, zeta potential, transmission electron microscopy and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy. Investigation of their in vivo anti-inflammatory activity by employing carrageenan induced rat-paw oedema method showed that encapsulation of bromelain in katira gum nanoparticles substantially enhanced its anti-inflammatory potential. This may be attributed to enhanced absorption owing to reduced particle size or to protection of bromelain from acid proteases. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Effect of Oral Administration of Bromelain on Postoperative Discomfort After Third Molar Surgery.

    PubMed

    Ghensi, Paolo; Cucchi, Alessandro; Creminelli, Luca; Tomasi, Cristiano; Zavan, Barbara; Maiorana, Carlo

    2017-03-01

    The purpose of this prospective randomized controlled clinical trial was to evaluate the effect of oral administration of bromelain on discomfort after mandibular third molar surgery. Eighty-four consecutive patients requiring surgical removal of a single mandibular impacted third molar under local anesthesia were randomly assigned to receiving no drug (control group, Group A), postoperative 40 mg bromelain every 6 hours for 6 days (Group B), preoperative 4 mg dexamethasone sodium phosphate as a submucosal injection (Group C), and preoperative 4 mg dexamethasone sodium phosphate as a submucosal injection plus postoperative 40 mg bromelain every 6 hours for 6 days (Group D). Standardized surgical and analgesic protocols were adopted. Maximum interincisal distance and facial contours were measured at baseline and on postoperative days 2 and 7. Pain was measured objectively by counting the number of analgesic tablets required. Patient perception of the severity of symptoms was assessed with a follow-up questionnaire (PoSSe scale). On postoperative day 2, there was a statistically significant reduction in facial edema in both Groups C and D compared with the control group, but no statistically significant differences were observed between Group B and the control group. At evaluation on postoperative day 7, Group D showed a statistically significant reduction in postoperative swelling compared with the control group. The combined use of bromelain and dexamethasone (Group D) induced a statistically significant reduction in the total number of analgesic tablets taken after surgery compared with the control group. The treatment groups had a limited, nonsignificant effect on trismus when compared with the control group. Bromelain used singly showed moderate anti-inflammatory efficacy, reducing postoperative swelling, albeit not to any significant extent compared with no drug administration. The combined use of bromelain and dexamethasone sodium phosphate yielded

  20. Bromelain nanoparticles protect against 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene induced skin carcinogenesis in mouse model.

    PubMed

    Bhatnagar, Priyanka; Pant, Aditya B; Shukla, Yogeshwer; Chaudhari, Bhushan; Kumar, Pradeep; Gupta, Kailash C

    2015-04-01

    Conventional cancer chemotherapy leads to severe side effects, which limits its use. Nanoparticles (NPs) based delivery systems offer an effective alternative. Several evidences highlight the importance of Bromelain (BL), a proteolytic enzyme, as an anti-tumor agent which however has been limited due to the requirement of high doses at the tumor site. Therefore, we illustrate the development of BL loaded poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) NPs that show enhanced anti-tumor effects compared to free BL. The formulated NPs with a mean particle size of 130.4 ± 8.81 nm exhibited sustained release of BL. Subsequent investigation revealed enhanced anti-tumor ability of NPs in 2-stage skin tumorigenesis mice model. Reduction in average number of tumors (∼ 2.3 folds), delay in tumorigenesis (∼ 2 weeks), percent tumorigenesis (∼ 4 folds), and percent mortality rate as well as a reduction in the average tumor volume (∼ 2.5 folds) in mice as compared to free BL were observed. The NPs were found to be superior in exerting chemopreventive effects over chemotherapeutic effects at 10 fold reduced dose than free BL, validated by the enhanced ability of NPs (∼ 1.8 folds) to protect the DNA from induced damage. The effects were also supported by histopathological evaluations. NPs were also capable of modulating the expression of pro-apoptotic (P53, Bax) and anti-apoptotic (Bcl2) proteins. Therefore, our findings demonstrate that developed NPs formulation could be used to improve the efficacy of chemotherapy by exerting chemo-preventive effects against induced carcinogenesis at lower dosages. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Efficacy and tolerability of bromelain in patients with chronic rhinosinusitis--a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Büttner, L; Achilles, N; Böhm, M; Shah-Hosseini, K; Mösges, R

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the efficacy, tolerability, and impact on quality of life (QoL) of bromelain tablets (500 FIP) in patients with chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS). In this prospective, open-label observational pilot study, 12 patients suffering from CRS with (CRS+NP) or without (CRS-NP) nasal polyps who had undergone prior sinus surgery were treated with bromelain tablets (500 FIP) for three months. Efficacy was evaluated using symptom scores (Total Symptom Scores: TSS); a Total Rhinoscopy Score (TRS) was also determined. QoL was assessed by using the German, adapted version of the Sinonasal Outcome Test 20 (SNOT-20 GAV). Treatment with bromelain tablets (500 FIP) improved TSS, TRS and SNOT-20 GAV on average. This treatment was found to be more effective, however, for CRS-NP than for CRS+NP. The average intake was six tablets, equivalent to a daily dosage of 3000 FIP. No adverse events were observed. Preliminary results indicate good tolerability, symptom control, and improvement in QoL for the treatment of CRS using bromelain tablets (500 FIP).

  2. Complete amino acid sequence of ananain and a comparison with stem bromelain and other plant cysteine proteases.

    PubMed Central

    Lee, K L; Albee, K L; Bernasconi, R J; Edmunds, T

    1997-01-01

    The amino acid sequences of ananain (EC3.4.22.31) and stem bromelain (3.4.22.32), two cysteine proteases from pineapple stem, are similar yet ananain and stem bromelain possess distinct specificities towards synthetic peptide substrates and different reactivities towards the cysteine protease inhibitors E-64 and chicken egg white cystatin. We present here the complete amino acid sequence of ananain and compare it with the reported sequences of pineapple stem bromelain, papain and chymopapain from papaya and actinidin from kiwifruit. Ananain is comprised of 216 residues with a theoretical mass of 23464 Da. This primary structure includes a sequence insert between residues 170 and 174 not present in stem bromelain or papain and a hydrophobic series of amino acids adjacent to His-157. It is possible that these sequence differences contribute to the different substrate and inhibitor specificities exhibited by ananain and stem bromelain. PMID:9355753

  3. Does transgenic Cry1Ac + CpTI cotton pollen affect hypopharyngeal gland development and midgut proteolytic enzyme activity in the honey bee Apis mellifera L. (Hymenoptera, Apidae)?

    PubMed

    Han, Peng; Niu, Chang-Ying; Biondi, Antonio; Desneux, Nicolas

    2012-11-01

    The transgenic Cry1Ac (Bt toxin) + CpTI (Cowpea Trypsin Inhibitor) cotton cultivar CCRI41 is increasingly used in China and potential side effects on the honey bee Apis mellifera L. have been documented recently. Two studies have assessed potential lethal and sublethal effects in young bees fed with CCRI41 cotton pollen but no effect was observed on learning capacities, although lower feeding activity in exposed honey bees was noted (antifeedant effect). The present study aimed at providing further insights into potential side effects of CCRI41 cotton on honey bees. Emerging honey bees were exposed to different pollen diets using no-choice feeding protocols (chronic exposure) in controlled laboratory conditions and we aimed at documenting potential mechanisms underneath the CCRI41 antifeedant effect previously reported. Activity of midgut proteolytic enzyme of young adult honey bees fed on CCRI41 cotton pollen were not significantly affected, i.e. previously observed antifeedant effect was not linked to disturbed activity of the proteolytic enzymes in bees' midgut. Hypopharyngeal gland development was assessed by quantifying total extractable proteins from the glands. Results suggested that CCRI41 cotton pollen carries no risk to hypopharyngeal gland development of young adult honey bees. In the two bioassays, honey bees exposed to 1 % soybean trypsin inhibitor were used as positive controls for both midgut proteolytic enzymes and hypopharyngeal gland proteins quantification, and bees exposed to 48 ppb (part per billion) (i.e. 48 ng g(-1)) imidacloprid were used as controls for exposure to a sublethal concentration of toxic product. The results show that the previously reported antifeedant effect of CCRI41 cotton pollen on honey bees is not linked to effects on their midgut proteolytic enzymes or on the development of their hypopharyngeal glands. The results of the study are discussed in the framework of risk assessment of transgenic crops on honey bees.

  4. Bromelain ameliorates the wound microenvironment and improves the healing of firearm wounds.

    PubMed

    Wu, Si-Yu; Hu, Wei; Zhang, Bo; Liu, Shuai; Wang, Jian-Min; Wang, Ai-Min

    2012-08-01

    In a previous study, we proposed a new therapy using topical bromelain as a supplement to simple wound-track incision for the debridement of firearm wounds. This enzymatic debridement greatly simplified the management of high-velocity gunshot wounds in a pig model, and bromelain was confirmed to improve wound healing. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect of bromelain on the microenvironment of firearm wounds. Sixteen Chinese landrace pigs wounded by high-velocity projectiles were divided randomly into four groups: wound incision (group I), incision + bromelain (group IB), wound excision (group E), and control. Blood perfusion, oxygen partial pressure (pO(2)), and the content of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and transforming growth factor (TGF)-β in wound-track tissue were measured. Wound healing was also noted. The recovery of blood perfusion in tissue and pO(2) in wound tracks was significantly more rapid in group IB and group E than in group I and control. The tissue level of TNF-α was significantly lower in group IB than in group I and control 48 h and 72 h post-wounding, and was lower than in group E 48 h post-wounding. The tissue level of TGF-β in group IB was sustained at a significantly higher level than in the other three groups. Wound healing time was also shorter in group IB. Enzymatic debridement using topical bromelain in incised wound tracks accelerates the recovery of blood perfusion, pO(2) in wound tissue, controls the expression of TNF-α and raises the expression of TGF-β. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Is There a Role for Arnica and Bromelain in Prevention of Post-Procedure Ecchymosis or Edema? A Systematic Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    Ho, Derek; Jagdeo, Jared; Waldorf, Heidi A

    2016-04-01

    The management of postprocedure skin care is of significant interest to dermatologists and other physicians. Ecchymosis and edema are common temporary postprocedure unwanted effects. Two botanically-derived products, arnica and bromelain, are used internationally by physicians to limit ecchymosis and edema that occur secondary to cosmetic, laser, and surgical skin procedures. The authors review the published literature and provide evidence-based recommendations on arnica and bromelain for prevention and treatment of postprocedure ecchymosis and edema. A search of the computerized bibliographic databases Medline, EMBASE, Scopus, and CINAHL was performed on March 23, 2015. The key terms used were "arnica," and "bromelain." This review contains clinical trials that evaluated prevention and/or treatment of postprocedure ecchymosis or edema with oral arnica (11), topical arnica (2), and oral bromelain (7). No studies on topical bromelain were found. Clinical trials on arnica and bromelain have demonstrated mixed results. Some randomized controlled trials reported improvement postprocedure with arnica (4/13) and bromelain (5/7). Based upon published studies, there is insufficient data to support use of arnica and bromelain post procedure, and the authors recommend additional research to determine the efficacy and safety of arnica and bromelain to prevent and/or treat ecchymosis and edema in patients.

  6. The chemopreventive action of bromelain, from pineapple stem (Ananas comosus L.), on colon carcinogenesis is related to antiproliferative and proapoptotic effects.

    PubMed

    Romano, Barbara; Fasolino, Ines; Pagano, Ester; Capasso, Raffaele; Pace, Simona; De Rosa, Giuseppe; Milic, Natasa; Orlando, Pierangelo; Izzo, Angelo A; Borrelli, Francesca

    2014-03-01

    Colorectal cancer is an important health problem across the world. Here, we investigated the possible antiproliferative/proapoptotic effects of bromelain (from the pineapple stem Ananas comosus L., family Bromeliaceae) in a human colorectal carcinoma cell line and its potential chemopreventive effect in a murine model of colon cancer. Proliferation and apoptosis were evaluated in human colon adenocarcinoma (Caco-2) cells by the (3) H-thymidine incorporation assay and caspase 3/7 activity measurement, respectively. Extracellular signal-related kinase (ERK) and Akt expression were evaluated by Western blot analysis, reactive oxygen species production by a fluorimetric method. In vivo, bromelain was evaluated using the azoxymethane murine model of colon carcinogenesis. Bromelain reduced cell proliferation and promoted apoptosis in Caco-2 cells. The effect of bromelain was associated to downregulation of pERK1/2/total, ERK, and pAkt/Akt expression as well as to reduction of reactive oxygen species production. In vivo, bromelain reduced the development of aberrant crypt foci, polyps, and tumors induced by azoxymethane. Bromelain exerts antiproliferative and proapoptotic effects in colorectal carcinoma cells and chemopreventive actions in colon carcinogenesis in vivo. Bromelain-containing foods and/or bromelain itself may represent good candidates for colorectal cancer chemoprevention. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Reverse micellar extraction of bromelain from pineapple peel--Effect of surfactant structure.

    PubMed

    Wan, Jing; Guo, Jingjing; Miao, Zhitong; Guo, Xia

    2016-04-15

    Pineapple peel is generally disposed or used as compost. This study was focused on extracting bromelain from pineapple peel by using reverse micelles. It was found that gemini surfactant C12-8-C12·2Br (octamethylene-α,ω-bis(dimethyldodecylammonium bromide)) showed distinctive advantage over its monomeric counterpart DTAB (dodecyl trimethyl ammonium bromide); under optimized condition, the bromelain extracted with C12-8-C12·2Br reverse micelle had an activity recovery of 163% and a purification fold of 3.3, while when using DTAB reverse micelle, the activity recovery was 95% and the purification fold was 1.7. Therefore, the spacer of gemini surfactant should play a positive role in bromelain extraction and may suggest the potential of gemini surfactant in protein separation since it has been so far rarely used in relative experiments or technologies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Amyloidogenic behavior of different intermediate state of stem bromelain: A biophysical insight.

    PubMed

    Zaman, Masihuz; Ehtram, Aquib; Chaturvedi, Sumit Kumar; Nusrat, Saima; Khan, Rizwan Hasan

    2016-10-01

    Stem bromelain, a cysteine proteases from Ananas comosus is a widely accepted therapeutic drug with broad medicinal application. It exists as intermediate states at pH 2.0 and 10.0, where it encountered in gastrointestinal tract during adsorption (acidic pH) and in gut epithelium (alkaline pH), respectively. In this study, we monitored the thermal aggregation/amyloid formation of SB at different pH intermediate states. Thermal treatment of stem bromelain at pH 10.0 favors the fibrillation in which the extent of aggregation increases with increase in protein concentration. However, no fibril formation in stem bromelain at pH 2.0 was found at all the concentration used at pH 10.0. The fibril formation was confirmed by various techniques such as turbidity measurements, Rayleigh light scattering, dye binding assays and far UV circular dichroism. The Dynamic light scattering confirmed the formation of aggregates by measuring the hydrodynamic radii pattern. Moreover, microscopic techniques were performed to analyze the morphology of fibrils. The aggregation behavior may be due to variation in number of charged amino acid residues. The less negative charge developed at pH 10.0 may be responsible for aggregation. This work helps to overcome the aggregation related problems of stem bromelain during formulations in pharmaceutical industry. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Modulation of Lipopolysaccharide Stimulated Nuclear Factor kappa B Mediated iNOS/NO Production by Bromelain in Rat Primary Microglial Cells.

    PubMed

    Abbasi Habashi, Soraya; Sabouni, Farzaneh; Moghimi, Ali; Ansari Majd, Saeed

    2016-01-01

    Microglial cells act as the sentinel of the central nervous system .They are involved in neuroprotection but are highly implicated in neurodegeneration of the aging brain. When over-activated, microglia release pro-inflammatory factors, such as nitric oxide (NO) and cytokines, which are critical in eliciting neuroinflammatory responses associated with neurodegenerative diseases. This study examined whether bromelain, the pineapple-derived extract, may exert an anti-inflammatory effect in primary microglia and may be neuroprotective by regulating microglial activation. Following the isolation of neonatal rat primary microglial cells, the activation profile of microglia was investigated by studying the effects of bromelain (5, 10, 20, and 30 µg/ml) on the levels of NO, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), and nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) in microglia treated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) (1 µg/ml). Data were analyzed using Student's t-test. P values less than 0.05 were considered to be statistically significant, compared with the LPS-treated group without bromelain. Results showed that pretreatment of rat primary microglia with bromelain, decreased the production of NO induced by LPS (1 µg/ml) treatment in a dose-dependent manner. Bromelain (30 µg/ml) also significantly reduced the expression of iNOS at mRNA level and NF-κB at protein level. Moreover, the study of mitochondrial activity in microglia indicated that bromelain had no cytotoxicity at any of the applied doses, suggesting that the anti-inflammatory effects of bromelain are not due to cell death. Bromelain can be of potential use as an agent for alleviation of symptoms in neurodegenerative diseases.

  10. Modulation of Lipopolysaccharide Stimulated Nuclear Factor kappa B Mediated iNOS/NO Production by Bromelain in Rat Primary Microglial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Abbasi Habashi, Soraya; Sabouni, Farzaneh; Moghimi, Ali; Ansari Majd, Saeed

    2016-01-01

    Background: Microglial cells act as the sentinel of the central nervous system .They are involved in neuroprotection but are highly implicated in neurodegeneration of the aging brain. When over-activated, microglia release pro-inflammatory factors, such as nitric oxide (NO) and cytokines, which are critical in eliciting neuroinflammatory responses associated with neurodegenerative diseases. This study examined whether bromelain, the pineapple-derived extract, may exert an anti-inflammatory effect in primary microglia and may be neuroprotective by regulating microglial activation. Methods: Following the isolation of neonatal rat primary microglial cells, the activation profile of microglia was investigated by studying the effects of bromelain (5, 10, 20, and 30 µg/ml) on the levels of NO, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), and nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) in microglia treated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) (1 µg/ml). Data were analyzed using Student's t-test. P values less than 0.05 were considered to be statistically significant, compared with the LPS-treated group without bromelain. Results: Results showed that pretreatment of rat primary microglia with bromelain, decreased the production of NO induced by LPS (1 µg/ml) treatment in a dose-dependent manner. Bromelain (30 µg/ml) also significantly reduced the expression of iNOS at mRNA level and NF-κB at protein level. Moreover, the study of mitochondrial activity in microglia indicated that bromelain had no cytotoxicity at any of the applied doses, suggesting that the anti-inflammatory effects of bromelain are not due to cell death. Conclusion: Bromelain can be of potential use as an agent for alleviation of symptoms in neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:26459398

  11. Anti-cancer activity of bromelain nanoparticles by oral administration.

    PubMed

    Bhatnagar, Priyanka; Patnaik, Soma; Srivastava, Amit K; Mudiam, Mohan K R; Shukla, Yogeshwer; Panda, Amulya K; Pant, Aditya B; Kumar, Pradeep; Gupta, Kailash C

    2014-12-01

    Oral administration of anti-cancer drugs is an effective alternative to improve their efficacy and reduce undesired toxicity. Bromelain (BL) is known as an effective anti-cancer phyto-therapeutic agent, however, its activity is reduced upon oral administration. In addressing the issue, BL was encapsulated in Poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) to formulate nanoparticles (NPs). Further, the NPs were coated with Eudragit L30D polymer to introduce stability against the gastric acidic conditions. The resultant coated NPs were characterized for BL entrapment, proteolytic activity and mean particle size. The stability and release pattern of NPs were evaluated under simulated gastrointestinal tract (GIT) pH conditions. Cytotoxicity studies carried out in human cell lines of diverse origin have shown significant dose advantage (-7-10 folds) with NPs in reducing the IC50 values compared with free BL. The cellular uptake of NPs in MCF-7, HeLa and Caco-2 cells monolayer was significantly enhanced several folds as compared to free BL. Altered expression of marker proteins associated with apoptosis and cell death (P53, P21, Bcl2, Bax) also confirmed the enhanced anti-carcinogenic potential of formulated NPs. Oral administration of NPs reduced the tumor burden of Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC) in Swiss albino mice and also increased their life-span (160.0 ± 5.8%) when compared with free BL (24 ± 3.2%). The generation of reactive oxygen species, induction of apoptosis and impaired mitochondrial membrane potential in EAC cells treated with NPs confirmed the suitability of Eudragit coated BL-NPs as a promising candidate for oral chemotherapy.

  12. Physicochemical and flavor characteristics of flavoring agent from mungbean protein hydrolyzed by bromelain.

    PubMed

    Sonklin, Chanikan; Laohakunjit, Natta; Kerdchoechuen, Orapin

    2011-08-10

    Enzymatic bromelain mungbean meal protein hydrolysate (eb-MPH) was produced from mungbean meal protein isolate (MPI). Enzymatic bromelain, with a known protease activity of 98,652 (unit/g), was used at concentrations of 0, 2, 6, 10, 14 and 18% (w/w) and with hydrolysis times of 0.5, 3, 6, 12, and 24 h. The pH and temperature were controlled at 6.0 and 50 °C, respectively. It was found that the best treatment combination for eb-MPH production by response surface methodology (RSM) was 18% bromelain and a hydrolysis time of 3 h, resulting in the greatest degree of hydrolysis (% DH) and percent yield, with values of 61.04 and 45.63%, respectively. Results also showed that the phenylalanine, tyrosine and leucine contents of the optimally produced eb-MPH were 20.88, 14.50 and 10.93%, respectively. Twelve volatile compounds were identified using gas chromatography mass spectrometry in eb-MPH; benzaldehyde, 2-pentylfuran and furfural were the predominant odorants.

  13. Recombinant cathepsin E has no proteolytic activity at neutral pH.

    PubMed

    Zaidi, Nousheen; Herrmann, Timo; Voelter, Wolfgang; Kalbacher, Hubert

    2007-08-17

    Cathepsin E (CatE) is a major intracellular aspartic protease reported to be involved in cellular protein degradation and several pathological processes. Distinct cleavage specificities of CatE at neutral and acidic pH have been reported previously in studies using CatE purified from human gastric mucosa. Here, in contrast, we have analyzed the proteolytic activity of recombinant CatE at acidic and neutral pH using two separate approaches, RP-HPLC and FRET-based proteinase assays. Our data clearly indicate that recombinant CatE does not possess any proteolytic activity at all at neutral pH and was unable to cleave the peptides glucagon, neurotensin, and dynorphin A that were previously reported to be cleaved by CatE at neutral pH. Even in the presence of ATP, which is known to stabilize CatE, no proteolytic activity was observed. These discrepant results might be due to some contaminating factor present in the enzyme preparations used in previous studies or may reflect differences between recombinant CatE and the native enzyme.

  14. Proteolytic activation of the SARS-coronavirus spike protein: cutting enzymes at the cutting edge of antiviral research.

    PubMed

    Simmons, Graham; Zmora, Pawel; Gierer, Stefanie; Heurich, Adeline; Pöhlmann, Stefan

    2013-12-01

    The severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) pandemic revealed that zoonotic transmission of animal coronaviruses (CoV) to humans poses a significant threat to public health and warrants surveillance and the development of countermeasures. The activity of host cell proteases, which cleave and activate the SARS-CoV spike (S) protein, is essential for viral infectivity and constitutes a target for intervention. However, the identities of the proteases involved have been unclear. Pioneer studies identified cathepsins and type II transmembrane serine proteases as cellular activators of SARS-CoV and demonstrated that several emerging viruses might exploit these enzymes to promote their spread. Here, we will review the proteolytic systems hijacked by SARS-CoV for S protein activation, we will discuss their contribution to viral spread in the host and we will outline antiviral strategies targeting these enzymes. This paper forms part of a series of invited articles in Antiviral Research on "From SARS to MERS: 10years of research on highly pathogenic human coronaviruses.'' Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Perioperative Bromelain Therapy after Wisdom Teeth Extraction - A Randomized, Placebo-Controlled, Double-Blinded, Three-Armed, Cross-Over Dose-Finding Study.

    PubMed

    Bormann, Kai-Hendrik; Weber, Kristina; Kloppenburg, Heike; Staude, Pia; Koch, Armin; Meiser, Peter; Gellrich, Nils-Claudius

    2016-12-01

    Reduction in postoperative edema and inflammatory reactions is the key to the posttraumatic regeneration process. Use of bromelain is well established in this indication, but there is some controversy with regard to the optimal dosing of this drug. The aim of our study was therefore to investigate the efficacy of dosage-dependent therapy with bromelain in patients after wisdom teeth extraction by comparing the registered dosage 1000 FIP (Fédération Internationale Pharmaceutique) against higher dosages of 3000 FIP and 4500 FIP. A total of 75 patients were randomized to one of the three dosage arms, and 68 of these patients were finally analyzed in the modified intention-to-treat population. Patients involved underwent two surgery sessions: one study period being conducted under treatment with bromelain and the other with placebo. Postoperative swelling determined by a 3D face scanning system was defined as the primary endpoint; further efficacy parameters were maximum swelling, pain, difficulty in swallowing, and use of analgesics. A superiority of treatment with 3000 FIP and 4500 FIP versus 1000 FIP could not be demonstrated. The analysis of pooled bromelain treatments versus placebo did, however, show a clear trend in favor of bromelain for all assessments. Adverse events did not occur more frequently under bromelain therapy compared with placebo. This study thus clearly supports the clinical relevance of treatment of postoperative conditions with bromelain, and the recommended daily dose was sufficiently effective in this trial and indication. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Bromelain inhibits COX-2 expression by blocking the activation of MAPK regulated NF-kappa B against skin tumor-initiation triggering mitochondrial death pathway.

    PubMed

    Bhui, Kulpreet; Prasad, Sahdeo; George, Jasmine; Shukla, Yogeshwer

    2009-09-18

    Chemoprevention impels the pursuit for either single targeted or cocktail of multi-targeted agents. Bromelain, potential agent in this regard, is a pharmacologically active compound, present in stems and fruits of pineapple (Ananas cosmosus), endowed with anti-inflammatory, anti-invasive and anti-metastatic properties. Herein, we report the anti tumor-initiating effects of bromelain in 2-stage mouse skin tumorigenesis model. Pre-treatment of bromelain resulted in reduction in cumulative number of tumors (CNT) and average number of tumors per mouse. Preventive effect was also comprehended in terms of reduction in tumor volume up to a tune of approximately 65%. Components of the cell signaling pathways, connecting proteins involved in cell death were targeted. Bromelain treatment resulted in upregulation of p53 and Bax and subsequent activation of caspase 3 and caspase 9 with concomitant decrease in Bcl-2. A marked inhibition in cyclooxygenase-2 (Cox-2) expression and inactivation of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-kappaB) was recorded, as phosphorylation and consequent degradation of I kappa B alpha was blocked by bromelain. Also, bromelain treatment curtailed extracellular signal regulated protein kinase (ERK1/2), p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and Akt activity. The basis of anti tumor-initiating activity of bromelain was revealed by its time dependent reduction in DNA nick formation and increase in percentage prevention. Thus, modulation of inappropriate cell signaling cascades driven by bromelain is a coherent approach in achieving chemoprevention.

  17. Effect of bromelain and papain gel on enamel deproteinisation before orthodontic bracket bonding.

    PubMed

    Pithon, Matheus Melo; Campos, Matheus Souza; Coqueiro, Raildo da Silva

    2016-05-01

    To test the hypothesis that enamel surface deproteinisation with different concentrations of bromelain in association with 10% papain increases the shear bond strength (SBS) of brackets bonded with orthodontic composite and resin modified glass ionomer cement (RMGIC). Orthodontic brackets were attached according to the following protocols to 195 bovine incisors, which were acquired and divided into 13 groups: 1) Transbond XT (TXT) according to the manufacturer's recommendations; 2) Deproteinisation with 3% bromelain (BD) plus 10% papain and TXT; 3) 6% BD plus 10% Papain and TXT; 4) RMGIC, without enamel deproteinisation and without acid etching; 5) RMGIC, with 3% BD plus 10% papain and without acid etching; 6) RMGIC, with 6% BD plus 10% papain and without acid etching; 7) attachment using RMGIC following etching with polyacrylic acid; 8) 3% BD plus 10% papain, attachment using RMGIC and etching with polyacrylic acid; 9) 6% BD plus 10% papain, and attachment using RMGIC following etching with polyacrylic acid; 10) etching with 37% phosphoric acid and attachment using RMGIC; 11) 3% BD plus 10% papain, etching with 37% phosphoric acid and attachment using RMGIC; 12) 6% BD plus 10% papain, etching with 37% phosphoric acid and attachment using RMGIC; 13) deproteinisation with 2.5% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl), etching with polyacrylic acid and RMGIC. After bonding, the brackets were removed by a universal mechanical testing machine, which recorded shear bond strength at failure. The material remaining on the tooth was assessed using the adhesive remnant index (ARI). Deproteinisation with 3% and 6% bromelain gel plus papain significantly increased the shear bond strength (p < 0.05), when acid etching was performed with phosphoric acid, followed by primer application and attachment using Transbond XT (Group 3) and when attached with RMGIC without etching. Deproteinisation with 6% bromelain gel plus papain significantly increased (p < 0.05) the ARI score only when

  18. Destabilization of Human Insulin Fibrils by Peptides of Fruit Bromelain Derived From Ananas comosus (Pineapple).

    PubMed

    Das, Sromona; Bhattacharyya, Debasish

    2017-12-01

    Deposition of insulin aggregates in human body leads to dysfunctioning of several organs. Effectiveness of fruit bromelain from pineapple in prevention of insulin aggregate was investigated. Proteolyses of bromelain was done as par human digestive system and the pool of small peptides was separated from larger peptides and proteins. Under conditions of growth of insulin aggregates from its monomers, this pool of peptides restricted the reaction upto formation of oligomers of limited size. These peptides also destabilized preformed insulin aggregates to oligomers. These processes were followed fluorimetrically using Thioflavin T and 1-ANS, size-exclusion HPLC, dynamic light scattering, atomic force microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. Sequences of insulin (A and B chains) and bromelain were aligned using Clustal W software to predict most probable sites of interactions. Synthetic tripeptides corresponding to the hydrophobic interactive sites of bromelain showed disaggregation of insulin suggesting specificity of interactions. The peptides GG and AAA serving as negative controls showed no potency in destabilization of aggregates. Disaggregation potency of the peptides was also observed when insulin was deposited on HepG2 liver cells where no formation of toxic oligomers occurred. Amyloidogenic des-octapeptide (B23-B30 of insulin) incapable of cell signaling showed cytotoxicity similar to insulin. This toxicity could be neutralized by bromelain derived peptides. FT-IR and far-UV circular dichroism analysis indicated that disaggregated insulin had structure distinctly different from that of its hexameric (native) or monomeric states. Based on the stoichiometry of interaction and irreversibility of disaggregation, the mechanism/s of the peptides and insulin interactions has been proposed. J. Cell. Biochem. 118: 4881-4896, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Influence of zinc on bacterial populations and their proteolytic enzyme activities in freshwater environments: a cross-site comparison.

    PubMed

    Rasmussen, Lauren; Olapade, Ola A

    2016-04-01

    Temporal responses of indigenous bacterial populations and proteolytic enzyme (i.e., aminopeptidase) activities in the bacterioplankton assemblages from 3 separate freshwater environments were examined after exposure to various zinc (Zn) concentrations under controlled microcosm conditions. Zn concentrations (ranging from 0 to 10 μmol/L) were added to water samples collected from the Kalamazoo River, Rice Creek, and Huron River and examined for bacterial abundance and aminopeptidase activities at various time intervals over a 48 h incubation period in the dark. The results showed that the Zn concentrations did not significantly influence total bacterial counts directly; however, aminopeptidase activities varied significantly to increasing zinc treatments over time. Also, analysis of variance and linear regression analyses revealed significant positive relationships between bacterial numbers and their hydrolytic enzyme activities, suggesting that both probably co-vary with increasing Zn concentrations in aquatic systems. The results from this study serve as additional evidence of the ecological role of Zn as an extracellular peptidase cofactor on the dynamics of bacterial assemblages in aquatic environments.

  20. Proteolytic Pathways Induced by Herbicides That Inhibit Amino Acid Biosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Zulet, Amaia; Gil-Monreal, Miriam; Villamor, Joji Grace; Zabalza, Ana; van der Hoorn, Renier A. L.; Royuela, Mercedes

    2013-01-01

    Background The herbicides glyphosate (Gly) and imazamox (Imx) inhibit the biosynthesis of aromatic and branched-chain amino acids, respectively. Although these herbicides inhibit different pathways, they have been reported to show several common physiological effects in their modes of action, such as increasing free amino acid contents and decreasing soluble protein contents. To investigate proteolytic activities upon treatment with Gly and Imx, pea plants grown in hydroponic culture were treated with Imx or Gly, and the proteolytic profile of the roots was evaluated through fluorogenic kinetic assays and activity-based protein profiling. Results Several common changes in proteolytic activity were detected following Gly and Imx treatment. Both herbicides induced the ubiquitin-26 S proteasome system and papain-like cysteine proteases. In contrast, the activities of vacuolar processing enzymes, cysteine proteases and metacaspase 9 were reduced following treatment with both herbicides. Moreover, the activities of several putative serine protease were similarly increased or decreased following treatment with both herbicides. In contrast, an increase in YVADase activity was observed under Imx treatment versus a decrease under Gly treatment. Conclusion These results suggest that several proteolytic pathways are responsible for protein degradation upon herbicide treatment, although the specific role of each proteolytic activity remains to be determined. PMID:24040092

  1. Prospective double-blind clinical trial evaluating the effectiveness of Bromelain in the third molar extraction postoperative period.

    PubMed

    de la Barrera-Núñez, M-C; Yáñez-Vico, R-M; Batista-Cruzado, A; Heurtebise-Saavedra, J-M; Castillo-de Oyagüe, R; Torres-Lagares, D

    2014-03-01

    To evaluate the anti-inflammatory and analgesic effect of Bromelain (pineapple extract) administered orally in the postoperative after extraction of impacted lower molars. This is a prospective, placebo-controlled, unicentric, double-blind study; the sample size was 34 patients. The pre and postoperative outcomes, evaluated on the third (D3) and eighth day (D8), included inflamtion, pain and oral aperture, as well as the need for analgesics. One group received Bromelain 150mg per day for three days and 100mg on days 4 to 7. The other group received placebo in the same dosage. All outcomes werrecorded quantitatively and analyzed with the Mann-Whitney U test for independent samples. Although there were no statistically significant differences between the treatment groups, a trend towards less inflammation and improved oral aperture was observed in the group that received Bromelain, compared to the group that received placebo. This trend can be attributed completely to random reasons, since there is no statistical difference in the results. Further studies are necessary to analyze different administration patterns and doses of Bromelain for the use in the postoperative of impacted third molars.

  2. Bromelain purification through unconventional aqueous two-phase system (PEG/ammonium sulphate).

    PubMed

    Coelho, D F; Silveira, E; Pessoa Junior, A; Tambourgi, E B

    2013-02-01

    This paper focuses on the feasibility of unconventional aqueous two-phase systems for bromelain purification from pineapple processing waste. The main difference in comparison with conventional systems is the integration of the liquid-liquid extraction technique with fractional precipitation, which can decrease the protein content with no loss of biological activity by removing of unwanted molecules. The analysis of the results was based on the response surface methodology and revealed that the use of the desirability optimisation methodology (DOM) was necessary to achieve higher purification factor values and greater bromelain recovery. The use of DOM yielded an 11.80-fold purification factor and 66.38 % biological activity recovery using poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) with a molar mass of 4,000, 10.86 % PEG concentration (m/m) and 36.21 % saturation of ammonium sulphate.

  3. Regulation of p53, nuclear factor {kappa}B and cyclooxygenase-2 expression by bromelain through targeting mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway in mouse skin

    SciTech Connect

    Kalra, Neetu; Bhui, Kulpreet; Roy, Preeti

    2008-01-01

    Bromelain is a pharmacologically active compound, present in stems and immature fruits of pineapples (Ananas cosmosus), which has been shown to have anti-edematous, anti-inflammatory, anti-thrombotic and anti-metastatic properties. In the present study, antitumorigenic activity of bromelain was recorded in 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA)-initiated and 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-promoted 2-stage mouse skin model. Results showed that bromelain application delayed the onset of tumorigenesis and reduced the cumulative number of tumors, tumor volume and the average number of tumors/mouse. To establish a cause and effect relationship, we targeted the proteins involved in the cell death pathway. Bromelain treatment resulted in upregulation of p53 and Bax andmore » subsequent activation of caspase 3 and caspase 9 with concomitant decrease in antiapoptotic protein Bcl-2 in mouse skin. Since persistent induction of cyclooxygenase-2 (Cox-2) is frequently implicated in tumorigenesis and is regulated by nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-{kappa}B), we also investigated the effect of bromelain on Cox-2 and NF-{kappa}B expression. Results showed that bromelain application significantly inhibited Cox-2 and inactivated NF-{kappa}B by blocking phosphorylation and subsequent degradation of I{kappa}B{alpha}. In addition, bromelain treatment attenuated DMBA-TPA-induced phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK1/2), mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and Akt. Taken together, we conclude that bromelain induces apoptosis-related proteins along with inhibition of NF-{kappa}B-driven Cox-2 expression by blocking the MAPK and Akt/protein kinase B signaling in DMBA-TPA-induced mouse skin tumors, which may account for its anti-tumorigenic effects.« less

  4. Proteolytic crosstalk in multi-protease networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogle, Curtis T.; Mather, William H.

    2016-04-01

    Processive proteases, such as ClpXP in E. coli, are conserved enzyme assemblies that can recognize and rapidly degrade proteins. These proteases are used for a number of purposes, including degrading mistranslated proteins and controlling cellular stress response. However, proteolytic machinery within the cell is limited in capacity and can lead to a bottleneck in protein degradation, whereby many proteins compete (‘queue’) for proteolytic resources. Previous work has demonstrated that such queueing can lead to pronounced statistical relationships between different protein counts when proteins compete for a single common protease. However, real cells contain many different proteases, e.g. ClpXP, ClpAP, and Lon in E. coli, and it is not clear how competition between proteins for multiple classes of protease would influence the dynamics of cellular networks. In the present work, we theoretically demonstrate that a multi-protease proteolytic bottleneck can substantially couple the dynamics for both simple and complex (oscillatory) networks, even between substrates with substantially different affinities for protease. For these networks, queueing often leads to strong positive correlations between protein counts, and these correlations are strongest near the queueing theoretic point of balance. Furthermore, we find that the qualitative behavior of these networks depends on the relative size of the absolute affinity of substrate to protease compared to the cross affinity of substrate to protease, leading in certain regimes to priority queue statistics.

  5. Effect of Four Commonly Used Dissolution Media Surfactants on Pancreatin Proteolytic Activity.

    PubMed

    Guncheva, Maya; Stippler, Erika

    2017-05-01

    Proteolytic enzymes are often used in dissolution testing of cross-linked gelatin capsules that do not conform to the dissolution specification. Their catalytic activity, however, can be affected when they are added to a dissolution media containing solubility enhancers, such as surfactants. The aim of this study was to assess the activity of pancreatic proteases in presence of four commonly used surfactants. We found that pancreatin exhibits remarkable proteolytic activity in the presence of Tween 80, even at the concentrations as high as 250 times its critical micelle concentration (cmc) in water, whereas, Triton X-100 enhanced the proteolytic activity of pancreatin when added at concentrations above its cmc in water. Both surfactants are non-ionic surfactants. On the other hand, sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB), which are ionic surfactants, have a detrimental effect on the proteolytic activity of pancreatin. For example, a 50% reduction of the pancreatin activity was found in samples which contain a minor amount of SDS (0.05% w/v) in comparison to a surfactant-free reaction. Additionally, no activity was observed for the pancreatin-SDS samples which were incubated for 30 min at 40°C prior to testing. CTAB had an impact on pancreatin activity at concentrations higher than its cmc. Data from this manuscript can be used as a benchmark for optimization of the dissolution procedures that require use of both surfactants and enzymes.

  6. Proteolytic and amylolytic enzymes from a newly isolated Bacillus mojavensis SA: Characterization and applications as laundry detergent additive and in leather processing.

    PubMed

    Hammami, Amal; Fakhfakh, Nahed; Abdelhedi, Ola; Nasri, Moncef; Bayoudh, Ahmed

    2018-03-01

    The present work aims to study the simultaneous production of highly alkaline proteases and thermostable α-amylases by a newly isolated bacterium Bacillus mojavensis SA. The optimum pH and temperature of amylase activity were 9.0 and 55°C, respectively, while those of the proteolytic activity were 12.0 and 60°C, respectively. Both α-amylase and protease enzymes showed a high stability towards a wide range of pH and temperature. Furthermore, SA crude enzymes were relatively stable towards non-ionic (Tween 20, Tween 80 and Triton X-100) and anionic (SDS) surfactants, as well as oxidizing agents. Both activities were improved by the presence of polyethylene glycol 4000 and glycerol. Additionally, the crude enzymes showed excellent stability against various solid and liquid detergents. Wash performance analysis revealed that the SA crude enzymes exhibited a remarkable efficiency in the removal of a variety type of stains, such as blood, chocolate, coffee and oil. On the other side, SA proteases revealed a potential dehairing activity of animal hide without chemical assistance or fibrous proteins hydrolysis. Thus, considering their promising properties, B. mojavensis SA crude enzymes could be used in several biotechnological bioprocesses. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Prospective double-blind clinical trial evaluating the effectiveness of Bromelain in the third molar extraction postoperative period

    PubMed Central

    de la Barrera-Núñez, María C.; Yáñez-Vico, Rosa M.; Batista-Cruzado, Antonio; Heurtebise-Saavedra, Jean M.; Castillo-de Oyagüe, Raquel

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate the anti-inflammatory and analgesic effect of Bromelain (pineapple extract) administered orally in the postoperative after extraction of impacted lower molars. Study Design: This is a prospective, placebo-controlled, unicentric, double-blind study; the sample size was 34 patients. The pre and postoperative outcomes, evaluated on the third (D3) and eighth day (D8), included inflamtion, pain and oral aperture, as well as the need for analgesics. One group received bromelain 150mg per day for three days and 100mg on days 4 to 7. The other group received placebo in the same dosage. All outcomes werrecorded quantitatively and analyzed with the Mann-Whitney U test for independent samples. Results: Although there were no statistically significant differences between the treatment groups, a trend towards less inflammation and improved oral aperture was observed in the group that received bromelain, compared to the group that received placebo. This trend can be attributed completely to random reasons, since there is no statistical difference in the results. Conclusions: Further studies are necessary to analyze different administration patterns and doses of bromelain for the use in the postoperative of impacted third molars. Key words:Tooth extraction, third molar, postoperative period, bromeline, clinical study. PMID:24316697

  8. Digestive proteolytic and amylolytic activities of Helicoverpa armigera in response to feeding on different soybean cultivars.

    PubMed

    Naseri, Bahram; Fathipour, Yaghoub; Moharramipour, Saeid; Hosseininaveh, Vahid; Gatehouse, Angharad M R

    2010-12-01

    Digestive proteolytic and amylolytic activities of the larvae of Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) fed either on artificial diet or on different soybean cultivars (356, M4, M7, M9, Clark, Sahar, JK, BP, Williams, L17, Zane, Gorgan3 and DPX) and response of the larvae to feeding on some soybean-based protease inhibitors were studied. The highest general and specific proteolytic activities were in artificial-diet-fed larvae. Although the highest general proteolytic activity was in the larvae fed on L17, M4 and Sahar cultivars, the lowest tryptic activity was on L17 and Sahar, which may be due to the presence of some serine protease inhibitors in these two cultivars, resulting in hyperproduction of chymotrypsin- and elastase-like enzymes in response to the inhibition of these enzymes. The highest amylolytic activity was on M4, and the lowest was on Williams and DPX. General proteolytic activity of SKTI-fed larvae was the highest compared with SBBI- and STI-fed larvae. The findings demonstrated that the cultivars L17 and Sahar were partially resistant to this pest, probably because of some secondary chemicals or proteinaceous protease inhibitors of these cultivars.

  9. Bromelain inhibits nuclear factor kappa-B translocation, driving human epidermoid carcinoma A431 and melanoma A375 cells through G(2)/M arrest to apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Bhui, Kulpreet; Tyagi, Shilpa; Srivastava, Amit Kumar; Singh, Madhulika; Roy, Preeti; Singh, Richa; Shukla, Yogeshwer

    2012-03-01

    Bromelain, obtained from pineapple, is already in use clinically as adjunct in chemotherapy. Our objective was to test its ability to act as a sole anti-cancer agent. Therefore, we describe its anti-proliferative, anti-inflammatory and subsequent anti-cancer effects in vitro, against human epidermoid carcinoma-A431 and melanoma-A375 cells. Bromelain exhibited reduction in proliferation of both these cell-lines and suppressed their potential for anchorage-independent growth. Further, suppression of inflammatory signaling by bromelain was evident by inhibition of Akt regulated-nuclear factor-kappaB activation via suppression of inhibitory-kappaBα phosphorylation and concomitant reduction in cyclooxygenase-2. Since, the inflammatory cascade is well-known to be closely allied to cancer; we studied the effect of bromelain on events/molecules central to it. Bromelain caused depletion of intracellular glutathione and generation of reactive oxygen-species followed by mitochondrial membrane depolarization. This led to bromelain-induced cell-cycle arrest at G(2)/M phase which was mediated by modulation of cyclin B1, phospho-cdc25C, Plk1, phospho-cdc2, and myt1. This was subsequently followed by induction of apoptosis, indicated by membrane-blebbing, modulation of Bax-Bcl-2 ratio, Apaf-1, caspase-9, and caspase-3; chromatin-condensation, increase in caspase-activity and DNA-fragmentation. Bromelain afforded substantial anti-cancer potential in these settings; hence we suggest it as a potential prospect for anti-cancer agent besides only an additive in chemotherapy. Copyright ©2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Eschar removal by bromelain based enzymatic debridement (Nexobrid®) in burns: An European consensus.

    PubMed

    Hirche, Christoph; Citterio, Antonella; Hoeksema, Henk; Koller, Ján; Lehner, Martina; Martinez, José Ramón; Monstrey, Stan; Murray, Alexandra; Plock, Jan A; Sander, Frank; Schulz, Alexandra; Ziegler, Benjamin; Kneser, Ulrich

    2017-12-01

    Early debridement and/or eschar removal is regarded as a significant step in the treatment of deep partial and full thickness burns. It aims to control wound bioburden and allows early wound closure by conservative treatment or skin grafting. Preservation of viable dermis accompanied by early wound closure, is regarded as a necessary step to reduce scar related complication, e.g. functional limitations and/or unaesthetic scar formation. Aside from the classical techniques of surgical excision as tangential excision for eschar removal, hydro-surgery, maggot therapy, laser, enzymatic debridement have been described as additional techniques in the burn surgeon's armamentarium. It is widely accepted that early eschar removal within 72h improves the outcome of burn wound treatment by reducing bacterial wound colonization, infection and length of hospital stay. In contrast, the right technique for eschar removal is still a matter of debate. There is increasing evidence that enzymatic debridement is a powerful tool to remove eschar in burn wounds, reducing blood loss, the need for autologous skin grafting and the number of wounds requiring surgical excision. In order to assess the role and clinical advantages of enzymatic debridement by a mixture of proteolytic enzymes enriched in Bromelain (Nexobrid ® ) beyond the scope of the literature and in view of users' experience, a European Consensus Meeting was scheduled. The aim was to provide statements for application, based on the mutual experience of applying enzymatic debridement in more than 500 adult and pediatric patients by the consensus panelists. Issues to be addressed were: indications, pain management and anesthesia, timing of application, technique of application, after-intervention care, skin grafting after enzymatic debridement, blood loss, training strategies and learning curve and areas of future research needs. Sixty-eight (68) consensus statements were provided for the use of enzymatic debridement. The

  11. Radiation sterilization of enzyme hybrids with biodegradable polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furuta, Masakazu; Oka, Masahito; Hayashi, Toshio

    2002-03-01

    Ionizing radiations, which have already been utilized for the sterilization of medical supplies as well as gas fumigation, should be the final candidate to decontaminate "hybrid" biomaterials containing bio-active materials including enzymes because irradiation induces neither heat nor substances affecting the quality of the materials and our health. In order to check the feasibility of 60Co-gamma rays on these materials, we selected commercial proteases including papain and bromelain hybridized with commercial activated chitosan beads and demonstrated that these enzyme-hybrids suspended in water showed the significant radiation durability of more than twice as much as free enzyme solution at 25-kGy irradiation. Enhanced thermal and storage stability of the enzyme hybrids were not affected by the same dose level of irradiation, either, indicating that commercial irradiation sterilization method is applicable to enzyme hybrids without modification.

  12. The expression patterns of bromelain and AcCYS1 correlate with blackheart resistance in pineapple fruits submitted to postharvest chilling stress.

    PubMed

    Raimbault, Astrid-Kim; Zuily-Fodil, Yasmine; Soler, Alain; Mora, Phillipe; Cruz de Carvalho, Maria H

    2013-11-01

    Blackheart is a physiological disorder induced by postharvest chilling storage during pineapple fruit export shipping. The aim of this study was to check the involvement of bromelain, the cysteine protease protein family abundantly present in pineapple fruits, and AcCYS1, an endogenous inhibitor of bromelain, in the development of blackheart. For this we checked the response to postharvest chilling treatment of two pineapple varieties (MD2 and Smooth Cayenne) differing in their resistance to blackheart. Quantitative RT-PCR analyses showed that postharvest chilling treatment induced a down-regulation of bromelain transcript accumulation in both varieties with the most dramatic drop in the resistant variety. Regarding AcCYS1 transcript accumulation, the varieties showed opposite trends with an up-regulation in the case of the resistant variety and a down-regulation in the susceptible one. Taken together our results suggest that the control of bromelain and AcCYS1 expression levels directly correlates to the resistance to blackheart development in pineapple fruits. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  13. Skeletal muscle and liver contain a soluble ATP + ubiquitin-dependent proteolytic system.

    PubMed Central

    Fagan, J M; Waxman, L; Goldberg, A L

    1987-01-01

    Although protein breakdown in most cells seems to require metabolic energy, it has only been possible to establish a soluble ATP-dependent proteolytic system in extracts of reticulocytes and erythroleukemia cells. We have now succeeded in demonstrating in soluble extracts and more purified preparations from rabbit skeletal muscle a 12-fold stimulation by ATP of breakdown of endogenous proteins and a 6-fold stimulation of 125I-lysozyme degradation. However, it has still not been possible to demonstrate such large effects of ATP in similar preparations from liver. Nevertheless, after fractionation by DEAE-chromatography and gel filtration, we found that extracts from liver as well as muscle contain both the enzymes which conjugate ubiquitin to 125I-lysozyme and an enzyme which specifically degrades the ubiquitin-protein conjugates. When this proteolytic activity was recombined with the conjugating enzymes, ATP + ubiquitin-dependent degradation of many proteins was observed. This proteinase is unusually large, approx. 1500 kDa, requires ATP hydrolysis for activity and resembles the ubiquitin-protein-conjugate degrading activity isolated from reticulocytes. Thus the ATP + ubiquitin-dependent pathway is likely to be present in all mammalian cells, although certain tissues may contain inhibitory factors. Images Fig. 2. PMID:2820375

  14. Protective propensity of bacoside A and bromelain on renal cholinesterases, γ-Aminobutyric acid and serotonin level of Mus musculus intoxicated with dichlorvos.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Sonam; Chaudhary, Bharti; Bist, Renu

    2017-01-05

    Current study established a protective action of bacoside A and bromelain against the toxic effects of dichlorvos in kidneys of mice. Experimental design included five groups. The first group was control. Mice of groups II, III and IV were administered doses of dichlorvos, bromelain and bacoside A respectively. In group V, mice were treated with both the antioxidants (bacoside A and bromelain) and dichlorvos. After 21 days of exposure of different doses, levels of acetylcholinesterase (AChE), butyrylcholinesterase (BChE), γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and serotonin were measured in renal tissues. Dichlorvos significantly reduced the kidney AChE (p < 0.001), BChE (p < 0.01) and GABA level (p < 0.01) compared to control. A simultaneous significant elevation in the serotonin level (p < 0.01) was recorded after dichlorvos exposure. Concomitant exposure of bacoside A and bromelain followed by dichlorvos treatment in group V not only restored, but increased the renal cholinesterases and GABA level. Meanwhile, a significant decline in serotonin level (p < 0.001) was revealed, compared to dichlorvos exposed mice. Bacoside A and bromelain occupy a tremendous antioxidant action in the mice kidneys and a combination of the same ameliorates the renal toxicity induced by dichlorvos. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Dual proteolytic pathways govern glycolysis and immune competence.

    PubMed

    Lu, Wei; Zhang, Yu; McDonald, David O; Jing, Huie; Carroll, Bernadette; Robertson, Nic; Zhang, Qian; Griffin, Helen; Sanderson, Sharon; Lakey, Jeremy H; Morgan, Neil V; Reynard, Louise N; Zheng, Lixin; Murdock, Heardley M; Turvey, Stuart E; Hackett, Scott J; Prestidge, Tim; Hall, Julie M; Cant, Andrew J; Matthews, Helen F; Koref, Mauro F Santibanez; Simon, Anna Katharina; Korolchuk, Viktor I; Lenardo, Michael J; Hambleton, Sophie; Su, Helen C

    2014-12-18

    Proteasomes and lysosomes constitute the major cellular systems that catabolize proteins to recycle free amino acids for energy and new protein synthesis. Tripeptidyl peptidase II (TPPII) is a large cytosolic proteolytic complex that functions in tandem with the proteasome-ubiquitin protein degradation pathway. We found that autosomal recessive TPP2 mutations cause recurrent infections, autoimmunity, and neurodevelopmental delay in humans. We show that a major function of TPPII in mammalian cells is to maintain amino acid levels and that TPPII-deficient cells compensate by increasing lysosome number and proteolytic activity. However, the overabundant lysosomes derange cellular metabolism by consuming the key glycolytic enzyme hexokinase-2 through chaperone-mediated autophagy. This reduces glycolysis and impairs the production of effector cytokines, including IFN-γ and IL-1β. Thus, TPPII controls the balance between intracellular amino acid availability, lysosome number, and glycolysis, which is vital for adaptive and innate immunity and neurodevelopmental health. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Dual Proteolytic Pathways Govern Glycolysis and Immune Competence

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Wei; Zhang, Yu; McDonald, David O.; Jing, Huie; Carroll, Bernadette; Robertson, Nic; Zhang, Qian; Griffin, Helen; Sanderson, Sharon; Lakey, Jeremy H.; Morgan, Neil V.; Reynard, Louise N.; Zheng, Lixin; Murdock, Heardley M.; Turvey, Stuart E.; Hackett, Scott J.; Prestidge, Tim; Hall, Julie M.; Cant, Andrew J.; Matthews, Helen F.; Santibanez Koref, Mauro F.; Simon, Anna Katharina; Korolchuk, Viktor I.; Lenardo, Michael J.; Hambleton, Sophie; Su, Helen C.

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Proteasomes and lysosomes constitute the major cellular systems that catabolize proteins to recycle free amino acids for energy and new protein synthesis. Tripeptidyl peptidase II (TPPII) is a large cytosolic proteolytic complex that functions in tandem with the proteasome-ubiquitin protein degradation pathway. We found that autosomal recessive TPP2 mutations cause recurrent infections, autoimmunity, and neurodevelopmental delay in humans. We show that a major function of TPPII in mammalian cells is to maintain amino acid levels, and that TPPII-deficient cells compensate by increasing lysosome number and proteolytic activity. However, the overabundant lysosomes derange cellular metabolism by consuming the key glycolytic enzyme hexokinase-2 through chaperone-mediated autophagy. This reduces glycolysis and impairs the production of effector cytokines including IFN-γ and IL-1β. Thus, TPPII controls the balance between intracellular amino acid availability, lysosome number, and glycolysis, which is vital for adaptive and innate immunity and neurodevelopmental health. PMID:25525876

  17. Hard-to-cook bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) proteins hydrolyzed by alcalase and bromelain produced bioactive peptide fractions that inhibit targets of type-2 diabetes and oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Oseguera-Toledo, Miguel E; Gonzalez de Mejia, Elvira; Amaya-Llano, Silvia L

    2015-10-01

    The objective was to evaluate the effect of bioactive peptide fractions from de-hulled hard-to-cook (HTC) bean on enzyme targets of type-2 diabetes and oxidative stress. Protein isolates from Pinto Durango and Negro 8025 beans were hydrolyzed (120min) with either alcalase® or bromelain and separated into five peptide fractions (<1, 1-3.5, 3.5-5, 5-10, and >10kDa) using an ultrafiltration membrane system. The <1kDa pinto Durango-bromelain fraction showed the best inhibition of α-amylase (49.9±1.4%), and the <1kDa pinto Durango-alcalase fraction inhibited both, α-glucosidase (76.4±0.5%), and dipeptidyl peptidase-IV (DPP-IV, 55.3±1.6%). Peptides LLSL, QQEG and NEGEAH were present in the most potent fractions. Hydrolysates and peptide fractions showed antioxidant capacity (ORAC: 159.6±2.9 to 932.6±1.1mmolTE/g) and nitric oxide inhibition (57.5±0.9 to 68.3±4.2%). Hydrolysates and fractions <1 and 1-3kDa were able to increase glucose-stimulated insulin secretion from iNS-1E cells up to 57% compared to glucose control. Hydrolysates from HTC beans inhibited enzymes related to diabetes management, being the smallest peptides (<1kDa) the most potent. HTC bean could be a source of protein to produce bioactive peptides with potential antidiabetic properties. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. In vivo sensing of proteolytic activity with an NSET-based NIR fluorogenic nanosensor.

    PubMed

    Ku, Minhee; Hong, Yoochan; Heo, Dan; Lee, Eugene; Hwang, Seungyeon; Suh, Jin-Suck; Yang, Jaemoon

    2016-03-15

    Biomedical in vivo sensing methods in the near-infrared (NIR) range, which that provide relatively high photon transparency, separation from auto-fluorescence background, and extended sensitivity, are being used increasingly for non-invasive mapping and monitoring of molecular events in cancer cells. In this study, we fabricated an NIR fluorogenic nanosensor based on the nanoparticle surface energy transfer effect, by conjugation of fluorescent proteolytic enzyme-specific cleavable peptides with gold nanorods (GNRs). Membrane-anchored membrane type 1-matrix metalloproteinases (MT1-MMPs), a family of zinc-dependent proteolytic enzymes, can induce the metastatic potential of cancer cells by promoting degradation of the extracellular matrix. Therefore, sensitive detection of MT1-MMP activity can provide essential information in the clinical setting. We have applied in vivo NIR sensing to evaluate MT1-MMP activity, as an NIR imaging target, in an MT1-MMP-expressing metastatic tumor mouse model. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Does 1-Allyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride Act as a Biocompatible Solvent for Stem Bromelain?

    PubMed

    Jha, Indrani; Bisht, Meena; Venkatesu, Pannuru

    2016-06-30

    The broader scope of ILs in chemical sciences particularly in pharmaceutical, bioanalytical and many more applications is increasing day by day. Hitherto, a very less amount of research is available in the depiction of conformational stability, activity, and thermal stability of enzymes in the presence of ILs. In the present study, the perturbation in the structure, stability, and activity of stem bromelain (BM) has been observed in the presence of 1-allyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ([Amim][Cl]) using various techniques. This is the first report in which the influence of [Amim][Cl] has been studied on the enzyme BM. Fluorescence spectroscopy has been utilized to map out the changes in the environment around tryptophan (Trp) residues of BM and also to discuss the variations in the thermal stability of BM as an outcome of its interaction with the IL at different concentrations. Further, the work delineates the denaturing effect of high concentration of IL on enzyme structure and activity. It dictates the fact that low concentrations (0.01-0.10 M) of [Amim][Cl] are only changing the structural arrangement of the protein without having harsh consequences on its activity and stability. However, high concentrations of IL proved to be totally devastating for both activity and stability of BM. The observed decrease in the stability of BM at high concentration may be due to the combined effect of cation and anion interactions with the protein residues. The present work is successful in dictating the probable mechanism of interaction between BM and [Amim][Cl]. These results can prove to be fruitful in the studies of enzymes in aqueous IL systems since the used IL is thermally stable and nonvolatile in nature thereby providing a pathway of alteration in the activity of enzymes in potentially green systems.

  20. Actinopyga lecanora Hydrolysates as Natural Antibacterial Agents

    PubMed Central

    Ghanbari, Raheleh; Ebrahimpour, Afshin; Abdul-Hamid, Azizah; Ismail, Amin; Saari, Nazamid

    2012-01-01

    Actinopyga lecanora, a type of sea cucumber commonly known as stone fish with relatively high protein content, was explored as raw material for bioactive peptides production. Six proteolytic enzymes, namely alcalase, papain, pepsin, trypsin, bromelain and flavourzyme were used to hydrolyze A. lecanora at different times and their respective degrees of hydrolysis (DH) were calculated. Subsequently, antibacterial activity of the A. lecanora hydrolysates, against some common pathogenic Gram positive bacteria (Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus) and Gram negative bacteria (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Pseudomonas sp.) were evaluated. Papain hydrolysis showed the highest DH value (89.44%), followed by alcalase hydrolysis (83.35%). Bromelain hydrolysate after one and seven hours of hydrolysis exhibited the highest antibacterial activities against Pseudomonas sp., P. aeruginosa and E. coli at 51.85%, 30.07% and 30.45%, respectively compared to the other hydrolysates. Protein hydrolysate generated by papain after 8 h hydrolysis showed maximum antibacterial activity against S. aureus at 20.19%. The potent hydrolysates were further fractionated using RP-HPLC and antibacterial activity of the collected fractions from each hydrolysate were evaluated, wherein among them only three fractions from the bromelain hydrolysates exhibited inhibitory activities against Pseudomonas sp., P. aeruginosa and E. coli at 24%, 25.5% and 27.1%, respectively and one fraction of papain hydrolysate showed antibacterial activity of 33.1% against S. aureus. The evaluation of the relationship between DH and antibacterial activities of papain and bromelain hydrolysates revealed a meaningful correlation of four and six order functions. PMID:23222684

  1. Proteolytic-antiproteolytic balance and its regulation in carcinogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Skrzydlewska, Elzbieta; Sulkowska, Mariola; Koda, Mariusz; Sulkowski, Stanislaw

    2005-01-01

    Cancer development is essentially a tissue remodeling process in which normal tissue is substituted with cancer tissue. A crucial role in this process is attributed to proteolytic degradation of the extracellular matrix (ECM). Degradation of ECM is initiated by proteases, secreted by different cell types, participating in tumor cell invasion and increased expression or activity of every known class of proteases (metallo-, serine-, aspartyl-, and cysteine) has been linked to malignancy and invasion of tumor cells. Proteolytic enzymes can act directly by degrading ECM or indirectly by activating other proteases, which then degrade the ECM. They act in a determined order, resulting from the order of their activation. When proteases exert their action on other proteases, the end result is a cascade leading to proteolysis. Presumable order of events in this complicated cascade is that aspartyl protease (cathepsin D) activates cysteine proteases (e.g., cathepsin B) that can activate pro-uPA. Then active uPA can convert plasminogen into plasmin. Cathepsin B as well as plasmin are capable of degrading several components of tumor stroma and may activate zymogens of matrix metalloproteinases, the main family of ECM degrading proteases. The activities of these proteases are regulated by a complex array of activators, inhibitors and cellular receptors. In physiological conditions the balance exists between proteases and their inhibitors. Proteolytic-antiproteolytic balance may be of major significance in the cancer development. One of the reasons for such a situation is enhanced generation of free radicals observed in many pathological states. Free radicals react with main cellular components like proteins and lipids and in this way modify proteolytic-antiproteolytic balance and enable penetration damaging cellular membrane. All these lead to enhancement of proteolysis and destruction of ECM proteins and in consequence to invasion and metastasis. PMID:15761961

  2. Natural products inhibiting the ubiquitin-proteasome proteolytic pathway, a target for drug development.

    PubMed

    Tsukamoto, Sachiko; Yokosawa, Hideyoshi

    2006-01-01

    The ubiquitin-proteasome proteolytic pathway plays a major role in selective protein degradation and regulates various cellular events including cell cycle progression, transcription, DNA repair, signal transduction, and immune response. Ubiquitin, a highly conserved small protein in eukaryotes, attaches to a target protein prior to degradation. The polyubiquitin chain tagged to the target protein is recognized by the 26S proteasome, a high-molecular-mass protease subunit complex, and the protein portion is degraded by the 26S proteasome. The potential of specific proteasome inhibitors, which act as anti-cancer agents, is now under intensive investigation, and bortezomib (PS-341), a proteasome inhibitor, has been recently approved by FDA for multiple myeloma treatment. Since ubiquitination of proteins requires the sequential action of three enzymes, ubiquitin-activating enzyme (E1), ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme (E2), and ubiquitin-protein ligase (E3), and polyubiquitination is a prerequisite for proteasome-mediated protein degradation, inhibitors of E1, E2, and E3 are reasonably thought to be drug candidates for treatment of diseases related to ubiquitination. Recently, various compounds inhibiting the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway have been isolated from natural resources. We also succeeded in isolating inhibitors against the proteasome and E1 enzyme from marine natural resources. In this review, we summarize the structures and biological activities of natural products that inhibit the ubiquitin-proteasome proteolytic pathway.

  3. The effects of spacecraft environments on some hydrolytic enzyme patterns in bacteria

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prescott, J. M.; Foster, B. G.

    1971-01-01

    The effects of space flight on the production and characteristics of proteolytic enzymes are studied for a number of bacterial species isolated from crew members and spacecraft. Enzymatic make-up and cultural characteristics of bacteria isolated from spacecraft crew members are determined. The organism Aeromonas proteolytica and the proteolytic enzymes which it produces are used as models for future spacecraft experiments.

  4. Kinetics of the hydrolysis of N-benzoyl-l-serine methyl ester catalysed by bromelain and by papain. Analysis of modifier mechanisms by lattice nomography, computational methods of parameter evaluation for substrate-activated catalyses and consequences of postulated non-productive binding in bromelain- and papain-catalysed hydrolyses

    PubMed Central

    Wharton, Christopher W.; Cornish-Bowden, Athel; Brocklehurst, Keith; Crook, Eric M.

    1974-01-01

    1. N-Benzoyl-l-serine methyl ester was synthesized and evaluated as a substrate for bromelain (EC 3.4.22.4) and for papain (EC 3.4.22.2). 2. For the bromelain-catalysed hydrolysis at pH7.0, plots of [S0]/vi (initial substrate concn./initial velocity) versus [S0] are markedly curved, concave downwards. 3. Analysis by lattice nomography of a modifier kinetic mechanism in which the modifier is substrate reveals that concave-down [S0]/vi versus [S0] plots can arise when the ratio of the rate constants that characterize the breakdown of the binary (ES) and ternary (SES) complexes is either less than or greater than 1. In the latter case, there are severe restrictions on the values that may be taken by the ratio of the dissociation constants of the productive and non-productive binary complexes. 4. Concave-down [S0]/vi versus [S0] plots cannot arise from compulsory substrate activation. 5. Computational methods, based on function minimization, for determination of the apparent parameters that characterize a non-compulsory substrate-activated catalysis are described. 6. In an attempt to interpret the catalysis by bromelain of the hydrolysis of N-benzoyl-l-serine methyl ester in terms of substrate activation, the general substrate-activation model was simplified to one in which only one binary ES complex (that which gives rise directly to products) can form. 7. In terms of this model, the bromelain-catalysed hydrolysis of N-benzoyl-l-serine methyl ester at pH7.0, I=0.1 and 25°C is characterized by Km1 (the dissociation constant of ES)=1.22±0.73mm, k (the rate constant for the breakdown of ES to E+products, P)=1.57×10−2±0.32×10−2s−1, Ka2 (the dissociation constant that characterizes the breakdown of SES to ES and S)=0.38±0.06m, and k′ (the rate constant for the breakdown of SES to E+P+S)=0.45±0.04s−1. 8. These parameters are compared with those in the literature that characterize the bromelain-catalysed hydrolysis of α-N-benzoyl-l-arginine ethyl ester and

  5. A Distinct Proof on Interplay between Trehalose and Guanidinium Chloride for the Stability of Stem Bromelain.

    PubMed

    Rani, Anjeeta; Venkatesu, Pannuru

    2016-09-01

    Guanidinium chloride (GdnHCl), a potential denaturant, is well-known to denature a number of proteins in vitro as well as in vivo studies. Its deleterious action on stem bromelain (BM) is quite prominent resulting decrease in protein structure and stability. The counteraction of this adverse effect of GdnHCl by the use of osmolytes is scarcely studied and the mechanism is still illusive and not exclusive. For the first time, to test elegant and simple counteraction hypothesis as a general mechanism we utilized fluorescence, circular dichroism, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and dynamic light scattering to study the counteraction of GdnHCl-induced denaturation of BM by the trehalose. It is revealed from the investigation of the results that trehalose is efficiently counteracting GdnHCl undesirable impacts on BM stability at molar ratio 1:1 of trehalose and GdnHCl. On the contrary, proteolytic activity of BM is increased only for the counteraction study of BM at very high concentrations of GdnHCl although still less than BM in buffer. The mutual exclusion of both trehalose and GdnHCl may stand for the counteraction of denaturation of BM resulting in a compact conformation with less solvent exposed surface area and increased secondary and tertiary structures. In addition, a decrease in BM-solvent interactions may also be contributing to some extent as there is little binding of trehalose replacing some water molecules and reducing binding of GdnHCl.

  6. 4-Chloro-7-nitrobenzo-2-oxa-1,3-diazole as a reactivity probe for the investigation of the thiol proteinases. evidence that ficin and bromelain may lack carboxyl groups conformationally equivalent to that of aspartic acid-158 of papain.

    PubMed Central

    Shipton, M; Stuchbury, T; Brocklehurst, K

    1976-01-01

    1. 4-Chloro-7-nitrobenzo-2-oxa-1,3-diazole (Nbd chloride) was used as a reactivity probe to characterize the active centres of papin (EC 3.4.22.2), ficin (EC 3.4.22.3) and bromelain (EC 3.4.22.4). 2. In the pH range 0-8 Nbd chloride probably exists mainly as a monocation, possibly with the proton located on N-1 of the oxadiazole ring. 3. Spectroscopic evidence is presented for the intermediacy of Meisenheimer-type adducts in the reaction of Nbd chloride with nucleophiles. 4. The pH-dependence of the second-order rate constants (k) of the reactions of the three enzymes with Nbd chloride was determined at 25 degrees C, I = 0.1 mol/litre in 6.7% (v/v) ethanol in the pH range 2.5-5, where, at least for papain and ficin, the reactions occur specifically with their active-centre thiol groups. The pH-k profile for the papain reaction is bell-shaped (pKaI = 3.24, pKaII = 3.44 and k = 86M(-1)-s(-1), whereas that for ficin is sigmoidal (pKa = 3.6, k = 0.36M(-1)-s(-1), the rate increasing with increasing pH. The profile for the bromelain reaction appears to resemble that for the ficin reaction, but is complicated by amino-group labelling. 5. The bell-shaped profile of the papain reaction is considered to arise from the reaction of the thiolate ion of cysteine-25, maintained in acidic media by interaction with the side chain of histidine-159, with the Nbd chloride monocation hydrogen-bonded at its nitro group to the un-ionized form of the carboxyl group of aspartic acid-158. The lack of acid catalysis in the corresponding reactions of ficin and probably of bromelain suggests that these enzymes may lack carboxyl groups conformationally equivalent to that of aspartic acid-158 of papain. The possible consequences of this for the catalytic sites of these enzymes is discussed. PMID:11778

  7. An Examination of the Proteolytic Activity for Bovine Pregnancy-Associated Glycoprotein 2 and 12

    PubMed Central

    Telugu, Bhanu Prakash V.L.; Palmier, Mark O.; Van Doren, Steven R.; Green, Jonathan A.

    2010-01-01

    The pregnancy-associated glycoproteins (PAGs) represent a complex group of putative aspartic peptidases expressed exclusively in the placentas of species in the Artiodactyla order. The ruminant PAGs segregate into two classes -the ‘ancient’ and ‘modern’ PAGs. Some of the modern PAGs possess alterations in the catalytic center that are predicted to preclude their ability to act as peptidases. The ancient ruminant PAGs in contrast are thought to be peptidases, although, no proteolytic activity has been described for these members. The goal of this present study was to investigate (1) if the ancient bovine PAGs (PAGs-2 and -12) have proteolytic activity, and (2) if there are any differences in activity between these two closely related members. Recombinant bovine PAGs-2 and -12 were expressed in a baculovirus expression system and the purified proteins were analyzed for proteolytic activity against a synthetic fluorescent cathepsin D/E substrate. Both proteins exhibited proteolytic activity with acidic pH optima. The kcat/KM for bovine PAG-2 was 2.7×105 M−1s−1 and for boPAG-12 it was 6.8×104 M−1s−1. The enzymes were inhibited by pepstatin A with a Ki of 0.56 and 7.5 nM for boPAG-2 and boPAG-12, respectively. This is the first report describing proteolytic activity in PAGs from ruminant ungulates. PMID:20030586

  8. Bromelain and N-acetylcysteine inhibit proliferation and survival of gastrointestinal cancer cells in vitro: significance of combination therapy.

    PubMed

    Amini, Afshin; Masoumi-Moghaddam, Samar; Ehteda, Anahid; Morris, David Lawson

    2014-11-12

    Bromelain and N-acetylcysteine are two natural, sulfhydryl-containing compounds with good safety profiles which have been investigated for their benefits and application in health and disease for more than fifty years. As such, the potential values of these agents in cancer therapy have been variably reported in the literature. In the present study, the efficacy of bromelain and N-acetylcysteine in single agent and combination treatment of human gastrointestinal carcinoma cells was evaluated in vitro and the underlying mechanisms of effect were explored. The growth-inhibitory effects of bromelain and N-acetylcysteine, on their own and in combination, on a panel of human gastrointestinal carcinoma cell lines, including MKN45, KATO-III, HT29-5F12, HT29-5M21 and LS174T, were assessed by sulforhodamine B assay. Moreover, the influence of the treatment on the expression of a range of proteins involved in the regulation of cell cycle and survival was investigated by Western blot. The presence of apoptosis was also examined by TUNEL assay. Bromelain and N-acetylcysteine significantly inhibited cell proliferation, more potently in combination therapy. Drug-drug interaction in combination therapy was found to be predominantly synergistic or additive. Mechanistically, apoptotic bodies were detected in treated cells by TUNEL assay. Furthermore, Western blot analysis revealed diminution of cyclins A, B and D, the emergence of immunoreactive subunits of caspase-3, caspase-7, caspase-8 and cleaved PARP, withering or cleavage of procaspase-9, overexpression of cytochrome c, reduced expression of anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 and pro-survival phospho-Akt, the emergence of the autophagosomal marker LC3-II and deregulation of other autophagy-related proteins, including Atg3, Atg5, Atg7, Atg12 and Beclin 1. These results were more prominent in combination therapy. We report for the first time to our knowledge the growth-inhibitory and cytotoxic effects of bromelain and N-acetylcysteine, in

  9. Bromelain has significant clinical benefits after extraction of the third molar during chemotherapy in patients with hematologic tumor.

    PubMed

    Tan, Yi; Li, Ping

    2018-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the application of bromelain in the treatment of pain, swelling, and limited mouth opening in patients with hematologic tumor after extraction of the third molar during chemotherapy. We recruited 72 patients with hematologic tumor who were treated by oral and maxillofacial surgery in our hospital, and third molar extraction was performed under local anesthesia. After extraction, patients in the control group were treated with cold - hot compress and patients in the experimental group were treated by oral administration of bromelain. One, three, and seven days after extraction, pain, swelling, and mouth opening in the experimental group improved compared to the control group. Additionally, the levels of IL-25 and TNF-α in the experimental group were significantly lower than in the control group, suggesting less inflammatory response. On the other hand, EGFR and β-FGF were significantly higher in the experimental group, supporting the activation of tissue repair pathways. Quality of life scores were significantly better in the experimental group. Overall, bromelain improves the quality of life, alleviates pain, swelling, and mouth opening, and effectively prevent postoperative complications in patients with hematologic tumors after third molar extraction during chemotherapy.

  10. Different patterns of extracellular proteolytic activity in W303a and BY4742 Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains.

    PubMed

    Seredyński, Rafał; Wolna, Dorota; Kędzior, Mateusz; Gutowicz, Jan

    2017-01-01

    Protease secretion in Saccharomyces cerevisiae cultures is a complex process, important for the application of this organism in the food industry and biotechnology. Previous studies provide rather quantitative data, yielding no information about the number of enzymes involved in proteolysis and their individual biochemical properties. Here we demonstrate that W303a and BY4742 S. cerevisiae strains reveal different patterns of spontaneous and gelatin-induced extracellular proteolytic activity. We applied the gelatin zymography assay to track changes of the proteolytic profile in time, finding the protease secretion dependent on the growth phase and the presence of the protein inducer. Detected enzymes were characterized regarding their substrate specificity, pH tolerance, and susceptibility to inhibitors. In case of the W303a strain, only one type of gelatin-degrading secretory protease (presumably metalloproteinase) was observed. However, the BY4742 strain secreted different proteases of the various catalytic types, depending on the substrate availability. Our study brings the evidence that S. cerevisiae strains secrete several kinds of proteases depending on the presence and type of the substrate. Protein induction may cause not only quantitative but also qualitative changes in the extracellular proteolytic patterns. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Bromelain treatment leads to maturation of monocyte-derived dendritic cells but cannot replace PGE2 in a cocktail of IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α and PGE2.

    PubMed

    Karlsen, M; Hovden, A-O; Vogelsang, P; Tysnes, B B; Appel, S

    2011-08-01

    Immunotherapy using dendritic cells (DC) has shown promising results. However, the use of an appropriate DC population is critical for the outcome of this treatment, and the search for an optimal DC subset is still ongoing. The DC used in immunotherapy today are usually matured with a cytokine cocktail consisting of TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6 and PGE(2). These cells have deficits in their cytokine production, particularly IL-12p70, mainly because of the presence of PGE(2). Bromelain is a pineapple stem extract containing a mixture of proteases that has been used clinically in adjuvant cancer treatment. In this study, we analysed the effect of bromelain on human monocyte-derived DC. We added bromelain to the cytokine cocktail and modified cytokine cocktails with either no PGE(2) or reduced amounts of PGE(2), respectively. Combining bromelain with the cytokine cocktails containing PGE(2) resulted in an increased surface expression of CD83, CD80 and CD86. The chemokine receptor CCR7 was also considerably upregulated in these DC populations compared with DC treated with the cytokine cocktail alone. Removal or reduction of PGE(2) from the cytokine cocktail did not increase the IL-12p70 secretion from stimulated DC, and addition of bromelain to the different cytokine cocktails resulted in only a minor increase in IL-12p70 production. Moreover, combining bromelain with the cytokine cocktails did not improve the T cell stimulatory capacity of the generated DC populations. In conclusion, bromelain treatment of monocyte-derived DC does not improve the functional quality compared with the standard cytokine cocktail. © 2011 The Authors. Scandinavian Journal of Immunology © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  12. THE ENHANCEMENT OF CHLOROFORM-INDUCED PLASMA PROTEOLYTIC ACTIVITY BY EPSILON AMINOCAPROIC ACID

    PubMed Central

    Donaldson, Virginia H.; Ratnoff, Oscar D.

    1962-01-01

    The proteolytic activity in chloroform-treated plasma euglobulins has been attributed to plasmin. Plasmin can digest both casein and fibrin. Epsilon aminocaproic acid, which inhibits the activation of plasminogen, the precursor of plasmin, by streptokinase, urokinase, and tissue activators enhanced the development of casein hydrolytic activity in a mixture of chloroform and plasma euglobulins. Fibrinolytic activity was also enhanced, but this was evident only if the epsilon aminocaproic acid was removed from the chloroform-treated euglobulins prior to assay. The reasons for the paradoxical enhancement of chloroform-induced casein hydrolysis by euglobulins containing epsilon aminocaproic acid are unclear. However, studies of optimal pH, heat stability, and the effect of ionic strength on the activation of the precursor of this proteolytic enzyme do not differentiate it from plasminogen. PMID:13887179

  13. Effect of culturing conditions on the expression of key enzymes in the proteolytic system of Lactobacillus bulgaricus *

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Jun-cai; Liu, Fei; Ren, Da-xi; Han, Wei-wei; Du, Yue-ou

    2015-01-01

    The proteolytic system of Lactobacillus bulgaricus breaks down milk proteins into peptides and amino acids, which are essential for the growth of the bacteria. The aim of this study was to determine the expressions of seven key genes in the proteolytic system under different culturing conditions (different phases, initial pH values, temperatures, and nitrogen sources) using real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The transcriptions of the seven genes were reduced by 30-fold on average in the stationary phase compared with the exponential growth phase. The transcriptions of the seven genes were reduced by 62.5-, 15.0-, and 59.0-fold in the strains KLDS 08006, KLDS 08007, and KLDS 08012, respectively, indicating that the expressions of the seven genes were significantly different among strains. In addition, the expressions of the seven genes were repressed in the MRS medium containing casein peptone. The effect of peptone supply on PepX transcription was the weakest compared with the other six genes, and the impact on OppD transcription was the strongest. Moreover, the expressions of the seven genes were significantly different among different strains (P<0.05). All these results indicated that the culturing conditions affected the expression of the proteolytic system genes in Lactobacillus bulgaricus at the transcription level. PMID:25845365

  14. Gene expression analysis in MCF-7 breast cancer cells treated with recombinant bromelain.

    PubMed

    Fouz, Nour; Amid, Azura; Hashim, Yumi Zuhanis Has-Yun

    2014-08-01

    The contributing molecular pathways underlying the pathogenesis of breast cancer need to be better characterized. The principle of our study was to better understand the genetic mechanism of oncogenesis for human breast cancer and to discover new possible tumor markers for use in clinical practice. We used complimentary DNA (cDNA) microarrays to compare gene expression profiles of treated Michigan Cancer Foundation-7 (MCF-7) with recombinant bromelain and untreated MCF-7. SpringGene analysis was carried out of differential expression followed by Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA), to understand the underlying consequence in developing disease and disorders. We identified 1,102 known genes differentially expressed to a significant degree (p<0.001) changed between the treatment. Within this gene set, 20 genes were significantly changed between treated cells and the control cells with cutoff fold change of more than 1.5. These genes are RNA-binding motif, single-stranded interacting protein 1 (RBMS1), ribosomal protein L29 (RPL29), glutathione S-transferase mu 2 (GSTM2), C15orf32, Akt3, B cell translocation gene 1 (BTG1), C6orf62, C7orf60, kinesin-associated protein 3 (KIFAP3), FBXO11, AT-rich interactive domain 4A (ARID4A), COPS2, TBPL1|SLC2A12, TMEM59, SNORD46, glioma tumor suppressor candidate region gene 2 (GLTSCR2), and LRRFIP. Our observation on gene expression indicated that recombinant bromelain produces a unique signature affecting different pathways, specific for each congener. The microarray results give a molecular mechanistic insight and functional effects, following recombinant bromelain treatment. The extent of changes in genes is related to and involved significantly in gap junction signaling, amyloid processing, cell cycle regulation by BTG family proteins, and breast cancer regulation by stathmin1 that play major roles.

  15. Proteolytic Inhibition of Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium-Induced Activation of the Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases ERK and JNK in Cultured Human Intestinal Cells

    PubMed Central

    Mynott, Tracey L.; Crossett, Ben; Prathalingam, S. Radhika

    2002-01-01

    Bromelain, a mixture of cysteine proteases from pineapple stems, blocks signaling by the mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases extracellular regulated kinase 1 (ERK-1) and ERK-2, inhibits inflammation, and protects against enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli infection. In this study, we examined the effect of bromelain on Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium infection, since an important feature of its pathogenesis is its ability to induce activation of ERK-1 and ERK-2, which leads to internalization of bacteria and induction of inflammatory responses. Our results show that bromelain dose dependently blocks serovar Typhimurium-induced ERK-1, ERK-2, and c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK) activation in Caco-2 cells. Bromelain also blocked signaling induced by carbachol and anisomycin, pharmacological MAP kinase agonists. Despite bromelain inhibition of serovar Typhimurium-induced MAP kinase signaling, it did not prevent subsequent invasion of the Caco-2 cells by serovar Typhimurium or alter serovar Typhimurium -induced decreases in resistance across Caco-2 monolayers. Surprisingly, bromelain also did not block serovar Typhimurium-induced interleukin-8 (IL-8) secretion but synergized with serovar Typhimurium to enhance IL-8 production. We also found that serovar Typhimurium does not induce ERK phosphorylation in Caco-2 cells in the absence of serum but that serovar Typhimurium-induced invasion and decreases in monolayer resistance are unaffected. Collectively, these data indicate that serovar Typhimurium-induced invasion of Caco-2 cells, changes in the resistance of epithelial cell monolayers, and IL-8 production can occur independently of the ERK and JNK signaling pathways. Data also confirm that bromelain is a novel inhibitor of MAP kinase signaling pathways and suggest a novel role for proteases as inhibitors of signal transduction pathways in intestinal epithelial cells. PMID:11748167

  16. Enzyme Hydrolysates from Stichopus horrens as a New Source for Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitory Peptides

    PubMed Central

    Forghani, Bita; Ebrahimpour, Afshin; Bakar, Jamilah; Abdul Hamid, Azizah; Hassan, Zaiton; Saari, Nazamid

    2012-01-01

    Stichopus horrens flesh was explored as a potential source for generating peptides with angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory capacity using 6 proteases, namely alcalase, flavourzyme, trypsin, papain, bromelain, and protamex. Degree of hydrolysis (DH) and peptide profiling (SDS-PAGE) of Stichopus horrens hydrolysates (SHHs) was also assessed. Alcalase hydrolysate showed the highest DH value (39.8%) followed by flavourzyme hydrolysate (32.7%). Overall, alcalase hydrolysate exhibited the highest ACE inhibitory activity (IC50 value of 0.41 mg/mL) followed by flavourzyme hydrolysate (IC50 value of 2.24 mg/mL), trypsin hydrolysate (IC50 value of 2.28 mg/mL), papain hydrolysate (IC50 value of 2.48 mg/mL), bromelain hydrolysate (IC50 value of 4.21 mg/mL), and protamex hydrolysate (IC50 value of 6.38 mg/mL). The SDS-PAGE results showed that alcalase hydrolysate represented a unique pattern compared to others, which yielded potent ACE inhibitory peptides with molecular weight distribution lower than 20 kDa. The evaluation of the relationship between DH and IC50 values of alcalase and flavourzyme hydrolysates revealed that the trend between those parameters was related to the type of the protease used. We concluded that the tested SHHs would be used as a potential source of functional ACE inhibitory peptides for physiological benefits. PMID:22927875

  17. Enzyme Hydrolysates from Stichopus horrens as a New Source for Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitory Peptides.

    PubMed

    Forghani, Bita; Ebrahimpour, Afshin; Bakar, Jamilah; Abdul Hamid, Azizah; Hassan, Zaiton; Saari, Nazamid

    2012-01-01

    Stichopus horrens flesh was explored as a potential source for generating peptides with angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory capacity using 6 proteases, namely alcalase, flavourzyme, trypsin, papain, bromelain, and protamex. Degree of hydrolysis (DH) and peptide profiling (SDS-PAGE) of Stichopus horrens hydrolysates (SHHs) was also assessed. Alcalase hydrolysate showed the highest DH value (39.8%) followed by flavourzyme hydrolysate (32.7%). Overall, alcalase hydrolysate exhibited the highest ACE inhibitory activity (IC(50) value of 0.41 mg/mL) followed by flavourzyme hydrolysate (IC(50) value of 2.24 mg/mL), trypsin hydrolysate (IC(50) value of 2.28 mg/mL), papain hydrolysate (IC(50) value of 2.48 mg/mL), bromelain hydrolysate (IC(50) value of 4.21 mg/mL), and protamex hydrolysate (IC(50) value of 6.38 mg/mL). The SDS-PAGE results showed that alcalase hydrolysate represented a unique pattern compared to others, which yielded potent ACE inhibitory peptides with molecular weight distribution lower than 20 kDa. The evaluation of the relationship between DH and IC(50) values of alcalase and flavourzyme hydrolysates revealed that the trend between those parameters was related to the type of the protease used. We concluded that the tested SHHs would be used as a potential source of functional ACE inhibitory peptides for physiological benefits.

  18. Synthesis and Testing of Polymers Susceptible to Degradation by Proteolytic Enzymes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-05-01

    diisocyanatohexane, was biodegraded by the enzymes urease and rennin and also by two fungi. The tensile strength was greater than 10,000 psi, with high...Copolymer Degradation by Urease Enzyme Copolymer Degradation by Rennin Enzyme Degradation of Modified Gelatins: Undrawn Bulk Material Degradation of...bacteria. Results with urease enzyme did indicate significant degradation, as shown by the following tables: Table 1. Copolymer Degradation by

  19. Application of Pineapple Juice in the Fish Digestion Process for Carcinogenic Liver Fluke Metacercaria Collection

    PubMed Central

    Sripan, Panupan; Aukkanimart, Ratchadawan; Boonmars, Thidarut; Pranee, Sriraj; Songsri, Jiraporn; Boueroy, Parichart; Khueangchaingkhwang, Sukhonthip; Pumhirunroj, Benjamabhorn; Artchayasawat, Atchara

    2017-01-01

    Pepsin is common digestive enzyme used for fish digestion in the laboratory to collect trematode metacercariae. In a field study, to survey the infected fish is needed a huge yield of pepsin and it is very expensive. Therefore, our purpose of this study was to investigate the candidate enzyme from pineapple juice which has a digestive enzyme called bromelain, a mixture of proteolytic enzymes, to digest fish in order to harvest metacercariae. Fish were divided into 2 groups: one group in which metacercariae were harvested using acid pepsin as a control and other groups in which the fish was digested using fresh pineapple juices. The results showed that pineapple juice is able to digest fish similarly to pepsin. The Pattavia pineapple juice had the highest number of metacercariae similar to the control. For Trat Si Thong pineapple juice, we found the number of metacercariae was less than control. This result suggests that the Pattavia pineapple juice was optimal juice for fish digestion to metacercaria collection and can be used instread of pepsin acid. PMID:28441786

  20. Sulfated N-linked oligosaccharides affect secretion but are not essential for the transport, proteolytic processing, and sorting of lysosomal enzymes in Dictyostelium discoideum.

    PubMed

    Cardelli, J A; Bush, J M; Ebert, D; Freeze, H H

    1990-05-25

    Although previous studies have indicated that N-linked oligosaccharides on lysosomal enzymes in Dictyostelium discoideum are extensively phosphorylated and sulfated, the role of these modifications in the sorting and function of these enzymes remains to be determined. We have used radiolabel pulse-chase, subcellular fractionation, and immunofluorescence microscopy to analyze the transport, processing, secretion, and sorting of two lysosomal enzymes in a mutant, HL244, which is almost completely defective in sulfation. [3H]Mannose-labeled N-linked oligosaccharides were released from immunoprecipitated alpha-mannosidase and beta-glucosidase of HL244 by digestion with peptide: N-glycosidase. The size, Man9-10GlcNAc2, and processing of the neutral species were similar to that found in the wild type, but the anionic oligosaccharides were less charged than those from the wild-type enzymes. All of the negative charges on the oligosaccharides for HL244 were due to the presence of 1, 2, or 3 phosphodiesters and not to sulfate esters. The rate of proteolytic processing of precursor forms of alpha-mannosidase and beta-glucosidase to mature forms in HL244 was identical to wild type. The precursor polypeptides in the mutant and the wild type were membrane associated until being processed to mature forms; therefore, sulfated sugars are not essential for this association. Furthermore, the rate of transport of alpha-mannosidase and beta-glucosidase from the endoplasmic reticulum to the Golgi complex was normal in the mutant as determined by the rate at which the newly synthesized proteins became resistant to the enzyme, endo-beta-N-acetylglucosaminidase H. There was no increase in the percentage of newly synthesized mutant precursors which escaped sorting and were secreted, and the intracellularly retained lysosomal enzymes were properly localized to lysosomes as determined by fractionation of cell organelles on Percoll gradients and immunofluorescence microscopy. However, the

  1. Proteolytic Digestion and TiO2 Phosphopeptide Enrichment Microreactor for Fast MS Identification of Proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Jingren; Lazar, Iulia M.

    2016-04-01

    The characterization of phosphorylation state(s) of a protein is best accomplished by using isolated or enriched phosphoprotein samples or their corresponding phosphopeptides. The process is typically time-consuming as, often, a combination of analytical approaches must be used. To facilitate throughput in the study of phosphoproteins, a microreactor that enables a novel strategy for performing fast proteolytic digestion and selective phosphopeptide enrichment was developed. The microreactor was fabricated using 100 μm i.d. fused-silica capillaries packed with 1-2 mm beds of C18 and/or TiO2 particles. Proteolytic digestion-only, phosphopeptide enrichment-only, and sequential proteolytic digestion/phosphopeptide enrichment microreactors were developed and tested with standard protein mixtures. The protein samples were adsorbed on the C18 particles, quickly digested with a proteolytic enzyme infused over the adsorbed proteins, and further eluted onto the TiO2 microreactor for enrichment in phosphopeptides. A number of parameters were optimized to speed up the digestion and enrichments processes, including microreactor dimensions, sample concentrations, digestion time, flow rates, buffer compositions, and pH. The effective time for the steps of proteolytic digestion and enrichment was less than 5 min. For simple samples, such as standard protein mixtures, this approach provided equivalent or better results than conventional bench-top methods, in terms of both enzymatic digestion and selectivity. Analysis times and reagent costs were reduced ~10- to 15-fold. Preliminary analysis of cell extracts and recombinant proteins indicated the feasibility of integration of these microreactors in more advanced workflows amenable for handling real-world biological samples.

  2. Partial Characterization of the Proteolytic Properties of an Enzymatic Extract From "Aguama" Bromelia pinguin L. Fruit Grown in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Moreno-Hernández, Jesús Martín; Hernández-Mancillas, Xitlalli Desideria; Navarrete, Evelia Lorena Coss; Mazorra-Manzano, Miguel Ángel; Osuna-Ruiz, Idalia; Rodríguez-Tirado, Víctor Alfonso; Salazar-Leyva, Jesús Aarón

    2017-05-01

    Plant proteases are capable of performing several functions in biological systems, and their use is attractive for biotechnological process due to their interesting catalytic properties. Bromelia pinguin (aguama) is a wild abundant natural resource in several regions of Central America and the Caribbean Islands but is underutilized. Their fruits are rich in proteases with properties that are still unknown, but they represent an attractive source of enzymes for biotechnological applications. Thus, the proteolytic activity in enzymatic crude extracts (CEs) from wild B. pinguin fruits was partially characterized. Enzymes in CEs showed high proteolytic activity at acid (pH 2.0-4.0) and neutral alkaline (pH 7.0-9.0) conditions, indicating that different types of active proteases are present. Proteolytic activity inhibition by the use of specific protease inhibitors indicated that aspartic, cysteine, and serine proteases are the main types of proteases present in CEs. Activity at pH 3.0 was stable in a broad range of temperatures (25-50 °C) and retained its activity in the presence of surfactants (SDS, Tween-80), reducing agents (DTT, 2-mercapoethanol), and organic solvents (methanol, ethanol, acetone, 2-propanol), which suggests that B. pinguin proteases are potential candidates for their application in brewing, detergent, and pharmaceutical industries.

  3. Impact of microbial growth inhibition and proteolytic activity on the stability of a new formulation containing a phytate-degrading enzyme obtained from mushroom.

    PubMed

    Spier, Michele R; Siepmann, Francieli B; Staack, Larissa; Souza, Priscila Z; Kumar, Vikas; Medeiros, Adriane B P; Soccol, Carlos R

    2016-10-02

    The development of stable enzymes is a key issue in both the food and feed industries. Consequently, the aim of the current study is to evaluate the impact of various additives (sodium chloride, sodium citrate, mannitol, methylparaben, polyethylene glycol 3350, ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid disodium salt, and a serine protease inhibitor) on the stability of a mushroom phytase produced by solid-state cultivation and recovery. Also observed was the effect of the additives on microbial growth inhibition by monitoring both the change in optical density over 30 days of storage and proteolytic activity. Initially, eight experimental formulations were prepared along with a control. After screening, a 3(2) factorial design was applied to define suitable concentrations of the selected additives. Among the eight formulations tested, the formulation containing NaCl, PEG 3350, and methylparaben retained all of the initial phytase activity after 50 days of storage, with no detected interference from protease activity. Sodium citrate, a metal chelation agent, presented the unusual effect of reducing protease activity in the formulations. Although all formulations presented better phytase stability when compared to the control, NaCl and PEG were both able to prolong the stability of the enzyme activity and also to inhibit microbial growth during storage, making them favorable for application as food and feed additives.

  4. Coherent Experimental and Simulation Approach To Explore the Underlying Mechanism of Denaturation of Stem Bromelain in Osmolytes.

    PubMed

    Rani, Anjeeta; Taha, Mohamed; Venkatesu, Pannuru; Lee, Ming-Jer

    2017-07-13

    Characterization of a protein in the context of its environment is of crucial importance for a complete understanding of its function. Although biophysical techniques provide powerful tools for studying the stability and activity of the enzyme in the presence of various cosolvents, an approach of combining both experimental techniques and molecular dynamic (MD) simulations may lead to the mechanistic insight into the interactions governing the stability of an enzyme. The knowledge of these interactions can be further utilized for range of modifications in the wild form of an enzyme for various pharmaceutical applications. Herein, we employed florescence, UV-visible, circular dichroism (CD), dynamic light scattering (DLS) study, and MD simulations for comprehensive understanding of stem bromelain (BM) in the presence of betaine, sarcosine, arginine, and proline. The thermal stability of BM in the presence of 1 M of osmolytes is found to be in order: proline > betaine > buffer > arginine > sarcosine. BM gets more preferentially hydrated in the presence of betaine and proline than in sarcosine and arginine. Nonetheless, MD simulations suggest that betaine, sarcosine, and arginine at 1 M interact with the active site of BM through H-bonding except proline which are responsible for more disruption of active site. The distances between the catalytic site residues are 1.6, 1.9, 4.3, 5.0, and 6.2 Å for BM in proline, buffer, betaine, arginine, and sarcosine at 1 M, respectively. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on detailed unequivocal evidence of denaturation and deactivation of BM in the presence of methylamines and amino acids.

  5. What Are the Proteolytic Enzymes of Honey and What They Do Tell Us? A Fingerprint Analysis by 2-D Zymography of Unifloral Honeys

    PubMed Central

    Rossano, Rocco; Larocca, Marilena; Polito, Teresa; Perna, Anna Maria; Padula, Maria Carmela; Martelli, Giuseppe; Riccio, Paolo

    2012-01-01

    Honey is a sweet and healthy food produced by honeybees (Apis mellifera L.) from flower nectars. Using bidimensional zymography, we have detected the, until now unrevealed, proteolytic activities present in row honey samples. The resulting zymograms were specific for each type of the four unifloral honey under study, and enzymes were identified as serine proteases by the use of specific inhibitors. Further, using bidimensional electrophoresis, we have shown that honey proteases are able to degrade the major Royal Jelly proteins and in particular MRPJ-1, the protein that promotes queen differentiation in honeybees. Our findings open new perspectives for the better understanding of honeybee development, social behaviour and role in honey production. The now discovered honey proteases may influence honey properties and quality, and bidimensional zymograms might be useful to distinguish between different honey types, establish their age and floral origin, and allow honey certification. PMID:23145107

  6. Enzyme-assisted extraction and liquid chromatography mass spectrometry for the determination of arsenic species in chicken meat.

    PubMed

    Liu, Qingqing; Peng, Hanyong; Lu, Xiufen; Le, X Chris

    2015-08-12

    Chicken is the most consumed meat in North America. Concentrations of arsenic in chicken range from μg kg(-1) to mg kg(-1). However, little is known about the speciation of arsenic in chicken meat. The objective of this research was to develop a method enabling determination of arsenic species in chicken breast muscle. We report here enzyme-enhanced extraction of arsenic species from chicken meat, separation using anion exchange chromatography (HPLC), and simultaneous detection with both inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS) and electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (ESIMS). We compared the extraction of arsenic species using several proteolytic enzymes: bromelain, papain, pepsin, proteinase K, and trypsin. With the use of papain-assisted extraction, 10 arsenic species were extracted and detected, as compared to 8 detectable arsenic species in the water/methanol extract. The overall extraction efficiency was also improved using a combination of ultrasonication and papain digestion, as compared to the conventional water/methanol extraction. Detection limits were in the range of 1.0-1.8 μg arsenic per kg chicken breast meat (dry weight) for seven arsenic species: arsenobetaine (AsB), inorganic arsenite (As(III)), dimethylarsinic acid (DMA), monomethylarsonic acid (MMA), inorganic arsenate (As(V)), 3-nitro-4-hydroxyphenylarsonic acid (Roxarsone), and N-acetyl-4-hydroxy-m-arsanilic acid (NAHAA). Analysis of breast meat samples from six chickens receiving feed containing Roxarsone showed the presence of (mean±standard deviation μg kg(-1)) AsB (107±4), As(III) (113±7), As(V) (7±2), MMA (51±5), DMA (64±6), Roxarsone (18±1), and four unidentified arsenic species (approximate concentration 1-10 μg kg(-1)). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Investigation of plant latices of Asteraceae and Campanulaceae regarding proteolytic activity.

    PubMed

    Sytwala, Sonja; Domsalla, André; Melzig, Matthias F

    2015-12-01

    Occurrence of plant latices is widespread, there are more than 40 families of plants characterized to establish lactiferous structures. The appearance of hydrolytic active proteins, incorporated in latices is already characterized, and hydrolytic active proteins are considerable, and for several plant families, the occurrence of hydrolytic active proteins is already specified e.g. Apocynaceae Juss., Caricaceae Dumort, Euphorbiaceae Juss., Moraceae Gaudich and Papaveraceae Juss. In our investigation, focused on latex bearing plants of order Asterales, Asteraceae and Campanulaceae in particular. The present outcomes represent a comprehensive study, relating to the occurrence of proteolytic active enzymes of order Asterales for the first time. 131 different species of Asteraceae and Campanulaceae were tested, and the appearance of plant latex proteases were determined in different quantities. Proteolytic activity was investigated by inhibitory studies and determination of residual activity in the following, enable us to characterize the proteases. Most of the considered species exhibit a serine protease activity and a multiplicity of species exhibited two or more subclasses of proteases. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. Proteolytic processing of endogenous and recombinant beta 4 integrin subunit

    PubMed Central

    1992-01-01

    The alpha 6 beta 4 integrin is a receptor involved in the interaction of epithelial cells with basement membranes. This integrin is unique among the known integrins in that its beta 4 subunit has a large cytoplasmic domain. The function of this cytoplasmic domain is not known. In this paper we show that the beta 4 subunit undergoes proteolytic processing in cultured cells and provide evidence that this also happens in tissues. Immunoprecipitation experiments indicated that the cytoplasmic domain of beta 4 is susceptible to a calcium-dependent protease present in cellular extracts. In vitro assays with purified calpain showed that this enzyme can cleave beta 4 at two distinct sites in the cytoplasmic domain, generating truncated molecules of 165 and 130 kD. Immunoblotting experiments performed on cultured epithelial cells using an antibody to a peptide modeled after the COOH-terminus of the beta 4 subunit showed 70-kD fragments and several fragments of molecular masses between 185 and 115 kD. Similar fragments were detected in CHO cells transfected with the full-length beta 4 cDNA, but not in control transfected cells or in cells transfected with a mutant cDNA lacking the epitope of the cytoplasmic peptide antibody. The sizes of the fragments indicated that both the intracellular and extracellular domains of beta 4 are proteolytically processed. To examine the processing of the beta 4 subunit in epithelial tissues in vivo, human skin frozen sections were stained with antibodies to the ectodomain or the cytoplasmic domain of beta 4. The distinct staining patterns obtained with the two types of antibodies provided evidence that beta 4 is proteolytically processed in vivo in skin. Analogous experiments performed on sections of the cornea suggested that beta 4 is not proteolytically processed at a detectable level in this tissue. Thus, cleavage of the beta 4 subunit occurs in a tissue-specific fashion. These results suggest a potential mechanism of modulating the

  9. Purification and properties of rennin-like enzyme from Aspergillus ochraceus.

    PubMed

    Ismail, A A; Foda, M S; Khorshid, M A

    1978-01-01

    An active milk-clotting enzyme was purified some 40-fold from culture supernatant of Aspergillus ochraceus. The purification steps included ammonium sulfate precipitation, G-100 Sephadex gel filtration, and ion exchange chromatography, using DEAE Cellulose column. The enzyme exhibited milk-clotting activity and proteolytic behaviour, an optimum at pH 6.0 and in the range of 7--8.5, respectively. The purified enzyme was actively proteolytic against casein, haemoglobin, and bovine serum albumin at pH 8. The milk-clotting activity was greatly enhanced by manganous ions and by increasing concentrations of calcium chloride. Copper, zinc, and ammonium ions were potent inhibitors of the milk-curdling activity of the purified enzyme. Significant inhibition was also noted with sodium chloride at concentrations of 3% or more. Under the specified reaction condition, maximum rate of proteolysis against casein was obtained at 0.4% substrate concentration, whereas the milk-clotting time was linear proportional to dry skim milk concentration in the range of 8 to 24%. The results are discussed in comparison with other microbial milk-clotting enzymes, and limitations of applicability are also presented.

  10. Proteolytic Digestion and TiO2 Phosphopeptide Enrichment Microreactor for Fast MS Identification of Proteins.

    PubMed

    Deng, Jingren; Lazar, Iulia M

    2016-04-01

    The characterization of phosphorylation state(s) of a protein is best accomplished by using isolated or enriched phosphoprotein samples or their corresponding phosphopeptides. The process is typically time-consuming as, often, a combination of analytical approaches must be used. To facilitate throughput in the study of phosphoproteins, a microreactor that enables a novel strategy for performing fast proteolytic digestion and selective phosphopeptide enrichment was developed. The microreactor was fabricated using 100 μm i.d. fused-silica capillaries packed with 1-2 mm beds of C18 and/or TiO2 particles. Proteolytic digestion-only, phosphopeptide enrichment-only, and sequential proteolytic digestion/phosphopeptide enrichment microreactors were developed and tested with standard protein mixtures. The protein samples were adsorbed on the C18 particles, quickly digested with a proteolytic enzyme infused over the adsorbed proteins, and further eluted onto the TiO2 microreactor for enrichment in phosphopeptides. A number of parameters were optimized to speed up the digestion and enrichments processes, including microreactor dimensions, sample concentrations, digestion time, flow rates, buffer compositions, and pH. The effective time for the steps of proteolytic digestion and enrichment was less than 5 min. For simple samples, such as standard protein mixtures, this approach provided equivalent or better results than conventional bench-top methods, in terms of both enzymatic digestion and selectivity. Analysis times and reagent costs were reduced ~10- to 15-fold. Preliminary analysis of cell extracts and recombinant proteins indicated the feasibility of integration of these microreactors in more advanced workflows amenable for handling real-world biological samples. Graphical Abstract ᅟ.

  11. Lipolytic and proteolytic activity of Pseudomonas spp. isolated during milking and storage of refrigerated raw milk.

    PubMed

    Capodifoglio, Eduardo; Vidal, Ana Maria Centola; Lima, Joyce Aparecida Santos; Bortoletto, Fernanda; D'Abreu, Léa Furlan; Gonçalves, Ana Carolina Siqueira; Vaz, Andreia Cristina Nakashima; Balieiro, Julio Cesar de Carvalho; Netto, Arlindo Saran

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study was to verify the presence of lipolytic and proteolytic Pseudomonas spp. during milking and storage of refrigerated raw milk. We also intended to compare samples collected during rainy and dry seasons, from farms with manual and mechanical milking systems. For this, samples of milkers' hands, cows' teats, water, expansion tanks, equipment, and utensils used during milking were analyzed regarding Pseudomonas spp. Positive samples were tested for the production of lipolytic and proteolytic enzymes. Microorganisms of the genus Pseudomonas were isolated from all sampling points. A higher isolation rate of the bacterium was found in the rainy season except for 6 sampling points, with all of these associated with mechanical milking systems. Pseudomonas spp. exhibiting lipolytic activity were found to be predominant during the dry season, since no activity was detected during the rainy season in 26 of the 29 sampling sites. The highest number of lipolytic Pseudomonas isolates was obtained from water. Presence of lipase-producing Pseudomonas spp. was verified in 7 and 36% of the samples collected from farms with manual and mechanical milking, respectively. When analyzing raw milk collected from expansion tanks immediately (0 h) and 24h after milking, we observed that for dairy properties with manual milking process, 10% of the Pseudomonas isolates were positive for lipolytic activity. The percentage increased to 12% 48h after milking. Mean averages were 32, 33, and 39% immediately after, 24 and 48h after milking, respectively, for farms with mechanical milking. All sampling points showed the presence of proteolytic strains of Pseudomonas. The highest proteolytic activity was found during the rainy season, except for the samples collected from milkers' hands before milking, buckets, and teat cup inner surfaces after milking and from the water in dairy farms with mechanical milking system. Of these samples, 72, 56, and 50%, respectively, were positive

  12. Effect of high-pressure treatment at various temperatures on indigenous proteolytic enzymes and whey protein denaturation in bovine milk.

    PubMed

    Moatsou, Golfo; Bakopanos, Constantinos; Katharios, Dimitis; Katsaros, George; Kandarakis, Ioannis; Taoukis, Petros; Politis, Ioannis

    2008-08-01

    The objective of the present study was to determine the effect of high pressure (HP) processing (200, 450 and 650 MPa) at various temperatures (20, 40 and 55 degrees C) on the total plasmin plus plasminogen-derived activity (PL), plasminogen activator(s) (PA) and cathepsin D activities and on denaturation of major whey proteins in bovine milk. Data indicated that transfer of both PL and PA from the casein micelles to milk serum occurred at all pressures utilized at room temperature (20 degrees C). In addition to the transfer of PL and PA from micelles, there were reductions in activities of PL (16-18%) and PA (38-62%) for the pressures 450 and 650 MPa, at room temperature. There were synergistic negative effects between pressure and temperature on residual PL activity at 450 and 650 MPa and on residual PA activity only at 450 MPa. Cathepsin D activity in the acid whey from HP-treated milk was in general baroresistant at room temperature. The residual activity of cathepsin D decreased significantly at 650 MPa and 40 degrees C and at the pressures 450 and 650 MPa at 55 degrees C. Synergistic negative effects on the amount of native beta-lactoglobulin were observed at 450 and 650 MPa and on the amount of native alpha-lactalbumin at 650 MPa. There were significant correlations between enzymatic activities (PL, PA and cathepsin D) and the residual native beta-lactoglobulin and alpha-lactalbumin in bovine milk. In conclusion, HP significantly affected the activity of indigenous proteolytic enzymes and whey protein denaturation in bovine milk. Reduction in activity of indigenous enzymes (PL, PA and cathepsin D) and transfer of PL and PA from the casein to milk serum induced by HP is expected to have a profound effect on cheese yield, proteolysis during cheese ripening and quality of UHT milk during storage.

  13. Effect of monensin on the levels of tachykinins and their processing enzyme activity in rat dorsal root ganglia.

    PubMed

    Chikuma, Toshiyuki; Inomata, Yuji; Tsuchida, Ken; Hojo, Hiroshi; Kato, Takeshi

    2002-06-28

    Th effect of monensin, which inhibits trans-Golgi function, on the levels of tachykinins and their processing enzyme activity was examined in organ-cultured rat dorsal root ganglia (DRG). Using an enzyme immunoassay method, we measured neurokinin A and substance P immunoreactivity in the DRG cultured for 72 h with and without 0.1 microM monensin. Both tachykinins were reduced in the DRG treated with monensin. Treatment with monensin also reduced the activity of carboxypeptidase E, which is one of the proteolytic processing enzymes of neuropeptides. These data suggest that proteolytic processing enzymes may in part modulate the biological activity of neuropeptides within a trans-Golgi apparatus.

  14. Effects of non-starch polysaccharides enzymes on pancreatic and small intestinal digestive enzyme activities in piglet fed diets containing high amounts of barley.

    PubMed

    Li, Wei-Fen; Feng, Jie; Xu, Zi-Rong; Yang, Cai-Mei

    2004-03-15

    To investigate effects of non-starch polysaccharides(NSP) enzymes on pancreatic and small intestinal digestive enzyme activities in piglet fed diets containing high amounts of barley. Sixty crossbred piglets averaging 13.5 kg were randomly assigned to two treatment groups with three replications (pens) based on sex and mass. Each group was fed on the diet based on barley with or without added NSP enzymes (0.15%) for a 40-d period. At the end of the experiment the pigs were weighed. Three piglets of each group were chosen and slaughtered. Pancreas, digesta from the distal end of the duodenum and jejunal mucosa were collected for determination. Activities of the digestive enzymes trypsin, chymotrypsin, amylase and lipase were determined in the small intestinal sections as well as in homogenates of pancreatic tissue. Maltase, sucrase, lactase and gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (gamma-GT) activities were analyzed in jejunal mucosa. Supplementation with NSP enzymes improved growth performance of piglets. It showed that NSP enzymes had no effect on digestive enzyme activities in pancreas, but decreased the activities of proteolytic enzyme, trypsin, amylase and lipase in duodenal contents by 57.56%, 76.08%, 69.03% and 40.22%(P<0.05) compared with control, and increased gamma-GT activities in jejunal mucosa by 118.75%(P<0.05). Supplementation with NSP enzymes in barley based diets could improve piglets' growth performance, decrease activities of proteolytic enzyme, trypsin, amylase and lipase in duodenal contents and increase gamma-GT activities in jejunal mucosa.

  15. Histopathology of Incontinence-Associated Skin Lesions: Inner Tissue Damage Due to Invasion of Proteolytic Enzymes and Bacteria in Macerated Rat Skin

    PubMed Central

    Mugita, Yuko; Minematsu, Takeo; Huang, Lijuan; Nakagami, Gojiro; Kishi, Chihiro; Ichikawa, Yoshie; Nagase, Takashi; Oe, Makoto; Noguchi, Hiroshi; Mori, Taketoshi; Abe, Masatoshi; Sugama, Junko; Sanada, Hiromi

    2015-01-01

    A common complication in patients with incontinence is perineal skin lesions, which are recognized as a form of dermatitis. In these patients, perineal skin is exposed to digestive enzymes and intestinal bacterial flora, as well as excessive water. The relative contributions of digestive enzymes and intestinal bacterial flora to skin lesion formation have not been fully shown. This study was conducted to reveal the process of histopathological changes caused by proteases and bacterial inoculation in skin maceration. For skin maceration, agarose gel containing proteases was applied to the dorsal skin of male Sprague-Dawley rats for 4 h, followed by Pseudomonas aeruginosa inoculation for 30 min. Macroscopic changes, histological changes, bacterial distribution, inflammatory response, and keratinocyte proliferation and differentiation were examined. Proteases induced digestion in the prickle cell layer of the epidermis, and slight bleeding in the papillary dermis and around hair follicles in the macerated skin without macroscopic evidence of erosion. Bacterial inoculation of the skin macerated by proteolytic solution resulted in the formation of bacteria-rich clusters comprising numerous microorganisms and inflammatory cells within the papillary dermis, with remarkable tissue damage around the clusters. Tissue damage expanded by day 2. On day 3, the proliferative keratinocyte layer was elongated from the bulge region of the hair follicles. Application of proteases and P. aeruginosa induced skin lesion formation internally without macroscopic erosion of the overhydrated area, suggesting that the histopathology might be different from regular dermatitis. The healing process of this lesion is similar to transepidermal elimination. PMID:26407180

  16. Proteolytic processing of lysyl oxidase-like-2 in the extracellular matrix is required for crosslinking of basement membrane collagen IV.

    PubMed

    López-Jiménez, Alberto J; Basak, Trayambak; Vanacore, Roberto M

    2017-10-13

    Lysyl oxidase-like-2 (LOXL2) is an enzyme secreted into the extracellular matrix that crosslinks collagens by mediating oxidative deamination of lysine residues. Our previous work demonstrated that this enzyme crosslinks the 7S domain, a structural domain that stabilizes collagen IV scaffolds in the basement membrane. Despite its relevant role in extracellular matrix biosynthesis, little is known about the structural requirements of LOXL2 that enable collagen IV crosslinking. In this study, we demonstrate that LOXL2 is processed extracellularly by serine proteases, generating a 65-kDa form lacking the first two scavenger receptor cysteine-rich domains. Site-specific mutagenesis to prevent proteolytic processing generated a full-length enzyme that is active in vitro toward a soluble substrate, but fails to crosslink insoluble collagen IV within the extracellular matrix. In contrast, the processed form of LOXL2 binds to collagen IV and crosslinks the 7S domain. Together, our data demonstrate that proteolytic processing is an important event that allows LOXL2-mediated crosslinking of basement membrane collagen IV. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  17. An evaluation of the proteolytic and lipolytic potential of Penicillium spp. isolated from traditional Greek sausages in submerged fermentation.

    PubMed

    Papagianni, Maria

    2014-01-01

    A number of novel Penicillium strains belonging to Penicillium nalgiovense, Penicillium solitum, Penicillium commune, Penicillium olsonii, and Penicillium oxalicum species, isolated from the surface of traditional Greek sausages, were evaluated for their proteolytic and lipolytic potential in a solid substrate first and next in submerged fermentations, using complex media. Extracellular proteolytic activity was assessed at acid, neutral, and alkaline pH, while the lipolytic activity was assessed using olive oil, the short-chain triacylglycerol tributyrin, and the long-chain triolein, as substrates. The study revealed that although closely related, the tested strains produce enzymes of distinct specificities. P. nalgiovense PNA9 produced the highest alkaline proteolytic activity (13.2 unit (U)/ml) and the highest lipolytic activity with tributyrin (92 U/ml). Comparisons with known sources show that proteases and/or lipases can be secreted effectively by some Penicillia (P. nalgiovense PNA4, PNA7, and PNA9 and P. solitum PSO1), and further investigations on their properties and characteristics would be promising.

  18. Proteolytic Cascade for the Activation of the Insect Toll Pathway Induced by the Fungal Cell Wall Component

    PubMed Central

    Roh, Kyung-Baeg; Kim, Chan-Hee; Lee, Hanna; Kwon, Hyun-Mi; Park, Ji-Won; Ryu, Ji-Hwan; Kurokawa, Kenji; Ha, Nam-Chul; Lee, Won-Jae; Lemaitre, Bruno; Söderhäll, Kenneth; Lee, Bok-Luel

    2009-01-01

    The insect Toll signaling pathway is activated upon recognition of Gram-positive bacteria and fungi, resulting in the expression of antimicrobial peptides via NF-κB-like transcription factor. This activation is mediated by a serine protease cascade leading to the processing of Spätzle, which generates the functional ligand of the Toll receptor. Recently, we identified three serine proteases mediating Toll pathway activation induced by lysine-type peptidoglycan of Gram-positive bacteria. However, the identities of the downstream serine protease components of Gram-negative-binding protein 3 (GNBP3), a receptor for a major cell wall component β-1,3-glucan of fungi, and their order of activation have not been characterized yet. Here, we identified three serine proteases that are required for Toll activation by β-1,3-glucan in the larvae of a large beetle, Tenebrio molitor. The first one is a modular serine protease functioning immediately downstream of GNBP3 that proteolytically activates the second one, a Spätzle-processing enzyme-activating enzyme that in turn activates the third serine protease, a Spätzle-processing enzyme. The active form of Spätzle-processing enzyme then cleaves Spätzle into the processed Spätzle as Toll ligand. In addition, we show that injection of β-1,3-glucan into Tenebrio larvae induces production of two antimicrobial peptides, Tenecin 1 and Tenecin 2, which are also inducible by injection of the active form of Spätzle-processing enzyme-activating enzyme or processed Spätzle. These results demonstrate a three-step proteolytic cascade essential for the Toll pathway activation by fungal β-1,3-glucan in Tenebrio larvae, which is shared with lysine-type peptidoglycan-induced Toll pathway activation. PMID:19473968

  19. Protective manifestation of bacoside A and bromelain in terms of cholinesterases, gamma-amino butyric acid, serotonin level and stress proteins in the brain of dichlorvos-intoxicated mice.

    PubMed

    Chaudhary, Bharti; Bist, Renu

    2017-05-01

    The objective of the study was to evaluate the neuroprotective effects of bacoside A and bromelain against dichlorvos-incited toxicity. Healthy 6-8-week old, male Swiss mice were administered subacute doses of dichlorvos (40 mg/kg bw), bacoside A (5 mg/kg bw) and bromelain (70 mg/kg bw). AChE, BChE, GABA, serotonin and total protein content and their expressions were used for determination of toxic action of dichlorvos. Protective effects of bacoside A and bromelain were evaluated on the same parameters. Exposure to dichlorvos leads to significant decline in activities of AChE (p < 0.01, p < 0.001), BChE (p < 0.05) and GABA (p < 0.01) and total protein levels (p < 0.01). Antioxidant treatment significantly increased the activities of AChE (p < 0.01, p < 0.001), BChE (p < 0.05), GABA (p < 0.01) and total protein level (p < 0.05) compared to those in dichlorvos-treated mice. Overexpression of Hsp 70 protein and underexpression of phosphorylase a and b, catalase SOD and GPx were observed after dichlorvos exposure which suggests the oxidative stress. The results indicate that dichlorvos-induced neuronal damage which results in the generation of molecular expression of proteins is in agreement with the biochemical data ameliorated by bacoside A and bromelain.

  20. Reactivity of mouse antibodies against bromelain-treated mouse erythrocytes with thrombin-treated mouse platelets.

    PubMed Central

    Kawaguchi, S

    1989-01-01

    The reactivity of mouse antibodies against bromelain-treated mouse erythrocytes (BrMRBC) with mouse platelets before and after thrombin treatment was assessed by flow cytometry. Anti-BrMRBC antibodies could bind to thrombin-treated platelets, although normal platelets were also weakly reactive with the antibodies. The binding of anti-BrMRBC antibodies to platelets was confirmed by complement-dependent lysis. It is suggested that thrombin-activated platelets may be a real target for anti-BrMRBC antibodies. PMID:2467876

  1. Perioperative bromelain reduces pain and swelling and improves quality of life measures after mandibular third molar surgery: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Majid, Omer Waleed; Al-Mashhadani, Bashar Adil

    2014-06-01

    The purpose of the present study was to compare the effect of oral bromelain (4 × 250 mg) versus oral diclofenac sodium (4 × 25 mg) on pain, swelling, trismus, and quality of life (QOL) after surgical removal of impacted lower third molars. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study was planned. The sample included patients requiring extraction under local anesthesia of a single partial bony impacted mandibular third molar. The patients were randomly distributed into 1 of 3 groups: bromelain, diclofenac, and placebo. Treatment started 1 day before surgery and continued for 4 days. The predictor variable was the type of the drug given to the patients. The outcome variables were pain, swelling, and trismus, which were measured at 1, 3, and 7 days postoperatively. The other study variables included QOL measures to assess the patients' perception regarding the effect of surgery on their well-being and daily activities. A validated questionnaire was used to measure QOL. The data were analyzed using analysis of variance, multiple measures analysis of variance, or Pearson's χ(2) test, as appropriate. P < .05 was considered significant. A total of 45 subjects requiring surgical removal of a single impacted mandibular third molar under local anesthesia were included in the present study. The bromelain and diclofenac groups both showed a significant reduction in pain compared with the placebo group at all intervals (P < .05). Diclofenac also resulted in a significant reduction of swelling at 3 and 7 days, and bromelain resulted in an insignificant reduction. A nonsignificant reduction in trismus occurred in both treatment groups compared with the placebo group. Both treatment groups also showed a significant difference in the effect on QOL in most subscales and total scores (P < .05). The effect was comparable between the 2 treatment groups for all parameters and at all intervals. The results of our study have shown that oral bromelain is an effective therapy to

  2. Proteolytic enzyme engineering: a tool for wool.

    PubMed

    Araújo, Rita; Silva, Carla; Machado, Raul; Casal, Margarida; Cunha, António M; Rodriguez-Cabello, José Carlos; Cavaco-Paulo, Artur

    2009-06-08

    One of the goals of protein engineering is to tailor the structure of enzymes to optimize industrial bioprocesses. In the present work, we present the construction of a novel high molecular weight subtilisin, based on the fusion of the DNA sequences coding for Bacillus subtilis prosubtilisin E and for an elastin-like polymer (ELP). The resulting fusion protein was biologically produced in Escherichia coli , purified and used for wool finishing assays. When compared to the commercial protease Esperase, the recombinant subtilisinE-VPAVG(220) activity was restricted to the cuticle of wool, allowing a significant reduction of pilling, weight loss and tensile strength loss of wool fibers. Here we report, for the first time, the microbial production of a functionalized high molecular weight protease for controlled enzymatic hydrolysis of wool surface. This original process overcomes the unrestrained diffusion and extended fiber damage which are the major obstacles for the use of proteases for wool finishing applications.

  3. Biosynthesis of Beta-Nitropropionic Acid and Its Esterification to Cellulose.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-06-10

    A-9128 D-amino acid oxidase, Lot # 14 F 2) No. B-2252 bromelain , Lot # 113-F-0585 3) No. E-3128 carboxyl esterase, Lot # 34-F-8110 4) No. C-2770...Substrate pH method (U/G) Bromelain NPAME 6.3 HPLC 0 Bovine serum Albumen 7.5 0 Carboxyl Esterase ENA 8.5 Spectral 1370 8.0 1400 7.5 1840 7.0 1980 I...34 "’a’" .. -6". Table 6. Conditions for preparation of semisynthetic enzymes Enzyme Modifier Cross-linker 0.b mg/ml Bromelaine 5 mM NP 1.5 mM DS 1.5 mM

  4. The amino acid sequence around the active-site cysteine and histidine residues of stem bromelain

    PubMed Central

    Husain, S. S.; Lowe, G.

    1970-01-01

    Stem bromelain that had been irreversibly inhibited with 1,3-dibromo[2-14C]-acetone was reduced with sodium borohydride and carboxymethylated with iodoacetic acid. After digestion with trypsin and α-chymotrypsin three radioactive peptides were isolated chromatographically. The amino acid sequences around the cross-linked cysteine and histidine residues were determined and showed a high degree of homology with those around the active-site cysteine and histidine residues of papain and ficin. PMID:5420046

  5. Propionibacterium acnes Recovered from Atherosclerotic Human Carotid Arteries Undergoes Biofilm Dispersion and Releases Lipolytic and Proteolytic Enzymes in Response to Norepinephrine Challenge In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Lanter, Bernard B.

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, human atherosclerotic carotid arteries were examined following endarterectomy for the presence of the Gram-positive bacterium Propionibacterium acnes and its potential association with biofilm structures within the arterial wall. The P. acnes 16S rRNA gene was detectable in 4 of 15 carotid artery samples, and viable P. acnes was one among 10 different bacterial species recoverable in culture. Fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis of 5 additional atherosclerotic carotid arteries demonstrated biofilm bacteria within all samples, with P. acnes detectable in 4 samples. We also demonstrated that laboratory-grown cultures of P. acnes biofilms were susceptible to induction of a biofilm dispersion response when challenged with physiologically relevant levels of norepinephrine in the presence of iron-bound transferrin or with free iron. The production and release of lipolytic and proteolytic extracellular enzymes by P. acnes were shown to increase in iron-induced dispersed biofilms, and these dispersion-induced P. acnes VP1 biofilms showed increased expression of mRNAs for the triacylglycerol lipases PPA2105 and PPA1796 and the hyaluronate lyase PPA380 compared to that in untreated biofilms. These results demonstrate that P. acnes can infect the carotid arteries of humans with atherosclerosis as a component of multispecies biofilms and that dispersion is inducible for this organism, at least in vitro, with physiologically relevant levels of norepinephrine resulting in the production and release of degradative enzymes. PMID:26216428

  6. Propionibacterium acnes Recovered from Atherosclerotic Human Carotid Arteries Undergoes Biofilm Dispersion and Releases Lipolytic and Proteolytic Enzymes in Response to Norepinephrine Challenge In Vitro.

    PubMed

    Lanter, Bernard B; Davies, David G

    2015-10-01

    In the present study, human atherosclerotic carotid arteries were examined following endarterectomy for the presence of the Gram-positive bacterium Propionibacterium acnes and its potential association with biofilm structures within the arterial wall. The P. acnes 16S rRNA gene was detectable in 4 of 15 carotid artery samples, and viable P. acnes was one among 10 different bacterial species recoverable in culture. Fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis of 5 additional atherosclerotic carotid arteries demonstrated biofilm bacteria within all samples, with P. acnes detectable in 4 samples. We also demonstrated that laboratory-grown cultures of P. acnes biofilms were susceptible to induction of a biofilm dispersion response when challenged with physiologically relevant levels of norepinephrine in the presence of iron-bound transferrin or with free iron. The production and release of lipolytic and proteolytic extracellular enzymes by P. acnes were shown to increase in iron-induced dispersed biofilms, and these dispersion-induced P. acnes VP1 biofilms showed increased expression of mRNAs for the triacylglycerol lipases PPA2105 and PPA1796 and the hyaluronate lyase PPA380 compared to that in untreated biofilms. These results demonstrate that P. acnes can infect the carotid arteries of humans with atherosclerosis as a component of multispecies biofilms and that dispersion is inducible for this organism, at least in vitro, with physiologically relevant levels of norepinephrine resulting in the production and release of degradative enzymes. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  7. Comparison of proteolytic activity of Candida sp. strains depending on their origin.

    PubMed

    Modrzewska, B; Kurnatowski, P; Khalid, K

    2016-06-01

    The aim of the research was to evaluate the proteolytic activity of various Candida strains isolated from the oral cavity of persons without clinical symptoms of fungal infection, outpatients with oral cavity disorders and patients hospitalized due to head and neck tumors. A secondary aim was to confirm the presence of secreted aspartyl protease (SAP) genes in the isolated strains and then to compare it depending on the fungal species. Material consisted of 134 fungal strains that were analysed by a modified Staib method and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with the use of specific primer pairs. The greatest proteolytic activity of fungi was observed at pH 3.5. The proteolysis were the strongest for strains isolated from dental patients and the weakest from persons without changes in the oral cavity. In total, 61.9% of the strains exhibited the presence of at least one of the SAP1-3 genes in all examined groups, SAP1 being the most common; SAP4-6 genes were not observed. All genes were more frequent in the strains isolated from the dental patients than from other groups. SAP1-3 genes were present in Candida albicans, C. tropicalis, C. parapsilosis, C. glabrata, C. humicola and C. lipolytica, but were not noted in other isolated species. The lowest activity of proteolytic enzymes and the least number of aspartyl protease genes are observed among strains isolated from patients without clinical symptoms of mycosis. SAP1-3 genes are most frequently detected in the strains isolated from the oral cavity; their presence varies depending on the species of the fungi. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. Potentiation of chemotherapeutics by bromelain and N-acetylcysteine: sequential and combination therapy of gastrointestinal cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Amini, Afshin; Masoumi-Moghaddam, Samar; Ehteda, Anahid; Liauw, Winston; Morris, David Lawson

    2016-01-01

    Intraperitoneal chemotherapy together with cytoreductive surgery is the standard of care for a number of peritoneal surface malignancies. However, this approach fails to maintain the complete response and disease recurs due to microscopic residual disease. Although safer than systemic chemotherapy regimens, locoregional treatment with chemotherapeutics can induce toxicity which is a major concern affecting the patient’s treatment protocol and outcome. For an enhanced treatment efficacy, efforts should be made to maximize cytotoxic effects of chemotherapeutic agents on tumor cells while minimizing their toxic effects on host cells. Bromelain and N-acetylcysteine are two natural agents with good safety profiles shown to have anti-cancer effects. However, their interaction with chemotherapeutics is unknown. In this study, we investigated if these agents have the potential to sensitize in vitro gastrointestinal cancer models to cisplatin, paclitaxel, 5-fluorouracil, and vincristine. The drug-drug interaction was also analyzed. Our findings suggest that combination of bromelain and N-acetylcysteine with chemotherapeutic agents could give rise to an improved chemotherapeutic index in therapeutic approaches to peritoneal surface malignancies of gastrointestinal origin so that maximum benefits could result from less toxic and more patient-friendly doses. This represents a potentially efficacious strategy for the enhancement of microscopic cytoreduction and is a promising area for future research. PMID:27186409

  9. BjussuSP-I: a new thrombin-like enzyme isolated from Bothrops jararacussu snake venom.

    PubMed

    Sant' Ana, Carolina D; Ticli, Fabio K; Oliveira, Leandro L; Giglio, Jose R; Rechia, Carem G V; Fuly, André L; Selistre de Araújo, Heloisa S; Franco, João J; Stabeli, Rodrigo G; Soares, Andreimar M; Sampaio, Suely V

    2008-11-01

    A thrombin-like enzyme named BjussuSP-I, isolated from B. jararacussu snake venom, is an acidic single chain glycoprotein with approximately 6% sugar, Mr=61,000 under reducing conditions and pI approximately 3.8, representing 1.09% of the chromatographic A(280) recovery. BjussuSP-I is a glycosylated serine protease containing both N-linked carbohydrates and sialic acid in its structure. BjussuSP-I showed a high clotting activity upon human plasma, which was inhibited by PMSF, leupeptin, heparin and 1,10-phenantroline. This enzyme showed high stability regarding coagulant activity when analyzed at different temperatures (-70 to 37 degrees C), pHs (4.5 to 8.0), and presence of two divalent metal ions (Ca(2+) and Mg(2+)). It also displayed TAME esterase and proteolytic activities toward natural (fibrinogen and fibrin) and synthetic (BAPNA) substrates, respectively, being also inhibited by PMSF and leupeptin. BjussuSP-I can induce production of polyclonal antibodies able to inhibit its clotting activity, but unable to inhibit its proteolytic activity on fibrinogen. The enzyme also showed crossed immunoreactivity against 11 venom samples of Bothrops, 1 of Crotalus, and 1 of Calloselasma snakes, in addition of LAAO isolated from B. moojeni venom. It displayed neither hemorrhagic, myotoxic, edema-inducing profiles nor proteolytic activity on casein. BjussuSP-I showed an N-terminal sequence (VLGGDECDINEHPFLA FLYS) similar to other thrombin-like enzymes from snake venoms. Based on its biochemical, enzymatic and pharmacological characteristics, BjussuSP-I was identified as a new thrombin-like enzyme isoform from Bothrops jararacussu snake venom.

  10. Mitochondrial AAA proteases--towards a molecular understanding of membrane-bound proteolytic machines.

    PubMed

    Gerdes, Florian; Tatsuta, Takashi; Langer, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Mitochondrial AAA proteases play an important role in the maintenance of mitochondrial proteostasis. They regulate and promote biogenesis of mitochondrial proteins by acting as processing enzymes and ensuring the selective turnover of misfolded proteins. Impairment of AAA proteases causes pleiotropic defects in various organisms including neurodegeneration in humans. AAA proteases comprise ring-like hexameric complexes in the mitochondrial inner membrane and are functionally conserved from yeast to man, but variations are evident in the subunit composition of orthologous enzymes. Recent structural and biochemical studies revealed how AAA proteases degrade their substrates in an ATP dependent manner. Intersubunit coordination of the ATP hydrolysis leads to an ordered ATP hydrolysis within the AAA ring, which ensures efficient substrate dislocation from the membrane and translocation to the proteolytic chamber. In this review, we summarize recent findings on the molecular mechanisms underlying the versatile functions of mitochondrial AAA proteases and their relevance to those of the other AAA+ machines. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Single-molecule protein unfolding and translocation by an ATP-fueled proteolytic machine

    PubMed Central

    Aubin-Tam, Marie-Eve; Olivares, Adrian O.; Sauer, Robert T.; Baker, Tania A.; Lang, Matthew J.

    2011-01-01

    All cells employ ATP-powered proteases for protein-quality control and regulation. In the ClpXP protease, ClpX is a AAA+ machine that recognizes specific protein substrates, unfolds these molecules, and then translocates the denatured polypeptide through a central pore and into ClpP for degradation. Here, we use optical-trapping nanometry to probe the mechanics of enzymatic unfolding and translocation of single molecules of a multidomain substrate. Our experiments demonstrate the capacity of ClpXP and ClpX to perform mechanical work under load, reveal very fast and highly cooperative unfolding of individual substrate domains, suggest a translocation step size of 5–8 amino acids, and support a power-stroke model of denaturation in which successful enzyme-mediated unfolding of stable domains requires coincidence between mechanical pulling by the enzyme and a transient stochastic reduction in protein stability. We anticipate that single-molecule studies of the mechanical properties of other AAA+ proteolytic machines will reveal many shared features with ClpXP. PMID:21496645

  12. Substrate Specifity Profiling of the Aspergillus fumigatus Proteolytic Secretome Reveals Consensus Motifs with Predominance of Ile/Leu and Phe/Tyr

    PubMed Central

    Watson, Douglas S.; Feng, Xizhi; Askew, David S.; Jambunathan, Kalyani; Kodukula, Krishna; Galande, Amit K.

    2011-01-01

    Background The filamentous fungus Aspergillus fumigatus (AF) can cause devastating infections in immunocompromised individuals. Early diagnosis improves patient outcomes but remains challenging because of the limitations of current methods. To augment the clinician's toolkit for rapid diagnosis of AF infections, we are investigating AF secreted proteases as novel diagnostic targets. The AF genome encodes up to 100 secreted proteases, but fewer than 15 of these enzymes have been characterized thus far. Given the large number of proteases in the genome, studies focused on individual enzymes may overlook potential diagnostic biomarkers. Methodology and Principal Findings As an alternative, we employed a combinatorial library of internally quenched fluorogenic probes (IQFPs) to profile the global proteolytic secretome of an AF clinical isolate in vitro. Comparative protease activity profiling revealed 212 substrate sequences that were cleaved by AF secreted proteases but not by normal human serum. A central finding was that isoleucine, leucine, phenylalanine, and tyrosine predominated at each of the three variable positions of the library (44.1%, 59.1%, and 57.0%, respectively) among substrate sequences cleaved by AF secreted proteases. In contrast, fewer than 10% of the residues at each position of cleaved sequences were cationic or anionic. Consensus substrate motifs were cleaved by thermostable serine proteases that retained activity up to 50°C. Precise proteolytic cleavage sites were reliably determined by a simple, rapid mass spectrometry-based method, revealing predominantly non-prime side specificity. A comparison of the secreted protease activities of three AF clinical isolates revealed consistent protease substrate specificity fingerprints. However, secreted proteases of A. flavus, A. nidulans, and A. terreus strains exhibited striking differences in their proteolytic signatures. Conclusions This report provides proof-of-principle for the use of protease

  13. High Pressure Homogenization of Porcine Pepsin Protease: Effects on Enzyme Activity, Stability, Milk Coagulation Profile and Gel Development

    PubMed Central

    Leite Júnior, Bruno Ricardo de Castro; Tribst, Alline Artigiani Lima; Cristianini, Marcelo

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of high pressure homogenization (HPH) (up to 190 MPa) on porcine pepsin (proteolytic and milk-clotting activities), and the consequences of using the processed enzyme in milk coagulation and gel formation (rheological profile, proteolysis, syneresis, and microstructure). Although the proteolytic activity (PA) was not altered immediately after the HPH process, it reduced during enzyme storage, with a 5% decrease after 60 days of storage for samples obtained with the enzyme processed at 50, 100 and 150 MPa. HPH increased the milk-clotting activity (MCA) of the enzyme processed at 150 MPa, being 15% higher than the MCA of non-processed samples after 60 days of storage. The enzyme processed at 150 MPa produced faster aggregation and a more consistent milk gel (G’ value 92% higher after 90 minutes) when compared with the non-processed enzyme. In addition, the gels produced with the enzyme processed at 150 MPa showed greater syneresis after 40 minutes of coagulation (forming a more compact protein network) and lower porosity (evidenced by confocal microscopy). These effects on the milk gel can be associated with the increment in MCA and reduction in PA caused by the effects of HPH on pepsin during storage. According to the results, HPH stands out as a process capable of changing the proteolytic characteristics of porcine pepsin, with improvements on the milk coagulation step and gel characteristics. Therefore, the porcine pepsin submitted to HPH process can be a suitable alternative for the production of cheese. PMID:25938823

  14. Proglobulin processing enzyme in vacuoles isolated from developing pumpkin cotyledons

    SciTech Connect

    Hara-Nishimura, I.; Nishimura, M.

    1987-10-01

    The enzymic conversion of proglobulin to globulin catalyzed by the extracts of vacuoles isolated from developing pumpkin (Cucurbita sp. cv Kurokawa Amakuri Nankin) cotyledons was investigated. The endoplasmic reticulum fraction isolated from the developing cotyledons pulse-labeled with (/sup 35/S)methionine was shown to contain mainly the radiolabeled proglobulin, which was used as a substrate for assaying the proteolytic processing in vitro. The vacuolar extracts catalyzed the proteolytic processing of the proglobulin molecule to produce globulin containing two kinds of polypeptide chains, ..gamma.. and delta. The pH optimum for the vacuole-mediated conversion was at pH 5.0. The proteolytic processing of proglobulin bymore » the vacuolar extracts was inhibited in the presence of various thiol reagents, e.g. p-chloromercuribenzoate, N-ethylmaleimide, iodoacetic acid, Hg/sup 2 +/, and Cu/sup 2 +/, but not phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride, EDTA, o-phenanthroline, leupeptin, antipain, pepstatin, chymostatin, or pumpkin trypsin inhibitor, and was activated in the presence of dithiothreitol and cysteine, indicating that the processing enzyme is a thiol protease. The suborganellar fractionation of the vacuoles showed that the processing activity was localized in the matrix fraction, but not in the membrane or crystalloid fractions. During the seed development, the enzyme was shown to increase, exhibiting the maximal activity at the late developmental stage. The matrix fraction of the protein bodies isolated from the dry castor bean (Ricinus communis) exhibited the processing activity toward the pumpkin proglobulin molecules in the same manner as that by the matrix fraction of pumpkin vacuoles.« less

  15. Effect of proteolytic starter cultures as leavening agents of pizza dough.

    PubMed

    Pepe, O; Villani, F; Oliviero, D; Greco, T; Coppola, S

    2003-08-01

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and yeasts were selected on the basis of in vitro proteolytic activity against wheat gluten protein and then assayed as leavening agents for pizza dough. Trials were carried out to compare a proteolytic starter (Prt(+)), consisting of Lactobacillus sakei T56, Weissella paramesenteroides A51 and Candida krusei G271, and a non-proteolytic starter (Prt(-)), consisting of Lb. sakei T58, W. paramesenteroides A58 and Saccharomyces cerevisiae T22. The proteolytic activity of the starter cultures was monitored immediately after mixing of the dough and throughout the fermentation process. The proteolytic activity was assessed by analysing the salt-soluble protein (SSP) and the dioxane-soluble protein (DSP) fractions of the pizza dough by discontinuous SDS-PAGE. Only the Prt(+) starter exhibited considerable qualitative and quantitative changes in the electrophoretic patterns of the protein fractions extracted. After the fermentation, the Prt(+) and Prt(-) doughs were tested to evaluate the influence of the proteolytic activity on the mechanical properties of the dough before and after baking. Indications emerged suggesting an influence of the proteolytic activity on the viscoelasticity of pizza dough. The pizza dough with Prt(+) strains showed an increase in viscous properties during the fermentation as compared with the Prt(-) dough. Moreover, an increase in the firmness of the crumb was observed in Prt(+) baked pizza dough.

  16. PhAP protease from Pseudoalteromonas haloplanktis TAC125: Gene cloning, recombinant production in E. coli and enzyme characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Pascale, D.; Giuliani, M.; De Santi, C.; Bergamasco, N.; Amoresano, A.; Carpentieri, A.; Parrilli, E.; Tutino, M. L.

    2010-08-01

    Cold-adapted proteases have been found to be the dominant activity throughout the cold marine environment, indicating their importance in bacterial acquisition of nitrogen-rich complex organic compounds. However, few extracellular proteases from marine organisms have been characterized so far, and the mechanisms that enable their activity in situ are still largely unknown. Aside from their ecological importance and use as model enzyme for structure/function investigations, cold-active proteolytic enzymes offer great potential for biotechnological applications. Our studies on cold adapted proteases were performed on exo-enzyme produced by the Antarctic marine bacterium Pseudoalteromonas haloplanktis TAC125. By applying a proteomic approach, we identified several proteolytic activities from its culture supernatant. PhAP protease was selected for further investigations. The encoding gene was cloned and the protein was recombinantly produced in E. coli cells. The homogeneous product was biochemically characterised and it turned out that the enzyme is a Zn-dependent aminopeptidase, with an activity dependence from assay temperature typical of psychrophilic enzymes.

  17. Enzymes processing somatostatin precursors: an Arg-Lys esteropeptidase from the rat brain cortex converting somatostatin-28 into somatostatin-14.

    PubMed Central

    Gluschankof, P; Morel, A; Gomez, S; Nicolas, P; Fahy, C; Cohen, P

    1984-01-01

    The post-translational proteolytic conversion of somatostatin-14 precursors was studied to characterize the enzyme system responsible for the production of the tetradecapeptide either from its 15-kDa precursor protein or from its COOH-terminal fragment, somatostatin-28. A synthetic undecapeptide Pro-Arg-Glu-Arg-Lys-Ala-Gly-Ala-Lys-Asn-Tyr(NH2), homologous to the amino acid sequence of the octacosapeptide at the putative Arg-Lys cleavage locus, was used as substrate, after 125I labeling on the COOH-terminal tyrosine residue. A 90-kDa proteolytic activity was detected in rat brain cortex extracts after molecular sieve fractionation followed by ion exchange chromatography. The protease released the peptide 125I-Ala-Gly-Ala-Lys-Asn-Tyr(NH2) from the synthetic undecapeptide substrate and converted somatostatin-28 into somatostatin-14 under similar conditions (pH 7.0). Under these experimental conditions, the product tetradecapeptide was not further degraded by the enzyme. In contrast, the purified 15-kDa hypothalamic precursor remained unaffected when exposed to the proteolytic enzyme under identical conditions. It is concluded that this Arg-Lys esteropeptidase from the brain cortex may be involved in the in vivo processing of the somatostatin-28 fragment of prosomatostatin into somatostatin-14, the former species being an obligatory intermediate in a two-step proteolytic mechanism leading to somatostatin-14. PMID:6149550

  18. Composition, indigenous proteolytic enzymes and coagulating behaviour of ewe milk as affected by somatic cell count.

    PubMed

    Albenzio, Marzia; Santillo, Antonella; Caroprese, Mariangela; Schena, Laura; Russo, Donatella Esterina; Sevi, Agostino

    2011-11-01

    This study was undertaken to assess the effect of somatic cell count in ewe milk on i) composition and hygienic traits; ii) plasmin, cathepsin and elastase activities; iii) leukocyte differential count; iv) renneting parameters. Individual ewe milk samples were grouped according to somatic cell count (SCC) into five classes: SC300 (<300 000 cells/ml), SC500 (from 301 000 to 500 000 cells/ml), SC1000 (from 501 000 to 1 000 000 cells/ml), SC2000 (from 1 001 000 to 2 000 000 cells/ml) and SC>2000 (>2 001 000 cells/ml). Individual milk samples were analysed for pH, chemical composition, microbial features, indigenous proteolytic enzymes, differential leukocyte population, and renneting parameters. Milk yield, lactose, protein, non casein nitrogen, microbial features were affected by SCC level. Plasmin and elastase activities were the highest in samples with more than 1 000 000 cells/ml; plasmin had intermediate values in samples with 300 000 to 1 000 000 cells/ml and the lowest in samples with less than 300 000 cells/ml of milk. Cathepsin D showed significantly lower values in SC300 and SC1000 classes than in SC500, SC2000 and SC>2000 classes. The highest percentages of lymphocyte were found in samples with less than 1 000 000 cells/ml, while the highest levels of polymorphonuclear leukocyte were found in samples with more than 1 000 000 cells/ml of milk. Longer clotting time was found in SC>2000 samples, while reduced clot firmness was observed in SC500 and SC>2000 samples. Results on milk yield and on compositional parameters evidenced an impairment of udder efficiency in ewe milk samples starting from 300 000 cells/ml. Plasmin activity in milk can be considered as a marker of the synthetic and secreting ability of the mammary gland; furthermore plasmin and elastase were consistent with the health status of the udder. Finally cathepsin D played a role in the worsening of renneting properties of ewe milk.

  19. Process optimization for reverse micellar extraction of stem bromelain with a focus on back extraction.

    PubMed

    Dhaneshwar, Amrut D; Chaurasiya, Ram Saran; Hebbar, H Umesh

    2014-01-01

    In the current study, reverse micellar extraction (RME) for the purification of stem bromelain was successfully achieved using the sodium bis(2-ethylhexyl) sulfosuccinate (AOT)/isooctane system. A maximum forward extraction efficiency of 58.0% was obtained at 100 mM AOT concentration, aqueous phase pH of 8.0 and 0.2 M NaCl. Back extraction studies on altering stripping phase pH and KCl concentration, addition of counter-ion and iso-propyl alcohol (IPA) and mechanical agitation with glass beads indicated that IPA addition and agitation with glass beads have significant effects on extraction efficiency. The protein extraction was higher (51.9%) in case of the IPA (10% v/v) added system during back extraction as compared to a cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (100 mM) added system (9.42%). The central composite design technique was used to optimize the back extraction conditions further. Concentration of IPA, amount of glass beads, mixing time, and agitation speed (in rpm) were the variables selected. IPA concentration of 8.5% (v/v), glass bead concentration of 0.6 (w/v), and mixing time of 45 min at 400 rpm resulted in higher back extraction efficiency of 45.6% and activity recovery of 88.8% with purification of 3.04-fold. The study indicated that mechanical agitation using glass beads could be used for destabilizing the reverse micelles and release of bromelain back into the fresh aqueous phase. © 2014 American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

  20. Fabrication of core-shell nanofibers for controlled delivery of bromelain and salvianolic acid B for skin regeneration in wound therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Shoba, Ekambaram; Lakra, Rachita; Syamala Kiran, Manikantan; Korrapati, Purna Sai

    2017-06-05

    The physiological and pathological complexity of the wound healing process makes it more challenging to design an ideal tissue regeneration scaffold. Precise scaffolding with high drug loading efficiency, efficient intracellular efficacy for therapeutic delivery, minimal nonspecific cellular and blood protein binding, and maximum biocompatibility forms the basis for an ideal delivery system. This paper describes a combinational multiphasic delivery system, where biomolecules are delivered through the fabrication of coaxial electrospinning of different biocompatible polymers. The ratio and specificity of polymers for specific biofunction are optimized and the delivery system is completely characterized with reference to the mechanical property and structural integrity of bromelain (debridement enzyme) and salvianolic acid B (pro-angiogenesis and re-epithelialization). The in vitro release profile illustrated the sustained release of debriding protease and bioactive component in a timely fashion. The fabricated scaffold showed angiogenic potential through in vitro migration of endothelial cells and increased new capillaries from the existing blood vessel in response to an in ovo chicken chorioallantoic membrane assay. In addition, in vivo studies confirm the efficacy of the fabricated scaffold. Our results therefore open up a new avenue for designing a bioactive combinational multiphasic delivery system to enhance wound healing.

  1. Biochemical properties and atomic resolution structure of a proteolytically processed β-mannanase from cellulolytic Streptomyces sp. SirexAA-E.

    PubMed

    Takasuka, Taichi E; Acheson, Justin F; Bianchetti, Christopher M; Prom, Ben M; Bergeman, Lai F; Book, Adam J; Currie, Cameron R; Fox, Brian G

    2014-01-01

    β-Mannanase SACTE_2347 from cellulolytic Streptomyces sp. SirexAA-E is abundantly secreted into the culture medium during growth on cellulosic materials. The enzyme is composed of domains from the glycoside hydrolase family 5 (GH5), fibronectin type-III (Fn3), and carbohydrate binding module family 2 (CBM2). After secretion, the enzyme is proteolyzed into three different, catalytically active variants with masses of 53, 42 and 34 kDa corresponding to the intact protein, loss of the CBM2 domain, or loss of both the Fn3 and CBM2 domains. The three variants had identical N-termini starting with Ala51, and the positions of specific proteolytic reactions in the linker sequences separating the three domains were identified. To conduct biochemical and structural characterizations, the natural proteolytic variants were reproduced by cloning and heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli. Each SACTE_2347 variant hydrolyzed only β-1,4 mannosidic linkages, and also reacted with pure mannans containing partial galactosyl- and/or glucosyl substitutions. Examination of the X-ray crystal structure of the GH5 domain of SACTE_2347 suggests that two loops adjacent to the active site channel, which have differences in position and length relative to other closely related mannanases, play a role in producing the observed substrate selectivity.

  2. Biochemical Properties and Atomic Resolution Structure of a Proteolytically Processed β-Mannanase from Cellulolytic Streptomyces sp. SirexAA-E

    PubMed Central

    Takasuka, Taichi E.; Acheson, Justin F.; Bianchetti, Christopher M.; Prom, Ben M.; Bergeman, Lai F.; Book, Adam J.; Currie, Cameron R.; Fox, Brian G.

    2014-01-01

    β-mannanase SACTE_2347 from cellulolytic Streptomyces sp. SirexAA-E is abundantly secreted into the culture medium during growth on cellulosic materials. The enzyme is composed of domains from the glycoside hydrolase family 5 (GH5), fibronectin type-III (Fn3), and carbohydrate binding module family 2 (CBM2). After secretion, the enzyme is proteolyzed into three different, catalytically active variants with masses of 53, 42 and 34 kDa corresponding to the intact protein, loss of the CBM2 domain, or loss of both the Fn3 and CBM2 domains. The three variants had identical N-termini starting with Ala51, and the positions of specific proteolytic reactions in the linker sequences separating the three domains were identified. To conduct biochemical and structural characterizations, the natural proteolytic variants were reproduced by cloning and heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli. Each SACTE_2347 variant hydrolyzed only β-1,4 mannosidic linkages, and also reacted with pure mannans containing partial galactosyl- and/or glucosyl substitutions. Examination of the X-ray crystal structure of the GH5 domain of SACTE_2347 suggests that two loops adjacent to the active site channel, which have differences in position and length relative to other closely related mannanases, play a role in producing the observed substrate selectivity. PMID:24710170

  3. Camel milk protein hydrolysates with improved technofunctional properties and enhanced antioxidant potential in in vitro and in food model systems.

    PubMed

    Al-Shamsi, Kholoud Awad; Mudgil, Priti; Hassan, Hassan Mohamed; Maqsood, Sajid

    2018-01-01

    Camel milk protein hydrolysates (CMPH) were generated using proteolytic enzymes, such as alcalase, bromelain, and papain, to explore the effect on the technofunctional properties and antioxidant potential under in vitro and in real food model systems. Characterization of the CMPH via degree of hydrolysis, sodium dodecyl sulfate-PAGE, and HPLC revealed that different proteins in camel milk underwent degradation at different degrees after enzymatic hydrolysis using 3 different enzymes for 2, 4, and 6 h, with papain displaying the highest degradation. Technofunctional properties, such as emulsifying activity index, surface hydrophobicity, and protein solubility, were higher in CMPH than unhydrolyzed camel milk proteins. However, the water and fat absorption capacity were lower in CMPH compared with unhydrolyzed camel milk proteins. Antioxidant properties as assessed by 2,2-azinobis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging activities and metal-chelating activity were enhanced after hydrolysis, in contrast to ferric-reducing antioxidant power which showed a decrease after hydrolysis. The CMPH were also tested in real food model systems for their potential to inhibit lipid peroxidation in fish mince and grape seed oil-in-water emulsion, and we found that papain-produced hydrolysate displayed higher inhibition than alcalase- and bromelain-produced hydrolysates. Therefore, the CMPH demonstrated effective antioxidant potential in vitro as well as in real food systems and showed enhanced functional properties, which guarantees their potential applications in functional foods. The present study is one of few reports available on CMPH being explored in vitro as well as in real food model systems. Copyright © 2018 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Purification and characterization of multiple forms of the pineapple-stem-derived cysteine proteinases ananain and comosain.

    PubMed Central

    Napper, A D; Bennett, S P; Borowski, M; Holdridge, M B; Leonard, M J; Rogers, E E; Duan, Y; Laursen, R A; Reinhold, B; Shames, S L

    1994-01-01

    A mixture of ananain (EC 3.4.22.31) and comosain purified from crude pineapple stem extract was found to contain numerous closely related enzyme forms. Chromatographic separation of the major enzyme forms was achieved after treatment of the mixture with thiol-modifying reagents: reversible modification with 2-hydroxyethyl disulphide provided enzyme for kinetic studies, and irreversible alkylation with bromotrifluoroacetone or iodoacetamide gave enzyme for structural analyses by 19F-n.m.r. and electrospray mass spectrometry respectively. Structural and kinetic analyses revealed comosain to be closely related to stem bromelain (EC 3.4.22.32), whereas ananain differed markedly from both comosain and stem bromelain. Nevertheless, differences were seen between comosain and stem bromelain in amino acid composition and kinetic specificity towards the epoxide inhibitor E-64. Differences between five isolatable alternative forms of ananain were characterized by amidolytic activity, thiol stoichiometry and accurate mass determinations. Three of the enzyme forms displayed ananain-like amidolytic activity, whereas the other two forms were inactive. Thiol-stoichiometry determinations revealed that the active enzyme forms contained one free thiol, whereas the inactive forms lacked the reactive thiol required for enzyme activity. M.s. provided direct evidence for oxidation of the active-site thiol to the corresponding sulphinic acid. Images Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:8053898

  5. Proteolytic and Trypsin Inhibitor Activity in Germinating Jojoba Seeds (Simmondsia chinensis).

    PubMed

    Samac, D; Storey, R

    1981-12-01

    Changes in proteolytic activity (aminopeptidase, carboxypeptidase, endopeptidase) were followed during germination (imbibition through seedling development) in extracts from cotyledons of jojoba seeds (Simmondsia chinensis). After imbibition, the cotyledons contained high levels of sulfhydryl aminopeptidase activity (APA) but low levels of serine carboxypeptidase activity (CPA). CPA increased with germination through the apparent loss of a CPA inhibitor substance in the seed. Curves showing changes in endopeptidase activity (EPA) assayed at pH 4, 5, 6, 7, and 8 during germination were distinctly different. EPA at pH 4, 5, 6, and 7 showed characteristics of sulfhydryl enzymes while activity at pH 8 was probably due to a serine type enzyme. EPA at pH 6 was inhibited early in germination by one or more substances in the seed. Activities at pH 5 and later at pH 6 were the highest of all EPA throughout germination and increases in these activities were associated with a rapid loss of protein from the cotyledons of the developing seedling.Jojoba cotyledonary extracts were found to inhibit the enzymic activity of trypsin, chymotrypsin, and pepsin but not the protease from Aspergillus saotoi. The heat-labile trypsin inhibitor substance(s) was found in commercially processed jojoba seed meal and the albumin fraction of seed proteins. Trypsin inhibitor activity decreased with germination.

  6. Production and biochemical characterization of insecticidal enzymes from Aspergillus fumigatus toward Callosobruchus maculatus.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Jackeline L; Franco, Octávio L; Noronha, Eliane F

    2006-06-01

    In the present work, Aspergillus fumigatus is described as a higher producer of hydrolytic enzymes secreted in response to the presence of the Callosobruchus maculatus bruchid pest. This fungus was able to grow over cowpea weevil shells as a unique carbon source, secreting alkaline proteolytic and chitinolytic enzymes. Enzyme secretion in A. fumigatus was induced by both C. maculatus exoskeleton as well as commercial chitin, and alkaline proteolytic and chitinolytic activities were detected after 48 hours of growth. Furthermore, sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) analysis showed the production of specific proteins. Among them, two extracellular alkaline proteinases from culture enriched with C. maculatus exoskeleton were purified after chromatographic procedures using ion exchange and affinity columns. These proteins, named AP15 and AP30, had apparent molecular masses of 15,500 and 30,000 Da, respectively, as estimated by SDS-PAGE electrophoresis and mass spectrometry. AP30 was classified as a serine proteinase because it was inhibited by 5 mM: phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride (100%) and 50 microM leupeptin (67.94%).

  7. Cell growth and proteolytic activity of Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus helveticus, Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus, and Streptococcus thermophilus in milk as affected by supplementation with peptide fractions.

    PubMed

    Gandhi, Akanksha; Shah, Nagendra P

    2014-12-01

    The present investigation examined the effects of supplementation of milk peptide fractions produced by enzymatic hydrolysis on the fermentation of reconstituted skim milk (RSM). Changes in pH, cell growth, proteolytic activity, and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE)-inhibitory activity were monitored during fermentation of RSM by pure cultures of Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus helveticus, Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus, and Streptococcus thermophilus. The study showed that supplementation with peptide fractions of different molecular weights did not significantly affect the bacterial growth in RSM. All bacteria showed an increased proteolytic activity in RSM supplemented with large peptides (>10 kDa), and L. helveticus in general exhibited the highest proteolytic activity among the bacteria studied. The ACE-inhibitory activity was observed to be the maximum in RSM supplemented with larger peptides (>10 kDa) for all bacteria. The results suggest that proteolysis by bacteria leads to increased production of ACE-inhibitory peptides compared to the supplemented peptides produced by enzymatic hydrolysis.

  8. Single cell multiplexed assay for proteolytic activity using droplet microfluidics.

    PubMed

    Ng, Ee Xien; Miller, Miles A; Jing, Tengyang; Chen, Chia-Hung

    2016-07-15

    Cellular enzymes interact in a post-translationally regulated fashion to govern individual cell behaviors, yet current platform technologies are limited in their ability to measure multiple enzyme activities simultaneously in single cells. Here, we developed multi-color Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET)-based enzymatic substrates and use them in a microfluidics platform to simultaneously measure multiple specific protease activities from water-in-oil droplets that contain single cells. By integrating the microfluidic platform with a computational analytical method, Proteolytic Activity Matrix Analysis (PrAMA), we are able to infer six different protease activity signals from individual cells in a high throughput manner (~100 cells/experimental run). We characterized protease activity profiles at single cell resolution for several cancer cell lines including breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-231, lung cancer cell line PC-9, and leukemia cell line K-562 using both live-cell and in-situ cell lysis assay formats, with special focus on metalloproteinases important in metastasis. The ability to measure multiple proteases secreted from or expressed in individual cells allows us to characterize cell heterogeneity and has potential applications including systems biology, pharmacology, cancer diagnosis and stem cell biology. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Enzyme II/sup Mtl/ of the Escherichia coli phosphoenolpyruvate-dependent phosphotransferase system: identification of the activity-linked cysteine on the mannitol carrier

    SciTech Connect

    Pas, H.H.; Robillard, G.T.

    1988-07-26

    The cysteine of the membrane-bound mannitol-specific enzyme II (EII/sup Mtl/) of the Escherichia coli phosphoenolpyruvate-dependent phosphotransferase system have been labeled with 4-vinylpyridine. After proteolytic breakdown and reversed-phase HPLC, the peptides containing cysteines 110, 384, and 571 could be identified. N-Ethylmaleimide (NEM) treatment of the native unphosphorylated enzyme results in incorporation of one NEM label per molecule and loss of enzymatic activity. NEM treatment and inactivation prevented 4-vinylpyridine incorporation into the Cys-384-containing peptide, identifying this residue as the activity-linked cysteine. Both oxidation and phosphorylation of the native enzyme protected the enzyme against NEM labeling of Cys-384. Positive identification of the activity-linkedmore » cysteine was accomplished by inactivation with (/sup 14/C)iodoacetamide, proteolytic fragmentation, isolation of the peptide, and amino acid sequencing.« less

  10. Separation and purification of enzymes by continuous pH-parametric pumping

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, S.Y.; Lin, C.K.; Juang, L.Y.

    1985-10-01

    Trypsin and chymotrypsin were separated from porcine pancreas extract by continuous pH-parametric pumping. CHOM (chicken ovomucoid) was convalently bound to laboratory-prepared crab chitin with glutaraldehyde to form an affinity adsorbent of trypsin. The pH levels of top and bottom feeds were 8.0 and 2.5, respectively. Similar inhibitor, DKOM (duck ovomucoid), and pH levels 8.0 and 2.0 for top and bottom feeds, respectively, were used for separation and purification of chymotrypsin. e-Amino caproyl-D-tryptophan methyl ester was coupled to chitosan to form an affinity adsorbent for stem bromelain. The pH levels were 8.7 and 3.0. Separation continued fairly well with high yield,more » e.g., 95% recovery of trypsin after continuous pumping of 10 cycles. Optimum operational conditions for concentration and purification of these enzymes were investigated. The results showed that the continuous pH-parametric pumping coupled with affinity chromatography is effective for concentration and purification of enzymes. 19 references.« less

  11. Proteolytic activities of kiwifruit actinidin (Actinidia deliciosa cv. Hayward) on different fibrous and globular proteins: a comparative study of actinidin with papain.

    PubMed

    Chalabi, Maryam; Khademi, Fatemeh; Yarani, Reza; Mostafaie, Ali

    2014-04-01

    Actinidin, a member of the papain-like family of cysteine proteases, is abundant in kiwifruit. To date, a few studies have been provided to investigate the proteolytic activity and substrate specificity of actinidin on native proteins. Herein, the proteolytic activity of actinidin was compared to papain on several different fibrous and globular proteins under neutral, acidic and basic conditions. The digested samples were subjected to sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and densitometry to assess the proteolytic effect. Furthermore, the levels of free amino nitrogen (FAN) of the treated samples were determined using the ninhydrin colorimetric method. The findings showed that actinidin has no or limited proteolytic effect on globular proteins such as immunoglobulins including sheep IgG, rabbit IgG, chicken IgY and fish IgM, bovine serum albumin (BSA), lipid transfer protein (LTP), and whey proteins (α-lactalbumin and β-lactoglobulin) compared to papain. In contrast to globular proteins, actinidin could hydrolyze collagen and fibrinogen perfectly at neutral and mild basic pHs. Moreover, this enzyme could digest pure α-casein and major subunits of micellar casein especially in acidic pHs. Taken together, the data indicated that actinidin has narrow substrate specificity with the highest enzymatic activity for the collagen and fibrinogen substrates. The results describe the actinidin as a mild plant protease useful for many special applications such as cell isolation from different tissues and some food industries as a mixture formula with other relevant proteases.

  12. Preliminary characterization of digestive enzymes in freshwater mussels

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sauey, Blake W.; Amberg, Jon J.; Cooper, Scott T.; Grunwald, Sandra K.; Newton, Teresa J.; Haro, Roger J.

    2015-01-01

    Resource managers lack an effective chemical tool to control the invasive zebra mussel Dreissena polymorpha. Zebra mussels clog water intakes for hydroelectric companies, harm unionid mussel species, and are believed to be a reservoir of avian botulism. Little is known about the digestive physiology of zebra mussels and unionid mussels. The enzymatic profile of the digestive glands of zebra mussels and native threeridge (Amblema plicata) and plain pocketbook mussels (Lampsilis cardium) are characterized using a commercial enzyme kit, api ZYM, and validated the kit with reagent-grade enzymes. A linear correlation was shown for only one of nineteen enzymes, tested between the api ZYM kit and a specific enzyme kit. Thus, the api ZYM kit should only be used to make general comparisons of enzyme presence and to observe trends in enzyme activities. Enzymatic trends were seen in the unionid mussel species, but not in zebra mussels sampled 32 days apart from the same location. Enzymatic classes, based on substrate, showed different trends, with proteolytic and phospholytic enzymes having the most change in relative enzyme activity.

  13. Developing a capillary electrophoresis based method for dynamically monitoring enzyme cleavage activity using quantum dots-peptide assembly.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jianhao; Fan, Jie; Liu, Li; Ding, Shumin; Liu, Xiaoqian; Wang, Jianpeng; Gao, Liqian; Chattopadhaya, Souvik; Miao, Peng; Xia, Jiang; Qiu, Lin; Jiang, Pengju

    2017-10-01

    Herein, a novel assay has been developed for monitoring PreScission protease (His-PSP) mediated enzyme cleavage of ATTO 590 labeled peptide substrate (ATTO-LEV). This novel method is based on combining the use of capillary electrophoresis and fluorescence detection (CE-FL) to dynamically monitor the enzyme cleavage activity. A multivalent peptide substrate was first constructed by immobilizing His-tagged ATTO 590 labeled peptide substrate (ATTO-LEVH6) onto the surface of CdSe/ZnS quantum dots (QDs). Once successfully immobilized, the novel multivalent peptide substrate resulted in the Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) from QDs to ATTO 590. The ATTO-LEVH6-QD assembly was then incubated with His-PSP to study the proteolytic cleavage of surface bound ATTO-LEVH6 by CE-FL. Our data suggests that PreScission-mediated proteolytic cleavage is enzyme concentration- and incubation time-dependent. By combining capillary electrophoresis, QDs and FRET, our study herein not only provides a new method for the detection and dynamically monitoring of PSP enzyme cleavage activity, but also can be extended to the detection of many other enzymes and proteases. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. The autodigestion hypothesis: Proteolytic receptor cleavage in rheological and cardiovascular cell dysfunction1

    PubMed Central

    Schmid-Schönbein, Geert W.

    2017-01-01

    Transformation of circulating leukocytes from a dormant into an activated state with changing rheological properties leads to a major shift of their behavior in the microcirculation. Low levels of pseudopod formation or expression of adhesion molecules facilitate relatively free passage through microvessels while activated leukocytes with pseudopods and enhanced levels of adhesion membrane proteins become trapped in microvessels, attach to the endothelium and migrate into the tissue. The transformation of leukocytes into an activated state is seen in many diseases. While mechanisms for activation due to infections, tissue trauma, as well as non-physiological biochemical or biophysical exposures are well recognized, the mechanisms for activation in many diseases have not been conclusively liked to these traditional mechanisms and remain unknown. We summarize our recent evidence suggesting a major and surprising role of digestive enzymes in the small intestine as root causes for leukocyte activation and microvascular disturbances. During normal digestion of food digestive enzymes are compartmentalized in the lumen of the intestine by the mucosal epithelial barrier. When permeability of this barrier increases, these powerful degrading enzymes leak into the wall of the intestine and into the systemic circulation. Leakage of digestive enzymes occurs for example in physiological shock and multi-organ failure. Entry of digestive enzymes into the wall of the small intestine leads to degradation of the intestinal tissue in an autodigestion process. The digestive enzymes and tissue/food fragments generate not only activate leukocytes but also cause numerous cell dysfunctions. For example, proteolytic destruction of membrane receptors, plasma proteins and other biomolecules occurs. We conclude that escape of digestive enzymes from the intestinal track serves as a major source of cell dysfunction, morbidity and even mortality, including abnormal leukocyte activation seen in

  15. Enzyme decorated drug carriers: Targeted swords to cleave and overcome the mucus barrier.

    PubMed

    Menzel, Claudia; Bernkop-Schnürch, Andreas

    2018-01-15

    The use of mucus permeating drug carrier systems being able to overcome the mucus barrier can lead to a remarkable enhancement in bioavailability. One promising approach is the design of mucolytic enzyme decorated carrier systems (MECS). These systems include micro- and nanoparticles as well as self-emulsifying drug delivery systems (SEDDS) decorated with mucin cleaving enzymes such as papain (PAP) or bromelain (BRO). MECS are able to cross the mucus barrier in a comparatively efficient manner by cleaving mucus substructures in front of them on their way to the epithelium. Thereby these enzymes hydrolyze peptide bonds of mucus glycoproteins forming tiny holes or passages through the mucus. In various in vitro and in vivo studies MECS proved to be superior in their mucus permeating properties over nanocarriers without enzyme decoration. PAP decorated nanoparticles, for instance, remained 3h after oral administration to an even 2.5-fold higher extend in rat small intestine than the corresponding undecorated nanoparticles permeating the intestinal mucus gel layer to a much lower degree. As MECS break up the mucus network only locally without destroying its overall protective barrier function, even long term treatments with such systems seem feasible. Within this review article we address different drug carrier systems decorated with various types of enzymes, their particular pros and cons and potential applications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Proteolytic and Trypsin Inhibitor Activity in Germinating Jojoba Seeds (Simmondsia chinensis) 1

    PubMed Central

    Samac, Deborah; Storey, Richard

    1981-01-01

    Changes in proteolytic activity (aminopeptidase, carboxypeptidase, endopeptidase) were followed during germination (imbibition through seedling development) in extracts from cotyledons of jojoba seeds (Simmondsia chinensis). After imbibition, the cotyledons contained high levels of sulfhydryl aminopeptidase activity (APA) but low levels of serine carboxypeptidase activity (CPA). CPA increased with germination through the apparent loss of a CPA inhibitor substance in the seed. Curves showing changes in endopeptidase activity (EPA) assayed at pH 4, 5, 6, 7, and 8 during germination were distinctly different. EPA at pH 4, 5, 6, and 7 showed characteristics of sulfhydryl enzymes while activity at pH 8 was probably due to a serine type enzyme. EPA at pH 6 was inhibited early in germination by one or more substances in the seed. Activities at pH 5 and later at pH 6 were the highest of all EPA throughout germination and increases in these activities were associated with a rapid loss of protein from the cotyledons of the developing seedling. Jojoba cotyledonary extracts were found to inhibit the enzymic activity of trypsin, chymotrypsin, and pepsin but not the protease from Aspergillus saotoi. The heat-labile trypsin inhibitor substance(s) was found in commercially processed jojoba seed meal and the albumin fraction of seed proteins. Trypsin inhibitor activity decreased with germination. PMID:16662104

  17. Effect of α-Amylase, Papain, and Spermfluid treatments on viscosity and semen parameters of dromedary camel ejaculates.

    PubMed

    Monaco, Davide; Fatnassi, Meriem; Padalino, Barbara; Hammadi, Mohamed; Khorchani, Touhami; Lacalandra, Giovanni Michele

    2016-04-01

    Ejaculates from five clinically healthy dromedary camels (Camelus dromedarius) were used to evaluate the effects of different enzymatic treatments (Amylase, Papain, Spermfluid) on liquefaction and seminal parameters. After collection, ejaculates were divided into 5 aliquots: (1) kept undiluted (control); or diluted 1:1 with: (2) Tris-Citrate-Fructose (TCF), (3) TCF containing Amylase, (4) TCF containing Papain or (5) Spermfluid containing Bromelain. At 120 min after dilution, each aliquot was evaluated, at 20-min intervals, for viscosity, motility, viability and agglutination. Only the aliquots diluted with TCF containing Papain underwent complete liquefaction. Sperm motility decreased significantly during the observation times, except for the samples diluted with Spermfluid (P=0.005). Diluted samples showed different levels of agglutination, with the lowest being observed in the control and the highest in the Papain-treated samples. The viscosity of dromedary camel ejaculates could be effectively reduced by using the proteolytic enzyme Papain. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. The effects of Capn1 gene inactivation on skeletal muscle growth, development, and atrophy, and the compensatory role of other proteolytic systems.

    PubMed

    Kemp, C M; Oliver, W T; Wheeler, T L; Chishti, A H; Koohmaraie, M

    2013-07-01

    Myofibrillar protein turnover is a key component of muscle growth and degeneration, requiring proteolytic enzymes to degrade the skeletal muscle proteins. The objective of this study was to investigate the role of the calpain proteolytic system in muscle growth development using μ-calpain knockout (KO) mice in comparison with control wild-type (WT) mice, and evaluate the subsequent effects of silencing this gene on other proteolytic systems. No differences in muscle development between genotypes were observed during the early stages of growth due to the up regulation of other proteolytic systems. The KO mice showed significantly greater m-calpain protein abundance (P < 0.01) and activity (P < 0.001), and greater caspase 3/7 activity (P < 0.05). At 30 wk of age, KO mice showed increased protein:DNA (P < 0.05) and RNA:DNA ratios (P < 0.01), greater protein content (P < 0.01) at the expense of lipid deposition (P < 0.05), and an increase in size and number of fast-twitch glycolytic muscle fibers (P < 0.05), suggesting that KO mice exhibit an increased capacity to accumulate and maintain protein in their skeletal muscle. Also, expression of proteins associated with muscle regeneration (neural cell adhesion molecule and myoD) were both reduced in the mature KO mice (P < 0.05 and P < 0.01, respectively), indicating less muscle regeneration and, therefore, less muscle damage. These findings indicate the concerted action of proteolytic systems to ensure muscle protein homeostasis in vivo. Furthermore, these data contribute to the existing evidence of the importance of the calpain system's involvement in muscle growth, development, and atrophy. Collectively, these data suggest that there are opportunities to target the calpain system to promote the growth and/or restoration of skeletal muscle mass.

  19. Activation of proteolytic enzymes and depression of the sarcolemmal Na+/K+-ATPase in ischemia-reperfused heart may be mediated through oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Singh, Raja B; Hryshko, Larry; Freed, Darren; Dhalla, Naranjan S

    2012-02-01

    We tested whether the activation of proteolytic enzymes, calpain, and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) during ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) is mediated through oxidative stress. For this purpose, isolated rat hearts were subjected to a 30 min global ischemia followed by a 30 min reperfusion. Cardiac function was monitored and the activities of Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase, Mg(2+)-ATPase, calpain, and MMP were measured. Depression of cardiac function and Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase activity in I/R hearts was associated with increased calpain and MMP activities. These alterations owing to I/R were similar to those observed in hearts perfused with hypoxic medium, H(2)O(2) and xanthine plus xanthine oxidase. The I/R-induced changes were attenuated by ischemic preconditioning as well as by perfusing the hearts with N-acetylcysteine or mercaptopropionylglycine. Inhibition of MMP activity in hearts treated with doxycycline depressed the I/R-induced changes in cardiac function and Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase activity without affecting the calpain activation. On the other hand, inhibition of calpain activity upon treatment with leupeptin or MDL 28170 significantly reduced the MMP activity in addition to attenuating the I/R-induced alterations in cardiac function and Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase activity. These results suggest that the I/R-induced depression in Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase and cardiac function may be a consequence of the increased activities of both calpain and MMP because of oxidative stress in the heart.

  20. The effects of altered N-linked oligosaccharide structures on maturation and targeting of lysosomal enzymes in Dictyostelium discoideum.

    PubMed

    Freeze, H H; Koza-Taylor, P; Saunders, A; Cardelli, J A

    1989-11-15

    We have examined the relationship of N-linked oligosaccharide structures to the proper targeting and proteolytic processing of two lysosomal enzymes, alpha-mannosidase and beta-glucosidase, in the slime mold Dictyostelium discoideum. Two different mutant strains, HL241 and HL243, each synthesize the same nonglucosylated, truncated, lipid-linked oligosaccharide precursor, Man6GlcNAc2. [3H]Mannose-labeled N-linked oligosaccharides were studied following their release from immunoprecipitated alpha-mannosidase and beta-glucosidase by digestion with peptide:N-glycosidase F. The oligosaccharides from both mutants resembled each other, but they were smaller and contained fewer anionic groups than those from the wild-type. The oligosaccharides from the mutants strains were reduced in sulfate and Man-6-P content, and all Man-6-P was in the form of acid-stable phosphodiesters. Pulse-chase radiolabeling experiments using [35S] methionine indicated that the precursor forms of both enzymes were smaller than wild-type, and that this difference was due solely to differences in N-linked oligosaccharides. The precursor forms of the enzymes were not over-secreted, but appeared to be proteolytically processed into mature forms at approximately 50% the rate of wild-type. This is mainly due to their prolonged retention in the rough endoplasmic reticulum, but, ultimately, both enzymes were properly targeted to lysosomes. These studies indicate that a reduction in the amount of sulfation, phosphorylation or size of the N-linked oligosaccharides in these mutants is not critical for the proteolytic processing and targeting of the lysosomal enzymes, but that these changes may influence their rate of exit from the rough endoplasmic reticulum.

  1. Comparison of in vitro systems of protein digestion using either mammal or fish proteolytic enzymes.

    PubMed

    Moyano, F J; Savoie, L

    2001-02-01

    Hydrolysis of three different proteins by either crude fish digestive extracts or purified mammal proteases was assayed using two different in vitro systems. The closed system was a modification of the pH-stat method including a previous acid digestion. The open system used a digestion cell containing a semi-permeable membrane which allowed continuous separation of the final products of hydrolysis with a molecular cut-off of 1000 Da. Assays in both systems resulted a similar arrangement of the tested proteins in relation to their ability to be hydrolyzed, with casein>fish meal> or =soybean meal. With the exception of casein, no significant differences were found between results produced by any of the enzyme sources using the closed system. In constrast, significantly higher hydrolysis of all proteins was produced by mammal enzymes under conditions operating in the open system. Differences in the rate of release of amino acids measured in this latter system were related both to the type of protein and the origin of the enzymes. When using purified mammal enzymes, release of lysine or phenylalanine from casein and soybean was high, but low from fishmeal. Isoleucine and valine present in fishmeal were preferentially hydrolyzed by commercial enzymes, but glycine and proline by fish enzymes.

  2. Effect of Allium sativum and fish collagen on the proteolytic and angiotensin-I converting enzyme-inhibitory activities in cheese and yogurt.

    PubMed

    Shori, A B; Baba, A S; Keow, J N

    2012-12-15

    There is an increasing demand of functional foods in developed countries. Yogurt plays an important role in the management of blood pressure. Several bioactive peptides isolated from Allium sativum or fish collagen have shown antihypertensive activity. Thus, in the present study the effects of A. sativum and/or Fish Collagen (FC) on proteolysis and ACE inhibitory activity in yogurt (0, 7 and 14 day) and cheese (0, 14 and 28 day) were investigated. Proteolytic activities were the highest on day 7 of refrigerated storage in A. sativum-FC-yogurt (337.0 +/- 5.3 microg g(-1)) followed by FC-yogurt (275.3 +/- 2.0 microg g(-1)), A. sativum-yogurt (245.8 +/- 4.2 microg g(-1)) and plain-yogurt (40.4 +/- 1.2 microg g(-1)). On the other hand, proteolytic activities in cheese ripening were the highest (p < 0.05) on day 14 of storage for plain and A. sativum-cheeses (411.4 +/- 4.3 and 528.7 +/- 1.6 microg g(-1), respectively). However, the presence of FC increased the proteolysis to the highest level on day 28 of storage for FC- and A. sativum-FC cheeses (641.2 +/- 0.1 and 1128.4 +/- 4.5 microg g(-1), respectively). In addition, plain- and A. sativum-yogurts with or without FC showed maximal inhibition of ACE on day 7 of storage. Fresh plain- and A. sativum-cheeses showed ACE inhibition (72.3 +/- 7.8 and 50.4 +/- 1.6 % respectively), the presence of FC in both type of cheeses reduced the ACE inhibition to 62.9 +/- 0.8 and 44.5 +/- 5.0%, respectively. However, refrigerated storage increased ACE inhibition in cheeses (p < 0.05 on day 28) in the presence of FC more than in the absence. In conclusion, the presence of FC in A. sativum-yogurt or cheese enhanced the proteolytic activity. Thus, it has potential in the development of an effective dietary strategy for hypertension associated cardiovascular diseases.

  3. A Peptidomics Strategy to Elucidate the Proteolytic Pathways that Inactivate Peptide Hormones

    PubMed Central

    Tinoco, Arthur D.; Kim, Yun-Gon; Tagore, Debarati M.; Wiwczar, Jessica; Lane, William S.; Danial, Nika N.; Saghatelian, Alan

    2011-01-01

    Proteolysis plays a key role in regulating the levels and activity of peptide hormones. Characterization of the proteolytic pathways that cleave peptide hormones is of basic interest and can, in some cases, spur the development of novel therapeutics. The lack, however, of an efficient approach to identify endogenous fragments of peptide hormones has hindered the elucidation of these proteolytic pathways. Here, we apply a mass spectrometry (MS)-based peptidomics approach to characterize the intestinal fragments of peptide histidine isoleucine (PHI), a hormone that promotes glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS). Our approach reveals a proteolytic pathway in the intestine that truncates PHI at its C-terminus to produce a PHI fragment that is inactive in a GSIS assay—a result that provides a potential mechanism of PHI regulation in vivo. Differences between these in vivo peptidomics studies and in vitro lysate experiments, which showed N- and C-terminal processing of PHI, underscore the effectiveness of this approach to discover physiologically relevant proteolytic pathways. Moreover, integrating this peptidomics approach with bioassays (i.e. GSIS) provides a general strategy to reveal proteolytic pathways that may regulate the activity of peptide hormones. PMID:21299233

  4. Screening for antimicrobial and proteolytic activities of lactic acid bacteria isolated from cow, buffalo and goat milk and cheeses marketed in the southeast region of Brazil.

    PubMed

    Tulini, Fabricio L; Hymery, Nolwenn; Haertlé, Thomas; Le Blay, Gwenaelle; De Martinis, Elaine C P

    2016-02-01

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) can be isolated from different sources such as milk and cheese, and the lipolytic, proteolytic and glycolytic enzymes of LAB are important in cheese preservation and in flavour production. Moreover, LAB produce several antimicrobial compounds which make these bacteria interesting for food biopreservation. These characteristics stimulate the search of new strains with technological potential. From 156 milk and cheese samples from cow, buffalo and goat, 815 isolates were obtained on selective agars for LAB. Pure cultures were evaluated for antimicrobial activities by agar antagonism tests and for proteolytic activity on milk proteins by cultivation on agar plates. The most proteolytic isolates were also tested by cultivation in skim milk followed by sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) analysis of the fermented milk. Among the 815 tested isolates, three of them identified as Streptococcus uberis (strains FT86, FT126 and FT190) were bacteriocin producers, whereas four other ones identified as Weissella confusa FT424, W. hellenica FT476, Leuconostoc citreum FT671 and Lactobacillus plantarum FT723 showed high antifungal activity in preliminary assays. Complementary analyses showed that the most antifungal strain was L. plantarum FT723 that inhibited Penicillium expansum in modified MRS agar (De Man, Rogosa, Sharpe, without acetate) and fermented milk model, however no inhibition was observed against Yarrowia lipolytica. The proteolytic capacities of three highly proteolytic isolates identified as Enterococcus faecalis (strains FT132 and FT522) and Lactobacillus paracasei FT700 were confirmed by SDS-PAGE, as visualized by the digestion of caseins and whey proteins (β-lactoglobulin and α-lactalbumin). These results suggest potential applications of these isolates or their activities (proteolytic activity or production of antimicrobials) in dairy foods production.

  5. Digestive enzymes activity in subsequent generations of Cameraria ohridella larvae harvested from horse chestnut trees after treatment with imidacloprid.

    PubMed

    Stygar, Dominika; Michalczyk, Katarzyna; Dolezych, Bogdan; Nakonieczny, Miroslaw; Migula, Pawel; Zaak, Maria; Sawczyn, Tomasz; Karcz-Socha, Iwona; Kukla, Michal; Zwirska-Korczala, Krystyna; Buldak, Rafal

    2013-01-01

    In the present study we describe the effect of chloronicotinoid pesticide (imidacloprid) on the digestive enzymes activity of the Cameraria ohridella larvae after lasting 1 year sublethal exposure to imidacloprid pesticide. Caterpillars - L4 stage (fourth instar, hyperphagic tissue-feeding phase) - were collected from chemically protected white horse chestnut trees 1 year after imidacloprid treatment, and compared with caterpillars collected from non-treated trees in a previous study. Enzymes activity of α-amylase, disaccharidases, glycosidases and proteases was assayed. The presence of pesticide in ingested food changed the digestive enzymes profile of caterpillars. The analysis of correlations between different digestive enzymes showed many significant correlations (P<0.05) among glycolytic activities like β-glucosidase and α-galactosidase activities. Statistically significant correlations for proteolytic activity were found between trypsin and chymotrypsin activity and aminopeptidase activity that occurred only in the 1st generation. PCA distinguished five primary components with eigenvalues higher than 1, from which the first two explain almost 59% of analyzed results. Surprisingly, in the pesticide treated groups significantly higher activities of sucrase and lactase in relation to control were found. In general, glycosidase (α-glucosidase, β-glucosidase and β-galactosidase) activities showed a similar pattern of activity in different generations. These results contrast with those obtained with control larvae, where significant differences in activities of α-glucosidase, β-glucosidase and β-galactosidase may result from the different quantity and quality food intake by subsequent generations of larvae. No inter-generation differences in total proteolytic activity were observed in treated larvae. The absolute value of total proteolytic activity was higher than that in the control group. The pesticide present in the vascular system of the horse chestnut

  6. A Randomized, Clinical Trial to Evaluate Efficacy and Tolerability of Trypsin:Chymotrypsin as Compared to Serratiopeptidase and Trypsin:Bromelain:Rutoside in Wound Management.

    PubMed

    Chandanwale, Ajay; Langade, Deepak; Sonawane, Dheeraj; Gavai, Piyush

    2017-01-01

    Systemic enzyme therapy can play an important role in maintaining normal inflammatory processes within the body and thereby helps support and speed up healing. In the course of the anti-inflammatory action, enzymes degrade damaged cells and necrotic material and, through the inactivation of mediators and toxic products, they restrict the edema and pain. The study conducted at Grant Medical College, Mumbai, India was a clinical trial comparing the efficacy and tolerability of three oral enzyme treatment groups-oral tablets containing trypsin:chymotrypsin (TC) (Chymoral Forte ® ), serratiopeptidase (S) 5 mg oral tablets, and oral enzyme tablets containing trypsin 48 mg, bromelain 90 mg, and rutoside 100 mg (TBR)-to evaluate their healing potential in surgical wounds after orthopedic surgery. A total of 75 patients were screened, randomized, and divided into three groups in 1:1:1 ratio receiving either of the three treatments. In the TC group, erythema was significantly reduced from 3.44 on day 3 to 1.16 on day 10 (p < 0.01). There was significantly better reduction in erythema scores in the TC group as compared to S and TBR groups (p < 0.05) at each follow-up visit. Similarly reduction in the local irritation, wound discharge, edema, induration, and tenderness score with TC treatment at the end of the study was significantly higher than that observed in the other two groups. In addition TC showed significant reduction in pain on the VAS scale (p < 0.01). Global assessment of response to therapy for efficacy and tolerability was reported to be good to excellent in 88% and 92% of the patients on TC as compared to 12% and 8% with S and 12% and 8% with TBR. TC provides a better resolution of symptoms of inflammation after orthopedic surgery as compared to S and TBR, thus facilitating better wound healing. Further studies are warranted to confirm the findings. Clinical Trial Registry of India (Reg. No. CTRI/2011/07/001920).

  7. Methodological Considerations and Comparisons of Measurement Results for Extracellular Proteolytic Enzyme Activities in Seawater

    PubMed Central

    Obayashi, Yumiko; Wei Bong, Chui; Suzuki, Satoru

    2017-01-01

    Microbial extracellular hydrolytic enzymes that degrade organic matter in aquatic ecosystems play key roles in the biogeochemical carbon cycle. To provide linkages between hydrolytic enzyme activities and genomic or metabolomic studies in aquatic environments, reliable measurements are required for many samples at one time. Extracellular proteases are one of the most important classes of enzymes in aquatic microbial ecosystems, and protease activities in seawater are commonly measured using fluorogenic model substrates. Here, we examined several concerns for measurements of extracellular protease activities (aminopeptidases, and trypsin-type, and chymotrypsin-type activities) in seawater. Using a fluorometric microplate reader with low protein binding, 96-well microplates produced reliable enzymatic activity readings, while use of regular polystyrene microplates produced readings that showed significant underestimation, especially for trypsin-type proteases. From the results of kinetic experiments, this underestimation was thought to be attributable to the adsorption of both enzymes and substrates onto the microplate. We also examined solvent type and concentration in the working solution of oligopeptide-analog fluorogenic substrates using dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) and 2-methoxyethanol (MTXE). The results showed that both 2% (final concentration of solvent in the mixture of seawater sample and substrate working solution) DMSO and 2% MTXE provide similarly reliable data for most of the tested substrates, except for some substrates which did not dissolve completely in these assay conditions. Sample containers are also important to maintain the level of enzyme activity in natural seawater samples. In a small polypropylene containers (e.g., standard 50-mL centrifugal tube), protease activities in seawater sample rapidly decreased, and it caused underestimation of natural activities, especially for trypsin-type and chymotrypsin-type proteases. In conclusion, the

  8. Methodological Considerations and Comparisons of Measurement Results for Extracellular Proteolytic Enzyme Activities in Seawater.

    PubMed

    Obayashi, Yumiko; Wei Bong, Chui; Suzuki, Satoru

    2017-01-01

    Microbial extracellular hydrolytic enzymes that degrade organic matter in aquatic ecosystems play key roles in the biogeochemical carbon cycle. To provide linkages between hydrolytic enzyme activities and genomic or metabolomic studies in aquatic environments, reliable measurements are required for many samples at one time. Extracellular proteases are one of the most important classes of enzymes in aquatic microbial ecosystems, and protease activities in seawater are commonly measured using fluorogenic model substrates. Here, we examined several concerns for measurements of extracellular protease activities (aminopeptidases, and trypsin-type, and chymotrypsin-type activities) in seawater. Using a fluorometric microplate reader with low protein binding, 96-well microplates produced reliable enzymatic activity readings, while use of regular polystyrene microplates produced readings that showed significant underestimation, especially for trypsin-type proteases. From the results of kinetic experiments, this underestimation was thought to be attributable to the adsorption of both enzymes and substrates onto the microplate. We also examined solvent type and concentration in the working solution of oligopeptide-analog fluorogenic substrates using dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) and 2-methoxyethanol (MTXE). The results showed that both 2% (final concentration of solvent in the mixture of seawater sample and substrate working solution) DMSO and 2% MTXE provide similarly reliable data for most of the tested substrates, except for some substrates which did not dissolve completely in these assay conditions. Sample containers are also important to maintain the level of enzyme activity in natural seawater samples. In a small polypropylene containers (e.g., standard 50-mL centrifugal tube), protease activities in seawater sample rapidly decreased, and it caused underestimation of natural activities, especially for trypsin-type and chymotrypsin-type proteases. In conclusion, the

  9. Profiling of proteolytic enzymes in the gut of the tick Ixodes ricinus reveals an evolutionarily conserved network of aspartic and cysteine peptidases

    PubMed Central

    Sojka, Daniel; Franta, Zdeněk; Horn, Martin; Hajdušek, Ondřej; Caffrey, Conor R; Mareš, Michael; Kopáček, Petr

    2008-01-01

    Background Ticks are vectors for a variety of viral, bacterial and parasitic diseases in human and domestic animals. To survive and reproduce ticks feed on host blood, yet our understanding of the intestinal proteolytic machinery used to derive absorbable nutrients from the blood meal is poor. Intestinal digestive processes are limiting factors for pathogen transmission since the tick gut presents the primary site of infection. Moreover, digestive enzymes may find practical application as anti-tick vaccine targets. Results Using the hard tick, Ixodes ricinus, we performed a functional activity scan of the peptidase complement in gut tissue extracts that demonstrated the presence of five types of peptidases of the cysteine and aspartic classes. We followed up with genetic screens of gut-derived cDNA to identify and clone genes encoding the cysteine peptidases cathepsins B, L and C, an asparaginyl endopeptidase (legumain), and the aspartic peptidase, cathepsin D. By RT-PCR, expression of asparaginyl endopeptidase and cathepsins B and D was restricted to gut tissue and to those developmental stages feeding on blood. Conclusion Overall, our results demonstrate the presence of a network of cysteine and aspartic peptidases that conceivably operates to digest host blood proteins in a concerted manner. Significantly, the peptidase components of this digestive network are orthologous to those described in other parasites, including nematodes and flatworms. Accordingly, the present data and those available for other tick species support the notion of an evolutionary conservation of a cysteine/aspartic peptidase system for digestion that includes ticks, but differs from that of insects relying on serine peptidases. PMID:18348719

  10. Distribution and identification of proteolytic Bacillus spp. in paddy field soil under rice cultivation.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, K; Hayano, K

    1993-07-01

    Proteolytic bacteria in paddy field soils under rice cultivation were characterized and enumerated using azocoll agar plates. Bacillus spp. were the proteolytic bacteria that were most frequently present, comprising 59% of the isolates. They were always the numerically dominant proteolytic bacteria isolated from three kinds of fertilizer treatments (yearly application of rice-straw compost and chemical fertilizer, yearly application of chemical fertilizer, and no fertilizer application) and at three different stages of rice development (vegetative growth stage, maximal tillering stage, and harvest stage). Of the 411 proteolytic bacteria isolated, 124 isolates had stronger proteolytic activity than others on the basis of gelatin liquefaction tests and most of them were Bacillus spp. (100% in 1989 and 92.4% in 1991). Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus cereus were the main bacteria of this group and Bacillus mycoides, Bacillus licheniformis, and Bacillus megaterium were also present. We conclude that these Bacillus spp. are the primary source of soil protease in these paddy fields.

  11. Confinement of caspase-12 proteolytic activity to autoprocessing

    PubMed Central

    Roy, Sophie; Sharom, Jeffrey R.; Houde, Caroline; Loisel, Thomas P.; Vaillancourt, John P.; Shao, Wei; Saleh, Maya; Nicholson, Donald W.

    2008-01-01

    Caspase-12 is a dominant-negative regulator of caspase-1 (IL-1β-converting enzyme) and an attenuator of cytokine responsiveness to septic infections. This molecular role for caspase-12 appears to be akin to the role of cFLIP in regulating caspase-8 in the extrinsic cell death pathway; however, unlike cFLIP/Usurpin, we demonstrate here that caspase-12 is catalytically competent. To examine these catalytic properties, rat caspase-12 was cloned, and the recombinant enzyme was used to examine the cleavage of macromolecular and synthetic fluorogenic substrates. Although caspase-12 could mediate autoproteolytic maturation of its own proenzyme, in both cis and trans, it was not able to cleave any other polypeptide substrate, including other caspase proenzymes, apoptotic substrates, cytokine precursors, or proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum that normally undergo caspase-mediated proteolysis. The dearth of potential substrates for caspase-12 also was confirmed by whole-cell diagonal-gel analysis. Autolytic cleavage within the caspase-12 proenzyme was mapped to a single site at the large–small subunit junction, ATAD319, and this motif was recognized by caspase-12 when incorporated into synthetic fluorogenic substrates. The specific activity of caspase-12 with these substates was several orders of magnitude lower than caspases-1 and -3, highlighting its relative catalytic paucity. In intact cells, caspase-12 autoproteolysis occurred in the inhibitory complex containing caspase-1. We propose that the proteolytic activity of caspase-12 is confined to its own proenzyme and that autocleavage within the caspase-1 complex may be a means for temporal limitation of the inhibitory effects of caspase-12 on proinflammatory cytokine maturation. PMID:18332441

  12. Biological and Proteolytic Variation in the Venom of Crotalus scutulatus scutulatus from Mexico.

    PubMed

    Borja, Miguel; Neri-Castro, Edgar; Castañeda-Gaytán, Gamaliel; Strickland, Jason L; Parkinson, Christopher L; Castañeda-Gaytán, Juan; Ponce-López, Roberto; Lomonte, Bruno; Olvera-Rodríguez, Alejandro; Alagón, Alejandro; Pérez-Morales, Rebeca

    2018-01-08

    Rattlesnake venoms may be classified according to the presence/absence and relative abundance of the neurotoxic phospholipases A 2 s (PLA 2 s), such as Mojave toxin, and snake venom metalloproteinases (SVMPs). In Mexico, studies to determine venom variation in Mojave Rattlesnakes ( Crotalus scutulatus scutulatus ) are limited and little is known about the biological and proteolytic activities in this species. Tissue (34) and venom (29) samples were obtained from C. s. scutulatus from different locations within their distribution in Mexico. Mojave toxin detection was carried out at the genomic (by PCR) and protein (by ELISA) levels for all tissue and venom samples. Biological activity was tested on representative venoms by measuring LD 50 and hemorrhagic activity. To determine the approximate amount of SVMPs, 15 venoms were separated by RP-HPLC and variation in protein profile and proteolytic activity was evaluated by SDS-PAGE ( n = 28) and Hide Powder Azure proteolytic analysis ( n = 27). Three types of venom were identified in Mexico which is comparable to the intraspecific venom diversity observed in the Sonoran Desert of Arizona, USA: Venom Type A (∼Type II), with Mojave toxin, highly toxic, lacking hemorrhagic activity, and with scarce proteolytic activity; Type B (∼Type I), without Mojave toxin, less toxic than Type A, highly hemorrhagic and proteolytic; and Type A + B, containing Mojave toxin, as toxic as venom Type A, variable in hemorrhagic activity and with intermediate proteolytic activity. We also detected a positive correlation between SVMP abundance and hemorrhagic and proteolytic activities. Although more sampling is necessary, our results suggest that venoms containing Mojave toxin and venom lacking this toxin are distributed in the northwest and southeast portions of the distribution in Mexico, respectively, while an intergradation in the middle of both zones is present.

  13. Biological and Proteolytic Variation in the Venom of Crotalus scutulatus scutulatus from Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Castañeda-Gaytán, Gamaliel; Castañeda-Gaytán, Juan; Ponce-López, Roberto; Olvera-Rodríguez, Alejandro; Alagón, Alejandro; Pérez-Morales, Rebeca

    2018-01-01

    Rattlesnake venoms may be classified according to the presence/absence and relative abundance of the neurotoxic phospholipases A2s (PLA2s), such as Mojave toxin, and snake venom metalloproteinases (SVMPs). In Mexico, studies to determine venom variation in Mojave Rattlesnakes (Crotalus scutulatus scutulatus) are limited and little is known about the biological and proteolytic activities in this species. Tissue (34) and venom (29) samples were obtained from C. s. scutulatus from different locations within their distribution in Mexico. Mojave toxin detection was carried out at the genomic (by PCR) and protein (by ELISA) levels for all tissue and venom samples. Biological activity was tested on representative venoms by measuring LD50 and hemorrhagic activity. To determine the approximate amount of SVMPs, 15 venoms were separated by RP-HPLC and variation in protein profile and proteolytic activity was evaluated by SDS-PAGE (n = 28) and Hide Powder Azure proteolytic analysis (n = 27). Three types of venom were identified in Mexico which is comparable to the intraspecific venom diversity observed in the Sonoran Desert of Arizona, USA: Venom Type A (∼Type II), with Mojave toxin, highly toxic, lacking hemorrhagic activity, and with scarce proteolytic activity; Type B (∼Type I), without Mojave toxin, less toxic than Type A, highly hemorrhagic and proteolytic; and Type A + B, containing Mojave toxin, as toxic as venom Type A, variable in hemorrhagic activity and with intermediate proteolytic activity. We also detected a positive correlation between SVMP abundance and hemorrhagic and proteolytic activities. Although more sampling is necessary, our results suggest that venoms containing Mojave toxin and venom lacking this toxin are distributed in the northwest and southeast portions of the distribution in Mexico, respectively, while an intergradation in the middle of both zones is present. PMID:29316683

  14. Soybean β-conglycinin bromelain hydrolysate stimulates cholecystokinin secretion by enteroendocrine STC-1 cells to suppress the appetite of rats under meal-feeding conditions.

    PubMed

    Sufian, Kaosar Niaz Bin; Hira, Tohru; Nakamori, Toshihiro; Furuta, Hitoshi; Asano, Kozo; Hara, Hiroshi

    2011-01-01

    A peptic digest of soybean β-conglycinin (BconP) suppresses the appetite in rats through cholecystokinin (CCK) secretion by enteroendocrine cells. We investigate in this study more appetite-suppressing hydrolysates. β-Conglycinin hydrolyzed with food-processing proteases thermolysin (BconT), bromelain (BconB), chymotrypsin, protease S, and protease M was examined for CCK-secreting activity in a CCK-producing cell line for comparison with BconP. The potent CCK-releasing hydrolysates were then tested for their suppression of the food intake by rats. BconB, BconT, and BconP stimulated high CCK secretion, with the highest by BconB. Orogastric preloading by BconB, but not by BconT, suppressed the 60-min food intake. A meal-feeding trial twice a day in the morning (a.m.) and evening (p.m.) for 10 d showed that BconB preloading before every meal attenuated the p.m. meal size, but not that a.m., resulting in an overall reduction of the daily meal size. These results demonstrate that the bromelain hydrolysate of β-conglycinin having potent CCK-releasing activity suppressed the appetite of rats under meal-feeding conditions.

  15. Antithrombotic and thrombolytic effects of a new proteolytic preparation Trombovazim (Russia).

    PubMed

    Plotnikov, M B; Dygai, A M; Aliev, O I; Chernyshova, G A; Smol'yakova, V I; Vasil'ev, A S; Markov, V A; Vyshlov, E V; Vereschagin, E I; Kinsht, D N; Madonov, P G

    2009-04-01

    We studied the antithrombotic and thrombolytic effects of Trombovazim, a highly-purified proteolytic enzyme preparation obtained by immobilization of bacterial proteinases (Bacillus) on polyethylene oxide with a molecular weight of 1.5 kDa. Blood absorption of the preparation was evaluated after intragastric administration. In vitro experiments showed that Trombovazim produces anticoagulant and thrombolytic effects, which manifested in inhibition of fibrin clot formation and acceleration of its lysis. Drug concentration in the blood was elevated from the 4th to the 7th hour after intragastric administration of Trombovazim in a dose of 2250 U/kg, being maximum by the 5th hour (0.044+/-0.011 U/ml). Course treatment with Trombovazim (1000 U intragastrically, twice daily for 3 days) had a thrombolytic effect on rats with experimental intravascular thrombosis. This effect was manifested in a decrease in thrombus weight and increase in the percent of rats with recanalization of the occluded carotid artery.

  16. Development of an Economical Method to Reduce the Extractable Latex Protein Levels in Finished Dipped Rubber Products

    PubMed Central

    Perera, Ambegoda Liyanage Harini Amalka

    2017-01-01

    Natural rubber latex (NRL) allergy is caused by the extractable latex proteins in dipped rubber products. It is a major concern for the consumers who are sensitive to the allergenic extractable proteins (EP) in products such as NRL gloves. Objective of this research was to develop an economical method to reduce the EP in finished dipped NRL products. In order to reduce the EP levels, two natural proteases, bromelain from pineapple and papain from papaya, were extracted and partially purified using (NH4)2SO4. According to the newly developed method, different glove samples were treated with a 5% solution of each partially purified enzyme, for 2 hours at 60°C. Residual amounts of in treated samples were quantified using the modified Lowry assay (ASTM D5712-10). Bromelain displayed a 54 (±11)% reduction of the EP from the dipped rubber products, whereas it was 58 (±8)% with papain. These results clearly indicate that the selected natural proteases, bromelain, and papain contribute significantly towards the reduction of the total EP in finished NRL products. Application of bromelain enzyme for the aforementioned purpose has not been reported up to date, whereas papain has been used to treat raw NRL towards reducing the EP. PMID:28706952

  17. Effects of sources of protein and enzyme supplementation on protein digestibility and chyme characteristics in broilers.

    PubMed

    Yu, B; Lee, T T T; Chiou, P W S

    2002-07-01

    1. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of protein source and enzyme supplementation on protein digestibility and chyme characteristics in broilers. 2. One hundred and twenty growing (13 d old) and 60 finishing (34 d old) Arbor Acre strain commercial male broilers were selected and placed into individual metabolic cages. 3. The experiment was a 5 x 2 factorial arrangement with 5 different sources of protein: casein, fish meal, soybean meal (SBM), soy protein concentrate (SPC), maize gluten meal (MGM) and two levels of protease (bromelain), 0 and 65 CDU/kg diets. 4. The diets were iso-nitrogenous and semi-purified, with Cr2O3 as an indicator for determination of ileal digestibility and chyme characteristics. 5. Apparent ileal protein digestibility (AIPD) in both growing and finishing chickens was highest on the casein diet, followed by fish meal, SBM, SPC and MGM. 6. Enzyme inclusion did not improve protein digestibility, but significantly decreased the digesta pH value in the gizzard and increased pH in the ileum in the 3-week-old broilers. 7. The digesta pH values in the gizzard and duodenum were significantly lower in the SBM and fish meal groups compared with the other protein groups. The molecular weight distribution pattern of the soluble protein in the chyme of the gastrointestinal (GI) segments showed a similar trend, regardless of the enzyme inclusion or the stage of growth. 8. The molecular weight profile of soluble protein changed dynamically in the casein fed broilers from the gizzard to ileum and the low molecular weight proteins, < 7 kDa, reached maximum levels at the ileum. The molecular weight profile of the soluble protein in the SBM and SPC changed between the jejunum and the ileum and in the intermediate molecular soluble protein weight (7 to 10 kDa) was significantly decreased. This indicated that the hydrolysis process began from the middle to the posterior end of the small intestine. 9. Similar profiles were also shown with

  18. Single Cell Proteolytic Assays to Investigate Cancer Clonal Heterogeneity and Cell Dynamics Using an Efficient Cell Loading Scheme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yu-Chih; Cheng, Yu-Heng; Ingram, Patrick; Yoon, Euisik

    2016-06-01

    Proteolytic degradation of the extracellular matrix (ECM) is critical in cancer invasion, and recent work suggests that heterogeneous cancer populations cooperate in this process. Despite the importance of cell heterogeneity, conventional proteolytic assays measure average activity, requiring thousands of cells and providing limited information about heterogeneity and dynamics. Here, we developed a microfluidic platform that provides high-efficiency cell loading and simple valveless isolation, so the proteolytic activity of a small sample (10-100 cells) can be easily characterized. Combined with a single cell derived (clonal) sphere formation platform, we have successfully demonstrated the importance of microenvironmental cues for proteolytic activity and also investigated the difference between clones. Furthermore, the platform allows monitoring single cells at multiple time points, unveiling different cancer cell line dynamics in proteolytic activity. The presented tool facilitates single cell proteolytic analysis using small samples, and our findings illuminate the heterogeneous and dynamic nature of proteolytic activity.

  19. Identification of proteolytic bacteria from thai traditional fermented foods and their allergenic reducing potentials.

    PubMed

    Phromraksa, P; Nagano, H; Boonmars, T; Kamboonruang, C

    2008-05-01

    This study aimed to identify proteolytic bacteria from Thai traditional fermented foods and investigate their allergenic reducing potentials to wheat and milk allergens. Nine bacteria were isolated from fermented foods as follows: fermented soybean seeds (Thua Nao), fermented soybean paste (Thua Nao), wheat flour dough of steamed stuffed bun (Sa La Pao), and soaked rice from Thai fermented rice-noodle (Kha Nhom Jeen) processing. Both phenotypic and genotypic identifications were used in this study. It was found that all isolates were Gram-positive rods. Seven isolates were matched and identified as Bacillus subtilis by both techniques, and the remaining 2 isolates were phenotypically and genotypically identified as B. licheniformis and B. subtilis, respectively. The concentrated crude enzyme of B. subtilis DB and SR could reduce allergenicity of gliadin by hydrolyzing the allergenic gliadin fragments detected by immunoblotting. Furthermore, the enzyme of B. subtilis DB could also reduce allergenicity of beta-lactoglobulin (beta-LG) detected by hydrolyzing the major allergenic epitope of beta-LG at Gln(35)-Ser(36) position. B. subtilis DB and SR can be applied for the production of hypoallergenic wheat flour or milk food products.

  20. Proteolytic extracts of three Bromeliaceae species as eco-compatible tools for leather industry.

    PubMed

    Errasti, María Eugenia; Caffini, Néstor Oscar; López, Laura María Isabel

    2018-01-02

    Most tanneries use high proportions of Na 2 S and CaO during the dehairing step, resulting in effluents of high alkalinity and large amounts of suspended solid, besides the risk of liberating the toxic H 2 S. Solid waste rich in protein is another environmental problem of tanneries. Enzymes are an interesting technological tool for industry due to their biodegradability, nontoxic nature, and nonpolluting effluent generation. In the leather industry, proteases have been chosen as a promising eco-friendly alternative to Na 2 S/CaO dehairing. Extracts with high proteolytic activity have been obtained from fruits of Bromeliaceae species: Bromelia balansae Mez (Bb), Bromelia hieronymi Mez (Bh), and Pseudananas macrodontes (Morr.) Harms (Pm). In this work, Bb, Bh, and Pm have been studied for application in the leather industry, focusing in their dehairing properties. Enzymatic activities were measured against collagen, keratin, elastin, and epidermis while a dehairing assay was performed by employing cowhide. All extracts showed similar activity on collagen and epidermis, while Bh and Pm were the most active against keratin at the same caseinolytic unit (CU) values; Bh was the only extract active against elastin. Bb (1 CU/ml), Bh (1.5 CU/ml), and Pm (0.5 CU/ml) were able to depilate cowhide. Desirable characteristics of dehairing were observed for all extracts since hair pores did not show residual hair, grain surface was clean and intact, and collagen fiber bundles of dermis were not damaged. In conclusion, results here presented show that proteolytic extracts of Bromeliaceae species are promising eco-compatible tools for leather industry.

  1. Microscale immobilized enzyme reactors in proteomics: latest developments.

    PubMed

    Safdar, Muhammad; Spross, Jens; Jänis, Janne

    2014-01-10

    Enzymatic digestion of proteins is one of the key steps in proteomic analyses. There has been a steady progress in the applied digestion protocols in the past, starting from conventional time-consuming in-solution or in-gel digestion protocols to rapid and efficient methods utilizing different types of microscale enzyme reactors. Application of such microreactors has been proven beneficial due to lower sample consumption, higher sensitivity and straightforward coupling with LC-MS set-ups. Novel stationary phases, immobilization techniques and device formats are being constantly developed and tested to optimize digestion efficiency of proteolytic enzymes. This review focuses on the latest developments associated with the preparation and application of microscale enzyme reactors for proteomics applications since 2008 onwards. A special attention has been paid to the discussion of different stationary phases applied for immobilization purposes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Resin-assisted Enrichment of N-terminal Peptides for Characterizing Proteolytic Processing

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Jong Seo; Dai, Ziyu; Aryal, Uma K.

    2013-06-17

    Proteolytic processing is a ubiquitous, irreversible posttranslational modification that plays an important role in cellular regulation in all living organisms. Herein we report a resin-assisted positive selection method for specifically enriching protein N-terminal peptides to facilitate the characterization of proteolytic processing events by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. In this approach, proteins are initially reduced and alkylated and their lysine residues are converted to homoarginines. Then, protein N-termini are selectively converted to reactive thiol groups. We demonstrate that these sequential reactions were achieved with nearly quantitative efficiencies. Thiol-containing N-terminal peptides are then captured (>98% efficiency) by a thiol-affinity resin, a significantmore » improvement over the traditional avidin/biotin enrichment. Application to cell lysates of Aspergillus niger, a filamentous fungus of interest for biomass degradation, enabled the identification of 1672 unique protein N-termini and proteolytic cleavage sites from 690 unique proteins.« less

  3. Some Nutritional, Technological and Environmental Advances in the Use of Enzymes in Meat Products

    PubMed Central

    Marques, Anne y Castro; Maróstica, Mário Roberto; Pastore, Gláucia Maria

    2010-01-01

    The growing consumer demand for healthier products has stimulated the development of nutritionally enhanced meat products. However, this can result in undesirable sensory consequences to the product, such as texture alterations in low-salt and low-phosphate meat foods. Additionally, in the meat industry, economical aspects have stimulated researchers to use all the animal parts to maximize yields of marketable products. This paper aimed to show some advances in the use of enzymes in meat processing, particularly the application of the proteolytic enzymes transglutaminase and phytases, associated with nutritional, technological, and environmental improvements. PMID:21048865

  4. Neuropathogenic Escherichia coli K1 does not exhibit proteolytic activities to exert its pathogenicity.

    PubMed

    Iqbal, Junaid; Rajani, Mehak; Siddiqui, Ruqaiyyah; Khan, Naveed Ahmed

    2013-05-01

    Proteases are well-known virulence factors that promote survival, pathogenesis and immune evasion of many pathogens. Several lines of evidence suggest that the blood-brain barrier permeability is a prerequisite in microbial invasion of the central nervous system. Because proteases are frequently associated with vascular permeability by targeting junctional proteins, here it is hypothesized that neuropathogenic Escherichia coli K1 exhibit proteolytic activities to exert its pathogenicity. Zymographic assays were performed using collagen and gelatin as substrates. The lysates of whole E. coli K1 strain E44, or E. coli K-12 strain HB101 were tested for proteolytic activities. The conditioned media were prepared by incubating bacteria in RPMI-1640 in the presence or absence of serum. The cell-free supernatants were collected and tested for proteases in zymography as mentioned above. Additionally, proteolytic degradation of host immune factors was determined by co-incubating conditioned media with albumin/immunoglobulins using protease assays. When collagen or gelatin were used as substrates in zymographic assays, neither whole bacteria nor conditioned media exhibited proteolytic activities. The conditioned media of neuropathogenic E. coli K1 strain E44, or E. coli K-12 strain HB101 did not affect degradation of albumin and immunoglobulins using protease assays. Neither zymographic assays nor protease assays detected proteolytic activities in either the whole bacteria or conditioned media of E. coli K1 strain E44 and E. coli K-12 strain HB101. These findings suggest that host cell monolayer disruptions and immune evasion strategies are likely independent of proteolytic activities of neuropathogenic E. coli K1.

  5. Separating full-length protein from aggregating proteolytic products using filter flow-through purification.

    PubMed

    Churion, Kelly A; Rogers, Robert E; Bayless, Kayla J; Bondos, Sarah E

    2016-12-01

    Separation of full-length protein from proteolytic products is challenging, since the properties used to isolate the protein can also be present in proteolytic products. Many separation techniques risk non-specific protein adhesion and/or require a lot of time, enabling continued proteolysis and aggregation after lysis. We demonstrate that proteolytic products aggregate for two different proteins. As a result, full-length protein can be rapidly separated from these fragments by filter flow-through purification, resulting in a substantial protein purity enhancement. This rapid approach is likely to be useful for intrinsically disordered proteins, whose repetitive sequence composition and flexible nature can facilitate aggregation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Enzymes, detergents and skin: facts and fantasies.

    PubMed

    Basketter, D A; English, J S C; Wakelin, S H; White, I R

    2008-06-01

    In their raw state, enzymes of bacterial/fungal origin cause allergic reactions in the lung. Proteolytic enzymes also cause irritation to skin, eyes and the respiratory tract. For 40 years, encapsulated enzymes have been used worldwide in detergent products, especially laundry formulations, and have increasing importance due to biodegradability and functionality at low temperatures, offering environmental benefits. Uniquely to the U.K., for years it has been suggested that the inclusion of enzymes in such products leads to adverse skin reactions, including erythema, pruritus and exacerbation of eczema. In this review, we look at the facts, asking whether there is evidence that the hazards identified for enzymes translate into any risk for consumer health. By considering the actual exposures in consumer use and exaggerated product usage, it is concluded that the irritating and allergenic hazards of enzyme raw materials do not translate into a risk of skin reactions, either irritant or allergic. Investigations of numerous individuals with skin complaints attributed to laundry products demonstrate convincingly that enzymes were not responsible. Indeed, enzyme-containing laundry products have an extensive history of safe use. Thus, the supposed adverse effects of enzymes on skin seem to be a consequence of a mythology. The important practical lesson is that when primary or secondary care practitioners are presented with a skin complaint, it should not be dismissed as a result of using an enzyme-containing laundry product as the diagnosis will certainly lie elsewhere. Education for healthcare professionals could usefully be enhanced to take this on board.

  7. Seafood-like flavour obtained from the enzymatic hydrolysis of the protein by-products of seaweed (Gracilaria sp.).

    PubMed

    Laohakunjit, Natta; Selamassakul, Orrapun; Kerdchoechuen, Orapin

    2014-09-01

    An enzymatic bromelain seaweed protein hydrolysate (eb-SWPH) was characterised as the precursor for thermally processed seafood flavour. Seaweed (Gracilaria fisheri) protein after agar extraction was hydrolysed using bromelain (enzyme activity=119,325 U/g) at 0-20% (w/w) for 0.5-24 h. Optimal hydrolysis conditions were determined using response surface methodology. The proposed model took into account the interaction effect of the enzyme concentration and hydrolysis time on the physicochemical properties and volatile components of eb-SWPH. The optimal hydrolysis conditions for the production of eb-SWPH were 10% bromelain for 3h, which resulted in a 38.15% yield and a 62.91% degree of hydrolysis value. Three free amino acids, arginine, lysine, and leucine, were abundant in the best hydrolysate. Ten volatile flavours of the best eb-SWPH were identified using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. The predominant odourants were hexanal, hexanoic acid, nonanoic acid, and dihydroactinidiolide. The thermally processed seafood flavour produced from eb-SWPH exhibited a roasted seafood-like flavouring. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Regulated Proteolytic Processing of Reelin through Interplay of Tissue Plasminogen Activator (tPA), ADAMTS-4, ADAMTS-5, and Their Modulators

    PubMed Central

    Krstic, Dimitrije; Rodriguez, Myriam; Knuesel, Irene

    2012-01-01

    The extracellular signaling protein Reelin, indispensable for proper neuronal migration and cortical layering during development, is also expressed in the adult brain where it modulates synaptic functions. It has been shown that proteolytic processing of Reelin decreases its signaling activity and promotes Reelin aggregation in vitro, and that proteolytic processing is affected in various neurological disorders, including Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, neither the pathophysiological significance of dysregulated Reelin cleavage, nor the involved proteases and their modulators are known. Here we identified the serine protease tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) and two matrix metalloproteinases, ADAMTS-4 and ADAMTS-5, as Reelin cleaving enzymes. Moreover, we assessed the influence of several endogenous protease inhibitors, including tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs), α-2-Macroglobulin, and multiple serpins, as well as matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9) on Reelin cleavage, and described their complex interplay in the regulation of this process. Finally, we could demonstrate that in the murine hippocampus, the expression levels and localization of Reelin proteases largely overlap with that of Reelin. While this pattern remained stable during normal aging, changes in their protein levels coincided with accelerated Reelin aggregation in a mouse model of AD. PMID:23082219

  9. Proteolytic and antimicrobial activity of lactic acid bacteria grown in goat milk.

    PubMed

    Atanasova, Jivka; Moncheva, Penka; Ivanova, Iskra

    2014-11-02

    We examined 62 strains and 21 trade starter cultures from the collection of LB Bulgaricum PLC for proteolytic and antimicrobial activity of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) grown in goat milk. The aim of this study was to investigate the fermentation of caseins, α-lactalbumin and β-lactoglobulin by LAB, using the o -phthaldialdehyde (OPA) spectrophotometric assay and sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). The proteolysis targeted mainly caseins, especially β-casein. Whey proteins were proteolyzed, essentially β-lactoglobulin. The proteolytic activity of Lactococcus lactis l598, Streptococcus thermophilus t3D1, Dt1, Lactobacillus lactis 1043 and L. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus b38, b122 and b24 was notably high. The proteolysis process gave rise to medium-sized peptide populations. Most of the examined strains showed antimicrobial activity against some food pathogens, such as Escherichia coli , Staphylococcus aureus , Salmonella cholere enteridis , Listeria monocytogenes , Listeria innocua and Enterobacter aerogenes . The most active producers of antimicrobial-active peptides were strains of L. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus and S. thermophilus , which are of practical importance. The starter cultures containing the examined species showed high proteolytic and antimicrobial activity in skimmed goat milk. The greatest antimicrobial activity of the cultures was detected against E. aerogenes . The obtained results demonstrated the significant proteolytic potential of the examined strains in goat milk and their potential for application in the production of dairy products from goat's milk. The present results could be considered as the first data on the proteolytic capacity of strains and starter cultures in goat milk for the purposes of trade interest of LB Bulgaricum PLC.

  10. Analysis of specific proteolytic digestion of the peptidoglutaminase-asparaginase of koji molds.

    PubMed

    Ito, Kotaro; Koyama, Yasuji

    2014-09-01

    AsGahB, a peptidoglutaminase-asparaginase acting as the main glutaminase in Aspergillus sojae, was previously purified from the cytoplasm of overexpressing strains. Here, we found that specific proteolytic digestion of AsGahB by extracellular proteases of koji molds is similar to that of AsGahA which exists in proteolytic form under solid-state culture. Copyright © 2014 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Proteases induce secretion of collagenase and plasminogen activator by fibroblasts

    SciTech Connect

    Werb, Z.; Aggeler, J.

    1978-04-01

    We have observed that treatment of rabbit synovial fibroblasts with proteolytic enzymes can induce secretion of collagenase (EC 3.4.24.7) and plasminogen activator (EC 3.4.21.-). Cells treated for 2 to 24 hr with plasmin, trypsin, chymotrypsin, pancreatic elastase, papain, bromelain, thermolysin, or ..cap alpha..-protease but not with thrombin or neuraminidase secreted detectable amounts of collagenase within 16 to 48 hr. Treatment of fibroblasts with trypsin also induced secretion of plasminogen activator. Proteases initiated secretion of collagenase (up to 20 units per 10/sup 6/ cells per 24 hr) only when treatment produced decreased cell adhesion. Collagenase production did not depend on continuedmore » presence of proteolytic activity or on subsequent cell adhesion, spreading, or proliferation. Routine subculturing with crude trypsin also induced collagenase secretion by cells. Secretion of collagenase was prevented and normal spreading was obtained if the trypsinized cells were placed into medium containing fetal calf serum. Soybean trypsin inhibitor, ..cap alpha../sub 1/-antitrypsin, bovine serum albumin, collagen, and fibronectin did not inhibit collagenase production. Although proteases that induced collagenase secretion also removed surface glycoprotein, the kinetics of induction of cell protease secretion were different from those for removal of fibronectin. Physiological inducers of secretion of collagenase and plasminogen activator by cells have not been identified. These results suggest that extracellular proteases in conjunction with plasma proteins may govern protease secretion by cells.« less

  12. Aberrant proteolytic processing and therapeutic strategies in Alzheimer disease.

    PubMed

    Tomita, Taisuke

    2017-05-01

    Amyloid-β peptide (Aβ) and tau are major components of senile plaques and neurofibrillary tangles, respectively, deposited in the brains of Alzheimer disease (AD) patients. Aβ is derived from amyloid-β precursor protein that is sequentially cleaved by two aspartate proteases, β- and γ-secretases. Secreted Aβ is then catabolized by several proteases. Several lines of evidence suggest that accumulation of Aβ by increased production or decreased degradation induces the tau-mediated neuronal toxicity and symptomatic manifestations of AD. Thus, the dynamics of cerebral Aβ, called as "Aβ economy", would be the mechanistic basis of AD pathogenesis. Partial loss of γ-secretase activity leads to the increased generation of toxic Aβ isoforms, indicating that activation of γ-secretase would provide a beneficial effect for AD. After extensive discovery and development efforts, BACE1, which is a β-secretase enzyme, has emerged as a prime drug target for lowering brain Aβ levels. Recent studies revealed the decreased clearance of Aβ in sporadic AD patients, suggesting the importance of the catabolic mechanism in the pathogenesis of AD. I will discuss with these proteolytic mechanisms involved in the regulation of Aβ economy, and development of effective treatment and diagnostics for AD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Analysis of Cathepsin and Furin Proteolytic Enzymes Involved in Viral Fusion Protein Activation in Cells of the Bat Reservoir Host

    PubMed Central

    El Najjar, Farah; Lampe, Levi; Baker, Michelle L.; Wang, Lin-Fa; Dutch, Rebecca Ellis

    2015-01-01

    Bats of different species play a major role in the emergence and transmission of highly pathogenic viruses including Ebola virus, SARS-like coronavirus and the henipaviruses. These viruses require proteolytic activation of surface envelope glycoproteins needed for entry, and cellular cathepsins have been shown to be involved in proteolysis of glycoproteins from these distinct virus families. Very little is currently known about the available proteases in bats. To determine whether the utilization of cathepsins by bat-borne viruses is related to the nature of proteases in their natural hosts, we examined proteolytic processing of several viral fusion proteins in cells derived from two fruit bat species, Pteropus alecto and Rousettus aegyptiacus. Our work shows that fruit bat cells have homologs of cathepsin and furin proteases capable of cleaving and activating both the cathepsin-dependent Hendra virus F and the furin-dependent parainfluenza virus 5 F proteins. Sequence analysis comparing Pteropus alecto furin and cathepsin L to proteases from other mammalian species showed a high degree of conservation; however significant amino acid variation occurs at the C-terminus of Pteropus alecto furin. Further analysis of furin-like proteases from fruit bats revealed that these proteases are catalytically active and resemble other mammalian furins in their response to a potent furin inhibitor. However, kinetic analysis suggests that differences may exist in the cellular localization of furin between different species. Collectively, these results indicate that the unusual role of cathepsin proteases in the life cycle of bat-borne viruses is not due to the lack of active furin-like proteases in these natural reservoir species; however, differences may exist between furin proteases present in fruit bats compared to furins in other mammalian species, and these differences may impact protease usage for viral glycoprotein processing. PMID:25706132

  14. Partial purification of histone H3 proteolytic activity from the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Azad, Gajendra Kumar; Tomar, Raghuvir Singh

    2016-06-01

    The proteolytic clipping of histone tails has recently emerged as a novel form of irreversible post-translational modification (PTM) of histones. Histone clipping has been implicated as a regulatory process leading to the permanent removal of PTMs from histone proteins. However, there is scarcity of literature that describes the identification and characterization of histone-specific proteases. Here, we employed various biochemical methods to report histone H3-specific proteolytic activity from budding yeast. Our results demonstrate that H3 proteolytic activity was associated with sepharose bead matrices and activity was not affected by a variety of stress conditions. We have also identified the existence of an unknown protein that acts as a physiological inhibitor of the H3-clipping activity of yeast H3 protease. Moreover, through protease inhibition assays, we have also characterized yeast H3 protease as a serine protease. Interestingly, unlike glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH), yeast H3 proteolytic activity was not inhibited by Stefin B. Together, our findings suggest the existence of a novel H3 protease in yeast that is different from other reported histone H3 proteases. The presence of histone H3 proteolytic activity, along with the physiological inhibitor in yeast, suggests an interesting molecular mechanism that regulates the activity of histone proteases. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Enzyme activity in terrestrial soil in relation to exploration of the Martian surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ardakani, M. S.; Burns, R. G.; Mclaren, A. D.; Pukite, A. H.

    1972-01-01

    Urease activity in soil is persistent for long periods under low water, low temperature, and sterile regimes, and it was suggested that some form of enzyme-protective mechanism exists in soil. Dublin soil was extracted by sonication in water followed by adding a mixture of salts. Urease activity is associated with the organo-mineral complex thus obtained and is resistant to the activities of proteolytic enzymes. Clay free soil organic matter prepared subsequently by filtration also exhibits urease activity which is resistant to proteolysis. Models consisting of enzymes with bentonite and lignin were found to mimic this resistance to proteolysis. A model system is presented which suggests both the origin and location of soil ureases and a reason for their persistence in nature.

  16. Proteolytic Activity at Alkaline pH in Oat Leaves, Isolation of an Aminopeptidase 1

    PubMed Central

    Casano, Leonardo M.; Desimone, Marcelo; Trippi, Victorio S.

    1989-01-01

    Proteolytic activity in oat leaf extracts was measured with both azocasein and ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase (Rubisco) as substrates over a wide range of pH (3.0-9.2). With either azocasein or Rubisco activity peaks appeared at pH 4.8, 6.6, and 8.4. An aminopeptidase (AP) which hydrolyzes leucine-nitroanilide was partially purified. Purification consisted of a series of six steps which included ammonium sulfate precipitation, gel filtration, and two ionic exchange chromatographies. The enzyme was purified more than 100-fold. The apparent Km for leucine-nitroanilide is 0.08 millimolar at its pH optimum of 8.4. AP may be a cystein protease since it is inhibited by heavy metals and activated by 2-mercaptoethanol. Isolated chloroplasts were also able to hydrolyze leucine-nitroanilide at a pH optimum of 8.4, indicating that AP could be localized inside the photosynthetic organelles. PMID:16667194

  17. Phospholipid epitopes for mouse antibodies against bromelain-treated mouse erythrocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Kawaguchi, S

    1987-01-01

    The reactivity of mouse antibodies against bromelain-treated mouse erythrocytes (BrMRBC) with phospholipid epitopes was assessed by ELISA, using four clones of monoclonal anti-BrMRBC antibodies that had idiotypes distinct from one another. The four antibodies could bind to low-density lipoproteins (LDL) from human and chicken, but not to LDL from mouse and rat. As to liposomes of natural phospholipids, all the clones reacted with liposomes of phosphatidylcholine, and some of them could react with liposomes of sphingomyelin, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylic acid or cardiolipin. For liposomes of synthetic phosphatidylcholine with different fatty acids, the length of carbon chains and the number of unsaturated carbon chains of the fatty acids markedly affected the binding of each monoclonal antibody to the liposomes. The addition of dicetyl phosphate or stearylamine to phosphatidylcholine liposomes changed the reactivity of the liposomes. These results support the view that mouse anti-BrMRBC antibodies can recognize appropriately spaced phosphorylcholine residues on the surface of phospholipid liposomes, LDL and cells. The four clones had similar capacities for binding to LDL as well as to BrMRBC, but they had obviously different capacities for binding to phospholipid liposomes; the epitopes on phospholipid liposomes used in the present study were not so perfect as to react well with every anti-BrMRBC antibody. PMID:2443446

  18. An Enzyme from Aristolochia indica Destabilizes Fibrin-β Amyloid Co-Aggregate: Implication in Cerebrovascular Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Bhattacharjee, Payel; Bhattacharyya, Debasish

    2015-01-01

    Fibrinogen and β-amyloid (Aβ) peptide independently form ordered aggregates but in combination, they form disordered structures which are resistant to fibrinolytic enzymes like plasmin and cause severity in cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA). A novel enzyme of 31.3 kDa has been isolated from the root of the medicinal plant Aristolochia indica that showed fibrinolytic as well as fibrin-Aβ co-aggregate destabilizing properties. This enzyme is functionally distinct from plasmin. Thrombolytic action of the enzyme was demonstrated in rat model. The potency of the plant enzyme in degrading fibrin and fibrin-plasma protein (Aβ, human serum albumin, lysozyme, transthyretin and fibronectin) co-aggregates was demonstrated by atomic force microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and confocal microscopy that showed better potency of the plant enzyme as compared to plasmin. Moreover, the plant enzyme inhibited localization of the co-aggregate inside SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells and also co-aggregate induced cytotoxicity. Plasmin was inefficient in this respect. In the background of limited options for fragmentation of these co-aggregates, the plant enzyme may appear as a potential proteolytic enzyme. PMID:26545113

  19. Angiotensin-I Converting Enzyme (ACE) Inhibitory and Anti-Oxidant Activities of Sea Cucumber (Actinopyga lecanora) Hydrolysates

    PubMed Central

    Ghanbari, Raheleh; Zarei, Mohammad; Ebrahimpour, Afshin; Abdul-Hamid, Azizah; Ismail, Amin; Saari, Nazamid

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, food protein-derived hydrolysates have received considerable attention because of their numerous health benefits. Amongst the hydrolysates, those with anti-hypertensive and anti-oxidative activities are receiving special attention as both activities can play significant roles in preventing cardiovascular diseases. The present study investigated the angiotensin-I converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory and anti-oxidative activities of Actinopyga lecanora (A. lecanora) hydrolysates, which had been prepared by alcalase, papain, bromelain, flavourzyme, pepsin, and trypsin under their optimum conditions. The alcalase hydrolysate showed the highest ACE inhibitory activity (69.8%) after 8 h of hydrolysis while the highest anti-oxidative activities measured by 2,2-diphenyl 1-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging (DPPH) (56.00%) and ferrous ion-chelating (FIC) (59.00%) methods were exhibited after 24 h and 8 h of hydrolysis, respectively. The ACE-inhibitory and anti-oxidative activities displayed dose-dependent trends, and increased with increasing protein hydrolysate concentrations. Moreover, strong positive correlations between angiotensin-I converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory and anti-oxidative activities were also observed. This study indicates that A. lecanora hydrolysate can be exploited as a source of functional food owing to its anti-oxidant as well as anti-hypertension functions. PMID:26690117

  20. Studies on trypsin-like enzymes in sperm and early embryos

    SciTech Connect

    Penn, A.

    1975-12-09

    Results are reported from a study of acrosomal proteinase, a trypsin-like enzyme (TLE), found in the acrosome of all eutherian mammals studied to date. It has been implicated in the dissolution of a passage for the sperm through the zona pellucida of the egg, a step necessary for in vivo fertilization. A cytochemical procedure employing autoradiographic film as a gelatin substrate is described for in situ detection and localization of acrosomal proteolytic activity. A role for TLE in the early development of embryos is suggested. (CH)

  1. Combinatorial protein engineering of proteolytically resistant mesotrypsin inhibitors as candidates for cancer therapy.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Itay; Kayode, Olumide; Hockla, Alexandra; Sankaran, Banumathi; Radisky, Derek C; Radisky, Evette S; Papo, Niv

    2016-05-15

    Engineered protein therapeutics offer advantages, including strong target affinity, selectivity and low toxicity, but like natural proteins can be susceptible to proteolytic degradation, thereby limiting their effectiveness. A compelling therapeutic target is mesotrypsin, a protease up-regulated with tumour progression, associated with poor prognosis, and implicated in tumour growth and progression of many cancers. However, with its unique capability for cleavage and inactivation of proteinaceous inhibitors, mesotrypsin presents a formidable challenge to the development of biological inhibitors. We used a powerful yeast display platform for directed evolution, employing a novel multi-modal library screening strategy, to engineer the human amyloid precursor protein Kunitz protease inhibitor domain (APPI) simultaneously for increased proteolytic stability, stronger binding affinity and improved selectivity for mesotrypsin inhibition. We identified a triple mutant APPIM17G/I18F/F34V, with a mesotrypsin inhibition constant (Ki) of 89 pM, as the strongest mesotrypsin inhibitor yet reported; this variant displays 1459-fold improved affinity, up to 350 000-fold greater specificity and 83-fold improved proteolytic stability compared with wild-type APPI. We demonstrated that APPIM17G/I18F/F34V acts as a functional inhibitor in cell-based models of mesotrypsin-dependent prostate cancer cellular invasiveness. Additionally, by solving the crystal structure of the APPIM17G/I18F/F34V-mesotrypsin complex, we obtained new insights into the structural and mechanistic basis for improved binding and proteolytic resistance. Our study identifies a promising mesotrypsin inhibitor as a starting point for development of anticancer protein therapeutics and establishes proof-of-principle for a novel library screening approach that will be widely applicable for simultaneously evolving proteolytic stability in tandem with desired functionality for diverse protein scaffolds. © 2016 Authors

  2. Hyaluronic acid grafted PLGA copolymer nanoparticles enhance the targeted delivery of Bromelain in Ehrlich's Ascites Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Bhatnagar, Priyanka; Pant, Aditya Bhushan; Shukla, Yogeshwer; Panda, Amulya; Gupta, Kailash Chand

    2016-08-01

    Rapidly increasing malignant neoplastic disease demands immediate attention. Several dietary compounds have recently emerged as strong anti-cancerous agents. Among, Bromelain (BL), a protease from pineapple plant, was used to enhance its anti-cancerous efficacy using nanotechnology. In lieu of this, hyaluronic acid (HA) grafted PLGA copolymer, having tumor targeting ability, was developed. BL was encapsulated in copolymer to obtain BL-copolymer nanoparticles (NPs) that ranged between 140 to 281nm in size. NPs exhibited higher cellular uptake and cytotoxicity in cells with high CD44 expression as compared with non-targeted NPs. In vivo results on tumor bearing mice showed that NPs were efficient in suppressing the tumor growth. Hence, the formulation could be used as a self-targeting drug delivery cargo for the remission of cancer. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Gluten-specific antibodies of celiac disease gut plasma cells recognize long proteolytic fragments that typically harbor T-cell epitopes.

    PubMed

    Dørum, Siri; Steinsbø, Øyvind; Bergseng, Elin; Arntzen, Magnus Ø; de Souza, Gustavo A; Sollid, Ludvig M

    2016-05-05

    This study aimed to identify proteolytic fragments of gluten proteins recognized by recombinant IgG1 monoclonal antibodies generated from single IgA plasma cells of celiac disease lesions. Peptides bound by monoclonal antibodies in complex gut-enzyme digests of gluten treated with the deamidating enzyme transglutaminase 2, were identified by mass spectrometry after antibody pull-down with protein G beads. The antibody bound peptides were long deamidated peptide fragments that contained the substrate recognition sequence of transglutaminase 2. Characteristically, the fragments contained epitopes with the sequence QPEQPFP and variants thereof in multiple copies, and they typically also harbored many different gluten T-cell epitopes. In the pull-down setting where antibodies were immobilized on a solid phase, peptide fragments with multivalent display of epitopes were targeted. This scenario resembles the situation of the B-cell receptor on the surface of B cells. Conceivably, B cells of celiac disease patients select gluten epitopes that are repeated multiple times in long peptide fragments generated by gut digestive enzymes. As the fragments also contain many different T-cell epitopes, this will lead to generation of strong antibody responses by effective presentation of several distinct T-cell epitopes and establishment of T-cell help to B cells.

  4. Gluten-specific antibodies of celiac disease gut plasma cells recognize long proteolytic fragments that typically harbor T-cell epitopes

    PubMed Central

    Dørum, Siri; Steinsbø, Øyvind; Bergseng, Elin; Arntzen, Magnus Ø.; de Souza, Gustavo A.; Sollid, Ludvig M.

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to identify proteolytic fragments of gluten proteins recognized by recombinant IgG1 monoclonal antibodies generated from single IgA plasma cells of celiac disease lesions. Peptides bound by monoclonal antibodies in complex gut-enzyme digests of gluten treated with the deamidating enzyme transglutaminase 2, were identified by mass spectrometry after antibody pull-down with protein G beads. The antibody bound peptides were long deamidated peptide fragments that contained the substrate recognition sequence of transglutaminase 2. Characteristically, the fragments contained epitopes with the sequence QPEQPFP and variants thereof in multiple copies, and they typically also harbored many different gluten T-cell epitopes. In the pull-down setting where antibodies were immobilized on a solid phase, peptide fragments with multivalent display of epitopes were targeted. This scenario resembles the situation of the B-cell receptor on the surface of B cells. Conceivably, B cells of celiac disease patients select gluten epitopes that are repeated multiple times in long peptide fragments generated by gut digestive enzymes. As the fragments also contain many different T-cell epitopes, this will lead to generation of strong antibody responses by effective presentation of several distinct T-cell epitopes and establishment of T-cell help to B cells. PMID:27146306

  5. Glucocorticoids activate the ATP-ubiquitin-dependent proteolytic system in skeletal muscle during fasting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wing, S. S.; Goldberg, A. L.; Goldberger, A. L. (Principal Investigator)

    1993-01-01

    Glucocorticoids are essential for the increase in protein breakdown in skeletal muscle normally seen during fasting. To determine which proteolytic pathway(s) are activated upon fasting, leg muscles from fed and fasted normal rats were incubated under conditions that block or activate different proteolytic systems. After food deprivation (1 day), the nonlysosomal ATP-dependent process increased by 250%, as shown in experiments involving depletion of muscle ATP. Also, the maximal capacity of the lysosomal process increased 60-100%, but no changes occurred in the Ca(2+)-dependent or the residual energy-independent proteolytic processes. In muscles from fasted normal and adrenalectomized (ADX) rats, the protein breakdown sensitive to inhibitors of the lysosomal or Ca(2+)-dependent pathways did not differ. However, the ATP-dependent process was 30% slower in muscles from fasted ADX rats. Administering dexamethasone to these animals or incubating their muscles with dexamethasone reversed this defect. During fasting, when the ATP-dependent process rises, muscles show a two- to threefold increase in levels of ubiquitin (Ub) mRNA. However, muscles of ADX animals failed to show this response. Injecting dexamethasone into the fasted ADX animals increased muscle Ub mRNA within 6 h. Thus glucocorticoids activate the ATP-Ub-dependent proteolytic pathway in fasting apparently by enhancing the expression of components of this system such as Ub.

  6. Modification of IgE binding to αS1-casein by proteolytic activity of Enterococcus faecium isolated from Iranian camel milk samples.

    PubMed

    Kordesedehi, Reihane; Taheri-Kafrani, Asghar; Rabbani-Khorasgani, Mohammad; Kazemi, Rezvan; Mutangadura, Daniel; Haertle, Thomas

    2018-06-20

    Milk is a perfect source of nutrients for neonates. When breast feeding cannot be done, an infant's alimentation is usually initiated to cow's milk, among the primary foods. It has been reported that about 2.5% of juveniles under the age of 3 years manifest allergic reactions to cow's milk proteins. Among the cow's milk proteins, casein fractions are considered as the strongest allergenic proteins. The proteolytic enzymes of lactic acid bacteria (LAB), during fermentation of dairy products, can break down milk proteins especially caseins and subsequently reduce the immune reactivity of allergenic proteins. In this research, raw bovine and camel milk samples were screened for cocci LAB strains and after isolation, their proteolytic activity against bovine milk caseins were evaluated by SDS-PAGE and RP-HPLC. The potential of cocci LAB strains on α S1 -casein degradation and their potential to break down the principle allergenic epitopes of this protein was detected using indirect competitive ELISA. Molecular identification of the best proteolytic strain was fulfilled by 16S rDNA fragment sequencing with universal primers. The obtained results demonstrated that Enterococcus faecium isolated from raw camel milk samples was the most efficient isolate in hydrolyzing Na-caseinate and α S1 -casein. Hydrolysated α S1 -casein by Enterococcus faecium was also less recognized by IgE of bovine milk allergic patients' sera in comparison with native α S1 -casein. It has been proposed that Enterococcus faecium could be an efficient strain in allergenicity reduction of cow's milk proteins. So it could be an excellent candidate to be potentially used in dairy industries. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Nutrition and lysosomal activity. The influence of the vitamin A status on the proteolytic activity of extracts from the livers and kidneys of rats

    PubMed Central

    Dingle, J. T.; Sharman, I. M.; Moore, T.

    1966-01-01

    observation that proteolytic enzymes are liberated when lysosomes are treated in vitro with vitamin A. PMID:5941340

  8. Tuning Liposome Membrane Permeability by Competitive Peptide Dimerization and Partitioning-Folding Interactions Regulated by Proteolytic Activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Seng Koon; Sandén, Camilla; Selegård, Robert; Liedberg, Bo; Aili, Daniel

    2016-02-01

    Membrane active peptides are of large interest for development of drug delivery vehicles and therapeutics for treatment of multiple drug resistant infections. Lack of specificity can be detrimental and finding routes to tune specificity and activity of membrane active peptides is vital for improving their therapeutic efficacy and minimize harmful side effects. We describe a de novo designed membrane active peptide that partition into lipid membranes only when specifically and covalently anchored to the membrane, resulting in pore-formation. Dimerization with a complementary peptide efficiently inhibits formation of pores. The effect can be regulated by proteolytic digestion of the inhibitory peptide by the matrix metalloproteinase MMP-7, an enzyme upregulated in many malignant tumors. This system thus provides a precise and specific route for tuning the permeability of lipid membranes and a novel strategy for development of recognition based membrane active peptides and indirect enzymatically controlled release of liposomal cargo.

  9. Occupational asthma and rhinitis due to detergent enzymes in healthcare.

    PubMed

    Adisesh, A; Murphy, E; Barber, C M; Ayres, J G

    2011-08-01

    The use of proteolytic enzymes to improve the cleaning efficacy of washing powders was introduced in the mid 1960s. Many microbial enzymes are known to be potent respiratory sensitizers but previously there has been only one case of occupational asthma associated with workplace exposure in a healthcare worker. To report two cases of occupational asthma associated with exposure to biological enzymes in health-care workers and related occupational cases. Reporting of clinical case reports from three different work places. One case of occupational asthma and three other cases with work-related asthma or rhinitis occurred in one workplace. A single case of probable occupational asthma presented at a second workplace with another case of work-related asthma at a third workplace. Exposures occurred in areas used for cleaning medical instruments and endoscopy suites. Hygiene measurements confirmed the potential for exposure. Control measures were not in place and recognition of the hazard was missing in these workplaces. Detergent enzymes when used in healthcare settings should be recognized as potential respiratory sensitizers. Healthcare institutions and professional bodies that recommend the use of detergent enzymes should review their risk assessments to ensure that the most appropriate methods for preventing or reducing exposure are in place.

  10. Independent evolution of neurotoxin and flagellar genetic loci in proteolytic Clostridium botulinum

    PubMed Central

    Carter, Andrew T; Paul, Catherine J; Mason, David R; Twine, Susan M; Alston, Mark J; Logan, Susan M; Austin, John W; Peck, Michael W

    2009-01-01

    Background Proteolytic Clostridium botulinum is the causative agent of botulism, a severe neuroparalytic illness. Given the severity of botulism, surprisingly little is known of the population structure, biology, phylogeny or evolution of C. botulinum. The recent determination of the genome sequence of C. botulinum has allowed comparative genomic indexing using a DNA microarray. Results Whole genome microarray analysis revealed that 63% of the coding sequences (CDSs) present in reference strain ATCC 3502 were common to all 61 widely-representative strains of proteolytic C. botulinum and the closely related C. sporogenes tested. This indicates a relatively stable genome. There was, however, evidence for recombination and genetic exchange, in particular within the neurotoxin gene and cluster (including transfer of neurotoxin genes to C. sporogenes), and the flagellar glycosylation island (FGI). These two loci appear to have evolved independently from each other, and from the remainder of the genetic complement. A number of strains were atypical; for example, while 10 out of 14 strains that formed type A1 toxin gave almost identical profiles in whole genome, neurotoxin cluster and FGI analyses, the other four strains showed divergent properties. Furthermore, a new neurotoxin sub-type (A5) has been discovered in strains from heroin-associated wound botulism cases. For the first time, differences in glycosylation profiles of the flagella could be linked to differences in the gene content of the FGI. Conclusion Proteolytic C. botulinum has a stable genome backbone containing specific regions of genetic heterogeneity. These include the neurotoxin gene cluster and the FGI, each having evolved independently of each other and the remainder of the genetic complement. Analysis of these genetic components provides a high degree of discrimination of strains of proteolytic C. botulinum, and is suitable for clinical and forensic investigations of botulism outbreaks. PMID:19298644

  11. Independent evolution of neurotoxin and flagellar genetic loci in proteolytic Clostridium botulinum.

    PubMed

    Carter, Andrew T; Paul, Catherine J; Mason, David R; Twine, Susan M; Alston, Mark J; Logan, Susan M; Austin, John W; Peck, Michael W

    2009-03-19

    Proteolytic Clostridium botulinum is the causative agent of botulism, a severe neuroparalytic illness. Given the severity of botulism, surprisingly little is known of the population structure, biology, phylogeny or evolution of C. botulinum. The recent determination of the genome sequence of C. botulinum has allowed comparative genomic indexing using a DNA microarray. Whole genome microarray analysis revealed that 63% of the coding sequences (CDSs) present in reference strain ATCC 3502 were common to all 61 widely-representative strains of proteolytic C. botulinum and the closely related C. sporogenes tested. This indicates a relatively stable genome. There was, however, evidence for recombination and genetic exchange, in particular within the neurotoxin gene and cluster (including transfer of neurotoxin genes to C. sporogenes), and the flagellar glycosylation island (FGI). These two loci appear to have evolved independently from each other, and from the remainder of the genetic complement. A number of strains were atypical; for example, while 10 out of 14 strains that formed type A1 toxin gave almost identical profiles in whole genome, neurotoxin cluster and FGI analyses, the other four strains showed divergent properties. Furthermore, a new neurotoxin sub-type (A5) has been discovered in strains from heroin-associated wound botulism cases. For the first time, differences in glycosylation profiles of the flagella could be linked to differences in the gene content of the FGI. Proteolytic C. botulinum has a stable genome backbone containing specific regions of genetic heterogeneity. These include the neurotoxin gene cluster and the FGI, each having evolved independently of each other and the remainder of the genetic complement. Analysis of these genetic components provides a high degree of discrimination of strains of proteolytic C. botulinum, and is suitable for clinical and forensic investigations of botulism outbreaks.

  12. Metaproteomics of cellulose methanisation under thermophilic conditions reveals a surprisingly high proteolytic activity

    PubMed Central

    Lü, Fan; Bize, Ariane; Guillot, Alain; Monnet, Véronique; Madigou, Céline; Chapleur, Olivier; Mazéas, Laurent; He, Pinjing; Bouchez, Théodore

    2014-01-01

    Cellulose is the most abundant biopolymer on Earth. Optimising energy recovery from this renewable but recalcitrant material is a key issue. The metaproteome expressed by thermophilic communities during cellulose anaerobic digestion was investigated in microcosms. By multiplying the analytical replicates (65 protein fractions analysed by MS/MS) and relying solely on public protein databases, more than 500 non-redundant protein functions were identified. The taxonomic community structure as inferred from the metaproteomic data set was in good overall agreement with 16S rRNA gene tag pyrosequencing and fluorescent in situ hybridisation analyses. Numerous functions related to cellulose and hemicellulose hydrolysis and fermentation catalysed by bacteria related to Caldicellulosiruptor spp. and Clostridium thermocellum were retrieved, indicating their key role in the cellulose-degradation process and also suggesting their complementary action. Despite the abundance of acetate as a major fermentation product, key methanogenesis enzymes from the acetoclastic pathway were not detected. In contrast, enzymes from the hydrogenotrophic pathway affiliated to Methanothermobacter were almost exclusively identified for methanogenesis, suggesting a syntrophic acetate oxidation process coupled to hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis. Isotopic analyses confirmed the high dominance of the hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis. Very surprising was the identification of an abundant proteolytic activity from Coprothermobacter proteolyticus strains, probably acting as scavenger and/or predator performing proteolysis and fermentation. Metaproteomics thus appeared as an efficient tool to unravel and characterise metabolic networks as well as ecological interactions during methanisation bioprocesses. More generally, metaproteomics provides direct functional insights at a limited cost, and its attractiveness should increase in the future as sequence databases are growing exponentially. PMID:23949661

  13. Metaproteomics of cellulose methanisation under thermophilic conditions reveals a surprisingly high proteolytic activity.

    PubMed

    Lü, Fan; Bize, Ariane; Guillot, Alain; Monnet, Véronique; Madigou, Céline; Chapleur, Olivier; Mazéas, Laurent; He, Pinjing; Bouchez, Théodore

    2014-01-01

    Cellulose is the most abundant biopolymer on Earth. Optimising energy recovery from this renewable but recalcitrant material is a key issue. The metaproteome expressed by thermophilic communities during cellulose anaerobic digestion was investigated in microcosms. By multiplying the analytical replicates (65 protein fractions analysed by MS/MS) and relying solely on public protein databases, more than 500 non-redundant protein functions were identified. The taxonomic community structure as inferred from the metaproteomic data set was in good overall agreement with 16S rRNA gene tag pyrosequencing and fluorescent in situ hybridisation analyses. Numerous functions related to cellulose and hemicellulose hydrolysis and fermentation catalysed by bacteria related to Caldicellulosiruptor spp. and Clostridium thermocellum were retrieved, indicating their key role in the cellulose-degradation process and also suggesting their complementary action. Despite the abundance of acetate as a major fermentation product, key methanogenesis enzymes from the acetoclastic pathway were not detected. In contrast, enzymes from the hydrogenotrophic pathway affiliated to Methanothermobacter were almost exclusively identified for methanogenesis, suggesting a syntrophic acetate oxidation process coupled to hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis. Isotopic analyses confirmed the high dominance of the hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis. Very surprising was the identification of an abundant proteolytic activity from Coprothermobacter proteolyticus strains, probably acting as scavenger and/or predator performing proteolysis and fermentation. Metaproteomics thus appeared as an efficient tool to unravel and characterise metabolic networks as well as ecological interactions during methanisation bioprocesses. More generally, metaproteomics provides direct functional insights at a limited cost, and its attractiveness should increase in the future as sequence databases are growing exponentially.

  14. Differential stability of therapeutic peptides with different proteolytic cleavage sites in blood, plasma and serum.

    PubMed

    Böttger, Roland; Hoffmann, Ralf; Knappe, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    Proteolytic degradation of peptide-based drugs is often considered as major weakness limiting systemic therapeutic applications. Therefore, huge efforts are typically devoted to stabilize sequences against proteases present in serum or plasma, obtained as supernatants after complete blood coagulation or centrifugation of blood supplemented with anticoagulants, respectively. Plasma and serum are reproducibly obtained from animals and humans allowing consistent for clinical analyses and research applications. However, the spectrum of active or activated proteases appears to vary depending on the activation of proteases and cofactors during coagulation (serum) or inhibition of such enzymes by anticoagulants (plasma), such as EDTA (metallo- and Ca2+-dependent proteases) and heparin (e.g. thrombin, factor Xa). Here, we studied the presumed effects on peptide degradation by taking blood via cardiac puncture of CD-1 mice using a syringe containing a peptide solution. Due to absence of coagulation activators (e.g. glass surfaces and damaged cells), visible blood clotting was prevented allowing to study peptide degradation for one hour. The remaining peptide was quantified and the degradation products were identified using mass spectrometry. When the degradation rates (half-life times) were compared to serum derived freshly from the same animal and commercial serum and plasma samples, peptides of three different families showed indeed considerably different stabilities. Generally, peptides were faster degraded in serum than in plasma, but surprisingly all peptides were more stable in fresh blood and the order of degradation rates among the peptides varied among the six different incubation experiments. This indicates, that proteolytic degradation of peptide-based therapeutics may often be misleading stimulating efforts to stabilize peptides at degradation sites relevant only in vitro, i.e., for serum or plasma stability assays, but of lower importance in vivo.

  15. The effects of different prey regimes on the proteolytic digestion of nymphs of the spined soldier bug, Podisus maculiventris (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae).

    PubMed

    Pascual-Ruiz, S; Carrillo, L; Alvarez-Alfageme, F; Ruíz, M; Castañera, P; Ortego, F

    2009-10-01

    The effects of different prey regimes on the performance and digestive physiology of the spined soldier bug, Podisus maculiventris (Say) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), were assessed. Specifically, P. maculiventris nymphs were fed on Colorado potato beetle (CPB), Leptinotarsa decemlineata Say (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), larvae; Egyptian cotton leafworm (ECW); Spodoptera littoralis (Boisduval) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae); larvae; Calliphora spp. (CAL) (Diptera: Calliphoridae) pupae or a mixture of the three prey. No differences in development and weight gain were observed when P. maculiventris nymphs were fed different prey species (CPB, ECW or CAL). However, an increase in weight gain and a reduction in the duration of the stadia were observed for nymphs fed with a mixture of the three prey. To investigate the physiological background, biochemical analysis were carried out on insects dissected at the end of the feeding assay. We have found that the proteolytic activity in the salivary glands of P. maculiventris nymphs was not affected by prey species, whereas the relative activity of these proteases in the midgut depends on the prey. Moreover, gel assays proved that the proteolytic profiles of midguts from P. maculiventris nymphs feeding on CPB, ECW and CPB closely resembled those of their prey. All together, these results suggest that P. maculiventris may utilize enzymes from the prey they consume that may facilitate the process of digestion.

  16. Surfactant-mediated amyloidogenesis behavior of stem bromelain; a biophysical insight.

    PubMed

    Zaman, Masihuz; Zakariya, Syed Mohammad; Nusrat, Saima; Khan, Mohsin Vahid; Qadeer, Atiyatul; Ajmal, Mohammad Rehan; Khan, Rizwan Hasan

    2017-05-01

    Neurodegenerative disorders are mainly associated with amyloid fibril formation of different proteins. Stem bromelain (SB), a cysteine protease, is known to exist as a molten globule state at pH 10.0. It passes through the identical surrounding (pH 10.0) in the gut epithelium of intestine upon oral administration. Protein-surfactant complexes are widely employed as drug carriers, so the nature of surfactant toward protein is of great interest. The present work describes the effect of cationic surfactants (CTAB & DTAB) and their hydrophobic behavior toward amyloidogenesis behavior of SB at pH 10.0. Multiple approaches including light scattering, far UV-CD, turbidity measurements, and dye binding assay (ThT, Congo red and ANS) were performed to measure the aggregation propensity of SB. Further, we monitored the hydrodynamic radii of aggregates formed using dynamic light scattering technique. Structure of fibrils was also visualized through fluorescence microscopy as well as TEM. At pH 10.0, low concentration of CTAB (0-200 μM) induced amyloid formation in SB as evident from a prominent increase in turbidity and light scattering, gain in β-sheet content, and enhanced ThT fluorescence intensity. However, further increase in CTAB concentration suppressed the fibrillation phenomenon. In contrast, DTAB did not induce fibril formation at any concentration used (0-500 μM) due to lower hydrophobicity. Net negative charge developed on protein at high pH (10.0) might have facilitated amyloid formation at low concentration of cationic surfactant (CTAB) due to electrostatic and hydrophobic interactions.

  17. Expression of virus-encoded proteinases: functional and structural similarities with cellular enzymes.

    PubMed Central

    Dougherty, W G; Semler, B L

    1993-01-01

    Many viruses express their genome, or part of their genome, initially as a polyprotein precursor that undergoes proteolytic processing. Molecular genetic analyses of viral gene expression have revealed that many of these processing events are mediated by virus-encoded proteinases. Biochemical activity studies and structural analyses of these viral enzymes reveal that they have remarkable similarities to cellular proteinases. However, the viral proteinases have evolved unique features that permit them to function in a cellular environment. In this article, the current status of plant and animal virus proteinases is described along with their role in the viral replication cycle. The reactions catalyzed by viral proteinases are not simple enzyme-substrate interactions; rather, the processing steps are highly regulated, are coordinated with other viral processes, and frequently involve the participation of other factors. Images PMID:8302216

  18. Treponema putidum sp. nov., a medium-sized proteolytic spirochaete isolated from lesions of human periodontitis and acute necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis.

    PubMed

    Wyss, C; Moter, A; Choi, B-K; Dewhirst, F E; Xue, Yi; Schüpbach, P; Göbel, U B; Paster, B J; Guggenheim, B

    2004-07-01

    So far, little phenotypic heterogeneity has been detected in cultured oral treponemes with trypsin-like proteolytic activity, and all have been assigned to the species Treponema denticola. However, comparisons of protein patterns and antigen expression in our collection of proteolytic oral treponemes occasionally identified isolates with a unique phenotype; e.g. strain OMZ 830 (=ATCC 700768), which qualified as a 'pathogen-related oral spirochaete' due to the presence of a approximately 37 kDa protein reactive with the Treponema pallidum FlaA-specific mAb H9-2. In addition to such single isolates, a homogeneous group of seven independent strains is described that were highly motile, medium-sized, proteolytic but asaccharolytic spirochaetes and were cultured from human gingivitis, periodontitis and acute necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis in medium OMIZ-Pat supplemented with 1% human serum and antibiotics. Growth of these spirochaetes in OMIZ-Pat was not dependent on, but was stimulated by, human or bovine serum. Carbohydrates were neither required nor stimulatory for growth. The protein and antigen patterns of total cell extracts of these organisms separated by SDS-PAGE were distinct from those of all previously cultured spirochaetes, with highest similarity to T. denticola. The novel spirochaete has a 2 : 4 : 2 arrangement of the periplasmic flagella, similar to T. denticola. However, the flagellin pattern as detected by immunostaining or glycan staining of Western blots readily distinguished the novel group from T. denticola. Also, distinct from reference strains of T. denticola, none of the novel isolates displayed sialidase or dentilisin activities, both of which are expressed by most strains of T. denticola. Trypsin-like activity and other enzymes as detected by API ZYM test were similar to those of T. denticola. The status of a novel species is supported by the 16S rRNA gene sequence, with 98.5% similarity to its closest cultured relative, T. denticola. The

  19. Evidence for a regulatory loop between cholecystokinin (CCK) and tryptic enzyme activity in Atlantic cod larvae (Gadus morhua).

    PubMed

    Tillner, Robert; Rønnestad, Ivar; Harboe, Torstein; Ueberschär, Bernd

    2013-11-01

    In order to maximize protein digestion, the release of enzymes into the gut lumen is closely controlled by a regulatory loop. Cholecystokinin (CCK) is among the enteric hormones that play a key role in the control of digestive enzyme secretion, but its role in first-feeding larvae is still unclear and may differ between species. However, in all marine fish larvae that have not developed a stomach by first-feeding, trypsin is the most important proteolytic enzyme. In order to examine the regulation and feedback mechanisms in the gut of larval cod, we therefore studied the interactions between cholecystokinin and tryptic enzyme activity following the administration of solutions containing test substances directly into the gut. We tube-fed a single dose of physiological saline solution containing either CCK, CCK antagonist, trypsin inhibitor, phytohemagglutinin (PHA; a possible trigger for the digestive response) or physiological saline alone, while a further control group was left untreated. We then followed the response in CCK and tryptic enzyme activity for 0.5-8h after the administration. We performed the experiment on larvae at 26day post first-feeding, which is before the stomach has evolved and the size of the larvae allows easier handling. Individual larvae were analyzed for CCK and tryptic enzyme activity using radioimmunoassay and fluorimetric techniques respectively. Both factors varied over time in the untreated control group, possibly due to an endogenous daily rhythm. The higher CCK levels at 4h and 8h in the saline-injected group may be caused by reflexes initiated by distension of the gut. An increase in tryptic enzyme activity after injection of CCK supports the hypothesis that this hormone plays a part in the release of pancreatic enzymes in larval cod at this developmental stage. However, administration of a CCK antagonist and a trypsin inhibitor did not reveal conclusive results, probably due to the relatively low concentrations used. The response

  20. A new method for monitoring the extracellular proteolytic activity of wine yeasts during alcoholic fermentation of grape must.

    PubMed

    Chasseriaud, Laura; Miot-Sertier, Cécile; Coulon, Joana; Iturmendi, Nerea; Moine, Virginie; Albertin, Warren; Bely, Marina

    2015-12-01

    The existing methods for testing proteolytic activity are time consuming, quite difficult to perform, and do not allow real-time monitoring. Proteases have attracted considerable interest in winemaking and some yeast species naturally present in grape must, such as Metschnikowia pulcherrima, are capable of expressing this activity. In this study, a new test is proposed for measuring proteolytic activity directly in fermenting grape must, using azocasein, a chromogenic substrate. Several yeast strains were tested and differences in proteolytic activity were observed. Moreover, analysis of grape must proteins in wines revealed that protease secreted by Metschnikowia strains may be active against wine proteins. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. Bromelain Inhibits Allergic Sensitization and Murine Asthma via Modulation of Dendritic Cells

    PubMed Central

    Secor, Eric R.; Szczepanek, Steven M.; Castater, Christine A.; Adami, Alexander J.; Matson, Adam P.; Rafti, Ektor T.; McNamara, Jeffrey T.; Schramm, Craig M.; Thrall, Roger S.; Silbart, Lawrence K.

    2013-01-01

    The incidence of atopic conditions has increased in industrialized countries. Persisting symptoms and concern for drug side-effects lead patients toward adjunctive treatments such as phytotherapy. Previously, we have shown that Bromelain (sBr), a mixture of cysteine proteases from pineapple, Ananas comosus, inhibits ovalbumin (OVA)-induced murine model of allergic airway disease (AAD). However, sBr's effect on development of AAD when treatment is administered throughout OVA-alum sensitization was unknown and is the aim of the present study. C57BL/6J mice were sensitized with OVA/alum and challenged with 7 days OVA aerosol. sBr 6 mg/kg/0.5 ml or PBS vehicle were administered throughout sensitization. Lung, bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL), spleen, and lymph nodes were processed for flow cytometry and OVA-specific IgE was determined via ELISA. sBr treatment throughout OVA-alum sensitization significantly reduced the development of AAD (BAL eosinophils and lymphocytes). OVA-specific IgE and OVA TET+ cells were decreased. sBr reduced CD11c+ dendritic cell subsets, and in vitro treatment of DCs significantly reduced CD44, a key receptor in both cell trafficking and activation. sBr was shown to reduce allergic sensitization and the generation of AAD upon antigen challenge. These results provide additional insight into sBr's anti-inflammatory and antiallergic properties and rationale for translation into the clinical arena. PMID:24381635

  2. Identification of structural determinants controlling human and mouse stromelysin-3 proteolytic activities.

    PubMed

    Noël, A; Santavicca, M; Stoll, I; L'Hoir, C; Staub, A; Murphy, G; Rio, M C; Basset, P

    1995-09-29

    Matrix metalloproteinases (matrixins) constitute a group of extracellular proteinases belonging to the metzincin superfamily. They are involved in both physiological and pathological tissue remodeling processes, including those associated with cancer progression. Stromelysin-3, which is expressed in most invasive human carcinomas, is a matrix metalloproteinase with unusual functional properties. In particular, its mature form does not cleave any of the major extracellular matrix components. To define critical structural determinants involved in controlling stromelysin-3 proteolytic activity, we have used site-directed mutagenesis. We show that the deletion of at least 175 C-terminal amino-acids is sufficient to endow mouse stromelysin-3 with activities against casein, laminin, and type IV collagen. In the case of the human enzyme, however, a further and single Ala-235-->Pro substitution is necessary to observe similar activities. Ala-235, which characterizes human stromelysin-3 among matrixins, is located immediately after the C terminus of the "Met-turn," which forms a hydrophobic basis for the catalytic zinc atom in the metzincin family. We conclude that human stromelysin-3 has gained specific functional properties during evolution by amino acid substitution in the catalytic zinc environment, and that it represents an attractive target for specific inhibitors that may be used to prevent cancer progression.

  3. Antihypertensive potential of bioactive hydrolysate from edible bird's nest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramachandran, Ravisangkar; Babji, Abdul Salam; Sani, Norrakiah Abdullah

    2018-04-01

    The aim of this study is to determine and compare the proximate composition, the degree of hydrolysis (DH) and the antihypertensive activity of edible bird's nest (EBN) hydrolysates of two different drying methods. Four types of enzymes (alcalase, bromelain, pancreatin and papain) were used in this study and with different hydrolysis time (30, 60, 90, 120, 180 and 240 min). The highest DH for alcalase (79.48 - 84.09%), pancreatine (77.10 - 80.45%) and papain (82.33%) for EBN hydrolysates was produced with alcalase treatment at 60 - 90 min, pancreatine treatment at 30 - 90 min and papain treatment at 90 min. Bromelain generated hydrolysates showed low DH. EBN hydrolysed using alcalase, pancreatin and papain have significantly higher protein content compared to raw EBN and the moisture content of all hydrolysates treatments was significantly lower compared to raw EBN. For antihypertensive assay, freeze dried EBN hydrolysates have higher antihypertensive activity compared to spray dried hydrolysates. The highest antihypertensive activity for freeze dried samples was produced by alcalase, bromelain and pancreatin and in the range of 80.22 - 86.97%. Meanwhile, papain proved to be less effective in producing hydrolysate with antihypertensive ability. In conclusion, EBN hydrolysate prepared by alcalase, bromelain and pancreatin could be classified as a functional food as it showed significant antihypertensive activity.

  4. Disruption of Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus Biofilms with Enzymatic Therapeutics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-04-29

    polysaccharide matrix and bacteria from the growth surface. α-Amylase, bromelain, and papain caused removal of most of the polysaccharide matrix...biofilm EPS matrix, including polysaccharides , proteins, and bacterial/host DNA [21]. While these enzymes have been utilized clinically since the 1940s...clinically or can easily transition to the clinical setting. These enzymes included an anti- polysaccharide agent, α-amylase, an anti-peptidoglycan agent

  5. Eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid increase the degradation of amyloid-β by affecting insulin-degrading enzyme.

    PubMed

    Grimm, Marcus O W; Mett, Janine; Stahlmann, Christoph P; Haupenthal, Viola J; Blümel, Tamara; Stötzel, Hannah; Grimm, Heike S; Hartmann, Tobias

    2016-12-01

    Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) have been proposed to be highly beneficial in Alzheimer's disease (AD). AD pathology is closely linked to an overproduction and accumulation of amyloid-β (Aβ) peptides as extracellular senile plaques in the brain. Total Aβ levels are not only dependent on its production by proteolytic processing of the amyloid precursor protein (APP), but also on Aβ-clearance mechanisms, including Aβ-degrading enzymes. Here we show that the omega-3 PUFAs eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) increase Aβ-degradation by affecting insulin-degrading enzyme (IDE), the major Aβ-degrading enzyme secreted into the extracellular space of neuronal and microglial cells. The identification of the molecular mechanisms revealed that EPA directly increases IDE enzyme activity and elevates gene expression of IDE. DHA also directly stimulates IDE enzyme activity and affects IDE sorting by increasing exosome release of IDE, resulting in enhanced Aβ-degradation in the extracellular milieu. Apart from the known positive effect of DHA in reducing Aβ production, EPA and DHA might ameliorate AD pathology by increasing Aβ turnover.

  6. Intrinsic Tau Acetylation Is Coupled to Auto-Proteolytic Tau Fragmentation

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Todd J.; Constance, Brian H.; Hwang, Andrew W.; James, Michael; Yuan, Chao-Xing

    2016-01-01

    Tau proteins are abnormally aggregated in a range of neurodegenerative tauopathies including Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Recently, tau has emerged as an extensively post-translationally modified protein, among which lysine acetylation is critical for normal tau function and its pathological aggregation. Here, we demonstrate that tau isoforms have different propensities to undergo lysine acetylation, with auto-acetylation occurring more prominently within the lysine-rich microtubule-binding repeats. Unexpectedly, we identified a unique intrinsic property of tau in which auto-acetylation induces proteolytic tau cleavage, thereby generating distinct N- and C-terminal tau fragments. Supporting a catalytic reaction-based mechanism, mapping and mutagenesis studies showed that tau cysteines, which are required for acetyl group transfer, are also essential for auto-proteolytic tau processing. Further mass spectrometry analysis identified the C-terminal 2nd and 4th microtubule binding repeats as potential sites of auto-cleavage. The identification of acetylation-mediated auto-proteolysis provides a new biochemical mechanism for tau self-regulation and warrants further investigation into whether auto-catalytic functions of tau are implicated in AD and other tauopathies. PMID:27383765

  7. Intrinsic Tau Acetylation Is Coupled to Auto-Proteolytic Tau Fragmentation.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Todd J; Constance, Brian H; Hwang, Andrew W; James, Michael; Yuan, Chao-Xing

    2016-01-01

    Tau proteins are abnormally aggregated in a range of neurodegenerative tauopathies including Alzheimer's disease (AD). Recently, tau has emerged as an extensively post-translationally modified protein, among which lysine acetylation is critical for normal tau function and its pathological aggregation. Here, we demonstrate that tau isoforms have different propensities to undergo lysine acetylation, with auto-acetylation occurring more prominently within the lysine-rich microtubule-binding repeats. Unexpectedly, we identified a unique intrinsic property of tau in which auto-acetylation induces proteolytic tau cleavage, thereby generating distinct N- and C-terminal tau fragments. Supporting a catalytic reaction-based mechanism, mapping and mutagenesis studies showed that tau cysteines, which are required for acetyl group transfer, are also essential for auto-proteolytic tau processing. Further mass spectrometry analysis identified the C-terminal 2nd and 4th microtubule binding repeats as potential sites of auto-cleavage. The identification of acetylation-mediated auto-proteolysis provides a new biochemical mechanism for tau self-regulation and warrants further investigation into whether auto-catalytic functions of tau are implicated in AD and other tauopathies.

  8. Oxidatively denatured proteins are degraded by an ATP-independent proteolytic pathway in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Davies, K J; Lin, S W

    1988-01-01

    E. coli contains a soluble proteolytic pathway which can recognize and degrade oxidatively denatured proteins and protein fragments, and which may act as a "secondary antioxidant defense." We now provide evidence that this proteolytic pathway is distinct from the previously described ATP-dependent, and protease "La"-dependent, pathway which may degrade other abnormal proteins. Cells (K12) which were depleted of ATP, by arsenate treatment or anaerobic incubation (after growth on succinate), exhibited proteolytic responses to oxidative stress which were indistinguishable from those observed in cells with normal ATP levels. Furthermore, the proteolytic responses to oxidative damage by menadione or H2O2 were almost identical in the isogenic strains RM312 (a K12 derivative) and RM1385 (a lon deletion mutant of RM312). Since the lon (or capR) gene codes for the ATP-dependent protease "La," these results indicate that neither ATP nor protease "La" are required for the degradation of oxidatively denatured proteins. We next prepared cell-free extracts of K12, RM312, and RM1385 and tested the activity of their soluble proteases against proteins (albumin, hemoglobin, superoxide dismutase, catalase) which had been oxidatively denatured (in vitro) by exposure to .OH, .OH + O2- (+O2), H2O2, or ascorbate plus iron. The breakdown of oxidatively denatured proteins was several-fold higher than that of untreated proteins in extracts from all three strains, and ATP did not stimulate degradation. Incubation of extracts at 45 degrees C, which inactivates protease "La," actually stimulated the degradation of oxidatively denatured proteins. Although Ca2+ had little effect on proteolysis, serine reagents, transition metal chelators, and hemin effectively inhibited the degradation of oxidatively denatured proteins in both intact cells and cell-free extracts. Degradation of oxidatively denatured proteins in cell-free extracts was maximal at pH 7.8, and was unaffected by dialysis of the

  9. Activation of bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) [alpha]-amylase inhibitor requires proteolytic processing of the proprotein

    SciTech Connect

    Pueyo, J.J.; Hunt, D.C.; Chrispeels, M.J.

    Seeds of the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) contain a plant defense protein that inhibits the [alpha]-amylases of mammals and insects. This [alpha]-amylase inhibitor ([alpha]Al) is synthesized as a proprotein on the endoplasmic reticulum and is proteolytically processed after arrival in the protein storage vacuoles to polypeptides of relative molecular weight (M[sub r]) 15,000 to 18,000. The authors report two types of evidence that proteolytic processing is linked to activation of the inhibitory activity. First, by surveying seed extracts of wild accessions of P. vulgaris and other species in the genus Phaseolus, they found that antibodies to [alpha]Al recognize large (M[submore » r] 30,000-35,000) polypeptides as well as typical [alpha]Al processing products (M[sub r] 15,000-18,000). [alpha]Al activity was found in all extracts that had the typical [alpha]Al processed polypeptides, but was absent from seed extracts that lacked such polypeptides. Second, they made a mutant [alpha]Al in which asparagine-77 is changed to aspartic acid-77. This mutation slows down the proteolytic processing of pro-[alpha]Al when the gene is expressed in tobacco. When pro-[alpha]Al was separated from mature [alpha]Al by gel filtration, pro-[alpha]Al was found not to have [alpha]-amylase inhibitory activity. The authors interpret these results to mean that formation of the active inhibitor is causally related to proteolytic processing of the proprotein. They suggest that the polypeptide cleavage removes a conformation constraint on the precursor to produce the biochemically active molecule. 43 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.« less

  10. Proteolytic Activation Transforms Heparin Cofactor II into a Host Defense Molecule

    PubMed Central

    Kalle, Martina; Papareddy, Praveen; Kasetty, Gopinath; Tollefsen, Douglas M.; Malmsten, Martin; Mörgelin, Matthias

    2013-01-01

    The abundant serine proteinase inhibitor heparin cofactor II (HCII) has been proposed to inhibit extravascular thrombin. However, the exact physiological role of this plasma protein remains enigmatic. In this study, we demonstrate a previously unknown role for HCII in host defense. Proteolytic cleavage of the molecule induced a conformational change, thereby inducing endotoxin-binding and antimicrobial properties. Analyses employing representative peptide epitopes mapped these effects to helices A and D. Mice deficient in HCII showed increased susceptibility to invasive infection by Pseudomonas aeruginosa, along with a significantly increased cytokine response. Correspondingly, decreased levels of HCII were observed in wild-type animals challenged with bacteria or endotoxin. In humans, proteolytically cleaved HCII forms were detected during wounding and in association with bacteria. Thus, the protease-induced uncovering of cryptic epitopes in HCII, which transforms the molecule into a host defense factor, represents a previously unknown regulatory mechanism in HCII biology and innate immunity. PMID:23656734

  11. Proteolytic activation transforms heparin cofactor II into a host defense molecule.

    PubMed

    Kalle, Martina; Papareddy, Praveen; Kasetty, Gopinath; Tollefsen, Douglas M; Malmsten, Martin; Mörgelin, Matthias; Schmidtchen, Artur

    2013-06-15

    The abundant serine proteinase inhibitor heparin cofactor II (HCII) has been proposed to inhibit extravascular thrombin. However, the exact physiological role of this plasma protein remains enigmatic. In this study, we demonstrate a previously unknown role for HCII in host defense. Proteolytic cleavage of the molecule induced a conformational change, thereby inducing endotoxin-binding and antimicrobial properties. Analyses employing representative peptide epitopes mapped these effects to helices A and D. Mice deficient in HCII showed increased susceptibility to invasive infection by Pseudomonas aeruginosa, along with a significantly increased cytokine response. Correspondingly, decreased levels of HCII were observed in wild-type animals challenged with bacteria or endotoxin. In humans, proteolytically cleaved HCII forms were detected during wounding and in association with bacteria. Thus, the protease-induced uncovering of cryptic epitopes in HCII, which transforms the molecule into a host defense factor, represents a previously unknown regulatory mechanism in HCII biology and innate immunity.

  12. Evidence for the Existence in Arabidopsis thaliana of the Proteasome Proteolytic Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Polge, Cécile; Jaquinod, Michel; Holzer, Frances; Bourguignon, Jacques; Walling, Linda; Brouquisse, Renaud

    2009-01-01

    Heavy metals are known to generate reactive oxygen species that lead to the oxidation and fragmentation of proteins, which become toxic when accumulated in the cell. In this study, we investigated the role of the proteasome during cadmium stress in the leaves of Arabidopsis thaliana plants. Using biochemical and proteomics approaches, we present the first evidence of an active proteasome pathway in plants. We identified and characterized the peptidases acting sequentially downstream from the proteasome in animal cells as follows: tripeptidyl-peptidase II, thimet oligopeptidase, and leucine aminopeptidase. We investigated the proteasome proteolytic pathway response in the leaves of 6-week-old A. thaliana plants grown hydroponically for 24, 48, and 144 h in the presence or absence of 50 μm cadmium. The gene expression and proteolytic activity of the proteasome and the different proteases of the pathway were found to be up-regulated in response to cadmium. In an in vitro assay, oxidized bovine serum albumin and lysozyme were more readily degraded in the presence of 20 S proteasome and tripeptidyl-peptidase II than their nonoxidized form, suggesting that oxidized proteins are preferentially degraded by the Arabidopsis 20 S proteasome pathway. These results show that, in response to cadmium, the 20 S proteasome proteolytic pathway is up-regulated at both RNA and activity levels in Arabidopsis leaves and may play a role in degrading oxidized proteins generated by the stress. PMID:19822524

  13. Bacterial whole-cell biocatalysts by surface display of enzymes: toward industrial application.

    PubMed

    Schüürmann, Jan; Quehl, Paul; Festel, Gunter; Jose, Joachim

    2014-10-01

    Despite the first report on the bacterial display of a recombinant peptide appeared almost 30 years ago, industrial application of cells with surface-displayed enzymes is still limited. To display an enzyme on the surface of a living cell bears several advantages. First of all, neither the substrate nor the product of the enzymatic reaction needs to cross a membrane barrier. Second, the enzyme being linked to the cell can be separated from the reaction mixture and hence the product by simple centrifugation. Transfer to a new substrate preparation results in multiple cycles of enzymatic conversion. Finally, the anchoring in a matrix, in this case, the cell envelope stabilizes the enzyme and makes it less accessible to proteolytic degradation and material adsorption resulting in continuous higher activities. These advantages in common need to balance some disadvantages before this application can be taken into account for industrial processes, e.g., the exclusion of the enzyme from the cellular metabolome and hence from redox factors or other co-factors that need to be supplied. Therefore, this digest describes the different systems in Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria that have been used for the surface display of enzymes so far and focuses on examples among these which are suitable for industrial purposes or for the production of valuable resources, not least in order to encourage a broader application of whole-cell biocatalysts with surface-displayed enzymes.

  14. Digestive enzyme activity in the intestine of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus L.) under pond and cage farming systems.

    PubMed

    Santos, Juliana Ferreira; Soares, Karollina Lopes Siqueira; Assis, Caio Rodrigo Dias; Guerra, Carlos Augusto Martins; Lemos, Daniel; Carvalho, Luiz Bezerra; Bezerra, Ranilson Souza

    2016-10-01

    The effect of different farming systems (cage, pond) upon digestive enzyme activities of Nile tilapia was evaluated. Juvenile Nile tilapia (87.61 ± 1.52 g) were simultaneously cultured in pond and cage systems during 90 days. Cages used nutritional biphasic plan (35 and 32 % crude protein-CP feeds) and ponds used nutritional triphasic plan (35, 32 and 28 % CP feeds). Biometric measurements were monthly performed for adjustments in feeding regimes and removal of intestine tissues to evaluate the performance of enzyme activities. Total proteolytic, amylase and lipase activities were not statistically different between the treatments throughout the periods analyzed (31, 63 and 94 days of culture). However, trypsin and chymotrypsin activities were higher with 31 and 63 days of culture in fish from pond system, suggesting that natural food may have influenced these activities. A positive correlation was observed between the recommended concentration of essential amino acids for Nile tilapia and specific aminopeptidases activity in fish cage system. Substrate-SDS-PAGE revealed 12 active proteolytic bands in both systems. However, integrated density (ID) values were higher in the bands of ponds. Specimens of either cage or pond exhibited five bands of amylolytic activity. Fish from cage and pond systems showed the highest values of ID within 31 days of cultivation. In this study, the complexity of digestive functions could be verified for animals maintained under commercial conditions. Some of the assessed enzymes may show adaptations of their activities and/or expression that allow the fish to achieve a more efficient nutrient assimilation.

  15. Effects of ionizing radiation on the enzyme activities and ultrastructural changes of poultry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwang, H.-I.; Hau, L.-B.

    1995-02-01

    Enzyme-catalyzed changes are generally recognized as one of the major reasons for fresh meat deterioration after irradiation. In this study, the effects of ionizing radiation and storage on the enzyme activities of poultry as well as the ultrastructural change of muscle were evaluated. When chicken breasts were irradiated at 4°C and -20°C, both Ca 2+-dependent protease and cathepsin D showed some degree of resistance to irradiation. The activities of those two enzymes decreased with the increase of irradiation doses. During storage, Ca 2+-dependent proteases showed a marked decrease in activity. On the other hand, the cathepsin D activity was not significantly changed at either 4°C or -20°C after 20 days. Transmission electron microscope examination showed no structural changes of the myofibrils with a radiation dose of up to 10 kGy at either 4°C or -20°C. Freezing protected the irradiated chicken breasts from autolytic enzymes damage during storage. In contrast, considerable sarcomere degradation occurred in Z-line for irradiated samples when stored at 4°C for 20 days. The action of the proteolytic enzymes may have been responsible for the sarcomere degradation in irradiated chicken breasts.

  16. Genotyping, physiological features and proteolytic activities of a potentially pathogenic Acanthamoeba sp. isolated from tap water in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Magliano, Ana C M; da Silva, Flávia Maia; Teixeira, Marta M G; Alfieri, Silvia C

    2009-11-01

    Acanthamoeba spp., known to cause keratitis and granulomatous encephalitis in humans, are frequently isolated from a variety of water sources. Here we report for the first time the characterization of an Acanthamoeba sp. (ACC01) isolated from tap water in Brazil. This organism is currently being maintained in an axenic growth medium. Phylogenetic analysis based on SSU rRNA gene sequences positioned the new isolate in genotype T4, closest to the keratitis-causing isolate, A. polyphaga ATCC 30461 ( approximately 99% similarity). Acanthamoeba ACC01 and A. polyphaga 30461 both grew at 37 degrees C and were osmotically resistant, multiplying in hyperosmolar medium. Both isolates secreted comparable amounts of proteolytic enzymes, including serine peptidases that were optimally active at a near neutral/alkaline pH and resolved identically in gelatin gels. Incubation of gels at pH 4.0 with 2mM DTT also indicated the secretion of similar cysteine peptidases. Altogether, the results point to the pathogenic potential of Acanthamoeba ACC01.

  17. Ineffective Degradation of Immunogenic Gluten Epitopes by Currently Available Digestive Enzyme Supplements

    PubMed Central

    Janssen, George; Christis, Chantal; Kooy-Winkelaar, Yvonne; Edens, Luppo; Smith, Drew

    2015-01-01

    Background Due to the high proline content of gluten molecules, gastrointestinal proteases are unable to fully degrade them leaving large proline-rich gluten fragments intact, including an immunogenic 33-mer from α-gliadin and a 26-mer from γ-gliadin. These latter peptides can trigger pro-inflammatory T cell responses resulting in tissue remodeling, malnutrition and a variety of other complications. A strict lifelong gluten-free diet is currently the only available treatment to cope with gluten intolerance. Post-proline cutting enzymes have been shown to effectively degrade the immunogenic gluten peptides and have been proposed as oral supplements. Several existing digestive enzyme supplements also claim to aid in gluten degradation. Here we investigate the effectiveness of such existing enzyme supplements in comparison with a well characterized post-proline cutting enzyme, Prolyl EndoPeptidase from Aspergillus niger (AN-PEP). Methods Five commercially available digestive enzyme supplements along with purified digestive enzymes were subjected to 1) enzyme assays and 2) mass spectrometric identification. Gluten epitope degradation was monitored by 1) R5 ELISA, 2) mass spectrometric analysis of the degradation products and 3) T cell proliferation assays. Findings The digestive enzyme supplements showed comparable proteolytic activities with near neutral pH optima and modest gluten detoxification properties as determined by ELISA. Mass spectrometric analysis revealed the presence of many different enzymes including amylases and a variety of different proteases with aminopeptidase and carboxypeptidase activity. The enzyme supplements leave the nine immunogenic epitopes of the 26-mer and 33-mer gliadin fragments largely intact. In contrast, the pure enzyme AN-PEP effectively degraded all nine epitopes in the pH range of the stomach at much lower dose. T cell proliferation assays confirmed the mass spectrometric data. Conclusion Currently available digestive enzyme

  18. Proteolytic activity during senescence of plants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huffaker, R. C.

    1990-01-01

    Although information has rapidly developed concerning the intracellular localization of plant proteins, relatively few reports concern the intracellular location of endo- and exo-proteolytic activities. Relatively few proteases have been purified, characterized, and associated with a specific cellular location. With the exception of the processing proteases involved in transport of proteins across membranes, little progress has yet been made concerning determination of in vivo products of specific proteases. Information on the turnover of individual proteins and the assessment of rate-limiting steps in pathways as proteins are turned over is steadily appearing. Since chloroplasts are the major site of both protein synthesis and, during senescence, degradation, it was important to show unambiguously that chloroplasts can degrade their own constituents. Another important contribution was to obtain evidence that the chloroplasts contain proteases capable of degrading their constituents. This work has been more tenuous because of the low activities found and the possibility of contamination by vacuolar enzymes during the isolation of organelles. The possible targeting of cytoplasmic proteins for degradation by facilitating their transport into vacuoles is a field which hopefully will develop more rapidly in the future. Information on targeting of proteins for degradation via the ubiquitin (Ub) degradation pathway is developing rapidly. Future research must determine how much unity exists across the different eukaryotic systems. At present, it has important implications for protein turnover in plants, since apparently Ub is involved in the degradation of phytochrome. Little information has been developed regarding what triggers increased proteolysis with the onset of senescence, although it appears to involve protein synthesis. Thus far, the evidence indicates that the complement of proteases prior to senescence is sufficient to carry out the observed protein

  19. The effect of oral protease administration in the rat remnant kidney model.

    PubMed

    Sebeková, K; Dämmrich, J; Krivosíková, Z; Heidland, A

    1999-12-01

    It has been demonstrated that intraperitoneal administration of proteolytic enzymes ameliorates the progression of renal diseases in various animal models. In the present study, we employed the rat remnant kidney model to study the effectiveness of oral administration of proteases. Twenty male Wistar rats underwent sham operation (CTRL), while 25 were subjected to 5/6 nephrectomy (5/6 NX). Rats were randomised into placebo (PL) (2 ml tap water/day by gavage), or Phlogenzym (E; fixed mixture of trypsin 2.42 mg, bromelain 4.54 mg, and rutozid 5.04 mg added as antioxidant, in 2 ml tap water daily by gavage) treated group. Duration of the study was 45 days. Rats were pair-fed. Enzyme treatment exerted salutary effects on various functional and morphological parameters. Proteinuria was higher in both 5/6 NX group rats throughout the study. Administration of proteases ameliorated its rise effectively (data at sacrifice: CTRL-PL 6.27 +/- 1.25, CTRL-E 9.27 +/- 0.99, 5/6 NX-PL 74.04 +/- 21.33, 5/6 NX-E 39.09 +/- 7.93 mg/24 h; P < 0.01). Increased urinary excretion of the fibrogenic cytokine transforming growth factor (TGF-beta 1) was improved, too (CTRL-PL 0.349 +/- 0.051, CTRL-E 0.693 +/- 0.230, 5/6 NX-PL 3.044 +/- 0.540, 5/6 NX-E 1.390 +/- 0.238 ng/mumol creatinine; P < 0.05). At sacrifice, tubulointerstitial fibrosis was less pronounced in E-treated rats. Correspondingly, the volume fraction of tubulointerstitial tissue in the renal cortex was improved in 5/6 NX-E rats (CTRL-PL 9.9 +/- 0.2, CTRL-E 10.0 +/- 0.2, 5/6 NX-PL 17.9 +/- 1.8, 5/6 NX-E 13.8 +/- 0.9%; P < 0.05). The protein/DNA ratio in isolated glomeruli and tubules, as an estimate of glomerular matrix accumulation and hypertrophy of tubules, was enhanced in 5/6 NX groups and a tendency towards lower values was observed after E treatment. Renal function as evaluated by serum creatinine and urea levels was not influenced by the enzyme therapy. No between-group differences in blood pressure were observed. In

  20. Interactions between Lactobacillus sakei and CNC (Staphylococcus xylosus and Kocuria varians) and their influence on proteolytic activity.

    PubMed

    Tremonte, P; Reale, A; Di Renzo, T; Tipaldi, L; Di Luccia, A; Coppola, R; Sorrentino, E; Succi, M

    2010-11-01

    To evaluate interactions between Lactobacillus sakei and coagulase negative cocci (CNC) (Staphylococcus xylosus and Kocuria varians) and to investigate the influence of these interactions on their own proteolytic activity. Interactions occurring between strains of Lact. sakei and CNC were assessed by spectrophotometric analysis. The growth of 35 strains of Lact. sakei, used as indicators, was compared to that obtained combining the same strains with growing cells or cell-free supernatants of 20 CNC (18 Staph. xylosus and 2 K. varians). The proteolytic activity expressed by single strains or by their combinations was assessed on sarcoplasmic protein extracts by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The results evidenced that interactions are able to affect not only the growth but also the in vitro proteolytic activity of Lact. sakei and CNC used in combination. A relationship between the presence of interactions among useful strains and the strength of technological characteristics, such as proteolysis, was defined. The study highlighted that CNC are able to stimulate the growth of some Lact. sakei strains. At the same time, this interaction positively influences the proteolytic activity of strains used in combination. Given the importance of proteolysis during the ripening of fermented meats, this phenomenon should be taken into account to select meat starter cultures. © 2010 The Authors. © 2010 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  1. PHYSICOCHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF THE PROTEOLYTIC ENZYME FROM THE LATEX OF THE MILKWEED, ASCLEPIAS SPECIOSA TORR. SOME COMPARISONS WITH OTHER PROTEASES

    PubMed Central

    Winnick, Theodore; Davis, Alva R.; Greenberg, David M.

    1940-01-01

    1. The kinetics of milk clotting by asclepain, the protease of Asclepias speciosa, were investigated. At higher concentrations of enzyme, the clotting time was inversely proportional to the enzyme concentration. 2. The digestion of casein and hemoglobin in 6.6 M urea by asclepain follows the second order reaction rate. The rate was roughly second order for casein in water. 3. Evaluation of the nature of the enzyme-substrate intermediate indicates that one molecule of asclepain combines with one molecule of casein or hemoglobin in urea solution. 4. Inhibition by the reaction products was deduced from the fact that the digestion velocity of hemoglobin in urea solution varied with the asclepain concentration in agreement with the Schütz-Borissov rule. PMID:19873155

  2. Global profiling of proteolytically modified proteins in human metastatic hepatocellular carcinoma cell lines reveals CAPN2 centered network.

    PubMed

    Shen, Chengpin; Yu, Yanyan; Li, Hong; Yan, Guoquan; Liu, Mingqi; Shen, Huali; Yang, Pengyuan

    2012-06-01

    Proteolysis affects every protein at some point in its life cycle. Many biomarkers of disease or cancer are stable proteolytic fragments in biological fluids. There is great interest and a challenge in proteolytically modified protein study to identify physiologic protease-substrate relationships and find potential biomarkers. In this study, two human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cell lines with different metastasis potential, MHCC97L, and HCCLM6, were researched with a high-throughput and sensitive PROTOMAP platform. In total 391 proteins were found to be proteolytically processed and many of them were cleaved into persistent fragments instead of completely degraded. Fragments related to 161 proteins had different expressions in these two cell lines. Through analyzing these significantly changed fragments with bio-informatic tools, several bio-functions such as tumor cell migration and anti-apoptosis were enriched. A proteolysis network was also built up, of which the CAPN2 centered subnetwork, including SPTBN1, ATP5B, and VIM, was more active in highly metastatic HCC cell line. Interestingly, proteolytic modifications of CD44 and FN1 were found to affect their secretion. This work suggests that proteolysis plays an important role in human HCC metastasis. © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Bromelain-decorated hybrid nanoparticles based on lactobionic acid-conjugated chitosan for in vitro anti-tumor study.

    PubMed

    Wei, Bing; He, Le; Wang, Xin; Yan, Guo Qing; Wang, Jun; Tang, Rupei

    2017-08-01

    In this work, lactobionic acid-modified chitosan (CLA) was chosen as an initial material to prepare tumor-targeted nanoparticles (CLA NPs). To improve the nanoparticles' tumor penetration ability, bromelain was then decorated on the surface of CLA NPs to give CLAB NPs. The micromorphology of CLA and CLAB NPs was observed by transmission electron microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The stability of CLA and CLAB NPs was then investigated at different pH values (4.0-9.0) and physiological environment by dynamic light scattering. Doxorubicin as a model drug was successfully encapsulated into these two nanoparticles and drug release profiles were also investigated at pH 5.5, 6.5 and 7.4, respectively. Cellular uptake and MTT results against HepG2 and SH-SY5Y cells demonstrated that the LA-conjugated tumor-targeting NPs can be efficiently internalized into hepatoma carcinoma cells, leading to higher cytotoxicity than free doxorubicin. CLAB NPs show considerable cell cytotoxicity and are expected to improve the penetration ability and therapeutic effect in the subsequent in vivo studies.

  4. Selectivity of a bromelain based enzymatic debridement agent: a porcine study.

    PubMed

    Rosenberg, Lior; Krieger, Yuval; Silberstein, Eldad; Arnon, Ofer; Sinelnikov, Igor A; Bogdanov-Berezovsky, Alex; Singer, Adam J

    2012-11-01

    Debridement of the burn eschar is a cornerstone of burn wound care. Rapid enzymatic debridement with a bromelain-based agent (Debriding Gel Dressing-DGD) has recently been investigated. The current study was designed to further investigate the selectivity of DGD to burned eschar in a larger number and more varied types of wounds. A systematic animal experiment was conducted to determine the effects of DGD on normal, non-injured skin, burns, exposed dermis of donor sites, and skin punch biopsy wells. Partial thickness dermal burns and partial thickness skin graft donor sites were created on a pig and treated with a 4-h application of DGD or its control hydrating vehicle that does not have any activity except hydration. Punch biopsy samples were taken before and after treatment and microscopically assessed for evidence of tissue viability and its respective components thickness. Rapid dissolution of the burn eschar was noted in all DGD but not vehicle treated burns. There was no apparent damage to the underlying sub eschar dermis, donor sites, normal skin or punch biopsy wells after exposure to DGD. While the thickness of the treated tissues slightly increased due to edema, the increase in dermal thickness was similar after treatment with DGD or its vehicle. The increase in the cross section surface area of the treated punch biopsy wells was similar after treatment with DGD and its control vehicle. Exposure of the burn eschar to DGD results in its rapid dissolution. Exposure of normal skin or non-burned dermis to DGD has no effects demonstrating its selectivity to eschar. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  5. The proteolytic digestive activity and growth during ontogeny of Parachromis dovii larvae (Pisces: Cichlidae) using two feeding protocols.

    PubMed

    Quirós Orlich, José R; Valverde Chavarría, Silvia; Ulloa Rojas, Juan B

    2014-08-01

    The proteolytic digestive activity and growth of Parachromis dovii larvae during the ontogeny were evaluated in a recirculation system using two feeding strategies during a 28-day period. Larvae were reared using two feeding protocols (three replicates each): (A) Artemia nauplii (at satiation), fed from exogenous feeding [8 days after hatching (DAH)] until 15 DAH followed by nauplii substitution by formulated feed (20% day(-1)) until 20 DAH and then formulated feed until 28 DAH; (B) formulated feed (100 % BW daily) from exogenous feeding until 28 DAH. Levels of acid (pepsin type) and alkaline digestive proteases as well as growth and survival of larvae were measured along the feeding period. Survival was high and similar between treatments: 98.9 ± 0.0 for Artemia, 97.3 ± 0.0% for formulated feed. The specific growth rate for length and weight was higher in larvae fed with Artemia nauplii than in larvae reared with formulated feed: 3.4 ± 0.1 versus 1.8 ± 0.1% day(-1) for body length (P = 0.009) and 12.2 ± 0.1 versus 6.5 ± 0.3% day(-1) for body weight (P = 0.002). The acid and alkaline proteolytic activity was detected, in both treatments, from the beginning of the experiment, at 8 DAH. The total enzymatic activity (U larva(-1)) for acid and alkaline proteases was higher in larvae reared with Artemia after 12 DAH, whereas the specific enzymatic activity was similar for both enzyme types in the two treatments. The results suggest that P. dovii larvae were capable to digest formulated diets from the beginning of exogenous feeding and that they could be reared with formulated feeds. However, the formulated feed used should be nutritionally improved because of the poor growth obtained in this research.

  6. Antigenic and allergenic characterization of the enzymes alcalase and savinase by crossed immunoelectrophoresis and crossed radioimmunoelectrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Arlian, L G; Vyszenski-Moher, D L; Merski, J A; Ritz, H L; Nusair, T L; Wilson, E R

    1990-01-01

    Alcalase and savinase, produced by Bacillus species, are proteolytic enzymes that are used in laundry products and are known to cause respiratory allergy. Antigenic and allergenic characteristics of alcalase and savinase and their potential cross-reactivity were evaluated using crossed immunoelectrophoresis and crossed radioimmunoelectrophoresis. Alcalase exhibited two distinct antigens; one electropositive and one electronegative. The electropositive antigen exhibited some retrograde anodic mobility when coupled with antiserum components. Savinase exhibited one electropositive and two electronegative antigens. The antigens of the two enzymes were clearly different from each other, the three savinase antigens exhibiting greater electrophoretic mobility than the two alcalase antigens. In crossed radioimmunoelectrophoresis studies, only the electropositive antigen of alcalase, its retrograde complex, and the electropositive antigen of savinase bound IgE from the sera of individuals who were skin test positive to one or both enzymes. No evidence of cross-reactivity was observed in heterologous and tandem crossed immunoelectrophoresis studies and heterologous microimmunodiffusion reactions.

  7. Antibody Epitope of Human α-Galactosidase A Revealed by Affinity Mass Spectrometry: A Basis for Reversing Immunoreactivity in Enzyme Replacement Therapy of Fabry Disease.

    PubMed

    Kukacka, Zdenek; Iurascu, Marius; Lupu, Loredana; Rusche, Hendrik; Murphy, Mary; Altamore, Lorenzo; Borri, Fabio; Maeser, Stefan; Papini, Anna Maria; Hennermann, Julia; Przybylski, Michael

    2018-05-08

    α-Galactosidase (αGal) is a lysosomal enzyme that hydrolyses the terminal α-galactosyl moiety from glycosphingolipids. Mutations in the encoding genes for αGal lead to defective or misfolded enzyme, which results in substrate accumulation and subsequent organ dysfunction. The metabolic disease caused by a deficiency of human α-galactosidase A is known as Fabry disease or Fabry-Anderson disease, and it belongs to a larger group known as lysosomal storage diseases. An effective treatment for Fabry disease has been developed by enzyme replacement therapy (ERT), which involves infusions of purified recombinant enzyme in order to increase enzyme levels and decrease the amounts of accumulated substrate. However, immunoreactivity and IgG antibody formation are major, therapy-limiting, and eventually life-threatening complications of ERT. The present study focused on the epitope determination of human α-galactosidase A against its antibody formed. Here we report the identification of the epitope of human αGal(309-332) recognized by a human monoclonal anti-αGal antibody, using a combination of proteolytic excision of the immobilized immune complex and surface plasmon resonance biosensing mass spectrometry. The epitope peptide, αGal(309-332), was synthesized by solid-phase peptide synthesis. Determination of its affinity by surface plasmon resonance analysis revealed a high binding affinity for the antibody (K D =39×10 -9  m), which is nearly identical to that of the full-length enzyme (K D =16×10 -9  m). The proteolytic excision affinity mass spectrometry method is shown here to be an efficient tool for epitope identification of an immunogenic lysosomal enzyme. Because the full-length αGal and the antibody epitope showed similar binding affinities, this provides a basis for reversing immunogenicity upon ERT by: 1) treatment of patients with the epitope peptide to neutralize antibodies, or 2) removal of antibodies by apheresis, and thus significantly

  8. Non-T cell activation linker (NTAL) proteolytic cleavage as a terminator of activatory intracellular signals.

    PubMed

    Arbulo-Echevarria, Mikel M; Muñoz-Miranda, Juan Pedro; Caballero-García, Andrés; Poveda-Díaz, José L; Fernández-Ponce, Cecilia; Durán-Ruiz, M Carmen; Miazek, Arkadiusz; García-Cózar, Francisco; Aguado, Enrique

    2016-08-01

    Non-T cell activation linker is an adaptor protein that is tyrosine phosphorylated upon cross-linking of immune receptors expressed on B lymphocytes, NK cells, macrophages, basophils, or mast cells, allowing the recruitment of cytosolic mediators for downstream signaling pathways. Fas receptor acts mainly as a death receptor, and when cross-linked with Fas ligand, many proteins are proteolytically cleaved, including several signaling molecules in T and B cells. Fas receptor triggering also interferes with TCR intracellular signals, probably by means of proteolytic cleavage of several adaptor proteins. We have previously found that the adaptor linker for activation of T cells, evolutionarily related to non-T cell activation linker, is cleaved upon proapoptotic stimuli in T lymphocytes and thymocytes, in a tyrosine phosphorylation-dependent fashion. Here, we describe non-T cell activation linker proteolytic cleavage triggered in human B cells and monocytes by Fas cross-linking and staurosporine treatment. Non-T cell activation linker is cleaved, producing an N-terminal fragment of ∼22 kDa, and such cleavage is abrogated in the presence of caspase 8/granzyme B and caspase 3 inhibitors. Moreover, we have identified an aspartic acid residue at which non-T cell activation linker is cleaved, which similar to linker for activation of T cells, this aspartic acid residue is located close to tyrosine and serine residues, suggesting an interdependence of phosphorylation and proteolytic cleavage. Consistently, induction of non-T cell activation linker phosphorylation by pervanadate inhibits its cleavage. Interestingly, the truncated isoform of non-T cell activation linker, generated after cleavage, has a decreased signaling ability when compared with the full-length molecule. Altogether, our results suggest that cleavage of transmembrane adaptors constitutes a general mechanism for signal termination of immune receptors. © Society for Leukocyte Biology.

  9. Smart biomaterials: Surfaces functionalized with proteolytically stable osteoblast-adhesive peptides.

    PubMed

    Zamuner, Annj; Brun, Paola; Scorzeto, Michele; Sica, Giuseppe; Castagliuolo, Ignazio; Dettin, Monica

    2017-09-01

    Engineered scaffolds for bone tissue regeneration are designed to promote cell adhesion, growth, proliferation and differentiation. Recently, covalent and selective functionalization of glass and titanium surfaces with an adhesive peptide (HVP) mapped on [351-359] sequence of human Vitronectin allowed to selectively increase osteoblast attachment and adhesion strength in in vitro assays, and to promote osseointegration in in vivo studies. For the first time to our knowledge, in this study we investigated the resistance of adhesion sequences to proteolytic digestion: HVP was completely cleaved after 5 h. In order to overcome the enzymatic degradation of the native peptide under physiological conditions we synthetized three analogues of HVP sequence. A retro-inverted peptide D-2HVP, composed of D amino acids, was completely stable in serum-containing medium. In addition, glass surfaces functionalized with D-2HVP increased human osteoblast adhesion as compared to the native peptide and maintained deposition of calcium. Interestingly, D-2HVP increased expression of IBSP, VTN and SPP1 genes as compared to HVP functionalized surfaces. Total internal reflection fluorescence microscope analysis showed cells with numerous filopodia spread on D-2HVP-functionalized surfaces. Therefore, the D-2HVP sequence is proposed as new osteoblast adhesive peptide with increased bioactivity and high proteolytic resistance.

  10. Comparing Proteolytic Fingerprints of Antigen-Presenting Cells during Allergen Processing.

    PubMed

    Hofer, Heidi; Weidinger, Tamara; Briza, Peter; Asam, Claudia; Wolf, Martin; Twaroch, Teresa E; Stolz, Frank; Neubauer, Angela; Dall, Elfriede; Hammerl, Peter; Jacquet, Alain; Wallner, Michael

    2017-06-08

    Endolysosomal processing has a critical influence on immunogenicity as well as immune polarization of protein antigens. In industrialized countries, allergies affect around 25% of the population. For the rational design of protein-based allergy therapeutics for immunotherapy, a good knowledge of T cell-reactive regions on allergens is required. Thus, we sought to analyze endolysosomal degradation patterns of inhalant allergens. Four major allergens from ragweed, birch, as well as house dust mites were produced as recombinant proteins. Endolysosomal proteases were purified by differential centrifugation from dendritic cells, macrophages, and B cells, and combined with allergens for proteolytic processing. Thereafter, endolysosomal proteolysis was monitored by protein gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry. We found that the overall proteolytic activity of specific endolysosomal fractions differed substantially, whereas the degradation patterns of the four model allergens obtained with the different proteases were extremely similar. Moreover, previously identified T cell epitopes were assigned to endolysosomal peptides and indeed showed a good overlap with known T cell epitopes for all four candidate allergens. Thus, we propose that the degradome assay can be used as a predictor to determine antigenic peptides as potential T cell epitopes, which will help in the rational design of protein-based allergy vaccine candidates.

  11. Comparing Proteolytic Fingerprints of Antigen-Presenting Cells during Allergen Processing

    PubMed Central

    Hofer, Heidi; Weidinger, Tamara; Briza, Peter; Asam, Claudia; Wolf, Martin; Twaroch, Teresa E.; Stolz, Frank; Neubauer, Angela; Dall, Elfriede; Hammerl, Peter; Jacquet, Alain; Wallner, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Endolysosomal processing has a critical influence on immunogenicity as well as immune polarization of protein antigens. In industrialized countries, allergies affect around 25% of the population. For the rational design of protein-based allergy therapeutics for immunotherapy, a good knowledge of T cell-reactive regions on allergens is required. Thus, we sought to analyze endolysosomal degradation patterns of inhalant allergens. Four major allergens from ragweed, birch, as well as house dust mites were produced as recombinant proteins. Endolysosomal proteases were purified by differential centrifugation from dendritic cells, macrophages, and B cells, and combined with allergens for proteolytic processing. Thereafter, endolysosomal proteolysis was monitored by protein gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry. We found that the overall proteolytic activity of specific endolysosomal fractions differed substantially, whereas the degradation patterns of the four model allergens obtained with the different proteases were extremely similar. Moreover, previously identified T cell epitopes were assigned to endolysosomal peptides and indeed showed a good overlap with known T cell epitopes for all four candidate allergens. Thus, we propose that the degradome assay can be used as a predictor to determine antigenic peptides as potential T cell epitopes, which will help in the rational design of protein-based allergy vaccine candidates. PMID:28594355

  12. Effects of mastic resin and its essential oil on the growth of proteolytic Clostridium botulinum.

    PubMed

    Daifas, Daphne Phillips; Smith, James P; Blanchfield, Burke; Sanders, Greg; Austin, John W; Koukoutisis, John

    2004-08-01

    Studies were done to determine the effect of mastic resin and its essential oil, alone and in conjunction with ethanol, on the growth of proteolytic strains of Clostridium botulinum in media, and on neurotoxin production in challenge studies with English-style crumpets. Preliminary studies, using a spot-on-the-lawn method, indicated that high levels of mastic resin in ethanol ( approximately 8% w/w) were required for complete inhibition of all strains of C. botulinum tested, but mastic resin in ethanol had a greater anti-botulinal effect than ethanol alone. However, only low levels of mastic oil ( approximately 0.3% v/v) were required for inhibition of proteolytic strains of C. botulinum. Both studies showed a strain specific inhibition, with C. botulinum type A strains being more sensitive to mastic resin and its essential oil than type B strains. However, mastic resin in ethanol proved to be more effective when used as a vapor phase inhibitor applied to cotton pads and placed inside inoculated plates than when added directly to media. While both mastic resin and its essential oil inhibited the growth of proteolytic strains of C. botulinum in vitro, they failed to inhibit neurotoxin production in challenge studies with C. botulinum in English-style crumpets.

  13. Impact of new ingredients obtained from brewer's spent yeast on bread characteristics.

    PubMed

    Martins, Z E; Pinho, O; Ferreira, I M P L V O

    2018-05-01

    The impact of bread fortification with β-glucans and with proteins/proteolytic enzymes from brewers' spent yeast on physical characteristics was evaluated. β-Glucans extraction from spent yeast cell wall was optimized and the extract was incorporated on bread to obtain 2.02 g β-glucans/100 g flour, in order to comply with the European Food Safety Authority guidelines. Protein/proteolytic enzymes extract from spent yeast was added to bread at 60 U proteolytic activity/100 g flour. Both β-glucans rich and proteins/proteolytic enzymes extracts favoured browning of bread crust. However, breads with proteins/proteolytic enzymes addition presented lower specific volume, whereas the incorporation of β-glucans in bread lead to uniform pores that was also noticeble in terms of higher specific volume. Overall, the improvement of nutritional/health promoting properties is highlighted with β-glucan rich extract, not only due to bread β-glucan content but also for total dietary fibre content (39% increase). The improvement was less noticeable for proteins/proteolytic enzymes extract. Only a 6% increase in bread protein content was noted with the addition of this extract and higher protein content would most likely accentuate the negative impact on bread specific volume that in turn could impair consumer acceptance. Therefore, only β-glucan rich extract is a promising bread ingredient.

  14. Chitosan Nanoencapsulated Exogenous Trypsin Biomimics Zymogen-Like Enzyme in Fish Gastrointestinal Tract

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Arvind R.; Ferosekhan, S.; Kothari, Dushyant C.; Pal, Asim Kumar; Jadhao, Sanjay Balkrishna

    2013-01-01

    Exogenous proteolytic enzyme supplementation is required in certain disease conditions in humans and animals and due to compelling reasons on use of more plant protein ingredients and profitability in animal feed industry. However, limitations on their utility in diet are imposed by their pH specificity, thermolabile nature, inhibition due to a variety of factors and the possibility of intestinal damage. For enhancing the efficacy and safety of exogenous trypsin, an efficient chitosan (0.04%) nanoencapsulation-based controlled delivery system was developed. An experiment was conducted for 45 days to evaluate nanoencapsulated trypsin (0.01% and 0.02%) along with 0.02% bare trypsin and 0.4% chitosan nanoparticles against a control diet on productive efficiency (growth rate, feed conversion and protein efficiency ratio), organo-somatic indices, nutrient digestibility, tissue enzyme activities, hematic parameters and intestinal histology of the fish Labeo rohita. All the synthesized nanoparticles were of desired characteristics. Enhanced fish productive efficiency using nanoencapsulated trypsin over its bare form was noticed, which corresponded with enhanced (P<0.01) nutrient digestibility, activity of intestinal protease, liver and muscle tissue transaminases (alanine and aspartate) and dehydrogenases (lactate and malate), serum blood urea nitrogen and serum protein profile. Intestinal tissues of fish fed with 0.02% bare trypsin showed broadened, marked foamy cells with lipid vacuoles. However, villi were healthier in appearance with improved morphological features in fish fed with nanoencapsulated trypsin than with bare trypsin, and the villi were longer in fish fed with 0.01% nanoencapsulated trypsin than with 0.02% nanoencapsulated trypsin. The result of this premier experiment shows that nanoencapsulated trypsin mimics zymogen-like proteolytic activity via controlled release, and hence the use of 0.01% nanoencapsulated trypsin (in chitosan nanoparticles) over bare

  15. Chitosan nanoencapsulated exogenous trypsin biomimics zymogen-like enzyme in fish gastrointestinal tract.

    PubMed

    Kumari, Rakhi; Gupta, Subodh; Singh, Arvind R; Ferosekhan, S; Kothari, Dushyant C; Pal, Asim Kumar; Jadhao, Sanjay Balkrishna

    2013-01-01

    Exogenous proteolytic enzyme supplementation is required in certain disease conditions in humans and animals and due to compelling reasons on use of more plant protein ingredients and profitability in animal feed industry. However, limitations on their utility in diet are imposed by their pH specificity, thermolabile nature, inhibition due to a variety of factors and the possibility of intestinal damage. For enhancing the efficacy and safety of exogenous trypsin, an efficient chitosan (0.04%) nanoencapsulation-based controlled delivery system was developed. An experiment was conducted for 45 days to evaluate nanoencapsulated trypsin (0.01% and 0.02%) along with 0.02% bare trypsin and 0.4% chitosan nanoparticles against a control diet on productive efficiency (growth rate, feed conversion and protein efficiency ratio), organo-somatic indices, nutrient digestibility, tissue enzyme activities, hematic parameters and intestinal histology of the fish Labeo rohita. All the synthesized nanoparticles were of desired characteristics. Enhanced fish productive efficiency using nanoencapsulated trypsin over its bare form was noticed, which corresponded with enhanced (P<0.01) nutrient digestibility, activity of intestinal protease, liver and muscle tissue transaminases (alanine and aspartate) and dehydrogenases (lactate and malate), serum blood urea nitrogen and serum protein profile. Intestinal tissues of fish fed with 0.02% bare trypsin showed broadened, marked foamy cells with lipid vacuoles. However, villi were healthier in appearance with improved morphological features in fish fed with nanoencapsulated trypsin than with bare trypsin, and the villi were longer in fish fed with 0.01% nanoencapsulated trypsin than with 0.02% nanoencapsulated trypsin. The result of this premier experiment shows that nanoencapsulated trypsin mimics zymogen-like proteolytic activity via controlled release, and hence the use of 0.01% nanoencapsulated trypsin (in chitosan nanoparticles) over bare

  16. In vitro analysis of protection of the enzyme bile salt hydrolase against enteric conditions by whey protein-gum arabic microencapsulation.

    PubMed

    Lambert, J M; Weinbreck, F; Kleerebezem, M

    2008-09-24

    The interest in efficient intestinal delivery of health-promoting substances is increasing. However, the delivery of vulnerable substances such as enzymes requires specific attention. The transit through the stomach, where the pH is very low, can be detrimental to the enzymatic activity of the protein to be delivered. Here, we describe the microencapsulation of the model enzyme bile salt hydrolase (Bsh) using whey protein-gum arabic microencapsulates for food-grade and targeted enzyme delivery in the proximal region of the small intestine. Furthermore, the efficacy of enteric coating microencapsulates for site-specific enzyme delivery was compared in vitro with living Lactobacillus plantarum WCFS1 bacteria that endogenously produce the Bsh enzyme. Microencapsulates allowed highly effective protection of the enzyme under gastric conditions. Moreover, Bsh release under intestinal conditions appeared to be very efficient, although in the presence of pancreatin, the Bsh activity decreased in time due to proteolytic degradation. In comparison, L. plantarum appeared to be capable to withstand gastric conditions as well as pancreatin challenge. Delivery using encapsulates and live bacteria each have different (dis)advantages that are discussed. In conclusion, live bacteria and food-grade microencapsulates provide alternatives for dedicated enteric delivery of specific enzymes, and the choice of enzyme to be delivered may determine which mode of delivery is most suitable.

  17. Biogrid--a microfluidic device for large-scale enzyme-free dissociation of stem cell aggregates.

    PubMed

    Wallman, Lars; Åkesson, Elisabet; Ceric, Dario; Andersson, Per Henrik; Day, Kelly; Hovatta, Outi; Falci, Scott; Laurell, Thomas; Sundström, Erik

    2011-10-07

    Culturing stem cells as free-floating aggregates in suspension facilitates large-scale production of cells in closed systems, for clinical use. To comply with GMP standards, the use of substances such as proteolytic enzymes should be avoided. Instead of enzymatic dissociation, the growing cell aggregates may be mechanically cut at passage, but available methods are not compatible with large-scale cell production and hence translation into the clinic becomes a severe bottle-neck. We have developed the Biogrid device, which consists of an array of micrometerscale knife edges, micro-fabricated in silicon, and a manifold in which the microgrid is placed across the central fluid channel. By connecting one side of the Biogrid to a syringe or a pump and the other side to the cell culture, the culture medium with suspended cell aggregates can be aspirated, forcing the aggregates through the microgrid, and ejected back to the cell culture container. Large aggregates are thereby dissociated into smaller fragments while small aggregates pass through the microgrid unaffected. As proof-of-concept, we demonstrate that the Biogrid device can be successfully used for repeated passage of human neural stem/progenitor cells cultured as so-called neurospheres, as well as for passage of suspension cultures of human embryonic stem cells. We also show that human neural stem/progenitor cells tolerate transient pressure changes far exceeding those that will occur in a fluidic system incorporating the Biogrid microgrids. Thus, by using the Biogrid device it is possible to mechanically passage large quantities of cells in suspension cultures in closed fluidic systems, without the use of proteolytic enzymes.

  18. Enzymes in human milk

    PubMed Central

    Dallas, David C.; German, J. Bruce

    2017-01-01

    Milk proteins are a complex and diverse source of biological activities. Beyond their function intact, milk proteins also act as carriers of encrypted functional sequences that when released as peptides exert biological functions, including antimicrobial and immunomodulatory, which could contribute to the infant’s competitive success. Research has now revealed that the release of these functional peptides begins within the mammary gland itself. A complex array of proteases produced in mother’s milk have been shown to be active in the milk, releasing these peptides. Moreover, our recent research demonstrates that these milk proteases continue to digest milk proteins within the infant’s stomach, possibly even to a larger extent than the infant’s own proteases. As the neonate has relatively low digestive capacity, the activity of milk proteases in the infant may provide important assistance to digesting milk proteins. The coordinated release of these encrypted sequences is accomplished by selective proteolytic action provided by an array of native milk proteases and infant-produced enzymes. The task for scientists is now to discover the selective advantages of this protein-protease based peptide release system. PMID:28346930

  19. Enzymes in Human Milk.

    PubMed

    Dallas, David C; German, J Bruce

    2017-01-01

    Milk proteins are a complex and diverse source of biological activities. Beyond their function, intact milk proteins also act as carriers of encrypted functional sequences that, when released as peptides, exert biological functions, including antimicrobial and immunomodulatory activity, which could contribute to the infant's competitive success. Research has now revealed that the release of these functional peptides begins within the mammary gland itself. A complex array of proteases produced in mother's milk has been shown to be active in the milk, releasing these peptides. Moreover, our recent research demonstrates that these milk proteases continue to digest milk proteins within the infant's stomach, possibly even to a larger extent than the infant's own proteases. As the neonate has relatively low digestive capacity, the activity of milk proteases in the infant may provide important assistance to digesting milk proteins. The coordinated release of these encrypted sequences is accomplished by selective proteolytic action provided by an array of native milk proteases and infant-produced enzymes. The task for scientists is now to discover the selective advantages of this protein-protease-based peptide release system. © 2017 Nestec Ltd., Vevey/S. Karger AG, Basel.

  20. Vacuolar processing enzyme in plant programmed cell death

    PubMed Central

    Hatsugai, Noriyuki; Yamada, Kenji; Goto-Yamada, Shino; Hara-Nishimura, Ikuko

    2015-01-01

    Vacuolar processing enzyme (VPE) is a cysteine proteinase originally identified as the proteinase responsible for the maturation and activation of vacuolar proteins in plants, and it is known to be an ortholog of animal asparaginyl endopeptidase (AEP/VPE/legumain). VPE has been shown to exhibit enzymatic properties similar to that of caspase 1, which is a cysteine protease that mediates the programmed cell death (PCD) pathway in animals. Although there is limited sequence identity between VPE and caspase 1, their predicted three-dimensional structures revealed that the essential amino-acid residues for these enzymes form similar pockets for the substrate peptide YVAD. In contrast to the cytosolic localization of caspases, VPE is localized in vacuoles. VPE provokes vacuolar rupture, initiating the proteolytic cascade leading to PCD in the plant immune response. It has become apparent that the VPE-dependent PCD pathway is involved not only in the immune response, but also in the responses to a variety of stress inducers and in the development of various tissues. This review summarizes the current knowledge on the contribution of VPE to plant PCD and its role in vacuole-mediated cell death, and it also compares VPE with the animal cell death executor caspase 1. PMID:25914711

  1. Proteolytic Systems in Milk: Perspectives on the Evolutionary Function within the Mammary Gland and the Infant

    PubMed Central

    Dallas, David C.; Murray, Niamh M.; Gan, Junai

    2015-01-01

    Milk contains elements of numerous proteolytic systems (zymogens, active proteases, protease inhibitors and protease activators) produced in part from blood, in part by mammary epithelial cells and in part by immune cell secretion. Researchers have examined milk proteases for decades, as they can cause major defects in milk quality and cheese production. Most previous research has examined these proteases with the aim to eliminate or control their actions. However, our recent peptidomics research demonstrates that these milk proteases produce specific peptides in healthy milk and continue to function within the infant’s gastrointestinal tract. These findings suggest that milk proteases have an evolutionary function in aiding the infant’s digestion or releasing functional peptides. In other words, the mother provides the infant with not only dietary proteins but also the means to digest them. However, proteolysis in the milk is controlled by a balance of protease inhibitors and protease activators so that only a small portion of milk proteins are digested within the mammary gland. This regulation presents a question: If proteolysis is beneficial to the infant, what benefits are gained by preventing complete proteolysis through the presence of protease inhibitors? In addition to summarizing what is known about milk proteolytic systems, we explore possible evolutionary explanations for this proteolytic balance. PMID:26179272

  2. Processing of poultry feathers by alkaline keratin hydrolyzing enzyme from Serratia sp. HPC 1383.

    PubMed

    Khardenavis, Anshuman A; Kapley, Atya; Purohit, Hemant J

    2009-04-01

    The present study describes the production and characterization of a feather hydrolyzing enzyme by Serratia sp. HPC 1383 isolated from tannery sludge, which was identified by the ability to form clear zones around colonies on milk agar plates. The proteolytic activity was expressed in terms of the micromoles of tyrosine released from substrate casein per ml per min (U/mL min). Induction of the inoculum with protein was essential to stimulate higher activity of the enzyme, with 0.03% feathermeal in the inoculum resulting in increased enzyme activity (45U/mL) that further increased to 90U/mL when 3d old inoculum was used. The highest enzyme activity, 130U/mL, was observed in the presence of 0.2% yeast extract. The optimum assay temperature and pH for the enzyme were found to be 60 degrees C and 10.0, respectively. The enzyme had a half-life of 10min at 60 degrees C, which improved slightly to 18min in presence of 1mM Ca(2+). Inhibition of the enzyme by phenylmethyl sulfonyl fluoride (PMSF) indicated that the enzyme was a serine protease. The enzyme was also partially inhibited (39%) by the reducing agent beta-mercaptoethanol and by divalent metal ions such as Zn(2+) (41% inhibition). However, Ca(2+) and Fe(2+) resulted in increases in enzyme activity of 15% and 26%, respectively. The kinetic constants of the keratinase were found to be 3.84 microM (K(m)) and 108.7 microM/mLmin (V(max)). These results suggest that this extracellular keratinase may be a useful alternative and eco-friendly route for handling the abundant amount of waste feathers or for applications in other industrial processes.

  3. Proteolytic Degradation of Amyloid β-Protein

    PubMed Central

    Saido, Takaomi; Leissring, Malcolm A.

    2012-01-01

    The amyloid β-protein (Aβ) is subject to proteolytic degradation by a diverse array of peptidases and proteinases, known collectively as Aβ-degrading proteases (AβDPs). A growing number of AβDPs have been identified, which, under physiological and/or pathophysiological conditions, contribute significantly to the determination of endogenous cerebral Aβ levels. Despite more than a decade of investigation, the complete set of AβDPs remains to be established, and our understanding of even well-established AβDPs is incomplete. Nevertheless, the study of known AβDPs has contributed importantly to our understanding of the molecular pathogenesis of Alzheimer disease (AD) and has inspired the development of several novel therapeutic approaches to the regulation of cerebral Aβ levels. In this article, we discuss the general features of Aβ degradation and introduce the best-characterized AβDPs, focusing on their diverse properties and the numerous conceptual insights that have emerged from the study of each. PMID:22675659

  4. HIV-1 protease has a genetic T-cell adjuvant effect which is negatively regulated by proteolytic activity.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kwang Soon; Jin, Dong Bin; Ahn, So Shin; Park, Ki Seok; Seo, Sang Hwan; Suh, You Suk; Sung, Young Chul

    2010-08-01

    HIV protease (PR) mediates the processing of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) polyproteins and is necessary for the viral production. Recently, HIV PR was shown to possess both cytotoxic and chaperone like activity. We demonstrate here that HIV PR can serve as a genetic adjuvant that enhances the HIV Env and human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA vaccine-induced T-cell response in a dose-dependent manner, only when codelivered with DNA vaccine. Interestingly, the T-cell adjuvant effects of HIV PR were increased by introducing several mutations that inhibited its proteolytic activity, indicating that the adjuvant properties were inversely correlated with its proteolytic activity. Conversely, the introduction of a mutation in the flap region of HIV PR limiting the access to the core domain of HIV PR inhibited the T-cell adjuvant effect, suggesting that the HIV PR chaperone like activity may play a role in mediating T-cell adjuvant properties. A similar adjuvant effect was also observed in adenovirus vaccine, indicating vaccine type independency. These findings suggest that HIV PR can modulate T-cell responses elicited by a gene-based vaccine positively by inherent chaperone like activity and negatively by its proteolytic activity.

  5. Blending protein separation and peptide analysis through real-time proteolytic digestion.

    PubMed

    Slysz, Gordon W; Schriemer, David C

    2005-03-15

    Typical liquid- or gel-based protein separations require enzymatic digestion as an important first step in generating protein identifications. Traditional protocols involve long-term proteolytic digestion of the separated protein, often leading to sample loss and reduced sensitivity. Previously, we presented a rapid method of proteolytic digestion that showed excellent digestion of resistant and low concentrations of protein without requiring reduction and alkylation. Here, we demonstrate on-line, real-time tryptic digestion in conjunction with reversed-phase protein separation. The studies were aimed at optimizing pH and ionic strength and the size of the digestion element, to produce maximal protein digestion with minimal effects on chromatographic integrity. Upon establishing optimal conditions, the digestion element was attached downstream from a capillary C4 reversed-phase column. A four-protein mixture was processed through the combined system, and the resulting peptides were analyzed on-line by electrospray mass spectrometry. Extracted ion chromatograms for protein chromatography based on peptide elution were generated. These were shown to emulate ion chromatograms produced in a subsequent run without the digestion element, based on protein elution. The methodology will enable rapid and sensitive analysis of liquid-based protein separations using the power of bottom-up proteomics methodologies.

  6. Autoantibodies against mouse bromelain-modified RBC are specifically inhibited by a common membrane phospholipid, phosphatidylcholine.

    PubMed Central

    Cox, K O; Hardy, S J

    1985-01-01

    Sera from mice injected 4 days earlier with lipopolysaccharide lysed mouse RBC treated with bromelain (brom). This lytic activity was totally inhibited by including phosphatidylcholine at final concentrations of about 2 micrograms/ml, or more, in the lytic mixtures. In contrast, the lytic activity of antibodies against rat RBC was not inhibited, even at concentrations of phosphatidylcholine up to 2.5 mg/ml. Various components of the phosphatidylcholine molecule, and other lipids including the closely-related molecule dipalmitoyl phosphatidyl-dimethyl-ethanolamine which is identical to dipalmitoyl phosphatidylcholine, except for the absence of a CH2 group on the polar head group, did not inhibit lysis by the autoantibodies. Autoantibodies against mouse brom RBC, but not antibodies against rat RBC, bound to, and could be eluted from, phosphatidylcholine molecules attached to an insoluble matrix. Liposomes of phosphatidylcholine prepared in the presence of phosphatidic acid or phosphatidylinositol did not inhibit the lysis of mouse brom RBC by autoantibodies to the same extent as liposomes of only phosphatidylcholine. This suggests that phosphatidylcholine is recognized by the autoantibodies only if presented in a certain configuration. We suggest that the function of these autoantibodies may be to facilitate the removal of membrane-damaged cells from the body. Such cells may arise by the process of ageing, or because of the effects of infectious agents such as viruses. PMID:4007927

  7. Concentration-dependent antagonistic persuasion of SDS and naphthalene derivatives on the fibrillation of stem bromelain.

    PubMed

    Qadeer, Atiyatul; Ahmad, Ejaz; Zaman, Masihuz; Khan, Mohd Wasif; Khan, Javed Masood; Rabbani, Gulam; Tarique, Khaja Faisal; Sharma, Gaurav; Gourinath, Samudrala; Nadeem, Sajid; Badr, Gamal; Khan, Rizwan Hasan

    2013-12-01

    Sodium dodecyl sulfate, a biological membrane mimetic, can be used to study the conversion of globular proteins into amyloid fibrils in vitro. Using multiple approaches, the effect of SDS was examined on stem bromelain (SB), a widely recognized therapeutic protein. SB is known to exist as a partially folded intermediate at pH 2.0, situation also encountered in the gastrointestinal tract (its site of absorption). In the presence of sub-micellar SDS concentration (500-1000 μM), this intermediate was found to exhibit great propensity to form large-sized β-sheeted aggregates with fibrillar morphology, the hall marks of amyloid structure. We also observed inhibition of fibrillation by two naphthalene-based compounds, ANS and bis-ANS. While bis-ANS significantly inhibited fibril formation at 50 μM, ANS did so at relatively higher concentration (400 μM). Alcohols, but not salts, were found to weaken the inhibitory action of these compounds suggesting the possible involvement of hydrophobic interactions in their binding to protein. Besides, isothermal titration calorimetry and molecular docking studies suggested that inhibition of fibrillation by these naphthalene derivatives is mediated not just through hydrophobic forces, but also by disruption of π-π interactions between the aromatic residues together with the inter-polypeptide chain repulsion among negatively charged ANS/bis-ANS bound SB. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Molecular features determining different partitioning patterns of papain and bromelain in aqueous two-phase systems.

    PubMed

    Rocha, Maria Victoria; Nerli, Bibiana Beatriz

    2013-10-01

    The partitioning patterns of papain (PAP) and bromelain (BR), two well-known cysteine-proteases, in polyethyleneglycol/sodium citrate aqueous two-phase systems (ATPSs) were determined. Polyethyleneglycols of different molecular weight (600, 1000, 2000, 4600 and 8000) were assayed. Thermodynamic characterization of partitioning process, spectroscopy measurements and computational calculations of protein surface properties were also carried out in order to explain their differential partitioning behavior. PAP was observed to be displaced to the salt-enriched phase in all the assayed systems with partition coefficients (KpPAP) values between 0.2 and 0.9, while BR exhibited a high affinity for the polymer phase in systems formed by PEGs of low molecular weight (600 and 1000) with partition coefficients (KpBR) values close to 3. KpBR values resulted higher than KpPAP in all the cases. This difference could be assigned neither to the charge nor to the size of the partitioned biomolecules since PAP and BR possess similar molecular weight (23,000) and isoelectric point (9.60). The presence of highly exposed tryptophans and positively charged residues (Lys, Arg and His) in BR molecule would be responsible for a charge transfer interaction between PEG and the protein and, therefore, the uneven distribution of BR in these systems. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Regulation of enzyme activities in carnivorous pitcher plants of the genus Nepenthes.

    PubMed

    Saganová, Michaela; Bokor, Boris; Stolárik, Tibor; Pavlovič, Andrej

    2018-05-16

    Nepenthes regulates enzyme activities by sensing stimuli from the insect prey. Protein is the best inductor mimicking the presence of an insect prey. Carnivorous plants of the genus Nepenthes have evolved passive pitcher traps for prey capture. In this study, we investigated the ability of chemical signals from a prey (chitin, protein, and ammonium) to induce transcription and synthesis of digestive enzymes in Nepenthes × Mixta. We used real-time PCR and specific antibodies generated against the aspartic proteases nepenthesins, and type III and type IV chitinases to investigate the induction of digestive enzyme synthesis in response to different chemical stimuli from the prey. Transcription of nepenthesins was strongly induced by ammonium, protein and live prey; chitin induced transcription only very slightly. This is in accordance with the amount of released enzyme and proteolytic activity in the digestive fluid. Although transcription of type III chitinase was induced by all investigated stimuli, a significant accumulation of the enzyme in the digestive fluid was found mainly after protein and live prey addition. Protein and live prey were also the best inducers for accumulation of type IV chitinase in the digestive fluid. Although ammonium strongly induced transcription of all investigated genes probably through membrane depolarization, strong acidification of the digestive fluid affected stability and abundance of both chitinases in the digestive fluid. The study showed that the proteins are universal inductors of enzyme activities in carnivorous pitcher plants best mimicking the presence of insect prey. This is not surprising, because proteins are a much valuable source of nitrogen, superior to chitin. Extensive vesicular activity was observed in prey-activated glands.

  10. Proteolytic degradation of regulator of G protein signaling 2 facilitates temporal regulation of Gq/11 signaling and vascular contraction.

    PubMed

    Kanai, Stanley M; Edwards, Alethia J; Rurik, Joel G; Osei-Owusu, Patrick; Blumer, Kendall J

    2017-11-24

    Regulator of G protein signaling 2 (RGS2) controls signaling by receptors coupled to the G q/11 class heterotrimeric G proteins. RGS2 deficiency causes several phenotypes in mice and occurs in several diseases, including hypertension in which a proteolytically unstable RGS2 mutant has been reported. However, the mechanisms and functions of RGS2 proteolysis remain poorly understood. Here we addressed these questions by identifying degradation signals in RGS2, and studying dynamic regulation of G q/11 -evoked Ca 2+ signaling and vascular contraction. We identified a novel bipartite degradation signal in the N-terminal domain of RGS2. Mutations disrupting this signal blunted proteolytic degradation downstream of E3 ubiquitin ligase binding to RGS2. Analysis of RGS2 mutants proteolyzed at various rates and the effects of proteasome inhibition indicated that proteolytic degradation controls agonist efficacy by setting RGS2 protein expression levels, and affecting the rate at which cells regain agonist responsiveness as synthesis of RGS2 stops. Analyzing contraction of mesenteric resistance arteries supported the biological relevance of this mechanism. Because RGS2 mRNA expression often is strikingly and transiently up-regulated and then down-regulated upon cell stimulation, our findings indicate that proteolytic degradation tightly couples RGS2 transcription, protein levels, and function. Together these mechanisms provide tight temporal control of G q/11 -coupled receptor signaling in the cardiovascular, immune, and nervous systems. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  11. Soybean P34 Probable Thiol Protease Probably Has Proteolytic Activity on Oleosins.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Luping; Kong, Xiangzhen; Zhang, Caimeng; Hua, Yufei; Chen, Yeming

    2017-07-19

    P34 probable thiol protease (P34) and Gly m Bd 30K (30K) show high relationship with the protease of 24 kDa oleosin of soybean oil bodies. In this study, 9 day germinated soybean was used to separate bioprocessed P34 (P32) from bioprocessed 30K (28K). Interestingly, P32 existed as dimer, whereas 28K existed as monomer; a P32-rich sample had proteolytic activity and high cleavage site specificity (Lys-Thr of 24 kDa oleosin), whereas a 28K-rich sample showed low proteolytic activity; the P32-rich sample contained one thiol protease. After mixing with purified oil bodies, all P32 dimers were dissociated and bound to 24 kDa oleosins to form P32-24 kDa oleosin complexes. By incubation, 24 kDa oleosin was preferentially hydrolyzed, and two hydrolyzed products (HPs; 17 and 7 kDa) were confirmed. After most of 24 kDa oleosin was hydrolyzed, some P32 existed as dimer, and the other as P32-17 kDa HP. It was suggested that P32 was the protease.

  12. Effect of the electrical currents generated by the intestinal smooth muscle layers on pancreatic enzyme activity: an in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Dabek, Marta; Podgurniak, Paweł; Piedra, Jose L Valverde; Szymańczyk, Sylwia; Filip, Rafał; Wojtasz-Pajak, Anna; Werpachowska, Eliza; Podgurniak, Malgorzata; Pierzynowski, Stefan G

    2007-05-01

    Gut enzymes in the small intestine are exposed to extremely low electrical currents (ELEC) generated by the smooth muscle. In the present study, the in vitro tests were undertaken to evaluate the effect of these electric currents on the activity of the proteolytic pancreatic digestive enzymes. A simulator generating the typical electrical activity of pig gut was used for these studies. The electric current emitted by the simulator was transmitted to the samples, containing enzyme and its substrate, using platinum plate electrodes. All samples were incubated at 37 degrees C for 1 h. The changes in optical density, corresponding to enzyme activity, in samples stimulated for 1 h with ELEC was compared with that not exposed to ELEC. The obtained results show that the electrical current with the characteristics of the myoelectrical migrating complex (MMC) has an influence on pancreatic enzyme activity. Increased endopeptidase and reduced exopeptidase activity was noticed in samples treated with ELEC. This observation can be of important as analyzed factors which can alter enzymatic activity of the gut, can thus also affect feed/food digestibility. (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  13. Complementary Proteomic and Biochemical Analysis of Peptidases in Lobster Gastric Juice Uncovers the Functional Role of Individual Enzymes in Food Digestion.

    PubMed

    Bibo-Verdugo, Betsaida; O'Donoghue, Anthony J; Rojo-Arreola, Liliana; Craik, Charles S; García-Carreño, Fernando

    2016-04-01

    Crustaceans are a diverse group, distributed in widely variable environmental conditions for which they show an equally extensive range of biochemical adaptations. Some digestive enzymes have been studied by purification/characterization approaches. However, global analysis is crucial to understand how digestive enzymes interplay. Here, we present the first proteomic analysis of the digestive fluid from a crustacean (Homarus americanus) and identify glycosidases and peptidases as the most abundant classes of hydrolytic enzymes. The digestion pathway of complex carbohydrates was predicted by comparing the lobster enzymes to similar enzymes from other crustaceans. A novel and unbiased substrate profiling approach was used to uncover the global proteolytic specificity of gastric juice and determine the contribution of cysteine and aspartic acid peptidases. These enzymes were separated by gel electrophoresis and their individual substrate specificities uncovered from the resulting gel bands. This new technique is called zymoMSP. Each cysteine peptidase cleaves a set of unique peptide bonds and the S2 pocket determines their substrate specificity. Finally, affinity chromatography was used to enrich for a digestive cathepsin D1 to compare its substrate specificity and cold-adapted enzymatic properties to mammalian enzymes. We conclude that the H. americanus digestive peptidases may have useful therapeutic applications, due to their cold-adaptation properties and ability to hydrolyze collagen.

  14. Three phase partitioning of zingibain, a milk-clotting enzyme from Zingiber officinale Roscoe rhizomes.

    PubMed

    Gagaoua, Mohammed; Hoggas, Naouel; Hafid, Kahina

    2015-02-01

    The present work describes for the first time an elegant non-chromatographic method, the three phase partitioning for the purification and recovery of zingibain, a milk-clotting enzyme, from Zingiber officinale rhizomes. Factors affecting partitioning efficiency such as (NH4)2SO4 saturation, crude extract to t-butanol ratio and pH on zingibain partitioning were investigated. Optimal purification parameters were 50% (NH4)2SO4 saturation with 1.0:1.0 ratio of crude extract:t-butanol at pH 7.0, which gave 14.91 purification fold with 215% recovery of zingibain. The enzyme was found to be exclusively partitioned in the aqueous phase. The enzyme showed a prominent single band on SDS-PAGE. It is a monomeric protein of 33.8 kDa and its isoelectric point is 4.38. The enzyme exhibited maximal proteolytic activity at a temperature of 60 °C and pH 7.0. It was found to be stable at 40-65 °C during 2 h. The enzyme was found to be highly stable against numerous metal ions and its activity was enhanced by Ca(2+), K(+) and Na(+). It was completely inhibited by heavy metal ions such as Cu(2+) and Hg(2+) and partially by Cd(+). Zingibain milk-clotting activity (MCA) was found to be highly stable when stored under freezing (-20 °C) for 30 days compared at 4 °C. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Impact of Insulin Degrading Enzyme and Neprilysin in Alzheimer's Disease Biology: Characterization of Putative Cognates for Therapeutic Applications.

    PubMed

    Jha, Niraj Kumar; Jha, Saurabh Kumar; Kumar, Dhiraj; Kejriwal, Noopur; Sharma, Renu; Ambasta, Rashmi K; Kumar, Pravir

    2015-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative process primarily characterized by amyloid-β (Aβ) agglomeration, neuroinflammation, and cognitive dysfunction. The prominent cause for dementia is the deposition of Aβ plaques and tau-neurofibrillary tangles that hamper the neuronal organization and function. Aβ pathology further affects numerous signaling cascades that disturb the neuronal homeostasis. For instance, Aβ deposition is responsible for altered expression of insulin encoding genes that lead to insulin resistance, and thereby affecting insulin signaling pathway and glucose metabolism in the brain. As a result, the common pathology of insulin resistance between Type-2 diabetes mellitus and AD has led AD to be proposed as a form of diabetes and termed 'Type-3 diabetes'. Since accumulation of Aβ is the prominent cause of neuronal toxicity in AD, its clearance is the prime requisite for therapeutic prospects. This purpose is expertly fulfilled by the potential role of Aβ degrading enzymes such as insulin degrading enzyme (IDE) and Neprilysin (NEP). Therefore, their molecular study is important to uncover the proteolytic and regulatory mechanism of Aβ degradation. Herein, (i) In silico sequential and structural analysis of IDE and NEP has been performed to identify the molecular entities for proteolytic degradation of Aβ in the AD brain, (ii) to analyze their catalytic site to demonstrate the enzymatic action played by IDE and NEP, (iii) to identify their structural homologues that could behave as putative partners of IDE and NEP with similar catalytic action and (iv) to illustrate various IDE- and NEP-mediated therapeutic approaches and factors for clearing Aβ in AD.

  16. Anti-Inflammatory and Antioxidant Properties of Casein Hydrolysate Produced Using High Hydrostatic Pressure Combined with Proteolytic Enzymes.

    PubMed

    Bamdad, Fatemeh; Shin, Seulki Hazel; Suh, Joo-Won; Nimalaratne, Chamila; Sunwoo, Hoon

    2017-04-10

    Casein-derived peptides are shown to possess radical scavenging and metal chelating properties. The objective of this study was to evaluate novel anti-inflammatory properties of casein hydrolysates (CH) produced by an eco-friendly process that combines high hydrostatic pressure with enzymatic hydrolysis (HHP-EH). Casein was hydrolysed by different proteases, including flavourzyme (Fla), savinase (Sav), thermolysin (Ther), trypsin (Try), and elastase (Ela) at 0.1, 50, 100, and 200 MPa pressure levels under various enzyme-to-substrate ratios and incubation times. Casein hydrolysates were evaluated for the degree of hydrolysis (DH), molecular weight distribution patterns, and anti-inflammatory properties in chemical and cellular models. Hydrolysates produced using HHP-EH exhibited higher DH values and proportions of smaller peptides compared to atmospheric pressure-enzymatic hydrolysis (AP-EH). Among five enzymes, Fla-digested HHP-EH-CH (HHP-Fla-CH) showed significantly higher antioxidant properties than AP-Fla-CH. The anti-inflammatory properties of HHP-Fla-CH were also observed by significantly reduced nitric oxide and by the suppression of the synthesis of pro-inflammatory cytokines in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophage cells. Liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) revealed that 59% of the amino acids of the peptides in HHP-Fla-CH were composed of proline, valine, and leucine, indicating the potential anti-inflammatory properties. In conclusion, the HHP-EH method provides a promising technology to produce bioactive peptides from casein in an eco-friendly process.

  17. Endocytosis Plays a Critical Role in Proteolytic Processing of the Hendra Virus Fusion Protein

    PubMed Central

    Meulendyke, Kelly Ann; Wurth, Mark Allen; McCann, Richard O.; Dutch, Rebecca Ellis

    2005-01-01

    The Hendra virus fusion (F) protein is synthesized as a precursor protein, F0, which is proteolytically processed to the mature form, F1+F2. Unlike the case for the majority of paramyxovirus F proteins, the processing event is furin independent, does not require the addition of exogenous proteases, is not affected by reductions in intracellular Ca2+, and is strongly affected by conditions that raise the intracellular pH (C. T. Pager, M. A. Wurth, and R. E. Dutch, J. Virol. 78:9154-9163, 2004). The Hendra virus F protein cytoplasmic tail contains a consensus motif for endocytosis, YXXΦ. To analyze the potential role of endocytosis in the processing and membrane fusion promotion of the Hendra virus F protein, mutation of tyrosine 525 to alanine (Hendra virus F Y525A) or phenylalanine (Hendra virus F Y525F) was performed. The rate of endocytosis of Hendra virus F Y525A was significantly reduced compared to that of the wild-type (wt) F protein, confirming the functional importance of the endocytosis motif. An intermediate level of endocytosis was observed for Hendra virus F Y525F. Surprisingly, dramatic reductions in the rate of proteolytic processing were observed for Hendra virus F Y525A, although initial transport to the cell surface was not affected. The levels of surface expression for both Hendra virus F Y525A and Hendra virus F Y525F were higher than that of the wt protein, and these mutants displayed enhanced syncytium formation. These results suggest that endocytosis is critically important for Hendra virus F protein cleavage, representing a new paradigm for proteolytic processing of paramyxovirus F proteins. PMID:16188966

  18. [Hydrogen exchange and proteolytic degradation of ribonuclease A. Similarities and distinctions of the kinetic mechanisms].

    PubMed

    Abaturov, L V; Nosova, N G

    2007-01-01

    The studies by IR spectroscopy of the temperature dependence of the H-D exchange rate of the RNase A peptide NH atoms permit one to characterize two types of conformation fluctuations, local and global. A comparison with the temperature dependence of the proteolytic degradation rate of RNase A shows that similar in nature fluctuations allow for the H-D exchange of NH atoms and the splitting of peptide bonds of the native protein. In the low temperature region, both processes occur through local fluctuations, by way of the EX2 mechanism, and in the high temperature region, they occur through global fluctuations with the overall denaturation desorganization of the native structure, by way of the EX1 mechanism. The biphasic dependence of the rate of H-D exchange and proteolytic degradation of RNase A on urea concentration is also explained by the combination of local and global fluctuations.

  19. In vitro analysis of human immunodeficiency virus particle dissociation: gag proteolytic processing influences dissociation kinetics.

    PubMed

    Müller, Barbara; Anders, Maria; Reinstein, Jochen

    2014-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus particles undergo a step of proteolytic maturation, in which the main structural polyprotein Gag is cleaved into its mature subunits matrix (MA), capsid (CA), nucleocapsid (NC) and p6. Gag proteolytic processing is accompanied by a dramatic structural rearrangement within the virion, which is necessary for virus infectivity and has been proposed to proceed through a sequence of dissociation and reformation of the capsid lattice. Morphological maturation appears to be tightly regulated, with sequential cleavage events and two small spacer peptides within Gag playing important roles by regulating the disassembly of the immature capsid layer and formation of the mature capsid lattice. In order to measure the influence of individual Gag domains on lattice stability, we established Förster's resonance energy transfer (FRET) reporter virions and employed rapid kinetic FRET and light scatter measurements. This approach allowed us to measure dissociation properties of HIV-1 particles assembled in eukaryotic cells containing Gag proteins in different states of proteolytic processing. While the complex dissociation behavior of the particles prevented an assignment of kinetic rate constants to individual dissociation steps, our analyses revealed characteristic differences in the dissociation properties of the MA layer dependent on the presence of additional domains. The most striking effect observed here was a pronounced stabilization of the MA-CA layer mediated by the presence of the 14 amino acid long spacer peptide SP1 at the CA C-terminus, underlining the crucial role of this peptide for the resolution of the immature particle architecture.

  20. Hydrocarbon double-stapling remedies the proteolytic instability of a lengthy peptide therapeutic

    PubMed Central

    Bird, Gregory H.; Madani, Navid; Perry, Alisa F.; Princiotto, Amy M.; Supko, Jeffrey G.; He, Xiaoying; Gavathiotis, Evripidis; Sodroski, Joseph G.; Walensky, Loren D.

    2010-01-01

    The pharmacologic utility of lengthy peptides can be hindered by loss of bioactive structure and rapid proteolysis, which limits bioavailability. For example, enfuvirtide (Fuzeon, T20, DP178), a 36-amino acid peptide that inhibits human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection by effectively targeting the viral fusion apparatus, has been relegated to a salvage treatment option mostly due to poor in vivo stability and lack of oral bioavailability. To overcome the proteolytic shortcomings of long peptides as therapeutics, we examined the biophysical, biological, and pharmacologic impact of inserting all-hydrocarbon staples into an HIV-1 fusion inhibitor. We find that peptide double-stapling confers striking protease resistance that translates into markedly improved pharmacokinetic properties, including oral absorption. We determined that the hydrocarbon staples create a proteolytic shield by combining reinforcement of overall α-helical structure, which slows the kinetics of proteolysis, with complete blockade of peptide cleavage at constrained sites in the immediate vicinity of the staple. Importantly, double-stapling also optimizes the antiviral activity of HIV-1 fusion peptides and the antiproteolytic feature extends to other therapeutic peptide templates, such as the diabetes drug exenatide (Byetta). Thus, hydrocarbon double-stapling may unlock the therapeutic potential of natural bioactive polypeptides by transforming them into structurally fortified agents with enhanced bioavailability. PMID:20660316

  1. Alginate/polymethacrylate copolymer microparticles for the intestinal delivery of enzymes.

    PubMed

    Scocca, Sarah; Faustini, Massimo; Villani, Simona; Munari, Eleonora; Conte, Ubaldo; Russo, Vincenzo; Riccardi, Alessia; Vigo, Daniele; Torre, Maria Luisa

    2007-04-01

    Proteins administered orally must pass through the gastric environment in order to reach their site of absorption in the intestine. How to protect these exogenously administered proteins from the damaging effects of gastric acid and pepsin proteolytic activity, which often induce irreversible structural and functional alterations to the molecules, is an intriguing challenge. Another problem is the physical and chemical instability of proteins during some technological processes, which often involve the use of organic solvents or high temperatures. In this study we investigated the use of alginate microparticles containing one of two enzymes, an enteric polymer and a lyoprotectant for the intestinal delivery of proteins. The two enzymes tested in this protein delivery system were lactate dehydrogenase and alpha-amylase: the former was chosen because of its sensitivity to denaturation, the latter for its relevance in nutrition and medicine. A sodium alginate aqueous solution containing the enteric polymer, a lyoprotectant and the enzyme was either extruded or sprayed into a calcium chloride solution, with the resultant formation of beads and microspheres which were freeze-dried. About 90% of the enzyme activity was maintained during the process of loading the proteins into the microparticles and the subsequent freeze-drying process. The stability of the encapsulated enzyme in an acid medium and the enzymatic activity in an intestinal environment were then investigated by a dissolution test. This consisted of exposing the microparticles to simulated gastric fluid (pH 1.2) for 2 hours and to simulated intestinal fluid (pH 7.5+/-0.1) for 1 hour. The morphology of the microparticles did not change in the acid environment, whereas they completely dissolved within 3 min in the simulated intestinal fluid. Residual enzymatic activity after the test remained satisfactory for both enzymes. In conclusion, these microparticle systems offer promise for applications in human and

  2. Protein degradation following treatment with hydrogen peroxide.

    PubMed Central

    Fligiel, S. E.; Lee, E. C.; McCoy, J. P.; Johnson, K. J.; Varani, J.

    1984-01-01

    Pretreatment of hemoglobin with 50-5000 nmol hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) increased its susceptibility to proteolysis by a number of purified enzymes, including trypsin, chymotrypsin, elastase, and plasmin, and by the neutral protease of rat peritoneal leukocytes. Pretreatment of the protein substrate with catalase-inactivated H2O2 had no effect. Separation of the proteolytic fragments by G-75 Sephadex gel filtration indicated no apparent differences in the size distribution of the fragments produced by treatment with the H2O2/proteolytic enzyme combination as compared with enzyme treatment alone. A partially purified preparation of rat glomerular basement membrane was also treated with proteolytic enzyme alone or in combination with H2O2. As with the hemoglobin, pretreatment of the glomerular basement membrane with H2O2 increased its susceptibility to subsequent proteolytic attack. In addition, treatment of a basement membrane glycoprotein, fibronectin, with H2O2 also increased its sensitivity to subsequent proteolysis. These results suggest that in addition to their other proinflammatory activities, oxygen-derived metabolites may contribute to tissue destruction by altering the susceptibility of proteins to hydrolytic enzymes. Images Figure 1 PMID:6375392

  3. The effect of different acute muscle contraction regimens on the expression of muscle proteolytic signaling proteins and genes.

    PubMed

    Ato, Satoru; Makanae, Yuhei; Kido, Kohei; Sase, Kohei; Yoshii, Naomi; Fujita, Satoshi

    2017-08-01

    Previous studies have reported that different modes of muscle contraction (i.e., eccentric or concentric contraction) with similar contraction times can affect muscle proteolytic responses. However, the effect of different contraction modes on muscle proteolytic response under the same force-time integral (FTI: contraction force × time) has not been investigated. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of different contraction modes, with the same FTI, on acute proteolytic signaling responses. Eleven-week-old male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to eccentric (EC), concentric (CC), or isometric contraction (IC) groups. Different modes of muscle contraction were performed on the right gastrocnemius muscle using electrical stimulation, with the left muscle acting as a control. In order to apply an equivalent FTI, the number of stimulation sets was modified between the groups. Muscle samples were taken immediately and three hours after exercise. Phosphorylation of FoxO3a at Ser253 was significantly increased immediately after exercise compared to controls irrespective of contraction mode. The mRNA levels of the ubiquitin ligases, MuRF1, and MAFbx mRNA were unchanged by contraction mode or time. Phosphorylation of ULK1 at Ser317 (positive regulatory site) and Ser757 (negative regulatory site) was significantly increased compared to controls, immediately or 3 h after exercise, in all contraction modes. The autophagy markers (LC3B-II/I ratio and p62 expression) were unchanged, regardless of contraction mode. These data suggest that differences in contraction mode during resistance exercise with a constant FTI, are not factors in regulating proteolytic signaling in the early phase of skeletal muscle contraction. © 2017 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of The Physiological Society and the American Physiological Society.

  4. Matrix metalloproteinase-14 triggers an anti-inflammatory proteolytic cascade in endotoxemia.

    PubMed

    Aguirre, Alina; Blázquez-Prieto, Jorge; Amado-Rodriguez, Laura; López-Alonso, Inés; Batalla-Solís, Estefanía; González-López, Adrián; Sánchez-Pérez, Moisés; Mayoral-Garcia, Carlos; Gutiérrez-Fernández, Ana; Albaiceta, Guillermo M

    2017-05-01

    ᅟ: Matrix metalloproteinases can modulate the inflammatory response through processing of cyto- and chemokines. Among them, MMP-14 is a non-dispensable collagenase responsible for the activation of other enzymes, triggering a proteolytic cascade. To identify the role of MMP-14 during the pro-inflammatory response, wildtype and Mmp14 -/- mice were challenged with lipopolysaccharide. MMP-14 levels decreased after endotoxemia. Mutant animals showed 100% mortality, compared to 50% in wildtype mice. The increased mortality was related to a more severe lung injury, an impaired lung MMP-2 activation, and increased levels of the alarmin S100A9. There were no differences in the expression of other mediators including Il6, Cxcl2, Tgfb, Il10, or S100a8. A similar result was observed in lung explants of both genotypes cultured in presence of lipopolysaccharide. In this ex vivo model, exogenous activated MMP-2 ameliorated the observed increase in alarmins. Samples from septic patients showed a decrease in serum MMP-14 and activated MMP-2 compared to non-septic critically ill patients. These results demonstrate that the MMP-14-MMP-2 axis is downregulated during sepsis, leading to a proinflammatory response involving S100A9 and a more severe lung injury. This anti-inflammatory role of MMP-14 could have a therapeutic value in sepsis. • MMP-14 levels decrease in lungs from endotoxemic mice and serum from septic patients. • Mmp14 -/- mice show increased lung injury and mortality following endotoxemia. • Absence of Mmp14 decreases activated MMP-2 and increases S100A9 levels in lung tissue. • MMP-14 ameliorates inflammation by promoting S100A9 cleavage by activated MMP-2.

  5. Salivary digestive enzymes of the wheat bug, Eurygaster integriceps (Insecta: Hemiptera: Scutelleridae).

    PubMed

    Mehrabadi, Mohammad; Bandani, Ali Reza; Dastranj, Mehdi

    2014-06-01

    The digestive enzymes from salivary gland complexes (SGC) of Eurygaster integriceps, and their response to starvation and feeding were studied. Moreover, digestive amylases were partially purified and characterized by ammonium sulfate precipitation and gel filtration chromatography. The SGC are composed of two sections, the principal glands and accessory glands. The principal glands are further divided into the anterior lobes and posterior lobes. The SGC main enzyme was α-amylase, which hydrolyzed starch better than glycogen. The other carbohydrases were also present in the SGC complexes. Enzymatic activities toward mannose (α/β-mannosidases) were little in comparison to activities against glucose (α/β-glucosidases) and galactose (α/β-galactosidases), the latter being the greatest. Acid phosphatase showed higher activity than alkaline phosphatase. There was no measurable activity for lipase and aminopeptidase. Proteolytic activity was detected against general and specific protease substrates. Activities of all enzymes were increased in response to feeding in comparison to starved insects, revealing their induction and secretion in response to feeding pulse. The SGC amylases eluted in four major peaks and post-electrophoretic detection of the α-amylases demonstrated the existence of at least five isoamylases in the SGC. The physiological implication of these findings in pre-oral digestion of E. integriceps is discussed. Copyright © 2014 Académie des sciences. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. Multiplex profiling of tumor-associated proteolytic activity in serum of colorectal cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Yepes, Diego; Costina, Victor; Pilz, Lothar R; Hofheinz, Ralf; Neumaier, Michael; Findeisen, Peter

    2014-06-01

    The monitoring of tumor-associated protease activity in blood specimens has recently been proposed as new diagnostic tool in cancer research. In this paper, we describe the screening of a peptide library for identification of reporter peptides (RPs) that are selectively cleaved in serum specimens from colorectal cancer patients and investigate the benefits of RP multiplexing. A library of 144 RPs was constructed that contained amino acid sequences of abundant plasma proteins. Proteolytic cleavage of RPs was monitored with MS. Five RPs that were selectively cleaved in serum specimens from tumor patients were selected for further validation in serum specimens of colorectal tumor patients (n = 30) and nonmalignant controls (n = 60). RP spiking and subsequent quantification of proteolytic fragments with LC-MS showed good reproducibility with CVs always below 26%. The linear discriminant analysis and PCA revealed that a combination of RPs for diagnostic classification is superior to single markers. Classification accuracy reached 88% (79/90) when all five markers were combined. Functional protease profiling with RPs might improve the laboratory-based diagnosis, monitoring and prognosis of malignant disease, and has to be evaluated thoroughly in future studies. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Proteolytic dissection of Zab, the Z-DNA-binding domain of human ADAR1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwartz, T.; Lowenhaupt, K.; Kim, Y. G.; Li, L.; Brown, B. A. 2nd; Herbert, A.; Rich, A.

    1999-01-01

    Zalpha is a peptide motif that binds to Z-DNA with high affinity. This motif binds to alternating dC-dG sequences stabilized in the Z-conformation by means of bromination or supercoiling, but not to B-DNA. Zalpha is part of the N-terminal region of double-stranded RNA adenosine deaminase (ADAR1), a candidate enzyme for nuclear pre-mRNA editing in mammals. Zalpha is conserved in ADAR1 from many species; in each case, there is a second similar motif, Zbeta, separated from Zalpha by a more divergent linker. To investigate the structure-function relationship of Zalpha, its domain structure was studied by limited proteolysis. Proteolytic profiles indicated that Zalpha is part of a domain, Zab, of 229 amino acids (residues 133-361 in human ADAR1). This domain contains both Zalpha and Zbeta as well as a tandem repeat of a 49-amino acid linker module. Prolonged proteolysis revealed a minimal core domain of 77 amino acids (positions 133-209), containing only Zalpha, which is sufficient to bind left-handed Z-DNA; however, the substrate binding is strikingly different from that of Zab. The second motif, Zbeta, retains its structural integrity only in the context of Zab and does not bind Z-DNA as a separate entity. These results suggest that Zalpha and Zbeta act as a single bipartite domain. In the presence of substrate DNA, Zab becomes more resistant to proteases, suggesting that it adopts a more rigid structure when bound to its substrate, possibly with conformational changes in parts of the protein.

  8. Metabolism of Cryptic Peptides Derived from Neuropeptide FF Precursors: The Involvement of Insulin-Degrading Enzyme

    PubMed Central

    Grasso, Giuseppe; Mielczarek, Przemyslaw; Niedziolka, Magdalena; Silberring, Jerzy

    2014-01-01

    The term “cryptome” refers to the subset of cryptic peptides with bioactivities that are often unpredictable and very different from the parent protein. These cryptic peptides are generated by proteolytic cleavage of proteases, whose identification in vivo can be very challenging. In this work, we show that insulin-degrading enzyme (IDE) is able to degrade specific amino acid sequences present in the neuropeptide pro-NPFFA (NPFF precursor), generating some cryptic peptides that are also observed after incubation with rat brain cortex homogenate. The reported experimental findings support the increasingly accredited hypothesis, according to which, due to its wide substrate selectivity, IDE is involved in a wide variety of physiopathological processes. PMID:25247577

  9. Enhancement of proteolytic enzyme activity excreted from Bacillus stearothermophilus for a thermophilic aerobic digestion process.

    PubMed

    Kim, Young-Kee; Bae, Jin-Hye; Oh, Byung-Keun; Lee, Won Hong; Choi, Jeong-Woo

    2002-04-01

    Proteolysis is one of the main enzymatic reactions involved in waste activated sludge (WAS) digestion. In this study, proteases excreted from Bacillus stearothermophilus (ATCC 31197) were classified, and an enhancement of protease activity was achieved using economical chemical additives for WAS digestion. Proteases excreted from B. stearothermophilus were classified into two families: serine and metallo-proteases. Various metal ions were investigated as additives which could potentially enhance protease activity. It was observed that Ca2+ and Fe2+ could markedly activate these enzymes. These results were applied to thermophilic aerobic digestion (TAD) of industrial WAS using B. stearothermophilus. The addition of these divalent ions enhanced the degradation performance of the TAD process in terms of reducing the total suspended solids (TSSs), the dissolved organic carbon (DOC) content, and the intracellular and extracellular protein concentrations. The best result, with respect to protein reduction in a digestion experiment, was obtained by the addition of 2 mM Ca2+. Therefore, a proposed TAD process activated by calcium addition can be successfully used for industrial and municipal WAS digestion to the upgrading of TAD process performance.

  10. A mature and fusogenic form of the Nipah virus fusion protein requires proteolytic processing by cathepsin L

    SciTech Connect

    Pager, Cara Theresia; Craft, Willie Warren; Patch, Jared

    2006-03-15

    The Nipah virus fusion (F) protein is proteolytically processed to F{sub 1} + F{sub 2} subunits. We demonstrate here that cathepsin L is involved in this important maturation event. Cathepsin inhibitors ablated cleavage of Nipah F. Proteolytic processing of Nipah F and fusion activity was dramatically reduced in cathepsin L shRNA-expressing Vero cells. Additionally, Nipah virus F-mediated fusion was inhibited in cathepsin L-deficient cells, but coexpression of cathepsin L restored fusion activity. Both purified cathepsin L and B could cleave immunopurified Nipah F protein, but only cathepsin L produced products of the correct size. Our results suggest that endosomal cathepsinsmore » can cleave Nipah F, but that cathepsin L specifically converts Nipah F to a mature and fusogenic form.« less

  11. Key feature of the catalytic cycle of TNF-α converting enzyme involves communication between distal protein sites and the enzyme catalytic core

    PubMed Central

    Solomon, Ariel; Akabayov, Barak; Frenkel, Anatoly; Milla, Marcos E.; Sagi, Irit

    2007-01-01

    Despite their key roles in many normal and pathological processes, the molecular details by which zinc-dependent proteases hydrolyze their physiological substrates remain elusive. Advanced theoretical analyses have suggested reaction models for which there is limited and controversial experimental evidence. Here we report the structure, chemistry and lifetime of transient metal–protein reaction intermediates evolving during the substrate turnover reaction of a metalloproteinase, the tumor necrosis factor-α converting enzyme (TACE). TACE controls multiple signal transduction pathways through the proteolytic release of the extracellular domain of a host of membrane-bound factors and receptors. Using stopped-flow x-ray spectroscopy methods together with transient kinetic analyses, we demonstrate that TACE's catalytic zinc ion undergoes dynamic charge transitions before substrate binding to the metal ion. This indicates previously undescribed communication pathways taking place between distal protein sites and the enzyme catalytic core. The observed charge transitions are synchronized with distinct phases in the reaction kinetics and changes in metal coordination chemistry mediated by the binding of the peptide substrate to the catalytic metal ion and product release. Here we report key local charge transitions critical for proteolysis as well as long sought evidence for the proposed reaction model of peptide hydrolysis. This study provides a general approach for gaining critical insights into the molecular basis of substrate recognition and turnover by zinc metalloproteinases that may be used for drug design. PMID:17360351

  12. Biogenesis of lysosomal enzymes in the alpha-glucosidase II-deficient modA mutant of Dictyostelium discoideum: retention of alpha-1,3-linked glucose on N-linked oligosaccharides delays intracellular transport but does not alter sorting of alpha-mannosidase or beta-glucosidase.

    PubMed

    Ebert, D L; Bush, J M; Dimond, R L; Cardelli, J A

    1989-09-01

    The endoplasmic reticulum-localized enzyme alpha-glucosidase II is responsible for removing the two alpha-1,3-linked glucose residues from N-linked oligosaccharides of glycoproteins. This activity is missing in the modA mutant strain, M31, of Dictyostelium discoideum. Results from both radiolabeled pulse-chase and subcellular fractionation experiments indicate that this deficiency did not prevent intracellular transport and proteolytic processing of the lysosomal enzymes, alpha-mannosidase and beta-glucosidase. However, the rate at which the glucosylated precursors left the rough endoplasmic reticulum was several-fold slower than the rate at which the wild-type precursors left this compartment. Retention of glucose residues did not disrupt the binding of the precursor forms of the enzymes with intracellular membranes, indicating that the delay in movement of proteins from the ER did not result from lack of association with membranes. However, the mutant alpha-mannosidase precursor contained more trypsin-sensitive sites than did the wild-type precursor, suggesting that improper folding of precursor molecules might account for the slow rate of transport to the Golgi complex. Percoll density gradient fractionation of extracts prepared from M31 cells indicated that the proteolytically processed mature forms of alpha-mannosidase and beta-glucosidase were localized to lysosomes. Finally, the mutation in M31 may have other, more dramatic, effects on the lysosomal system since two enzymes, N-acetylglucosaminidase and acid phosphatase, were secreted much less efficiently from lysosomal compartments by the mutant strain.

  13. Breast Cancer Epidemiology in Puerto Rico

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-08-01

    April 20: a. Poster: Effects of herbal enzyme bromelain against breast cancer cell line. Paroulek, Jaffe and Rathinavelu. Nova Southeastern Univ. 3...Canada. ii. American College of Sports Medicine 2009 in Seattle, Washington (May 27-30) 4. Thursday, May 28: a. Session: Exercise interventions in...Clinical Medicine II – Medical i. Effect of comprehensive exercise on lymphedema in breast cancer survivors: a pilot study. Oki, Troumbley, Walker

  14. Endothelial delivery of antioxidant enzymes loaded into non-polymeric magnetic nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Chorny, Michael; Hood, Elizabeth; Levy, Robert J.; Muzykantov, Vladimir R.

    2010-01-01

    Antioxidant enzymes have shown promise as a therapy for pathological conditions involving increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). However the efficiency of their use for combating oxidative stress is dependent on the ability to achieve therapeutically adequate levels of active enzymes at the site of ROS-mediated injury. Thus, the implementation of antioxidant enzyme therapy requires a strategy enabling both guided delivery to the target site and effective protection of the protein in its active form. To address these requirements we developed magnetically responsive nanoparticles (MNP) formed by precipitation of calcium oleate in the presence of magnetite-based ferrofluid (controlled aggregation/precipitation) as a carrier for magnetically guided delivery of therapeutic proteins. We hypothesized that antioxidant enzymes, catalase and superoxide dismutase, can be protected from proteolytic inactivation by encapsulation in MNP. We also hypothesized that catalase-loaded MNP applied with a high-gradient magnetic field can rescue endothelial cells from hydrogen peroxide toxicity in culture. To test these hypotheses, a family of enzyme-loaded MNP formulations were prepared and characterized with respect to their magnetic properties, enzyme entrapment yields and protection capacity. SOD- and catalase-loaded MNP were formed with average sizes ranging from 300 to 400 nm, and a protein loading efficiency of 20–33%. MNP were strongly magnetically responsive (magnetic moment at saturation of 14.3 emu/g) in the absence of magnetic remanence, and exhibited a protracted release of their cargo protein in plasma. Catalase stably associated with MNP was protected from proteolysis and retained 20% of its initial enzymatic activity after 24 hr of exposure to pronase. Under magnetic guidance catalase-loaded MNP were rapidly taken up by cultured endothelial cells providing increased resistance to oxidative stress (62±12% cells rescued from hydrogen peroxide induced

  15. Proteolytic Activation of the Protease-activated Receptor (PAR)-2 by the Glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored Serine Protease Testisin*

    PubMed Central

    Driesbaugh, Kathryn H.; Buzza, Marguerite S.; Martin, Erik W.; Conway, Gregory D.; Kao, Joseph P. Y.; Antalis, Toni M.

    2015-01-01

    Protease-activated receptors (PARs) are a family of seven-transmembrane, G-protein-coupled receptors that are activated by multiple serine proteases through specific N-terminal proteolytic cleavage and the unmasking of a tethered ligand. The majority of PAR-activating proteases described to date are soluble proteases that are active during injury, coagulation, and inflammation. Less investigation, however, has focused on the potential for membrane-anchored serine proteases to regulate PAR activation. Testisin is a unique trypsin-like serine protease that is tethered to the extracellular membrane of cells through a glycophosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchor. Here, we show that the N-terminal domain of PAR-2 is a substrate for testisin and that proteolytic cleavage of PAR-2 by recombinant testisin activates downstream signaling pathways, including intracellular Ca2+ mobilization and ERK1/2 phosphorylation. When testisin and PAR-2 are co-expressed in HeLa cells, GPI-anchored testisin specifically releases the PAR-2 tethered ligand. Conversely, knockdown of endogenous testisin in NCI/ADR-Res ovarian tumor cells reduces PAR-2 N-terminal proteolytic cleavage. The cleavage of PAR-2 by testisin induces activation of the intracellular serum-response element and NFκB signaling pathways and the induction of IL-8 and IL-6 cytokine gene expression. Furthermore, the activation of PAR-2 by testisin results in the loss and internalization of PAR-2 from the cell surface. This study reveals a new biological substrate for testisin and is the first demonstration of the activation of a PAR by a serine protease GPI-linked to the cell surface. PMID:25519908

  16. Proteolytic processing of connective tissue growth factor in normal ocular tissues and during corneal wound healing.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Paulette M; Smith, Tyler S; Patel, Dilan; Dave, Meera; Lewin, Alfred S; Pi, Liya; Scott, Edward W; Tuli, Sonal S; Schultz, Gregory S

    2012-12-13

    Connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) is a fibrogenic cytokine that is up-regulated by TGF-β and mediates most key fibrotic actions of TGF-β, including stimulation of synthesis of extracellular matrix and differentiation of fibroblasts into myofibroblasts. This study addresses the role of proteolytic processing of CTGF in human corneal fibroblasts (HCF) stimulated with TGF-β, normal ocular tissues and wounded corneas. Proteolytic processing of CTGF in HCF cultures, normal animal eyes, and excimer laser wounded rat corneas were examined by Western blot. The identity of a 21-kDa band was determined by tandem mass spectrometry, and possible alternative splice variants of CTGF were assessed by 5' Rapid Amplification of cDNA Ends (RACE). HCF stimulated by TGF-β contained full length 38-kDa CTGF and fragments of 25, 21, 18, and 13 kDa, while conditioned medium contained full length 38- and a 21-kDa fragment of CTGF that contained the middle "hinge" region of CTGF. Fragmentation of recombinant CTGF incubated in HCF extracts was blocked by the aspartate protease inhibitor, pepstatin. Normal mouse, rat, and rabbit whole eyes and rabbit ocular tissues contained abundant amounts of C-terminal 25- and 21-kDa fragments and trace amounts of 38-kDa CTGF, although no alternative transcripts were detected. All forms of CTGF (38, 25, and 21 kDa) were detected during healing of excimer ablated rat corneas, peaking on day 11. Proteolytic processing of 38-kDa CTGF occurs during corneal wound healing, which may have important implications in regulation of corneal scar formation.

  17. Characterisation of proteolytic activity of excretory-secretory products from adult Strongylus vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Caffrey, C R; Ryan, M F

    1994-04-01

    An excretory-secretory (ES) preparation derived from adult Strongylus vulgaris in vitro was assessed for proteolytic activity using azocasein and synthetic, fluorogenic, peptide substrates. Fractionation was by molecular sieve fast protein liquid chromatography (molecular sieve FPLC) and resolution by gelatin-substrate sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (gelatin-substrate SDS-PAGE). The cysteine proteinase activator, dithiothreitol (DTT), enhanced azocaseinolysis and hydrolysis of carbobenzoxy-phenylalanyl-arginine-7-amido-4-methylcoumarin (Z-Phe-Arg-NMec) by the ES preparation and was a requirement for the detection of carbobenzoxy-arginyl-arginine-7-amido-4-methylcoumarin (Z-Arg-Arg-NMec) hydrolysis. Assays of FPLC-eluted fractions, with DTT, detected a broad peak of azocaseinolytic activity (22-24 kDa) and two peaks (24 and 18 kDa) of hydrolysis using the synthetic substrates. Hydrolysis by these peaks of Z-Phe-Arg-NMec was 50-fold greater than that of Z-Arg-Arg-NMec suggesting that their specificities are more like papain or cathepsin L rather than cathepsin B. In gelatin-substrate SDS-PAGE, DTT was required to detect proteolysis by the ES preparation which was optimal at pH 6.0 and resolved into eight bands (87-29 kDa). Cysteine proteinase inhibitors were the most effective in all assays. Collectively, these data indicate that cysteine-class proteolytic activity predominates in the ES preparation of adult S. vulgaris.

  18. Porcine pulmonary angiotensin I-converting enzyme--biochemical characterization and spatial arrangement of the N- and C-domains by three-dimensional electron microscopic reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hui-Ling; Lünsdorf, Heinrich; Hecht, Hans-Jürgen; Tsai, Hsin

    2010-08-01

    The somatic angiotensin I-converting enzyme (sACE; peptidyl-dipeptidase A; EC 3.4.15.1) was isolated from pig lung and purified to homogeneity. The purified enzyme has a molecular mass of about 180 kDa. Upon proteolytic cleavage, two approximately 90 kDa fragments were obtained and identified by amino-terminal sequence analysis as the N- and C-domains of sACE. Both purified domains were shown to be catalytically active. A 2.3 nm resolution model of sACE was obtained by three-dimensional electron microscopic reconstruction of negatively stained sACE particles, based on atomic X-ray data fitting. Our model shows for the first time the relative orientation of the sACE catalytically active domains and their spatial distance. (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Biomass production and secretion of hydrolytic enzymes are influenced by the structural complexity of the nitrogen source in Fusarium oxysporum and Aspergillus nidulans.

    PubMed

    da Silva, M C; Bertolini, M C; Ernandes, J R

    2001-01-01

    The structural complexity of the nitrogen sources strongly affects biomass production and secretion of hydrolytic enzymes in filamentous fungi. Fusarium oxysporum and Aspergillus nidulans were grown in media containing glucose or starch, and supplemented with a nitrogen source varying from a single ammonium salt (ammonium sulfate) to free amino acids (casamino acids), peptides (peptone) and protein (gelatin). In glucose, when the initial pH was adjusted to 5.0, for both microorganisms, higher biomass production occurred upon supplementation with a nitrogen source in the peptide form (peptone and gelatin). With a close to neutrality pH, biomass accumulation was lower only in the presence of the ammonium salt. When grown in starch, biomass accumulation and secretion of hydrolytic enzymes (amylolytic and proteolytic) by Fusarium also depended on the nature of the nitrogen supplement and the pH. When the initial pH was adjusted to 5.0, higher growth and higher amylolytic activities were detected in the media supplemented with peptone, gelatin and casamino acids. However, at pH 7.0, higher biomass accumulation and higher amylolytic activities were observed upon supplementation with peptone or gelatin. Ammonium sulfate and casamino acids induced a lower production of biomass, and a different level of amylolytic enzyme secretion: high in ammonium sulfate and low in casamino acids. Secretion of proteolytic activity was always higher in the media supplemented with peptone and gelatin. Aspergillus, when grown in starch, was not as dependent as Fusarium on the nature of nitrogen source or the pH. The results described in this work indicate that the metabolism of fungi is regulated not only by pH, but also by the level of structural complexity of the nitrogen source in correlation to the carbon source.

  20. Cathepsin B is not the processing enzyme for mouse prorenin.

    PubMed

    Mercure, Chantal; Lacombe, Marie-Josée; Khazaie, Khashayarsha; Reudelhuber, Timothy L

    2010-05-01

    Renin, an aspartyl protease that catalyzes the rate-limiting step in the renin-angiotensin system (RAS), is proteolytically activated by a second protease [referred to as the prorenin processing enzyme (PPE)] before its secretion from the juxtaglomerular cells of the kidney. Although several enzymes are capable of activating renin in vitro, the leading candidate for the PPE in the kidney is cathepsin B (CTSB) due to is colocalization with the renin precursor (prorenin) in juxtaglomerular cell granules and because of its site-selective activation of human prorenin both in vitro and in transfected tissue culture cell models. To verify the role of CTSB in prorenin processing in vivo, we tested the ability of CTSB-deficient (CTSB-/-) mice to generate active renin. CTSB-/- mice do not exhibit any overt symptoms (renal malformation, preweaning mortality) typical of an RAS deficiency and have normal levels of circulating active renin, which, like those in control animals, rise more than 15-fold in response to pharmacologic inhibition of the RAS. The mature renin enzyme detected in kidney lysates of CTSB-/- mice migrates at the same apparent molecular weight as that in control mice, and the processing to active renin is not affected by chloroquine treatment of the animals. Finally, the distribution and morphology of renin-producing cells in the kidney is normal in CTSB-/- mice. In conclusion, CTSB-deficient mice exhibit no differences compared with controls in their ability to generate active renin, and our results do not support CTSB as the PPE in mice.

  1. Proteolytic Activity of Prostate-Specific Antigen (PSA) towards Protein Substrates and Effect of Peptides Stimulating PSA Activity

    PubMed Central

    Mattsson, Johanna M.; Ravela, Suvi; Hekim, Can; Jonsson, Magnus; Malm, Johan; Närvänen, Ale; Stenman, Ulf-Håkan; Koistinen, Hannu

    2014-01-01

    Prostate-specific antigen (PSA or kallikrein-related peptidase-3, KLK3) exerts chymotrypsin-like proteolytic activity. The main biological function of PSA is the liquefaction of the clot formed after ejaculation by cleavage of semenogelins I and II in seminal fluid. PSA also cleaves several other substrates, which may explain its putative functions in prostate cancer and its antiangiogenic activity. We compared the proteolytic efficiency of PSA towards several protein and peptide substrates and studied the effect of peptides stimulating the activity of PSA with these substrates. An endothelial cell tube formation model was used to analyze the effect of PSA-degraded protein fragments on angiogenesis. We showed that PSA degrades semenogelins I and II much more efficiently than other previously identified protein substrates, e.g., fibronectin, galectin-3 and IGFBP-3. We identified nidogen-1 as a new substrate for PSA. Peptides B2 and C4 that stimulate the activity of PSA towards small peptide substrates also enhanced the proteolytic activity of PSA towards protein substrates. Nidogen-1, galectin-3 or their fragments produced by PSA did not have any effect on endothelial cell tube formation. Although PSA cleaves several other protein substrates, in addition to semenogelins, the physiological importance of this activity remains speculative. The PSA levels in prostate are very high, but several other highly active proteases, such as hK2 and trypsin, are also expressed in the prostate and may cleave protein substrates that are weakly cleaved by PSA. PMID:25237904

  2. Isolation and characterization of a dual function protein from Allium sativum bulbs which exhibits proteolytic and hemagglutinating activities.

    PubMed

    Parisi, Mónica G; Moreno, Silvia; Fernández, Graciela

    2008-04-01

    A dual function protein was isolated from Allium sativum bulbs and was characterized. The protein had a molecular mass of 25-26 kDa under non-reducing conditions, whereas two polypeptide chains of 12.5+/-0.5 kDa were observed under reducing conditions. E-64 and leupeptin inhibited the proteolytic activity of the protein, which exhibited characteristics similar to cysteine peptidase. The enzyme exhibited substrate specificity and hydrolyzed natural substrates such as alpha-casein (K(m): 23.0 microM), azocasein, haemoglobin and gelatin. It also showed a high affinity for synthetic peptides such as Cbz-Ala-Arg-Arg-OMe-beta-Nam (K(m): 55.24 microM, k(cat): 0.92 s(-1)). The cysteine peptidase activity showed a remarkable stability after incubation at moderate temperatures (40-50 degrees C) over a pH range of 5.5-6.5. The N-terminus of the protein displayed a 100% sequence similarity to the sequences of a mannose-binding lectin isolated from garlic bulbs. Moreover, the purified protein was retained in the chromatographic column when Con-A Sepharose affinity chromatography was performed and the protein was able to agglutinate trypsin-treated rabbit red cells. Therefore, our results indicate the presence of an additional cysteine peptidase activity on a lectin previously described.

  3. Proteolytic activities in cortex of apical parts of Vicia faba ssp. minor seedling roots during kinetin-induced programmed cell death.

    PubMed

    Kaźmierczak, Andrzej; Doniak, Magdalena; Kunikowska, Anita

    2017-11-01

    Programmed cell death (PCD) is a crucial process in plant development. In this paper, proteolytically related aspects of kinetin-induced PCD in cortex cells of Vicia faba ssp. minor seedlings were examined using morphological, fluorometric, spectrophotometric, and fluorescence microscopic analyses. Cell viability estimation after 46 μM kinetin treatment of seedling roots showed that the number of dying cortex cells increased with treatment duration, reaching maximum after 72 h. Weight of the apical root segments increased with time and was about 2.5-fold greater after 96 h, while the protein content remained unchanged, compared to the control. The total and cysteine-dependent proteolytic activities fluctuated during 1-96-h treatment, which was not accompanied by the changes in the protein amount, indicating that the absolute protein amounts decreased during kinetin-induced PCD. N-ethylmaleimide (NEM), phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride (PMSF), and Z-Leu-Leu-Nva-H (MG115), the respective cysteine, serine, and proteasome inhibitors, suppressed kinetin-induced PCD. PMSF significantly decreased serine-dependent proteolytic activities without changing the amount of proteins, unlike NEM and MG115. More pronounced effect of PMSF over NEM indicated that in the root apical segments, the most important proteolytic activity during kinetin-induced PCD was that of serine proteases, while that of cysteine proteases may be important for protein degradation in the last phase of the process. Both NEM and PMSF inhibited apoptotic-like structure formation during kinetin-induced PCD. The level of caspase-3-like activity of β1 proteasome subunit increased after kinetin treatment. Addition of proteasome inhibitor MG-115 reduced the number of dying cells, suggesting that proteasomes might play an important role during kinetin-induced PCD.

  4. Brewery Waste Reuse for Protease Production by Lactic 
Acid Fermentation

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Summary This study evaluated the use of three solid brewery wastes: brewer’s spent grain, hot trub and residual brewer’s yeast, as alternative media for the cultivation of lactic acid bacteria to evaluate their potential for proteolytic enzyme production. Initially, a mixture experimental design was used to evaluate the effect of each residue, as well as different mixtures (with the protein content set at 4%) in the enzyme production. At predetermined intervals, the solid and liquid fractions were separated and the extracellular proteolytic activity was determined. After selecting the best experimental conditions, a second experiment, factorial experimental design, was developed in order to evaluate the protein content in the media (1 to 7%) and the addition of fermentable sugar (glucose, 1 to 7%). Among the wastes, residual yeast showed the highest potential for the production of extracellular enzymes, generating a proteolytic extract with 2.6 U/mL in 3 h. However, due to the low content of the fermentable sugars in the medium, the addition of glucose also had a positive effect, increasing the proteolytic activity to 4.9 U/mL. The best experimental conditions of each experimental design were reproduced for comparison, and the enzyme content was separated by ethanol precipitation. The best medium produced a precipitated protein with proteolytic activity of 145.5 U/g. PMID:28867951

  5. The multicatalytic proteinase complex (proteasome): structure and conformational changes associated with changes in proteolytic activity.

    PubMed Central

    Djaballah, H; Rowe, A J; Harding, S E; Rivett, A J

    1993-01-01

    The multicatalytic proteinase complex or proteasome is a high-molecular-mass multisubunit proteinase which is found in the nucleus and cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells. Electron microscopy of negatively stained rat liver proteinase preparations suggests that the particle has a hollow cylindrical shape (approximate width 11 nm and height 17 nm using methylamine tungstate as the negative stain) with a pseudo-helical arrangement of subunits rather than the directly stacked arrangement suggested previously. The side-on view has a 2-fold rotational symmetry, while end-on there appears to be six or seven subunits around the ring. This model is very different from that proposed by others for the proteinase from rat liver but resembles the structure of the simpler archaebacterial proteasome. The possibility of conformational changes associated with the addition of effectors of proteolytic activity has been investigated by sedimentation velocity analysis and dynamic light-scattering measurements. The results provide the first direct evidence for conformational changes associated with the observed positive co-operativity in one component of the peptidylglutamylpeptide hydrolase activity as well as with the stimulation of peptidylglutamylpeptide hydrolase activities by MnCl2. In the latter case, there appears to be a correlation between changes in the shape of the molecule and the effect on activity. KCl and low concentrations of SDS may also act by inducing conformational changes within the complex. Sedimentation-velocity measurements also provide evidence for the formation of intermediates during dissociation of the complex by urea, guanidinium chloride or sodium thiocyanate. Dissociation of the complex either by these agents or by treatment at low pH leads to inactivation of its proteolytic components. The results suggest that activation and inhibition of the various proteolytic activities may be mediated by measurable changes in size and shape of the molecules. Images Figure

  6. In vitro and in vivo evaluation of the activity of pineapple (Ananas comosus) on Haemonchus contortus in Santa Inês sheep.

    PubMed

    Domingues, Luciana Ferreira; Giglioti, Rodrigo; Feitosa, Karina Alves; Fantatto, Rafaela Regina; Rabelo, Márcio Dias; de Sena Oliveira, Márcia Cristina; Bechara, Gervásio Henrique; de Oliveira, Gilson Pereira; Barioni Junior, Waldomiro; de Souza Chagas, Ana Carolina

    2013-10-18

    The development of resistance to anthelmintics has prompted research into alternative methods of controlling intestinal nematodes in ruminants. This study aimed to assess the activity of Ananas comosus on Haemonchus contortus in Santa Inês sheep. The aqueous extract of pineapple skin (AEPS), bromelain from pineapple stems (B4882) and residue from pineapple processing was evaluated in in vitro and in vivo tests. The enzymatic activity of substances was analyzed by the azocasein method. The egg hatch test (EHT) and larval development test (LDT) were performed using the Embrapa2010 isolate of H. contortus. In the in vivo test, 36 sheep artificially infected with H. contortus were divided into six groups: G1: 2 g/kg BW of the aqueous extract administered for three days; G2: 2 g/kg BW of the industrial pineapple residue for 60 days; G3: 180 mg/animal of bromelain in a single dose; G4: negative control I; G5: positive control (levamisole phosphate); and G6: negative control II. The eggs per gram (EPG) in the feces were counted till 28 days after treatment. LC₅₀ and LC₉₀ were obtained by the probit procedure, while the in vivo test results were analyzed by GLM. The aqueous extract in the in vitro and in vivo test, the bromelain and industrial residue presented 0.102, 0.157, 1.864 and 0.048 enzyme units/mL, respectively. In the egg hatch test, the LC₅₀ and LC₉₀ were respectively 31 and 81 mg/mL for the aqueous extract and 0.50 and 2 mg/mL for bromelain. In the larval development test, the LC₅₀ and LC₉₀ were respectively 1.7 and 7.3 mg/mL for the aqueous extract and 0.019 and 0.086 mg/mL for bromelain. In the in vivo test, the general efficacies of the treatments in relation to the negative control were 22.6%, 42.2%, 3.65% and 89% for the aqueous extract, industrial pineapple residue, bromelain and positive control respectively. The transformed EPG values were 3.19 ± 0.59, 3.32 ± 0.25, 2.85 ± 0.66, 3.44 ± 0.50, 2.28 ± 0.93 and 2.75 ± 0.94 for

  7. Proteolytic activation of the protease-activated receptor (PAR)-2 by the glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored serine protease testisin.

    PubMed

    Driesbaugh, Kathryn H; Buzza, Marguerite S; Martin, Erik W; Conway, Gregory D; Kao, Joseph P Y; Antalis, Toni M

    2015-02-06

    Protease-activated receptors (PARs) are a family of seven-transmembrane, G-protein-coupled receptors that are activated by multiple serine proteases through specific N-terminal proteolytic cleavage and the unmasking of a tethered ligand. The majority of PAR-activating proteases described to date are soluble proteases that are active during injury, coagulation, and inflammation. Less investigation, however, has focused on the potential for membrane-anchored serine proteases to regulate PAR activation. Testisin is a unique trypsin-like serine protease that is tethered to the extracellular membrane of cells through a glycophosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchor. Here, we show that the N-terminal domain of PAR-2 is a substrate for testisin and that proteolytic cleavage of PAR-2 by recombinant testisin activates downstream signaling pathways, including intracellular Ca(2+) mobilization and ERK1/2 phosphorylation. When testisin and PAR-2 are co-expressed in HeLa cells, GPI-anchored testisin specifically releases the PAR-2 tethered ligand. Conversely, knockdown of endogenous testisin in NCI/ADR-Res ovarian tumor cells reduces PAR-2 N-terminal proteolytic cleavage. The cleavage of PAR-2 by testisin induces activation of the intracellular serum-response element and NFκB signaling pathways and the induction of IL-8 and IL-6 cytokine gene expression. Furthermore, the activation of PAR-2 by testisin results in the loss and internalization of PAR-2 from the cell surface. This study reveals a new biological substrate for testisin and is the first demonstration of the activation of a PAR by a serine protease GPI-linked to the cell surface. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  8. Diversity of Neuropeptide Cell-Cell Signaling Molecules Generated by Proteolytic Processing Revealed by Neuropeptidomics Mass Spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hook, Vivian; Lietz, Christopher B.; Podvin, Sonia; Cajka, Tomas; Fiehn, Oliver

    2018-05-01

    Neuropeptides are short peptides in the range of 3-40 residues that are secreted for cell-cell communication in neuroendocrine systems. In the nervous system, neuropeptides comprise the largest group of neurotransmitters. In the endocrine system, neuropeptides function as peptide hormones to coordinate intercellular signaling among target physiological systems. The diversity of neuropeptide functions is defined by their distinct primary sequences, peptide lengths, proteolytic processing of pro-neuropeptide precursors, and covalent modifications. Global, untargeted neuropeptidomics mass spectrometry is advantageous for defining the structural features of the thousands to tens of thousands of neuropeptides present in biological systems. Defining neuropeptide structures is the basis for defining the proteolytic processing pathways that convert pro-neuropeptides into active peptides. Neuropeptidomics has revealed that processing of pro-neuropeptides occurs at paired basic residues sites, and at non-basic residue sites. Processing results in neuropeptides with known functions and generates novel peptides representing intervening peptide domains flanked by dibasic residue processing sites, identified by neuropeptidomics. While very short peptide products of 2-4 residues are predicted from pro-neuropeptide dibasic processing sites, such peptides have not been readily identified; therefore, it will be logical to utilize metabolomics to identify very short peptides with neuropeptidomics in future studies. Proteolytic processing is accompanied by covalent post-translational modifications (PTMs) of neuropeptides comprising C-terminal amidation, N-terminal pyroglutamate, disulfide bonds, phosphorylation, sulfation, acetylation, glycosylation, and others. Neuropeptidomics can define PTM features of neuropeptides. In summary, neuropeptidomics for untargeted, global analyses of neuropeptides is essential for elucidation of proteases that generate diverse neuropeptides for cell

  9. Diversity of Neuropeptide Cell-Cell Signaling Molecules Generated by Proteolytic Processing Revealed by Neuropeptidomics Mass Spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hook, Vivian; Lietz, Christopher B.; Podvin, Sonia; Cajka, Tomas; Fiehn, Oliver

    2018-04-01

    Neuropeptides are short peptides in the range of 3-40 residues that are secreted for cell-cell communication in neuroendocrine systems. In the nervous system, neuropeptides comprise the largest group of neurotransmitters. In the endocrine system, neuropeptides function as peptide hormones to coordinate intercellular signaling among target physiological systems. The diversity of neuropeptide functions is defined by their distinct primary sequences, peptide lengths, proteolytic processing of pro-neuropeptide precursors, and covalent modifications. Global, untargeted neuropeptidomics mass spectrometry is advantageous for defining the structural features of the thousands to tens of thousands of neuropeptides present in biological systems. Defining neuropeptide structures is the basis for defining the proteolytic processing pathways that convert pro-neuropeptides into active peptides. Neuropeptidomics has revealed that processing of pro-neuropeptides occurs at paired basic residues sites, and at non-basic residue sites. Processing results in neuropeptides with known functions and generates novel peptides representing intervening peptide domains flanked by dibasic residue processing sites, identified by neuropeptidomics. While very short peptide products of 2-4 residues are predicted from pro-neuropeptide dibasic processing sites, such peptides have not been readily identified; therefore, it will be logical to utilize metabolomics to identify very short peptides with neuropeptidomics in future studies. Proteolytic processing is accompanied by covalent post-translational modifications (PTMs) of neuropeptides comprising C-terminal amidation, N-terminal pyroglutamate, disulfide bonds, phosphorylation, sulfation, acetylation, glycosylation, and others. Neuropeptidomics can define PTM features of neuropeptides. In summary, neuropeptidomics for untargeted, global analyses of neuropeptides is essential for elucidation of proteases that generate diverse neuropeptides for cell

  10. Blocking of proteolytic processing and deletion of glycosaminoglycan side chain of mouse DMP1 by substituting critical amino acid residues.

    PubMed

    Peng, Tao; Huang, Bingzhen; Sun, Yao; Lu, Yongbo; Bonewald, Lynda; Chen, Shuo; Butler, William T; Feng, Jerry Q; D'Souza, Rena N; Qin, Chunlin

    2009-01-01

    Dentin matrix protein 1 (DMP1) is present in the extracellular matrix (ECM) of dentin and bone as processed NH(2)- and COOH-terminal fragments, resulting from proteolytic cleavage at the NH(2) termini of 4 aspartic acid residues during rat DMP1 processing. One cleavage site residue, Asp(181) (corresponding to Asp(197) of mouse DMP1), and its flanking region are highly conserved across species. We speculate that cleavage at the NH(2) terminus of Asp(197) of mouse DMP1 represents an initial, first-step scission in the whole cascade of proteolytic processing. To test if Asp(197) is critical for initiating the proteolytic processing of mouse DMP1, we substituted Asp(197) with Ala(197) by mutating the corresponding nucleotides of mouse cDNA that encode this amino acid residue. This mutant DMP1 cDNA was cloned into a pcDNA3.1 vector. Data from transfection experiments indicated that this single substitution blocked the proteolytic processing of mouse DMP1 in HEK-293 cells, indicating that cleavage at the NH(2) terminus of Asp(197) is essential for exposing other cleavage sites for the conversion of DMP1 to its fragments. The NH(2)-terminal fragment of DMP1 occurs as a proteoglycan form (DMP1-PG) that contains a glycosaminoglycan (GAG) chain. Previously, we showed that a GAG chain is linked to Ser(74) in rat DMP1 (Ser(89) in mouse DMP1). To confirm that mouse DMP1-PG possesses a single GAG chain attached to Ser(89), we substituted Ser(89) by Gly(89). Data from transfection analysis indicated that this substitution completely prevented formation of the GAG-containing form, confirming that DMP1-PG contains a single GAG chain attached to Ser(89) in mouse DMP1. Copyright 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  11. Serenoa repens associated with selenium and lycopene extract and bromelain and methylsulfonylmethane extract are able to improve the efficacy of levofloxacin in chronic bacterial prostatitis patients.

    PubMed

    Cai, Tommaso; Tiscione, Daniele; Gallelli, Luca; Verze, Paolo; Palmieri, Alessandro; Mirone, Vincenzo; Bartoletti, Riccardo; Malossini, Gianni

    2016-10-05

    To date, the management of patients with chronic bacterial prostatitis (CBP) is not satisfactory, especially in terms of symptoms relief. Here, we evaluated the efficacy and the safety of a combination of serenoa repens, selenium and lycopene extract + bromelain and methylsulfonylmethane extract associated with levofloxacin in patients with CBP. All patients with clinical and instrumental diagnosis of CBP, admitted to a single Urological Institution from March to June 2015 were enrolled in this phase III study. All enrolled patients were randomized into two groups: Group A received levofloxacin 500 mg o.d. for 14 days associated with lycopene and methylsulfonylmethane; Group B received levofloxacin (500 mg o.d. for 14 days) only. Clinical and microbiological analyses were carried out at the time of admission (T0) and during the followups at 1 month (T1) and 6 months (T2) from the end of the treatment. NIH Chronic Prostatitis Symptom Index (CPSI), International Prostatic Symptom Score (IPSS) and Quality of Well-Being (QoL) questionnaires were used. The main outcome measures were the rate of microbiological cure and the improvement in questionnaire results from baseline at the end of the follow-ups period. Forty patients were enrolled in Group A and 39 in Group B. During the follow-up (T1), we recorded a significant changes in terms of NIH-CPSI and IPSS in Group A (mean difference: 17.6 ± 2.65; 12.2 ± 2.33; p < 0.01; p < 0.05, respectively) and versus Group B at the intergroup analysis (mean difference: -9 ± 1.82; -8.33 ± 1.71; p < 0.05; p < 0.05, respectively). No differences were reported in terms of microbiological findings between the two groups. At the second follow-up visit (T2), questionnaire results demonstrated statistically significant differences between groups (p < 0.001). One patient in Group A (2.5%) and 7 patients (17.9%) in Group B showed a symptomatic and microbiological recurrence (p = 0.02). The combination of serenoa repens

  12. Allergenicity reduction of bovine milk β-lactoglobulin by proteolytic activity of lactococcus lactis BMC12C and BMC19H isolated from Iranian dairy products.

    PubMed

    Kazemi, Rezvan; Taheri-Kafrani, Asghar; Motahari, Ahmad; Kordesedehi, Reihane

    2018-06-01

    Nowadays health benefits of bioactive food constituents, known as probiotic microorganisms, are a growing awareness. Cow's milk is a nutritious food containing probiotic bacteria. However, milk allergenicity is one of the most common food allergies. The milk protein, β-lactoglobulin (BLG), is in about 80% of all main cases of milk allergies for children and infants. With the aim of screening proteolytic strains of lactic acid bacteria to evaluate their potential for the reduction of allergenicity of the major bovine milk proteins, we isolated new proteolytic strains of cocci lactic acid bacteria from traditional Iranian dairy products. The proteases produced by these strains had strong proteolytic activity against BLG. Proteolysis of BLG, observed after sodium dodecyl sulfate-PAGE, was confirmed by the analysis of the peptide profiles by reversed-phase HPLC. The two isolates were submitted to 16S rDNA sequencing and identified as Lactcoccus lactis subsp. cremoris and Lactcoccus lactis subsp. hordniea. The competitive ELISA experiments confirmed that these isolates, with high proteolytic activity, reduce significantly the allergenicity of BLG. Accordingly, these isolates can reduce the immunoreactivity of bovine milk proteins, which can be helpful for the production of low-allergic dairy products. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Effect of Cultured Celery Juice, Temperature, and Product Composition on the Inhibition of Proteolytic Clostridium botulinum Toxin Production.

    PubMed

    Golden, Max C; Wanless, Brandon J; David, Jairus R D; Kottapalli, Bala; Lineback, D Scott; Talley, Ryan J; Glass, Kathleen A

    2017-08-01

    Clostridium botulinum may be of concern in prepared refrigerated meals, for which strict cold chain management cannot be guaranteed. This study evaluated the effect of temperature, product composition, and cultured celery juice powder (CCJP) as a source of nitrite on the inhibition of botulinum toxin formation in two experimental (meat- and vegetable-based) prepared meals. Data obtained from the challenge study were compared with a published mathematical model to determine whether the model is fail-safe with regard to the tested meals. Treatments were inoculated with proteolytic C. botulinum, vacuum packaged, cooked at 90°C for 10 min, and assayed for botulinum toxin at appropriate intervals in samples stored at 10, 15, or 20°C for up to 8 weeks. None of the treatments stored at 10°C for 8 weeks supported toxin production by proteolytic C. botulinum. The addition of CCJP delayed toxin production by 1 and 3 weeks in cauliflower potatoes and in Dijon pork, respectively, stored at 15°C. Toxin production was delayed by 1 week at 20°C when CCJP was added to the cauliflower potatoes. This study found that the predictive model was fail-safe but was overly conservative for the experimental meals described. Finally, this study confirms that product composition, the addition of nitrite via CCJP, storage time, and temperature play important roles in the inhibition of toxin formation by proteolytic C. botulinum.

  14. Matriptase shedding is closely coupled with matriptase zymogen activation and requires de novo proteolytic cleavage likely involving its own activity

    PubMed Central

    Barndt, Robert; Gu, Yayun; Chen, Chien-Yu; Tseng, I-Chu; Su, Sheng-Fang; Wang, Jehng-Kang; Johnson, Michael D.

    2017-01-01

    The type 2 transmembrane serine protease matriptase is involved in many pathophysiological processes probably via its enzymatic activity, which depends on the dynamic relationship between zymogen activation and protease inhibition. Matriptase shedding can prolong the life of enzymatically active matriptase and increase accessibility to substrates. We show here that matriptase shedding occurs via a de novo proteolytic cleavage at sites located between the SEA domain and the CUB domain. Point or combined mutations at the four positively charged amino acid residues in the region following the SEA domain allowed Arg-186 to be identified as the primary cleavage site responsible for matriptase shedding. Kinetic studies further demonstrate that matriptase shedding is temporally coupled with matriptase zymogen activation. The onset of matriptase shedding lags one minute behind matriptase zymogen activation. Studies with active site triad Ser-805 point mutated matriptase, which no longer undergoes zymogen activation or shedding, further suggests that matriptase shedding depends on matriptase zymogen activation, and that matriptase proteolytic activity may be involved in its own shedding. Our studies uncover an autonomous mechanism coupling matriptase zymogen activation, proteolytic activity, and shedding such that a proportion of newly generated active matriptase escapes HAI-1-mediated rapid inhibition by shedding into the extracellular milieu. PMID:28829816

  15. The development, characterization, and application of biomimetic nanoscale enzyme immobilization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haase, Nicholas R.

    The utilization of enzymes is of interest for applications such as biosensors and biofuel cells. Immobilizing enzymes provides a means to develop these applications. Previous immobilization efforts have been accomplished by exposing surfaces on which silica-forming molecules are present to solutions containing an enzyme and a silica precursor. This approach leads to the enzyme being entrapped in a matrix three orders of magnitude larger than the enzyme itself, resulting in low retention of enzyme activity. The research herein introduces a method for the immobilization of enzymes during the layer-by-layer buildup of Si-O and Ti-O coatings which are nanoscale in thickness. This approach is an application of a peptide-induced mineral deposition method developed in the Sandhage and Kroger groups, and it involves the alternating exposure of a surface to solutions containing the peptide protamine and then an aqueous precursor solution of silicon- or titanium-oxide at near-neutral pH. A method has been developed that enables in situ immobilization of enzymes in the protamine/mineral oxide coatings. Depending on the layer and mineral (silica or titania) within which the enzyme is incorporated, the resulting multilayer biocatalytic hybrid materials retain 20 -- 100% of the enzyme activity. Analyses of kinetic properties of the immobilized enzyme, coupled with characterization of physical properties of the mineral-bearing layers (thickness, porosity, pore size distribution), indicates that the catalytic activities of the enzymes immobilized in the different layers are largely determined by substrate diffusion. The enzyme was also found to be substantially stabilized against heat-induced denaturation and largely protected from proteolytic attack. These functional coatings are then developed for use as antimicrobial materials. Glucose oxidase, which catalyzes production of the cytotoxic agent hydrogen peroxide, was immobilized with silver nanoparticles, can release

  16. Identification of Glutaminyl Cyclase Genes Involved in Pyroglutamate Modification of Fungal Lignocellulolytic Enzymes

    DOE PAGES

    Wu, Vincent W.; Dana, Craig M.; Iavarone, Anthony T.; ...

    2017-01-17

    The breakdown of plant biomass to simple sugars is essential for the production of second-generation biofuels and high-value bioproducts. Currently, enzymes produced from filamentous fungi are used for deconstructing plant cell wall polysaccharides into fermentable sugars for biorefinery applications. A post-translational N-terminal pyroglutamate modification observed in some of these enzymes occurs when N-terminal glutamine or glutamate is cyclized to form a five-membered ring. This modification has been shown to confer resistance to thermal denaturation for CBH-1 and EG-1 cellulases. In mammalian cells, the formation of pyroglutamate is catalyzed by glutaminyl cyclases. Using the model filamentous fungus Neurospora crassa, we identifiedmore » two genes ( qc-1 and qc-2) that encode proteins homologous to mammalian glutaminyl cyclases. We show that qc-1 and qc-2 are essential for catalyzing the formation of an N-terminal pyroglutamate on CBH-1 and GH5-1. CBH-1 and GH5-1 produced in a Δqc-1 Δqc-2 mutant, and thus lacking the N-terminal pyroglutamate modification, showed greater sensitivity to thermal denaturation, and for GH5-1, susceptibility to proteolytic cleavage. QC-1 and QC-2 are endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-localized proteins. The pyroglutamate modification is predicted to occur in a number of additional fungal proteins that have diverse functions. The identification of glutaminyl cyclases in fungi may have implications for production of lignocellulolytic enzymes, heterologous expression, and biotechnological applications revolving around protein stability.« less

  17. Identification of Glutaminyl Cyclase Genes Involved in Pyroglutamate Modification of Fungal Lignocellulolytic Enzymes

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Vincent W.; Dana, Craig M.; Iavarone, Anthony T.

    The breakdown of plant biomass to simple sugars is essential for the production of second-generation biofuels and high-value bioproducts. Currently, enzymes produced from filamentous fungi are used for deconstructing plant cell wall polysaccharides into fermentable sugars for biorefinery applications. A post-translational N-terminal pyroglutamate modification observed in some of these enzymes occurs when N-terminal glutamine or glutamate is cyclized to form a five-membered ring. This modification has been shown to confer resistance to thermal denaturation for CBH-1 and EG-1 cellulases. In mammalian cells, the formation of pyroglutamate is catalyzed by glutaminyl cyclases. Using the model filamentous fungus Neurospora crassa, we identifiedmore » two genes ( qc-1 and qc-2) that encode proteins homologous to mammalian glutaminyl cyclases. We show that qc-1 and qc-2 are essential for catalyzing the formation of an N-terminal pyroglutamate on CBH-1 and GH5-1. CBH-1 and GH5-1 produced in a Δqc-1 Δqc-2 mutant, and thus lacking the N-terminal pyroglutamate modification, showed greater sensitivity to thermal denaturation, and for GH5-1, susceptibility to proteolytic cleavage. QC-1 and QC-2 are endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-localized proteins. The pyroglutamate modification is predicted to occur in a number of additional fungal proteins that have diverse functions. The identification of glutaminyl cyclases in fungi may have implications for production of lignocellulolytic enzymes, heterologous expression, and biotechnological applications revolving around protein stability.« less

  18. Enzymatic Hydrolysis Does Not Reduce the Biological Reactivity of Soybean Proteins for All Allergic Subjects.

    PubMed

    Panda, Rakhi; Tetteh, Afua O; Pramod, Siddanakoppalu N; Goodman, Richard E

    2015-11-04

    Many soybean protein products are processed by enzymatic hydrolysis to attain desirable functional food properties or in some cases to reduce allergenicity. However, few studies have investigated the effects of enzymatic hydrolysis on the allergenicity of soybean products. In this study the allergenicity of soybean protein isolates (SPI) hydrolyzed by Alcalase, trypsin, chymotrypsin, bromelain, or papain was evaluated by IgE immunoblots using eight soybean-allergic patient sera. The biological relevance of IgE binding was evaluated by a functional assay using a humanized rat basophilic leukemia (hRBL) cell line and serum from one subject. Results indicated that hydrolysis of SPI by the enzymes did not reduce the allergenicity, and hydrolysis by chymotrypsin or bromelain has the potential to increase the allergenicity of SPI. Two-dimensional (2D) immunoblot and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analysis of the chymotrypsin-hydrolyzed samples indicated fragments of β-conglycinin protein are responsible for the apparent higher allergenic potential of digested SPI.

  19. Nano-zymography Using Laser-Scanning Confocal Microscopy Unmasks Proteolytic Activity of Cell-Derived Microparticles

    PubMed Central

    Briens, Aurélien; Gauberti, Maxime; Parcq, Jérôme; Montaner, Joan; Vivien, Denis; Martinez de Lizarrondo, Sara

    2016-01-01

    Cell-derived microparticles (MPs) are nano-sized vesicles released by activated cells in the extracellular milieu. They act as vectors of biological activity by carrying membrane-anchored and cytoplasmic constituents of the parental cells. Although detection and characterization of cell-derived MPs may be of high diagnostic and prognostic values in a number of human diseases, reliable measurement of their size, number and biological activity still remains challenging using currently available methods. In the present study, we developed a protocol to directly image and functionally characterize MPs using high-resolution laser-scanning confocal microscopy. Once trapped on annexin-V coated micro-wells, we developed several assays using fluorescent reporters to measure their size, detect membrane antigens and evaluate proteolytic activity (nano-zymography). In particular, we demonstrated the applicability and specificity of this method to detect antigens and proteolytic activities of tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA), urokinase and plasmin at the surface of engineered MPs from transfected cell-lines. Furthermore, we were able to identify a subset of tPA-bearing fibrinolytic MPs using plasma samples from a cohort of ischemic stroke patients who received thrombolytic therapy and in an experimental model of thrombin-induced ischemic stroke in mice. Overall, this method is promising for functional characterization of cell-derived MPs. PMID:27022410

  20. Nano-zymography Using Laser-Scanning Confocal Microscopy Unmasks Proteolytic Activity of Cell-Derived Microparticles.

    PubMed

    Briens, Aurélien; Gauberti, Maxime; Parcq, Jérôme; Montaner, Joan; Vivien, Denis; Martinez de Lizarrondo, Sara

    2016-01-01

    Cell-derived microparticles (MPs) are nano-sized vesicles released by activated cells in the extracellular milieu. They act as vectors of biological activity by carrying membrane-anchored and cytoplasmic constituents of the parental cells. Although detection and characterization of cell-derived MPs may be of high diagnostic and prognostic values in a number of human diseases, reliable measurement of their size, number and biological activity still remains challenging using currently available methods. In the present study, we developed a protocol to directly image and functionally characterize MPs using high-resolution laser-scanning confocal microscopy. Once trapped on annexin-V coated micro-wells, we developed several assays using fluorescent reporters to measure their size, detect membrane antigens and evaluate proteolytic activity (nano-zymography). In particular, we demonstrated the applicability and specificity of this method to detect antigens and proteolytic activities of tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA), urokinase and plasmin at the surface of engineered MPs from transfected cell-lines. Furthermore, we were able to identify a subset of tPA-bearing fibrinolytic MPs using plasma samples from a cohort of ischemic stroke patients who received thrombolytic therapy and in an experimental model of thrombin-induced ischemic stroke in mice. Overall, this method is promising for functional characterization of cell-derived MPs.

  1. Endothelial delivery of antioxidant enzymes loaded into non-polymeric magnetic nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Chorny, Michael; Hood, Elizabeth; Levy, Robert J; Muzykantov, Vladimir R

    2010-08-17

    Antioxidant enzymes have shown promise as a therapy for pathological conditions involving increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). However the efficiency of their use for combating oxidative stress is dependent on the ability to achieve therapeutically adequate levels of active enzymes at the site of ROS-mediated injury. Thus, the implementation of antioxidant enzyme therapy requires a strategy enabling both guided delivery to the target site and effective protection of the protein in its active form. To address these requirements we developed magnetically responsive nanoparticles (MNP) formed by precipitation of calcium oleate in the presence of magnetite-based ferrofluid (controlled aggregation/precipitation) as a carrier for magnetically guided delivery of therapeutic proteins. We hypothesized that antioxidant enzymes, catalase and superoxide dismutase (SOD), can be protected from proteolytic inactivation by encapsulation in MNP. We also hypothesized that catalase-loaded MNP applied with a high-gradient magnetic field can rescue endothelial cells from hydrogen peroxide toxicity in culture. To test these hypotheses, a family of enzyme-loaded MNP formulations were prepared and characterized with respect to their magnetic properties, enzyme entrapment yields and protection capacity. SOD- and catalase-loaded MNP were formed with average sizes ranging from 300 to 400 nm, and a protein loading efficiency of 20-33%. MNP were strongly magnetically responsive (magnetic moment at saturation of 14.3 emu/g) in the absence of magnetic remanence, and exhibited a protracted release of their cargo protein in plasma. Catalase stably associated with MNP was protected from proteolysis and retained 20% of its initial enzymatic activity after 24h of exposure to pronase. Under magnetic guidance catalase-loaded MNP were rapidly taken up by cultured endothelial cells providing increased resistance to oxidative stress (62+/-12% cells rescued from hydrogen peroxide induced

  2. A saposin-like domain influences the intracellular localization, stability, and catalytic activity of human acyloxyacyl hydrolase.

    PubMed

    Staab, J F; Ginkel, D L; Rosenberg, G B; Munford, R S

    1994-09-23

    Acyloxyacyl hydrolase, a leukocyte enzyme that acts on bacterial lipopolysaccharides (LPSs) and many glycerolipids, is synthesized as a precursor polypeptide that undergoes internal disulfide linkage before being proteolytically processed into two subunits. The larger subunit contains an amino acid sequence (Gly-X-Ser-X-Gly) that is found at the active sites of many lipases, while the smaller subunit has amino acid sequence similarity to saposins (sphingolipid activator proteins), cofactors for sphingolipid glycohydrolases. We show here that both acyloxyacyl hydrolase subunits are required for catalytic activity toward LPS and glycerophosphatidylcholine. In addition, mutations that truncate or delete the small subunit have profound effects on the intracellular localization, proteolytic processing, and stability of the enzyme in baby hamster kidney cells. Remarkably, proteolytic cleavage of the precursor protein increases the activity of the enzyme toward LPS by 10-20-fold without altering its activity toward glycerophosphatidylcholine. Proper orientation of the two subunits thus seems very important for the substrate specificity of this unusual enzyme.

  3. Stanniocalcin-2 Inhibits Mammalian Growth by Proteolytic Inhibition of the Insulin-like Growth Factor Axis*

    PubMed Central

    Jepsen, Malene R.; Kløverpris, Søren; Mikkelsen, Jakob H.; Pedersen, Josefine H.; Füchtbauer, Ernst-Martin; Laursen, Lisbeth S.; Oxvig, Claus

    2015-01-01

    Mammalian stanniocalcin-2 (STC2) is a secreted polypeptide widely expressed in developing and adult tissues. However, although transgenic expression in mice is known to cause severe dwarfism, and targeted deletion of STC2 causes increased postnatal growth, its precise biological role is still unknown. We found that STC2 potently inhibits the proteolytic activity of the growth-promoting metalloproteinase, pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A). Proteolytic inhibition requires covalent binding of STC2 to PAPP-A and is mediated by a disulfide bond, which involves Cys-120 of STC2. Binding of STC2 prevents PAPP-A cleavage of insulin-like growth factor-binding protein (IGFBP)-4 and hence release within tissues of bioactive IGF, required for normal growth. Concordantly, we show that STC2 efficiently inhibits PAPP-A-mediated IGF receptor signaling in vitro and that transgenic mice expressing a mutated variant of STC2, STC2(C120A), which is unable to inhibit PAPP-A, grow like wild-type mice. Our work identifies STC2 as a novel proteinase inhibitor and a previously unrecognized extracellular component of the IGF system. PMID:25533459

  4. Synthetic CO2-fixation enzyme cascades immobilized on self-assembled nanostructures that enhance CO2/O2 selectivity of RubisCO.

    PubMed

    Satagopan, Sriram; Sun, Yuan; Parquette, Jon R; Tabita, F Robert

    2017-01-01

    With increasing concerns over global warming and depletion of fossil-fuel reserves, it is attractive to develop innovative strategies to assimilate CO 2 , a greenhouse gas, into usable organic carbon. Cell-free systems can be designed to operate as catalytic platforms with enzymes that offer exceptional selectivity and efficiency, without the need to support ancillary reactions of metabolic pathways operating in intact cells. Such systems are yet to be exploited for applications involving CO 2 utilization and subsequent conversion to valuable products, including biofuels. The Calvin-Benson-Bassham (CBB) cycle and the enzyme ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (RubisCO) play a pivotal role in global CO 2 fixation. We hereby demonstrate the co-assembly of two RubisCO-associated multienzyme cascades with self-assembled synthetic amphiphilic peptide nanostructures. The immobilized enzyme cascades sequentially convert either ribose-5-phosphate (R-5-P) or glucose, a simpler substrate, to ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate (RuBP), the acceptor for incoming CO 2 in the carboxylation reaction catalyzed by RubisCO. Protection from proteolytic degradation was observed in nanostructures associated with the small dimeric form of RubisCO and ancillary enzymes. Furthermore, nanostructures associated with a larger variant of RubisCO resulted in a significant enhancement of the enzyme's selectivity towards CO 2 , without adversely affecting the catalytic activity. The ability to assemble a cascade of enzymes for CO 2 capture using self-assembling nanostructure scaffolds with functional enhancements show promise for potentially engineering entire pathways (with RubisCO or other CO 2 -fixing enzymes) to redirect carbon from industrial effluents into useful bioproducts.

  5. Proteolytic processing of the vitellogenin precursor in the boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis.

    PubMed

    Heilmann, L J; Trewitt, P M; Kumaran, A K

    1993-01-01

    The soluble proteins of the eggs of the coleopteran insect Anthonomus grandis Boheman, the cotton boll weevil, consist almost entirely of two vitellin types with M(r)s of 160,000 and 47,000. We sequenced their N-terminal ends and one internal cyanogen bromide fragment of the large vitellin and compared these sequences with the deduced amino acid sequence from the vitellogenin gene. The results suggest that both the boll weevil vitellin proteins are products of the proteolytic cleavage of a single precursor protein. The smaller 47,000 M(r) vitellin protein is derived from the N-terminal portion of the precursor adjacent to an 18 amino acid signal peptide. The cleavage site between the large and small vitellins at amino acid 362 is adjacent to a pentapeptide sequence containing two pairs of arginine residues. Comparison of the boll weevil sequences with limited known sequences from the single 180,000 M(r) honey bee protein show that the honey bee vitellin N-terminal exhibits sequence homology to the N-terminal of the 47,000 M(r) boll weevil vitellin. Treatment of the vitellins with an N-glycosidase results in a decrease in molecular weight of both proteins, from 47,000 to 39,000 and from 160,000 to 145,000, indicating that about 10-15% of the molecular weight of each vitellin consists of N-linked carbohydrate. The molecular weight of the deglycosylated large vitellin is smaller than that predicted from the gene sequence, indicating possible further proteolytic processing at the C-terminal of that protein.

  6. A novel proteolytic processing of prolysyl oxidase

    PubMed Central

    Atsawasuwan, Phimon; Mochida, Yoshiyuki; Katafuchi, Michitsuna; Tokutomi, Kentaro; Mocanu, Viorel; Parker, Carol E.; Yamauchi, Mitsuo

    2012-01-01

    Lysyl oxidase (LOX) is an amine oxidase that is critical for the stability of connective tissues. The secreted proLOX is enzymatically quiescent and is activated through proteolytic cleavage between residue Gly162 and Asp163 (residue numbers according to the mouse LOX) by bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-1 gene products. Here we report a novel processing of proLOX identified in vitro and in vivo. Two forms of mature LOX were identified and characterized by their immunoreactivity to specific antibodies, amine oxidase activity and mass spectrometry. One form was identified as a well characterized BMP-1 processed LOX protein. Another was found to be a truncated form of LOX (tLOX) resulting from the cleavage at the carboxy terminus of Arg192. The tLOX still appeared to retain amine oxidase activity. The results from the proLOX gene deletion and mutation experiments indicated that the processing occurs independent of the cleavage of proLOX by BMP-1 gene products and likely requires the presence of LOX propeptide. These results indicate that proLOX could be processed by two different mechanisms producing two forms of active LOX. PMID:21591931

  7. A novel proteolytic processing of prolysyl oxidase.

    PubMed

    Atsawasuwan, Phimon; Mochida, Yoshiyuki; Katafuchi, Michitsuna; Tokutomi, Kentaro; Mocanu, Viorel; Parker, Carol E; Yamauchi, Mitsuo

    2011-01-01

    Lysyl oxidase (LOX) is an amine oxidase that is critical for the stability of connective tissues. The secreted proLOX is enzymatically quiescent and is activated through proteolytic cleavage between residues Gly(162) and Asp(163) (residue numbers according to the mouse LOX) by bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-1 gene products. Here we report a novel processing of proLOX identified in vitro and in vivo. Two forms of mature LOX were identified and characterized by their immunoreactivity to specific antibodies, amine oxidase activity, and mass spectrometry. One form was identified as a well-characterized BMP-1 processed LOX protein. Another was found to be a truncated form of LOX resulting from the cleavage at the carboxy terminus of Arg(192). The truncated form of LOX still appeared to retain amine oxidase activity. The results from the proLOX gene deletion and mutation experiments indicated that the processing occurs independent of the cleavage of proLOX by BMP-1 gene products and likely requires the presence of LOX propeptide. These results indicate that proLOX could be processed by two different mechanisms producing two forms of active LOX.

  8. Reversible conformational transition gives rise to 'zig-zag' temperature dependence of the rate constant of irreversible thermoinactivation of enzymes.

    PubMed

    Levitsky VYu; Melik-Nubarov, N S; Siksnis, V A; Grinberg VYa; Burova, T V; Levashov, A V; Mozhaev, V V

    1994-01-15

    We have obtained unusual 'zig-zag' temperature dependencies of the rate constant of irreversible thermoinactivation (k(in)) of enzymes (alpha-chymotrypsin, covalently modified alpha-chymotrypsin, and ribonuclease) in a plot of log k(in) versus reciprocal temperature (Arrhenius plot). These dependencies are characterized by the presence of both ascending and descending linear portions which have positive and negative values of the effective activation energy (Ea), respectively. A kinetic scheme has been suggested that fits best for a description of these zig-zag dependencies. A key element of this scheme is the temperature-dependent reversible conformational transition of enzyme from the 'low-temperature' native state to a 'high-temperature' denatured form; the latter form is significantly more stable against irreversible thermoinactivation than the native enzyme. A possible explanation for a difference in thermal stabilities is that low-temperature and high-temperature forms are inactivated according to different mechanisms. Existence of the suggested conformational transition was proved by the methods of fluorescence spectroscopy and differential scanning calorimetry. The values of delta H and delta S for this transition, determined from calorimetric experiments, are highly positive; this fact underlies a conclusion that this heat-induced transition is caused by an unfolding of the protein molecule. Surprisingly, in the unfolded high-temperature conformation, alpha-chymotrypsin has a pronounced proteolytic activity, although this activity is much smaller than that of the native enzyme.

  9. The modifier effects of chymotrypsin and trypsin enzymes on fluorescence lifetime distribution of "N-(1-pyrenyl)maleimide-bovine serum albumin" complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Özyiğit, İbrahim Ethem; Karakuş, Emine; Pekcan, Önder

    2016-02-01

    Chymotrypsin and trypsin are the well known proteolytic enzymes, both of which are synthesized in the pancreas as their precursors - the inactive forms; chymotrypsinogen and trypsinogen - and then are released into the duodenum to cut proteins into smaller peptides. In this paper, the effects of activities of chymotrypsin and trypsin enzymes on fluorescence lifetime distributions of the substrat bovine serum albumin (BSA) modified with N-(1-pyrenyl)maleimide (PM) were examined. In the labeling study of BSA with PM, it is aimed to attach PM to the single free thiol (Cys34) and to all the free amine groups in accessible positions in order to produce excimers of pyrene planes of the possible highest amount to form the lifetime distributions in the widest range, that may show specifically distinguishing changes resulting from the activities of the proteases. The time resolved spectrofluorometer was used to monitor fluorescence decays, which were analyzed by using the exponential series method (ESM) to obtain the changes of lifetime distributions. After the exposure of the synthesized substrat PM-BSA to the enzymes, the fluorescence lifetime distributions exhibited different structures which were attributed to the different activities of the proteases.

  10. 9 CFR 381.120 - Antioxidants; chemical preservatives; and other additives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... of its use when required by the Administrator in specific cases. When approved proteolytic enzymes as... statement “Tenderized with [approved enzyme],” to indicate the use of such enzymes. Any other approved...

  11. 9 CFR 381.120 - Antioxidants; chemical preservatives; and other additives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... of its use when required by the Administrator in specific cases. When approved proteolytic enzymes as... statement “Tenderized with [approved enzyme],” to indicate the use of such enzymes. Any other approved...

  12. 9 CFR 381.120 - Antioxidants; chemical preservatives; and other additives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... of its use when required by the Administrator in specific cases. When approved proteolytic enzymes as... statement “Tenderized with [approved enzyme],” to indicate the use of such enzymes. Any other approved...

  13. 9 CFR 381.120 - Antioxidants; chemical preservatives; and other additives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... of its use when required by the Administrator in specific cases. When approved proteolytic enzymes as... statement “Tenderized with [approved enzyme],” to indicate the use of such enzymes. Any other approved...

  14. 9 CFR 381.120 - Antioxidants; chemical preservatives; and other additives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... of its use when required by the Administrator in specific cases. When approved proteolytic enzymes as... statement “Tenderized with [approved enzyme],” to indicate the use of such enzymes. Any other approved...

  15. 'Complementary ENT': a systematic review of commonly used supplements.

    PubMed

    Karkos, P D; Leong, S C; Arya, A K; Papouliakos, S M; Apostolidou, M T; Issing, W J

    2007-08-01

    To assess the evidence surrounding the use of certain complementary supplements in otolaryngology. We specifically focussed on four commonly used supplements: spirulina, Ginkgo biloba, Vertigoheel and nutritional supplements (cod liver oil, multivitamins and pineapple enzyme). A systematic review of the English and foreign language literature. in vivo human studies. animal trials, in vitro studies and case reports. We also excluded other forms of 'alternative medicine' such as reflexology, acupuncture and other homeopathic remedies. Lack of common outcome measures prevented a formal meta-analysis. Three studies on the effects of spirulina in allergy, rhinitis and immunomodulation were found. One was a double-blind, placebo, randomised, controlled trial (RCT) of patients with allergic rhinitis, demonstrating positive effects in patients fed spirulina for 12 weeks. The other two studies, although non-randomised, also reported a positive role for spirulina in mucosal immunity. Regarding the use of Ginkgo biloba in tinnitus, a Cochrane review published in 2004 showed no evidence for this. The one double-blind, placebo-controlled trial that followed confirmed this finding. Regarding the use of Vertigoheel in vertigo, two double-blind RCTs and a meta-analysis were identified. The first RCT suggested that Vertigoheel was equally effective in reducing the severity, duration and frequency of vertigo compared with betahistine. The second RCT suggested that Vertigoheel was a suitable alternative to G. biloba in the treatment of atherosclerosis-related vertigo. A meta-analysis of only four clinical trials confirms that Vertigoheel was equally effective compared with betahistine, G. biloba and dimenhydrinate. Regarding multivitamins and sinusitis, two small paediatric pilot studies reported a positive response for chronic sinusitis and otitis media following a course of multivitamins and cod liver oil. Regarding bromelain (pineapple enzyme) and sinusitis, one randomised

  16. Antiacanthain A: New proteases isolated from Bromelia antiacantha Bertol. (Bromeliaceae).

    PubMed

    Vallés, Diego; Cantera, Ana M B

    2018-07-01

    Crude extract (CE) from pulp of Bromelia antiacantha Bertol. mature fruit, contains at least 3 cysteine proteases with proteolytic activity. By single step cation exchange chromatography (Hi-trap SP-HP) of partially purified CE, the protease with the lowest pI, Antiacanthain A (AntA), was isolated. It showed maximum activity at pH9, and 75% of remaining activity was maintained over a wide pH range (pH6-10). The AntA activity exhibits a constant increase up to 70°C. Maintains almost 100% of its activity at 45 at pH6 and 9. A 60% of AntA was active by titration with specific inhibitor, E64. Amidasic activity was studied with pyroglutamyl-phenyl-leucyl-paranitroaniline (PFLNA) substrate having higher AntA catalytic efficiency of (k cat /K m =470s -1 M -1 ) relative to stem bromelain (k cat /K m =305s -1 M -1 ). Esterase activity using p-nitrophenyl esters of N-α-CBZ-l-Lysine (z-L-LysONp) showed a 10-fold higher catalytic efficiency for AntA (k cat /K m =6376s -1 M -1 ) relative to stem bromelain (k cat /K m =688s -1 M -1 ). Incubation with 8M Urea did not affect AntA activity and remained unchanged for 18h, with 6M GndHCl resulted in a 41% decrease in activity after 30min incubation, maintained this activity 18h. AntA exhibits high sequence identity with proteases of the Bromeliaceae family. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Ex vivo 18O-labeling mass spectrometry identifies a peripheral amyloid β clearance pathway.

    PubMed

    Portelius, Erik; Mattsson, Niklas; Pannee, Josef; Zetterberg, Henrik; Gisslén, Magnus; Vanderstichele, Hugo; Gkanatsiou, Eleni; Crespi, Gabriela A N; Parker, Michael W; Miles, Luke A; Gobom, Johan; Blennow, Kaj

    2017-02-20

    Proteolytic degradation of amyloid β (Aβ) peptides has been intensely studied due to the central role of Aβ in Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathogenesis. While several enzymes have been shown to degrade Aβ peptides, the main pathway of Aβ degradation in vivo is unknown. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) Aβ42 is reduced in AD, reflecting aggregation and deposition in the brain, but low CSF Aβ42 is, for unknown reasons, also found in some inflammatory brain disorders such as bacterial meningitis. Using 18 O-labeling mass spectrometry and immune-affinity purification, we examined endogenous proteolytic processing of Aβ in human CSF. The Aβ peptide profile was stable in CSF samples from healthy controls but in CSF samples from patients with bacterial meningitis, showing increased leukocyte cell count, 18 O-labeling mass spectrometry identified proteolytic activities degrading Aβ into several short fragments, including abundant Aβ1-19 and 1-20. After antibiotic treatment, no degradation of Aβ was detected. In vitro experiments located the source of the proteolytic activity to blood components, including leukocytes and erythrocytes, with insulin-degrading enzyme as the likely protease. A recombinant version of the mid-domain anti-Aβ antibody solanezumab was found to inhibit insulin-degrading enzyme-mediated Aβ degradation. 18 O labeling-mass spectrometry can be used to detect endogenous proteolytic activity in human CSF. Using this technique, we found an enzymatic activity that was identified as insulin-degrading enzyme that cleaves Aβ in the mid-domain of the peptide, and could be inhibited by a recombinant version of the mid-domain anti-Aβ antibody solanezumab.

  18. SKP2- and OTUD1-regulated non-proteolytic ubiquitination of YAP promotes YAP nuclear localization and activity.

    PubMed

    Yao, Fan; Zhou, Zhicheng; Kim, Jongchan; Hang, Qinglei; Xiao, Zhenna; Ton, Baochau N; Chang, Liang; Liu, Na; Zeng, Liyong; Wang, Wenqi; Wang, Yumeng; Zhang, Peijing; Hu, Xiaoyu; Su, Xiaohua; Liang, Han; Sun, Yutong; Ma, Li

    2018-06-11

    Dysregulation of YAP localization and activity is associated with pathological conditions such as cancer. Although activation of the Hippo phosphorylation cascade is known to cause cytoplasmic retention and inactivation of YAP, emerging evidence suggests that YAP can be regulated in a Hippo-independent manner. Here, we report that YAP is subject to non-proteolytic, K63-linked polyubiquitination by the SCF SKP2 E3 ligase complex (SKP2), which is reversed by the deubiquitinase OTUD1. The non-proteolytic ubiquitination of YAP enhances its interaction with its nuclear binding partner TEAD, thereby inducing YAP's nuclear localization, transcriptional activity, and growth-promoting function. Independently of Hippo signaling, mutation of YAP's K63-linkage specific ubiquitination sites K321 and K497, depletion of SKP2, or overexpression of OTUD1 retains YAP in the cytoplasm and inhibits its activity. Conversely, overexpression of SKP2 or loss of OTUD1 leads to nuclear localization and activation of YAP. Altogether, our study sheds light on the ubiquitination-mediated, Hippo-independent regulation of YAP.

  19. Biochemical and functional characterization of Parawixia bistriata spider venom with potential proteolytic and larvicidal activities.

    PubMed

    Gimenez, Gizeli S; Coutinho-Neto, Antonio; Kayano, Anderson M; Simões-Silva, Rodrigo; Trindade, Frances; de Almeida e Silva, Alexandre; Marcussi, Silvana; da Silva, Saulo L; Fernandes, Carla F C; Zuliani, Juliana P; Calderon, Leonardo A; Soares, Andreimar M; Stábeli, Rodrigo G

    2014-01-01

    Toxins purified from the venom of spiders have high potential to be studied pharmacologically and biochemically. These biomolecules may have biotechnological and therapeutic applications. This study aimed to evaluate the protein content of Parawixia bistriata venom and functionally characterize its proteins that have potential for biotechnological applications. The crude venom showed no phospholipase, hemorrhagic, or anti-Leishmania activities attesting to low genotoxicity and discrete antifungal activity for C. albicans. However the following activities were observed: anticoagulation, edema, myotoxicity and proteolysis on casein, azo-collagen, and fibrinogen. The chromatographic and electrophoretic profiles of the proteins revealed a predominance of acidic, neutral, and polar proteins, highlighting the presence of proteins with high molecular masses. Five fractions were collected using cation exchange chromatography, with the P4 fraction standing out as that of the highest purity. All fractions showed proteolytic activity. The crude venom and fractions P1, P2, and P3 showed larvicidal effects on A. aegypti. Fraction P4 showed the presence of a possible metalloprotease (60 kDa) that has high proteolytic activity on azo-collagen and was inhibited by EDTA. The results presented in this study demonstrate the presence of proteins in the venom of P. bistriata with potential for biotechnological applications.

  20. Biochemical and Functional Characterization of Parawixia bistriata Spider Venom with Potential Proteolytic and Larvicidal Activities

    PubMed Central

    Gimenez, Gizeli S.; Coutinho-Neto, Antonio; Kayano, Anderson M.; Simões-Silva, Rodrigo; Trindade, Frances; de Almeida e Silva, Alexandre; Marcussi, Silvana; da Silva, Saulo L.; Fernandes, Carla F. C.; Zuliani, Juliana P.; Calderon, Leonardo A.; Soares, Andreimar M.; Stábeli, Rodrigo G.

    2014-01-01

    Toxins purified from the venom of spiders have high potential to be studied pharmacologically and biochemically. These biomolecules may have biotechnological and therapeutic applications. This study aimed to evaluate the protein content of Parawixia bistriata venom and functionally characterize its proteins that have potential for biotechnological applications. The crude venom showed no phospholipase, hemorrhagic, or anti-Leishmania activities attesting to low genotoxicity and discrete antifungal activity for C. albicans. However the following activities were observed: anticoagulation, edema, myotoxicity and proteolysis on casein, azo-collagen, and fibrinogen. The chromatographic and electrophoretic profiles of the proteins revealed a predominance of acidic, neutral, and polar proteins, highlighting the presence of proteins with high molecular masses. Five fractions were collected using cation exchange chromatography, with the P4 fraction standing out as that of the highest purity. All fractions showed proteolytic activity. The crude venom and fractions P1, P2, and P3 showed larvicidal effects on A. aegypti. Fraction P4 showed the presence of a possible metalloprotease (60 kDa) that has high proteolytic activity on azo-collagen and was inhibited by EDTA. The results presented in this study demonstrate the presence of proteins in the venom of P. bistriata with potential for biotechnological applications. PMID:24895632

  1. Poliovirus replication proteins: RNA sequence encoding P3-1b and the sites of proteolytic processing

    SciTech Connect

    Semler, B.L.; Anderson, C.W.; Kitamura, N.

    1981-06-01

    A partial amino-terminal amino acid sequence of each of the major proteins encoded by the replicase region of the poliovirus genome has been determined. A comparison of this sequence information with the amino acid sequence predicted from the RNA sequence that has been determined for the 3' region of the poliovirus genome has allowed us to locate precisely the proteolytic cleavage sites at which the initial polyprotein is processed to create the poliovirus products P3-1b (NCVP1b), P3-2 (NCVP2), P3-4b (NCVP4b), and P3-7c (NCVP7c). For each of these products, as well as for the small genome-linked protein VPg, proteolytic cleavage occursmore » between a glutamine and a glycine residue to create the amino terminus of each protein. This result suggests that a single proteinase may be responsible for all of these cleavages. The sequence data also allow the precise positioning of the genome-linked protein VPg within the precursor P3-1b just proximal to the amino terminus of polypeptide P3-2.« less

  2. Trichomonas vaginalis metalloproteinase TvMP50 is a monomeric Aminopeptidase P-like enzyme.

    PubMed

    Arreola, Rodrigo; Villalpando, José Luis; Puente-Rivera, Jonathan; Morales-Montor, Jorge; Rudiño-Piñera, Enrique; Alvarez-Sánchez, María Elizbeth

    2018-06-23

    Previously, metalloproteinase was isolated and identified from Trichomonas vaginalis, belonging to the aminopeptidase P-like metalloproteinase subfamily A/B, family M24 of clan MG, named TvMP50. The native and recombinant TvMP50 showed proteolytic activity, determined by gelatin zymogram, and a 50 kDa band, suggesting that TvMP50 is a monomeric active enzyme. This was an unexpected finding since other Xaa-Pro aminopeptidases/prolidases are active as a biological unit formed by dimers/tetramers. In this study, the evolutionary history of TvMP50 and the preliminary crystal structure of the recombinant enzyme determined at 3.4 Å resolution is reported. TvMP50 was shown to be a type of putative, eukaryotic, monomeric aminopeptidase P, and the crystallographic coordinates showed a monomer on a "pseudo-homodimer" array on the asymmetric unit that resembles the quaternary structure of the M24B dimeric family and suggests a homodimeric aminopeptidase P-like enzyme as a likely ancestor. Interestingly, TvMP50 had a modified N-terminal region compared with other Xaa-Pro aminopeptidases/prolidases with three-dimensional structures; however, the formation of the standard dimer is structurally unstable in aqueous solution, and a comparably reduced number of hydrogen bridges and lack of saline bridges were found between subunits A/B, which could explain why TvMP50 portrays monomeric functionality. Additionally, we found that the Parabasalia group contains two protein lineages with a "pita bread" fold; the ancestral monomeric group 1 was probably derived from an ancestral dimeric aminopeptidase P-type enzyme, and group 2 has a probable dimeric kind of ancestral eukaryotic prolidase lineage. The implications of such hypotheses are also presented.

  3. Preserving catalytic activity and enhancing biochemical stability of the therapeutic enzyme asparaginase by biocompatible multilayered polyelectrolyte microcapsules.

    PubMed

    Karamitros, Christos S; Yashchenok, Alexey M; Möhwald, Helmuth; Skirtach, Andre G; Konrad, Manfred

    2013-12-09

    The present study focuses on the formation of microcapsules containing catalytically active L-asparaginase (L-ASNase), a protein drug of high value in antileukemic therapy. We make use of the layer-by-layer (LbL) technique to coat protein-loaded calcium carbonate (CaCO3) particles with two or three poly dextran/poly-L-arginine-based bilayers. To achieve high loading efficiency, the CaCO3 template was generated by coprecipitation with the enzyme. After assembly of the polymer shell, the CaCO3 core material was dissolved under mild conditions by dialysis against 20 mM EDTA. Biochemical stability of the encapsulated L-asparaginase was analyzed by treating the capsules with the proteases trypsin and thrombin, which are known to degrade and inactivate the enzyme during leukemia treatment, allowing us to test for resistance against proteolysis by physiologically relevant proteases through measurement of residual l-asparaginase activities. In addition, the thermal stability, the stability at the physiological temperature, and the long-term storage stability of the encapsulated enzyme were investigated. We show that encapsulation of l-asparaginase remarkably improves both proteolytic resistance and thermal inactivation at 37 °C, which could considerably prolong the enzyme's in vivo half-life during application in acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Importantly, the use of low EDTA concentrations for the dissolution of CaCO3 by dialysis could be a general approach in cases where the activity of sensitive biomacromolecules is inhibited, or even irreversibly damaged, when standard protocols for fabrication of such LbL microcapsules are used. Encapsulated and free enzyme showed similar efficacies in driving leukemic cells to apoptosis.

  4. Effects of reducing fat content on the proteolytic and rheological properties of Cheddar-like caprine milk cheese

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    High-moisture Cheddar-like cheeses made from caprine milk containing 3.6, 2.0, 1.0, and 0.1-0.5% fat were manufactured and their proteolytic and rheological properties compared after 1, 3, and 6 mo of aging at 4 deg C. The full-fat (FF), reduced fat (RF), low-fat (LF), and non-fat (NF) cheeses conta...

  5. Bifunctional alkylating agent-mediated MGMT-DNA cross-linking and its proteolytic cleavage in 16HBE cells

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, Jin; Ye, Feng; Dan, Guorong

    Nitrogen mustard (NM), a bifunctional alkylating agent (BAA), contains two alkyl arms and can act as a cross-linking bridge between DNA and protein to form a DNA-protein cross-link (DPC). O{sup 6}-methylguanine–DNA methyltransferase (MGMT), a DNA repair enzyme for alkyl adducts removal, is found to enhance cell sensitivity to BAAs and to promote damage, possibly due to its stable covalent cross-linking with DNA mediated by BAAs. To investigate MGMT-DNA cross-link (mDPC) formation and its possible dual roles in NM exposure, human bronchial epithelial cell line 16HBE was subjected to different concentrations of HN2, a kind of NM, and we found mDPCmore » was induced by HN2 in a concentration-dependent manner, but the mRNA and total protein of MGMT were suppressed. As early as 1 h after HN2 treatment, high mDPC was achieved and the level maintained for up to 24 h. Quick total DPC (tDPC) and γ-H2AX accumulation were observed. To evaluate the effect of newly predicted protease DVC1 on DPC cleavage, we applied siRNA of MGMT and DVC1, MG132 (proteasome inhibitor), and NMS-873 (p97 inhibitor) and found that proteolysis plays a role. DVC1 was proven to be more important in the cleavage of mDPC than tDPC in a p97-dependent manner. HN2 exposure induced DVC1 upregulation, which was at least partially contributed to MGMT cleavage by proteolysis because HN2-induced mDPC level and DNA damage was closely related with DVC1 expression. Homologous recombination (HR) was also activated. Our findings demonstrated that MGMT might turn into a DNA damage promoter by forming DPC when exposed to HN2. Proteolysis, especially DVC1, plays a crucial role in mDPC repair. - Highlights: • Nitrogen mustard-induced MGMT-DNA cross-linking was detected in a living cell. • Concentration- and time-dependent manners of MGMT-DNA cross-linking were revealed. • Proteolysis played an important role in protein (MGMT)-DNA cross-linking repair. • DVC1 acts as a proteolytic enzyme in cross

  6. Isolation and Characterization of Proteolytic Ruminal Bacteria from Sheep and Goats Fed the Tannin-Containing Shrub Legume Calliandra calothyrsus

    PubMed Central

    McSweeney, Christopher S.; Palmer, Brian; Bunch, Rowan; Krause, Denis O.

    1999-01-01

    Tannins in forages complex with protein and reduce the availability of nitrogen to ruminants. Ruminal bacteria that ferment protein or peptides in the presence of tannins may benefit digestion of these diets. Bacteria from the rumina of sheep and goats fed Calliandra calothyrsus (3.6% N and 6% condensed tannin) were isolated on proteinaceous agar medium overlaid with either condensed (calliandra tannin) or hydrolyzable (tannic acid) tannin. Fifteen genotypes were identified, based on 16S ribosomal DNA-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis, and all were proteolytic and fermented peptides to ammonia. Ten of the isolates grew to high optical density (OD) on carbohydrates (glucose, cellobiose, xylose, xylan, starch, and maltose), while the other isolates did not utilize or had low growth on these substrates. In pure culture, representative isolates were unable to ferment protein that was present in calliandra or had been complexed with tannin. One isolate, Lp1284, had high protease activity (80 U), a high specific growth rate (0.28), and a high rate of ammonia production (734 nmol/min/ml/OD unit) on Casamino Acids and Trypticase Peptone. Phylogenetic analysis of the 16S ribosomal DNA sequence showed that Lp1284 was related (97.6%) to Clostridium botulinum NCTC 7273. Purified plant protein and casein also supported growth of Lp1284 and were fermented to ammonia. This is the first report of a proteolytic, ammonia-hyperproducing bacterium from the rumen. In conclusion, a diverse group of proteolytic and peptidolytic bacteria were present in the rumen, but the isolates could not digest protein that was complexed with condensed tannin. PMID:10388706

  7. Proteolytic Processing of Laminin-332 by Hepsin and Matriptase and Its Role in Prostate Cancer Progression

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-09-01

    epithelial tumors, including breast, cervix , esophagus, liver, mesothelium, prostate, and colorectal cancers [36,38,61–69]. Interestingly, in the case of...Proteolytic Processing of Laminin-332 by Hepsin and Matriptase and Its Role in Prostate Cancer Progression Manisha Tripathi The Vanderbilt University...Nashville, TN 37203 Laminin-332 is lost in prostate cancer progression. Laminin-332 is known to be cleaved by various cell surface proteases

  8. Somatostatin Modulates Insulin-Degrading-Enzyme Metabolism: Implications for the Regulation of Microglia Activity in AD

    PubMed Central

    Tundo, Grazia; Ciaccio, Chiara; Sbardella, Diego; Boraso, Mariaserena; Viviani, Barbara; Coletta, Massimiliano; Marini, Stefano

    2012-01-01

    The deposition of β-amyloid (Aβ) into senile plaques and the impairment of somatostatin-mediated neurotransmission are key pathological events in the onset of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Insulin-degrading-enzyme (IDE) is one of the main extracellular protease targeting Aβ, and thus it represents an interesting pharmacological target for AD therapy. We show that the active form of somatostatin-14 regulates IDE activity by affecting its expression and secretion in microglia cells. A similar effect can also be observed when adding octreotide. Following a previous observation where somatostatin directly interacts with IDE, here we demonstrate that somatostatin regulates Aβ catabolism by modulating IDE proteolytic activity in IDE gene-silencing experiments. As a whole, these data indicate the relevant role played by somatostatin and, potentially, by analogue octreotide, in preventing Aβ accumulation by partially restoring IDE activity. PMID:22509294

  9. Somatostatin modulates insulin-degrading-enzyme metabolism: implications for the regulation of microglia activity in AD.

    PubMed

    Tundo, Grazia; Ciaccio, Chiara; Sbardella, Diego; Boraso, Mariaserena; Viviani, Barbara; Coletta, Massimiliano; Marini, Stefano

    2012-01-01

    The deposition of β-amyloid (Aβ) into senile plaques and the impairment of somatostatin-mediated neurotransmission are key pathological events in the onset of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Insulin-degrading-enzyme (IDE) is one of the main extracellular protease targeting Aβ, and thus it represents an interesting pharmacological target for AD therapy. We show that the active form of somatostatin-14 regulates IDE activity by affecting its expression and secretion in microglia cells. A similar effect can also be observed when adding octreotide. Following a previous observation where somatostatin directly interacts with IDE, here we demonstrate that somatostatin regulates Aβ catabolism by modulating IDE proteolytic activity in IDE gene-silencing experiments. As a whole, these data indicate the relevant role played by somatostatin and, potentially, by analogue octreotide, in preventing Aβ accumulation by partially restoring IDE activity.

  10. Purification and characterization of NADPH--cytochrome c reductase from the midgut of the southern armyworm (Spodoptera eridania).

    PubMed Central

    Crankshaw, D L; Hetnarski, K; Wilkinson, C F

    1979-01-01

    1. NADPH-cytochrome c reductase was solubilized with bromelain and purified about 400-fold from sucrose/pyrophosphate-washed microsomal fractions from southern armyworm (Spodoptera eridania) larval midguts. 2. The enzyme has a mol.wt. of 70 035 +/- 1300 and contained 2 mol of flavin/mol of enzyme consisting of almost equimolar amounts of FMN and FAD. 3. Aerobic titration of the enzyme with NADPH caused the formation of a stable half-reduced state at 0.5 mol of NADPH/mol of flavin. 4. Kinetic analysis showed that the reduction of cytochrome c proceeded by a Bi Bi Ping Pong mechanism. 5. Apparent Km values for NADPH and cytochrome c and Ki values for NADP+ and 2'-AMP were considerably higher for the insect reductase than for the mammalian liver enzyme. 6. These are discussed in relation to possible differences in the active sites of the enzymes. Images Fig. 3. PMID:117798

  11. Purification and characterization of NADPH--cytochrome c reductase from the midgut of the southern armyworm (Spodoptera eridania).

    PubMed

    Crankshaw, D L; Hetnarski, K; Wilkinson, C F

    1979-09-01

    1. NADPH-cytochrome c reductase was solubilized with bromelain and purified about 400-fold from sucrose/pyrophosphate-washed microsomal fractions from southern armyworm (Spodoptera eridania) larval midguts. 2. The enzyme has a mol.wt. of 70 035 +/- 1300 and contained 2 mol of flavin/mol of enzyme consisting of almost equimolar amounts of FMN and FAD. 3. Aerobic titration of the enzyme with NADPH caused the formation of a stable half-reduced state at 0.5 mol of NADPH/mol of flavin. 4. Kinetic analysis showed that the reduction of cytochrome c proceeded by a Bi Bi Ping Pong mechanism. 5. Apparent Km values for NADPH and cytochrome c and Ki values for NADP+ and 2'-AMP were considerably higher for the insect reductase than for the mammalian liver enzyme. 6. These are discussed in relation to possible differences in the active sites of the enzymes.

  12. Antibodies to Liposomes, Phospholipids, and Cholesterol, Implications for Autoimmunity, Atherosclerosis and Aging

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-01-01

    bromelain , the autoantibodies recognize the con- figuration of phosphatidyicholine in the membranes." In summary, autoantibodies to lipids and lipid...Cox, JO, Hardy, SJ (1985). Autoantibodies against mouse bromelain -modified RBC are specifically inhibited by a common membrane phospholipid...Biophys Acta 903:265-272. Fujiwara M, Akiyama, Y (1980). LPS-induced autoantibody response. I. Ontogenic development of PFC response to bromelain

  13. Contribution of the autophagy-lysosomal and ubiquitin-proteasomal proteolytic systems to total proteolysis in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) myotubes

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Two major proteolytic systems are thought to (co-) operate in the skeletal muscle of vertebrates, the ubiquitin-proteasomal system (UPS) and the autophagic/lysosomal system (ALS). While their relative contribution to muscle loss has been already well documented in mammals, little is known in fish sp...

  14. Enzymatic aspects in ENT cancer-Matrix metalloproteinases

    PubMed Central

    Zamfir Chiru, AA; Popescu, CR; Gheorghe, DC

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The study of ENT cancer allows the implementation of molecular biology methods in diagnosis, predicting the evolution of the disease and suggesting a certain treatment. MMPs are proteolytic enzymes, zinc dependent endopeptidases, secreted by tissues and proinflammatory cells that play a role in the clearance of cell surface receptors. They are expressed as zymogens (inactive forms). Proteolytic enzymes cleave zymogens generating active forms. They are involved in cell proliferation, adhesion, differentiation, migration, angiogenesis, apoptosis and host defense. PMID:25408759

  15. Enzymatic, antimicrobial and toxicity studies of the aqueous extract of Ananas comosus (pineapple) crown leaf.

    PubMed

    Dutta, Sangita; Bhattacharyya, Debasish

    2013-11-25

    Various parts of the plant pineapple (Ananas comosus) are used in traditional medicine worldwide for treatment of a number of diseases and disorders. In folk medicine, pineapple leaf extract was used as an antimicrobial, vermicide, purgative, emmenagoogue, abortifacient, anti-oedema and anti-inflammatory agent. Compared to the fruit and stem extracts of pineapple, information about its leaf extract is limited. The potential of pineapple crown leaf extract as an ethno-medicine has been evaluated in terms of its enzymatic activities related to wound healing, antimicrobial property and toxicity. Major protein components of the extract were revealed by 2-D gel electrophoresis followed by MS/MS analysis. Zymography, DQ-gelatin assay were performed to demonstrate proteolytic, fibrinolytic, gelatinase and collagenase activities. DNase and RNase activities were revealed from agarose gel electrophoresis. Antimicrobial activity was evaluated spectrophotometrically from growth inhibition. Sprague-Dawley rat model was used to measure acute and sub-acute toxicity of the extract by analyzing blood markers. The extract contains several proteins that were clustered under native condition. Proteomic studies indicated presence of fruit bromelain as major protein constituent of the extract. It showed nonspecific protease activity, gelatinolytic, collagenase, fibrinolytic, acid and alkaline phosphatase, peroxidase, DNase and RNase activities along with considerable anti-microbial property. The leaf extract did not induce any toxicity in rats after oral administration of acute and sub-acute doses. Pineapple leaf extract is nontoxic, contains enzymes related to damage tissue repairing, wound healing and possibly prevents secondary infections from microbial organisms. © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Multiplexed homogeneous assays of proteolytic activity using a smartphone and quantum dots.

    PubMed

    Petryayeva, Eleonora; Algar, W Russ

    2014-03-18

    Semiconductor quantum dot (QD) bioconjugates, with their unique and highly advantageous physicochemical and optical properties, have been extensively utilized as probes for bioanalysis and continue to generate widespread interest for these applications. An important consideration for expanding the utility of QDs and making their use routine is to make assays with QDs more accessible for laboratories that do not specialize in nanomaterials. Here, we show that digital color imaging of QD photoluminescence (PL) with a smartphone camera is a viable, easily accessible readout platform for quantitative, multiplexed, and real-time bioanalyses. Red-, green-, and blue-emitting CdSeS/ZnS QDs were conjugated with peptides that were labeled with a deep-red fluorescent dye, Alexa Fluor 647, and the dark quenchers, QSY9 and QSY35, respectively, to generate Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) pairs sensitive to proteolytic activity. Changes in QD PL caused by the activity of picomolar to nanomolar concentrations of protease were detected as changes in the red-green-blue (RGB) channel intensities in digital color images. Importantly, measurements of replicate samples made with smartphone imaging and a sophisticated fluorescence plate reader yielded the same quantitative results, including initial proteolytic rates and specificity constants. Homogeneous two-plex and three-plex assays for the activity of trypsin, chymotrypsin, and enterokinase were demonstrated with RGB imaging. Given the ubiquity of smartphones, this work largely removes any instrumental impediments to the adoption of QDs as routine tools for bioanalysis in research laboratories and is a critical step toward the use of QDs for point-of-care diagnostics. This work also adds to the growing utility of smartphones in analytical methods by enabling multiplexed fluorimetric assays within a single sample volume and across multiple samples in parallel.

  17. Inhibition of Adipogenesis and Induction of Apoptosis and Lipolysis by Stem Bromelain in 3T3-L1 Adipocytes

    PubMed Central

    Dave, Sandeep; Kaur, Naval Jit; Nanduri, Ravikanth; Dkhar, H. Kitdorlang; Kumar, Ashwani; Gupta, Pawan

    2012-01-01

    The phytotherapeutic protein stem bromelain (SBM) is used as an anti-obesity alternative medicine. We show at the cellular level that SBM irreversibly inhibits 3T3-L1 adipocyte differentiation by reducing adipogenic gene expression and induces apoptosis and lipolysis in mature adipocytes. At the molecular level, SBM suppressed adipogenesis by downregulating C/EBPα and PPARγ independent of C/EBPβ gene expression. Moreover, mRNA levels of adipocyte fatty acid-binding protein (ap2), fatty acid synthase (FAS), lipoprotein lipase (LPL), CD36, and acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) were also downregulated by SBM. Additionally, SBM reduced adiponectin expression and secretion. SBM's ability to repress PPARγ expression seems to stem from its ability to inhibit Akt and augment the TNFα pathway. The Akt–TSC2–mTORC1 pathway has recently been described for PPARγ expression in adipocytes. In our experiments, TNFα upregulation compromised cell viability of mature adipocytes (via apoptosis) and induced lipolysis. Lipolytic response was evident by downregulation of anti-lipolytic genes perilipin, phosphodiestersae-3B (PDE3B), and GTP binding protein Giα1, as well as sustained expression of hormone sensitive lipase (HSL). These data indicate that SBM, together with all-trans retinoic-acid (atRA), may be a potent modulator of obesity by repressing the PPARγ-regulated adipogenesis pathway at all stages and by augmenting TNFα-induced lipolysis and apoptosis in mature adipocytes. PMID:22292054

  18. Evolution of proteolytic indicators during storage of broiler wooden breast meat.

    PubMed

    Soglia, F; Zeng, Z; Gao, J; Puolanne, E; Cavani, C; Petracci, M; Ertbjerg, P

    2018-04-01

    In the past few yr, an emerging muscle abnormality termed wooden breast (WB) was found to affect broilers' Pectoralis major muscles. Although different studies have been performed in order to evaluate the effect of WB on meat quality, there is no evidence concerning its impact on the proteolytic processes taking place during meat aging. Thus, this study aimed at investigating the effect of a 7-day storage of broiler breast fillets on free calcium concentration, calpain activity, and proteolysis. Both the superficial and the deep layers of the Pectoralis major muscles were considered. Although similar electrophoretic profiles were observed by comparing the corresponding sampling positions, an evident lack of a high-molecular weight protein band, ascribed to nebulin, was found in the superficial layer of the WB fillets at 10 h postmortem. Compared to normal fillets (NB), both the superficial and the deep layer of WB exhibited a significantly higher amount of free calcium at 168 h postmortem (96 and 88 vs. 20 and 53 μM; P ≤ 0.001). Casein zymograms evidenced the presence of μ/m-calpain and its autolyzed form migrating as a doublet within the gel. Interestingly, neither the occurrence of WB nor the intra-fillet sampling position exerted any relevant effect on calpain activity. Indeed, a significant reduction (P ≤ 0.05) in the unautolyzed μ/m-calpain activity coupled with a remarkable increase (P ≤ 0.05) in the autolyzed form activity was observed during storage. Concurrently, if compared to NB, a significantly larger (P ≤ 0.05) amount of desmin was detected in both the superficial and the deep layers of the WB samples at 10 h postmortem. Then, a sharp decrease of the intact desmin band coupled with a progressive accumulation of its 39-kDa degradation fragment was observed without any significant difference among groups. In conclusion, the increased hardness that typically affects the WB cases seemed not to be exclusively attributable to differences in

  19. Proteolytic systems and AMP-activated protein kinase are critical targets of acute myeloid leukemia therapeutic approaches

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, Olga; Sampaio-Marques, Belém; Paiva, Artur; Correia-Neves, Margarida; Castro, Isabel; Ludovico, Paula

    2015-01-01

    The therapeutic strategies against acute myeloid leukemia (AML) have hardly been modified over four decades. Although resulting in a favorable outcome in young patients, older individuals, the most affected population, do not respond adequately to therapy. Intriguingly, the mechanisms responsible for AML cells chemoresistance/susceptibility are still elusive. Mounting evidence has shed light on the relevance of proteolytic systems (autophagy and ubiquitin-proteasome system, UPS), as well as the AMPK pathway, in AML biology and treatment, but their exact role is still controversial. Herein, two AML cell lines (HL-60 and KG-1) were exposed to conventional chemotherapeutic agents (cytarabine and/or doxorubicin) to assess the relevance of autophagy and UPS on AML cells’ response to antileukemia drugs. Our results clearly showed that the antileukemia agents target both proteolytic systems and the AMPK pathway. Doxorubicin enhanced UPS activity while drugs’ combination blocked autophagy specifically on HL-60 cells. In contrast, KG-1 cells responded in a more subtle manner to the drugs tested consistent with the higher UPS activity of these cells. In addition, the data demonstrates that autophagy may play a protective role depending on AML subtype. Specific modulators of autophagy and UPS are, therefore, promising targets for combining with standard therapeutic interventions in some AML subtypes. PMID:25537507

  20. Diversity of proteolytic microbes isolated from Antarctic freshwater lakes and characteristics of their cold-active proteases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsui, Mihoko; Kawamata, Akinori; Kosugi, Makiko; Imura, Satoshi; Kurosawa, Norio

    2017-09-01

    Despite being an extreme environment, the water temperature of freshwater lakes in Antarctica reaches 10 °C in summer, accelerating biological activity. In these environments, proteolytic microbial decomposers may play a large role in protein hydrolysis. We isolated 71 microbial strains showing proteolytic activity at 4 °C from three Antarctic freshwater lakes. They were classified as bacteria (63 isolates) and eukaryotes (8 isolates). The bacterial isolates were classified into the genera Flavobacterium (28 isolates), Pseudomonas (14 isolates), Arthrobacter (10 isolates), Psychrobacter (7 isolates), Cryobacterium (2 isolates), Hymenobacter (1 isolate), and Polaromonas (1 isolate). Five isolates of Flavobacterium and one of Hymenobacter seemed to belong to novel species. All eukaryotic isolates belonged to Glaciozyma antarctica, a psychrophilic yeast species originally isolated from the Weddell Sea near the Joinville Island, Antarctica. A half of representative strains were psychrophilic and did not grow at temperatures above 25 °C. The protease secreted by Pseudomonas prosekii strain ANS4-1 showed the highest activity among all proteases from representative isolates. The results of inhibitor tests indicated that nearly all the isolates secreted metalloproteases. Proteases from four representative isolates retained more than 30% maximal activity at 0 °C. These results expand our knowledge about microbial protein degradation in Antarctic freshwater lakes.

  1. The modifier effects of chymotrypsin and trypsin enzymes on fluorescence lifetime distribution of "N-(1-pyrenyl)maleimide-bovine serum albumin" complex.

    PubMed

    Özyiğit, İbrahim Ethem; Karakuş, Emine; Pekcan, Önder

    2016-02-05

    Chymotrypsin and trypsin are the well known proteolytic enzymes, both of which are synthesized in the pancreas as their precursors - the inactive forms; chymotrypsinogen and trypsinogen - and then are released into the duodenum to cut proteins into smaller peptides. In this paper, the effects of activities of chymotrypsin and trypsin enzymes on fluorescence lifetime distributions of the substrat bovine serum albumin (BSA) modified with N-(1-pyrenyl)maleimide (PM) were examined. In the labeling study of BSA with PM, it is aimed to attach PM to the single free thiol (Cys34) and to all the free amine groups in accessible positions in order to produce excimers of pyrene planes of the possible highest amount to form the lifetime distributions in the widest range, that may show specifically distinguishing changes resulting from the activities of the proteases. The time resolved spectrofluorometer was used to monitor fluorescence decays, which were analyzed by using the exponential series method (ESM) to obtain the changes of lifetime distributions. After the exposure of the synthesized substrat PM-BSA to the enzymes, the fluorescence lifetime distributions exhibited different structures which were attributed to the different activities of the proteases. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Cross-linking proteins with bimetallic tetracarboxylate compounds of transition metals

    DOEpatents

    Kostic, Nenad M.; Chen, Jian

    1991-03-05

    Stable cross-linked complexes of transition-metal tetracarboxylates and proteins are formed. The preferred transition-metal is rhodium. The protein may be collagen or an enzyme such as a proteolytic enzyme.

  3. It's all about talking: two-way communication between proteasomal and lysosomal degradation pathways via ubiquitin.

    PubMed

    Liebl, Martina P; Hoppe, Thorsten

    2016-08-01

    Selective degradation of proteins requires a fine-tuned coordination of the two major proteolytic pathways, the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) and autophagy. Substrate selection and proteolytic activity are defined by a plethora of regulatory cofactors influencing each other. Both proteolytic pathways are initiated by ubiquitylation to mark substrate proteins for degradation, although the size and/or topology of the modification are different. In this context E3 ubiquitin ligases, ensuring the covalent attachment of activated ubiquitin to the substrate, are of special importance. The regulation of E3 ligase activity, competition between different E3 ligases for binding E2 conjugation enzymes and substrates, as well as their interplay with deubiquitylating enzymes (DUBs) represent key events in the cross talk between the UPS and autophagy. The coordination between both degradation routes is further influenced by heat shock factors and ubiquitin-binding proteins (UBPs) such as p97, p62, or optineurin. Mutations in enzymes and ubiquitin-binding proteins or a general decline of both proteolytic systems during aging result in accumulation of damaged and aggregated proteins. Thus further mechanistic understanding of how UPS and autophagy communicate might allow therapeutic intervention especially against age-related diseases. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  4. An investigation into the use of SDS-PAGE of cell surface extracts and proteolytic activity to differentiate Prevotella nigrescens and Prevotella intermedia.

    PubMed

    Cookson, A L; Wray, A; Handley, P S; Jacob, A E

    1996-02-15

    By comparison of the cell surface proteins derived from the outer membrane and fibrils from 14 Prevotella intermedia and 19 Prevotella nigrescens strains using SDS and analysed by SDS-PAGE, it was possible to distinguish the two species. A polypeptide of approx. 21 kDa distinguished P. intermedia strains, whereas two polypeptides of approx. 18 and 22 kDa could be used to identify P. nigrescens strains. Four other human oral black pigmented bacterial species (Porphyromonas gingivalis, Prevotella denticola, Prevotella loescheii and Prevotella melaninogenica) did not have the 18-, 21- or 22-kDa polypeptides shown by P. intermedia or P. nigrescens. The cell-associated proteolytic activity of eight strains of P. intermedia, 14 strains of P. nigrescens and one strain of P. gingivalis (W50) was assessed using four chromogenic substrates. The hydrolysis of the substrate GPPNA (indicative of dipeptidyl peptidase IV-like activity) and SAAPPNA (elastase-like activity) by P. intermedia strains varied from 32 to 114 units and 0.5 to 12.6 units of activity respectively, where one unit was defined as the amount of protease enzyme catalysing the formation of 1 nmol of p-nitroaniline under experimental conditions. 37.5% (3 of 8) of P. intermedia strains hydrolysed SAAPPNA (chymotrypsin-like enzyme activity) with activities of between 7 and 12 units. The hydrolysis of GPPNA and SAAAPNA by P. nigrescens strains was 32-149 and 3-16 units, respectively. 57% (8 of 14) of P. nigrescens strains hydrolysed SAAPPPNA with activities ranging from 3 to 8 units. None of the P. intermedia or P. nigrescens strains examined were found to have trypsin-like enzyme activity (BAPNA hydrolysis). The GPPNA and SAAAPNA hydrolytic activity associated with the proteases from Porphyromonas gingivalis W50 was at least twice that of P. intermedia and P. nigrescens strains. The similar peptidase activities of P. intermedia and P. nigrescens against chromogenic substrates cannot be used to differentiate the

  5. Molecular basis of branched peptides resistance to enzyme proteolysis.

    PubMed

    Falciani, Chiara; Lozzi, Luisa; Pini, Alessandro; Corti, Federico; Fabbrini, Monica; Bernini, Andrea; Lelli, Barbara; Niccolai, Neri; Bracci, Luisa

    2007-03-01

    We found that synthetic peptides in the form of dendrimers become resistant to proteolysis. To determine the molecular basis of this resistance, different bioactive peptides were synthesized in monomeric, two-branched and tetra-branched form and incubated with human plasma and serum. Proteolytic resistance of branched multimeric sequences was compared to that of the same peptides synthesized as multimeric linear molecules. Unmodified peptides and cleaved sequences were detected by high pressure liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry. An increase in peptide copies did not increase peptide resistance in linear multimeric sequences, whereas multimericity progressively enhanced proteolytic stability of branched multimeric peptides. A structure-based hypothesis of branched peptide resistance to proteolysis by metallopeptidases is presented.

  6. Proteolytic and ACE-inhibitory activities of probiotic yogurt containing non-viable bacteria as affected by different levels of fat, inulin and starter culture.

    PubMed

    Shakerian, Mansour; Razavi, Seyed Hadi; Ziai, Seyed Ali; Khodaiyan, Faramarz; Yarmand, Mohammad Saeid; Moayedi, Ali

    2015-04-01

    In this study, the effects of fat (0.5 %, 3.2 % and 5.0 %), inulin (0.0 and 1.0 %) and starter culture (0.0 %, 0.5 %, 1.0 % and 1.5 %) on the angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE)-inhibitory activity of probiotic yogurt containing non-viable bacteria were assessed. Proteolytic activities of bacteria were also investigated. Yogurts were prepared either using a sole yogurt commercial culture including Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus delbrueckii subs. bulgaricus or bifidobacterium animalis BB-12 and Lactobacillus acidophilus La5 in addition to yogurt culture. Relative degrees of proteolysis were found to be considerably higher in yogurt samples than UHT milk as the control. Both regular and probiotic yogurts showed considerable ACE-inhibitory activities. Results showed that degree of proteolysis was not influenced by different fat contents, while was increased by high concentration of starter culture (1.5 % w/w) and reduced by inulin (1 % w/w). ACE-inhibitory activities of yogurt were also negatively affected by the presence of inulin and high levels of fat (5 % w/w). Moreover, yogurt containing probiotic bacteria showed higher inhibitory against ACE in comparison to the yogurt prepared with non-probiotic strains.