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Sample records for proteomics current state

  1. The human proteome project: current state and future direction.

    PubMed

    Legrain, Pierre; Aebersold, Ruedi; Archakov, Alexander; Bairoch, Amos; Bala, Kumar; Beretta, Laura; Bergeron, John; Borchers, Christoph H; Corthals, Garry L; Costello, Catherine E; Deutsch, Eric W; Domon, Bruno; Hancock, William; He, Fuchu; Hochstrasser, Denis; Marko-Varga, György; Salekdeh, Ghasem Hosseini; Sechi, Salvatore; Snyder, Michael; Srivastava, Sudhir; Uhlén, Mathias; Wu, Cathy H; Yamamoto, Tadashi; Paik, Young-Ki; Omenn, Gilbert S

    2011-07-01

    After the successful completion of the Human Genome Project, the Human Proteome Organization has recently officially launched a global Human Proteome Project (HPP), which is designed to map the entire human protein set. Given the lack of protein-level evidence for about 30% of the estimated 20,300 protein-coding genes, a systematic global effort will be necessary to achieve this goal with respect to protein abundance, distribution, subcellular localization, interaction with other biomolecules, and functions at specific time points. As a general experimental strategy, HPP research groups will use the three working pillars for HPP: mass spectrometry, antibody capture, and bioinformatics tools and knowledge bases. The HPP participants will take advantage of the output and cross-analyses from the ongoing Human Proteome Organization initiatives and a chromosome-centric protein mapping strategy, termed C-HPP, with which many national teams are currently engaged. In addition, numerous biologically driven and disease-oriented projects will be stimulated and facilitated by the HPP. Timely planning with proper governance of HPP will deliver a protein parts list, reagents, and tools for protein studies and analyses, and a stronger basis for personalized medicine. The Human Proteome Organization urges each national research funding agency and the scientific community at large to identify their preferred pathways to participate in aspects of this highly promising project in a HPP consortium of funders and investigators.

  2. Making proteomics data accessible and reusable: Current state of proteomics databases and repositories

    PubMed Central

    Perez-Riverol, Yasset; Alpi, Emanuele; Wang, Rui; Hermjakob, Henning; Vizcaíno, Juan Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Compared to other data-intensive disciplines such as genomics, public deposition and storage of MS-based proteomics, data are still less developed due to, among other reasons, the inherent complexity of the data and the variety of data types and experimental workflows. In order to address this need, several public repositories for MS proteomics experiments have been developed, each with different purposes in mind. The most established resources are the Global Proteome Machine Database (GPMDB), PeptideAtlas, and the PRIDE database. Additionally, there are other useful (in many cases recently developed) resources such as ProteomicsDB, Mass Spectrometry Interactive Virtual Environment (MassIVE), Chorus, MaxQB, PeptideAtlas SRM Experiment Library (PASSEL), Model Organism Protein Expression Database (MOPED), and the Human Proteinpedia. In addition, the ProteomeXchange consortium has been recently developed to enable better integration of public repositories and the coordinated sharing of proteomics information, maximizing its benefit to the scientific community. Here, we will review each of the major proteomics resources independently and some tools that enable the integration, mining and reuse of the data. We will also discuss some of the major challenges and current pitfalls in the integration and sharing of the data. PMID:25158685

  3. Current advances in esophageal cancer proteomics.

    PubMed

    Uemura, Norihisa; Kondo, Tadashi

    2015-06-01

    We review the current status of proteomics for esophageal cancer (EC) from a clinician's viewpoint. The ultimate goal of cancer proteomics is the improvement of clinical outcome. The proteome as a functional translation of the genome is a straightforward representation of genomic mechanisms that trigger carcinogenesis. Cancer proteomics has identified the mechanisms of carcinogenesis and tumor progression, detected biomarker candidates for early diagnosis, and provided novel therapeutic targets for personalized treatments. Our review focuses on three major topics in EC proteomics: diagnostics, treatment, and molecular mechanisms. We discuss the major histological differences between EC types, i.e., esophageal squamous cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma, and evaluate the clinical significance of published proteomics studies, including promising diagnostic biomarkers and novel therapeutic targets, which should be further validated prior to launching clinical trials. Multi-disciplinary collaborations between basic scientists, clinicians, and pathologists should be established for inter-institutional validation. In conclusion, EC proteomics has provided significant results, which after thorough validation, should lead to the development of novel clinical tools and improvement of the clinical outcome for esophageal cancer patients. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Medical Proteomics.

  4. Characterization of human neural differentiation from pluripotent stem cells using proteomics/PTMomics--current state-of-the-art and challenges.

    PubMed

    Melo-Braga, Marcella Nunes; Meyer, Morten; Zeng, Xianmin; Larsen, Martin Røssel

    2015-02-01

    Stem cells are unspecialized cells capable of self-renewal and to differentiate into the large variety of cells in the body. The possibility to differentiate these cells into neural precursors and neural cells in vitro provides the opportunity to study neural development, nerve cell biology, neurological disease as well as contributing to clinical research. The neural differentiation process is associated with changes at protein and their post-translational modifications (PTMs). PTMs are important regulators of proteins physicochemical properties, function, activity, and interaction with other proteins, DNA/RNA, and complexes. Moreover, the interplay between PTMs is essential to regulate a range of cellular processes that abnormalities in PTM signaling are associated with several diseases. Altogether, this makes PTMs very relevant to study in order to uncover disease pathogenesis and increase the understanding of molecular processes in cells. Substantial advances in PTM enrichment methods and mass spectrometry has allowed the characterization of a subset of PTMs in large-scale studies. This review focuses on the current state-of-the-art of proteomic, as well as PTMomic studies related to human neural differentiation from pluripotent stem cells. Moreover, some of the challenges in stem cell biology, differentiation, and proteomics/PTMomics that are not exclusive to neural development will be discussed. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Untapped Potential of Disordered Proteins in Current Druggable Human Proteome.

    PubMed

    Hu, Gang; Wu, Zhonghua; Wang, Kui; Uversky, Vladimir N; Kurgan, Lukasz

    2016-01-01

    Current efforts in design and characterization of drugs often rely on the structure of their protein targets. However, a large fraction of proteins lack unique 3-D structures and exist as highly dynamic structural ensembles. These intrinsically disordered proteins are involved in pathogenesis of various human diseases and are highly abundant in eukaryotes. Based on a comprehensive analysis of the current druggable human proteome covering 12 drug classes and 18 major classes of drug targets we show a significant bias toward high structural coverage and low abundance of intrinsic disorder. We review reasons for this bias including widespread use of the structural information in various stages of drug development and characterization process and difficulty with attaining structures for the intrinsically disordered proteins. We also discuss future of intrinsically disordered proteins as drug targets. Given the overall high disorder content of the human proteome and current bias of the druggable human proteome toward structural proteins, it is inevitable that disordered proteins will have to raise up on the list of prospective drug targets. The protein disorder-assisted drug design can draw from current rational drug design techniques and would also need novel approaches that no longer rely on a unique protein structure.

  6. Current perspectives in proteomic analysis of abiotic stress in Grapevines

    PubMed Central

    George, Iniga S.; Haynes, Paul A.

    2014-01-01

    Grapes are an important crop plant which forms the basis of a globally important industry. Grape and wine production is particularly vulnerable to environmental and climatic fluctuations, which makes it essential for us to develop a greater understanding of the molecular level responses of grape plants to various abiotic stresses. The completion of the initial grape genome sequence in 2007 has led to a significant increase in research on grapes using proteomics approaches. In this article, we discuss some of the current research on abiotic stress in grapevines, in the context of abiotic stress research in other plant species. We also highlight some of the current limitations in grapevine proteomics and identify areas with promising scope for potential future research. PMID:25538720

  7. Deciphering lymphoma pathogenesis via state-of-the-art mass spectrometry-based quantitative proteomics.

    PubMed

    Psatha, Konstantina; Kollipara, Laxmikanth; Voutyraki, Chrysanthi; Divanach, Peter; Sickmann, Albert; Rassidakis, George Z; Drakos, Elias; Aivaliotis, Michalis

    2017-03-15

    Mass spectrometry-based quantitative proteomics specifically applied to comprehend the pathogenesis of lymphoma has incremental value in deciphering the heterogeneity in complex deregulated molecular mechanisms/pathways of the lymphoma entities, implementing the current diagnostic and therapeutic strategies. Essential global, targeted and functional differential proteomics analyses although still evolving, have been successfully implemented to shed light on lymphoma pathogenesis to discover and explore the role of potential lymphoma biomarkers and drug targets. This review aims to outline and appraise the present status of MS-based quantitative proteomic approaches in lymphoma research, introducing the current state-of-the-art MS-based proteomic technologies, the opportunities they offer in biological discovery in human lymphomas and the related limitation issues arising from sample preparation to data evaluation. It is a synopsis containing information obtained from recent research articles, reviews and public proteomics repositories (PRIDE). We hope that this review article will aid, assimilate and assess all the information aiming to accelerate the development and validation of diagnostic, prognostic or therapeutic targets for an improved and empowered clinical proteomics application in lymphomas in the nearby future. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Proteomics, biomarkers, and HIV‐1: A current perspective

    PubMed Central

    Donnelly, Maire Rose

    2015-01-01

    Despite more than three decades of extensive research, HIV‐1 infection although well controlled with cART, remains incurable. Multifactorial complexity of the viral life‐cycle poses great challenges in understanding molecular mechanisms underlying this infection and the development of biomarkers, which we hope will lead us to its eradication. For a more in‐depth understanding of how the virus interacts with host target cells, T cells and macrophages, proteomic profiling techniques that offer strategies to investigate the proteome in its entirety were employed. Here, we review proteomic studies related to HIV‐1 infection and discuss perspectives and limitations of proteomic and systems biology approaches in future studies. PMID:26033875

  9. [Proteomics in Chinese medicine researches: current status, problems and strategies].

    PubMed

    Xiong, Shao-quan; Zhou, Dai-han; Long, Qi-da

    2010-02-01

    Proteomics plays important roles in Chinese medicine research at post-genomics era. Its research idea and methods are beneficial for elucidating some elemental features of Chinese medicine. At present, Chinese medicine proteomic studies are mainly focusing on the syndromatology and medical herbal pharmacology. However, there are still some problems, the most important matter was that most of the results were merely the superficial delineations. Further research should put emphasize on the unremitting and penetrating study of proteomics, molecular biology and bioinformatics integrally for illuminating Chinese medicine theory deeply to promote the modernization of Chinese medicine research.

  10. Proteomics and the Analysis of Proteomic Data: 2013 Overview of Current Protein-Profiling Technologies

    PubMed Central

    Bruce, Can; Stone, Kathryn; Gulcicek, Erol; Williams, Kenneth

    2013-01-01

    Mass spectrometry has become a major tool in the study of proteomes. The analysis of proteolytic peptides and their fragment ions by this technique enables the identification and quantitation of the precursor proteins in a mixture. However, deducing chemical structures and then protein sequences from mass-to-charge ratios is a challenging computational task. Software tools incorporating powerful algorithms and statistical methods improved our ability to process the large quantities of proteomics data. Repositories of spectral data make both data analysis and experimental design more efficient. New approaches in quantitative and statistical proteomics make possible a greater coverage of the proteome, the identification of more post-translational modifications and a greater sensitivity in the quantitation of targeted proteins. PMID:23504934

  11. Clinical proteomics-driven precision medicine for targeted cancer therapy: current overview and future perspectives.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Li; Wang, Kui; Li, Qifu; Nice, Edouard C; Zhang, Haiyuan; Huang, Canhua

    2016-01-01

    Cancer is a common disease that is a leading cause of death worldwide. Currently, early detection and novel therapeutic strategies are urgently needed for more effective management of cancer. Importantly, protein profiling using clinical proteomic strategies, with spectacular sensitivity and precision, offer excellent promise for the identification of potential biomarkers that would direct the development of targeted therapeutic anticancer drugs for precision medicine. In particular, clinical sample sources, including tumor tissues and body fluids (blood, feces, urine and saliva), have been widely investigated using modern high-throughput mass spectrometry-based proteomic approaches combined with bioinformatic analysis, to pursue the possibilities of precision medicine for targeted cancer therapy. Discussed in this review are the current advantages and limitations of clinical proteomics, the available strategies of clinical proteomics for the management of precision medicine, as well as the challenges and future perspectives of clinical proteomics-driven precision medicine for targeted cancer therapy.

  12. Current Status of Proteomic Studies on Defense Responses in Rice.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xifeng; Bhadauria, Vijai; Ma, Bojun

    2016-01-01

    Biotic stresses are constraints to plant growth and development negatively impacting crop production. To counter such stresses, plants have developed stress-specific adaptations as well as simultaneous responses. The efficacy and magnitude of inducible adaptive responses are dependent on activation of signaling pathways and intracellular networks by modulating expression, or abundance, and/or post-translational modification of proteins associated with defense mechanisms. Proteomics plays an important role in elucidating plant defense mechanisms by mining the differential regulation of proteins to various biotic stresses. Rice, one of the most widely cultivated food crops in world, is constantly challenged by a variety of biotic stresses, and high-throughput proteomics approaches have been employed to unravel the molecular mechanism of the biotic stresses-response in rice. In this review, we summarize the latest advances of proteomic studies on defense responses and discuss the potential relevance of the proteins identified by proteomic means in rice defense mechanism. Furthermore, we provide perspective for proteomics in unraveling the molecular mechanism of rice immunity.

  13. Current strategies and findings in clinically relevant post-translational modification-specific proteomics

    PubMed Central

    Pagel, Oliver; Loroch, Stefan; Sickmann, Albert; Zahedi, René P

    2015-01-01

    Mass spectrometry-based proteomics has considerably extended our knowledge about the occurrence and dynamics of protein post-translational modifications (PTMs). So far, quantitative proteomics has been mainly used to study PTM regulation in cell culture models, providing new insights into the role of aberrant PTM patterns in human disease. However, continuous technological and methodical developments have paved the way for an increasing number of PTM-specific proteomic studies using clinical samples, often limited in sample amount. Thus, quantitative proteomics holds a great potential to discover, validate and accurately quantify biomarkers in body fluids and primary tissues. A major effort will be to improve the complete integration of robust but sensitive proteomics technology to clinical environments. Here, we discuss PTMs that are relevant for clinical research, with a focus on phosphorylation, glycosylation and proteolytic cleavage; furthermore, we give an overview on the current developments and novel findings in mass spectrometry-based PTM research. PMID:25955281

  14. Proteomic indicators of oxidation and hydration state in colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Dick, Jeffrey M

    2016-01-01

    New integrative approaches are needed to harness the potential of rapidly growing datasets of protein expression and microbial community composition in colorectal cancer. Chemical and thermodynamic models offer theoretical tools to describe populations of biomacromolecules and their relative potential for formation in different microenvironmental conditions. The average oxidation state of carbon (Z C) can be calculated as an elemental ratio from the chemical formulas of proteins, and water demand per residue ([Formula: see text]) is computed by writing the overall formation reactions of proteins from basis species. Using results reported in proteomic studies of clinical samples, many datasets exhibit higher mean Z C or [Formula: see text] of proteins in carcinoma or adenoma compared to normal tissue. In contrast, average protein compositions in bacterial genomes often have lower Z C for bacteria enriched in fecal samples from cancer patients compared to healthy donors. In thermodynamic calculations, the potential for formation of the cancer-related proteins is energetically favored by changes in the chemical activity of H2O and fugacity of O2 that reflect the compositional differences. The compositional analysis suggests that a systematic change in chemical composition is an essential feature of cancer proteomes, and the thermodynamic descriptions show that the observed proteomic transformations in host tissue could be promoted by relatively high microenvironmental oxidation and hydration states.

  15. Proteomic indicators of oxidation and hydration state in colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    New integrative approaches are needed to harness the potential of rapidly growing datasets of protein expression and microbial community composition in colorectal cancer. Chemical and thermodynamic models offer theoretical tools to describe populations of biomacromolecules and their relative potential for formation in different microenvironmental conditions. The average oxidation state of carbon (ZC) can be calculated as an elemental ratio from the chemical formulas of proteins, and water demand per residue (\\documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \\usepackage{amsmath} \\usepackage{wasysym} \\usepackage{amsfonts} \\usepackage{amssymb} \\usepackage{amsbsy} \\usepackage{upgreek} \\usepackage{mathrsfs} \\setlength{\\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \\begin{document} }{}${\\overline{n}}_{{\\mathrm{H}}_{2}\\mathrm{O}}$\\end{document}n¯H2O) is computed by writing the overall formation reactions of proteins from basis species. Using results reported in proteomic studies of clinical samples, many datasets exhibit higher mean ZC or \\documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \\usepackage{amsmath} \\usepackage{wasysym} \\usepackage{amsfonts} \\usepackage{amssymb} \\usepackage{amsbsy} \\usepackage{upgreek} \\usepackage{mathrsfs} \\setlength{\\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \\begin{document} }{}${\\overline{n}}_{{\\mathrm{H}}_{2}\\mathrm{O}}$\\end{document}n¯H2O of proteins in carcinoma or adenoma compared to normal tissue. In contrast, average protein compositions in bacterial genomes often have lower ZC for bacteria enriched in fecal samples from cancer patients compared to healthy donors. In thermodynamic calculations, the potential for formation of the cancer-related proteins is energetically favored by changes in the chemical activity of H2O and fugacity of O2 that reflect the compositional differences. The compositional analysis suggests that a systematic change in chemical composition is an essential feature of cancer proteomes, and the thermodynamic descriptions show that the observed proteomic

  16. Proteomic evaluation of genetically modified crops: current status and challenges

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Chun Yan; Wang, Tai

    2013-01-01

    Hectares of genetically modified (GM) crops have increased exponentially since 1996, when such crops began to be commercialized. GM biotechnology, together with conventional breeding, has become the main approach to improving agronomic traits of crops. However, people are concerned about the safety of GM crops, especially GM-derived food and feed. Many efforts have been made to evaluate the unintended effects caused by the introduction of exogenous genes. “Omics” techniques have advantages over targeted analysis in evaluating such crops because of their use of high-throughput screening. Proteins are key players in gene function and are directly involved in metabolism and cellular development or have roles as toxins, antinutrients, or allergens, which are essential for human health. Thus, proteomics can be expected to become one of the most useful tools in safety assessment. This review assesses the potential of proteomics in evaluating various GM crops. We further describe the challenges in ensuring homogeneity and sensitivity in detection techniques. PMID:23471542

  17. Proteomics and protein analyses of ovine and caprine body fluids: current studies and future promises.

    PubMed

    Mavromati, Jani; Cash, Phillip; Restelli, Laura; Soler, Laura

    2014-02-01

    Our knowledge of the physiology and health of small ruminants, specifically sheep and goats, is frequently obtained by extrapolating information from other species, for example the cow. However, there are important genetic, physiological and anatomical differences between small and large ruminants that cannot be ignored. This review considers the advances that have been made in the investigation of sheep and goat physiology through the use of proteomic technologies. Proteomics is widely used to analyze clinically relevant body fluids for a number of animals to define productive traits and health status biomarkers as well as to monitor therapeutic interventions for infectious and metabolic diseases. Although the proteomes of body fluids have been described in detail for some animal species, there are few equivalent studies for sheep and goats. Nevertheless, the data now available for the proteomes of a range of body fluids in small ruminants have helped define new diagnostic and prognostic markers for these species. Moreover, these data are beneficial in studies where these small ruminants serve as models for human disease. However, despite the progress achieved to date, comprehensive data on the specific proteomes for many tissues and body fluids for sheep and goats remain scarce. The aim of this review is to describe the current status of small ruminant proteomic research and to demonstrate the potential benefits, as well as highlight the difficulties, of working with these animals.

  18. Current trends and challenges in proteomic identification of protease substrates.

    PubMed

    Vizovišek, Matej; Vidmar, Robert; Fonović, Marko; Turk, Boris

    2016-03-01

    Proteolytic cleavage is a ubiquitous, irreversible, posttranslational modification that changes protein structure and function and plays an important role in numerous physiological and pathological processes. Over the last decade, proteases have become increasingly important clinical targets because many of their inhibitors are already used in the clinic or in various stages of clinical testing. Therefore, a better understanding of protease action and their repertoires of physiological substrates can not only provide an important insight into their mechanisms of action but also open a path toward novel drug design. Historically, proteases and their substrates were mainly studied on a case-by-case basis, but recent advancements in mass spectrometry-based proteomics have enabled proteolysis studies on a global scale. Because there are many different types of proteases that can operate in various cellular contexts, multiple experimental approaches for their degradomic characterization had to be developed. The present paper reviews the mass spectrometry-based approaches for determining the proteolytic events in complex biological samples. The methodologies for substrate identification and the determination of protease specificity are discussed, with a special focus on terminomic strategies, which combine peptide labeling and enrichment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. and Société Française de Biochimie et Biologie Moléculaire (SFBBM). All rights reserved.

  19. Proteomics and Systems Biology: Current and Future Applications in the Nutritional Sciences1

    PubMed Central

    Moore, J. Bernadette; Weeks, Mark E.

    2011-01-01

    In the last decade, advances in genomics, proteomics, and metabolomics have yielded large-scale datasets that have driven an interest in global analyses, with the objective of understanding biological systems as a whole. Systems biology integrates computational modeling and experimental biology to predict and characterize the dynamic properties of biological systems, which are viewed as complex signaling networks. Whereas the systems analysis of disease-perturbed networks holds promise for identification of drug targets for therapy, equally the identified critical network nodes may be targeted through nutritional intervention in either a preventative or therapeutic fashion. As such, in the context of the nutritional sciences, it is envisioned that systems analysis of normal and nutrient-perturbed signaling networks in combination with knowledge of underlying genetic polymorphisms will lead to a future in which the health of individuals will be improved through predictive and preventative nutrition. Although high-throughput transcriptomic microarray data were initially most readily available and amenable to systems analysis, recent technological and methodological advances in MS have contributed to a linear increase in proteomic investigations. It is now commonplace for combined proteomic technologies to generate complex, multi-faceted datasets, and these will be the keystone of future systems biology research. This review will define systems biology, outline current proteomic methodologies, highlight successful applications of proteomics in nutrition research, and discuss the challenges for future applications of systems biology approaches in the nutritional sciences. PMID:22332076

  20. Five years later: the current status of the use of proteomics and transcriptomics in EMF research.

    PubMed

    Leszczynski, Dariusz; de Pomerai, David; Koczan, Dirk; Stoll, Dieter; Franke, Helmut; Albar, Juan Pablo

    2012-08-01

    The World Health Organization's and Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority's "Workshop on Application of Proteomics and Transcriptomics in Electromagnetic Fields Research" was held in Helsinki in the October/November 2005. As a consequence of this meeting, Proteomics journal published in 2006 a special issue "Application of Proteomics and Transcriptomics in EMF Research" (Vol. 6 No. 17; Guest Editor: D. Leszczynski). This Proteomics issue presented the status of research, of the effects of electromagnetic fields (EMF) using proteomics and transcriptomics methods, present in 2005. The current overview/opinion article presents the status of research in this area by reviewing all studies that were published by the end of 2010. The review work was a part of the European Cooperation in the Field of Scientific and Technical Research (COST) Action BM0704 that created a structure in which researchers in the field of EMF and health shared knowledge and information. The review was prepared by the members of the COST Action BM0704 task group on the high-throughput screening techniques and electromagnetic fields (TG-HTST-EMF).

  1. Proteomics and systems biology: current and future applications in the nutritional sciences.

    PubMed

    Moore, J Bernadette; Weeks, Mark E

    2011-07-01

    In the last decade, advances in genomics, proteomics, and metabolomics have yielded large-scale datasets that have driven an interest in global analyses, with the objective of understanding biological systems as a whole. Systems biology integrates computational modeling and experimental biology to predict and characterize the dynamic properties of biological systems, which are viewed as complex signaling networks. Whereas the systems analysis of disease-perturbed networks holds promise for identification of drug targets for therapy, equally the identified critical network nodes may be targeted through nutritional intervention in either a preventative or therapeutic fashion. As such, in the context of the nutritional sciences, it is envisioned that systems analysis of normal and nutrient-perturbed signaling networks in combination with knowledge of underlying genetic polymorphisms will lead to a future in which the health of individuals will be improved through predictive and preventative nutrition. Although high-throughput transcriptomic microarray data were initially most readily available and amenable to systems analysis, recent technological and methodological advances in MS have contributed to a linear increase in proteomic investigations. It is now commonplace for combined proteomic technologies to generate complex, multi-faceted datasets, and these will be the keystone of future systems biology research. This review will define systems biology, outline current proteomic methodologies, highlight successful applications of proteomics in nutrition research, and discuss the challenges for future applications of systems biology approaches in the nutritional sciences.

  2. Current status of publicly available sarcoma cell lines for use in proteomic studies.

    PubMed

    Pan, Xiaoqing; Yoshida, Akihiko; Kawai, Akira; Kondo, Tadashi

    2016-01-01

    Cell lines are valuable resources for proteomic studies and can be used as tools to verify the significance of proteomic findings. Here, the authors overview the current status of the publicly available sarcoma cell lines. The authors surveyed seven major cell banks and found that the diversity observed in the sarcoma cell banks was largely insufficient; sarcoma cell lines are available for only a limited histological subtype. They also observed a number of issues with the pathological diagnosis of the cell lines, limitations in their behavioral diversity, and various unmet needs. Well characterized cell lines with accurate diagnosis based on modern diagnosis criteria should be available from public cell banks. The authors conclude that additional cell lines, along with detailed genetic and pathological analyses, should be prepared and deposited in order to promote sarcoma-specific proteomic research. The authors focused on sarcoma cell lines, but their discussion can be applied to the other cancers.

  3. Proteomic profiling of Gram-negative bacterial outer membrane vesicles: Current perspectives.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jaewook; Kim, Oh Youn; Gho, Yong Song

    2016-10-01

    Outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) are extracellular vesicles derived from Gram-negative bacteria. Recent progress in the studies of Gram-negative bacterial extracellular vesicles implies that OMVs may function as intercellular communicasomes in bacteria-bacteria and bacteria-host interactions. Current MS-based high-throughput proteomic analyses of Gram-negative bacterial OMVs have identified thousands of vesicular proteins and provided clues to reveal the biogenesis and pathophysiological functions of Gram-negative bacterial OMVs. The future directions of proteomics of Gram-negative bacterial OMVs may include the isolation strategy of Gram-negative bacterial OMVs to thoroughly exclude nonvesicular contaminants and proteomics of Gram-negative bacterial OMVs derived from diverse conditions as well as body fluids of bacterium-infected hosts. We hope this review will shed light on future research in this emerging field of proteomics of extracellular vesicles derived from Gram-negative bacteria and contribute to the development of OMV-based diagnostic tools and effective vaccines.

  4. Covering complete proteomes with X-ray structures: a current snapshot

    SciTech Connect

    Mizianty, Marcin J.; Fan, Xiao; Yan, Jing; Chalmers, Eric; Woloschuk, Christopher; Joachimiak, Andrzej; Kurgan, Lukasz

    2014-11-01

    The current and the attainable coverage by X-ray structures of proteins and their functions on the scale of the ‘protein universe’ are estimated. A detailed analysis of the coverage across nearly 2000 proteomes from all superkingdoms of life and functional annotations is performed, with particular focus on the human proteome and the family of GPCR proteins. Structural genomics programs have developed and applied structure-determination pipelines to a wide range of protein targets, facilitating the visualization of macromolecular interactions and the understanding of their molecular and biochemical functions. The fundamental question of whether three-dimensional structures of all proteins and all functional annotations can be determined using X-ray crystallography is investigated. A first-of-its-kind large-scale analysis of crystallization propensity for all proteins encoded in 1953 fully sequenced genomes was performed. It is shown that current X-ray crystallographic knowhow combined with homology modeling can provide structures for 25% of modeling families (protein clusters for which structural models can be obtained through homology modeling), with at least one structural model produced for each Gene Ontology functional annotation. The coverage varies between superkingdoms, with 19% for eukaryotes, 35% for bacteria and 49% for archaea, and with those of viruses following the coverage values of their hosts. It is shown that the crystallization propensities of proteomes from the taxonomic superkingdoms are distinct. The use of knowledge-based target selection is shown to substantially increase the ability to produce X-ray structures. It is demonstrated that the human proteome has one of the highest attainable coverage values among eukaryotes, and GPCR membrane proteins suitable for X-ray structure determination were determined.

  5. Evolution of Clinical Proteomics and its Role in Medicine | Office of Cancer Clinical Proteomics Research

    Cancer.gov

    NCI's Office of Cancer Clinical Proteomics Research authored a review of the current state of clinical proteomics in the peer-reviewed Journal of Proteome Research. The review highlights outcomes from the CPTC program and also provides a thorough overview of the different technologies that have pushed the field forward. Additionally, the review provides a vision for moving the field forward through linking advances in genomic and proteomic analysis to develop new, molecularly targeted interventions.

  6. Completed | Office of Cancer Clinical Proteomics Research

    Cancer.gov

    Prior to the current Clinical Proteomic Tumor Analysis Consortium (CPTAC), previously funded initiatives associated with clinical proteomics research included: Clinical Proteomic Tumor Analysis Consortium (CPTAC 2.0) Clinical Proteomic Technologies for Cancer Initiative (CPTC) Mouse Proteomic Technologies Initiative

  7. A review of current proteomics technologies with a survey on their widespread use in reproductive biology investigations.

    PubMed

    Wright, P C; Noirel, J; Ow, S-Y; Fazeli, A

    2012-03-01

    Proteomics is very much a technology-driven field. The ambition is to identify, quantify and to assess the state of posttranslational modification and interaction partners for every protein in the cell. The proteome is in a state of flux and is thus extremely complex. Analysis of the proteome is exacerbated by the huge dynamic concentration range of proteins in the cellular environment. The impact that mass spectrometry-based proteomics has had on the field of biology has heavily depended on dramatic improvements in mass spectrometry that have been made in recent years. We examined 1541 reports indexed in PubMed relating to proteomics and reproduction to identify trends in the field and to make some broad observations for future work. To set the scene, in the first part of the report, we give a comprehensive overview of proteomics and associated techniques and technologies (such as separations and mass spectrometry). The second part examines the field in light of these techniques and suggests some opportunities for application of these tools in the area of reproduction. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Clinical application of proteomics in breast cancer: state of the art and perspectives.

    PubMed

    Goncalves, Anthony; Bertucci, François

    2011-01-01

    Breast cancer is one of the most frequent and deadly cancers in industrialized countries. The identification of accurate biomarkers that improve the screening, diagnosis, prognostication and prediction of therapeutic response or toxicity, and the identification of novel molecular therapeutic targets are crucial. Today, high-throughput molecular techniques permit investigators to systematically interrogate the genome, transcriptome, and proteome of cancer cells. During the past decade, mRNA expression profiling has been successfully applied to the molecular characterization of breast cancers. Application of proteomics-based techniques is also considered crucial for detecting new biomarkers. In this review, we present the proteomics-based methods that have been applied to date to breast cancer samples for diagnostic and prognostic purposes. Despite their current limits, these pioneering techniques are promising. The most important results as well as the current limitations and perspectives are summarized and discussed.

  9. The Human Eye Proteome Project: perspectives on an emerging proteome.

    PubMed

    Semba, Richard D; Enghild, Jan J; Venkatraman, Vidya; Dyrlund, Thomas F; Van Eyk, Jennifer E

    2013-08-01

    There are an estimated 285 million people with visual impairment worldwide, of whom 39 million are blind. The pathogenesis of many eye diseases remains poorly understood. The human eye is currently an emerging proteome that may provide key insight into the biological pathways of disease. We review proteomic investigations of the human eye and present a catalogue of 4842 nonredundant proteins identified in human eye tissues and biofluids to date. We highlight the need to identify new biomarkers for eye diseases using proteomics. Recent advances in proteomics do now allow the identification of hundreds to thousands of proteins in tissues and fluids, characterization of various PTMs and simultaneous quantification of multiple proteins. To facilitate proteomic studies of the eye, the Human Eye Proteome Project (HEPP) was organized in September 2012. The HEPP is one of the most recent components of the Biology/Disease-driven Human Proteome Project (B/D-HPP) whose overarching goal is to support the broad application of state-of-the-art measurements of proteins and proteomes by life scientists studying the molecular mechanisms of biological processes and human disease. The large repertoire of investigative proteomic tools has great potential to transform vision science and enhance understanding of physiology and disease processes that affect sight. © 2013 The Authors. PROTEOMICS published by Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Solid-state current transformer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farnsworth, D. L. (Inventor)

    1976-01-01

    A signal transformation network which is uniquely characterized to exhibit a very low input impedance while maintaining a linear transfer characteristic when driven from a voltage source and when quiescently biased in the low microampere current range is described. In its simplest form, it consists of a tightly coupled two transistor network in which a common emitter input stage is interconnected directly with an emitter follower stage to provide virtually 100 percent negative feedback to the base input of the common emitter stage. Bias to the network is supplied via the common tie point of the common emitter stage collector terminal and the emitter follower base stage terminal by a regulated constant current source, and the output of the circuit is taken from the collector of the emitter follower stage.

  11. Solid state electrochemical current source

    DOEpatents

    Potanin, Alexander Arkadyevich; Vedeneev, Nikolai Ivanovich

    2002-04-30

    A cathode and a solid state electrochemical cell comprising said cathode, a solid anode and solid fluoride ion conducting electrolyte. The cathode comprises a metal oxide and a compound fluoride containing at least two metals with different valences. Representative compound fluorides include solid solutions of bismuth fluoride and potassium fluoride; and lead fluoride and potassium fluoride. Representative metal oxides include copper oxide, lead oxide, manganese oxide, vanadium oxide and silver oxide.

  12. Rosacea: current state of epidemiology.

    PubMed

    Tan, Jerry; Berg, Mats

    2013-12-01

    Case definitions are critical in epidemiologic research. However, modern disease indicators must now consider complex data from gene-based research along with traditional clinical parameters. Rosacea is a skin disorder with multiple signs and symptoms. In individuals, these features may be multiple or one may predominate. While studies on the epidemiology of rosacea have previously been sparse, there has been a recent increase in research activity. A broader body of epidemiological information that includes a greater variety of countries beyond Northern Europe and general population-based demographics is needed. As there are operational issues in current case definitions of rosacea subtypes--rationalization and standardization--universal consistent applications in future research is also imperative. Further improvement in disease definition combining new research information along with clinical pragmatism should increase the accuracy of rosacea case ascertainment and facilitate further epidemiological research.

  13. Covering complete proteomes with X-ray structures: A current snapshot

    DOE PAGES

    Mizianty, Marcin J.; Fan, Xiao; Yan, Jing; ...

    2014-10-23

    Structural genomics programs have developed and applied structure-determination pipelines to a wide range of protein targets, facilitating the visualization of macromolecular interactions and the understanding of their molecular and biochemical functions. The fundamental question of whether three-dimensional structures of all proteins and all functional annotations can be determined using X-ray crystallography is investigated. A first-of-its-kind large-scale analysis of crystallization propensity for all proteins encoded in 1953 fully sequenced genomes was performed. It is shown that current X-ray crystallographic knowhow combined with homology modeling can provide structures for 25% of modeling families (protein clusters for which structural models can be obtainedmore » through homology modeling), with at least one structural model produced for each Gene Ontology functional annotation. The coverage varies between superkingdoms, with 19% for eukaryotes, 35% for bacteria and 49% for archaea, and with those of viruses following the coverage values of their hosts. It is shown that the crystallization propensities of proteomes from the taxonomic superkingdoms are distinct. The use of knowledge-based target selection is shown to substantially increase the ability to produce X-ray structures. It is demonstrated that the human proteome has one of the highest attainable coverage values among eukaryotes, and GPCR membrane proteins suitable for X-ray structure determination were determined.« less

  14. Covering complete proteomes with X-ray structures: A current snapshot

    SciTech Connect

    Mizianty, Marcin J.; Fan, Xiao; Yan, Jing; Chalmers, Eric; Woloschuk, Christopher; Joachimiak, Andrzej; Kurgan, Lukasz

    2014-10-23

    Structural genomics programs have developed and applied structure-determination pipelines to a wide range of protein targets, facilitating the visualization of macromolecular interactions and the understanding of their molecular and biochemical functions. The fundamental question of whether three-dimensional structures of all proteins and all functional annotations can be determined using X-ray crystallography is investigated. A first-of-its-kind large-scale analysis of crystallization propensity for all proteins encoded in 1953 fully sequenced genomes was performed. It is shown that current X-ray crystallographic knowhow combined with homology modeling can provide structures for 25% of modeling families (protein clusters for which structural models can be obtained through homology modeling), with at least one structural model produced for each Gene Ontology functional annotation. The coverage varies between superkingdoms, with 19% for eukaryotes, 35% for bacteria and 49% for archaea, and with those of viruses following the coverage values of their hosts. It is shown that the crystallization propensities of proteomes from the taxonomic superkingdoms are distinct. The use of knowledge-based target selection is shown to substantially increase the ability to produce X-ray structures. It is demonstrated that the human proteome has one of the highest attainable coverage values among eukaryotes, and GPCR membrane proteins suitable for X-ray structure determination were determined.

  15. Covering the Complete Proteomes with X-ray Structures - a Current Snapshot

    SciTech Connect

    Mizianty, Marcin J.; Fan, Xiao; Yan, Jing; Chalmers, Eric; Woloschuk, Christopher; Joachimiak, Andrzej; Kurgan, Lukasz

    2014-10-23

    Abstract Structural genomics programs developed and applied structure determination pipelines to a wide range of protein targets, facilitating visualization of macromolecular interactions and understanding of their molecular and biochemical functions. We investigate a fundamental question whether three-dimensional structures of all proteins and all functional annotations can be determined using X-ray crystallography. We performed a first-of-its-kind large scale analysis of crystallization propensity for all proteins encoded in 1,953 fully sequenced genomes. We show that current X-ray crystallography know-how combined with homology modeling can provide structures for 25% of modeling families (protein clusters for which structural models can be obtained through homology modeling) with at least one structural model produced for each Gene Ontology functional annotation. The coverage varies between superkingdoms with 19% in eukaryotes, 35% in bacteria, 49% in archaea, and viruses following coverage values of their hosts. We show that the crystallization propensities of proteomes are distinctive of the taxonomic superkingdoms. The use of knowledge-based target selection is shown to substantially increase ability to produce X-ray structures. We demonstrate that the human proteome has one of the highest attainable coverage values among eukaryotes and we identify GPCR membrane proteins suitable for the X-ray structure determination.

  16. Covering complete proteomes with X-ray structures: a current snapshot

    PubMed Central

    Mizianty, Marcin J.; Fan, Xiao; Yan, Jing; Chalmers, Eric; Woloschuk, Christopher; Joachimiak, Andrzej; Kurgan, Lukasz

    2014-01-01

    Structural genomics programs have developed and applied structure-determination pipelines to a wide range of protein targets, facilitating the visualization of macromolecular interactions and the understanding of their molecular and biochemical functions. The fundamental question of whether three-dimensional structures of all proteins and all functional annotations can be determined using X-ray crystallography is investigated. A first-of-its-kind large-scale analysis of crystallization propensity for all proteins encoded in 1953 fully sequenced genomes was performed. It is shown that current X-ray crystallographic knowhow combined with homology modeling can provide structures for 25% of modeling families (protein clusters for which structural models can be obtained through homology modeling), with at least one structural model produced for each Gene Ontology functional annotation. The coverage varies between superkingdoms, with 19% for eukaryotes, 35% for bacteria and 49% for archaea, and with those of viruses following the coverage values of their hosts. It is shown that the crystallization propensities of proteomes from the taxonomic superkingdoms are distinct. The use of knowledge-based target selection is shown to substantially increase the ability to produce X-ray structures. It is demonstrated that the human proteome has one of the highest attainable coverage values among eukaryotes, and GPCR membrane proteins suitable for X-ray structure determination were determined. PMID:25372670

  17. A comprehensive evaluation of imidazole-zinc reverse stain for current proteomic researches.

    PubMed

    Lin, Ching-Yu; Wang, Vinchi; Shui, Hao-Ai; Juang, Rong-Huay; Hour, Ai-Ling; Chen, Pei-Sing; Huang, Hui-Ming; Wu, Szu-Yu; Lee, Jen-Chieh; Tsai, Tzung-Lin; Chen, Han-Min

    2009-02-01

    In this paper, we comprehensively evaluated the capability of imidazole-zinc reverse stain (ZN) in comparative proteomics. Three commonly used protein gel staining methods, including silver (SN), SYPRO Ruby (SR), and CB stain were investigated alongside for comparison purpose. A transparency scanning procedure, which may deliver more even and contrasting gel images, was found best for documenting ZN stained gels. Our results showed that ZN was more sensitive than SN, SR, and CB. It may reveal as few as 1.8 ng of proteins in a gel. Moreover, ZN was found to provide a linear dynamic range of staining for revealing proteins up to 140 ng, and show an insignificant staining preference. To analyze a ZN stained 2-D gel image that generally comprises an apparent but even background, the Melanie 4 software was found more suitable than others. Furthermore, ZN demonstrated an equivalent or better MS compatibility than the other three staining methods. Intense and comprehensive MS profiles were frequently observed for ZN stained gel spots. Approximate two-third of ZN stained gel spots were successfully identified for protein identities. Taken together, our results suggest that the prompt, cost effective and versatile ZN is well suited for current proteomic researches.

  18. GENOMIC AND PROTEOMIC ANALYSIS OF SURROGATE TISSUES FOR ASSESSING TOXIC EXPOSURES AND DISEASE STATES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Genomic and Proteomic Analysis of Surrogate Tissues for Assessing Toxic Exposures and Disease States
    David J. Dix and John C. Rockett
    Reproductive Toxicology Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, Office of Research and Development, USEPA, ...

  19. GENOMIC AND PROTEOMIC ANALYSIS OF SURROGATE TISSUES FOR ASSESSING TOXIC EXPOSURES AND DISEASE STATES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Genomic and Proteomic Analysis of Surrogate Tissues for Assessing Toxic Exposures and Disease States
    David J. Dix and John C. Rockett
    Reproductive Toxicology Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, Office of Research and Development, USEPA, ...

  20. Proteomics data repositories

    PubMed Central

    Riffle, Michael; Eng, Jimmy K.

    2010-01-01

    The field of proteomics, particularly the application of mass spectrometry analysis to protein samples, is well-established and growing rapidly. Proteomics studies generate large volumes of raw experimental data and inferred biological results. To facilitate the dissemination of these data, centralized data repositories have been developed that make the data and results accessible to proteomics researchers and biologists alike. This review of proteomics data repositories focuses exclusively on freely-available, centralized data resources that disseminate or store experimental mass spectrometry data and results. The resources chosen reflect a current “snapshot” of the state of resources available with an emphasis placed on resources that may be of particular interest to yeast researchers. Resources are described in terms of their intended purpose and the features and functionality provided to users. PMID:19795424

  1. The Human Eye Proteome Project: Perspectives on an emerging proteome

    PubMed Central

    Semba, Richard D.; Enghild, Jan J.; Venkatraman, Vidya; Dyrlund, Thomas F.; Van Eyk, Jennifer E.

    2013-01-01

    There are an estimated 285 million people with visual impairment worldwide, of whom 39 million are blind. The pathogenesis of many eye diseases remains poorly understood. The human eye is currently an emerging proteome that may provide key insight into the biological pathways of disease. We review proteomic investigations of the human eye and present a catalogue of 4842 non-redundant proteins identified in human eye tissues and biofluids to date. We highlight the need to identify new biomarkers for eye diseases using proteomics. Recent advances in proteomics now allow the identification of hundreds to thousands of proteins in tissues and fluids, characterization of various post-translational modifications, and simultaneous quantification of multiple proteins. To facilitate proteomic studies of the eye, the Human Eye Proteome Project (HEPP) was organized in September 2012. The HEPP is one of the most recent components of the Biology/Disease-driven Human Proteome Project (B/D-HPP) whose overarching goal is to support the broad application of state-of-the-art measurements of proteins and proteomes by life scientists studying the molecular mechanisms of biological processes and human disease. The large repertoire of investigative proteomic tools has great potential to transform vision science and enhance understanding of physiology and disease processes that affect sight. PMID:23749747

  2. Current challenges in software solutions for mass spectrometry-based quantitative proteomics.

    PubMed

    Cappadona, Salvatore; Baker, Peter R; Cutillas, Pedro R; Heck, Albert J R; van Breukelen, Bas

    2012-09-01

    Mass spectrometry-based proteomics has evolved as a high-throughput research field over the past decade. Significant advances in instrumentation, and the ability to produce huge volumes of data, have emphasized the need for adequate data analysis tools, which are nowadays often considered the main bottleneck for proteomics development. This review highlights important issues that directly impact the effectiveness of proteomic quantitation and educates software developers and end-users on available computational solutions to correct for the occurrence of these factors. Potential sources of errors specific for stable isotope-based methods or label-free approaches are explicitly outlined. The overall aim focuses on a generic proteomic workflow.

  3. Current State of Pediatric Lung Transplantation.

    PubMed

    Hayes, Don; Benden, Christian; Sweet, Stuart C; Conrad, Carol K

    2015-10-01

    Cardiothoracic transplantation has significantly impacted the lives of pediatric patients with advanced cardiopulmonary failure. The current state of lung transplantation in children as well as its ongoing and future challenges are discussed.

  4. Comparative proteome analysis of Milnesium tardigradum in early embryonic state versus adults in active and anhydrobiotic state

    PubMed Central

    Schokraie, Elham; Warnken, Uwe; Hotz-Wagenblatt, Agnes; Grohme, Markus A.; Hengherr, Steffen; Förster, Frank; Schill, Ralph O.; Frohme, Marcus; Dandekar, Thomas; Schnölzer, Martina

    2012-01-01

    Tardigrades have fascinated researchers for more than 300 years because of their extraordinary capability to undergo cryptobiosis and survive extreme environmental conditions. However, the survival mechanisms of tardigrades are still poorly understood mainly due to the absence of detailed knowledge about the proteome and genome of these organisms. Our study was intended to provide a basis for the functional characterization of expressed proteins in different states of tardigrades. High-throughput, high-accuracy proteomics in combination with a newly developed tardigrade specific protein database resulted in the identification of more than 3000 proteins in three different states: early embryonic state and adult animals in active and anhydrobiotic state. This comprehensive proteome resource includes protein families such as chaperones, antioxidants, ribosomal proteins, cytoskeletal proteins, transporters, protein channels, nutrient reservoirs, and developmental proteins. A comparative analysis of protein families in the different states was performed by calculating the exponentially modified protein abundance index which classifies proteins in major and minor components. This is the first step to analyzing the proteins involved in early embryonic development, and furthermore proteins which might play an important role in the transition into the anhydrobiotic state. PMID:23029181

  5. Comparative proteome analysis of Milnesium tardigradum in early embryonic state versus adults in active and anhydrobiotic state.

    PubMed

    Schokraie, Elham; Warnken, Uwe; Hotz-Wagenblatt, Agnes; Grohme, Markus A; Hengherr, Steffen; Förster, Frank; Schill, Ralph O; Frohme, Marcus; Dandekar, Thomas; Schnölzer, Martina

    2012-01-01

    Tardigrades have fascinated researchers for more than 300 years because of their extraordinary capability to undergo cryptobiosis and survive extreme environmental conditions. However, the survival mechanisms of tardigrades are still poorly understood mainly due to the absence of detailed knowledge about the proteome and genome of these organisms. Our study was intended to provide a basis for the functional characterization of expressed proteins in different states of tardigrades. High-throughput, high-accuracy proteomics in combination with a newly developed tardigrade specific protein database resulted in the identification of more than 3000 proteins in three different states: early embryonic state and adult animals in active and anhydrobiotic state. This comprehensive proteome resource includes protein families such as chaperones, antioxidants, ribosomal proteins, cytoskeletal proteins, transporters, protein channels, nutrient reservoirs, and developmental proteins. A comparative analysis of protein families in the different states was performed by calculating the exponentially modified protein abundance index which classifies proteins in major and minor components. This is the first step to analyzing the proteins involved in early embryonic development, and furthermore proteins which might play an important role in the transition into the anhydrobiotic state.

  6. Large-Scale, Ion-Current-Based Proteomic Investigation of the Rat Striatal Proteome in a Model of Short- and Long-Term Cocaine Withdrawal.

    PubMed

    Shen, Shichen; Jiang, Xiaosheng; Li, Jun; Straubinger, Robert M; Suarez, Mauricio; Tu, Chengjian; Duan, Xiaotao; Thompson, Alexis C; Qu, Jun

    2016-05-06

    Given the tremendous detriments of cocaine dependence, effective diagnosis and patient stratification are critical for successful intervention yet difficult to achieve due to the largely unknown molecular mechanisms involved. To obtain new insights into cocaine dependence and withdrawal, we employed a reproducible, reliable, and large-scale proteomics approach to investigate the striatal proteomes of rats (n = 40, 10 per group) subjected to chronic cocaine exposure, followed by either short- (WD1) or long- (WD22) term withdrawal. By implementing a surfactant-aided precipitation/on-pellet digestion procedure, a reproducible and sensitive nanoLC-Orbitrap MS analysis, and an optimized ion-current-based MS1 quantification pipeline, >2000 nonredundant proteins were quantified confidently without missing data in any replicate. Although cocaine was cleared from the body, 129/37 altered proteins were observed in WD1/WD22 that are implicated in several biological processes related closely to drug-induced neuroplasticity. Although many of these changes recapitulate the findings from independent studies reported over the last two decades, some novel insights were obtained and further validated by immunoassays. For example, significantly elevated striatal protein kinase C activity persisted over the 22 day cocaine withdrawal. Cofilin-1 activity was up-regulated in WD1 and down-regulated in WD22. These discoveries suggest potentially distinct structural plasticity after short- and long-term cocaine withdrawal. In addition, this study provides compelling evidence that blood vessel narrowing, a long-known effect of cocaine use, occurred after long-term but not short-term withdrawal. In summary, this work developed a well-optimized paradigm for ion-current-based quantitative proteomics in brain tissues and obtained novel insights into molecular alterations in the striatum following cocaine exposure and withdrawal.

  7. Solid state recording current meter conversion

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cheng, Ralph T.; Wang, Lichen

    1985-01-01

    The authors describe the conversion of an Endeco-174 current meter to a solid-state recording current meter. A removable solid-state module was designed to fit in the space originally occupied by an 8-track tape cartridge. The module contains a CPU and 128 kilobytes of nonvolatile CMOS memory. The solid-state module communicates with any terminal or computer using an RS-232C interface at 4800 baud rate. A primary consideration for conversion was to keep modifications of the current meter to a minimum. The communication protocol was designed to emulate the Endeco tape translation unit, thus the need for a translation unit was eliminated and the original data reduction programs can be used without any modification. After conversion, the data recording section of the current meter contains no moving parts; the storage capacity of the module is equivalent to that of the original tape cartridge.

  8. Sugarcane proteomics: An update on current status, challenges, and future prospects.

    PubMed

    Barnabas, Leonard; Ramadass, Ashwin; Amalraj, Ramesh Sundar; Palaniyandi, Malathi; Rasappa, Viswanathan

    2015-05-01

    Sugarcane is one of the most important commercial crops cultivated worldwide for the production of crystal sugar, ethanol, and other related by-products. Unlike other comparable monocots like sorghum, maize, and rice, sugarcane genome by virtue of its polyploidy nature remains yet to be fully deciphered. Proteomics-an established complementary tool to genomics is at its infancy in sugarcane as compared to the other monocots. However, with the surge in genomics research accomplished by next-generation sequencing platforms, sugarcane proteomics has gained momentum. This review summarizes the available literature from 1970 to 2014, which ensures a comprehensive coverage on sugarcane proteomics-a topic first of its kind to be reviewed. We herewith compiled substantial contributions in different areas of sugarcane proteomics, which include abiotic and biotic stresses, cell wall, organelle, and structural proteomics. The past decade has witnessed a paradigm shift in the pace with which sugarcane proteomics is progressing, as evident by the number of research publications. In addition to extensively reviewing the progress made thus far, we intend to highlight the scope in sugarcane proteomics, with an aspiration to instigate focused research on sugarcane to harness its full potential for the human welfare. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. The Discovery of Novel Genomic, Transcriptomic, and Proteomic Biomarkers in Cardiovascular and Peripheral Vascular Disease: The State of the Art

    PubMed Central

    de Franciscis, Stefano; Metzinger, Laurent; Serra, Raffaele

    2016-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CD) and peripheral vascular disease (PVD) are leading causes of mortality and morbidity in western countries and also responsible of a huge burden in terms of disability, functional decline, and healthcare costs. Biomarkers are measurable biological elements that reflect particular physiological or pathological states or predisposition towards diseases and they are currently widely studied in medicine and especially in CD. In this context, biomarkers can also be used to assess the severity or the evolution of several diseases, as well as the effectiveness of particular therapies. Genomics, transcriptomics, and proteomics have opened new windows on disease phenomena and may permit in the next future an effective development of novel diagnostic and prognostic medicine in order to better prevent or treat CD. This review will consider the current evidence of novel biomarkers with clear implications in the improvement of risk assessment, prevention strategies, and medical decision making in the field of CD. PMID:27298828

  10. Nanoscaled Proteomic Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Yan; Jia, Lee

    2013-09-01

    Global proteomics research is currently hampered by the extremely complexity of the proteome and the absence of techniques like the polymerase chain reaction in genomics which enables multiplication of a single protein molecule. Since all the existing analytical technologies cannot overcome the detection limit and the dynamic concentration barrier, development of improved analytical technologies at nanoscale, ideally those that could recognize single protein molecule in the presence of high abundant of others, is a high priority for proteomics. In this chapter, we will show the state-of-the-art of nanoproteomics, i.e., the application of nanotechnologies to proteomics. Various nanomaterials including carbon nanomaterials, magnetic nanoparticles, silica nanoparticles, polymer and copolymer nanoparticles, metal and metal oxide nanoparticles have been used to improve sensitivity, specificity, and repeatability of proteomic analysis especially when the multidimensional separation system coupled with MALDI-TOF-MS is used. Among them, gold nanoparticles (GNPs) and carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are the two most important nanomaterials: while GNPs are frequently utilized for enzyme immobilization, high throughput bioassay, selection of target-peptides and target-protein, CNTs including single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) and mutiple-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) have wide applications to electronic sensor, sensitive immunodetection, nanobiocatalysis, affinity probes, MALDI matrices, protein digestion, peptides enrichment and analysis. In perspectives, a deep understanding of the structures and property of nanomaterials and interdisciplinary applications of nanotechnology to proteomics will certainly be revolutionary and intellectually rewarding.

  11. Applications of Proteomics in the Study of Inflammatory Bowel Diseases: Current Status and Future Directions with Available Technologies

    PubMed Central

    Alex, Philip; Gucek, Marjan; Li, Xuhang

    2009-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) are chronic, heterogeneous, and multi-factorial intestinal inflammatory disorders. Major challenges in IBD research include identification of major pathogenic alterations of genes/proteins as well as effective biomarkers for early diagnosis, prognosis, and prediction of therapeutic response. Since proteins govern cellular structure and biological function, a wide selection of proteomic approaches enables effective characterization of IBD pathogenesis by investigating the dynamic nature of protein expression, cellular and subcellular distribution, post-translational modifications, and interactions at both cellular and subcellular levels. The aims of this review are to 1) highlight the current status of proteomic studies of IBD and 2) introduce the available and emerging proteomic technologies that have potential applications in the study of IBD. These technologies include various mass spectrometry technologies, quantitative proteomics (2D-PAGE, ICAT, SILAC, iTRAQ), protein/antibody arrays, and multi-epitope-ligand cartographie. This review also presents information and methodologies, from sample-selection and enrichment to protein-identification, that are not only essential but also particularly relevant to IBD research. The potential future application of these technologies is expected to have a significant impact on the discovery of novel biomarkers and key pathogenic factors for IBD. PMID:18844215

  12. Current clinical application of genomic and proteomic profiling in non-small-cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Tanvetyanon, Tawee; Creelan, Benjamin C; Chiappori, Alberto A

    2014-01-01

    Genomic or proteomic profiling of cancer can be broadly defined as a systematic grouping of cancer based on its genetic or protein makeup. In the management of non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC), genomic and proteomic profiling applications have become useful in early disease detection, diagnosis, treatment, and prognostication. We reviewed the recent literature on the applications of genomic and proteomic profiling in NSCLC. Important applications were summarized into those already adopted as standard care and those still under investigation. For genomic profiling, testing for EGFR mutation and ALK rearrangement has become routine for adenocarcinoma. Multiplex assay and malignancy-risk gene signature are both important applications in development. A test to predict outcome after treatment with an epidermal growth factor rector/tyrosine kinase inhibitor and a screening blood test for lung cancer are being investigated for use in proteomic profiling. Genomic profiling is routine in patients with NSCLC, and proteomic profiling shows promise. Additional genomic and proteomic profiling applications may also prove to be useful contributions in the care of these patients.

  13. [Urine proteome study for the evaluation of cardiovascular system state after spaceflight in human].

    PubMed

    Pastukhova, L Kh; Kononikhin, A S; Tiĭs, E S; Popova, I A; Dobrokhotov, I V; Ivanisenko, V A; Nikolaev, E N; Larina, I M

    2013-08-01

    In order to find markers to assess the functional state of the cardiovascular system before and after spaceflight (first and seventh day after landing), we analyzed the urine proteome in ten cosmonauts aged of 35 to 51 years who have completed 169 to 199-day spaceflight onboard the ISS. A special sample preparation was performed, followed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry of the minor proteins was performed on a nano-HPLC Agilent 1100 system (Agilent Technologies Inc., USA) in combination with a LTQ-FT Ultra mass spectrometer (Thermo, Germany). A total of 238 proteins was identified. According to the TIGER database, a tissue origin was established for 129 proteins. We identified 20 proteins related to the cardiovascular system. It was found that changes in cosmonauts' urine proteome comprehensively reflect the adaptive responses of cardiovascular, renal and neuroendocrine systems to long-term microgravity conditions.

  14. Proteomic analysis of human nasal mucosa: different expression profile in rhino-pathologic states.

    PubMed

    Gelardi, M; Siciliano, R A; Papa, F; Mazzeo, M F; De Nitto, E; Quaranta, N; Lippolis, R

    2014-09-01

    Rhinitis comprises several diseases with varying causes and different clinical manifestations and pathological features, but treated as a single clinical disorder. As heterogeneous disease, proper differential diagnosis is useful to delineate appropriate therapeutic intervention. Comparative proteomic investigation was aimed to provide information for specific differentially expressed proteins in rhino pathologic state, that could be used for diagnostic purpose and therapeutic monitoring. Proteins extracted from nasal mucosa cells of patients with different features of rhinitis and from control subjects, were separated by 2-DE. Proteins differentially expressed were identified by mass spectrometry (MS). Comparative proteomic analyses led to the identification of eighteen proteins differentially expressed in patients with rhinitis, mainly related to cell defense and innate and acquired immunity. From that, at least one protein can be a possible candidate as biomarker of disease.

  15. Current state of US breastfeeding laws.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Thu T; Hawkins, Summer Sherburne

    2013-07-01

    This study systematically examined state-level laws protecting breastfeeding, including their current status and historical development, as well as identified gaps across US states and regions. The National Conference of State Legislatures summarised breastfeeding laws for 50 states and DC as of September 2010, which we updated through May 2011. We then searched LexisNexis and Westlaw to find the full text of laws, recording enactment dates and definitions. Laws were coded into five categories: (1) employers are encouraged or required to provide break time and private space for breastfeeding employees; (2) employers are prohibited from discriminating against breastfeeding employees; (3) breastfeeding is permitted in any public or private location; (4) breastfeeding is exempt from public indecency laws; and (5) breastfeeding women are exempt from jury duty. By May 2011, 1 state had enacted zero breastfeeding laws, 10 had one, 22 had two, 12 had three, 5 had four and 1 state had laws across all five categories. While 92% of states allowed mothers to breastfeed in any location and 57% exempted breastfeeding from indecency laws, 37% of states encouraged or required employers to provide break time and accommodations, 24% offered breastfeeding women exemption from jury duty and 16% prohibited employment discrimination. The Northeast had the highest proportion of states with breastfeeding laws and the Midwest had the lowest. Breastfeeding outside the home is protected to varying degrees depending on where women live; this suggests that many women are not covered by comprehensive laws that promote breastfeeding. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Biophotonics applied to proteomics.

    PubMed

    Faupel, Michel; Bonenfant, Débora; Schindler, Patrick; Bertrand, Eric; Mueller, Dieter; Stoeckli, Markus; Bitsch, Francis; Rohner, Tatiana; Staab, Dieter; Van Oostrum, Jan

    2007-01-01

    Since the completion of the human genome sequencing, our understanding of gene and protein function and their involvement in physiopathological states has increased dramatically, partly due to technological developments in photonics. Photonics is a very active area where new developments occur on a weekly basis, while established tools are adapted to fulfill the needs of other disciplines like genomics and proteomics. Biophotonics emerged at the interface of photonics and biology as a very straightforward and efficient approach to observe and manipulate living systems. In this chapter, we review the current applications of photonics and imaging to proteomics from 2D gels analysis to molecular imaging.

  17. Proteomics in gerontology: current applications and future aspects--a mini-review.

    PubMed

    Schiffer, E; Mischak, H; Zimmerli, L U

    2009-01-01

    Aging is closely related to the onset of chronic diseases, such as coronary artery disease, diabetic nephropathy or different types of malignancies, reflecting the demand for novel biomarkers to manage theses diseases. The analysis of the human proteome for biomarkers has made considerable advances in the last years. We describe the main technological approaches taken, their advantages and disadvantages. We will review the different clinical sources of material and attempt to highlight the different challenges and approaches associated with these. Age-related changes in the proteome have been described and were found to be highly similar to changes associated with chronic diseases. We will give several examples on the successful application of proteomics in the diagnosis, prognosis and therapy of these chronic diseases. A boost in disease-related proteomic information is expected in the very near future, and will also result in its broad clinical application. However, this view appears to be dependent on the strict adherence to proper technological/analytical parameters, correct statistics, and large databases that allow comparison of datasets provided by different scientists. Clearly, the proteome is by far too complex to be tackled by one laboratory on its own. Copyright 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  18. State-of-the-art nanoplatform-integrated MALDI-MS impacting resolutions in urinary proteomics.

    PubMed

    Gopal, Judy; Muthu, Manikandan; Chun, Se-Chul; Wu, Hui-Fen

    2015-06-01

    Urine proteomics has become a subject of interest, since it has led to a number of breakthroughs in disease diagnostics. Urine contains information not only from the kidney and the urinary tract but also from other organs, thus urinary proteome analysis allows for identification of biomarkers for both urogenital and systemic diseases. The following review gives a brief overview of the analytical techniques that have been in practice for urinary proteomics. MALDI-MS technique and its current application status in this area of clinical research have been discussed. The review comments on the challenges facing the conventional MALDI-MS technique and the upgradation of this technique with the introduction of nanotechnology. This review projects nano-based techniques such as nano-MALDI-MS, surface-assisted laser desorption/ionization, and nanostructure-initiator MS as the platforms that have the potential in trafficking MALDI-MS from the lab to the bedside. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. The Human Skeletal Muscle Proteome Project: a reappraisal of the current literature

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez‐Freire, Marta; Semba, Richard D.; Ubaida‐Mohien, Ceereena; Fabbri, Elisa; Scalzo, Paul; Højlund, Kurt; Dufresne, Craig; Lyashkov, Alexey

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Skeletal muscle is a large organ that accounts for up to half the total mass of the human body. A progressive decline in muscle mass and strength occurs with ageing and in some individuals configures the syndrome of ‘sarcopenia’, a condition that impairs mobility, challenges autonomy, and is a risk factor for mortality. The mechanisms leading to sarcopenia as well as myopathies are still little understood. The Human Skeletal Muscle Proteome Project was initiated with the aim to characterize muscle proteins and how they change with ageing and disease. We conducted an extensive review of the literature and analysed publically available protein databases. A systematic search of peer‐reviewed studies was performed using PubMed. Search terms included ‘human’, ‘skeletal muscle’, ‘proteome’, ‘proteomic(s)’, and ‘mass spectrometry’, ‘liquid chromatography‐mass spectrometry (LC‐MS/MS)’. A catalogue of 5431 non‐redundant muscle proteins identified by mass spectrometry‐based proteomics from 38 peer‐reviewed scientific publications from 2002 to November 2015 was created. We also developed a nosology system for the classification of muscle proteins based on localization and function. Such inventory of proteins should serve as a useful background reference for future research on changes in muscle proteome assessed by quantitative mass spectrometry‐based proteomic approaches that occur with ageing and diseases. This classification and compilation of the human skeletal muscle proteome can be used for the identification and quantification of proteins in skeletal muscle to discover new mechanisms for sarcopenia and specific muscle diseases that can be targeted for the prevention and treatment. PMID:27897395

  20. Current state of the art for enhancing urine biomarker discovery

    PubMed Central

    Harpole, Michael; Davis, Justin; Espina, Virginia

    2016-01-01

    Urine is a highly desirable biospecimen for biomarker analysis because it can be collected recurrently by non-invasive techniques, in relatively large volumes. Urine contains cellular elements, biochemicals, and proteins derived from glomerular filtration of plasma, renal tubule excretion, and urogenital tract secretions that reflect, at a given time point, an individual's metabolic and pathophysiologic state. High-resolution mass spectrometry, coupled with state of the art fractionation systems are revealing the plethora of diagnostic/prognostic proteomic information existing within urinary exosomes, glycoproteins, and proteins. Affinity capture pre-processing techniques such as combinatorial peptide ligand libraries and biomarker harvesting hydrogel nanoparticles are enabling measurement/identification of previously undetectable urinary proteins. Future challenges in the urinary proteomics field include a) defining either single or multiple, universally applicable data normalization methods for comparing results within and between individual patients/data sets, and b) defining expected urinary protein levels in healthy individuals. PMID:27232439

  1. Qualitative changes in the proteome of extracellular vesicles accompanying cancer cell transition to mesenchymal state.

    PubMed

    Garnier, Delphine; Magnus, Nathalie; Meehan, Brian; Kislinger, Thomas; Rak, Janusz

    2013-10-15

    Transitions of the cancer cell phenotype between epithelial and mesenchymal states (EMT) are likely to alter the patterns of intercellular communication. In this regard we have previously documented that EMT-like changes trigger quantitative rearrangements in exosomal vesicle emission in A431 cancer cells driven by oncogenic epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). Here we report that extracellular vesicles (EVs) produced by these cancer cells in their epithelial and mesenchymal states exhibit profound qualitative differences in their proteome. Thus, induction of the EMT-like state through blockade of E-cadherin and EGFR stimulation provoked a mesenchymal shift in cellular morphology and enrichment in the CD44-high/CD24-low immunophenotype, often linked to cellular stemness. This change also resulted in reprogramming of the EV-related proteome (distinct from that of corresponding cells), which contained 30 unique protein signals, and revealed enrichment in pathways related to cellular growth, cell-to-cell signaling, and cell movement. Some of the most prominent EV-related proteins were validated, including integrin α2 and tetraspanin CD9. We propose that changes in cellular differentiation status translate into unique qualitative rearrangements in the cargo of EVs, a process that may have implications for intercellular communication and could serve as source of new biomarkers to detect EMT-like processes in cancer.

  2. [Current state of competence assessment in nursing].

    PubMed

    Darmann-Finck, Ingrid; Reuschenbach, Bernd

    2013-01-01

    Competency measurement is central to the optimisation of outcome oriented educational processes in nursing, similar to the concept of evidence based practice. The classification of measurement tools provides the basis for describing the current state of research and development in relation to competence measurement in nursing science, and any gaps are identified. The article concludes with questioning the importance of outcome oriented quality orientation in order to achieve an increase in quality during training. Further methodological developments and qualitative studies are needed to examine the context specific processes of interaction and learning, beyond competence diagnostics. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  3. Current State of Surgical Myocardial Revascularization

    PubMed Central

    Sellke, Frank W.; Chu, Louis M.; Cohn, William E.

    2016-01-01

    Despite increasing competition from percutaneous interventions and other novel methods of non-surgical coronary revascularization, coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) remains one of the most definitive and durable treatments for coronary artery disease, especially for those patients with extensive and diffuse disease. In recent years the CABG procedure itself has undergone innovation and evolution. This review article provides a brief historical perspective on the procedure, and examines the current state of modern variations including off-pump, limited-access, and robotic-assisted CABG. PMID:20467145

  4. Colonization state influences the hemocyte proteome in a beneficial squid-Vibrio symbiosis.

    PubMed

    Schleicher, Tyler R; VerBerkmoes, Nathan C; Shah, Manesh; Nyholm, Spencer V

    2014-10-01

    The squid Euprymna scolopes and the luminescent bacterium Vibrio fischeri form a highly specific beneficial light organ symbiosis. Not only does the host have to select V. fischeri from the environment, but it must also prevent subsequent colonization by non-symbiotic microorganisms. Host macrophage-like hemocytes are believed to play a role in mediating the symbiosis with V. fischeri. Previous studies have shown that the colonization state of the light organ influences the host's hemocyte response to the symbiont. To further understand the molecular mechanisms behind this process, we used two quantitative mass-spectrometry-based proteomic techniques, isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantification (iTRAQ) and label-free spectral counting, to compare and quantify the adult hemocyte proteomes from colonized (sym) and uncolonized (antibiotic-treated/cured) squid. Overall, iTRAQ allowed for the quantification of 1,024 proteins with two or more peptides. Thirty-seven unique proteins were determined to be significantly different between sym and cured hemocytes (p value < 0.05), with 20 more abundant proteins and 17 less abundant in sym hemocytes. The label-free approach resulted in 1,241 proteins that were identified in all replicates. Of 185 unique proteins present at significantly different amounts in sym hemocytes (as determined by spectral counting), 92 were more abundant and 93 were less abundant. Comparisons between iTRAQ and spectral counting revealed that 30 of the 37 proteins quantified via iTRAQ exhibited trends similar to those identified by the label-free method. Both proteomic techniques mutually identified 16 proteins that were significantly different between the two groups of hemocytes (p value < 0.05). The presence of V. fischeri in the host light organ influenced the abundance of proteins associated with the cytoskeleton, adhesion, lysosomes, proteolysis, and the innate immune response. These data provide evidence that colonization by V. fischeri

  5. Colonization State Influences the Hemocyte Proteome in a Beneficial Squid–Vibrio Symbiosis*

    PubMed Central

    Schleicher, Tyler R.; VerBerkmoes, Nathan C.; Shah, Manesh; Nyholm, Spencer V.

    2014-01-01

    The squid Euprymna scolopes and the luminescent bacterium Vibrio fischeri form a highly specific beneficial light organ symbiosis. Not only does the host have to select V. fischeri from the environment, but it must also prevent subsequent colonization by non-symbiotic microorganisms. Host macrophage-like hemocytes are believed to play a role in mediating the symbiosis with V. fischeri. Previous studies have shown that the colonization state of the light organ influences the host's hemocyte response to the symbiont. To further understand the molecular mechanisms behind this process, we used two quantitative mass-spectrometry-based proteomic techniques, isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantification (iTRAQ) and label-free spectral counting, to compare and quantify the adult hemocyte proteomes from colonized (sym) and uncolonized (antibiotic-treated/cured) squid. Overall, iTRAQ allowed for the quantification of 1,024 proteins with two or more peptides. Thirty-seven unique proteins were determined to be significantly different between sym and cured hemocytes (p value < 0.05), with 20 more abundant proteins and 17 less abundant in sym hemocytes. The label-free approach resulted in 1,241 proteins that were identified in all replicates. Of 185 unique proteins present at significantly different amounts in sym hemocytes (as determined by spectral counting), 92 were more abundant and 93 were less abundant. Comparisons between iTRAQ and spectral counting revealed that 30 of the 37 proteins quantified via iTRAQ exhibited trends similar to those identified by the label-free method. Both proteomic techniques mutually identified 16 proteins that were significantly different between the two groups of hemocytes (p value < 0.05). The presence of V. fischeri in the host light organ influenced the abundance of proteins associated with the cytoskeleton, adhesion, lysosomes, proteolysis, and the innate immune response. These data provide evidence that colonization by V. fischeri

  6. Proteome Analysis of Rat Hippocampus Following Morphine-induced Amnesia and State-dependent Learning.

    PubMed

    Jafarinejad-Farsangi, Saeideh; Farazmand, Ali; Rezayof, Ameneh; Darbandi, Niloufar

    2015-01-01

    Morphine's effects on learning and memory processes are well known to depend on synaptic plasticity in the hippocampus. Whereas the role of the hippocampus in morphine-induced amnesia and state-dependent learning is established, the biochemical and molecular mechanisms underlying these processes are poorly understood. The present study intended to investigate whether administration of morphine can change the expression level of rat hippocampal proteins during learning of a passive avoidance task. A step-through type passive avoidance task was used for the assessment of memory retention. To identify the complex pattern of protein expression induced by morphine, we compared rat hippocampal proteome either in morphine-induced amnesia or in state-dependent learning by two-dimensional gel electerophoresis and combined mass spectrometry (MS and MS/MS). Post-training administration of morphine decreased step-through latency. Pre-test administration of morphine induced state-dependent retrieval of the memory acquired under post-training morphine influence. In the hippocampus, a total of 18 proteins were identified whose MASCOT (Modular Approach to Software Construction Operation and Test) scores were inside 95% confidence level. Of these, five hippocampal proteins altered in morphine-induced amnesia and ten proteins were found to change in the hippocampus of animals that had received post-training and pre-test morphine. These proteins show known functions in cytoskeletal architecture, cell metabolism, neurotransmitter secretion and neuroprotection. The findings indicate that the effect of morphine on memory formation in passive avoidance learning has a morphological correlate on the hippocampal proteome level. In addition, our proteomicscreensuggests that morphine induces memory impairment and state-dependent learning through modulating neuronal plasticity.

  7. Molecular chaperones: guardians of the proteome in normal and disease states.

    PubMed

    Jeng, Wilson; Lee, Sukyeong; Sung, Nuri; Lee, Jungsoon; Tsai, Francis T F

    2015-01-01

    Proteins must adopt a defined three-dimensional structure in order to gain functional activity, or must they? An ever-increasing number of intrinsically disordered proteins and amyloid-forming polypeptides challenge this dogma. While molecular chaperones and proteases are traditionally associated with protein quality control inside the cell, it is now apparent that molecular chaperones not only promote protein folding in the "forward" direction by facilitating folding and preventing misfolding and aggregation, but also facilitate protein unfolding and even disaggregation resulting in the recovery of functional protein from aggregates. Here, we review our current understanding of ATP-dependent molecular chaperones that harness the energy of ATP binding and hydrolysis to fuel their chaperone functions. An emerging theme is that most of these chaperones do not work alone, but instead function together with other chaperone systems to maintain the proteome. Hence, molecular chaperones are the major component of the proteostasis network that guards and protects the proteome from damage. Furthermore, while a decline of this network is detrimental to cell and organismal health, a controlled perturbation of the proteostasis network may offer new therapeutic avenues against human diseases.

  8. [Leadership behaviour and health - current research state].

    PubMed

    Gregersen, S; Kuhnert, S; Zimber, A; Nienhaus, A

    2011-01-01

    The link between leaders' behaviour and health has only recently been the focus of scientific research and the results which already exist on this topic have, to date, not been systematically evaluated or summarized. The objective of this article is to make an attempt to provide a summarised overview of the current state of research. Subject-related databases list 42 publications dealing with the relationship between leaders' behaviour and the state of health and well-being of their employees. The literature discusses leaders' behaviour as being both a stressor (source of stress) and a resource. The publications discussed here also provide the first empirical evidence on the influence of various leadership styles on the health of the employees. In particular, transformational and employee-orientated leadership are considered to be beneficial to health. But the question of how leaders' behaviour influences health has not been satisfactorily explained. In most of the publications included, a direct link was assumed and, in the majority of cases, confirmed empirically. In addition, it also appears that there may be an indirect influence which may be moderated or mediated by, e. g., working conditions or the personality of the individual. The relatively small number of research examinations into the influence of leaders' behaviour on the health and well-being of their staff shows that there is a need for additional research.

  9. Proteomic approach to nanotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Matysiak, Magdalena; Kapka-Skrzypczak, Lucyna; Brzóska, Kamil; Gutleb, Arno C; Kruszewski, Marcin

    2016-03-30

    In recent years a large number of engineered nanomaterials (NMs) have been developed with promising technical benefits for consumers and medical appliances. In addition to already known potentially advantageous biological properties (antibiotic, antifungal and antiviral activity) of NMs, many new medical applications of NMs are foreseen, such as drug carriers, contrast agents, radiopharmaceuticals and many others. However, there is increasing concern about potential environmental and health effects due to NMs exposure. An increasing body of evidence suggests that NMs may trigger undesirable hazardous interactions with biological systems with potential to generate harmful effects. In this review we summarized a current state of knowledge on the proteomics approaches to nanotoxicity, including protein corona formation, in vitro and in vivo effects of exposure to NMs on proteome of different classes of organisms, from bacteria and plants to mammals. The effects of NMs on the proteome of environmentally relevant organisms are also described. Despite the benefit that development of nanotechnology may bring to the society, there are still major gaps of knowledge on the influence of nanomaterials on human health and the environment. Thus, it seems necessary to conduct further interdisciplinary research to fill the knowledge gaps in NM toxicity, using more holistic approaches than offered by conventional biological techniques. “OMICS” techniques will certainly help researchers in this field. In this paper we summarized the current stage of knowledge of the effects of nanoparticles on the proteome of different organisms, including those commonly used as an environmentally relevant indicator organisms.

  10. Sulfur isotopic and proteomic profiles of sulfate reducers grown under differential steady-states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leavitt, W.; Venceslau, S.; Waldbauer, J.; Smith, D. A.; Boidi, F. J.; Bradley, A. S.

    2016-12-01

    Microbial sulfate reducers (MSR) drive the Earth's biogeochemical sulfur cycle. At the heart of this energy metabolism is a cascade of redox transformations coupling organic carbon and/or hydrogen oxidation to the dissimilatory reduction of sulfate to sulfide. The product sulfide is depleted in the heavier isotopes of sulfur, relative to the reactant sulfate, consistent with a normal kinetic isotope effect. However, the magnitude of the net fractionation during MSR can range over a range of 70 permil, consistent with a multi-step set of reactions. This range in MSR fractionation has been shown to mainly depend on: i) the cell-specific sulfate reduction rate (csSRR), and ii) the ambient sulfate concentration. However, the fractionation under identical conditions differs among strains (Bradley et al. 2016. Geobio), and so must also be mediated by strain-specific processes, such as the nature and quantity of individual proteins involved in sulfate reduction, electron transport, and growth. In recent work we have examined the influence of electron donor, electron acceptor, and co-limitation under controlled steady-state culture conditions in order better inform models of MSR isotope fractionation, and the physiological and isotopic response to differential environmental forcings (e.g. Leavitt et al. (2013) PNAS). Recent models of the fractionation response to MSR rate (c.f. Bradley 2016; Wing & Halevy, 2016) make specific predictions for the responses of the cellular metabolome and proteome. Here we compare the steady-state S-isotopic fractionation and proteome of `fast' versus `slow' grown D. vulgaris, using replicate chemostats under electron donor limitation. We observe clear and statistically robust changes in some key central MSR and C-metabolism enzymes, though a host of the critical energy-transfer enzymes show no statistically discernable change. We discuss these results in light of recent theoretical advances and their relevance to modern and ancient

  11. The Role of Proteomics in the Diagnosis and Treatment of Women's Cancers: Current Trends in Technology and Future Opportunities

    PubMed Central

    Breuer, Eun-Kyoung Yim; Murph, Mandi M.

    2011-01-01

    Technological and scientific innovations over the last decade have greatly contributed to improved diagnostics, predictive models, and prognosis among cancers affecting women. In fact, an explosion of information in these areas has almost assured future generations that outcomes in cancer will continue to improve. Herein we discuss the current status of breast, cervical, and ovarian cancers as it relates to screening, disease diagnosis, and treatment options. Among the differences in these cancers, it is striking that breast cancer has multiple predictive tests based upon tumor biomarkers and sophisticated, individualized options for prescription therapeutics while ovarian cancer lacks these tools. In addition, cervical cancer leads the way in innovative, cancer-preventative vaccines and multiple screening options to prevent disease progression. For each of these malignancies, emerging proteomic technologies based upon mass spectrometry, stable isotope labeling with amino acids, high-throughput ELISA, tissue or protein microarray techniques, and click chemistry in the pursuit of activity-based profiling can pioneer the next generation of discovery. We will discuss six of the latest techniques to understand proteomics in cancer and highlight research utilizing these techniques with the goal of improvement in the management of women's cancers. PMID:21886869

  12. Biogas production: current state and perspectives.

    PubMed

    Weiland, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion of energy crops, residues, and wastes is of increasing interest in order to reduce the greenhouse gas emissions and to facilitate a sustainable development of energy supply. Production of biogas provides a versatile carrier of renewable energy, as methane can be used for replacement of fossil fuels in both heat and power generation and as a vehicle fuel. For biogas production, various process types are applied which can be classified in wet and dry fermentation systems. Most often applied are wet digester systems using vertical stirred tank digester with different stirrer types dependent on the origin of the feedstock. Biogas is mainly utilized in engine-based combined heat and power plants, whereas microgas turbines and fuel cells are expensive alternatives which need further development work for reducing the costs and increasing their reliability. Gas upgrading and utilization as renewable vehicle fuel or injection into the natural gas grid is of increasing interest because the gas can be used in a more efficient way. The digestate from anaerobic fermentation is a valuable fertilizer due to the increased availability of nitrogen and the better short-term fertilization effect. Anaerobic treatment minimizes the survival of pathogens which is important for using the digested residue as fertilizer. This paper reviews the current state and perspectives of biogas production, including the biochemical parameters and feedstocks which influence the efficiency and reliability of the microbial conversion and gas yield.

  13. Proteome analysis of the Escherichia coli heat shock response under steady-state conditions

    PubMed Central

    Lüders, Svenja; Fallet, Claas; Franco-Lara, Ezequiel

    2009-01-01

    In this study a proteomic approach was used to investigate the steady-state response of Escherichia coli to temperature up-shifts in a cascade of two continuously operated bioreactors. The first reactor served as cell source with optimal settings for microbial growth, while in the second chemostat the cells were exposed to elevated temperatures. By using this reactor configuration, which has not been reported to be used for the study of bacterial stress responses so far, it is possible to study temperature stress under well-defined, steady-state conditions. Specifically the effect on the cellular adaption to temperature stress using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis was examined and compared at the cultivation temperatures of 37°C and 47.5°C. As expected, the steady-state study with the double bioreactor configuration delivered a different protein spectrum compared to that obtained with standard batch experiments in shaking flasks and bioreactors. Setting a high cut-out spot-to-spot size ratio of 5, proteins involved in defence against oxygen stress, functional cell envelope proteins, chaperones and proteins involved in protein biosynthesis, the energy metabolism and the amino acid biosynthesis were found to be differently expressed at high cultivation temperatures. The results demonstrate the complexity of the stress response in a steady-state culture not reported elsewhere to date. PMID:19772559

  14. Current Proteomic Methods to Investigate the Dynamics of Histone Turnover in the Central Nervous System

    PubMed Central

    Farrelly, L.A.; Dill, B.D.; Molina, H.; Birtwistle, M.R.; Maze, I.

    2016-01-01

    Characterizing the dynamic behavior of nucleosomes in the central nervous system is vital to our understanding of brain-specific chromatin-templated processes and their roles in transcriptional plasticity. Histone turnover—the complete loss of old, and replacement by new, nucleosomal histones—is one such phenomenon that has recently been shown to be critical for cell-type-specific transcription in brain, synaptic plasticity, and cognition. Such revelations that histones, long believed to static proteins in postmitotic cells, are highly dynamic in neurons were only possible owing to significant advances in analytical chemistry-based techniques, which now provide a platform for investigations of histone dynamics in both healthy and diseased tissues. Here, we discuss both past and present proteomic methods (eg, mass spectrometry, human “bomb pulse labeling”) for investigating histone turnover in brain with the hope that such information may stimulate future investigations of both adaptive and aberrant forms of “neuroepigenetic” plasticity. PMID:27423867

  15. Current Proteomic Methods to Investigate the Dynamics of Histone Turnover in the Central Nervous System.

    PubMed

    Farrelly, L A; Dill, B D; Molina, H; Birtwistle, M R; Maze, I

    2016-01-01

    Characterizing the dynamic behavior of nucleosomes in the central nervous system is vital to our understanding of brain-specific chromatin-templated processes and their roles in transcriptional plasticity. Histone turnover-the complete loss of old, and replacement by new, nucleosomal histones-is one such phenomenon that has recently been shown to be critical for cell-type-specific transcription in brain, synaptic plasticity, and cognition. Such revelations that histones, long believed to static proteins in postmitotic cells, are highly dynamic in neurons were only possible owing to significant advances in analytical chemistry-based techniques, which now provide a platform for investigations of histone dynamics in both healthy and diseased tissues. Here, we discuss both past and present proteomic methods (eg, mass spectrometry, human "bomb pulse labeling") for investigating histone turnover in brain with the hope that such information may stimulate future investigations of both adaptive and aberrant forms of "neuroepigenetic" plasticity.

  16. Current state of sewage treatment in China.

    PubMed

    Jin, Lingyun; Zhang, Guangming; Tian, Huifang

    2014-12-01

    The study reported and analyzed the current state of wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in urban China from the aspects of scale, treatment processes, sludge handling, geographical distribution, and discharge standards. By 2012, there were 3340 WWTPs in operation in China with a capacity of 1.42 × 10(8) m(3)/d. The number of medium-scale WWTPs (1-10 × 10(4) m(3)/d) counted for 75% of total WWTPs. On average, the chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal efficiencies of small-scale, medium-scale, large-scale and super-large-scale WWTPs were 81, 85.5, 87.5 and 86.5%, respectively. Generally speaking, the nutrients removal instead of COD removal was of concern. As to the different processes, oxidation ditch, anaerobic-anoxic-oxic (A(2)/O) and sequencing batch reactor (SBR) were the mainstream technologies in China. These technologies had minor difference in terms of overall COD removal efficiency. The sludge treatment in WWTPs was basically "thickening-coagulation-mechanical dehydration" and the major disposal method was sanitary landfill in China. The distributions of WWTPs and their utilization showed significant regional characteristics. The sewage treatment capacity of China concentrated on the coastal areas and middle reaches of Yangtze River, which were the economically developed zones. Besides, most WWTPs enforced the Class 1 or Class 2 discharge standards, but few realized wastewater reuse. Finally, existing problems were discussed, including low removal efficiency of nitrogen and phosphorus, emerging contaminants, low reuse of reclaimed water, poor sludge treatment and disposal, low execution standard of effluent, and emissions of greenhouse gas from WWTPs. Suggestions regarding potential technical and administrative measures were given.

  17. Current state of diagnostic technologies in the autoimmunology laboratory.

    PubMed

    Tozzoli, Renato; Bonaguri, Chiara; Melegari, Alessandra; Antico, Antonio; Bassetti, Danila; Bizzaro, Nicola

    2013-01-01

    The methods for detecting and measuring autoantibodies have evolved markedly in recent years, encompassing three generations of analytical technologies. Many different immunoassay methods have been developed and used for research and laboratory practice purposes, from the early conventional (or monoplex) analytical methods able to detect single autoantibodies to the more recent multiplex platforms that can quantify tens of molecules. Although it has been in use for over 50 years, indirect immunofluorescence remains the standard method for research on many types of autoantibodies, due to its characteristics of diagnostic sensitivity and also to recent technological innovations which permit it a greater level of automation and standardization. The recent multiplex immunometric methods, with varying levels of automation, present characteristics of higher diagnostic accuracy, but are not yet widely diffused in autoimmunology laboratories due to the limited number of autoantibodies that are detectable, and due to the high cost of reagents and systems. Technological advancement in autoimmunology continues to evolve rapidly, and in the coming years new proteomic techniques will be able to radically change the approach to diagnostics and possibly also clinical treatment of autoimmune diseases. The scope of this review is to update the state of the art of technologies and methods for the measurement of autoantibodies, with special reference to innovations in indirect immunofluorescence and in multiple proteomic methods.

  18. Fish Vaccines: Current State and Future Advances

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In aquaculture, the development and use of vaccines is now making rapid progress to achieve its full potential as an effective disease prevention tool. Currently, USDA, APHIS, CVB licenses 17 fish vaccines of which 2 are modified live and 14 are killed vaccines. The objective of vaccination is to pr...

  19. Engineering photorespiration: current state and future possibilities.

    PubMed

    Peterhansel, C; Krause, K; Braun, H-P; Espie, G S; Fernie, A R; Hanson, D T; Keech, O; Maurino, V G; Mielewczik, M; Sage, R F

    2013-07-01

    Reduction of flux through photorespiration has been viewed as a major way to improve crop carbon fixation and yield since the energy-consuming reactions associated with this pathway were discovered. This view has been supported by the biomasses increases observed in model species that expressed artificial bypass reactions to photorespiration. Here, we present an overview about the major current attempts to reduce photorespiratory losses in crop species and provide suggestions for future research priorities.

  20. Yeast Proteome Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matros, Andrea; Mock, Hans-Peter

    Yeast organisms, and specifically Saccharomyces cerevisiae, have become model systems for many aspects in fundamental and applied research. Consistently, many papers have been published applying proteome techniques to study these organisms. The review will give an overview on the proteome research performed on yeast systems so far; however, due to the large number of publications, only selected reports can be cited neglecting many more interesting ones in the interest of space. The review will focus on research involving mass spectrom-etry as a basic proteome technique, although many more approaches are relevant for the functional characterization of proteins in the cell, e.g. the yeast two-hybrid system. We will provide an overview on yeasts as models in the context of pro-teome analysis, and explain the basic techniques currently applied in proteome approaches. The main part of the review will deal with a survey on the current status of proteomic studies in yeasts. In a first part of this chapter, we will deal with the currently available proteome maps of yeasts, and in the following part we will discuss studies dealing with fundamental aspects, but also mention proteome studies related to applied microbiology. Finally, we will envisage future perspectives of the proteome technology for studying yeasts, and draw major conclusion on the current status reached in this field of functional genomics.

  1. Solar photovoltaics: current state and trends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milichko, V. A.; Shalin, A. S.; Mukhin, I. S.; Kovrov, A. E.; Krasilin, A. A.; Vinogradov, A. V.; Belov, P. A.; Simovski, C. R.

    2016-08-01

    Basic aspects of current solar photovoltaics (PVs) are reviewed, starting from the recently developed already-on-the-market first-generation solar cells and ending with promising but not yet commercialized third-generation cells and materials possibly leading to new cell designs. The emphasis is on the physical principles of operation of various solar cells, which are divided into several groups according to our classification scheme. To make the picture complete, some technological and economic aspects of the field are discussed. A separate chapter considers antireflection coatings and light-trapping textures — structures which, while not having appeared yet in the PV review literature, are an integral part of the solar cells.

  2. Cryoprecipitate: the current state of knowledge.

    PubMed

    Callum, Jeannie L; Karkouti, Keyvan; Lin, Yulia

    2009-07-01

    Cryoprecipitate is a diverse product containing factor VIII, von Willebrand factor, fibrinogen, fibronectin, factor XIII, and platelet microparticles. The role of this complex product in the management of hemostasis has not been well studied (excluding patients with factor VIII deficiency). There are insufficient data to determine the clinical setting where this product might be clinically efficacious despite its widespread use in multiple different clinical scenarios. The best method of pooling before transfusion has also not been thoroughly investigated to determine the optimal infusion strategy (intralaboratory vs bedside). The most common current indication for the use of this product is hypofibrinogenemia in the setting of massive hemorrhage. There are insufficient data in the literature to determine the efficacy, safety, and dosage in this patient population. Despite 45 years of the use of this product, we still have a lot to learn regarding the optimal use of cryoprecipitate.

  3. Dupuytren's disease: current state of the art.

    PubMed

    Henry, Mark

    2014-03-01

    This review article critically examines the current literature for Dupuytren's disease. Five procedures are considered: dermofasciectomy, limited fasciectomy, segmental aponeurectomy, needle aponeurotomy, and collagenase injection. Studies regarding the efficacy of these treatments focus primarily on the initial degree of correction, rate of recurrence, and complications. No one treatment has been declared superior and substantial controversy exists. Comparison between studies has been hampered by the absence of uniform definitions for clinical success and measurable disease progression. Traditional post-operative care includes formal therapy and night splinting, but recent studies have questioned the value of these adjuncts. The extent of involvement at which the surgeon should intervene was previously well accepted by convention, but as the paradigm shifts towards less invasive procedures, treatment may be offered at an earlier stage. Future research should be structured to recognize the value-based decision making used by patients when selecting treatment.

  4. Pulmonary radiofrequency ablation (Part 1): current state.

    PubMed

    Plasencia Martínez, J M

    2015-01-01

    The risks involved in surgical treatment and conventional radiotherapy in patients with early lung cancer or lung metastases often make these treatments difficult to justify. However, on the other hand, it is also unacceptable to allow these lesions to evolve freely because, left untreated, these neoplasms will usually lead to the death of the patient. In recent years, alternative local therapies have been developed, such as pulmonary radiofrequency ablation, which has proven to increase survival with a minimal risk of complications. There are common recommendations for these treatments, and although the specific indications for using one technique or another have yet to be established, there are clearly defined situations that will determine the outcome of the treatment. It is important to know these situations, because appropriate patient selection is essential for therapeutic success. This article aims to describe the characteristics and constraints of pulmonary radiofrequency ablation and to outline its role in thoracic oncology in light of the current evidence.

  5. Spaceflight osteoporosis: current state and future perspective.

    PubMed

    Cappellesso, R; Nicole, L; Guido, A; Pizzol, D

    2015-10-01

    Osteoporosis is one of the established major consequences of long-duration spaceflights in astronauts seriously undermining their health after their returning on Earth. Indeed, astronauts typically lose more bone mass during one month than postmenopausal women on Earth lose in one year. To date, countermeasures mainly consist in exercise and supplementation while pharmacological treatment as those used in postmenopausal women are not routine. However, it is evident that exercise and supplementation alone are not enough to maintain bone homeostasis. In this paper we describe the current countermeasures for bone loss during long-term spaceflight, review the modern treatment which are successfully employed to prevent osteoporosis on Earth and that could be quickly used also for astronauts and finally focus on the recent cellular and molecular understanding of bone homeostasis which might provide the basis for the development of future targeted therapies.

  6. The current state of Socio-hydrology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sivapalan, Murugesu; Viglione, Alberto; Di Baldassarre, Giuliano; Pande, Saket

    2016-04-01

    Socio-hydrology was introduced 4 years ago into the scientific lexicon, and elicited several reactions about the meaning and originality of the concept. However, there has also been much activity triggered by the original paper, including further commentaries that clarified the definitions, and several papers that acted on the definitions, and through them further clarified and illustrated the meaning and usefulness of socio-hydrology for understanding coupled human-water systems and underpinning sustainable water management. This presentation discusses how useful these recent studies have been towards the need for socio-hydrology to explain phenomena, such as rise and decline of human population or food production in water scarce basins ('pendulum swing'), the levee effect, small scale farmer suicides, anthropogenic droughts, etc… We also discuss its foundation as a Science, its similarities and dissimilarities with other fields that study human-water interactions, such as hydro-sociology and hydro-economics, its foundation as a Science, current gaps and the challenges that lie ahead.

  7. [The current state of obesity in Mexico].

    PubMed

    Barrera-Cruz, Antonio; Rodríguez-González, Arturo; Molina-Ayala, Mario Antonio

    2013-01-01

    Excess weight (overweight and obesity) is currently recognized as one of the most important challenges of public health in the world, given its size, speed of growth, and the negative effect on the population who suffers it. Overweight and obesity increases significantly the risk of chronic non-communicable diseases, and premature mortality, as well as the social cost of health. Today, Mexico has the second global prevalence of obesity in the adult population (30 %), which is ten times higher than Korea's or Japan's (4 %). Until 2012, 26 million Mexican adults were overweight, and 22 million, obese. This implies a major challenge for the health sector. Mexico needs to plan and implement strategies and cost-effective actions for the prevention and control of obesity in children, adolescents, and adults. Global experience shows that proper care of obesity and overweight demands to formulate and coordinate efficient multi-sectoral strategies for enhancing protective factors to health, particularly to modify individual behavior, family and community.

  8. ECLAIRs detection plane: current state of development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lacombe, K.; Pons, R.; Amoros, C.; Atteia, J.-L.; Barret, D.; Billot, M.; Bordon, S.; Cordier, B.; Gevin, O.; Godet, O.; Gonzalez, F.; Houret, B.; Mercier, K.; Mandrou, P.; Marty, W.; Nasser, G.; Rambaud, D.; Ramon, P.; Rouaix, G.; Waegebaert, V.

    2014-07-01

    ECLAIRs, a 2-D coded-mask imaging camera on-board the Sino-French SVOM space mission, will detect and locate Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) in near real time in the 4-150 keV energy band. The design of ECLAIRs has been mainly driven by the objective of achieving a low-energy threshold of 4 keV, unprecedented for this type of instrument. The detection plane is an assembly of 6400 Schottky CdTe semiconductor detectors of size 4x4x1 mm3 organized on elementary hybrid matrices of 4x8 detectors. The detectors will be polarized from -300V to -500V and operated at -20°C to reduce both the leakage current and the polarization effect induced by the Schottky contact. The remarkable low-energy threshold homogeneity required for the detection plane has been achieved thanks to: i) an extensive characterization and selection of the detectors, ii) the development of a specific low-noise 32-channel ASIC, iii) the realization of an innovative hybrid module composed of a thick film ceramic (holding 32 CdTe detectors with their high voltage grid), associated to an HTCC ceramic (housing the ASIC chip within an hermetic enclosure). In this paper, we start describing a complete hybrid matrix, and then the manufacturing of a first set of 50 matrices (representing 1600 detectors, i.e. a quarter of ECLAIRs detector's array). We show how this manufacturing allowed to validate the different technologies used for this hybridization, as well as the industrialization processes. During this phase, we systematically measured the leakage current on Detector Ceramics after an outgassing, and the Equivalent Noise Charge (ENC) for each of the 32 channels on ASIC Ceramics, in order to optimize the coupling of the two ceramics. Finally, we performed on each hybrid module, spectral measurements at -20°C in our vacuum chamber, using several calibrated radioactive sources (241Am and 55Fe), to check the performance homogeneity of the 50 modules. The results demonstrated that the 32-detector hybrid matrices

  9. Tuberculosis: current state of knowledge: an epilogue.

    PubMed

    Leung, Chi Chiu; Lange, Christoph; Zhang, Ying

    2013-10-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the causative agent of tuberculosis (TB), has developed various mechanisms to survive and cause disease in the human host. Incomplete understanding of the complex microbe-host interactions has hindered the identification of suitable biomarkers to expedite the development of diagnostic tools, drugs and vaccines. The field effectiveness of directly observed therapy-short course has been compromised by the intrinsic limitations of sputum microscopy and suboptimal adherence to the long duration of treatment amid the HIV-TB syndemic and various socioeconomic constraints. While molecular tools are transforming the diagnostic processes, especially for multi-drug-resistant (MDR)-TB, drug development and service provision for MDR-TB seriously lag behind. Inappropriate management of detected MDR-TB cases may amplify drug resistance, jeopardizing future control. Targeted screening and treatment of latent infection with M. tuberculosis with the currently available immunodiagnostic tools and treatment regimens aim more for personal protection than major epidemiological impact or elimination. The interferon-γ release assays (IGRA) are not affected by cross-reaction to the bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccine and are increasingly used for such screening before initiation of biologics for treatment of rheumatoid arthritis and other autoimmune disorders. BCG offers only partial and unreliable protection against pulmonary TB in adults, the crucial transmission link for this airborne infection. Systems biology and vaccinomics may speed up vaccine research. The successful development of a fully effective TB vaccine that targets both growing bacteria and non-growing persisters may reflect a major breakthrough, as natural infection does not induce sufficient immunity to prevent reinfection.

  10. [Occupational asthma: current state of the problem].

    PubMed

    Bousová, Karin

    2004-01-01

    Occupational asthma is a disease with serious medical, social and economical consequences. Most patients have to change their jobs and very often they lose their professional qualification. This article gives a current review of the problems of occupational bronchial asthma and allergic rhinitis in the region of Eastern Bohemia. The results obtained are compared with the situation in the whole Czech Republic and in the world. The number of new cases of occupational asthma and allergic rhinitis discovered in the contact area of the Department of Occupational Medicine at the University Hospital in Hradec Králové fluctuates around 15-20 cases per year, and 80-100 new cases are reported in the whole republic. The rate of occupational asthma and occupational allergic rhinitis of the total asthma and rhinitis incidence in the Czech population fluctuates between 5-15%. Regarding the number of affected employees, flour is considered the most important allergen. Other important noxas include agricultural allergens, textile dust, diisocyanates and disinfectious preparations. The importance of the alergogenius effect of natural rubber latex and diisocyanates has increased in occupational medicine mainly in the last 20 years. Regarding latex, its harmful effect has been especially demonstrated in health providers who wear protective latex gloves, which results not only in contact eczema-dermatitis, but also in bronchial asthma and allergic rhinitis. Diisocyanates, highly reactive and aggressive substances, originate during polyurethane production which has a wide industrial application (production of polyurethane foam and rubber, paints, adhesives, injected substances, glues, varnishes etc.). The incidence of occupational asthma diseases in workers exposed to diisocyanates is high. Typically, a development of the disease begins after a short time exposure. In this thesis, a diagnostic method in suspected occupational allergic disease of the airways is suggested and

  11. Ion-Current-Based Temporal Proteomic Profiling of Influenza-A-Virus-Infected Mouse Lungs Revealed Underlying Mechanisms of Altered Integrity of the Lung Microvascular Barrier.

    PubMed

    Shen, Shichen; Li, Jun; Hilchey, Shannon; Shen, Xiaomeng; Tu, Chengjian; Qiu, Xing; Ng, Andrew; Ghaemmaghami, Sina; Wu, Hulin; Zand, Martin S; Qu, Jun

    2016-02-05

    Investigation of influenza-A-virus (IAV)-infected lung proteomes will greatly promote our understanding on the virus-host crosstalk. Using a detergent-cocktail extraction and digestion procedure and a reproducible ion-current-based method, we performed the first comprehensive temporal analysis of mouse IAV infection. Mouse lung tissues at three time points post-inoculation were compared with controls (n = 4/group), and >1600 proteins were quantified without missing value in any animal. Significantly changed proteins were identified at 4 days (n = 144), 7 days (n = 695), and 10 days (n = 396) after infection, with low false altered protein rates (1.73-8.39%). Functional annotation revealed several key biological processes involved in the systemic host responses. Intriguingly, decreased levels of several cell junction proteins as well as increased levels of tissue metalloproteinase MMP9 were observed, reflecting the IAV-induced structural breakdown of lung epithelial barrier. Supporting evidence of MMP9 activation came from immunoassays examining the abundance and phosphorylation states of all MAPKs and several relevant molecules. Importantly, IAV-induced MMP gelatinase expression was suggested to be specific to MMP9, and p38 MAPK may contribute predominantly to MMP9 elevation. These findings help to resolve the long-lasting debate regarding the signaling pathways of IAV-induced MMP9 expression and shed light on the molecular mechanisms underlying pulmonary capillary-alveolar leak syndrome that can occur during influenza infection.

  12. Differential cysteine labeling and global label-free proteomics reveals an altered metabolic state in skeletal muscle aging.

    PubMed

    McDonagh, Brian; Sakellariou, Giorgos K; Smith, Neil T; Brownridge, Philip; Jackson, Malcolm J

    2014-11-07

    The molecular mechanisms underlying skeletal muscle aging and associated sarcopenia have been linked to an altered oxidative status of redox-sensitive proteins. Reactive oxygen and reactive nitrogen species (ROS/RNS) generated by contracting skeletal muscle are necessary for optimal protein function, signaling, and adaptation. To investigate the redox proteome of aging gastrocnemius muscles from adult and old male mice, we developed a label-free quantitative proteomic approach that includes a differential cysteine labeling step. The approach allows simultaneous identification of up- and downregulated proteins between samples in addition to the identification and relative quantification of the reversible oxidation state of susceptible redox cysteine residues. Results from muscles of adult and old mice indicate significant changes in the content of chaperone, glucose metabolism, and cytoskeletal regulatory proteins, including Protein DJ-1, cAMP-dependent protein kinase type II, 78 kDa glucose regulated protein, and a reduction in the number of redox-responsive proteins identified in muscle of old mice. Results demonstrate skeletal muscle aging causes a reduction in redox-sensitive proteins involved in the generation of precursor metabolites and energy metabolism, indicating a loss in the flexibility of the redox energy response. Data is available via ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD001054.

  13. Differential Cysteine Labeling and Global Label-Free Proteomics Reveals an Altered Metabolic State in Skeletal Muscle Aging

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The molecular mechanisms underlying skeletal muscle aging and associated sarcopenia have been linked to an altered oxidative status of redox-sensitive proteins. Reactive oxygen and reactive nitrogen species (ROS/RNS) generated by contracting skeletal muscle are necessary for optimal protein function, signaling, and adaptation. To investigate the redox proteome of aging gastrocnemius muscles from adult and old male mice, we developed a label-free quantitative proteomic approach that includes a differential cysteine labeling step. The approach allows simultaneous identification of up- and downregulated proteins between samples in addition to the identification and relative quantification of the reversible oxidation state of susceptible redox cysteine residues. Results from muscles of adult and old mice indicate significant changes in the content of chaperone, glucose metabolism, and cytoskeletal regulatory proteins, including Protein DJ-1, cAMP-dependent protein kinase type II, 78 kDa glucose regulated protein, and a reduction in the number of redox-responsive proteins identified in muscle of old mice. Results demonstrate skeletal muscle aging causes a reduction in redox-sensitive proteins involved in the generation of precursor metabolites and energy metabolism, indicating a loss in the flexibility of the redox energy response. Data is available via ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD001054. PMID:25181601

  14. Personalized Proteomics: The Future of Precision Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Duarte, Trevor T.; Spencer, Charles T.

    2016-01-01

    Medical diagnostics and treatment has advanced from a one size fits all science to treatment of the patient as a unique individual. Currently, this is limited solely to genetic analysis. However, epigenetic, transcriptional, proteomic, posttranslational modifications, metabolic, and environmental factors influence a patient’s response to disease and treatment. As more analytical and diagnostic techniques are incorporated into medical practice, the personalized medicine initiative transitions to precision medicine giving a holistic view of the patient’s condition. The high accuracy and sensitivity of mass spectrometric analysis of proteomes is well suited for the incorporation of proteomics into precision medicine. This review begins with an overview of the advance to precision medicine and the current state of the art in technology and instrumentation for mass spectrometry analysis. Thereafter, it focuses on the benefits and potential uses for personalized proteomic analysis in the diagnostic and treatment of individual patients. In conclusion, it calls for a synthesis between basic science and clinical researchers with practicing clinicians to design proteomic studies to generate meaningful and applicable translational medicine. As clinical proteomics is just beginning to come out of its infancy, this overview is provided for the new initiate. PMID:27882306

  15. Personalized Proteomics: The Future of Precision Medicine.

    PubMed

    Duarte, Trevor T; Spencer, Charles T

    2016-01-01

    Medical diagnostics and treatment has advanced from a one size fits all science to treatment of the patient as a unique individual. Currently, this is limited solely to genetic analysis. However, epigenetic, transcriptional, proteomic, posttranslational modifications, metabolic, and environmental factors influence a patient's response to disease and treatment. As more analytical and diagnostic techniques are incorporated into medical practice, the personalized medicine initiative transitions to precision medicine giving a holistic view of the patient's condition. The high accuracy and sensitivity of mass spectrometric analysis of proteomes is well suited for the incorporation of proteomics into precision medicine. This review begins with an overview of the advance to precision medicine and the current state of the art in technology and instrumentation for mass spectrometry analysis. Thereafter, it focuses on the benefits and potential uses for personalized proteomic analysis in the diagnostic and treatment of individual patients. In conclusion, it calls for a synthesis between basic science and clinical researchers with practicing clinicians to design proteomic studies to generate meaningful and applicable translational medicine. As clinical proteomics is just beginning to come out of its infancy, this overview is provided for the new initiate.

  16. Proteomics of Foodborne Bacterial Pathogens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fagerquist, Clifton K.

    This chapter is intended to be a relatively brief overview of proteomic techniques currently in use for the identification and analysis of microorganisms with a special emphasis on foodborne pathogens. The chapter is organized as follows. First, proteomic techniques are introduced and discussed. Second, proteomic applications are presented specifically as they relate to the identification and qualitative/quantitative analysis of foodborne pathogens.

  17. Application of meta-transcriptomics and -proteomics to analysis of in situ physiological state

    SciTech Connect

    Konopka, Allan; Wilkins, Michael J.

    2012-05-18

    Analysis of the growth-limiting factor or environmental stressors affecting microbes in situ is of fundamental importance but analytically difficult. Microbes can reduce in situ limiting nutrient concentrations to sub-micromolar levels, and contaminated ecosystems may contain multiple stressors. The patterns of gene or protein expression by microbes in nature can be used to infer growth limitations, because they are regulated in response to environmental conditions. Experimental studies under controlled conditions in the laboratory provide the physiological underpinnings for developing these physiological indicators. Although regulatory networks may differ among specific microbes, there are some broad principles that can be applied, related to limiting nutrient acquisition, resource allocation, and stress responses. As technologies for transcriptomics and proteomics mature, the capacity to apply these approaches to complex microbial communities will accelerate. Global proteomics has the particular advantage that it reflects expressed catalytic activities. Furthermore, the high mass accuracy of some proteomic approaches allows mapping back to specific microbial strains. For example, at the Rifle IFRC field site in Western Colorado, the physiological status of Fe(III)-reducing populations has been tracked over time. Members of a 'subsurface clade' within the Geobacter predominated during carbon amendment to the subsurface environment. At the functional level, proteomic identifications produced inferences regarding (i) temporal changes in anabolism and catabolism of acetate, (ii) the onset of N2 fixation when N became limiting, and (iii) expression of phosphate transporters during periods of intense growth. The application of these approaches in situ can lead to discovery of novel physiological adaptations.

  18. DoD Current State for Software Technology Readiness Assessments

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-04-01

    DoD Current State for Software Technology Readiness Assessments Systems & Software Technology Conference April 2010 Cynthia Dion-Schwarz, Ph.D...DoD Current State for Software Technology Readiness Assessments 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d...public release; distribution unlimited 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES Presented at the 22nd Systems and Software Technology Conference (SSTC), 26-29 April

  19. Proteomics boosts translational and clinical microbiology.

    PubMed

    Del Chierico, F; Petrucca, A; Vernocchi, P; Bracaglia, G; Fiscarelli, E; Bernaschi, P; Muraca, M; Urbani, A; Putignani, L

    2014-01-31

    The application of proteomics to translational and clinical microbiology is one of the most advanced frontiers in the management and control of infectious diseases and in the understanding of complex microbial systems within human fluids and districts. This new approach aims at providing, by dedicated bioinformatic pipelines, a thorough description of pathogen proteomes and their interactions within the context of human host ecosystems, revolutionizing the vision of infectious diseases in biomedicine and approaching new viewpoints in both diagnostic and clinical management of the patient. Indeed, in the last few years, many laboratories have matured a series of advanced proteomic applications, aiming at providing individual proteome charts of pathogens, with respect to their morph and/or cell life stages, antimicrobial or antimycotic resistance profiling, epidemiological dispersion. Herein, we aim at reviewing the current state-of-the-art on proteomic protocols designed and set-up for translational and diagnostic microbiological purposes, from axenic pathogens' characterization to microbiota ecosystems' full description. The final goal is to describe applications of the most common MALDI-TOF MS platforms to advanced diagnostic issues related to emerging infections, increasing of fastidious bacteria, and generation of patient-tailored phylotypes. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Trends in Microbial Proteomics.

  20. Steady state self-induced current in tokamak

    SciTech Connect

    Gott, Yu. V.; Yurchenko, E. I.

    2009-11-15

    A model, which may make it possible to self-consistently calculate the self-driven current in tokamaks taking into account asymmetry and bootstrap currents, is presented. It is shown that the described self-driven current can provide steady-state tokamak operation without the seed current produced with the help of additional methods. The total self-consistent, self-driven current does not depend on magnetic field magnitude and is proportional to the square root from plasma pressure. The experimental data obtained in the National Spherical Torus Experiment are satisfactorily described by this model.

  1. Surface bound states and spin currents in noncentrosymmetric superconductors.

    PubMed

    Vorontsov, A B; Vekhter, I; Eschrig, M

    2008-09-19

    We investigate the ground state properties of a noncentrosymmetric superconductor near a surface. We determine the spectrum of Andreev bound states due to surface-induced mixing of bands with opposite spin helicities for a Rashba-type spin-orbit coupling. We find that the order parameter suppression qualitatively changes the bound state spectrum. The spin structure of Andreev states leads to a spin supercurrent along the interface, which is strongly enhanced compared to the normal state spin current. Particle and hole coherence amplitudes show Faraday-like rotations of the spin along quasiparticle trajectories.

  2. Current School Funding Policy Issues in Washington State.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Theobald, Neil D.

    This paper describes current school-funding policy issues in Washington State. The first part examines how Initiative 601, an initiative aimed at curbing state taxes and spending, will create fiscal instability for school districts. Difficulties include an expected growth in school enrollment exceeding population growth, an expected growth of…

  3. Mapping current fluctuations of stochastic pumps to nonequilibrium steady states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rotskoff, Grant M.

    2017-03-01

    We show that current fluctuations in a stochastic pump can be robustly mapped to fluctuations in a corresponding time-independent nonequilibrium steady state. We thus refine a recently proposed mapping so that it ensures equivalence of not only the averages, but also optimal representation of fluctuations in currents and density. Our mapping leads to a natural decomposition of the entropy production in stochastic pumps similar to the "housekeeping" heat. As a consequence of the decomposition of entropy production, the current fluctuations in weakly perturbed stochastic pumps are shown to satisfy a universal bound determined by the steady state entropy production.

  4. Reproducible ion-current-based approach for 24-plex comparison of the tissue proteomes of hibernating versus normal myocardium in swine models.

    PubMed

    Qu, Jun; Young, Rebeccah; Page, Brian J; Shen, Xiaomeng; Tata, Nazneen; Li, Jun; Duan, Xiaotao; Fallavollita, James A; Canty, John M

    2014-05-02

    Hibernating myocardium is an adaptive response to repetitive myocardial ischemia that is clinically common, but the mechanism of adaptation is poorly understood. Here we compared the proteomes of hibernating versus normal myocardium in a porcine model with 24 biological replicates. Using the ion-current-based proteomic strategy optimized in this study to expand upon previous proteomic work, we identified differentially expressed proteins in new molecular pathways of cardiovascular interest. The methodological strategy includes efficient extraction with detergent cocktail; precipitation/digestion procedure with high, quantitative peptide recovery; reproducible nano-LC/MS analysis on a long, heated column packed with small particles; and quantification based on ion-current peak areas. Under the optimized conditions, high efficiency and reproducibility were achieved for each step, which enabled a reliable comparison of 24 the myocardial samples. To achieve confident discovery of differentially regulated proteins in hibernating myocardium, we used highly stringent criteria to define "quantifiable proteins". These included the filtering criteria of low peptide FDR and S/N > 10 for peptide ion currents, and each protein was quantified independently from ≥2 distinct peptides. For a broad methodological validation, the quantitative results were compared with a parallel, well-validated 2D-DIGE analysis of the same model. Excellent agreement between the two orthogonal methods was observed (R = 0.74), and the ion-current-based method quantified almost one order of magnitude more proteins. In hibernating myocardium, 225 significantly altered proteins were discovered with a low false-discovery rate (∼3%). These proteins are involved in biological processes including metabolism, apoptosis, stress response, contraction, cytoskeleton, transcription, and translation. This provides compelling evidence that hibernating myocardium adapts to chronic ischemia. The major metabolic

  5. Multistable current states in high-temperature superconducting composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romanovskii, V. R.

    2016-09-01

    Conditions for current instabilities that arise in high-temperature superconducting composites with essentially nonlinear dependences of the critical current densities and resistivity on the temperature and magnetic induction have been studied. The analysis has been conducted in terms of zero-dimensional models, which has made it possible to formulate general physical mechanisms behind the formation of currents states in superconducting composites according to the external magnetic field induction, cooling conditions, and the properties of the superconductor and cladding. The possible existence of current and temperature stable steps, as well as stable steps of the electric field strength, in the absence of the superconducting-normal transition, has been demonstrated. Reasons for instabilities under multistable current states have been discussed.

  6. Quantitative plant proteomics.

    PubMed

    Bindschedler, Laurence V; Cramer, Rainer

    2011-02-01

    Quantitation is an inherent requirement in comparative proteomics and there is no exception to this for plant proteomics. Quantitative proteomics has high demands on the experimental workflow, requiring a thorough design and often a complex multi-step structure. It has to include sufficient numbers of biological and technical replicates and methods that are able to facilitate a quantitative signal read-out. Quantitative plant proteomics in particular poses many additional challenges but because of the nature of plants it also offers some potential advantages. In general, analysis of plants has been less prominent in proteomics. Low protein concentration, difficulties in protein extraction, genome multiploidy, high Rubisco abundance in green tissue, and an absence of well-annotated and completed genome sequences are some of the main challenges in plant proteomics. However, the latter is now changing with several genomes emerging for model plants and crops such as potato, tomato, soybean, rice, maize and barley. This review discusses the current status in quantitative plant proteomics (MS-based and non-MS-based) and its challenges and potentials. Both relative and absolute quantitation methods in plant proteomics from DIGE to MS-based analysis after isotope labeling and label-free quantitation are described and illustrated by published studies. In particular, we describe plant-specific quantitative methods such as metabolic labeling methods that can take full advantage of plant metabolism and culture practices, and discuss other potential advantages and challenges that may arise from the unique properties of plants.

  7. Low T3 State Is Correlated with Cardiac Mitochondrial Impairments after Ischemia Reperfusion Injury: Evidence from a Proteomic Approach

    PubMed Central

    Forini, Francesca; Ucciferri, Nadia; Kusmic, Claudia; Nicolini, Giuseppina; Cecchettini, Antonella; Rocchiccioli, Silvia; Citti, Lorenzo; Iervasi, Giorgio

    2015-01-01

    Mitochondria are major determinants of cell fate in ischemia/reperfusion injury (IR) and common effectors of cardio-protective strategies in cardiac ischemic disease. Thyroid hormone homeostasis critically affects mitochondrial function and energy production. Since a low T3 state (LT3S) is frequently observed in the post infarction setting, the study was aimed to investigate the relationship between 72 h post IR T3 levels and both the cardiac function and the mitochondrial proteome in a rat model of IR. The low T3 group exhibits the most compromised cardiac performance along with the worst mitochondrial activity. Accordingly, our results show a different remodeling of the mitochondrial proteome in the presence or absence of a LT3S, with alterations in groups of proteins that play a key role in energy metabolism, quality control and regulation of cell death pathways. Overall, our findings highlight a relationship between LT3S in the early post IR and poor cardiac and mitochondrial outcomes, and suggest a potential implication of thyroid hormone in the cardio-protection and tissue remodeling in ischemic disease. PMID:26561807

  8. Low T3 State Is Correlated with Cardiac Mitochondrial Impairments after Ischemia Reperfusion Injury: Evidence from a Proteomic Approach.

    PubMed

    Forini, Francesca; Ucciferri, Nadia; Kusmic, Claudia; Nicolini, Giuseppina; Cecchettini, Antonella; Rocchiccioli, Silvia; Citti, Lorenzo; Iervasi, Giorgio

    2015-11-06

    Mitochondria are major determinants of cell fate in ischemia/reperfusion injury (IR) and common effectors of cardio-protective strategies in cardiac ischemic disease. Thyroid hormone homeostasis critically affects mitochondrial function and energy production. Since a low T3 state (LT3S) is frequently observed in the post infarction setting, the study was aimed to investigate the relationship between 72 h post IR T3 levels and both the cardiac function and the mitochondrial proteome in a rat model of IR. The low T3 group exhibits the most compromised cardiac performance along with the worst mitochondrial activity. Accordingly, our results show a different remodeling of the mitochondrial proteome in the presence or absence of a LT3S, with alterations in groups of proteins that play a key role in energy metabolism, quality control and regulation of cell death pathways. Overall, our findings highlight a relationship between LT3S in the early post IR and poor cardiac and mitochondrial outcomes, and suggest a potential implication of thyroid hormone in the cardio-protection and tissue remodeling in ischemic disease.

  9. Topological states and quantized current in helical organic molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Ai-Min; Sun, Qing-Feng

    2017-04-01

    We report a theoretical study of electron transport along helical organic molecules subject to an external electric field which is perpendicular to molecular helix axis. Our results reveal that topological states can appear in single-helical molecules as well as double-stranded DNA under the perpendicular electric field. In particular, a topological charge pumping can be realized by rotating the electric field in the transverse plane, where during each pumping cycle, an integer number of electrons can transport across the helical molecules at zero bias voltage, with pumped current being quantized. The quantized current constitutes multiple plateaus by scanning the Fermi energy as well as the bias voltage, and holds for various model parameters, since the edge states are topologically protected. These results could pave the way to explore topological states and quantized current in the biological systems and the helical molecules, and help in designing stable molecular devices.

  10. Proteomics research in India: an update.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Panga Jaipal; Atak, Apurva; Ghantasala, Saicharan; Kumar, Saurabh; Gupta, Shabarni; Prasad, T S Keshava; Zingde, Surekha M; Srivastava, Sanjeeva

    2015-09-08

    After a successful completion of the Human Genome Project, deciphering the mystery surrounding the human proteome posed a major challenge. Despite not being largely involved in the Human Genome Project, the Indian scientific community contributed towards proteomic research along with the global community. Currently, more than 76 research/academic institutes and nearly 145 research labs are involved in core proteomic research across India. The Indian researchers have been major contributors in drafting the "human proteome map" along with international efforts. In addition to this, virtual proteomics labs, proteomics courses and remote triggered proteomics labs have helped to overcome the limitations of proteomics education posed due to expensive lab infrastructure. The establishment of Proteomics Society, India (PSI) has created a platform for the Indian proteomic researchers to share ideas, research collaborations and conduct annual conferences and workshops. Indian proteomic research is really moving forward with the global proteomics community in a quest to solve the mysteries of proteomics. A draft map of the human proteome enhances the enthusiasm among intellectuals to promote proteomic research in India to the world.This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Proteomics in India. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. A Proteomic Characterization of Bordetella pertussis Clinical Isolates Associated with a California State Pertussis Outbreak

    PubMed Central

    Williamson, Yulanda M.; Whitmon, Jennifer; Woolfitt, Adrian R.; Schieltz, David M.; Rees, Jon C.; Guo, Stephanie; Bouck, Daniel; Ades, Edwin W.; Tondella, Maria Lucia; Carlone, George M.; Sampson, Jacquelyn S.; Barr, John R.

    2015-01-01

    Bordetella pertussis (Bp) is the etiologic agent of pertussis (whooping cough), a highly communicable infection. Although pertussis is vaccine preventable, in recent years there has been increased incidence, despite high vaccine coverage. Possible reasons for the rise in cases include the following: Bp strain adaptation, waning vaccine immunity, increased surveillance, and improved clinical diagnostics. A pertussis outbreak impacted California (USA) in 2010; children and preadolescents were the most affected but the burden of disease fell mainly on infants. To identify protein biomarkers associated with this pertussis outbreak, we report a whole cellular protein characterization of six Bp isolates plus the pertussis acellular vaccine strain Bp Tohama I (T), utilizing gel-free proteomics-based mass spectrometry (MS). MS/MS tryptic peptide detection and protein database searching combined with western blot analysis revealed three Bp isolates in this study had markedly reduced detection of pertactin (Prn), a subunit of pertussis acellular vaccines. Additionally, antibody affinity capture technologies were implemented using anti-Bp T rabbit polyclonal antisera and whole cellular proteins to identify putative immunogens. Proteome profiling could shed light on pathogenesis and potentially lay the foundation for reduced infection transmission strategies and improved clinical diagnostics. PMID:26090226

  12. The Current State of Biomarkers in Systemic Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Scleroderma is a complex, multisystem autoimmune rheumatic disease with wide heterogeneity in phenotype and outcome. There are often coexisting ongoing pathologic processes including immune system activation, progressive fibrosis, and vascular disease in subsets of patients. Currently, it is challenging to identify patients at risk for developing adverse outcomes and to determine which patients are responding to current therapies. For these reasons, it is highly valuable to find easily measurable biomarkers that may represent ongoing disease activity or treatment response. This review examines the current state of biomarker development in systemic sclerosis and identifies areas in which further work should be directed. PMID:20425531

  13. Quantum quasi-steady states in current transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Agosta, Roberto; Zwolak, Michael; di Ventra, Massimiliano

    2007-03-01

    We investigate quasi-steady state solutions to transport in quantum systems by finding states which at some time minimize the change in density throughout all space and have a given current density flowing from one part of the system to another [1]. Contrary to classical dynamics, in a quantum mechanical system there are many states with a given energy and particle number which satisfy this minimization criterion. Taking as an example spinless fermions on a one-dimensional lattice, we explicitly show the phase space of a class of quasi-steady states. We also discuss the possibility of coherent and incoherent mixing of these steady state solutions leading to a new type of noise in quantum transport. [1] M. Di Ventra and T.N. Todorov J. Phys. Cond. Matt. 16, 8025 (2004).

  14. Assessing outcome after hand surgery: the current state.

    PubMed

    Bindra, R R; Dias, J J; Heras-Palau, C; Amadio, P C; Chung, K C; Burke, F D

    2003-08-01

    An overview of the current state of outcome measurement after hand surgery is presented. The paper focuses on the development, application and strengths and weaknesses of it also reviews the existing questionnaires and suggests recommendations for use in research or clinical practice.

  15. Current density and state density in diluted magnetic semiconductor nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pérez Merchancano, S. T.; Paredes Gutiérrez, H.; Zuñiga, J. A.

    2016-02-01

    We study in this paper the spin-polarized current density components in diluted magnetic semiconductor tunnelling diodes with different sample geometries. We calculate the resonant JxV and the density of states. The differential conductance curves are analyzed as functions of the applied voltage and the magnetic potential strength induced by the magnetic ions.

  16. The Current State of Marketing Activity among Higher Education Institutions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newman, Cynthia M.

    2002-01-01

    Investigated the current state of marketing, marketing research, and planning practices at four-year higher education institutions. Builds upon previous studies by Blackburn (1979) and Goldgehn (1982 and 1989). Determined whether the use and apparent understanding of marketing and its attendant activities by admissions and enrollment management…

  17. The Current State of Marketing Activity among Higher Education Institutions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newman, Cynthia M.

    2002-01-01

    Investigated the current state of marketing, marketing research, and planning practices at four-year higher education institutions. Builds upon previous studies by Blackburn (1979) and Goldgehn (1982 and 1989). Determined whether the use and apparent understanding of marketing and its attendant activities by admissions and enrollment management…

  18. Sustainable practices in medicinal chemistry: current state and future directions.

    PubMed

    Bryan, Marian C; Dillon, Barry; Hamann, Lawrence G; Hughes, Gregory J; Kopach, Michael E; Peterson, Emily A; Pourashraf, Mehrnaz; Raheem, Izzat; Richardson, Paul; Richter, Daniel; Sneddon, Helen F

    2013-08-08

    The medicinal chemistry subgroup of the American Chemical Society's Green Chemistry Institute Pharmaceutical Roundtable (ACS GCI PR) offers a perspective on the current state of environmentally sustainable practices in medicinal chemistry with the aim of sharing best practices more widely and highlighting some potential future developments.

  19. Keeping Track: The Function of the Current State Buffer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abeles, Paul; Morton, John

    2000-01-01

    Three experiments with preschoolers tested the independence of the current state buffer from working memory. Findings indicated that when a teddy bear was an object put away with other toys, only half the preschoolers remembered its location despite explicit instructions. When the teddy was a character interacting with children, all remembered its…

  20. The Current State of the Land Grant University System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, T. Grady

    This discussion of the current state of the land grant university first looks at the past to see the origins of land grant universities and their original purposes. Then, each of the three components of land grant institutions is explored: teaching, research, and extension. At present, the quality of teaching at land grant universities is of some…

  1. Proteome Profiling—Pitfalls and Progress

    PubMed Central

    Yates III, John R.

    2000-01-01

    In this review we examine the current state of analytical methods in proteomics. The conventional methodology using two-dimensional electrophoresis gels and mass spectrometry is discussed, with particular reference to the advantages and shortcomings thereof. Two recently published methods which offer an alternative approach are presented and discussed, with emphasis on how they can provide information not available via two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. These two methods are the isotope-coded affinity tags approach of Gygi et al. and the two-dimensional liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry approach as presented by Link et al. We conclude that both of these new techniques represent significant advances in analytical methodology for proteome analysis. Furthermore, we believe that in the future biological research will continue to be enhanced by the continuation of such developments in proteomic analytical technology. PMID:10900454

  2. Proteomic Technologies for the Study of Osteosarcoma

    PubMed Central

    Byrum, Stephanie D.; Washam, Charity L.; Montgomery, Corey O.; Tackett, Alan J.; Suva, Larry J.

    2012-01-01

    Osteosarcoma is the most common primary bone cancer of children and is established during stages of rapid bone growth. The disease is a consequence of immature osteoblast differentiation, which gives way to a rapidly synthesized incompletely mineralized and disorganized bone matrix. The mechanism of osteosarcoma tumorogenesis is poorly understood, and few proteomic studies have been used to interrogate the disease thus far. Accordingly, these studies have identified proteins that have been known to be associated with other malignancies, rather than being osteosarcoma specific. In this paper, we focus on the growing list of available state-of-the-art proteomic technologies and their specific application to the discovery of novel osteosarcoma diagnostic and therapeutic targets. The current signaling markers/pathways associated with primary and metastatic osteosarcoma that have been identified by early-stage proteomic technologies thus far are also described. PMID:22550414

  3. An ion-current-based, comprehensive and reproducible proteomic strategy for comparative characterization of the cellular responses to novel anti-cancer agents in a prostate cell model.

    PubMed

    Tu, Chengjian; Li, Jun; Bu, Yahao; Hangauer, David; Qu, Jun

    2012-12-21

    Proteome-level investigation of the molecular targets in anticancer action of promising pharmaceutical candidates is highly desirable but remains challenging due to the insufficient proteome coverage, limited capacity for biological replicates, and largely unregulated false positive biomarker discovery of current methods. This study described a practical platform strategy to address these challenges, using comparison of drug response proteomic signatures by two promising anti-cancer agents (KX01/KX02) as the model system for method development/optimization. Drug-treated samples were efficiently extracted followed by precipitation/on-pellet-digestion procedure that provides high, reproducible peptide recovery. High-resolution separations were performed on a 75-cm-long, heated nano-LC column with a 7-h gradient, with a highly reproducible nano-LC/nanospray configuration. An LTQ Orbitrap hybrid mass spectrometer with a charge overfilling approach to enhance sensitivity was used for detection. Analytical procedures were optimized and well-controlled to achieve high run-to-run reproducibility that permits numerous replicates in one set, and an ion-current-based approach was utilized for quantification. The false positives of biomarker discovery arising from technical variability was controlled based on FBDR measurement by comparing biomarker numbers in each drug-treated group vs. "sham samples", which were analyzed in an order randomly interleaved with the analysis drug-treated samples. More than 1500 unique protein groups were quantified under stringent criteria, and of which about 30% displayed differential expression with FBDR of 0.3-2.1% across groups. Comparison of drug-response proteomic signatures and the subsequent immunoassay revealed that the action mechanisms of KX01/KX02 are similar but significantly different from vinblastine, which correlates well with clinical and pre-clinical observations. Furthermore, the results strongly supported the hypothesis that

  4. Proteomics for systems toxicology

    PubMed Central

    Titz, Bjoern; Elamin, Ashraf; Martin, Florian; Schneider, Thomas; Dijon, Sophie; Ivanov, Nikolai V.; Hoeng, Julia; Peitsch, Manuel C.

    2014-01-01

    Current toxicology studies frequently lack measurements at molecular resolution to enable a more mechanism-based and predictive toxicological assessment. Recently, a systems toxicology assessment framework has been proposed, which combines conventional toxicological assessment strategies with system-wide measurement methods and computational analysis approaches from the field of systems biology. Proteomic measurements are an integral component of this integrative strategy because protein alterations closely mirror biological effects, such as biological stress responses or global tissue alterations. Here, we provide an overview of the technical foundations and highlight select applications of proteomics for systems toxicology studies. With a focus on mass spectrometry-based proteomics, we summarize the experimental methods for quantitative proteomics and describe the computational approaches used to derive biological/mechanistic insights from these datasets. To illustrate how proteomics has been successfully employed to address mechanistic questions in toxicology, we summarized several case studies. Overall, we provide the technical and conceptual foundation for the integration of proteomic measurements in a more comprehensive systems toxicology assessment framework. We conclude that, owing to the critical importance of protein-level measurements and recent technological advances, proteomics will be an integral part of integrative systems toxicology approaches in the future. PMID:25379146

  5. Proteomics in medical microbiology.

    PubMed

    Cash, P

    2000-04-01

    The techniques of proteomics (high resolution two-dimensional electrophoresis and protein characterisation) are widely used for microbiological research to analyse global protein synthesis as an indicator of gene expression. The rapid progress in microbial proteomics has been achieved through the wide availability of whole genome sequences for a number of bacterial groups. Beyond providing a basic understanding of microbial gene expression, proteomics has also played a role in medical areas of microbiology. Progress has been made in the use of the techniques for investigating the epidemiology and taxonomy of human microbial pathogens, the identification of novel pathogenic mechanisms and the analysis of drug resistance. In each of these areas, proteomics has provided new insights that complement genomic-based investigations. This review describes the current progress in these research fields and highlights some of the technical challenges existing for the application of proteomics in medical microbiology. The latter concern the analysis of genetically heterogeneous bacterial populations and the integration of the proteomic and genomic data for these bacteria. The characterisation of the proteomes of bacterial pathogens growing in their natural hosts remains a future challenge.

  6. Concussion 101: the current state of concussion education programs.

    PubMed

    Williamson, Richard W; Gerhardstein, Deborah; Cardenas, Javier; Michael, Daniel B; Theodore, Nicholas; Rosseau, Natalie

    2014-10-01

    Concussion is an important cause of morbidity in young student athletes. The prevention, accurate diagnosis, and prompt management of concussions require that players, parents, coaches, and medical personnel are accurately educated on current concussion data and guidelines. All states have laws that mandate concussion education for high school athletes. There is currently no uniform educational program to disseminate information to student athletes regarding concussions. This article highlights a few nationally recognized educational programs that aim to accurately and effectively inform all members of the athletic, academic, and medical communities about the importance and urgency of concussion.

  7. Effect of transverse current on Andreev bound state

    SciTech Connect

    Takahashi, Y.; Hashimoto, Y.; Yun, D. H.; Kim, S. W.; Nakamura, T.; Iye, Y.; Katsumoto, S.

    2013-12-04

    In a superconductor-normal-superconductor (SNS) structure, the effect of transverse current across the normal part on the transport through Andreev bound states (ABSs) has been examined. Here a ballistic InAs two-dimensional electron system (2DES) is used as the N-layer to form ABSs. At the same time the 2DES has strong spin-orbit interaction, hence there should emerge the spin-Hall effect associated with the transverse current. We have observed strong reduction of characteristic oscillation in the conductance versus bias voltage, which may be attributed to spin polarization due to the spin-Hall effect.

  8. Understanding the Current Dynamical States of Globular Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pooley, David

    2008-09-01

    We appear to be on the verge of a major paradigm shift in our understanding of the current dynamical states of Galactic globular clusters. Fregeau (2008) brought together two recent theoretical breakthroughs as well as an observational breakthrough made possible by Chandra -- that a globular cluster's X-ray source population scales with its dynamical encounter frequency -- to persuasively argue that we have misunderstood the dynamical states of Galactic globular clusters. The observational evidence hinges on Chandra results from clusters which are classified as "core collapsed," of which there are only a handful of observations. I propose a nearly complete census with Chandra of the rest of the "core collapsed" globular clusters.

  9. Current trends in state child labor legislation and enforcement.

    PubMed

    Beyer, D

    1993-09-01

    There is much current child labor law activity, none of it reflecting concern with occupational health hazards. The focus of the legislation is on time for and dedication to education as youth's foremost priority. The only areas of state legislative change that could affect children's health and safety in the workplace are a general movement toward monetarily increasing fines and penalties and some minor inclusions of agricultural restrictions on young workers. Enforcement efforts are in all cases a primary indication of state commitment to child labor law protections, and these efforts are decreasing.

  10. Proteomic Analysis of Extracellular Proteins from Aspergillus oryzae Grown under Submerged and Solid-State Culture Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Oda, Ken; Kakizono, Dararat; Yamada, Osamu; Iefuji, Haruyuki; Akita, Osamu; Iwashita, Kazuhiro

    2006-01-01

    Filamentous fungi are widely used for the production of homologous and heterologous proteins. Recently, there has been increasing interest in Aspergillus oryzae because of its ability to produce heterologous proteins in solid-state culture. To provide an overview of protein secretion by A. oryzae in solid-state culture, we carried out a comparative proteome analysis of extracellular proteins in solid-state and submerged (liquid) cultures. Extracellular proteins prepared from both cultures sequentially from 0 to 40 h were subjected to two-dimensional electrophoresis, and protein spots at 40 h were identified by peptide mass fingerprinting using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometry. We also attempted to identify cell wall-bound proteins of the submerged culture. We analyzed 85 spots from the solid-state culture and 110 spots from the submerged culture. We identified a total of 29 proteins, which were classified into 4 groups. Group 1 consisted of extracellular proteins specifically produced in the solid-state growth condition, such as glucoamylase B and alanyl dipeptidyl peptidase. Group 2 consisted of extracellular proteins specifically produced in the submerged condition, such as glucoamylase A (GlaA) and xylanase G2 (XynG2). Group 3 consisted of proteins produced in both conditions, such as xylanase G1. Group 4 consisted of proteins that were secreted to the medium in the solid-state growth condition but trapped in the cell wall in the submerged condition, such as α-amylase (TAA) and β-glucosidase (Bgl). A Northern analysis of seven genes from the four groups suggested that the secretion of TAA and Bgl was regulated by trapping these proteins in the cell wall in submerged culture and that secretion of GlaA and XynG2 was regulated at the posttranscriptional level in the solid-state culture. PMID:16672490

  11. Proteomic approaches to dissect platelet function: half the story

    PubMed Central

    Gnatenko, Dmitri V.; Perrotta, Peter L.; Bahou, Wadie F.

    2006-01-01

    Platelets play critical roles in diverse hemostatic and pathologic disorders and are broadly implicated in various biological processes that include inflammation, wound healing, and thrombosis. Recent progress in high-throughput mRNA and protein profiling techniques has advanced our understanding of the biological functions of platelets. Platelet proteomics has been adopted to decode the complex processes that underlie platelet function by identifying novel platelet-expressed proteins, dissecting mechanisms of signal or metabolic pathways, and analyzing functional changes of the platelet proteome in normal and pathologic states. The integration of transcriptomics and proteomics, coupled with progress in bioinformatics, provides novel tools for dissecting platelet biology. In this review, we focus on current advances in platelet proteomic studies, with emphasis on the importance of parallel transcriptomic studies to optimally dissect platelet function. Applications of these global profiling approaches to investigate platelet genetic diseases and platelet-related disorders are also addressed. PMID:16926286

  12. Reproducible Ion-Current-Based Approach for 24-Plex Comparison of the Tissue Proteomes of Hibernating versus Normal Myocardium in Swine Models

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Hibernating myocardium is an adaptive response to repetitive myocardial ischemia that is clinically common, but the mechanism of adaptation is poorly understood. Here we compared the proteomes of hibernating versus normal myocardium in a porcine model with 24 biological replicates. Using the ion-current-based proteomic strategy optimized in this study to expand upon previous proteomic work, we identified differentially expressed proteins in new molecular pathways of cardiovascular interest. The methodological strategy includes efficient extraction with detergent cocktail; precipitation/digestion procedure with high, quantitative peptide recovery; reproducible nano-LC/MS analysis on a long, heated column packed with small particles; and quantification based on ion-current peak areas. Under the optimized conditions, high efficiency and reproducibility were achieved for each step, which enabled a reliable comparison of 24 the myocardial samples. To achieve confident discovery of differentially regulated proteins in hibernating myocardium, we used highly stringent criteria to define “quantifiable proteins”. These included the filtering criteria of low peptide FDR and S/N > 10 for peptide ion currents, and each protein was quantified independently from ≥2 distinct peptides. For a broad methodological validation, the quantitative results were compared with a parallel, well-validated 2D-DIGE analysis of the same model. Excellent agreement between the two orthogonal methods was observed (R = 0.74), and the ion-current-based method quantified almost one order of magnitude more proteins. In hibernating myocardium, 225 significantly altered proteins were discovered with a low false-discovery rate (∼3%). These proteins are involved in biological processes including metabolism, apoptosis, stress response, contraction, cytoskeleton, transcription, and translation. This provides compelling evidence that hibernating myocardium adapts to chronic ischemia. The major

  13. [The current state and development prospectives of military nephrology].

    PubMed

    Nagibovich, O A; Golota, A S; Krassiĭ, A B

    2014-05-01

    This article is dedicated to the current state and prospectives of military nephrology. Using as examples the nephrology services of the armed forces of Serbia, France, Great Britain and USA it is shown that this branch of military healthcare plays an important role abroad. The brief review of military nephrology formation and development history demonstrates the growing significance of military nephrology in the general system of medical care at the battlefield.

  14. Current State of Seismic Emission Associated with Solar Flares

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Besliu-Ionescu, D.; Donea, A.; Cally, P.

    2017-01-01

    Certain solar flares are followed by photospheric seismic emission, also known as sunquakes. Sunquakes were predicted more than 40 years ago, but observed for the first time 20 years ago. A valid scenario that would fit all discoveries made so far is still missing. This paper summarises the current state of the literature concerning sunquakes. It describes all published reports of known seismic sources to date and presents possible triggering mechanisms.

  15. Functional bracing of ACL injuries: current state and future directions.

    PubMed

    Smith, Sean D; Laprade, Robert F; Jansson, Kyle S; Arøen, Asbjørn; Wijdicks, Coen A

    2014-05-01

    Functional braces are commonly prescribed to treat anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury. The results of the existing literature on functional brace use are mixed. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the history and current state of functional ACL bracing and to identify design criteria that could improve upon current bracing technologies. A literature search was performed through the PubMed MEDLINE database in April 2013 for the keywords "anterior cruciate ligament" and "brace". Articles published between January 1, 1980, and April 4, 2013, were retrieved and reviewed. Current functional braces used to treat ACL injury were identified. The function of the native ACL was carefully studied to identify design requirements that could improve upon current bracing technologies. Biomechanical evaluations of functional brace effects at time zero have been mixed. Functional brace use reportedly does not improve long-term patient outcomes following ACL reconstruction, but has been shown to reduce subsequent injury rates while skiing in both ACL-deficient and reconstructed skiers. In situ force in the ACL varies with flexion angle and activity. Currently, no brace has been designed and validated to replicate the force-flexion behavior of the native ACL. Biomechanical and clinical evidence suggests current functional bracing technologies do not sufficiently restore normal biomechanics to the ACL-deficient knee, protect the reconstructed ACL, and improve long-term patient outcomes. Further research into a functional brace designed to apply forces to the knee joint similar in magnitude to the native ACL should be pursued. III.

  16. Resistive current state of a wide superconducting film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zolochevskii, I. V.

    2011-12-01

    The current-voltage characteristics (CVCs) of vortex superconducting films are investigated in a wide temperature range. It is shown for the first time that the experimental CVCs and their parameters are described well enough by asymptotic formulas within the theory of the vortex resistive state of Aslamazov-Lempitsky (AL). It is established that for wide films, the critical current of which corresponds to the AL theory, the differential resistance of a linear segment of a CVC does not depend on temperature that agrees with the model of the vortex resistive state of AL. In the range of much higher temperatures, where the critical current is Ic(T)∝(1-T/Tc)3/2, the decrease of the differential resistance with increasing the temperature is observed that corresponds to predictions of the AL theory. However, in the close vicinity of Tc the increase of the differential resistance of a linear vortex segment of CVCs was found at T → Tc. This effect does not have an explanation in modern theories of a vortex state.

  17. Market opportunity in computational proteomics.

    PubMed

    Razvi, Enal

    2002-03-01

    The current exuberance on the potential of proteomics as a means to deploy the wealth of the human genome is expected to last into the coming years. Unlike the genome, a finite entity with a fixed number of base pairs of the genetic material, the proteome is "plastic", changing throughout growth and development and environmental stresses, as well as in pathological situations. Our proteomes change over time, and therefore there is no one proteome; the proteome is for practical purposes an infinite entity. It is therefore crucial to build systems that are capable of manipulating the information content that is the proteome, thence the need for computational proteomics as a discipline. In this Market View article, we present the industry landscape that is emerging in the computational proteomics space. This space is still in its infancy and for the most part undefined; therefore we seek to present the market opportunity in informatics in the drug discovery space and then extend that to an examination of industry trends in proteomics. Thus, the gestalt is a set of predictions as to the evolution of the landscape in computational proteomics over the coming years.

  18. Proteomic Analysis of an Immortalized Mouse Pancreatic Stellate Cell Line Identifies Differentially-Expressed Proteins in Activated vs. Non-Proliferating Cell States

    PubMed Central

    Paulo, Joao A.; Urrutia, Raul; Banks, Peter A.; Conwell, Darwin L.; Steen, Hanno

    2011-01-01

    Pancreatic stellate cells (PaSC) are mediators in chronic pancreatitis and pancreatic cancer pathogenesis. Proteins regulating the biomolecular pathways involved in the conversion of activated to quiescent PaSC may have a significant influence in the development of chronic pancreatitis. We aim to compare differentially expressed proteins from an immortalized cell line of mouse PaSC in the activated and serum-starved cell states using mass spectrometry-based proteomics. PaSC cultured in media supplemented with fetal bovine serum (FBS) proliferate in the activated state, while serum starvation promotes the cellular transition to a “pseudo-quiescent” state. Using these two cell states, we performed a comparative mass spectrometry (GeLC-MS/MS) proteomic analysis. We identified over 2000 non-redundant proteins in PaSC. Qualitative and label-free quantitative analysis revealed several hundred proteins that were differentially abundant between the cell states. Proteins that were more abundant in activated PaSC included cytoskeletal proteins and ribosomal proteins, while those more abundant in pseudo-quiescent PaSC included proteins involved in protein degradation-related pathways (lysosome, ubiquitin-mediated proteolysis, and the proteasome). Investigation of the role of PaSC in the pathogenesis of chronic pancreatitis using the mass spectrometry-based proteomics strategy described herein will lead to further insights into the molecular mechanisms associated with the disease. PMID:21838295

  19. The Current State of Secondary School Marine Science Education in the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlenker, Richard M.; Qureshi, Zahir

    Information was requested in late 1976 and early 1977 from the Departments of Education of each of the 50 states and Puerto Rico on the current status of secondary school marine science education. Thirty-five states and Puerto Rico responded. Some of the results are as follows: (1) Marine science assignments accounted for 1.94% of the total number…

  20. [Current state and prospects of military personnel health monitoring].

    PubMed

    Rezvantsev, M V; Kuznetsov, S M; Ivanov, V V; Zakurdaev, V V

    2014-01-01

    The current article is dedicated to some features of the Russian Federation Armed Forces military personnel health monitoring such as legal and informational provision, methodological basis of functioning, historical aspect of formation and development of the social and hygienic monitoring in the Russian Federation Armed Forces. The term "military personnel health monitoring" is defined as an analytical system of constant and long-term observation, analysis, assessment, studying of factors determined the military personnel health, these factors correlations, health risk factors management in order to minimize them. The current state of the military personnel health monitoring allows coming to the conclusion that the military health system does have forces and resources for state policy of establishing the population health monitoring system implementation. The following directions of the militarily personnel health monitoring improvement are proposed: the Russian Federation Armed Forces medical service record and report system reorganization bringing it closer to the civilian one, implementation of the integrated approach to the medical service informatisation, namely, military personnel health status and medical service resources monitoring. The leading means in this direction are development and introduction of a military serviceman individual health status monitoring system on the basis of a serviceman electronic medical record card. Also it is proposed the current Russian Federation Armed Forces social and hygienic monitoring improvement at the expense of informational interaction between the two subsystems on the basis of unified military medical service space.

  1. Pyroclastic density currents: state of the art and perspectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sulpizio, R.; Dellino, P.; D. M., Doronzo; Sarocchi, D.

    2014-08-01

    Pyroclastic density currents (PDCs) are mixtures of two components, namely solid particles and fluid (gas) phase. They macroscopically behave as dense, multiphase gravity currents (flowing pyroclastic mixtures of particles and gas) immersed in a less dense, almost isotropic fluid (the atmosphere). As for other natural phenomena, their study needs a multidisciplinary approach consisting of direct observations, analysis of the associated deposits, replication through laboratory experiments, and numerical simulations. This review deals with the description of the current state of the art of PDC physics, and combines analysis of data from various methodologies. All of the above-mentioned approaches have provided significant contributions to advancing the state of the art; in particular, laboratory experiments and numerical simulations deserve a special mention here for their tumultuous growth in recent years. A paragraph of the review is dedicated to the puzzling behaviour of large-scale ignimbrites, which are (fortunately) too rare to be directly observed; they cannot be easily reproduced through laboratory experiments, or investigated by means of numerical simulations. The final part is dedicated to a summary of the whole discussion, and to a comment on some perspectives for future developments of PDC studies.

  2. The Current State of Pediatric Sports Medicine: A Workforce Analysis.

    PubMed

    Engelman, Glenn; Koutures, Chris; Provance, Aaron

    2016-01-01

    Pediatric sports medicine is an evolving pediatric subspecialty. No workforce data currently exists describing the current state of pediatric sports medicine. The goal of this survey is to contribute information to the practicing pediatric sports medicine specialist, employers and other stakeholders regarding the current state of pediatric sports medicine. The Workforce Survey was conducted by the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) Division of Workforce and Medical Education Policy (WMEP) and included a 44-item standard questionnaire online addressing training, clinical practice and demographic characteristics as well as the 24-item AAP Council on Sports Medicine and Fitness (COSMF) questionnaire. Descriptive statistics were used to summarize all survey responses. Bivariate relationships were tested for statistical significance using Chi square. 145 surveys were returned, which represented a 52.7% response rate for eligible COSMF members and board certified non-council responders. The most common site of employment among respondents was university-based clinics. The respondents board certified in sports medicine were significantly more likely to perform fracture management, casting and splinting, neuropsychological testing and injections compared to those not board certified in sports medicine. A large proportion of respondents held an academic/medical school appointment. Increases were noted in both patient volume and the complexity of the injuries the specialists were treating. This pediatric sports medicine workforce study provides previously unappreciated insight into practice arrangements, weekly duties, procedures, number of patients seen, referral patterns, and potential future trends of the pediatric sports medicine specialist.

  3. Coupling enrichment methods with proteomics for understanding and treating disease.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Amit; Baycin-Hizal, Deniz; Shiloach, Joseph; Bowen, Michael A; Betenbaugh, Michael J

    2015-02-01

    Owing to recent advances in proteomics analytical methods and bioinformatics capabilities there is a growing trend toward using these capabilities for the development of drugs to treat human disease, including target and drug evaluation, understanding mechanisms of drug action, and biomarker discovery. Currently, the genetic sequences of many major organisms are available, which have helped greatly in characterizing proteomes in model animal systems and humans. Through proteomics, global profiles of different disease states can be characterized (e.g. changes in types and relative levels as well as changes in PTMs such as glycosylation or phosphorylation). Although intracellular proteomics can provide a broad overview of physiology of cells and tissues, it has been difficult to quantify the low abundance proteins which can be important for understanding the diseased states and treatment progression. For this reason, there is increasing interest in coupling comparative proteomics methods with subcellular fractionation and enrichment techniques for membranes, nucleus, phosphoproteome, glycoproteome as well as low abundance serum proteins. In this review, we will provide examples of where the utilization of different proteomics-coupled enrichment techniques has aided target and biomarker discovery, understanding the drug targeting mechanism, and mAb discovery. Taken together, these improvements will help to provide a better understanding of the pathophysiology of various diseases including cancer, autoimmunity, inflammation, cardiovascular disease, and neurological conditions, and in the design and development of better medicines for treating these afflictions.

  4. Microbial production of hyaluronic acid: current state, challenges, and perspectives

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Hyaluronic acid (HA) is a natural and linear polymer composed of repeating disaccharide units of β-1, 3-N-acetyl glucosamine and β-1, 4-glucuronic acid with a molecular weight up to 6 million Daltons. With excellent viscoelasticity, high moisture retention capacity, and high biocompatibility, HA finds a wide-range of applications in medicine, cosmetics, and nutraceuticals. Traditionally HA was extracted from rooster combs, and now it is mainly produced via streptococcal fermentation. Recently the production of HA via recombinant systems has received increasing interest due to the avoidance of potential toxins. This work summarizes the research history and current commercial market of HA, and then deeply analyzes the current state of microbial production of HA by Streptococcus zooepidemicus and recombinant systems, and finally discusses the challenges facing microbial HA production and proposes several research outlines to meet the challenges. PMID:22088095

  5. Animal Models of Psychosis: Current State and Future Directions

    PubMed Central

    Forrest, Alexandra D.; Coto, Carlos A.; Siegel, Steven J.

    2014-01-01

    Psychosis is an abnormal mental state characterized by disorganization, delusions and hallucinations. Animal models have become an increasingly important research tool in the effort to understand both the underlying pathophysiology and treatment of psychosis. There are multiple animal models for psychosis, with each formed by the coupling of a manipulation and a measurement. In this manuscript we do not address the diseases of which psychosis is a prominent comorbidity. Instead, we summarize the current state of affairs and future directions for animal models of psychosis. To accomplish this, our manuscript will first discuss relevant behavioral and electrophysiological measurements. We then provide an overview of the different manipulations that are combined with these measurements to produce animal models. The strengths and limitations of each model will be addressed in order to evaluate its cross-species comparability. PMID:25215267

  6. Pharmacovigilance in Russia: current state of affairs, challenges, and prospects.

    PubMed

    Gildeeva, Geliya; Belostotsky, Andrey

    2017-06-25

    This review outlines current issues of the pharmacovigilance (PV) system in the Russian Federation, namely the present state of regulatory aspects, regulatory requirements in both Russia and the Eurasian Economic Union, and review of causes of under-reporting of adverse drug reactions. Specific attention will be focused on how the system is designed to monitor drug safety functions, reporting and accountability of pharmaceutical products, their manufacturers and medical staff, the role played by regional centers for drug-safety monitoring, and insufficient understanding of the part taken by patients in the system of PV. The prospects of the Russian PV system and its harmonization with global practice will also be discussed.

  7. Geographical Information Systems and Health: Current State and Future Directions

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    This paper provides an introduction to Geographical Information Systems (GIS) and how they can be used. It reviews the current state of GIS use in health care before identifying the barriers to more pervasive use of GIS in health. Finally, it makes recommendations for the direction of health GIS research over the next decade and concludes with a call to action to health informatics researchers to stop ignoring a tool and methodology that has such immense potential for improving the health of our communities. PMID:22844644

  8. [Infection for papillomavirus in the man. Current state].

    PubMed

    Gómez García, I; Gómez Mampaso, E; Conde Someso, S; Maganto Pavón, E; Navío Niño, S; Allona Almagro, A

    2005-04-01

    The Virus of the Human Papiloma (HPV), classically he/she has been related with infections of sexual transmission and processes wicked oncologists of the feminine genital apparatus and with less frequency of the masculine one. The new technical diagnostics, based on molecular biology (by means of polymerase chain reaction), they help to a better epidemic approach, an improvement in the I diagnose viral, and a correct therapeutic focus. The object of this work is to revise the current state of the HPV from the points of view etiopathogenics, epidemic, clinical, diagnosis, therapeutic and preservative.

  9. Proteomic research in psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Taurines, Regina; Dudley, Edward; Grassl, Julia; Warnke, Andreas; Gerlach, Manfred; Coogan, Andrew N; Thome, Johannes

    2011-02-01

    Psychiatric disorders such as Alzheimer's disease, schizophrenia and mood disorders are severe and disabling conditions of largely unknown origin and poorly understood pathophysiology. An accurate diagnosis and treatment of these disorders is often complicated by their aetiological and clinical heterogeneity. In recent years proteomic technologies based on mass spectrometry have been increasingly used, especially in the search for diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers in neuropsychiatric disorders. Proteomics enable an automated high-throughput protein determination revealing expression levels, post-translational modifications and complex protein-interaction networks. In contrast to other methods such as molecular genetics, proteomics provide the opportunity to determine modifications at the protein level thereby possibly being more closely related to pathophysiological processes underlying the clinical phenomenology of specific psychiatric conditions. In this article we review the theoretical background of proteomics and its most commonly utilized techniques. Furthermore the current impact of proteomic research on diverse psychiatric diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease, schizophrenia, mood and anxiety disorders, drug abuse and autism, is discussed. Proteomic methods are expected to gain crucial significance in psychiatric research and neuropharmacology over the coming decade.

  10. Pro: urine proteomics as a liquid kidney biopsy: no more kidney punctures!

    PubMed

    Mischak, Harald

    2015-04-01

    In this article, the benefits of urinary proteomics in comparison with kidney biopsy are discussed. The majority of urinary proteins are generated by the kidney, hence the urinary proteome holds substantial information on the kidney, and assessment of the urinary proteome could be considered a 'liquid biopsy'. The main question is how well the information contained in the urinary proteome can be assessed today, if it is ready to be routinely used, and what are the advantages and possible disadvantages in comparison with current standards. Since chronic kidney disease (CKD) is by far the largest area in nephrology based on the number of patients affected, the focus of this article is on CKD. Substantial progress was made in the last decade in urinary proteomics, and today we have comparable urinary proteome datasets of tens of thousands of subjects available. Clinical proteomics studies in CKD including close to, or even exceeding, 1000 subjects have recently been published, demonstrating a benefit over the current state-of-the-art in diagnosis and especially prognosis. The first large multicentric randomized controlled intervention trial aiming at preventing CKD by employing urinary proteomics-guided intervention has been initiated recently. These data provide ample evidence for the utility and value of urinary proteomics in nephrology. A further consideration is that the purpose of the biopsy, be it 'liquid' or 'solid', is to guide intervention. However, essentially all drug targets are proteins, not microscopic structures. Therefore, obtaining information on the proteome to guide intervention appears to be the most appropriate approach. Presenting more detailed evidence, I argue that urinary proteome analysis can, in most cases, be employed to guide therapeutic intervention, can be repeated multiple times as it is without any direct risk or discomfort and can be considered as a liquid biopsy.

  11. The current state of evidence-based pediatric surgery.

    PubMed

    Ostlie, Daniel J; St Peter, Shawn D

    2010-10-01

    The efficiency of medical care in the United States has become intensely scrutinized with expectations from patients, families, payors, lawmakers, and, currently, the President. The most effective vehicle to bring more efficient care is the employment of evidence-based medicine whenever possible. Evidence-based medicine is dependent on best evidence, and best evidence is generated from prospective trials. To evaluate current state of evidence based practice in pediatric surgery we reviewed the literature for trials conducted in our field the past 10 years. All randomized controlled trials from January 1999 through December 2009 published in the English literature were identified through a literature search using PubMed (www.pubmed.com). We included only those in pediatric general surgery excluding transplant, oncology, and the other nongeneral subspecialties. The search criteria produced 56 manuscripts, of which 51 described appropriate randomization techniques. A definitive trial design with a sample size calculation was utilized in only 19 studies (34%). A statistically significant difference between treatment arms was identified in 29 of the 56 (52%) trials. There were 26 different journals of publication, with the Journal of Pediatric Surgery being most common (20) followed by Pediatric Surgery International (7). The combined total publications from January 1999 through December 2009 for the 26 journals these randomized trials represent 0.04% of all publications. Appendicitis was the most common condition that was studied (n = 10) followed by pyloric stenosis (n = 4). Trials originated in 19 different countries led by the United States (28%), United Kingdom (14%), and Turkey (12%). There was a generally progressive increase in published trials from 1999 to 2009, however, the percentage of prospective articles published in pediatric surgery was similar to a previous review published in 1999. The current state of evidence-based surgery in pediatric surgery has

  12. Combination of Multiple Spectral Libraries Improves the Current Search Methods Used to Identify Missing Proteins in the Chromosome-Centric Human Proteome Project.

    PubMed

    Cho, Jin-Young; Lee, Hyoung-Joo; Jeong, Seul-Ki; Kim, Kwang-Youl; Kwon, Kyung-Hoon; Yoo, Jong Shin; Omenn, Gilbert S; Baker, Mark S; Hancock, William S; Paik, Young-Ki

    2015-12-04

    Approximately 2.9 billion long base-pair human reference genome sequences are known to encode some 20 000 representative proteins. However, 3000 proteins, that is, ~15% of all proteins, have no or very weak proteomic evidence and are still missing. Missing proteins may be present in rare samples in very low abundance or be only temporarily expressed, causing problems in their detection and protein profiling. In particular, some technical limitations cause missing proteins to remain unassigned. For example, current mass spectrometry techniques have high limits and error rates for the detection of complex biological samples. An insufficient proteome coverage in a reference sequence database and spectral library also raises major issues. Thus, the development of a better strategy that results in greater sensitivity and accuracy in the search for missing proteins is necessary. To this end, we used a new strategy, which combines a reference spectral library search and a simulated spectral library search, to identify missing proteins. We built the human iRefSPL, which contains the original human reference spectral library and additional peptide sequence-spectrum match entries from other species. We also constructed the human simSPL, which contains the simulated spectra of 173 907 human tryptic peptides determined by MassAnalyzer (version 2.3.1). To prove the enhanced analytical performance of the combination of the human iRefSPL and simSPL methods for the identification of missing proteins, we attempted to reanalyze the placental tissue data set (PXD000754). The data from each experiment were analyzed using PeptideProphet, and the results were combined using iProphet. For the quality control, we applied the class-specific false-discovery rate filtering method. All of the results were filtered at a false-discovery rate of <1% at the peptide and protein levels. The quality-controlled results were then cross-checked with the neXtProt DB (2014-09-19 release). The two

  13. Current state of unloading braces for knee osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Steadman, J Richard; Briggs, Karen K; Pomeroy, Shannon M; Wijdicks, Coen A

    2016-01-01

    Unicompartmental knee osteoarthritis (OA) is often treated with the prescription of an unloading knee brace to decrease pain and stiffness. Braces have been shown to improve the quality of life by applying an external moment to offset increased compressive tibiofemoral contact loads, but evidence regarding mechanical efficacy at the joint is controversial. Thus, the purpose of this study was to review the current state of unloading braces on knee mechanics, clinical impact, and long-term disease progression. A literature search was performed through the PubMed MEDLINE database for the search terms "osteoarthritis," "knee," "brace," and derivatives of the keyword "unload." Articles published since January 1, 1980 were reviewed for their relevance. Evidence for the effectiveness of unloading braces for disease management both biomechanically and clinically was considered. While significant research has been done to show improvement in OA symptoms with the use of an unloading brace, current literature suggests a debate regarding the effectiveness of these braces for biomechanical change. Clinical findings reveal overall improvements in parameters such as pain, instability, and quality of life. Although clinical evidence supports brace use to improve pain and functional ability, current biomechanical evidence suggests that unloading of the affected knee compartment does not significantly hinder disease progression. III.

  14. Integrating cell biology and proteomic approaches in plants.

    PubMed

    Takáč, Tomáš; Šamajová, Olga; Šamaj, Jozef

    2017-04-22

    Significant improvements of protein extraction, separation, mass spectrometry and bioinformatics nurtured advancements of proteomics during the past years. The usefulness of proteomics in the investigation of biological problems can be enhanced by integration with other experimental methods from cell biology, genetics, biochemistry, pharmacology, molecular biology and other omics approaches including transcriptomics and metabolomics. This review aims to summarize current trends integrating cell biology and proteomics in plant science. Cell biology approaches are most frequently used in proteomic studies investigating subcellular and developmental proteomes, however, they were also employed in proteomic studies exploring abiotic and biotic stress responses, vesicular transport, cytoskeleton and protein posttranslational modifications. They are used either for detailed cellular or ultrastructural characterization of the object subjected to proteomic study, validation of proteomic results or to expand proteomic data. In this respect, a broad spectrum of methods is employed to support proteomic studies including ultrastructural electron microscopy studies, histochemical staining, immunochemical localization, in vivo imaging of fluorescently tagged proteins and visualization of protein-protein interactions. Thus, cell biological observations on fixed or living cell compartments, cells, tissues and organs are feasible, and in some cases fundamental for the validation and complementation of proteomic data. Validation of proteomic data by independent experimental methods requires development of new complementary approaches. Benefits of cell biology methods and techniques are not sufficiently highlighted in current proteomic studies. This encouraged us to review most popular cell biology methods used in proteomic studies and to evaluate their relevance and potential for proteomic data validation and enrichment of purely proteomic analyses. We also provide examples of

  15. The Current State of Silicone-Based Dielectric Elastomer Transducers.

    PubMed

    Madsen, Frederikke B; Daugaard, Anders E; Hvilsted, Søren; Skov, Anne L

    2016-03-01

    Silicone elastomers are promising materials for dielectric elastomer transducers (DETs) due to their superior properties such as high efficiency, reliability and fast response times. DETs consist of thin elastomer films sandwiched between compliant electrodes, and they constitute an interesting class of transducer due to their inherent lightweight and potentially large strains. For the field to progress towards industrial implementation, a leap in material development is required, specifically targeting longer lifetime and higher energy densities to provide more efficient transduction at lower driving voltages. In this review, the current state of silicone elastomers for DETs is summarised and critically discussed, including commercial elastomers, composites, polymer blends, grafted elastomers and complex network structures. For future developments in the field it is essential that all aspects of the elastomer are taken into account, namely dielectric losses, lifetime and the very often ignored polymer network integrity and stability.

  16. The potential versus current state of water splitting with hematite.

    PubMed

    Zandi, Omid; Hamann, Thomas W

    2015-09-21

    This review describes the potential of hematite as a photoanode material for photoelectrochemical (PEC) water splitting. The current understanding of key loss-mechanisms of hematite are introduced and correlated to performance enhancement strategies. The significant voltage loss associated with overcoming the competitive water oxidation and surface state recombination has recently been surmounted through a combination of high temperature annealing and surface modification with water oxidation catalysts. Substantial efforts have been made at nanostructuring electrodes to increase the charge separation efficiency without sacrificing light absorption. Even in optimized nanostructured electrodes, however, charge separation continues to be the primary barrier to achieving efficient water splitting with hematite. Specifically, significant depletion region recombination results in voltage dependant photocurrent which constrains the fill factor. Thus, future directions to enhance the efficiency of hematite electrodes are discussed with an emphasis on circumventing depletion region recombination.

  17. Trap States in Copper Phthalocyanine Thin Films using Photogenerated Currents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gredig, Thomas; Guerra, Jorge; Byrne, Matthew; Silverstein, Evan

    2010-03-01

    The efficiency of organic solar cells is limited by several factors including the photocurrent generation process. Copper phthalocyanine thin films with different grain structures are prepared via thermal evaporation onto interdigitated gold electrodes. The samples are analyzed with atomic force microscopy and then exposed to light pulses to explore the time dependence of photogenerated currents in phthalocyanine thin films. The average grain size is obtained from the correlation length of the height-height correlation function and varies from 30-200nm. The dependence of the recombination of photo-excited, dissociated charge pairs on the electric field is compared with the Onsager mechanism and a simple dual trap state model from which relevant time scales are extracted.

  18. Current State of New Vgos Antennas for the "Quasar" Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ipatov, A.; Ivanov, D.; Smolentsev, S.; Ilin, G.; Gayazov, I.

    2014-12-01

    Under the state program of modernization of Russian VLBI Network "Quasar", up to 2015, it is planned to construct two 13.2 m radio telescopes (RT-13) of the new generation in "Zelenchukskaya" and "Badary" observatories for operational and high-precision polar coordinates and Universal Time data support of the GLONASS system, and for communication with the international VLBI network and other agencies. Construction of this new radio telescopes have already been finished at the "Badary" and "Zelenchukskaya" observatories and currently they are in trial operation. Main specifications of the RT-13 antenna system and some results of tests will be presented. These new antennas will meet all requirements of the VGOS Observing Plan.

  19. Sweetened beverages and health: current state of scientific understandings.

    PubMed

    Rippe, James M; Saltzman, Edward

    2013-09-01

    This article summarizes the presentations from the "Sweetened Beverages and Health: Current State of Scientific Understandings" symposium held at the ASN Annual Meeting in Boston, MA on April 23, 2013. The metabolic and health effects of sugar-sweetened beverages were discussed from a variety of points of view by 5 different presenters. Dr. David Allison drew a distinction between conjecture and proof related to sweetened beverages and obesity. Dr. Richard Mattes discussed differences between solid and liquid calories. Dr. Miguel Alonso-Alonso reviewed potential contributions of functional neuroimaging, particularly as they relate to whether sugar is potentially "addictive." Dr. Kimber Stanhope discussed work related to experiments comparing fructose to glucose. Dr. James Rippe presented evidence from randomized controlled trials from his research organization showing no differences among high-fructose corn syrup, sucrose, glucose, or fructose at normal human consumption amounts.

  20. Consumer Mobile Health Apps: Current State, Barriers, and Future Directions.

    PubMed

    Kao, Cheng-Kai; Liebovitz, David M

    2017-05-01

    This paper discusses the current state, barriers, and future directions of consumer-facing applications (apps). There are currently more than 165,000 mobile health apps publicly available in major app stores, the vast majority of which are designed for patients. The top 2 categories are wellness management and disease management apps, whereas other categories include self-diagnosis, medication reminder, and electronic patient portal apps. Apps specific to physical medicine and rehabilitation also are reviewed. These apps have the potential to provide low-cost, around-the-clock access to high-quality, evidence-based health information to end users on a global scale. However, they have not yet lived up to their potential due to multiple barriers, including lack of regulatory oversight, limited evidence-based literature, and concerns of privacy and security. The future directions may consist of improving data integration into the health care system, an interoperable app platform allowing access to electronic health record data, cloud-based personal health record across health care networks, and increasing app prescription by health care providers. For consumer mobile health apps to fully contribute value to health care delivery and chronic disease management, all stakeholders within the ecosystem must collaborate to overcome the significant barriers. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. ["Good dying"--definition and current state of research].

    PubMed

    Hutter, Nico; Stößel, Ulrich; Meffert, Cornelia; Körner, Mirjam; Bozzaro, Claudia; Becker, Gerhild; Baumeister, Harald

    2015-08-01

    The advances of modern medicine did not only result in prolongation of life expectancy, but also led to a shift from dying at home to dying in public institutions. In western countries most people die at advanced age in medical facilities. Hence, the question regarding the conditions, which should be provided by society and especially medicine, to allow terminally ill people to experience "good dying" is substantial. For this purpose, an examination of patients', family members' and health care providers' understanding of the term " good dying" is required. The present paper aims at shedding light on the term "good dying" and to summarize the current state of research. Therefore, the attributes of "good dying" will be described from the perspectives of patients, family members and health care providers, which are discussed and examined in current medical-sociological research. These attributes can be illustrated on three dimensions: Quality of life at the end of life (e. g. pain relief, mental well-being), quality of dying (e. g. avoiding prolonged dying, autonomy, presence of relatives) and quality of health care at the end of life (e. g. patient-oriented health care, positive communication between health care providers and patients, availability of guidelines). Although the attributes of "good dying" are described in detail in the existing literature, further studies have to clarify the relevance and impact of these attributes as predictors of "good dying". © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  2. Quality measures in gastrointestinal endoscopy: the current state.

    PubMed

    Adams, Megan A; Saini, Sameer D; Allen, John I

    2017-09-01

    The purpose of this review is to summarize the current state of endoscopic quality measurement and use of measures in enhancing the value of endoscopic services. Initially, quality measurement of endoscopic procedures was claims based or included small unit or practice-specific efforts. Now we have a mature national registry and large electronic medical or procedural records that are designed to yield valuable data relevant to quality measurement. With the advent of better measures, we are beginning to understand that initial process and surrogate outcome measures (adenoma detection rate) can be improved to provide a better reflection of endoscopic quality. Importantly, however, even measures currently in use relate to important patient outcomes such as missed colon cancers. At a federal level, older cumbersome pay-for-performance initiatives have been combined into a new overarching program named the quality payment program within the centers for medicare and medicaid services. This program is an additional step toward furthering the progress from volume-to-value-based reimbursement. The legislation mandating the movement toward outcomes-linked (value) reimbursement is the medicare access and children's health insurance program reauthorization act, which was passed with overwhelming bipartisan support and will not be walked back by alterations of the affordable care act. Increasing portions of medicare reimbursement (and likely commercial to follow) will be linked to quality metrics, so familiarity with the underlying process and rationale will be important for all proceduralists.

  3. Current Research with Cochlear Implants at Arizona State University

    PubMed Central

    Dorman, Michael F.; Spahr, Anthony; Gifford, Rene H.; Cook, Sarah; Zhang, Ting; Loiselle, Louise; Yost, William; Cardy, Lara; Whittingham, JoAnne; Schramm, David

    2013-01-01

    In this article we review, and discuss the clinical implications of, five projects currently underway in the Cochlear Implant Laboratory at Arizona State University. The projects are (1) norming the AzBio sentence test, (2) comparing the performance of bilateral and bimodal cochlear implant (CI) patients in realistic listening environments, (3) accounting for the benefit provided to bimodal patients by low-frequency acoustic stimulation, (4) assessing localization by bilateral hearing aid patients and the implications of that work for hearing preservation patients, and (5) studying heart rate variability as a possible measure for quantifying the stress of listening via an implant. The long-term goals of the laboratory are to improve the performance of patients fit with cochlear implants and to understand the mechanisms, physiological or electronic, that underlie changes in performance. We began our work with cochlear implant patients in the mid-1980s and received our first grant from the National Institutes of Health (NIH) for work with implanted patients in 1989. Since that date our work with cochlear implant patients has been funded continuously by the NIH. In this report we describe some of the research currently being conducted in our laboratory. PMID:22668760

  4. Transcranial direct current stimulation increases resting state interhemispheric connectivity.

    PubMed

    Park, Chang-Hyun; Chang, Won Hyuk; Park, Ji-Young; Shin, Yong-Il; Kim, Sung Tae; Kim, Yun-Hee

    2013-02-28

    Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) has been increasingly used to investigate human brain functions. Especially, tDCS on the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) enhances cognitive functions in both healthy subjects and patients with neuropsychiatric disorders. In spite of its effects on behavioral improvement, neural correlates of tDCS on the DLPFC have not been fully described. In this study, we acquired resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging data before and after real or sham stimulation on the left DLPFC. Resting state functional connectivity of the stimulated brain region was compared between the two groups. Compared to the sham stimulation group, the tDCS group showed increased DLPFC connectivity to the right hemisphere and decreased DLPFC connectivity to the brain regions around the stimulation site in the left hemisphere. Application of tDCS on the DLPFC may induce increased interhemispheric connectivity even at rest, possibly associated with the behavioral effects of tDCS. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Current State of Value-Based Purchasing Programs

    PubMed Central

    Chee, Tingyin T.; Ryan, Andrew M.; Wasfy, Jason H.; Borden, William B.

    2016-01-01

    The United States healthcare system is rapidly moving toward rewarding value. Recent legislation, such as the Affordable Care Act and the Medicare Access and CHIP Reauthorization Act (MACRA), solidified the role of value-based payment in Medicare. Many private insurers are following Medicare’s lead. Much of the policy attention has been on programs such as accountable care organizations and bundled payments; yet, value-based purchasing (VBP) or pay-for-performance, defined as providers being paid fee-for-service with payment adjustments up or down based on value metrics, remains a core element of value payment in MACRA and will likely remain so for the foreseeable future. This review article summarizes the current state of VBP programs and provides analysis of the strengths, weaknesses, and opportunities for the future. Multiple inpatient and outpatient VBP programs have been implemented and evaluated, with the impact of those programs being marginal. Opportunities to enhance the performance of VBP programs include improving the quality measurement science, strengthening both the size and design of incentives, reducing health disparities, establishing broad outcome measurement, choosing appropriate comparison targets, and determining the optimal role of VBP relative to alternative payment models. VBP programs will play a significant role in healthcare delivery for years to come, and they serve as an opportunity for providers to build the infrastructure needed for value-oriented care. PMID:27245648

  6. Proton Therapy Expansion Under Current United States Reimbursement Models

    SciTech Connect

    Kerstiens, John; Johnstone, Peter A.S.

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To determine whether all the existing and planned proton beam therapy (PBT) centers in the United States can survive on a local patient mix that is dictated by insurers, not by number of patients. Methods and Materials: We determined current and projected cancer rates for 10 major US metropolitan areas. Using published utilization rates, we calculated patient percentages who are candidates for PBT. Then, on the basis of current published insurer coverage policies, we applied our experience of what would be covered to determine the net number of patients for whom reimbursement is expected. Having determined the net number of covered patients, we applied our average beam delivery times to determine the total number of minutes needed to treat that patient over the course of their treatment. We then calculated our expected annual patient capacity per treatment room to determine the appropriate number of treatment rooms for the area. Results: The population of patients who will be both PBT candidates and will have treatments reimbursed by insurance is significantly smaller than the population who should receive PBT. Coverage decisions made by insurers reduce the number of PBT rooms that are economically viable. Conclusions: The expansion of PBT centers in the US is not sustainable under the current reimbursement model. Viability of new centers will be limited to those operating in larger regional metropolitan areas, and few metropolitan areas in the US can support multiple centers. In general, 1-room centers require captive (non–PBT-served) populations of approximately 1,000,000 lives to be economically viable, and a large center will require a population of >4,000,000 lives. In areas with smaller populations or where or a PBT center already exists, new centers require subsidy.

  7. Steady-state and non-steady state operation of counter-current chromatography devices.

    PubMed

    Kostanyan, Artak E; Ignatova, Svetlana N; Sutherland, Ian A; Hewitson, Peter; Zakhodjaeva, Yulya A; Erastov, Andrey A

    2013-11-01

    Different variants of separation processes based on steady-state (continuous sample loading) and non-steady state (batch) operating modes of CCC columns have been analyzed and compared. The analysis is carried out on the basis of the modified equilibrium cell model, which takes into account both mechanisms of band broadening - interphase mass transfer and axial mixing. A full theoretical treatment of the intermittent counter-current chromatography with short sample loading time is performed. Analytical expressions are presented allowing the simulation of the intermittent counter-current chromatography separations for various experimental conditions. Chromatographic and extraction separations have been compared and advantages and disadvantages of the two methods have been evaluated. Further technical development of the CCC machines to implement counter-current extraction separations is considered.

  8. A proteomic approach reveals integrin activation state-dependent control of microtubule cortical targeting

    PubMed Central

    Byron, Adam; Askari, Janet A.; Humphries, Jonathan D.; Jacquemet, Guillaume; Koper, Ewa J.; Warwood, Stacey; Choi, Colin K.; Stroud, Matthew J.; Chen, Christopher S.; Knight, David; Humphries, Martin J.

    2015-01-01

    Integrin activation, which is regulated by allosteric changes in receptor conformation, enables cellular responses to the chemical, mechanical and topological features of the extracellular microenvironment. A global view of how activation state converts the molecular composition of the region proximal to integrins into functional readouts is, however, lacking. Here, using conformation-specific monoclonal antibodies, we report the isolation of integrin activation state-dependent complexes and their characterization by mass spectrometry. Quantitative comparisons, integrating network, clustering, pathway and image analyses, define multiple functional protein modules enriched in a conformation-specific manner. Notably, active integrin complexes are specifically enriched for proteins associated with microtubule-based functions. Visualization of microtubules on micropatterned surfaces and live cell imaging demonstrate that active integrins establish an environment that stabilizes microtubules at the cell periphery. These data provide a resource for the interrogation of the global molecular connections that link integrin activation to adhesion signalling. PMID:25609142

  9. Centennial paper: Proteomics in animal science.

    PubMed

    Lippolis, J D; Reinhardt, T A

    2008-09-01

    Proteomics holds significant promise as a method for advancing animal science research. The use of this technology in animal science is still in its infancy. The ability of proteomics to simultaneously identify and quantify potentially thousands of proteins is unparalleled. In this review, we will discuss basic principles of doing a proteomic experiment. In addition, challenges and limitations of proteomics will be considered, stressing those that are unique to animal sciences. The current proteomic research in animal sciences will be discussed, and the potential uses for this technology will be highlighted.

  10. Proteome Studies of Filamentous Fungi

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, Scott E.; Panisko, Ellen A.

    2011-04-20

    The continued fast pace of fungal genome sequence generation has enabled proteomic analysis of a wide breadth of organisms that span the breadth of the Kingdom Fungi. There is some phylogenetic bias to the current catalog of fungi with reasonable DNA sequence databases (genomic or EST) that could be analyzed at a global proteomic level. However, the rapid development of next generation sequencing platforms has lowered the cost of genome sequencing such that in the near future, having a genome sequence will no longer be a time or cost bottleneck for downstream proteomic (and transcriptomic) analyses. High throughput, non-gel based proteomics offers a snapshot of proteins present in a given sample at a single point in time. There are a number of different variations on the general method and technologies for identifying peptides in a given sample. We present a method that can serve as a “baseline” for proteomic studies of fungi.

  11. Toxoplasma gondii proteomics

    PubMed Central

    Weiss, Louis M; Fiser, Andras; Angeletti, Ruth Hogue; Kim, Kami

    2009-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is a ubiquitous, Apicomplexan parasite that, in humans, can cause several clinical syndromes, including encephalitis, chorioretinitis and congenital infection. T. gondii was described a little over 100 years ago in the tissues of the gundi (Ctenodoactylus gundi). There are a large number of applicable experimental techniques available for this pathogen and it has become a model organism for the study of intracellular pathogens. With the completion of the genomes for a type I (GT-1), type II (ME49) and type III (VEG) strains, proteomic studies on this organism have been greatly facilitated. Several subcellular proteomic studies have been completed on this pathogen. These studies have helped elucidate specialized invasion organelles and their composition, as well as proteins associated with the cytoskeleton. Global proteomic studies are leading to improved strategies for genome annotation in this organism and an improved understanding of protein regulation in this pathogen. Web-based resources, such as EPIC-DB and ToxoDB, provide proteomic data and support for studies on T. gondii. This review will summarize the current status of proteomic research on T. gondii. PMID:19489701

  12. Current state of hereditary angioedema management: a patient survey.

    PubMed

    Banerji, Aleena; Busse, Paula; Christiansen, Sandra C; Li, Henry; Lumry, William; Davis-Lorton, Mark; Bernstein, Jonathan A; Frank, Michael; Castaldo, Anthony; Long, Janet F; Zuraw, Bruce L; Riedl, Marc

    2015-01-01

    Hereditary angioedema (HAE) is a chronic disease with a high burden of disease that is poorly understood and often misdiagnosed. Availability of treatments, including C1 esterase inhibitor (C1INH) replacement, ecallantide, and icatibant, marks a significant advance for HAE patients. We aimed to better understand the current state of HAE care, from a patient perspective, after the introduction of several novel therapies. One session of the United States Hereditary Angioedema Association 2013 patient summit was devoted to data collection for this study. Patients attending the summit were self-selected, and HAE diagnosis was self-reported. Survey questions assessed patient characteristics, burden of disease, and treatment. Participant responses were captured using an audience response system. We surveyed 149 (80%) type I and II HAE (HAE-C1INH) and 37 (20%) HAE with normal C1INH (HAE-nlC1INH) patients. HAE-C1INH (72%) and HAE-nlCINH patients (76%) equally reported that HAE had a significant impact on quality of life (QOL). A third of HAE-C1INH patients were diagnosed within one year of their first HAE attack, but another third reported a delay of more than 10 years. Most HAE-C1INH (88%) and HAE-nlC1INH (76%) patients had on-demand treatment available. HAE-C1INH patients frequently had an individual treatment plan (76%) compared with 50% of HAE-nlC1INH patients. Most HAE-C1INH patients went to the emergency department (ED) or were hospitalized less than once every six months (80%). Our findings show that HAE management is improving with good access to on-demand and prophylactic treatment options. However, HAE patients still have a significant burden of disease and continued research and educational efforts are needed.

  13. Current state of hereditary angioedema management: A patient survey

    PubMed Central

    Busse, Paula; Christiansen, Sandra C.; Li, Henry; Lumry, William; Davis-Lorton, Mark; Bernstein, Jonathan A.; Frank, Michael; Castaldo, Anthony; Long, Janet F.; Zuraw, Bruce L.; Riedl, Marc

    2015-01-01

    Hereditary angioedema (HAE) is a chronic disease with a high burden of disease that is poorly understood and often misdiagnosed. Availability of treatments, including C1 esterase inhibitor (C1INH) replacement, ecallantide, and icatibant, marks a significant advance for HAE patients. We aimed to better understand the current state of HAE care, from a patient perspective, after the introduction of several novel therapies. One session of the United States Hereditary Angioedema Association 2013 patient summit was devoted to data collection for this study. Patients attending the summit were self-selected, and HAE diagnosis was self-reported. Survey questions assessed patient characteristics, burden of disease, and treatment. Participant responses were captured using an audience response system. We surveyed 149 (80%) type I and II HAE (HAE-C1INH) and 37 (20%) HAE with normal C1INH (HAE-nlC1INH) patients. HAE-C1INH (72%) and HAE-nlCINH patients (76%) equally reported that HAE had a significant impact on quality of life (QOL). A third of HAE-C1INH patients were diagnosed within one year of their first HAE attack, but another third reported a delay of more than 10 years. Most HAE-C1INH (88%) and HAE-nlC1INH (76%) patients had on-demand treatment available. HAE-C1INH patients frequently had an individual treatment plan (76%) compared with 50% of HAE-nlC1INH patients. Most HAE-C1INH patients went to the emergency department (ED) or were hospitalized less than once every six months (80%). Our findings show that HAE management is improving with good access to on-demand and prophylactic treatment options. However, HAE patients still have a significant burden of disease and continued research and educational efforts are needed. PMID:25976438

  14. Subcellular proteomics in neuroscience.

    PubMed

    Li, Ka Wan; Smit, August B

    2008-05-01

    The brain is the most complex and dynamically organized organ of the human body, with a high degree of computation capability enabling the execution of a wide spectrum of physiological processes and behaviors. In the past decades a large number of genomics studies have been undertaken to investigate brain function and brain disorders, but despite these efforts many of the underlying molecular mechanisms still remain largely unknown. The implementation of mass spectrometry based quantitative proteomics in recent years enabled to tap into condition-specific protein trafficking and protein interaction that are the key to organelle proteome (dys)function. The technology for neuroproteomics is still evolving; currently there are no standardized protocols. In this review we describe the most commonly used methods to prepare brain subcellular fractions suitable for proteomics analysis, and highlight the various approaches for quantitative neuroproteomics.

  15. The Cysteine Proteome

    PubMed Central

    Go, Young-Mi; Chandler, Joshua D.; Jones, Dean P.

    2015-01-01

    The cysteine (Cys) proteome is a major component of the adaptive interface between the genome and the exposome. The thiol moiety of Cys undergoes a range of biologic modifications enabling biological switching of structure and reactivity. These biological modifications include sulfenylation and disulfide formation, formation of higher oxidation states, S-nitrosylation, persulfidation, metallation, and other modifications. Extensive knowledge about these systems and their compartmentalization now provides a foundation to develop advanced integrative models of Cys proteome regulation. In particular, detailed understanding of redox signaling pathways and sensing networks is becoming available to discriminate network structures. This research focuses attention on the need for atlases of Cys modifications to develop systems biology models. Such atlases will be especially useful for integrative studies linking the Cys proteome to imaging and other omics platforms, providing a basis for improved redox-based therapeutics. Thus, a framework is emerging to place the Cys proteome as a complement to the quantitative proteome in the omics continuum connecting the genome to the exposome. PMID:25843657

  16. Transcriptomic and proteomic analyses of Desulfovibrio vulgaris biofilms: Carbon and energy flow contribute to the distinct biofilm growth state

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough is a sulfate-reducing bacterium (SRB) that is intensively studied in the context of metal corrosion and heavy-metal bioremediation, and SRB populations are commonly observed in pipe and subsurface environments as surface-associated populations. In order to elucidate physiological changes associated with biofilm growth at both the transcript and protein level, transcriptomic and proteomic analyses were done on mature biofilm cells and compared to both batch and reactor planktonic populations. The biofilms were cultivated with lactate and sulfate in a continuously fed biofilm reactor, and compared to both batch and reactor planktonic populations. Results The functional genomic analysis demonstrated that biofilm cells were different compared to planktonic cells, and the majority of altered abundances for genes and proteins were annotated as hypothetical (unknown function), energy conservation, amino acid metabolism, and signal transduction. Genes and proteins that showed similar trends in detected levels were particularly involved in energy conservation such as increases in an annotated ech hydrogenase, formate dehydrogenase, pyruvate:ferredoxin oxidoreductase, and rnf oxidoreductase, and the biofilm cells had elevated formate dehydrogenase activity. Several other hydrogenases and formate dehydrogenases also showed an increased protein level, while decreased transcript and protein levels were observed for putative coo hydrogenase as well as a lactate permease and hyp hydrogenases for biofilm cells. Genes annotated for amino acid synthesis and nitrogen utilization were also predominant changers within the biofilm state. Ribosomal transcripts and proteins were notably decreased within the biofilm cells compared to exponential-phase cells but were not as low as levels observed in planktonic, stationary-phase cells. Several putative, extracellular proteins (DVU1012, 1545) were also detected in the extracellular fraction from

  17. Transcriptomic and proteomic analyses of Desulfovibrio vulgaris biofilms: carbon and energy flow contribute to the distinct biofilm growth state.

    PubMed

    Clark, Melinda E; He, Zhili; Redding, Alyssa M; Joachimiak, Marcin P; Keasling, Jay D; Zhou, Jizhong Z; Arkin, Adam P; Mukhopadhyay, Aindrila; Fields, Matthew W

    2012-04-16

    Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough is a sulfate-reducing bacterium (SRB) that is intensively studied in the context of metal corrosion and heavy-metal bioremediation, and SRB populations are commonly observed in pipe and subsurface environments as surface-associated populations. In order to elucidate physiological changes associated with biofilm growth at both the transcript and protein level, transcriptomic and proteomic analyses were done on mature biofilm cells and compared to both batch and reactor planktonic populations. The biofilms were cultivated with lactate and sulfate in a continuously fed biofilm reactor, and compared to both batch and reactor planktonic populations. The functional genomic analysis demonstrated that biofilm cells were different compared to planktonic cells, and the majority of altered abundances for genes and proteins were annotated as hypothetical (unknown function), energy conservation, amino acid metabolism, and signal transduction. Genes and proteins that showed similar trends in detected levels were particularly involved in energy conservation such as increases in an annotated ech hydrogenase, formate dehydrogenase, pyruvate:ferredoxin oxidoreductase, and rnf oxidoreductase, and the biofilm cells had elevated formate dehydrogenase activity. Several other hydrogenases and formate dehydrogenases also showed an increased protein level, while decreased transcript and protein levels were observed for putative coo hydrogenase as well as a lactate permease and hyp hydrogenases for biofilm cells. Genes annotated for amino acid synthesis and nitrogen utilization were also predominant changers within the biofilm state. Ribosomal transcripts and proteins were notably decreased within the biofilm cells compared to exponential-phase cells but were not as low as levels observed in planktonic, stationary-phase cells. Several putative, extracellular proteins (DVU1012, 1545) were also detected in the extracellular fraction from biofilm cells

  18. Proteomics links the redox state to calcium signaling during bleaching of the scleractinian coral Acropora microphthalma on exposure to high solar irradiance and thermal stress.

    PubMed

    Weston, Andrew J; Dunlap, Walter C; Beltran, Victor H; Starcevic, Antonio; Hranueli, Daslav; Ward, Malcolm; Long, Paul F

    2015-03-01

    Shipboard experiments were each performed over a 2 day period to examine the proteomic response of the symbiotic coral Acropora microphthalma exposed to acute conditions of high temperature/low light or high light/low temperature stress. During these treatments, corals had noticeably bleached. The photosynthetic performance of residual algal endosymbionts was severely impaired but showed signs of recovery in both treatments by the end of the second day. Changes in the coral proteome were determined daily and, using recently available annotated genome sequences, the individual contributions of the coral host and algal endosymbionts could be extracted from these data. Quantitative changes in proteins relevant to redox state and calcium metabolism are presented. Notably, expression of common antioxidant proteins was not detected from the coral host but present in the algal endosymbiont proteome. Possible roles for elevated carbonic anhydrase in the coral host are considered: to restore intracellular pH diminished by loss of photosynthetic activity, to indirectly limit intracellular calcium influx linked with enhanced calmodulin expression to impede late-stage symbiont exocytosis, or to enhance inorganic carbon transport to improve the photosynthetic performance of algal symbionts that remain in hospite. Protein effectors of calcium-dependent exocytosis were present in both symbiotic partners. No caspase-family proteins associated with host cell apoptosis, with exception of the autophagy chaperone HSP70, were detected, suggesting that algal loss and photosynthetic dysfunction under these experimental conditions were not due to host-mediated phytosymbiont destruction. Instead, bleaching occurred by symbiont exocytosis and loss of light-harvesting pigments of algae that remain in hospite. These proteomic data are, therefore, consistent with our premise that coral endosymbionts can mediate their own retention or departure from the coral host, which may manifest as

  19. Current State of Value-Based Purchasing Programs.

    PubMed

    Chee, Tingyin T; Ryan, Andrew M; Wasfy, Jason H; Borden, William B

    2016-05-31

    The US healthcare system is rapidly moving toward rewarding value. Recent legislation, such as the Affordable Care Act and the Medicare Access and CHIP Reauthorization Act, solidified the role of value-based payment in Medicare. Many private insurers are following Medicare's lead. Much of the policy attention has been on programs such as accountable care organizations and bundled payments; yet, value-based purchasing (VBP) or pay-for-performance, defined as providers being paid fee-for-service with payment adjustments up or down based on value metrics, remains a core element of value payment in Medicare Access and CHIP Reauthorization Act and will likely remain so for the foreseeable future. This review article summarizes the current state of VBP programs and provides analysis of the strengths, weaknesses, and opportunities for the future. Multiple inpatient and outpatient VBP programs have been implemented and evaluated; the impact of those programs has been marginal. Opportunities to enhance the performance of VBP programs include improving the quality measurement science, strengthening both the size and design of incentives, reducing health disparities, establishing broad outcome measurement, choosing appropriate comparison targets, and determining the optimal role of VBP relative to alternative payment models. VBP programs will play a significant role in healthcare delivery for years to come, and they serve as an opportunity for providers to build the infrastructure needed for value-oriented care.

  20. Current state of the hydrothermal geochemistry studies at Cerro Prieto

    SciTech Connect

    Fausto L, J.J.; Jimenez S, M.E.; Esquer P, I.

    1981-01-01

    The current state of hydrothermal geochemistry studies being carried out at the field are reported. These studies are based on the results of chemical analysis of water samples collected during 1979 and 1980 at the geothermal wells of the area known as Cerro Prieto I, as well as from those located in the Cerro Prieto II and Cerro Prieto III areas, some of which have only recently started flowing. Data are presented on the chemical variations of the main chemical constituents dissolved in the waters, as well as on the Na/K and Na-K-Ca chemical relations and the temperatures calculated from them and from SiO/sub 2/. Fluid recharge into the reservoir and its direction of flow are interpreted from isotherm contour maps of the field prepared from Na/K and Na-K-Ca geothermometry and from concentration contour maps of some of the main chemical constituents. Well M-43 is discussed as an example of a well affected by well completion problems in its production casing. Its behavior is explained on the basis of the chemical characteristics of the produced water. The chemical changes that have taken place in some of the wells during production are explained by correlating the chemistry with the production mechanisms of the well (steam-water production rates).

  1. Ebola hemorrhagic Fever and the current state of vaccine development.

    PubMed

    Hong, Joo Eun; Hong, Kee-Jong; Choi, Woo Young; Lee, Won-Ja; Choi, Yeon Hwa; Jeong, Chung-Hyeon; Cho, Kwang-Il

    2014-12-01

    Current Ebola virus outbreak in West Africa already reached the total number of 1,323 including 729 deaths by July 31st. the fatality is around 55% in the southeastern area of Guinea, Sierra Leone, Liberia, and Nigeria. The number of patients with Ebola Hemorrhagic Fever (EHF) was continuously increasing even though the any effective therapeutics or vaccines has not been developed yet. The Ebola virus in Guinea showed 98% homology with Zaire Ebola Virus. Study of the pathogenesis of Ebola virus infection and assess of the various candidates of vaccine have been tried for a long time, especially in United States and some European countries. Even though the attenuated live vaccine and DNA vaccine containing Ebola viral genes were tested and showed efficacy in chimpanzees, those candidates still need clinical tests requiring much longer time than the preclinical development to be approved for the practical treatment. It can be expected to eradicate Ebola virus by a safe and efficient vaccine development similar to the case of smallpox virus which was extinguished from the world by the variola vaccine.

  2. Facial feminization surgery: current state of the art.

    PubMed

    Altman, K

    2012-08-01

    Facial feminization surgery (FFS) is a group of surgical procedures; the objectives of which are to change the features of a male face to that of a female face. This surgery does not aim to rejuvenate the face. FFS is carried out almost exclusively on transsexual women (males who are transitioning into females) and who have gender dysphoria. Some non-transsexual women may undergo some feminizing surgical procedures if they feel that they have male facial characteristics. Most transsexual women will have lived in role for sometime and they often undergo FFS before any other form of gender reassignment surgery as it assists them in passing as a female and integrating into everyday society. Various specific facial surgical procedures are utilized to feminize the face, often involving sculpture and contouring of the facial skeleton. These include correction of the hairline by scalp advance, contouring the forehead, brow lift, rhinoplasty, cheek implants, resection of the buccal fat pads of Bichat, lip lift and lip augmentation with dermis graft, mandible angle reduction and taper, genioplasty and thyroid shave. This article discusses the current state of the art in facial feminization surgery.

  3. Centipede venom: recent discoveries and current state of knowledge.

    PubMed

    Undheim, Eivind A B; Fry, Bryan G; King, Glenn F

    2015-02-25

    Centipedes are among the oldest extant venomous predators on the planet. Armed with a pair of modified, venom-bearing limbs, they are an important group of predatory arthropods and are infamous for their ability to deliver painful stings. Despite this, very little is known about centipede venom and its composition. Advances in analytical tools, however, have recently provided the first detailed insights into the composition and evolution of centipede venoms. This has revealed that centipede venom proteins are highly diverse, with 61 phylogenetically distinct venom protein and peptide families. A number of these have been convergently recruited into the venoms of other animals, providing valuable information on potential underlying causes of the occasionally serious complications arising from human centipede envenomations. However, the majority of venom protein and peptide families bear no resemblance to any characterised protein or peptide family, highlighting the novelty of centipede venoms. This review highlights recent discoveries and summarises the current state of knowledge on the fascinating venom system of centipedes.

  4. Ecopharmacovigilance: Current state, challenges, and opportunities in China

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jun; Hu, Xiamin

    2014-01-01

    In a context of severe pharmaceutical pollution, “ecopharmacovigilance” (EPV) has been an area of novel interest. It aims to ensure that significant environmental issues associated with pharmaceuticals in the environment are identified in a timely way, and managed appropriately. EPV has become a research hotspot as a comprehensive and boundary science in Europe and North America, and regulatory requirements governing the comprehensive environmental risk assessment (ERA) of pharmaceuticals exist in these regions. A speedy Chinese pharmaceutical industry development and drug consumption, China should shoulder more international responsibility and contribute to the worldwide EPV. Compared to the west, EPV in China is in its infancy. We analyzed the current state of EPV-related practice in China and found that many efforts have been made by the Chinese government and specialists to control the ever-worsening environmental pharmaceutical pollution problems, including consummating related policies and regulations, revealing the occurrence and behavior of pharmaceutical residues in environment and developing new technologies to improve their removal performance. Besides, we posed some recommendations on appropriate EPV implementation that can be taken with China in future. These include, building perfect laws and regulation system on EPV, defining the evaluation index for EPV, continuing the clinical rational medication and the pharmaceutical take-back programs in China, popularizing the concept of EPV in China, and strengthening the policy-guided and scientific researches of EPV in pharmaceutical firms and academia. PMID:24550578

  5. Sunscreens in the United States: current status and future outlook.

    PubMed

    Jou, Paul C; Tomecki, Kenneth J

    2014-01-01

    Incidence rates of nonmelanoma skin cancer and melanoma has been on the rise in the United States for the past 20 years. UV radiation (UVR) exposure remains the most preventable environmental risk factor for these cancers. Aside from sun avoidance, sunscreens remain our best protection. UVR directly damages DNA and cause indirect cellular damage through the creation of reactive oxygen species, the sum of which leads to cutaneous immunosuppression and a tumorigenic milieu. The current generation of sunscreens protect from UVR through two main mechanisms: absorption and deflection. In the US, new Food and Drug Association rules require sunscreen manufacturers to evaluate their products not only on sun protection factor but also on broad spectrum UVA protection by the end of 2013. New labeling requirements will also be instituted. The American Academy of Dermatology and the American Academy of Pediatrics have provided specific recommendations for proper sun protection and sunscreen usage. Plant polyphenols such as those isolated from green tea, pomegranate, and grape seed remain an interesting avenue of research as additives to sunscreens or stand-alone products that appear to modulate the immunosuppressive effects of UVR on the skin. Additionally, although UVR induces endogenous cutaneous production of vitamin D, its damaging effects overshadow this positive benefit, especially in light of the ease of achieving recommended amounts of vitamin D through diet and supplementation.

  6. Current state of genome-scale modeling in filamentous fungi.

    PubMed

    Brandl, Julian; Andersen, Mikael R

    2015-06-01

    The group of filamentous fungi contains important species used in industrial biotechnology for acid, antibiotics and enzyme production. Their unique lifestyle turns these organisms into a valuable genetic reservoir of new natural products and biomass degrading enzymes that has not been used to full capacity. One of the major bottlenecks in the development of new strains into viable industrial hosts is the alteration of the metabolism towards optimal production. Genome-scale models promise a reduction in the time needed for metabolic engineering by predicting the most potent targets in silico before testing them in vivo. The increasing availability of high quality models and molecular biological tools for manipulating filamentous fungi renders the model-guided engineering of these fungal factories possible with comprehensive metabolic networks. A typical fungal model contains on average 1138 unique metabolic reactions and 1050 ORFs, making them a vast knowledge-base of fungal metabolism. In the present review we focus on the current state as well as potential future applications of genome-scale models in filamentous fungi.

  7. Lokomat therapy in Colombia: Current state and cognitive aspects.

    PubMed

    Munera, Marcela; Marroquin, Alexandra; Jimenez, Laura; Lara, Juan S; Gomez, Catalina; Rodriguez, Sandra; Rodriguez, Luis E; Cifuentes, Carlos A

    2017-07-01

    Neurological disorders frequently affect walking function which is one of the most fundamental skills to improve quality of life and autonomy, and Lokomat has been a key piece for gait's rehabilitation. In this study, a diagnosis about the development of the Robot-assisted therapy rehabilitation with Lokomat in Colombia is made. The study was performed by collecting some anthropometric and demographic data of the patients that use Lokomat, followed by a survey of cognitive aspects. With the purpose to compare the current state of the robotic therapies it was found that in Colombia the benefits of this treatment have not being fully exploited. Regarding the cognitive aspects, most of the patients that use Lokomat as a rehabilitation therapy feel comfortable (47%), very safe (68%) and have a perpective of significant results with the therapy (68%). However, when compared the number of patients in therapy with Lokomat with the number of the population that has gait disabilities, it is found that few Colombians have access to this type of therapy.

  8. State of multicultural neuropsychological assessment in children: current research issues.

    PubMed

    Byrd, Desiree; Arentoft, Alyssa; Scheiner, Diane; Westerveld, Michael; Baron, Ida Sue

    2008-09-01

    Scientific attention to cultural considerations in child neuropsychological assessment has not developed parallel to the focus these issues have received in adult and elderly neuropsychological assessment. There are limited data on the presence, magnitude, etiology, and implications of culture-related differences in cognitive test performance among children. This preliminary report reviews the available empirical literature on the current state of multicultural neuropsychological assessment in children. The review identified articles by searching PubMed and PsycINFO databases, and the tables of contents of Developmental Neuropsychology and Child Neuropsychology from 2003-2008. Of the 1,834 abstracts reviewed, ten papers met inclusion criteria for the review. Five studies were completed in America; four of these compared performance between ethnic groups while the fifth examined neighborhood level poverty indicators exclusively within African-American children. Of the five international studies, all established local normative data and/or were exploratory investigations of neuropsychological functions in specific cultural groups, including Taiwanese infants, South African youth, and bilingual British children. Taken together, the results yield important clinical and research data that begin to inform many of the complex and fascinating mechanisms by which ethnic identity and culture impact cognitive development and the neuropsychological assessment of children. A critique of the existing literature and directions for future research are provided.

  9. Centipede Venom: Recent Discoveries and Current State of Knowledge

    PubMed Central

    Undheim, Eivind A. B.; Fry, Bryan G.; King, Glenn F.

    2015-01-01

    Centipedes are among the oldest extant venomous predators on the planet. Armed with a pair of modified, venom-bearing limbs, they are an important group of predatory arthropods and are infamous for their ability to deliver painful stings. Despite this, very little is known about centipede venom and its composition. Advances in analytical tools, however, have recently provided the first detailed insights into the composition and evolution of centipede venoms. This has revealed that centipede venom proteins are highly diverse, with 61 phylogenetically distinct venom protein and peptide families. A number of these have been convergently recruited into the venoms of other animals, providing valuable information on potential underlying causes of the occasionally serious complications arising from human centipede envenomations. However, the majority of venom protein and peptide families bear no resemblance to any characterised protein or peptide family, highlighting the novelty of centipede venoms. This review highlights recent discoveries and summarises the current state of knowledge on the fascinating venom system of centipedes. PMID:25723324

  10. Ecopharmacovigilance: Current state, challenges, and opportunities in China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jun; Hu, Xiamin

    2014-01-01

    In a context of severe pharmaceutical pollution, "ecopharmacovigilance" (EPV) has been an area of novel interest. It aims to ensure that significant environmental issues associated with pharmaceuticals in the environment are identified in a timely way, and managed appropriately. EPV has become a research hotspot as a comprehensive and boundary science in Europe and North America, and regulatory requirements governing the comprehensive environmental risk assessment (ERA) of pharmaceuticals exist in these regions. A speedy Chinese pharmaceutical industry development and drug consumption, China should shoulder more international responsibility and contribute to the worldwide EPV. Compared to the west, EPV in China is in its infancy. We analyzed the current state of EPV-related practice in China and found that many efforts have been made by the Chinese government and specialists to control the ever-worsening environmental pharmaceutical pollution problems, including consummating related policies and regulations, revealing the occurrence and behavior of pharmaceutical residues in environment and developing new technologies to improve their removal performance. Besides, we posed some recommendations on appropriate EPV implementation that can be taken with China in future. These include, building perfect laws and regulation system on EPV, defining the evaluation index for EPV, continuing the clinical rational medication and the pharmaceutical take-back programs in China, popularizing the concept of EPV in China, and strengthening the policy-guided and scientific researches of EPV in pharmaceutical firms and academia.

  11. Current state of traffic pollution in Bangladesh and metropolitan Dhaka

    SciTech Connect

    Karim, Masud; Matsui, Hiroshi; Ohno, Takashi; Hoque, S.

    1997-12-31

    Limited resources, invested for the development of transport facilities, such as infrastructure and vehicles, coupled with the rapid rise in transport demand, existence of a huge number of non-motorized vehicles on roads, lack of application of adequate and proper traffic management schemes are producing severe transport problems in almost all the urban areas of Bangladesh. Worsening situation of traffic congestion in the streets and sufferings of the inhabitants from vehicle emissions demand extensive research in this field. However, no detailed study concerning traffic congestion and pollution problems for urban areas of Bangladesh has yet been done. Therefore, it has become increasingly important to examine the present state of the problem. This research is a preliminary evaluation of the current situation of traffic pollution problem in Bangladesh. The daily total emissions of NO{sub x}, HC, CO, PM, and SO{sub x} are estimated using the daily fuel consumption and total traffic flows in Dhaka city. Estimated daily emissions are 42, 39, 314, 14, and 42 t/d for NO{sub x}, HC, CO, PM, and SO{sub x}, respectively. The emissions estimated using two different methods revealed good correlation. Daily average concentration of NO{sub x} (NO{sub 2}, NO) were measured at 30 street locations in Dhaka city during September and November, 1996. The results showed extremely high concentrations of NO{sub 2} and NO in these locations.

  12. Current State of Agile User-Centered Design: A Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hussain, Zahid; Slany, Wolfgang; Holzinger, Andreas

    Agile software development methods are quite popular nowadays and are being adopted at an increasing rate in the industry every year. However, these methods are still lacking usability awareness in their development lifecycle, and the integration of usability/User-Centered Design (UCD) into agile methods is not adequately addressed. This paper presents the preliminary results of a recently conducted online survey regarding the current state of the integration of agile methods and usability/UCD. A world wide response of 92 practitioners was received. The results show that the majority of practitioners perceive that the integration of agile methods with usability/UCD has added value to their adopted processes and to their teams; has resulted in the improvement of usability and quality of the product developed; and has increased the satisfaction of the end-users of the product developed. The top most used HCI techniques are low-fidelity prototyping, conceptual designs, observational studies of users, usability expert evaluations, field studies, personas, rapid iterative testing, and laboratory usability testing.

  13. Biodiesel production--current state of the art and challenges.

    PubMed

    Vasudevan, Palligarnai T; Briggs, Michael

    2008-05-01

    Biodiesel is a clean-burning fuel produced from grease, vegetable oils, or animal fats. Biodiesel is produced by transesterification of oils with short-chain alcohols or by the esterification of fatty acids. The transesterification reaction consists of transforming triglycerides into fatty acid alkyl esters, in the presence of an alcohol, such as methanol or ethanol, and a catalyst, such as an alkali or acid, with glycerol as a byproduct. Because of diminishing petroleum reserves and the deleterious environmental consequences of exhaust gases from petroleum diesel, biodiesel has attracted attention during the past few years as a renewable and environmentally friendly fuel. Since biodiesel is made entirely from vegetable oil or animal fats, it is renewable and biodegradable. The majority of biodiesel today is produced by alkali-catalyzed transesterification with methanol, which results in a relatively short reaction time. However, the vegetable oil and alcohol must be substantially anhydrous and have a low free fatty acid content, because the presence of water or free fatty acid or both promotes soap formation. In this article, we examine different biodiesel sources (edible and nonedible), virgin oil versus waste oil, algae-based biodiesel that is gaining increasing importance, role of different catalysts including enzyme catalysts, and the current state-of-the-art in biodiesel production.

  14. Ultra-Fast Sample Preparation for High-Throughput Proteomics

    SciTech Connect

    Lopez-Ferrer, Daniel; Hixson, Kim K.; Belov, Mikhail E.; Smith, Richard D.

    2011-06-21

    Sample preparation oftentimes can be the Achilles Heel of any analytical process and in the field of proteomics, preparing samples for mass spectrometric analysis is no exception. Current goals, concerning proteomic sample preparation on a large scale, include efforts toward improving reproducibility, reducing the time of processing and ultimately the automation of the entire workflow. This chapter reviews an array of recent approaches applied to bottom-up proteomics sample preparation to reduce the processing time down from hours to minutes. The current state-of-the-art in the field uses different energy inputs like microwave, ultrasound or pressure to perform the four basic steps in sample preparation: protein extraction, denaturation, reduction and alkylation, and digestion. No single energy input for enhancement of proteome sample preparation has become the universal gold standard. Instead, a combination of different energy inputs tend to produce the best results. This chapter further describes the future trends in the field such as the hyphenation of sample preparation with downstream detection and analysis systems. Finally, a detailed protocol describing the combined use of both pressure cycling technology and ultrasonic energy inputs to hasten proteomic sample preparation is presented.

  15. The Origins and Current State of Plastic Surgery Residency in the United States.

    PubMed

    Mackay, Donald Roy; Johnson, Shane

    2015-11-01

    The history of plastic surgery residency training in the United States dates back to the establishment of plastic surgery as a specialty. The pivotal role played by the American Board of Plastic Surgery is outlined. The history of the early regulatory bodies leading to the formation of the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education and the Residency Review Committees and the establishment of the American Council of Academic Plastic Surgeons gives context to our current training models.

  16. Cancer heterogeneity determined by functional proteomics.

    PubMed

    Szász, A Marcell; Győrffy, Balázs; Marko-Varga, György

    2016-08-26

    Current manuscript gives a synopsis of tumor heterogeneity related to patient samples analyzed by proteomics, protein expression analysis and imaging mass spectrometry. First, we discuss the pathophysiologocal background of cancer biology as a multifactorial and challenging diseases. Disease pathology forms the basis for protein target selection. Therefore, histopathological diagnostics and grading of tumors is highlighted. Pathology is the cornerstone of state-of-the-art diagnostics of tumors today both by establishing dignity and - when needed - describing molecular properties of the cancers. Drug development by the pharmaceutical industry utilizes proteomics studies to pinpoint the most relevant targets. Molecular studies profiling affinity-interactions of the protein(s) with targeted small drug molecules to reach efficacy and optimal patient safety are today requested by the FDA and other agencies for new drug development. An understading of basic mechanisms, controlling drug action and drug binding is central, as a new era of personalized medicine becomes an important milestone solution for the healthcare sector as well as the Pharma and Biotech industry. Development of further diagnostic, prognostic and predictive tests will aid current and future treatment of cancer patients. In the paper we present current status of Proteomics that we believe requires attention in order to collectively advance forward in the fight against cancer, addressing the burning opportunities and challenges.

  17. Pediatric digital radiography education for radiologic technologists: current state.

    PubMed

    Morrison, Gregory; John, Susan D; Goske, Marilyn J; Charkot, Ellen; Herrmann, Tracy; Smith, Susan N; Culbertson, John; Carbonneau, Kira

    2011-05-01

    Digital radiography (DR) is one of several new products that have changed our work processes from hard copy to digital formats. The transition from analog screen-film radiography to DR requires thorough user education because of differences in image production, processing, storage and evaluation between the forms of radiography. Without adequate education, radiologic technologists could unknowingly expose children to higher radiation doses than necessary for adequate radiograph quality. To evaluate knowledge about image quality and dose management in pediatric DR among radiologic technologists in the U.S. This communication describes a survey of 493 radiologic technologists who are members of the American Society of Radiologic Technologists (ASRT) and who evaluated the current state of radiological technologist education in image quality and dose management in pediatric DR. The survey included 23 survey questions regarding image acquisition issues, quality assurance, radiation exposure and education in DR of infants and children. Radiologic technologists express many needs in areas of training and education in pediatric DR. Suggested improvements include better tools for immediate feedback about image quality and exposure, more information about appropriate technique settings for pediatric patients, more user-friendly vendor manuals and educational materials, more reliable measures of radiation exposure to patients, and more regular and frequent follow-up by equipment vendors. There is a clear and widespread need for comprehensive and practical education in digital image technology for radiologic technologists, especially those engaged in pediatric radiography. The creation of better educational materials and training programs, and the continuation of educational opportunities will require a broad commitment from equipment manufacturers and vendors, educational institutions, pediatric radiology specialty organizations, and individual imaging specialists.

  18. Current state of forest mapping with Landsat data in Siberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maksyutov, Shamil; Sedykh, Vladimir; Kuzmenko, Ekaterina; Farber, Sergey; Kalinicheva, Svetlana; Fedorov, Alexander; Schepaschenko, Dmitry

    2016-04-01

    We review a current state of a forest type mapping with Landsat data in Siberia. Target algorithm should be based on dynamic vegetation approach to be applicable to the analysis of the forest type distribution for Siberia, aiming at capability of mapping Siberian forest landscapes for applications such as predicting response of forest composition to climate change. We present data for several areas in West Siberian middle taiga, Central Siberia and East Siberia near Yakutsk. Analysis of the field survey, forest inventory data was made to produce forest type classification accounting for several stages for forest succession and variations in habitats and landforms. Supervised classification was applied to the areas were the ground truth and inventory data are available, including several limited area maps and vegetation survey transects. In Laryegan basin in West Siberia the upland forest areas are dominated by mix of Scots pine on sandy soils and Siberian pine with presence of fir and spruce on the others. Abundance of Scots pine decreases to the west due to change in soils. Those types are separable using Landsat spectral data. In the permafrost area around Yakutsk the most widespread succession type is birch to larch. Three stages of the birch to larch succession are detectable from Landsat image. When Landsat data is used in both West and East Siberia, distinction between deciduous broad-leaved species (birch, aspen, and willow) is generally difficult. Similar problem exist for distinguishing between dark coniferous species (Siberian pine, fir and spruce). Image classification can be improved by applying landform type analysis, such as separation into floodplain, terrace, sloping hills. Additional layers of information can be a promising way to complement Landsat data.

  19. Summary of current state industrial energy conservation programs

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, R.W.; Evans, A.R.; Grogan, P.J.

    1980-05-01

    A preliminary study of industrial energy conservation measures initiated by states under the State Energy Conservation Program is presented. Elements, targets, and administration of state programs are briefly examined. As the results of the study indicate, the states perceive the need for Federal assistance in programs to: establish a forum for coordination of state programs and interchange of approaches and program materials; provide to state offices direct technical assistance, including specific program information, training materials and manuals directed toward specific industries, and an energy accounting methodology; promote national industrial energy conservation measures; develop methods for providing financial assistance to companies, especially small business, for incorporating energy conserving measures; devise a plan for coordinating the state energy-related regulatory activities; and disseminate information on Federal programs and regulations that may impact energy-related decisions at the state level and within private industry.

  20. Immunocapture strategies in translational proteomics

    PubMed Central

    Fredolini, Claudia; Byström, Sanna; Pin, Elisa; Edfors, Fredrik; Tamburro, Davide; Iglesias, Maria Jesus; Häggmark, Anna; Hong, Mun-Gwan; Uhlen, Mathias; Nilsson, Peter; Schwenk, Jochen M

    2016-01-01

    Aiming at clinical studies of human diseases, antibody-assisted assays have been applied to biomarker discovery and toward a streamlined translation from patient profiling to assays supporting personalized treatments. In recent years, integrated strategies to couple and combine antibodies with mass spectrometry-based proteomic efforts have emerged, allowing for novel possibilities in basic and clinical research. Described in this review are some of the field’s current and emerging immunocapture approaches from an affinity proteomics perspective. Discussed are some of their advantages, pitfalls and opportunities for the next phase in clinical and translational proteomics. PMID:26558424

  1. Nanoscale Proteomics

    SciTech Connect

    Shen, Yufeng; Tolic, Nikola; Masselon, Christophe D.; Pasa-Tolic, Liljiana; Camp, David G.; Anderson, Gordon A.; Smith, Richard D.; Lipton, Mary S.

    2004-02-01

    This paper describes efforts to develop a liquid chromatography (LC)/mass spectrometry (MS) technology for ultra-sensitive proteomics studies, i.e. nanoscale proteomics. The approach combines high-efficiency nano-scale LC with advanced MS, including high sensitivity and high resolution Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (FTICR) MS, to perform both single-stage MS and tandem MS (MS/MS) proteomic analyses. The technology developed enables large-scale protein identification from nanogram size proteomic samples and characterization of more abundant proteins from sub-picogram size complex samples. Protein identification in such studies using MS is feasible from <75 zeptomole of a protein, and the average proteome measurement throughput is >200 proteins/h and ~3 h/sample. Higher throughput (>1000 proteins/h) and more sensitive detection limits can be obtained using a “accurate mass and time” tag approach developed at our laboratory. These capabilities lay the foundation for studies from single or limited numbers of cells.

  2. Current state and future prospects for psychosomatic medicine in Japan.

    PubMed

    Murakami, Masato; Nakai, Yoshihide

    2017-01-01

    In this article, we describe the history and current state of psychosomatic medicine (PSM) in Japan and propose measures that could be considered based on our view of the future prospects of PSM in Japan. The Japanese Society of PSM (JSPM) was established in 1959, and the first Department of Psychosomatic Internal Medicine in Japan was established at Kyushu University In 1963. PSM in Japan has shown a prominent, unique development, with 3,300 members (as of March 2016), comprised of 71.6% of medical doctors including psychosomatic internal medicine (PIM) specialists, general internists, psychiatrists, pediatricians, obstetricians and gynecologists, dentists, dermatologists, and others. Most of the non-physician members include psychology and nursing staff specialists. The Japanese Society of Psychosomatic Internal Medicine (JSPIM), founded in 1996, is another major society with more than 1,200 physicians that is mainly composed of internists. The first joint congress of the five major PSM societies from each field was held in 2009. They included the Japanese Society of Psychosomatic Medicine, Psychosomatic Obstetrics and Gynecology, Psychosomatic Pediatric Medicine, Psychosomatic Dental Medicine, and Psychosomatic Internal Medicine. Several subdivided societies in related medical fields have also been established for cardiovascular, digestive, dermatological, and oriental medicine and for eating disorders, pain, fibromyalgia, stress science, behavioral medicine, and psycho-oncology. JSPM and JSPIM participate in international activities including publishing BioPsychoSocial Medicine (BPSM) and the establishment of a sister society relationship with the Germany College of PSM. PSM in Japan has adopted a variety of professional psychotherapies, including transactional analysis, autogenic therapy, and cognitive behavioral therapy. Mutual interrelationship has been promoted by the Japanese Union of Associations for Psycho-medical Therapy (UPM). Although PSM in Japan is

  3. Novel Molecular Insights into Classical and Alternative Activation States of Microglia as Revealed by Stable Isotope Labeling by Amino Acids in Cell Culture (SILAC)-based Proteomics*

    PubMed Central

    Bell-Temin, Harris; Culver-Cochran, Ashley E.; Chaput, Dale; Carlson, Christina M.; Kuehl, Melanie; Burkhardt, Brant R.; Bickford, Paula C.; Liu, Bin; Stevens, Stanley M.

    2015-01-01

    Microglia, the resident immune cells of the brain, have been shown to display a complex spectrum of roles that span from neurotrophic to neurotoxic depending on their activation status. Microglia can be classified into four stages of activation, M1, which most closely matches the classical (pro-inflammatory) activation stage, and the alternative activation stages M2a, M2b, and M2c. The alternative activation stages have not yet been comprehensively analyzed through unbiased, global-scale protein expression profiling. In this study, BV2 mouse immortalized microglial cells were stimulated with agonists specific for each of the four stages and total protein expression for 4644 protein groups was quantified using SILAC-based proteomic analysis. After validating induction of the various stages through a targeted cytokine assay and Western blotting of activation states, the data revealed novel insights into the similarities and differences between the various states. The data identify several protein groups whose expression in the anti-inflammatory, pro-healing activation states are altered presumably to curtail inflammatory activation through differential protein expression, in the M2a state including CD74, LYN, SQST1, TLR2, and CD14. The differential expression of these proteins promotes healing, limits phagocytosis, and limits activation of reactive nitrogen species through toll-like receptor cascades. The M2c state appears to center around the down-regulation of a key member in the formation of actin-rich phagosomes, SLP-76. In addition, the proteomic data identified a novel activation marker, DAB2, which is involved in clathrin-mediated endocytosis and is significantly different between M2a and either M1 or M2b states. Western blot analysis of mouse primary microglia stimulated with the various agonists of the classical and alternative activation states revealed a similar trend of DAB2 expression compared with BV2 cells. PMID:26424600

  4. Novel Molecular Insights into Classical and Alternative Activation States of Microglia as Revealed by Stable Isotope Labeling by Amino Acids in Cell Culture (SILAC)-based Proteomics.

    PubMed

    Bell-Temin, Harris; Culver-Cochran, Ashley E; Chaput, Dale; Carlson, Christina M; Kuehl, Melanie; Burkhardt, Brant R; Bickford, Paula C; Liu, Bin; Stevens, Stanley M

    2015-12-01

    Microglia, the resident immune cells of the brain, have been shown to display a complex spectrum of roles that span from neurotrophic to neurotoxic depending on their activation status. Microglia can be classified into four stages of activation, M1, which most closely matches the classical (pro-inflammatory) activation stage, and the alternative activation stages M2a, M2b, and M2c. The alternative activation stages have not yet been comprehensively analyzed through unbiased, global-scale protein expression profiling. In this study, BV2 mouse immortalized microglial cells were stimulated with agonists specific for each of the four stages and total protein expression for 4644 protein groups was quantified using SILAC-based proteomic analysis. After validating induction of the various stages through a targeted cytokine assay and Western blotting of activation states, the data revealed novel insights into the similarities and differences between the various states. The data identify several protein groups whose expression in the anti-inflammatory, pro-healing activation states are altered presumably to curtail inflammatory activation through differential protein expression, in the M2a state including CD74, LYN, SQST1, TLR2, and CD14. The differential expression of these proteins promotes healing, limits phagocytosis, and limits activation of reactive nitrogen species through toll-like receptor cascades. The M2c state appears to center around the down-regulation of a key member in the formation of actin-rich phagosomes, SLP-76. In addition, the proteomic data identified a novel activation marker, DAB2, which is involved in clathrin-mediated endocytosis and is significantly different between M2a and either M1 or M2b states. Western blot analysis of mouse primary microglia stimulated with the various agonists of the classical and alternative activation states revealed a similar trend of DAB2 expression compared with BV2 cells.

  5. The California spotted owl: current state of knowledge

    Treesearch

    R.J. Gutiérrez; Patricia N. Manley; Peter A. Stine

    2017-01-01

    This conservation assessment represents a comprehensive review by scientists of the current scientific knowledge about the ecology, habitat use, population dynamics, and current threats to the viability of the California spotted owl (Strix occidentalis). It is based primarily on peer-reviewed published information with an emphasis on new scientific...

  6. Keeping current with evolving makeup of New York State population.

    PubMed

    Waldman, H Barry; Cannella, Dolores

    2009-11-01

    The changing residential population of New York State requires continued monitoring if health practitioners are to maintain an awareness of the individuals in their community. A review of federal agency reports provides a general overview of state and national demographic and health factor characteristics.

  7. Deep Proteomics of Breast Cancer Cells Reveals that Metformin Rewires Signaling Networks Away from a Pro-growth State.

    PubMed

    Sacco, Francesca; Silvestri, Alessandra; Posca, Daniela; Pirrò, Stefano; Gherardini, Pier Federico; Castagnoli, Luisa; Mann, Matthias; Cesareni, Gianni

    2016-03-23

    Metformin is the most frequently prescribed drug for type 2 diabetes. In addition to its hypoglycemic effects, metformin also lowers cancer incidence. This anti-cancer activity is incompletely understood. Here, we profiled the metformin-dependent changes in the proteome and phosphoproteome of breast cancer cells using high-resolution mass spectrometry. In total, we quantified changes of 7,875 proteins and 15,813 phosphosites after metformin changes. To interpret these datasets, we developed a generally applicable strategy that overlays metformin-dependent changes in the proteome and phosphoproteome onto a literature-derived network. This approach suggested that metformin treatment makes cancer cells more sensitive to apoptotic stimuli and less sensitive to pro-growth stimuli. These hypotheses were tested in vivo; as a proof-of-principle, we demonstrated that metformin inhibits the p70S6K-rpS6 axis in a PP2A-phosphatase dependent manner. In conclusion, analysis of deep proteomics reveals both detailed and global mechanisms that contribute to the anti-cancer activity of metformin.

  8. Proteomics Propels Protein Degradation Studies in San Diego*

    PubMed Central

    Bennett, Eric J.; Mayor, Thibault

    2012-01-01

    Exquisite in vitro biochemical examinations of protein ubiquitylation and degradation have historically been the dominant methods for unraveling the mechanisms of protein destruction. The study of protein abundance alterations and protein modifications, a cornerstone of protein degradation pathways, naturally lends itself to global and systematic proteomic methods to decipher the emerging complexity of protein degradation pathways. Advances in proteomic technologies have fueled an explosion of systematic and quantitative studies aimed at understanding how the proteome is shaped and regulated by ubiquitin-dependent processes. These types of studies, as well as targeted analyses of cellular pathways, have revealed that alterations in protein degradation function can have a severe impact on human health and disease. The fusion of these two themes was the focus of the January 2012 conference on proteomics of protein degradation and ubiquitin pathways (PPDUP) held in San Diego. To gain insights into both the current state-of-the-art proteomic methods to investigate protein turnover, and how protein degradation function is altered within a range of human disorders a variety of speakers revealed the many connections between altered protein degradation function and human disease. Many of the sessions were framed by a consistent focus aimed at the discovery and development of novel therapeutics targeting protein degradation pathway components to treat various human maladies ranging from cancer to heart disease. PMID:22798279

  9. Fault current limiter with solid-state circuit breakers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bălan, H.; Neamț, L.; Buzdugan, M. I.; Varodi, T.; Pop, E.

    2016-08-01

    Switching of power circuit breakers is an important technical issue, especially at short circuit, since the fault current cause thermal and dynamic stresses, and the power quality worsens. Recently, the development of distributed renewable electricity induces the short circuit protection problematic because the distributed production of electric energy cause the transport networks to lose their radial character and disturbs the protective relays coordination. The modern technologies for power switching uses static fault current limiters, which offers a viable solution to remove the problems caused by large fault currents in the system. An appropriate design of the current limiting device reduces the thermal and dynamic stress and limits the fault current to a low value. The static switches are based on high power semiconductor devices that offer advantages compared to mechanical switches. Using a fault current limiter that minimizes the effect of distributed generation of electricity in a radial network on the co-ordination of protective relays is a solution to this problem in terms of switching speed and lifespan of power switches.

  10. Current Developments in Communications Law in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hadl, Robert D.

    1973-01-01

    Article reviews some of the major developments in communications law in the United States in the past year (1972). Significant events are covered in the areas of cable television, television programming and domestic satelites. (Author)

  11. Current State of the U.S. Ethanol Industry

    SciTech Connect

    Urbanchuk, John

    2010-11-30

    The objective of this study is to provide a comprehensive overview of the state of the U.S. ethanol industry and to outline the major forces that will affect the development of the industry over the next decade.

  12. Current Developments in Communications Law in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hadl, Robert D.

    1973-01-01

    Article reviews some of the major developments in communications law in the United States in the past year (1972). Significant events are covered in the areas of cable television, television programming and domestic satelites. (Author)

  13. Functional proteomics of barley and barley chloroplasts – strategies, methods and perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Petersen, Jørgen; Rogowska-Wrzesinska, Adelina; Jensen, Ole N.

    2013-01-01

    Barley (Hordeum vulgare) is an important cereal grain that is used in a range of products for animal and human consumption. Crop yield and seed quality has been optimized during decades by plant breeding programs supported by biotechnology and molecular biology techniques. The recently completed whole-genome sequencing of barley revealed approximately 26,100 open reading frames, which provides a foundation for detailed molecular studies of barley by functional genomics and proteomics approaches. Such studies will provide further insights into the mechanisms of, for example, drought and stress tolerance, micronutrient utilization, and photosynthesis in barley. In the present review we present the current state of proteomics research for investigations of barley chloroplasts, i.e., the organelle that contain the photosynthetic apparatus in the plant. We describe several different proteomics strategies and discuss their applications in characterization of the barley chloroplast as well as future perspectives for functional proteomics in barley research. PMID:23515231

  14. Current approaches to tuberculosis in the United States.

    PubMed

    Gordin, Fred M; Masur, Henry

    2012-07-18

    Tuberculosis is a major threat to global health, infecting a third of the world's population. In the United States, however, control of tuberculosis has been increasingly successful. Only 3.2% of the US population is estimated to have latent tuberculosis and there are only 11,000 cases annually of active disease. More than half the cases in this country occur in individuals born outside the United States. Human immunodeficiency virus coinfection is not a major factor in the United States, since only approximately 10% of cases are coinfected. Drug resistance is also uncommon in this country. Because the United States has more resources for the diagnosis, therapy, and public health control of tuberculosis than many regions of the world, and because many hospitals have more cases of clinically significant nontuberculous mycobacteria than tuberculosis, the management approaches to tuberculosis need to be quite different in this country than in other regions. The resurgence in interest in developing new tools and the investment in public health infrastructure will hopefully be sustained in the United States so that the effect of tuberculosis on the US population will continue to diminish, and these new tools and approaches can be adapted to both high and low prevalence areas to meet the global challenge.

  15. Extreme current fluctuations in lattice gases: Beyond nonequilibrium steady states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meerson, Baruch; Sasorov, Pavel V.

    2014-01-01

    We use the macroscopic fluctuation theory (MFT) to study large current fluctuations in nonstationary diffusive lattice gases. We identify two universality classes of these fluctuations, which we call elliptic and hyperbolic. They emerge in the limit when the deterministic mass flux is small compared to the mass flux due to the shot noise. The two classes are determined by the sign of compressibility of effective fluid, obtained by mapping the MFT into an inviscid hydrodynamics. An example of the elliptic class is the symmetric simple exclusion process, where, for some initial conditions, we can solve the effective hydrodynamics exactly. This leads to a super-Gaussian extreme current statistics conjectured by Derrida and Gerschenfeld [J. Stat. Phys. 137, 978 (2009), 10.1007/s10955-009-9830-1] and yields the optimal path of the system. For models of the hyperbolic class, the deterministic mass flux cannot be neglected, leading to a different extreme current statistics.

  16. Extreme current fluctuations in lattice gases: beyond nonequilibrium steady states.

    PubMed

    Meerson, Baruch; Sasorov, Pavel V

    2014-01-01

    We use the macroscopic fluctuation theory (MFT) to study large current fluctuations in nonstationary diffusive lattice gases. We identify two universality classes of these fluctuations, which we call elliptic and hyperbolic. They emerge in the limit when the deterministic mass flux is small compared to the mass flux due to the shot noise. The two classes are determined by the sign of compressibility of effective fluid, obtained by mapping the MFT into an inviscid hydrodynamics. An example of the elliptic class is the symmetric simple exclusion process, where, for some initial conditions, we can solve the effective hydrodynamics exactly. This leads to a super-Gaussian extreme current statistics conjectured by Derrida and Gerschenfeld [J. Stat. Phys. 137, 978 (2009)] and yields the optimal path of the system. For models of the hyperbolic class, the deterministic mass flux cannot be neglected, leading to a different extreme current statistics.

  17. Methodological Approaches in Conducting Overviews: Current State in HTA Agencies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pieper, Dawid; Antoine, Sunya-Lee; Morfeld, Jana-Carina; Mathes, Tim; Eikermann, Michaela

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Overviews search for reviews rather than for primary studies. They might have the potential to support decision making within a shorter time frame by reducing production time. We aimed to summarize available instructions for authors intending to conduct overviews as well as the currently applied methodology of overviews in…

  18. Features of inhomogeneous current state in wide superconducting films

    SciTech Connect

    D'yachenko, A.I.; Tarenkov, V.Y.; Stupakov, V.V.

    1982-04-01

    A dc superconducting-transformer circuit is used to investigate the features of the current-voltage characteristics (CVC) of thin aluminum films of width W>>lambda/sub perpendicular/. It is shown that in contrast to narrow channels, where phase-slippage centers are realized, the steplike structure of the CVC results in this case from the inhomogeneous entry of the vortex strings.

  19. Poverty in the United States: 2001. Current Population Reports.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Proctor, Bernadette D.; Dalaker, Joseph

    This report presents poverty data from the 2000, 2001, and 2002 Current Population Survey Annual Demographic Supplements, which provide information for caledar years 1999, 2000, and 2001. The poverty rate changed from 11.3 percent in 2000 to 11.7 percent in 2001. People below the poverty thresholds numbered 31.6 million in 2000 and 32.9 million in…

  20. Methodological Approaches in Conducting Overviews: Current State in HTA Agencies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pieper, Dawid; Antoine, Sunya-Lee; Morfeld, Jana-Carina; Mathes, Tim; Eikermann, Michaela

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Overviews search for reviews rather than for primary studies. They might have the potential to support decision making within a shorter time frame by reducing production time. We aimed to summarize available instructions for authors intending to conduct overviews as well as the currently applied methodology of overviews in…

  1. [Current state and prospects of development of railway hygiene].

    PubMed

    Kaptsov, V A; Suvorov, S V

    1999-01-01

    Current planning in railway hygiene is conducted according to the special requirements of railway industry. Specific medical and prophylactic programs specified are on safety arrangements of railway workers, environmental protection in connection with intensive functioning of railways. The authors represent major prospective trends of research in occupational medicine and industrial ecology for railway transport.

  2. Robots in Education: The Current State of the Art.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lees, David; LePage, Pamela

    1996-01-01

    Describes how robots are currently being used in education as well as their future potential. Discusses limitations and effectiveness of robotics technology. Explores three ways robots are being used in the classroom: (1) to teach basic concepts; (2) to assist disabled students; and (3) as objects of study. Contains 60 references. (Author/AEF)

  3. Tetrazine ligation for chemical proteomics.

    PubMed

    Kang, Kyungtae; Park, Jongmin; Kim, Eunha

    2016-01-01

    Determining small molecule-target protein interaction is essential for the chemical proteomics. One of the most important keys to explore biological system in chemical proteomics field is finding first-class molecular tools. Chemical probes can provide great spatiotemporal control to elucidate biological functions of proteins as well as for interrogating biological pathways. The invention of bioorthogonal chemistry has revolutionized the field of chemical biology by providing superior chemical tools and has been widely used for investigating the dynamics and function of biomolecules in live condition. Among 20 different bioorthogonal reactions, tetrazine ligation has been spotlighted as the most advanced bioorthogonal chemistry because of their extremely faster kinetics and higher specificity than others. Therefore, tetrazine ligation has a tremendous potential to enhance the proteomic research. This review highlights the current status of tetrazine ligation reaction as a molecular tool for the chemical proteomics.

  4. Alternatives to current fumigation practices in western states raspberry

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Red raspberry production systems in the western United States are heavily reliant on preplant soil fumigation to ensure the successful establishment and productivity of a planting. However, due to issues related to the regulation, availability, and economics of soil fumigation alternatives are need ...

  5. Current status of the state-and-transition framework

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    State-and-transition models (STM) have been widely adopted as a tool for explaining plant community dynamics and response to disturbance within rangeland ecosystems. Our understanding of the STM concepts has advanced substantially since they were introduced by Westoby et al. (1989) and modified by ...

  6. Current Trends in Children's Literature. (2) The United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haviland, Virginia

    1973-01-01

    Three major trends in the writing/publishing of children's literature in the United States are discussed: selection and criticism of books by librarians and editors, increased use of paperback and picture books, and a focus on children's literature as part of the mainstream of literature. (Author/SJ)

  7. Current Status of Teacher Shortage in the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Capa, Yesim; Loadman, William E.; Bryant, B. J.

    Every year the American Association of Employment in Education (AAEE) conducts a survey of the status of teacher supply and demand in the United States. In 2001, the 25th annual survey sent a survey instrument to 1,265 teacher preparation institutions to study the supply side of teacher availability, and responses were received from 494…

  8. State-Mandated Principal Evaluation: A Report on Current Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peters, Stephen; Bagenstos, Naida Tushnet

    State-mandated practices for evaluation of principals are described. Most such programs draw on three bodies of literature concerning management and organizational theory, personnel evaluation, and effective principalship. In most evaluations, four concerns are constant: (1) supervision and staff development; (2) school and community relations;…

  9. High School Feedback: An Analysis of States' Current Efforts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Data Quality Campaign, 2011

    2011-01-01

    There is increased demand from multiple stakeholders for information about K-12 students' success after high school. When this information is provided back to high schools, it is often referred to as "high school feedback" information. This working document captures knowledge about states' capacity to and progress in providing high school feedback…

  10. Current Status of Teacher Shortage in the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Capa, Yesim; Loadman, William E.; Bryant, B. J.

    Every year the American Association of Employment in Education (AAEE) conducts a survey of the status of teacher supply and demand in the United States. In 2001, the 25th annual survey sent a survey instrument to 1,265 teacher preparation institutions to study the supply side of teacher availability, and responses were received from 494…

  11. The Current Status of Prison Education in Some Caribbean States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niles, Bradley

    1997-01-01

    Discusses a study of prison education in six Caribbean states (Dominica, St. Lucia, Barbados, St. Vincent, Grenada, Trinidad), looks at how the programs fit into United Nations rules for treating prisoners, and makes recommendations for the improvement of those programs. (JOW)

  12. Social validity assessments: is current practice state of the art?

    PubMed Central

    Schwartz, I S; Baer, D M

    1991-01-01

    The use of evaluative feedback from consumers to guide program planning and evaluation is often referred to as the assessment of social validity. Differing views of its role and value in applied behavior analysis have emerged, and increasingly stereotyped assessments of social validity are becoming commonplace. This paper argues that current applications of social validity assessments are straying from the point originally proposed for them. Thus, several suggestions for improving current social validity assessment are proposed, including (a) expanding the definition of consumers to acknowledge the variety of community members able and likely to affect a program's survival, (b) increasing the psychometric rigor of social validity assessments, (c) extending assessment to heretofore underrepresented populations, (d) implementing widespread application of well-designed social validity assessments, (e) increasing meaningful consumer involvement in the planning and evaluation of behavioral programs, and (f) educating consumers to make better informed programming decisions. PMID:1890040

  13. Current and projected state of Joule-Thomson cooling technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, Robert G.

    1996-06-01

    The cooling of infrared sensors and electro-optical devices by Joule-Thomson cryostats has been a viable systems option for electro optical systems since the 1960's. Currently, other options such as thermal electric coolers, closed cycle coolers and non-cooled detector technology are available and present alternatives for the system designer. In specific applications, Joule-Thomson cryostats still prove to be the option of choice. This paper will discuss the current and projected applications for Joule-Thomson cryostats as well as define and discuss the advantages of Joule-Thomson cooling technology. The importance of contamination control, reliability, and `Total Quality Management' in the manufacturing of Joule-Thomson cryostats will be emphasized.

  14. State Poverty-Based Education Funding: A Survey of Current Programs and Options for Improvement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carey, Kevin

    This paper describes the current status of state poverty-based education funding programs, discussing how to implement or improve them. Researchers surveyed education finance officials in the 49 states with multiple school districts. Results indicate that 38 states currently distribute some education funds on the basis of poverty. A total of 75…

  15. Surf Zone Currents. Volume I. State of Knowledge.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-09-01

    Theo - retical rip spacings were still far too small. Mizaguchi (1976) intro- duced (rather arbitrarily) a longshore variation in bottom friction as the...changes in wave height and length. The magnitudes of theo - retical setdown and setup can be shown to depend on wave angle and all other factors that...determined from the breaker ratio, y, plays a key role in the theo - retical longshore current profile. Wave breaking, internal turbulent shears, *and

  16. Minimally invasive veneers: current state of the art

    PubMed Central

    Vanlıoğlu, Burçin Akoğlu; Kulak-Özkan, Yasemin

    2014-01-01

    Ceramic veneers are considered a conservative solution for patients requiring improvement of the shape, color, or position of their anterior teeth. Ceramic veneers have been extensively and successfully used to mask intrinsic staining, to give the appearance of straightening, and to correct minor malformations of anterior teeth without the removal of substantial amounts of sound tooth substance. The current literature was reviewed to search for the most important parameters determining the long-term success and correct application of ceramic veneers. PMID:25506248

  17. The current state of bone and tissue banking in Australia.

    PubMed

    Morgan, D A; Ilyas, I; Bryce, S L; Johnson, N

    1998-01-01

    The development of bone and tissue banking in Australia over the last decade is described and details of the administrative structure, donor and recipient testing protocols, allograft segment processing procedures, and internal audit safety arrangements are also provided. Demographic data concerning both the retrieval and dispersal of musculoskeletal allograft materials in Australia are also discussed. Current price schedules for a variety of allograft materials available in Australia are made available for international comparison.

  18. Left ventricular assist devices—current state and perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Herold, Ulf; Berkefeld, Anna; Krane, Markus; Lange, Rüdiger; Voss, Bernhard

    2016-01-01

    Mechanical circulatory support devices have become an important treatment tool for severe acute and chronic heart failure, since heart transplantation cannot meet the demands because of a lack of available donor organs. Since implantation of the first ventricular assist device a constant development of the suitability of these devices has been made. This review will introduce different generations of left ventricular assist devices (LVAD) and elaborate on clinical indications, risk stratification and current literature. PMID:27621895

  19. Minimally invasive veneers: current state of the art.

    PubMed

    Vanlıoğlu, Burçin Akoğlu; Kulak-Özkan, Yasemin

    2014-01-01

    Ceramic veneers are considered a conservative solution for patients requiring improvement of the shape, color, or position of their anterior teeth. Ceramic veneers have been extensively and successfully used to mask intrinsic staining, to give the appearance of straightening, and to correct minor malformations of anterior teeth without the removal of substantial amounts of sound tooth substance. The current literature was reviewed to search for the most important parameters determining the long-term success and correct application of ceramic veneers.

  20. [Physiotherapeutic care marketing research: current state-of-the art].

    PubMed

    Babaskin, D V

    2011-01-01

    Successful introduction of modern technologies into the national health care systems strongly depends on the current pharmaceutical market situation. The present article is focused on the peculiarities of marketing research with special reference to physiotherapeutic services and commodities. Analysis of the structure and sequence of marketing research processes is described along with the methods applied for the purpose including their support by the use of Internet resources and technologies.

  1. Current State of the Art Historic Building Information Modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dore, C.; Murphy, M.

    2017-08-01

    In an extensive review of existing literature a number of observations were made in relation to the current approaches for recording and modelling existing buildings and environments: Data collection and pre-processing techniques are becoming increasingly automated to allow for near real-time data capture and fast processing of this data for later modelling applications. Current BIM software is almost completely focused on new buildings and has very limited tools and pre-defined libraries for modelling existing and historic buildings. The development of reusable parametric library objects for existing and historic buildings supports modelling with high levels of detail while decreasing the modelling time. Mapping these parametric objects to survey data, however, is still a time-consuming task that requires further research. Promising developments have been made towards automatic object recognition and feature extraction from point clouds for as-built BIM. However, results are currently limited to simple and planar features. Further work is required for automatic accurate and reliable reconstruction of complex geometries from point cloud data. Procedural modelling can provide an automated solution for generating 3D geometries but lacks the detail and accuracy required for most as-built applications in AEC and heritage fields.

  2. Electrical Impedance Myography: Background, Current State, and Future Directions

    PubMed Central

    Rutkove, Seward B.

    2010-01-01

    Electrical impedance myography (EIM) is a new non-invasive technique for the evaluation of neuromuscular disease that relies upon the application and measurement of high-frequency, low-intensity electrical current. EIM assesses disease-induced changes to muscle’s normal composition and architecture, including myocyte atrophy and loss, edema, reinnervation, and the deposition of endomysial connective tissue and fat. With application of single-frequency electrical current, EIM can be used to help grade the severity of neuromuscular disease. Assessing electrical impedance across a spectrum of applied frequencies and with current flow at multiple orientations relative to the major muscle fiber direction can provide a more complete picture of muscle condition. EIM holds the promise of serving as an indicator of disease status, thus being useful in clinical trials work and in monitoring effectiveness of treatment in individual patients; ultimately, it may also find diagnostic application. Ongoing efforts have been focused on obtaining a deeper understanding of the basic mechanisms of impedance change, studying EIM in a variety of clinical contexts, and further refining the methods of EIM data acquisition and analysis. PMID:19768754

  3. Genomes to Proteomes

    SciTech Connect

    Panisko, Ellen A.; Grigoriev, Igor; Daly, Don S.; Webb-Robertson, Bobbie-Jo; Baker, Scott E.

    2009-03-01

    Biologists are awash with genomic sequence data. In large part, this is due to the rapid acceleration in the generation of DNA sequence that occurred as public and private research institutes raced to sequence the human genome. In parallel with the large human genome effort, mostly smaller genomes of other important model organisms were sequenced. Projects following on these initial efforts have made use of technological advances and the DNA sequencing infrastructure that was built for the human and other organism genome projects. As a result, the genome sequences of many organisms are available in high quality draft form. While in many ways this is good news, there are limitations to the biological insights that can be gleaned from DNA sequences alone; genome sequences offer only a bird's eye view of the biological processes endemic to an organism or community. Fortunately, the genome sequences now being produced at such a high rate can serve as the foundation for other global experimental platforms such as proteomics. Proteomic methods offer a snapshot of the proteins present at a point in time for a given biological sample. Current global proteomics methods combine enzymatic digestion, separations, mass spectrometry and database searching for peptide identification. One key aspect of proteomics is the prediction of peptide sequences from mass spectrometry data. Global proteomic analysis uses computational matching of experimental mass spectra with predicted spectra based on databases of gene models that are often generated computationally. Thus, the quality of gene models predicted from a genome sequence is crucial in the generation of high quality peptide identifications. Once peptides are identified they can be assigned to their parent protein. Proteins identified as expressed in a given experiment are most useful when compared to other expressed proteins in a larger biological context or biochemical pathway. In this chapter we will discuss the automatic

  4. Russia and the Current State of Arms Control

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-09-01

    Conflict as Analyzed by the Center of Analysis of Strategies and Technologies in Mos- cow ,” Eurasia Daily Monitor, Vol. 7, Issues: 15 and 16, available...costs in blood , treasure, and prestige for the United States. “Only China has any prospect of coming out of this war as a victor, but even for it, it...and the interventions of both President Obama and President Medvedev, Mos- cow and Washington announced in early 2010 that a 19 new treaty limiting

  5. Positional proteomics in the era of the human proteome project on the doorstep of precision medicine.

    PubMed

    Eckhard, Ulrich; Marino, Giada; Butler, Georgina S; Overall, Christopher M

    2016-03-01

    Proteolytic processing is a pervasive and irreversible post-translational modification that expands the protein universe by generating new proteoforms (protein isoforms). Unlike signal peptide or prodomain removal, protease-generated proteoforms can rarely be predicted from gene sequences. Positional proteomic techniques that enrich for N- or C-terminal peptides from proteomes are indispensable for a comprehensive understanding of a protein's function in biological environments since protease cleavage frequently results in altered protein activity and localization. Proteases often process other proteases and protease inhibitors which perturbs proteolytic networks and potentiates the initial cleavage event to affect other molecular networks and cellular processes in physiological and pathological conditions. This review is aimed at researchers with a keen interest in state of the art systems level positional proteomic approaches that: (i) enable the study of complex protease-protease, protease-inhibitor and protease-substrate crosstalk and networks; (ii) allow the identification of proteolytic signatures as candidate disease biomarkers; and (iii) are expected to fill the Human Proteome Project missing proteins gap. We predict that these methodologies will be an integral part of emerging precision medicine initiatives that aim to customize healthcare, converting reactive medicine into a personalized and proactive approach, improving clinical care and maximizing patient health and wellbeing, while decreasing health costs by eliminating ineffective therapies, trial-and-error prescribing, and adverse drug effects. Such initiatives require quantitative and functional proteome profiling and dynamic disease biomarkers in addition to current pharmacogenomics approaches. With proteases at the pathogenic center of many diseases, high-throughput protein termini identification techniques such as TAILS (Terminal Amine Isotopic Labeling of Substrates) and COFRADIC (COmbined

  6. Proteomics of Leaf Tissues from Populus

    SciTech Connect

    Hurst, Gregory {Greg} B; Yang, Xiaohan; Tschaplinski, Timothy J; Tuskan, Gerald A; Lankford, Patricia K; Shah, Manesh B; Jawdy, Sara; Gunter, Lee E; Engle, Nancy L

    2010-01-01

    Trees of the genus Populus are farmed commercially for wood and fiber, and are a potential bioenergy crop. As a scientific model organism, P. trichocarpa was the first forest tree for which the genome sequence has been determined. Knowledge of the Populus proteome will provide a deeper understanding of gene expression patterns in various tissues of the plant. To build on our previous profile of the proteome of xylem tissue in Populus (Kalluri et al., Proteomics 2009, 9, 4871), we are currently developing methods for studying the proteome of Populus leaves.

  7. Invited review: Current state of genetic improvement in dairy sheep.

    PubMed

    Carta, A; Casu, Sara; Salaris, S

    2009-12-01

    Dairy sheep have been farmed traditionally in the Mediterranean basin in southern Europe, central Europe, eastern Europe, and in Near East countries. Currently, dairy sheep farming systems vary from extensive to intensive according to the economic relevance of the production chain and the specific environment and breed. Modern breeding programs were conceived in the 1960s. The most efficient selection scheme for local dairy sheep breeds is based on pyramidal management of the population with the breeders of nucleus flocks at the top, where pedigree and official milk recording, artificial insemination, controlled natural mating, and breeding value estimation are carried out to generate genetic progress. The genetic progress is then transferred to the commercial flocks through artificial insemination or natural-mating rams. Increasing milk yield is still the most profitable breeding objective for several breeds. Almost all milk is used for cheese production and, consequently, milk content traits are very important. Moreover, other traits are gaining interest for selection: machine milking ability and udder morphology, resistance to diseases (mastitis, internal parasites, scrapie), and traits related to the nutritional value of milk (fatty acid composition). Current breeding programs based on the traditional quantitative approach have achieved appreciable genetic gains for milk yield. In many cases, further selection goals such as milk composition, udder morphology, somatic cell count, and scrapie resistance have been implemented. However, the possibility of including other traits of selective interest is limited by high recording costs. Also, the organizational effort needed to apply the traditional quantitative approach limits the diffusion of current selection programs outside the European Mediterranean area. In this context, the application of selection schemes assisted by molecular information, to improve either traditional dairy traits or traits costly to record

  8. Therapeutics in food allergy: the current state of the art.

    PubMed

    Otsu, Kanao; Fleischer, David M

    2012-02-01

    Food allergy is an increasing public health dilemma in Westernized countries, yet no viable treatments are currently available for those who are afflicted. The only options available for patients with food allergies are prevention of reactions by strict avoidance of the offending food(s) and symptomatic treatment of any adverse effects from accidental exposures. Approaches are being pursued to develop treatments, and allergen-specific therapies such as oral immunotherapy, sublingual immunotherapy, and epicutaneous immunotherapy with different foods have shown promise. Other modalities are also being investigated, potentially leading to the discovery of novel therapeutic options.

  9. The current state of clinical interpretation of sequence variants.

    PubMed

    Hoskinson, Derick C; Dubuc, Adrian M; Mason-Suares, Heather

    2017-01-31

    Accurate and consistent variant classification is required for Precision Medicine. But clinical variant classification remains in its infancy. While recent guidelines put forth jointly by the American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics (ACMG) and Association of Molecular Pathology (AMP) for the classification of Mendelian variants has advanced the field, the degree of subjectivity allowed by these guidelines can still lead to inconsistent classification across clinical molecular genetic laboratories. In addition, there are currently no such guidelines for somatic cancer variants, only published institutional practices. Additional variant classification guidelines, including disease- or gene-specific criteria, along with inter-laboratory data sharing is critical for accurate and consistent variant interpretation.

  10. Ethanol fermentation from biomass resources: current state and prospects.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yan; Tanaka, Shuzo

    2006-02-01

    In recent years, growing attention has been devoted to the conversion of biomass into fuel ethanol, considered the cleanest liquid fuel alternative to fossil fuels. Significant advances have been made towards the technology of ethanol fermentation. This review provides practical examples and gives a broad overview of the current status of ethanol fermentation including biomass resources, microorganisms, and technology. Also, the promising prospects of ethanol fermentation are especially introduced. The prospects included are fermentation technology converting xylose to ethanol, cellulase enzyme utilized in the hydrolysis of lignocellulosic materials, immobilization of the microorganism in large systems, simultaneous saccharification and fermentation, and sugar conversion into ethanol.

  11. Congenital nephrogenic diabetes insipidus: the current state of affairs.

    PubMed

    Wesche, Daniel; Deen, Peter M T; Knoers, Nine V A M

    2012-12-01

    The anti-diuretic hormone arginine vasopressin (AVP) is released from the pituitary upon hypovolemia or hypernatremia, and regulates water reabsorption in the renal collecting duct principal cells. Binding of AVP to the arginine vasopressin receptor type 2 (AVPR2) in the basolateral membrane leads to translocation of aquaporin 2 (AQP2) water channels to the apical membrane of the collecting duct principal cells, inducing water permeability of the membrane. This results in water reabsorption from the pro-urine into the medullary interstitium following an osmotic gradient. Congenital nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (NDI) is a disorder associated with mutations in either the AVPR2 or AQP2 gene, causing the inability of patients to concentrate their pro-urine, which leads to a high risk of dehydration. This review focuses on the current knowledge regarding the cell biological aspects of congenital X-linked, autosomal-recessive and autosomal-dominant NDI while specifically addressing the latest developments in the field. Based on deepened mechanistic understanding, new therapeutic strategies are currently being explored, which we also discuss here.

  12. [Video game and internet addiction. The current state of research].

    PubMed

    Rehbein, F; Mößle, T; Arnaud, N; Rumpf, H-J

    2013-05-01

    The use of interactive screen media is widespread and for some users leads to pathological symptoms that are phenomenologically similar to signs of addictive disorders. Addictive use of computer games and other Internet applications, such as social media can be distinguished. In the past standard criteria to classify this new disorder were lacking. In DSM-5, nine criteria are proposed for diagnosing Internet gaming disorder. The focus is currently on video games as most studies have been done in this field. Prevalence estimations are difficult to interpret due to the lack of standard diagnostic measures and result in a range of the frequency of Internet addiction between 1 % and 4.2 % in the general German population. Rates are higher in younger individuals. For computer game addiction prevalence rates between 0.9 % and 1.7  % can be found in adolescents. Despite substantial comorbidity among those affected current research points to addictive media use as a stand-alone disorder.

  13. Current animal models of hemophilia: the state of the art.

    PubMed

    Yen, Ching-Tzu; Fan, Meng-Ni; Yang, Yung-Li; Chou, Sheng-Chieh; Yu, I-Shing; Lin, Shu-Wha

    2016-01-01

    Hemophilia is the most well-known hereditary bleeding disorder, with an incidence of one in every 5000 to 30,000 males worldwide. The disease is treated by infusion of protein products on demand and as prophylaxis. Although these therapies have been very successful, some challenging and unresolved tasks remain, such as reducing bleeding rates, presence of target joints and/or established joint damage, eliminating the development of inhibitors, and increasing the success rate of immune-tolerance induction (ITI). Many preclinical trials are carried out on animal models for hemophilia generated by the hemophilia research community, which in turn enable prospective clinical trials aiming to tackle these challenges. Suitable animal models are needed for greater advances in treating hemophilia, such as the development of better models for evaluation of the efficacy and safety of long-acting products, more powerful gene therapy vectors than are currently available, and successful ITI strategies. Mice, dogs, and pigs are the most commonly used animal models for hemophilia. With the advent of the nuclease method for genome editing, namely the CRISPR/Cas9 system, it is now possible to create animal models for hemophilia other than mice in a short period of time. This review presents currently available animal models for hemophilia, and discusses the importance of animal models for the development of better treatment options for hemophilia.

  14. The current state of facial prosthetics – A multicenter analysis.

    PubMed

    Thiele, Oliver C; Brom, Jörn; Dunsche, Anton; Ehrenfeld, Michael; Federspil, Philippe; Frerich, Bernhard; Hölzle, Frank; Klein, Martin; Kreppel, Matthias; Kübler, Alexander C; Kübler, Norbert R; Kunkel, Martin; Kuttenberger, Johannes; Lauer, Günter; Mayer, Boris; Mohr, Christopher; Neff, Andreas; Rasse, Michael; Reich, Rudolf H; Reinert, Siegmar; Rothamel, Daniel; Sader, Robert; Schliephake, Henning; Schmelzeisen, Rainer; Schramm, Alexander; Sieg, Peter; Terheyden, Hendrik; Wiltfang, Jörg; Ziegler, Christoph M; Mischkowski, Robert A; Zöller, Joachim E

    2015-09-01

    Even though modern surgical techniques are dominating reconstructive facial procedures, the capability to use facial epitheses for reconstruction is still an important skill for the maxillofacial surgeon. We present an international multicenter analysis to clarify which techniques are used to fixate facial prostheses. We contacted all maxillofacial departments in Germany, Austria, Switzerland and Norway which were registered with the German society for oral and maxillofacial surgery (DGMKG). These centers were asked via electronical mail to provide information on the type of epithesis fixation systems currently in use. The return rate from 58 departments was 43.1% (n = 25). Overall, implant fixation was the preferred fixation system (92%). Plates were the second most common fixation technique (32%). No centers reported the standard use of non-invasive fixation techniques for permanent epithesis fixation. The main retention systems in use were magnets (24/25), other retention systems are used much less often. The current preferred fixation technique for facial epitheses consists of implant-based, magnet-fixated epitheses. For nasal prostheses, a plate-based, magnet-fixated system is often used.

  15. Advanced Imaging in Femoroacetabular Impingement: Current State and Future Prospects.

    PubMed

    Bittersohl, Bernd; Hosalkar, Harish S; Hesper, Tobias; Tiderius, Carl Johan; Zilkens, Christoph; Krauspe, Rüdiger

    2015-01-01

    Symptomatic femoroacetabular impingement (FAI) is now a known precursor of early osteoarthritis (OA) of the hip. In terms of clinical intervention, the decision between joint preservation and joint replacement hinges on the severity of articular cartilage degeneration. The exact threshold during the course of disease progression when the cartilage damage is irreparable remains elusive. The intention behind radiographic imaging is to accurately identify the morphology of osseous structural abnormalities and to accurately characterize the chondrolabral damage as much as possible. However, both plain radiographs and computed tomography (CT) are insensitive for articular cartilage anatomy and pathology. Advanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques include magnetic resonance arthrography and biochemically sensitive techniques of delayed gadolinium-enhanced MRI of cartilage (dGEMRIC), T1rho (T1ρ), T2/T2* mapping, and several others. The diagnostic performance of these techniques to evaluate cartilage degeneration could improve the ability to predict an individual patient-specific outcome with non-surgical and surgical care. This review discusses the facts and current applications of biochemical MRI for hip joint cartilage assessment covering the roles of dGEMRIC, T2/T2*, and T1ρ mapping. The basics of each technique and their specific role in FAI assessment are outlined. Current limitations and potential pitfalls as well as future directions of biochemical imaging are also outlined.

  16. Advanced Imaging in Femoroacetabular Impingement: Current State and Future Prospects

    PubMed Central

    Bittersohl, Bernd; Hosalkar, Harish S.; Hesper, Tobias; Tiderius, Carl Johan; Zilkens, Christoph; Krauspe, Rüdiger

    2015-01-01

    Symptomatic femoroacetabular impingement (FAI) is now a known precursor of early osteoarthritis (OA) of the hip. In terms of clinical intervention, the decision between joint preservation and joint replacement hinges on the severity of articular cartilage degeneration. The exact threshold during the course of disease progression when the cartilage damage is irreparable remains elusive. The intention behind radiographic imaging is to accurately identify the morphology of osseous structural abnormalities and to accurately characterize the chondrolabral damage as much as possible. However, both plain radiographs and computed tomography (CT) are insensitive for articular cartilage anatomy and pathology. Advanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques include magnetic resonance arthrography and biochemically sensitive techniques of delayed gadolinium-enhanced MRI of cartilage (dGEMRIC), T1rho (T1ρ), T2/T2* mapping, and several others. The diagnostic performance of these techniques to evaluate cartilage degeneration could improve the ability to predict an individual patient-specific outcome with non-surgical and surgical care. This review discusses the facts and current applications of biochemical MRI for hip joint cartilage assessment covering the roles of dGEMRIC, T2/T2*, and T1ρ mapping. The basics of each technique and their specific role in FAI assessment are outlined. Current limitations and potential pitfalls as well as future directions of biochemical imaging are also outlined. PMID:26258129

  17. Imaging of HCC—Current State of the Art

    PubMed Central

    Schraml, Christina; Kaufmann, Sascha; Rempp, Hansjoerg; Syha, Roland; Ketelsen, Dominik; Notohamiprodjo, Mike; Nikolaou, Konstantin

    2015-01-01

    Early diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is crucial for optimizing treatment outcome. Ongoing advances are being made in imaging of HCC regarding detection, grading, staging, and also treatment monitoring. This review gives an overview of the current international guidelines for diagnosing HCC and their discrepancies as well as critically summarizes the role of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computed tomography (CT) techniques for imaging in HCC. The diagnostic performance of MRI with nonspecific and hepatobililiary contrast agents and the role of functional imaging with diffusion-weighted imaging will be discussed. On the other hand, CT as a fast, cheap and easily accessible imaging modality plays a major role in the clinical routine work-up of HCC. Technical advances in CT, such as dual energy CT and volume perfusion CT, are currently being explored for improving detection, characterization and staging of HCC with promising results. Cone beam CT can provide a three-dimensional analysis of the liver with tumor and vessel characterization comparable to cross-sectional imaging so that this technique is gaining an increasing role in the peri-procedural imaging of HCC treated with interventional techniques. PMID:26854169

  18. Bassoonists' medical problems-current state of knowledge.

    PubMed

    Dawson, William J

    2012-06-01

    Specific musical instruments can be a source of physical problems to their players. Based on reviews of the literature and personal experience, this paper summarizes current knowledge of problems affecting musicians who play instruments in the bassoon family (including the bassoon, contrabassoon, and several other instruments). Prevalence rates are higher in reports of surveys (ranging up to 86%), compared to clinical reports of patients seen and treated. Significant risk factors include young age, small body size, female gender, and use of large instruments. Problems unique to bassoonists are rare; most physical difficulties also are seen in general musculoskeletal clinical practices and in musicians playing all types of instruments. The left upper extremity is more commonly affected by overuse-related conditions in bassoonists. Non-playing-related problems are equally important for consideration (such as degenerative disorders and acute trauma), since they also affect practice and performance. Little experimental data exist to validate current and widely-held principles of treatment, rehabilitation, and prevention.

  19. Current state of herbicides in herbicide-resistant crops.

    PubMed

    Green, Jerry M

    2014-09-01

    Current herbicide and herbicide trait practices are changing in response to the rapid spread of glyphosate-resistant weeds. Growers urgently needed glyphosate when glyphosate-resistant crops became available because weeds were becoming widely resistant to most commonly used selective herbicides, making weed management too complex and time consuming for large farm operations. Glyphosate made weed management easy and efficient by controlling all emerged weeds at a wide range of application timings. However, the intensive use of glyphosate over wide areas and concomitant decline in the use of other herbicides led eventually to the widespread evolution of weeds resistant to glyphosate. Today, weeds that are resistant to glyphosate and other herbicide types are threatening current crop production practices. Unfortunately, all commercial herbicide modes of action are over 20 years old and have resistant weed problems. The severity of the problem has prompted the renewal of efforts to discover new weed management technologies. One technology will be a new generation of crops with resistance to glyphosate, glufosinate and other existing herbicide modes of action. Other technologies will include new chemical, biological, cultural and mechanical methods for weed management. From the onset of commercialization, growers must now preserve the utility of new technologies by integrating their use with other weed management technologies in diverse and sustainable systems. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  20. Unveiling the rat urinary proteome with three complementary proteomics approaches.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Juanes, Fernando; Muñiz, María Carmen; Raposo, César; Rodríguez-Prieto, Silvia; Paradela, Alberto; Quiros, Yaremi; López-Hernández, Francisco; González-Buitrago, José Manuel; Ferreira, Laura

    2013-09-01

    Urine is a suitable biological fluid to look for markers of physiological and pathological processes, including renal and nonrenal diseases. In addition, it is an optimal body sample for diagnosis, because it is easily obtained without invasive procedures and can be sampled in large quantities at almost any time. Rats are frequently used as a model to study human diseases, and rat urine has been analyzed to search for disease biomarkers. The normal human urinary proteome has been studied extensively, but the normal rat urinary proteome has not been studied in such depth. In light of this, we were prompted to analyze the normal rat urinary proteome using three complementary proteomics platforms: SDS-PAGE separation, followed by LC-ESI-MS/MS; 2DE, followed by MALDI-TOF-TOF and 2D-liquid chromatography-chromatofocusing, followed by LC-ESI-Q-TOF. A total of 366 unique proteins were identified, of which only 5.2% of unique proteins were identified jointly by the three proteomics platforms used. This suggests that simultaneous proteomics techniques provide complementary and nonredundant information. Our analysis affords the most extensive rat urinary protein database currently available and this may be useful in the study of renal physiology and in the search for biomarkers related to renal and nonrenal diseases. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Quantum coherence of the molecular states and their corresponding currents in nanoscale Aharonov-Bohm interferometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jian-Heng; Tu, Matisse Wei-Yuan; Zhang, Wei-Min

    2016-07-01

    By considering a nanoscale Aharonov-Bohm (AB) interferometer consisting of a laterally coupled double dot coupled to the source and drain electrodes, we investigate the AB phase dependence of the bonding and antibonding states and the transport currents via the bonding and antibonding state channels. The relations of the AB phase dependence between the quantum states and the associated transport current components are analyzed, which provides useful information for the reconstruction of quantum states through the measurement of the transport current in such systems. We also obtain the validity of the experimental analysis [given in T. Hatano et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 076801 (2011), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.106.076801] that bonding state currents in different energy configurations are almost the same. With the coherent properties in the quantum dot states as well as in the transport currents, we also provide a way to manipulate the bonding and antibonding states through the AB magnetic flux.

  2. Cell wall proteome of pathogenic fungi.

    PubMed

    Karkowska-Kuleta, Justyna; Kozik, Andrzej

    2015-01-01

    A fast development of a wide variety of proteomic techniques supported by mass spectrometry coupled with high performance liquid chromatography has been observed in recent years. It significantly contributes to the progress in research on the cell wall, very important part of the cells of pathogenic fungi. This complicated structure composed of different polysaccharides, proteins, lipids and melanin, plays a key role in interactions with the host during infection. Changes in the set of the surface-exposed proteins under different environmental conditions provide an effective way for pathogens to respond, adapt and survive in the new niches of infection. This work summarizes the current state of knowledge on proteins, studied both qualitatively and quantitatively, and found within the cell wall of fungal pathogens for humans, including Candida albicans, Candida glabrata, Aspergillus fumigatus, Cryptococcus neoformans and other medically important fungi. The described proteomic studies involved the isolation and fractionation of particular sets of proteins of interest with various techniques, often based on differences in their linkages to the polysaccharide scaffold. Furthermore, the proteinaceous contents of extracellular vesicles ("virulence bags") of C. albicans, C. neoformans, Histoplasma capsulatum and Paracoccidioides brasiliensis are compared, because their production can partially explain the problem of non-classical protein secretion by fungi. The role assigned to surface-exposed proteins in pathogenesis of fungal infections is enormously high, thus justifying the need for further investigation of cell wall proteomes.

  3. Poliomyelitis in the United States: A Historical Perspective and Current Vaccination Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farizo, Karen M.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Examines poliomyelitis in the United States by reviewing clinical manifestations and outcomes, history, recent epidemiologic characteristics, characteristics of currently available vaccines, controversies surrounding vaccination policy, current poliovirus vaccination recommendations, and prospects for worldwide eradication. Poliomyelitis remains…

  4. Poliomyelitis in the United States: A Historical Perspective and Current Vaccination Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farizo, Karen M.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Examines poliomyelitis in the United States by reviewing clinical manifestations and outcomes, history, recent epidemiologic characteristics, characteristics of currently available vaccines, controversies surrounding vaccination policy, current poliovirus vaccination recommendations, and prospects for worldwide eradication. Poliomyelitis remains…

  5. Cyanobactins from Cyanobacteria: Current Genetic and Chemical State of Knowledge.

    PubMed

    Martins, Joana; Vasconcelos, Vitor

    2015-11-13

    Cyanobacteria are considered to be one of the most promising sources of new, natural products. Apart from non-ribosomal peptides and polyketides, ribosomally synthesized and post-translationally modified peptides (RiPPs) are one of the leading groups of bioactive compounds produced by cyanobacteria. Among these, cyanobactins have sparked attention due to their interesting bioactivities and for their potential to be prospective candidates in the development of drugs. It is assumed that the primary source of cyanobactins is cyanobacteria, although these compounds have also been isolated from marine animals such as ascidians, sponges and mollusks. The aim of this review is to update the current knowledge of cyanobactins, recognized as being produced by cyanobacteria, and to emphasize their genetic clusters and chemical structures as well as their bioactivities, ecological roles and biotechnological potential.

  6. Living donor liver transplantation in Brazil—current state

    PubMed Central

    Andraus, Wellington; D’Alburquerque, Luiz A. C.

    2016-01-01

    Currently in Brazil, living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) represents 8.5% of liver transplantation (LT), being the majority pediatric one. Up to now, according to Brazilian Organ Transplantation Association (ABTO) annual report, 2,086 procedures have been done nationwide, most of them in southeast and south regions. Based on national centers reports, biliary complication is the most common recipient postoperative complication (14.5–20.6%), followed by hepatic artery thrombosis (3.1–10.7%) and portal vein thrombosis (2.3–9.1%). Patient and graft overall 5-y survival correspond to 76% and 74%, respectively. Regarding the donor, morbidity rate ranges from 12.4% to 28.3%, with a national mortality rate of 0.14%. In conclusion, Brazilian LDLT programs enhance international experience that this is a feasible and safe procedure, as well as an excellent alternative strategy to overcome organs shortage. PMID:27115012

  7. Occupational Latex Allergy: the Current State of Affairs.

    PubMed

    Vandenplas, Olivier; Raulf, Monika

    2017-03-01

    Allergy to natural rubber latex (NRL) reached epidemic proportions during the nineties and led to intense preventive efforts. The aim of this review was to provide a comprehensive compilation of the current status of occupational NRL allergy. Recent advances led to the characterization of 15 NRL allergens and the development of assays for measuring the allergen content of NRL materials and specific IgE antibodies against NRL allergen components. Preventive measures aimed at reducing workplace exposure to NRL allergens were associated with decreasing incidence rates of NRL allergy. However, a pooled analysis of epidemiological surveys published during the last 10 years provided prevalence estimates of NRL sensitization and allergy similar to those derived from studies conducted before 2003. Substantial progress has been made in the understanding and prevention of NRL allergy, although the disease may still remain a worldwide cause of concern.

  8. Current state of renal transplant immunosuppression: Present and future

    PubMed Central

    Kalluri, Hari Varun; Hardinger, Karen L

    2012-01-01

    For kidney transplant recipients, immunosuppression commonly consists of combination treatment with a calcineurin inhibitor, an antiproliferative agent and a corticosteroid. Many medical centers use a sequential immunosuppression regimen where an induction agent, either an anti-thymocyte globulin or interleukin-2 receptor antibody, is given at the time of transplantation to prevent early acute rejection which is then followed by a triple immunosuppressive maintenance regimen. Very low rejection rates have been achieved at many transplant centers using combinations of these agents in a variety of protocols. Yet, a large number of recipients suffer chronic allograft injury and adverse events associated with drug therapy. Regimens designed to limit or eliminate calcineurin inhibitors and/or corticosteroid use are actively being pursued. An ideal immunosuppressive regimen limits toxicity and prolongs the functional life of the graft. This article contains a critical analysis of clinical data on currently available immunosuppressive strategies and an overview of therapeutic moieties in development. PMID:24175197

  9. [The current state of the brain-computer interface problem].

    PubMed

    Shurkhay, V A; Aleksandrova, E V; Potapov, A A; Goryainov, S A

    2015-01-01

    It was only 40 years ago that the first PC appeared. Over this period, rather short in historical terms, we have witnessed the revolutionary changes in lives of individuals and the entire society. Computer technologies are tightly connected with any field, either directly or indirectly. We can currently claim that computers are manifold superior to a human mind in terms of a number of parameters; however, machines lack the key feature: they are incapable of independent thinking (like a human). However, the key to successful development of humankind is collaboration between the brain and the computer rather than competition. Such collaboration when a computer broadens, supplements, or replaces some brain functions is known as the brain-computer interface. Our review focuses on real-life implementation of this collaboration.

  10. Cyanobactins from Cyanobacteria: Current Genetic and Chemical State of Knowledge

    PubMed Central

    Martins, Joana; Vasconcelos, Vitor

    2015-01-01

    Cyanobacteria are considered to be one of the most promising sources of new, natural products. Apart from non-ribosomal peptides and polyketides, ribosomally synthesized and post-translationally modified peptides (RiPPs) are one of the leading groups of bioactive compounds produced by cyanobacteria. Among these, cyanobactins have sparked attention due to their interesting bioactivities and for their potential to be prospective candidates in the development of drugs. It is assumed that the primary source of cyanobactins is cyanobacteria, although these compounds have also been isolated from marine animals such as ascidians, sponges and mollusks. The aim of this review is to update the current knowledge of cyanobactins, recognized as being produced by cyanobacteria, and to emphasize their genetic clusters and chemical structures as well as their bioactivities, ecological roles and biotechnological potential. PMID:26580631

  11. [Current state of treatment strategies for atrial fibrillation].

    PubMed

    Rogge, C; Hilbert, S; Dagres, N; Hindricks, G

    2016-05-01

    Atrial fibrillation is the most common form of persistent cardiac arrhythmia with a greatly increasing prevalence due to an aging population and increasing cardiovascular risk factors. Apart from impairment of the quality of life atrial fibrillation is associated with a high morbidity, most importantly stroke and heart failure. The therapy is complex and aims at improving symptoms as well as the prevention of thromboembolic complications, heart failure and aggravating comorbidities. Based on individual patient characteristics and symptoms therapy is mainly based on heart rate control by pharmacological means or therapy for maintaining sinus rhythm. This treatment includes antiarrhythmic drugs and catheter ablation. Current research is aimed at the investigation of the electrophysiological mechanisms of recurrent therapy refractive atrial fibrillation and the question whether the maintenance of sinus rhythm can improve the prognosis of atrial fibrillation.

  12. Sediments Contamination with Organic Micropollutants: Current State and Perspectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popenda, Agnieszka; Włodarczyk-Makuła, Maria

    2016-06-01

    This study focused on the sediment contamination with some organic micropollutants based on the monitoring data together with available literature in Poland. The following persistent organic pollutants (POPs): polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and chlorinated pesticides (CP) were characterized in sediments with respect to current legislations in force. Based on accessible data, higher PAHs, PCBs and CP concentrations were found in river sediments than in lake sediments. Especially, sediments of the Oder River and its tributary in the southern part of Poland, were highly polluted. In order to minimize the risk of the secondary pollution of surface waters, it is necessary to introduce consolidated management system with sediments proceeding. Furthermore, it is also of great importance to elaborate specific regulations concerning conditions of sediments management.

  13. Computer-Assisted Orthopedic Surgery: Current State and Future Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Guoyan; Nolte, Lutz P.

    2015-01-01

    Introduced about two decades ago, computer-assisted orthopedic surgery (CAOS) has emerged as a new and independent area, due to the importance of treatment of musculoskeletal diseases in orthopedics and traumatology, increasing availability of different imaging modalities, and advances in analytics and navigation tools. The aim of this paper is to present the basic elements of CAOS devices and to review state-of-the-art examples of different imaging modalities used to create the virtual representations, of different position tracking devices for navigation systems, of different surgical robots, of different methods for registration and referencing, and of CAOS modules that have been realized for different surgical procedures. Future perspectives will also be outlined. PMID:26779486

  14. Computer-Assisted Orthopedic Surgery: Current State and Future Perspective.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Guoyan; Nolte, Lutz P

    2015-01-01

    Introduced about two decades ago, computer-assisted orthopedic surgery (CAOS) has emerged as a new and independent area, due to the importance of treatment of musculoskeletal diseases in orthopedics and traumatology, increasing availability of different imaging modalities, and advances in analytics and navigation tools. The aim of this paper is to present the basic elements of CAOS devices and to review state-of-the-art examples of different imaging modalities used to create the virtual representations, of different position tracking devices for navigation systems, of different surgical robots, of different methods for registration and referencing, and of CAOS modules that have been realized for different surgical procedures. Future perspectives will also be outlined.

  15. Mechanistic Simulations of Inflammation: Current State and Future Prospects

    PubMed Central

    Vodovotz, Yoram; Constantine, Gregory; Rubin, Jonathan; Csete, Marie; Voit, Eberhard O.; An, Gary

    2009-01-01

    Inflammation is a normal, robust physiological process. It can also be viewed as a complex system that senses and resolves homeostatic perturbations initiated from within the body (for example, in autoimmune disease) or from the outside (for example, in infections). Virtually all acute and chronic diseases are either driven or modulated by inflammation. The complex interplay between beneficial and harmful arms of the inflammatory response may underlie the lack of fully effective therapies for many diseases. Mathematical modeling is emerging as a frontline tool for understanding the complexity of the inflammatory response. A series of articles in this issue highlights various modeling approaches to inflammation in the larger context of health and disease, from intracellular signaling to whole-animal physiology. Here we discuss the state of this emerging field. We note several common features of inflammation models, as well as challenges and prospects for future studies. PMID:18835282

  16. Phenotypic Variability in Resting-State Functional Connectivity: Current Status

    PubMed Central

    Gordon, Evan M.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract We reviewed the extant literature with the goal of assessing the extent to which resting-state functional connectivity is associated with phenotypic variability in healthy and disordered populations. A large corpus of work has accumulated to date (125 studies), supporting the association between intrinsic functional connectivity and individual differences in a wide range of domains—not only in cognitive, perceptual, motoric, and linguistic performance, but also in behavioral traits (e.g., impulsiveness, risky decision making, personality, and empathy) and states (e.g., anxiety and psychiatric symptoms) that are distinguished by cognitive and affective functioning, and in neurological conditions with cognitive and motor sequelae. Further, intrinsic functional connectivity is sensitive to remote (e.g., early-life stress) and enduring (e.g., duration of symptoms) life experience, and it exhibits plasticity in response to recent experience (e.g., learning and adaptation) and pharmacological treatment. The most pervasive associations were observed with the default network; associations were also widespread between the cingulo-opercular network and both cognitive and affective behaviors, while the frontoparietal network was associated primarily with cognitive functions. Associations of somatomotor, frontotemporal, auditory, and amygdala networks were relatively restricted to the behaviors linked to their respective putative functions. Surprisingly, visual network associations went beyond visual function to include a variety of behavioral traits distinguished by affective function. Together, the reviewed evidence sets the stage for testing causal hypothesis about the functional role of intrinsic connectivity and augments its potential as a biomarker for healthy and disordered brain function. PMID:23294010

  17. Cancer Treatment-Related Cardiotoxicity: Understanding the Current State of Knowledge and Developing Future Research Priorities

    Cancer.gov

    Cancer Treatment-Related Cardiotoxicity: Understanding the Current State of Knowledge and Developing Future Research Priorities, a 2013 workshop sponsored by the Epidemiology and Genomics Research Program.

  18. Current Practices in the Construction of State Courses of Study. Bulletin, 1931, No. 4

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langvick, Mina M.

    1931-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to analyze current practices in the construction of State courses of study. Available State courses of study, reports of survey commissions and educational officials, and other State educational publications have been examined to discover the problems considered significant by State educational officials and the…

  19. The proteome of human saliva

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griffin, Timothy J.

    2013-05-01

    Human saliva holds tremendous potential for transforming disease and health diagnostics given its richness of molecular information and non-invasive collection. Enumerating its molecular constituents is an important first step towards reaching this potential. Among the molecules in saliva, proteins and peptides arguably have the most value: they can directly indicate biochemical functions linked to a health condition/disease state, and they are attractive targets for biomarker assay development. However, cataloging and defining the human salivary proteome is challenging given the dynamic, chemically heterogeneous and complex nature of the system. In addition, the overall human saliva proteome is composed of several "sub-proteomes" which include: intact full length proteins, proteins carrying post-translational modifications (PTMs), low molecular weight peptides, and the metaproteome, derived from protein products from nonhuman organisms (e.g. microbes) present in the oral cavity. Presented here will be a summary of communal efforts to meet the challenge of characterizing the multifaceted saliva proteome, focusing on the use of mass spectrometry as the proteomic technology of choice. Implications of these efforts to characterize the salivary proteome in the context of disease diagnostics will also be discussed.

  20. Current state of psychotherapy training: preparing for the future.

    PubMed

    Kay, Jerald; Myers, Michael F

    2014-09-01

    This article provides an overview of what is currently being taught in psychiatry residency programs about psychotherapy in general, and to evolving changes in the field related to mental health parity and the Affordable Care Act (ACA) in particular. Future psychiatrists must have a firm grasp of not only the principles of psychotherapy but also the development of increasingly effective and evidence-based psychotherapies if they are to be effective health care leaders. We review what attracts medical students to psychiatry and how much their decision to train in psychiatry is rooted in a desire to learn both dynamic psychiatry and psychotherapy in its various modalities. It is no secret that the quality of teaching and learning psychotherapy is variable in our training programs. One reason for this can be attributed to trainees who ascribe more to the biological dimensions of our field and have less interest and commitment to more than basic skills in psychotherapy. In addition, in some settings there is a dearth of teachers trained in the various forms of psychotherapy who are committed to this pedagogical imperative. We conclude with several recommendations to residency training programs and to residents themselves regarding what we deem essential in both the curricular and clinical exposure to the challenges and shortcomings of the mental health parity and Affordable Care Act. Tomorrow's psychiatrists have a fiduciary responsibility of advocating for their complex and chronically ill patients that must include providing psychotherapy.

  1. The state of sleep and the current brain paradigm

    PubMed Central

    Pigarev, Ivan N.; Pigareva, Marina L.

    2015-01-01

    Up to the present time cerebral cortex was considered as substrate for realization of the highest psychical functions including consciousness. Cortical sensory areas were regarded as structures specialized for processing of information coming from one particular modality (visual, auditory, somatosensory, and so on). However, studies of cortical activity in sleep-wake cycle demonstrated that during sleep the same neurons in the same cortical areas switch to processing of signals coming from the various visceral systems. After awakening these visceral responses disappear and the neurons return to processing of the information coming from the exteroreceptors. These observations indicate that most likely cortical areas are universal processors, which perform particular operations with incoming information independent of its origin. During wakefulness, results of the information processing on the cortical level should be directed to structures connected with organization of behavior and consciousness, while during sleep cortical outputs should be redirected to structures performing integration of the visceral information. Thus, results of sleep studies indicate that current brain paradigm should be changed. PMID:26528146

  2. The current state of hepatopancreatobiliary fellowship experience in North America.

    PubMed

    Jeyarajah, Dhiresh Rohan; Patel, Shirali; Osman, Houssam

    2015-01-01

    The face of hepatopancreatobiliary (HPB) training has changed over the past decade. The growth of focused HPB fellowships, which are vetted with a rigorous accreditation process through the Fellowship Council (FC), has established them as an attractive mode of training in HPB surgery. This study looks at the volumes of HPB cases performed during these fellowships in North America. After approval by the FC research committee, data from all HPB fellowships that had 3 years worth of complete fellow case log data were tabulated and reported (n = 12). For 2-year fellowships, the fellow logs were tabulated at the completion of both years. Those programs that had transplant experience (n = 9) were reported. Data for the current fellows' case numbers show that graduating fellows have a median of 26 biliary cases, 19 major liver cases (hemilivers), 28 other liver cases, 40 pancreaticoduodenectomies,18 distal pancreatectomies, and 9 other pancreas cases. The programs that provided transplantation experience had 10 cases for each fellow. This study validates that FC-accredited HPB fellowships have a robust exposure to complex HPB surgery. Fellows completing these fellowships should be well versed in the management and surgical treatment of HPB patients. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  3. Clinical pharmacology in Russia-historical development and current state.

    PubMed

    Zagorodnikova Goryachkina, Ksenia; Burbello, Aleksandra; Sychev, Dmitry; Frolov, Maxim; Kukes, Vladimir; Petrov, Vladimir

    2015-02-01

    Clinical pharmacology in Russia has long history and is currently active, but rather unrecognized internationally. It is governmentally approved as a teaching/scientific specialty since 1983 and as a medical specialty since 1997. Courses of clinical pharmacology are included in the undergraduate curricula in the 5th and/or 6th year of education at all medical schools in the Russian Federation. Postgraduate education includes initial specialization in internal medicine with further residency in clinical pharmacology. Governmental legislation recommends that every healthcare institution has either a department or a single position of clinical pharmacologist. Major routine duties include information about and monitoring of medication use, consultations in difficult clinical situations, pharmacogenetic counseling, therapeutic drug monitoring, pharmacovigilance, and participation in drug and therapeutics (formulary) committees. There are official experts in clinical pharmacology in Russia responsible for coordinating relevant legislative issues. The chief expert clinical pharmacologist represents the discipline directly at the Ministry of Health. Research in clinical pharmacology in Russia is extensive and variable, but only some of it is published internationally. Russia is a participant of international societies of clinical pharmacology and therapeutics and collaboration is actively ongoing. There are still certain problems related to the development of the discipline in Russia-some healthcare institutions do not see the need for clinical pharmacology. However, the number of clinical pharmacologists in Russia is increasing as well as their role in physicians' education, national healthcare, and research.

  4. [Biosimilars : Current state of the build up to series production].

    PubMed

    Aringer, M; Dörner, T

    2013-11-01

    When patents expire, usually after 10 years in Germany, generic medicines routinely enter the market in place of conventional medications leading to significant reductions in prices. Currently the first biologicals are approaching patent expiry. Because of the biochemical complexities truly identical imitators are unrealistic. On the other hand, there is high socioeconomic pressure towards reduced cost of biologicals. In response to this situation the European Medicines Agency (EMA) has released a highly differentiated guidance document for the approval process of biosimilars. Biosimilars, which are already reality in other areas have to remain within a narrow biochemical variability corridor and are subsequently required to show bioequivalence to the reference product in both efficacy and safety in at least one large clinical phase III trial. In addition, post-marketing surveillance programs are mandatory in order to identify potential low frequency safety issues. In contrast to the "intended copies" used in some third world countries without such rigorous clinical testing the EMA-approved biosimilars are expected to have almost identical efficacy and safety as the reference medications. It is not yet clear how the use of specific biosimilars can be tracked and how uncontrolled exchange can be avoided. Nevertheless, biosimilars in rheumatology are likely to be available in the near future.

  5. Current HDTV overview in the United States, Japan, and Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cripps, Dale E.

    1991-08-01

    Vast resources are being spent on three continents, preparing for the commercialization of HDTV. The forces that together will launch this new industry are moving at dizzying speeds. This paper covers the highlights of events past and present and offers some predictions for the future. Difficult standards problems that keep brakes on the industry, and that will continue for some time to come. Standards committees have been set up around the world and are hard at work. It is a job with considerable technical and political challenges. By the time major plans and resources come together for commercialization of HDTV, one can trust that there will be adequately stable standards. But to observe the current status is to see a mess. High definition is not only consumer television. Because of its versatility, it is much more likely to find its way first into areas offering high returns such as medicine, education, printing, corporate communications, military and space, and even criminal control. HDTV is very likely to deliver movies and cultural events to theaters, and may also become the platform for a new generation of computers.

  6. Methodological approaches in conducting overviews: current state in HTA agencies.

    PubMed

    Pieper, Dawid; Antoine, Sunya-Lee; Morfeld, Jana-Carina; Mathes, Tim; Eikermann, Michaela

    2014-09-01

    Overviews search for reviews rather than for primary studies. They might have the potential to support decision making within a shorter time frame by reducing production time. We aimed to summarize available instructions for authors intending to conduct overviews as well as the currently applied methodology of overviews in international Health Technology Assessment (HTA) agencies. We identified 127 HTA agencies and scanned their websites for methodological handbooks as well as published overviews as HTA reports. Additionally, we contacted HTA agencies by e-mail to retrieve possible unidentified handbooks or other related sources. In total, eight HTA agencies providing methodological support were found. Thirteen HTA agencies were found to have produced overviews since 2007, but only six of them published more than four overviews. Overviews were mostly employed in HTA products related to rapid assessment. Additional searches for primary studies published after the last review are often mentioned in order to update results. Although the interest in overviews is rising, little methodological guidance for the conduct of overviews is provided by HTA agencies. Overviews are of special interest in the context of rapid assessments to support policy-making within a short time frame. Therefore, empirical work on overviews needs to be extended. National strategies and experience should be disclosed and discussed. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. The current state of ototoxicity monitoring in New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Steffens, Lotte; Venter, Kinau; O'Beirne, Greg A; Kelly-Campbell, Rebecca; Gibbs, David; Bird, Philip

    2014-07-18

    To explore medical oncologists' and audiologists' knowledge and attitudes regarding ototoxicity monitoring, and to gain an understanding of monitoring currently being implemented at District Health Boards (DHBs) nationwide. We also aimed to identify ways in which audiological outcomes for patients receiving potentially ototoxic treatments could be improved, including examining whether the formulation and implementation of a national ototoxicity monitoring guideline is necessary. Complementary telephonic interviews were conducted with 16 senior or charge audiologists and seven senior medical oncologists from DHBs across New Zealand, and their responses analysed. Responses indicate a comprehensive understanding of ototoxicity across both disciplines; however there is limited familiarity with ototoxicity monitoring protocols. Patients across New Zealand undergo significantly variable ototoxicity monitoring; local practices range from no routine monitoring to audiological assessment prior to each cycle of chemotherapy. No routine audiological follow up is conducted post completion of treatment at any DHB, in contrast with international guidelines. Twenty-two of 23 participants were in favour of development of a national ototoxicity monitoring guideline. There is significant discrepancy in how ototoxicity monitoring is conducted across New Zealand, and implementation of a national ototoxicity monitoring protocol may improve audiological outcomes for patients receiving ototoxic chemotherapy.

  8. Current State in the Development of Candidate Therapeutic HPV Vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Andrew; Jeang, Jessica; Cheng, Kevin; Cheng, Ting; Yang, Benjamin; Wu, T.-C.; Hung, Chien-Fu

    2016-01-01

    Summary The identification of human papillomavirus (HPV) as an etiological factor for HPV-associated malignancies creates the opportunity to control these cancers through vaccination. Currently, available preventive HPV vaccines have not yet demonstrated strong evidences for therapeutic effects against established HPV infections and lesions. Furthermore, HPV infections remain extremely common. Thus, there is urgent need for therapeutic vaccines to treat existing HPV infections and HPV-associated diseases. Therapeutic vaccines differ from preventive vaccines in that they are aimed at generating cell-mediated immunity rather than neutralizing antibodies. The HPV-encoded early proteins, especially oncoproteins E6 and E7, form ideal targets for therapeutic HPV vaccines since they are consistently expressed in HPV-associated malignancies and precancerous lesions, playing crucial roles in the generation and maintenance of HPV-associated disease. Our review will cover various therapeutic vaccines in development for the treatment of HPV-associated lesions and cancers. Furthermore, we review strategies to enhance vaccine efficacy and the latest clinical trials on therapeutic HPV vaccines. PMID:26901118

  9. Current state in the development of candidate therapeutic HPV vaccines.

    PubMed

    Yang, Andrew; Jeang, Jessica; Cheng, Kevin; Cheng, Ting; Yang, Benjamin; Wu, T-C; Hung, Chien-Fu

    2016-08-01

    The identification of human papillomavirus (HPV) as an etiological factor for HPV-associated malignancies creates the opportunity to control these cancers through vaccination. Currently, available preventive HPV vaccines have not yet demonstrated strong evidences for therapeutic effects against established HPV infections and lesions. Furthermore, HPV infections remain extremely common. Thus, there is urgent need for therapeutic vaccines to treat existing HPV infections and HPV-associated diseases. Therapeutic vaccines differ from preventive vaccines in that they are aimed at generating cell-mediated immunity rather than neutralizing antibodies. The HPV-encoded early proteins, especially oncoproteins E6 and E7, form ideal targets for therapeutic HPV vaccines since they are consistently expressed in HPV-associated malignancies and precancerous lesions, playing crucial roles in the generation and maintenance of HPV-associated disease. Our review will cover various therapeutic vaccines in development for the treatment of HPV-associated lesions and cancers. Furthermore, we review strategies to enhance vaccine efficacy and the latest clinical trials on therapeutic HPV vaccines.

  10. Prostate biopsy strategies: current state of the art.

    PubMed

    Mian, Badar M

    2004-05-01

    Prostate-specific antigen testing and prostate biopsy have revolutionized our ability to detect prostate cancer at an early stage. The transrectal ultrasound-guided biopsy procedure has undergone a number of modifications over the past 10 years to meet our goal of early detection of cancer at a curable stage. Biopsy schemes have evolved from lesion-directed biopsies to systematic mapping of the peripheral zone of the prostate, which harbors almost all of the significant tumor foci. An increase in the number of biopsy cores from 6 to 10 (or 12) has resulted in a significant improvement in the detection of clinically localized cancer, without any appreciable increase in the number of indolent cancers. Current biopsy schemes also have enhanced our ability to determine the true prognostic value of pathologic lesions such as high-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia and atypical small acinar proliferation which have been associated with cancer detection in repeat biopsies. I discuss the rationale behind, and the outcomes of, various biopsy strategies. More than 15 years after PSA testing was popularized for early detection, a number of men are presenting for evaluation regarding repeat prostate biopsy for various clinical indications. The indications, biopsy scheme, and cancer detection rates for repeat prostate biopsy are discussed in detail.

  11. Diagnosis of myocarditis: Current state and future perspectives.

    PubMed

    Biesbroek, P Stefan; Beek, Aernout M; Germans, Tjeerd; Niessen, Hans W M; van Rossum, Albert C

    2015-07-15

    Myocarditis, i.e. inflammation of the myocardium, is one of the leading causes of sudden cardiac death (SCD) and dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) in young adults, and is an important cause of symptoms such as chest pain, dyspnea and palpitations. The pathophysiological process of disease progression leading to DCM involves an ongoing inflammation as a result of a viral-induced auto-immune response or a persisting viral infection. It is therefore crucial to detect the disease early in its course and prevent persisting inflammation that may lead to DCM and end-stage heart failure. Because of the highly variable clinical presentation, ranging from mild symptoms to severe heart failure, and the limited available diagnostic tools, the evaluation of patients with suspected myocarditis represents an important clinical dilemma in cardiology. New approaches for the diagnosis of myocarditis are needed in order to improve recognition, to help unravel its pathophysiology, and to develop new therapeutic strategies to treat the disease. In this review, we give a comprehensive overview of the current diagnostic strategies for patients with suspected myocarditis, and demonstrate several new techniques that may help to improve the diagnostic work-up.

  12. Meditative analgesia: the current state of the field.

    PubMed

    Grant, Joshua A

    2014-01-01

    Since the first demonstrations that mindfulness-based therapies could have a positive influence on chronic pain patients, numerous studies have been conducted with healthy individuals in an attempt to understand meditative analgesia. This review focuses explicitly on experimental pain studies of meditation and attempts to draw preliminary conclusions based on the work completed in this new field over the past 6 years. Dividing meditative practices into the broad categories of focused attention (FA) and open monitoring (OM) techniques allowed several patterns to emerge. The majority of evidence for FA practices suggests they are not particularly effective in reducing pain. OM, on the other hand, seems to influence both sensory and affective pain ratings depending on the tradition or on whether the practitioners were meditating. The neural pattern underlying pain modulation during OM suggests meditators actively focus on the noxious stimulation while inhibiting other mental processes, consistent with descriptions of mindfulness. A preliminary model is presented for explaining the influence of mindfulness practice on pain. Finally, the potential analgesic effect of the currently unexplored technique of compassion meditation is discussed.

  13. Percutaneous left atrial appendage closure: current state of the art.

    PubMed

    Jazayeri, Mohammad-Ali; Vuddanda, Venkat; Parikh, Valay; Lakkireddy, Dhanunjaya R

    2017-01-01

    The authors reviewed the seminal and more recent literature surrounding the major modalities for percutaneous left atrial appendage closure used in contemporary practice, with particular emphasis on safety and efficacy, technical challenges, and future developments. Along with the continued practice of surgical left atrial appendage closure, which has evolved substantially with the advent of clipping techniques, a number of percutaneous methods have been developed to close the left atrial appendage with endocardial, epicardial, and hybrid approaches. The last 18 months has seen the Food and Drug Administration approval of the WATCHMAN device for stroke prevention in the United States, the initiation of a randomized controlled trial to further examine the LARIAT device, and an increasing body of literature surrounding use of the AMPLATZER Amulet in Europe. Left atrial appendage closure is a promising alternative to systemic anticoagulation for stroke prevention in appropriate atrial fibrillation patients. The wealth of available data for the various modalities sheds light on the strengths and limitations of each, postprocedural complications and their management, and new areas for exploration. With a plethora of new devices on the horizon, it is a very exciting time in the field of 'appendage-ology' as we pursue new avenues to optimize care for atrial fibrillation patients.

  14. Current state of web accessibility of Malaysian ministries websites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmi, Aidi; Mohamad, Rosli

    2016-08-01

    Despite the fact that Malaysian public institutions have progressed considerably on website and portal usage, web accessibility has been reported as one of the issues deserves special attention. Consistent with the government moves to promote an effective use of web and portal, it is essential for the government institutions to ensure compliance with established standards and guidelines on web accessibility. This paper evaluates accessibility of 25 Malaysian ministries websites using automated tools i.e. WAVE and Achecker. Both tools are designed to objectively evaluate web accessibility in conformance with Web Content Accessibility Guidelines 2.0 (WCAG 2.0) and United States Rehabilitation Act 1973 (Section 508). The findings reported somewhat low compliance to web accessibility standard amongst the ministries. Further enhancement is needed in the aspect of input elements such as label and checkbox to be associated with text as well as image-related elements. This findings could be used as a mechanism for webmasters to locate and rectify errors pertaining to the web accessibility and to ensure equal access of the web information and services to all citizen.

  15. Metabolomics: current state and evolving methodologies and tools.

    PubMed

    Oldiges, Marco; Lütz, Stephan; Pflug, Simon; Schroer, Kirsten; Stein, Nadine; Wiendahl, Christiane

    2007-09-01

    In recent years, metabolomics developed to an accepted and valuable tool in life sciences. Substantial improvements of analytical hardware allow metabolomics to run routinely now. Data are successfully used to investigate genotype-phenotype relations of strains and mutants. Metabolomics facilitates metabolic engineering to optimise mircoorganisms for white biotechnology and spreads to the investigation of biotransformations and cell culture. Metabolomics serves not only as a source of qualitative but also quantitative data of intra-cellular metabolites essential for the model-based description of the metabolic network operating under in vivo conditions. To collect reliable metabolome data sets, culture and sampling conditions, as well as the cells' metabolic state, are crucial. Hence, application of biochemical engineering principles and method standardisation efforts become important. Together with the other more established omics technologies, metabolomics will strengthen its claim to contribute to the detailed understanding of the in vivo function of gene products, biochemical and regulatory networks and, even more ambitious, the mathematical description and simulation of the whole cell in the systems biology approach. This knowledge will allow the construction of designer organisms for process application using biotransformation and fermentative approaches making effective use of single enzymes, whole microbial and even higher cells.

  16. The current state of physical therapy pain curricula in the United States: a faculty survey.

    PubMed

    Hoeger Bement, Marie K; Sluka, Kathleen A

    2015-02-01

    Insufficient pain education is problematic across the health care spectrum. Recent educational advancements have been made to combat the deficits in pain education to ensure that health care professionals are proficient in assessing and managing pain. The purpose of this survey was to determine the extent of pain education in current Doctorate of Physical Therapy schools in the United States, including how pain is incorporated into the curriculum, the amount of time spent teaching about pain, and the resources used to teach about pain. The survey consisted of 10 questions in the following subject areas: basic science mechanisms and concepts about pain, pain assessment, pain management, and adequacy of pain curriculum. The overall response was 77% (167/216) for the first series of responses of the survey (Question 1), whereas 62% completed the entire survey (Questions 2-10). The average contact hours teaching about pain was 31 ± 1.8 (mean ± standard error of the mean) with a range of 5 to 115 hours. The majority of schools that responded covered the science of pain, assessment, and management. Less than 50% of respondents were aware of the Institute of Medicine report on pain or the International Association for the Study of Pain guidelines for physical therapy pain education. Only 61% of respondents believed that their students received adequate education in pain management. Thus, this survey demonstrated how pain education is incorporated into physical therapy schools and highlighted areas for improvement such as awareness of recent educational advancements. This article demonstrates how pain education is incorporated into physical therapy curricula within accredited programs. Understanding the current structure of pain education in health professional curriculum can serve as a basis to determine if recent publications of guidelines and competencies impact education. Copyright © 2015 American Pain Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. The current state of pediatric drug-induced sleep endoscopy.

    PubMed

    Friedman, Norman R; Parikh, Sanjay R; Ishman, Stacey L; Ruiz, Amanda G; El-Hakim, Hamdy; Ulualp, Seckin O; Wootten, Christopher T; Koltai, Peter J; Chan, Dylan K

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to assess current drug-induced sleep endoscopy (DISE) practice patterns at centers that have published on the technique, to identify areas of agreement, and to identify areas of disagreement that may represent opportunities for improvement and standardization. Multi-institutional survey. A survey was designed in two phases to evaluate preoperative assessment, intraoperative performance, and postoperative management of patients undergoing DISE. The survey was constructed iteratively in consultation with the all of the coauthors, each selected as an expert owing to their previous publication of one or more articles pertaining to pediatric DISE. In the first phase of survey creation, each expert was asked to provide narrative answers to questions pertaining to DISE. These responses served as the basis for a second survey. This second survey was then administered to all pediatric otolaryngologists at each respective institution. Overall, there was a low rate of agreement (33%) among the respondents; however, there was substantial agreement within institution, particularly for the use of anesthetic medications, the use of cine magnetic resonance imaging, and performance of bronchoscopy along with DISE. There was strong agreement among all respondents for performing DISE in a child with severe obstructive sleep apnea following adenotonsillectomy, regardless of comorbidities. This multi-institutional survey demonstrated a lack of consensus between experts and multiple opportunities for improvement. In general, there was agreement regarding the workup prior to DISE performance and the endoscopic protocol but disagreement regarding anesthetic protocol and management decisions. 4. Laryngoscope, 127:266-272, 2017. © 2016 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  18. Current state and use of biological adhesives in orthopedic surgery.

    PubMed

    Shah, Neil V; Meislin, Robert

    2013-12-01

    Bone and tissue adhesives are common and beneficial supplements to standard methods of musculoskeletal tissue suture repair. Knowledge and development of biologically derived or inspired adhesives useful in orthopedic surgery are rapidly advancing. Recent literature demonstrates the increased adjunct or primary use of biological adhesives in the repair of musculoskeletal soft tissues, chondral fractures, and osteochondral fractures. Adhesives offer more benefits and enhancements to tissue healing than current fixation methods afford, including improved biocompatibility, resorbability, and non-immunogenicity. Further investigation is required to determine the extent of the role that these bioadhesives can play in orthopedic surgery. The largest group of biologically derived adhesives and sealants is fibrin sealants, which include first- and second-generation commercially available fibrin sealants, autologous fibrin sealants, and variants. Other groups include gelatin-resorcin aldehydes, protein-aldehyde systems, collagen-based adhesives, polysaccharide- based adhesives, mussel adhesive proteins, and various biologically inspired or biomimetic glues. Potential uses include applications in orthopedic-related blood conservation, arthroplasty, articular cartilage disorders, sports medicine, spine surgery, trauma, and tumors. The development of an adhesive with universal application is likely unfeasible, given the unique characteristics of various musculoskeletal tissues. However, the literature demonstrates the overall underuse of adhesives and indicates the rising probability of the development of a successful variety of bioadhesives for use in orthopedic surgery. As a result of reading this article, physicians should be able to: 1. Describe the difference between adhesives and sealants. 2. Recognize fibrin adhesives commonly used in practice today and identify other biological adhesives with rising potential. 3. Analyze how fibrin sealants work relative to fibrin and

  19. Circulating vaccine-derived polioviruses: current state of knowledge.

    PubMed Central

    Kew, Olen M.; Wright, Peter F.; Agol, Vadim I.; Delpeyroux, Francis; Shimizu, Hiroyuki; Nathanson, Neal; Pallansch, Mark A.

    2004-01-01

    Within the past 4 years, poliomyelitis outbreaks associated with circulating vaccine-derived polioviruses (cVDPVs) have occurred in Hispaniola (2000-01), the Philippines (2001), and Madagascar (2001-02). Retrospective studies have also detected the circulation of endemic cVDPV in Egypt (1988-93) and the likely localized spread of oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV)-derived virus in Belarus (1965-66). Gaps in OPV coverage and the previous eradication of the corresponding serotype of indigenous wild poliovirus were the critical risk factors for all cVDPV outbreaks. The cVDPV outbreaks were stopped by mass immunization campaigns using OPV. To increase sensitivity for detecting vaccine-derived polioviruses (VDPVs), in 2001 the Global Polio Laboratory Network implemented additional testing requirements for all poliovirus isolates under investigation. This approach quickly led to the recognition of the Philippines and Madagascar cVDPV outbreaks, but of no other current outbreaks. The potential risk of cVDPV emergence has increased dramatically in recent years as wild poliovirus circulation has ceased in most of the world. The risk appears highest for the type 2 OPV strain because of its greater tendency to spread to contacts. The emergence of cVDPVs underscores the critical importance of eliminating the last pockets of wild poliovirus circulation, maintaining universally high levels of polio vaccine coverage, stopping OPV use as soon as it is safely possible to do so, and continuing sensitive poliovirus surveillance into the foreseeable future. Particular attention must be given to areas where the risks for wild poliovirus circulation have been highest, and where the highest rates of polio vaccine coverage must be maintained to suppress cVDPV emergence. PMID:15106296

  20. Towards Sustainable Water Quality In Estuarine Impoundments: The Current State.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wright, J.; Worrall, F.

    Several estuarine impoundment schemes have been built or are proposed in the UK and worldwide. The impounding of estuaries is currently a popular approach to urban regeneration in the UK. By creation of an aesthetically pleasing amenity impound- ment, including the drowning of "unsightly" tidal mud flats, it is hoped that prestige development will be encouraged in the estuarine area. Impounding fundamentally alters the dynamics of estuaries, with consequences in terms of sedimentation patterns and rates, and water quality. The SIMBA Project at- tempts to understand the controls on water quality in impoundments, with a view to- wards long term and sustainable high water quality through good barrage design and management practice. Detailed water quality surveys have been carried out on a total of 79 dates on the Tees, Tawe, Wansbeck and Blyth estuaries. Water quality parameters which have been determined are pH, Eh, dissolved oxygen (DO), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), conductivity, transparency, suspended solids, alkalinity, temperature, nutri- ents (nitrate+nitrite, ammonium and orthophosphate), and a large range of dissolved metals. Statistical analyses are used to demonstrate the major controls on water qual- ity in impoundments. A distinction is made between total tidal exclusion (freshwater) systems, in which water quality is primarily influenced by external/catchment factors, and partial tidal exclusion systems, in which water quality is processed internally. This internal processing is due to density stratification creating compartments of saline wa- ter in contact with oxygen demanding sediments and isolated from the atmosphere, which leads to conditions of low DO and changes in redox conditions which may lead to release of metals and phosphate from the sediment.

  1. Current State of Antimicrobial Stewardship in Children's Hospital Emergency Departments.

    PubMed

    Mistry, Rakesh D; Newland, Jason G; Gerber, Jeffrey S; Hersh, Adam L; May, Larissa; Perman, Sarah M; Kuppermann, Nathan; Dayan, Peter S

    2017-04-01

    BACKGROUND Antimicrobial stewardship programs (ASPs) effectively optimize antibiotic use for inpatients; however, the extent of emergency department (ED) involvement in ASPs has not been described. OBJECTIVE To determine current ED involvement in children's hospital ASPs and to assess beliefs and preferred methods of implementation for ED-based ASPs. METHODS A cross-sectional survey of 37 children's hospitals participating in the Sharing Antimicrobial Resistance Practices collaboration was conducted. Surveys were distributed to ASP leaders and ED medical directors at each institution. Items assessed included beliefs regarding ED antibiotic prescribing, ED prescribing resources, ASP methods used in the ED such as clinical decision support and clinical care guidelines, ED participation in ASP activities, and preferred methods for ED-based ASP implementation. RESULTS A total of 36 ASP leaders (97.3%) and 32 ED directors (86.5%) responded; the overall response rate was 91.9%. Most ASP leaders (97.8%) and ED directors (93.7%) agreed that creation of ED-based ASPs was necessary. ED resources for antibiotic prescribing were obtained via the Internet or electronic health records (EHRs) for 29 hospitals (81.3%). The main ASP activities for the ED included production of antibiograms (77.8%) and creation of clinical care guidelines for pneumonia (83.3%). The ED was represented on 3 hospital ASP committees (8.3%). No hospital ASPs actively monitored outpatient ED prescribing. Most ASP leaders (77.8%) and ED directors (81.3%) preferred implementation of ED-based ASPs using clinical decision support integrated into the EHR. CONCLUSIONS Although ED involvement in ASPs is limited, both ASP and ED leaders believe that ED-based ASPs are necessary. Many children's hospitals have the capability to implement ED-based ASPs via the preferred method: EHR clinical decision support. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2017;38:469-475.

  2. Quality improvement in medical education: current state and future directions.

    PubMed

    Wong, Brian M; Levinson, Wendy; Shojania, Kaveh G

    2012-01-01

    During the last decade, there has been a drive to improve the quality of patient care and prevent the occurrence of avoidable errors. This review describes current efforts to teach or engage trainees in patient safety and quality improvement (QI), summarises progress to date, as well as successes and challenges, and lists our recommendations for the next steps that will shape the future of patient safety and QI in medical education. Trainees encounter patient safety and QI through three main groups of activity. First are formal curricula that teach concepts or methods intended to facilitate trainees' participation in QI activities. These curricula increase learner knowledge and may improve clinical processes, but demonstrate limited capacity to modify learner behaviours. Second are educational activities that impart specific skills related to safety or quality which are considered to represent core doctor competencies (e.g. effective patient handover). These are frequently taught effectively, but without emphasis on the general safety or quality principles that inform the relevant skills. Third are real-life QI initiatives that involve trainees as active or passive participants. These innovative approaches expose trainees to safety and quality by integrating QI activities into trainees' day-to-day work. However, this integration can be challenging and can sometimes result in tension with broader educational goals. To prepare the next generation of doctors to make meaningful contributions to the quality mission, we propose the following call to action. Firstly, a major effort to build faculty capacity, especially among teachers of QI, should be instigated. Secondly, accreditation standards and assessment methods, both during training and at end-of-training certification examinations, should explicitly target these competencies. Finally, and perhaps most importantly, we must refocus our attention at all levels of training and instil fundamental, collaborative, open

  3. [Superparamagnetic iron oxide particles: current state and future development].

    PubMed

    Taupitz, M; Schmitz, S; Hamm, B

    2003-06-01

    A wide range of applications for superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO) particles as contrast media for MRI has emerged over the last 15 years. SPIO particles can be manufactured with different particle sizes and surface coatings. Large SPIO particles (50-150 nm) predominantly produce a signal decrease or T2 -shortening and are used as contrast media for MRI of the liver and spleen. They have a high accuracy, especially in detecting liver metastases (approved for clinical use: AMI-25 (Endorem or Ferridex), SHU-555A (Resovist)). Smaller particles (about 20 nm in diameter) show a different organ distribution and have a potential for improving noninvasive lymph node assessment or characterizing vulnerable atherosclerotic plaques (in clinical trials: AMI-227 [Sinerem or Combidex]). Particles with an optimized T1-relaxivity and prolonged intravascular circulation time can be used as blood pool contrast media for MR angiography. The currently investigated indications are MR angiography of the trunk, peripheral vessels, and coronary arteries (e.g., SHU-555 C (Supravist), VSOP-C 184). Other applications of small SPIO particles include MRI of the bone marrow and the determination of perfusion parameters in tumors or other tissues like the myocardium. SPIO particles with a modified coat can be used in so-called molecular imaging, such as receptor-directed imaging, cell labeling for in-vivo monitoring of cell migration, e.g., stem cell labeling, and labeling of gene constructs for localization in genetic therapy. In tumor therapy SPIO particles can serve as mediators for hyperthermia. SPIO is a powerful MR contrast medium with manifold applications ranging from diagnostic imaging to molecular medicine.

  4. Current state of the art of medical foods.

    PubMed

    Blum, Stephanie; Brito, Fernando

    2014-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is one of the five most prevalent gastrointestinal disease burdens in the US, with an overall health care cost of more than USD 1.7 billion. It commonly requires a lifetime of care, and accounts for more than 700,000 physician visits, 100,000 hospitalizations, and disability in 119,000 patients each year. IBD is a multifactorial disease and comprises genetic susceptibility, uncontrolled immune responses, and environmental factors which play a role in the pathogenesis and course of the disease. IBD patients are lifelong on medication, either for induction or maintenance therapy. Current treatment option (corticosteroids, immune suppressants, biologics), administered in mono- or combination therapy, are still unsatisfactory. Due to the nature of disease, 20-40% of patients relapse within the first 12 months. Although modern treatment algorithms have diminished the risk of surgery, the treatments harbor significant side effects, which impacts patients' quality of life. The role of nutrition in IBD has gathered high interest, especially in pediatric Crohn's disease, where studies have shown that exclusive enteral nutrition can induce remission in mild-to-moderate disease comparable to corticosteroids. Thus, gastroenterologists and patients become increasingly aware that specific nutritional interventions offered in addition to the standard of care are an appealing option for a safe long-term disease management. Such specific nutritional solutions should be based on scientific/clinical evidence and specifically designed to address the patients' distinct nutritional requirements. As per definition, these nutrition products fall under the regulatory framework of a Medical Food (Foods for Special Medical Purposes in Europe).

  5. Occult HCV Infection: The Current State of Knowledge

    PubMed Central

    Rezaee-Zavareh, Mohammad Saeid; Hadi, Reza; Karimi-Sari, Hamidreza; Hossein Khosravi, Mohammad; Ajudani, Reza; Dolatimehr, Fardin; Ramezani-Binabaj, Mahdi; Miri, Seyyed Mohammad; Alavian, Seyed Moayed

    2015-01-01

    Context Occult HCV infection (OCI) is defined as the presence of HCV-RNA in hepatocytes and the absence of HCV in the serum according to usual tests. We aimed to define OCI and provide information about the currently available diagnostic methods. Then we focus on specific groups that are at high risk of OCI and finally investigate immune responses to OCI and the available treatment approaches. Evidence Acquisition PubMed, Scopus and Google Scholar were comprehensively searched with combination of following keywords: “occult”, “hepatitis C virus” and “occult HCV infection”. The definition of OCI, diagnostic methods, specific groups that are at high risk and available treatment approaches were extract from literature. An analysis of available articles on OCI also was done based on Scopus search results. Results OCI has been reported in several high-risk groups, especially in hemodialysis patients and subjects with cryptogenic liver disease. Furthermore, some studies have proposed a specific immune response for OCI in comparison with chronic hepatitis C (CHC). Conclusions With a clinical history of approximately 11 years, occult HCV infection can be considered an occult type of CHC. Evidences suggest that considering OCI in these high-risk groups seems to be necessary. We suggest that alternative diagnostic tests should be applied and that there is a need for the participation of all countries to determine the epidemiology of this type of HCV infection. Additionally, evaluating OCI in blood transfusion centers and in patients who receive large amounts of blood and clotting factors, such as patients with hemophilia, should be performed in future projects. PMID:26734487

  6. Current Cigarette Smoking Among Adults - United States, 2005-2015.

    PubMed

    Jamal, Ahmed; King, Brian A; Neff, Linda J; Whitmill, Jennifer; Babb, Stephen D; Graffunder, Corinne M

    2016-11-11

    Tobacco use is the leading cause of preventable disease and death in the United States, and cigarettes are the most commonly used tobacco product among U.S. adults (1,2). To assess progress toward achieving the Healthy People 2020 target of reducing the proportion of U.S. adults who smoke cigarettes to ≤12.0% (objective TU1.1),* CDC assessed the most recent national estimates of cigarette smoking prevalence among adults aged ≥18 years using data from the 2015 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS). The proportion of U.S. adults who smoke cigarettes declined from 20.9% in 2005 to 15.1% in 2015, and the proportion of daily smokers declined from 16.9% to 11.4%. However, disparities in cigarette smoking persist. In 2015, prevalence of cigarette smoking was higher among adults who were male; were aged 25-44 years; were American Indian/Alaska Native; had a General Education Development certificate (GED); lived below the federal poverty level; lived in the Midwest; were insured through Medicaid or were uninsured; had a disability/limitation; were lesbian, gay, or bisexual; or who had serious psychological distress. Proven population-based interventions, including tobacco price increases, comprehensive smoke-free laws, anti-tobacco mass media campaigns, and barrier-free access to tobacco cessation counseling and medications, are critical to reducing cigarette smoking and smoking-related disease and death among U.S. adults, particularly among subpopulations with the highest smoking prevalences (3).

  7. Current cigarette smoking among adults - United States, 2005-2014.

    PubMed

    Jamal, Ahmed; Homa, David M; O'Connor, Erin; Babb, Stephen D; Caraballo, Ralph S; Singh, Tushar; Hu, S Sean; King, Brian A

    2015-11-13

    Tobacco smoking is the leading cause of preventable disease and death in the United States, resulting in approximately 480,000 premature deaths and more than $300 billion in direct health care expenditures and productivity losses each year (1). To assess progress toward achieving the Healthy People 2020 objective of reducing the percentage of U.S. adults who smoke cigarettes to ≤12.0%,* CDC assessed the most recent national estimates of smoking prevalence among adults aged ≥18 years using data from the 2014 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS). The percentage of U.S. adults who smoke cigarettes declined from 20.9% in 2005 to 16.8% in 2014. Among daily cigarette smokers, declines were observed in the percentage who smoked 20–29 cigarettes per day (from 34.9% to 27.4%) or ≥30 cigarettes per day (from 12.7% to 6.9%). In 2014, prevalence of cigarette smoking was higher among males, adults aged 25–44 years, multiracial persons and American Indian/Alaska Natives, persons who have a General Education Development certificate, live below the federal poverty level, live in the Midwest, are insured through Medicaid or are uninsured, have a disability or limitation, or are lesbian, gay, or bisexual. Proven population-based interventions, including tobacco price increases, comprehensive smoke-free laws, high impact mass media campaigns, and barrier-free access to quitting assistance, are critical to reduce cigarette smoking and smoking-related disease and death among U.S. adults.

  8. Spatially-Resolved Proteomics: Rapid Quantitative Analysis of Laser Capture Microdissected Alveolar Tissue Samples

    SciTech Connect

    Clair, Geremy; Piehowski, Paul D.; Nicola, Teodora; Kitzmiller, Joseph A.; Huang, Eric L.; Zink, Erika M.; Sontag, Ryan L.; Orton, Daniel J.; Moore, Ronald J.; Carson, James P.; Smith, Richard D.; Whitsett, Jeffrey A.; Corley, Richard A.; Ambalavanan, Namasivayam; Ansong, Charles

    2016-12-22

    Global proteomics approaches allow characterization of whole tissue lysates to an impressive depth. However, it is now increasingly recognized that to better understand the complexity of multicellular organisms, global protein profiling of specific spatially defined regions/substructures of tissues (i.e. spatially-resolved proteomics) is essential. Laser capture microdissection (LCM) enables microscopic isolation of defined regions of tissues preserving crucial spatial information. However, current proteomics workflows entail several manual sample preparation steps and are challenged by the microscopic mass-limited samples generated by LCM, and that impact measurement robustness, quantification, and throughput. Here, we coupled LCM with a fully automated sample preparation workflow that with a single manual step allows: protein extraction, tryptic digestion, peptide cleanup and LC-MS/MS analysis of proteomes from microdissected tissues. Benchmarking against the current state of the art in ultrasensitive global proteomic analysis, our approach demonstrated significant improvements in quantification and throughput. Using our LCM-SNaPP proteomics approach, we characterized to a depth of more than 3,400 proteins, the ontogeny of protein changes during normal lung development in laser capture microdissected alveolar tissue containing ~4,000 cells per sample. Importantly, the data revealed quantitative changes for 350 low abundance transcription factors and signaling molecules, confirming earlier transcript-level observations and defining seven modules of coordinated transcription factor/signaling molecule expression patterns, suggesting that a complex network of temporal regulatory control directs normal lung development with epigenetic regulation fine-tuning pre-natal developmental processes. Our LCM-proteomics approach facilitates efficient, spatially-resolved, ultrasensitive global proteomics analyses in high-throughput that will be enabling for several clinical and

  9. Current State of the Art in High Brightness LEDs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Craford, George

    2007-03-01

    LED's have been commercially available since the 1960's. For many years they were used primarily for indicator applications. The remarkable increase in materials technology and efficiency that has been achieved since the early 1990's for AlInGaP red and amber LEDs, and InGaN green and blue LEDs, has enabled the penetration of markets such as outdoor display, signaling, and automotive brake light and turn signal applications. White LEDs, which are either blue LEDs combined with a phosphor, or a combination of red, green, and blue LEDs, are being used in emerging applications such as cell phone flash, television backlights, projection, and automotive headlights. In addition, to efficiency improvements these applications have required the development of higher power packages and, in some of these applications which are etendue limited, higher luminance devices. High power devices are commercially available which are capable of 140 lumens output and have an efficacy of around 70 lm/W for white emission. New package and chip technologies have been demonstrated which have a luminance of 38 mega nits (Mcd/m^2), approximately 50% more luminance than that of an automotive headlamp halogen bulb (˜25 mega nits). The recent progress in materials technology, packaging, and chip technology makes it clear that LED's will become important for general illumination applications. The rate of LED penetration of this market will depend upon continued increases in performance and lower costs as well as better control of the white spectral emission. Efficiency, current density, and costs are closely linked because the cost in dollars/lumen is inversely proportional to how many lumens can be realized from each unit of device area for a given device type. Performance as high as 138 lm/W, and over 40% wall plug efficiency, has been reported for low power research devices and over 90 lm/W for high power research devices. It is clear that high power commercial products with performance in

  10. The current state of seismic monitoring in Switzerland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clinton, J. F.; Haslinger, F.; Diehl, T.; Cauzzi, C.; Plenkers, K.; Kästli, P.; Fäh, D.; Wiemer, S.

    2013-12-01

    The Swiss Seismological Service at ETH Zurich (SED) operates both the national strong motion and broadband permanent seismic networks in Switzerland, as well as supporting local real-time densifications related to projects (such as geothermal explorations and major tunneling) and a mobile pool for national and international deployments related to research and aftershock studies. This submission provides an overview of the current status of network monitoring in Switzerland. A digital high gain network has been operating since 1974 and was upgraded to a continuously recording realtime modern 24 bit broadband network comprising 30 stations from 1999-2002, with station spacing averaging ~30km across the nation. Various improvements and densifications since then have raised the number of broadband sensors to 45 and added co-located strong motion sensors at 13 sites. A notable recent densification is in the NE of Switzerland, where the Swiss National Cooperative for the Disposal of Radioactive Waste (Nagra) have funded an additional 10 broadband stations (including 3 100-200m deep borehole short period stations) in order to reduce the earthquake detection threshold and increase location accuracy in regions that are identified as potential deep nuclear waste storage sites. A strong motion network has been maintained since 1990, comprising 70 12-16 bit triggered sensors located predominantly in free-field urban sites but also including arrays on dams. The free-field network is in the midst of an upgrade (2009-2018), with 30 new stations already installed from the eventual 100 new free-field 24-bit real-time continuous stations. A project has just begun to upgrade the Swiss broadband network, which will co-locate strong-motion sensors at existing broadband sites; assess and implement improvements of installation quality, e.g. by shallow post-hole installations rather than surface vaults; and potentially fill remaining gaps in station coverage. The seismic network has

  11. NCI Launches Proteomics Assay Portal | Office of Cancer Clinical Proteomics Research

    Cancer.gov

    In a paper recently published by the journal Nature Methods, Investigators from the National Cancer Institute’s Clinical Proteomic Tumor Analysis Consortium (NCI-CPTAC) announced the launch of a proteomics Assay Portal for multiple reaction monitoring-mass spectrometry (MRM-MS) assays.  This community web-based repository for well-characterized quantitative proteomic assays currently consists of 456 unique peptide assays to 282 unique proteins and ser

  12. NIH Common Fund - Disruptive Proteomics Technologies - Challenges and Opportunities | Office of Cancer Clinical Proteomics Research

    Cancer.gov

    This Request for Information (RFI) is directed toward determining how best to accelerate research in disruptive proteomics technologies. The Disruptive Proteomics Technologies (DPT) Working Group of the NIH Common Fund wishes to identify gaps and opportunities in current technologies and methodologies related to proteome-wide measurements.  For the purposes of this RFI, “disruptive” is defined as very rapid, very significant gains, similar to the "disruptive" technology development that occurred in DNA sequencing technology.

  13. The human plasma proteome: history, character, and diagnostic prospects.

    PubMed

    Anderson, N Leigh; Anderson, Norman G

    2002-11-01

    The human plasma proteome holds the promise of a revolution in disease diagnosis and therapeutic monitoring provided that major challenges in proteomics and related disciplines can be addressed. Plasma is not only the primary clinical specimen but also represents the largest and deepest version of the human proteome present in any sample: in addition to the classical "plasma proteins," it contains all tissue proteins (as leakage markers) plus very numerous distinct immunoglobulin sequences, and it has an extraordinary dynamic range in that more than 10 orders of magnitude in concentration separate albumin and the rarest proteins now measured clinically. Although the restricted dynamic range of conventional proteomic technology (two-dimensional gels and mass spectrometry) has limited its contribution to the list of 289 proteins (tabulated here) that have been reported in plasma to date, very recent advances in multidimensional survey techniques promise at least double this number in the near future. Abundant scientific evidence, from proteomics and other disciplines, suggests that among these are proteins whose abundances and structures change in ways indicative of many, if not most, human diseases. Nevertheless, only a handful of proteins are currently used in routine clinical diagnosis, and the rate of introduction of new protein tests approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has paradoxically declined over the last decade to less than one new protein diagnostic marker per year. We speculate on the reasons behind this large discrepancy between the expectations arising from proteomics and the realities of clinical diagnostics and suggest approaches by which protein-disease associations may be more effectively translated into diagnostic tools in the future.

  14. Assessing the Current State of Cognitive Frailty: Measurement Properties.

    PubMed

    Sargent, L; Brown, R

    2017-01-01

    Currently, an estimated 25-30% of people ages 85 or older have dementia, with a projected 115 million people worldwide living with dementia by 2050. With this worldwide phenomenon fast approaching, early detection of at-risk older adults and development of interventions focused on preventing loss in quality of life are increasingly important. A new construct defined by the International Consensus Group (I.A.N.A/I.A.G.G) as «cognitive frailty» combines domains of physical frailty with cognitive impairment and provides a framework for research that may provide a means to identify individuals with cognitive impairment caused by nonneurodegenerative conditions. Using the integrative review method of Whittemore and Knafl., 2005 this study examines and appraises the optimal measures for detecting cognitive frailty in clinical populations of older adults. The integrative review was conducted using PubMed, CINAHL, Web of Science, PsycInfo, and ProQuest Dissertations and Theses. From the total 185 articles retrieved, review of titles and key words were conducted. Following the initial review, 168 articles did not meet the inclusion criteria for association of frailty and cognition. Of the 18 fulltext articles reviewed, 11 articles met the inclusion criteria; these articles were reviewed in-depth to determine validity and reliability of the cognitive frailty measures. Predictive validity was established by the studies reviewed in four main areas: frailty and type of dementia MCI (OR 7.4, 95% CI 4.2-13.2), vascular dementia (OR 6.7, 95% CI 1.6-27.4) and Alzheimer's dementia (OR 3.2, 95% CI 1.7-6.2), frailty and vascular dementia (VaAD) is further supported by the rate of change in frailty x macroinfarcts (r = 0.032, p < 0.001); frailty and the individual domains of cognitive function established with the relationship of neurocognitive speed and change in cognition using regression coefficients; individual components of frailty and individual domains of cognitive function

  15. Proteome | Office of Cancer Clinical Proteomics Research

    Cancer.gov

    A proteome is the entire complement of proteins, including modifications made to a particular set of proteins, produced by an organism or a cellular system. This will vary with time and distinct requirements such as growth conditions and stresses, and thus is highly dynamic and spatial. Proteomics is the study of the proteome.

  16. 78 FR 9929 - Current Traumatic Brain Injury State Implementation Partnership Grantees; Non-Competitive One...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-12

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Health Resources and Services Administration Current Traumatic Brain Injury State... Services Administration (HRSA), Department of Health and Human Services (HHS). ACTION: Notice of Non-Competitive One-Year Extension Funds for Current Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) State Implementation...

  17. Proof of the finite-time thermodynamic uncertainty relation for steady-state currents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horowitz, Jordan M.; Gingrich, Todd R.

    2017-08-01

    The thermodynamic uncertainty relation offers a universal energetic constraint on the relative magnitude of current fluctuations in nonequilibrium steady states. However, it has only been derived for long observation times. Here, we prove a recently conjectured finite-time thermodynamic uncertainty relation for steady-state current fluctuations. Our proof is based on a quadratic bound to the large deviation rate function for currents in the limit of a large ensemble of many copies.

  18. Two Dimensional Steady State Eddy Current Analysis of a Spinning Conducting Cylinder

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-03-09

    UNCLASSIFIED UNCLASSIFIED AD-E403 855 Technical Report ARMET-TR-16045 TWO-DIMENSIONAL STEADY-STATE EDDY CURRENT ANALYSIS OF A...any penalty for failing to comply with a collection of information if it does not display a currently valid OMB control number. PLEASE DO NOT RETURN...August 2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE TWO-DIMENSIONAL STEADY-STATE EDDY CURRENT ANALYSIS OF A SPINNING CONDUCTING CYLINDER 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b

  19. Current Control in ITER Steady State Plasmas With Neutral Beam Steering

    SciTech Connect

    R.V. Budny

    2009-09-10

    Predictions of quasi steady state DT plasmas in ITER are generated using the PTRANSP code. The plasma temperatures, densities, boundary shape, and total current (9 - 10 MA) anticipated for ITER steady state plasmas are specified. Current drive by negative ion neutral beam injection, lower-hybrid, and electron cyclotron resonance are calculated. Four modes of operation with different combinations of current drive are studied. For each mode, scans with the NNBI aimed at differing heights in the plasma are performed to study effects of current control on the q profile. The timeevolution of the currents and q are calculated to evaluate long duration transients. Quasi steady state, strongly reversed q profiles are predicted for some beam injection angles if the current drive and bootstrap currents are sufficiently large.

  20. 75 FR 7284 - NIOSH Current Intelligence Bulletin-Asbestos Fibers and Other Elongate Mineral Particles: State...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-18

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention NIOSH Current Intelligence Bulletin--Asbestos... available for public comment entitled ``NIOSH Current Intelligence Bulletin--Asbestos Fibers and Other..., ``NIOSH Current Intelligence Bulletin--Asbestos Fibers and Other Elongate Mineral Particles: State of the...

  1. Parasites, proteomes and systems: has Descartes’ clock run out of time?

    PubMed Central

    WASTLING, J. M.; ARMSTRONG, S. D.; KRISHNA, R.; XIA, D.

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY Systems biology aims to integrate multiple biological data types such as genomics, transcriptomics and proteomics across different levels of structure and scale; it represents an emerging paradigm in the scientific process which challenges the reductionism that has dominated biomedical research for hundreds of years. Systems biology will nevertheless only be successful if the technologies on which it is based are able to deliver the required type and quality of data. In this review we discuss how well positioned is proteomics to deliver the data necessary to support meaningful systems modelling in parasite biology. We summarise the current state of identification proteomics in parasites, but argue that a new generation of quantitative proteomics data is now needed to underpin effective systems modelling. We discuss the challenges faced to acquire more complete knowledge of protein post-translational modifications, protein turnover and protein-protein interactions in parasites. Finally we highlight the central role of proteome-informatics in ensuring that proteomics data is readily accessible to the user-community and can be translated and integrated with other relevant data types. PMID:22828391

  2. Proteomic analysis of neurons microdissected from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded Alzheimer's disease brain tissue.

    PubMed

    Drummond, Eleanor S; Nayak, Shruti; Ueberheide, Beatrix; Wisniewski, Thomas

    2015-10-21

    The vast majority of human tissue specimens are formalin-fixed, paraffin embedded (FFPE) archival samples, making this type of tissue a potential gold mine for medical research. It is now accepted that proteomics can be done using FFPE tissue and can generate similar results as snap-frozen tissue. However, the current methodology requires a large amount of starting protein, limiting the questions that can be answered in these types of proteomics studies and making cell-type specific proteomics studies difficult. Cell-type specific proteomics has the potential to greatly enhance understanding of cell functioning in both normal and disease states. Therefore, here we describe a new method that allows localized proteomics on individual cell populations isolated from FFPE tissue sections using laser capture microdissection. To demonstrate this technique we microdissected neurons from archived tissue blocks of the temporal cortex from patients with Alzheimer's disease. Using this method we identified over 400 proteins in microdissected neurons; on average 78% that were neuronal and 50% that were associated with Alzheimer's disease. Therefore, this technique is able to provide accurate and meaningful data and has great potential for any future study that wishes to perform localized proteomics using very small amounts of archived FFPE tissue.

  3. Multiplexed Quantitative Proteomics for High-Throughput Comprehensive Proteome Comparisons of Human Cell Lines.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Amanda; Haas, Wilhelm

    2016-01-01

    The proteome is the functional entity of the cell, and perturbations of a cellular system almost always cause changes in the proteome. These changes are a molecular fingerprint, allowing characterization and a greater understanding of the effect of the perturbation on the cell as a whole. Monitoring these changes has therefore given great insight into cellular responses to stress and disease states, and analytical platforms to comprehensively analyze the proteome are thus extremely important tools in biological research. Mass spectrometry has evolved as the most relevant technology to characterize proteomes in a comprehensive way. However, due to a lack of throughput capacity of mass spectrometry-based proteomics, researchers frequently use measurement of mRNA levels to approximate proteome changes. Growing evidence of substantial differences between mRNA and protein levels as well as recent improvements in mass spectrometry-based proteomics are heralding an increased use of mass spectrometry for comprehensive proteome mapping. Here we describe the use of multiplexed quantitative proteomics using isobaric labeling with tandem mass tags (TMT) for the simultaneous quantitative analysis of five cancer cell proteomes in biological duplicates in one mass spectrometry experiment.

  4. Selective equilibration among the current-carrying states in the quantum Hall regime

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alphenaar, B. W.; Mceuen, P. L.; Wheeler, R. G.; Sacks, R. N.

    1990-01-01

    The Hall resistance of a two-dimensional electron gas is measured with gated probes to determine the extent of equilibration among the N current-carrying states in the quantum Hall regime. After traveling macroscopic distances, current injected into the first state is equilibrated among the N - 1 lowest states but equilibration into the highest state varies strongly across the Hall plateau. This is attributed to a change in the Nth state from being localized within a magnetic length of the edge to substantially extending into the sample.

  5. Selective equilibration among the current-carrying states in the quantum Hall regime

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alphenaar, B. W.; Mceuen, P. L.; Wheeler, R. G.; Sacks, R. N.

    1990-01-01

    The Hall resistance of a two-dimensional electron gas is measured with gated probes to determine the extent of equilibration among the N current-carrying states in the quantum Hall regime. After traveling macroscopic distances, current injected into the first state is equilibrated among the N - 1 lowest states but equilibration into the highest state varies strongly across the Hall plateau. This is attributed to a change in the Nth state from being localized within a magnetic length of the edge to substantially extending into the sample.

  6. Mentoring and New Teacher Induction in the United States: A Review and Analysis of Current Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bullough, Robert V., Jr.

    2012-01-01

    In this article, current practices were reviewed in mentoring and induction across three large states--New York, Texas, and California--and one small state, Utah. Patterns and trends are described in the United States, program results and evolving views of mentoring are discussed, gaps in the research literature are identified, and the future of…

  7. 42 CFR 457.80 - Current State child health insurance coverage and coordination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Current State child health insurance coverage and coordination. 457.80 Section 457.80 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) STATE CHILDREN'S HEALTH INSURANCE PROGRAMS (SCHIPs) ALLOTMENTS AND GRANTS TO STATES Introduction;...

  8. 42 CFR 457.80 - Current State child health insurance coverage and coordination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Current State child health insurance coverage and coordination. 457.80 Section 457.80 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) STATE CHILDREN'S HEALTH INSURANCE PROGRAMS (SCHIPs) ALLOTMENTS AND GRANTS TO STATES Introduction;...

  9. 42 CFR 457.80 - Current State child health insurance coverage and coordination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Current State child health insurance coverage and coordination. 457.80 Section 457.80 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) STATE CHILDREN'S HEALTH INSURANCE PROGRAMS (SCHIPs) ALLOTMENTS AND GRANTS TO STATES Introduction;...

  10. Mentoring and New Teacher Induction in the United States: A Review and Analysis of Current Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bullough, Robert V., Jr.

    2012-01-01

    In this article, current practices were reviewed in mentoring and induction across three large states--New York, Texas, and California--and one small state, Utah. Patterns and trends are described in the United States, program results and evolving views of mentoring are discussed, gaps in the research literature are identified, and the future of…

  11. State-Specific Prevalence of Current Cigarette Smoking and Smokeless Tobacco Use Among Adults - United States, 2014.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Kimberly H; Marshall, LaTisha; Brown, Susan; Neff, Linda

    2016-10-07

    Tobacco use is the leading cause of preventable disease and death in the United States, resulting in approximately 480,000 premature deaths and more than $300 billion in direct health care expenditures and productivity losses each year (1). In recent years, cigarette smoking prevalence has declined in many states; however, there has been relatively little change in the prevalence of current smokeless tobacco use or concurrent use of cigarettes and smokeless tobacco in most states, and in some states prevalence has increased (2). CDC analyzed data from the 2014 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) to assess state-specific prevalence estimates of current use of cigarettes, smokeless tobacco, and cigarette and/or smokeless tobacco (any cigarette/smokeless tobacco use) among U.S. adults. Current cigarette smoking ranged from 9.7% (Utah) to 26.7% (West Virginia); current smokeless tobacco use ranged from 1.4% (Hawaii) to 8.8% (Wyoming); current use of any cigarette and/or smokeless tobacco product ranged from 11.3% (Utah) to 32.2% (West Virginia). Disparities in tobacco use by sex and race/ethnicity were observed; any cigarette and/or smokeless tobacco use was higher among males than females in all 50 states. By race/ethnicity, non-Hispanic whites had the highest prevalence of any cigarette and/or smokeless tobacco use in eight states, followed by non-Hispanic other races in six states, non-Hispanic blacks in five states, and Hispanics in two states (p<0.05); the remaining states did not differ significantly by race/ethnicity. Evidence-based interventions, such as increasing tobacco prices, implementing comprehensive smoke-free policies, conducting mass media anti-tobacco use campaigns, and promoting accessible smoking cessation assistance, are important to reduce tobacco use and tobacco-related disease and death among U.S. adults, particularly among subpopulations with the highest use prevalence (3).

  12. Proteomics at the interface of psychology, gut physiology and dysfunction: an underexploited approach that deserves expansion.

    PubMed

    Lopes, Luísa V; Kussmann, Martin

    2011-10-01

    Gut functions such as digestion and absorption are essential to life and the emerging insights into the gut-brain axis - that is, the cross talk between the enteric and CNS - point towards critical links between (eating) behavior, psychology, whole body and gut physiology, and digestive and overall health. While proteomics is ideally positioned to shed more light on these interactions, be it applied to the periphery (e.g., blood) or the locus of action (i.e., the gut), it is to date largely underexploited, mainly because of challenging sampling and tissue complexity. In view of the contrast between potential and current delivery of proteomics in the context of intestinal health, this article briefs the reader on the state-of-the-art of molecular intestinal research, reviews current proteomic studies (explicitly focusing on the most recent ones that target inflammatory bowel disease patient samples) and argues for an expansion of this research field.

  13. Seed proteomics.

    PubMed

    Miernyk, Ján A; Hajduch, Martin

    2011-04-01

    Seeds comprise a protective covering, a small embryonic plant, and a nutrient-storage organ. Seeds are protein-rich, and have been the subject of many mass spectrometry-based analyses. Seed storage proteins (SSP), which are transient depots for reduced nitrogen, have been studied for decades by cell biologists, and many of the complicated aspects of their processing, assembly, and compartmentation are now well understood. Unfortunately, the abundance and complexity of the SSP requires that they be avoided or removed prior to gel-based analysis of non-SSP. While much of the extant data from MS-based proteomic analysis of seeds is descriptive, it has nevertheless provided a preliminary metabolic picture explaining much of their biology. Contemporary studies are moving more toward analysis of protein interactions and posttranslational modifications, and functions of metabolic networks. Many aspects of the biology of seeds make then an attractive platform for heterologous protein expression. Herein we present a broad review of the results from the proteomic studies of seeds, and speculate on a potential future research directions. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. The proteomic profile of whole and glandular saliva in healthy pain-free subjects

    PubMed Central

    Jasim, Hajer; Olausson, Patrik; Hedenberg-Magnusson, Britt; Ernberg, Malin; Ghafouri, Bijar

    2016-01-01

    Determination of the variability in the salivary proteome is a prerequisite for the development of saliva as a diagnostic and prognostic tool in particular physiological states. In this context, it is important that technical variability induced by sample collection and processing is kept at minimum to be able to reproducibly assess variability in states of health and disease. In the current study, the proteome profile in unstimulated and stimulated whole, parotid and sublingual saliva was investigated using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. Saliva samples were structurally collected from ten examined and characterized healthy individuals during the exactly same conditions. The results demonstrated that different collection methods provide clear differences in the snapshot of the salivary proteome and also in the relative amount of specific proteins. The variable nature of the salivary proteome suggests that different approaches may have to be adopted when studying its composition or its possible role as an indicator for particular physiological states. The results emphasize the importance of consistency when collecting saliva samples for proteomic analysis. PMID:27976689

  15. Consolidation of proteomics data in the Cancer Proteomics database.

    PubMed

    Arntzen, Magnus Ø; Boddie, Paul; Frick, Rahel; Koehler, Christian J; Thiede, Bernd

    2015-11-01

    Cancer is a class of diseases characterized by abnormal cell growth and one of the major reasons for human deaths. Proteins are involved in the molecular mechanisms leading to cancer, furthermore they are affected by anti-cancer drugs, and protein biomarkers can be used to diagnose certain cancer types. Therefore, it is important to explore the proteomics background of cancer. In this report, we developed the Cancer Proteomics database to re-interrogate published proteome studies investigating cancer. The database is divided in three sections related to cancer processes, cancer types, and anti-cancer drugs. Currently, the Cancer Proteomics database contains 9778 entries of 4118 proteins extracted from 143 scientific articles covering all three sections: cell death (cancer process), prostate cancer (cancer type) and platinum-based anti-cancer drugs including carboplatin, cisplatin, and oxaliplatin (anti-cancer drugs). The detailed information extracted from the literature includes basic information about the articles (e.g., PubMed ID, authors, journal name, publication year), information about the samples (type, study/reference, prognosis factor), and the proteomics workflow (Subcellular fractionation, protein, and peptide separation, mass spectrometry, quantification). Useful annotations such as hyperlinks to UniProt and PubMed were included. In addition, many filtering options were established as well as export functions. The database is freely available at http://cancerproteomics.uio.no.

  16. Proteomic profiling of lymphocytes in autoimmunity, inflammation and cancer.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jiebai; Zhu, Zhitu; Bai, Chunxue; Sun, Hongzhi; Wang, Xiangdong

    2014-01-07

    Lymphocytes play important roles in the balance between body defense and noxious agents involved in a number of diseases, e.g. autoimmune diseases, allergic inflammation and cancer. The proteomic analyses have been applied to identify and validate disease-associated and disease-specific biomarkers for therapeutic strategies of diseases. The proteomic profiles of lymphocytes may provide more information to understand their functions and roles in the development of diseases, although proteomic approaches in lymphocytes are still limited. The present review overviewed the proteomics-based studies on lymphocytes to headlight the proteomic profiles of lymphocytes in diseases, such as autoimmune diseases, allergic inflammation and cancer, with a special focus on lung diseases. We will explore the potential significance of diagnostic biomarkers and therapeutic targets from the current status in proteomic studies of lymphocytes and discuss the value of the currently available proteomic methodologies in the lymphocytes research.

  17. Proteomic profiling of lymphocytes in autoimmunity, inflammation and cancer

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Lymphocytes play important roles in the balance between body defense and noxious agents involved in a number of diseases, e.g. autoimmune diseases, allergic inflammation and cancer. The proteomic analyses have been applied to identify and validate disease-associated and disease-specific biomarkers for therapeutic strategies of diseases. The proteomic profiles of lymphocytes may provide more information to understand their functions and roles in the development of diseases, although proteomic approaches in lymphocytes are still limited. The present review overviewed the proteomics-based studies on lymphocytes to headlight the proteomic profiles of lymphocytes in diseases, such as autoimmune diseases, allergic inflammation and cancer, with a special focus on lung diseases. We will explore the potential significance of diagnostic biomarkers and therapeutic targets from the current status in proteomic studies of lymphocytes and discuss the value of the currently available proteomic methodologies in the lymphocytes research. PMID:24397796

  18. Scientific Workflow Management in Proteomics

    PubMed Central

    de Bruin, Jeroen S.; Deelder, André M.; Palmblad, Magnus

    2012-01-01

    Data processing in proteomics can be a challenging endeavor, requiring extensive knowledge of many different software packages, all with different algorithms, data format requirements, and user interfaces. In this article we describe the integration of a number of existing programs and tools in Taverna Workbench, a scientific workflow manager currently being developed in the bioinformatics community. We demonstrate how a workflow manager provides a single, visually clear and intuitive interface to complex data analysis tasks in proteomics, from raw mass spectrometry data to protein identifications and beyond. PMID:22411703

  19. Maximizing State Lottery Dollars for Public Education: An Analysis of Current State Lottery Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brady, Kevin P.; Pijanowski, John C.

    2007-01-01

    Today, it is increasingly difficult for states to adequately satisfy the demand for well-funded and quality public services, such as K-12 education by relying exclusively on traditional, broad-based taxes for fiscal support. State sponsored lotteries are an increasingly popular, non-traditional revenue stream for public education. There is in many…

  20. The Current State and Prospects of Chinese Teaching in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luo, Ling

    2016-01-01

    Chinese teaching arose in the United States in the 1870s, which was relatively early compared to other regions, but due to issues of politics and funding it was perennially marginalized. Chinese teaching in the United States did not see development until the early 1960s, when it began receiving funding from the U.S. government. Owing to the global…

  1. Information management for proteomics: a perspective.

    PubMed

    Wilkins, Marc R; Arthur, Jonathan W; Junius, F Keith; Harrison, Mathew J; Traini, Mathew D; Bizannes, Paul; Doggett, Philip E; McDonald, Warren

    2008-10-01

    Proteomics is a data-rich discipline that makes extensive use of separation tools, mass spectrometry and bioinformatics to analyze and interpret the features and dynamics of the proteome. A major challenge for the field is how proteomics data can be stored and managed, such that data become permanent and can be mined with current and future tools. This article details our experience in the development of a commercial proteomic information management system. We identify the challenges faced in data acquisition, workflow management, data permanence, security, data interpretation and analysis, as well as the solutions implemented to address these issues. We finally provide a perspective on data management in proteomics and the implications for academic and industry-based researchers working in this field.

  2. [Application of differential proteomics in mechanism research of acupuncture].

    PubMed

    Yu, Lin-na; Pei, Jian

    2011-08-01

    Proteomics, a new branch of science, has been used to study protein expressions on the molecular level with a dynamic perspective. Organisms under varying states may express different proteins, which results in the set-up of differential proteomics. Research methods of differential proteomics include the separation and identification of proteins. Differential proteomics has a rapid development in recent years. In the study of acupuncture, researchers have reached certain achievements using differential proteomics to investigate the mechanisms of acupuncture treatment for some diseases, including acute spinal cord injury, ischemic cerebrovascular disease, Parkinson's disease and neuralgia.

  3. An interior point method for state estimation with current magnitude measurements and inequality constraints

    SciTech Connect

    Handschin, E.; Langer, M.; Kliokys, E.

    1995-12-31

    The possibility of power system state estimation with non-traditional measurement configuration is investigated. It is assumed that some substations are equipped with current magnitude measurements. Unique state estimation is possible, in such a situation, if currents are combined with voltage or power measurements and inequality constraints on node power injections are taken into account. The state estimation algorithm facilitating the efficient incorporation of inequality constraints is developed using an interior point optimization method. Simulation results showing the performance of the algorithm are presented. The method can be used for state estimation in medium voltage subtransmission and distribution networks.

  4. Proteomics of saliva: personal experience.

    PubMed

    Scarano, E; Fiorita, A; Picciotti, P M; Passali, G C; Calò, L; Cabras, T; Inzitari, R; Fanali, C; Messana, I; Castagnola, M; Paludetti, G

    2010-06-01

    The salivary proteome is a complex protein mixture resulting from the activity of salivary glands with the contribution of other components that form the oral environment such as oral tissues and micro-organisms. For diagnosis purposes, saliva collection has the great advantage of being an easy and non-invasive technique. Human saliva proteomics have proven to be a novel approach in the search for protein biomarkers for detection of different local and systemic diseases. Currently, more than 1400 salivary proteins have been identified. In the last few years, our research group has extensively studied the salivary proteomics in order to analyse the salivary composition, investigating the major families of proteins present in human and mammalian saliva, the post-translational modifications, the different contributions of glands, the physiological and pathological modifications of saliva. The aim of this report is to present our personal experience in salivary proteomics. In conclusion, salivary proteome analysis represents an important field both for diagnosis and monitoring of various diseases and could be considered a novel approach to prevention of various pathological conditions.

  5. [Proteomics: biomarker research in psychiatry].

    PubMed

    Hünnerkopf, R; Grassl, J; Thome, J

    2007-10-01

    Over the last decade, genomics research in psychiatry and neuroscience has provided important insights into genes expressed under different physiological and pathophysiological conditions. Contrary to the great expectations regarding a clinical use of these datasets, genomics failed to improve markedly the diagnostic and therapeutic options in brain disorders. Due to alternative splicing and posttranslational modifications, one single gene determines a multitude of gene products. Therefore, in order to understand molecular processes in neuropsychiatric disorders, it is necessary to unravel signal transduction pathways and complex interaction networks on the level of proteins, not only DNA and mRNA. Proteomics utilises high-throughput mass spectrometric protein identification that can reveal protein expression levels, posttranslational modifications and protein-protein interactions. Proteomic tools have the power to identify quantitative and qualitative protein patterns in postmortem brain tissue, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) or serum, thus increasing the knowledge about etiology and pathomechanisms of brain diseases. Comparing protein profiles in healthy and disease states provides an opportunity to establish specific diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers. In addition, proteomic studies of the effects of medication - in vitro and in vivo - might help to design specific pharmaceutical agents with fewer side effects. In this overview, we present the most widely used proteomic techniques and illustrate the potential and limitations of this field of research. Furthermore, we provide insight into the contributions of proteomics to the study of psychiatric diseases such as Alzheimer's disease, drug addiction, schizophrenia and depression.

  6. Proteomics studies of pancreatic cancer

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Ru; Pan, Sheng; Aebersold, Ruedi; Brentnall, Teresa A.

    2008-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer is the fourth leading cause of cancer death in the United States, with 4% survival 5 years after diagnosis. Biomarkers are desperately needed to improve earlier, more curable cancer diagnosis and to develop new effective therapeutic targets. The development of quantitative proteomics technologies in recent years offers great promise for understanding the complex molecular events of tumorigenesis at the protein level, and has stimulated great interest in applying the technology for pancreatic cancer studies. Proteomic studies of pancreatic tissues, juice, serum/plasma, and cell lines have recently attempted to identify differentially expressed proteins in pancreatic cancer to dissect the abnormal signaling pathways underlying oncogenesis, and to detect new biomarkers. It can be expected that the continuing evolution of proteomics technology with better resolution and sensitivity will greatly enhance our capability in combating pancreatic cancer. PMID:18633454

  7. Global Analysis and Comparison of the Transcriptomes and Proteomes of Group A Streptococcus Biofilms

    PubMed Central

    Freiberg, Jeffrey A.; Le Breton, Yoann; Tran, Bao Q.; Scott, Alison J.; Harro, Janette M.; Ernst, Robert K.; Goo, Young Ah; Mongodin, Emmanuel F.; Goodlett, David R.; McIver, Kevin S.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT To gain a better understanding of the genes and proteins involved in group A Streptococcus (GAS; Streptococcus pyogenes) biofilm growth, we analyzed the transcriptome, cellular proteome, and cell wall proteome from biofilms at different stages and compared them to those of plankton-stage GAS. Using high-throughput RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) shotgun proteomics, we found distinct expression profiles in the transcriptome and proteome. A total of 46 genes and 41 proteins showed expression across the majority of biofilm time points that was consistently higher or consistently lower than that seen across the majority of planktonic time points. However, there was little overlap between the genes and proteins on these two lists. In line with other studies comparing transcriptomic and proteomic data, the overall correlation between the two data sets was modest. Furthermore, correlation was poorest for biofilm samples. This suggests a high degree of regulation of protein expression by nontranscriptional mechanisms. This report illustrates the benefits and weaknesses of two different approaches to global expression profiling, and it also demonstrates the advantage of using proteomics in conjunction with transcriptomics to gain a more complete picture of global expression within biofilms. In addition, this report provides the fullest characterization of expression patterns in GAS biofilms currently available. IMPORTANCE Prokaryotes are thought to regulate their proteomes largely at the level of transcription. However, the results from this first set of global transcriptomic and proteomic analyses of paired microbial samples presented here show that this assumption is false for the majority of genes and their products in S. pyogenes. In addition, the tenuousness of the link between transcription and translation becomes even more pronounced when microbes exist in a biofilm or a stationary planktonic state

  8. CHO cells in biotechnology for production of recombinant proteins: current state and further potential.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jee Yon; Kim, Yeon-Gu; Lee, Gyun Min

    2012-02-01

    Recombinant Chinese hamster ovary cells (rCHO) cells have been the most commonly used mammalian host for large-scale commercial production of therapeutic proteins. Recent advances in cell culture technology for rCHO cells have achieved significant improvement in protein production leading to titer of more than 10 g/L to meet the huge demand from market needs. This achievement is associated with progression in the establishment of high and stable producer and the optimization of culture process including media development. In this review article, we focus on current strategies and achievements in cell line development, mainly in vector engineering and cell engineering, for high and stable protein production in rCHO cells. The approaches that manipulate various DNA elements for gene targeting by site-specific integration and cis-acting elements to augment and stabilize gene expression are reviewed here. The genetic modulation strategy by "direct" cell engineering with growth-promoting and/or productivity-enhancing factors and omics-based approaches involved in transcriptomics, proteomics, and metabolomics to pursue cell engineering are also presented.

  9. Charge Neutral Fermionic States and Current Oscillation in a Graphene-Superconductor Hybrid Structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duan, Wenye; Wang, Wei; Zhang, Chao; Jin, Kuijuan; Ma, Zhongshui

    2016-10-01

    The proximity properties of edge currents in the vicinity of the interface between the graphene and superconductor in the presence of magnetic field are investigated. It is shown that the edge states introduced by Andreev reflection at the graphene-superconductor (G/S) interface give rise to the charge neutral states in all Landau levels. We note that in a topological insulator-superconductor (TI/S) hybrid structure, only N = 0 Landau level can support this type of charge neutral states. The different interface states of a G/S hybrid and a TI/S hybrid is due to that graphene consists of two distinct sublattices. The armchair edge consists of two inequivalent atoms. This gives rise to unique electronic properties of edge states when connected to a superconductor. A direct consequence of zero charge states in all Landau levels is that the current density approaches zero at interface. The proximity effect leads to quantum magnetic oscillation of the current density in the superconductor region. The interface current density can also be tuned with a finite interface potential. For sharp δ-type interface potential, the derivative of the wavefunction is discontinuous. As a result, we found that there is current density discontinuity at the interface. The step of the current discontinuity is proportional to the strength of the interface potential.

  10. Steady-State Fully Noninductive Current Driven by Electron Cyclotron Waves in a Magnetically Confined Plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sauter, O.; Henderson, M. A.; Hofmann, F.; Goodman, T.; Alberti, S.; Angioni, C.; Appert, K.; Behn, R.; Blanchard, P.; Bosshard, P.; Chavan, R.; Coda, S.; Duval, B. P.; Fasel, D.; Favre, A.; Furno, I.; Gorgerat, P.; Hogge, J.-P.; Isoz, P.-F.; Joye, B.; Lavanchy, P.; Lister, J. B.; Llobet, X.; Magnin, J.-C.; Mandrin, P.; Manini, A.; Marlétaz, B.; Marmillod, P.; Martin, Y.; Mayor, J.-M.; Martynov, A. A.; Mlynar, J.; Moret, J.-M.; Nieswand, C.; Nikkola, P.; Paris, P.; Perez, A.; Pietrzyk, Z. A.; Pitts, R. A.; Pochelon, A.; Pochon, G.; Refke, A.; Reimerdes, H.; Rommers, J.; Scavino, E.; Tonetti, G.; Tran, M. Q.; Troyon, F.; Weisen, H.

    2000-04-01

    A steady-state, fully noninductive plasma current has been sustained for the first time in a tokamak using electron cyclotron current drive only. In this discharge, 123 kA of current have been sustained for the entire gyrotron pulse duration of 2 s. Careful distribution across the plasma minor radius of the power deposited from three 0.5-MW gyrotrons was essential for reaching steady-state conditions. With central current drive, up to 153 kA of current have been fully replaced transiently for 100 ms. The noninductive scenario is confirmed by the ability to recharge the Ohmic transformer. The dependence of the current drive efficiency on the minor radius is also demonstrated.

  11. 42 CFR 457.80 - Current State child health insurance coverage and coordination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... that involve public-private partnerships; (b) Current State efforts to provide or obtain creditable... insurance programs that involve public-private partnerships; and (c) Procedures the State uses to accomplish coordination of CHIP with other public and private health insurance programs, sources of health...

  12. 42 CFR 457.80 - Current State child health insurance coverage and coordination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... that involve public-private partnerships; (b) Current State efforts to provide or obtain creditable... insurance programs that involve public-private partnerships; and (c) Procedures the State uses to accomplish coordination of CHIP with other public and private health insurance programs, sources of health...

  13. High-voltage, high-current, solid-state closing switch

    DOEpatents

    Focia, Ronald Jeffrey

    2017-08-22

    A high-voltage, high-current, solid-state closing switch uses a field-effect transistor (e.g., a MOSFET) to trigger a high-voltage stack of thyristors. The switch can have a high hold-off voltage, high current carrying capacity, and high time-rate-of-change of current, di/dt. The fast closing switch can be used in pulsed power applications.

  14. Ring-current aromaticity in triplet states of 4 n π electron monocycles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fowler, P. W.; Steiner, E.; Jenneskens, L. W.

    2003-04-01

    The ipsocentric approach to orbital contributions to current density predicts that a triplet state of a 4 n π-electron Hückel monocycle should be aromatic, in the sense of supporting a diatropic ring current, and that this current should be carried by just four of the π electrons (three for n=1). The magnetic criterion of aromaticity is thus in agreement with Baird's classic energy-based prediction of aromatic stabilisation for these species.

  15. National Survey of State Children's Mental Health Directors: Current Status and Future Directions.

    PubMed

    Hernandez, Mario; Armstrong, Mary; Green, Amy L; Johnson, Melissa H

    2017-01-01

    State agencies play a critical role in addressing the mental health needs of children and youth. Significant changes underway throughout the nation at the federal and state levels have led to questions about the role of state children's mental health (CMH) agencies and the effects of these changes on children's services. The purpose of this study was to examine the current status of state offices for CMH with regard to structure and responsibilities and to identify what state CMH directors express as opportunities and challenges for CMH at the state level. CMH directors or their representatives from 46 states, 1 US territory, and D.C. completed an online survey developed to address the specific aims of this study. Findings highlight the importance of a strong state structure to support CMH and opportunities for reform and system change, particularly related to the Affordable Care Act and expansion of Systems of Care.

  16. Assessment of Energy Production Potential from Ocean Currents along the United States Coastline

    SciTech Connect

    Haas, Kevin A.

    2013-10-03

    Increasing energy consumption and depleting reserves of fossil fuels have resulted in growing interest in alternative renewable energy from the ocean. Ocean currents are an alternative source of clean energy due to their inherent reliability, persistence and sustainability. General ocean circulations exist in the form of large rotating ocean gyres, and feature extremely rapid current flow in the western boundaries due to the Coriolis Effect. The Gulf Stream system is formed by the western boundary current of the North Atlantic Ocean that flows along the east coastline of the United States, and therefore is of particular interest as a potential energy resource for the United States.

  17. Proteomic analysis of altered protein expression in skeletal muscle of rats in a hypermetabolic state induced by burn sepsis

    PubMed Central

    Duan, Xunbao; Berthiaume, François; Yarmush, David; Yarmush, Martin L.

    2006-01-01

    mRNA profiling has been extensively used to study muscle wasting. mRNA level changes may not reflect that of proteins, especially in catabolic muscle where there is decreased synthesis and increased degradation. As sepsis is often associated with burn injury, and burn superimposed by sepsis has been shown to result in significant loss of lean tissues, we characterized changes in the skeletal-muscle proteome of rats subjected to a cutaneous burn covering 20% of the total body surface area, followed 2 days later by sepsis induced by CLP (caecal ligation and puncture). EDL (extensor digitorum longus) muscles were dissected from Burn-CLP animals (n=4) and controls (sham-burned and sham-CLP-treated, n=4). Burn-CLP injury resulted in a rapid loss of EDL weight, increased ubiquitin-conjugated proteins and increased protein carbonyl groups. EDL protein profiles were obtained by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis using two immobilized pH gradient strips with overlapping pH range covering a pH 3–8 range. Seventeen spots were significantly altered in the Burn-CLP compared with the control group, representing 15 different proteins identified by peptide mass fingerprinting. The identities of three proteins including transferrin were further confirmed by liquid chromatography–tandem MS. The significant changes in transferrin and HSP27 (heat-shock protein 27) were verified by Western-blot analysis. HSP60, HSP27 and HSPβ6 were down-regulated, along with HSP70, as detected by Western blotting. Six metabolic enzymes related to energy production were also down-regulated. A simultaneous decrease in chaperone proteins and metabolic enzymes could decrease protein synthesis. Furthermore, decreased HSPs could increase oxidative damage, thus accelerating protein degradation. Using cultured C2C12 myotubes, we showed that H2O2-induced protein degradation in vitro could be partially attenuated by prior heat-shock treatment, consistent with a protective role of HSP70 and/or other HSPs

  18. DNA sequence-dependent ionic currents in ultra-small solid-state nanopores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Comer, Jeffrey; Aksimentiev, Aleksei

    2016-05-01

    Measurements of ionic currents through nanopores partially blocked by DNA have emerged as a powerful method for characterization of the DNA nucleotide sequence. Although the effect of the nucleotide sequence on the nanopore blockade current has been experimentally demonstrated, prediction and interpretation of such measurements remain a formidable challenge. Using atomic resolution computational approaches, here we show how the sequence, molecular conformation, and pore geometry affect the blockade ionic current in model solid-state nanopores. We demonstrate that the blockade current from a DNA molecule is determined by the chemical identities and conformations of at least three consecutive nucleotides. We find the blockade currents produced by the nucleotide triplets to vary considerably with their nucleotide sequences despite having nearly identical molecular conformations. Encouragingly, we find blockade current differences as large as 25% for single-base substitutions in ultra small (1.6 nm × 1.1 nm cross section; 2 nm length) solid-state nanopores. Despite the complex dependence of the blockade current on the sequence and conformation of the DNA triplets, we find that, under many conditions, the number of thymine bases is positively correlated with the current, whereas the number of purine bases and the presence of both purines and pyrimidines in the triplet are negatively correlated with the current. Based on these observations, we construct a simple theoretical model that relates the ion current to the base content of a solid-state nanopore. Furthermore, we show that compact conformations of DNA in narrow pores provide the greatest signal-to-noise ratio for single base detection, whereas reduction of the nanopore length increases the ionic current noise. Thus, the sequence dependence of the nanopore blockade current can be theoretically rationalized, although the predictions will likely need to be customized for each nanopore type.Measurements of ionic

  19. High ion charge states in a high-current, short-pulse, vacuum ARC ion sources

    SciTech Connect

    Anders, A.; Brown, I.; MacGill, R.; Dickinson, M.

    1996-08-01

    Ions of the cathode material are formed at vacuum arc cathode spots and extracted by a grid system. The ion charge states (typically 1-4) depend on the cathode material and only little on the discharge current as long as the current is low. Here the authors report on experiments with short pulses (several {mu}s) and high currents (several kA); this regime of operation is thus approaching a more vacuum spark-like regime. Mean ion charge states of up to 6.2 for tungsten and 3.7 for titanium have been measured, with the corresponding maximum charge states of up to 8+ and 6+, respectively. The results are discussed in terms of Saha calculations and freezing of the charge state distribution.

  20. Proteomics and peptidomics: moving toward precision medicine in urological malignancies

    PubMed Central

    Meo, Ashley Di; Pasic, Maria D.; Yousef, George M.

    2016-01-01

    Urological malignancies are a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Advances in early detection, diagnosis, prognosis and prediction of treatment response can significantly improve patient care. Proteomic and peptidomic profiling studies are at the centre of kidney, prostate and bladder cancer biomarker discovery and have shown great promise for improved clinical assessment. Mass spectrometry (MS) is the most widely employed method for proteomic and peptidomic analyses. A number of MS platforms have been developed to facilitate accurate identification of clinically relevant markers in various complex biological samples including tissue, urine and blood. Furthermore, protein profiling studies have been instrumental in the successful introduction of several diagnostic multimarker tests into the clinic. In this review, we will provide a brief overview of high-throughput technologies for protein and peptide based biomarker discovery. We will also examine the current state of kidney, prostate and bladder cancer biomarker research as well as review the journey toward successful clinical implementation. PMID:27119500

  1. Proteomic mass spectra classification using decision tree based ensemble methods.

    PubMed

    Geurts, Pierre; Fillet, Marianne; de Seny, Dominique; Meuwis, Marie-Alice; Malaise, Michel; Merville, Marie-Paule; Wehenkel, Louis

    2005-07-15

    Modern mass spectrometry allows the determination of proteomic fingerprints of body fluids like serum, saliva or urine. These measurements can be used in many medical applications in order to diagnose the current state or predict the evolution of a disease. Recent developments in machine learning allow one to exploit such datasets, characterized by small numbers of very high-dimensional samples. We propose a systematic approach based on decision tree ensemble methods, which is used to automatically determine proteomic biomarkers and predictive models. The approach is validated on two datasets of surface-enhanced laser desorption/ionization time of flight measurements, for the diagnosis of rheumatoid arthritis and inflammatory bowel diseases. The results suggest that the methodology can handle a broad class of similar problems.

  2. Proteomics Analysis of the Causative Agent of Typhoid Fever

    SciTech Connect

    Ansong, Charles; Yoon, Hyunjin; Norbeck, Angela D.; Gustin, Jean K.; McDermott, Jason E.; Mottaz, Heather M.; Rue, Joanne; Adkins, Joshua N.; Heffron, Fred; Smith, Richard D.

    2008-02-01

    Typhoid fever is a potentially fatal disease caused by the bacterial pathogen Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (S. typhi). S. typhi infection is a complex process that involves numerous bacterially-encoded virulence determinants, and these are thought to confer both stringent human host specificity and a high mortality rate. In the present study we used a liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) based proteomics strategy to investigate the proteome of logarithmic, stationary phase, and low pH/low magnesium (MgM) S. typhi cultures. This represents the first large scale comprehensive characterization of the S. typhi proteome. Our analysis identified a total of 2066 S. typhi proteins. In an effort to identify putative S. typhi-specific virulence factors, we then compared our S. typhi results to those obtained in a previously published study of the S. typhimurium proteome under similar conditions (Adkins J.N. et al (2006) Mol Cell Prot). Comparative proteomic analysis of S. typhi (strain Ty2) and S. typhimurium (strains LT2 and 14028) revealed a subset of highly expressed proteins unique to S. typhi that were exclusively detected under conditions that mimic the infective state in macrophage cells. These proteins included CdtB, HlyE, and a conserved protein encoded by t1476. The differential expression of selected proteins was confirmed by Western blot analysis. Taken together with the current literature, our observations suggest that this subset of proteins may play a role in S. typhi pathogenesis and human host specificity. In addition, we observed products of the biotin (bio) operon displayed a higher abundance in the more virulent strains S. typhi-Ty2 and S. typhimurium-14028 compared to the virulence attenuated S. typhimurium strain LT2, suggesting bio proteins may contribute to Salmonella pathogenesis.

  3. Pediatric Ependymoma: A Proteomics Perspective

    PubMed Central

    TSANGARIS, GEORGE TH; PAPATHANASIOU, CHRISSA; ADAMOPOULOS, PANAGIOTIS G; SCORILAS, ANDREAS; VORGIAS, CONSTANTINOS E; PRODROMOU, NEOFYTOS; TZORTZATOU-STATHOPOULOU, FOTEINI; STRAVOPODIS, DIMITRIOS J; ANAGNOSTOPOULOS, ATHANASIOS K

    2017-01-01

    Background/Aim: Proteomics based on high-resolution mass spectrometry (MS) is the tool of choice for the analysis of protein presence, modifications and interactions, with increasing emphasis on the examination of tumor tissues. Application of MS-based proteomics offers a detailed picture of tumor tissue characteristics, facilitating the appreciation of different tumor entities, whilst providing reliable and fast results for therapeutic marker targeting and prognostic factor assessment. Through use of the high analytical resolution of nano-high-pressure liquid chromatography (nanoHPLC) and the high resolution of an Orbitrap Elite mass spectrometer, the present study aimed to provide knowledge on the proteome of the generally unknown entity of pediatric ependymal tumors. Materials and Methods: Ten resected specimens of childhood ependymoma were analyzed through a one-dimensional (1D) nanoLC-MS/MS approach. Method optimization steps were undertaken for both the sample preparation/protein extraction procedure and LC parameters, aiming to achieve the highest possible identification rates. Results: Following method optimization, each nanoLC-MS/MS run resulted in identification of more than 5,000 proteins and more than 25,000 peptides for every analyzed sample, thus detailing the greater part of the ependymoma proteome. Identified proteins were found to spread throughout all known tumor categories regarding their molecular function and subcellular localization. Conclusion: Through the proposed nanoLC-MS/MS method herein we report, for the firs time, the ependymoma proteome database. A large number of similarities regarding proteome content are revealed compared to other two pediatric brain tumor entities; astrocytomas and medulloblastomas. Furthermore, through our approach, the majority of currently proposed markers for ependymoma (e.g. nucleolin, nestin, Ki67 and laminin subunit A2 ) as well as all major key players of the phosphoinositide 3-kinase pathway (seemingly

  4. DNA sequence-dependent ionic currents in ultra-small solid-state nanopores.

    PubMed

    Comer, Jeffrey; Aksimentiev, Aleksei

    2016-05-05

    Measurements of ionic currents through nanopores partially blocked by DNA have emerged as a powerful method for characterization of the DNA nucleotide sequence. Although the effect of the nucleotide sequence on the nanopore blockade current has been experimentally demonstrated, prediction and interpretation of such measurements remain a formidable challenge. Using atomic resolution computational approaches, here we show how the sequence, molecular conformation, and pore geometry affect the blockade ionic current in model solid-state nanopores. We demonstrate that the blockade current from a DNA molecule is determined by the chemical identities and conformations of at least three consecutive nucleotides. We find the blockade currents produced by the nucleotide triplets to vary considerably with their nucleotide sequences despite having nearly identical molecular conformations. Encouragingly, we find blockade current differences as large as 25% for single-base substitutions in ultra small (1.6 nm × 1.1 nm cross section; 2 nm length) solid-state nanopores. Despite the complex dependence of the blockade current on the sequence and conformation of the DNA triplets, we find that, under many conditions, the number of thymine bases is positively correlated with the current, whereas the number of purine bases and the presence of both purines and pyrimidines in the triplet are negatively correlated with the current. Based on these observations, we construct a simple theoretical model that relates the ion current to the base content of a solid-state nanopore. Furthermore, we show that compact conformations of DNA in narrow pores provide the greatest signal-to-noise ratio for single base detection, whereas reduction of the nanopore length increases the ionic current noise. Thus, the sequence dependence of the nanopore blockade current can be theoretically rationalized, although the predictions will likely need to be customized for each nanopore type.

  5. Mass spectrometry-based proteomics: basic principles and emerging technologies and directions.

    PubMed

    Van Riper, Susan K; de Jong, Ebbing P; Carlis, John V; Griffin, Timothy J

    2013-01-01

    As the main catalytic and structural molecules within living systems, proteins are the most likely biomolecules to be affected by radiation exposure. Proteomics, the comprehensive characterization of proteins within complex biological samples, is therefore a research approach ideally suited to assess the effects of radiation exposure on cells and tissues. For comprehensive characterization of proteomes, an analytical platform capable of quantifying protein abundance, identifying post-translation modifications and revealing members of protein complexes on a system-wide level is necessary. Mass spectrometry (MS), coupled with technologies for sample fractionation and automated data analysis, provides such a versatile and powerful platform. In this chapter we offer a view on the current state of MS-proteomics, and focus on emerging technologies within three areas: (1) New instrumental methods; (2) New computational methods for peptide identification; and (3) Label-free quantification. These emerging technologies should be valuable for researchers seeking to better understand biological effects of radiation on living systems.

  6. Electromechanical actuation and current-induced metastable states in suspended single-crystalline VO2 nanoplatelets

    SciTech Connect

    Tselev, Alexander; Budai, John D; Strelcov, Evgheni; Tischler, Jonathan Zachary; Kolmakov, Andrei; Kalinin, Sergei V

    2011-01-01

    Current-induced electromechanical actuation enabled by the metal-insulator transition in VO{sub 2} nanoplatelets is demonstrated. The Joule heating by a sufficient current flowing through suspended nanoplatelets results in formation of heterophase domain patterns and is accompanied by nanoplatelet deformation. The actuation action can be achieved in a wide temperature range below the bulk phase transition temperature (68 C). The observed current-sustained heterophase domain structures should be interpreted as distinct metastable states in free-standing and end-clamped VO{sub 2} samples. We analyze the main prerequisites for the realization of a current-controlled actuator based on the proposed concept.

  7. Characterisation of the circulating acellular proteome of healthy sheep using LC-MS/MS-based proteomics analysis of serum.

    PubMed

    Chemonges, Saul; Gupta, Rajesh; Mills, Paul C; Kopp, Steven R; Sadowski, Pawel

    2016-01-01

    Unlike humans, there is currently no publicly available reference mass spectrometry-based circulating acellular proteome data for sheep, limiting the analysis and interpretation of a range of physiological changes and disease states. The objective of this study was to develop a robust and comprehensive method to characterise the circulating acellular proteome in ovine serum. Serum samples from healthy sheep were subjected to shotgun proteomic analysis using nano liquid chromatography nano electrospray ionisation tandem mass spectrometry (nanoLC-nanoESI-MS/MS) on a quadrupole time-of-flight instrument (TripleTOF® 5600+, SCIEX). Proteins were identified using ProteinPilot™ (SCIEX) and Mascot (Matrix Science) software based on a minimum of two unmodified highly scoring unique peptides per protein at a false discovery rate (FDR) of 1% software by searching a subset of the Universal Protein Resource Knowledgebase (UniProtKB) database (http://www.uniprot.org). PeptideShaker (CompOmics, VIB-UGent) searches were used to validate protein identifications from ProteinPilot™ and Mascot. ProteinPilot™ and Mascot identified 245 and 379 protein groups (IDs), respectively, and PeptideShaker validated 133 protein IDs from the entire dataset. Since Mascot software is considered the industry standard and identified the most proteins, these were analysed using the Protein ANalysis THrough Evolutionary Relationships (PANTHER) classification tool revealing the association of 349 genes with 127 protein pathway hits. These data are available via ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD004989. These results demonstrated for the first time the feasibility of characterising the ovine circulating acellular proteome using nanoLC-nanoESI-MS/MS. This peptide spectral data contributes to a protein library that can be used to identify a wide range of proteins in ovine serum.

  8. Voltage-gated proton currents in microglia of distinct morphology and functional state.

    PubMed

    Klee, R; Heinemann, U; Eder, C

    1999-01-01

    Whole-cell patch-clamp measurements were performed to investigate voltage-gated proton currents (I(PR)) in cultured murine microglia of distinct morphology and functional state. We studied I(PR) in ameboid microglia of untreated cultures, in ameboid microglia which had been activated by lipopolysaccharide, and in ramified microglia which had been exposed to astrocyte-conditioned medium. Proton currents of these three microglia populations did not differ regarding their activation threshold or the voltage dependence of steady-state activation. Moreover, pharmacological properties of I(PR) were similar: proton currents were sensitive to extracellularly applied Zn2+ or La3+, and could be abolished by each of those at a concentration of 100 microM. In the presence of extracellular Na+, I(PR) was decreased to a similar small extent due to activity of the Na+/H+ exchanger in all microglial populations. In contrast, proton currents of microglia differed between the three cell populations with respect to their current density and their time-course of activation: in comparison with untreated microglia, the current density of I(PR) was reduced by about 50% in microglia after their treatment with either lipopolysaccharide or astrocyte-conditioned medium. Moreover, I(PR) activated significantly more slowly in cells exposed to lipopolysaccharide or astrocyte-conditioned medium than in untreated cells. It can be concluded that the distinct H+ current characteristics of the three microglial populations do not correlate with the functional state of the cells.

  9. International breastfeeding initiatives and their relevance to the current state of breastfeeding in the United States.

    PubMed

    Walker, Marsha

    2007-01-01

    Exclusive breastfeeding is becoming an endangered practice. Breastfeeding has fallen from the foundation of public health to something that is nice but not necessary in the minds of many consumers and health care professionals. Numerous international initiatives have been created to improve the initiation, duration, and exclusivity of breastfeeding throughout the world. These include the International Code of Marketing Breast-milk Substitutes, the Innocenti Declaration, and the Baby-Friendly Hospital Initiative. In the United States, the National Alliance for Breastfeeding Advocacy (NABA), the US Breastfeeding Committee (USBC), and Baby-Friendly USA have played important roles in improving breastfeeding. We begin with a brief history of these initiatives and organizations and move on to discuss some of the progress and programs that can help return breastfeeding to its rightful place as the initial and most basic act of health protection.

  10. Dynamics of the current filament formation and its steady-state characteristics in chalcogenide based PCM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogoslovskiy, Nikita; Tsendin, Konstantin

    2017-03-01

    In the phase-change memory (PCM) crystallization occurs in the high-current filament which forms during switching to the conductive state. In the present paper we conduct a numerical modeling of the current filament formation dynamics in thin chalcogenide films using an electronic-thermal model based on negative-U centers tunnel ionization and Joule heating. The key role of inhomogeneities in the filament formation process is shown. Steady-state filament parameters were obtained from the analysis of the stationary heat conduction equation. The filament formation dynamics and the steady-state filament radius and temperature could be controlled by material parameters and contact resistance. Consequently it is possible to control the size of the region wherein crystallization occurs. A good agreement with numerous experimental data leads to the conclusion that thermal effects play a significant role in CGS conduction and high-current filament formation while switching.

  11. Quantitative Proteomic Approaches for Analysis of Protein S-Nitrosylation.

    PubMed

    Qu, Zhe; Greenlief, C Michael; Gu, Zezong

    2016-01-04

    S-Nitrosylation is a redox-based post-translational modification of a protein in response to nitric oxide (NO) signaling, and it participates in a variety of processes in diverse biological systems. The significance of this type of protein modification in health and diseases is increasingly recognized. In the central nervous system, aberrant S-nitrosylation, due to excessive NO production, is known to cause protein misfolding, mitochondrial dysfunction, transcriptional dysregulation, and neuronal death. This leads to an altered physiological state and consequently contributes to pathogenesis of neurodegenerative disorders. To date, much effort has been made to understand the mechanisms underlying protein S-nitrosylation, and several approaches have been developed to unveil S-nitrosylated proteins from different organisms. Interest in determining the dynamic changes of protein S-nitrosylation under different physiological and pathophysiological conditions has underscored the need for the development of quantitative proteomic approaches. Currently, both gel-based and gel-free mass spectrometry-based quantitative methods are widely used, and they each have advantages and disadvantages but may also be used together to produce complementary data. This review evaluates current available quantitative proteomic techniques for the analysis of protein S-nitrosylation and highlights recent advances, with emphasis on applications in neurodegenerative diseases. An important goal is to provide a comprehensive guide of feasible quantitative proteomic methodologies for examining protein S-nitrosylation in research to yield insights into disease mechanisms, diagnostic biomarkers, and drug discovery.

  12. Non-Inductive Current Drive Modeling Extending Advanced Tokamak Operation to Steady State

    SciTech Connect

    Casper, T.A.; Lodestro, L.L.; Pearlstein, L.D.; Porter, G.D.; Murakami, M.; Lao, L.L.; Lin-Lui, Y.R.; St. John, H.E.

    2000-06-06

    A critical issue for sustaining high performance, negative central shear (NCS) discharges is the ability to maintain current distributions that are maximum off axis. Sustaining such hollow current profiles in steady state requires the use of non-inductively driven current sources. On the DIII-D experiment, a combination of neutral beam current drive (NBCD) and bootstrap current have been used to create transient NCS discharges. The electron cyclotron heating (ECH) and current drive (ECCD) system is currently being upgraded from three gyrotrons to six to provide more than 3MW of absorbed power in long-pulse operation to help sustain the required off-axis current drive. This upgrade SuPporrs the long range goal of DIII-D to sustain high performance discharges with high values of normalized {beta}, {beta}{sub n} = {beta}/(I{sub p}/aB{sub T}), confinement enhancement factor, H, and neutron production rates while utilizing bootstrap current fraction, f{sub bs}, in excess of 50%. At these high performance levels, the likelihood of onset of MHD modes that spoil confinement indicates the need to control plasma profiles if we are to extend this operation to long pulse or steady state. To investigate the effectiveness of the EC system and to explore operating scenarios to sustain these discharges, we use time-dependent simulations of the equilibrium, transport and stability. We explore methods to directly alter the safety factor profile, q, through direct current drive or by localized electron heating to modify the bootstrap current profile. Time dependent simulations using both experimentally determined [1] and theory-based [2] energy transport models have been done. Here, we report on simulations exploring parametric dependencies of the heating, current drive, and profiles that affect our ability to sustain stable discharges.

  13. Proteomic Analysis of Chinese Hamster Ovary Cells

    PubMed Central

    Baycin-Hizal, Deniz; Tabb, David L.; Chaerkady, Raghothama; Chen, Lily; Lewis, Nathan E.; Nagarajan, Harish; Sarkaria, Vishaldeep; Kumar, Amit; Wolozny, Daniel; Colao, Joe; Jacobson, Elena; Tian, Yuan; O'Meally, Robert N.; Krag, Sharon S.; Cole, Robert N.; Palsson, Bernhard O.; Zhang, Hui; Betenbaugh, Michael

    2013-01-01

    In order to complement the recent genomic sequencing of Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells, proteomic analysis was performed on CHO including the cellular proteome, secretome, and glycoproteome using tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) of multiple fractions obtained from gel electrophoresis, multi-dimensional liquid chromatography, and solid phase extraction of glycopeptides (SPEG). From the 120 different mass spectrometry analyses generating 682,097 MS/MS spectra, 93,548 unique peptide sequences were identified with at most a 0.02 false discovery rate (FDR). A total of 6164 grouped proteins were identified from both glycoproteome and proteome analysis, representing an 8-fold increase in the number of proteins currently identified in the CHO proteome. Furthermore, this is the first proteomic study done using CHO genome exclusively which provides for more accurate identification of proteins. From this analysis, the CHO codon frequency was determined and found to be distinct from humans, which will facilitate expression of human proteins in CHO cells. Analysis of the combined proteomic and mRNA data sets indicated the enrichment of a number of pathways including protein processing and apoptosis but depletion of proteins involved in steroid hormone and glycosphingolipid metabolism. 504 of the detected proteins included N-acetylation modifications and 1292 different proteins were observed to be N-glycosylated. This first large-scale proteomic analysis will enhance the knowledge base about CHO capabilities for recombinant expression and provide information useful in cell engineering efforts aimed at modifying CHO cellular functions. PMID:22971049

  14. Proteomic Signatures of Thymomas

    PubMed Central

    Shilo, Konstantin; Hitchcock, Charles L.; Freitas, Michael A.

    2016-01-01

    Based on the histological features and outcome, the current WHO classification separates thymomas into A, AB, B1, B2 and B3 subtypes. It is hypothesized that the type A thymomas are derived from the thymic medulla while the type B thymomas are derived from the cortex. Due to occasional histological overlap between the tumor subtypes creating difficulties in their separation, the aim of this study was to provide their proteomic characterization and identify potential immunohistochemical markers aiding in tissue diagnosis. Pair-wise comparison of neoplastic and normal thymus by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) of formalin fixed paraffin embedded tissue revealed 61 proteins differentially expressed in thymomas compared to normal tissue. Hierarchical clustering showed distinct segregation of subtypes AB, B1 and B2 from that of A and B3. Most notably, desmoyokin, a protein that is encoded by the AHNAK gene, was associated with type A thymomas and medulla of normal thymus, by LC-MS/MS and immunohistochemistry. In this global proteomic characterization of the thymoma, several proteins unique to different thymic compartments and thymoma subtypes were identified. Among differentially expressed proteins, desmoyokin is a marker specific for thymic medulla and is potentially promising immunohistochemical marker in separation of type A and B3 thymomas. PMID:27832160

  15. Early detection in head and neck cancer – current state and future perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Gerstner, Andreas O. H.

    2010-01-01

    Survival and quality of life in head and neck cancer are directly linked to the size of the primary tumor at first detection. In order to achieve substantial gain at these issues, both, primary prevention and secondary prevention, which is early detection of malignant lesions at a small size, have to be improved. So far, there is not only a lack in the necessary infrastructure not only in Germany, but rather worldwide, but additionally the techniques developed so far for early detection have a significance and specificity too low as to warrant safe implementation for screening programs. However, the advancements recently achieved in endoscopy and in quantitative analysis of hypocellular specimens open new perspectives for secondary prevention. Chromoendoscopy and narrow band imaging (NBI) pinpoint suspicious lesions more easily, confocal endomicroscopy and optical coherence tomography obtain optical sections through those lesions, and hyperspectral imaging classifies lesions according to characteristic spectral signatures. These techniques therefore obtain optical biopsies. Once a “bloody” biopsy has been taken, the plethora of parameters that can be quantified objectively has been increased and could be the basis for an objective and quantitative classification of epithelial lesions (multiparametric cytometry, quantitative histology). Finally, cytomics and proteomics approaches, and lab-on-the-chip technology might help to identify patients at high-risk. Sensitivity and specificity of these approaches have to be validated, yet, and some techniques have to be adapted for the specific conditions for early detection of head and neck cancer. On this background it has to be stated that it is still a long way to go until a population based screening for head and neck cancer is available. The recent results of screening for cancer of the prostate and breast highlight the difficulties implemented in such a task. PMID:22073093

  16. Including Alternative Resources in State Renewable Portfolio Standards: Current Design and Implementation Experience

    SciTech Connect

    Heeter, J.; Bird, L.

    2012-11-01

    Currently, 29 states, the District of Columbia, and Puerto Rico have instituted a renewable portfolio standard (RPS). An RPS sets a minimum threshold for how much renewable energy must be generated in a given year. Each state policy is unique, varying in percentage targets, timetables, and eligible resources. This paper examines state experience with implementing renewable portfolio standards that include energy efficiency, thermal resources, and non-renewable energy and explores compliance experience, costs, and how states evaluate, measure, and verify energy efficiency and convert thermal energy. It aims to gain insights from the experience of states for possible federal clean energy policy as well as to share experience and lessons for state RPS implementation.

  17. Transient and steady-state dark current mechanisms in amorphous selenium avalanche radiation detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Kabir, M. Z.; Imam, Safayat-Al

    2013-04-15

    A theoretical model for describing bias-dependent transient and steady-state behaviors of dark current in amorphous selenium (a-Se) avalanche detector structures has been developed. The analytical model considers bulk thermal generation current from mid-gap sates, transient carrier depletion, and carrier injection from the electrodes incorporating avalanche multiplication. The proposed physics-based dark current model is compared with the published experimental results on three potential a-Se avalanche detector structures. The steady-state dark current is the minimum for the structures that have effective blocking layers for both holes and electrons. The transient decay time to reach a plateau decreases considerably with increasing electric field.

  18. A quasi-current representation for information needs inspired by Two-State Vector Formalism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Panpan; Hou, Yuexian; Li, Jingfei; Zhang, Yazhou; Song, Dawei; Li, Wenjie

    2017-09-01

    Recently, a number of quantum theory (QT)-based information retrieval (IR) models have been proposed for modeling session search task that users issue queries continuously in order to describe their evolving information needs (IN). However, the standard formalism of QT cannot provide a complete description for users' current IN in a sense that it does not take the 'future' information into consideration. Therefore, to seek a more proper and complete representation for users' IN, we construct a representation of quasi-current IN inspired by an emerging Two-State Vector Formalism (TSVF). With the enlightenment of the completeness of TSVF, a ;two-state vector; derived from the 'future' (the current query) and the 'history' (the previous query) is employed to describe users' quasi-current IN in a more complete way. Extensive experiments are conducted on the session tracks of TREC 2013 & 2014, and show that our model outperforms a series of compared IR models.

  19. Next-generation proteomics: towards an integrative view of proteome dynamics.

    PubMed

    Altelaar, A F Maarten; Munoz, Javier; Heck, Albert J R

    2013-01-01

    Next-generation sequencing allows the analysis of genomes, including those representing disease states. However, the causes of most disorders are multifactorial, and systems-level approaches, including the analysis of proteomes, are required for a more comprehensive understanding. The proteome is extremely multifaceted owing to splicing and protein modifications, and this is further amplified by the interconnectivity of proteins into complexes and signalling networks that are highly divergent in time and space. Proteome analysis heavily relies on mass spectrometry (MS). MS-based proteomics is starting to mature and to deliver through a combination of developments in instrumentation, sample preparation and computational analysis. Here we describe this emerging next generation of proteomics and highlight recent applications.

  20. Phase boundary of spin-polarized-current state of electrons in bilayer graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Xin-Zhong; Ma, Yinfeng; Ting, C. S.

    2016-06-01

    Using a four-band Hamiltonian, we study the phase boundary of spin-polarized-current state (SPCS) of interacting electrons in bilayer graphene. The model of spin-polarized-current state has previously been shown to resolve a number of experimental puzzles in bilayer graphene. The phase boundaries of the SPCS with and without the external voltage between the two layers are obtained in this work. An unusual phase boundary where there are two transition temperatures for a given carrier concentration is found at finite external voltage. The physics of this phenomenon is explained.

  1. [Medical rehabilitation in the Armed Forces: history, current state and prospects].

    PubMed

    Fisun, A Ia; Shchegol'kov, A M; Iudin, V E; Ponomarenko, G N

    2014-08-01

    Authors analyzed history, current state and prospects of medical rehabilitation in the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation. Current system of medical rehabilitation in the Armed Forces provides all categories of military personnel and members of their families complete rehabilitative and remedial measures. An integration of rehabilitative experience of the medical service of the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation into the State system of medical rehabilitation, active participation of the medical service of the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation in activity of National association of specialists of medical rehabilitation and regenerative medicine will allow to increase the effectiveness of the rehabilitation system of the Armed Forces.

  2. Current state for the development of metallopharmaceutics and anti-diabetic metal complexes.

    PubMed

    Sakurai, Hiromu; Yoshikawa, Yutaka; Yasui, Hiroyuki

    2008-11-01

    This tutorial review introduces the current state of metallopharmaceutics development by focusing on the topics of anti-diabetic vanadium and zinc complexes. Over thousands of years, people have produced many types of inorganic compounds, and the modern concept of chemotherapy was achieved by Ehrlich, who used an arsenic-containing compound to treat syphilis. Since then, many metallopharmaceutics have been developed worldwide. This review will be helpful to researchers who are interested in the current states of not only metallopharmaceutics but also anti-diabetic metal complexes.

  3. Change of surface critical current in the surface superconductivity and mixed states of superconducting niobium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aburas, Muhamad; Pautrat, Alain; Bellido, Natalia

    2017-01-01

    A systematic study of irreversible magnetization was performed in bulk niobium after different surface treatments. Starting with smooth surfaces and abrading them, a strong increase of the critical current is observed up to an apparent limiting value. An impressive change of the critical current is also observed in the surface superconductivity (SSC) state, reaching values of the same order of magnitude as in the mixed state. We explain also the observation of strong SSC for magnetic fields perpendicular to large facets in terms of nucleation of superconductivity along bumps of a corrugated surface.

  4. Current State and Future Prospect of Applications of Elliptic Function to Electric Power Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kinoshita, Haruka; Watanabe, Kazuo

    The paper deals with the current state and future prospect of applications of elliptic function to the electric power and energy field. In particular, practical use of conformal mapping technology by elliptic function are introduced for electric power cables. Returning to Riemann's basic principle “thinking instead of calculation”, against the main current of numerical calculation, we have a new understanding of elliptic function analysis for the usefulness and the beautiful with simplicity and elegance.

  5. Spin-current induced around half-quantum vortices in chiral p-wave superconducting states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asaoka, R.; Tsuchiura, H.; Sigrist, M.

    2017-07-01

    We study the electronic state around a half-quantum vortex (HQV) in a chiral p-wave superconductor based on a square lattice three band tight-binding model by means of the Bogoliubov-de Gennes theory. In particular, the spatial distribution of charge and spin currents are mainly discussed. This analysis shows that the spin current is strengthened between the neighboring HQVs, resulting in the energy cost for HQV formation.

  6. What is the current state of scientific knowledge with regard to seasonal and decadal forecasting?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Doug M.; Scaife, Adam A.; Kirtman, Ben P.

    2012-03-01

    Environmental factors, such as the frequency, intensity and duration of extreme weather events, are important drivers of migration and displacement of people. There is therefore a growing need for regional climate predictions for the coming seasons to decades. This paper reviews the current state of the art of seasonal to decadal climate prediction, focusing on the potential sources of skill, forecasting techniques, current capability and future prospects.

  7. Microfluidic integration for automated targeted proteomic assays.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Alex J; Lin, Robert K C; Peehl, Donna M; Herr, Amy E

    2012-04-17

    A dearth of protein isoform-based clinical diagnostics currently hinders advances in personalized medicine. A well-organized protein biomarker validation process that includes facile measurement of protein isoforms would accelerate development of effective protein-based diagnostics. Toward scalable protein isoform analysis, we introduce a microfluidic "single-channel, multistage" immunoblotting strategy. The multistep assay performs all immunoblotting steps: separation, immobilization of resolved proteins, antibody probing of immobilized proteins, and all interim wash steps. Programmable, low-dispersion electrophoretic transport obviates the need for pumps and valves. A three-dimensional bulk photoreactive hydrogel eliminates manual blotting. In addition to simplified operation and interfacing, directed electrophoretic transport through our 3D nanoporous reactive hydrogel yields superior performance over the state-of-the-art in enhanced capture efficiency (on par with membrane electroblotting) and sparing consumption of reagents (ca. 1 ng antibody), as supported by empirical and by scaling analyses. We apply our fully integrated microfluidic assay to protein measurements of endogenous prostate specific antigen isoforms in (i) minimally processed human prostate cancer cell lysate (1.1 pg limit of detection) and (ii) crude sera from metastatic prostate cancer patients. The single-instrument functionality establishes a scalable microfluidic framework for high-throughput targeted proteomics, as is relevant to personalized medicine through robust protein biomarker verification, systematic characterization of new antibody probes for functional proteomics, and, more broadly, to characterization of human biospecimen repositories.

  8. Utility, limitations, and promise of proteomics in animal science.

    PubMed

    Lippolis, John D; Reinhardt, Timothy A

    2010-12-15

    Proteomics experiments have the ability to simultaneously identify and quantify thousands of proteins in one experiment. The use of this technology in veterinary/animal science is still in its infancy, yet it holds significant promise as a method for advancing veterinary/animal science research. Examples of current experimental designs and capabilities of proteomic technology and basic principles of mass spectrometry are discussed. In addition, challenges and limitations of proteomics are presented, stressing those that are unique to veterinary/animal sciences.

  9. Dynamical skyrmion state in a spin current nano-oscillator with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy.

    PubMed

    Liu, R H; Lim, W L; Urazhdin, S

    2015-04-03

    We study the spectral characteristics of spin current nano-oscillators based on the Pt/[Co/Ni] magnetic multilayer with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy. By varying the applied magnetic field and current, both localized and propagating spin wave modes of the oscillation are achieved. At small fields, we observe an abrupt onset of the modulation sidebands. We use micromagnetic simulations to identify this state as a dynamical magnetic skyrmion stabilized in the active device region by spin current injection, whose current-induced dynamics is accompanied by the gyrotropic motion of the core due to the skew deflection. Our results demonstrate a practical route for controllable skyrmion manipulation by spin current in magnetic thin films.

  10. Neural Stem Cells (NSCs) and Proteomics.

    PubMed

    Shoemaker, Lorelei D; Kornblum, Harley I

    2016-02-01

    Neural stem cells (NSCs) can self-renew and give rise to the major cell types of the CNS. Studies of NSCs include the investigation of primary, CNS-derived cells as well as animal and human embryonic stem cell (ESC)-derived and induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC)-derived sources. NSCs provide a means with which to study normal neural development, neurodegeneration, and neurological disease and are clinically relevant sources for cellular repair to the damaged and diseased CNS. Proteomics studies of NSCs have the potential to delineate molecules and pathways critical for NSC biology and the means by which NSCs can participate in neural repair. In this review, we provide a background to NSC biology, including the means to obtain them and the caveats to these processes. We then focus on advances in the proteomic interrogation of NSCs. This includes the analysis of posttranslational modifications (PTMs); approaches to analyzing different proteomic compartments, such the secretome; as well as approaches to analyzing temporal differences in the proteome to elucidate mechanisms of differentiation. We also discuss some of the methods that will undoubtedly be useful in the investigation of NSCs but which have not yet been applied to the field. While many proteomics studies of NSCs have largely catalogued the proteome or posttranslational modifications of specific cellular states, without delving into specific functions, some have led to understandings of functional processes or identified markers that could not have been identified via other means. Many challenges remain in the field, including the precise identification and standardization of NSCs used for proteomic analyses, as well as how to translate fundamental proteomics studies to functional biology. The next level of investigation will require interdisciplinary approaches, combining the skills of those interested in the biochemistry of proteomics with those interested in modulating NSC function. © 2016 by The

  11. Neural Stem Cells (NSCs) and Proteomics*

    PubMed Central

    Shoemaker, Lorelei D.; Kornblum, Harley I.

    2016-01-01

    Neural stem cells (NSCs) can self-renew and give rise to the major cell types of the CNS. Studies of NSCs include the investigation of primary, CNS-derived cells as well as animal and human embryonic stem cell (ESC)-derived and induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC)-derived sources. NSCs provide a means with which to study normal neural development, neurodegeneration, and neurological disease and are clinically relevant sources for cellular repair to the damaged and diseased CNS. Proteomics studies of NSCs have the potential to delineate molecules and pathways critical for NSC biology and the means by which NSCs can participate in neural repair. In this review, we provide a background to NSC biology, including the means to obtain them and the caveats to these processes. We then focus on advances in the proteomic interrogation of NSCs. This includes the analysis of posttranslational modifications (PTMs); approaches to analyzing different proteomic compartments, such the secretome; as well as approaches to analyzing temporal differences in the proteome to elucidate mechanisms of differentiation. We also discuss some of the methods that will undoubtedly be useful in the investigation of NSCs but which have not yet been applied to the field. While many proteomics studies of NSCs have largely catalogued the proteome or posttranslational modifications of specific cellular states, without delving into specific functions, some have led to understandings of functional processes or identified markers that could not have been identified via other means. Many challenges remain in the field, including the precise identification and standardization of NSCs used for proteomic analyses, as well as how to translate fundamental proteomics studies to functional biology. The next level of investigation will require interdisciplinary approaches, combining the skills of those interested in the biochemistry of proteomics with those interested in modulating NSC function. PMID:26494823

  12. The State of Knowledge of Outdoor Orientation Programs: Current Practices, Research, and Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Brent J.; Gass, Michael A.; Nafziger, Christopher S.; Starbuck, J. David

    2014-01-01

    Outdoor orientation programs represent a prominent area of experiential education with over 25,000 participants annually. More than 191 outdoor orientation programs currently operate in the United States and Canada. The research examining outdoor orientation programs consists of 25 peer-reviewed published studies and 11 dissertations. A new theory…

  13. The Current State of Social Studies: A Report of Project SPAN.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Social Science Education Consortium, Inc., Boulder, CO.

    This volume, one in a series resulting from Project SPAN (Social Studies/Social Science Education: Priorities, Practices, and Needs), reviews and analyzes the current state of K-12 social studies. A major purpose of the review and analysis was to form a basis for recommendations for future directions that might be taken to improve social studies.…

  14. Spanish Heritage Language Programs: A Snapshot of Current Programs in the Southwestern United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beaudrie, Sara M.

    2011-01-01

    This article reports the results of an investigation into current Spanish heritage language (SHL) course offerings and their content in 4-year public and private universities in the American Southwest. Prior research has indicated that the number of language departments in the United States offering SHL courses remains small (18 and 17.8%,…

  15. A Sociological Demographic Analysis of the Current State and Evolution of the Family

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Golod, S. I.

    2008-01-01

    Starting in the 1960s, researchers in many countries have expressed concern over the state of crisis of monogamy, addressing the phenomenon as a direct function of global social transformations. The author finds it is difficult to agree with the negative assessment of the current status of the family, noting that centuries of evidence confirm the…

  16. "Nobody Told Us about What Happened": The Current State of Holocaust Education in Romania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Misco, Tomas

    2008-01-01

    This research study sought to understand the current state of Holocaust education in Romanian classrooms and how sociocultural and institutional forces influence its treatment. By identifying the obstacles, challenges, and successes of Holocaust education in Romania, this study can both disseminate the techniques and conditions that bring about…

  17. Using Communications Technologies for Distance Education: Report on Current Practices in the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gunawardena, Charlotte N.

    This paper discusses current practices in the use of communications technologies to deliver distance instruction as they were reported by respondents to a survey of 70 postsecondary educational institutions in the United States. Results of the 1987 survey indicate that non-interactive open-broadcast television, cable television, and videocassettes…

  18. The Current State of Empirical Support for the Pharmacological Treatment of Selective Mutism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, John S.; Mitchell, Angela D.; Segool, Natasha

    2008-01-01

    This article reviews the current state of evidence for the psychopharmacological treatment of children diagnosed with selective mutism within the context of its link to social anxiety disorder. An increased focus on potential medication treatment for this disorder has resulted from significant monetary and resource limitations in typical practice,…

  19. Evaluation of current state of agricultural land using problem-oriented fuzzy indicators in GIS environment

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Current state of agricultural lands is defined under influence of processes in soil, plants and atmosphere and is described by observation data, complicated models and subjective opinion of experts. Problem-oriented indicators summarize this information in useful form for decision of the same specif...

  20. Early Childhood Inclusion in the United States: Goals, Current Status, and Future Directions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guralnick, Michael J.; Bruder, Mary Beth

    2016-01-01

    The current status and future directions of early childhood inclusion in the United States are discussed from the perspective of 4 key goals: access, accommodations and feasibility, developmental progress, and social integration. Recommendations are put forward to promote inclusion goals emphasizing administrative structures, personnel…

  1. Current State of Environmental Education in Mexico: A Study on Practices, Audiences, Settings, and Topics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marcos-Iga, Jose; Shaw, William

    2011-01-01

    Environmental education in Mexico takes many forms and plays a wide variety of roles. Through an online survey, we addressed the need to present a wider picture on the current state of environmental education practices in Mexico: Who is engaging in environmental education practices, how important is it for their organization, who are they…

  2. Early Childhood Inclusion in the United States: Goals, Current Status, and Future Directions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guralnick, Michael J.; Bruder, Mary Beth

    2016-01-01

    The current status and future directions of early childhood inclusion in the United States are discussed from the perspective of 4 key goals: access, accommodations and feasibility, developmental progress, and social integration. Recommendations are put forward to promote inclusion goals emphasizing administrative structures, personnel…

  3. Educational Attainment in the United States: 2015. Population Characteristics. Current Population Reports. P20-578

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, Camille L.; Bauman, Kurt

    2016-01-01

    This report provides a portrait of educational attainment in the United States based on data collected from the Current Population Survey (CPS). The report examines educational attainment of the adult population by demographic and social characteristics such as age, sex, race and Hispanic origin, and disability status, as well as differences in…

  4. Globalization of Gerontology Education: Current Practices and Perceptions for Graduate Gerontology Education in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mwangi, Samuel M.; Yamashita, Takashi; Ewen, Heidi H.; Manning, Lydia K.; Kunkel, Suzanne R.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to document current practices and understandings about globalization of gerontology education in the United States. Better understanding of aging requires international perspectives in global communities. However, little is known about how globalization of gerontology education is practiced in U.S. graduate-level…

  5. 78 FR 59661 - Revision of a Currently Approved Information Collection for the State Energy Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-27

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Revision of a Currently Approved Information Collection for the State Energy Program AGENCY: U.S. Department of Energy. ACTION: Notice and request for comments. SUMMARY: A 60-day notice and request...

  6. State and Local Government Finance and Financial Management: A Compendium of Current Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petersen, John E., Ed.; And Others

    This volume is a compendium of current research in the field of state and local government finance and financial management. It was created in response to the need of both users and researchers in the area for a comprehensive picture of research work that has been undertaken since 1974 and the results of which are now, or will be soon, available.…

  7. "Nobody Told Us about What Happened": The Current State of Holocaust Education in Romania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Misco, Tomas

    2008-01-01

    This research study sought to understand the current state of Holocaust education in Romanian classrooms and how sociocultural and institutional forces influence its treatment. By identifying the obstacles, challenges, and successes of Holocaust education in Romania, this study can both disseminate the techniques and conditions that bring about…

  8. Profile of the Foreign-Born Population in the United States: 2000. Current Population Reports.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidley, Dianne

    This report presents data on a wide range of geographic, demographic, social, economic, and housing characteristics for the foreign-born population of the United States. Data for the native population are included for comparison. Data come from the March 2000 Current Population Survey. The core of the report is 22 sections presenting information…

  9. Business-IT Alignment: A Current-State Evaluation of Strategic Alignment within the Hospital Organization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evers, Kevin W.

    2010-01-01

    More than thirty years of research has shown that the practical value of business-IT alignment is significant and that its importance derives from strategic impact on business outcomes. The purpose of this exploratory study is to identify the current-state of business-IT alignment maturity within the hospital organization. Data for this study was…

  10. Visible or Invisible? Korean High School Students' Current Schooling Experiences in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yoon, Bogum; Haag, Claudia

    2010-01-01

    This qualitative study examined the current schooling experiences of eight Korean high school students in the United States. By comparing and contrasting recent immigrant adolescents and 1.5/2nd generation students, the purpose of this study was to explore how their identities as Koreans or Korean Americans were formed and shifted while they…

  11. The Growth and Current State of Learning Communities in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Love, Anne Goodsell

    2012-01-01

    This article discusses the growth and current state of learning communities (LCs) in higher education. It reviews literature on the impact of LCs, highlighting a sample of single-institution studies and describing results from multi-institutional studies. LCs have been a growing movement aimed at educational reform for decades, and evidence…

  12. A Sociological Demographic Analysis of the Current State and Evolution of the Family

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Golod, S. I.

    2008-01-01

    Starting in the 1960s, researchers in many countries have expressed concern over the state of crisis of monogamy, addressing the phenomenon as a direct function of global social transformations. The author finds it is difficult to agree with the negative assessment of the current status of the family, noting that centuries of evidence confirm the…

  13. CURRENT STATE OF PREDICTING THE RESPIRATORY ALLERGY POTENTIAL OF CHEMICALS: WHAT ARE THE ISSUES?

    EPA Science Inventory

    Current State of Predicting the Respiratory Allergy Potential of Chemicals: What Are the Issues? M I. Gilmour1 and S. E. Loveless2, 1USEPA, Research Triangle Park, NC and 2DuPont Haskell Laboratory, Newark, DE.

    Many chemicals are clearly capable of eliciting immune respon...

  14. The Current State and Problems of the Upbringing Process Today: A Roundtable

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russian Education and Society, 2006

    2006-01-01

    This article presents a roundtable discussion on the current state and problems of the upbringing process. The participants were professors from different universities in Russia. In his opening remarks, Zh.T. Toshchenko, editor in chief of Sotsiologicheskie issledovaniia and a corresponding member of the Russian Academy of Sciences, emphasized the…

  15. Business-IT Alignment: A Current-State Evaluation of Strategic Alignment within the Hospital Organization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evers, Kevin W.

    2010-01-01

    More than thirty years of research has shown that the practical value of business-IT alignment is significant and that its importance derives from strategic impact on business outcomes. The purpose of this exploratory study is to identify the current-state of business-IT alignment maturity within the hospital organization. Data for this study was…

  16. Globalization of Gerontology Education: Current Practices and Perceptions for Graduate Gerontology Education in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mwangi, Samuel M.; Yamashita, Takashi; Ewen, Heidi H.; Manning, Lydia K.; Kunkel, Suzanne R.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to document current practices and understandings about globalization of gerontology education in the United States. Better understanding of aging requires international perspectives in global communities. However, little is known about how globalization of gerontology education is practiced in U.S. graduate-level…

  17. Educational Attainment in the United States: 2009. Population Characteristics. Current Population Reports. P20-566

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, Camille L.; Siebens, Julie

    2012-01-01

    This report provides a portrait of educational attainment in the United States based on data collected in the 2009 American Community Survey (ACS) and the 2005-2009 ACS 5-year estimates. It also uses data from the Annual Social and Economic Supplement (ASEC) to the Current Population Survey (CPS) collected in 2009 and earlier, as well as monthly…

  18. Atlas of current and potential future distributions of common trees of the eastern United States

    Treesearch

    Louis R. Iverson; Anantha M. Prasad; Betsy J. Hale; Elaine Kennedy Sutherland

    1999-01-01

    This atlas documents the current and possible future distribution of 80 common tree species in the Eastern United States and gives detailed information on environmental characteristics defining these distributions. Also included are outlines of life history characteristics and summary statistics for these species. Much of the data are derived from Forest Inventory and...

  19. The Current State of Empirical Support for the Pharmacological Treatment of Selective Mutism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, John S.; Mitchell, Angela D.; Segool, Natasha

    2008-01-01

    This article reviews the current state of evidence for the psychopharmacological treatment of children diagnosed with selective mutism within the context of its link to social anxiety disorder. An increased focus on potential medication treatment for this disorder has resulted from significant monetary and resource limitations in typical practice,…

  20. CURRENT STATE OF PREDICTING THE RESPIRATORY ALLERGY POTENTIAL OF CHEMICALS: WHAT ARE THE ISSUES?

    EPA Science Inventory

    Current State of Predicting the Respiratory Allergy Potential of Chemicals: What Are the Issues? M I. Gilmour1 and S. E. Loveless2, 1USEPA, Research Triangle Park, NC and 2DuPont Haskell Laboratory, Newark, DE.

    Many chemicals are clearly capable of eliciting immune respon...

  1. Current State of Environmental Education in Mexico: A Study on Practices, Audiences, Settings, and Topics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marcos-Iga, Jose; Shaw, William

    2011-01-01

    Environmental education in Mexico takes many forms and plays a wide variety of roles. Through an online survey, we addressed the need to present a wider picture on the current state of environmental education practices in Mexico: Who is engaging in environmental education practices, how important is it for their organization, who are they…

  2. Full-fledged proteomic analysis of bioactive wheat amylase inhibitors by a 3-D analytical technique: Identification of new heterodimeric aggregation states.

    PubMed

    Zoccatelli, Gianni; Dalla Pellegrina, Chiara; Mosconi, Silvia; Consolini, Marica; Veneri, Gianluca; Chignola, Roberto; Peruffo, Angelo; Rizzi, Corrado

    2007-02-01

    Wheat proteinaceous alpha-amylase inhibitors (alpha-AIs) are increasingly investigated for their agronomical role as natural defence molecules of plants against the attack of insects and pests, but also for their effects on human health. The wheat genomes code for several bioactive alpha-AIs that share sequence homology, but differ in their specificity against alpha-amylases from different species and for their aggregation states. Wheat alpha-AIs are traditionally classified as belonging to the three classes of tetrameric, homodimeric and monomeric forms, each class being constituted by a number of polypeptides that display different electrophoretic mobilities. Here we describe a proteomic approach for the identification of bioactive alpha-AIs from wheat and, in particular, a 3-D technique that allows to best identify and characterize the dimeric fraction. The technique takes advantage of the thermal resistance of alpha-AIs (resistant to T > 70 degrees C) and consists in the separation of protein mixtures by 2-D polyacrylamide/starch electrophoresis under nondissociating PAGE (ND-PAGE, first dimension) and dissociating (urea-PAGE or U-PAGE second dimension) conditions, followed by in-gel spontaneous reaggregation of protein complexes and identification of the alpha-amylase inhibitory activity (antizymogram, third dimension) using enzymes from human salivary glands and from the larvae of Tenebrio molitor coleopter (yellow mealworm). Dimeric alpha-AIs from Triticum aestivum (bread wheat) were observed to exist as heterodimers. The formation of heterodimeric complexes was also confirmed by in vitro reaggregation assays carried out on RP-HPLC purified wheat dimeric alpha-AIs, and their bioactivity assayed by antizymogram analysis. The present 3-D analytical technique can be exploited for fast, full-fledged identification and characterization of wheat alpha-AIs.

  3. New Memorandum of Understanding in Clinical Proteogenomics Between the United States and Australia - Office of Cancer Clinical Proteomics Research

    Cancer.gov

    The White House Office of the Vice President has announced the signing of three Memoranda of Understanding (MOUs) that will make available an unprecedented international dataset to advance cancer research and care. An MOU between the National Cancer Institute (NCI) at the National Institutes of Health (NIH) in the United States, and Macquarie University (MU), Children's Medical Research Institute (CMRI), Garvan Institute of Medical Research (GIMR), and Bioplatforms Australia Limited (BPA) in Australia will facilitate scientific collaborations in the field of clinical proteogenomic studies and their translation to cancer care.

  4. The proteomics of pediatric brain tumors.

    PubMed

    Anagnostopoulos, Athanasios K; Tsangaris, George T

    2014-10-01

    Pediatric tumors of the CNS are the leading cause of cancer-related mortality in children. In pediatric pathology, brain tumors constitute the most frequent solid malignancy. An unparalleled outburst of information in pediatric neuro-oncology research has been witnessed over the last few years, largely due to increased use of high-throughput technologies such as genomics, proteomics and meta-analysis tools. Input from these technologies gives scientists the advantage of early prognosis assessment, more accurate diagnosis and prospective curative intent in the pediatric brain tumor clinical setting. The present review aims to summarize current knowledge on research applying proteomics techniques or proteomics-based approaches performed on pediatric brain tumors. Proteins that can be used as potential disease markers or molecular targets, and their biological significance, are herein listed and discussed. Furthermore, future perspectives that proteomics technologies may offer regarding this devastating disorder are presented.

  5. Proteomics Applications in Dental Derived Stem Cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Jie; Tian, Weidong; Song, Jinlin

    2017-07-01

    At present, the existence of a variety of dental derived stem cells has been documented. These cells displayed promising clinical application potential not only for teeth and its surrounding tissue regeneration, but also for other tissues, such as nerve and bone regeneration. Proteomics is an unbiased, global informatics tool that provides information on all protein expression levels as well as post-translational modification in cells or tissues and is applicable to dental derived stem cells research. Over the last decade, considerable progress has been made to study the global proteome, secrotome, and membrane proteome of dental derived stem cells. Here, we present an overview of the proteomics studies in the context of stem cell research. Particular attention is given to dental derived stem cell types as well as current challenges and opportunities. J. Cell. Physiol. 232: 1602-1610, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Commuter rail state-of-the-art: A study of current systems. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Shen, L.D.; Wu, J.W.

    1992-12-01

    The report documents the results of the state-of-the-art study on current commuter rail systems in the United States. Detailed information on operations, fare collection, stations, maintenance facilities, patronage, railcars, and feeder systems are presented. This commuter rail report is intended to provide a database of actual operation statistics for the 12 commuter rail systems in the United States. Statistics were collected on existing commuter rail services through Federal Transit Administration (FTA) reports, American Public Transit Association (APTA) and railroad industry publications. In addition, a survey was also conducted to collect the pertinent information on existing systems. A comparative analysis of commuter rail service with respect to other mass transit systems was conducted. New and proposed systems are also discussed. Current trends in commuter rail operations are presented. Startup costs for new systems were analyzed. This report found that many cities are considering commuter rail as a potential part of the solution to local transportation problems.

  7. Addressing Occupational Fatigue in Nurses: Current State of Fatigue Risk Management in Hospitals, Part 1.

    PubMed

    Steege, Linsey M; Pinekenstein, Barbara J; Rainbow, Jessica G; Arsenault Knudsen, Élise

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the current state of fatigue risk management systems (FRMS) to address nurse fatigue in hospitals. Although multiple studies have examined sources and consequences of fatigue, little is known about the current state of FRMS. This study used a sequential exploratory mixed-method design including a survey of nurse leaders from across the United States. Although healthcare organizations have implemented strategies to address fatigue, most participants' organizations did not have a formal FRMS in place. Monitoring individual nurses' levels of fatigue and using tools to predict fatigue risk were rare. Significant opportunities exist to implement formal FRMS in healthcare. Nursing leaders, in partnership with other organizational leaders, should develop a formal plan to monitor fatigue and implement multiple levels of interventions to prevent fatigue and mitigate its consequences.

  8. Guardianship capacity evaluations of older adults: comparing current practice to legal standards in two states.

    PubMed

    Dudley, Kenneth C; Goins, R Turner

    2003-01-01

    This study examined the evaluations of capacity of alleged incapacitated persons (AIPs) between two states and compared the thoroughness of the evaluations to state law. These evaluations are frequently the only source of information on cognitive and psychiatric symptoms, functional abilities, and current treatments. One hundred nineteen evaluations of capacity were reviewed using the Guardianship Evaluation Review Instrument. Findings indicated that states differed on the AIP's age, presence at the court hearing, and description of current treatments. Overall, data suggested that evaluation thoroughness was substandard. In over 75% of cases, full guardianship was granted. Issues on terminology, concern regarding evaluators and courts, and ways for evaluators and the court to fulfill their responsibilities to older adults are discussed.

  9. Proteomic comparison of near-isogenic barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) germplasm differing in the allelic state of a major senescence QTL identifies numerous proteins involved in plant pathogen defense.

    PubMed

    Mason, Katelyn E; Hilmer, Jonathan K; Maaty, Walid S; Reeves, Benjamin D; Grieco, Paul A; Bothner, Brian; Fischer, Andreas M

    2016-12-01

    Senescence is the last developmental phase of plant tissues, organs and, in the case of monocarpic senescence, entire plants. In monocarpic crops such as barley, it leads to massive remobilization of nitrogen and other nutrients to developing seeds. To further investigate this process, a proteomic comparison of flag leaves of near-isogenic late- and early-senescing barley germplasm was performed. Protein samples at 14 and 21 days past anthesis were analyzed using both two-dimensional gel-based and label-free quantitative mass spectrometry-based ('shotgun') proteomic techniques. This approach identified >9000 barley proteins, and one-third of them were quantified. Analysis focused on proteins that were significantly (p < 0.05; difference ≥1.5-fold) upregulated in early-senescing line '10_11' as compared to late-senescing variety 'Karl', as these may be functionally important for senescence. Proteins in this group included family 1 pathogenesis-related proteins, intracellular and membrane receptors or co-receptors (NBS-LRRs, LRR-RLKs), enzymes involved in attacking pathogen cell walls (glucanases), enzymes with possible roles in cuticle modification, and enzymes involved in DNA repair. Additionally, proteases and elements of the ubiquitin-proteasome system were upregulated in line '10_11', suggesting involvement of nitrogen remobilization and regulatory processes. Overall, the proteomic data highlight a correlation between early senescence and upregulated defense functions. This correlation emerges more clearly from the current proteomic data than from a previously performed transcriptomic comparison of 'Karl' and '10_11'. Our findings stress the value of studying biological systems at both the transcript and protein levels, and point to the importance of pathogen defense functions during developmental leaf senescence.

  10. When can time-dependent currents be reproduced by the Landauer steady-state approximation?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carey, Rachel; Chen, Liping; Gu, Bing; Franco, Ignacio

    2017-05-01

    We establish well-defined limits in which the time-dependent electronic currents across a molecular junction subject to a fluctuating environment can be quantitatively captured via the Landauer steady-state approximation. For this, we calculate the exact time-dependent non-equilibrium Green's function (TD-NEGF) current along a model two-site molecular junction, in which the site energies are subject to correlated noise, and contrast it with that obtained from the Landauer approach. The ability of the steady-state approximation to capture the TD-NEGF behavior at each instant of time is quantified via the same-time correlation function of the currents obtained from the two methods, while their global agreement is quantified by examining differences in the average currents. The Landauer steady-state approach is found to be a useful approximation when (i) the fluctuations do not disrupt the degree of delocalization of the molecular eigenstates responsible for transport and (ii) the characteristic time for charge exchange between the molecule and leads is fast with respect to the molecular correlation time. For resonant transport, when these conditions are satisfied, the Landauer approach is found to accurately describe the current, both on average and at each instant of time. For non-resonant transport, we find that while the steady-state approach fails to capture the time-dependent transport at each instant of time, it still provides a good approximation to the average currents. These criteria can be employed to adopt effective modeling strategies for transport through molecular junctions in interaction with a fluctuating environment, as is necessary to describe experiments.

  11. Heating and current drive requirements towards steady state operation in ITER

    SciTech Connect

    Poli, F. M.; Kessel, C. E.; Gorelenkova, M.; Bonoli, P. T.; Batchelor, D. B.; Harvey, B.; Petrov, Y.

    2014-02-12

    Steady state scenarios envisaged for ITER aim at optimizing the bootstrap current, while maintaining sufficient confinement and stability to provide the necessary fusion yield. Non-inductive scenarios will need to operate with Internal Transport Barriers (ITBs) in order to reach adequate fusion gain at typical currents of 9 MA. However, the large pressure gradients associated with ITBs in regions of weak or negative magnetic shear can be conducive to ideal MHD instabilities, reducing the no-wall limit. The E × B flow shear from toroidal plasma rotation is expected to be low in ITER, with a major role in the ITB dynamics being played by magnetic geometry. Combinations of H/CD sources that maintain weakly reversed magnetic shear profiles throughout the discharge are the focus of this work. Time-dependent transport simulations indicate that, with a trade-off of the EC equatorial and upper launcher, the formation and sustainment of quasi-steady state ITBs could be demonstrated in ITER with the baseline heating configuration. However, with proper constraints from peeling-ballooning theory on the pedestal width and height, the fusion gain and the maximum non-inductive current are below the ITER target. Upgrades of the heating and current drive system in ITER, like the use of Lower Hybrid current drive, could overcome these limitations, sustaining higher non-inductive current and confinement, more expanded ITBs which are ideal MHD stable.

  12. A universal steady state I-V relationship for membrane current

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chernyak, Y. B.; Cohen, R. J. (Principal Investigator)

    1995-01-01

    A purely electrical mechanism for the gating of membrane ionic channel gives rise to a simple I-V relationship for membrane current. Our approach is based on the known presence of gating charge, which is an established property of the membrane channel gating. The gating charge is systematically treated as a polarization of the channel protein which varies with the external electric field and modifies the effective potential through which the ions migrate in the channel. Two polarization effects have been considered: 1) the up or down shift of the whole potential function, and 2) the change in the effective electric field inside the channel which is due to familiar effect of the effective reduction of the electric field inside a dielectric body because of the presence of surface charges on its surface. Both effects are linear in the channel polarization. The ionic current is described by a steady state solution of the Nernst-Planck equation with the potential directly controlled by the gating charge system. The solution describes reasonably well the steady state and peak-current I-V relationships for different channels, and when applied adiabatically, explains the time lag between the gating charge current and the rise of the ionic current. The approach developed can be useful as an effective way to model the ionic currents in axons, cardiac cells and other excitable tissues.

  13. Analysis of transient state in HTS tapes under ripple DC load current

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stepien, M.; Grzesik, B.

    2014-05-01

    The paper concerns the analysis of transient state (quench transition) in HTS tapes loaded with the current having DC component together with a ripple component. Two shapes of the ripple were taken into account: sinusoidal and triangular. Very often HTS tape connected to a power electronic current supply (i.e. superconducting coil for SMES) that delivers DC current with ripples and it needs to be examined under such conditions. Additionally, measurements of electrical (and thermal) parameters under such ripple excitation is useful to tape characterization in broad range of load currents. The results presented in the paper were obtained using test bench which contains programmable DC supply and National Instruments data acquisition system. Voltage drops and load currents were measured vs. time. Analysis of measured parameters as a function of the current was used to tape description with quench dynamics taken into account. Results of measurements were also used to comparison with the results of numerical modelling based on FEM. Presented provisional results show possibility to use results of measurements in transient state to prepare inverse models of superconductors and their detailed numerical modelling.

  14. Mule duck "foie gras" shows different metabolic states according to its quality phenotype by using a proteomic approach.

    PubMed

    François, Yoannah; Marie-Etancelin, Christel; Vignal, Alain; Viala, Didier; Davail, Stéphane; Molette, Caroline

    2014-07-23

    This study aimed at identifying the mechanisms implicated in "foie gras" quality variability through the study of the relationships between liver protein compositions and four liver quality phenotypes: liver weight, melting rate, and protein contents on crude or dry matter. Spots of soluble proteins were separated by bidimensional electrophoresis, and the relative abundance of proteins according to quality traits values was investigated. Twenty-three protein spots (19 unique identified proteins) showed different levels of abundance according to one or more of the traits' values. These abundance differences highlighted two groups of livers with opposite trends of abundance levels. Proteins of the first group, associated with low liver weight and melting rate, are involved in synthesis and anabolism processes, whereas proteins of the second group, associated with high liver weight and melting rate, are proteins involved in stress response. Altogether, these results highlight the variations in metabolic states underlying foie gras quality traits.

  15. Current Pressure Transducer Application of Model-based Prognostics Using Steady State Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Teubert, Christopher; Daigle, Matthew J.

    2014-01-01

    Prognostics is the process of predicting a system's future states, health degradation/wear, and remaining useful life (RUL). This information plays an important role in preventing failure, reducing downtime, scheduling maintenance, and improving system utility. Prognostics relies heavily on wear estimation. In some components, the sensors used to estimate wear may not be fast enough to capture brief transient states that are indicative of wear. For this reason it is beneficial to be capable of detecting and estimating the extent of component wear using steady-state measurements. This paper details a method for estimating component wear using steady-state measurements, describes how this is used to predict future states, and presents a case study of a current/pressure (I/P) Transducer. I/P Transducer nominal and off-nominal behaviors are characterized using a physics-based model, and validated against expected and observed component behavior. This model is used to map observed steady-state responses to corresponding fault parameter values in the form of a lookup table. This method was chosen because of its fast, efficient nature, and its ability to be applied to both linear and non-linear systems. Using measurements of the steady state output, and the lookup table, wear is estimated. A regression is used to estimate the wear propagation parameter and characterize the damage progression function, which are used to predict future states and the remaining useful life of the system.

  16. Biomarker discovery in transplantation--proteomic adventure or mission impossible?

    PubMed

    Kienzl-Wagner, Katrin; Pratschke, Johann; Brandacher, Gerald

    2013-04-01

    Optimal management of transplanted organs requires specific and sensitive biomarkers for immunologic graft monitoring and subsequently patient tailored treatment. Proteomic science has emerged as an attractive tool in clinical biomarker research generating massive amounts of proteomic-driven data. However, critical interpretation of these data requires basic knowledge of proteomic principles and technology. This review provides an overview of proteomic approaches along with their advantages and limitations. Furthermore, this article summarizes the current status of biomarker achievements in the different areas of solid organ transplantation and discusses the hurdles that have precluded routine clinical application of these promising markers so far.

  17. Meeting Report: "Proteomics from Discovery to Function:" 6th Annual Meeting of Proteomics Society, India and International Conference-A Milestone for the Indian Proteomics Community.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Shabarni; Reddy, Panga Jaipal; Ray, Sandipan; Atak, Apurva; Gollapalli, Kishore; Jain, Rekha; Shah, Veenita Grover; Ghantasala, Saicharan; Kumar, Saurabh; Pandala, Narendra Goud; Phapale, Prasad; Pandey, Vishnu Kumar; Zingde, Surekha; Srivastava, Sanjeeva

    2015-06-01

    Proteomics is at the epicenter of post-genomics biotechnologies that are currently driving the next generation system science. Moreover, proteomics is a truly global science. The 6(th) Annual Meeting of Proteomics Society, India (PSI) and International Conference on "Proteomics from Discovery to Function" held from December 7-9, 2014, was a transformative endeavor for global proteomics, bringing together the luminaries in the field of proteomics for the very first time in India. This meeting report presents the lessons learned and the highlights of this international scientific conference that was comprised of nine thematic sessions, pre- and post-conference workshops, and an opportunity to cultivate enduring collaborations for proteomics science to benefit both India and global society. The conference had an unforgettable impression on the participants: for the first time, India hosted past and present President and Council members from the Human Proteome Organization (HUPO), along with eminent scientists and young scholars from India and abroad in the field of proteomics at such a large scale, a major highlight of this international event. In all, the PSI 2014 was a milestone conference that has firmly poised the Indian life sciences community as a leading contributor to post-genomics life sciences, thus cultivating crucial trans-generational capacity and inspiration by recognizing the emerging scholars and omics systems scientists who can think and conduct science from cell to society.

  18. Interpreting current-induced spin polarization in topological insulator surface states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Pengke; Appelbaum, Ian

    2016-06-01

    Several recent experiments on three-dimensional topological insulators claim to observe a large charge current-induced nonequilibrium ensemble spin polarization of electrons in the helical surface state. We present a comprehensive criticism of such claims, using both theory and experiment: First, we clarify the interpretation of quantities extracted from these measurements by deriving standard expressions from a Boltzmann transport equation approach in the relaxation-time approximation at zero and finite temperature to emphasize our assertion that, despite high in-plane spin projection, obtainable current-induced ensemble spin polarization is minuscule. Second, we use a simple experiment to demonstrate that magnetic field-dependent open-circuit voltage hysteresis (identical to those attributed to current-induced spin polarization in topological insulator surface states) can be generated in analogous devices where current is driven through thin films of a topologically trivial metal. This result ipso facto discredits the naive interpretation of previous experiments with TIs, which were used to claim observation of helicity, i.e., spin-momentum locking in the topologically protected surface state.

  19. Soybean seed proteome rebalancing

    PubMed Central

    Herman, Eliot M.

    2014-01-01

    The soybean seed’s protein content and composition are regulated by both genetics and physiology. Overt seed protein content is specified by the genotype’s genetic framework and is selectable as a breeding trait. Within the genotype-specified protein content phenotype soybeans have the capacity to rebalance protein composition to create differing proteomes. Soybeans possess a relatively standardized proteome, but mutation or targeted engineering can induce large-scale proteome rebalancing. Proteome rebalancing shows that the output traits of seed content and composition result from two major types of regulation: genotype and post-transcriptional control of the proteome composition. Understanding the underlying mechanisms that specifies the seed proteome can enable engineering new phenotypes for the production of a high-quality plant protein source for food, feed, and industrial proteins. PMID:25232359

  20. Zero-field Dissipationless Chiral Edge Current in Quantum Anomalous Hall State

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Cui-Zu; Zhao, Weiwei; Kim, Duk Y.; Wei, Peng; Jain, J. K.; Liu, Chaoxing; Chan, Moses H. W.; Moodera, Jagadeesh S.

    The quantum anomalous Hall (QAH) state is predicted to possess, at zero magnetic field, chiral edge channels that conduct spin polarized current without dissipation, and thus holds great promise for future high-performance information processing. In this talk, we will discuss our transport experiments that probe the QAH state with gate bias and temperature dependences, by local and nonlocal magnetoresistance measurements. This allows us to unambiguously distinguish the dissipationless edge transport from transport via other dissipative channels in the QAH system. Our experiments confirm a fundamental feature of the QAH state, namely the dissipationless transport by edge channels in zero applied fields, which will be crucial for future chiral interconnected electric and spintronic applications. This research is supported by the NSF Grants (DMR-1420620, Penn State MRSEC; in MIT by DMR-1207469 and the STC Center for Integrated Quantum Materials under NSF Grant DMR-1231319) and by ONR Grant N00014-13-1-0301.

  1. Current driven tri-stable resistance states in magnetic point contacts.

    PubMed

    Yanson, I K; Fisun, V V; Naidyuk, Yu G; Balkashin, O P; Triputen, L Yu; Konovalenko, A; Korenivski, V

    2009-09-02

    Point contacts between normal and ferromagnetic metals are investigated using magnetoresistance and transport spectroscopy measurements combined with micromagnetic simulations. Pronounced hysteresis in the point contact resistance versus both bias current and external magnetic field are observed. It is found that such hysteretic resistance can exhibit, in addition to bi-stable resistance states found in ordinary spin valves, tri-stable resistance states with a middle resistance level. We interpret these observations in terms of surface spin valve and spin vortex states, originating from a substantially modified spin structure at the ferromagnetic interface in the contact core. We argue that these surface spin states, subject to a weakened exchange interaction, dominate the effects of spin transfer torques on the nanometer scale.

  2. Gating current harmonics. III. Dynamic transients and steady states with intact sodium inactivation gating.

    PubMed Central

    Fohlmeister, J F; Adelman, W J

    1986-01-01

    Internally perfused squid giant axons with intact sodium inactivation gating were prepared for gating current experiments. Gating current records were obtained in sinusoidally driven dynamic steady states and as dynamic transients as functions of the mean membrane potential and the frequency of the command sinusoid. Controls were obtained after internal protease treatment of the axons that fully removed inactivation. The nonlinear analysis consisted of determining and interpreting the harmonic content in the current records. The results indicate the presence of three kinetic processes, two of which are associated with activation gating (the so-called primary and secondary processes), and the third with inactivation gating. The dynamic steady state data show that inactivation gating does not contribute a component to the gating current, and has no direct voltage-dependence of its own. Rather, the inactivation kinetics appear to be coupled to the primary activation kinetics, and the coupling mechanism appears to be one of reciprocal steric hindrance between two molecular components. The mechanism allows the channel to become inactivated without first entering the conducting state, and will do so in about 40 percent of depolarizing voltage-clamp steps to 0 mV. The derived model kinetics further indicate that the conducting state may flicker between open and closed with the lifetime of either state being 10 microseconds. Dynamic transients generated by the model kinetics (i.e., the behavior of the harmonic components as a function of time after an instantaneous change in the mean membrane potential from a holding potential of -80 mV) match the experimental dynamic transients in all details. These transients have a duration of 7-10 ms (depending on the level of depolarization), and are the result of the developing inactivation following the discontinuous voltage change. A detailed hypothetical molecular model of the channel and gating machinery is presented. PMID

  3. Current State of Knowledge in Microbial Degradation of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs): A Review

    PubMed Central

    Ghosal, Debajyoti; Ghosh, Shreya; Dutta, Tapan K.; Ahn, Youngho

    2016-01-01

    purpose of this review is to provide an overview of current knowledge of bacteria, halophilic archaea, fungi and algae mediated degradation/transformation of PAHs. In addition, factors affecting PAHs degradation in the environment, recent advancement in genetic, genomic, proteomic and metabolomic techniques are also highlighted with an aim to facilitate the development of a new insight into the bioremediation of PAH in the environment. PMID:27630626

  4. Degradation of Leakage Currents in Solid Tantalum Capacitors Under Steady-State Bias Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Teverovsky, Alexander A.

    2010-01-01

    Degradation of leakage currents in various types of solid tantalum capacitors under steady-state bias conditions was investigated at temperatures from 105 oC to 170 oC and voltages up to two times the rated voltage. Variations of leakage currents with time under highly accelerated life testing (HALT) and annealing, thermally stimulated depolarization currents, and I-V characteristics were measured to understand the conduction mechanism and the reason for current degradation. During HALT the currents increase gradually up to three orders of magnitude in some cases, and then stabilize with time. This degradation is reversible and annealing can restore the initial levels of leakage currents. The results are attributed to migration of positively charged oxygen vacancies in tantalum pentoxide films that diminish the Schottky barrier at the MnO2/Ta2O5 interface and increase electron injection. A simple model allows for estimation of concentration and mobility of oxygen vacancies based on the level of current degradation.

  5. Conservation assessment of current and proposed nature reserves of Tamaulipas state, Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cantu, C.; Gerald, Wright R.; Michael, Scott J.; Strand, Espen

    2003-01-01

    The Mexican state of Tamaulipas located in the northeastern portion of the country currently has five state nature reserves covering slightly less than 3% of its land area. These reserves were established for a variety of reasons, many unrelated to the protection of biological resources. In 2000 in response to a growing concern about the lack of organized conservation reserve planning to protect the important biological and physical features of Mexico, the Mexican Commission for Knowledge and Use of Biodiversity (CONABIO) proposed 13 new terrestrial reserves for Tamaulipas. If established these new reserves would increase the proportion of terrestrial protected lands in the state to over 21%. We compiled a geographic information system (GIS) using existing digital thematic maps of physical and biological features to examine how the existing and proposed reserves might serve to protect the biodiversity and physical features of the state. We found that most of the existing protected sites occur in areas with elevations > 1000-2000 m with temperate climate and dominated by pine forest, oak forest, and cloud forest vegetation cover types. The state's dominant biotic region - low elevation coastal plain with tropical and arid climate types and xeric scrub vegetation - is disproportionately underrepresented in the current reserve system. The creation of the proposed areas would substantially increase the protection of mid and high elevation lands. The largest gap in the protected lands network would be low elevation, level, coastal lands.

  6. Current State of Research of Alternate Fuel Sources for Passenger Vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Massey, Lee

    2008-03-01

    The purpose of this project is to report on the current state of research in the field of alternate fuel sources for passenger vehicles. Because the number of alternate fuel options is very large, this study focuses on selected bio-fuels and briefly describes a couple of the most popular non-bio and non-renewable alternatives. The fuel and energy sources studied are compared using well-to-wheel and well-to-tank net energy balances. Data also includes relative production capabilities by volume in terms of current fossil fuels. Qualitative data includes production methods and transportability.

  7. Overview of current state of research on pregnancy outcomes in minority populations.

    PubMed

    Gennaro, Susan

    2005-05-01

    Pregnancy outcomes improved significantly over the 20th century in the United States but currently vary widely between women of different ethnic and racial backgrounds. The current health disparities that exist are based, in part, only on differences in socioeconomic status or education. There is wide variability in pregnancy outcomes within specific subgroups of women. Disparities may be due to underlying differences in health before pregnancy, differences in community norms, and individual lifestyle choices and to differences in health care delivery systems. Areas for needed research and promising new models of care are reviewed.

  8. Cryptococcosis in Solid Organ Transplant Recipients: Current State-of-the-Science

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Nina; Dromer, Francoise; Perfect, John R.; Lortholary, Olivier

    2009-01-01

    Cryptococcosis remains a significant opportunistic infection in solid organ transplant recipients. Disease presentation and outcomes in the current era may be affected amongst other factors by the use of calcineurin-inhibitor immunosuppressive agents. It is being increasingly recognized that rapid reversal of immunosuppression in transplant recipients treated for cryptococcosis incurs the risk of immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome that mimics worsening disease or relapse. This review summarizes the current state of knowledge regarding cryptococcosis in transplant recipients and highlights areas where future investigations are needed to further optimize outcomes in these patients. PMID:18840080

  9. Aquaculture genomics, genetics and breeding in the United States: current status, challenges, and priorities for future research.

    PubMed

    Abdelrahman, Hisham; ElHady, Mohamed; Alcivar-Warren, Acacia; Allen, Standish; Al-Tobasei, Rafet; Bao, Lisui; Beck, Ben; Blackburn, Harvey; Bosworth, Brian; Buchanan, John; Chappell, Jesse; Daniels, William; Dong, Sheng; Dunham, Rex; Durland, Evan; Elaswad, Ahmed; Gomez-Chiarri, Marta; Gosh, Kamal; Guo, Ximing; Hackett, Perry; Hanson, Terry; Hedgecock, Dennis; Howard, Tiffany; Holland, Leigh; Jackson, Molly; Jin, Yulin; Kahlil, Karim; Kocher, Thomas; Leeds, Tim; Li, Ning; Lindsey, Lauren; Liu, Shikai; Liu, Zhanjiang; Martin, Kyle; Novriadi, Romi; Odin, Ramjie; Palti, Yniv; Peatman, Eric; Proestou, Dina; Qin, Guyu; Reading, Benjamin; Rexroad, Caird; Roberts, Steven; Salem, Mohamed; Severin, Andrew; Shi, Huitong; Shoemaker, Craig; Stiles, Sheila; Tan, Suxu; Tang, Kathy F J; Thongda, Wilawan; Tiersch, Terrence; Tomasso, Joseph; Prabowo, Wendy Tri; Vallejo, Roger; van der Steen, Hein; Vo, Khoi; Waldbieser, Geoff; Wang, Hanping; Wang, Xiaozhu; Xiang, Jianhai; Yang, Yujia; Yant, Roger; Yuan, Zihao; Zeng, Qifan; Zhou, Tao

    2017-02-20

    marker-assisted selection, causal gene/mutation-assisted selection, genome selection, and genome editing using CRISPR and other technologies must be developed, demonstrated with applicability, and application to aquaculture industries.Major progress has been made in aquaculture genomics for dozens of fish and shellfish species including the development of genetic linkage maps, physical maps, microarrays, single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) arrays, transcriptome databases and various stages of genome reference sequences. This paper provides a general review of the current status, challenges and future research needs of aquaculture genomics, genetics, and breeding, with a focus on major aquaculture species in the United States: catfish, rainbow trout, Atlantic salmon, tilapia, striped bass, oysters, and shrimp. While the overall research priorities and the practical goals are similar across various aquaculture species, the current status in each species should dictate the next priority areas within the species. This paper is an output of the USDA Workshop for Aquaculture Genomics, Genetics, and Breeding held in late March 2016 in Auburn, Alabama, with participants from all parts of the United States.

  10. Contribution of proteomics to understanding the role of tumor-derived exosomes in cancer progression: state of the art and new perspectives.

    PubMed

    Fontana, Simona; Simona, Fontana; Saieva, Laura; Laura, Saieva; Taverna, Simona; Simona, Taverna; Alessandro, Riccardo; Riccardo, Alessandro

    2013-05-01

    Exosomes are nanometer-sized vesicles (40-100 nm diameter) of endocytic origin released from different cell types under both normal and pathological conditions. They function as cell free messengers, playing a relevant role in the cell-cell communication that is strongly related to the nature of the molecules (proteins, mRNAs, miRNAs, and lipids) that they transport. Tumor cells actively shed exosomes into their surrounding microenvironment and growing evidence indicates that these vesicles have pleiotropic functions in the regulation of tumor progression, promoting immune escape, tumor invasion, neovascularization, and metastasis. During the last few years remarkable efforts have been made to obtain an accurate definition of the protein content of tumor-derived exosomes (TDEs) by applying MS-based proteomic technologies. To date, TDEs proteomic studies have been mainly utilized to catalog TDEs proteins with the purpose of identifying disease biomarkers. The future challenge for improving our understanding and characterization of TDEs will be the implementation of new systems-driven and proteomic integrative strategies. The aim of this article is to provide an overview of the most characterized exosomes-mediated mechanisms that contribute to the pathogenesis of cancer and to review recent proteomics data that support the protumorigenic role of TDEs. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry-based Quantitative Proteomics

    SciTech Connect

    Xie, Fang; Liu, Tao; Qian, Weijun; Petyuk, Vladislav A.; Smith, Richard D.

    2011-07-22

    Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS)-based quantitative proteomics has become increasingly applied for a broad range of biological applications due to growing capabilities for broad proteome coverage and good accuracy in quantification. Herein, we review the current LC-MS-based quantification methods with respect to their advantages and limitations, and highlight their potential applications.

  12. Non-equilibrium steady states: fluctuations and large deviations of the density and of the current

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Derrida, Bernard

    2007-07-01

    These lecture notes give a short review of methods such as the matrix ansatz, the additivity principle or the macroscopic fluctuation theory, developed recently in the theory of non-equilibrium phenomena. They show how these methods allow us to calculate the fluctuations and large deviations of the density and the current in non-equilibrium steady states of systems like exclusion processes. The properties of these fluctuations and large deviation functions in non-equilibrium steady states (for example, non-Gaussian fluctuations of density or non-convexity of the large deviation function which generalizes the notion of free energy) are compared with those of systems at equilibrium.

  13. The current state of e-prescribing: Implications for advanced practice registered nurses.

    PubMed

    Villaseñor, Sally; Piscotty, Ronald J

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to review legislation, barriers and challenges, and current state of e-prescribing (eRx) in the United States. Literature search of CINAHL, MEDLINE, PubMed, and Google Scholar was performed. Challenges to eRx implementation and effective use include transcription, workflow issues, alert fatigue, educational and tangible reminders, and eRx of controlled substances. Further research could be best focused on user-friendly and interactive software improvements for both patient and provider use, bidirectional communication, and workflow studies to improve efficiency of eRx. ©2015 American Association of Nurse Practitioners.

  14. Isothermal depolarization current spectroscopy of localized states in metal oxide varistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tonkoshkur, Yu A.; Glot, A. B.

    2012-11-01

    A new method for the processing of time-dependent isothermal depolarization current in oxide varistors is proposed. It involves (i) a new model for kinetics of the depolarization current, which is related to the parameters of the localized states, (ii) an account of the distribution of the relaxation time (which takes place due to the structure inhomogeneity of ceramics) using the Kohlrausch-Williams-Watts stretched exponential function and (iii) the determination of the most probable relaxation time. The proposed method was tested using ZnO high-voltage varistors. The ionization energy (0.06 and 0.16 eV) and the electron capture cross-section (˜10-17 and ˜10-16 cm2) of the bulk donor states in two ZnO varistor ceramics were estimated.

  15. Current tobacco use among middle and high school students--United States, 2011.

    PubMed

    2012-08-10

    Tobacco use continues to be the leading preventable cause of death and disease in the United States, with nearly 443,000 deaths occurring annually because of cigarette smoking and exposure to secondhand smoke. Moreover, nearly 90% of adult smokers begin smoking by age 18 years. To assess current tobacco use among youths, CDC analyzed data from the 2011 National Youth Tobacco Survey (NYTS). This report describes the results of that analysis, which indicated that, in 2011, the prevalence of current tobacco use among middle school and high school students was 7.1% and 23.2%, respectively, and the prevalence of current cigarette use was 4.3%, and 15.8%, respectively. During 2000-2011, among middle school students, a linear downward trend was observed in the prevalence of current tobacco use (14.9% to 7.1%), current combustible tobacco use (14.0% to 6.3%), and current cigarette use (10.7% to 4.3%). For high school students, a linear downward trend also was observed in these measures (current tobacco use [34.4% to 23.2%], current combustible tobacco use [33.1% to 21.0%], and current cigarette use [27.9% to 15.8%]). Interventions that are proven to prevent and reduce tobacco use among youths include media campaigns, limiting advertisements and other promotions, increasing the price of tobacco products, and reducing the availability of tobacco products for purchase by youths. These interventions should continue to be implemented as part of national comprehensive tobacco control programs and should be coordinated with Food and Drug Administration (FDA) regulations restricting the sale, distribution, and marketing of cigarettes and smokeless tobacco products to youths.

  16. Sampled-current voltammetry at microdisk electrodes: kinetic information from pseudo steady state voltammograms.

    PubMed

    Perry, Samuel C; Al Shandoudi, Laila M; Denuault, Guy

    2014-10-07

    In sampled-current voltammetry (SCV), current transients acquired after stepping the potential along the redox wave of interest are sampled at a fixed time to produce a sigmoidal current-potential curve akin to a pseudo steady state voltammogram. Repeating the sampling for different times yields a family of sampled-current voltammograms, one for each time scale. The concept has been used to describe the current-time-potential relationship at planar electrodes but rarely employed as an electroanalytical method except in normal pulse voltammetry where the chronoamperograms are sampled once to produce a single voltammogram. Here we combine the unique properties of microdisk electrodes with SCV and report a simple protocol to analyze and compare the microdisk sampled-current voltammograms irrespective of sampling time. This is particularly useful for microelectrodes where cyclic voltammograms change shape as the mass transport regime evolves from planar diffusion at short times to hemispherical diffusion at long times. We also combine microdisk sampled-current voltammetry (MSCV) with a conditioning waveform to produce voltammograms where each data point is recorded with the same electrode history and demonstrate that the waveform is crucial to obtaining reliable sampled-current voltammograms below 100 ms. To facilitate qualitative analysis of the voltammograms, we convert the current-potential data recorded at different time scales into a unique sigmoidal curve, which clearly highlights kinetic complications. To quantitatively model the MSCVs, we derive an analytical expression which accounts for the diffusion regime and kinetic parameters. The procedure is validated with the reduction of Ru(NH3)6(3+), a model one electron outer sphere process, and applied to the derivation of the kinetic parameters for the reduction of Fe(3+) on Pt microdisks. The methodology reported here is easily implemented on computer controlled electrochemical workstations as a new

  17. Sub-cellular proteomics of Medicago truncatula

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jeonghoon; Lei, Zhentian; Watson, Bonnie S.; Sumner, Lloyd W.

    2013-01-01

    Medicago truncatula is a leading model species and substantial molecular, genetic, genomics, proteomics, and metabolomics resources have been developed for this species to facilitate the study of legume biology. Currently, over 60 proteomics studies of M. truncatula have been published. Many of these have focused upon the unique symbiosis formed between legumes and nitrogen fixing rhizobia bacteria, while others have focused on seed development and the specialized proteomes of distinct tissues/organs. These include the characterization of sub-cellular organelle proteomes such as nuclei and mitochondria, as well as proteins distributed in plasma or microsomal membranes from various tissues. The isolation of sub-cellular proteins typically requires a series of steps that are labor-intensive. Thus, efficient protocols for sub-cellular fractionation, purification, and enrichment are necessary for each cellular compartment. In addition, protein extraction, solubilization, separation, and digestion prior to mass spectral identification are important to enhance the detection of low abundance proteins and to increase the overall detectable proportion of the sub-cellular proteome. This review summarizes the sub-cellular proteomics studies in M. truncatula. PMID:23641248

  18. Brucella proteomes--a review.

    PubMed

    DelVecchio, Vito G; Wagner, Mary Ann; Eschenbrenner, Michel; Horn, Troy A; Kraycer, Jo Ann; Estock, Frank; Elzer, Phil; Mujer, Cesar V

    2002-12-20

    The proteomes of selected Brucella spp. have been extensively analyzed by utilizing current proteomic technology involving 2-DE and MALDI-MS. In Brucella melitensis, more than 500 proteins were identified. The rapid and large-scale identification of proteins in this organism was accomplished by using the annotated B. melitensis genome which is now available in the GenBank. Coupled with new and powerful tools for data analysis, differentially expressed proteins were identified and categorized into several classes. A global overview of protein expression patterns emerged, thereby facilitating the simultaneous analysis of different metabolic pathways in B. melitensis. Such a global characterization would not have been possible by using time consuming and traditional biochemical approaches. The era of post-genomic technology offers new and exciting opportunities to understand the complete biology of different Brucella species.

  19. AC Current Driven Dynamic Vortex State in YBa2Cu3O7-x (Postprint)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-02-01

    Fig. 3b) dis- tribution profiles measured and simulated with no net trans- port current flowing in the sample. The curves indicated by blue squares...files from our measurements with simulations using a recently developed method based on finite-element (FEM) calcula- tions [16], which accounts for... simulations . A dynamic state of plastic motion forms near the edges, which exhibits negligible hysteretic behavior and re- duced pinning strength

  20. The Current State of Vaccine Development for Ocular HSV-1 Infection

    PubMed Central

    Royer, DJ; Cohen, A; Carr, DJJ

    2015-01-01

    Summary HSV-1 continues to be the leading cause of infectious corneal blindness. Clinical trials for vaccines against genital HSV infection have been ongoing for more than three decades. Despite this, no approved vaccine exists, and no formal clinical trials have evaluated the impact of HSV vaccines on eye health. We review here the current state of development for an efficacious HSV-1 vaccine and call for involvement of ophthalmologists and vision researchers. PMID:25983856

  1. Spatially-Resolved Beam Current and Charge-State Distributions for the NEXT Ion Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pollard, James E.; Diamant, Kevin D.; Crofton, Mark W.; Patterson, Michael J.; Soulas, George C.

    2010-01-01

    Plume characterization tests with the 36-cm NEXT ion engine are being performed at The Aerospace Corporation using engineering-model and prototype-model thrusters. We have examined the beam current density and xenon charge-state distribution as functions of position on the accel grid. To measure the current density ratio j++/j+, a collimated Eprobe was rotated through the plume with the probe oriented normal to the accel electrode surface at a distance of 82 cm. The beam current density jb versus radial position was measured with a miniature planar probe at 3 cm from the accel. Combining the j++/j+ and jb data yielded the ratio of total Xe+2 current to total Xe+1 current (J++/J+) at forty operating points in the standard throttle table. The production of Xe+2 and Xe+3 was measured as a function of propellant utilization to support performance and lifetime predictions for an extended throttle table. The angular dependence of jb was measured at intermediate and far-field distances to assist with plume modeling and to evaluate the thrust loss due to beam divergence. Thrust correction factors were derived from the total doubles-to-singles current ratio and from the far-field divergence data

  2. Spatially-Resolved Proteomics: Rapid Quantitative Analysis of Laser Capture Microdissected Alveolar Tissue Samples.

    PubMed

    Clair, Geremy; Piehowski, Paul D; Nicola, Teodora; Kitzmiller, Joseph A; Huang, Eric L; Zink, Erika M; Sontag, Ryan L; Orton, Daniel J; Moore, Ronald J; Carson, James P; Smith, Richard D; Whitsett, Jeffrey A; Corley, Richard A; Ambalavanan, Namasivayam; Ansong, Charles

    2016-12-22

    Laser capture microdissection (LCM)-enabled region-specific tissue analyses are critical to better understand complex multicellular processes. However, current proteomics workflows entail several manual sample preparation steps and are challenged by the microscopic mass-limited samples generated by LCM, impacting measurement robustness, quantification and throughput. Here, we coupled LCM with a proteomics workflow that provides fully automated analysis of proteomes from microdissected tissues. Benchmarking against the current state-of-the-art in ultrasensitive global proteomics (FASP workflow), our approach demonstrated significant improvements in quantification (~2-fold lower variance) and throughput (>5 times faster). Using our approach we for the first time characterized, to a depth of >3,400 proteins, the ontogeny of protein changes during normal lung development in microdissected alveolar tissue containing only 4,000 cells. Our analysis revealed seven defined modules of coordinated transcription factor-signaling molecule expression patterns, suggesting a complex network of temporal regulatory control directs normal lung development with epigenetic regulation fine-tuning pre-natal developmental processes.

  3. Spatially-Resolved Proteomics: Rapid Quantitative Analysis of Laser Capture Microdissected Alveolar Tissue Samples

    PubMed Central

    Clair, Geremy; Piehowski, Paul D.; Nicola, Teodora; Kitzmiller, Joseph A.; Huang, Eric L.; Zink, Erika M.; Sontag, Ryan L.; Orton, Daniel J.; Moore, Ronald J.; Carson, James P.; Smith, Richard D.; Whitsett, Jeffrey A.; Corley, Richard A.; Ambalavanan, Namasivayam; Ansong, Charles

    2016-01-01

    Laser capture microdissection (LCM)-enabled region-specific tissue analyses are critical to better understand complex multicellular processes. However, current proteomics workflows entail several manual sample preparation steps and are challenged by the microscopic mass-limited samples generated by LCM, impacting measurement robustness, quantification and throughput. Here, we coupled LCM with a proteomics workflow that provides fully automated analysis of proteomes from microdissected tissues. Benchmarking against the current state-of-the-art in ultrasensitive global proteomics (FASP workflow), our approach demonstrated significant improvements in quantification (~2-fold lower variance) and throughput (>5 times faster). Using our approach we for the first time characterized, to a depth of >3,400 proteins, the ontogeny of protein changes during normal lung development in microdissected alveolar tissue containing only 4,000 cells. Our analysis revealed seven defined modules of coordinated transcription factor-signaling molecule expression patterns, suggesting a complex network of temporal regulatory control directs normal lung development with epigenetic regulation fine-tuning pre-natal developmental processes. PMID:28004771

  4. Microbial community proteomics for characterizing the range of metabolic functions and activities of human gut microbiota

    DOE PAGES

    Xiong, Weili; Abraham, Paul E.; Li, Zhou; ...

    2015-01-01

    We found that the human gastrointestinal (GI) tract is a complex, dynamic ecosystem that consists of a carefully tuned balance of human host and microbiota membership. The microbiome component is not insignificant, but rather provides important functions that are absolutely critical to many aspects of human health, including nutrient transformation and absorption, drug metabolism, pathogen defense, and immune system development. Microbial community proteomics (sometimes referred to as metaproteomics) provides a powerful approach to measure the range and details of human gut microbiota functions and metabolic activities, revealing information about microbiome development and stability especially with regard to human health vs.more » disease states. In most cases, both microbial and human proteins are extracted from fecal samples and then measured by the high performance MS-based proteomics technology. We review the field of human gut microbiome community proteomics, with a focus on the experimental and informatics considerations involved in characterizing systems that range from low complexity defined model gut microbiota in gnotobiotic mice, to the simple gut microbiota in the GI tract of newborn infants, and finally to the complex gut microbiota in adults. Moreover, the current state-of-the-art in experimental and bioinformatics capabilities for community proteomics enable a detailed measurement of the gut microbiota, yielding valuable insights into the broad functional profiles of even complex microbiota. Future developments are likely to expand into improved analysis throughput and coverage depth, as well as post-translational modification characterizations.« less

  5. Microbial community proteomics for characterizing the range of metabolic functions and activities of human gut microbiota

    SciTech Connect

    Xiong, Weili; Abraham, Paul E.; Li, Zhou; Pan, Chongle; Robert L. Hettich

    2015-01-01

    We found that the human gastrointestinal (GI) tract is a complex, dynamic ecosystem that consists of a carefully tuned balance of human host and microbiota membership. The microbiome component is not insignificant, but rather provides important functions that are absolutely critical to many aspects of human health, including nutrient transformation and absorption, drug metabolism, pathogen defense, and immune system development. Microbial community proteomics (sometimes referred to as metaproteomics) provides a powerful approach to measure the range and details of human gut microbiota functions and metabolic activities, revealing information about microbiome development and stability especially with regard to human health vs. disease states. In most cases, both microbial and human proteins are extracted from fecal samples and then measured by the high performance MS-based proteomics technology. We review the field of human gut microbiome community proteomics, with a focus on the experimental and informatics considerations involved in characterizing systems that range from low complexity defined model gut microbiota in gnotobiotic mice, to the simple gut microbiota in the GI tract of newborn infants, and finally to the complex gut microbiota in adults. Moreover, the current state-of-the-art in experimental and bioinformatics capabilities for community proteomics enable a detailed measurement of the gut microbiota, yielding valuable insights into the broad functional profiles of even complex microbiota. Future developments are likely to expand into improved analysis throughput and coverage depth, as well as post-translational modification characterizations.

  6. Proteomics reveals the effects of sustained weight loss on the human plasma proteome.

    PubMed

    Geyer, Philipp E; Wewer Albrechtsen, Nicolai J; Tyanova, Stefka; Grassl, Niklas; Iepsen, Eva W; Lundgren, Julie; Madsbad, Sten; Holst, Jens J; Torekov, Signe S; Mann, Matthias

    2016-12-22

    Sustained weight loss is a preferred intervention in a wide range of metabolic conditions, but the effects on an individual's health state remain ill-defined. Here, we investigate the plasma proteomes of a cohort of 43 obese individuals that had undergone 8 weeks of 12% body weight loss followed by a year of weight maintenance. Using mass spectrometry-based plasma proteome profiling, we measured 1,294 plasma proteomes. Longitudinal monitoring of the cohort revealed individual-specific protein levels with wide-ranging effects of losing weight on the plasma proteome reflected in 93 significantly affected proteins. The adipocyte-secreted SERPINF1 and apolipoprotein APOF1 were most significantly regulated with fold changes of -16% and +37%, respectively (P < 10(-13)), and the entire apolipoprotein family showed characteristic differential regulation. Clinical laboratory parameters are reflected in the plasma proteome, and eight plasma proteins correlated better with insulin resistance than the known marker adiponectin. Nearly all study participants benefited from weight loss regarding a ten-protein inflammation panel defined from the proteomics data. We conclude that plasma proteome profiling broadly evaluates and monitors intervention in metabolic diseases. © 2016 The Authors. Published under the terms of the CC BY 4.0 license.

  7. Macroscopic quantum effects in the zero voltage state of the current biased Josephson junction

    SciTech Connect

    Clarke, J.; Devoret, M.H.; Martinis, J.; Esteve, D.

    1985-05-01

    When a weak microwave current is applied to a current-biased Josephson tunnel junction in the thermal limit the escape rate from the zero voltage state is enhanced when the microwave frequency is near the plasma frequency of the junction. The resonance curve is markedly asymmetric because of the anharmonic properties of the potential well: this behavior is well explained by a computer simulation using a resistively shunted junction model. This phenomenon of resonant activation enables one to make in situ measurements of the capacitance and resistance shunting the junction, including contributions from the complex impedance presented by the current leads. For the relatively large area junctions studied in these experiments, the external capacitive loading was relatively unimportant, but the damping was entirely dominated by the external resistance.

  8. Advanced practice clinicians as abortion providers: current developments in the United States.

    PubMed

    Joffe, Carole; Yanow, Susan

    2004-11-01

    A hopeful note in the contemporary abortion environment in the United States is the expanding role of advanced practice clinicians--nurse practitioners, physician assistants and nurse-midwives--in first trimester abortion provision. A large percentage of primary health care in the U.S. is currently provided by these non-physicians but their involvement in abortion care is promising, especially in light of the shortage of physician providers. Two national symposia in 1990 and 1996 approved the expansion of early abortion care to non-physicians. As of January 2004, trained advanced practice clinicians were providing medical, and in some cases, early surgical abortion in 14 states. This has required not only medical training but also political organising to achieve the necessary legal and regulatory changes, state by state, by groups such as Clinicians for Choice and the Abortion Access Project, described here in examples in two states and the reflections of three advanced practice clinicians. Recent surveys in three states show a substantial interest among advanced practice clinicians in abortion training, leading to cautious optimism about the possibility of increased abortion access for women. Most encouraging, advanced practice clinicians, like their physician counterparts, show a level of passionate commitment to the work that is rare elsewhere in health care in the U.S. today.

  9. Mixed states in bipolar disorder - changes in DSM-5 and current treatment recommendations.

    PubMed

    Betzler, Felix; Stöver, Laura Apollonia; Sterzer, Philipp; Köhler, Stephan

    2017-11-01

    Mixed states in affective disorders represent a particular challenge in clinical routine, characterized by a complicated course of treatment and a worse treatment response. Clinical features of mixed states and the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) criteria are presented and critical discussed. We then performed a systematic review using the terms 'bipolar', 'mixed' and 'randomized' to evaluate current treatment options. For pharmacological treatment of mixed states in total, there is still insufficient data from RCTs. However, there is some evidence for efficacy in mixed states from RCTs for atypical antipsychotics, especially olanzapine, aripiprazole and asenapine as well as mood stabilizers as valproate and carbamazepine. Mixed states are of a high clinical relevance and the DSM-5 criteria substantially reduced the diagnostic threshold. Besides advantages of a better characterization of patients with former DSM-IV-defined mixed episodes, disadvantages arise for example differential diagnoses with a substantial overlap in symptoms such as borderline personality disorders. Atypical antipsychotics, valproate and carbamazepine demonstrated efficacy in a limited sample of RCTs. The number of RCTs in the treatment of mixed states is highly limited. Furthermore, nearly all studies were funded by pharmaceutical companies which may lead to an underestimation of classical mood stabilizers such as lithium.

  10. SSAT State-of-the-Art Conference: Current Surgical Management of Gastric Tumors.

    PubMed

    Norton, Jeffrey A; Kim, Teresa; Kim, Joseph; McCarter, Martin D; Kelly, Kaitlyn J; Wong, Joyce; Sicklick, Jason K

    2017-08-14

    The current era of gastric surgery is marked by low morbidity and mortality rates, innovative strategies to approach resections with a minimally invasive fashion or hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC), as well as improved understanding of the biology of sporadic and hereditary stromal, neuroendocrine, and epithelial malignancies. In 2017, the Society for Surgery of the Alimentary Tract convened a State-of-the-Art Conference on Current Surgical Management of Gastric Tumors with both international experts and emerging leaders in the field of gastric surgery. Martin D. McCarter, MD of the University of Colorado discussed the current management of gastric gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST). Kaitlyn J. Kelly, MD of the University of California, San Diego discussed the management of gastric carcinoid tumors. Jeffrey A. Norton of Stanford University discussed recent advances in the management of gastric adenocarcinoma including a focus on hereditary diffuse gastric cancer (HDGC). Joseph Kim, MD of Stony Brook University discussed a systematic approach to minimally invasive gastrectomy for cancer. Joyce Wong, MD of Pennsylvania State University discussed the role for cytoreductive surgery (CRS) and HIPEC for gastric adenocarcinoma. This review provides gastrointestinal surgeons with a concise update on the current surgical management of gastric tumors.

  11. Thermally Stimulated Discharge Current Analysis of Polymeric Solid-State Ionic Conductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Haisheng; Gu, Qingchao; Fan, Maosen; Yang, Changzheng

    1997-06-01

    Thermally Stimulated Discharge Current (TSDC) analysis was used to study the electrical properties of two systems of polymeric solid-state ionic conductors. One system consisted of LiClO4 doped polyethylene glycol polyurethaneureas (PEUU) characterized by bi-ionic conduction and the other system was based on a sulfonated polyethylene oxide polyurethane ionomer (SPUI) characterized by a single-ion transport mechanism. TSDC spectra of the PEUU as well as SPUI matrices showed four peaks (, , , and ). These peaks are found to be related to the local motion of polyether soft segments, glass transition, Maxwell-Wagner-Sillars interfacial polarization and transport of charged ionic species, respectively. The discharge currents without polarization varying with temperature for both, the PEUU-LiClO4 complex and SPUI, are also measured. These curves of discharge current show only one peak which is attributed to transport of charged ionic species. The temperature range in which the discharge current exhibits a steep increase is consistent with the temperature range in which a turning point appears on the plot of lg i versus 1000/T obtained by ac impedance analysis. The experimental results demonstrate that the TSDC analysis is a valuable tool for studying polymeric solid-state ionic conductors.

  12. Proteomics of FACS-sorted heterogeneous Corynebacterium glutamicum populations.

    PubMed

    Harst, Andreas; Albaum, Stefan P; Bojarzyn, Tanja; Trötschel, Christian; Poetsch, Ansgar

    2017-05-08

    The metabolic status of individual cells in microbial cultures can differ, being relevant for biotechnology, environmental and medical microbiology. However, it is hardly understood in molecular detail due to limitations of current analytical tools. Here, we demonstrate that FACS in combination with proteomics can be used to sort and analyze cell populations based on their metabolic state. A previously established GFP reporter system was used to detect and sort single Corynebacterium glutamicum cells based on the concentration of branched chain amino acids (BCAA) using FACS. A proteomics workflow optimized for small cell numbers was used to quantitatively compare proteomes of a ΔaceE mutant, lacking functional pyruvate dehydrogenase (PD), and the wild type. About 800 proteins could be quantified from 1,000,000 cells. In the ΔaceE mutant BCAA production was coordinated with upregulation of the glyoxylate cycle and TCA cycle to counter the lack of acetyl CoA resulting from the deletion of aceE. Metabolic pathways in C. glutamicum WT and ΔaceE, devoid of functional pyruvate dehydrogenase, were compared to understand proteome changes that contribute to the high production of branched chain amino acids (BCAA) in the ΔaceE strain. The data complements previous metabolome studies and corroborates the role of malate provided by the glyoxylate cycle and increased activity of glycolysis and pyruvate carboxylase reaction to replenish the TCA cycle. A slight increase in acetohydroxyacid synthase (ILV subunit B) substantiates the previously reported increased pyruvate pool in C. glutamicumΔaceE, and the benefit of additional ilv gene cluster overexpression for BCAA production. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Aptamer-Based Multiplexed Proteomic Technology for Biomarker Discovery

    PubMed Central

    Gold, Larry; Ayers, Deborah; Bertino, Jennifer; Bock, Christopher; Bock, Ashley; Brody, Edward N.; Carter, Jeff; Dalby, Andrew B.; Eaton, Bruce E.; Fitzwater, Tim; Flather, Dylan; Forbes, Ashley; Foreman, Trudi; Fowler, Cate; Gawande, Bharat; Goss, Meredith; Gunn, Magda; Gupta, Shashi; Halladay, Dennis; Heil, Jim; Heilig, Joe; Hicke, Brian; Husar, Gregory; Janjic, Nebojsa; Jarvis, Thale; Jennings, Susan; Katilius, Evaldas; Keeney, Tracy R.; Kim, Nancy; Koch, Tad H.; Kraemer, Stephan; Kroiss, Luke; Le, Ngan; Levine, Daniel; Lindsey, Wes; Lollo, Bridget; Mayfield, Wes; Mehan, Mike; Mehler, Robert; Nelson, Sally K.; Nelson, Michele; Nieuwlandt, Dan; Nikrad, Malti; Ochsner, Urs; Ostroff, Rachel M.; Otis, Matt; Parker, Thomas; Pietrasiewicz, Steve; Resnicow, Daniel I.; Rohloff, John; Sanders, Glenn; Sattin, Sarah; Schneider, Daniel; Singer, Britta; Stanton, Martin; Sterkel, Alana; Stewart, Alex; Stratford, Suzanne; Vaught, Jonathan D.; Vrkljan, Mike; Walker, Jeffrey J.; Watrobka, Mike; Waugh, Sheela; Weiss, Allison; Wilcox, Sheri K.; Wolfson, Alexey; Wolk, Steven K.; Zhang, Chi; Zichi, Dom

    2010-01-01

    Background The interrogation of proteomes (“proteomics”) in a highly multiplexed and efficient manner remains a coveted and challenging goal in biology and medicine. Methodology/Principal Findings We present a new aptamer-based proteomic technology for biomarker discovery capable of simultaneously measuring thousands of proteins from small sample volumes (15 µL of serum or plasma). Our current assay measures 813 proteins with low limits of detection (1 pM median), 7 logs of overall dynamic range (∼100 fM–1 µM), and 5% median coefficient of variation. This technology is enabled by a new generation of aptamers that contain chemically modified nucleotides, which greatly expand the physicochemical diversity of the large randomized nucleic acid libraries from which the aptamers are selected. Proteins in complex matrices such as plasma are measured with a process that transforms a signature of protein concentrations into a corresponding signature of DNA aptamer concentrations, which is quantified on a DNA microarray. Our assay takes advantage of the dual nature of aptamers as both folded protein-binding entities with defined shapes and unique nucleotide sequences recognizable by specific hybridization probes. To demonstrate the utility of our proteomics biomarker discovery technology, we applied it to a clinical study of chronic kidney disease (CKD). We identified two well known CKD biomarkers as well as an additional 58 potential CKD biomarkers. These results demonstrate the potential utility of our technology to rapidly discover unique protein signatures characteristic of various disease states. Conclusions/Significance We describe a versatile and powerful tool that allows large-scale comparison of proteome profiles among discrete populations. This unbiased and highly multiplexed search engine will enable the discovery of novel biomarkers in a manner that is unencumbered by our incomplete knowledge of biology, thereby helping to advance the next generation of

  14. System and method for generating steady state confining current for a toroidal plasma fusion reactor

    DOEpatents

    Bers, Abraham

    1981-01-01

    A system for generating steady state confining current for a toroidal plasma fusion reactor providing steady-state generation of the thermonuclear power. A dense, hot toroidal plasma is initially prepared with a confining magnetic field with toroidal and poloidal components. Continuous wave RF energy is injected into said plasma to estalish a spectrum of traveling waves in the plasma, where the traveling waves have momentum components substantially either all parallel, or all anti-parallel to the confining magnetic field. The injected RF energy is phased to couple to said traveling waves with both a phase velocity component and a wave momentum component in the direction of the plasma traveling wave components. The injected RF energy has a predetermined spectrum selected so that said traveling waves couple to plasma electrons having velocities in a predetermined range .DELTA.. The velocities in the range are substantially greater than the thermal electron velocity of the plasma. In addition, the range is sufficiently broad to produce a raised plateau having width .DELTA. in the plasma electron velocity distribution so that the plateau electrons provide steady-state current to generate a poloidal magnetic field component sufficient for confining the plasma. In steady state operation of the fusion reactor, the fusion power density in the plasma exceeds the power dissipated inthe plasma.

  15. System and method for generating steady state confining current for a toroidal plasma fusion reactor

    DOEpatents

    Fisch, Nathaniel J.

    1981-01-01

    A system for generating steady state confining current for a toroidal plasma fusion reactor providing steady-state generation of the thermonuclear power. A dense, hot toroidal plasma is initially prepared with a confining magnetic field with toroidal and poloidal components. Continuous wave RF energy is injected into said plasma to establish a spectrum of traveling waves in the plasma, where the traveling waves have momentum components substantially either all parallel, or all anti-parallel to the confining magnetic field. The injected RF energy is phased to couple to said traveling waves with both a phase velocity component and a wave momentum component in the direction of the plasma traveling wave components. The injected RF energy has a predetermined spectrum selected so that said traveling waves couple to plasma electrons having velocities in a predetermined range .DELTA.. The velocities in the range are substantially greater than the thermal electron velocity of the plasma. In addition, the range is sufficiently broad to produce a raised plateau having width .DELTA. in the plasma electron velocity distribution so that the plateau electrons provide steady-state current to generate a poloidal magnetic field component sufficient for confining the plasma. In steady state operation of the fusion reactor, the fusion power density in the plasma exceeds the power dissipated in the plasma.

  16. Integrated modelling of DEMO-FNS current ramp-up scenario and steady-state regime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dnestrovskij, A. Yu.; Kuteev, B. V.; Bykov, A. S.; Ivanov, A. A.; Lukash, V. E.; Medvedev, S. Yu.; Sergeev, V. Yu.; Sychugov, D. Yu.; Khayrutdinov, R. R.

    2015-06-01

    An approach to the integrated modelling of plasma regimes in the projected neutron source DEMO-FNS based on different codes is developed. The consistency check of the steady-state regime is carried out, namely, the possibility of the plasma current ramp-up, acceptance of growth rates of MHD modes in the steady-state regime, heat loads to the wall and divertor plates and neutron yield value. The following codes are employed for the integrated modelling. ASTRA transport code for calculation of plasma parameters in the steady-state regime, NUBEAM Monte Carlo code for NBI incorporated into the ASTRA code, DINA free boundary equilibrium and evolution code, SPIDER free boundary equilibrium and equilibrium reconstruction code, KINX ideal MHD stability code, TOKSTAB rigid shift vertical stability code, edge and divertor plasma B2SOLPS5.2 code and Semi-analytic Hybrid Model (SHM) code for self-consistent description of the core, edge and divertor plasmas based on the experimental scaling laws. The consistent steady-state regime for the DEMO-FNS plasma and the plasma current ramp-up scenario are developed using the integrated modelling approach. Passive copper coils are suggested to reduce the plasma vertical instability growth rate to below ˜30 s-1.The outer divertor operation in the ‘high-recycling’ regime is numerically demonstrated with a maximal heat flux density of 7-9 MW m-2 that is technically acceptable.

  17. Model-based probe state estimation and crack inverse methods addressing eddy current probe variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aldrin, John C.; Oneida, Erin K.; Shell, Eric B.; Sabbagh, Harold A.; Sabbagh, Elias; Murphy, R. Kim; Mazdiyasni, Siamack; Lindgren, Eric A.; Mooers, Ryan D.

    2017-02-01

    A model-based calibration process is introduced that estimates the state of the eddy current probe. First, a carefully designed surrogate model was built using VIC-3D® simulations covering the critical range of probe rotation angles, tilt in two directions, and probe offset (liftoff) for both transverse and longitudinal flaw orientations. Some approximations and numerical compromises in the model were made to represent tilt in two directions and reduce simulation time; however, this surrogate model was found to represent the key trends in the eddy current response for each of the four probe properties in experimental verification studies well. Next, this model was incorporated into an iterative inversion scheme during the calibration process, to estimate the probe state while also addressing the amplitude/phase fit and centering the calibration notch indication. Results are presented showing several examples of the blind estimation of tilt and rotation angle for known experimental cases with reasonable agreement. Once the probe state is estimated, the final step is to transform the base crack inversion surrogate model and apply it for crack characterization. Using this process, results are presented demonstrating improved crack inversion performance for extreme probe states.

  18. Mass Spectrometry Applied to Bottom-Up Proteomics: Entering the High-Throughput Era for Hypothesis Testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gillet, Ludovic C.; Leitner, Alexander; Aebersold, Ruedi

    2016-06-01

    Proteins constitute a key class of molecular components that perform essential biochemical reactions in living cells. Whether the aim is to extensively characterize a given protein or to perform high-throughput qualitative and quantitative analysis of the proteome content of a sample, liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry has become the technology of choice. In this review, we summarize the current state of mass spectrometry applied to bottom-up proteomics, the approach that focuses on analyzing peptides obtained from proteolytic digestion of proteins. With the recent advances in instrumentation and methodology, we show that the field is moving away from providing qualitative identification of long lists of proteins to delivering highly consistent and accurate quantification values for large numbers of proteins across large numbers of samples. We believe that this shift will have a profound impact for the field of proteomics and life science research in general.

  19. The biology/disease-driven human proteome project (B/D-HPP): enabling protein research for the life sciences community.

    PubMed

    Aebersold, Ruedi; Bader, Gary D; Edwards, Aled M; van Eyk, Jennifer E; Kussmann, Martin; Qin, Jun; Omenn, Gilbert S

    2013-01-04

    The biology and disease oriented branch of the Human Proteome Project (B/D-HPP) was established by the Human Proteome Organization (HUPO) with the main goal of supporting the broad application of state-of the-art measurements of proteins and proteomes by life scientists studying the molecular mechanisms of biological processes and human disease. This will be accomplished through the generation of research and informational resources that will support the routine and definitive measurement of the process or disease relevant proteins. The B/D-HPP is highly complementary to the C-HPP and will provide datasets and biological characterization useful to the C-HPP teams. In this manuscript we describe the goals, the plans, and the current status of the of the B/D-HPP.

  20. Advanced proteomic liquid chromatography

    SciTech Connect

    Xie, Fang; Smith, Richard D.; Shen, Yufeng

    2012-10-26

    Liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry is the predominant platform used to analyze proteomics samples consisting of large numbers of proteins and their proteolytic products (e.g., truncated polypeptides) and spanning a wide range of relative concentrations. This review provides an overview of advanced capillary liquid chromatography techniques and methodologies that greatly improve separation resolving power and proteomics analysis coverage, sensitivity, and throughput.

  1. Enhancement of HERG K(+) currents by Cd(2+) destabilization of the inactivated state

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, JP; Balser, JR; Bennett, PB

    1999-01-01

    We have studied the functional effects of extracellular Cd(2+) on human ether-a-go-go-related gene (HERG) encoded K(+) channels. Low concentrations (10-200 &mgr;M) of extracellular Cd(2+) increased outward currents through HERG channels; 200 &mgr;M Cd(2+) more than doubled HERG currents and altered current kinetics. Cd(2+) concentrations up to 200 &mgr;M did not change the voltage dependence of channel activation, but shifted the voltage dependence of inactivation to more depolarized membrane potentials. Cd(2+) concentrations >/=500 &mgr;M shifted the voltage dependence of channel activation to more positive potentials. These results are consistent with a somewhat specific ability of Cd(2+) to destabilize the inactivated state. We tested the hypothesis that channel inactivation is essential for Cd(2+)-induced increases in HERG K(+) currents, using a double point mutation (G628C/S631C) that diminishes HERG inactivation (Smith, P. L., T. Baukrowitz, and G. Yellen. 1996. Nature (Lond.). 379:833-836). This inactivation-removed mutant is insensitive to low concentrations of Cd(2+). Thus, Cd(2+) had two distinct effects on HERG K(+) channels. Low concentrations of Cd(2+) caused relatively selective effects on inactivation, resulting in a reduction of the apparent rectification of the channel and thereby increasing HERG K(+) currents. Higher Cd(2+) concentrations affected activation gating as well, possibly by a surface charge screening mechanism or by association with a lower affinity site. PMID:10545354

  2. Proteomic profiling predicts drug response to novel targeted anticancer therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Lin, Fan; Li, Zilin; Hua, Yunfen; Lim, Yoon Pin

    2016-01-01

    Most recently approved anti-cancer drugs by the US FDA are targeted therapeutic agents and this represents an important trend for future anticancer therapy. Unlike conventional chemotherapy that rarely considers individual differences, it is crucial for targeted therapies to identify the beneficial subgroup of patients for the treatment. Currently, genomics and transcriptomics are the major 'omic' analytics used in studies of drug response prediction. However, proteomic profiling excels both in its advantages of directly detecting an instantaneous dynamic of the whole proteome, which contains most current diagnostic markers and therapeutic targets. Moreover, proteomic profiling improves understanding of the mechanism for drug resistance and helps finding optimal combination therapy. This article reviews the recent success of applications of proteomic analytics in predicting the response to targeted anticancer therapeutics, and discusses the potential avenues and pitfalls of proteomic platforms and techniques used most in the field.

  3. Principles of proteomics and its applications in cancer.

    PubMed

    Chuthapisith, S; Layfield, R; Kerr, I D; Eremin, O

    2007-02-01

    During the past decade, genomic analyses have been introduced into cancer studies with variable success. It has become recognised, however, that genomic techniques in isolation are insufficient to study the complex pathways of carcinogenesis; this has led to the application of proteomic techniques, which allow for the reliable analysis of complex mixtures of proteins. This article reviews the basic principles of proteomics, methods currently used in proteomics including two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) and mass spectrometry (MS), and the application of proteomics in cancer research. Currently, proteomic technology has been used in two main areas of cancer research: early diagnosis and treatment (included prediction of response to treatment and targeting novel cancer agents). The initial results from both in vitro and in vivo studies are impressive. These technologies, particularly when combined with genomic analyses, will provide valuable insights into the molecular basis of carcinogenesis and the development of more effective anti-cancer therapies.

  4. Past residence outside of the United States is associated with diet quality in adults currently residing in the United States.

    PubMed

    Frankenfeld, Cara L; Poudrier, Jill; Waters, Nigel; Gillevet, Patrick M

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate healthy dietary factors in relation to prior residence outside the United States (US) among university-affiliated individuals currently residing in the US. Current diet information was collected via a 4-day food record and residential history data were collected by in-person interview for 114 individuals. Residence outside of the US at any point during the interviewee's life was associated with higher diet quality (Healthy Eating Index-2005: 50.0 vs. 46.8) and lower added sugar intake (25.8 vs. 34.9 g/d). Concordance of residence as a child (≤12 years of age) and within the prior 5 years was more strongly associated with higher HEI-2005 score (52.7) than if childhood was outside of the US and recent within the US (47.1), compared with individuals who have only resided within the US (46.9). Results were similar when also accounting for self-reported current residence as permanent residence. Current diet quality, food groups, and nutrient intakes differed depending on where in the world region individuals resided as a child. Restricting the analyzes to a subgroup of individuals of younger age and similar education attenuated associations. Lower added sugar intake and higher overall diet quality were most consistently associated with residence outside of the US, and recent residence outside of the US may be more strongly associated than childhood residence. Some of these differences may be explained by demographic or socioeconomic factors. Future studies could evaluate explanatory factors for these observations, including detailed socioeconomic factors, exposure to diverse foods, and accessibility of processed foods. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Investigation of various equations of state for high current, pulsed power load modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luginsland, John; Parkinson, Roland; Rigby, Fred; Toepfer, Alan

    2002-08-01

    A number of technologies utilize the increasing availability of modern pulsed power systems to produce high currents to resistively drive solid, metallic loads into the plasma state. Examples include ablation plasma deposition, circuit breakers, fuses, exploding and imploding wires, and high velocity jet disruption. One important feature in any computational model of these phenomena is the equation of state (EOS). The equations of state used in these models are typically as varied as the range of applications. In this work, using a segmented wire experiment performed at the Army Research Laboratory [1] as a benchmark, we investigate three equations of state [2-4]. We assess the merits of the EOS for both their physical accuracy and easy of use computationally. Finally, we comment on the availability of the information necessary to build the EOS, given the wide variety of materials that are used in this applied field. [1] C.E. Hollandsworth et al., J. Appl. Phys., vol. 84, no. 9, 4992-5000, 1998. [2] SESAME tables, LANL T-1 Division, Equation of State and Strength of Materials. [3] Zhukov, Demidov, and Ryabenko, Fiz. Metal. Metalloved., vol. 57, no. 2, 224-229, 1984. [4] Chittenden et al., Laser and Particle Beams, vol. 19, issue 3, 323-343, 2001, and references therein.

  6. Proteomics in veterinary medicine: applications and trends in disease pathogenesis and diagnostics.

    PubMed

    Ceciliani, F; Eckersall, D; Burchmore, R; Lecchi, C

    2014-03-01

    Advancement in electrophoresis and mass spectrometry techniques along with the recent progresses in genomics, culminating in bovine and pig genome sequencing, widened the potential application of proteomics in the field of veterinary medicine. The aim of the present review is to provide an in-depth perspective about the application of proteomics to animal disease pathogenesis, as well as its utilization in veterinary diagnostics. After an overview on the various proteomic techniques that are currently applied to veterinary sciences, the article focuses on proteomic approaches to animal disease pathogenesis. Included as well are recent achievements in immunoproteomics (ie, the identifications through proteomic techniques of antigen involved in immune response) and histoproteomics (ie, the application of proteomics in tissue processed for immunohistochemistry). Finally, the article focuses on clinical proteomics (ie, the application of proteomics to the identification of new biomarkers of animal diseases).

  7. The current state-of-the-art of spinal cord imaging: Methods

    PubMed Central

    Stroman, P.W.; Wheeler-Kingshott, C.; Bacon, M.; Schwab, J.M.; Bosma, R.; Brooks, J.; Cadotte, D.; Carlstedt, T.; Ciccarelli, O.; Cohen-Adad, J.; Curt, A.; Evangelou, N.; Fehlings, M.G.; Filippi, M.; Kelley, B.J.; Kollias, S.; Mackay, A.; Porro, C.A.; Smith, S.; Strittmatter, S.M.; Summers, P.; Tracey, I.

    2015-01-01

    A first-ever spinal cord imaging meeting was sponsored by the International Spinal Research Trust and the Wings for Life Foundation with the aim of identifying the current state-of-the-art of spinal cord imaging, the current greatest challenges, and greatest needs for future development. This meeting was attended by a small group of invited experts spanning all aspects of spinal cord imaging from basic research to clinical practice. The greatest current challenges for spinal cord imaging were identified as arising from the imaging environment itself; difficult imaging environment created by the bone surrounding the spinal canal, physiological motion of the cord and adjacent tissues, and small cross-sectional dimensions of the spinal cord, exacerbated by metallic implants often present in injured patients. Challenges were also identified as a result of a lack of “critical mass” of researchers taking on the development of spinal cord imaging, affecting both the rate of progress in the field, and the demand for equipment and software to manufacturers to produce the necessary tools. Here we define the current state-of-the-art of spinal cord imaging, discuss the underlying theory and challenges, and present the evidence for the current and potential power of these methods. In two review papers (part I and part II), we propose that the challenges can be overcome with advances in methods, improving availability and effectiveness of methods, and linking existing researchers to create the necessary scientific and clinical network to advance the rate of progress and impact of the research. PMID:23685159

  8. The current state-of-the-art of spinal cord imaging: Applications

    PubMed Central

    Wheeler-Kingshott, C.A.; Stroman, P.W.; Schwab, J.M.; Bacon, M.; Bosma, R.; Brooks, J.; Cadotte, D.W.; Carlstedt, T.; Ciccarelli, O.; Cohen-Adad, J.; Curt, A.; Evangelou, N.; Fehlings, M.G.; Filippi, M.; Kelley, B.J.; Kollias, S.; Mackay, A.; Porro, C.A.; Smith, S.; Strittmatter, S.M.; Summers, P.; Thompson, A.J.; Tracey, I.

    2015-01-01

    A first-ever spinal cord imaging meeting was sponsored by the International Spinal Research Trust and the Wings for Life Foundation with the aim of identifying the current state-of-the-art of spinal cord imaging, the current greatest challenges, and greatest needs for future development. This meeting was attended by a small group of invited experts spanning all aspects of spinal cord imaging from basic research to clinical practice. The greatest current challenges for spinal cord imaging were identified as arising from the imaging environment itself; difficult imaging environment created by the bone surrounding the spinal canal, physiological motion of the cord and adjacent tissues, and small crosssectional dimensions of the spinal cord, exacerbated by metallic implants often present in injured patients. Challenges were also identified as a result of a lack of “critical mass” of researchers taking on the development of spinal cord imaging, affecting both the rate of progress in the field, and the demand for equipment and software to manufacturers to produce the necessary tools. Here we define the current state-of-the-art of spinal cord imaging, discuss the underlying theory and challenges, and present the evidence for the current and potential power of these methods. In two review papers (part I and part II), we propose that the challenges can be overcome with advances in methods, improving availability and effectiveness of methods, and linking existing researchers to create the necessary scientific and clinical network to advance the rate of progress and impact of the research. PMID:23859923

  9. Proteome of the Caenorhabditis elegans oocyte.

    PubMed

    Chik, John K; Schriemer, David C; Childs, Sarah J; McGhee, James D

    2011-05-06

    Oocytes were purified from the temperature-sensitive fertilization-defective fer-1(b232ts) mutant of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans and used for comprehensive mass spectrometric analysis. Using stringent criteria, 1165 C. elegans proteins were identified; at lower stringency, an additional 288 proteins were identified. We validate the high degree of sample purity and evaluate several possible sources of bias in the proteomic data. We compare the classes of proteins identified in the current oocyte proteome with protein classes identified in our previously determined oocyte transcriptome. The oocyte proteome appears enriched in proteins likely to be needed immediately upon fertilization, whereas the transcriptome appears enriched in molecules and processes needed later in embryogenesis. The current study provides fundamental background information for future more detailed studies of oocyte biology.

  10. Advances in Proteomics of Mycobacterium leprae.

    PubMed

    Parkash, O; Singh, B P

    2012-04-01

    Although Mycobacterium leprae was the first bacterial pathogen identified causing human disease, it remains one of the few that is non-cultivable. Understanding the biology of M. leprae is one of the primary challenges in current leprosy research. Genomics has been extremely valuable, nonetheless, functional proteins are ultimately responsible for controlling most aspects of cellular functions, which in turn could facilitate parasitizing the host. Furthermore, bacterial proteins provide targets for most of the vaccines and immunodiagnostic tools. Better understanding of the proteomics of M. leprae could also help in developing new drugs against M. leprae. During the past nearly 15 years, there have been several developments towards the identification of M. leprae proteins employing contemporary proteomics tools. In this review, we discuss the knowledge gained on the biology and pathogenesis of M. leprae from current proteomic studies.

  11. Current use of underage alcohol compliance checks by enforcement agencies in the United States.

    PubMed

    Erickson, Darin J; Lenk, Kathleen M; Sanem, Julia R; Nelson, Toben F; Jones-Webb, Rhonda; Toomey, Traci L

    2014-06-01

    Compliance checks conducted by law enforcement agents can significantly reduce the likelihood of illegal alcohol sales to underage individuals, but these checks need to be conducted using optimal methods to maintain effectiveness. We conducted a national survey of local and state enforcement agencies from 2010 to 2011 to assess: (i) how many agencies are currently conducting underage alcohol compliance checks, (ii) how many agencies that conduct compliance checks use optimal methods-including checking all establishments in the jurisdiction, conducting checks at least 3 to 4 times per year, conducting follow-up checks within 3 months, and penalizing the licensee (not only the server/clerk) for failing a compliance check, and (iii) characteristics of the agencies that conduct compliance checks. Just over one-third of local law enforcement agencies and over two-thirds of state agencies reported conducting compliance checks. However, only a small percentage of the agencies (4 to 6%) reported using all of the optimal methods to maximize effectiveness of these compliance checks. Local law enforcement agencies with an alcohol-related division, those with at least 1 full-time officer assigned to work on alcohol, and those in larger communities were significantly more likely to conduct compliance checks. State agencies with more full-time agents and those located in states where the state agency or both state and local enforcement agencies have primary responsibility (vs. only the local law agency) for enforcing alcohol retail laws were also more likely to conduct compliance checks; however, these agency characteristics did not remain statistically significant in the multivariate analyses. Continued effort is needed to increase the number of local and state agencies conducting compliance checks using optimal methods to reduce youth access to alcohol. Copyright © 2014 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  12. Current state and perspectives of producing biodiesel‐like compounds by biotechnology

    PubMed Central

    Uthoff, Stefan; Bröker, Daniel; Steinbüchel, Alexander

    2009-01-01

    Summary The global demand for crude oil is expected to continue to rise in future while simultaneously oil production is currently reaching its peak. Subsequently, rising oil prices and their negative impacts on economy, together with an increased environmental awareness of our society, directed the focus also on the biotechnological production of fuels. Although a wide variety of such fuels has been suggested, only the production of ethanol and biodiesel has reached a certain economic feasibility and volume, yet. This review focuses on the current state and perspectives of biotechnological production of biodiesel‐like compounds. At present by far most of the produced biodiesel is obtained by chemical transesterification reactions, which cannot meet the demands of a totally ‘green’ fuel production. Therefore, also several biotechnological biodiesel production processes are currently being developed. Biotechnological production can be achieved by purified enzymes in the soluble state, which requires cost‐intensive protein preparation. Alternatively, enzymes could be immobilized on an appropriate matrix, enabling a reuse of the enzyme, although the formation of by‐products may provide difficulties to maintain the enzyme activity. Processes in presence of organic solvents like t‐butanol have been developed, which enhance by‐product solubility and therefore prevent loss of enzyme activity. As another approach the application of whole‐cell catalysis for the production of fatty acid ethyl esters, which is also referred to as ‘microdiesel’, by recombinant microorganisms has recently been suggested. PMID:21255288

  13. Description of plasma focus current sheath as the Turner relaxed state of a Hall magnetofluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Auluck, S. K. H.

    2009-12-01

    The central mystery of plasma focus research is the two orders-of-magnitude-higher-than-thermal fusion reaction rate and the fact that both the space-resolved neutron spectra and space-resolved reaction proton spectra show features which can be ascribed only to a rotational motion of the center-of-mass of the reacting deuteron population. It has been suggested earlier [S. K. H. Auluck, IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 25, 37 (1997)] that this and other experimental observations can be consistently explained in terms of a hypothesis involving rotation of the current carrying plasma annulus behind the imploding gas-dynamic shock. Such rotation (more generally, mass flow) is an in-built feature of relaxed state of a two-fluid plasma [R. N. Sudan, Phys. Rev. Lett. 42, 1277 (1979)]. Relaxation in the "Hall magnetofluid" approximation, in which the generalized Ohm's law includes the Hall effect term and the magnetic convection term but omits the contributions to the electric field from resistive dissipation, electron pressure gradient, thermoelectric effect, electron inertia, etc., has been extensively studied by many authors. In the present paper, Turner's [IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. PS-14, 849 (1986)] degenerate solution for the relaxed state of the Hall magnetohydrodynamic plasma has been adapted to the case of an infinitely long annular current carrying plasma, a tractable idealization of the current sheath of a plasma focus. The resulting model is consistent with experimental values of ion kinetic energy and observation of predominantly radially directed neutron emission in good shots.

  14. Description of plasma focus current sheath as the Turner relaxed state of a Hall magnetofluid

    SciTech Connect

    Auluck, S. K. H.

    2009-12-15

    The central mystery of plasma focus research is the two orders-of-magnitude-higher-than-thermal fusion reaction rate and the fact that both the space-resolved neutron spectra and space-resolved reaction proton spectra show features which can be ascribed only to a rotational motion of the center-of-mass of the reacting deuteron population. It has been suggested earlier [S. K. H. Auluck, IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 25, 37 (1997)] that this and other experimental observations can be consistently explained in terms of a hypothesis involving rotation of the current carrying plasma annulus behind the imploding gas-dynamic shock. Such rotation (more generally, mass flow) is an in-built feature of relaxed state of a two-fluid plasma [R. N. Sudan, Phys. Rev. Lett. 42, 1277 (1979)]. Relaxation in the 'Hall magnetofluid' approximation, in which the generalized Ohm's law includes the Hall effect term and the magnetic convection term but omits the contributions to the electric field from resistive dissipation, electron pressure gradient, thermoelectric effect, electron inertia, etc., has been extensively studied by many authors. In the present paper, Turner's [IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. PS-14, 849 (1986)] degenerate solution for the relaxed state of the Hall magnetohydrodynamic plasma has been adapted to the case of an infinitely long annular current carrying plasma, a tractable idealization of the current sheath of a plasma focus. The resulting model is consistent with experimental values of ion kinetic energy and observation of predominantly radially directed neutron emission in good shots.

  15. Current state and perspectives of producing biodiesel-like compounds by biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Uthoff, Stefan; Bröker, Daniel; Steinbüchel, Alexander

    2009-09-01

    The global demand for crude oil is expected to continue to rise in future while simultaneously oil production is currently reaching its peak. Subsequently, rising oil prices and their negative impacts on economy, together with an increased environmental awareness of our society, directed the focus also on the biotechnological production of fuels. Although a wide variety of such fuels has been suggested, only the production of ethanol and biodiesel has reached a certain economic feasibility and volume, yet. This review focuses on the current state and perspectives of biotechnological production of biodiesel-like compounds. At present by far most of the produced biodiesel is obtained by chemical transesterification reactions, which cannot meet the demands of a totally 'green' fuel production. Therefore, also several biotechnological biodiesel production processes are currently being developed. Biotechnological production can be achieved by purified enzymes in the soluble state, which requires cost-intensive protein preparation. Alternatively, enzymes could be immobilized on an appropriate matrix, enabling a reuse of the enzyme, although the formation of by-products may provide difficulties to maintain the enzyme activity. Processes in presence of organic solvents like t-butanol have been developed, which enhance by-product solubility and therefore prevent loss of enzyme activity. As another approach the application of whole-cell catalysis for the production of fatty acid ethyl esters, which is also referred to as 'microdiesel', by recombinant microorganisms has recently been suggested. © 2009 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2009 Society for Applied Microbiology and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  16. Spatially resolved edge currents and guided-wave electronic states in graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, M. T.; Shtanko, O.; Fulga, I. C.; Akhmerov, A. R.; Watanabe, K.; Taniguchi, T.; Jarillo-Herrero, P.; Levitov, L. S.; Yacoby, A.

    2016-02-01

    Exploiting the light-like properties of carriers in graphene could allow extreme non-classical forms of electronic transport to be realized. In this vein, finding ways to confine and direct electronic waves through nanoscale streams and streamlets, unimpeded by the presence of other carriers, has remained a grand challenge. Inspired by guiding of light in fibre optics, here we demonstrate a route to engineer such a flow of electrons using a technique for mapping currents at submicron scales. We employ real-space imaging of current flow in graphene to provide direct evidence of the confinement of electron waves at the edges of a graphene crystal near charge neutrality. This is achieved by using superconducting interferometry in a graphene Josephson junction and reconstructing the spatial structure of conducting pathways using Fourier methods. The observed edge currents arise from coherent guided-wave states, confined to the edge by band bending and transmitted as plane waves. As an electronic analogue of photon guiding in optical fibres, the observed states afford non-classical means for information transduction and processing at the nanoscale.

  17. Is current consumption excessive? A general framework and some indications for the United States.

    PubMed

    Ehrlich, Paul R; Goulder, Lawrence H

    2007-10-01

    Many prior studies have explored the implications of human population growth and environmentally problematic technologies for biodiversity loss and other forms of environmental degradation. Relatively few, however, have examined the impacts of the level and composition of consumption. We offer a framework that shows how the level and composition of a society's total consumption relate to the uses of various forms of capital and to the sustainability of natural resources and human well-being. We relate the framework to two main approaches-top-down macro studies and bottom-up computer models-for measuring whether overall consumption in the United States satisfies a sustainability requirement. Existing top-down studies have shortcomings that bias their results toward optimism, and current computer simulation models, although strong on revealing biophysical outcomes, are limited in their ability to evaluate impacts on human well-being. Although some ambiguities arise in determining whether overall consumption in the United States is excessive, our conclusions regarding the composition of U.S. consumption are unambiguous. Distorted consumption patterns and associated production methods lead to excessively rapid natural resource depletion; greater conservation would yield gains to current and future generations that more than compensate for the sacrifices involved. Public policies that deal with the composition problem not only would help conserve natural resources and improve current welfare but also would reduce the costs of meeting the goal of sustainability.

  18. Fed-state gastric media and drug analysis techniques: Current status and points to consider.

    PubMed

    Baxevanis, Fotios; Kuiper, Jesse; Fotaki, Nikoletta

    2016-10-01

    Gastric fed state conditions can have a significant effect on drug dissolution and absorption. In vitro dissolution tests with simple aqueous media cannot usually predict drugs' in vivo response, as several factors such as the meal content, the gastric emptying and possible interactions between food and drug formulations can affect drug's pharmacokinetics. Good understanding of the effect of the in vivo fed gastric conditions on the drug is essential for the development of biorelevant dissolution media simulating the gastric environment after the administration of the standard high fat meal proposed by the FDA and the EMA in bioavailability/bioequivalence (BA/BE) studies. The analysis of drugs in fed state media can be quite challenging as most analytical protocols currently employed are time consuming and labour intensive. In this review, an overview of the in vivo gastric conditions and the biorelevant media used for their in vitro simulation are described. Furthermore an analysis of the physicochemical properties of the drugs and the formulations related to food effect is given. In terms of drug analysis, the protocols currently used for the fed state media sample treatment and analysis and the analytical challenges and needs emerging for more efficient and time saving techniques for a broad spectrum of compounds are being discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Knowledge Translation: Moving Proteomics Science to Innovation in Society.

    PubMed

    Holmes, Christina; McDonald, Fiona; Jones, Mavis; Graham, Janice

    2016-06-01

    Proteomics is one of the pivotal next-generation biotechnologies in the current "postgenomics" era. Little is known about the ways in which innovative proteomics science is navigating the complex socio-political space between laboratory and society. It cannot be assumed that the trajectory between proteomics laboratory and society is linear and unidirectional. Concerned about public accountability and hopes for knowledge-based innovations, funding agencies and citizens increasingly expect that emerging science and technologies, such as proteomics, are effectively translated and disseminated as innovation in society. Here, we describe translation strategies promoted in the knowledge translation (KT) and science communication literatures and examine the use of these strategies within the field of proteomics. Drawing on data generated from qualitative interviews with proteomics scientists and ethnographic observation of international proteomics conferences over a 5-year period, we found that proteomics science incorporates a variety of KT strategies to reach knowledge users outside the field. To attain the full benefit of KT, however, proteomics scientists must challenge their own normative assumptions and approaches to innovation dissemination-beyond the current paradigm relying primarily on publication for one's scientific peers within one's field-and embrace the value of broader (interdisciplinary) KT strategies in promoting the uptake of their research. Notably, the Human Proteome Organization (HUPO) is paying increasing attention to a broader range of KT strategies, including targeted dissemination, integrated KT, and public outreach. We suggest that increasing the variety of KT strategies employed by proteomics scientists is timely and would serve well the omics system sciences community.

  20. Pan-proteomics, a concept for unifying quantitative proteome measurements when comparing closely-related bacterial strains.

    PubMed

    Broadbent, James A; Broszczak, Daniel A; Tennakoon, Imalka U K; Huygens, Flavia

    2016-01-01

    The comparison of proteomes between genetically heterogeneous bacterial strains may offer valuable insights into physiological diversity and function, particularly where such variation aids in the survival and virulence of clinically-relevant strains. However, reports of such comparisons frequently fail to account for underlying genetic variance. As a consequence, the current knowledge regarding bacterial physiological diversity at the protein level may be incomplete or inaccurate. To address this, greater consideration must be given to the impact of genetic heterogeneity on proteome comparisons. This may be possible through the use of pan-proteomics, an analytical concept that permits the ability to qualitatively and quantitatively compare the proteomes of genetically heterogeneous organisms. Limited examples of this emerging technology highlight currently unmet analytical challenges. In this article we define pan-proteomics, where its value lies in microbiology, and discuss the technical considerations critical to its successful execution and potential future application.