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Sample records for proteomics current state

  1. Making proteomics data accessible and reusable: Current state of proteomics databases and repositories

    PubMed Central

    Perez-Riverol, Yasset; Alpi, Emanuele; Wang, Rui; Hermjakob, Henning; Vizcaíno, Juan Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Compared to other data-intensive disciplines such as genomics, public deposition and storage of MS-based proteomics, data are still less developed due to, among other reasons, the inherent complexity of the data and the variety of data types and experimental workflows. In order to address this need, several public repositories for MS proteomics experiments have been developed, each with different purposes in mind. The most established resources are the Global Proteome Machine Database (GPMDB), PeptideAtlas, and the PRIDE database. Additionally, there are other useful (in many cases recently developed) resources such as ProteomicsDB, Mass Spectrometry Interactive Virtual Environment (MassIVE), Chorus, MaxQB, PeptideAtlas SRM Experiment Library (PASSEL), Model Organism Protein Expression Database (MOPED), and the Human Proteinpedia. In addition, the ProteomeXchange consortium has been recently developed to enable better integration of public repositories and the coordinated sharing of proteomics information, maximizing its benefit to the scientific community. Here, we will review each of the major proteomics resources independently and some tools that enable the integration, mining and reuse of the data. We will also discuss some of the major challenges and current pitfalls in the integration and sharing of the data. PMID:25158685

  2. Making proteomics data accessible and reusable: current state of proteomics databases and repositories.

    PubMed

    Perez-Riverol, Yasset; Alpi, Emanuele; Wang, Rui; Hermjakob, Henning; Vizcaíno, Juan Antonio

    2015-03-01

    Compared to other data-intensive disciplines such as genomics, public deposition and storage of MS-based proteomics, data are still less developed due to, among other reasons, the inherent complexity of the data and the variety of data types and experimental workflows. In order to address this need, several public repositories for MS proteomics experiments have been developed, each with different purposes in mind. The most established resources are the Global Proteome Machine Database (GPMDB), PeptideAtlas, and the PRIDE database. Additionally, there are other useful (in many cases recently developed) resources such as ProteomicsDB, Mass Spectrometry Interactive Virtual Environment (MassIVE), Chorus, MaxQB, PeptideAtlas SRM Experiment Library (PASSEL), Model Organism Protein Expression Database (MOPED), and the Human Proteinpedia. In addition, the ProteomeXchange consortium has been recently developed to enable better integration of public repositories and the coordinated sharing of proteomics information, maximizing its benefit to the scientific community. Here, we will review each of the major proteomics resources independently and some tools that enable the integration, mining and reuse of the data. We will also discuss some of the major challenges and current pitfalls in the integration and sharing of the data.

  3. Approaching clinical proteomics: current state and future fields of application in cellular proteomics.

    PubMed

    Apweiler, Rolf; Aslanidis, Charalampos; Deufel, Thomas; Gerstner, Andreas; Hansen, Jens; Hochstrasser, Dennis; Kellner, Roland; Kubicek, Markus; Lottspeich, Friedrich; Maser, Edmund; Mewes, Hans-Werner; Meyer, Helmut E; Müllner, Stefan; Mutter, Wolfgang; Neumaier, Michael; Nollau, Peter; Nothwang, Hans G; Ponten, Fredrik; Radbruch, Andreas; Reinert, Knut; Rothe, Gregor; Stockinger, Hannes; Tárnok, Attila; Taussig, Mike J; Thiel, Andreas; Thiery, Joachim; Ueffing, Marius; Valet, Günther; Vandekerckhove, Joel; Wagener, Christoph; Wagner, Oswald; Schmitz, Gerd

    2009-10-01

    Recent developments in proteomics technology offer new opportunities for clinical applications in hospital or specialized laboratories including the identification of novel biomarkers, monitoring of disease, detecting adverse effects of drugs, and environmental hazards. Advanced spectrometry technologies and the development of new protein array formats have brought these analyses to a standard, which now has the potential to be used in clinical diagnostics. Besides standardization of methodologies and distribution of proteomic data into public databases, the nature of the human body fluid proteome with its high dynamic range in protein concentrations, its quantitation problems, and its extreme complexity present enormous challenges. Molecular cell biology (cytomics) with its link to proteomics is a new fast moving scientific field, which addresses functional cell analysis and bioinformatic approaches to search for novel cellular proteomic biomarkers or their release products into body fluids that provide better insight into the enormous biocomplexity of disease processes and are suitable for patient stratification, therapeutic monitoring, and prediction of prognosis. Experience from studies of in vitro diagnostics and especially in clinical chemistry showed that the majority of errors occurs in the preanalytical phase and the setup of the diagnostic strategy. This is also true for clinical proteomics where similar preanalytical variables such as inter- and intra-assay variability due to biological variations or proteolytical activities in the sample will most likely also influence the results of proteomics studies. However, before complex proteomic analysis can be introduced at a broader level into the clinic, standardization of the preanalytical phase including patient preparation, sample collection, sample preparation, sample storage, measurement, and data analysis is another issue which has to be improved. In this report, we discuss the recent advances and

  4. Approaching clinical proteomics: current state and future fields of application in fluid proteomics.

    PubMed

    Apweiler, Rolf; Aslanidis, Charalampos; Deufel, Thomas; Gerstner, Andreas; Hansen, Jens; Hochstrasser, Dennis; Kellner, Roland; Kubicek, Markus; Lottspeich, Friedrich; Maser, Edmund; Mewes, Hans-Werner; Meyer, Helmut E; Müllner, Stefan; Mutter, Wolfgang; Neumaier, Michael; Nollau, Peter; Nothwang, Hans G; Ponten, Fredrik; Radbruch, Andreas; Reinert, Knut; Rothe, Gregor; Stockinger, Hannes; Tarnok, Attila; Taussig, Mike J; Thiel, Andreas; Thiery, Joachim; Ueffing, Marius; Valet, Günther; Vandekerckhove, Joel; Verhuven, Wiltrud; Wagener, Christoph; Wagner, Oswald; Schmitz, Gerd

    2009-01-01

    The field of clinical proteomics offers opportunities to identify new disease biomarkers in body fluids, cells and tissues. These biomarkers can be used in clinical applications for diagnosis, stratification of patients for specific treatment, or therapy monitoring. New protein array formats and improved spectrometry technologies have brought these analyses to a level with potential for use in clinical diagnostics. The nature of the human body fluid proteome with its large dynamic range of protein concentrations presents problems with quantitation. The extreme complexity of the proteome in body fluids presents enormous challenges and requires the establishment of standard operating procedures for handling of specimens, increasing sensitivity for detection and bioinformatical tools for distribution of proteomic data into the public domain. From studies of in vitro diagnostics, especially in clinical chemistry, it is evident that most errors occur in the preanalytical phase and during implementation of the diagnostic strategy. This is also true for clinical proteomics, and especially for fluid proteomics because of the multiple pretreatment processes. These processes include depletion of high-abundance proteins from plasma or enrichment processes for urine where biological variation or differences in proteolytic activities in the sample along with preanalytical variables such as inter- and intra-assay variability will likely influence the results of proteomics studies. However, before proteomic analysis can be introduced at a broader level into the clinical setting, standardization of the preanalytical phase including patient preparation, sample collection, sample preparation, sample storage, measurement and data analysis needs to be improved. In this review, we discuss the recent technological advances and applications that fulfil the criteria for clinical proteomics, with the focus on fluid proteomics. These advances relate to preanalytical factors, analytical

  5. Saliva proteome research: current status and future outlook.

    PubMed

    Schulz, Benjamin L; Cooper-White, Justin; Punyadeera, Chamindie K

    2013-09-01

    Human saliva harbours proteins of clinical relevance and about 30% of blood proteins are also present in saliva. This highlights that saliva can be used for clinical applications just as urine or blood. However, the translation of salivary biomarker discoveries into clinical settings is hampered by the dynamics and complexity of the salivary proteome. This review focuses on the current status of technological developments and achievements relating to approaches for unravelling the human salivary proteome. We discuss the dynamics of the salivary proteome, as well as the importance of sample preparation and processing techniques and their influence on downstream protein applications; post-translational modifications of salivary proteome and protein: protein interactions. In addition, we describe possible enrichment strategies for discerning post-translational modifications of salivary proteins, the potential utility of selected-reaction-monitoring techniques for biomarker discovery and validation, limitations to proteomics and the biomarker challenge and future perspectives. In summary, we provide recommendations for practical saliva sampling, processing and storage conditions to increase the quality of future studies in an emerging field of saliva clinical proteomics. We propose that the advent of technologies allowing sensitive and high throughput proteome-wide analyses, coupled to well-controlled study design, will allow saliva to enter clinical practice as an alternative to blood-based methods due to its simplistic nature of sampling, non-invasiveness, easy of collection and multiple collections by untrained professionals and cost-effective advantages. PMID:22612344

  6. Proteomics

    SciTech Connect

    Hixson, Kim K.; Lopez-Ferrer, Daniel; Robinson, Errol W.; Pasa-Tolic, Ljiljana

    2010-02-01

    Proteomics aims to characterize the spatial distribution and temporal dynamics of proteins in biological systems, the protein response to environmental stimuli, and the differences in protein states between diseased and control biological systems. Mass spectrometry (MS) plays a crucial role in enabling the analysis of proteomes and typically is the method of choice for identifying proteins present in biological systems. Peptide (and consequently protein) identifications are made by comparing measured masses to calculated values obtained from genome data. Several methodologies based on MS have been developed for the analysis of proteomes. The complexity of the biological systems requires that the proteome be separated prior to analysis. Both gel based and liquid chromatography based separations have proven very useful in this regard. Typically, separated proteins are analyzed with MS either intact (top-down proteomics) or are digested into peptides (bottom-up) prior to MS analysis. Additionally, several procedures, with and without stable isotopic labeling, have been introduced to facilitate protein quantitation (e.g. characterize changes in protein abundances between given biological states).

  7. Current perspectives in proteomic analysis of abiotic stress in Grapevines

    PubMed Central

    George, Iniga S.; Haynes, Paul A.

    2014-01-01

    Grapes are an important crop plant which forms the basis of a globally important industry. Grape and wine production is particularly vulnerable to environmental and climatic fluctuations, which makes it essential for us to develop a greater understanding of the molecular level responses of grape plants to various abiotic stresses. The completion of the initial grape genome sequence in 2007 has led to a significant increase in research on grapes using proteomics approaches. In this article, we discuss some of the current research on abiotic stress in grapevines, in the context of abiotic stress research in other plant species. We also highlight some of the current limitations in grapevine proteomics and identify areas with promising scope for potential future research. PMID:25538720

  8. Proteome Analysis of Ground State Pluripotency

    PubMed Central

    Taleahmad, Sara; Mirzaei, Mehdi; Parker, Lindsay M.; Hassani, Seyedeh-Nafiseh; Mollamohammadi, Sepideh; Sharifi-Zarchi, Ali; Haynes, Paul A.; Baharvand, Hossein; Salekdeh, Ghasem Hosseini

    2015-01-01

    The differentiation potential of pluripotent embryonic stem cells (ESCs) can be manipulated via serum and medium conditions for direct cellular development or to maintain a naïve ground state. The self-renewal state of ESCs can thus be induced by adding inhibitors of mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) and glycogen synthase kinase-3 (Gsk3), known as 2 inhibitors (2i) treatment. We have used a shotgun proteomics approach to investigate differences in protein expressions between 2i- and serum-grown mESCs. The results indicated that 164 proteins were significantly upregulated and 107 proteins downregulated in 2i-grown cells compared to serum. Protein pathways in 2i-grown cells with the highest enrichment were associated with glycolysis and gluconeogenesis. Protein pathways related to organ development were downregulated in 2i-grown cells. In serum-grown ESCs, protein pathways involved in integrin and focal adhesion, and signaling proteins involved in the actin cytoskeleton regulation were enriched. We observed a number of nuclear proteins which were mostly involved in self-renewal maintenance and were expressed at higher levels in 2i compared to serum - Dnmt1, Map2k1, Parp1, Xpo4, Eif3g, Smarca4/Brg1 and Smarcc1/Baf155. Collectively, the results provided an insight into the key protein pathways used by ESCs in the ground state or metastable conditions through 2i or serum culture medium, respectively. PMID:26671762

  9. Current advantages in the application of proteomics in inflammatory bowel disease.

    PubMed

    Vaiopoulou, Anna; Gazouli, Maria; Theodoropoulos, George; Zografos, George

    2012-11-01

    Since the formulation of the concept of proteomics, a plethora of proteomic technologies have been developed in order to study proteomes. In inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), several studies use proteomics to try to better understand the disease and discover molecules which can be used as biomarkers. Biomarkers should be able to be used for diagnosis, therapy and prognosis. Although several biomarkers have been discovered, few biomarkers have clinical value. In this review, we analyze and report the current use of proteomic techniques to highlight biomarkers characterizing IBD, and different stages of disease activity. We also report the biomarkers and their potential clinical value.

  10. Proteomics, biomarkers, and HIV‐1: A current perspective

    PubMed Central

    Donnelly, Maire Rose

    2015-01-01

    Despite more than three decades of extensive research, HIV‐1 infection although well controlled with cART, remains incurable. Multifactorial complexity of the viral life‐cycle poses great challenges in understanding molecular mechanisms underlying this infection and the development of biomarkers, which we hope will lead us to its eradication. For a more in‐depth understanding of how the virus interacts with host target cells, T cells and macrophages, proteomic profiling techniques that offer strategies to investigate the proteome in its entirety were employed. Here, we review proteomic studies related to HIV‐1 infection and discuss perspectives and limitations of proteomic and systems biology approaches in future studies. PMID:26033875

  11. Current Trends in Computational Inference from Mass Spectrometry-based Proteomics

    SciTech Connect

    Webb-Robertson, Bobbie-Jo M.; Cannon, William R.

    2007-07-20

    Mass spectrometry offers a high-throughput approach to quantifying the proteome associated with a biological sample and hence has become the primary approach of proteomic analyses. Computation is tightly coupled to this advanced technological platform as a required component of not only peptide and protein identification, but quantification and functional inference, such as protein modifications and interactions. Proteomics faces several key computational challenges such as identification of proteins and peptides from tandem mass spectra as well as their quantitation. In addition, the application of proteomics to systems biology requires understanding the functional proteome including how the dynamics of the cell change in response to protein modifications and complex interactions between biomolecules. This review presents an overview of recently developed methods and their impact on these core computational challenges currently facing proteomics.

  12. Proteomics and the Analysis of Proteomic Data: 2013 Overview of Current Protein-Profiling Technologies

    PubMed Central

    Bruce, Can; Stone, Kathryn; Gulcicek, Erol; Williams, Kenneth

    2013-01-01

    Mass spectrometry has become a major tool in the study of proteomes. The analysis of proteolytic peptides and their fragment ions by this technique enables the identification and quantitation of the precursor proteins in a mixture. However, deducing chemical structures and then protein sequences from mass-to-charge ratios is a challenging computational task. Software tools incorporating powerful algorithms and statistical methods improved our ability to process the large quantities of proteomics data. Repositories of spectral data make both data analysis and experimental design more efficient. New approaches in quantitative and statistical proteomics make possible a greater coverage of the proteome, the identification of more post-translational modifications and a greater sensitivity in the quantitation of targeted proteins. PMID:23504934

  13. Current advances in proteomic analysis of (fatty) liver.

    PubMed

    Molette, C; Théron, L; Marty-Gasset, N; Fernandez, X; Rémignon, H

    2012-07-19

    In this review, an overview on proteomic studies conducted in livers of farm animals is conducted with a special focus on liver steatosis in waterfowl. Several studies had interest in understanding liver metabolism in dairy cows under various conditions (e.g. fasting) or the evolution of liver proteome during embryonic phases or growing periods in chicken. Those studies provide interesting results leading to a better understanding of the liver metabolism. Liver steatosis development in waterfowl represents a special case and a focus on proteomic studies conducted in these birds will be done. Indeed, recent studies aimed at resolving protein evolution during overfeeding in duck. Proteomic analysis combining two complementary approaches (2-dimensional electrophoresis gels and shot gun strategy) in order to better understand the mechanisms underlying the variability of cooking yield of fatty liver will be presented.

  14. Clinical proteomics-driven precision medicine for targeted cancer therapy: current overview and future perspectives.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Li; Wang, Kui; Li, Qifu; Nice, Edouard C; Zhang, Haiyuan; Huang, Canhua

    2016-01-01

    Cancer is a common disease that is a leading cause of death worldwide. Currently, early detection and novel therapeutic strategies are urgently needed for more effective management of cancer. Importantly, protein profiling using clinical proteomic strategies, with spectacular sensitivity and precision, offer excellent promise for the identification of potential biomarkers that would direct the development of targeted therapeutic anticancer drugs for precision medicine. In particular, clinical sample sources, including tumor tissues and body fluids (blood, feces, urine and saliva), have been widely investigated using modern high-throughput mass spectrometry-based proteomic approaches combined with bioinformatic analysis, to pursue the possibilities of precision medicine for targeted cancer therapy. Discussed in this review are the current advantages and limitations of clinical proteomics, the available strategies of clinical proteomics for the management of precision medicine, as well as the challenges and future perspectives of clinical proteomics-driven precision medicine for targeted cancer therapy.

  15. Skeletal muscle proteomics: current approaches, technical challenges and emerging techniques

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Skeletal muscle fibres represent one of the most abundant cell types in mammals. Their highly specialised contractile and metabolic functions depend on a large number of membrane-associated proteins with very high molecular masses, proteins with extensive posttranslational modifications and components that exist in highly complex supramolecular structures. This makes it extremely difficult to perform conventional biochemical studies of potential changes in protein clusters during physiological adaptations or pathological processes. Results Skeletal muscle proteomics attempts to establish the global identification and biochemical characterisation of all members of the muscle-associated protein complement. A considerable number of proteomic studies have employed large-scale separation techniques, such as high-resolution two-dimensional gel electrophoresis or liquid chromatography, and combined them with mass spectrometry as the method of choice for high-throughput protein identification. Muscle proteomics has been applied to the comprehensive biochemical profiling of developing, maturing and aging muscle, as well as the analysis of contractile tissues undergoing physiological adaptations seen in disuse atrophy, physical exercise and chronic muscle transformation. Biomedical investigations into proteome-wide alterations in skeletal muscle tissues were also used to establish novel biomarker signatures of neuromuscular disorders. Importantly, mass spectrometric studies have confirmed the enormous complexity of posttranslational modifications in skeletal muscle proteins. Conclusions This review critically examines the scientific impact of modern muscle proteomics and discusses its successful application for a better understanding of muscle biology, but also outlines its technical limitations and emerging techniques to establish new biomarker candidates. PMID:21798084

  16. Current strategies and findings in clinically relevant post-translational modification-specific proteomics

    PubMed Central

    Pagel, Oliver; Loroch, Stefan; Sickmann, Albert; Zahedi, René P

    2015-01-01

    Mass spectrometry-based proteomics has considerably extended our knowledge about the occurrence and dynamics of protein post-translational modifications (PTMs). So far, quantitative proteomics has been mainly used to study PTM regulation in cell culture models, providing new insights into the role of aberrant PTM patterns in human disease. However, continuous technological and methodical developments have paved the way for an increasing number of PTM-specific proteomic studies using clinical samples, often limited in sample amount. Thus, quantitative proteomics holds a great potential to discover, validate and accurately quantify biomarkers in body fluids and primary tissues. A major effort will be to improve the complete integration of robust but sensitive proteomics technology to clinical environments. Here, we discuss PTMs that are relevant for clinical research, with a focus on phosphorylation, glycosylation and proteolytic cleavage; furthermore, we give an overview on the current developments and novel findings in mass spectrometry-based PTM research. PMID:25955281

  17. Current two-dimensional electrophoresis technology for proteomics.

    PubMed

    Görg, Angelika; Weiss, Walter; Dunn, Michael J

    2004-12-01

    Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) with immobilized pH gradients (IPGs) combined with protein identification by mass spectrometry (MS) is currently the workhorse for proteomics. In spite of promising alternative or complementary technologies (e.g. multidimensional protein identification technology, stable isotope labelling, protein or antibody arrays) that have emerged recently, 2-DE is currently the only technique that can be routinely applied for parallel quantitative expression profiling of large sets of complex protein mixtures such as whole cell lysates. 2-DE enables the separation of complex mixtures of proteins according to isoelectric point (pI), molecular mass (Mr), solubility, and relative abundance. Furthermore, it delivers a map of intact proteins, which reflects changes in protein expression level, isoforms or post-translational modifications. This is in contrast to liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry based methods, which perform analysis on peptides, where Mr and pI information is lost, and where stable isotope labelling is required for quantitative analysis. Today's 2-DE technology with IPGs (Görg et al., Electrophoresis 2000, 21, 1037-1053), has overcome the former limitations of carrier ampholyte based 2-DE (O'Farrell, J. Biol. Chem. 1975, 250, 4007-4021) with respect to reproducibility, handling, resolution, and separation of very acidic and/or basic proteins. The development of IPGs between pH 2.5-12 has enabled the analysis of very alkaline proteins and the construction of the corresponding databases. Narrow-overlapping IPGs provide increased resolution (delta pI = 0.001) and, in combination with prefractionation methods, the detection of low abundance proteins. Depending on the gel size and pH gradient used, 2-DE can resolve more than 5000 proteins simultaneously (approximately 2000 proteins routinely), and detect and quantify < 1 ng of protein per spot. In this article we describe the current 2-DE/MS workflow including the

  18. Proteomic indicators of oxidation and hydration state in colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Dick, Jeffrey M

    2016-01-01

    New integrative approaches are needed to harness the potential of rapidly growing datasets of protein expression and microbial community composition in colorectal cancer. Chemical and thermodynamic models offer theoretical tools to describe populations of biomacromolecules and their relative potential for formation in different microenvironmental conditions. The average oxidation state of carbon (Z C) can be calculated as an elemental ratio from the chemical formulas of proteins, and water demand per residue ([Formula: see text]) is computed by writing the overall formation reactions of proteins from basis species. Using results reported in proteomic studies of clinical samples, many datasets exhibit higher mean Z C or [Formula: see text] of proteins in carcinoma or adenoma compared to normal tissue. In contrast, average protein compositions in bacterial genomes often have lower Z C for bacteria enriched in fecal samples from cancer patients compared to healthy donors. In thermodynamic calculations, the potential for formation of the cancer-related proteins is energetically favored by changes in the chemical activity of H2O and fugacity of O2 that reflect the compositional differences. The compositional analysis suggests that a systematic change in chemical composition is an essential feature of cancer proteomes, and the thermodynamic descriptions show that the observed proteomic transformations in host tissue could be promoted by relatively high microenvironmental oxidation and hydration states. PMID:27547546

  19. Proteomic indicators of oxidation and hydration state in colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Dick, Jeffrey M

    2016-01-01

    New integrative approaches are needed to harness the potential of rapidly growing datasets of protein expression and microbial community composition in colorectal cancer. Chemical and thermodynamic models offer theoretical tools to describe populations of biomacromolecules and their relative potential for formation in different microenvironmental conditions. The average oxidation state of carbon (Z C) can be calculated as an elemental ratio from the chemical formulas of proteins, and water demand per residue ([Formula: see text]) is computed by writing the overall formation reactions of proteins from basis species. Using results reported in proteomic studies of clinical samples, many datasets exhibit higher mean Z C or [Formula: see text] of proteins in carcinoma or adenoma compared to normal tissue. In contrast, average protein compositions in bacterial genomes often have lower Z C for bacteria enriched in fecal samples from cancer patients compared to healthy donors. In thermodynamic calculations, the potential for formation of the cancer-related proteins is energetically favored by changes in the chemical activity of H2O and fugacity of O2 that reflect the compositional differences. The compositional analysis suggests that a systematic change in chemical composition is an essential feature of cancer proteomes, and the thermodynamic descriptions show that the observed proteomic transformations in host tissue could be promoted by relatively high microenvironmental oxidation and hydration states.

  20. Current Approaches on Viral Infection: Proteomics and Functional Validations

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Jie; Tan, Boon Huan; Sugrue, Richard; Tang, Kai

    2012-01-01

    Viruses could manipulate cellular machinery to ensure their continuous survival and thus become parasites of living organisms. Delineation of sophisticated host responses upon virus infection is a challenging task. It lies in identifying the repertoire of host factors actively involved in the viral infectious cycle and characterizing host responses qualitatively and quantitatively during viral pathogenesis. Mass spectrometry based proteomics could be used to efficiently study pathogen-host interactions and virus-hijacked cellular signaling pathways. Moreover, direct host and viral responses upon infection could be further investigated by activity-based functional validation studies. These approaches involve drug inhibition of secretory pathway, immunofluorescence staining, dominant negative mutant of protein target, real-time PCR, small interfering siRNA-mediated knockdown, and molecular cloning studies. In this way, functional validation could gain novel insights into the high-content proteomic dataset in an unbiased and comprehensive way. PMID:23162545

  1. Proteomic evaluation of genetically modified crops: current status and challenges.

    PubMed

    Gong, Chun Yan; Wang, Tai

    2013-01-01

    Hectares of genetically modified (GM) crops have increased exponentially since 1996, when such crops began to be commercialized. GM biotechnology, together with conventional breeding, has become the main approach to improving agronomic traits of crops. However, people are concerned about the safety of GM crops, especially GM-derived food and feed. Many efforts have been made to evaluate the unintended effects caused by the introduction of exogenous genes. "Omics" techniques have advantages over targeted analysis in evaluating such crops because of their use of high-throughput screening. Proteins are key players in gene function and are directly involved in metabolism and cellular development or have roles as toxins, antinutrients, or allergens, which are essential for human health. Thus, proteomics can be expected to become one of the most useful tools in safety assessment. This review assesses the potential of proteomics in evaluating various GM crops. We further describe the challenges in ensuring homogeneity and sensitivity in detection techniques.

  2. Proteomic indicators of oxidation and hydration state in colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    New integrative approaches are needed to harness the potential of rapidly growing datasets of protein expression and microbial community composition in colorectal cancer. Chemical and thermodynamic models offer theoretical tools to describe populations of biomacromolecules and their relative potential for formation in different microenvironmental conditions. The average oxidation state of carbon (ZC) can be calculated as an elemental ratio from the chemical formulas of proteins, and water demand per residue (\\documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \\usepackage{amsmath} \\usepackage{wasysym} \\usepackage{amsfonts} \\usepackage{amssymb} \\usepackage{amsbsy} \\usepackage{upgreek} \\usepackage{mathrsfs} \\setlength{\\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \\begin{document} }{}${\\overline{n}}_{{\\mathrm{H}}_{2}\\mathrm{O}}$\\end{document}n¯H2O) is computed by writing the overall formation reactions of proteins from basis species. Using results reported in proteomic studies of clinical samples, many datasets exhibit higher mean ZC or \\documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \\usepackage{amsmath} \\usepackage{wasysym} \\usepackage{amsfonts} \\usepackage{amssymb} \\usepackage{amsbsy} \\usepackage{upgreek} \\usepackage{mathrsfs} \\setlength{\\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \\begin{document} }{}${\\overline{n}}_{{\\mathrm{H}}_{2}\\mathrm{O}}$\\end{document}n¯H2O of proteins in carcinoma or adenoma compared to normal tissue. In contrast, average protein compositions in bacterial genomes often have lower ZC for bacteria enriched in fecal samples from cancer patients compared to healthy donors. In thermodynamic calculations, the potential for formation of the cancer-related proteins is energetically favored by changes in the chemical activity of H2O and fugacity of O2 that reflect the compositional differences. The compositional analysis suggests that a systematic change in chemical composition is an essential feature of cancer proteomes, and the thermodynamic descriptions show that the observed proteomic

  3. Proteomic evaluation of genetically modified crops: current status and challenges

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Chun Yan; Wang, Tai

    2013-01-01

    Hectares of genetically modified (GM) crops have increased exponentially since 1996, when such crops began to be commercialized. GM biotechnology, together with conventional breeding, has become the main approach to improving agronomic traits of crops. However, people are concerned about the safety of GM crops, especially GM-derived food and feed. Many efforts have been made to evaluate the unintended effects caused by the introduction of exogenous genes. “Omics” techniques have advantages over targeted analysis in evaluating such crops because of their use of high-throughput screening. Proteins are key players in gene function and are directly involved in metabolism and cellular development or have roles as toxins, antinutrients, or allergens, which are essential for human health. Thus, proteomics can be expected to become one of the most useful tools in safety assessment. This review assesses the potential of proteomics in evaluating various GM crops. We further describe the challenges in ensuring homogeneity and sensitivity in detection techniques. PMID:23471542

  4. Five years later: the current status of the use of proteomics and transcriptomics in EMF research.

    PubMed

    Leszczynski, Dariusz; de Pomerai, David; Koczan, Dirk; Stoll, Dieter; Franke, Helmut; Albar, Juan Pablo

    2012-08-01

    The World Health Organization's and Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority's "Workshop on Application of Proteomics and Transcriptomics in Electromagnetic Fields Research" was held in Helsinki in the October/November 2005. As a consequence of this meeting, Proteomics journal published in 2006 a special issue "Application of Proteomics and Transcriptomics in EMF Research" (Vol. 6 No. 17; Guest Editor: D. Leszczynski). This Proteomics issue presented the status of research, of the effects of electromagnetic fields (EMF) using proteomics and transcriptomics methods, present in 2005. The current overview/opinion article presents the status of research in this area by reviewing all studies that were published by the end of 2010. The review work was a part of the European Cooperation in the Field of Scientific and Technical Research (COST) Action BM0704 that created a structure in which researchers in the field of EMF and health shared knowledge and information. The review was prepared by the members of the COST Action BM0704 task group on the high-throughput screening techniques and electromagnetic fields (TG-HTST-EMF). PMID:22707462

  5. Proteomics of Important Food Crops in the Asia Oceania Region: Current Status and Future Perspectives.

    PubMed

    Chakraborty, Subhra; Salekdeh, Ghasem Hosseini; Yang, Pingfang; Woo, Sun Hee; Chin, Chiew Foan; Gehring, Chris; Haynes, Paul A; Mirzaei, Mehdi; Komatsu, Setsuko

    2015-07-01

    In the rapidly growing economies of Asia and Oceania, food security has become a primary concern. With the rising population, growing more food at affordable prices is becoming even more important. In addition, the predicted climate change will lead to drastic changes in global surface temperature and changes in rainfall patterns that in turn will pose a serious threat to plant vegetation worldwide. As a result, understanding how plants will survive in a changing climate will be increasingly important. Such challenges require integrated approaches to increase agricultural production and cope with environmental threats. Proteomics can play a role in unraveling the underlying mechanisms for food production to address the growing demand for food. In this review, the current status of food crop proteomics is discussed, especially in regard to the Asia and Oceania regions. Furthermore, the future perspective in relation to proteomic techniques for the important food crops is highlighted. PMID:26035454

  6. Proteomics of Important Food Crops in the Asia Oceania Region: Current Status and Future Perspectives.

    PubMed

    Chakraborty, Subhra; Salekdeh, Ghasem Hosseini; Yang, Pingfang; Woo, Sun Hee; Chin, Chiew Foan; Gehring, Chris; Haynes, Paul A; Mirzaei, Mehdi; Komatsu, Setsuko

    2015-07-01

    In the rapidly growing economies of Asia and Oceania, food security has become a primary concern. With the rising population, growing more food at affordable prices is becoming even more important. In addition, the predicted climate change will lead to drastic changes in global surface temperature and changes in rainfall patterns that in turn will pose a serious threat to plant vegetation worldwide. As a result, understanding how plants will survive in a changing climate will be increasingly important. Such challenges require integrated approaches to increase agricultural production and cope with environmental threats. Proteomics can play a role in unraveling the underlying mechanisms for food production to address the growing demand for food. In this review, the current status of food crop proteomics is discussed, especially in regard to the Asia and Oceania regions. Furthermore, the future perspective in relation to proteomic techniques for the important food crops is highlighted.

  7. Multiplexed immunofluorescence delineates proteomic cancer cell states associated with metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Sood, Anup; Miller, Alexandra M.; Brogi, Edi; Sui, Yunxia; Armenia, Joshua; McDonough, Elizabeth; Santamaria-Pang, Alberto; Stamper, Aleksandra; Campos, Carl; Pang, Zhengyu; Li, Qing; Port, Elisa; Graeber, Thomas G.; Schultz, Nikolaus; Ginty, Fiona; Larson, Steven M.

    2016-01-01

    The phenotypic diversity of cancer results from genetic and nongenetic factors. Most studies of cancer heterogeneity have focused on DNA alterations, as technologies for proteomic measurements in clinical specimen are currently less advanced. Here, we used a multiplexed immunofluorescence staining platform to measure the expression of 27 proteins at the single-cell level in formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded samples from treatment-naive stage II/III human breast cancer. Unsupervised clustering of protein expression data from 638,577 tumor cells in 26 breast cancers identified 8 clusters of protein coexpression. In about one-third of breast cancers, over 95% of all neoplastic cells expressed a single protein coexpression cluster. The remaining tumors harbored tumor cells representing multiple protein coexpression clusters, either in a regional distribution or intermingled throughout the tumor. Tumor uptake of the radiotracer 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose was associated with protein expression clusters characterized by hormone receptor loss, PTEN alteration, and HER2 gene amplification. Our study demonstrates an approach to generate cellular heterogeneity metrics in routinely collected solid tumor specimens and integrate them with in vivo cancer phenotypes. PMID:27182557

  8. Covering complete proteomes with X-ray structures: a current snapshot

    SciTech Connect

    Mizianty, Marcin J.; Fan, Xiao; Yan, Jing; Chalmers, Eric; Woloschuk, Christopher; Joachimiak, Andrzej; Kurgan, Lukasz

    2014-11-01

    The current and the attainable coverage by X-ray structures of proteins and their functions on the scale of the ‘protein universe’ are estimated. A detailed analysis of the coverage across nearly 2000 proteomes from all superkingdoms of life and functional annotations is performed, with particular focus on the human proteome and the family of GPCR proteins. Structural genomics programs have developed and applied structure-determination pipelines to a wide range of protein targets, facilitating the visualization of macromolecular interactions and the understanding of their molecular and biochemical functions. The fundamental question of whether three-dimensional structures of all proteins and all functional annotations can be determined using X-ray crystallography is investigated. A first-of-its-kind large-scale analysis of crystallization propensity for all proteins encoded in 1953 fully sequenced genomes was performed. It is shown that current X-ray crystallographic knowhow combined with homology modeling can provide structures for 25% of modeling families (protein clusters for which structural models can be obtained through homology modeling), with at least one structural model produced for each Gene Ontology functional annotation. The coverage varies between superkingdoms, with 19% for eukaryotes, 35% for bacteria and 49% for archaea, and with those of viruses following the coverage values of their hosts. It is shown that the crystallization propensities of proteomes from the taxonomic superkingdoms are distinct. The use of knowledge-based target selection is shown to substantially increase the ability to produce X-ray structures. It is demonstrated that the human proteome has one of the highest attainable coverage values among eukaryotes, and GPCR membrane proteins suitable for X-ray structure determination were determined.

  9. Cerebrospinal fluid proteomics and protein biomarkers in frontotemporal lobar degeneration: Current status and future perspectives.

    PubMed

    Oeckl, Patrick; Steinacker, Petra; Feneberg, Emily; Otto, Markus

    2015-07-01

    Frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD) comprises a spectrum of rare neurodegenerative diseases with an estimated prevalence of 15-22 cases per 100,000 persons including the behavioral variant of frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD), progressive non-fluent aphasia (PNFA), semantic dementia (SD), FTD with motor neuron disease (FTD-MND), progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) and corticobasal syndrome (CBS). The pathogenesis of the diseases is still unclear and clinical diagnosis of FTLD is hampered by overlapping symptoms within the FTLD subtypes and with other neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Parkinson's disease (PD). Intracellular protein aggregates in the brain are a major hallmark of FTLD and implicate alterations in protein metabolism or function in the disease's pathogenesis. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) which surrounds the brain can be used to study changes in neurodegenerative diseases and to identify disease-related mechanisms or neurochemical biomarkers for diagnosis. In the present review, we will give an overview of the current literature on proteomic studies in CSF of FTLD patients. Reports of targeted and unbiased proteomic approaches are included and the results are discussed in regard of their informative value about disease pathology and the suitability to be used as diagnostic biomarkers. Finally, we will give some future perspectives on CSF proteomics and a list of candidate biomarkers which might be interesting for validation in further studies. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Neuroproteomics: Applications in neuroscience and neurology.

  10. Enabling Proteomics Discovery Through Visual Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Havre, Susan L.; Singhal, Mudita; Payne, Deborah A.; Lipton, Mary S.; Webb-Robertson, Bobbie-Jo M.

    2005-05-01

    With the completion of the Human Genome Project and the sequencing of large genomes, proteomics is the new big challenge. A proteome is the collection of all the proteins present in an organism at a given moment. Unlike the genome, the proteome is dynamic, changing continuously in response to tens of thousands of intra- and extra-cellular environmental signals. Proteomics is the study of proteomes under different conditions—for example, over time, under different environments, or in different disease states. Because proteins are the key actors in cellular processes and proteomics is the study of not one or two proteins at a time but whole proteomes, proteomics has a key role in revealing the complex processes of cells at a global or systems level. There are several high-throughput proteomics techniques; all generate data faster than the data can currently be analyzed. The tremendous size and complexity of the high-throughput experimental data make it very difficult to process and interpret. The success of proteomics will rely on high-throughput experimental techniques coupled with sophisticated visual analysis and data mining methods. This article presents the motivation for developing visual analysis tools for proteomic data and demonstrates their application to proteomics research with a visualization tool named Peptide Permutation and Protein Prediction, or PQuad. PQuad is a functioning visual analytic tool in operation at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory for the study of systems biology. PQuad supports the exploration of proteins identified by proteomic techniques in the context of supplemental biological information.

  11. Steady State Tokamak Equilibria without Current Drive

    SciTech Connect

    Shaing, K.C.; Aydemir, A.Y.; Lin-Liu, Y.R.; Miller, R.L.

    1997-11-01

    Steady state tokamak equilibria without current drive are found. This is made possible by including the potato bootstrap current close to the magnetic axis. Tokamaks with this class of equilibria do not need seed current or current drive, and are intrinsically steady state. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

  12. Covering complete proteomes with X-ray structures: A current snapshot

    DOE PAGES

    Mizianty, Marcin J.; Fan, Xiao; Yan, Jing; Chalmers, Eric; Woloschuk, Christopher; Joachimiak, Andrzej; Kurgan, Lukasz

    2014-10-23

    Structural genomics programs have developed and applied structure-determination pipelines to a wide range of protein targets, facilitating the visualization of macromolecular interactions and the understanding of their molecular and biochemical functions. The fundamental question of whether three-dimensional structures of all proteins and all functional annotations can be determined using X-ray crystallography is investigated. A first-of-its-kind large-scale analysis of crystallization propensity for all proteins encoded in 1953 fully sequenced genomes was performed. It is shown that current X-ray crystallographic knowhow combined with homology modeling can provide structures for 25% of modeling families (protein clusters for which structural models can be obtainedmore » through homology modeling), with at least one structural model produced for each Gene Ontology functional annotation. The coverage varies between superkingdoms, with 19% for eukaryotes, 35% for bacteria and 49% for archaea, and with those of viruses following the coverage values of their hosts. It is shown that the crystallization propensities of proteomes from the taxonomic superkingdoms are distinct. The use of knowledge-based target selection is shown to substantially increase the ability to produce X-ray structures. It is demonstrated that the human proteome has one of the highest attainable coverage values among eukaryotes, and GPCR membrane proteins suitable for X-ray structure determination were determined.« less

  13. Covering complete proteomes with X-ray structures: A current snapshot

    SciTech Connect

    Mizianty, Marcin J.; Fan, Xiao; Yan, Jing; Chalmers, Eric; Woloschuk, Christopher; Joachimiak, Andrzej; Kurgan, Lukasz

    2014-10-23

    Structural genomics programs have developed and applied structure-determination pipelines to a wide range of protein targets, facilitating the visualization of macromolecular interactions and the understanding of their molecular and biochemical functions. The fundamental question of whether three-dimensional structures of all proteins and all functional annotations can be determined using X-ray crystallography is investigated. A first-of-its-kind large-scale analysis of crystallization propensity for all proteins encoded in 1953 fully sequenced genomes was performed. It is shown that current X-ray crystallographic knowhow combined with homology modeling can provide structures for 25% of modeling families (protein clusters for which structural models can be obtained through homology modeling), with at least one structural model produced for each Gene Ontology functional annotation. The coverage varies between superkingdoms, with 19% for eukaryotes, 35% for bacteria and 49% for archaea, and with those of viruses following the coverage values of their hosts. It is shown that the crystallization propensities of proteomes from the taxonomic superkingdoms are distinct. The use of knowledge-based target selection is shown to substantially increase the ability to produce X-ray structures. It is demonstrated that the human proteome has one of the highest attainable coverage values among eukaryotes, and GPCR membrane proteins suitable for X-ray structure determination were determined.

  14. Covering complete proteomes with X-ray structures: a current snapshot

    PubMed Central

    Mizianty, Marcin J.; Fan, Xiao; Yan, Jing; Chalmers, Eric; Woloschuk, Christopher; Joachimiak, Andrzej; Kurgan, Lukasz

    2014-01-01

    Structural genomics programs have developed and applied structure-determination pipelines to a wide range of protein targets, facilitating the visualization of macromolecular interactions and the understanding of their molecular and biochemical functions. The fundamental question of whether three-dimensional structures of all proteins and all functional annotations can be determined using X-ray crystallography is investigated. A first-of-its-kind large-scale analysis of crystallization propensity for all proteins encoded in 1953 fully sequenced genomes was performed. It is shown that current X-ray crystallographic knowhow combined with homology modeling can provide structures for 25% of modeling families (protein clusters for which structural models can be obtained through homology modeling), with at least one structural model produced for each Gene Ontology functional annotation. The coverage varies between superkingdoms, with 19% for eukaryotes, 35% for bacteria and 49% for archaea, and with those of viruses following the coverage values of their hosts. It is shown that the crystallization propensities of proteomes from the taxonomic superkingdoms are distinct. The use of knowledge-based target selection is shown to substantially increase the ability to produce X-ray structures. It is demonstrated that the human proteome has one of the highest attainable coverage values among eukaryotes, and GPCR membrane proteins suitable for X-ray structure determination were determined. PMID:25372670

  15. Solid state electrochemical current source

    DOEpatents

    Potanin, Alexander Arkadyevich; Vedeneev, Nikolai Ivanovich

    2002-04-30

    A cathode and a solid state electrochemical cell comprising said cathode, a solid anode and solid fluoride ion conducting electrolyte. The cathode comprises a metal oxide and a compound fluoride containing at least two metals with different valences. Representative compound fluorides include solid solutions of bismuth fluoride and potassium fluoride; and lead fluoride and potassium fluoride. Representative metal oxides include copper oxide, lead oxide, manganese oxide, vanadium oxide and silver oxide.

  16. GENOMIC AND PROTEOMIC ANALYSIS OF SURROGATE TISSUES FOR ASSESSING TOXIC EXPOSURES AND DISEASE STATES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Genomic and Proteomic Analysis of Surrogate Tissues for Assessing Toxic Exposures and Disease States
    David J. Dix and John C. Rockett
    Reproductive Toxicology Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, Office of Research and Development, USEPA, ...

  17. Rosacea: current state of epidemiology.

    PubMed

    Tan, Jerry; Berg, Mats

    2013-12-01

    Case definitions are critical in epidemiologic research. However, modern disease indicators must now consider complex data from gene-based research along with traditional clinical parameters. Rosacea is a skin disorder with multiple signs and symptoms. In individuals, these features may be multiple or one may predominate. While studies on the epidemiology of rosacea have previously been sparse, there has been a recent increase in research activity. A broader body of epidemiological information that includes a greater variety of countries beyond Northern Europe and general population-based demographics is needed. As there are operational issues in current case definitions of rosacea subtypes--rationalization and standardization--universal consistent applications in future research is also imperative. Further improvement in disease definition combining new research information along with clinical pragmatism should increase the accuracy of rosacea case ascertainment and facilitate further epidemiological research.

  18. Rosacea: current state of epidemiology.

    PubMed

    Tan, Jerry; Berg, Mats

    2013-12-01

    Case definitions are critical in epidemiologic research. However, modern disease indicators must now consider complex data from gene-based research along with traditional clinical parameters. Rosacea is a skin disorder with multiple signs and symptoms. In individuals, these features may be multiple or one may predominate. While studies on the epidemiology of rosacea have previously been sparse, there has been a recent increase in research activity. A broader body of epidemiological information that includes a greater variety of countries beyond Northern Europe and general population-based demographics is needed. As there are operational issues in current case definitions of rosacea subtypes--rationalization and standardization--universal consistent applications in future research is also imperative. Further improvement in disease definition combining new research information along with clinical pragmatism should increase the accuracy of rosacea case ascertainment and facilitate further epidemiological research. PMID:24229634

  19. Proteomics data repositories

    PubMed Central

    Riffle, Michael; Eng, Jimmy K.

    2010-01-01

    The field of proteomics, particularly the application of mass spectrometry analysis to protein samples, is well-established and growing rapidly. Proteomics studies generate large volumes of raw experimental data and inferred biological results. To facilitate the dissemination of these data, centralized data repositories have been developed that make the data and results accessible to proteomics researchers and biologists alike. This review of proteomics data repositories focuses exclusively on freely-available, centralized data resources that disseminate or store experimental mass spectrometry data and results. The resources chosen reflect a current “snapshot” of the state of resources available with an emphasis placed on resources that may be of particular interest to yeast researchers. Resources are described in terms of their intended purpose and the features and functionality provided to users. PMID:19795424

  20. The Human Eye Proteome Project: perspectives on an emerging proteome.

    PubMed

    Semba, Richard D; Enghild, Jan J; Venkatraman, Vidya; Dyrlund, Thomas F; Van Eyk, Jennifer E

    2013-08-01

    There are an estimated 285 million people with visual impairment worldwide, of whom 39 million are blind. The pathogenesis of many eye diseases remains poorly understood. The human eye is currently an emerging proteome that may provide key insight into the biological pathways of disease. We review proteomic investigations of the human eye and present a catalogue of 4842 nonredundant proteins identified in human eye tissues and biofluids to date. We highlight the need to identify new biomarkers for eye diseases using proteomics. Recent advances in proteomics do now allow the identification of hundreds to thousands of proteins in tissues and fluids, characterization of various PTMs and simultaneous quantification of multiple proteins. To facilitate proteomic studies of the eye, the Human Eye Proteome Project (HEPP) was organized in September 2012. The HEPP is one of the most recent components of the Biology/Disease-driven Human Proteome Project (B/D-HPP) whose overarching goal is to support the broad application of state-of-the-art measurements of proteins and proteomes by life scientists studying the molecular mechanisms of biological processes and human disease. The large repertoire of investigative proteomic tools has great potential to transform vision science and enhance understanding of physiology and disease processes that affect sight.

  1. Comparative proteome analysis of Milnesium tardigradum in early embryonic state versus adults in active and anhydrobiotic state

    PubMed Central

    Schokraie, Elham; Warnken, Uwe; Hotz-Wagenblatt, Agnes; Grohme, Markus A.; Hengherr, Steffen; Förster, Frank; Schill, Ralph O.; Frohme, Marcus; Dandekar, Thomas; Schnölzer, Martina

    2012-01-01

    Tardigrades have fascinated researchers for more than 300 years because of their extraordinary capability to undergo cryptobiosis and survive extreme environmental conditions. However, the survival mechanisms of tardigrades are still poorly understood mainly due to the absence of detailed knowledge about the proteome and genome of these organisms. Our study was intended to provide a basis for the functional characterization of expressed proteins in different states of tardigrades. High-throughput, high-accuracy proteomics in combination with a newly developed tardigrade specific protein database resulted in the identification of more than 3000 proteins in three different states: early embryonic state and adult animals in active and anhydrobiotic state. This comprehensive proteome resource includes protein families such as chaperones, antioxidants, ribosomal proteins, cytoskeletal proteins, transporters, protein channels, nutrient reservoirs, and developmental proteins. A comparative analysis of protein families in the different states was performed by calculating the exponentially modified protein abundance index which classifies proteins in major and minor components. This is the first step to analyzing the proteins involved in early embryonic development, and furthermore proteins which might play an important role in the transition into the anhydrobiotic state. PMID:23029181

  2. Comparative proteome analysis of Milnesium tardigradum in early embryonic state versus adults in active and anhydrobiotic state.

    PubMed

    Schokraie, Elham; Warnken, Uwe; Hotz-Wagenblatt, Agnes; Grohme, Markus A; Hengherr, Steffen; Förster, Frank; Schill, Ralph O; Frohme, Marcus; Dandekar, Thomas; Schnölzer, Martina

    2012-01-01

    Tardigrades have fascinated researchers for more than 300 years because of their extraordinary capability to undergo cryptobiosis and survive extreme environmental conditions. However, the survival mechanisms of tardigrades are still poorly understood mainly due to the absence of detailed knowledge about the proteome and genome of these organisms. Our study was intended to provide a basis for the functional characterization of expressed proteins in different states of tardigrades. High-throughput, high-accuracy proteomics in combination with a newly developed tardigrade specific protein database resulted in the identification of more than 3000 proteins in three different states: early embryonic state and adult animals in active and anhydrobiotic state. This comprehensive proteome resource includes protein families such as chaperones, antioxidants, ribosomal proteins, cytoskeletal proteins, transporters, protein channels, nutrient reservoirs, and developmental proteins. A comparative analysis of protein families in the different states was performed by calculating the exponentially modified protein abundance index which classifies proteins in major and minor components. This is the first step to analyzing the proteins involved in early embryonic development, and furthermore proteins which might play an important role in the transition into the anhydrobiotic state.

  3. Comparative proteome analysis of Milnesium tardigradum in early embryonic state versus adults in active and anhydrobiotic state.

    PubMed

    Schokraie, Elham; Warnken, Uwe; Hotz-Wagenblatt, Agnes; Grohme, Markus A; Hengherr, Steffen; Förster, Frank; Schill, Ralph O; Frohme, Marcus; Dandekar, Thomas; Schnölzer, Martina

    2012-01-01

    Tardigrades have fascinated researchers for more than 300 years because of their extraordinary capability to undergo cryptobiosis and survive extreme environmental conditions. However, the survival mechanisms of tardigrades are still poorly understood mainly due to the absence of detailed knowledge about the proteome and genome of these organisms. Our study was intended to provide a basis for the functional characterization of expressed proteins in different states of tardigrades. High-throughput, high-accuracy proteomics in combination with a newly developed tardigrade specific protein database resulted in the identification of more than 3000 proteins in three different states: early embryonic state and adult animals in active and anhydrobiotic state. This comprehensive proteome resource includes protein families such as chaperones, antioxidants, ribosomal proteins, cytoskeletal proteins, transporters, protein channels, nutrient reservoirs, and developmental proteins. A comparative analysis of protein families in the different states was performed by calculating the exponentially modified protein abundance index which classifies proteins in major and minor components. This is the first step to analyzing the proteins involved in early embryonic development, and furthermore proteins which might play an important role in the transition into the anhydrobiotic state. PMID:23029181

  4. Sugarcane proteomics: An update on current status, challenges, and future prospects.

    PubMed

    Barnabas, Leonard; Ramadass, Ashwin; Amalraj, Ramesh Sundar; Palaniyandi, Malathi; Rasappa, Viswanathan

    2015-05-01

    Sugarcane is one of the most important commercial crops cultivated worldwide for the production of crystal sugar, ethanol, and other related by-products. Unlike other comparable monocots like sorghum, maize, and rice, sugarcane genome by virtue of its polyploidy nature remains yet to be fully deciphered. Proteomics-an established complementary tool to genomics is at its infancy in sugarcane as compared to the other monocots. However, with the surge in genomics research accomplished by next-generation sequencing platforms, sugarcane proteomics has gained momentum. This review summarizes the available literature from 1970 to 2014, which ensures a comprehensive coverage on sugarcane proteomics-a topic first of its kind to be reviewed. We herewith compiled substantial contributions in different areas of sugarcane proteomics, which include abiotic and biotic stresses, cell wall, organelle, and structural proteomics. The past decade has witnessed a paradigm shift in the pace with which sugarcane proteomics is progressing, as evident by the number of research publications. In addition to extensively reviewing the progress made thus far, we intend to highlight the scope in sugarcane proteomics, with an aspiration to instigate focused research on sugarcane to harness its full potential for the human welfare.

  5. Boosting the globalization of plant proteomics through INPPO: current developments and future prospects.

    PubMed

    Agrawal, Ganesh Kumar; Sarkar, Abhijit; Agrawal, Raj; Ndimba, Bongani Kaiser; Tanou, Georgia; Dunn, Michael J; Kieselbach, Thomas; Cramer, Rainer; Wienkoop, Stefanie; Chen, Sixue; Rafudeen, Mohammed Suhail; Deswal, Renu; Barkla, Bronwyn J; Weckwerth, Wolfram; Heazlewood, Joshua L; Renaut, Jenny; Job, Dominique; Chakraborty, Niranjan; Rakwal, Randeep

    2012-02-01

    The International Plant Proteomics Organization (INPPO) is a non-profit-organization consisting of people who are involved or interested in plant proteomics. INPPO is constantly growing in volume and activity, which is mostly due to the realization among plant proteomics researchers worldwide for the need of such a global platform. Their active participation resulted in the rapid growth within the first year of INPPO's official launch in 2011 via its website (www.inppo.com) and publication of the 'Viewpoint paper' in a special issue of PROTEOMICS (May 2011). Here, we will be highlighting the progress achieved in the year 2011 and the future targets for the year 2012 and onwards. INPPO has achieved a successful administrative structure, the Core Committee (CC; composed of President, Vice-President, and General Secretaries), Executive Council (EC), and General Body (GB) to achieve INPPO objectives. Various committees and subcommittees are in the process of being functionalized via discussion amongst scientists around the globe. INPPO's primary aim to popularize the plant proteomics research in biological sciences has also been recognized by PROTEOMICS where a section dedicated to plant proteomics has been introduced starting January 2012, following the very first issue of this journal devoted to plant proteomics in May 2011. To disseminate organizational activities to the scientific community, INPPO has launched a biannual (in January and July) newsletter entitled 'INPPO Express: News & Views' with the first issue published in January 2012. INPPO is also planning to have several activities in 2012, including programs within the Education Outreach committee in different countries, and the development of research ideas and proposals with priority on crop and horticultural plants, while keeping tight interactions with proteomics programs on model plants such as Arabidopsis thaliana, rice, and Medicago truncatula. Altogether, the INPPO progress and upcoming activities

  6. Nanoscaled Proteomic Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Yan; Jia, Lee

    2013-09-01

    Global proteomics research is currently hampered by the extremely complexity of the proteome and the absence of techniques like the polymerase chain reaction in genomics which enables multiplication of a single protein molecule. Since all the existing analytical technologies cannot overcome the detection limit and the dynamic concentration barrier, development of improved analytical technologies at nanoscale, ideally those that could recognize single protein molecule in the presence of high abundant of others, is a high priority for proteomics. In this chapter, we will show the state-of-the-art of nanoproteomics, i.e., the application of nanotechnologies to proteomics. Various nanomaterials including carbon nanomaterials, magnetic nanoparticles, silica nanoparticles, polymer and copolymer nanoparticles, metal and metal oxide nanoparticles have been used to improve sensitivity, specificity, and repeatability of proteomic analysis especially when the multidimensional separation system coupled with MALDI-TOF-MS is used. Among them, gold nanoparticles (GNPs) and carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are the two most important nanomaterials: while GNPs are frequently utilized for enzyme immobilization, high throughput bioassay, selection of target-peptides and target-protein, CNTs including single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) and mutiple-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) have wide applications to electronic sensor, sensitive immunodetection, nanobiocatalysis, affinity probes, MALDI matrices, protein digestion, peptides enrichment and analysis. In perspectives, a deep understanding of the structures and property of nanomaterials and interdisciplinary applications of nanotechnology to proteomics will certainly be revolutionary and intellectually rewarding.

  7. Applications of Proteomics in the Study of Inflammatory Bowel Diseases: Current Status and Future Directions with Available Technologies

    PubMed Central

    Alex, Philip; Gucek, Marjan; Li, Xuhang

    2009-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) are chronic, heterogeneous, and multi-factorial intestinal inflammatory disorders. Major challenges in IBD research include identification of major pathogenic alterations of genes/proteins as well as effective biomarkers for early diagnosis, prognosis, and prediction of therapeutic response. Since proteins govern cellular structure and biological function, a wide selection of proteomic approaches enables effective characterization of IBD pathogenesis by investigating the dynamic nature of protein expression, cellular and subcellular distribution, post-translational modifications, and interactions at both cellular and subcellular levels. The aims of this review are to 1) highlight the current status of proteomic studies of IBD and 2) introduce the available and emerging proteomic technologies that have potential applications in the study of IBD. These technologies include various mass spectrometry technologies, quantitative proteomics (2D-PAGE, ICAT, SILAC, iTRAQ), protein/antibody arrays, and multi-epitope-ligand cartographie. This review also presents information and methodologies, from sample-selection and enrichment to protein-identification, that are not only essential but also particularly relevant to IBD research. The potential future application of these technologies is expected to have a significant impact on the discovery of novel biomarkers and key pathogenic factors for IBD. PMID:18844215

  8. The Discovery of Novel Genomic, Transcriptomic, and Proteomic Biomarkers in Cardiovascular and Peripheral Vascular Disease: The State of the Art

    PubMed Central

    de Franciscis, Stefano; Metzinger, Laurent; Serra, Raffaele

    2016-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CD) and peripheral vascular disease (PVD) are leading causes of mortality and morbidity in western countries and also responsible of a huge burden in terms of disability, functional decline, and healthcare costs. Biomarkers are measurable biological elements that reflect particular physiological or pathological states or predisposition towards diseases and they are currently widely studied in medicine and especially in CD. In this context, biomarkers can also be used to assess the severity or the evolution of several diseases, as well as the effectiveness of particular therapies. Genomics, transcriptomics, and proteomics have opened new windows on disease phenomena and may permit in the next future an effective development of novel diagnostic and prognostic medicine in order to better prevent or treat CD. This review will consider the current evidence of novel biomarkers with clear implications in the improvement of risk assessment, prevention strategies, and medical decision making in the field of CD. PMID:27298828

  9. Proteomic study of acute respiratory distress syndrome: current knowledge and implications for drug development.

    PubMed

    Levitt, Joseph E; Rogers, Angela J

    2016-05-01

    The acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is a common cause of acute respiratory failure, and is associated with substantial mortality and morbidity. Dozens of clinical trials targeting ARDS have failed, with no drug specifically targeting lung injury in widespread clinical use. Thus, the need for drug development in ARDS is great. Targeted proteomic studies in ARDS have identified many key pathways in the disease, including inflammation, epithelial injury, endothelial injury or activation, and disordered coagulation and repair. Recent studies reveal the potential for proteomic changes to identify novel subphenotypes of ARDS patients who may be most likely to respond to therapy and could thus be targeted for enrollment in clinical trials. Nontargeted studies of proteomics in ARDS are just beginning and have the potential to identify novel drug targets and key pathways in the disease. Proteomics will play an important role in phenotyping of patients and developing novel therapies for ARDS in the future. PMID:27031735

  10. Proteomics: capacity versus utility.

    PubMed

    Harry, J L; Wilkins, M R; Herbert, B R; Packer, N H; Gooley, A A; Williams, K L

    2000-04-01

    Until recently scientists studied genes or proteins one at a time. With improvements in technology, new tools have become available to study the complex interactions that occur in biological systems. Global studies are required to do this, and these will involve genomic and proteomic approaches. High-throughput methods are necessary in each case because the number of genes and proteins in even the simplest of organisms are immense. In the developmental phase of genomics, the emphasis was on the generation and assembly of large amounts of nucleic acid sequence data. Proteomics is currently in a phase of technological development and establishment, and demonstrating the capacity for high throughput is a major challenge. However, funding bodies (both in the public and private sector) are increasingly focused on the usefulness of this capacity. Here we review the current state of proteome research in terms of capacity and utility.

  11. Solid state recording current meter conversion

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cheng, Ralph T.; Wang, Lichen

    1985-01-01

    The authors describe the conversion of an Endeco-174 current meter to a solid-state recording current meter. A removable solid-state module was designed to fit in the space originally occupied by an 8-track tape cartridge. The module contains a CPU and 128 kilobytes of nonvolatile CMOS memory. The solid-state module communicates with any terminal or computer using an RS-232C interface at 4800 baud rate. A primary consideration for conversion was to keep modifications of the current meter to a minimum. The communication protocol was designed to emulate the Endeco tape translation unit, thus the need for a translation unit was eliminated and the original data reduction programs can be used without any modification. After conversion, the data recording section of the current meter contains no moving parts; the storage capacity of the module is equivalent to that of the original tape cartridge.

  12. [Urine proteome study for the evaluation of cardiovascular system state after spaceflight in human].

    PubMed

    Pastukhova, L Kh; Kononikhin, A S; Tiĭs, E S; Popova, I A; Dobrokhotov, I V; Ivanisenko, V A; Nikolaev, E N; Larina, I M

    2013-08-01

    In order to find markers to assess the functional state of the cardiovascular system before and after spaceflight (first and seventh day after landing), we analyzed the urine proteome in ten cosmonauts aged of 35 to 51 years who have completed 169 to 199-day spaceflight onboard the ISS. A special sample preparation was performed, followed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry of the minor proteins was performed on a nano-HPLC Agilent 1100 system (Agilent Technologies Inc., USA) in combination with a LTQ-FT Ultra mass spectrometer (Thermo, Germany). A total of 238 proteins was identified. According to the TIGER database, a tissue origin was established for 129 proteins. We identified 20 proteins related to the cardiovascular system. It was found that changes in cosmonauts' urine proteome comprehensively reflect the adaptive responses of cardiovascular, renal and neuroendocrine systems to long-term microgravity conditions.

  13. Biophotonics applied to proteomics.

    PubMed

    Faupel, Michel; Bonenfant, Débora; Schindler, Patrick; Bertrand, Eric; Mueller, Dieter; Stoeckli, Markus; Bitsch, Francis; Rohner, Tatiana; Staab, Dieter; Van Oostrum, Jan

    2007-01-01

    Since the completion of the human genome sequencing, our understanding of gene and protein function and their involvement in physiopathological states has increased dramatically, partly due to technological developments in photonics. Photonics is a very active area where new developments occur on a weekly basis, while established tools are adapted to fulfill the needs of other disciplines like genomics and proteomics. Biophotonics emerged at the interface of photonics and biology as a very straightforward and efficient approach to observe and manipulate living systems. In this chapter, we review the current applications of photonics and imaging to proteomics from 2D gels analysis to molecular imaging.

  14. Proteomics in Rheumatoid Arthritis Research

    PubMed Central

    Park, Yune-Jung; Chung, Min Kyung; Hwang, Daehee

    2015-01-01

    Although rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is the most common chronic inflammatory autoimmune disease, diagnosis of RA is currently based on clinical manifestations, and there is no simple, practical assessment tool in the clinical field to assess disease activity and severity. Recently, there has been increasing interest in the discovery of new diagnostic RA biomarkers that can assist in evaluating disease activity, severity, and treatment response. Proteomics, the large-scale study of the proteome, has emerged as a powerful technique for protein identification and characterization. For the past 10 years, proteomic techniques have been applied to different biological samples (synovial tissue/fluid, blood, and urine) from RA patients and experimental animal models. In this review, we summarize the current state of the application of proteomics in RA and its importance in identifying biomarkers and treatment targets. PMID:26330803

  15. Current Progress in Tonoplast Proteomics Reveals Insights into the Function of the Large Central Vacuole

    PubMed Central

    Trentmann, Oliver; Haferkamp, Ilka

    2013-01-01

    Vacuoles of plants fulfill various biologically important functions, like turgor generation and maintenance, detoxification, solute sequestration, or protein storage. Different types of plant vacuoles (lytic versus protein storage) are characterized by different functional properties apparently caused by a different composition/abundance and regulation of transport proteins in the surrounding membrane, the tonoplast. Proteome analyses allow the identification of vacuolar proteins and provide an informative basis for assigning observed transport processes to specific carriers or channels. This review summarizes techniques required for vacuolar proteome analyses, like e.g., isolation of the large central vacuole or tonoplast membrane purification. Moreover, an overview about diverse published vacuolar proteome studies is provided. It becomes evident that qualitative proteomes from different plant species represent just the tip of the iceberg. During the past few years, mass spectrometry achieved immense improvement concerning its accuracy, sensitivity, and application. As a consequence, modern tonoplast proteome approaches are suited for detecting alterations in membrane protein abundance in response to changing environmental/physiological conditions and help to clarify the regulation of tonoplast transport processes. PMID:23459586

  16. Quantum computing with steady state spin currents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sutton, Brian M.

    Many approaches to quantum computing use spatially confined qubits in the presence of dynamic fields to perform computation. These approaches are contrasted with proposals using mobile qubits in the presence of static fields. In this thesis, steady state quantum computing using mobile electrons is explored using numerical modeling. Firstly, a foundational introduction to the case of spatially confined qubits embodied via quantum dots is provided. A collection of universal gates implemented with dynamic fields is described using simulations. These gates are combined to implement a five-qubit Grover search to provide further insight on the time-dependent field approach. Secondly, the quantum dot description is contrasted with quantum computing using steady state spin currents. Leveraging the Non-Equilibrium Greens Function formalism to perform numerical simulations, the quantum aspects of steady state spin currents are explored by revisiting the Stern-Gerlach experiment using spin-polarized contacts on a one-dimensional channel. After demonstrating the quantum nature of mobile electrons at steady state, arbitrary single qubit operations using static fields are explored. The model is further extended to incorporate two-qubit interactions to realize the square root of SWAP gate. The two-qubit CNOT gate is used to prepare a Bell state, which is read via quantum state tomography. Finally, Grover's search is revisited to explore the performance benefits of steady state quantum computing. The described multi-particle model is applicable to mobile qubit quantum computing proposals leveraging synchronized electron transport in static fields to perform quantum computing.

  17. Activity-based proteomics probes for carbohydrate-processing enzymes: current trends and future outlook.

    PubMed

    Stubbs, Keith A

    2014-05-22

    Carbohydrate-processing enzymes are gaining more attention due to their roles in health and disease as these enzymes are involved in the construction and deconstruction of vast arrays of glycan structures. As a result, the development of methods to identify these enzymes in complex biological systems is of increasing interest. Activity-based proteomics probes (ABPPs) are increasingly being used in glycobiology to detect and identify functionally related proteins (and homologues) within a biological system. This review will describe the design of activity-based proteomics probes, provide examples of compounds that have been used to profile activity in the area of carbohydrate-processing enzymes, and give some future perspectives.

  18. Current algorithmic solutions for peptide-based proteomics data generation and identification.

    PubMed

    Hoopmann, Michael R; Moritz, Robert L

    2013-02-01

    Peptide-based proteomic data sets are ever increasing in size and complexity. These data sets provide computational challenges when attempting to quickly analyze spectra and obtain correct protein identifications. Database search and de novo algorithms must consider high-resolution MS/MS spectra and alternative fragmentation methods. Protein inference is a tricky problem when analyzing large data sets of degenerate peptide identifications. Combining multiple algorithms for improved peptide identification puts significant strain on computational systems when investigating large data sets. This review highlights some of the recent developments in peptide and protein identification algorithms for analyzing shotgun mass spectrometry data when encountering the aforementioned hurdles. Also explored are the roles that analytical pipelines, public spectral libraries, and cloud computing play in the evolution of peptide-based proteomics.

  19. Proteome turnover in bacteria: current status for Corynebacterium glutamicum and related bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Trötschel, Christian; Albaum, Stefan P; Poetsch, Ansgar

    2013-01-01

    With the advent of high-resolution mass spectrometry together with sophisticated data analysis and interpretation algorithms, determination of protein synthesis and degradation rates (i.e. protein turnover) on a proteome-wide scale by employing stable isotope-labelled amino acids has become feasible. These dynamic data provide a deeper understanding of protein homeostasis and stress response mechanisms in microorganisms than well-established ‘steady state’ proteomics approaches. In this article, we summarize the technological challenges and solutions both on the biochemistry/mass spectrometry and bioinformatics level for turnover proteomics with a focus on chromatographic techniques. Although the number of available case studies for Corynebacterium glutamicum and related actinobacteria is still very limited, our review illustrates the potential of protein turnover studies for an improved understanding of questions in the area of biotechnology and biomedicine. Here, new insights from investigations of growth phase transition and different stress dynamics including iron, acid and heat stress for pathogenic but also for industrial actinobacteria are presented. Finally, we will comment on the advantages of integrated software solutions for biologists and briefly discuss the remaining technical challenges and upcoming possibilities for protein turnover analysis. PMID:23425033

  20. Colonization state influences the hemocyte proteome in a beneficial squid-Vibrio symbiosis.

    PubMed

    Schleicher, Tyler R; VerBerkmoes, Nathan C; Shah, Manesh; Nyholm, Spencer V

    2014-10-01

    The squid Euprymna scolopes and the luminescent bacterium Vibrio fischeri form a highly specific beneficial light organ symbiosis. Not only does the host have to select V. fischeri from the environment, but it must also prevent subsequent colonization by non-symbiotic microorganisms. Host macrophage-like hemocytes are believed to play a role in mediating the symbiosis with V. fischeri. Previous studies have shown that the colonization state of the light organ influences the host's hemocyte response to the symbiont. To further understand the molecular mechanisms behind this process, we used two quantitative mass-spectrometry-based proteomic techniques, isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantification (iTRAQ) and label-free spectral counting, to compare and quantify the adult hemocyte proteomes from colonized (sym) and uncolonized (antibiotic-treated/cured) squid. Overall, iTRAQ allowed for the quantification of 1,024 proteins with two or more peptides. Thirty-seven unique proteins were determined to be significantly different between sym and cured hemocytes (p value < 0.05), with 20 more abundant proteins and 17 less abundant in sym hemocytes. The label-free approach resulted in 1,241 proteins that were identified in all replicates. Of 185 unique proteins present at significantly different amounts in sym hemocytes (as determined by spectral counting), 92 were more abundant and 93 were less abundant. Comparisons between iTRAQ and spectral counting revealed that 30 of the 37 proteins quantified via iTRAQ exhibited trends similar to those identified by the label-free method. Both proteomic techniques mutually identified 16 proteins that were significantly different between the two groups of hemocytes (p value < 0.05). The presence of V. fischeri in the host light organ influenced the abundance of proteins associated with the cytoskeleton, adhesion, lysosomes, proteolysis, and the innate immune response. These data provide evidence that colonization by V. fischeri

  1. Colonization State Influences the Hemocyte Proteome in a Beneficial Squid–Vibrio Symbiosis*

    PubMed Central

    Schleicher, Tyler R.; VerBerkmoes, Nathan C.; Shah, Manesh; Nyholm, Spencer V.

    2014-01-01

    The squid Euprymna scolopes and the luminescent bacterium Vibrio fischeri form a highly specific beneficial light organ symbiosis. Not only does the host have to select V. fischeri from the environment, but it must also prevent subsequent colonization by non-symbiotic microorganisms. Host macrophage-like hemocytes are believed to play a role in mediating the symbiosis with V. fischeri. Previous studies have shown that the colonization state of the light organ influences the host's hemocyte response to the symbiont. To further understand the molecular mechanisms behind this process, we used two quantitative mass-spectrometry-based proteomic techniques, isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantification (iTRAQ) and label-free spectral counting, to compare and quantify the adult hemocyte proteomes from colonized (sym) and uncolonized (antibiotic-treated/cured) squid. Overall, iTRAQ allowed for the quantification of 1,024 proteins with two or more peptides. Thirty-seven unique proteins were determined to be significantly different between sym and cured hemocytes (p value < 0.05), with 20 more abundant proteins and 17 less abundant in sym hemocytes. The label-free approach resulted in 1,241 proteins that were identified in all replicates. Of 185 unique proteins present at significantly different amounts in sym hemocytes (as determined by spectral counting), 92 were more abundant and 93 were less abundant. Comparisons between iTRAQ and spectral counting revealed that 30 of the 37 proteins quantified via iTRAQ exhibited trends similar to those identified by the label-free method. Both proteomic techniques mutually identified 16 proteins that were significantly different between the two groups of hemocytes (p value < 0.05). The presence of V. fischeri in the host light organ influenced the abundance of proteins associated with the cytoskeleton, adhesion, lysosomes, proteolysis, and the innate immune response. These data provide evidence that colonization by V. fischeri

  2. [Progress and application of phosphoproteomics in the proteomics of liver pathological and physiological state].

    PubMed

    Yi, Tailong; Tian, Miaomiao; Yang, Xiaoming; Xu, Ping

    2014-07-01

    The phosphorylation is one of most common protein post-translational modifications. The protein phosphorylation plays important roles in the life through the reversible process of phosphorylation and dephosphorylation by kinases and phosphatases. Systematical analysis of the phosphorylation state of proteins would greatly help to reveal the mystery of the life. Recently, with the development of mass spectrometer, bioinformatics sortwares and enrichment methods of phosphopeptides, phosphorylation stduy of orgnism proteins by mass spectrometer has become mature gradually. Liver is one of the most important metabolic and immune organs. In-depth study of protein phosphorylation in liver is of great importance to reveal its function. And booming phosphoproteomics has been applied into the study of liver, which has deepened the knowledge of molecular mechnism of its physiology and pathology states. Here, we review the recent progress on the research and development of phosphoproteomics and their application in liver proteomics study.

  3. Hydrotropism: the current state of our knowledge.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, H

    1997-06-01

    The response of roots to a moisture gradient has been reexamined, and positive hydrotropism has been demonstrated in recent years. Agravitropic roots of a pea mutant have contributed to the studies on hydrotropism. The kinetics of hydrotropic curvature, interactions between hydrotropism and gravitropism, moisture gradients required for the induction of hydrotropism, the sensing site for moisture gradients, characteristics of hydrotropic signal and differential growth, and calcium involvement in signal transduction have been subjects of these studies. This review summarizes the current state of our knowledge on hydrotropism in roots. PMID:11541137

  4. Current State of Surgical Myocardial Revascularization

    PubMed Central

    Sellke, Frank W.; Chu, Louis M.; Cohn, William E.

    2016-01-01

    Despite increasing competition from percutaneous interventions and other novel methods of non-surgical coronary revascularization, coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) remains one of the most definitive and durable treatments for coronary artery disease, especially for those patients with extensive and diffuse disease. In recent years the CABG procedure itself has undergone innovation and evolution. This review article provides a brief historical perspective on the procedure, and examines the current state of modern variations including off-pump, limited-access, and robotic-assisted CABG. PMID:20467145

  5. [Current state of competence assessment in nursing].

    PubMed

    Darmann-Finck, Ingrid; Reuschenbach, Bernd

    2013-01-01

    Competency measurement is central to the optimisation of outcome oriented educational processes in nursing, similar to the concept of evidence based practice. The classification of measurement tools provides the basis for describing the current state of research and development in relation to competence measurement in nursing science, and any gaps are identified. The article concludes with questioning the importance of outcome oriented quality orientation in order to achieve an increase in quality during training. Further methodological developments and qualitative studies are needed to examine the context specific processes of interaction and learning, beyond competence diagnostics.

  6. Proteome Analysis of Rat Hippocampus Following Morphine-induced Amnesia and State-dependent Learning

    PubMed Central

    Jafarinejad-Farsangi, Saeideh; Farazmand, Ali; Rezayof, Ameneh; Darbandi, Niloufar

    2015-01-01

    Morphine’s effects on learning and memory processes are well known to depend on synaptic plasticity in the hippocampus. Whereas the role of the hippocampus in morphine-induced amnesia and state-dependent learning is established, the biochemical and molecular mechanisms underlying these processes are poorly understood. The present study intended to investigate whether administration of morphine can change the expression level of rat hippocampal proteins during learning of a passive avoidance task. A step-through type passive avoidance task was used for the assessment of memory retention. To identify the complex pattern of protein expression induced by morphine, we compared rat hippocampal proteome either in morphine-induced amnesia or in state-dependent learning by two-dimensional gel electerophoresis and combined mass spectrometry (MS and MS/MS). Post-training administration of morphine decreased step-through latency. Pre-test administration of morphine induced state-dependent retrieval of the memory acquired under post-training morphine influence. In the hippocampus, a total of 18 proteins were identified whose MASCOT (Modular Approach to Software Construction Operation and Test) scores were inside 95% confidence level. Of these, five hippocampal proteins altered in morphine-induced amnesia and ten proteins were found to change in the hippocampus of animals that had received post-training and pre-test morphine. These proteins show known functions in cytoskeletal architecture, cell metabolism, neurotransmitter secretion and neuroprotection. The findings indicate that the effect of morphine on memory formation in passive avoidance learning has a morphological correlate on the hippocampal proteome level. In addition, our proteomicscreensuggests that morphine induces memory impairment and state-dependent learning through modulating neuronal plasticity. PMID:25901168

  7. [Male contraception - the current state of knowledge].

    PubMed

    Zdrojewicz, Zygmynt; Kasperska, Karolina; Lewandowska, Marta

    2016-08-01

    Contraception is important from a health, psychological and socioeconomic point of view. Due to the fact that male-based contraceptive methods are mostly represented by condoms and vasectomy, researchers are working on the new solutions, which could let the men be more involved in a conscious family planning. In this review we will present the current state of knowledge on this subject. There is a lot going on in the field of hormonal contraception. Studies including testosterone, progestins, synthetic androgens and other derivatives are on a different stages of clinical trials and mostly demonstrate high efficacy rates. Recent discovers of Izumo and Juno proteins, essential for the fertilization process, give hope for an easily reversible, non-hormonal method. Researchers are also trying to interfere with the process of spermatogenesis using BRDT inhibitor - JQ1, or neutralize the sperm by injecting styrene maleic anhydride (SMA) into the lumen of the vas deferens. The other studies explore processes involved in proper sperm motility. A vaccine which induces an immune response to the reproductive system is also an interesting method. The latest research use ultrasound waves and mechanical device which blocks the patency of vas deferens. The aim of the study current state of knowledge male contraception.

  8. [Male contraception - the current state of knowledge].

    PubMed

    Zdrojewicz, Zygmynt; Kasperska, Karolina; Lewandowska, Marta

    2016-07-01

    Contraception is important from a health, psychological and socioeconomic point of view. Due to the fact that male-based contraceptive methods are mostly represented by condoms and vasectomy, researchers are working on the new solutions, which could let the men be more involved in a conscious family planning. In this review we will present the current state of knowledge on this subject. There is a lot going on in the field of hormonal contraception. Studies including testosterone, progestins, synthetic androgens and other derivatives are on a different stages of clinical trials and mostly demonstrate high efficacy rates. Recent discovers of Izumo and Juno proteins, essential for the fertilization process, give hope for an easily reversible, non-hormonal method. Researchers are also trying to interfere with the process of spermatogenesis using BRDT inhibitor - JQ1, or neutralize the sperm by injecting styrene maleic anhydride (SMA) into the lumen of the vas deferens. The other studies explore processes involved in proper sperm motility. A vaccine which induces an immune response to the reproductive system is also an interesting method. The latest research use ultrasound waves and mechanical device which blocks the patency of vas deferens. The aim of the study current state of knowledge male contraception. PMID:27590656

  9. [Male contraception - the current state of knowledge].

    PubMed

    Zdrojewicz, Zygmynt; Kasperska, Karolina; Lewandowska, Marta

    2016-08-01

    Contraception is important from a health, psychological and socioeconomic point of view. Due to the fact that male-based contraceptive methods are mostly represented by condoms and vasectomy, researchers are working on the new solutions, which could let the men be more involved in a conscious family planning. In this review we will present the current state of knowledge on this subject. There is a lot going on in the field of hormonal contraception. Studies including testosterone, progestins, synthetic androgens and other derivatives are on a different stages of clinical trials and mostly demonstrate high efficacy rates. Recent discovers of Izumo and Juno proteins, essential for the fertilization process, give hope for an easily reversible, non-hormonal method. Researchers are also trying to interfere with the process of spermatogenesis using BRDT inhibitor - JQ1, or neutralize the sperm by injecting styrene maleic anhydride (SMA) into the lumen of the vas deferens. The other studies explore processes involved in proper sperm motility. A vaccine which induces an immune response to the reproductive system is also an interesting method. The latest research use ultrasound waves and mechanical device which blocks the patency of vas deferens. The aim of the study current state of knowledge male contraception. PMID:27591451

  10. The Role of Proteomics in the Diagnosis and Treatment of Women's Cancers: Current Trends in Technology and Future Opportunities

    PubMed Central

    Breuer, Eun-Kyoung Yim; Murph, Mandi M.

    2011-01-01

    Technological and scientific innovations over the last decade have greatly contributed to improved diagnostics, predictive models, and prognosis among cancers affecting women. In fact, an explosion of information in these areas has almost assured future generations that outcomes in cancer will continue to improve. Herein we discuss the current status of breast, cervical, and ovarian cancers as it relates to screening, disease diagnosis, and treatment options. Among the differences in these cancers, it is striking that breast cancer has multiple predictive tests based upon tumor biomarkers and sophisticated, individualized options for prescription therapeutics while ovarian cancer lacks these tools. In addition, cervical cancer leads the way in innovative, cancer-preventative vaccines and multiple screening options to prevent disease progression. For each of these malignancies, emerging proteomic technologies based upon mass spectrometry, stable isotope labeling with amino acids, high-throughput ELISA, tissue or protein microarray techniques, and click chemistry in the pursuit of activity-based profiling can pioneer the next generation of discovery. We will discuss six of the latest techniques to understand proteomics in cancer and highlight research utilizing these techniques with the goal of improvement in the management of women's cancers. PMID:21886869

  11. The Role of Proteomics in the Diagnosis and Treatment of Women's Cancers: Current Trends in Technology and Future Opportunities.

    PubMed

    Breuer, Eun-Kyoung Yim; Murph, Mandi M

    2011-01-01

    Technological and scientific innovations over the last decade have greatly contributed to improved diagnostics, predictive models, and prognosis among cancers affecting women. In fact, an explosion of information in these areas has almost assured future generations that outcomes in cancer will continue to improve. Herein we discuss the current status of breast, cervical, and ovarian cancers as it relates to screening, disease diagnosis, and treatment options. Among the differences in these cancers, it is striking that breast cancer has multiple predictive tests based upon tumor biomarkers and sophisticated, individualized options for prescription therapeutics while ovarian cancer lacks these tools. In addition, cervical cancer leads the way in innovative, cancer-preventative vaccines and multiple screening options to prevent disease progression. For each of these malignancies, emerging proteomic technologies based upon mass spectrometry, stable isotope labeling with amino acids, high-throughput ELISA, tissue or protein microarray techniques, and click chemistry in the pursuit of activity-based profiling can pioneer the next generation of discovery. We will discuss six of the latest techniques to understand proteomics in cancer and highlight research utilizing these techniques with the goal of improvement in the management of women's cancers.

  12. Affinity Proteomics in the mountains: Alpbach 2015.

    PubMed

    Taussig, Michael J

    2016-09-25

    The 2015 Alpbach Workshop on Affinity Proteomics, organised by the EU AFFINOMICS consortium, was the 7th workshop in this series. As in previous years, the focus of the event was the current state of affinity methods for proteome analysis, including complementarity with mass spectrometry, progress in recombinant binder production methods, alternatives to classical antibodies as affinity reagents, analysis of proteome targets, industry focus on biomarkers, and diagnostic and clinical applications. The combination of excellent science with Austrian mountain scenery and winter sports engender an atmosphere that makes this series of workshops exceptional. The articles in this Special Issue represent a cross-section of the presentations at the 2015 meeting. PMID:27118167

  13. Proteome analysis of the Escherichia coli heat shock response under steady-state conditions

    PubMed Central

    Lüders, Svenja; Fallet, Claas; Franco-Lara, Ezequiel

    2009-01-01

    In this study a proteomic approach was used to investigate the steady-state response of Escherichia coli to temperature up-shifts in a cascade of two continuously operated bioreactors. The first reactor served as cell source with optimal settings for microbial growth, while in the second chemostat the cells were exposed to elevated temperatures. By using this reactor configuration, which has not been reported to be used for the study of bacterial stress responses so far, it is possible to study temperature stress under well-defined, steady-state conditions. Specifically the effect on the cellular adaption to temperature stress using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis was examined and compared at the cultivation temperatures of 37°C and 47.5°C. As expected, the steady-state study with the double bioreactor configuration delivered a different protein spectrum compared to that obtained with standard batch experiments in shaking flasks and bioreactors. Setting a high cut-out spot-to-spot size ratio of 5, proteins involved in defence against oxygen stress, functional cell envelope proteins, chaperones and proteins involved in protein biosynthesis, the energy metabolism and the amino acid biosynthesis were found to be differently expressed at high cultivation temperatures. The results demonstrate the complexity of the stress response in a steady-state culture not reported elsewhere to date. PMID:19772559

  14. Current Proteomic Methods to Investigate the Dynamics of Histone Turnover in the Central Nervous System.

    PubMed

    Farrelly, L A; Dill, B D; Molina, H; Birtwistle, M R; Maze, I

    2016-01-01

    Characterizing the dynamic behavior of nucleosomes in the central nervous system is vital to our understanding of brain-specific chromatin-templated processes and their roles in transcriptional plasticity. Histone turnover-the complete loss of old, and replacement by new, nucleosomal histones-is one such phenomenon that has recently been shown to be critical for cell-type-specific transcription in brain, synaptic plasticity, and cognition. Such revelations that histones, long believed to static proteins in postmitotic cells, are highly dynamic in neurons were only possible owing to significant advances in analytical chemistry-based techniques, which now provide a platform for investigations of histone dynamics in both healthy and diseased tissues. Here, we discuss both past and present proteomic methods (eg, mass spectrometry, human "bomb pulse labeling") for investigating histone turnover in brain with the hope that such information may stimulate future investigations of both adaptive and aberrant forms of "neuroepigenetic" plasticity. PMID:27423867

  15. Current Proteomic Methods to Investigate the Dynamics of Histone Turnover in the Central Nervous System

    PubMed Central

    Farrelly, L.A.; Dill, B.D.; Molina, H.; Birtwistle, M.R.; Maze, I.

    2016-01-01

    Characterizing the dynamic behavior of nucleosomes in the central nervous system is vital to our understanding of brain-specific chromatin-templated processes and their roles in transcriptional plasticity. Histone turnover—the complete loss of old, and replacement by new, nucleosomal histones—is one such phenomenon that has recently been shown to be critical for cell-type-specific transcription in brain, synaptic plasticity, and cognition. Such revelations that histones, long believed to static proteins in postmitotic cells, are highly dynamic in neurons were only possible owing to significant advances in analytical chemistry-based techniques, which now provide a platform for investigations of histone dynamics in both healthy and diseased tissues. Here, we discuss both past and present proteomic methods (eg, mass spectrometry, human “bomb pulse labeling”) for investigating histone turnover in brain with the hope that such information may stimulate future investigations of both adaptive and aberrant forms of “neuroepigenetic” plasticity. PMID:27423867

  16. On the Current Thermal State of Mars.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grott, M.; Breuer, D.

    2008-09-01

    Introduction: The current thermal state of Mars is a fundamental unknown in Mars science. Although is has a huge influence on the planet's current geodynamic activity and controls the possibility for basal melting at the polar caps [1], constraints on this quantities are very scarce. This situation has lately been improved by the study of lithospheric deformation at the north polar cap [2] which constrained the current Martian elastic lithosphere thickness Te, an indirect measure of the temperatures in the planetary interior. Using radar sounding data obtained bySHARAD, the shallow radar onboard the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter, [2] found that the current Martian lithosphere is extremely stiff and Te is larger than 300 km today. This is surprising as this value is almost twice as large as previously estimated from theoretical considerations and flexure studies [3][1]. In order to be consistent with the planets thermal evolution, [2] argue that the amount of radioactive elements in the Martian interior needs to be subchondritic. This appears to be problematic as geochemical analysis of the SNC meteorites implies higher concentrations of radioactive elements [4]. Furthermore, if the concentration of heat producing elements is indeed reduced, the resulting low interior temperatures will inhibit partial mantle melting and magmatism. However, geological evidence suggests that Mars has been volcanically active in the recent past [5]. In order to address these inconsistencies, we reinvestigate the thermal evolution of Mars and examine its current thermal state for a wide range of initial condition using the current elastic thickness Te and the potential for partial mantle melting to constrain our models. Modeling: We investigate the thermal evolution of Mars by solving the energy balance equations for the core and mantle, treating the mantle energy transport by parametrized convection models. This is done using scaling laws for stagnant lid convection and our model is

  17. Biogas production: current state and perspectives.

    PubMed

    Weiland, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion of energy crops, residues, and wastes is of increasing interest in order to reduce the greenhouse gas emissions and to facilitate a sustainable development of energy supply. Production of biogas provides a versatile carrier of renewable energy, as methane can be used for replacement of fossil fuels in both heat and power generation and as a vehicle fuel. For biogas production, various process types are applied which can be classified in wet and dry fermentation systems. Most often applied are wet digester systems using vertical stirred tank digester with different stirrer types dependent on the origin of the feedstock. Biogas is mainly utilized in engine-based combined heat and power plants, whereas microgas turbines and fuel cells are expensive alternatives which need further development work for reducing the costs and increasing their reliability. Gas upgrading and utilization as renewable vehicle fuel or injection into the natural gas grid is of increasing interest because the gas can be used in a more efficient way. The digestate from anaerobic fermentation is a valuable fertilizer due to the increased availability of nitrogen and the better short-term fertilization effect. Anaerobic treatment minimizes the survival of pathogens which is important for using the digested residue as fertilizer. This paper reviews the current state and perspectives of biogas production, including the biochemical parameters and feedstocks which influence the efficiency and reliability of the microbial conversion and gas yield. PMID:19777226

  18. Proteomics technology in systems biology.

    PubMed

    Smith, Jeffrey C; Figeys, Daniel

    2006-08-01

    It has now become apparent that a full understanding of a biological process (e.g. a disease state) is only possible if all biomolecular interactions are taken into account. Systems biology works towards understanding the intricacies of cellular life through the collaborative efforts of biologists, chemists, mathematicians and computer scientists and recently, a number of laboratories around the world have embarked upon such research agendas. The fields of genomics and proteomics are foundational in systems biology studies and a great deal of research is currently being conducted in each worldwide. Moreover, many technological advances (particularly in mass spectrometry) have led to a dramatic rise in the number of proteomic studies over the past two decades. This short review summarizes a selection of technological innovations in proteomics that contribute to systems biology studies. PMID:16880956

  19. Current Conditions in Washington State School Finance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plecki, Margaret L.

    Washington State assumes full responsibility for funding a basic education program for K-12 public schools. Full funding of basic education includes special education programs, transitional bilingual programs, remediation-assistance programs, and certain pupil transportation costs. This paper describes conditions in Washington State school finance…

  20. State Profiles: Current Status of Public Sector Labor Relations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Labor Management Services Administration (DOL), Washington, DC. Div. of Public Employee Labor Relations.

    This guide summarizes the coverage of public employees by state labor relations laws. For each state, the guide describes legal provisions, current situation, and current legislative activity. The report also includes data on population, public employment, work stoppages, and state revenues and expenditures. Agencies useful in gathering and…

  1. Structural state testing using eddy current inversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dolgov, N. Y.; Chernov, L. A.

    2000-05-01

    The inverse eddy current problem can be described as the task of reconstructing an unknown distribution of electrical conductivity from eddy-current probe voltage measurements recorded as function of excitation frequency. Conductivity variation may be a result of surface processing with substances like hydrogen and carbon or surface heating. We developed mathematical reasons and supporting software for inverse conductivity profiling. Inverse problem was solved for layered plane and cylindrical conductors. Because the inverse problem is nonlinear, we propose using an iterative algorithm which can be formalized as the minimization of an error functional related to the difference between the probe voltages theoretically predicted by the direct problem solving and the measured probe voltages. Numerical results were obtained for some models of conductivity distribution. It was shown that inverse problem can be solved exactly in case of correct measurements. Good estimation of the true conductivity distribution takes place also for measurement noise about 2 percent but in the case of 5 percent error, results are worse.

  2. Pulmonary radiofrequency ablation (Part 1): current state.

    PubMed

    Plasencia Martínez, J M

    2015-01-01

    The risks involved in surgical treatment and conventional radiotherapy in patients with early lung cancer or lung metastases often make these treatments difficult to justify. However, on the other hand, it is also unacceptable to allow these lesions to evolve freely because, left untreated, these neoplasms will usually lead to the death of the patient. In recent years, alternative local therapies have been developed, such as pulmonary radiofrequency ablation, which has proven to increase survival with a minimal risk of complications. There are common recommendations for these treatments, and although the specific indications for using one technique or another have yet to be established, there are clearly defined situations that will determine the outcome of the treatment. It is important to know these situations, because appropriate patient selection is essential for therapeutic success. This article aims to describe the characteristics and constraints of pulmonary radiofrequency ablation and to outline its role in thoracic oncology in light of the current evidence. PMID:25766072

  3. Pulmonary radiofrequency ablation (Part 1): current state.

    PubMed

    Plasencia Martínez, J M

    2015-01-01

    The risks involved in surgical treatment and conventional radiotherapy in patients with early lung cancer or lung metastases often make these treatments difficult to justify. However, on the other hand, it is also unacceptable to allow these lesions to evolve freely because, left untreated, these neoplasms will usually lead to the death of the patient. In recent years, alternative local therapies have been developed, such as pulmonary radiofrequency ablation, which has proven to increase survival with a minimal risk of complications. There are common recommendations for these treatments, and although the specific indications for using one technique or another have yet to be established, there are clearly defined situations that will determine the outcome of the treatment. It is important to know these situations, because appropriate patient selection is essential for therapeutic success. This article aims to describe the characteristics and constraints of pulmonary radiofrequency ablation and to outline its role in thoracic oncology in light of the current evidence.

  4. Spaceflight osteoporosis: current state and future perspective.

    PubMed

    Cappellesso, R; Nicole, L; Guido, A; Pizzol, D

    2015-10-01

    Osteoporosis is one of the established major consequences of long-duration spaceflights in astronauts seriously undermining their health after their returning on Earth. Indeed, astronauts typically lose more bone mass during one month than postmenopausal women on Earth lose in one year. To date, countermeasures mainly consist in exercise and supplementation while pharmacological treatment as those used in postmenopausal women are not routine. However, it is evident that exercise and supplementation alone are not enough to maintain bone homeostasis. In this paper we describe the current countermeasures for bone loss during long-term spaceflight, review the modern treatment which are successfully employed to prevent osteoporosis on Earth and that could be quickly used also for astronauts and finally focus on the recent cellular and molecular understanding of bone homeostasis which might provide the basis for the development of future targeted therapies.

  5. Current state of imaging in dermatology.

    PubMed

    Hibler, Brian P; Qi, Qiaochu; Rossi, Anthony M

    2016-03-01

    Medical imaging has dramatically transformed the practice of medicine, especially the field of dermatology. Imaging is used to facilitate the transfer of information between providers, document cutaneous disease, assess response to therapy, and plays a crucial role in monitoring and diagnosing skin cancer. Advancements in imaging technology and overall improved quality of imaging have augmented the utility of photography. We provide an overview of current imaging technologies used in dermatology with a focus on their role in skin cancer diagnosis. Future technologies include three-dimensional, total-body photography, mobile smartphone applications, and computerassisted diagnostic devices. With these advancements, we are better equipped to capture and monitor skin conditions longitudinally and achieve improved diagnostic accuracy of skin cancer. PMID:26963110

  6. Spaceflight osteoporosis: current state and future perspective.

    PubMed

    Cappellesso, R; Nicole, L; Guido, A; Pizzol, D

    2015-10-01

    Osteoporosis is one of the established major consequences of long-duration spaceflights in astronauts seriously undermining their health after their returning on Earth. Indeed, astronauts typically lose more bone mass during one month than postmenopausal women on Earth lose in one year. To date, countermeasures mainly consist in exercise and supplementation while pharmacological treatment as those used in postmenopausal women are not routine. However, it is evident that exercise and supplementation alone are not enough to maintain bone homeostasis. In this paper we describe the current countermeasures for bone loss during long-term spaceflight, review the modern treatment which are successfully employed to prevent osteoporosis on Earth and that could be quickly used also for astronauts and finally focus on the recent cellular and molecular understanding of bone homeostasis which might provide the basis for the development of future targeted therapies. PMID:26494042

  7. Differential cysteine labeling and global label-free proteomics reveals an altered metabolic state in skeletal muscle aging.

    PubMed

    McDonagh, Brian; Sakellariou, Giorgos K; Smith, Neil T; Brownridge, Philip; Jackson, Malcolm J

    2014-11-01

    The molecular mechanisms underlying skeletal muscle aging and associated sarcopenia have been linked to an altered oxidative status of redox-sensitive proteins. Reactive oxygen and reactive nitrogen species (ROS/RNS) generated by contracting skeletal muscle are necessary for optimal protein function, signaling, and adaptation. To investigate the redox proteome of aging gastrocnemius muscles from adult and old male mice, we developed a label-free quantitative proteomic approach that includes a differential cysteine labeling step. The approach allows simultaneous identification of up- and downregulated proteins between samples in addition to the identification and relative quantification of the reversible oxidation state of susceptible redox cysteine residues. Results from muscles of adult and old mice indicate significant changes in the content of chaperone, glucose metabolism, and cytoskeletal regulatory proteins, including Protein DJ-1, cAMP-dependent protein kinase type II, 78 kDa glucose regulated protein, and a reduction in the number of redox-responsive proteins identified in muscle of old mice. Results demonstrate skeletal muscle aging causes a reduction in redox-sensitive proteins involved in the generation of precursor metabolites and energy metabolism, indicating a loss in the flexibility of the redox energy response. Data is available via ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD001054.

  8. [The current state of obesity in Mexico].

    PubMed

    Barrera-Cruz, Antonio; Rodríguez-González, Arturo; Molina-Ayala, Mario Antonio

    2013-01-01

    Excess weight (overweight and obesity) is currently recognized as one of the most important challenges of public health in the world, given its size, speed of growth, and the negative effect on the population who suffers it. Overweight and obesity increases significantly the risk of chronic non-communicable diseases, and premature mortality, as well as the social cost of health. Today, Mexico has the second global prevalence of obesity in the adult population (30 %), which is ten times higher than Korea's or Japan's (4 %). Until 2012, 26 million Mexican adults were overweight, and 22 million, obese. This implies a major challenge for the health sector. Mexico needs to plan and implement strategies and cost-effective actions for the prevention and control of obesity in children, adolescents, and adults. Global experience shows that proper care of obesity and overweight demands to formulate and coordinate efficient multi-sectoral strategies for enhancing protective factors to health, particularly to modify individual behavior, family and community.

  9. The current state of Socio-hydrology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sivapalan, Murugesu; Viglione, Alberto; Di Baldassarre, Giuliano; Pande, Saket

    2016-04-01

    Socio-hydrology was introduced 4 years ago into the scientific lexicon, and elicited several reactions about the meaning and originality of the concept. However, there has also been much activity triggered by the original paper, including further commentaries that clarified the definitions, and several papers that acted on the definitions, and through them further clarified and illustrated the meaning and usefulness of socio-hydrology for understanding coupled human-water systems and underpinning sustainable water management. This presentation discusses how useful these recent studies have been towards the need for socio-hydrology to explain phenomena, such as rise and decline of human population or food production in water scarce basins ('pendulum swing'), the levee effect, small scale farmer suicides, anthropogenic droughts, etc… We also discuss its foundation as a Science, its similarities and dissimilarities with other fields that study human-water interactions, such as hydro-sociology and hydro-economics, its foundation as a Science, current gaps and the challenges that lie ahead.

  10. [Occupational asthma: current state of the problem].

    PubMed

    Bousová, Karin

    2004-01-01

    Occupational asthma is a disease with serious medical, social and economical consequences. Most patients have to change their jobs and very often they lose their professional qualification. This article gives a current review of the problems of occupational bronchial asthma and allergic rhinitis in the region of Eastern Bohemia. The results obtained are compared with the situation in the whole Czech Republic and in the world. The number of new cases of occupational asthma and allergic rhinitis discovered in the contact area of the Department of Occupational Medicine at the University Hospital in Hradec Králové fluctuates around 15-20 cases per year, and 80-100 new cases are reported in the whole republic. The rate of occupational asthma and occupational allergic rhinitis of the total asthma and rhinitis incidence in the Czech population fluctuates between 5-15%. Regarding the number of affected employees, flour is considered the most important allergen. Other important noxas include agricultural allergens, textile dust, diisocyanates and disinfectious preparations. The importance of the alergogenius effect of natural rubber latex and diisocyanates has increased in occupational medicine mainly in the last 20 years. Regarding latex, its harmful effect has been especially demonstrated in health providers who wear protective latex gloves, which results not only in contact eczema-dermatitis, but also in bronchial asthma and allergic rhinitis. Diisocyanates, highly reactive and aggressive substances, originate during polyurethane production which has a wide industrial application (production of polyurethane foam and rubber, paints, adhesives, injected substances, glues, varnishes etc.). The incidence of occupational asthma diseases in workers exposed to diisocyanates is high. Typically, a development of the disease begins after a short time exposure. In this thesis, a diagnostic method in suspected occupational allergic disease of the airways is suggested and

  11. Mass Spectrometry for Translational Proteomics: Progress and Clinical Implications

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, Erin Shammel; Liu, Tao; Petyuk, Vladislav A.; Burnum-Johnson, Kristin E.; Ibrahim, Yehia M.; Anderson, Gordon A.; Smith, Richard D.

    2012-08-31

    Mass spectrometry (MS)-based proteomics measurements have become increasingly utilized in a wide range of biological and biomedical applications, and have significantly enhanced the understanding of the complex and dynamic nature of the proteome and its connections to biology and diseases. While some MS techniques such as those for targeted analysis are increasingly applied with great success, others such as global quantitative analysis (for e.g. biomarker discovery) are more challenging and continue to be developed and refined to provide the desired throughput, sensitivity and/ or specificity. New MS capabilities and proteomics-based pipelines/strategies also keep enhancing for the advancement of clinical proteomics applications such as protein biomarker discovery and validation. Herein, we provide a brief review to summarize the current state of MS-based proteomics with respect to its advantages and present limitations, while highlighting its potential in future clinical applications.

  12. Application of meta-transcriptomics and -proteomics to analysis of in situ physiological state

    SciTech Connect

    Konopka, Allan; Wilkins, Michael J.

    2012-05-18

    Analysis of the growth-limiting factor or environmental stressors affecting microbes in situ is of fundamental importance but analytically difficult. Microbes can reduce in situ limiting nutrient concentrations to sub-micromolar levels, and contaminated ecosystems may contain multiple stressors. The patterns of gene or protein expression by microbes in nature can be used to infer growth limitations, because they are regulated in response to environmental conditions. Experimental studies under controlled conditions in the laboratory provide the physiological underpinnings for developing these physiological indicators. Although regulatory networks may differ among specific microbes, there are some broad principles that can be applied, related to limiting nutrient acquisition, resource allocation, and stress responses. As technologies for transcriptomics and proteomics mature, the capacity to apply these approaches to complex microbial communities will accelerate. Global proteomics has the particular advantage that it reflects expressed catalytic activities. Furthermore, the high mass accuracy of some proteomic approaches allows mapping back to specific microbial strains. For example, at the Rifle IFRC field site in Western Colorado, the physiological status of Fe(III)-reducing populations has been tracked over time. Members of a 'subsurface clade' within the Geobacter predominated during carbon amendment to the subsurface environment. At the functional level, proteomic identifications produced inferences regarding (i) temporal changes in anabolism and catabolism of acetate, (ii) the onset of N2 fixation when N became limiting, and (iii) expression of phosphate transporters during periods of intense growth. The application of these approaches in situ can lead to discovery of novel physiological adaptations.

  13. Proteomics boosts translational and clinical microbiology.

    PubMed

    Del Chierico, F; Petrucca, A; Vernocchi, P; Bracaglia, G; Fiscarelli, E; Bernaschi, P; Muraca, M; Urbani, A; Putignani, L

    2014-01-31

    The application of proteomics to translational and clinical microbiology is one of the most advanced frontiers in the management and control of infectious diseases and in the understanding of complex microbial systems within human fluids and districts. This new approach aims at providing, by dedicated bioinformatic pipelines, a thorough description of pathogen proteomes and their interactions within the context of human host ecosystems, revolutionizing the vision of infectious diseases in biomedicine and approaching new viewpoints in both diagnostic and clinical management of the patient. Indeed, in the last few years, many laboratories have matured a series of advanced proteomic applications, aiming at providing individual proteome charts of pathogens, with respect to their morph and/or cell life stages, antimicrobial or antimycotic resistance profiling, epidemiological dispersion. Herein, we aim at reviewing the current state-of-the-art on proteomic protocols designed and set-up for translational and diagnostic microbiological purposes, from axenic pathogens' characterization to microbiota ecosystems' full description. The final goal is to describe applications of the most common MALDI-TOF MS platforms to advanced diagnostic issues related to emerging infections, increasing of fastidious bacteria, and generation of patient-tailored phylotypes. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Trends in Microbial Proteomics.

  14. Application of meta-transcriptomics and -proteomics to analysis of in situ physiological state

    PubMed Central

    Konopka, Allan; Wilkins, Michael J.

    2012-01-01

    Analysis of the growth-limiting factor or environmental stressors affecting microbes in situ is of fundamental importance but analytically difficult. Microbes can reduce in situ limiting nutrient concentrations to sub-micromolar levels, and contaminated ecosystems may contain multiple stressors. The patterns of gene or protein expression by microbes in nature can be used to infer growth limitations, because they are regulated in response to environmental conditions. Experimental studies under controlled conditions in the laboratory provide the physiological underpinnings for developing these physiological indicators. Although regulatory networks may differ among specific microbes, there are some broad principles that can be applied, related to limiting nutrient acquisition, resource allocation, and stress responses. As technologies for transcriptomics and proteomics mature, the capacity to apply these approaches to complex microbial communities will accelerate. Global proteomics has the particular advantage that it reflects expressed catalytic activities. Furthermore, the high mass accuracy of some proteomic approaches allows mapping back to specific microbial strains. For example, at the Rifle IFRC field site in Western Colorado, the physiological status of Fe(III)-reducing populations has been tracked over time. Members of a “subsurface clade” within the Geobacter predominated during carbon amendment to the subsurface environment. At the functional level, proteomic identifications produced inferences regarding (i) temporal changes in anabolism and catabolism of acetate, (ii) the onset of N2 fixation when N became limiting, and (iii) expression of phosphate transporters during periods of intense growth. The application of these approaches in situ can lead to discovery of novel physiological adaptations. PMID:22783237

  15. Ion Current-Based Proteomic Profiling for Understanding the Inhibitory Effect of Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha on Myogenic Differentiation.

    PubMed

    Tu, Chengjian; Bu, Yahao; Vujcic, Marija; Shen, Shichen; Li, Jun; Qu, Miao; Hangauer, David; Clements, James L; Qu, Jun

    2016-09-01

    Despite a demonstrated role for TNF-α in promoting muscle wasting and cachexia, the associated molecular mechanisms and signaling pathways of myoblast differentiation dysregulated by TNF-α remain poorly understood. This study presents well-controlled proteomic profiling as a means to investigate the mechanisms of TNF-α-regulated myogenic differentiation. Primary human muscle precursor cells (MPCs) cultured in growth medium (GM), differentiation medium (DM) to induce myogenic differentiation, and DM with 20 ng/mL of TNF-α (n = 5/group) were comparatively analyzed by an ion current-based quantitative platform consisting of reproducible sample preparation/on-pellet digestion, a long-column nano-LC separation, and ion current-based differential analysis. The inhibition of myogenic differentiation by TNF-α was confirmed by reduced formation of multinucleated myotubes and the recovered expression of altered myogenic proteins such as MYOD and myogenin during myogenic differentiation. Functional analysis and validation by immunoassay analysis suggested that the cooperation of NF-κB and STAT proteins is responsible for dysregulated differentiation in MPCs by TNF-α treatment. Increased MHC class I components such as HLA-A, HLA-B, HLA-C, and beta-2-microglobulin were also observed in cultures in DM treated with TNF-α. Interestingly, inhibition of the cholesterol biosynthesis pathway during myogenic differentiation induced by serum starvation was not recovered by TNF-α treatment, which combined with previous reports, implies that this process may be an early event of myogenesis. This finding could lay the foundation for the potential use of statins in modulating myogenesis through cholesterol, for example, in stem cell-based myocardial infarction treatment, where differentiation of myoblasts and stem cells into force-generating mature muscle cells is a key step to the therapeutic capacity. In conclusion, the landscapes of altered transcription regulators, metabolic

  16. Determination and comparison of the baseline proteomes of the versatile microbe Rhodopseudomonas palustris under its major metabolic states.

    PubMed

    VerBerkmoes, Nathan C; Shah, Manesh B; Lankford, Patricia K; Pelletier, Dale A; Strader, Michael B; Tabb, David L; McDonald, W Hayes; Barton, John W; Hurst, Gregory B; Hauser, Loren; Davison, Brian H; Beatty, J Thomas; Harwood, Caroline S; Tabita, F Robert; Hettich, Robert L; Larimer, Frank W

    2006-02-01

    Rhodopseudomonas palustris is a purple nonsulfur anoxygenic phototrophic bacterium that is ubiquitous in soil and water. R. palustris is metabolically versatile with respect to energy generation and carbon and nitrogen metabolism. We have characterized and compared the baseline proteome of a R. palustris wild-type strain grown under six metabolic conditions. The methodology for proteome analysis involved protein fractionation by centrifugation, subsequent digestion with trypsin, and analysis of peptides by liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry. Using these methods, we identified 1664 proteins out of 4836 predicted proteins with conservative filtering constraints. A total of 107 novel hypothetical proteins and 218 conserved hypothetical proteins were detected. Qualitative analyses revealed over 311 proteins exhibiting marked differences between conditions, many of these being hypothetical or conserved hypothetical proteins showing strong correlations with different metabolic modes. For example, five proteins encoded by genes from a novel operon appeared only after anaerobic growth with no evidence of these proteins in extracts of aerobically grown cells. Proteins known to be associated with specialized growth states such as nitrogen fixation, photoautotrophic, or growth on benzoate, were observed to be up-regulated under those states.

  17. Determination and Comparison of the Baseline Proteomes of the Versatile Microbe Rhodopseudomonas palustris under its Major Metabolic States

    SciTech Connect

    Verberkmoes, Nathan C; Shah, Manesh B; Lankford, Patricia K; Pelletier, Dale A; Strader, Michael B; Tabb, Dave L; McDonald, W Hayes; Barton, John W; Hurst, Gregory {Greg} B; Hauser, Loren John; Davison, Brian H; Beatty, Thomas; Harwood, Caroline S; Tabita, F Robert; Hettich, Robert {Bob} L; Larimer, Frank W

    2006-01-01

    Rhodopseudomonas palustris is a purple nonsulfur anoxygenic phototrophic bacterium that is ubiquitous in soil and water. R. palustris is metabolically versatile with respect to energy generation and carbon and nitrogen metabolism. We have characterized and compared the baseline proteome of a R. palustris wild-type strain grown under six metabolic conditions. The methodology for proteome analysis involved protein fractionation by centrifugation, subsequent digestion with trypsin, and analysis of peptides by liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry. Using these methods, we identified 1664 proteins out of 4836 predicted proteins with conservative filtering constraints. A total of 107 novel hypothetical proteins and 218 conserved hypothetical proteins were detected. Qualitative analyses revealed over 311 proteins exhibiting marked differences between conditions, many of these being hypothetical or conserved hypothetical proteins showing strong correlations with different metabolic modes. For example, five proteins encoded by genes from a novel operon appeared only after anaerobic growth with no evidence of these proteins in extracts of aerobically grown cells. Proteins known to be associated with specialized growth states such as nitrogen fixation, photoautotrophic, or growth on benzoate, were observed to be up-regulated under those states.

  18. Theory of current states in narrow superconducting channels

    SciTech Connect

    Ivlev, B.I.; Kopnin, N.B.

    1984-03-01

    The properties of narrow superconducting channels carrying a direct current are reviewed. Among the topics covered are the stability of the normal state of the current-carrying channel and the mechanism for a transition from this normal state to the superconducting state. In a homogeneous channel, the transition occurs through the formation of a critical nucleus and is a first-order phase transition. In a channel with inhomogeneities, the transition is quite different. In this case the normal state can exist only down to a certain value of the current, below which the normal state is absolutely unstable. The review is devoted primarily to the theory of the resistive state of narrow channels, which exists at currents above the critical Ginzburg-Landau current. The description is based on the concept of phase-slippage centers. Phenomenological models are discussed, as is a model of a fluctuational excitation of phase-slippage centers. The results obtained from the microscopic dynamic theory of superconductivity are discussed at length. Among these results are the voltage-current characteristic of the resistive state, the abrupt change in the voltage on this characteristic, and the structure of the phase-slippage centers.

  19. Reproducible ion-current-based approach for 24-plex comparison of the tissue proteomes of hibernating versus normal myocardium in swine models.

    PubMed

    Qu, Jun; Young, Rebeccah; Page, Brian J; Shen, Xiaomeng; Tata, Nazneen; Li, Jun; Duan, Xiaotao; Fallavollita, James A; Canty, John M

    2014-05-01

    Hibernating myocardium is an adaptive response to repetitive myocardial ischemia that is clinically common, but the mechanism of adaptation is poorly understood. Here we compared the proteomes of hibernating versus normal myocardium in a porcine model with 24 biological replicates. Using the ion-current-based proteomic strategy optimized in this study to expand upon previous proteomic work, we identified differentially expressed proteins in new molecular pathways of cardiovascular interest. The methodological strategy includes efficient extraction with detergent cocktail; precipitation/digestion procedure with high, quantitative peptide recovery; reproducible nano-LC/MS analysis on a long, heated column packed with small particles; and quantification based on ion-current peak areas. Under the optimized conditions, high efficiency and reproducibility were achieved for each step, which enabled a reliable comparison of 24 the myocardial samples. To achieve confident discovery of differentially regulated proteins in hibernating myocardium, we used highly stringent criteria to define "quantifiable proteins". These included the filtering criteria of low peptide FDR and S/N > 10 for peptide ion currents, and each protein was quantified independently from ≥2 distinct peptides. For a broad methodological validation, the quantitative results were compared with a parallel, well-validated 2D-DIGE analysis of the same model. Excellent agreement between the two orthogonal methods was observed (R = 0.74), and the ion-current-based method quantified almost one order of magnitude more proteins. In hibernating myocardium, 225 significantly altered proteins were discovered with a low false-discovery rate (∼3%). These proteins are involved in biological processes including metabolism, apoptosis, stress response, contraction, cytoskeleton, transcription, and translation. This provides compelling evidence that hibernating myocardium adapts to chronic ischemia. The major metabolic

  20. Steady state self-induced current in tokamak

    SciTech Connect

    Gott, Yu. V.; Yurchenko, E. I.

    2009-11-15

    A model, which may make it possible to self-consistently calculate the self-driven current in tokamaks taking into account asymmetry and bootstrap currents, is presented. It is shown that the described self-driven current can provide steady-state tokamak operation without the seed current produced with the help of additional methods. The total self-consistent, self-driven current does not depend on magnetic field magnitude and is proportional to the square root from plasma pressure. The experimental data obtained in the National Spherical Torus Experiment are satisfactorily described by this model.

  1. Testing Literature: The Current State of Affairs. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Purves, Alan C.

    A synthesis of the report, "The Current State of Assessment in Literature," (produced by the Center for the Learning and Teaching of Literature), this digest discusses methods of evaluating students' knowledge of literature. The digest argues that, by and large, the tests that now exist in the United States do not live up to the standards set by…

  2. Low T3 State Is Correlated with Cardiac Mitochondrial Impairments after Ischemia Reperfusion Injury: Evidence from a Proteomic Approach

    PubMed Central

    Forini, Francesca; Ucciferri, Nadia; Kusmic, Claudia; Nicolini, Giuseppina; Cecchettini, Antonella; Rocchiccioli, Silvia; Citti, Lorenzo; Iervasi, Giorgio

    2015-01-01

    Mitochondria are major determinants of cell fate in ischemia/reperfusion injury (IR) and common effectors of cardio-protective strategies in cardiac ischemic disease. Thyroid hormone homeostasis critically affects mitochondrial function and energy production. Since a low T3 state (LT3S) is frequently observed in the post infarction setting, the study was aimed to investigate the relationship between 72 h post IR T3 levels and both the cardiac function and the mitochondrial proteome in a rat model of IR. The low T3 group exhibits the most compromised cardiac performance along with the worst mitochondrial activity. Accordingly, our results show a different remodeling of the mitochondrial proteome in the presence or absence of a LT3S, with alterations in groups of proteins that play a key role in energy metabolism, quality control and regulation of cell death pathways. Overall, our findings highlight a relationship between LT3S in the early post IR and poor cardiac and mitochondrial outcomes, and suggest a potential implication of thyroid hormone in the cardio-protection and tissue remodeling in ischemic disease. PMID:26561807

  3. Proteomics research in India: an update.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Panga Jaipal; Atak, Apurva; Ghantasala, Saicharan; Kumar, Saurabh; Gupta, Shabarni; Prasad, T S Keshava; Zingde, Surekha M; Srivastava, Sanjeeva

    2015-09-01

    After a successful completion of the Human Genome Project, deciphering the mystery surrounding the human proteome posed a major challenge. Despite not being largely involved in the Human Genome Project, the Indian scientific community contributed towards proteomic research along with the global community. Currently, more than 76 research/academic institutes and nearly 145 research labs are involved in core proteomic research across India. The Indian researchers have been major contributors in drafting the "human proteome map" along with international efforts. In addition to this, virtual proteomics labs, proteomics courses and remote triggered proteomics labs have helped to overcome the limitations of proteomics education posed due to expensive lab infrastructure. The establishment of Proteomics Society, India (PSI) has created a platform for the Indian proteomic researchers to share ideas, research collaborations and conduct annual conferences and workshops. Indian proteomic research is really moving forward with the global proteomics community in a quest to solve the mysteries of proteomics. A draft map of the human proteome enhances the enthusiasm among intellectuals to promote proteomic research in India to the world.This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Proteomics in India.

  4. Proteomics research in India: an update.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Panga Jaipal; Atak, Apurva; Ghantasala, Saicharan; Kumar, Saurabh; Gupta, Shabarni; Prasad, T S Keshava; Zingde, Surekha M; Srivastava, Sanjeeva

    2015-09-01

    After a successful completion of the Human Genome Project, deciphering the mystery surrounding the human proteome posed a major challenge. Despite not being largely involved in the Human Genome Project, the Indian scientific community contributed towards proteomic research along with the global community. Currently, more than 76 research/academic institutes and nearly 145 research labs are involved in core proteomic research across India. The Indian researchers have been major contributors in drafting the "human proteome map" along with international efforts. In addition to this, virtual proteomics labs, proteomics courses and remote triggered proteomics labs have helped to overcome the limitations of proteomics education posed due to expensive lab infrastructure. The establishment of Proteomics Society, India (PSI) has created a platform for the Indian proteomic researchers to share ideas, research collaborations and conduct annual conferences and workshops. Indian proteomic research is really moving forward with the global proteomics community in a quest to solve the mysteries of proteomics. A draft map of the human proteome enhances the enthusiasm among intellectuals to promote proteomic research in India to the world.This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Proteomics in India. PMID:25868663

  5. Created-by-current states in long Josephson junctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyadjiev, T. L.; Andreeva, O. Yu.; Semerdjieva, E. G.; Shukrinov, Yu. M.

    2008-08-01

    Critical curves "critical current-external magnetic field" of long Josephson junctions with inhomogeneity and variable width are studied. We demonstrate the existence of regions of magnetic field where some fluxon states are stable only if the external current through the junction is different from zero. Position and size of such regions depend on the length of the junction, its geometry, parameters of inhomogeneity and form of the junction. The noncentral (left and right) pure fluxon states appear in the inhomogeneous Josephson junction with the increase in the junction length. We demonstrate new bifurcation points with change in width of the inhomogeneity and amplitude of the Josephson current through the inhomogeneity.

  6. Multistable current states in high-temperature superconducting composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romanovskii, V. R.

    2016-09-01

    Conditions for current instabilities that arise in high-temperature superconducting composites with essentially nonlinear dependences of the critical current densities and resistivity on the temperature and magnetic induction have been studied. The analysis has been conducted in terms of zero-dimensional models, which has made it possible to formulate general physical mechanisms behind the formation of currents states in superconducting composites according to the external magnetic field induction, cooling conditions, and the properties of the superconductor and cladding. The possible existence of current and temperature stable steps, as well as stable steps of the electric field strength, in the absence of the superconducting-normal transition, has been demonstrated. Reasons for instabilities under multistable current states have been discussed.

  7. Transient and steady-state currents in epoxy resin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guillermin, Christophe; Rain, Pascal; Rowe, Stephen W.

    2006-02-01

    Charging and discharging currents have been measured in a diglycidyl ether of bisphenol-A epoxy resin with and without silica fillers, below and above its glass transition temperature Tg = 65 °C. Both transient and steady-state current densities have been analysed. The average applied fields ranged from 3 to 35 kV mm-1 with a sample thickness of 0.5 mm. Above Tg, transient currents suggested a phenomenon of charge injection forming trapped space charges even at low fields. Steady-state currents confirmed that the behaviour was not Ohmic and suggested Schottky-type injection. Below Tg, the current is not controlled by the metal-dielectric interface but by the conduction in the volume: the current is Ohmic at low fields and both transient and steady-state currents suggest a phenomenon of space-charge limited currents at high fields. The field threshold is similar in the filler-free and the filled resin. Values in the range 12-17 kV mm-1 have been measured.

  8. Visualization and data analysis-current state and exascale challenges

    SciTech Connect

    Ahrens, James P; Rodgers, David; Springmeyer, Becky

    2010-12-21

    Talk about Visualization and Data Analysis Current State and Exascale challenges. The goal is to update with colleagues our current status in our research. What challenges we need to face, and what future possibilities. Our goal is to propose to approach the problems with the visualization approach operating on the supercomputing platform. This presentation is about the L2 Milestone, we intend to discuss further possibilities of enhancing our results and optimizing our solutions.

  9. Modeling state-dependent inactivation of membrane currents.

    PubMed Central

    Marom, S; Abbott, L F

    1994-01-01

    Inactivation of many ion channels occurs through largely voltage-independent transitions to an inactivated state from the open state or from other states in the pathway leading to opening of the channel. Because this form of inactivation is state-dependent rather than voltage-dependent, it cannot be described by the standard Hodgkin-Huxley formalism used in virtually all modeling studies of neuronal behavior. Using two examples, cumulative inactivation of the Kv3 potassium channel and inactivation of the fast sodium channel, we extend the standard formalism for modeling macroscopic membrane currents to account for state-dependent inactivation. Our results provide an accurate description of cumulative inactivation of the Kv3 channel, new insight into inactivation of the sodium channel, and a general framework for modeling macroscopic currents when state-dependent processes are involved. In a model neuron, the macroscopic Kv3 current produces a novel short-term memory effect and firing delays similar to those seen in hippocampal neurons. Images FIGURE 5 PMID:7524708

  10. Proteome research in food science.

    PubMed

    Pischetsrieder, Monika; Baeuerlein, Rainer

    2009-09-01

    The proteome is the totality of proteins present in a biological sample. In contrast to the static genome, the proteome is highly dynamic, influenced by the genome and many external factors, such as the state of development, tissue type, metabolic state, and various interactions. Thus, the proteome reflects very closely the biological (and chemical) processes occurring in a system. For proteome analysis, gel based and shotgun methods are most widely applied. Because of the potential to generate a systematic view of protein composition and biological as well as chemical interactions, the application of proteome analysis in food science is steadily growing. This tutorial review introduces several fields in food science, where proteomics has been successfully applied: analysis of food composition, safety assessment of genetically modified food, the search for marker proteins for food authentication, identification of food allergens, systematic analysis of the physiological activity of food, analysis of the effects of processing on food proteins and the improvement of food quality.

  11. Quantum quasi-steady states in current transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Agosta, Roberto; Zwolak, Michael; di Ventra, Massimiliano

    2007-03-01

    We investigate quasi-steady state solutions to transport in quantum systems by finding states which at some time minimize the change in density throughout all space and have a given current density flowing from one part of the system to another [1]. Contrary to classical dynamics, in a quantum mechanical system there are many states with a given energy and particle number which satisfy this minimization criterion. Taking as an example spinless fermions on a one-dimensional lattice, we explicitly show the phase space of a class of quasi-steady states. We also discuss the possibility of coherent and incoherent mixing of these steady state solutions leading to a new type of noise in quantum transport. [1] M. Di Ventra and T.N. Todorov J. Phys. Cond. Matt. 16, 8025 (2004).

  12. Sustainable practices in medicinal chemistry: current state and future directions.

    PubMed

    Bryan, Marian C; Dillon, Barry; Hamann, Lawrence G; Hughes, Gregory J; Kopach, Michael E; Peterson, Emily A; Pourashraf, Mehrnaz; Raheem, Izzat; Richardson, Paul; Richter, Daniel; Sneddon, Helen F

    2013-08-01

    The medicinal chemistry subgroup of the American Chemical Society's Green Chemistry Institute Pharmaceutical Roundtable (ACS GCI PR) offers a perspective on the current state of environmentally sustainable practices in medicinal chemistry with the aim of sharing best practices more widely and highlighting some potential future developments.

  13. The Current State and Status of HRD Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Jim

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: Establishes a connection between the concepts of "learning organisation" and "human resources development". Design/methodology/approach: A brief and broad overview of the current state of human research development research. Findings: One conclusion to be reached is that the subject is healthy. Another conclusion is that human resource…

  14. Current density and state density in diluted magnetic semiconductor nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pérez Merchancano, S. T.; Paredes Gutiérrez, H.; Zuñiga, J. A.

    2016-02-01

    We study in this paper the spin-polarized current density components in diluted magnetic semiconductor tunnelling diodes with different sample geometries. We calculate the resonant JxV and the density of states. The differential conductance curves are analyzed as functions of the applied voltage and the magnetic potential strength induced by the magnetic ions.

  15. Current Major Depression Among Smokers Using a State Quitline

    PubMed Central

    Hebert, Kiandra K.; Cummins, Sharon E.; Hernandez, Sandra; Tedeschi, Gary J.; Zhu, Shu-Hong

    2010-01-01

    Background Smokers seeking treatment to quit smoking are generally not assessed for current depression, yet depression among smokers may influence quitting outcome. Purpose This study aims to formally assess current major depression among smokers calling a state tobacco quitline. Methods A total of 844 smokers calling the California Smokers’ Helpline in 2007 were screened for depression by the mood module of the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9). The Social Functioning Questionnaire (SFQ) was also administered to these callers. Two months after the screening, follow-up evaluations were conducted to assess cessation outcome. Results In all, 24.2% of smokers met criteria for current major depression and 16.5% reported symptoms indicating mild depression. Callers with current major depression were more likely to be heavy smokers and on Medicaid. Moreover, 74.0% of smokers with current major depression had substantial social and occupational functioning deficits. Two months later, those with major depression at baseline were significantly less likely to have quit smoking (18.5% vs 28.4%). Conclusions Almost one in four smokers to the California Smokers’ Helpline met criteria for current major depression. Over 400,000 smokers call state quitlines in the U.S. for help with quitting each year, which means that as many as 100,000 smokers with serious depressive symptoms are using these services annually. The large number of depressed smokers who seek help suggests a need to develop appropriate interventions to help them quit successfully. PMID:21146767

  16. Concussion 101: the current state of concussion education programs.

    PubMed

    Williamson, Richard W; Gerhardstein, Deborah; Cardenas, Javier; Michael, Daniel B; Theodore, Nicholas; Rosseau, Natalie

    2014-10-01

    Concussion is an important cause of morbidity in young student athletes. The prevention, accurate diagnosis, and prompt management of concussions require that players, parents, coaches, and medical personnel are accurately educated on current concussion data and guidelines. All states have laws that mandate concussion education for high school athletes. There is currently no uniform educational program to disseminate information to student athletes regarding concussions. This article highlights a few nationally recognized educational programs that aim to accurately and effectively inform all members of the athletic, academic, and medical communities about the importance and urgency of concussion.

  17. Effect of transverse current on Andreev bound state

    SciTech Connect

    Takahashi, Y.; Hashimoto, Y.; Yun, D. H.; Kim, S. W.; Nakamura, T.; Iye, Y.; Katsumoto, S.

    2013-12-04

    In a superconductor-normal-superconductor (SNS) structure, the effect of transverse current across the normal part on the transport through Andreev bound states (ABSs) has been examined. Here a ballistic InAs two-dimensional electron system (2DES) is used as the N-layer to form ABSs. At the same time the 2DES has strong spin-orbit interaction, hence there should emerge the spin-Hall effect associated with the transverse current. We have observed strong reduction of characteristic oscillation in the conductance versus bias voltage, which may be attributed to spin polarization due to the spin-Hall effect.

  18. Understanding the Current Dynamical States of Globular Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pooley, David

    2008-09-01

    We appear to be on the verge of a major paradigm shift in our understanding of the current dynamical states of Galactic globular clusters. Fregeau (2008) brought together two recent theoretical breakthroughs as well as an observational breakthrough made possible by Chandra -- that a globular cluster's X-ray source population scales with its dynamical encounter frequency -- to persuasively argue that we have misunderstood the dynamical states of Galactic globular clusters. The observational evidence hinges on Chandra results from clusters which are classified as "core collapsed," of which there are only a handful of observations. I propose a nearly complete census with Chandra of the rest of the "core collapsed" globular clusters.

  19. Ovarian cancer biomarkers: current state and future implications from high-throughput technologies.

    PubMed

    Leung, Felix; Diamandis, Eleftherios P; Kulasingam, Vathany

    2014-01-01

    Ovarian cancer remains the most lethal gynecological malignancy worldwide and survival rates have remained unchanged in spite of medical advancements. Much research has been dedicated to the identification of novel biomarkers for this deadly disease, yet it has not been until recently that a few serum-based tests have been added to carbohydrate antigen 125 as Food and Drug Administration-approved tests for ovarian cancer. This lack of success in identifying clinically relevant biomarkers has been largely attributed to poor study design and bias leading to false discoveries or identification of second-tier biomarkers. Fortunately, a better understanding of the guidelines used to assess the clinical utility of a biomarker and the various phases of biomarker development will aid in avoiding such biases. As well, advances in high-throughput technologies have caused a renewed interest in biomarker discovery for ovarian cancer using alternative strategies such as targeted sequencing and proteomics. In this chapter, we will review the current state of ovarian cancer biomarker research with a focus on diagnostic serum markers. Furthermore, we will examine the standard practice guidelines' criteria for acceptance of a biomarker into the clinic as well as emerging high-throughput approaches to the discovery of novel ovarian cancer biomarkers.

  20. Coupling enrichment methods with proteomics for understanding and treating disease.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Amit; Baycin-Hizal, Deniz; Shiloach, Joseph; Bowen, Michael A; Betenbaugh, Michael J

    2015-02-01

    Owing to recent advances in proteomics analytical methods and bioinformatics capabilities there is a growing trend toward using these capabilities for the development of drugs to treat human disease, including target and drug evaluation, understanding mechanisms of drug action, and biomarker discovery. Currently, the genetic sequences of many major organisms are available, which have helped greatly in characterizing proteomes in model animal systems and humans. Through proteomics, global profiles of different disease states can be characterized (e.g. changes in types and relative levels as well as changes in PTMs such as glycosylation or phosphorylation). Although intracellular proteomics can provide a broad overview of physiology of cells and tissues, it has been difficult to quantify the low abundance proteins which can be important for understanding the diseased states and treatment progression. For this reason, there is increasing interest in coupling comparative proteomics methods with subcellular fractionation and enrichment techniques for membranes, nucleus, phosphoproteome, glycoproteome as well as low abundance serum proteins. In this review, we will provide examples of where the utilization of different proteomics-coupled enrichment techniques has aided target and biomarker discovery, understanding the drug targeting mechanism, and mAb discovery. Taken together, these improvements will help to provide a better understanding of the pathophysiology of various diseases including cancer, autoimmunity, inflammation, cardiovascular disease, and neurological conditions, and in the design and development of better medicines for treating these afflictions. PMID:25523641

  1. Analysis of current state and prospects of steel production development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Protopopov, E. V.; Feyler, S. V.

    2016-09-01

    Data on world production of steel in the XXI century are provided. Analysis of current state and prospects of ferrous metallurgy development in the Russian Federation is carried out. Results of national steel production performance during 10 months of the year 2015 are given for different countries. Analysis of the main directions of metallurgical equipment import substitution aimed at technological independence in the industry is made. Russian ferrous metallurgy development predictions in its’ main directions up to 2030 is provided.

  2. Proteomic analysis of temperature dependent extracellular proteins from Aspergillus fumigatus grown under solid-state culture condition.

    PubMed

    Adav, Sunil S; Ravindran, Anita; Sze, Siu Kwan

    2013-06-01

    Fungal species of the genus Aspergillus are filamentous ubiquitous saprophytes that play a major role in lignocellulosic biomass recycling and also are considered as cell factories for the production of organic acids, pharmaceuticals, and industrially important enzymes. Analysis of extracellular secreted biomass degrading enzymes using complex lignocellulosic biomass as a substrate by solid-state fermentation could be a more practical approach to evaluate application of the enzymes for lignocellulosic biorefinery. This study isolated a fungal strain from compost, identified as Aspergillus fumigatus, and further analyzed it for lignocellulolytic enzymes at different temperatures using label free quantitative proteomics. The profile of secretome composition discovered cellulases, hemicellulases, lignin degrading proteins, peptidases and proteases, and transport and hypothetical proteins; while protein abundances and further their hierarchical clustering analysis revealed temperature dependent expression of these enzymes during solid-state fermentation of sawdust. The enzyme activities and protein abundances as determined by exponentially modified protein abundance index (emPAI) indicated the maximum activities at the range of 40-50 °C, demonstrating the thermophilic nature of the isolate A. fumigatus LF9. Characterization of the thermostability of secretome suggested the potential of the isolated fungal strain in the production of thermophilic biomass degrading enzymes for industrial application. PMID:23647126

  3. Highly Multiplexed and Reproducible Ion-Current-Based Strategy for Large-Scale Quantitative Proteomics and the Application to Protein Expression Dynamics Induced by Methylprednisolone in 60 Rats

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    A proteome-level time-series study of drug effects (i.e., pharmacodynamics) is critical for understanding mechanisms of action and systems pharmacology, but is challenging, because of the requirement of a proteomics method for reliable quantification of many biological samples. Here, we describe a highly reproducible strategy, enabling a global, large-scale investigation of the expression dynamics of corticosteroid-regulated proteins in livers from adrenalectomized rats over 11 time points after drug dosing (0.5–66 h, N = 5/point). The analytical advances include (i) exhaustive tissue extraction with a Polytron/sonication procedure in a detergent cocktail buffer, and a cleanup/digestion procedure providing very consistent protein yields (relative standard deviation (RSD%) of 2.7%–6.4%) and peptide recoveries (4.1–9.0%) across the 60 animals; (ii) an ultrahigh-pressure nano-LC setup with substantially improved temperature stabilization, pump-noise suppression, and programmed interface cleaning, enabling excellent reproducibility for continuous analyses of numerous samples; (iii) separation on a 100-cm-long column (2-μm particles) with high reproducibility for days to enable both in-depth profiling and accurate peptide ion-current match; and (iv) well-controlled ion-current-based quantification. To obtain high-quality quantitative data necessary to describe the 11 time-points protein expression temporal profiles, strict criteria were used to define “quantifiable proteins”. A total of 323 drug-responsive proteins were revealed with confidence, and the time profiles of these proteins provided new insights into the diverse temporal changes of biological cascades associated with hepatic metabolism, response to hormone stimuli, gluconeogenesis, inflammatory responses, and protein translation processes. Most profile changes persisted well after the drug was eliminated. The developed strategy can also be broadly applied in preclinical and clinical research, where

  4. The Current State of Secondary School Marine Science Education in the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlenker, Richard M.; Qureshi, Zahir

    Information was requested in late 1976 and early 1977 from the Departments of Education of each of the 50 states and Puerto Rico on the current status of secondary school marine science education. Thirty-five states and Puerto Rico responded. Some of the results are as follows: (1) Marine science assignments accounted for 1.94% of the total number…

  5. [Current state and prospects of military personnel health monitoring].

    PubMed

    Rezvantsev, M V; Kuznetsov, S M; Ivanov, V V; Zakurdaev, V V

    2014-01-01

    The current article is dedicated to some features of the Russian Federation Armed Forces military personnel health monitoring such as legal and informational provision, methodological basis of functioning, historical aspect of formation and development of the social and hygienic monitoring in the Russian Federation Armed Forces. The term "military personnel health monitoring" is defined as an analytical system of constant and long-term observation, analysis, assessment, studying of factors determined the military personnel health, these factors correlations, health risk factors management in order to minimize them. The current state of the military personnel health monitoring allows coming to the conclusion that the military health system does have forces and resources for state policy of establishing the population health monitoring system implementation. The following directions of the militarily personnel health monitoring improvement are proposed: the Russian Federation Armed Forces medical service record and report system reorganization bringing it closer to the civilian one, implementation of the integrated approach to the medical service informatisation, namely, military personnel health status and medical service resources monitoring. The leading means in this direction are development and introduction of a military serviceman individual health status monitoring system on the basis of a serviceman electronic medical record card. Also it is proposed the current Russian Federation Armed Forces social and hygienic monitoring improvement at the expense of informational interaction between the two subsystems on the basis of unified military medical service space.

  6. Combination of Multiple Spectral Libraries Improves the Current Search Methods Used to Identify Missing Proteins in the Chromosome-Centric Human Proteome Project.

    PubMed

    Cho, Jin-Young; Lee, Hyoung-Joo; Jeong, Seul-Ki; Kim, Kwang-Youl; Kwon, Kyung-Hoon; Yoo, Jong Shin; Omenn, Gilbert S; Baker, Mark S; Hancock, William S; Paik, Young-Ki

    2015-12-01

    Approximately 2.9 billion long base-pair human reference genome sequences are known to encode some 20 000 representative proteins. However, 3000 proteins, that is, ~15% of all proteins, have no or very weak proteomic evidence and are still missing. Missing proteins may be present in rare samples in very low abundance or be only temporarily expressed, causing problems in their detection and protein profiling. In particular, some technical limitations cause missing proteins to remain unassigned. For example, current mass spectrometry techniques have high limits and error rates for the detection of complex biological samples. An insufficient proteome coverage in a reference sequence database and spectral library also raises major issues. Thus, the development of a better strategy that results in greater sensitivity and accuracy in the search for missing proteins is necessary. To this end, we used a new strategy, which combines a reference spectral library search and a simulated spectral library search, to identify missing proteins. We built the human iRefSPL, which contains the original human reference spectral library and additional peptide sequence-spectrum match entries from other species. We also constructed the human simSPL, which contains the simulated spectra of 173 907 human tryptic peptides determined by MassAnalyzer (version 2.3.1). To prove the enhanced analytical performance of the combination of the human iRefSPL and simSPL methods for the identification of missing proteins, we attempted to reanalyze the placental tissue data set (PXD000754). The data from each experiment were analyzed using PeptideProphet, and the results were combined using iProphet. For the quality control, we applied the class-specific false-discovery rate filtering method. All of the results were filtered at a false-discovery rate of <1% at the peptide and protein levels. The quality-controlled results were then cross-checked with the neXtProt DB (2014-09-19 release). The two

  7. The Current Status of Medical Marijuana in the United States

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Medical marijuana is currently a controversial issue in medicine. There are strong pro and con opinions but relatively little scientific data on which to base medical decisions. The unfortunate scheduling of marijuana in class I has limited research and only serves to fuel the controversy. This article will review the history of laws to regulate drugs in the United States in the 20th century to provide context for the current status of medical marijuana. It will include the rationale for opposing medical marijuana laws and the problem of the Schedule I inclusion of marijuana as well as other drugs. It will examine the problems associated with smoking raw marijuana and review other routes of administration. Finally, it examines the inadvisability of medicine's promotion of smoked marijuana. PMID:24765557

  8. Local density of states and scanning tunneling currents in graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Ling; Peres, Nuno; Tsai, Shan-Wen

    2010-03-01

    Graphene consists of an atom-thick layer of carbon atoms arranged in a honeycomb lattice, and its low-energy electronic excitations are well described as massless Dirac fermions with spin half and an additional pseudospin degree of freedom. We study local properties of graphene with isolated impurities (diagonal and non-diagonal impurity potential) such as the local electronic spectra and real-space and k-space local density of state (LDOS) maps. Using a multimode description for an scanning tunneling microscope (STM) tip, we calculate STM currents and find that strong resonances in the LDOS at finite energies lead to the presence of steps in the STM current and suppression of the Fano factor. [Ref: N. M. R. Peres, L. Yang, and S.-W. Tsai, New J. Phys. 11, 095007, (2009)

  9. Animal Models of Psychosis: Current State and Future Directions

    PubMed Central

    Forrest, Alexandra D.; Coto, Carlos A.; Siegel, Steven J.

    2014-01-01

    Psychosis is an abnormal mental state characterized by disorganization, delusions and hallucinations. Animal models have become an increasingly important research tool in the effort to understand both the underlying pathophysiology and treatment of psychosis. There are multiple animal models for psychosis, with each formed by the coupling of a manipulation and a measurement. In this manuscript we do not address the diseases of which psychosis is a prominent comorbidity. Instead, we summarize the current state of affairs and future directions for animal models of psychosis. To accomplish this, our manuscript will first discuss relevant behavioral and electrophysiological measurements. We then provide an overview of the different manipulations that are combined with these measurements to produce animal models. The strengths and limitations of each model will be addressed in order to evaluate its cross-species comparability. PMID:25215267

  10. [Infection for papillomavirus in the man. Current state].

    PubMed

    Gómez García, I; Gómez Mampaso, E; Conde Someso, S; Maganto Pavón, E; Navío Niño, S; Allona Almagro, A

    2005-04-01

    The Virus of the Human Papiloma (HPV), classically he/she has been related with infections of sexual transmission and processes wicked oncologists of the feminine genital apparatus and with less frequency of the masculine one. The new technical diagnostics, based on molecular biology (by means of polymerase chain reaction), they help to a better epidemic approach, an improvement in the I diagnose viral, and a correct therapeutic focus. The object of this work is to revise the current state of the HPV from the points of view etiopathogenics, epidemic, clinical, diagnosis, therapeutic and preservative.

  11. Current issues in state mental health forensic programs.

    PubMed

    Nelson, S H; Berger, V F

    1988-01-01

    The major current issues facing state and local forensic mental health programs are presented in this paper. Debates over forensic patients' rights and the insanity defense are discussed, together with many administrative problems such as the pros and cons of correctional versus mental health system program control and payment incentives for treatment. The authors cite the differing goals of correctional and mental health systems, i.e., security and treatment, as reasons for difficulties in developing needed collaboration. Guidelines are suggested to address such important issues as mixing civil with criminal patients, developing units for special populations, defining patients who can respond to treatment, and follow-up after discharge.

  12. Skewness of steady-state current fluctuations in nonequilibrium systems.

    PubMed

    Belousov, Roman; Cohen, E G D; Wong, Chun-Shang; Goree, John A; Feng, Yan

    2016-04-01

    A skewness of the probability for instantaneous current fluctuations, in a nonequilibrium steady state, is observed experimentally in a dusty plasma. This skewness is attributed to the spatial asymmetry, which is imminent to the nonequilibrium systems due to the external hydrodynamic gradient. Using the modern framework of the large deviation theory, we extend the Onsager-Machlup ansatz for equilibrium fluctuations to systems with a preferred spatial direction, and provide a modulated Gaussian probability distribution, which is tested by simulations. This probability distribution is also of potential interest for other statistical disciplines. Connections with the principles of statistical mechanics, due to Boltzmann and Gibbs, are discussed as well. PMID:27176272

  13. Effect of the flow state on streaming current

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuwano, O.; Nakatani, M.; Yoshida, S.

    2005-12-01

    When fluid flows through a porous medium, charges in the electric double layer are transported, resulting in streaming current. This is the representative mechanism of self-potential widely observed in the field. In the classical Helmholtz-Smoluchowski relation, the streaming current (is) is represented as is=Ccgrad Pp, where Cc is streaming current coefficient and Pp is fluid pressure. Cc depends on hydraulic property of the rock and electrochemical property called zeta potential. In the previous study ( Kuwano et al., 2004, JEPS Joint Meeting) using crushed rock samples, we reported an apparent grain size dependence of zeta potential, which was unexpected from the nature of zeta potential. We set up two hypotheses to explain this effect. One is that new surfaces which have been created by sample crushing may affect the zeta potential. We thought if newly created surfaces have larger zeta potential, samples of smaller grain size would show a larger apparent zeta potential because they have more new surface area. The other is that the flow state may affect the zeta potential. The Helmholtz-Smoluchowski equation, which is used to infer the zeta potential, has been derived assuming laminar flow, which may not be the case for large Reynolds number (high flow rate or large grain size). In the present study, we examined the effect of the flow state on apparent zeta potential. In order to measure how the flow state affects the magnitude of streaming current, measurements need to be conducted for various flow rates and various sizes of particles with the same physico-chemical surface condition. So we chose various sizes of soda-lime glass beads as samples. Grain sizes of the beads are 0.177~0.250 mm (GB200), 0.350~0.500 mm (GB400), and 0.710~0.990 mm (GB800). These samples were soaked in acetone for 12 hours, washed with acetone several times, washed with distilled water and with KCl solution, which was used for background electrolyte in the experiment, and finally soaked

  14. Compact solid-state neutral particle analyzer in current mode

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu, Y. B.; Bortolon, A.; Heidbrink, W. W.; Celle, S. L.; Roquemore, A. L.

    2012-10-15

    Solid state neutral particle analyzer (ssNPA) arrays are operated in current mode on the DIII-D tokamak and the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX). Compared with conventional pulse-counting NPAs, current-mode operation sacrifices energy resolution to obtain economical, high-bandwidth, pitch-angle resolved measurements. With the success from a new three-channel near-vertical-view current mode ssNPA on DIII-D, the apertures on an existing array on NSTX were expanded to increase the particle influx. The sightlines of both arrays intersect heating beams, enabling both active and passive charge exchange measurements. The spatial resolution at beam intersection is typically 5 cm on both devices. Directly deposited ultra-thin foils on the detector surface block stray photons below the energy of 1 keV and also set low energy threshold about 25 keV for deuterium particle detection. Oscillations in neutral flux produced by high frequency magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) instabilities are readily detected.

  15. Compact solid-state neutral particle analyzer in current mode.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Y B; Bortolon, A; Heidbrink, W W; Celle, S L; Roquemore, A L

    2012-10-01

    Solid state neutral particle analyzer (ssNPA) arrays are operated in current mode on the DIII-D tokamak and the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX). Compared with conventional pulse-counting NPAs, current-mode operation sacrifices energy resolution to obtain economical, high-bandwidth, pitch-angle resolved measurements. With the success from a new three-channel near-vertical-view current mode ssNPA on DIII-D, the apertures on an existing array on NSTX were expanded to increase the particle influx. The sightlines of both arrays intersect heating beams, enabling both active and passive charge exchange measurements. The spatial resolution at beam intersection is typically 5 cm on both devices. Directly deposited ultra-thin foils on the detector surface block stray photons below the energy of 1 keV and also set low energy threshold about 25 keV for deuterium particle detection. Oscillations in neutral flux produced by high frequency magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) instabilities are readily detected.

  16. Compact solid-state neutral particle analyzer in current modea)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Y. B.; Bortolon, A.; Heidbrink, W. W.; Celle, S. L.; Roquemore, A. L.

    2012-10-01

    Solid state neutral particle analyzer (ssNPA) arrays are operated in current mode on the DIII-D tokamak and the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX). Compared with conventional pulse-counting NPAs, current-mode operation sacrifices energy resolution to obtain economical, high-bandwidth, pitch-angle resolved measurements. With the success from a new three-channel near-vertical-view current mode ssNPA on DIII-D, the apertures on an existing array on NSTX were expanded to increase the particle influx. The sightlines of both arrays intersect heating beams, enabling both active and passive charge exchange measurements. The spatial resolution at beam intersection is typically 5 cm on both devices. Directly deposited ultra-thin foils on the detector surface block stray photons below the energy of 1 keV and also set low energy threshold about 25 keV for deuterium particle detection. Oscillations in neutral flux produced by high frequency magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) instabilities are readily detected.

  17. Proteome Studies of Filamentous Fungi

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, Scott E.; Panisko, Ellen A.

    2011-04-20

    The continued fast pace of fungal genome sequence generation has enabled proteomic analysis of a wide breadth of organisms that span the breadth of the Kingdom Fungi. There is some phylogenetic bias to the current catalog of fungi with reasonable DNA sequence databases (genomic or EST) that could be analyzed at a global proteomic level. However, the rapid development of next generation sequencing platforms has lowered the cost of genome sequencing such that in the near future, having a genome sequence will no longer be a time or cost bottleneck for downstream proteomic (and transcriptomic) analyses. High throughput, non-gel based proteomics offers a snapshot of proteins present in a given sample at a single point in time. There are a number of different variations on the general method and technologies for identifying peptides in a given sample. We present a method that can serve as a “baseline” for proteomic studies of fungi.

  18. The Cysteine Proteome

    PubMed Central

    Go, Young-Mi; Chandler, Joshua D.; Jones, Dean P.

    2015-01-01

    The cysteine (Cys) proteome is a major component of the adaptive interface between the genome and the exposome. The thiol moiety of Cys undergoes a range of biologic modifications enabling biological switching of structure and reactivity. These biological modifications include sulfenylation and disulfide formation, formation of higher oxidation states, S-nitrosylation, persulfidation, metallation, and other modifications. Extensive knowledge about these systems and their compartmentalization now provides a foundation to develop advanced integrative models of Cys proteome regulation. In particular, detailed understanding of redox signaling pathways and sensing networks is becoming available to discriminate network structures. This research focuses attention on the need for atlases of Cys modifications to develop systems biology models. Such atlases will be especially useful for integrative studies linking the Cys proteome to imaging and other omics platforms, providing a basis for improved redox-based therapeutics. Thus, a framework is emerging to place the Cys proteome as a complement to the quantitative proteome in the omics continuum connecting the genome to the exposome. PMID:25843657

  19. Microsomal proteomics.

    PubMed

    Wong, Diana M; Adeli, Khosrow

    2009-01-01

    Proteomic profiling of subcellular compartments has many advantages over traditional proteomic approaches using whole cell lysates as it allows for detailed proteome analysis of a specific organelle and corresponding functional characteristics. The microsome is a critical, membranous compartment involved in the synthesis, sorting, and secretion of proteins as well as other metabolic functions. This chapter will describe detailed methods for the isolation of microsomal organelles including the ER, Golgi, and prechylomicron transport vesicle (PCTV), a recently identified vesicular system involved in intestinal lipoprotein assembly and secretion. Particular focus is given to the isolation of microsomes from primary hepatocytes and enterocytes freshly isolated from rodent liver and intestinal tissue, and their proteomic profiling using a combination of two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry.

  20. Molecular Biologist's Guide to Proteomics

    PubMed Central

    Graves, Paul R.; Haystead, Timothy A. J.

    2002-01-01

    The emergence of proteomics, the large-scale analysis of proteins, has been inspired by the realization that the final product of a gene is inherently more complex and closer to function than the gene itself. Shortfalls in the ability of bioinformatics to predict both the existence and function of genes have also illustrated the need for protein analysis. Moreover, only through the study of proteins can posttranslational modifications be determined, which can profoundly affect protein function. Proteomics has been enabled by the accumulation of both DNA and protein sequence databases, improvements in mass spectrometry, and the development of computer algorithms for database searching. In this review, we describe why proteomics is important, how it is conducted, and how it can be applied to complement other existing technologies. We conclude that currently, the most practical application of proteomics is the analysis of target proteins as opposed to entire proteomes. This type of proteomics, referred to as functional proteomics, is always driven by a specific biological question. In this way, protein identification and characterization has a meaningful outcome. We discuss some of the advantages of a functional proteomics approach and provide examples of how different methodologies can be utilized to address a wide variety of biological problems. PMID:11875127

  1. Current State of New Vgos Antennas for the "Quasar" Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ipatov, A.; Ivanov, D.; Smolentsev, S.; Ilin, G.; Gayazov, I.

    2014-12-01

    Under the state program of modernization of Russian VLBI Network "Quasar", up to 2015, it is planned to construct two 13.2 m radio telescopes (RT-13) of the new generation in "Zelenchukskaya" and "Badary" observatories for operational and high-precision polar coordinates and Universal Time data support of the GLONASS system, and for communication with the international VLBI network and other agencies. Construction of this new radio telescopes have already been finished at the "Badary" and "Zelenchukskaya" observatories and currently they are in trial operation. Main specifications of the RT-13 antenna system and some results of tests will be presented. These new antennas will meet all requirements of the VGOS Observing Plan.

  2. Sweetened beverages and health: current state of scientific understandings.

    PubMed

    Rippe, James M; Saltzman, Edward

    2013-01-01

    This article summarizes the presentations from the "Sweetened Beverages and Health: Current State of Scientific Understandings" symposium held at the ASN Annual Meeting in Boston, MA on April 23, 2013. The metabolic and health effects of sugar-sweetened beverages were discussed from a variety of points of view by 5 different presenters. Dr. David Allison drew a distinction between conjecture and proof related to sweetened beverages and obesity. Dr. Richard Mattes discussed differences between solid and liquid calories. Dr. Miguel Alonso-Alonso reviewed potential contributions of functional neuroimaging, particularly as they relate to whether sugar is potentially "addictive." Dr. Kimber Stanhope discussed work related to experiments comparing fructose to glucose. Dr. James Rippe presented evidence from randomized controlled trials from his research organization showing no differences among high-fructose corn syrup, sucrose, glucose, or fructose at normal human consumption amounts. PMID:24038246

  3. The Current State of Silicone-Based Dielectric Elastomer Transducers.

    PubMed

    Madsen, Frederikke B; Daugaard, Anders E; Hvilsted, Søren; Skov, Anne L

    2016-03-01

    Silicone elastomers are promising materials for dielectric elastomer transducers (DETs) due to their superior properties such as high efficiency, reliability and fast response times. DETs consist of thin elastomer films sandwiched between compliant electrodes, and they constitute an interesting class of transducer due to their inherent lightweight and potentially large strains. For the field to progress towards industrial implementation, a leap in material development is required, specifically targeting longer lifetime and higher energy densities to provide more efficient transduction at lower driving voltages. In this review, the current state of silicone elastomers for DETs is summarised and critically discussed, including commercial elastomers, composites, polymer blends, grafted elastomers and complex network structures. For future developments in the field it is essential that all aspects of the elastomer are taken into account, namely dielectric losses, lifetime and the very often ignored polymer network integrity and stability. PMID:26773231

  4. [Acral lentiginous melanoma: the current state of the problem].

    PubMed

    Myasnyankin, M Yu; Gafton, G I; Anisimov, V V; Matsko, D E; Imyanitov, E N; Semiletova, Yu V

    2015-01-01

    This review is aimed at the analysis the current state of acral lentiginous melanoma. This tumor has rather aggressive course and is the main cause of death in skin cancer patients. In Russia the incidence of melanoma during the period 2000-2010 increased from 3.18 to 3.95 cases per 100000 of population. The average annual growth rate was 1.99% and the total growth rate was 21.81%. Although skin melanoma is a visual tumor, more than one third of patients visit oncologists at advanced stages of the disease. Primary melanoma with localizations on the skin of fingers, interdigital spaces, soles, palms and nail plates is especially difficult for early diagnostics.

  5. A perspective on the current state of death education.

    PubMed

    Wass, Hannelore

    2004-05-01

    The author offers some views on the current state of death education with focus on the sparing attention given the death education of health professionals and of grief counselors. There is need for improved integration of the knowledge accumulated in the study of death, dying, and bereavement into the basic curricula of the parent disciplines and professional schools. Facilitation of personal engagement with the issue of mortality is an important component of the educative process. Various assessment problems are outlined and some suggestions for improvements are offered. The death education needs of various groups, including school age children and older adults, are noted. The article contains a list of references, many not cited in the text, recommended for an extensive review of developments in death education.

  6. Current cigarette smoking among adults - United States, 2011.

    PubMed

    2012-11-01

    Tobacco use remains the single largest preventable cause of death and disease in the United States. According to the 2010 U.S. Surgeon General's report, approximately 443,000 U.S. adults die from smoking-related illnesses each year. In addition, smoking has been estimated to cost the United States $96 billion in direct medical expenses and $97 billion in lost productivity annually. To assess progress toward the Healthy People 2020 (HP2020) objective to reduce cigarette smoking by adults (objective TU-1.1),* CDC's Office on Smoking and Health used data from the 2011 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) to estimate current national cigarette smoking prevalence. The findings indicate that 19.0% of adults smoked cigarettes in 2011 and no statistically significant change in current adult smoking prevalence occurred from 2010 (19.3%) to 2011 (19.0%). Among daily smokers, the proportion who smoked ≥30 cigarettes per day (CPD) declined significantly, from 12.6% in 2005 to 9.1% in 2011, whereas the proportion of those who smoked 1-9 CPD increased significantly, from 16.4% to 22.0%. To help reduce the national prevalence of cigarette smoking among adults to the HP2020 target of 12%, population-based prevention strategies (e.g., increasing prices of tobacco products, antitobacco media campaigns featuring graphic personal stories on the adverse health impact of smoking, smoke-free laws for workplaces and public places, and barrier-free access to help quitting) will need to be implemented more extensively. Such evidence-based tobacco control interventions can help adults quit and prevent the initiation of tobacco use.

  7. ["Good dying"--definition and current state of research].

    PubMed

    Hutter, Nico; Stößel, Ulrich; Meffert, Cornelia; Körner, Mirjam; Bozzaro, Claudia; Becker, Gerhild; Baumeister, Harald

    2015-08-01

    The advances of modern medicine did not only result in prolongation of life expectancy, but also led to a shift from dying at home to dying in public institutions. In western countries most people die at advanced age in medical facilities. Hence, the question regarding the conditions, which should be provided by society and especially medicine, to allow terminally ill people to experience "good dying" is substantial. For this purpose, an examination of patients', family members' and health care providers' understanding of the term " good dying" is required. The present paper aims at shedding light on the term "good dying" and to summarize the current state of research. Therefore, the attributes of "good dying" will be described from the perspectives of patients, family members and health care providers, which are discussed and examined in current medical-sociological research. These attributes can be illustrated on three dimensions: Quality of life at the end of life (e. g. pain relief, mental well-being), quality of dying (e. g. avoiding prolonged dying, autonomy, presence of relatives) and quality of health care at the end of life (e. g. patient-oriented health care, positive communication between health care providers and patients, availability of guidelines). Although the attributes of "good dying" are described in detail in the existing literature, further studies have to clarify the relevance and impact of these attributes as predictors of "good dying". PMID:26306020

  8. Current Research with Cochlear Implants at Arizona State University

    PubMed Central

    Dorman, Michael F.; Spahr, Anthony; Gifford, Rene H.; Cook, Sarah; Zhang, Ting; Loiselle, Louise; Yost, William; Cardy, Lara; Whittingham, JoAnne; Schramm, David

    2013-01-01

    In this article we review, and discuss the clinical implications of, five projects currently underway in the Cochlear Implant Laboratory at Arizona State University. The projects are (1) norming the AzBio sentence test, (2) comparing the performance of bilateral and bimodal cochlear implant (CI) patients in realistic listening environments, (3) accounting for the benefit provided to bimodal patients by low-frequency acoustic stimulation, (4) assessing localization by bilateral hearing aid patients and the implications of that work for hearing preservation patients, and (5) studying heart rate variability as a possible measure for quantifying the stress of listening via an implant. The long-term goals of the laboratory are to improve the performance of patients fit with cochlear implants and to understand the mechanisms, physiological or electronic, that underlie changes in performance. We began our work with cochlear implant patients in the mid-1980s and received our first grant from the National Institutes of Health (NIH) for work with implanted patients in 1989. Since that date our work with cochlear implant patients has been funded continuously by the NIH. In this report we describe some of the research currently being conducted in our laboratory. PMID:22668760

  9. Proton Therapy Expansion Under Current United States Reimbursement Models

    SciTech Connect

    Kerstiens, John; Johnstone, Peter A.S.

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To determine whether all the existing and planned proton beam therapy (PBT) centers in the United States can survive on a local patient mix that is dictated by insurers, not by number of patients. Methods and Materials: We determined current and projected cancer rates for 10 major US metropolitan areas. Using published utilization rates, we calculated patient percentages who are candidates for PBT. Then, on the basis of current published insurer coverage policies, we applied our experience of what would be covered to determine the net number of patients for whom reimbursement is expected. Having determined the net number of covered patients, we applied our average beam delivery times to determine the total number of minutes needed to treat that patient over the course of their treatment. We then calculated our expected annual patient capacity per treatment room to determine the appropriate number of treatment rooms for the area. Results: The population of patients who will be both PBT candidates and will have treatments reimbursed by insurance is significantly smaller than the population who should receive PBT. Coverage decisions made by insurers reduce the number of PBT rooms that are economically viable. Conclusions: The expansion of PBT centers in the US is not sustainable under the current reimbursement model. Viability of new centers will be limited to those operating in larger regional metropolitan areas, and few metropolitan areas in the US can support multiple centers. In general, 1-room centers require captive (non–PBT-served) populations of approximately 1,000,000 lives to be economically viable, and a large center will require a population of >4,000,000 lives. In areas with smaller populations or where or a PBT center already exists, new centers require subsidy.

  10. Beyond astronaut's capabilities: The current state of the art.

    PubMed

    Gemignani, Jessica; Gheysens, Tom; Summerer, Leopold

    2015-08-01

    Space agencies have developed extensive expertise with sustaining human presence in low earth orbits and microgravity. Prolonged human presence in space beyond EarthâĂŹs orbit presents additional, some still unsolved issues. These are linked to the distance to Earth (impossibility of effective tele-operation, psychological effects linked to remoteness from Earth, required autonomy, the handling of emergencies, long mission durations), and to the environments beyond the Earth magnetosphere (radiation levels, local environments including atmospheres, dust, gravity, day-night cycles). These issues have impacts on the spacecraft design, the mission operations, astronaut selection and preparation and required supporting/ enabling technologies. This paper builds upon previous work by Rossini et al. , in critically reviewing and updating the current state of scientific research on enhancing astronaut's capabilities to face some of these challenges. In particular, it discusses the pertinence and feasibility of two approaches aiming at enhancing the chances of success of human missions: induced hibernation state and brain-machine interfaces. PMID:26737075

  11. Transcriptomic and proteomic analyses of Desulfovibrio vulgaris biofilms: Carbon and energy flow contribute to the distinct biofilm growth state

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough is a sulfate-reducing bacterium (SRB) that is intensively studied in the context of metal corrosion and heavy-metal bioremediation, and SRB populations are commonly observed in pipe and subsurface environments as surface-associated populations. In order to elucidate physiological changes associated with biofilm growth at both the transcript and protein level, transcriptomic and proteomic analyses were done on mature biofilm cells and compared to both batch and reactor planktonic populations. The biofilms were cultivated with lactate and sulfate in a continuously fed biofilm reactor, and compared to both batch and reactor planktonic populations. Results The functional genomic analysis demonstrated that biofilm cells were different compared to planktonic cells, and the majority of altered abundances for genes and proteins were annotated as hypothetical (unknown function), energy conservation, amino acid metabolism, and signal transduction. Genes and proteins that showed similar trends in detected levels were particularly involved in energy conservation such as increases in an annotated ech hydrogenase, formate dehydrogenase, pyruvate:ferredoxin oxidoreductase, and rnf oxidoreductase, and the biofilm cells had elevated formate dehydrogenase activity. Several other hydrogenases and formate dehydrogenases also showed an increased protein level, while decreased transcript and protein levels were observed for putative coo hydrogenase as well as a lactate permease and hyp hydrogenases for biofilm cells. Genes annotated for amino acid synthesis and nitrogen utilization were also predominant changers within the biofilm state. Ribosomal transcripts and proteins were notably decreased within the biofilm cells compared to exponential-phase cells but were not as low as levels observed in planktonic, stationary-phase cells. Several putative, extracellular proteins (DVU1012, 1545) were also detected in the extracellular fraction from

  12. Proteomics Links the Redox State to Calcium Signaling During Bleaching of the Scleractinian Coral Acropora microphthalma on Exposure to High Solar Irradiance and Thermal Stress

    PubMed Central

    Weston, Andrew J.; Dunlap, Walter C.; Beltran, Victor H.; Starcevic, Antonio; Hranueli, Daslav; Ward, Malcolm; Long, Paul F.

    2015-01-01

    Shipboard experiments were each performed over a 2 day period to examine the proteomic response of the symbiotic coral Acropora microphthalma exposed to acute conditions of high temperature/low light or high light/low temperature stress. During these treatments, corals had noticeably bleached. The photosynthetic performance of residual algal endosymbionts was severely impaired but showed signs of recovery in both treatments by the end of the second day. Changes in the coral proteome were determined daily and, using recently available annotated genome sequences, the individual contributions of the coral host and algal endosymbionts could be extracted from these data. Quantitative changes in proteins relevant to redox state and calcium metabolism are presented. Notably, expression of common antioxidant proteins was not detected from the coral host but present in the algal endosymbiont proteome. Possible roles for elevated carbonic anhydrase in the coral host are considered: to restore intracellular pH diminished by loss of photosynthetic activity, to indirectly limit intracellular calcium influx linked with enhanced calmodulin expression to impede late-stage symbiont exocytosis, or to enhance inorganic carbon transport to improve the photosynthetic performance of algal symbionts that remain in hospite. Protein effectors of calcium-dependent exocytosis were present in both symbiotic partners. No caspase-family proteins associated with host cell apoptosis, with exception of the autophagy chaperone HSP70, were detected, suggesting that algal loss and photosynthetic dysfunction under these experimental conditions were not due to host-mediated phytosymbiont destruction. Instead, bleaching occurred by symbiont exocytosis and loss of light-harvesting pigments of algae that remain in hospite. These proteomic data are, therefore, consistent with our premise that coral endosymbionts can mediate their own retention or departure from the coral host, which may manifest as

  13. Proteomics links the redox state to calcium signaling during bleaching of the scleractinian coral Acropora microphthalma on exposure to high solar irradiance and thermal stress.

    PubMed

    Weston, Andrew J; Dunlap, Walter C; Beltran, Victor H; Starcevic, Antonio; Hranueli, Daslav; Ward, Malcolm; Long, Paul F

    2015-03-01

    Shipboard experiments were each performed over a 2 day period to examine the proteomic response of the symbiotic coral Acropora microphthalma exposed to acute conditions of high temperature/low light or high light/low temperature stress. During these treatments, corals had noticeably bleached. The photosynthetic performance of residual algal endosymbionts was severely impaired but showed signs of recovery in both treatments by the end of the second day. Changes in the coral proteome were determined daily and, using recently available annotated genome sequences, the individual contributions of the coral host and algal endosymbionts could be extracted from these data. Quantitative changes in proteins relevant to redox state and calcium metabolism are presented. Notably, expression of common antioxidant proteins was not detected from the coral host but present in the algal endosymbiont proteome. Possible roles for elevated carbonic anhydrase in the coral host are considered: to restore intracellular pH diminished by loss of photosynthetic activity, to indirectly limit intracellular calcium influx linked with enhanced calmodulin expression to impede late-stage symbiont exocytosis, or to enhance inorganic carbon transport to improve the photosynthetic performance of algal symbionts that remain in hospite. Protein effectors of calcium-dependent exocytosis were present in both symbiotic partners. No caspase-family proteins associated with host cell apoptosis, with exception of the autophagy chaperone HSP70, were detected, suggesting that algal loss and photosynthetic dysfunction under these experimental conditions were not due to host-mediated phytosymbiont destruction. Instead, bleaching occurred by symbiont exocytosis and loss of light-harvesting pigments of algae that remain in hospite. These proteomic data are, therefore, consistent with our premise that coral endosymbionts can mediate their own retention or departure from the coral host, which may manifest as

  14. The Hypercoagulable State of Malignancy: Pathogenesis and Current Debate1

    PubMed Central

    Caine, Graham J; Stonelake, Paul S; Lip, Gregory YH; Kehoe, Sean T

    2002-01-01

    Abstract A hypercoagulable or prothrombotic state of malignancy occurs due to the ability of tumor cells to activate the coagulation system. It has been estimated that hypercoagulation accounts for a significant percentage of mortality and morbidity in cancer patients. Prothrombotic factors in cancer include the ability of tumor cells to produce and secrete procoagulant/fibrinolytic substances and inflammatory cytokines, and the physical interaction between tumor cell and blood (monocytes, platelets, neutrophils) or vascular cells. Other mechanisms of thrombus promotion in malignancy include nonspecific factors such as the generation of acute phase reactants and necrosis (i.e., inflammation), abnormal protein metabolism (i.e., paraproteinemia), and hemodynamic compromise (i.e., stasis). In addition, anticancer therapy (i.e., surgery/chemotherapy/hormone therapy) may significantly increase the risk of thromboembolic events by similar mechanisms, e.g., procoagulant release, endothelial damage, or stimulation of tissue factor production by host cells. However, not all of the mechanisms for the production of a hypercoagulable state of cancer are entirely understood. In this review, we attempt to describe what is currently accepted about the pathophysiology of the hypercoagulable state of cancer. We also discuss whether or not to screen patients with idiopathic deep venous thrombosis for an underlying malignancy, and whether this would be beneficial to patients. It is hoped that a better understanding of these mechanisms will ultimately lead to the development of more targeted treatment to prevent thromboembolic complications in cancer patients. It is also hoped that antithrombotic strategies may also have a positive effect on the process of tumor growth and dissemination. PMID:12407439

  15. Ultra-Fast Sample Preparation for High-Throughput Proteomics

    SciTech Connect

    Lopez-Ferrer, Daniel; Hixson, Kim K.; Belov, Mikhail E.; Smith, Richard D.

    2011-06-21

    Sample preparation oftentimes can be the Achilles Heel of any analytical process and in the field of proteomics, preparing samples for mass spectrometric analysis is no exception. Current goals, concerning proteomic sample preparation on a large scale, include efforts toward improving reproducibility, reducing the time of processing and ultimately the automation of the entire workflow. This chapter reviews an array of recent approaches applied to bottom-up proteomics sample preparation to reduce the processing time down from hours to minutes. The current state-of-the-art in the field uses different energy inputs like microwave, ultrasound or pressure to perform the four basic steps in sample preparation: protein extraction, denaturation, reduction and alkylation, and digestion. No single energy input for enhancement of proteome sample preparation has become the universal gold standard. Instead, a combination of different energy inputs tend to produce the best results. This chapter further describes the future trends in the field such as the hyphenation of sample preparation with downstream detection and analysis systems. Finally, a detailed protocol describing the combined use of both pressure cycling technology and ultrasonic energy inputs to hasten proteomic sample preparation is presented.

  16. Current state of hereditary angioedema management: A patient survey

    PubMed Central

    Busse, Paula; Christiansen, Sandra C.; Li, Henry; Lumry, William; Davis-Lorton, Mark; Bernstein, Jonathan A.; Frank, Michael; Castaldo, Anthony; Long, Janet F.; Zuraw, Bruce L.; Riedl, Marc

    2015-01-01

    Hereditary angioedema (HAE) is a chronic disease with a high burden of disease that is poorly understood and often misdiagnosed. Availability of treatments, including C1 esterase inhibitor (C1INH) replacement, ecallantide, and icatibant, marks a significant advance for HAE patients. We aimed to better understand the current state of HAE care, from a patient perspective, after the introduction of several novel therapies. One session of the United States Hereditary Angioedema Association 2013 patient summit was devoted to data collection for this study. Patients attending the summit were self-selected, and HAE diagnosis was self-reported. Survey questions assessed patient characteristics, burden of disease, and treatment. Participant responses were captured using an audience response system. We surveyed 149 (80%) type I and II HAE (HAE-C1INH) and 37 (20%) HAE with normal C1INH (HAE-nlC1INH) patients. HAE-C1INH (72%) and HAE-nlCINH patients (76%) equally reported that HAE had a significant impact on quality of life (QOL). A third of HAE-C1INH patients were diagnosed within one year of their first HAE attack, but another third reported a delay of more than 10 years. Most HAE-C1INH (88%) and HAE-nlC1INH (76%) patients had on-demand treatment available. HAE-C1INH patients frequently had an individual treatment plan (76%) compared with 50% of HAE-nlC1INH patients. Most HAE-C1INH patients went to the emergency department (ED) or were hospitalized less than once every six months (80%). Our findings show that HAE management is improving with good access to on-demand and prophylactic treatment options. However, HAE patients still have a significant burden of disease and continued research and educational efforts are needed. PMID:25976438

  17. Current state of hereditary angioedema management: a patient survey.

    PubMed

    Banerji, Aleena; Busse, Paula; Christiansen, Sandra C; Li, Henry; Lumry, William; Davis-Lorton, Mark; Bernstein, Jonathan A; Frank, Michael; Castaldo, Anthony; Long, Janet F; Zuraw, Bruce L; Riedl, Marc

    2015-01-01

    Hereditary angioedema (HAE) is a chronic disease with a high burden of disease that is poorly understood and often misdiagnosed. Availability of treatments, including C1 esterase inhibitor (C1INH) replacement, ecallantide, and icatibant, marks a significant advance for HAE patients. We aimed to better understand the current state of HAE care, from a patient perspective, after the introduction of several novel therapies. One session of the United States Hereditary Angioedema Association 2013 patient summit was devoted to data collection for this study. Patients attending the summit were self-selected, and HAE diagnosis was self-reported. Survey questions assessed patient characteristics, burden of disease, and treatment. Participant responses were captured using an audience response system. We surveyed 149 (80%) type I and II HAE (HAE-C1INH) and 37 (20%) HAE with normal C1INH (HAE-nlC1INH) patients. HAE-C1INH (72%) and HAE-nlCINH patients (76%) equally reported that HAE had a significant impact on quality of life (QOL). A third of HAE-C1INH patients were diagnosed within one year of their first HAE attack, but another third reported a delay of more than 10 years. Most HAE-C1INH (88%) and HAE-nlC1INH (76%) patients had on-demand treatment available. HAE-C1INH patients frequently had an individual treatment plan (76%) compared with 50% of HAE-nlC1INH patients. Most HAE-C1INH patients went to the emergency department (ED) or were hospitalized less than once every six months (80%). Our findings show that HAE management is improving with good access to on-demand and prophylactic treatment options. However, HAE patients still have a significant burden of disease and continued research and educational efforts are needed.

  18. Immunocapture strategies in translational proteomics

    PubMed Central

    Fredolini, Claudia; Byström, Sanna; Pin, Elisa; Edfors, Fredrik; Tamburro, Davide; Iglesias, Maria Jesus; Häggmark, Anna; Hong, Mun-Gwan; Uhlen, Mathias; Nilsson, Peter; Schwenk, Jochen M

    2016-01-01

    Aiming at clinical studies of human diseases, antibody-assisted assays have been applied to biomarker discovery and toward a streamlined translation from patient profiling to assays supporting personalized treatments. In recent years, integrated strategies to couple and combine antibodies with mass spectrometry-based proteomic efforts have emerged, allowing for novel possibilities in basic and clinical research. Described in this review are some of the field’s current and emerging immunocapture approaches from an affinity proteomics perspective. Discussed are some of their advantages, pitfalls and opportunities for the next phase in clinical and translational proteomics. PMID:26558424

  19. Centipede venom: recent discoveries and current state of knowledge.

    PubMed

    Undheim, Eivind A B; Fry, Bryan G; King, Glenn F

    2015-02-25

    Centipedes are among the oldest extant venomous predators on the planet. Armed with a pair of modified, venom-bearing limbs, they are an important group of predatory arthropods and are infamous for their ability to deliver painful stings. Despite this, very little is known about centipede venom and its composition. Advances in analytical tools, however, have recently provided the first detailed insights into the composition and evolution of centipede venoms. This has revealed that centipede venom proteins are highly diverse, with 61 phylogenetically distinct venom protein and peptide families. A number of these have been convergently recruited into the venoms of other animals, providing valuable information on potential underlying causes of the occasionally serious complications arising from human centipede envenomations. However, the majority of venom protein and peptide families bear no resemblance to any characterised protein or peptide family, highlighting the novelty of centipede venoms. This review highlights recent discoveries and summarises the current state of knowledge on the fascinating venom system of centipedes.

  20. Current State of Value-Based Purchasing Programs.

    PubMed

    Chee, Tingyin T; Ryan, Andrew M; Wasfy, Jason H; Borden, William B

    2016-05-31

    The US healthcare system is rapidly moving toward rewarding value. Recent legislation, such as the Affordable Care Act and the Medicare Access and CHIP Reauthorization Act, solidified the role of value-based payment in Medicare. Many private insurers are following Medicare's lead. Much of the policy attention has been on programs such as accountable care organizations and bundled payments; yet, value-based purchasing (VBP) or pay-for-performance, defined as providers being paid fee-for-service with payment adjustments up or down based on value metrics, remains a core element of value payment in Medicare Access and CHIP Reauthorization Act and will likely remain so for the foreseeable future. This review article summarizes the current state of VBP programs and provides analysis of the strengths, weaknesses, and opportunities for the future. Multiple inpatient and outpatient VBP programs have been implemented and evaluated; the impact of those programs has been marginal. Opportunities to enhance the performance of VBP programs include improving the quality measurement science, strengthening both the size and design of incentives, reducing health disparities, establishing broad outcome measurement, choosing appropriate comparison targets, and determining the optimal role of VBP relative to alternative payment models. VBP programs will play a significant role in healthcare delivery for years to come, and they serve as an opportunity for providers to build the infrastructure needed for value-oriented care.

  1. Centipede Venom: Recent Discoveries and Current State of Knowledge

    PubMed Central

    Undheim, Eivind A. B.; Fry, Bryan G.; King, Glenn F.

    2015-01-01

    Centipedes are among the oldest extant venomous predators on the planet. Armed with a pair of modified, venom-bearing limbs, they are an important group of predatory arthropods and are infamous for their ability to deliver painful stings. Despite this, very little is known about centipede venom and its composition. Advances in analytical tools, however, have recently provided the first detailed insights into the composition and evolution of centipede venoms. This has revealed that centipede venom proteins are highly diverse, with 61 phylogenetically distinct venom protein and peptide families. A number of these have been convergently recruited into the venoms of other animals, providing valuable information on potential underlying causes of the occasionally serious complications arising from human centipede envenomations. However, the majority of venom protein and peptide families bear no resemblance to any characterised protein or peptide family, highlighting the novelty of centipede venoms. This review highlights recent discoveries and summarises the current state of knowledge on the fascinating venom system of centipedes. PMID:25723324

  2. Ecopharmacovigilance: Current state, challenges, and opportunities in China

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jun; Hu, Xiamin

    2014-01-01

    In a context of severe pharmaceutical pollution, “ecopharmacovigilance” (EPV) has been an area of novel interest. It aims to ensure that significant environmental issues associated with pharmaceuticals in the environment are identified in a timely way, and managed appropriately. EPV has become a research hotspot as a comprehensive and boundary science in Europe and North America, and regulatory requirements governing the comprehensive environmental risk assessment (ERA) of pharmaceuticals exist in these regions. A speedy Chinese pharmaceutical industry development and drug consumption, China should shoulder more international responsibility and contribute to the worldwide EPV. Compared to the west, EPV in China is in its infancy. We analyzed the current state of EPV-related practice in China and found that many efforts have been made by the Chinese government and specialists to control the ever-worsening environmental pharmaceutical pollution problems, including consummating related policies and regulations, revealing the occurrence and behavior of pharmaceutical residues in environment and developing new technologies to improve their removal performance. Besides, we posed some recommendations on appropriate EPV implementation that can be taken with China in future. These include, building perfect laws and regulation system on EPV, defining the evaluation index for EPV, continuing the clinical rational medication and the pharmaceutical take-back programs in China, popularizing the concept of EPV in China, and strengthening the policy-guided and scientific researches of EPV in pharmaceutical firms and academia. PMID:24550578

  3. Current state of the hydrothermal geochemistry studies at Cerro Prieto

    SciTech Connect

    Fausto L, J.J.; Jimenez S, M.E.; Esquer P, I.

    1981-01-01

    The current state of hydrothermal geochemistry studies being carried out at the field are reported. These studies are based on the results of chemical analysis of water samples collected during 1979 and 1980 at the geothermal wells of the area known as Cerro Prieto I, as well as from those located in the Cerro Prieto II and Cerro Prieto III areas, some of which have only recently started flowing. Data are presented on the chemical variations of the main chemical constituents dissolved in the waters, as well as on the Na/K and Na-K-Ca chemical relations and the temperatures calculated from them and from SiO/sub 2/. Fluid recharge into the reservoir and its direction of flow are interpreted from isotherm contour maps of the field prepared from Na/K and Na-K-Ca geothermometry and from concentration contour maps of some of the main chemical constituents. Well M-43 is discussed as an example of a well affected by well completion problems in its production casing. Its behavior is explained on the basis of the chemical characteristics of the produced water. The chemical changes that have taken place in some of the wells during production are explained by correlating the chemistry with the production mechanisms of the well (steam-water production rates).

  4. Biodiesel production--current state of the art and challenges.

    PubMed

    Vasudevan, Palligarnai T; Briggs, Michael

    2008-05-01

    Biodiesel is a clean-burning fuel produced from grease, vegetable oils, or animal fats. Biodiesel is produced by transesterification of oils with short-chain alcohols or by the esterification of fatty acids. The transesterification reaction consists of transforming triglycerides into fatty acid alkyl esters, in the presence of an alcohol, such as methanol or ethanol, and a catalyst, such as an alkali or acid, with glycerol as a byproduct. Because of diminishing petroleum reserves and the deleterious environmental consequences of exhaust gases from petroleum diesel, biodiesel has attracted attention during the past few years as a renewable and environmentally friendly fuel. Since biodiesel is made entirely from vegetable oil or animal fats, it is renewable and biodegradable. The majority of biodiesel today is produced by alkali-catalyzed transesterification with methanol, which results in a relatively short reaction time. However, the vegetable oil and alcohol must be substantially anhydrous and have a low free fatty acid content, because the presence of water or free fatty acid or both promotes soap formation. In this article, we examine different biodiesel sources (edible and nonedible), virgin oil versus waste oil, algae-based biodiesel that is gaining increasing importance, role of different catalysts including enzyme catalysts, and the current state-of-the-art in biodiesel production.

  5. Ecopharmacovigilance: Current state, challenges, and opportunities in China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jun; Hu, Xiamin

    2014-01-01

    In a context of severe pharmaceutical pollution, "ecopharmacovigilance" (EPV) has been an area of novel interest. It aims to ensure that significant environmental issues associated with pharmaceuticals in the environment are identified in a timely way, and managed appropriately. EPV has become a research hotspot as a comprehensive and boundary science in Europe and North America, and regulatory requirements governing the comprehensive environmental risk assessment (ERA) of pharmaceuticals exist in these regions. A speedy Chinese pharmaceutical industry development and drug consumption, China should shoulder more international responsibility and contribute to the worldwide EPV. Compared to the west, EPV in China is in its infancy. We analyzed the current state of EPV-related practice in China and found that many efforts have been made by the Chinese government and specialists to control the ever-worsening environmental pharmaceutical pollution problems, including consummating related policies and regulations, revealing the occurrence and behavior of pharmaceutical residues in environment and developing new technologies to improve their removal performance. Besides, we posed some recommendations on appropriate EPV implementation that can be taken with China in future. These include, building perfect laws and regulation system on EPV, defining the evaluation index for EPV, continuing the clinical rational medication and the pharmaceutical take-back programs in China, popularizing the concept of EPV in China, and strengthening the policy-guided and scientific researches of EPV in pharmaceutical firms and academia. PMID:24550578

  6. Centipede venom: recent discoveries and current state of knowledge.

    PubMed

    Undheim, Eivind A B; Fry, Bryan G; King, Glenn F

    2015-03-01

    Centipedes are among the oldest extant venomous predators on the planet. Armed with a pair of modified, venom-bearing limbs, they are an important group of predatory arthropods and are infamous for their ability to deliver painful stings. Despite this, very little is known about centipede venom and its composition. Advances in analytical tools, however, have recently provided the first detailed insights into the composition and evolution of centipede venoms. This has revealed that centipede venom proteins are highly diverse, with 61 phylogenetically distinct venom protein and peptide families. A number of these have been convergently recruited into the venoms of other animals, providing valuable information on potential underlying causes of the occasionally serious complications arising from human centipede envenomations. However, the majority of venom protein and peptide families bear no resemblance to any characterised protein or peptide family, highlighting the novelty of centipede venoms. This review highlights recent discoveries and summarises the current state of knowledge on the fascinating venom system of centipedes. PMID:25723324

  7. Current state of traffic pollution in Bangladesh and metropolitan Dhaka

    SciTech Connect

    Karim, Masud; Matsui, Hiroshi; Ohno, Takashi; Hoque, S.

    1997-12-31

    Limited resources, invested for the development of transport facilities, such as infrastructure and vehicles, coupled with the rapid rise in transport demand, existence of a huge number of non-motorized vehicles on roads, lack of application of adequate and proper traffic management schemes are producing severe transport problems in almost all the urban areas of Bangladesh. Worsening situation of traffic congestion in the streets and sufferings of the inhabitants from vehicle emissions demand extensive research in this field. However, no detailed study concerning traffic congestion and pollution problems for urban areas of Bangladesh has yet been done. Therefore, it has become increasingly important to examine the present state of the problem. This research is a preliminary evaluation of the current situation of traffic pollution problem in Bangladesh. The daily total emissions of NO{sub x}, HC, CO, PM, and SO{sub x} are estimated using the daily fuel consumption and total traffic flows in Dhaka city. Estimated daily emissions are 42, 39, 314, 14, and 42 t/d for NO{sub x}, HC, CO, PM, and SO{sub x}, respectively. The emissions estimated using two different methods revealed good correlation. Daily average concentration of NO{sub x} (NO{sub 2}, NO) were measured at 30 street locations in Dhaka city during September and November, 1996. The results showed extremely high concentrations of NO{sub 2} and NO in these locations.

  8. Current State of Value-Based Purchasing Programs.

    PubMed

    Chee, Tingyin T; Ryan, Andrew M; Wasfy, Jason H; Borden, William B

    2016-05-31

    The US healthcare system is rapidly moving toward rewarding value. Recent legislation, such as the Affordable Care Act and the Medicare Access and CHIP Reauthorization Act, solidified the role of value-based payment in Medicare. Many private insurers are following Medicare's lead. Much of the policy attention has been on programs such as accountable care organizations and bundled payments; yet, value-based purchasing (VBP) or pay-for-performance, defined as providers being paid fee-for-service with payment adjustments up or down based on value metrics, remains a core element of value payment in Medicare Access and CHIP Reauthorization Act and will likely remain so for the foreseeable future. This review article summarizes the current state of VBP programs and provides analysis of the strengths, weaknesses, and opportunities for the future. Multiple inpatient and outpatient VBP programs have been implemented and evaluated; the impact of those programs has been marginal. Opportunities to enhance the performance of VBP programs include improving the quality measurement science, strengthening both the size and design of incentives, reducing health disparities, establishing broad outcome measurement, choosing appropriate comparison targets, and determining the optimal role of VBP relative to alternative payment models. VBP programs will play a significant role in healthcare delivery for years to come, and they serve as an opportunity for providers to build the infrastructure needed for value-oriented care. PMID:27245648

  9. Ebola hemorrhagic Fever and the current state of vaccine development.

    PubMed

    Hong, Joo Eun; Hong, Kee-Jong; Choi, Woo Young; Lee, Won-Ja; Choi, Yeon Hwa; Jeong, Chung-Hyeon; Cho, Kwang-Il

    2014-12-01

    Current Ebola virus outbreak in West Africa already reached the total number of 1,323 including 729 deaths by July 31st. the fatality is around 55% in the southeastern area of Guinea, Sierra Leone, Liberia, and Nigeria. The number of patients with Ebola Hemorrhagic Fever (EHF) was continuously increasing even though the any effective therapeutics or vaccines has not been developed yet. The Ebola virus in Guinea showed 98% homology with Zaire Ebola Virus. Study of the pathogenesis of Ebola virus infection and assess of the various candidates of vaccine have been tried for a long time, especially in United States and some European countries. Even though the attenuated live vaccine and DNA vaccine containing Ebola viral genes were tested and showed efficacy in chimpanzees, those candidates still need clinical tests requiring much longer time than the preclinical development to be approved for the practical treatment. It can be expected to eradicate Ebola virus by a safe and efficient vaccine development similar to the case of smallpox virus which was extinguished from the world by the variola vaccine.

  10. Current State of Agile User-Centered Design: A Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hussain, Zahid; Slany, Wolfgang; Holzinger, Andreas

    Agile software development methods are quite popular nowadays and are being adopted at an increasing rate in the industry every year. However, these methods are still lacking usability awareness in their development lifecycle, and the integration of usability/User-Centered Design (UCD) into agile methods is not adequately addressed. This paper presents the preliminary results of a recently conducted online survey regarding the current state of the integration of agile methods and usability/UCD. A world wide response of 92 practitioners was received. The results show that the majority of practitioners perceive that the integration of agile methods with usability/UCD has added value to their adopted processes and to their teams; has resulted in the improvement of usability and quality of the product developed; and has increased the satisfaction of the end-users of the product developed. The top most used HCI techniques are low-fidelity prototyping, conceptual designs, observational studies of users, usability expert evaluations, field studies, personas, rapid iterative testing, and laboratory usability testing.

  11. Ebola Hemorrhagic Fever and the Current State of Vaccine Development

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Joo Eun; Hong, Kee-Jong; Choi, Woo Young; Lee, Won-Ja; Choi, Yeon Hwa; Jeong, Chung-Hyeon; Cho, Kwang-il

    2014-01-01

    Current Ebola virus outbreak in West Africa already reached the total number of 1,323 including 729 deaths by July 31st. the fatality is around 55% in the southeastern area of Guinea, Sierra Leone, Liberia, and Nigeria. The number of patients with Ebola Hemorrhagic Fever (EHF) was continuously increasing even though the any effective therapeutics or vaccines has not been developed yet. The Ebola virus in Guinea showed 98% homology with Zaire Ebola Virus. Study of the pathogenesis of Ebola virus infection and assess of the various candidates of vaccine have been tried for a long time, especially in United States and some European countries. Even though the attenuated live vaccine and DNA vaccine containing Ebola viral genes were tested and showed efficacy in chimpanzees, those candidates still need clinical tests requiring much longer time than the preclinical development to be approved for the practical treatment. It can be expected to eradicate Ebola virus by a safe and efficient vaccine development similar to the case of smallpox virus which was extinguished from the world by the variola vaccine. PMID:25562048

  12. Current State of Undergraduate Education in Oral Implantology in Japan.

    PubMed

    Homma, Shinya; Sasaki, Hotaka; Furuya, Yoshitaka; Ito, Taichi; Yajima, Yasutomo

    2015-01-01

    An anonymous questionnaire-based survey was used to determine the current state of and issues involved in undergraduate education in oral implantology at Tokyo Dental College. The participants comprised 139 students who had received lectures on and practical training in oral implantology in 2013. The results indicate that the overall level of student comprehension was high for both lectures and practical training content; the level of difficulty was appropriate for practical training, but the amount of practice time given requires reconsideration. Over 80% of the students gave positive responses in their overall evaluation of lectures and practical training, and the number of students who had an interest in oral implantology after finishing the course and who wanted to be involved in oral implantology as dentists increased. These results indicate that this undergraduate education program is effective in improving understanding of oral implantology. Improvement is required, however, in lecture methodology and practical training content. It is also suggested that the curriculum should be evaluated by students regularly and that the courses be subject to updating as required.

  13. Nanoscale Proteomics

    SciTech Connect

    Shen, Yufeng; Tolic, Nikola; Masselon, Christophe D.; Pasa-Tolic, Liljiana; Camp, David G.; Anderson, Gordon A.; Smith, Richard D.; Lipton, Mary S.

    2004-02-01

    This paper describes efforts to develop a liquid chromatography (LC)/mass spectrometry (MS) technology for ultra-sensitive proteomics studies, i.e. nanoscale proteomics. The approach combines high-efficiency nano-scale LC with advanced MS, including high sensitivity and high resolution Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (FTICR) MS, to perform both single-stage MS and tandem MS (MS/MS) proteomic analyses. The technology developed enables large-scale protein identification from nanogram size proteomic samples and characterization of more abundant proteins from sub-picogram size complex samples. Protein identification in such studies using MS is feasible from <75 zeptomole of a protein, and the average proteome measurement throughput is >200 proteins/h and ~3 h/sample. Higher throughput (>1000 proteins/h) and more sensitive detection limits can be obtained using a “accurate mass and time” tag approach developed at our laboratory. These capabilities lay the foundation for studies from single or limited numbers of cells.

  14. Licensed pertussis vaccines in the United States. History and current state.

    PubMed

    Klein, Nicola P

    2014-01-01

    The United States switched from whole cell to acellular pertussis vaccines in the 1990s following global concerns with the safety of the whole cell vaccines. Despite high levels of acellular pertussis vaccine coverage, the United States and other countries are experiencing large pertussis outbreaks. The aim of this article is to describe the historical context which led to acellular pertussis vaccine development, focusing on vaccines currently licensed in the US, and to review evidence that waning protection following licensed acellular pertussis vaccines have been significant factors in the widespread reappearance of pertussis.

  15. The Origins and Current State of Plastic Surgery Residency in the United States.

    PubMed

    Mackay, Donald Roy; Johnson, Shane

    2015-11-01

    The history of plastic surgery residency training in the United States dates back to the establishment of plastic surgery as a specialty. The pivotal role played by the American Board of Plastic Surgery is outlined. The history of the early regulatory bodies leading to the formation of the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education and the Residency Review Committees and the establishment of the American Council of Academic Plastic Surgeons gives context to our current training models.

  16. Chlamydomonas proteomics.

    PubMed

    Rolland, Norbert; Atteia, Ariane; Decottignies, Paulette; Garin, Jérôme; Hippler, Michael; Kreimer, Georg; Lemaire, Stéphane D; Mittag, Maria; Wagner, Volker

    2009-06-01

    Chlamydomonas reinhardtii is a biflagellate and photosynthetic unicellular alga that has long fascinated scientists because it combines characteristics of both plants and animals. Chlamydomonas offers the simplicity of a unicellular organism that is amenable to genetic screening, molecular, and biochemical approaches, as well as to transformation of its nuclear, plastid, or mitochondrial genomes. Over the past decade, proteomics based studies of Chlamydomonas have provided major research contributions in the areas of photosynthesis, molecular biology, and evolution. This review refers to technical and biological aspects of proteomics studies that have been recently performed on the C. reinhardtii model organism.

  17. Current state of heavy metal contents in Vienna soils.

    PubMed

    Pfleiderer, Sebastian; Englisch, Michael; Reiter, Rainer

    2012-12-01

    This study presents the current state of heavy metal contents in both urban and forest soils within the city area of Vienna, Austria. Based on a systematic survey of urban soils and on targeted sampling in forest areas, local and regional anomaly thresholds are derived using statistical methods and considering regional distribution patterns. For urban soils, local anomaly thresholds of elements Cu (60 mg/kg), Hg (0.5 mg/kg), Pb (100 mg/kg) and Zn (200 mg/kg) exceed national guideline values for uncontaminated urban soils and according to Austrian legislation fall into the category "anthropogenic contamination present but no damage to plants, animals or humans detectable". In forest soils within the city, thresholds are very similar to reference values for similar geological settings outside the city, apart from higher concentrations of elements Cr and Ni (threshold values of 107 and 64 mg/kg, respectively). Grouping urban soils according to land use reveals that Cd contents are 25 % higher, Pb contents 36 % higher, in traffic and industrial areas than in parks and like Cu, Hg and Zn, these elements can be shown to be at least partly caused by anthropogenic contamination. A dependency between heavy metal concentrations in soils and underlying geological units is shown within the flysch zone at the western city margin where the contents of elements Co, Cr, Cu, Ni and V are controlled by geology and reveal distinct differences between geological units. In built-up areas, no clear dependency between heavy metal contents in soils and geology is evident as urban soils represent accumulations by anthropogenic activity rather than in situ weathering products of underlying sediments.

  18. Cardiovascular pharmacogenomics; state of current knowledge and implementation in practice.

    PubMed

    Shahabi, Payman; Dubé, Marie-Pierre

    2015-04-01

    Pharmacogenomics (PGx) is the science that examines how an individual's genetic make-up affects the safety and efficacy of therapeutic drugs. PGx of response to cardiovascular (CV) medications is of the most successfully translated branches of PGx into the clinical workout. However, the clinical implementation of PGx of CV drugs is yet far beyond the growth of our understanding of the role of genetics in drug therapy. A considerable amount of efforts have been devoted by the regulatory agents like the food and drug administration (FDA) as well as the expert-based networks such as the Clinical Pharmacogenetics Implementation Consortium (CPIC) to overcome the existing barriers. This has been done, at least in part, for some of the most widely prescribed CV drugs, including clopidogrel, warfarin and simvastatin for which the PGx knowledge have been satisfactorily robust to provoke the CPIC to issue the guidelines for these drugs and the FDA to update the drugs' labeling, both strongly recommended the use of genotype-guided dosing for these medications, provided that the genetic data are available. For other drugs, however, studies have produced contradictory results and further large and well-designed clinical trials are required to expand and confirm the clinical utility of their PGx data. This review paper presents the current state of knowledge in the field of PGx of CV medications and describes the facilities assisting to the translation of PGx data into the clinical practice. Afterward, the existing body of PGx literature of the most-commonly used CV medications is comprehensively discussed.

  19. Current state of forest mapping with Landsat data in Siberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maksyutov, Shamil; Sedykh, Vladimir; Kuzmenko, Ekaterina; Farber, Sergey; Kalinicheva, Svetlana; Fedorov, Alexander; Schepaschenko, Dmitry

    2016-04-01

    We review a current state of a forest type mapping with Landsat data in Siberia. Target algorithm should be based on dynamic vegetation approach to be applicable to the analysis of the forest type distribution for Siberia, aiming at capability of mapping Siberian forest landscapes for applications such as predicting response of forest composition to climate change. We present data for several areas in West Siberian middle taiga, Central Siberia and East Siberia near Yakutsk. Analysis of the field survey, forest inventory data was made to produce forest type classification accounting for several stages for forest succession and variations in habitats and landforms. Supervised classification was applied to the areas were the ground truth and inventory data are available, including several limited area maps and vegetation survey transects. In Laryegan basin in West Siberia the upland forest areas are dominated by mix of Scots pine on sandy soils and Siberian pine with presence of fir and spruce on the others. Abundance of Scots pine decreases to the west due to change in soils. Those types are separable using Landsat spectral data. In the permafrost area around Yakutsk the most widespread succession type is birch to larch. Three stages of the birch to larch succession are detectable from Landsat image. When Landsat data is used in both West and East Siberia, distinction between deciduous broad-leaved species (birch, aspen, and willow) is generally difficult. Similar problem exist for distinguishing between dark coniferous species (Siberian pine, fir and spruce). Image classification can be improved by applying landform type analysis, such as separation into floodplain, terrace, sloping hills. Additional layers of information can be a promising way to complement Landsat data.

  20. Pancreatic Cancer Diagnostics and Treatment--Current State.

    PubMed

    Krška, Zdeněk; Šváb, Jan; Hoskovec, David; Ulrych, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) represents permanent and ever rising issue worldwide. Five-year survival does not exceed 3 to 6%, i.e. the worst result among solid tumours. The article evaluates the current state of PDAC diagnostics and treatment specifying also development and trends. Percentage of non-resectable tumours due to locally advanced or metastatic condition varies 60-80%, mostly over 80%. Survival with non-resectable PDAC is 4 to 8 months (median 3.5). In contrast R0 resection shows the survival 18-27 months. Laboratory and imaging screening methods are not indicated on large scale. Risk factors are smoking, alcohol abuse, chronic pancreatitis, diabetes mellitus. Genetic background in most PDAC has not been detected yet. Some genes connected with high risk of PDAC (e.g. BRCA2, PALB2) have been identified as significant and highly penetrative, but link between PDAC and these genes can be seen only in 10-20%. This article surveys perspective oncogenes, tumour suppressor genes, microRNA. Albeit CT is still favoured over other imaging methods, involvement of NMR rises. Surgery prefers the "vessel first" approach, which proves to be justified especially in R0 resection. According to EBM immunotherapy same as radiotherapy are not significant in PDAC treatment. Chemotherapy shows limited importance in conversion treatment of locally advanced or borderline tumours or in case of metastatic spread. Unified procedures cannot be defined due to inhomogenous arrays. Surgical resection is the only chance for curative treatment of PDAC and depends mainly on timely indication for surgery and quality of multidisciplinary team in a high-volume centre. PMID:26654799

  1. Novel Molecular Insights into Classical and Alternative Activation States of Microglia as Revealed by Stable Isotope Labeling by Amino Acids in Cell Culture (SILAC)-based Proteomics*

    PubMed Central

    Bell-Temin, Harris; Culver-Cochran, Ashley E.; Chaput, Dale; Carlson, Christina M.; Kuehl, Melanie; Burkhardt, Brant R.; Bickford, Paula C.; Liu, Bin; Stevens, Stanley M.

    2015-01-01

    Microglia, the resident immune cells of the brain, have been shown to display a complex spectrum of roles that span from neurotrophic to neurotoxic depending on their activation status. Microglia can be classified into four stages of activation, M1, which most closely matches the classical (pro-inflammatory) activation stage, and the alternative activation stages M2a, M2b, and M2c. The alternative activation stages have not yet been comprehensively analyzed through unbiased, global-scale protein expression profiling. In this study, BV2 mouse immortalized microglial cells were stimulated with agonists specific for each of the four stages and total protein expression for 4644 protein groups was quantified using SILAC-based proteomic analysis. After validating induction of the various stages through a targeted cytokine assay and Western blotting of activation states, the data revealed novel insights into the similarities and differences between the various states. The data identify several protein groups whose expression in the anti-inflammatory, pro-healing activation states are altered presumably to curtail inflammatory activation through differential protein expression, in the M2a state including CD74, LYN, SQST1, TLR2, and CD14. The differential expression of these proteins promotes healing, limits phagocytosis, and limits activation of reactive nitrogen species through toll-like receptor cascades. The M2c state appears to center around the down-regulation of a key member in the formation of actin-rich phagosomes, SLP-76. In addition, the proteomic data identified a novel activation marker, DAB2, which is involved in clathrin-mediated endocytosis and is significantly different between M2a and either M1 or M2b states. Western blot analysis of mouse primary microglia stimulated with the various agonists of the classical and alternative activation states revealed a similar trend of DAB2 expression compared with BV2 cells. PMID:26424600

  2. Novel Molecular Insights into Classical and Alternative Activation States of Microglia as Revealed by Stable Isotope Labeling by Amino Acids in Cell Culture (SILAC)-based Proteomics.

    PubMed

    Bell-Temin, Harris; Culver-Cochran, Ashley E; Chaput, Dale; Carlson, Christina M; Kuehl, Melanie; Burkhardt, Brant R; Bickford, Paula C; Liu, Bin; Stevens, Stanley M

    2015-12-01

    Microglia, the resident immune cells of the brain, have been shown to display a complex spectrum of roles that span from neurotrophic to neurotoxic depending on their activation status. Microglia can be classified into four stages of activation, M1, which most closely matches the classical (pro-inflammatory) activation stage, and the alternative activation stages M2a, M2b, and M2c. The alternative activation stages have not yet been comprehensively analyzed through unbiased, global-scale protein expression profiling. In this study, BV2 mouse immortalized microglial cells were stimulated with agonists specific for each of the four stages and total protein expression for 4644 protein groups was quantified using SILAC-based proteomic analysis. After validating induction of the various stages through a targeted cytokine assay and Western blotting of activation states, the data revealed novel insights into the similarities and differences between the various states. The data identify several protein groups whose expression in the anti-inflammatory, pro-healing activation states are altered presumably to curtail inflammatory activation through differential protein expression, in the M2a state including CD74, LYN, SQST1, TLR2, and CD14. The differential expression of these proteins promotes healing, limits phagocytosis, and limits activation of reactive nitrogen species through toll-like receptor cascades. The M2c state appears to center around the down-regulation of a key member in the formation of actin-rich phagosomes, SLP-76. In addition, the proteomic data identified a novel activation marker, DAB2, which is involved in clathrin-mediated endocytosis and is significantly different between M2a and either M1 or M2b states. Western blot analysis of mouse primary microglia stimulated with the various agonists of the classical and alternative activation states revealed a similar trend of DAB2 expression compared with BV2 cells.

  3. Summary of current state industrial energy conservation programs

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, R.W.; Evans, A.R.; Grogan, P.J.

    1980-05-01

    A preliminary study of industrial energy conservation measures initiated by states under the State Energy Conservation Program is presented. Elements, targets, and administration of state programs are briefly examined. As the results of the study indicate, the states perceive the need for Federal assistance in programs to: establish a forum for coordination of state programs and interchange of approaches and program materials; provide to state offices direct technical assistance, including specific program information, training materials and manuals directed toward specific industries, and an energy accounting methodology; promote national industrial energy conservation measures; develop methods for providing financial assistance to companies, especially small business, for incorporating energy conserving measures; devise a plan for coordinating the state energy-related regulatory activities; and disseminate information on Federal programs and regulations that may impact energy-related decisions at the state level and within private industry.

  4. Deep Proteomics of Breast Cancer Cells Reveals that Metformin Rewires Signaling Networks Away from a Pro-growth State.

    PubMed

    Sacco, Francesca; Silvestri, Alessandra; Posca, Daniela; Pirrò, Stefano; Gherardini, Pier Federico; Castagnoli, Luisa; Mann, Matthias; Cesareni, Gianni

    2016-03-23

    Metformin is the most frequently prescribed drug for type 2 diabetes. In addition to its hypoglycemic effects, metformin also lowers cancer incidence. This anti-cancer activity is incompletely understood. Here, we profiled the metformin-dependent changes in the proteome and phosphoproteome of breast cancer cells using high-resolution mass spectrometry. In total, we quantified changes of 7,875 proteins and 15,813 phosphosites after metformin changes. To interpret these datasets, we developed a generally applicable strategy that overlays metformin-dependent changes in the proteome and phosphoproteome onto a literature-derived network. This approach suggested that metformin treatment makes cancer cells more sensitive to apoptotic stimuli and less sensitive to pro-growth stimuli. These hypotheses were tested in vivo; as a proof-of-principle, we demonstrated that metformin inhibits the p70S6K-rpS6 axis in a PP2A-phosphatase dependent manner. In conclusion, analysis of deep proteomics reveals both detailed and global mechanisms that contribute to the anti-cancer activity of metformin. PMID:27135362

  5. Operating tokamaks with steady-state toroidal current

    SciTech Connect

    Fisch, N.J.

    1981-04-01

    Continuous operation of a tokamak requires, among other things, a means of continuously providing the toroidal current. Various methods have been proposed to provide this current including methods which utilize radio-frequency waves in any of several frequency regimes. Here we elaborate on the prospects of incorporating these current-drive techniques in tokamak reactors, concentrating on the theoretical minimization of the power requirements.

  6. Platelet proteomics.

    PubMed

    Zufferey, Anne; Fontana, Pierre; Reny, Jean-Luc; Nolli, Severine; Sanchez, Jean-Charles

    2012-01-01

    Platelets are small cell fragments, produced by megakaryocytes, in the bone marrow. They play an important role in hemostasis and diverse thrombotic disorders. They are therefore primary targets of antithrombotic therapies. They are implicated in several pathophysiological pathways, such as inflammation or wound repair. In blood circulation, platelets are activated by several pathways including subendothelial matrix and thrombin, triggering the formation of the platelet plug. Studying their proteome is a powerful approach to understand their biology and function. However, particular attention must be paid to different experimental parameters, such as platelet quality and purity. Several technologies are involved during the platelet proteome processing, yielding information on protein identification, characterization, localization, and quantification. Recent technical improvements in proteomics combined with inter-disciplinary strategies, such as metabolomic, transcriptomics, and bioinformatics, will help to understand platelets biological mechanisms. Therefore, a comprehensive analysis of the platelet proteome under different environmental conditions may contribute to elucidate complex processes relevant to platelet function regarding bleeding disorders or platelet hyperreactivity and identify new targets for antiplatelet therapy.

  7. Evaluation of the Current State of Integrated Water Quality Modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arhonditsis, G. B.; Wellen, C. C.; Ecological Modelling Laboratory

    2010-12-01

    Environmental policy and management implementation require robust methods for assessing the contribution of various point and non-point pollution sources to water quality problems as well as methods for estimating the expected and achieved compliance with the water quality goals. Water quality models have been widely used for creating the scientific basis for management decisions by providing a predictive link between restoration actions and ecosystem response. Modelling water quality and nutrient transport is challenging due a number of constraints associated with the input data and existing knowledge gaps related to the mathematical description of landscape and in-stream biogeochemical processes. While enormous effort has been invested to make watershed models process-based and spatially-distributed, there has not been a comprehensive meta-analysis of model credibility in watershed modelling literature. In this study, we evaluate the current state of integrated water quality modeling across the range of temporal and spatial scales typically utilized. We address several common modeling questions by providing a quantitative assessment of model performance and by assessing how model performance depends on model development. The data compiled represent a heterogeneous group of modeling studies, especially with respect to complexity, spatial and temporal scales and model development objectives. Beginning from 1992, the year when Beven and Binley published their seminal paper on uncertainty analysis in hydrological modelling, and ending in 2009, we selected over 150 papers fitting a number of criteria. These criteria involved publications that: (i) employed distributed or semi-distributed modelling approaches; (ii) provided predictions on flow and nutrient concentration state variables; and (iii) reported fit to measured data. Model performance was quantified with the Nash-Sutcliffe Efficiency, the relative error, and the coefficient of determination. Further, our

  8. [Current state of blood transfusion in Yugoslavia and its perspectives].

    PubMed

    Bosković, S

    1975-01-01

    The current situation of the transfusion service in this country has been characterised by small-scale operational level, the lack of regional system and basic components of a single service. There is a great variety in the medical and expert point of view starting from the lack of elementary hygienic and technical conditions, down to developed institutions of the European level. This activity has been characterised for the last ten years or so by an effort to win blood-givers at all cost, to enhance production of intravenous solutions which in some factories have obtained factory production volume, to determine basic blood groups and a very modest diagnostics for haemolitic diseases of newly born children. A large number of doctors--transfusiologists have obtained specialists' titles, but without any prospects to change the present status of their work: blood conservation, efforts to win blood-givers and determine blood groups. The differentiation between transfusiologists and clinic-engaged personnel has been increasing, thus making the transfusiologists to be far from the problems of modern haematology and clinical therapy. Observing the situation and status of transfusiology in the developed countries of Western Europe, it is possible to state that the transfusiology is developing in the direction of cooperation and team-work with doctors engaged in clinics. Therefore, cooperation with doctors engaged in clinics should be cultivated and organise team work. The intermediary role of doctors-transfusiologist in the cycle of health improvement should be avoided by all means. 90% of packed blood in this country is consumed in the form of full blood or dry plasma and only 10% in the form of desired derivatives, instead of the contrary case, since the precisely set therapy using new haemostatic medicaments is an economical imperative. The electronic data processing of blood-givers enables doctors-transfusiologists to deal with these problems since this is much cheaper

  9. Proteomics: Technology Development and Applications

    PubMed Central

    Jayaraman, Arul

    2009-01-01

    Technology development in and the application of proteomics are emerging areas among the chemical engineers and others who presented at the 2008 American Institute of Chemical Engineers (AIChE) Annual Meeting. Overall, the centennial meeting offered a broad current perspective on the discipline of chemical engineering as it enters its second century. Biomedical and biochemical engineering continue to grow as important facets of the discipline. Within these, the value and applicability of proteomics were demonstrated in a number of interesting presentations. This year, as in the recent past, the AIChE Annual meeting was held in conjunction with the American Electrophoresis Society (AES) Annual Meeting. AES presenters offered further academic and industrial viewpoints on the still-developing role of proteomics and proteomic technologies in biological and clinical analyses. PMID:19210124

  10. Salivary biomarkers for detection of oral squamous cell carcinoma – current state and recent advances

    PubMed Central

    Yakob, Maha; Fuentes, Laurel; Wang, Marilene B.; Abemayor, Elliot; Wong, David T.W.

    2014-01-01

    Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is the most common malignant neoplasm of the oral cavity. Detection of OSCC is currently based on thorough clinical oral examination combined with biopsy for histological analysis. Most cases of OSCC are not detected until the cancer has developed into advanced stages; thus, a reliable early stage diagnostic marker is needed. This literature review presents an overview of the status of current advances in salivary diagnostics for OSCC. Though many protein and mRNA salivary biomarkers have been identified that can detect OSCC with high sensitivity and specificity, the most discernable findings occur with the use of multiple markers. Studies that incorporate proteomic, transcriptomic, and potentially additional “omics”, including methylomics, need to be initiated to bring technology to clinical applications and allow the best use of saliva in diagnosing OSCC. PMID:24883261

  11. Keeping current with evolving makeup of New York State population.

    PubMed

    Waldman, H Barry; Cannella, Dolores

    2009-11-01

    The changing residential population of New York State requires continued monitoring if health practitioners are to maintain an awareness of the individuals in their community. A review of federal agency reports provides a general overview of state and national demographic and health factor characteristics.

  12. Genomes to Proteomes

    SciTech Connect

    Panisko, Ellen A.; Grigoriev, Igor; Daly, Don S.; Webb-Robertson, Bobbie-Jo; Baker, Scott E.

    2009-03-01

    Biologists are awash with genomic sequence data. In large part, this is due to the rapid acceleration in the generation of DNA sequence that occurred as public and private research institutes raced to sequence the human genome. In parallel with the large human genome effort, mostly smaller genomes of other important model organisms were sequenced. Projects following on these initial efforts have made use of technological advances and the DNA sequencing infrastructure that was built for the human and other organism genome projects. As a result, the genome sequences of many organisms are available in high quality draft form. While in many ways this is good news, there are limitations to the biological insights that can be gleaned from DNA sequences alone; genome sequences offer only a bird's eye view of the biological processes endemic to an organism or community. Fortunately, the genome sequences now being produced at such a high rate can serve as the foundation for other global experimental platforms such as proteomics. Proteomic methods offer a snapshot of the proteins present at a point in time for a given biological sample. Current global proteomics methods combine enzymatic digestion, separations, mass spectrometry and database searching for peptide identification. One key aspect of proteomics is the prediction of peptide sequences from mass spectrometry data. Global proteomic analysis uses computational matching of experimental mass spectra with predicted spectra based on databases of gene models that are often generated computationally. Thus, the quality of gene models predicted from a genome sequence is crucial in the generation of high quality peptide identifications. Once peptides are identified they can be assigned to their parent protein. Proteins identified as expressed in a given experiment are most useful when compared to other expressed proteins in a larger biological context or biochemical pathway. In this chapter we will discuss the automatic

  13. What Is Cancer Proteomics?

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov The National Institutes of Health Clinical Proteomics Technologies for Cancer Contact Us Intranet Sign Up for ... of proteomics that involves the application of proteomic technologies on clinical specimens such as blood. Cancer, in ...

  14. Fault current limiter with solid-state circuit breakers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bălan, H.; Neamț, L.; Buzdugan, M. I.; Varodi, T.; Pop, E.

    2016-08-01

    Switching of power circuit breakers is an important technical issue, especially at short circuit, since the fault current cause thermal and dynamic stresses, and the power quality worsens. Recently, the development of distributed renewable electricity induces the short circuit protection problematic because the distributed production of electric energy cause the transport networks to lose their radial character and disturbs the protective relays coordination. The modern technologies for power switching uses static fault current limiters, which offers a viable solution to remove the problems caused by large fault currents in the system. An appropriate design of the current limiting device reduces the thermal and dynamic stress and limits the fault current to a low value. The static switches are based on high power semiconductor devices that offer advantages compared to mechanical switches. Using a fault current limiter that minimizes the effect of distributed generation of electricity in a radial network on the co-ordination of protective relays is a solution to this problem in terms of switching speed and lifespan of power switches.

  15. Proteomics of Leaf Tissues from Populus

    SciTech Connect

    Hurst, Gregory {Greg} B; Yang, Xiaohan; Tschaplinski, Timothy J; Tuskan, Gerald A; Lankford, Patricia K; Shah, Manesh B; Jawdy, Sara; Gunter, Lee E; Engle, Nancy L

    2010-01-01

    Trees of the genus Populus are farmed commercially for wood and fiber, and are a potential bioenergy crop. As a scientific model organism, P. trichocarpa was the first forest tree for which the genome sequence has been determined. Knowledge of the Populus proteome will provide a deeper understanding of gene expression patterns in various tissues of the plant. To build on our previous profile of the proteome of xylem tissue in Populus (Kalluri et al., Proteomics 2009, 9, 4871), we are currently developing methods for studying the proteome of Populus leaves.

  16. Current State of the U.S. Ethanol Industry

    SciTech Connect

    Urbanchuk, John

    2010-11-30

    The objective of this study is to provide a comprehensive overview of the state of the U.S. ethanol industry and to outline the major forces that will affect the development of the industry over the next decade.

  17. Current Developments in Communications Law in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hadl, Robert D.

    1973-01-01

    Article reviews some of the major developments in communications law in the United States in the past year (1972). Significant events are covered in the areas of cable television, television programming and domestic satelites. (Author)

  18. State of the Art III: Current Issues of Library Automation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nyren, Karl

    1978-01-01

    Summarizes proceedings of the Library and Information Technology Association's third five-year assessment of the state of the art of library automation. Highlights include both descriptions of presentations and comments from conference participants. (JPF)

  19. Comparative Shotgun Proteomics Using Spectral Count Data and Quasi-Likelihood Modeling

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Shotgun proteomics provides the most powerful analytical platform for global inventory of complex proteomes using liquid chromatography−tandem mass spectrometry (LC−MS/MS) and allows a global analysis of protein changes. Nevertheless, sampling of complex proteomes by current shotgun proteomics platforms is incomplete, and this contributes to variability in assessment of peptide and protein inventories by spectral counting approaches. Thus, shotgun proteomics data pose challenges in comparing proteomes from different biological states. We developed an analysis strategy using quasi-likelihood Generalized Linear Modeling (GLM), included in a graphical interface software package (QuasiTel) that reads standard output from protein assemblies created by IDPicker, an HTML-based user interface to query shotgun proteomic data sets. This approach was compared to four other statistical analysis strategies: Student t test, Wilcoxon rank test, Fisher’s Exact test, and Poisson-based GLM. We analyzed the performance of these tests to identify differences in protein levels based on spectral counts in a shotgun data set in which equimolar amounts of 48 human proteins were spiked at different levels into whole yeast lysates. Both GLM approaches and the Fisher Exact test performed adequately, each with their unique limitations. We subsequently compared the proteomes of normal tonsil epithelium and HNSCC using this approach and identified 86 proteins with differential spectral counts between normal tonsil epithelium and HNSCC. We selected 18 proteins from this comparison for verification of protein levels between the individual normal and tumor tissues using liquid chromatography−multiple reaction monitoring mass spectrometry (LC−MRM-MS). This analysis confirmed the magnitude and direction of the protein expression differences in all 6 proteins for which reliable data could be obtained. Our analysis demonstrates that shotgun proteomic data sets from different tissue

  20. Extreme current fluctuations in lattice gases: beyond nonequilibrium steady states.

    PubMed

    Meerson, Baruch; Sasorov, Pavel V

    2014-01-01

    We use the macroscopic fluctuation theory (MFT) to study large current fluctuations in nonstationary diffusive lattice gases. We identify two universality classes of these fluctuations, which we call elliptic and hyperbolic. They emerge in the limit when the deterministic mass flux is small compared to the mass flux due to the shot noise. The two classes are determined by the sign of compressibility of effective fluid, obtained by mapping the MFT into an inviscid hydrodynamics. An example of the elliptic class is the symmetric simple exclusion process, where, for some initial conditions, we can solve the effective hydrodynamics exactly. This leads to a super-Gaussian extreme current statistics conjectured by Derrida and Gerschenfeld [J. Stat. Phys. 137, 978 (2009)] and yields the optimal path of the system. For models of the hyperbolic class, the deterministic mass flux cannot be neglected, leading to a different extreme current statistics. PMID:24580151

  1. Current approaches to tuberculosis in the United States.

    PubMed

    Gordin, Fred M; Masur, Henry

    2012-07-18

    Tuberculosis is a major threat to global health, infecting a third of the world's population. In the United States, however, control of tuberculosis has been increasingly successful. Only 3.2% of the US population is estimated to have latent tuberculosis and there are only 11,000 cases annually of active disease. More than half the cases in this country occur in individuals born outside the United States. Human immunodeficiency virus coinfection is not a major factor in the United States, since only approximately 10% of cases are coinfected. Drug resistance is also uncommon in this country. Because the United States has more resources for the diagnosis, therapy, and public health control of tuberculosis than many regions of the world, and because many hospitals have more cases of clinically significant nontuberculous mycobacteria than tuberculosis, the management approaches to tuberculosis need to be quite different in this country than in other regions. The resurgence in interest in developing new tools and the investment in public health infrastructure will hopefully be sustained in the United States so that the effect of tuberculosis on the US population will continue to diminish, and these new tools and approaches can be adapted to both high and low prevalence areas to meet the global challenge.

  2. Low-power X-ray tubes (the current state)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bugaev, A. S.; Eroshkin, P. A.; Romanko, V. A.; Sheshin, E. P.

    2013-07-01

    The operation principles and designs of X-ray tubes are discussed. Historical highlights and the current status of X-ray technology are reviewed and prospects for improving the technology are outlined. A comparison between the properties of X-ray tubes and those of hot cathodes and field-emission cathodes is given.

  3. The Current Status of Prison Education in Some Caribbean States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niles, Bradley

    1997-01-01

    Discusses a study of prison education in six Caribbean states (Dominica, St. Lucia, Barbados, St. Vincent, Grenada, Trinidad), looks at how the programs fit into United Nations rules for treating prisoners, and makes recommendations for the improvement of those programs. (JOW)

  4. High School Feedback: An Analysis of States' Current Efforts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Data Quality Campaign, 2011

    2011-01-01

    There is increased demand from multiple stakeholders for information about K-12 students' success after high school. When this information is provided back to high schools, it is often referred to as "high school feedback" information. This working document captures knowledge about states' capacity to and progress in providing high school feedback…

  5. History and Current Status of Divorce in the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Furstenberg, Frank F., Jr.

    1994-01-01

    Explores the remarkable shift in marriage and divorce practices that has occurred in the last third of this century in the United States. Information is presented on trends in this country and other industrialized nations, and some reasons for these changes are explored. (SLD)

  6. Current Status of Teacher Shortage in the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Capa, Yesim; Loadman, William E.; Bryant, B. J.

    Every year the American Association of Employment in Education (AAEE) conducts a survey of the status of teacher supply and demand in the United States. In 2001, the 25th annual survey sent a survey instrument to 1,265 teacher preparation institutions to study the supply side of teacher availability, and responses were received from 494…

  7. Adult Cigarette Smoking in the United States: Current Estimates

    MedlinePlus

    ... Report 2015;64(44):1233–40 [accessed 2016 Mar 14]. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. ... Office on Smoking and Health, 2014 [accessed 2016 Mar 14]. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention . State ...

  8. The proteome of human saliva

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griffin, Timothy J.

    2013-05-01

    Human saliva holds tremendous potential for transforming disease and health diagnostics given its richness of molecular information and non-invasive collection. Enumerating its molecular constituents is an important first step towards reaching this potential. Among the molecules in saliva, proteins and peptides arguably have the most value: they can directly indicate biochemical functions linked to a health condition/disease state, and they are attractive targets for biomarker assay development. However, cataloging and defining the human salivary proteome is challenging given the dynamic, chemically heterogeneous and complex nature of the system. In addition, the overall human saliva proteome is composed of several "sub-proteomes" which include: intact full length proteins, proteins carrying post-translational modifications (PTMs), low molecular weight peptides, and the metaproteome, derived from protein products from nonhuman organisms (e.g. microbes) present in the oral cavity. Presented here will be a summary of communal efforts to meet the challenge of characterizing the multifaceted saliva proteome, focusing on the use of mass spectrometry as the proteomic technology of choice. Implications of these efforts to characterize the salivary proteome in the context of disease diagnostics will also be discussed.

  9. Left ventricular assist devices—current state and perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Herold, Ulf; Berkefeld, Anna; Krane, Markus; Lange, Rüdiger; Voss, Bernhard

    2016-01-01

    Mechanical circulatory support devices have become an important treatment tool for severe acute and chronic heart failure, since heart transplantation cannot meet the demands because of a lack of available donor organs. Since implantation of the first ventricular assist device a constant development of the suitability of these devices has been made. This review will introduce different generations of left ventricular assist devices (LVAD) and elaborate on clinical indications, risk stratification and current literature. PMID:27621895

  10. Minimally invasive veneers: current state of the art

    PubMed Central

    Vanlıoğlu, Burçin Akoğlu; Kulak-Özkan, Yasemin

    2014-01-01

    Ceramic veneers are considered a conservative solution for patients requiring improvement of the shape, color, or position of their anterior teeth. Ceramic veneers have been extensively and successfully used to mask intrinsic staining, to give the appearance of straightening, and to correct minor malformations of anterior teeth without the removal of substantial amounts of sound tooth substance. The current literature was reviewed to search for the most important parameters determining the long-term success and correct application of ceramic veneers. PMID:25506248

  11. Left ventricular assist devices-current state and perspectives.

    PubMed

    Prinzing, Anatol; Herold, Ulf; Berkefeld, Anna; Krane, Markus; Lange, Rüdiger; Voss, Bernhard

    2016-08-01

    Mechanical circulatory support devices have become an important treatment tool for severe acute and chronic heart failure, since heart transplantation cannot meet the demands because of a lack of available donor organs. Since implantation of the first ventricular assist device a constant development of the suitability of these devices has been made. This review will introduce different generations of left ventricular assist devices (LVAD) and elaborate on clinical indications, risk stratification and current literature. PMID:27621895

  12. Left ventricular assist devices—current state and perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Herold, Ulf; Berkefeld, Anna; Krane, Markus; Lange, Rüdiger; Voss, Bernhard

    2016-01-01

    Mechanical circulatory support devices have become an important treatment tool for severe acute and chronic heart failure, since heart transplantation cannot meet the demands because of a lack of available donor organs. Since implantation of the first ventricular assist device a constant development of the suitability of these devices has been made. This review will introduce different generations of left ventricular assist devices (LVAD) and elaborate on clinical indications, risk stratification and current literature.

  13. Molecular Electron Microscopy: State of the Art and Current Challenges

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    The objective of molecular electron microscopy (EM) is to use electron microscopes to visualize the structure of biological molecules. This Review provides a brief overview of the methods used in molecular EM, their respective strengths and successes, and current developments that promise an even more exciting future for molecular EM in the structural investigation of proteins and macromolecular complexes, studied in isolation or in the context of cells and tissues. PMID:18484707

  14. The Current State of Physics in Cuba: A Personal Perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alonso, Marcelo

    After 40 years of absence I returned twice to Cuba, in January and December of 2000, to participate as a guest lecturer in two international scientific meetings. The first dealt with physics education, and the second with current issues related to quantum mechanics. In addition to a few participants from Europe, the US and Latin America, the two meetings were well attended by Cuban physicists.

  15. Current trends in biomedical ethics in the United States.

    PubMed

    Callahan, D

    1990-01-01

    Enormous growth of medical activities and issues in the 1960s and 1970s stimulated birth of the field of contemporary biomedical ethics. Nevertheless, when one examines recent trends within the field in the United States, one is struck with how many significant transformations and developments have occurred since that time. This presentation examines recent developments in five areas--those of patient rights and autonomy, termination of life, manipulation of Nature, health care resource allocation, and decision-making by the general public. The author also notes that although bioethical issues have become politicized as major interest groups and the general public have become increasingly involved, the quest for consensus remains a central one for health care ethics in the United States.

  16. [The history and current state of communication avoidance research].

    PubMed

    Sakamoto, M; Pribyl, C B; Keaten, J

    1998-02-01

    The ability to communicate effectively has a profound impact on academic ability and social status in the United States. As such, communication avoidance may impart critical consequences on individuals who suffer from it. Within the communication discipline, communication avoidance is an extensive body of research with a relatively long history. Central to communication avoidance research is the concept of communication apprehension (CA). However, in comparison with research conducted in the United States, CA research in Japan remains in its genesis. This review thus focuses on communication apprehension and related constructs. Starting with an explanation of the magnitude of the problem of communication avoidance, a definition of CA is presented, and an overview of the related constructs of reticence, shyness, and other communication-related fears is introduced. Basic CA treatment programs and personality correlates of CA are also covered. The review closes by offering suggestions for future CA research in Japan. PMID:9626739

  17. Probiotics in luminal gastroenterology: the current state of play.

    PubMed

    Andrews, J M; Tan, M

    2012-12-01

    In recent years, there has been a growing interest in the use of probiotics in various areas of gastrointestinal (GI) health. Probiotics are defined as live microorganisms that provide beneficial health effects on the host when administered in adequate amounts. Various probiotics have been shown to suppress bacterial growth, modulate the immune system and improve intestinal barrier function. However, despite several studies with promising results, most trials are small and many have substantial methodological limitations. However, with better targeting and appropriate randomised controlled trials, this area may soon yield important therapeutic strategies to optimise GI health. Here, we review the current knowledge of probiotics of relevance to luminal GI health.

  18. Probiotics in luminal gastroenterology: the current state of play.

    PubMed

    Andrews, J M; Tan, M

    2012-12-01

    In recent years, there has been a growing interest in the use of probiotics in various areas of gastrointestinal (GI) health. Probiotics are defined as live microorganisms that provide beneficial health effects on the host when administered in adequate amounts. Various probiotics have been shown to suppress bacterial growth, modulate the immune system and improve intestinal barrier function. However, despite several studies with promising results, most trials are small and many have substantial methodological limitations. However, with better targeting and appropriate randomised controlled trials, this area may soon yield important therapeutic strategies to optimise GI health. Here, we review the current knowledge of probiotics of relevance to luminal GI health. PMID:23252997

  19. Therapeutics in food allergy: the current state of the art.

    PubMed

    Otsu, Kanao; Fleischer, David M

    2012-02-01

    Food allergy is an increasing public health dilemma in Westernized countries, yet no viable treatments are currently available for those who are afflicted. The only options available for patients with food allergies are prevention of reactions by strict avoidance of the offending food(s) and symptomatic treatment of any adverse effects from accidental exposures. Approaches are being pursued to develop treatments, and allergen-specific therapies such as oral immunotherapy, sublingual immunotherapy, and epicutaneous immunotherapy with different foods have shown promise. Other modalities are also being investigated, potentially leading to the discovery of novel therapeutic options.

  20. The Current State of Medical Malpractice in Urology.

    PubMed

    Sherer, Benjamin A; Coogan, Christopher L

    2015-07-01

    Medical malpractice can present an unwelcome professional, emotional, and economic burden to the practicing urologist. To date, there is a paucity of data specific to urologic malpractice in the literature. We performed a comprehensive literature search to identify and evaluate recent studies related to urologic malpractice. We also analyzed 6249 closed urologic claims from the largest available specialty-specific data set gathered by Physician Insurers Association of America from 1985 to 2012. The resulting comprehensive review seeks to raise awareness of current trends in the malpractice environment specific to urologic surgery while also helping urologists identify opportunities for risk management and improved patient care.

  1. Imaging of HCC—Current State of the Art

    PubMed Central

    Schraml, Christina; Kaufmann, Sascha; Rempp, Hansjoerg; Syha, Roland; Ketelsen, Dominik; Notohamiprodjo, Mike; Nikolaou, Konstantin

    2015-01-01

    Early diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is crucial for optimizing treatment outcome. Ongoing advances are being made in imaging of HCC regarding detection, grading, staging, and also treatment monitoring. This review gives an overview of the current international guidelines for diagnosing HCC and their discrepancies as well as critically summarizes the role of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computed tomography (CT) techniques for imaging in HCC. The diagnostic performance of MRI with nonspecific and hepatobililiary contrast agents and the role of functional imaging with diffusion-weighted imaging will be discussed. On the other hand, CT as a fast, cheap and easily accessible imaging modality plays a major role in the clinical routine work-up of HCC. Technical advances in CT, such as dual energy CT and volume perfusion CT, are currently being explored for improving detection, characterization and staging of HCC with promising results. Cone beam CT can provide a three-dimensional analysis of the liver with tumor and vessel characterization comparable to cross-sectional imaging so that this technique is gaining an increasing role in the peri-procedural imaging of HCC treated with interventional techniques. PMID:26854169

  2. Advanced Imaging in Femoroacetabular Impingement: Current State and Future Prospects.

    PubMed

    Bittersohl, Bernd; Hosalkar, Harish S; Hesper, Tobias; Tiderius, Carl Johan; Zilkens, Christoph; Krauspe, Rüdiger

    2015-01-01

    Symptomatic femoroacetabular impingement (FAI) is now a known precursor of early osteoarthritis (OA) of the hip. In terms of clinical intervention, the decision between joint preservation and joint replacement hinges on the severity of articular cartilage degeneration. The exact threshold during the course of disease progression when the cartilage damage is irreparable remains elusive. The intention behind radiographic imaging is to accurately identify the morphology of osseous structural abnormalities and to accurately characterize the chondrolabral damage as much as possible. However, both plain radiographs and computed tomography (CT) are insensitive for articular cartilage anatomy and pathology. Advanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques include magnetic resonance arthrography and biochemically sensitive techniques of delayed gadolinium-enhanced MRI of cartilage (dGEMRIC), T1rho (T1ρ), T2/T2* mapping, and several others. The diagnostic performance of these techniques to evaluate cartilage degeneration could improve the ability to predict an individual patient-specific outcome with non-surgical and surgical care. This review discusses the facts and current applications of biochemical MRI for hip joint cartilage assessment covering the roles of dGEMRIC, T2/T2*, and T1ρ mapping. The basics of each technique and their specific role in FAI assessment are outlined. Current limitations and potential pitfalls as well as future directions of biochemical imaging are also outlined. PMID:26258129

  3. Current state of herbicides in herbicide-resistant crops.

    PubMed

    Green, Jerry M

    2014-09-01

    Current herbicide and herbicide trait practices are changing in response to the rapid spread of glyphosate-resistant weeds. Growers urgently needed glyphosate when glyphosate-resistant crops became available because weeds were becoming widely resistant to most commonly used selective herbicides, making weed management too complex and time consuming for large farm operations. Glyphosate made weed management easy and efficient by controlling all emerged weeds at a wide range of application timings. However, the intensive use of glyphosate over wide areas and concomitant decline in the use of other herbicides led eventually to the widespread evolution of weeds resistant to glyphosate. Today, weeds that are resistant to glyphosate and other herbicide types are threatening current crop production practices. Unfortunately, all commercial herbicide modes of action are over 20 years old and have resistant weed problems. The severity of the problem has prompted the renewal of efforts to discover new weed management technologies. One technology will be a new generation of crops with resistance to glyphosate, glufosinate and other existing herbicide modes of action. Other technologies will include new chemical, biological, cultural and mechanical methods for weed management. From the onset of commercialization, growers must now preserve the utility of new technologies by integrating their use with other weed management technologies in diverse and sustainable systems.

  4. Bassoonists' medical problems-current state of knowledge.

    PubMed

    Dawson, William J

    2012-06-01

    Specific musical instruments can be a source of physical problems to their players. Based on reviews of the literature and personal experience, this paper summarizes current knowledge of problems affecting musicians who play instruments in the bassoon family (including the bassoon, contrabassoon, and several other instruments). Prevalence rates are higher in reports of surveys (ranging up to 86%), compared to clinical reports of patients seen and treated. Significant risk factors include young age, small body size, female gender, and use of large instruments. Problems unique to bassoonists are rare; most physical difficulties also are seen in general musculoskeletal clinical practices and in musicians playing all types of instruments. The left upper extremity is more commonly affected by overuse-related conditions in bassoonists. Non-playing-related problems are equally important for consideration (such as degenerative disorders and acute trauma), since they also affect practice and performance. Little experimental data exist to validate current and widely-held principles of treatment, rehabilitation, and prevention.

  5. Pediatric heart failure: current state and future possibilities.

    PubMed

    Rossano, Joseph W; Jang, Gi Young

    2015-01-01

    Heart failure is a complex pathophysiological syndrome that can occur in children from a variety of diseases, including cardiomyopathies, myocarditis, and congenital heart disease. The condition is associated with a high rate of morbidity and mortality and places a significant burden on families of affected children and to society as a whole. Current medical therapy is taken largely from the management of heart failure in adults, though clear survival benefit of these medications are lacking. Ventricular assist devices (VADs) have taken an increasingly important role in the management of advanced heart failure in children. The predominant role of these devices has been as a bridge to heart transplantation, and excellent results are currently achieved for most children with cardiomyopathies. There is an ongoing investigation to improve outcomes in high-risk populations, such as small infants and those with complex congenital heart disease, including patients with functionally univentricular hearts. Additionally, there is an active investigation and interest in expansion of VADs beyond the predominant utilization as a bridge to a heart transplant into ventricular recovery, device explant without a heart transplantation (bridge to recovery), and placement of devices without the expectation of recovery or transplantation (destination therapy).

  6. [Video game and internet addiction. The current state of research].

    PubMed

    Rehbein, F; Mößle, T; Arnaud, N; Rumpf, H-J

    2013-05-01

    The use of interactive screen media is widespread and for some users leads to pathological symptoms that are phenomenologically similar to signs of addictive disorders. Addictive use of computer games and other Internet applications, such as social media can be distinguished. In the past standard criteria to classify this new disorder were lacking. In DSM-5, nine criteria are proposed for diagnosing Internet gaming disorder. The focus is currently on video games as most studies have been done in this field. Prevalence estimations are difficult to interpret due to the lack of standard diagnostic measures and result in a range of the frequency of Internet addiction between 1 % and 4.2 % in the general German population. Rates are higher in younger individuals. For computer game addiction prevalence rates between 0.9 % and 1.7  % can be found in adolescents. Despite substantial comorbidity among those affected current research points to addictive media use as a stand-alone disorder.

  7. Advanced Imaging in Femoroacetabular Impingement: Current State and Future Prospects

    PubMed Central

    Bittersohl, Bernd; Hosalkar, Harish S.; Hesper, Tobias; Tiderius, Carl Johan; Zilkens, Christoph; Krauspe, Rüdiger

    2015-01-01

    Symptomatic femoroacetabular impingement (FAI) is now a known precursor of early osteoarthritis (OA) of the hip. In terms of clinical intervention, the decision between joint preservation and joint replacement hinges on the severity of articular cartilage degeneration. The exact threshold during the course of disease progression when the cartilage damage is irreparable remains elusive. The intention behind radiographic imaging is to accurately identify the morphology of osseous structural abnormalities and to accurately characterize the chondrolabral damage as much as possible. However, both plain radiographs and computed tomography (CT) are insensitive for articular cartilage anatomy and pathology. Advanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques include magnetic resonance arthrography and biochemically sensitive techniques of delayed gadolinium-enhanced MRI of cartilage (dGEMRIC), T1rho (T1ρ), T2/T2* mapping, and several others. The diagnostic performance of these techniques to evaluate cartilage degeneration could improve the ability to predict an individual patient-specific outcome with non-surgical and surgical care. This review discusses the facts and current applications of biochemical MRI for hip joint cartilage assessment covering the roles of dGEMRIC, T2/T2*, and T1ρ mapping. The basics of each technique and their specific role in FAI assessment are outlined. Current limitations and potential pitfalls as well as future directions of biochemical imaging are also outlined. PMID:26258129

  8. Mobile-health: A review of current state in 2015.

    PubMed

    Silva, Bruno M C; Rodrigues, Joel J P C; de la Torre Díez, Isabel; López-Coronado, Miguel; Saleem, Kashif

    2015-08-01

    Health telematics is a growing up issue that is becoming a major improvement on patient lives, especially in elderly, disabled, and chronically ill. In recent years, information and communication technologies improvements, along with mobile Internet, offering anywhere and anytime connectivity, play a key role on modern healthcare solutions. In this context, mobile health (m-Health) delivers healthcare services, overcoming geographical, temporal, and even organizational barriers. M-Health solutions address emerging problems on health services, including, the increasing number of chronic diseases related to lifestyle, high costs of existing national health services, the need to empower patients and families to self-care and handle their own healthcare, and the need to provide direct access to health services, regardless of time and place. Then, this paper presents a comprehensive review of the state of the art on m-Health services and applications. It surveys the most significant research work and presents a deep analysis of the top and novel m-Health services and applications proposed by industry. A discussion considering the European Union and United States approaches addressing the m-Health paradigm and directives already published is also considered. Open and challenging issues on emerging m-Health solutions are proposed for further works.

  9. Current state of the art of vision based SLAM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muhammad, Naveed; Fofi, David; Ainouz, Samia

    2009-02-01

    The ability of a robot to localise itself and simultaneously build a map of its environment (Simultaneous Localisation and Mapping or SLAM) is a fundamental characteristic required for autonomous operation of the robot. Vision Sensors are very attractive for application in SLAM because of their rich sensory output and cost effectiveness. Different issues are involved in the problem of vision based SLAM and many different approaches exist in order to solve these issues. This paper gives a classification of state-of-the-art vision based SLAM techniques in terms of (i) imaging systems used for performing SLAM which include single cameras, stereo pairs, multiple camera rigs and catadioptric sensors, (ii) features extracted from the environment in order to perform SLAM which include point features and line/edge features, (iii) initialisation of landmarks which can either be delayed or undelayed, (iv) SLAM techniques used which include Extended Kalman Filtering, Particle Filtering, biologically inspired techniques like RatSLAM, and other techniques like Local Bundle Adjustment, and (v) use of wheel odometry information. The paper also presents the implementation and analysis of stereo pair based EKF SLAM for synthetic data. Results prove the technique to work successfully in the presence of considerable amounts of sensor noise. We believe that state of the art presented in the paper can serve as a basis for future research in the area of vision based SLAM. It will permit further research in the area to be carried out in an efficient and application specific way.

  10. Mobile-health: A review of current state in 2015.

    PubMed

    Silva, Bruno M C; Rodrigues, Joel J P C; de la Torre Díez, Isabel; López-Coronado, Miguel; Saleem, Kashif

    2015-08-01

    Health telematics is a growing up issue that is becoming a major improvement on patient lives, especially in elderly, disabled, and chronically ill. In recent years, information and communication technologies improvements, along with mobile Internet, offering anywhere and anytime connectivity, play a key role on modern healthcare solutions. In this context, mobile health (m-Health) delivers healthcare services, overcoming geographical, temporal, and even organizational barriers. M-Health solutions address emerging problems on health services, including, the increasing number of chronic diseases related to lifestyle, high costs of existing national health services, the need to empower patients and families to self-care and handle their own healthcare, and the need to provide direct access to health services, regardless of time and place. Then, this paper presents a comprehensive review of the state of the art on m-Health services and applications. It surveys the most significant research work and presents a deep analysis of the top and novel m-Health services and applications proposed by industry. A discussion considering the European Union and United States approaches addressing the m-Health paradigm and directives already published is also considered. Open and challenging issues on emerging m-Health solutions are proposed for further works. PMID:26071682

  11. EuroQol: the current state of play.

    PubMed

    Brooks, R

    1996-07-01

    The EuroQol Group first met in 1987 to test the feasibility of jointly developing a standardised non-disease-specific instrument for describing and valuing health-related quality of life. From the outset the Group has been multi-country, multi-centre, and multi-disciplinary. The EuroQol instrument is intended to complement other forms of quality of life measures, and it has been purposefully developed to generate a cardinal index of health, thus giving it considerable potential for use in economic evaluation. Considerable effort has been invested by the Group in the development and valuation aspects of health status measurement. Earlier work was reported upon in 1990; this paper is a second 'corporate' effort detailing subsequent developments. The concepts underlying the EuroQol framework are explored with particular reference to the generic nature of the instrument. The valuation task is reviewed and some evidence on the methodological requirements for measurement is presented. A number of special issues of considerable interest and concern to the Group are discussed: the modelling of data, the duration of health states and the problems surrounding the state 'dead'. An outline of some of the applications of the EuroQol instrument is presented and a brief commentary on the Group's ongoing programme of work concludes the paper. PMID:10158943

  12. Cyanobactins from Cyanobacteria: Current Genetic and Chemical State of Knowledge

    PubMed Central

    Martins, Joana; Vasconcelos, Vitor

    2015-01-01

    Cyanobacteria are considered to be one of the most promising sources of new, natural products. Apart from non-ribosomal peptides and polyketides, ribosomally synthesized and post-translationally modified peptides (RiPPs) are one of the leading groups of bioactive compounds produced by cyanobacteria. Among these, cyanobactins have sparked attention due to their interesting bioactivities and for their potential to be prospective candidates in the development of drugs. It is assumed that the primary source of cyanobactins is cyanobacteria, although these compounds have also been isolated from marine animals such as ascidians, sponges and mollusks. The aim of this review is to update the current knowledge of cyanobactins, recognized as being produced by cyanobacteria, and to emphasize their genetic clusters and chemical structures as well as their bioactivities, ecological roles and biotechnological potential. PMID:26580631

  13. Cyanobactins from Cyanobacteria: Current Genetic and Chemical State of Knowledge.

    PubMed

    Martins, Joana; Vasconcelos, Vitor

    2015-11-13

    Cyanobacteria are considered to be one of the most promising sources of new, natural products. Apart from non-ribosomal peptides and polyketides, ribosomally synthesized and post-translationally modified peptides (RiPPs) are one of the leading groups of bioactive compounds produced by cyanobacteria. Among these, cyanobactins have sparked attention due to their interesting bioactivities and for their potential to be prospective candidates in the development of drugs. It is assumed that the primary source of cyanobactins is cyanobacteria, although these compounds have also been isolated from marine animals such as ascidians, sponges and mollusks. The aim of this review is to update the current knowledge of cyanobactins, recognized as being produced by cyanobacteria, and to emphasize their genetic clusters and chemical structures as well as their bioactivities, ecological roles and biotechnological potential.

  14. Sediments Contamination with Organic Micropollutants: Current State and Perspectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popenda, Agnieszka; Włodarczyk-Makuła, Maria

    2016-06-01

    This study focused on the sediment contamination with some organic micropollutants based on the monitoring data together with available literature in Poland. The following persistent organic pollutants (POPs): polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and chlorinated pesticides (CP) were characterized in sediments with respect to current legislations in force. Based on accessible data, higher PAHs, PCBs and CP concentrations were found in river sediments than in lake sediments. Especially, sediments of the Oder River and its tributary in the southern part of Poland, were highly polluted. In order to minimize the risk of the secondary pollution of surface waters, it is necessary to introduce consolidated management system with sediments proceeding. Furthermore, it is also of great importance to elaborate specific regulations concerning conditions of sediments management.

  15. The current state of prostate-specific antigen testing.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Ryan; Hornberger, Brad

    2016-09-01

    Since prostate-specific antigen (PSA) testing was approved in 1994, the incidence of metastasis and mortality from prostate cancer have significantly decreased. However, PSA screening for prostate cancer has limitations and few large randomized controlled trials have been conducted to determine the mortality benefit of PSA screening. Two studies that have been conducted are the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian (PLCO) screening trial and the European Randomized Study of Screening for Prostate Cancer (ERSPC). These were the two main studies the US Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) used in its recommendation against prostate cancer screening in 2012. However, new evidence has demonstrated that the PLCO trial had significant limitations and the results of the ERSPC trial were more significant than previously thought. This article describes the strengths and weaknesses of the USPSTF's recommendation, along with current guidelines for prostate cancer screening. PMID:27575906

  16. Living donor liver transplantation in Brazil—current state

    PubMed Central

    Andraus, Wellington; D’Alburquerque, Luiz A. C.

    2016-01-01

    Currently in Brazil, living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) represents 8.5% of liver transplantation (LT), being the majority pediatric one. Up to now, according to Brazilian Organ Transplantation Association (ABTO) annual report, 2,086 procedures have been done nationwide, most of them in southeast and south regions. Based on national centers reports, biliary complication is the most common recipient postoperative complication (14.5–20.6%), followed by hepatic artery thrombosis (3.1–10.7%) and portal vein thrombosis (2.3–9.1%). Patient and graft overall 5-y survival correspond to 76% and 74%, respectively. Regarding the donor, morbidity rate ranges from 12.4% to 28.3%, with a national mortality rate of 0.14%. In conclusion, Brazilian LDLT programs enhance international experience that this is a feasible and safe procedure, as well as an excellent alternative strategy to overcome organs shortage. PMID:27115012

  17. Current challenges in detecting food allergens by shotgun and targeted proteomic approaches: a case study on traces of peanut allergens in baked cookies.

    PubMed

    Pedreschi, Romina; Nørgaard, Jørgen; Maquet, Alain

    2012-02-01

    There is a need for selective and sensitive methods to detect the presence of food allergens at trace levels in highly processed food products. In this work, a combination of non-targeted and targeted proteomics approaches are used to illustrate the difficulties encountered in the detection of the major peanut allergens Ara h 1, Ara h 2 and Ara h 3 from a representative processed food matrix. Shotgun proteomics was employed for selection of the proteotypic peptides for targeted approaches via selective reaction monitoring. Peanut presence through detection of the proteotypic Ara h 3/4 peptides AHVQVVDSNGNR (m/z 432.5, 3+) and SPDIYNPQAGSLK (m/z 695.4, 2+) was confirmed and the developed method was able to detect peanut presence at trace levels (≥10 μg peanut g(-1) matrix) in baked cookies.

  18. Current challenges in detecting food allergens by shotgun and targeted proteomic approaches: a case study on traces of peanut allergens in baked cookies.

    PubMed

    Pedreschi, Romina; Nørgaard, Jørgen; Maquet, Alain

    2012-02-01

    There is a need for selective and sensitive methods to detect the presence of food allergens at trace levels in highly processed food products. In this work, a combination of non-targeted and targeted proteomics approaches are used to illustrate the difficulties encountered in the detection of the major peanut allergens Ara h 1, Ara h 2 and Ara h 3 from a representative processed food matrix. Shotgun proteomics was employed for selection of the proteotypic peptides for targeted approaches via selective reaction monitoring. Peanut presence through detection of the proteotypic Ara h 3/4 peptides AHVQVVDSNGNR (m/z 432.5, 3+) and SPDIYNPQAGSLK (m/z 695.4, 2+) was confirmed and the developed method was able to detect peanut presence at trace levels (≥10 μg peanut g(-1) matrix) in baked cookies. PMID:22413066

  19. Poliomyelitis in the United States: A Historical Perspective and Current Vaccination Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farizo, Karen M.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Examines poliomyelitis in the United States by reviewing clinical manifestations and outcomes, history, recent epidemiologic characteristics, characteristics of currently available vaccines, controversies surrounding vaccination policy, current poliovirus vaccination recommendations, and prospects for worldwide eradication. Poliomyelitis remains…

  20. Current noise measurements of surface defect states in amorphous silicon

    SciTech Connect

    West, P.W.; Kakalios, J.

    1999-07-01

    Measurements of conductance fluctuations in coplanar hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) are reported as a function of surface etching treatments. The noise power spectrum displays a broadened Lorentzian peak, associated with surface damage by CF{sub 4} reactive ion etching (RIE), whereas surface etches using ion milling or wet chemicals remove the Lorentzian spectral feature and only a 1/f spectral form for frequency f is observed. The Lorentzian spectral feature can be explained by trapping-detrapping from surface states induced by the RIE etch, which cause fluctuations in the depletion width of the space charge region near the film surface. The thermally activated Lorentzian corner frequency is a measure of the degree of band bending and the Fermi energy at the thin film surface.

  1. Computer-Assisted Orthopedic Surgery: Current State and Future Perspective.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Guoyan; Nolte, Lutz P

    2015-01-01

    Introduced about two decades ago, computer-assisted orthopedic surgery (CAOS) has emerged as a new and independent area, due to the importance of treatment of musculoskeletal diseases in orthopedics and traumatology, increasing availability of different imaging modalities, and advances in analytics and navigation tools. The aim of this paper is to present the basic elements of CAOS devices and to review state-of-the-art examples of different imaging modalities used to create the virtual representations, of different position tracking devices for navigation systems, of different surgical robots, of different methods for registration and referencing, and of CAOS modules that have been realized for different surgical procedures. Future perspectives will also be outlined. PMID:26779486

  2. Computer-Assisted Orthopedic Surgery: Current State and Future Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Guoyan; Nolte, Lutz P.

    2015-01-01

    Introduced about two decades ago, computer-assisted orthopedic surgery (CAOS) has emerged as a new and independent area, due to the importance of treatment of musculoskeletal diseases in orthopedics and traumatology, increasing availability of different imaging modalities, and advances in analytics and navigation tools. The aim of this paper is to present the basic elements of CAOS devices and to review state-of-the-art examples of different imaging modalities used to create the virtual representations, of different position tracking devices for navigation systems, of different surgical robots, of different methods for registration and referencing, and of CAOS modules that have been realized for different surgical procedures. Future perspectives will also be outlined. PMID:26779486

  3. Phenotypic Variability in Resting-State Functional Connectivity: Current Status

    PubMed Central

    Gordon, Evan M.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract We reviewed the extant literature with the goal of assessing the extent to which resting-state functional connectivity is associated with phenotypic variability in healthy and disordered populations. A large corpus of work has accumulated to date (125 studies), supporting the association between intrinsic functional connectivity and individual differences in a wide range of domains—not only in cognitive, perceptual, motoric, and linguistic performance, but also in behavioral traits (e.g., impulsiveness, risky decision making, personality, and empathy) and states (e.g., anxiety and psychiatric symptoms) that are distinguished by cognitive and affective functioning, and in neurological conditions with cognitive and motor sequelae. Further, intrinsic functional connectivity is sensitive to remote (e.g., early-life stress) and enduring (e.g., duration of symptoms) life experience, and it exhibits plasticity in response to recent experience (e.g., learning and adaptation) and pharmacological treatment. The most pervasive associations were observed with the default network; associations were also widespread between the cingulo-opercular network and both cognitive and affective behaviors, while the frontoparietal network was associated primarily with cognitive functions. Associations of somatomotor, frontotemporal, auditory, and amygdala networks were relatively restricted to the behaviors linked to their respective putative functions. Surprisingly, visual network associations went beyond visual function to include a variety of behavioral traits distinguished by affective function. Together, the reviewed evidence sets the stage for testing causal hypothesis about the functional role of intrinsic connectivity and augments its potential as a biomarker for healthy and disordered brain function. PMID:23294010

  4. Phenotypic variability in resting-state functional connectivity: current status.

    PubMed

    Vaidya, Chandan J; Gordon, Evan M

    2013-01-01

    We reviewed the extant literature with the goal of assessing the extent to which resting-state functional connectivity is associated with phenotypic variability in healthy and disordered populations. A large corpus of work has accumulated to date (125 studies), supporting the association between intrinsic functional connectivity and individual differences in a wide range of domains-not only in cognitive, perceptual, motoric, and linguistic performance, but also in behavioral traits (e.g., impulsiveness, risky decision making, personality, and empathy) and states (e.g., anxiety and psychiatric symptoms) that are distinguished by cognitive and affective functioning, and in neurological conditions with cognitive and motor sequelae. Further, intrinsic functional connectivity is sensitive to remote (e.g., early-life stress) and enduring (e.g., duration of symptoms) life experience, and it exhibits plasticity in response to recent experience (e.g., learning and adaptation) and pharmacological treatment. The most pervasive associations were observed with the default network; associations were also widespread between the cingulo-opercular network and both cognitive and affective behaviors, while the frontoparietal network was associated primarily with cognitive functions. Associations of somatomotor, frontotemporal, auditory, and amygdala networks were relatively restricted to the behaviors linked to their respective putative functions. Surprisingly, visual network associations went beyond visual function to include a variety of behavioral traits distinguished by affective function. Together, the reviewed evidence sets the stage for testing causal hypothesis about the functional role of intrinsic connectivity and augments its potential as a biomarker for healthy and disordered brain function. PMID:23294010

  5. Cancer Treatment-Related Cardiotoxicity: Understanding the Current State of Knowledge and Developing Future Research Priorities

    Cancer.gov

    Cancer Treatment-Related Cardiotoxicity: Understanding the Current State of Knowledge and Developing Future Research Priorities, a 2013 workshop sponsored by the Epidemiology and Genomics Research Program.

  6. Proteomics of the Lysosome

    PubMed Central

    Lübke, Torben; Lobel, Peter; Sleat, David

    2009-01-01

    Defects in lysosomal function have been associated with numerous monogenic human diseases typically classified as lysosomal storage diseases. However, there is increasing evidence that lysosomal proteins are also involved in more widespread human diseases including cancer and Alzheimer disease. Thus, there is a continuing interest in understanding the cellular functions of the lysosome and an emerging approach to this is the identification of its constituent proteins by proteomic analyses. To date, the mammalian lysosome has been shown to contain ~ 60 soluble luminal proteins and ~25 transmembrane proteins. However, recent proteomic studies based upon affinity purification of soluble components or subcellular fractionation to obtain both soluble and membrane components suggest that there may be many more of both classes of protein resident within this organelle than previously appreciated. Discovery of such proteins has important implications for understanding the function and the dynamics of the lysosome but can also lead the way towards the discovery of the genetic basis for human diseases of hitherto unknown etiology. Here, we describe current approaches to lysosomal proteomics and data interpretation and review the new lysosomal proteins that have recently emerged from such studies. PMID:18977398

  7. The proteome browser web portal.

    PubMed

    Goode, Robert J A; Yu, Simon; Kannan, Anitha; Christiansen, Jeffrey H; Beitz, Anthony; Hancock, William S; Nice, Edouard; Smith, A Ian

    2013-01-01

    In 2010, the Human Proteome Organization launched the Human Proteome Project (HPP), aimed at identifying and characterizing the proteome of the human body. To support complete coverage, one arm of the project will take a gene- or chromosomal-centric strategy (C-HPP) aimed at identifying at least one protein product from each protein-coding gene. Despite multiple large international biological databases housing genomic and protein data, there is currently no single system that integrates updated pertinent information from each of these data repositories and assembles the information into a searchable format suitable for the type of global proteomics effort proposed by the C-HPP. We have undertaken the goal of producing a data integration and analysis software system and browser for the C-HPP effort and of making data collections from this resource discoverable through metadata repositories, such as Australian National Data Service's Research Data Australia. Here we present our vision and progress toward the goal of developing a comprehensive data integration and analysis software tool that provides a snapshot of currently available proteomic related knowledge around each gene product, which will ultimately assist in analyzing biological function and the study of human physiology in health and disease.

  8. 42 CFR 457.80 - Current State child health insurance coverage and coordination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Current State child health insurance coverage and... HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) STATE CHILDREN'S HEALTH INSURANCE PROGRAMS (SCHIPs) ALLOTMENTS AND GRANTS TO STATES Introduction; State Plans for Child Health Insurance Programs and Outreach...

  9. 42 CFR 457.80 - Current State child health insurance coverage and coordination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Current State child health insurance coverage and... HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) STATE CHILDREN'S HEALTH INSURANCE PROGRAMS (SCHIPs) ALLOTMENTS AND GRANTS TO STATES Introduction; State Plans for Child Health Insurance Programs and Outreach...

  10. 42 CFR 457.80 - Current State child health insurance coverage and coordination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Current State child health insurance coverage and... HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) STATE CHILDREN'S HEALTH INSURANCE PROGRAMS (SCHIPs) ALLOTMENTS AND GRANTS TO STATES Introduction; State Plans for Child Health Insurance Programs and Outreach...

  11. 42 CFR 457.80 - Current State child health insurance coverage and coordination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Current State child health insurance coverage and... HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) STATE CHILDREN'S HEALTH INSURANCE PROGRAMS (SCHIPs) ALLOTMENTS AND GRANTS TO STATES Introduction; State Plans for Child Health Insurance Programs and Outreach...

  12. Small-molecule PSMA ligands. Current state, SAR and perspectives.

    PubMed

    Machulkin, Alexey E; Ivanenkov, Yan A; Aladinskaya, Anastasia V; Veselov, Mark S; Aladinskiy, Vladimir A; Beloglazkina, Elena K; Koteliansky, Victor E; Shakhbazyan, Artem G; Sandulenko, Yuri B; Majouga, Alexander G

    2016-09-01

    Prostate cancer (PC) is the prevalent malignancy widespread among men in the Western World. Prostate specific membrane antigen (PSMA) is an established PC marker and has been considered as a promising biological target for anti-PC drug delivery and diagnostics. The protein was found to be overexpressed in PC cells, including metastatic, and the neovasculature of solid tumors. These properties make PSMA-based approach quite appropriate for effective PC imaging and specific drug therapy. Through the past decade, a variety of PSMA-targeted agents has been systematically evaluated. Small-molecule compounds have several advantages over other classes, such as improved pharmacokinetics and rapid blood clearance. These low-weight ligands have similar structure and can be divided into three basic categories in accordance with the type of their zinc-binding core-head. Several PSMA binders are currently undergoing clinical trials generally for PC imaging. The main goal of the present review is to describe the recent progress achieved within the title field and structure activity relationships (SAR) disclosed for different PSMA ligands. Recent in vitro and in vivo studies for each type of the compounds described have also been briefly summarized. PMID:26887438

  13. Current HDTV overview in the United States, Japan, and Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cripps, Dale E.

    1991-08-01

    Vast resources are being spent on three continents, preparing for the commercialization of HDTV. The forces that together will launch this new industry are moving at dizzying speeds. This paper covers the highlights of events past and present and offers some predictions for the future. Difficult standards problems that keep brakes on the industry, and that will continue for some time to come. Standards committees have been set up around the world and are hard at work. It is a job with considerable technical and political challenges. By the time major plans and resources come together for commercialization of HDTV, one can trust that there will be adequately stable standards. But to observe the current status is to see a mess. High definition is not only consumer television. Because of its versatility, it is much more likely to find its way first into areas offering high returns such as medicine, education, printing, corporate communications, military and space, and even criminal control. HDTV is very likely to deliver movies and cultural events to theaters, and may also become the platform for a new generation of computers.

  14. Atopic eczema: the current state of clinical research.

    PubMed

    Lawton, Sandra

    Atopic eczema (AE), also known as atopic dermatitis, is a chronic, inflammatory, itchy skin condition that usually develops in early childhood. There has been a steep rise in the burden of atopic eczema, with up to 20% of children in developed countries now suffering from the disease (Flohr and Mann, 2014). Although atopic eczema is not always recognised as a serious medical condition by health professionals, it can have a significant negative impact on quality of life for children and their parents or carers (National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE), 2013). The application of eczema treatments often results in conflict between parents and their children, which affects family relationships further and drains the carers' physical and emotional resources (Santer et al, 2013). It is typically an episodic disease of exacerbation with flares occurring two or three times per month, with periods of remission. For some children, however, it is continuous (NICE, 2013). Although a common condition, there are uncertainties regarding treatments used both for health professionals and for patients and their carers. A recent priority setting partnership highlighted the top 14 uncertainties (Box 1), which will provide guidance for future research and answer questions that are important to both clinicians and patients (Batchelor et al, 2013). This article cannot cover all aspects of AE, but will give an update on some of the current research projects and signpost the reader to further resources.

  15. Passive Immunization against Congenital Cytomegalovirus Infection: Current State of Knowledge.

    PubMed

    Jückstock, Julia; Rothenburger, Markus; Friese, Klaus; Traunmüller, Friederike

    2015-01-01

    Primary infection with the human cytomegalovirus (CMV) occurs in 1-4% of pregnancies. The rates of maternal-fetal CMV transmissions are around 25, 36, 41, and 66%, for infections occurring in the peri-conceptional weeks, first, second, and third trimester of pregnancy, respectively. On the other hand, the severity of fetal organ damage and dysfunction diminishes with increasing gestational age. Congenitally CMV-infected newborns may have neurosensory impairments like mental retardation, cerebral palsy, epilepsy, progressive hearing loss or visual defects, or even may have a fatal outcome. In in-vitro experiments, CMV specific neutralizing IgG antibodies - which are abundant in CMV specific hyperimmune globulin (HIG) products - inhibited the entry of the virus into target cells and hampered viral cell-to-cell spread. This article provides a brief overview on the epidemiology and diagnostic tools in congenital CMV infection. It also concisely summarizes the currently available study results on the safety and effectiveness of HIG treatment. Accordingly, in clinical studies HIG administration to expectant mothers following primary CMV infection (prophylactic use) was shown to lower the risk of maternal-fetal transmission of CMV compared to untreated controls. HIG was also able to ameliorate the disease sequelae in evidently infected fetuses (therapeutic use), as demonstrated by the regression or even resolution of sonographic pathologies including placental inflammation.

  16. Clinical pharmacology in Russia-historical development and current state.

    PubMed

    Zagorodnikova Goryachkina, Ksenia; Burbello, Aleksandra; Sychev, Dmitry; Frolov, Maxim; Kukes, Vladimir; Petrov, Vladimir

    2015-02-01

    Clinical pharmacology in Russia has long history and is currently active, but rather unrecognized internationally. It is governmentally approved as a teaching/scientific specialty since 1983 and as a medical specialty since 1997. Courses of clinical pharmacology are included in the undergraduate curricula in the 5th and/or 6th year of education at all medical schools in the Russian Federation. Postgraduate education includes initial specialization in internal medicine with further residency in clinical pharmacology. Governmental legislation recommends that every healthcare institution has either a department or a single position of clinical pharmacologist. Major routine duties include information about and monitoring of medication use, consultations in difficult clinical situations, pharmacogenetic counseling, therapeutic drug monitoring, pharmacovigilance, and participation in drug and therapeutics (formulary) committees. There are official experts in clinical pharmacology in Russia responsible for coordinating relevant legislative issues. The chief expert clinical pharmacologist represents the discipline directly at the Ministry of Health. Research in clinical pharmacology in Russia is extensive and variable, but only some of it is published internationally. Russia is a participant of international societies of clinical pharmacology and therapeutics and collaboration is actively ongoing. There are still certain problems related to the development of the discipline in Russia-some healthcare institutions do not see the need for clinical pharmacology. However, the number of clinical pharmacologists in Russia is increasing as well as their role in physicians' education, national healthcare, and research.

  17. Current state in the development of candidate therapeutic HPV vaccines.

    PubMed

    Yang, Andrew; Jeang, Jessica; Cheng, Kevin; Cheng, Ting; Yang, Benjamin; Wu, T-C; Hung, Chien-Fu

    2016-08-01

    The identification of human papillomavirus (HPV) as an etiological factor for HPV-associated malignancies creates the opportunity to control these cancers through vaccination. Currently, available preventive HPV vaccines have not yet demonstrated strong evidences for therapeutic effects against established HPV infections and lesions. Furthermore, HPV infections remain extremely common. Thus, there is urgent need for therapeutic vaccines to treat existing HPV infections and HPV-associated diseases. Therapeutic vaccines differ from preventive vaccines in that they are aimed at generating cell-mediated immunity rather than neutralizing antibodies. The HPV-encoded early proteins, especially oncoproteins E6 and E7, form ideal targets for therapeutic HPV vaccines since they are consistently expressed in HPV-associated malignancies and precancerous lesions, playing crucial roles in the generation and maintenance of HPV-associated disease. Our review will cover various therapeutic vaccines in development for the treatment of HPV-associated lesions and cancers. Furthermore, we review strategies to enhance vaccine efficacy and the latest clinical trials on therapeutic HPV vaccines.

  18. Robotic Gastrectomy: The Current State of the Art

    PubMed Central

    Marano, Alessandra

    2012-01-01

    Since the first laparoscopic gastrectomy for cancer was reported in 1994, minimally invasive surgery is enjoying its wide acceptance. Numerous procedures of this approach have developed, and many patients have benefited from its effectiveness, which has been recently demonstrated for early gastric cancer. However, since laparoscopic surgery is not exempt from some limitations, the robotic surgery system was introduced as a solution by the late 1990's. Many experienced surgeons have embraced this new emerging method that provides undoubted technical and minimally invasive advantages. To date, several studies have concentrated to this new system, and have compared it with open and laparoscopic approach. Most of them have reported satisfactory results concerning the post-operative short-term outcomes, but almost all believe that the role of robotic gastrectomy is still out of focus, especially because long-term outcomes that can prove robotic oncologic equivalency are lacking, and operative costs and time are higher in comparison to the open and laparoscopic ones. This article is a review about the current status of robotic surgery for the treatment of gastric cancer, especially, focusing on the technical aspects, comparisons to other approaches and future prospects. PMID:22792518

  19. Guide to clinical practice guidelines: the current state of play

    PubMed Central

    Kredo, Tamara; Bernhardsson, Susanne; Machingaidze, Shingai; Young, Taryn; Louw, Quinette; Ochodo, Eleanor; Grimmer, Karen

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Extensive research has been undertaken over the last 30 years on the methods underpinning clinical practice guidelines (CPGs), including their development, updating, reporting, tailoring for specific purposes, implementation and evaluation. This has resulted in an increasing number of terms, tools and acronyms. Over time, CPGs have shifted from opinion-based to evidence-informed, including increasingly sophisticated methodologies and implementation strategies, and thus keeping abreast of evolution in this field of research can be challenging. Methods This article collates findings from an extensive document search, to provide a guide describing standards, methods and systems reported in the current CPG methodology and implementation literature. This guide is targeted at those working in health care quality and safety and responsible for either commissioning, researching or delivering health care. It is presented in a way that can be updated as the field expands. Conclusion CPG development and implementation have attracted the most international interest and activity, whilst CPG updating, adopting (with or without contextualization), adapting and impact evaluation are less well addressed. PMID:26796486

  20. Precision therapy for lymphoma--current state and future directions.

    PubMed

    Intlekofer, Andrew M; Younes, Anas

    2014-10-01

    Modern advances in genomics and cancer biology have produced an unprecedented body of knowledge regarding the molecular pathogenesis of lymphoma. The diverse histological subtypes of lymphoma are molecularly heterogeneous, and most likely arise from distinct oncogenic mechanisms. In parallel to these advances in lymphoma biology, several new classes of molecularly targeted agents have been developed with varying degrees of efficacy across the different types of lymphoma. In general, the development of new drugs for treating lymphoma has been mostly empiric, with a limited knowledge of the molecular target, its involvement in the disease, and the effect of the drug on the target. Thus, the variability observed in clinical responses likely results from underlying molecular heterogeneity. In the era of personalized medicine, the challenge for the treatment of patients with lymphoma will involve correctly matching a molecularly targeted therapy to the unique genetic and molecular composition of each individual lymphoma. In this Review, we discuss current and emerging biomarkers that can guide treatment decisions for patients with lymphoma, and explore the potential challenges and strategies for making biomarker-driven personalized medicine a reality in the cure and management of this disease.

  1. Meditative analgesia: the current state of the field.

    PubMed

    Grant, Joshua A

    2014-01-01

    Since the first demonstrations that mindfulness-based therapies could have a positive influence on chronic pain patients, numerous studies have been conducted with healthy individuals in an attempt to understand meditative analgesia. This review focuses explicitly on experimental pain studies of meditation and attempts to draw preliminary conclusions based on the work completed in this new field over the past 6 years. Dividing meditative practices into the broad categories of focused attention (FA) and open monitoring (OM) techniques allowed several patterns to emerge. The majority of evidence for FA practices suggests they are not particularly effective in reducing pain. OM, on the other hand, seems to influence both sensory and affective pain ratings depending on the tradition or on whether the practitioners were meditating. The neural pattern underlying pain modulation during OM suggests meditators actively focus on the noxious stimulation while inhibiting other mental processes, consistent with descriptions of mindfulness. A preliminary model is presented for explaining the influence of mindfulness practice on pain. Finally, the potential analgesic effect of the currently unexplored technique of compassion meditation is discussed. PMID:24673150

  2. Current state of psychotherapy training: preparing for the future.

    PubMed

    Kay, Jerald; Myers, Michael F

    2014-09-01

    This article provides an overview of what is currently being taught in psychiatry residency programs about psychotherapy in general, and to evolving changes in the field related to mental health parity and the Affordable Care Act (ACA) in particular. Future psychiatrists must have a firm grasp of not only the principles of psychotherapy but also the development of increasingly effective and evidence-based psychotherapies if they are to be effective health care leaders. We review what attracts medical students to psychiatry and how much their decision to train in psychiatry is rooted in a desire to learn both dynamic psychiatry and psychotherapy in its various modalities. It is no secret that the quality of teaching and learning psychotherapy is variable in our training programs. One reason for this can be attributed to trainees who ascribe more to the biological dimensions of our field and have less interest and commitment to more than basic skills in psychotherapy. In addition, in some settings there is a dearth of teachers trained in the various forms of psychotherapy who are committed to this pedagogical imperative. We conclude with several recommendations to residency training programs and to residents themselves regarding what we deem essential in both the curricular and clinical exposure to the challenges and shortcomings of the mental health parity and Affordable Care Act. Tomorrow's psychiatrists have a fiduciary responsibility of advocating for their complex and chronically ill patients that must include providing psychotherapy. PMID:25211436

  3. Current state of psychotherapy training: preparing for the future.

    PubMed

    Kay, Jerald; Myers, Michael F

    2014-09-01

    This article provides an overview of what is currently being taught in psychiatry residency programs about psychotherapy in general, and to evolving changes in the field related to mental health parity and the Affordable Care Act (ACA) in particular. Future psychiatrists must have a firm grasp of not only the principles of psychotherapy but also the development of increasingly effective and evidence-based psychotherapies if they are to be effective health care leaders. We review what attracts medical students to psychiatry and how much their decision to train in psychiatry is rooted in a desire to learn both dynamic psychiatry and psychotherapy in its various modalities. It is no secret that the quality of teaching and learning psychotherapy is variable in our training programs. One reason for this can be attributed to trainees who ascribe more to the biological dimensions of our field and have less interest and commitment to more than basic skills in psychotherapy. In addition, in some settings there is a dearth of teachers trained in the various forms of psychotherapy who are committed to this pedagogical imperative. We conclude with several recommendations to residency training programs and to residents themselves regarding what we deem essential in both the curricular and clinical exposure to the challenges and shortcomings of the mental health parity and Affordable Care Act. Tomorrow's psychiatrists have a fiduciary responsibility of advocating for their complex and chronically ill patients that must include providing psychotherapy.

  4. Current state of web accessibility of Malaysian ministries websites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmi, Aidi; Mohamad, Rosli

    2016-08-01

    Despite the fact that Malaysian public institutions have progressed considerably on website and portal usage, web accessibility has been reported as one of the issues deserves special attention. Consistent with the government moves to promote an effective use of web and portal, it is essential for the government institutions to ensure compliance with established standards and guidelines on web accessibility. This paper evaluates accessibility of 25 Malaysian ministries websites using automated tools i.e. WAVE and Achecker. Both tools are designed to objectively evaluate web accessibility in conformance with Web Content Accessibility Guidelines 2.0 (WCAG 2.0) and United States Rehabilitation Act 1973 (Section 508). The findings reported somewhat low compliance to web accessibility standard amongst the ministries. Further enhancement is needed in the aspect of input elements such as label and checkbox to be associated with text as well as image-related elements. This findings could be used as a mechanism for webmasters to locate and rectify errors pertaining to the web accessibility and to ensure equal access of the web information and services to all citizen.

  5. Towards Sustainable Water Quality In Estuarine Impoundments: The Current State.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wright, J.; Worrall, F.

    Several estuarine impoundment schemes have been built or are proposed in the UK and worldwide. The impounding of estuaries is currently a popular approach to urban regeneration in the UK. By creation of an aesthetically pleasing amenity impound- ment, including the drowning of "unsightly" tidal mud flats, it is hoped that prestige development will be encouraged in the estuarine area. Impounding fundamentally alters the dynamics of estuaries, with consequences in terms of sedimentation patterns and rates, and water quality. The SIMBA Project at- tempts to understand the controls on water quality in impoundments, with a view to- wards long term and sustainable high water quality through good barrage design and management practice. Detailed water quality surveys have been carried out on a total of 79 dates on the Tees, Tawe, Wansbeck and Blyth estuaries. Water quality parameters which have been determined are pH, Eh, dissolved oxygen (DO), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), conductivity, transparency, suspended solids, alkalinity, temperature, nutri- ents (nitrate+nitrite, ammonium and orthophosphate), and a large range of dissolved metals. Statistical analyses are used to demonstrate the major controls on water qual- ity in impoundments. A distinction is made between total tidal exclusion (freshwater) systems, in which water quality is primarily influenced by external/catchment factors, and partial tidal exclusion systems, in which water quality is processed internally. This internal processing is due to density stratification creating compartments of saline wa- ter in contact with oxygen demanding sediments and isolated from the atmosphere, which leads to conditions of low DO and changes in redox conditions which may lead to release of metals and phosphate from the sediment.

  6. Circulating vaccine-derived polioviruses: current state of knowledge.

    PubMed Central

    Kew, Olen M.; Wright, Peter F.; Agol, Vadim I.; Delpeyroux, Francis; Shimizu, Hiroyuki; Nathanson, Neal; Pallansch, Mark A.

    2004-01-01

    Within the past 4 years, poliomyelitis outbreaks associated with circulating vaccine-derived polioviruses (cVDPVs) have occurred in Hispaniola (2000-01), the Philippines (2001), and Madagascar (2001-02). Retrospective studies have also detected the circulation of endemic cVDPV in Egypt (1988-93) and the likely localized spread of oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV)-derived virus in Belarus (1965-66). Gaps in OPV coverage and the previous eradication of the corresponding serotype of indigenous wild poliovirus were the critical risk factors for all cVDPV outbreaks. The cVDPV outbreaks were stopped by mass immunization campaigns using OPV. To increase sensitivity for detecting vaccine-derived polioviruses (VDPVs), in 2001 the Global Polio Laboratory Network implemented additional testing requirements for all poliovirus isolates under investigation. This approach quickly led to the recognition of the Philippines and Madagascar cVDPV outbreaks, but of no other current outbreaks. The potential risk of cVDPV emergence has increased dramatically in recent years as wild poliovirus circulation has ceased in most of the world. The risk appears highest for the type 2 OPV strain because of its greater tendency to spread to contacts. The emergence of cVDPVs underscores the critical importance of eliminating the last pockets of wild poliovirus circulation, maintaining universally high levels of polio vaccine coverage, stopping OPV use as soon as it is safely possible to do so, and continuing sensitive poliovirus surveillance into the foreseeable future. Particular attention must be given to areas where the risks for wild poliovirus circulation have been highest, and where the highest rates of polio vaccine coverage must be maintained to suppress cVDPV emergence. PMID:15106296

  7. Current cigarette smoking among adults - United States, 2005-2014.

    PubMed

    Jamal, Ahmed; Homa, David M; O'Connor, Erin; Babb, Stephen D; Caraballo, Ralph S; Singh, Tushar; Hu, S Sean; King, Brian A

    2015-11-13

    Tobacco smoking is the leading cause of preventable disease and death in the United States, resulting in approximately 480,000 premature deaths and more than $300 billion in direct health care expenditures and productivity losses each year (1). To assess progress toward achieving the Healthy People 2020 objective of reducing the percentage of U.S. adults who smoke cigarettes to ≤12.0%,* CDC assessed the most recent national estimates of smoking prevalence among adults aged ≥18 years using data from the 2014 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS). The percentage of U.S. adults who smoke cigarettes declined from 20.9% in 2005 to 16.8% in 2014. Among daily cigarette smokers, declines were observed in the percentage who smoked 20–29 cigarettes per day (from 34.9% to 27.4%) or ≥30 cigarettes per day (from 12.7% to 6.9%). In 2014, prevalence of cigarette smoking was higher among males, adults aged 25–44 years, multiracial persons and American Indian/Alaska Natives, persons who have a General Education Development certificate, live below the federal poverty level, live in the Midwest, are insured through Medicaid or are uninsured, have a disability or limitation, or are lesbian, gay, or bisexual. Proven population-based interventions, including tobacco price increases, comprehensive smoke-free laws, high impact mass media campaigns, and barrier-free access to quitting assistance, are critical to reduce cigarette smoking and smoking-related disease and death among U.S. adults. PMID:26562061

  8. Current State of the Art in High Brightness LEDs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Craford, George

    2007-03-01

    LED's have been commercially available since the 1960's. For many years they were used primarily for indicator applications. The remarkable increase in materials technology and efficiency that has been achieved since the early 1990's for AlInGaP red and amber LEDs, and InGaN green and blue LEDs, has enabled the penetration of markets such as outdoor display, signaling, and automotive brake light and turn signal applications. White LEDs, which are either blue LEDs combined with a phosphor, or a combination of red, green, and blue LEDs, are being used in emerging applications such as cell phone flash, television backlights, projection, and automotive headlights. In addition, to efficiency improvements these applications have required the development of higher power packages and, in some of these applications which are etendue limited, higher luminance devices. High power devices are commercially available which are capable of 140 lumens output and have an efficacy of around 70 lm/W for white emission. New package and chip technologies have been demonstrated which have a luminance of 38 mega nits (Mcd/m^2), approximately 50% more luminance than that of an automotive headlamp halogen bulb (˜25 mega nits). The recent progress in materials technology, packaging, and chip technology makes it clear that LED's will become important for general illumination applications. The rate of LED penetration of this market will depend upon continued increases in performance and lower costs as well as better control of the white spectral emission. Efficiency, current density, and costs are closely linked because the cost in dollars/lumen is inversely proportional to how many lumens can be realized from each unit of device area for a given device type. Performance as high as 138 lm/W, and over 40% wall plug efficiency, has been reported for low power research devices and over 90 lm/W for high power research devices. It is clear that high power commercial products with performance in

  9. The current state of seismic monitoring in Switzerland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clinton, J. F.; Haslinger, F.; Diehl, T.; Cauzzi, C.; Plenkers, K.; Kästli, P.; Fäh, D.; Wiemer, S.

    2013-12-01

    The Swiss Seismological Service at ETH Zurich (SED) operates both the national strong motion and broadband permanent seismic networks in Switzerland, as well as supporting local real-time densifications related to projects (such as geothermal explorations and major tunneling) and a mobile pool for national and international deployments related to research and aftershock studies. This submission provides an overview of the current status of network monitoring in Switzerland. A digital high gain network has been operating since 1974 and was upgraded to a continuously recording realtime modern 24 bit broadband network comprising 30 stations from 1999-2002, with station spacing averaging ~30km across the nation. Various improvements and densifications since then have raised the number of broadband sensors to 45 and added co-located strong motion sensors at 13 sites. A notable recent densification is in the NE of Switzerland, where the Swiss National Cooperative for the Disposal of Radioactive Waste (Nagra) have funded an additional 10 broadband stations (including 3 100-200m deep borehole short period stations) in order to reduce the earthquake detection threshold and increase location accuracy in regions that are identified as potential deep nuclear waste storage sites. A strong motion network has been maintained since 1990, comprising 70 12-16 bit triggered sensors located predominantly in free-field urban sites but also including arrays on dams. The free-field network is in the midst of an upgrade (2009-2018), with 30 new stations already installed from the eventual 100 new free-field 24-bit real-time continuous stations. A project has just begun to upgrade the Swiss broadband network, which will co-locate strong-motion sensors at existing broadband sites; assess and implement improvements of installation quality, e.g. by shallow post-hole installations rather than surface vaults; and potentially fill remaining gaps in station coverage. The seismic network has

  10. [Malaria in Hungary: origin, current state and principles of prevention].

    PubMed

    Szénási, Zsuzsanna; Vass, Adám; Melles, Márta; Kucsera, István; Danka, József; Csohán, Agnes; Krisztalovics, Katalin

    2003-05-25

    Malaria was an endemic disease in Hungary for many centuries. A country-wide survey of the epidemiologic situation on malaria started in the year of 1927. That was done by the Department of Parasitology of the Royal State Institute of Hygiene (presently: Johan Béla National Center for Epidemiology). The notification of malaria was made compulsory in 1930. Free of charge laboratory examination of the blood of persons suffering from malaria or suspected of an infection have been carried out. Anti-malarial drugs were also distributed free of charge, together with appropriate medical advise given at the anti-malarial sanitary stations. Between 1933 and 1943, the actual number of malaria cases was estimated as high as 10-100,000 per year. The major breakthrough came in 1949 by the organized antimalarial campaign applying DDT for mosquito eradication. The drastic reduction of the vectors resulted in the rapid decline of malaria cases. Since 1956, there have not been reported any indigenous case in Hungary. In 1963, Hungary entered on the Official Register of the WHO to the areas where malaria eradication has been achieved. During the period of 1963-2001, 169 Hungarians acquired the malaria in abroad and 263 foreigners infected in abroad were registered in Hungary. More than half of the cases (230) were caused by Plasmodium falciparum. Further 178 cases were caused by Plasmodium vivax and 24 cases by other Plasmodium species. During that period, 7 fatal cases were reported (Plasmodium falciparum). The expansion of migration (both the increase of the number of foreigners travelling into Hungary and of Hungarians travelling abroad) favours to the appearance of imported cases. Attention is called of all the persons travelling to malaria endemic countries to the importance of malaria prevention by the International Vaccination Stations located in the National Center for Epidemiology and in the Public Health Institutes of 19 counties and of Budapest. The Johan Béla National

  11. Consolidation of proteomics data in the Cancer Proteomics database.

    PubMed

    Arntzen, Magnus Ø; Boddie, Paul; Frick, Rahel; Koehler, Christian J; Thiede, Bernd

    2015-11-01

    Cancer is a class of diseases characterized by abnormal cell growth and one of the major reasons for human deaths. Proteins are involved in the molecular mechanisms leading to cancer, furthermore they are affected by anti-cancer drugs, and protein biomarkers can be used to diagnose certain cancer types. Therefore, it is important to explore the proteomics background of cancer. In this report, we developed the Cancer Proteomics database to re-interrogate published proteome studies investigating cancer. The database is divided in three sections related to cancer processes, cancer types, and anti-cancer drugs. Currently, the Cancer Proteomics database contains 9778 entries of 4118 proteins extracted from 143 scientific articles covering all three sections: cell death (cancer process), prostate cancer (cancer type) and platinum-based anti-cancer drugs including carboplatin, cisplatin, and oxaliplatin (anti-cancer drugs). The detailed information extracted from the literature includes basic information about the articles (e.g., PubMed ID, authors, journal name, publication year), information about the samples (type, study/reference, prognosis factor), and the proteomics workflow (Subcellular fractionation, protein, and peptide separation, mass spectrometry, quantification). Useful annotations such as hyperlinks to UniProt and PubMed were included. In addition, many filtering options were established as well as export functions. The database is freely available at http://cancerproteomics.uio.no.

  12. Proteomic analysis and discovery using affinity proteomics and mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Olsson, Niclas; Wingren, Christer; Mattsson, Mikael; James, Peter; O'Connell, David; Nilsson, Fredrik; Cahill, Dolores J; Borrebaeck, Carl A K

    2011-10-01

    Antibody-based microarrays are a rapidly evolving affinity-proteomic methodology that recently has shown great promise in clinical applications. The resolution of these proteomic analyses is, however, directly related to the number of data-points, i.e. antibodies, included on the array. Currently, this is a key bottleneck because of limited availability of numerous highly characterized antibodies. Here, we present a conceptually new method, denoted global proteome survey, opening up the possibility to probe any proteome in a species-independent manner while still using a limited set of antibodies. We use context-independent-motif-specific antibodies directed against short amino acid motifs, where each motif is present in up to a few hundred different proteins. First, the digested proteome is exposed to these antibodies, whereby motif-containing peptides are enriched, which then are detected and identified by mass spectrometry. In this study, we profiled extracts from human colon tissue, yeast cells lysate, and mouse liver tissue to demonstrate proof-of-concept.

  13. New Insights into the Disease Progression Control Mechanisms by Comparing Long-Term-Nonprogressors versus Normal-Progressors among HIV-1-Positive Patients Using an Ion Current-Based MS1 Proteomic Profiling.

    PubMed

    Shen, Xiaomeng; Nair, Bindukumar; Mahajan, Supriya D; Jiang, Xiaosheng; Li, Jun; Shen, Shichen; Tu, Chengjian; Hsiao, Chiu-Bin; Schwartz, Stanley A; Qu, Jun

    2015-12-01

    For decades, epidemiological studies have found significant differences in the susceptibility to disease progression among HIV-carrying patients. One unique group of HIV-1-positive patients, the long-term-nonprogressors (LTNP), exhibits far superior ability in virus control compared with normal-progressors (NP), which proceed to Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) much more rapidly. Nonetheless, elucidation of the underlying mechanisms of virus control in LTNP is highly valuable in disease management and treatment but remains poorly understood. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) have been known to play important roles in innate immune responses and thereby would be of great interest for the investigation of the mechanisms of virus defense in LTNP. Here, we described the first comparative proteome analysis of PBMC from LTNP (n = 10) and NP (n = 10) patients using a reproducible ion-current-based MS1 approach, which includes efficient and reproducible sample preparation and chromatographic separation followed by an optimized pipeline for protein identification and quantification. This strategy enables analysis of many biological samples in one set with high quantitative precision and extremely low missing data. In total, 925 unique proteins were quantified under stringent criteria without missing value in any of the 20 subjects, and 87 proteins showed altered expressions between the two patient groups. These proteins are implicated in key processes such as cytoskeleton organization, defense response, apoptosis regulation, intracellular transport, etc., which provided novel insights into the control of disease progressions in LTNP versus NP, and the expression and phosphorylation states of key regulators were further validated by immunoassay. For instance, (1) SAMH1, a potent and "hot" molecule facilitating HIV-1 defense, was for the first time found elevated in LTNP compared with NP or healthy controls; elevated proteins from IFN-α response pathway may

  14. Proteomic profiling of lymphocytes in autoimmunity, inflammation and cancer

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Lymphocytes play important roles in the balance between body defense and noxious agents involved in a number of diseases, e.g. autoimmune diseases, allergic inflammation and cancer. The proteomic analyses have been applied to identify and validate disease-associated and disease-specific biomarkers for therapeutic strategies of diseases. The proteomic profiles of lymphocytes may provide more information to understand their functions and roles in the development of diseases, although proteomic approaches in lymphocytes are still limited. The present review overviewed the proteomics-based studies on lymphocytes to headlight the proteomic profiles of lymphocytes in diseases, such as autoimmune diseases, allergic inflammation and cancer, with a special focus on lung diseases. We will explore the potential significance of diagnostic biomarkers and therapeutic targets from the current status in proteomic studies of lymphocytes and discuss the value of the currently available proteomic methodologies in the lymphocytes research. PMID:24397796

  15. 78 FR 9929 - Current Traumatic Brain Injury State Implementation Partnership Grantees; Non-Competitive One...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-12

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Health Resources and Services Administration Current Traumatic Brain Injury State...-Competitive One-Year Extension Funds for Current Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) State Implementation Partnership... by the Traumatic Brain Injury Act of 1996 (Pub. L. 104-166) and was most recently reauthorized by...

  16. 75 FR 7284 - NIOSH Current Intelligence Bulletin-Asbestos Fibers and Other Elongate Mineral Particles: State...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-18

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention NIOSH Current Intelligence Bulletin--Asbestos... available for public comment entitled ``NIOSH Current Intelligence Bulletin--Asbestos Fibers and Other..., ``NIOSH Current Intelligence Bulletin--Asbestos Fibers and Other Elongate Mineral Particles: State of...

  17. Current Control in ITER Steady State Plasmas With Neutral Beam Steering

    SciTech Connect

    R.V. Budny

    2009-09-10

    Predictions of quasi steady state DT plasmas in ITER are generated using the PTRANSP code. The plasma temperatures, densities, boundary shape, and total current (9 - 10 MA) anticipated for ITER steady state plasmas are specified. Current drive by negative ion neutral beam injection, lower-hybrid, and electron cyclotron resonance are calculated. Four modes of operation with different combinations of current drive are studied. For each mode, scans with the NNBI aimed at differing heights in the plasma are performed to study effects of current control on the q profile. The timeevolution of the currents and q are calculated to evaluate long duration transients. Quasi steady state, strongly reversed q profiles are predicted for some beam injection angles if the current drive and bootstrap currents are sufficiently large.

  18. Lipolytic proteomics.

    PubMed

    Schittmayer, Matthias; Birner-Gruenberger, Ruth

    2012-01-01

    Activity-based proteomics (ABP) employs small molecular probes to specifically label sets of enzymes based on their shared catalytic mechanism. Given that the vast majority of lipases belong to the family of serine hydrolases and share a nucleophilic active-site serine as part of a catalytic triad, activity-based probes are ideal tools to study lipases and lipolysis. Moreover, the ability of ABP to highlight or isolate specific subproteomes results in a massive decrease of sample complexity. Thereby, in-depth analysis of enzymes of interest with mass spectrometry becomes feasible. In this review, we cover probe design, technological developments, and applications of ABP of lipases, as well as give an overview of relevant identified proteins.

  19. Selective equilibration among the current-carrying states in the quantum Hall regime

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alphenaar, B. W.; Mceuen, P. L.; Wheeler, R. G.; Sacks, R. N.

    1990-01-01

    The Hall resistance of a two-dimensional electron gas is measured with gated probes to determine the extent of equilibration among the N current-carrying states in the quantum Hall regime. After traveling macroscopic distances, current injected into the first state is equilibrated among the N - 1 lowest states but equilibration into the highest state varies strongly across the Hall plateau. This is attributed to a change in the Nth state from being localized within a magnetic length of the edge to substantially extending into the sample.

  20. Summary of current state nonpoint source control practices for forestry. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Craig, J.; Parcher, M.A.; Wright, J.; Townsend, G.; Cannell, J.

    1993-08-01

    Forestry practices have been implicated by many states as a contributor to nonpoint source (NPS) pollution of streams, rivers, lakes, and other waterbodies. Many states, recognizing the forestry contribution to water pollution, have developed programs to address forestry NPS. The recent development of the Management Measures Guidance, as required by section 6217 of the Coastal Zone Reauthorization Amendments (CZARA), provided the motivation to develop a summary of the current state forestry NPS programs. The document provides a synopsis of the BMPs currently used by states to address the nonpoint source (NPS) impacts on water quality caused by forestry activities. Summaries of over 41 existing state BMP manuals or regulations that include BMPs are presented. The information presented in the document is intended to provide an increased understanding of the types of forestry activities commonly addressed in existing state NPS programs and to serve as a reference for the type and nature of BMPs included in current state BMP manuals.

  1. Mentoring and New Teacher Induction in the United States: A Review and Analysis of Current Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bullough, Robert V., Jr.

    2012-01-01

    In this article, current practices were reviewed in mentoring and induction across three large states--New York, Texas, and California--and one small state, Utah. Patterns and trends are described in the United States, program results and evolving views of mentoring are discussed, gaps in the research literature are identified, and the future of…

  2. Drug target identification and quantitative proteomics.

    PubMed

    He, Tao; Jin Kim, Yeoun; Heidbrink, Jenny L; Moore, Paul A; Ruben, Steven M

    2006-10-01

    The emerging technologies in proteomic analysis provide great opportunity for the discovery of novel therapeutic drug targets for unmet medical needs through delivering of key information on protein expression, post-translational modifications and protein-protein interactions. This review presents a summary of current quantitative proteomic concepts and mass spectrometric technologies, which enable the acceleration of target discovery. Examples of the strategies and current technologies in the target identification/validation process are provided to illustrate the successful application of proteomics in target identification, in particular for monoclonal antibody therapies. Current bottlenecks and future directions of proteomic studies for target and biomarker identification are also discussed to better facilitate the application of this technology.

  3. The disulfide proteome and other reactive cysteine proteomes: analysis and functional significance.

    PubMed

    Lindahl, Marika; Mata-Cabana, Alejandro; Kieselbach, Thomas

    2011-06-15

    Ten years ago, proteomics techniques designed for large-scale investigations of redox-sensitive proteins started to emerge. The proteomes, defined as sets of proteins containing reactive cysteines that undergo oxidative post-translational modifications, have had a particular impact on research concerning the redox regulation of cellular processes. These proteomes, which are hereafter termed "disulfide proteomes," have been studied in nearly all kingdoms of life, including animals, plants, fungi, and bacteria. Disulfide proteomics has been applied to the identification of proteins modified by reactive oxygen and nitrogen species under stress conditions. Other studies involving disulfide proteomics have addressed the functions of thioredoxins and glutaredoxins. Hence, there is a steadily growing number of proteins containing reactive cysteines, which are probable targets for redox regulation. The disulfide proteomes have provided evidence that entire pathways, such as glycolysis, the tricarboxylic acid cycle, and the Calvin-Benson cycle, are controlled by mechanisms involving changes in the cysteine redox state of each enzyme implicated. Synthesis and degradation of proteins are processes highly represented in disulfide proteomes and additional biochemical data have established some mechanisms for their redox regulation. Thus, combined with biochemistry and genetics, disulfide proteomics has a significant potential to contribute to new discoveries on redox regulation and signaling.

  4. Relaxed state for the coaxial helicity injection current drive in toroidal plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, C.; Zhu, S.; Shen, L.

    1998-01-01

    The plasma relaxed state for the coaxial helicity injection current drive in toroidal configuration is investigated by applying the principle of minimum rate of energy dissipation. The comparison between theory and helicity injection current drive experiment on HIT (the Helicity Injected Tokamak) [T. R. Jarboe, Fusion Technol. {bold 15}, 7 (1989)] is presented. The calculation results indicate that the key features such as total toroidal driven current, current in closed field, current density profile, magnetic configuration, and j{sub t}/B{sub t} profile agree quite well with experiment. Analysis shows that plasma relaxes to a noncomplete relaxation state, and the toroidal current is effectively driven in this state. {copyright} {ital 1998 American Institute of Physics.}

  5. Proteomic discovery of diabetic nephropathy biomarkers.

    PubMed

    Merchant, Michael L; Klein, Jon B

    2010-11-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a complex systemic disease with complications that result from both genetic predisposition and dysregulated metabolic pathways. It is highly prevalent, with current estimates stating that there are 17.5 million diagnosed and 6.6 million undiagnosed patients with diabetes in the United States. DM and its complications impose a significant societal and economic burden. The medical costs of common microvascular complications of uncontrolled DM, diabetic nephropathy (DN) and diabetic retinopathy account for 29% and 15%, respectively, of the $116 billion worth expenditures associated with diabetes. A substantial gap exists in our knowledge related to the understanding of these complications. To advance therapy and decrease the societal burden of DM, there is a clear need for biomarkers that can diagnose DN at an early stage and predict its course. Proteomics has evolved into a high-throughput, analytical discipline used to analyze complex biological data sets. These open-ended, hypothesis-generating approaches, when appropriately designed and interpreted, are well suited to the study of the pathogenic mechanisms of diabetic microvascular disease and the identification of biomarkers of DN. In this study, we review the evolving role played by proteomics in expanding our understanding of the diagnosis and pathogenesis of DN. PMID:21044770

  6. Maximizing State Lottery Dollars for Public Education: An Analysis of Current State Lottery Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brady, Kevin P.; Pijanowski, John C.

    2007-01-01

    Today, it is increasingly difficult for states to adequately satisfy the demand for well-funded and quality public services, such as K-12 education by relying exclusively on traditional, broad-based taxes for fiscal support. State sponsored lotteries are an increasingly popular, non-traditional revenue stream for public education. There is in many…

  7. Steady-State Operation Scenarios with a Central Current Hole for JT-60SC

    SciTech Connect

    Tamai, Hiroshi; Ishida, Shinichi; Kurita, Gen-Ichi; Shirai, Hiroshi; Tsuchiya, Katsuhiko; Sakurai, Shinji; Matsukawa, Makoto; Sakasai, Akira

    2004-06-15

    A 1.5-dimensional time-dependent transport analysis has been carried out to investigate steady-state operation scenarios with a central current hole by off-axis current drive schemes consistent with a high bootstrap current fraction for the JT-60SC large superconducting tokamak. A steady-state operation scenario with HH{sub y2} = 1.4 and {beta}{sub N} = 3.7 has been obtained at I{sub p} = 1.5 MA, B{sub t} = 2 T, and q{sub 95} = 5, where noninductive currents are developed during the discharge to form a current hole with beam-driven currents by tangential off-axis beams in combination with bootstrap currents by additional on-axis perpendicular beams. The bootstrap fraction increases up to {approx}75% of the plasma current, and the current hole region is enlarged up to {approx}30% of the minor radius at 35 s from the discharge initiation. The current hole is confirmed to be sustained afterward for a long duration of 60 s. The present transport simulation shows that heating equipment designed for JT-60SC is capable of forming and sustaining the current hole only by using off-axis beam-driven currents and bootstrap currents. The stability analysis shows that the beta limit with the conducting wall can be {approx}{beta}{sub N} = 4.5, which is substantially above the no-wall ideal magnetohydrodynamic limit.

  8. Proteomics Analysis of the Causative Agent of Typhoid Fever

    SciTech Connect

    Ansong, Charles; Yoon, Hyunjin; Norbeck, Angela D.; Gustin, Jean K.; McDermott, Jason E.; Mottaz, Heather M.; Rue, Joanne; Adkins, Joshua N.; Heffron, Fred; Smith, Richard D.

    2008-02-01

    Typhoid fever is a potentially fatal disease caused by the bacterial pathogen Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (S. typhi). S. typhi infection is a complex process that involves numerous bacterially-encoded virulence determinants, and these are thought to confer both stringent human host specificity and a high mortality rate. In the present study we used a liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) based proteomics strategy to investigate the proteome of logarithmic, stationary phase, and low pH/low magnesium (MgM) S. typhi cultures. This represents the first large scale comprehensive characterization of the S. typhi proteome. Our analysis identified a total of 2066 S. typhi proteins. In an effort to identify putative S. typhi-specific virulence factors, we then compared our S. typhi results to those obtained in a previously published study of the S. typhimurium proteome under similar conditions (Adkins J.N. et al (2006) Mol Cell Prot). Comparative proteomic analysis of S. typhi (strain Ty2) and S. typhimurium (strains LT2 and 14028) revealed a subset of highly expressed proteins unique to S. typhi that were exclusively detected under conditions that mimic the infective state in macrophage cells. These proteins included CdtB, HlyE, and a conserved protein encoded by t1476. The differential expression of selected proteins was confirmed by Western blot analysis. Taken together with the current literature, our observations suggest that this subset of proteins may play a role in S. typhi pathogenesis and human host specificity. In addition, we observed products of the biotin (bio) operon displayed a higher abundance in the more virulent strains S. typhi-Ty2 and S. typhimurium-14028 compared to the virulence attenuated S. typhimurium strain LT2, suggesting bio proteins may contribute to Salmonella pathogenesis.

  9. Identification of phosphoproteins associated with maintenance of transformed state in temperature-sensitive Rous sarcoma-virus infected cells by proteomic analysis.

    PubMed

    Yamaoka, Kazuko; Imajoh-Ohmi, Shinobu; Fukuda, Hiroyuki; Akita, Yoshiko; Kurosawa, Keiko; Yamamoto, Yukio; Sanai, Yutaka

    2006-07-01

    To identify phosphotyrosine-containing proteins essential for maintaining the transformed state, we studied the tyrosine phosphorylation profile of temperature-sensitive mutant of Rous sarcoma virus, tsNY68, infected cells (68N7). Shifting the temperature from 39 degrees C (nonpermissive) to 32 degrees C (permissive) markedly increased the expression of phosphotyrosine-containing cell membrane proteins of approximately 40kDa, as assessed by SDS-PAGE. Membrane and nuclear proteins were separated by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and immunoblotted with anti-phosphotyrosine antibody. Proteins showing temperature-dependent changes in phosphorylation profile were subjected to in-gel digestion with trypsin and analyzed by mass spectrometry. Five proteins were identified: heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein (hnRNP) A3, hnRNP A2, annexin II, phosphoglycerate mutase 1, and triosephosphate isomerase 1. hnRNP A3 was phosphorylated at serine residues and had both serine and tyrosine phosphorylated sites. These results suggest an important complementary role for proteomics in identifying molecular abnormalities associated with tumor progression that may be attractive candidates for tumor diagnosis.

  10. Identification of phosphoproteins associated with maintenance of transformed state in temperature-sensitive Rous sarcoma-virus infected cells by proteomic analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Yamaoka, Kazuko . E-mail: yamaoka@rinshoken.or.jp; Imajoh-Ohmi, Shinobu; Fukuda, Hiroyuki; Akita, Yoshiko; Kurosawa, Keiko; Yamamoto, Yukio; Sanai, Yutaka

    2006-07-07

    To identify phosphotyrosine-containing proteins essential for maintaining the transformed state, we studied the tyrosine phosphorylation profile of temperature-sensitive mutant of Rous sarcoma virus, tsNY68, infected cells (68N7). Shifting the temperature from 39 {sup o}C (nonpermissive) to 32 {sup o}C (permissive) markedly increased the expression of phosphotyrosine-containing cell membrane proteins of {approx}40 kDa, as assessed by SDS-PAGE. Membrane and nuclear proteins were separated by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and immunoblotted with anti-phosphotyrosine antibody. Proteins showing temperature-dependent changes in phosphorylation profile were subjected to in-gel digestion with trypsin and analyzed by mass spectrometry. Five proteins were identified: heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein (hnRNP) A3, hnRNP A2, annexin II, phosphoglycerate mutase 1, and triosephosphate isomerase 1. hnRNP A3 was phosphorylated at serine residues and had both serine and tyrosine phosphorylated sites. These results suggest an important complementary role for proteomics in identifying molecular abnormalities associated with tumor progression that may be attractive candidates for tumor diagnosis.

  11. Charge Neutral Fermionic States and Current Oscillation in a Graphene-Superconductor Hybrid Structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duan, Wenye; Wang, Wei; Zhang, Chao; Jin, Kuijuan; Ma, Zhongshui

    2016-10-01

    The proximity properties of edge currents in the vicinity of the interface between the graphene and superconductor in the presence of magnetic field are investigated. It is shown that the edge states introduced by Andreev reflection at the graphene-superconductor (G/S) interface give rise to the charge neutral states in all Landau levels. We note that in a topological insulator-superconductor (TI/S) hybrid structure, only N = 0 Landau level can support this type of charge neutral states. The different interface states of a G/S hybrid and a TI/S hybrid is due to that graphene consists of two distinct sublattices. The armchair edge consists of two inequivalent atoms. This gives rise to unique electronic properties of edge states when connected to a superconductor. A direct consequence of zero charge states in all Landau levels is that the current density approaches zero at interface. The proximity effect leads to quantum magnetic oscillation of the current density in the superconductor region. The interface current density can also be tuned with a finite interface potential. For sharp δ-type interface potential, the derivative of the wavefunction is discontinuous. As a result, we found that there is current density discontinuity at the interface. The step of the current discontinuity is proportional to the strength of the interface potential.

  12. Student Assessment: A Review of Current Practices and Trends in the United States and Selected Countries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Office for Planning, Research, and Support Services.

    A comprehensive overview of the current state of student assessment and a glimpse of the extent of student assessment in New York State (NYS), throughout the nation, and in foreign countries are provided. Background on existing testing programs in NYS and the assessment components of "A New Compact for Learning," a set of proposals from the NYS…

  13. 42 CFR 457.80 - Current State child health insurance coverage and coordination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... services for low-income children. Such procedures include those designed to— (1) Increase the number of... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Current State child health insurance coverage and... HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) STATE CHILDREN'S HEALTH INSURANCE PROGRAMS (SCHIPs) ALLOTMENTS...

  14. The Viable but Nonculturable State and Starvation Are Different Stress Responses of Enterococcus faecalis, as Determined by Proteome Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Heim, Sabina; Del Mar Lleo, Maria; Bonato, Barbara; Guzman, Carlos A.; Canepari, Pietro

    2002-01-01

    The protein expression patterns of exponentially growing, starved, and viable but nonculturable (VBNC) Enterococcus faecalis cells were analyzed to establish whether differences exist between the VBNC state and other stress responses. The results indicate that the protein profile of VBNC cells differs from that of either starved or exponentially growing bacteria. This demonstrates that the VBNC state is a distinct physiological phase within the life cycle of E. faecalis, which is activated in response to multiple environmental stresses. PMID:12426365

  15. Legume proteomics: Progress, prospects, and challenges.

    PubMed

    Rathi, Divya; Gayen, Dipak; Gayali, Saurabh; Chakraborty, Subhra; Chakraborty, Niranjan

    2016-01-01

    Legumes are the major sources of food and fodder with strong commercial relevance, and are essential components of agricultural ecosystems owing to their ability to carry out endosymbiotic nitrogen fixation. In recent years, legumes have become one of the major choices of plant research. The legume proteomics is currently represented by more than 100 reference maps and an equal number of stress-responsive proteomes. Among the 48 legumes in the protein databases, most proteomic studies have been accomplished in two model legumes, soybean, and barrel medic. This review highlights recent contributions in the field of legume proteomics to comprehend the defence and regulatory mechanisms during development and adaptation to climatic changes. Here, we attempted to provide a concise overview of the progress in legume proteomics and discuss future developments in three broad perspectives: (i) proteome of organs/tissues; (ii) subcellular compartments; and (iii) spatiotemporal changes in response to stress. Such data mining may aid in discovering potential biomarkers for plant growth, in general, apart from essential components involved in stress tolerance. The prospect of integrating proteome data with genome information from legumes will provide exciting opportunities for plant biologists to achieve long-term goals of crop improvement and sustainable agriculture.

  16. Proteomic analysis of Chinese hamster ovary cells.

    PubMed

    Baycin-Hizal, Deniz; Tabb, David L; Chaerkady, Raghothama; Chen, Lily; Lewis, Nathan E; Nagarajan, Harish; Sarkaria, Vishaldeep; Kumar, Amit; Wolozny, Daniel; Colao, Joe; Jacobson, Elena; Tian, Yuan; O'Meally, Robert N; Krag, Sharon S; Cole, Robert N; Palsson, Bernhard O; Zhang, Hui; Betenbaugh, Michael

    2012-11-01

    To complement the recent genomic sequencing of Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells, proteomic analysis was performed on CHO cells including the cellular proteome, secretome, and glycoproteome using tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) of multiple fractions obtained from gel electrophoresis, multidimensional liquid chromatography, and solid phase extraction of glycopeptides (SPEG). From the 120 different mass spectrometry analyses generating 682,097 MS/MS spectra, 93,548 unique peptide sequences were identified with at most 0.02 false discovery rate (FDR). A total of 6164 grouped proteins were identified from both glycoproteome and proteome analysis, representing an 8-fold increase in the number of proteins currently identified in the CHO proteome. Furthermore, this is the first proteomic study done using the CHO genome exclusively, which provides for more accurate identification of proteins. From this analysis, the CHO codon frequency was determined and found to be distinct from humans, which will facilitate expression of human proteins in CHO cells. Analysis of the combined proteomic and mRNA data sets indicated the enrichment of a number of pathways including protein processing and apoptosis but depletion of proteins involved in steroid hormone and glycosphingolipid metabolism. Five-hundred four of the detected proteins included N-acetylation modifications, and 1292 different proteins were observed to be N-glycosylated. This first large-scale proteomic analysis will enhance the knowledge base about CHO capabilities for recombinant expression and provide information useful in cell engineering efforts aimed at modifying CHO cellular functions. PMID:22971049

  17. Proteomics: methodologies and applications in oncology.

    PubMed

    Wouters, Bradly G

    2008-04-01

    Few technological developments have created as much excitement and skepticism as proteomics over their potential to change clinical diagnostic and prognostic procedures. Proteomics concerns itself with the characterization and function of all cellular proteins, the ultimate determinants of cellular function. As such, it represents the end result of all mechanisms of gene regulation and thus offers tremendous potential for characterizing biology. In much the same way as what has occurred with the genome, the scientific community is coming to grips with the fact that the proteome, although enormously complex, is finite. It is conceivable that we will learn the identity of all possible proteins, including all posttranslational modifications. The rate of protein discovery continues to accelerate in large part because of improvements in mass spectrometry-based technologies coupled with improved genomic databases and bioinformatic tools. In addition, there is reason to believe that proteomics is on the verge of moving from a methodology that requires repeated proteome "discovery" to one that can more systematically profile proteomes. This review discusses current proteomic-based technologies and the efforts of scientists to move them into the clinic for use in patients treated with radiotherapy and other modalities.

  18. Assessment of Energy Production Potential from Ocean Currents along the United States Coastline

    SciTech Connect

    Haas, Kevin A.

    2013-10-03

    Increasing energy consumption and depleting reserves of fossil fuels have resulted in growing interest in alternative renewable energy from the ocean. Ocean currents are an alternative source of clean energy due to their inherent reliability, persistence and sustainability. General ocean circulations exist in the form of large rotating ocean gyres, and feature extremely rapid current flow in the western boundaries due to the Coriolis Effect. The Gulf Stream system is formed by the western boundary current of the North Atlantic Ocean that flows along the east coastline of the United States, and therefore is of particular interest as a potential energy resource for the United States.

  19. Quantitative Proteomic Approaches for Analysis of Protein S-Nitrosylation.

    PubMed

    Qu, Zhe; Greenlief, C Michael; Gu, Zezong

    2016-01-01

    S-Nitrosylation is a redox-based post-translational modification of a protein in response to nitric oxide (NO) signaling, and it participates in a variety of processes in diverse biological systems. The significance of this type of protein modification in health and diseases is increasingly recognized. In the central nervous system, aberrant S-nitrosylation, due to excessive NO production, is known to cause protein misfolding, mitochondrial dysfunction, transcriptional dysregulation, and neuronal death. This leads to an altered physiological state and consequently contributes to pathogenesis of neurodegenerative disorders. To date, much effort has been made to understand the mechanisms underlying protein S-nitrosylation, and several approaches have been developed to unveil S-nitrosylated proteins from different organisms. Interest in determining the dynamic changes of protein S-nitrosylation under different physiological and pathophysiological conditions has underscored the need for the development of quantitative proteomic approaches. Currently, both gel-based and gel-free mass spectrometry-based quantitative methods are widely used, and they each have advantages and disadvantages but may also be used together to produce complementary data. This review evaluates current available quantitative proteomic techniques for the analysis of protein S-nitrosylation and highlights recent advances, with emphasis on applications in neurodegenerative diseases. An important goal is to provide a comprehensive guide of feasible quantitative proteomic methodologies for examining protein S-nitrosylation in research to yield insights into disease mechanisms, diagnostic biomarkers, and drug discovery.

  20. High ion charge states in a high-current, short-pulse, vacuum ARC ion sources

    SciTech Connect

    Anders, A.; Brown, I.; MacGill, R.; Dickinson, M.

    1996-08-01

    Ions of the cathode material are formed at vacuum arc cathode spots and extracted by a grid system. The ion charge states (typically 1-4) depend on the cathode material and only little on the discharge current as long as the current is low. Here the authors report on experiments with short pulses (several {mu}s) and high currents (several kA); this regime of operation is thus approaching a more vacuum spark-like regime. Mean ion charge states of up to 6.2 for tungsten and 3.7 for titanium have been measured, with the corresponding maximum charge states of up to 8+ and 6+, respectively. The results are discussed in terms of Saha calculations and freezing of the charge state distribution.

  1. DNA sequence-dependent ionic currents in ultra-small solid-state nanopores.

    PubMed

    Comer, Jeffrey; Aksimentiev, Aleksei

    2016-05-01

    Measurements of ionic currents through nanopores partially blocked by DNA have emerged as a powerful method for characterization of the DNA nucleotide sequence. Although the effect of the nucleotide sequence on the nanopore blockade current has been experimentally demonstrated, prediction and interpretation of such measurements remain a formidable challenge. Using atomic resolution computational approaches, here we show how the sequence, molecular conformation, and pore geometry affect the blockade ionic current in model solid-state nanopores. We demonstrate that the blockade current from a DNA molecule is determined by the chemical identities and conformations of at least three consecutive nucleotides. We find the blockade currents produced by the nucleotide triplets to vary considerably with their nucleotide sequences despite having nearly identical molecular conformations. Encouragingly, we find blockade current differences as large as 25% for single-base substitutions in ultra small (1.6 nm × 1.1 nm cross section; 2 nm length) solid-state nanopores. Despite the complex dependence of the blockade current on the sequence and conformation of the DNA triplets, we find that, under many conditions, the number of thymine bases is positively correlated with the current, whereas the number of purine bases and the presence of both purines and pyrimidines in the triplet are negatively correlated with the current. Based on these observations, we construct a simple theoretical model that relates the ion current to the base content of a solid-state nanopore. Furthermore, we show that compact conformations of DNA in narrow pores provide the greatest signal-to-noise ratio for single base detection, whereas reduction of the nanopore length increases the ionic current noise. Thus, the sequence dependence of the nanopore blockade current can be theoretically rationalized, although the predictions will likely need to be customized for each nanopore type.

  2. Critical state solution and alternating current loss computation of polygonally arranged thin superconducting tapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brambilla, Roberto; Grilli, Francesco; Martini, Luciano

    2013-08-01

    The current density and field distributions in polygonally arranged thin superconducting tapes carrying AC current are derived under the assumption of the critical state model. Starting from the generic Biot-Savart law for a general polygonal geometry, we derive a suitable integral equation for the calculation of the current density and magnetic field in each tape. The model works for any transport current below Ic, which makes it attractive for studying cases of practical interest, particularly the dependence of AC losses on parameters such as the number of tapes, their distance from the center, and their separation.

  3. Neural Stem Cells (NSCs) and Proteomics*

    PubMed Central

    Shoemaker, Lorelei D.; Kornblum, Harley I.

    2016-01-01

    Neural stem cells (NSCs) can self-renew and give rise to the major cell types of the CNS. Studies of NSCs include the investigation of primary, CNS-derived cells as well as animal and human embryonic stem cell (ESC)-derived and induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC)-derived sources. NSCs provide a means with which to study normal neural development, neurodegeneration, and neurological disease and are clinically relevant sources for cellular repair to the damaged and diseased CNS. Proteomics studies of NSCs have the potential to delineate molecules and pathways critical for NSC biology and the means by which NSCs can participate in neural repair. In this review, we provide a background to NSC biology, including the means to obtain them and the caveats to these processes. We then focus on advances in the proteomic interrogation of NSCs. This includes the analysis of posttranslational modifications (PTMs); approaches to analyzing different proteomic compartments, such the secretome; as well as approaches to analyzing temporal differences in the proteome to elucidate mechanisms of differentiation. We also discuss some of the methods that will undoubtedly be useful in the investigation of NSCs but which have not yet been applied to the field. While many proteomics studies of NSCs have largely catalogued the proteome or posttranslational modifications of specific cellular states, without delving into specific functions, some have led to understandings of functional processes or identified markers that could not have been identified via other means. Many challenges remain in the field, including the precise identification and standardization of NSCs used for proteomic analyses, as well as how to translate fundamental proteomics studies to functional biology. The next level of investigation will require interdisciplinary approaches, combining the skills of those interested in the biochemistry of proteomics with those interested in modulating NSC function. PMID:26494823

  4. Neural Stem Cells (NSCs) and Proteomics.

    PubMed

    Shoemaker, Lorelei D; Kornblum, Harley I

    2016-02-01

    Neural stem cells (NSCs) can self-renew and give rise to the major cell types of the CNS. Studies of NSCs include the investigation of primary, CNS-derived cells as well as animal and human embryonic stem cell (ESC)-derived and induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC)-derived sources. NSCs provide a means with which to study normal neural development, neurodegeneration, and neurological disease and are clinically relevant sources for cellular repair to the damaged and diseased CNS. Proteomics studies of NSCs have the potential to delineate molecules and pathways critical for NSC biology and the means by which NSCs can participate in neural repair. In this review, we provide a background to NSC biology, including the means to obtain them and the caveats to these processes. We then focus on advances in the proteomic interrogation of NSCs. This includes the analysis of posttranslational modifications (PTMs); approaches to analyzing different proteomic compartments, such the secretome; as well as approaches to analyzing temporal differences in the proteome to elucidate mechanisms of differentiation. We also discuss some of the methods that will undoubtedly be useful in the investigation of NSCs but which have not yet been applied to the field. While many proteomics studies of NSCs have largely catalogued the proteome or posttranslational modifications of specific cellular states, without delving into specific functions, some have led to understandings of functional processes or identified markers that could not have been identified via other means. Many challenges remain in the field, including the precise identification and standardization of NSCs used for proteomic analyses, as well as how to translate fundamental proteomics studies to functional biology. The next level of investigation will require interdisciplinary approaches, combining the skills of those interested in the biochemistry of proteomics with those interested in modulating NSC function. PMID:26494823

  5. Proteomics in the genome engineering era.

    PubMed

    Vandemoortele, Giel; Gevaert, Kris; Eyckerman, Sven

    2016-01-01

    Genome engineering experiments used to be lengthy, inefficient, and often expensive, preventing a widespread adoption of such experiments for the full assessment of endogenous protein functions. With the revolutionary clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats/CRISPR-associated protein 9 technology, genome engineering became accessible to the broad life sciences community and is now implemented in several research areas. One particular field that can benefit significantly from this evolution is proteomics where a substantial impact on experimental design and general proteome biology can be expected. In this review, we describe the main applications of genome engineering in proteomics, including the use of engineered disease models and endogenous epitope tagging. In addition, we provide an overview on current literature and highlight important considerations when launching genome engineering technologies in proteomics workflows.

  6. Early detection in head and neck cancer – current state and future perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Gerstner, Andreas O. H.

    2010-01-01

    Survival and quality of life in head and neck cancer are directly linked to the size of the primary tumor at first detection. In order to achieve substantial gain at these issues, both, primary prevention and secondary prevention, which is early detection of malignant lesions at a small size, have to be improved. So far, there is not only a lack in the necessary infrastructure not only in Germany, but rather worldwide, but additionally the techniques developed so far for early detection have a significance and specificity too low as to warrant safe implementation for screening programs. However, the advancements recently achieved in endoscopy and in quantitative analysis of hypocellular specimens open new perspectives for secondary prevention. Chromoendoscopy and narrow band imaging (NBI) pinpoint suspicious lesions more easily, confocal endomicroscopy and optical coherence tomography obtain optical sections through those lesions, and hyperspectral imaging classifies lesions according to characteristic spectral signatures. These techniques therefore obtain optical biopsies. Once a “bloody” biopsy has been taken, the plethora of parameters that can be quantified objectively has been increased and could be the basis for an objective and quantitative classification of epithelial lesions (multiparametric cytometry, quantitative histology). Finally, cytomics and proteomics approaches, and lab-on-the-chip technology might help to identify patients at high-risk. Sensitivity and specificity of these approaches have to be validated, yet, and some techniques have to be adapted for the specific conditions for early detection of head and neck cancer. On this background it has to be stated that it is still a long way to go until a population based screening for head and neck cancer is available. The recent results of screening for cancer of the prostate and breast highlight the difficulties implemented in such a task. PMID:22073093

  7. Affordable proteomics: the two-hybrid systems.

    PubMed

    Gillespie, Marc

    2003-06-01

    Numerous proteomic methodologies exist, but most require a heavy investment in expertise and technology. This puts these approaches out of reach for many laboratories and small companies, rarely allowing proteomics to be used as a pilot approach for biomarker or target identification. Two proteomic approaches, 2D gel electrophoresis and the two-hybrid systems, are currently available to most researchers. The two-hybrid systems, though accommodating to large-scale experiments, were originally designed as practical screens, that by comparison to current proteomics tools were small-scale, affordable and technically feasible. The screens rapidly generated data, identifying protein interactions that were previously uncharacterized. The foundation for a two-hybrid proteomic investigation can be purchased as separate kits from a number of companies. The true power of the technique lies not in its affordability, but rather in its portability. The two-hybrid system puts proteomics back into laboratories where the output of the screens can be evaluated by researchers with experience in the particular fields of basic research, cancer biology, toxicology or drug development.

  8. Proteomics: analytical tools and techniques.

    PubMed

    MacCoss, M J; Yates, J R

    2001-09-01

    Scientists have long been interested in measuring the effects of different stimuli on protein expression and metabolism. Analytical methods are being developed for the automated separation, identification, and quantitation of all of the proteins within the cell. Soon, investigators will be able to observe the effects of an experiment on every protein (as opposed to a selected few). This review presents a discussion of recent technological advances in proteomics in addition to exploring current methodological limitations.

  9. Full-fledged proteomic analysis of bioactive wheat amylase inhibitors by a 3-D analytical technique: Identification of new heterodimeric aggregation states.

    PubMed

    Zoccatelli, Gianni; Dalla Pellegrina, Chiara; Mosconi, Silvia; Consolini, Marica; Veneri, Gianluca; Chignola, Roberto; Peruffo, Angelo; Rizzi, Corrado

    2007-02-01

    Wheat proteinaceous alpha-amylase inhibitors (alpha-AIs) are increasingly investigated for their agronomical role as natural defence molecules of plants against the attack of insects and pests, but also for their effects on human health. The wheat genomes code for several bioactive alpha-AIs that share sequence homology, but differ in their specificity against alpha-amylases from different species and for their aggregation states. Wheat alpha-AIs are traditionally classified as belonging to the three classes of tetrameric, homodimeric and monomeric forms, each class being constituted by a number of polypeptides that display different electrophoretic mobilities. Here we describe a proteomic approach for the identification of bioactive alpha-AIs from wheat and, in particular, a 3-D technique that allows to best identify and characterize the dimeric fraction. The technique takes advantage of the thermal resistance of alpha-AIs (resistant to T > 70 degrees C) and consists in the separation of protein mixtures by 2-D polyacrylamide/starch electrophoresis under nondissociating PAGE (ND-PAGE, first dimension) and dissociating (urea-PAGE or U-PAGE second dimension) conditions, followed by in-gel spontaneous reaggregation of protein complexes and identification of the alpha-amylase inhibitory activity (antizymogram, third dimension) using enzymes from human salivary glands and from the larvae of Tenebrio molitor coleopter (yellow mealworm). Dimeric alpha-AIs from Triticum aestivum (bread wheat) were observed to exist as heterodimers. The formation of heterodimeric complexes was also confirmed by in vitro reaggregation assays carried out on RP-HPLC purified wheat dimeric alpha-AIs, and their bioactivity assayed by antizymogram analysis. The present 3-D analytical technique can be exploited for fast, full-fledged identification and characterization of wheat alpha-AIs.

  10. Proteomic Analysis in Type 2 Diabetes Patients before and after a Very Low Calorie Diet Reveals Potential Disease State and Intervention Specific Biomarkers

    PubMed Central

    Dharuri, Harish K.; Jeyakar, Skhandhan; Snel, Marieke; Juhasz, Peter; Lynch, Moira; Hines, Wade; Li, Xiaohong; Jazet, Ingrid M.; Adourian, Aram; Hilbers, Peter A. J.; Smit, Johannes W. A.; Van Dijk, Ko Willems

    2014-01-01

    Very low calorie diets (VLCD) with and without exercise programs lead to major metabolic improvements in obese type 2 diabetes patients. The mechanisms underlying these improvements have so far not been elucidated fully. To further investigate the mechanisms of a VLCD with or without exercise and to uncover possible biomarkers associated with these interventions, blood samples were collected from 27 obese type 2 diabetes patients before and after a 16-week VLCD (Modifast ∼450 kcal/day). Thirteen of these patients followed an exercise program in addition to the VCLD. Plasma was obtained from 27 lean and 27 obese controls as well. Proteomic analysis was performed using mass spectrometry (MS) and targeted multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) and a large scale isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ) approach. After the 16-week VLCD, there was a significant decrease in body weight and HbA1c in all patients, without differences between the two intervention groups. Targeted MRM analysis revealed differences in several proteins, which could be divided in diabetes-associated (fibrinogen, transthyretin), obesity-associated (complement C3), and diet-associated markers (apolipoproteins, especially apolipoprotein A-IV). To further investigate the effects of exercise, large scale iTRAQ analysis was performed. However, no proteins were found showing an exercise effect. Thus, in this study, specific proteins were found to be differentially expressed in type 2 diabetes patients versus controls and before and after a VLCD. These proteins are potential disease state and intervention specific biomarkers. Trial Registration Controlled-Trials.com ISRCTN76920690 PMID:25415563

  11. Transient and steady-state dark current mechanisms in amorphous selenium avalanche radiation detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Kabir, M. Z.; Imam, Safayat-Al

    2013-04-15

    A theoretical model for describing bias-dependent transient and steady-state behaviors of dark current in amorphous selenium (a-Se) avalanche detector structures has been developed. The analytical model considers bulk thermal generation current from mid-gap sates, transient carrier depletion, and carrier injection from the electrodes incorporating avalanche multiplication. The proposed physics-based dark current model is compared with the published experimental results on three potential a-Se avalanche detector structures. The steady-state dark current is the minimum for the structures that have effective blocking layers for both holes and electrons. The transient decay time to reach a plateau decreases considerably with increasing electric field.

  12. [Analysis on Current State of Acupuncture Clinical Trials with Sham Acupuncture Design in Western Countries].

    PubMed

    He, Wei; Tong, Yuan-yuan; Zhao, Ying-kai; Li, Yan-wen; Zhang, Li; Liu, Zhao-hui

    2015-10-01

    The design of "sham acupuncture" is necessary in clinical trials of acupuncture for confirming its effectiveness in the treatment of different disorders. The authors of the present paper made a comprehensive analysis on "sham acupuncture"or "placebo acupuncture" in clinical trials of acupuncture therapy in western countries from 1) the definition and background of sham acupuncture, 2) current state of acupuncture clinical trials with sham acupuncture design in different countries, 3) current situations of acupuncture clinical trials with sham acupuncture design in Germany, and 4) current state of large sample, randomized controlled clinical trials of acupuncture therapy with sham acupuncture design in other western countries. The authors of the present paper also make an analysis on the developing trends of acupuncture clinical trials with sham acupuncture design and put forward some problems existing in current acupuncture researches. PMID:26669203

  13. Including Alternative Resources in State Renewable Portfolio Standards: Current Design and Implementation Experience

    SciTech Connect

    Heeter, J.; Bird, L.

    2012-11-01

    Currently, 29 states, the District of Columbia, and Puerto Rico have instituted a renewable portfolio standard (RPS). An RPS sets a minimum threshold for how much renewable energy must be generated in a given year. Each state policy is unique, varying in percentage targets, timetables, and eligible resources. This paper examines state experience with implementing renewable portfolio standards that include energy efficiency, thermal resources, and non-renewable energy and explores compliance experience, costs, and how states evaluate, measure, and verify energy efficiency and convert thermal energy. It aims to gain insights from the experience of states for possible federal clean energy policy as well as to share experience and lessons for state RPS implementation.

  14. New Memorandum of Understanding in Clinical Proteogenomics Between the United States and Australia - Office of Cancer Clinical Proteomics Research

    Cancer.gov

    The White House Office of the Vice President has announced the signing of three Memoranda of Understanding (MOUs) that will make available an unprecedented international dataset to advance cancer research and care. An MOU between the National Cancer Institute (NCI) at the National Institutes of Health (NIH) in the United States, and Macquarie University (MU), Children's Medical Research Institute (CMRI), Garvan Institute of Medical Research (GIMR), and Bioplatforms Australia Limited (BPA) in Australia will facilitate scientific collaborations in the field of clinical proteogenomic studies and their translation to cancer care.

  15. Phase boundary of spin-polarized-current state of electrons in bilayer graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Xin-Zhong; Ma, Yinfeng; Ting, C. S.

    2016-06-01

    Using a four-band Hamiltonian, we study the phase boundary of spin-polarized-current state (SPCS) of interacting electrons in bilayer graphene. The model of spin-polarized-current state has previously been shown to resolve a number of experimental puzzles in bilayer graphene. The phase boundaries of the SPCS with and without the external voltage between the two layers are obtained in this work. An unusual phase boundary where there are two transition temperatures for a given carrier concentration is found at finite external voltage. The physics of this phenomenon is explained.

  16. Next-generation proteomics faces new challenges in environmental biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Armengaud, Jean

    2016-04-01

    Environmental biotechnology relies on the exploration of novel biological systems and a thorough understanding of the underlying molecular mechanisms. Next-generation proteomics based on the latest generation of mass analyzers currently allows the recording of complete proteomes from any microorganism. Interpreting these data can be straightforward if the genome of the organism is established, or relatively easy to perform through proteogenomics approaches if a draft sequence can be obtained. However, next-generation proteomics faces new, interesting challenges when the organism is distantly related to previously characterized organisms or when mixtures of organisms have to be analyzed. New mass spectrometers and innovative bioinformatics tools are reshaping the possibilities of homology-based proteomics, proteogenomics, and metaproteomics for the characterization of biological systems. Novel time- and cost-effective screening strategies are also possible with this methodology, as exemplified by whole proteome thermal profiling and subpopulation proteomics. The complexity of environmental samples allows for unique developments of approaches and concepts. PMID:26950175

  17. Next-generation proteomics faces new challenges in environmental biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Armengaud, Jean

    2016-04-01

    Environmental biotechnology relies on the exploration of novel biological systems and a thorough understanding of the underlying molecular mechanisms. Next-generation proteomics based on the latest generation of mass analyzers currently allows the recording of complete proteomes from any microorganism. Interpreting these data can be straightforward if the genome of the organism is established, or relatively easy to perform through proteogenomics approaches if a draft sequence can be obtained. However, next-generation proteomics faces new, interesting challenges when the organism is distantly related to previously characterized organisms or when mixtures of organisms have to be analyzed. New mass spectrometers and innovative bioinformatics tools are reshaping the possibilities of homology-based proteomics, proteogenomics, and metaproteomics for the characterization of biological systems. Novel time- and cost-effective screening strategies are also possible with this methodology, as exemplified by whole proteome thermal profiling and subpopulation proteomics. The complexity of environmental samples allows for unique developments of approaches and concepts.

  18. Advances in urinary proteome analysis and biomarker discovery.

    PubMed

    Fliser, Danilo; Novak, Jan; Thongboonkerd, Visith; Argilés, Angel; Jankowski, Vera; Girolami, Mark A; Jankowski, Joachim; Mischak, Harald

    2007-04-01

    Noninvasive diagnosis of kidney diseases and assessment of the prognosis are still challenges in clinical nephrology. Definition of biomarkers on the basis of proteome analysis, especially of the urine, has advanced recently and may provide new tools to solve those challenges. This article highlights the most promising technological approaches toward deciphering the human proteome and applications of the knowledge in clinical nephrology, with emphasis on the urinary proteome. The data in the current literature indicate that although a thorough investigation of the entire urinary proteome is still a distant goal, clinical applications are already available. Progress in the analysis of human proteome in health and disease will depend more on the standardization of data and availability of suitable bioinformatics and software solutions than on new technological advances. It is predicted that proteomics will play an important role in clinical nephrology in the very near future and that this progress will require interactive dialogue and collaboration between clinicians and analytical specialists.

  19. Meeting Report: "Proteomics from Discovery to Function:" 6th Annual Meeting of Proteomics Society, India and International Conference-A Milestone for the Indian Proteomics Community.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Shabarni; Reddy, Panga Jaipal; Ray, Sandipan; Atak, Apurva; Gollapalli, Kishore; Jain, Rekha; Shah, Veenita Grover; Ghantasala, Saicharan; Kumar, Saurabh; Pandala, Narendra Goud; Phapale, Prasad; Pandey, Vishnu Kumar; Zingde, Surekha; Srivastava, Sanjeeva

    2015-06-01

    Proteomics is at the epicenter of post-genomics biotechnologies that are currently driving the next generation system science. Moreover, proteomics is a truly global science. The 6(th) Annual Meeting of Proteomics Society, India (PSI) and International Conference on "Proteomics from Discovery to Function" held from December 7-9, 2014, was a transformative endeavor for global proteomics, bringing together the luminaries in the field of proteomics for the very first time in India. This meeting report presents the lessons learned and the highlights of this international scientific conference that was comprised of nine thematic sessions, pre- and post-conference workshops, and an opportunity to cultivate enduring collaborations for proteomics science to benefit both India and global society. The conference had an unforgettable impression on the participants: for the first time, India hosted past and present President and Council members from the Human Proteome Organization (HUPO), along with eminent scientists and young scholars from India and abroad in the field of proteomics at such a large scale, a major highlight of this international event. In all, the PSI 2014 was a milestone conference that has firmly poised the Indian life sciences community as a leading contributor to post-genomics life sciences, thus cultivating crucial trans-generational capacity and inspiration by recognizing the emerging scholars and omics systems scientists who can think and conduct science from cell to society.

  20. Mule duck "foie gras" shows different metabolic states according to its quality phenotype by using a proteomic approach.

    PubMed

    François, Yoannah; Marie-Etancelin, Christel; Vignal, Alain; Viala, Didier; Davail, Stéphane; Molette, Caroline

    2014-07-23

    This study aimed at identifying the mechanisms implicated in "foie gras" quality variability through the study of the relationships between liver protein compositions and four liver quality phenotypes: liver weight, melting rate, and protein contents on crude or dry matter. Spots of soluble proteins were separated by bidimensional electrophoresis, and the relative abundance of proteins according to quality traits values was investigated. Twenty-three protein spots (19 unique identified proteins) showed different levels of abundance according to one or more of the traits' values. These abundance differences highlighted two groups of livers with opposite trends of abundance levels. Proteins of the first group, associated with low liver weight and melting rate, are involved in synthesis and anabolism processes, whereas proteins of the second group, associated with high liver weight and melting rate, are proteins involved in stress response. Altogether, these results highlight the variations in metabolic states underlying foie gras quality traits.

  1. Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry-based Quantitative Proteomics

    SciTech Connect

    Xie, Fang; Liu, Tao; Qian, Weijun; Petyuk, Vladislav A.; Smith, Richard D.

    2011-07-22

    Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS)-based quantitative proteomics has become increasingly applied for a broad range of biological applications due to growing capabilities for broad proteome coverage and good accuracy in quantification. Herein, we review the current LC-MS-based quantification methods with respect to their advantages and limitations, and highlight their potential applications.

  2. Current State of Environmental Education in Mexico: A Study on Practices, Audiences, Settings, and Topics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marcos-Iga, Jose; Shaw, William

    2011-01-01

    Environmental education in Mexico takes many forms and plays a wide variety of roles. Through an online survey, we addressed the need to present a wider picture on the current state of environmental education practices in Mexico: Who is engaging in environmental education practices, how important is it for their organization, who are they…

  3. Profile of the Foreign-Born Population in the United States: 2000. Current Population Reports.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidley, Dianne

    This report presents data on a wide range of geographic, demographic, social, economic, and housing characteristics for the foreign-born population of the United States. Data for the native population are included for comparison. Data come from the March 2000 Current Population Survey. The core of the report is 22 sections presenting information…

  4. CURRENT STATE OF PREDICTING THE RESPIRATORY ALLERGY POTENTIAL OF CHEMICALS: WHAT ARE THE ISSUES?

    EPA Science Inventory

    Current State of Predicting the Respiratory Allergy Potential of Chemicals: What Are the Issues? M I. Gilmour1 and S. E. Loveless2, 1USEPA, Research Triangle Park, NC and 2DuPont Haskell Laboratory, Newark, DE.

    Many chemicals are clearly capable of eliciting immune respon...

  5. Educational Attainment in the United States: 2009. Population Characteristics. Current Population Reports. P20-566

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, Camille L.; Siebens, Julie

    2012-01-01

    This report provides a portrait of educational attainment in the United States based on data collected in the 2009 American Community Survey (ACS) and the 2005-2009 ACS 5-year estimates. It also uses data from the Annual Social and Economic Supplement (ASEC) to the Current Population Survey (CPS) collected in 2009 and earlier, as well as monthly…

  6. Globalization of Gerontology Education: Current Practices and Perceptions for Graduate Gerontology Education in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mwangi, Samuel M.; Yamashita, Takashi; Ewen, Heidi H.; Manning, Lydia K.; Kunkel, Suzanne R.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to document current practices and understandings about globalization of gerontology education in the United States. Better understanding of aging requires international perspectives in global communities. However, little is known about how globalization of gerontology education is practiced in U.S. graduate-level…

  7. The State of Knowledge of Outdoor Orientation Programs: Current Practices, Research, and Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Brent J.; Gass, Michael A.; Nafziger, Christopher S.; Starbuck, J. David

    2014-01-01

    Outdoor orientation programs represent a prominent area of experiential education with over 25,000 participants annually. More than 191 outdoor orientation programs currently operate in the United States and Canada. The research examining outdoor orientation programs consists of 25 peer-reviewed published studies and 11 dissertations. A new theory…

  8. The Current State of Empirical Support for the Pharmacological Treatment of Selective Mutism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, John S.; Mitchell, Angela D.; Segool, Natasha

    2008-01-01

    This article reviews the current state of evidence for the psychopharmacological treatment of children diagnosed with selective mutism within the context of its link to social anxiety disorder. An increased focus on potential medication treatment for this disorder has resulted from significant monetary and resource limitations in typical practice,…

  9. Business-IT Alignment: A Current-State Evaluation of Strategic Alignment within the Hospital Organization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evers, Kevin W.

    2010-01-01

    More than thirty years of research has shown that the practical value of business-IT alignment is significant and that its importance derives from strategic impact on business outcomes. The purpose of this exploratory study is to identify the current-state of business-IT alignment maturity within the hospital organization. Data for this study was…

  10. The Growth and Current State of Learning Communities in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Love, Anne Goodsell

    2012-01-01

    This article discusses the growth and current state of learning communities (LCs) in higher education. It reviews literature on the impact of LCs, highlighting a sample of single-institution studies and describing results from multi-institutional studies. LCs have been a growing movement aimed at educational reform for decades, and evidence…

  11. Early Childhood Inclusion in the United States: Goals, Current Status, and Future Directions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guralnick, Michael J.; Bruder, Mary Beth

    2016-01-01

    The current status and future directions of early childhood inclusion in the United States are discussed from the perspective of 4 key goals: access, accommodations and feasibility, developmental progress, and social integration. Recommendations are put forward to promote inclusion goals emphasizing administrative structures, personnel…

  12. Visible or Invisible? Korean High School Students' Current Schooling Experiences in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yoon, Bogum; Haag, Claudia

    2010-01-01

    This qualitative study examined the current schooling experiences of eight Korean high school students in the United States. By comparing and contrasting recent immigrant adolescents and 1.5/2nd generation students, the purpose of this study was to explore how their identities as Koreans or Korean Americans were formed and shifted while they…

  13. "Nobody Told Us about What Happened": The Current State of Holocaust Education in Romania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Misco, Tomas

    2008-01-01

    This research study sought to understand the current state of Holocaust education in Romanian classrooms and how sociocultural and institutional forces influence its treatment. By identifying the obstacles, challenges, and successes of Holocaust education in Romania, this study can both disseminate the techniques and conditions that bring about…

  14. Evaluation of current state of agricultural land using problem-oriented fuzzy indicators in GIS environment

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Current state of agricultural lands is defined under influence of processes in soil, plants and atmosphere and is described by observation data, complicated models and subjective opinion of experts. Problem-oriented indicators summarize this information in useful form for decision of the same specif...

  15. Contribution of proteomics to understanding the role of tumor-derived exosomes in cancer progression: state of the art and new perspectives.

    PubMed

    Fontana, Simona; Simona, Fontana; Saieva, Laura; Laura, Saieva; Taverna, Simona; Simona, Taverna; Alessandro, Riccardo; Riccardo, Alessandro

    2013-05-01

    Exosomes are nanometer-sized vesicles (40-100 nm diameter) of endocytic origin released from different cell types under both normal and pathological conditions. They function as cell free messengers, playing a relevant role in the cell-cell communication that is strongly related to the nature of the molecules (proteins, mRNAs, miRNAs, and lipids) that they transport. Tumor cells actively shed exosomes into their surrounding microenvironment and growing evidence indicates that these vesicles have pleiotropic functions in the regulation of tumor progression, promoting immune escape, tumor invasion, neovascularization, and metastasis. During the last few years remarkable efforts have been made to obtain an accurate definition of the protein content of tumor-derived exosomes (TDEs) by applying MS-based proteomic technologies. To date, TDEs proteomic studies have been mainly utilized to catalog TDEs proteins with the purpose of identifying disease biomarkers. The future challenge for improving our understanding and characterization of TDEs will be the implementation of new systems-driven and proteomic integrative strategies. The aim of this article is to provide an overview of the most characterized exosomes-mediated mechanisms that contribute to the pathogenesis of cancer and to review recent proteomics data that support the protumorigenic role of TDEs.

  16. Brucella proteomes--a review.

    PubMed

    DelVecchio, Vito G; Wagner, Mary Ann; Eschenbrenner, Michel; Horn, Troy A; Kraycer, Jo Ann; Estock, Frank; Elzer, Phil; Mujer, Cesar V

    2002-12-20

    The proteomes of selected Brucella spp. have been extensively analyzed by utilizing current proteomic technology involving 2-DE and MALDI-MS. In Brucella melitensis, more than 500 proteins were identified. The rapid and large-scale identification of proteins in this organism was accomplished by using the annotated B. melitensis genome which is now available in the GenBank. Coupled with new and powerful tools for data analysis, differentially expressed proteins were identified and categorized into several classes. A global overview of protein expression patterns emerged, thereby facilitating the simultaneous analysis of different metabolic pathways in B. melitensis. Such a global characterization would not have been possible by using time consuming and traditional biochemical approaches. The era of post-genomic technology offers new and exciting opportunities to understand the complete biology of different Brucella species.

  17. Reaction kinetic parameters for ion transport from steady-state current-voltage curves.

    PubMed Central

    Gradmann, D; Klieber, H G; Hansen, U P

    1987-01-01

    This study demonstrates possible ways to estimate the rate constants of reaction kinetic models for ion transport from steady-state current-voltage data as measured at various substrate concentrations. This issue is treated theoretically by algebraic reduction and extension of a reaction kinetic four-state model for uniport. Furthermore, an example for application is given; current-voltage data from an open K+ selective channel (Schroeder, J.I., R. Hedrich, and J.M. Fernandez, 1984, Nature (Lond.), 312:361-362) supplemented by some new data have been evaluated. The analysis yields absolute numerical estimates of the 14 rate constants of a six-state model, which is discussed in a wider context. PMID:2437973

  18. Commuter rail state-of-the-art: A study of current systems. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Shen, L.D.; Wu, J.W.

    1992-12-01

    The report documents the results of the state-of-the-art study on current commuter rail systems in the United States. Detailed information on operations, fare collection, stations, maintenance facilities, patronage, railcars, and feeder systems are presented. This commuter rail report is intended to provide a database of actual operation statistics for the 12 commuter rail systems in the United States. Statistics were collected on existing commuter rail services through Federal Transit Administration (FTA) reports, American Public Transit Association (APTA) and railroad industry publications. In addition, a survey was also conducted to collect the pertinent information on existing systems. A comparative analysis of commuter rail service with respect to other mass transit systems was conducted. New and proposed systems are also discussed. Current trends in commuter rail operations are presented. Startup costs for new systems were analyzed. This report found that many cities are considering commuter rail as a potential part of the solution to local transportation problems.

  19. Computational Study on the Steady-state Impedance of Saturated-core Superconducting Fault Current Limiter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, C.; Tang, Y.; Liang, S.; Ren, L.; Wang, Z.; Xu, Y.

    This paper presents the electromagnetic analysis of a high voltage saturated-core superconducting fault current limiter (SCSFCL). The numerical analyses of a three-dimensional (3D) model is shown, and the specific parameters are given. The model focus on the steady-state impedance of the limiter when connected to the power grid. It analyzed the dependence of steady-state impedance on the AC coil current, and the relationship between oil gap and coil inductance. The results suggest that, adding oil gap between slice of silicon steel can reduce the core cross-section, restrain the ultraharmonic and decrease the steady-state impedance. As the core cross-section of AC limb decreased from 4344 cm2 to 3983 cm2, the total harmonic distortion for voltage decreased from 2.4% to 1.8%, and the impedance decreased from 1.082 Ω to 1.069 Ω(Idc=400A,Iac=1296A).

  20. Analysis of transient state in HTS tapes under ripple DC load current

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stepien, M.; Grzesik, B.

    2014-05-01

    The paper concerns the analysis of transient state (quench transition) in HTS tapes loaded with the current having DC component together with a ripple component. Two shapes of the ripple were taken into account: sinusoidal and triangular. Very often HTS tape connected to a power electronic current supply (i.e. superconducting coil for SMES) that delivers DC current with ripples and it needs to be examined under such conditions. Additionally, measurements of electrical (and thermal) parameters under such ripple excitation is useful to tape characterization in broad range of load currents. The results presented in the paper were obtained using test bench which contains programmable DC supply and National Instruments data acquisition system. Voltage drops and load currents were measured vs. time. Analysis of measured parameters as a function of the current was used to tape description with quench dynamics taken into account. Results of measurements were also used to comparison with the results of numerical modelling based on FEM. Presented provisional results show possibility to use results of measurements in transient state to prepare inverse models of superconductors and their detailed numerical modelling.

  1. Heating and current drive requirements towards steady state operation in ITER

    SciTech Connect

    Poli, F. M.; Kessel, C. E.; Gorelenkova, M.; Bonoli, P. T.; Batchelor, D. B.; Harvey, B.; Petrov, Y.

    2014-02-12

    Steady state scenarios envisaged for ITER aim at optimizing the bootstrap current, while maintaining sufficient confinement and stability to provide the necessary fusion yield. Non-inductive scenarios will need to operate with Internal Transport Barriers (ITBs) in order to reach adequate fusion gain at typical currents of 9 MA. However, the large pressure gradients associated with ITBs in regions of weak or negative magnetic shear can be conducive to ideal MHD instabilities, reducing the no-wall limit. The E × B flow shear from toroidal plasma rotation is expected to be low in ITER, with a major role in the ITB dynamics being played by magnetic geometry. Combinations of H/CD sources that maintain weakly reversed magnetic shear profiles throughout the discharge are the focus of this work. Time-dependent transport simulations indicate that, with a trade-off of the EC equatorial and upper launcher, the formation and sustainment of quasi-steady state ITBs could be demonstrated in ITER with the baseline heating configuration. However, with proper constraints from peeling-ballooning theory on the pedestal width and height, the fusion gain and the maximum non-inductive current are below the ITER target. Upgrades of the heating and current drive system in ITER, like the use of Lower Hybrid current drive, could overcome these limitations, sustaining higher non-inductive current and confinement, more expanded ITBs which are ideal MHD stable.

  2. Microbial community proteomics for characterizing the range of metabolic functions and activities of human gut microbiota

    DOE PAGES

    Xiong, Weili; Abraham, Paul E.; Li, Zhou; Pan, Chongle; Robert L. Hettich

    2015-01-01

    We found that the human gastrointestinal (GI) tract is a complex, dynamic ecosystem that consists of a carefully tuned balance of human host and microbiota membership. The microbiome component is not insignificant, but rather provides important functions that are absolutely critical to many aspects of human health, including nutrient transformation and absorption, drug metabolism, pathogen defense, and immune system development. Microbial community proteomics (sometimes referred to as metaproteomics) provides a powerful approach to measure the range and details of human gut microbiota functions and metabolic activities, revealing information about microbiome development and stability especially with regard to human health vs.more » disease states. In most cases, both microbial and human proteins are extracted from fecal samples and then measured by the high performance MS-based proteomics technology. We review the field of human gut microbiome community proteomics, with a focus on the experimental and informatics considerations involved in characterizing systems that range from low complexity defined model gut microbiota in gnotobiotic mice, to the simple gut microbiota in the GI tract of newborn infants, and finally to the complex gut microbiota in adults. Moreover, the current state-of-the-art in experimental and bioinformatics capabilities for community proteomics enable a detailed measurement of the gut microbiota, yielding valuable insights into the broad functional profiles of even complex microbiota. Future developments are likely to expand into improved analysis throughput and coverage depth, as well as post-translational modification characterizations.« less

  3. Microbial community proteomics for characterizing the range of metabolic functions and activities of human gut microbiota

    SciTech Connect

    Xiong, Weili; Abraham, Paul E.; Li, Zhou; Pan, Chongle; Robert L. Hettich

    2015-01-01

    We found that the human gastrointestinal (GI) tract is a complex, dynamic ecosystem that consists of a carefully tuned balance of human host and microbiota membership. The microbiome component is not insignificant, but rather provides important functions that are absolutely critical to many aspects of human health, including nutrient transformation and absorption, drug metabolism, pathogen defense, and immune system development. Microbial community proteomics (sometimes referred to as metaproteomics) provides a powerful approach to measure the range and details of human gut microbiota functions and metabolic activities, revealing information about microbiome development and stability especially with regard to human health vs. disease states. In most cases, both microbial and human proteins are extracted from fecal samples and then measured by the high performance MS-based proteomics technology. We review the field of human gut microbiome community proteomics, with a focus on the experimental and informatics considerations involved in characterizing systems that range from low complexity defined model gut microbiota in gnotobiotic mice, to the simple gut microbiota in the GI tract of newborn infants, and finally to the complex gut microbiota in adults. Moreover, the current state-of-the-art in experimental and bioinformatics capabilities for community proteomics enable a detailed measurement of the gut microbiota, yielding valuable insights into the broad functional profiles of even complex microbiota. Future developments are likely to expand into improved analysis throughput and coverage depth, as well as post-translational modification characterizations.

  4. Current State of Knowledge in Microbial Degradation of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs): A Review

    PubMed Central

    Ghosal, Debajyoti; Ghosh, Shreya; Dutta, Tapan K.; Ahn, Youngho

    2016-01-01

    purpose of this review is to provide an overview of current knowledge of bacteria, halophilic archaea, fungi and algae mediated degradation/transformation of PAHs. In addition, factors affecting PAHs degradation in the environment, recent advancement in genetic, genomic, proteomic and metabolomic techniques are also highlighted with an aim to facilitate the development of a new insight into the bioremediation of PAH in the environment. PMID:27630626

  5. Current State of Knowledge in Microbial Degradation of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs): A Review

    PubMed Central

    Ghosal, Debajyoti; Ghosh, Shreya; Dutta, Tapan K.; Ahn, Youngho

    2016-01-01

    purpose of this review is to provide an overview of current knowledge of bacteria, halophilic archaea, fungi and algae mediated degradation/transformation of PAHs. In addition, factors affecting PAHs degradation in the environment, recent advancement in genetic, genomic, proteomic and metabolomic techniques are also highlighted with an aim to facilitate the development of a new insight into the bioremediation of PAH in the environment.

  6. Current State of Knowledge in Microbial Degradation of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs): A Review.

    PubMed

    Ghosal, Debajyoti; Ghosh, Shreya; Dutta, Tapan K; Ahn, Youngho

    2016-01-01

    purpose of this review is to provide an overview of current knowledge of bacteria, halophilic archaea, fungi and algae mediated degradation/transformation of PAHs. In addition, factors affecting PAHs degradation in the environment, recent advancement in genetic, genomic, proteomic and metabolomic techniques are also highlighted with an aim to facilitate the development of a new insight into the bioremediation of PAH in the environment.

  7. Current State of Knowledge in Microbial Degradation of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs): A Review.

    PubMed

    Ghosal, Debajyoti; Ghosh, Shreya; Dutta, Tapan K; Ahn, Youngho

    2016-01-01

    purpose of this review is to provide an overview of current knowledge of bacteria, halophilic archaea, fungi and algae mediated degradation/transformation of PAHs. In addition, factors affecting PAHs degradation in the environment, recent advancement in genetic, genomic, proteomic and metabolomic techniques are also highlighted with an aim to facilitate the development of a new insight into the bioremediation of PAH in the environment. PMID:27630626

  8. Aptamer-Based Multiplexed Proteomic Technology for Biomarker Discovery

    PubMed Central

    Gold, Larry; Ayers, Deborah; Bertino, Jennifer; Bock, Christopher; Bock, Ashley; Brody, Edward N.; Carter, Jeff; Dalby, Andrew B.; Eaton, Bruce E.; Fitzwater, Tim; Flather, Dylan; Forbes, Ashley; Foreman, Trudi; Fowler, Cate; Gawande, Bharat; Goss, Meredith; Gunn, Magda; Gupta, Shashi; Halladay, Dennis; Heil, Jim; Heilig, Joe; Hicke, Brian; Husar, Gregory; Janjic, Nebojsa; Jarvis, Thale; Jennings, Susan; Katilius, Evaldas; Keeney, Tracy R.; Kim, Nancy; Koch, Tad H.; Kraemer, Stephan; Kroiss, Luke; Le, Ngan; Levine, Daniel; Lindsey, Wes; Lollo, Bridget; Mayfield, Wes; Mehan, Mike; Mehler, Robert; Nelson, Sally K.; Nelson, Michele; Nieuwlandt, Dan; Nikrad, Malti; Ochsner, Urs; Ostroff, Rachel M.; Otis, Matt; Parker, Thomas; Pietrasiewicz, Steve; Resnicow, Daniel I.; Rohloff, John; Sanders, Glenn; Sattin, Sarah; Schneider, Daniel; Singer, Britta; Stanton, Martin; Sterkel, Alana; Stewart, Alex; Stratford, Suzanne; Vaught, Jonathan D.; Vrkljan, Mike; Walker, Jeffrey J.; Watrobka, Mike; Waugh, Sheela; Weiss, Allison; Wilcox, Sheri K.; Wolfson, Alexey; Wolk, Steven K.; Zhang, Chi; Zichi, Dom

    2010-01-01

    Background The interrogation of proteomes (“proteomics”) in a highly multiplexed and efficient manner remains a coveted and challenging goal in biology and medicine. Methodology/Principal Findings We present a new aptamer-based proteomic technology for biomarker discovery capable of simultaneously measuring thousands of proteins from small sample volumes (15 µL of serum or plasma). Our current assay measures 813 proteins with low limits of detection (1 pM median), 7 logs of overall dynamic range (∼100 fM–1 µM), and 5% median coefficient of variation. This technology is enabled by a new generation of aptamers that contain chemically modified nucleotides, which greatly expand the physicochemical diversity of the large randomized nucleic acid libraries from which the aptamers are selected. Proteins in complex matrices such as plasma are measured with a process that transforms a signature of protein concentrations into a corresponding signature of DNA aptamer concentrations, which is quantified on a DNA microarray. Our assay takes advantage of the dual nature of aptamers as both folded protein-binding entities with defined shapes and unique nucleotide sequences recognizable by specific hybridization probes. To demonstrate the utility of our proteomics biomarker discovery technology, we applied it to a clinical study of chronic kidney disease (CKD). We identified two well known CKD biomarkers as well as an additional 58 potential CKD biomarkers. These results demonstrate the potential utility of our technology to rapidly discover unique protein signatures characteristic of various disease states. Conclusions/Significance We describe a versatile and powerful tool that allows large-scale comparison of proteome profiles among discrete populations. This unbiased and highly multiplexed search engine will enable the discovery of novel biomarkers in a manner that is unencumbered by our incomplete knowledge of biology, thereby helping to advance the next generation of

  9. Current Pressure Transducer Application of Model-based Prognostics Using Steady State Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Teubert, Christopher; Daigle, Matthew J.

    2014-01-01

    Prognostics is the process of predicting a system's future states, health degradation/wear, and remaining useful life (RUL). This information plays an important role in preventing failure, reducing downtime, scheduling maintenance, and improving system utility. Prognostics relies heavily on wear estimation. In some components, the sensors used to estimate wear may not be fast enough to capture brief transient states that are indicative of wear. For this reason it is beneficial to be capable of detecting and estimating the extent of component wear using steady-state measurements. This paper details a method for estimating component wear using steady-state measurements, describes how this is used to predict future states, and presents a case study of a current/pressure (I/P) Transducer. I/P Transducer nominal and off-nominal behaviors are characterized using a physics-based model, and validated against expected and observed component behavior. This model is used to map observed steady-state responses to corresponding fault parameter values in the form of a lookup table. This method was chosen because of its fast, efficient nature, and its ability to be applied to both linear and non-linear systems. Using measurements of the steady state output, and the lookup table, wear is estimated. A regression is used to estimate the wear propagation parameter and characterize the damage progression function, which are used to predict future states and the remaining useful life of the system.

  10. Interpreting current-induced spin polarization in topological insulator surface states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Pengke; Appelbaum, Ian

    2016-06-01

    Several recent experiments on three-dimensional topological insulators claim to observe a large charge current-induced nonequilibrium ensemble spin polarization of electrons in the helical surface state. We present a comprehensive criticism of such claims, using both theory and experiment: First, we clarify the interpretation of quantities extracted from these measurements by deriving standard expressions from a Boltzmann transport equation approach in the relaxation-time approximation at zero and finite temperature to emphasize our assertion that, despite high in-plane spin projection, obtainable current-induced ensemble spin polarization is minuscule. Second, we use a simple experiment to demonstrate that magnetic field-dependent open-circuit voltage hysteresis (identical to those attributed to current-induced spin polarization in topological insulator surface states) can be generated in analogous devices where current is driven through thin films of a topologically trivial metal. This result ipso facto discredits the naive interpretation of previous experiments with TIs, which were used to claim observation of helicity, i.e., spin-momentum locking in the topologically protected surface state.

  11. Zero-field Dissipationless Chiral Edge Current in Quantum Anomalous Hall State

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Cui-Zu; Zhao, Weiwei; Kim, Duk Y.; Wei, Peng; Jain, J. K.; Liu, Chaoxing; Chan, Moses H. W.; Moodera, Jagadeesh S.

    The quantum anomalous Hall (QAH) state is predicted to possess, at zero magnetic field, chiral edge channels that conduct spin polarized current without dissipation, and thus holds great promise for future high-performance information processing. In this talk, we will discuss our transport experiments that probe the QAH state with gate bias and temperature dependences, by local and nonlocal magnetoresistance measurements. This allows us to unambiguously distinguish the dissipationless edge transport from transport via other dissipative channels in the QAH system. Our experiments confirm a fundamental feature of the QAH state, namely the dissipationless transport by edge channels in zero applied fields, which will be crucial for future chiral interconnected electric and spintronic applications. This research is supported by the NSF Grants (DMR-1420620, Penn State MRSEC; in MIT by DMR-1207469 and the STC Center for Integrated Quantum Materials under NSF Grant DMR-1231319) and by ONR Grant N00014-13-1-0301.

  12. Current driven tri-stable resistance states in magnetic point contacts.

    PubMed

    Yanson, I K; Fisun, V V; Naidyuk, Yu G; Balkashin, O P; Triputen, L Yu; Konovalenko, A; Korenivski, V

    2009-09-01

    Point contacts between normal and ferromagnetic metals are investigated using magnetoresistance and transport spectroscopy measurements combined with micromagnetic simulations. Pronounced hysteresis in the point contact resistance versus both bias current and external magnetic field are observed. It is found that such hysteretic resistance can exhibit, in addition to bi-stable resistance states found in ordinary spin valves, tri-stable resistance states with a middle resistance level. We interpret these observations in terms of surface spin valve and spin vortex states, originating from a substantially modified spin structure at the ferromagnetic interface in the contact core. We argue that these surface spin states, subject to a weakened exchange interaction, dominate the effects of spin transfer torques on the nanometer scale. PMID:21828625

  13. Mass Spectrometry Applied to Bottom-Up Proteomics: Entering the High-Throughput Era for Hypothesis Testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gillet, Ludovic C.; Leitner, Alexander; Aebersold, Ruedi

    2016-06-01

    Proteins constitute a key class of molecular components that perform essential biochemical reactions in living cells. Whether the aim is to extensively characterize a given protein or to perform high-throughput qualitative and quantitative analysis of the proteome content of a sample, liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry has become the technology of choice. In this review, we summarize the current state of mass spectrometry applied to bottom-up proteomics, the approach that focuses on analyzing peptides obtained from proteolytic digestion of proteins. With the recent advances in instrumentation and methodology, we show that the field is moving away from providing qualitative identification of long lists of proteins to delivering highly consistent and accurate quantification values for large numbers of proteins across large numbers of samples. We believe that this shift will have a profound impact for the field of proteomics and life science research in general.

  14. Advanced proteomic liquid chromatography

    SciTech Connect

    Xie, Fang; Smith, Richard D.; Shen, Yufeng

    2012-10-26

    Liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry is the predominant platform used to analyze proteomics samples consisting of large numbers of proteins and their proteolytic products (e.g., truncated polypeptides) and spanning a wide range of relative concentrations. This review provides an overview of advanced capillary liquid chromatography techniques and methodologies that greatly improve separation resolving power and proteomics analysis coverage, sensitivity, and throughput.

  15. Degradation of Leakage Currents in Solid Tantalum Capacitors Under Steady-State Bias Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Teverovsky, Alexander A.

    2010-01-01

    Degradation of leakage currents in various types of solid tantalum capacitors under steady-state bias conditions was investigated at temperatures from 105 oC to 170 oC and voltages up to two times the rated voltage. Variations of leakage currents with time under highly accelerated life testing (HALT) and annealing, thermally stimulated depolarization currents, and I-V characteristics were measured to understand the conduction mechanism and the reason for current degradation. During HALT the currents increase gradually up to three orders of magnitude in some cases, and then stabilize with time. This degradation is reversible and annealing can restore the initial levels of leakage currents. The results are attributed to migration of positively charged oxygen vacancies in tantalum pentoxide films that diminish the Schottky barrier at the MnO2/Ta2O5 interface and increase electron injection. A simple model allows for estimation of concentration and mobility of oxygen vacancies based on the level of current degradation.

  16. Proteomics in veterinary medicine: applications and trends in disease pathogenesis and diagnostics.

    PubMed

    Ceciliani, F; Eckersall, D; Burchmore, R; Lecchi, C

    2014-03-01

    Advancement in electrophoresis and mass spectrometry techniques along with the recent progresses in genomics, culminating in bovine and pig genome sequencing, widened the potential application of proteomics in the field of veterinary medicine. The aim of the present review is to provide an in-depth perspective about the application of proteomics to animal disease pathogenesis, as well as its utilization in veterinary diagnostics. After an overview on the various proteomic techniques that are currently applied to veterinary sciences, the article focuses on proteomic approaches to animal disease pathogenesis. Included as well are recent achievements in immunoproteomics (ie, the identifications through proteomic techniques of antigen involved in immune response) and histoproteomics (ie, the application of proteomics in tissue processed for immunohistochemistry). Finally, the article focuses on clinical proteomics (ie, the application of proteomics to the identification of new biomarkers of animal diseases).

  17. Nonlinear Bloch waves and current states of exciton-polariton condensates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chestnov, I. Yu.; Yulin, A. V.; Alodjants, A. P.; Egorov, O. A.

    2016-09-01

    The formation of nonlinear Bloch states in open driven-dissipative systems of exciton-polaritons loaded into a weak-contrast 1D periodic lattice is studied numerically and analytically. The condensate is described within the framework of mean-field theory by the coupled equations for the order parameter and for the density of incoherent excitons. The stationary nonlinear solutions having the structure of Bloch waves are studied in detail. It is shown that there is a bifurcation leading to the appearance of a family of essentially nonlinear states. The special feature of these solutions is that its current does not vanish when the quasimomentum of the state approaches the values equal to half of the lattice constant. To explain the bifurcations found in numerical simulations a simple perturbative approach is developed. The stability of the nonlinear states is examined by linear spectral analysis and by direct numerical simulations. An experimental scheme allowing the observation of the discussed nonlinear current states is suggested and studied by numerical simulations.

  18. Conservation assessment of current and proposed nature reserves of Tamaulipas state, Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cantu, C.; Gerald, Wright R.; Michael, Scott J.; Strand, Espen

    2003-01-01

    The Mexican state of Tamaulipas located in the northeastern portion of the country currently has five state nature reserves covering slightly less than 3% of its land area. These reserves were established for a variety of reasons, many unrelated to the protection of biological resources. In 2000 in response to a growing concern about the lack of organized conservation reserve planning to protect the important biological and physical features of Mexico, the Mexican Commission for Knowledge and Use of Biodiversity (CONABIO) proposed 13 new terrestrial reserves for Tamaulipas. If established these new reserves would increase the proportion of terrestrial protected lands in the state to over 21%. We compiled a geographic information system (GIS) using existing digital thematic maps of physical and biological features to examine how the existing and proposed reserves might serve to protect the biodiversity and physical features of the state. We found that most of the existing protected sites occur in areas with elevations > 1000-2000 m with temperate climate and dominated by pine forest, oak forest, and cloud forest vegetation cover types. The state's dominant biotic region - low elevation coastal plain with tropical and arid climate types and xeric scrub vegetation - is disproportionately underrepresented in the current reserve system. The creation of the proposed areas would substantially increase the protection of mid and high elevation lands. The largest gap in the protected lands network would be low elevation, level, coastal lands.

  19. [Management in nursing in the current state impoverishment of working conditions].

    PubMed

    Bellato, Roseney; Pereira, Wilza Rocha

    2004-01-01

    This study aims to provide reflection points on the nursing management process in the current state impoverishment financial conditions facing nursing work in a public health service in the State of Mato Grosso. We used the concepts of vulnerability, user rights and ethic to seek to understand how these concepts can broaden the view of citizenship in the search for better health care conditions for the users and workers in the institution studied. The blatant impoverishment of conditions that was detected point to the need for more awareness raising all levels where we think about, carry out and submit ourselves to the health care Nursing, working conditions, nursing ethics.

  20. Current tobacco use among middle and high school students--United States, 2011.

    PubMed

    2012-08-10

    Tobacco use continues to be the leading preventable cause of death and disease in the United States, with nearly 443,000 deaths occurring annually because of cigarette smoking and exposure to secondhand smoke. Moreover, nearly 90% of adult smokers begin smoking by age 18 years. To assess current tobacco use among youths, CDC analyzed data from the 2011 National Youth Tobacco Survey (NYTS). This report describes the results of that analysis, which indicated that, in 2011, the prevalence of current tobacco use among middle school and high school students was 7.1% and 23.2%, respectively, and the prevalence of current cigarette use was 4.3%, and 15.8%, respectively. During 2000-2011, among middle school students, a linear downward trend was observed in the prevalence of current tobacco use (14.9% to 7.1%), current combustible tobacco use (14.0% to 6.3%), and current cigarette use (10.7% to 4.3%). For high school students, a linear downward trend also was observed in these measures (current tobacco use [34.4% to 23.2%], current combustible tobacco use [33.1% to 21.0%], and current cigarette use [27.9% to 15.8%]). Interventions that are proven to prevent and reduce tobacco use among youths include media campaigns, limiting advertisements and other promotions, increasing the price of tobacco products, and reducing the availability of tobacco products for purchase by youths. These interventions should continue to be implemented as part of national comprehensive tobacco control programs and should be coordinated with Food and Drug Administration (FDA) regulations restricting the sale, distribution, and marketing of cigarettes and smokeless tobacco products to youths.

  1. Knowledge Translation: Moving Proteomics Science to Innovation in Society.

    PubMed

    Holmes, Christina; McDonald, Fiona; Jones, Mavis; Graham, Janice

    2016-06-01

    Proteomics is one of the pivotal next-generation biotechnologies in the current "postgenomics" era. Little is known about the ways in which innovative proteomics science is navigating the complex socio-political space between laboratory and society. It cannot be assumed that the trajectory between proteomics laboratory and society is linear and unidirectional. Concerned about public accountability and hopes for knowledge-based innovations, funding agencies and citizens increasingly expect that emerging science and technologies, such as proteomics, are effectively translated and disseminated as innovation in society. Here, we describe translation strategies promoted in the knowledge translation (KT) and science communication literatures and examine the use of these strategies within the field of proteomics. Drawing on data generated from qualitative interviews with proteomics scientists and ethnographic observation of international proteomics conferences over a 5-year period, we found that proteomics science incorporates a variety of KT strategies to reach knowledge users outside the field. To attain the full benefit of KT, however, proteomics scientists must challenge their own normative assumptions and approaches to innovation dissemination-beyond the current paradigm relying primarily on publication for one's scientific peers within one's field-and embrace the value of broader (interdisciplinary) KT strategies in promoting the uptake of their research. Notably, the Human Proteome Organization (HUPO) is paying increasing attention to a broader range of KT strategies, including targeted dissemination, integrated KT, and public outreach. We suggest that increasing the variety of KT strategies employed by proteomics scientists is timely and would serve well the omics system sciences community. PMID:27223900

  2. Knowledge Translation: Moving Proteomics Science to Innovation in Society.

    PubMed

    Holmes, Christina; McDonald, Fiona; Jones, Mavis; Graham, Janice

    2016-06-01

    Proteomics is one of the pivotal next-generation biotechnologies in the current "postgenomics" era. Little is known about the ways in which innovative proteomics science is navigating the complex socio-political space between laboratory and society. It cannot be assumed that the trajectory between proteomics laboratory and society is linear and unidirectional. Concerned about public accountability and hopes for knowledge-based innovations, funding agencies and citizens increasingly expect that emerging science and technologies, such as proteomics, are effectively translated and disseminated as innovation in society. Here, we describe translation strategies promoted in the knowledge translation (KT) and science communication literatures and examine the use of these strategies within the field of proteomics. Drawing on data generated from qualitative interviews with proteomics scientists and ethnographic observation of international proteomics conferences over a 5-year period, we found that proteomics science incorporates a variety of KT strategies to reach knowledge users outside the field. To attain the full benefit of KT, however, proteomics scientists must challenge their own normative assumptions and approaches to innovation dissemination-beyond the current paradigm relying primarily on publication for one's scientific peers within one's field-and embrace the value of broader (interdisciplinary) KT strategies in promoting the uptake of their research. Notably, the Human Proteome Organization (HUPO) is paying increasing attention to a broader range of KT strategies, including targeted dissemination, integrated KT, and public outreach. We suggest that increasing the variety of KT strategies employed by proteomics scientists is timely and would serve well the omics system sciences community.

  3. Levitating states of superconducting rings in the field of a fixed ring with constant current

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bishaev, A. M.; Bush, A. A.; Gavrikov, M. B.; Denisyuk, A. I.; Kamentsev, K. E.; Kozintseva, M. V.; Savel'ev, V. V.; Sigov, A. S.

    2014-06-01

    We consider the possibility of designing a plasma trap with a magnetic system formed by super-conducting rings and coils levitating in the field of a fixed coaxial coil carrying constant current. An analytic dependence of the potential energy of such a system with one or two levitating superconducting rings having trapped preset magnetic fluxes on their coordinates in the uniform gravitational field is obtained in the thin ring approximation. Calculations performed in the Mathcad system show that equilibrium states of such a system exist for certain values of parameters. Levitating states of a single superconducting ring and two superconducting rings in the field of the coil with constant current are observed experimentally in positions corresponding to calculated values.

  4. CMPD: cancer mutant proteome database.

    PubMed

    Huang, Po-Jung; Lee, Chi-Ching; Tan, Bertrand Chin-Ming; Yeh, Yuan-Ming; Julie Chu, Lichieh; Chen, Ting-Wen; Chang, Kai-Ping; Lee, Cheng-Yang; Gan, Ruei-Chi; Liu, Hsuan; Tang, Petrus

    2015-01-01

    Whole-exome sequencing, which centres on the protein coding regions of disease/cancer associated genes, represents the most cost-effective method to-date for deciphering the association between genetic alterations and diseases. Large-scale whole exome/genome sequencing projects have been launched by various institutions, such as NCI, Broad Institute and TCGA, to provide a comprehensive catalogue of coding variants in diverse tissue samples and cell lines. Further functional and clinical interrogation of these sequence variations must rely on extensive cross-platforms integration of sequencing information and a proteome database that explicitly and comprehensively archives the corresponding mutated peptide sequences. While such data resource is a critical for the mass spectrometry-based proteomic analysis of exomic variants, no database is currently available for the collection of mutant protein sequences that correspond to recent large-scale genomic data. To address this issue and serve as bridge to integrate genomic and proteomics datasets, CMPD (http://cgbc.cgu.edu.tw/cmpd) collected over 2 millions genetic alterations, which not only facilitates the confirmation and examination of potential cancer biomarkers but also provides an invaluable resource for translational medicine research and opportunities to identify mutated proteins encoded by mutated genes.

  5. CMPD: cancer mutant proteome database

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Po-Jung; Lee, Chi-Ching; Tan, Bertrand Chin-Ming; Yeh, Yuan-Ming; Julie Chu, Lichieh; Chen, Ting-Wen; Chang, Kai-Ping; Lee, Cheng-Yang; Gan, Ruei-Chi; Liu, Hsuan; Tang, Petrus

    2015-01-01

    Whole-exome sequencing, which centres on the protein coding regions of disease/cancer associated genes, represents the most cost-effective method to-date for deciphering the association between genetic alterations and diseases. Large-scale whole exome/genome sequencing projects have been launched by various institutions, such as NCI, Broad Institute and TCGA, to provide a comprehensive catalogue of coding variants in diverse tissue samples and cell lines. Further functional and clinical interrogation of these sequence variations must rely on extensive cross-platforms integration of sequencing information and a proteome database that explicitly and comprehensively archives the corresponding mutated peptide sequences. While such data resource is a critical for the mass spectrometry-based proteomic analysis of exomic variants, no database is currently available for the collection of mutant protein sequences that correspond to recent large-scale genomic data. To address this issue and serve as bridge to integrate genomic and proteomics datasets, CMPD (http://cgbc.cgu.edu.tw/cmpd) collected over 2 millions genetic alterations, which not only facilitates the confirmation and examination of potential cancer biomarkers but also provides an invaluable resource for translational medicine research and opportunities to identify mutated proteins encoded by mutated genes. PMID:25398898

  6. The Current State of Vaccine Development for Ocular HSV-1 Infection

    PubMed Central

    Royer, DJ; Cohen, A; Carr, DJJ

    2015-01-01

    Summary HSV-1 continues to be the leading cause of infectious corneal blindness. Clinical trials for vaccines against genital HSV infection have been ongoing for more than three decades. Despite this, no approved vaccine exists, and no formal clinical trials have evaluated the impact of HSV vaccines on eye health. We review here the current state of development for an efficacious HSV-1 vaccine and call for involvement of ophthalmologists and vision researchers. PMID:25983856

  7. Spatially-Resolved Beam Current and Charge-State Distributions for the NEXT Ion Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pollard, James E.; Diamant, Kevin D.; Crofton, Mark W.; Patterson, Michael J.; Soulas, George C.

    2010-01-01

    Plume characterization tests with the 36-cm NEXT ion engine are being performed at The Aerospace Corporation using engineering-model and prototype-model thrusters. We have examined the beam current density and xenon charge-state distribution as functions of position on the accel grid. To measure the current density ratio j++/j+, a collimated Eprobe was rotated through the plume with the probe oriented normal to the accel electrode surface at a distance of 82 cm. The beam current density jb versus radial position was measured with a miniature planar probe at 3 cm from the accel. Combining the j++/j+ and jb data yielded the ratio of total Xe+2 current to total Xe+1 current (J++/J+) at forty operating points in the standard throttle table. The production of Xe+2 and Xe+3 was measured as a function of propellant utilization to support performance and lifetime predictions for an extended throttle table. The angular dependence of jb was measured at intermediate and far-field distances to assist with plume modeling and to evaluate the thrust loss due to beam divergence. Thrust correction factors were derived from the total doubles-to-singles current ratio and from the far-field divergence data

  8. [Variability of healthy human proteome].

    PubMed

    Pakharukova, N A; Pastushkova, L Kh; Moshkovskiĭ, S A; Larina, I M

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this review is to analyze investigations devoted to characteristic of protein variability and diversity of their posttranslational modifications in healthy humans. The numerous researches have demonstrated that proteomic profile has a considerable both intra- and inter-individual variability, and quite often normal variability of some proteins can be comparable to changes observed in pathological processes. Results obtained by our research group have confirmed high intra-individual variability of serum low-molecular subproteome of healthy volunteers, certified by a special medial committee. Proteins characterized by high variability in normal conditions (e.g. haptoglobin--0-40 mg/ml; lysozyme--0,01-0,1 mg/ml; C-reactive protein--0,01-0,3 mg/ml) should be excluded from the list of potential biomarkers. On the contrary, proteins and peptides characterized by insignificant dispersion in healthy population (such as albumin--coefficient of variation (CV) 9%; transferrin--CV14%; C3c complement--CV 17%, alpha-1 acid glycoprotein--CV 21%, alpha2-macroglobulin--CV 20%; transthyretin fragment--CV 28,3% and beta-chain alpha2-HS-glycoprotein--CV 29,7%) can provide us with important information about state of health. Thus investigations of plasticity in proteomic profiles of healthy humans will help to correct reference intervals used in clinical proteomics. PMID:23289293

  9. Human saliva proteome: an overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griffin, Timothy J.

    2014-06-01

    Human saliva contains a rich mixture of biomolecules. Proteins are a major component of this mixture. Given their role as the molecular effectors within biological systems, ranging from catalysis to transport to structure, proteins have great potential as biomarkers of health and disease. The ability to collect these salivary biomarkers easily using non-invasive means makes saliva proteins even more attractive for diagnostic applications. Thousands of proteins are now to be known to be present in human saliva - discovered using proteomic technologies. Emerging technologies are now making it possible to go beyond large-scale cataloging of salivary proteins. These include approaches to catalog protein contributions from the community of microorganisms residing in the oral cavity (metaproteomics) that may reflect the health state of the human host. New mass spectrometry-based proteomics methods are also emerging, shifting the emphasis from large-scale discovery experiments to hypothesis-driven assays for profiling proteins of interest within saliva, enabling validation of their association with specific health conditions. This paper provides a brief overview of efforts to catalog the proteome of human saliva. Recent developments making possible characterization of the metaproteome of human saliva will be discussed, and technologies driving new mass spectrometry-based assays for targeted analysis of proteins within complex samples, such as saliva.

  10. Modeling of the periodic operating state of an MHD generator with a current dryer

    SciTech Connect

    Bozhkov, A.R.; Dervyanko, V.A.; Zelinskii, N.I.; Sapozhnikov, V.A.; Slavin, V.S.

    1987-07-01

    The problem of numerical modeling of the nonstationary gasdynamic interaction of a series of current layers with the flow of the working body in the channel of an MHD generator is solved. The coefficient of conversion of enthalpy into electrical energy and the internal efficiency of the generator are determined for steady periodic states. The dependence of the characteristics of the current layer on the basic parameters of the MHD generator is determined: magnetic field induction, channel geometry, external load, and stagnation pressure at the inlet. It is demonstrated that there exists an optimal number of current layers simultaneously operating in the MHD channel. The working body of the MHD generator consisted of air and the combustion products of organic fuel.

  11. Macroscopic quantum effects in the zero voltage state of the current biased Josephson junction

    SciTech Connect

    Clarke, J.; Devoret, M.H.; Martinis, J.; Esteve, D.

    1985-05-01

    When a weak microwave current is applied to a current-biased Josephson tunnel junction in the thermal limit the escape rate from the zero voltage state is enhanced when the microwave frequency is near the plasma frequency of the junction. The resonance curve is markedly asymmetric because of the anharmonic properties of the potential well: this behavior is well explained by a computer simulation using a resistively shunted junction model. This phenomenon of resonant activation enables one to make in situ measurements of the capacitance and resistance shunting the junction, including contributions from the complex impedance presented by the current leads. For the relatively large area junctions studied in these experiments, the external capacitive loading was relatively unimportant, but the damping was entirely dominated by the external resistance.

  12. A review of the current state of knowledge of fossil Mantispidae (Insecta: Neuroptera).

    PubMed

    Jepson, James E

    2015-01-01

    There are 32 individual specimens of Mantispidae (Insecta: Neuroptera) currently recorded from the fossil record, the oldest of which dates back to the Lower Jurassic. These include 19 described species (in 16 genera), 1 specimen described to genus level and 9 unnamed specimens The specimens have been assigned to the extant subfamilies Drepanicinae (4), Mantispinae (10), Symphrasinae (1), and the extinct subfamily Mesomantispinae (16), with one incertae sedis within Mantispidae. There are currently no known fossil representatives of the subfamily Calomantispinae. Mesithoninae has been removed from Mantispidae and placed back within Berothidae. The species Mesithone carnaria and M. monstruosa, however, are true mantispids and have been removed from Mesithone and placed within a new genus Karataumantispa gen. nov. in the subfamily Mesomantispinae. The current state of knowledge of the fossil record of Mantispidae is reviewed and a key to the genera of Mesomantispinae is provided. PMID:26249453

  13. System and method for generating steady state confining current for a toroidal plasma fusion reactor

    DOEpatents

    Bers, Abraham

    1981-01-01

    A system for generating steady state confining current for a toroidal plasma fusion reactor providing steady-state generation of the thermonuclear power. A dense, hot toroidal plasma is initially prepared with a confining magnetic field with toroidal and poloidal components. Continuous wave RF energy is injected into said plasma to estalish a spectrum of traveling waves in the plasma, where the traveling waves have momentum components substantially either all parallel, or all anti-parallel to the confining magnetic field. The injected RF energy is phased to couple to said traveling waves with both a phase velocity component and a wave momentum component in the direction of the plasma traveling wave components. The injected RF energy has a predetermined spectrum selected so that said traveling waves couple to plasma electrons having velocities in a predetermined range .DELTA.. The velocities in the range are substantially greater than the thermal electron velocity of the plasma. In addition, the range is sufficiently broad to produce a raised plateau having width .DELTA. in the plasma electron velocity distribution so that the plateau electrons provide steady-state current to generate a poloidal magnetic field component sufficient for confining the plasma. In steady state operation of the fusion reactor, the fusion power density in the plasma exceeds the power dissipated inthe plasma.

  14. System and method for generating steady state confining current for a toroidal plasma fusion reactor

    DOEpatents

    Fisch, Nathaniel J.

    1981-01-01

    A system for generating steady state confining current for a toroidal plasma fusion reactor providing steady-state generation of the thermonuclear power. A dense, hot toroidal plasma is initially prepared with a confining magnetic field with toroidal and poloidal components. Continuous wave RF energy is injected into said plasma to establish a spectrum of traveling waves in the plasma, where the traveling waves have momentum components substantially either all parallel, or all anti-parallel to the confining magnetic field. The injected RF energy is phased to couple to said traveling waves with both a phase velocity component and a wave momentum component in the direction of the plasma traveling wave components. The injected RF energy has a predetermined spectrum selected so that said traveling waves couple to plasma electrons having velocities in a predetermined range .DELTA.. The velocities in the range are substantially greater than the thermal electron velocity of the plasma. In addition, the range is sufficiently broad to produce a raised plateau having width .DELTA. in the plasma electron velocity distribution so that the plateau electrons provide steady-state current to generate a poloidal magnetic field component sufficient for confining the plasma. In steady state operation of the fusion reactor, the fusion power density in the plasma exceeds the power dissipated in the plasma.

  15. Integrated modelling of DEMO-FNS current ramp-up scenario and steady-state regime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dnestrovskij, A. Yu.; Kuteev, B. V.; Bykov, A. S.; Ivanov, A. A.; Lukash, V. E.; Medvedev, S. Yu.; Sergeev, V. Yu.; Sychugov, D. Yu.; Khayrutdinov, R. R.

    2015-06-01

    An approach to the integrated modelling of plasma regimes in the projected neutron source DEMO-FNS based on different codes is developed. The consistency check of the steady-state regime is carried out, namely, the possibility of the plasma current ramp-up, acceptance of growth rates of MHD modes in the steady-state regime, heat loads to the wall and divertor plates and neutron yield value. The following codes are employed for the integrated modelling. ASTRA transport code for calculation of plasma parameters in the steady-state regime, NUBEAM Monte Carlo code for NBI incorporated into the ASTRA code, DINA free boundary equilibrium and evolution code, SPIDER free boundary equilibrium and equilibrium reconstruction code, KINX ideal MHD stability code, TOKSTAB rigid shift vertical stability code, edge and divertor plasma B2SOLPS5.2 code and Semi-analytic Hybrid Model (SHM) code for self-consistent description of the core, edge and divertor plasmas based on the experimental scaling laws. The consistent steady-state regime for the DEMO-FNS plasma and the plasma current ramp-up scenario are developed using the integrated modelling approach. Passive copper coils are suggested to reduce the plasma vertical instability growth rate to below ˜30 s-1.The outer divertor operation in the ‘high-recycling’ regime is numerically demonstrated with a maximal heat flux density of 7-9 MW m-2 that is technically acceptable.

  16. Enhancement of HERG K(+) currents by Cd(2+) destabilization of the inactivated state

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, JP; Balser, JR; Bennett, PB

    1999-01-01

    We have studied the functional effects of extracellular Cd(2+) on human ether-a-go-go-related gene (HERG) encoded K(+) channels. Low concentrations (10-200 &mgr;M) of extracellular Cd(2+) increased outward currents through HERG channels; 200 &mgr;M Cd(2+) more than doubled HERG currents and altered current kinetics. Cd(2+) concentrations up to 200 &mgr;M did not change the voltage dependence of channel activation, but shifted the voltage dependence of inactivation to more depolarized membrane potentials. Cd(2+) concentrations >/=500 &mgr;M shifted the voltage dependence of channel activation to more positive potentials. These results are consistent with a somewhat specific ability of Cd(2+) to destabilize the inactivated state. We tested the hypothesis that channel inactivation is essential for Cd(2+)-induced increases in HERG K(+) currents, using a double point mutation (G628C/S631C) that diminishes HERG inactivation (Smith, P. L., T. Baukrowitz, and G. Yellen. 1996. Nature (Lond.). 379:833-836). This inactivation-removed mutant is insensitive to low concentrations of Cd(2+). Thus, Cd(2+) had two distinct effects on HERG K(+) channels. Low concentrations of Cd(2+) caused relatively selective effects on inactivation, resulting in a reduction of the apparent rectification of the channel and thereby increasing HERG K(+) currents. Higher Cd(2+) concentrations affected activation gating as well, possibly by a surface charge screening mechanism or by association with a lower affinity site. PMID:10545354

  17. Proteomic Findings in Melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Sengupta, Deepanwita; Tackett, Alan J

    2016-01-01

    Although the emergence of proteomics as an independent branch of science is fairly recent, within a short period of time it has contributed substantially in various disciplines. The tool of mass spectrometry has become indispensable in the analysis of complex biological samples. Clinical applications of proteomics include detection of predictive and diagnostic markers, understanding mechanism of action of drugs as well as resistance mechanisms against them and assessment of therapeutic efficacy and toxicity of drugs in patients. Here, we have summarized the major contributions of proteomics towards the study of melanoma, which is a deadly variety of skin cancer with a high mortality rate. PMID:27274624

  18. Investigation of various equations of state for high current, pulsed power load modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luginsland, John; Parkinson, Roland; Rigby, Fred; Toepfer, Alan

    2002-08-01

    A number of technologies utilize the increasing availability of modern pulsed power systems to produce high currents to resistively drive solid, metallic loads into the plasma state. Examples include ablation plasma deposition, circuit breakers, fuses, exploding and imploding wires, and high velocity jet disruption. One important feature in any computational model of these phenomena is the equation of state (EOS). The equations of state used in these models are typically as varied as the range of applications. In this work, using a segmented wire experiment performed at the Army Research Laboratory [1] as a benchmark, we investigate three equations of state [2-4]. We assess the merits of the EOS for both their physical accuracy and easy of use computationally. Finally, we comment on the availability of the information necessary to build the EOS, given the wide variety of materials that are used in this applied field. [1] C.E. Hollandsworth et al., J. Appl. Phys., vol. 84, no. 9, 4992-5000, 1998. [2] SESAME tables, LANL T-1 Division, Equation of State and Strength of Materials. [3] Zhukov, Demidov, and Ryabenko, Fiz. Metal. Metalloved., vol. 57, no. 2, 224-229, 1984. [4] Chittenden et al., Laser and Particle Beams, vol. 19, issue 3, 323-343, 2001, and references therein.

  19. Description of plasma focus current sheath as the Turner relaxed state of a Hall magnetofluid

    SciTech Connect

    Auluck, S. K. H.

    2009-12-15

    The central mystery of plasma focus research is the two orders-of-magnitude-higher-than-thermal fusion reaction rate and the fact that both the space-resolved neutron spectra and space-resolved reaction proton spectra show features which can be ascribed only to a rotational motion of the center-of-mass of the reacting deuteron population. It has been suggested earlier [S. K. H. Auluck, IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 25, 37 (1997)] that this and other experimental observations can be consistently explained in terms of a hypothesis involving rotation of the current carrying plasma annulus behind the imploding gas-dynamic shock. Such rotation (more generally, mass flow) is an in-built feature of relaxed state of a two-fluid plasma [R. N. Sudan, Phys. Rev. Lett. 42, 1277 (1979)]. Relaxation in the 'Hall magnetofluid' approximation, in which the generalized Ohm's law includes the Hall effect term and the magnetic convection term but omits the contributions to the electric field from resistive dissipation, electron pressure gradient, thermoelectric effect, electron inertia, etc., has been extensively studied by many authors. In the present paper, Turner's [IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. PS-14, 849 (1986)] degenerate solution for the relaxed state of the Hall magnetohydrodynamic plasma has been adapted to the case of an infinitely long annular current carrying plasma, a tractable idealization of the current sheath of a plasma focus. The resulting model is consistent with experimental values of ion kinetic energy and observation of predominantly radially directed neutron emission in good shots.

  20. Current state and perspectives of producing biodiesel-like compounds by biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Uthoff, Stefan; Bröker, Daniel; Steinbüchel, Alexander

    2009-09-01

    The global demand for crude oil is expected to continue to rise in future while simultaneously oil production is currently reaching its peak. Subsequently, rising oil prices and their negative impacts on economy, together with an increased environmental awareness of our society, directed the focus also on the biotechnological production of fuels. Although a wide variety of such fuels has been suggested, only the production of ethanol and biodiesel has reached a certain economic feasibility and volume, yet. This review focuses on the current state and perspectives of biotechnological production of biodiesel-like compounds. At present by far most of the produced biodiesel is obtained by chemical transesterification reactions, which cannot meet the demands of a totally 'green' fuel production. Therefore, also several biotechnological biodiesel production processes are currently being developed. Biotechnological production can be achieved by purified enzymes in the soluble state, which requires cost-intensive protein preparation. Alternatively, enzymes could be immobilized on an appropriate matrix, enabling a reuse of the enzyme, although the formation of by-products may provide difficulties to maintain the enzyme activity. Processes in presence of organic solvents like t-butanol have been developed, which enhance by-product solubility and therefore prevent loss of enzyme activity. As another approach the application of whole-cell catalysis for the production of fatty acid ethyl esters, which is also referred to as 'microdiesel', by recombinant microorganisms has recently been suggested.

  1. Current state and perspectives of producing biodiesel‐like compounds by biotechnology

    PubMed Central

    Uthoff, Stefan; Bröker, Daniel; Steinbüchel, Alexander

    2009-01-01

    Summary The global demand for crude oil is expected to continue to rise in future while simultaneously oil production is currently reaching its peak. Subsequently, rising oil prices and their negative impacts on economy, together with an increased environmental awareness of our society, directed the focus also on the biotechnological production of fuels. Although a wide variety of such fuels has been suggested, only the production of ethanol and biodiesel has reached a certain economic feasibility and volume, yet. This review focuses on the current state and perspectives of biotechnological production of biodiesel‐like compounds. At present by far most of the produced biodiesel is obtained by chemical transesterification reactions, which cannot meet the demands of a totally ‘green’ fuel production. Therefore, also several biotechnological biodiesel production processes are currently being developed. Biotechnological production can be achieved by purified enzymes in the soluble state, which requires cost‐intensive protein preparation. Alternatively, enzymes could be immobilized on an appropriate matrix, enabling a reuse of the enzyme, although the formation of by‐products may provide difficulties to maintain the enzyme activity. Processes in presence of organic solvents like t‐butanol have been developed, which enhance by‐product solubility and therefore prevent loss of enzyme activity. As another approach the application of whole‐cell catalysis for the production of fatty acid ethyl esters, which is also referred to as ‘microdiesel’, by recombinant microorganisms has recently been suggested. PMID:21255288

  2. Fed-state gastric media and drug analysis techniques: Current status and points to consider.

    PubMed

    Baxevanis, Fotios; Kuiper, Jesse; Fotaki, Nikoletta

    2016-10-01

    Gastric fed state conditions can have a significant effect on drug dissolution and absorption. In vitro dissolution tests with simple aqueous media cannot usually predict drugs' in vivo response, as several factors such as the meal content, the gastric emptying and possible interactions between food and drug formulations can affect drug's pharmacokinetics. Good understanding of the effect of the in vivo fed gastric conditions on the drug is essential for the development of biorelevant dissolution media simulating the gastric environment after the administration of the standard high fat meal proposed by the FDA and the EMA in bioavailability/bioequivalence (BA/BE) studies. The analysis of drugs in fed state media can be quite challenging as most analytical protocols currently employed are time consuming and labour intensive. In this review, an overview of the in vivo gastric conditions and the biorelevant media used for their in vitro simulation are described. Furthermore an analysis of the physicochemical properties of the drugs and the formulations related to food effect is given. In terms of drug analysis, the protocols currently used for the fed state media sample treatment and analysis and the analytical challenges and needs emerging for more efficient and time saving techniques for a broad spectrum of compounds are being discussed. PMID:27422208

  3. Fed-state gastric media and drug analysis techniques: Current status and points to consider.

    PubMed

    Baxevanis, Fotios; Kuiper, Jesse; Fotaki, Nikoletta

    2016-10-01

    Gastric fed state conditions can have a significant effect on drug dissolution and absorption. In vitro dissolution tests with simple aqueous media cannot usually predict drugs' in vivo response, as several factors such as the meal content, the gastric emptying and possible interactions between food and drug formulations can affect drug's pharmacokinetics. Good understanding of the effect of the in vivo fed gastric conditions on the drug is essential for the development of biorelevant dissolution media simulating the gastric environment after the administration of the standard high fat meal proposed by the FDA and the EMA in bioavailability/bioequivalence (BA/BE) studies. The analysis of drugs in fed state media can be quite challenging as most analytical protocols currently employed are time consuming and labour intensive. In this review, an overview of the in vivo gastric conditions and the biorelevant media used for their in vitro simulation are described. Furthermore an analysis of the physicochemical properties of the drugs and the formulations related to food effect is given. In terms of drug analysis, the protocols currently used for the fed state media sample treatment and analysis and the analytical challenges and needs emerging for more efficient and time saving techniques for a broad spectrum of compounds are being discussed.

  4. A roadmap for successful applications of clinical proteomics.

    PubMed

    Ioannidis, John P A

    2011-06-01

    Despite over 30,000 publications on proteomics in the last decade, and the accumulation of extensive interesting information on the human proteome in diverse observations, the clinical translation of proteomics to-date has had major setbacks. I review here a roadmap for improving the success rate of clinical proteomics. The roadmap includes steps for improvements that need to be made in analytical tools, discovery, validation, clinical application, and post-clinical application appraisal. It is likely that most if not all of the components that are necessary for clinical success are either readily available, or should be possible to put in place with more rigorous research standards and concerted efforts of the research community, clinicians, and health agencies. Enthusiasm for the clinical impact of proteomics may need to be tempered currently until robust evidence can be obtained, but some clinical successes should eventually be feasible. PMID:21523915

  5. Serum proteomics for biomarker discovery in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.

    PubMed

    Yilmaz, Yusuf

    2012-08-16

    Proteomic platforms have gained increasing attention in the clinical spectrum of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). This approach allows for the unbiased discovery of circulating biochemical markers, i.e., it is not limited to known molecules of presumed importance. This manuscript provides an overview of proteomic serum biomarker discovery in NAFLD. Hemoglobin is currently the most widely replicated proteomic circulating biomarker of NAFLD; it was identified as a biomarker of fatty liver in two distinct proteomic studies and subsequently validated using distinct analytical methods by independent research groups in large replication cohorts. Given the increasing availability of numerous serum samples and the refinement of the technological platforms available to scrutinize the blood proteome, large collaborative studies between academia and industry are warmly encouraged to identify novel, unbiased circulating biomarkers of NAFLD.

  6. A bioinformatics perspective on proteomics: data storage, analysis, and integration.

    PubMed

    Kremer, Andreas; Schneider, Reinhard; Terstappen, Georg C

    2005-01-01

    The field of proteomics is advancing rapidly as a result of powerful new technologies and proteomics experiments yield a vast and increasing amount of information. Data regarding protein occurrence, abundance, identity, sequence, structure, properties, and interactions need to be stored. Currently, a common standard has not yet been established and open access to results is needed for further development of robust analysis algorithms. Databases for proteomics will evolve from pure storage into knowledge resources, providing a repository for information (meta-data) which is mainly not stored in simple flat files. This review will shed light on recent steps towards the generation of a common standard in proteomics data storage and integration, but is not meant to be a comprehensive overview of all available databases and tools in the proteomics community.

  7. HepatoProteomics: Applying Proteomic Technologies to the Study of Liver Function and Disease

    SciTech Connect

    Diamond, Deborah L.; Proll, Sean; Jacobs, Jon M.; Chan, Eric Y.; Camp, David G.; Smith, Richard D.; Katze, Michael G.

    2006-08-01

    The wealth of human genome sequence information now available, coupled with technological advances in robotics, nanotechnology, mass spectrometry, and information systems, has given rise to a method of scientific inquiry known as functional genomics. By using these technologies to survey gene expression and protein production on a near global scale, the goal of functional genomics is to assign biological function to genes with currently unknown roles in physiology. This approach carries particular appeal in disease research, where it can uncover the function of previously unknown genes and molecular pathways that are directly involved in disease progression. With this knowledge may come improved diagnostic techniques, prognostic capabilities, and novel therapeutic approaches. In this regard, the continuing evolution of proteomic technologies has resulted in an increasingly greater impact of proteome studies in many areas of research and hepatology is no exception. Our laboratory has been extremely active in this area, applying both genomic and proteomic technologies to the analysis of virus-host interactions in several systems, including the study of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection and HCV-associated liver disease. Since proteomic technologies are foreign to many hepatologists (and to almost everyone else), this article will provide an overview of proteomic methods and technologies and describe how they're being used to study liver function and disease. We use our studies of HCV infection and HCV-associated liver disease to present an operational framework for performing high throughput proteome analysis and extracting biologically meaningful information.

  8. GENOMIC AND PROTEOMIC TECHNIQUES APPLIED TO REPRODUCTIVE BIOLOGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Genomic and proteomic techniques applied to reproductive biology
    John C. Rockett
    Reproductive Toxicology Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, Office of Research and Development, United States Environmental Protection Agency, Research Tria...

  9. Pathway and network analysis in proteomics.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xiaogang; Hasan, Mohammad Al; Chen, Jake Yue

    2014-12-01

    Proteomics is inherently a systems science that studies not only measured protein and their expressions in a cell, but also the interplay of proteins, protein complexes, signaling pathways, and network modules. There is a rapid accumulation of Proteomics data in recent years. However, Proteomics data are highly variable, with results sensitive to data preparation methods, sample condition, instrument types, and analytical methods. To address the challenge in Proteomics data analysis, we review current tools being developed to incorporate biological function and network topological information. We categorize these tools into four types: tools with basic functional information and little topological features (e.g., GO category analysis), tools with rich functional information and little topological features (e.g., GSEA), tools with basic functional information and rich topological features (e.g., Cytoscape), and tools with rich functional information and rich topological features (e.g., PathwayExpress). We first review the potential application of these tools to Proteomics; then we review tools that can achieve automated learning of pathway modules and features, and tools that help perform integrated network visual analytics.

  10. Assessment of Energy Production Potential from Ocean Currents along the United States Coastline

    SciTech Connect

    Haas, Kevin

    2013-09-15

    Increasing energy consumption and depleting reserves of fossil fuels have resulted in growing interest in alternative renewable energy from the ocean. Ocean currents are an alternative source of clean energy due to their inherent reliability, persistence and sustainability. General ocean circulations exist in the form of large rotating ocean gyres, and feature extremely rapid current flow in the western boundaries due to the Coriolis Effect. The Gulf Stream system is formed by the western boundary current of the North Atlantic Ocean that flows along the east coastline of the United States, and therefore is of particular interest as a potential energy resource for the United States. This project created a national database of ocean current energy resources to help advance awareness and market penetration in ocean current energy resource assessment. The database, consisting of joint velocity magnitude and direction probability histograms, was created from data created by seven years of numerical model simulations. The accuracy of the database was evaluated by ORNL?s independent validation effort documented in a separate report. Estimates of the total theoretical power resource contained in the ocean currents were calculated utilizing two separate approaches. Firstly, the theoretical energy balance in the Gulf Stream system was examined using the two-dimensional ocean circulation equations based on the assumptions of the Stommel model for subtropical gyres with the quasi-geostrophic balance between pressure gradient, Coriolis force, wind stress and friction driving the circulation. Parameters including water depth, natural dissipation rate and wind stress are calibrated in the model so that the model can reproduce reasonable flow properties including volume flux and energy flux. To represent flow dissipation due to turbines additional turbine drag coefficient is formulated and included in the model. Secondly, to determine the reasonableness of the total power

  11. Quantitative proteomics using SILAC: Principles, applications, and developments.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiulan; Wei, Shasha; Ji, Yanlong; Guo, Xiaojing; Yang, Fuquan

    2015-09-01

    SILAC is based on direct addition of selected stable isotope amino acids into the cell culture medium, allowing superior quantitative analysis of the cellular proteome compared to other labeling methods. The great advantages of SILAC lie in its straight-forward implementation, quantitative accuracy, and reproducibility over chemical labeling or label-free quantification strategies, favoring its adoption for proteomic research. SILAC has been widely applied to characterize the proteomic changes between different biological samples, to investigate dynamic changes of protein PTMs, to distinguish specific interacting proteins in interaction proteomic analysis, and to analyze protein turnover in the proteome-wide scale. The present review summarizes the principles of SILAC technology, its applications in biological research, and the present state of this technology.

  12. Biomarker discovery of nasopharyngeal carcinoma by proteomics.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Liang; Xiao, Ta; Wang, Zhi-Ming; Cho, William C S; Xiao, Zhi-Qiang

    2014-04-01

    Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is one of the most common malignant tumors in southern China and southern Asia, and poses one of the most serious public health problems in these areas. Early diagnosis, predicting metastasis, recurrence, prognosis and therapeutic response of NPC remain a challenge. Discovery of diagnostic and predictive biomarkers is an ideal way to achieve these objectives. Proteomics has great potential in identifying cancer biomarkers. Comparative proteomics has identified a large number of potential biomarkers associated with NPC, although the clinical performance of such biomarkers needs to be further validated. In this article, we review the latest discovery and progress of biomarkers for early diagnosis, predicting metastasis, recurrence, prognosis and therapeutic response of NPC, inform the readers of the current status of proteomics-based NPC biomarker findings and suggest avenues for future work.

  13. Profiling of the cell surface proteome.

    PubMed

    Jang, Jun Ho; Hanash, Samir

    2003-10-01

    The in depth-mining of the proteome necessitates the comprehensive analysis of proteins in individual subcellular compartments to uncover interesting patterns of protein expression that include assessment of protein location, trafficking and of post-translational modifications that are location specific. One of the compartments of substantial interest from a diagnostic and therapeutic point of view is the plasma membrane which contains intrinsic membrane proteins and other proteins expressed on the cell surface. Technologies are currently available for the comprehensive profiling of the cell surface proteome that rely on protein tagging of intact cells. Studies are emerging that point to unexpected patterns of expression of specific proteins on the cell surface, with a common occurrence of proteins previously considered to occur predominantly in other compartments, notably the endoplasmic reticulum. The profiling of the cell surface and plasma membrane proteomes will likely provide novel insights and uncover disease related alterations. PMID:14625857

  14. Trans-Proteomic Pipeline, a standardized data processing pipeline for large-scale reproducible proteomics informatics

    PubMed Central

    Deutsch, Eric W.; Mendoza, Luis; Shteynberg, David; Slagel, Joseph; Sun, Zhi; Moritz, Robert L.

    2015-01-01

    Democratization of genomics technologies has enabled the rapid determination of genotypes. More recently the democratization of comprehensive proteomics technologies is enabling the determination of the cellular phenotype and the molecular events that define its dynamic state. Core proteomic technologies include mass spectrometry to define protein sequence, protein:protein interactions, and protein post-translational modifications. Key enabling technologies for proteomics are bioinformatic pipelines to identify, quantitate, and summarize these events. The Trans-Proteomics Pipeline (TPP) is a robust open-source standardized data processing pipeline for large-scale reproducible quantitative mass spectrometry proteomics. It supports all major operating systems and instrument vendors via open data formats. Here we provide a review of the overall proteomics workflow supported by the TPP, its major tools, and how it can be used in its various modes from desktop to cloud computing. We describe new features for the TPP, including data visualization functionality. We conclude by describing some common perils that affect the analysis of tandem mass spectrometry datasets, as well as some major upcoming features. PMID:25631240

  15. Methods for Proteomic Analysis of Transcription Factors

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Daifeng; Jarrett, Harry W.; Haskins, William E.

    2009-01-01

    Investigation of the transcription factor (TF) proteome presents challenges including the large number of low abundance and post-translationally modified proteins involved. Specialized purification and analysis methods have been developed over the last decades which facilitate the study of the TF proteome and these are reviewed here. Generally applicable proteomics methods that have been successfully applied are also discussed. TFs are selectively purified by affinity techniques using the DNA response element (RE) as the basis for highly specific binding, and several agents have been discovered that either enhance binding or diminish non-specific binding. One such affinity method called “trapping” enables purification of TFs bound to nM concentrations and recovery of TF complexes in a highly purified state. The electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) is the most important assay of TFs because it provides both measures of the affinity and amount of the TF present. Southwestern (SW) blotting and DNA-protein crosslinking (DPC) allow in vitro estimates of DNA-binding-protein mass, while chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) allows confirmation of promoter binding in vivo. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis methods (2-DE), and 3-DE methods which combines EMSA with 2-DE, allow further resolution of TFs. The synergy of highly selective purification and analytical strategies has led to an explosion of knowledge about the TF proteome and the proteomes of other DNA- and RNA-binding proteins. PMID:19726046

  16. Current-State Constrained Filter Bank for Wald Testing of Spacecraft Conjunctions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carpenter, J. Russell; Markley, F. Landis

    2012-01-01

    We propose a filter bank consisting of an ordinary current-state extended Kalman filter, and two similar but constrained filters: one is constrained by a null hypothesis that the miss distance between two conjuncting spacecraft is inside their combined hard body radius at the predicted time of closest approach, and one is constrained by an alternative complementary hypothesis. The unconstrained filter is the basis of an initial screening for close approaches of interest. Once the initial screening detects a possibly risky conjunction, the unconstrained filter also governs measurement editing for all three filters, and predicts the time of closest approach. The constrained filters operate only when conjunctions of interest occur. The computed likelihoods of the innovations of the two constrained filters form a ratio for a Wald sequential probability ratio test. The Wald test guides risk mitigation maneuver decisions based on explicit false alarm and missed detection criteria. Since only current-state Kalman filtering is required to compute the innovations for the likelihood ratio, the present approach does not require the mapping of probability density forward to the time of closest approach. Instead, the hard-body constraint manifold is mapped to the filter update time by applying a sigma-point transformation to a projection function. Although many projectors are available, we choose one based on Lambert-style differential correction of the current-state velocity. We have tested our method using a scenario based on the Magnetospheric Multi-Scale mission, scheduled for launch in late 2014. This mission involves formation flight in highly elliptical orbits of four spinning spacecraft equipped with antennas extending 120 meters tip-to-tip. Eccentricities range from 0.82 to 0.91, and close approaches generally occur in the vicinity of perigee, where rapid changes in geometry may occur. Testing the method using two 12,000-case Monte Carlo simulations, we found the

  17. Ignition and steady-state current drive capability of INTOR plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Uckan, N.A.

    1988-01-01

    The confinement capability of the INTOR plasma for achieving ignition and noninductively driven, Q>5 steady-state operation has been assessed for various energy confinement scaling laws and current drive schemes by using a global power balance model. Plasma operation contours are used to illustrate the boundaries of the operating regimes in density-temperature (n-T) space. Results of the analysis indicate a very restricted capability (if any) for ignition and a limited flexibility in driven modes of operation in the INTOR (8-MA) design. Nearly a factor of two increase in plasma current (through stronger plasma shaping) could improve the feasibility of ignition in INTOR. 14 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  18. The History of Liquid Ear Acupuncture and the Current Scientific State of the Art.

    PubMed

    Litscher, Daniela; Litscher, Gerhard

    2016-06-01

    This short review article presents a current overview of existing publications and scientific results regarding liquid (ear) acupuncture. The injection of liquids into defined acupuncture points of the ear is not a method commonly used in the Western world. The term liquid acupuncture has different definitions, which makes understanding each definition and differentiating one from the other difficult. General terms like pharmacopuncture, homeosiniatry, and liquid acupuncture, which all describe the method of injecting different kinds of drugs into a defined body acupuncture point, are used. This article presents the history of liquid acupuncture, as well as the current scientific state of the art, from the point of view of two European researchers. Some articles are discussed and a few practical examples are presented.

  19. Coarctation of the Aorta - The Current State of Surgical and Transcatheter Therapies

    PubMed Central

    Vergales, Jeffrey E; Gangemi, James J; Rhueban, Karen S; Lim, D Scott

    2013-01-01

    Aortic coarctation represents a distinct anatomic obstruction as blood moves from the ascending to the descending aorta and can present in a range of ages from infancy to adulthood. While it is often an isolated and discrete narrowing, it can also be seen in the more extreme scenario of severe arch hypoplasia as seen in the hypoplastic left heart syndrome or in conjunction with numerous other congenital heart defects. Since the first description of an anatomic surgical repair over sixty years ago, an evolution of both surgical and transcatheter therapies has occurred allowing clinicians to manage and treat this disease with excellent results and low morbidity and mortality. This review focuses on the current state of both transcatheter and surgical therapies, paying special attention to recent data on long-term follow-up of both approaches. Further, current thoughts will be explored about future therapeutic options that attempt to improve upon historical long-term outcomes. PMID:23909637

  20. The History of Liquid Ear Acupuncture and the Current Scientific State of the Art.

    PubMed

    Litscher, Daniela; Litscher, Gerhard

    2016-06-01

    This short review article presents a current overview of existing publications and scientific results regarding liquid (ear) acupuncture. The injection of liquids into defined acupuncture points of the ear is not a method commonly used in the Western world. The term liquid acupuncture has different definitions, which makes understanding each definition and differentiating one from the other difficult. General terms like pharmacopuncture, homeosiniatry, and liquid acupuncture, which all describe the method of injecting different kinds of drugs into a defined body acupuncture point, are used. This article presents the history of liquid acupuncture, as well as the current scientific state of the art, from the point of view of two European researchers. Some articles are discussed and a few practical examples are presented. PMID:27386143

  1. Anaesthesia in Ethiopia: providers' perspectives on the current state of the service.

    PubMed

    Bashford, Tom

    2014-01-01

    The improvement of surgical and anaesthetic safety in low-resource settings is hampered by a lack of reliable information on the current provision of these services. Ethiopia is one of the world's poorest countries and, despite large amounts of both foreign and domestic investment, still reports some of the worst health outcomes. However, information on anaesthesia and surgical provision is sparse. This work reproduces a questionnaire study, first used in Uganda in 2006, to survey practising anaesthetists regarding the current state of anaesthesia services across Ethiopia. The results indicate that a large proportion of centres remain unable to provide safe general, spinal, paediatric and obstetric anaesthesia, at all levels of hospital and across almost all of the country's regions. In addition to a lack of equipment and pharmaceuticals, anaesthetists report problems with professional recognition and a lack of access to continuing professional development as key barriers to service development. PMID:24240776

  2. The modern brain tumor operating room: from standard essentials to current state-of-the-art.

    PubMed

    Barnett, Gene H; Nathoo, Narendra

    2004-01-01

    It is just over a century since successful brain tumor resection. Since then the diagnosis, imaging, and management of brain tumors have improved, in large part due to technological advances. Similarly, the operating room (OR) for brain tumor surgery has increased in complexity and specificity with multiple forms of equipment now considered necessary as technical adjuncts. It is evident that the theme of minimalism in combination with advanced image-guidance techniques and a cohort of sophisticated technologies (e.g., robotics and nanotechnology) will drive changes in the current OR environment for the foreseeable future. In this report we describe what may be regarded today as standard essentials in an operating room for the surgical management of brain tumors and what we believe to be the current 'state-of-the-art' brain tumor OR. Also, we speculate on the additional capabilities of the brain tumor OR of the near future. PMID:15527078

  3. The History of Liquid Ear Acupuncture and the Current Scientific State of the Art

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    This short review article presents a current overview of existing publications and scientific results regarding liquid (ear) acupuncture. The injection of liquids into defined acupuncture points of the ear is not a method commonly used in the Western world. The term liquid acupuncture has different definitions, which makes understanding each definition and differentiating one from the other difficult. General terms like pharmacopuncture, homeosiniatry, and liquid acupuncture, which all describe the method of injecting different kinds of drugs into a defined body acupuncture point, are used. This article presents the history of liquid acupuncture, as well as the current scientific state of the art, from the point of view of two European researchers. Some articles are discussed and a few practical examples are presented. PMID:27386143

  4. The current state of nursing performance measurement, public reporting, and value-based purchasing.

    PubMed

    Kurtzman, Ellen T; Dawson, Ellen M; Johnson, Jean E

    2008-08-01

    Over the last decade, there has been a substantial investment in holding health care providers accountable for the quality of care provided in hospitals and other settings of care. This investment has been realized through the proliferation of national policies that address performance measurement, public reporting, and value-based purchasing. Although nurses represent the largest segment of the health care workforce and despite their acknowledged role in patient safety and health care outcomes, they have been largely absent from policy setting in these areas. This article provides an analysis of current nursing performance measurement and public reporting initiatives and presents a summary of emerging trends in value-based purchasing, with an emphasis on activities in the United States. The article synthesizes issues of relevance to advancing the current climate for nursing quality and concludes with key issues for future policy setting.

  5. Biomanufacturing of Therapeutic Cells: State of the Art, Current Challenges, and Future Perspectives.

    PubMed

    Roh, Kyung-Ho; Nerem, Robert M; Roy, Krishnendu

    2016-06-01

    Stem cells and other functionally defined therapeutic cells (e.g., T cells) are promising to bring hope of a permanent cure for diseases and disorders that currently cannot be cured by conventional drugs or biological molecules. This paradigm shift in modern medicine of using cells as novel therapeutics can be realized only if suitable manufacturing technologies for large-scale, cost-effective, reproducible production of high-quality cells can be developed. Here we review the state of the art in therapeutic cell manufacturing, including cell purification and isolation, activation and differentiation, genetic modification, expansion, packaging, and preservation. We identify current challenges and discuss opportunities to overcome them such that cell therapies become highly effective, safe, and predictively reproducible while at the same time becoming affordable and widely available. PMID:27276552

  6. State-of-Art Empirical Modeling of Ring Current Plasma Pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yue, C.; Ma, Q.; Wang, C. P.; Bortnik, J.; Thorne, R. M.

    2015-12-01

    The plasma pressure in the inner magnetosphere plays a key role in plasma dynamics by changing magnetic field configurations and generating the ring current. In this study, we present our preliminary results of empirically constructing 2D equatorial ring current pressure and pressure anisotropy spatial distributions controlled by Dst based on measurements from two particle instruments (HOPE and RBSPICE) onboard Van Allen Probes. We first obtain the equatorial plasma perpendicular and parallel pressures for different species including H+, He+, O+ and e- from 20 eV to ~1 MeV, and investigate their relative contributions to the total plasma pressure and pressure anisotropy. We then establish empirical equatorial pressure models within ~ 6 RE using a state-of-art machine learning technique, Support Vector Regression Machine (SVRM). The pressure models predict equatorial perpendicular and parallel plasma thermal pressures (for each species and for total pressures) and pressure anisotropy at any given r, MLT, Bz/Br (equivalent Z distance), and Dst within applicable ranges. We are currently validating our model predictions and investigating how the ring current pressure distributions and the associated pressure gradients vary with Dst index.

  7. Mid to late Holocene Leeuwin Current variability offshore southern Australia linked to ENSO state changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perner, Kerstin; Moros, Matthias; De Deckker, Patrick; Blanz, Thomas; Siegel, Herbert; Wacker, Lukas; Schneider, Ralph; Jansen, Eystein

    2015-04-01

    The El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO), a key aspect of the Earth's climate, drives regional to global oceanic and climate changes on various time-scales. Differences in the temporal coverage of Holocene records for the more general state in El Niño frequency, however, restrict a comprehensive overview. Oceanic variability offshore southern Australia is linked to the Leeuwin Current (LC), an eastern boundary current, transporting tropical waters from the Indo Pacific Warm Pool region towards higher latitudes. Instrumental data, spanning the last few decades, document that ENSO modulates LC variability. Here we present new, well-dated time series from two marine sediment cores (MD03-2611 and SS0206-GC 15)of past LC variability, based on alkenone-derived sea-surface temperatures (SST) and planktonic foraminifera offshore southern Australia, an area affected by recent El Niño and La Niña events. Our reconstructions of ENSO-state changes cover the last 7,400 years. With transition into the mid Holocene [dates], we find clear evidence that oceanic conditions prevailed under the dominant influence of a persistent La Niña mode. A strong LC produces a stratified water column and establishes a permanent thermocline as seen in the high abundance of the 'tropical fauna' (Globoturborotalita rubescens, Globoturborotalita tenella and Globigerinella sacculifer (including G. trilobus)) and maximum SST offshore southern Australia. During this La Niña-state dominated period, we record at c. 5000 years BP the first short period of a strong El Niño-like-state, by a pronounced drop in abundance of the subtropical species Globigerinoides ruber and a reduced SST gradient between the two core sites. The Late Holocene (from 3,500 years BP onwards) period is characterized by centennial to millennial scale variability in the LC strength, which is accompanied by an overall decrease of SSTs offshore southern Australia. We link this LC variability to Late Holocene centennial

  8. Current theoretical perspectives on adolescent pregnancy and childbearing in the United States.

    PubMed

    Caldas, S J

    1993-01-01

    "The purpose of this article is to synthesize and place in perspective contemporary theories and explanations of the high rates of adolescent pregnancy and childbearing in the United States. The study examined the strengths and weaknesses of the more prominent explanations of adolescent pregnancy and childbearing in light of current research.... This article casts doubt on the hypothesis that the lack of reproductive information is in and of itself an important determinant of adolescent pregnancy in the United States. Many other factors are discussed that intervene to negate the effect of reproductive knowledge alone as a deterrent to adolescent pregnancy and childbearing. Suggestions for an integrative research agenda, as well as educational and health strategies focusing on adolescent pregnancy and childbearing are proposed." PMID:12285963

  9. Current Guidelines, Common Clinical Pitfalls, and Future Directions for Laboratory Diagnosis of Lyme Disease, United States.

    PubMed

    Moore, Andrew; Nelson, Christina; Molins, Claudia; Mead, Paul; Schriefer, Martin

    2016-07-01

    In the United States, Lyme disease is caused by Borrelia burgdorferi and transmitted to humans by blacklegged ticks. Patients with an erythema migrans lesion and epidemiologic risk can receive a diagnosis without laboratory testing. For all other patients, laboratory testing is necessary to confirm the diagnosis, but proper interpretation depends on symptoms and timing of illness. The recommended laboratory test in the United States is 2-tiered serologic analysis consisting of an enzyme-linked immunoassay or immunofluorescence assay, followed by reflexive immunoblotting. Sensitivity of 2-tiered testing is low (30%-40%) during early infection while the antibody response is developing (window period). For disseminated Lyme disease, sensitivity is 70%-100%. Specificity is high (>95%) during all stages of disease. Use of other diagnostic tests for Lyme disease is limited. We review the rationale behind current US testing guidelines, appropriate use and interpretation of tests, and recent developments in Lyme disease diagnostics.

  10. Current Guidelines, Common Clinical Pitfalls, and Future Directions for Laboratory Diagnosis of Lyme Disease, United States

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Andrew; Nelson, Christina; Molins, Claudia; Mead, Paul

    2016-01-01

    In the United States, Lyme disease is caused by Borrelia burgdorferi and transmitted to humans by blacklegged ticks. Patients with an erythema migrans lesion and epidemiologic risk can receive a diagnosis without laboratory testing. For all other patients, laboratory testing is necessary to confirm the diagnosis, but proper interpretation depends on symptoms and timing of illness. The recommended laboratory test in the United States is 2-tiered serologic analysis consisting of an enzyme-linked immunoassay or immunofluorescence assay, followed by reflexive immunoblotting. Sensitivity of 2-tiered testing is low (30%–40%) during early infection while the antibody response is developing (window period). For disseminated Lyme disease, sensitivity is 70%–100%. Specificity is high (>95%) during all stages of disease. Use of other diagnostic tests for Lyme disease is limited. We review the rationale behind current US testing guidelines, appropriate use and interpretation of tests, and recent developments in Lyme disease diagnostics. PMID:27314832

  11. Current Guidelines, Common Clinical Pitfalls, and Future Directions for Laboratory Diagnosis of Lyme Disease, United States.

    PubMed

    Moore, Andrew; Nelson, Christina; Molins, Claudia; Mead, Paul; Schriefer, Martin

    2016-07-01

    In the United States, Lyme disease is caused by Borrelia burgdorferi and transmitted to humans by blacklegged ticks. Patients with an erythema migrans lesion and epidemiologic risk can receive a diagnosis without laboratory testing. For all other patients, laboratory testing is necessary to confirm the diagnosis, but proper interpretation depends on symptoms and timing of illness. The recommended laboratory test in the United States is 2-tiered serologic analysis consisting of an enzyme-linked immunoassay or immunofluorescence assay, followed by reflexive immunoblotting. Sensitivity of 2-tiered testing is low (30%-40%) during early infection while the antibody response is developing (window period). For disseminated Lyme disease, sensitivity is 70%-100%. Specificity is high (>95%) during all stages of disease. Use of other diagnostic tests for Lyme disease is limited. We review the rationale behind current US testing guidelines, appropriate use and interpretation of tests, and recent developments in Lyme disease diagnostics. PMID:27314832

  12. The Escherichia coli Proteome: Past, Present, and Future Prospects†

    PubMed Central

    Han, Mee-Jung; Lee, Sang Yup

    2006-01-01

    Proteomics has emerged as an indispensable methodology for large-scale protein analysis in functional genomics. The Escherichia coli proteome has been extensively studied and is well defined in terms of biochemical, biological, and biotechnological data. Even before the entire E. coli proteome was fully elucidated, the largest available data set had been integrated to decipher regulatory circuits and metabolic pathways, providing valuable insights into global cellular physiology and the development of metabolic and cellular engineering strategies. With the recent advent of advanced proteomic technologies, the E. coli proteome has been used for the validation of new technologies and methodologies such as sample prefractionation, protein enrichment, two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, protein detection, mass spectrometry (MS), combinatorial assays with n-dimensional chromatographies and MS, and image analysis software. These important technologies will not only provide a great amount of additional information on the E. coli proteome but also synergistically contribute to other proteomic studies. Here, we review the past development and current status of E. coli proteome research in terms of its biological, biotechnological, and methodological significance and suggest future prospects. PMID:16760308

  13. Current and future developments in managed care in the United States and implications for Europe

    PubMed Central

    Lagoe, Ronald; Aspling, Deborah L; Westert, Gert P

    2005-01-01

    The paper reviews and evaluates current and future approaches to cost containment in the United States. Managed care was once seen as an effective approach to supporting health care quality while containing costs in the USA. In recent years payors started to look in other directions, since prospects for limiting expenses faded. Nowadays consumer driven health plans seem to be on the rise. The reasons for the decline of managed care, the growing popularity of the consumer driven health plans and the implications for Europe are discussed. PMID:15774017

  14. Learning Styles of Pilots Currently Qualified in United States Air Force Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kanske, Craig A.

    2001-01-01

    Kolb's Learning Style Inventory was used to identify the predominant learning styles of pilots currently qualified in United States Air Force aircraft. The results indicate that these pilots show a significant preference for facts and things over people and feelings. By understanding the preferred learning styles of the target population, course material can be developed that take advantage of the strengths of these learning styles. This information can be especially useful in the future design of cockpit resource management training. The training program can be developed to demonstrate both that there are different learning styles and that it is possible to take advantage of the relative strengths of each of these learning styles.

  15. Globalization of gerontology education: current practices and perceptions for graduate gerontology education in the United States.

    PubMed

    Mwangi, Samuel M; Yamashita, Takashi; Ewen, Heidi H; Manning, Lydia K; Kunkel, Suzanne R

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to document current practices and understandings about globalization of gerontology education in the United States. Better understanding of aging requires international perspectives in global communities. However, little is known about how globalization of gerontology education is practiced in U.S. graduate-level degree programs. The authors conducted qualitative interviews with representatives of the Association for Gerontology in Higher Education, the major national organization supporting higher education in gerontology, graduate program directors, and students. Although all respondents expressed their interest in globalizing gerontology education, actual practices are diverse. The authors discuss suggested conceptualization and strategies for globalizing gerontology education.

  16. Joystick Control for Powered Mobility: Current State of Technology and Future Directions

    PubMed Central

    Dicianno, Brad E.; Cooper, Rory A.; Coltellaro, John

    2009-01-01

    Recent advancements in control interface technology have made the use of end devices such as power wheelchairs easier for individuals with disabilities, especially those with movement disorders. In this article, we discuss the current state of control interface technology and the devices available clinically for power wheelchair control. We also discuss our research on novel hardware and software approaches that are revolutionizing joystick interface technology and that allow more customizability for individual users with special needs and abilities. Finally, we discuss the future of control interfaces and what research gaps remain. PMID:19951779

  17. Globalization of Gerontology Education: Current Practices and Perceptions for Graduate Gerontology Education in the United States

    PubMed Central

    MWANGI, SAMUEL M.; YAMASHITA, TAKASHI; EWEN, HEIDI H.; MANNING, LYDIA K.; KUNKEL, SUZANNE R.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to document current practices and understandings about globalization of gerontology education in the United States. Better understanding of aging requires international perspectives in global communities. However, little is known about how globalization of gerontology education is practiced in U.S. graduate-level degree programs. The authors conducted qualitative interviews with representatives of the Association for Gerontology in Higher Education, the major national organization supporting higher education in gerontology, graduate program directors, and students. Although all respondents expressed their interest in globalizing gerontology education, actual practices are diverse. The authors discuss suggested conceptualization and strategies for globalizing gerontology education. PMID:22490075

  18. Proteomics in evolutionary ecology.

    PubMed

    Baer, B; Millar, A H

    2016-03-01

    Evolutionary ecologists are traditionally gene-focused, as genes propagate phenotypic traits across generations and mutations and recombination in the DNA generate genetic diversity required for evolutionary processes. As a consequence, the inheritance of changed DNA provides a molecular explanation for the functional changes associated with natural selection. A direct focus on proteins on the other hand, the actual molecular agents responsible for the expression of a phenotypic trait, receives far less interest from ecologists and evolutionary biologists. This is partially due to the central dogma of molecular biology that appears to define proteins as the 'dead-end of molecular information flow' as well as technical limitations in identifying and studying proteins and their diversity in the field and in many of the more exotic genera often favored in ecological studies. Here we provide an overview of a newly forming field of research that we refer to as 'Evolutionary Proteomics'. We point out that the origins of cellular function are related to the properties of polypeptide and RNA and their interactions with the environment, rather than DNA descent, and that the critical role of horizontal gene transfer in evolution is more about coopting new proteins to impact cellular processes than it is about modifying gene function. Furthermore, post-transcriptional and post-translational processes generate a remarkable diversity of mature proteins from a single gene, and the properties of these mature proteins can also influence inheritance through genetic and perhaps epigenetic mechanisms. The influence of post-transcriptional diversification on evolutionary processes could provide a novel mechanistic underpinning for elements of rapid, directed evolutionary changes and adaptations as observed for a variety of evolutionary processes. Modern state-of the art technologies based on mass spectrometry are now available to identify and quantify peptides, proteins, protein

  19. Proteomics Research in Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Davalieva, Katarina; Maleva Kostovska, Ivana; Dwork, Andrew J.

    2016-01-01

    Despite intense scientific efforts, the neuropathology and pathophysiology of schizophrenia are poorly understood. Proteomic studies, by testing large numbers of proteins for associations with disease, may contribute to the understanding of the molecular mechanisms of schizophrenia. They may also indicate the types and locations of cells most likely to harbor pathological alterations. Investigations using proteomic approaches have already provided much information on quantitative and qualitative protein patterns in postmortem brain tissue, peripheral tissues and body fluids. Different proteomic technologies such as 2-D PAGE, 2-D DIGE, SELDI-TOF, shotgun proteomics with label-based (ICAT), and label-free (MSE) quantification have been applied to the study of schizophrenia for the past 15 years. This review summarizes the results, mostly from brain but also from other tissues and bodily fluids, of proteomics studies in schizophrenia. Emphasis is given to proteomics platforms, varying sources of material, proposed candidate biomarkers emerging from comparative proteomics studies, and the specificity of the putative markers in terms of other mental illnesses. We also compare proteins altered in schizophrenia with reports of protein or mRNA sequences that are relatively enriched in specific cell types. While proteomic studies of schizophrenia find abnormalities in the expression of many proteins that are not cell type-specific, there appears to be a disproportionate representation of proteins whose synthesis and localization are highly enriched in one or more brain cell type compared with other types of brain cells. Two of the three proteins most commonly altered in schizophrenia are aldolase C and glial fibrillary acidic protein, astrocytic proteins with entirely different functions, but the studies are approximately evenly divided with regard to the direction of the differences and the concordance or discordance between the two proteins. Alterations of common myelin

  20. Advanced proteomic liquid chromatography

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Fang; Smith, Richard D.; Shen, Yufeng

    2012-01-01

    Liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry is the predominant platform used to analyze proteomics samples consisting of large numbers of proteins and their proteolytic products (e.g., truncated polypeptides) and spanning a wide range of relative concentrations. This review provides an overview of advanced capillary liquid chromatography techniques and methodologies that greatly improve separation resolving power and proteomics analysis coverage, sensitivity, and throughput. PMID:22840822

  1. Current State of Antimicrobial Stewardship at Solid Organ and Hematopoietic Cell Transplant Centers in the United States.

    PubMed

    Seo, Susan K; Lo, Kaming; Abbo, Lilian M

    2016-10-01

    OBJECTIVE To assess the extent of antimicrobial stewardship programs (ASPs) at solid organ transplant (SOT) and hematopoietic cell transplant (HCT) centers in the United States. DESIGN An 18-item voluntary survey was developed to gauge current antimicrobial stewardship practices in transplant patients, examine the availability and perceived usefulness of novel diagnostics and azole levels to guide therapy, and identify challenges for implementation of ASPs at these centers. PARTICIPANTS The survey was distributed electronically to infectious disease physicians and pharmacists at adult and pediatric SOT and HCT centers during May 1-22, 2015. Facilities were deidentified. RESULTS After duplicate removal, 71 (56%) of 127 unique transplant centers in 32 states were analyzed. Forty-four sites (62%) performed at least 100 SOT annually, and 40 (56%) performed at least 100 HCT annually. Top 5 stewardship activities encompassing transplant patients were formulary restriction, guideline development, prospective audit and feedback, education, and dose optimization. Respiratory viral panels (66/66 [100%]), azole levels (64/66 [97%]), and serum/bronchoalveolar lavage galactomannan (58/66 [88%]) were perceived as most useful to guide therapy. Apparent challenges to antimicrobial stewardship included undefined duration for certain infections (53/59 [90%]), diagnostic uncertainty (47/59 [80%]), the perception that antibiotic-resistant infections required escalation (42/59 [71%]), prescriber opposition (41/59 [69%]), and costly drugs (37/59 [63%]). CONCLUSIONS ASP activities were performed at many adult and pediatric SOT and HCT centers in the United States. Diagnostic and therapeutic uncertainty in transplant patients is challenging for ASPs. Collaborative research should examine the impact of antimicrobial stewardship practices in SOT and HCT. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2016;1-6.

  2. Proteomics, oxidative stress and male infertility.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Ashok; Durairajanayagam, Damayanthi; Halabi, Jacques; Peng, Jason; Vazquez-Levin, Monica

    2014-07-01

    Oxidative stress has been established as one of the main causes of male infertility and has been implicated in many diseases associated with infertile men. It results from high concentrations of free radicals and suppressed antioxidant potential, which may alter protein expression in seminal plasma and/or spermatozoa. In recent years, proteomic analyses have been performed to characterize the protein profiles of seminal ejaculate from men with different clinical conditions, such as high oxidative stress. The aim of the present review is to summarize current findings on proteomic studies performed in men with high oxidative stress compared with those with physiological concentrations of free radicals, to better understand the aetiology of oxidative stress-induced male infertility. Each of these studies has suggested candidate biomarkers of oxidative stress, among them are DJ-1, PIP, lactotransferrin and peroxiredoxin. Changes in protein concentrations in seminal plasma samples with oxidative stress conditions were related to stress responses and to regulatory pathways, while alterations in sperm proteins were mostly associated to metabolic responses (carbohydrate metabolism) and stress responses. Future studies should include assessment of post-translational modifications in the spermatozoa as well as in seminal plasma proteomes of men diagnosed with idiopathic infertility. Oxidative stress, which occurs due to a state of imbalance between free radicals and antioxidants, has been implicated in most cases of male infertility. Cells that are in a state of oxidative stress are more likely to have altered protein expression. The aim of this review is to better understand the causes of oxidative stress-induced male infertility. To achieve this, we assessed proteomic studies performed on the seminal plasma and spermatozoa of men with high levels of oxidative stress due to various clinical conditions and compared them with men who had physiological concentrations of free

  3. The plasma environment, charge state, and currents of Saturn's C and D rings

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, G.R. )

    1991-06-01

    The plasma environment of the Saturnian C and D rings is investigated by modeling the flow of ionospheric plasma from the mid- to low-latitude ionosphere to the vicinity of the rings. The model used is time-dependent and kinetic and incorporates the gravitational, centripetal, magnetic mirror and ambipolar electric forces. It was found that the plasma density near the C and D rings, at a given radial location, will experience a one to two order of magnitude diurnal variation. With a knowledge of the plasma density and temperature near these rings their charge state is investigated by use of a dust cloud charging model. The associated azimuthal currents are also found. Results show that the surface charge density of the C and D rings can show significant radial and azimuthal variations, due mainly to variations in the plasma density. In addition to its plasma density and temperature dependence the surface charge density will also depend on structural features of the rings such as the ring thickness and the nature of the particle size distribution. Its magnitude may vary over seven decades. The associated azimuthal currents carried by these rings will also show large diurnal variations resulting in field-aligned currents which close in the ionosphere as shown by Ip and Mendis (1983). However, the resulting ionospheric electric fields will probably not produce a significant amount of plasma convection in the topside ionosphere and inner plasmasphere as proposed by these authors, due in part to the level of the currents as well as the height-integrated Pedersen conductivities at the local times where the currents close.

  4. Interconnections between magnetic state and transport currents in antiferromagnetic Sr2IrO4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsoi, Maxim

    Interconnections between magnetic state and transport currents in ferromagnetic (F) heterostructures are the basis for spintronic applications, e.g. tunneling magnetoresistance and spin-transfer torque phenomena provide a means to read and write information in magnetic memory devices like STTRAM. Similar interconnections were proposed to occur in systems where F-components are replaced with antiferromagnets (AFM). We demonstrated experimentally the existence of such interconnections in antiferromagnetic Mott insulator Sr2IrO4: first, we found a very large anisotropic magnetoresistance (AMR) which can be used to monitor (read) the magnetic state of AFM; second, we demonstrated the feasibility of reversible resistive switching driven by high-density currents/high electric fields which can be used for writing in AFM memory applications. These results support the feasibility of AFM spintronics where antiferromagnets are used in place of ferromagnets. This work was supported in part by C-SPIN, one of six centers of STARnet, a Semiconductor Research Corporation program, sponsored by MARCO and DARPA, and by NSF grants DMR-1207577, DMR-1265162 and DMR-1122603.

  5. Mass Casualty Decontamination in the United States: An Online Survey of Current Practice.

    PubMed

    Power, Sarah; Symons, Charles; Carter, Holly; Jones, Emma; Amlôt, Richard; Larner, Joanne; Matar, Hazem; Chilcott, Robert P

    2016-01-01

    Mass casualty decontamination is a public health intervention that would be employed by emergency responders following a chemical, biological, or radiological incident. The decontamination of large numbers of casualties is currently most often performed with water to remove contaminants from the skin surface. An online survey was conducted to explore US fire departments' decontamination practices and their preparedness for responding to incidents involving mass casualty decontamination. Survey respondents were asked to provide details of various aspects of their decontamination procedures, including expected response times to reach casualties, disrobing procedures, approaches to decontamination, characteristics of the decontamination showering process, provision for special populations, and any actions taken following decontamination. The aim of the survey was to identify any differences in the way in which decontamination guidance is implemented across US states. Results revealed that, in line with current guidance, many US fire departments routinely use the "ladder-pipe system" for conducting rapid, gross decontamination of casualties. The survey revealed significant variability in ladder-pipe construction, such as the position and number of fire hoses used. There was also variability in decontamination characteristics, such as water temperature and water pressure, detergent use, and shower duration. The results presented here provide important insights into the ways in which implementation of decontamination guidance can vary between US states. These inconsistencies are thought to reflect established perceived best practices and local adaptation of response plans to address practical and logistical constraints. These outcomes highlight the need for evidence-based national guidelines for conducting mass casualty decontamination. PMID:27442794

  6. Mass Casualty Decontamination in the United States: An Online Survey of Current Practice.

    PubMed

    Power, Sarah; Symons, Charles; Carter, Holly; Jones, Emma; Amlôt, Richard; Larner, Joanne; Matar, Hazem; Chilcott, Robert P

    2016-01-01

    Mass casualty decontamination is a public health intervention that would be employed by emergency responders following a chemical, biological, or radiological incident. The decontamination of large numbers of casualties is currently most often performed with water to remove contaminants from the skin surface. An online survey was conducted to explore US fire departments' decontamination practices and their preparedness for responding to incidents involving mass casualty decontamination. Survey respondents were asked to provide details of various aspects of their decontamination procedures, including expected response times to reach casualties, disrobing procedures, approaches to decontamination, characteristics of the decontamination showering process, provision for special populations, and any actions taken following decontamination. The aim of the survey was to identify any differences in the way in which decontamination guidance is implemented across US states. Results revealed that, in line with current guidance, many US fire departments routinely use the "ladder-pipe system" for conducting rapid, gross decontamination of casualties. The survey revealed significant variability in ladder-pipe construction, such as the position and number of fire hoses used. There was also variability in decontamination characteristics, such as water temperature and water pressure, detergent use, and shower duration. The results presented here provide important insights into the ways in which implementation of decontamination guidance can vary between US states. These inconsistencies are thought to reflect established perceived best practices and local adaptation of response plans to address practical and logistical constraints. These outcomes highlight the need for evidence-based national guidelines for conducting mass casualty decontamination.

  7. Collaborations in Proteomics Research - Office of Cancer Clinical Proteomics Research

    Cancer.gov

    The National Cancer Institute (NCI), through the Office of Cancer Clinical Proteomics Research (OCCPR), has signed two Memorandums of Understanding (MOUs) in the sharing of proteomics reagents and protocols

  8. Transient analysis and control of bias magnetic state in the transformer of on-line pulse-width-modulation switching full bridge direct current-direct current converter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jiaxin; Guo, Youguang; Zhu, Jianguo; Wei Lin, Zhi

    2012-04-01

    This paper presents a finite element analysis (FEA) based method for analyzing and controlling the bias magnetic state of the transformer of a pulse-width-modulation (PWM) switching full bridge dc-dc converter. A field-circuit indirect coupling method for predicting the transient bias magnetic state is introduced first. To increase flexibility of the proposed method, a novel transformer model which can address not only its basic input-output characteristic, but also the nonlinear magnetizing inductance, is proposed. Both the asymmetric characteristic and the variable laws of the current flowing through the two secondary windings during the period of PWM switching-off state are highlighted. Finally, the peak magnetizing current controlled method based on the on-line magnetizing current computation is introduced. Analysis results show that this method can address the magnetic saturation at winding ends, and hence many previous difficulties, such as the start-up process and asymmetry of power electronics, can be easily controlled.

  9. Progress Toward Steady State Tokamak Operation Exploiting the high bootstrap current fraction regime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Q.

    2015-11-01

    Recent DIII-D experiments have advanced the normalized fusion performance of the high bootstrap current fraction tokamak regime toward reactor-relevant steady state operation. The experiments, conducted by a joint team of researchers from the DIII-D and EAST tokamaks, developed a fully noninductive scenario that could be extended on EAST to a demonstration of long pulse steady-state tokamak operation. Fully noninductive plasmas with extremely high values of the poloidal beta, βp >= 4 , have been sustained at βT >= 2 % for long durations with excellent energy confinement quality (H98y,2 >= 1 . 5) and internal transport barriers (ITBs) generated at large minor radius (>= 0 . 6) in all channels (Te, Ti, ne, VTf). Large bootstrap fraction (fBS ~ 80 %) has been obtained with high βp. ITBs have been shown to be compatible with steady state operation. Because of the unusually large ITB radius, normalized pressure is not limited to low βN values by internal ITB-driven modes. βN up to ~4.3 has been obtained by optimizing the plasma-wall distance. The scenario is robust against several variations, including replacing some on-axis with off-axis neutral beam injection (NBI), adding electron cyclotron (EC) heating, and reducing the NBI torque by a factor of 2. This latter observation is particularly promising for extension of the scenario to EAST, where maximum power is obtained with balanced NBI injection, and to a reactor, expected to have low rotation. However, modeling of this regime has provided new challenges to state-of-the-art modeling capabilities: quasilinear models can dramatically underpredict the electron transport, and the Sauter bootstrap current can be insufficient. The analysis shows first-principle NEO is in good agreement with experiments for the bootstrap current calculation and ETG modes with a larger saturated amplitude or EM modes may provide the missing electron transport. Work supported in part by the US DOE under DE-FC02-04ER54698, DE-AC52-07NA

  10. MHz repetition rate solid-state driver for high current induction accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Brooksby, C; Caporaso, G; Goerz, D; Hanks, R; Hickman, B; Kirbie, H; Lee, B; Saethre, R

    1999-03-01

    A research team from the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and Bechtel Nevada Corporation is developing an all solid-state power source for high current induction accelerators. The original power system design, developed for heavy-ion fusion accelerators, is based on the simple idea of using an array of field effect transistors to switch energy from a pre-charged capacitor bank to an induction accelerator cell. Recently, that idea has been expanded to accommodate the greater power needs of a new class of high-current electron accelerators for advanced radiography. For this purpose, we developed a 3-stage induction adder that uses over 4,000 field effect transistors to switch peak voltages of 45 kV at currents up to 4.8 kA with pulse repetition rates of up to 2 MHz. This radically advanced power system can generate a burst of five or more pulses that vary from 200 ns to 2 µs at a duty cycle of up to 25%. Our new source is precise, robust, flexible, and exceeds all previous drivers for induction machines by a factor of 400 in repetition rate and a factor of 1000 in duty cycle.

  11. Change in Mean Frequency of Resting-State Electroencephalography after Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation.

    PubMed

    Boonstra, Tjeerd W; Nikolin, Stevan; Meisener, Ann-Christin; Martin, Donel M; Loo, Colleen K

    2016-01-01

    Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is proposed as a tool to investigate cognitive functioning in healthy people and as a treatment for various neuropathological disorders. However, the underlying cortical mechanisms remain poorly understood. We aim to investigate whether resting-state electroencephalography (EEG) can be used to monitor the effects of tDCS on cortical activity. To this end we tested whether the spectral content of ongoing EEG activity is significantly different after a single session of active tDCS compared to sham stimulation. Twenty participants were tested in a sham-controlled, randomized, crossover design. Resting-state EEG was acquired before, during and after active tDCS to the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (15 min of 2 mA tDCS) and sham stimulation. Electrodes with a diameter of 3.14 cm(2) were used for EEG and tDCS. Partial least squares (PLS) analysis was used to examine differences in power spectral density (PSD) and the EEG mean frequency to quantify the slowing of EEG activity after stimulation. PLS revealed a significant increase in spectral power at frequencies below 15 Hz and a decrease at frequencies above 15 Hz after active tDCS (P = 0.001). The EEG mean frequency was significantly reduced after both active tDCS (P < 0.0005) and sham tDCS (P = 0.001), though the decrease in mean frequency was smaller after sham tDCS than after active tDCS (P = 0.073). Anodal tDCS of the left DLPFC using a high current density bi-frontal electrode montage resulted in general slowing of resting-state EEG. The similar findings observed following sham stimulation question whether the standard sham protocol is an appropriate control condition for tDCS. PMID:27375462

  12. Veterinarian-Client Communication Skills: Current State, Relevance, and Opportunities for Improvement.

    PubMed

    McDermott, Michael P; Tischler, Victoria A; Cobb, Malcolm A; Robbé, Iain J; Dean, Rachel S

    2015-01-01

    Communication is increasingly recognized as a core skill for veterinary practitioners, and in recent years, attention to communication competency and skills training has increased. To gain an up-to-date assessment of the current state of veterinary communication skills and training, we conducted a survey among veterinary practitioners in the United Kingdom and United States in 2012/2013. The questionnaire was used to assess the current state, relevance, and adequacy of veterinary communication skills among veterinary practitioners, to assess interest in further training, and to understand perceived challenges in communicating with clients. There was an overall response rate of 29.6% (1,774 of 6,000 recipients), with a higher response rate for UK-based practitioners (39.7%) than practitioners in the US (19.5%). Ninety-eight percent of respondents agreed that communication skills were as important as or more important than clinical knowledge. Forty-one percent of respondents had received formal veterinary communication skills training during veterinary school, and 47% had received training post-graduation. Thirty-five percent said their veterinary communication skills training during veterinary school prepared them well or very well for communicating with clients about the health of their pets, compared to 61% of those receiving post-graduate training. Forty percent said they would be interested in further veterinary communication skills training, with the preferred methods being simulated consultations and online training. While there has been increased emphasis on communication skills training during and after veterinary school, there is a need for more relevant and accessible training.

  13. Change in Mean Frequency of Resting-State Electroencephalography after Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Boonstra, Tjeerd W.; Nikolin, Stevan; Meisener, Ann-Christin; Martin, Donel M.; Loo, Colleen K.

    2016-01-01

    Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is proposed as a tool to investigate cognitive functioning in healthy people and as a treatment for various neuropathological disorders. However, the underlying cortical mechanisms remain poorly understood. We aim to investigate whether resting-state electroencephalography (EEG) can be used to monitor the effects of tDCS on cortical activity. To this end we tested whether the spectral content of ongoing EEG activity is significantly different after a single session of active tDCS compared to sham stimulation. Twenty participants were tested in a sham-controlled, randomized, crossover design. Resting-state EEG was acquired before, during and after active tDCS to the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (15 min of 2 mA tDCS) and sham stimulation. Electrodes with a diameter of 3.14 cm2 were used for EEG and tDCS. Partial least squares (PLS) analysis was used to examine differences in power spectral density (PSD) and the EEG mean frequency to quantify the slowing of EEG activity after stimulation. PLS revealed a significant increase in spectral power at frequencies below 15 Hz and a decrease at frequencies above 15 Hz after active tDCS (P = 0.001). The EEG mean frequency was significantly reduced after both active tDCS (P < 0.0005) and sham tDCS (P = 0.001), though the decrease in mean frequency was smaller after sham tDCS than after active tDCS (P = 0.073). Anodal tDCS of the left DLPFC using a high current density bi-frontal electrode montage resulted in general slowing of resting-state EEG. The similar findings observed following sham stimulation question whether the standard sham protocol is an appropriate control condition for tDCS. PMID:27375462

  14. Veterinarian-Client Communication Skills: Current State, Relevance, and Opportunities for Improvement.

    PubMed

    McDermott, Michael P; Tischler, Victoria A; Cobb, Malcolm A; Robbé, Iain J; Dean, Rachel S

    2015-01-01

    Communication is increasingly recognized as a core skill for veterinary practitioners, and in recent years, attention to communication competency and skills training has increased. To gain an up-to-date assessment of the current state of veterinary communication skills and training, we conducted a survey among veterinary practitioners in the United Kingdom and United States in 2012/2013. The questionnaire was used to assess the current state, relevance, and adequacy of veterinary communication skills among veterinary practitioners, to assess interest in further training, and to understand perceived challenges in communicating with clients. There was an overall response rate of 29.6% (1,774 of 6,000 recipients), with a higher response rate for UK-based practitioners (39.7%) than practitioners in the US (19.5%). Ninety-eight percent of respondents agreed that communication skills were as important as or more important than clinical knowledge. Forty-one percent of respondents had received formal veterinary communication skills training during veterinary school, and 47% had received training post-graduation. Thirty-five percent said their veterinary communication skills training during veterinary school prepared them well or very well for communicating with clients about the health of their pets, compared to 61% of those receiving post-graduate training. Forty percent said they would be interested in further veterinary communication skills training, with the preferred methods being simulated consultations and online training. While there has been increased emphasis on communication skills training during and after veterinary school, there is a need for more relevant and accessible training. PMID:26315212

  15. Clinical implications from proteomic studies in neurodegenerative diseases: lessons from mitochondrial proteins.

    PubMed

    Butterfield, D Allan; Palmieri, Erika M; Castegna, Alessandra

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondria play a key role in eukaryotic cells, being mediators of energy, biosynthetic and regulatory requirements of these cells. Emerging proteomics techniques have allowed scientists to obtain the differentially expressed proteome or the proteomic redox status in mitochondria. This has unmasked the diversity of proteins with respect to subcellular location, expression and interactions. Mitochondria have become a research 'hot spot' in subcellular proteomics, leading to identification of candidate clinical targets in neurodegenerative diseases in which mitochondria are known to play pathological roles. The extensive efforts to rapidly obtain differentially expressed proteomes and unravel the redox proteomic status in mitochondria have yielded clinical insights into the neuropathological mechanisms of disease, identification of disease early stage and evaluation of disease progression. Although current technical limitations hamper full exploitation of the mitochondrial proteome in neurosciences, future advances are predicted to provide identification of specific therapeutic targets for neurodegenerative disorders.

  16. Patient and general public preferences for health states: A call to reconsider current guidelines.

    PubMed

    Versteegh, M M; Brouwer, W B F

    2016-09-01

    In economic evaluations of health care interventions, benefits are often expressed in terms of Quality-Adjusted Life-Years (QALYs). The QALY comprises length and quality of life into one measure which allows cross-disease comparability. The quality adjustment of the QALY is based on preferences for health states. An important normative choice is the question whose preferences for states of health we wish to capture. The answer to this question is directly related to the normative question regarding the appropriate maximand in health care decisions. Currently, preferences are commonly derived from the general public, rather than from actual patients. This choice, which can have large consequences on final outcomes of economic evaluations, has always been a topic of debate. This paper clarifies and furthers the discussion regarding the appropriate source of preferences for health state valuations, acknowledges the plurality of different perspectives, and argues that health economic guidelines could require analysis of benefit in terms of QALYs based on both patient and general public preferences. PMID:27497260

  17. Current state of commercial radiation detection equipment for homeland security applications.

    SciTech Connect

    Klann, R. T.; Shergur, J.; Mattesich, G.; Nuclear Engineering Division; DHS

    2009-10-01

    With the creation of the U.S. Department of Homeland Security (DHS) came the increased concern that terrorist groups would attempt to manufacture and use an improvised nuclear device or radiological dispersal device. As such, a primary mission of DHS is to protect the public against the use of these devices and to assist state and local responders in finding, locating, and identifying these types of devices and materials used to manufacture these devices. This assistance from DHS to state and local responders comes in the form of grant money to procure radiation detection equipment. In addition to this grant program, DHS has supported the development of American National Standards Institute standards for radiation detection equipment and has conducted testing of commercially available instruments. This paper identifies the types and kinds of commercially available equipment that can be used to detect and identify radiological material - for use in traditional search applications as well as primary and secondary screening of personnel, vehicles, and cargo containers. In doing so, key considerations for the conduct of operations are described as well as critical features of the instruments for specific applications. The current state of commercial instruments is described for different categories of detection equipment including personal radiation detectors, radioisotope identifiers, man-portable detection equipment, and radiation portal monitors. In addition, emerging technologies are also discussed, such as spectroscopic detectors and advanced spectroscopic portal monitors.

  18. Prevention of Meningococcal Infection in the United States: Current Recommendations and Future Considerations.

    PubMed

    Baker, Carol J

    2016-08-01

    Neisseria meningitidis is a common cause of bacterial meningitis and septicemia that can lead to permanent sequelae or death. N meningitidis is classified into serogroups based on the composition of the capsular polysaccharide, with serogroups A, B, C, W, X, and Y recognized as the major disease-causing organisms. The unpredictability of infection coupled with the poor prognosis for some patients suggests immunization as an effective preventive strategy. Importantly, four of the six disease-causing serogroups (A, C, Y, and W) may be prevented with available quadrivalent capsular polysaccharide-protein conjugate vaccines; these vaccines have been successfully implemented into immunization programs in the United States. Unfortunately, quadrivalent conjugate vaccines are not effective against serogroup B, now the most common cause of invasive meningococcal disease. Two recombinant protein vaccines recently were licensed for prevention of serogroup B disease. Recommendations for use of these serogroup B vaccines in the United States have been made by the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices. This article will discuss all available meningococcal vaccines, current recommendations for use, lessons learned from previous experiences, and future considerations, with the hope of further understanding how use of these vaccines may help reduce incidence of meningococcal disease in the United States. PMID:27449147

  19. Eyes wide shut: Transcranial alternating current stimulation drives alpha rhythm in a state dependent manner

    PubMed Central

    Ruhnau, Philipp; Neuling, Toralf; Fuscá, Marco; Herrmann, Christoph S.; Demarchi, Gianpaolo; Weisz, Nathan

    2016-01-01

    Transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS) is used to modulate brain oscillations to measure changes in cognitive function. It is only since recently that brain activity in human subjects during tACS can be investigated. The present study aims to investigate the phase relationship between the external tACS signal and concurrent brain activity. Subjects were stimulated with tACS at individual alpha frequency during eyes open and eyes closed resting states. Electrodes were placed at Cz and Oz, which should affect parieto-occipital areas most strongly. Source space magnetoencephalography (MEG) data were used to estimate phase coherence between tACS and brain activity. Phase coherence was significantly increased in areas in the occipital pole in eyes open resting state only. The lag between tACS and brain responses showed considerable inter-individual variability. In conclusion, tACS at individual alpha frequency entrains brain activity in visual cortices. Interestingly, this effect is state dependent and is clearly observed with eyes open but only to a lesser extent with eyes closed. PMID:27252047

  20. Proteomics analysis of human oligodendroglioma proteome.

    PubMed

    Khaghani-Razi-Abad, Solmaz; Hashemi, Mehrdad; Pooladi, Mehdi; Entezari, Maliheh; Kazemi, Elham

    2015-09-10

    Proteomics analyses enable the identification and quantitation of proteins. From a purely clinical perspective, the application of proteomics based on innovations, may greatly affect the future management of malignant brain tumors. This optimism is based on four main reasons: diagnosis, prognosis, selection of targeted therapy based on molecular profile of the brain tumor and monitoring therapeutic response, or resistance. We extracted the proteins of tumor and normal brain tissues, and then evaluated the protein purity by Bradford test. In this study, we separated the proteins by two-dimensional (2DG) gel electrophoresis methods. Then spots were analyzed, compared using statistical data and specific software and were identified by pH isoelectric, molecular weights and data banks. The protein profiles were determined using 2D gel electrophoresis and MALDI TOF/TOF mass spectrometry approaches. Simple statistical tests were used to establish a putative hierarchy in which the change in protein level was ranked according to a cut-off point with p<0.05. The 2D gel showed a total of 1328 spots among which 157 spots were under-expressed and 276 spots were overexpressed. Most proteins are subjects to post-translational modifications, where amino acid residues may be chemically modified or conjugated by small proteins like ubiquitin. Proteomics is a powerful way to identifying multiple proteins which are altered following a neuropharmacological intervention in a CNS disease. PMID:26002447

  1. Microbial Proteome Profiling and Systems Biology: Applications to Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Schubert, Olga T; Aebersold, Ruedi

    2015-01-01

    Each year, 1.3 million people die from tuberculosis, an infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Systems biology-based strategies might significantly contribute to the knowledge-guided development of more effective vaccines and drugs to prevent and cure infectious diseases. To build models simulating the behaviour of a system in response to internal or external stimuli and to identify potential targets for therapeutic intervention, systems biology approaches require the acquisition of quantitative molecular profiles on many perturbed states. Here we review the current state of proteomic analyses in Mycobacterium tuberculosis and discuss the potential of recently emerging targeting mass spectrometry-based techniques which enable fast, sensitive and accurate protein measurements.

  2. Landmark Report Analyzes Current State of U.S. Offshore Wind Industry (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2011-09-01

    New report assesses offshore wind industry, offshore wind resource, technology challenges, economics, permitting procedures, and potential risks and benefits. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) recently published a new report that analyzes the current state of the offshore wind energy industry, Large-Scale Offshore Wind Power in the United States. It provides a broad understanding of the offshore wind resource, and details the associated technology challenges, economics, permitting procedures, and potential risks and benefits of developing this clean, domestic, renewable resource. The United States possesses large and accessible offshore wind energy resources. The availability of these strong offshore winds close to major U.S. coastal cities significantly reduces power transmission issues. The report estimates that U.S. offshore winds have a gross potential generating capacity four times greater than the nation's present electric capacity. According to the report, developing the offshore wind resource along U.S. coastlines and in the Great Lakes would help the nation: (1) Achieve 20% of its electricity from wind by 2030 - Offshore wind could supply 54 gigawatts of wind capacity to the nation's electrical grid, increasing energy security, reducing air and water pollution, and stimulating the domestic economy. (2) Provide clean power to its coastal demand centers - Wind power emits no carbon dioxide (CO2) and there are plentiful winds off the coasts of 26 states. (3) Revitalize its manufacturing sector - Building 54 GW of offshore wind energy facilities would generate an estimated $200 billion in new economic activity, and create more than 43,000 permanent, well-paid technical jobs in manufacturing, construction, engineering, operations and maintenance. NREL's report concludes that the development of the nation's offshore wind resources can provide many potential benefits, and with effective research, policies, and commitment, offshore wind energy can

  3. Fe, O, and C Charge States Associated with Quiescent Versus Active Current Sheets in the Solar Wind

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Suess, S. T.; Ko, Y.-K.; vonSteiger, R.

    2008-01-01

    Ulysses MAG data were used to locate the heliospheric current sheet in data from 1991 through 2006. The purpose was to characterize typical charge states for Fe, O, and C in the vicinity of the current sheet and provide insight into the physical sources for these charge states in the corona. A study of He/H around the current sheets has led to a clear distinction between quiescent current sheets at times of low solar activity and active current sheets associated with magnetic clouds (and, presumably, ICMES). It has been shown that high ionization state Fe is produced in the corona in current sheets associated with CMEs through spectroscopic observations of the corona and through in situ detection at Ulysses. Here we show that the ionization state of Fe is typically only enhanced around active current sheets while the ionization states of O and C are commonly enhanced around both quiescent and active current sheets. This is consistent with UV coronal spectroscopy, which has shown that reconnection in current sheets behind CMEs leads to high temperatures not typically seen above quiet streamers.

  4. Proteomic Assessment of Poultry Spermatozoa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fully characterizing the protein composition of spermatozoa is the first step in utilizing proteomics to delineate the function of sperm proteins. To date, sperm proteome maps have been partially developed for the human, mouse, rat, bull and several invertebrates. Here we report the first proteomic...

  5. Current contraceptive status among women aged 15-44: United States, 2011-2013.

    PubMed

    Daniels, Kimberly; Daugherty, Jill; Jones, Jo

    2014-12-01

    Nearly all women use contraception at some point in their lifetimes, although at any given time they may not be using contraception for reasons such as seeking pregnancy, being pregnant, or not being sexually active. Using data from the 2011-2013 National Survey of Family Growth (NSFG) on contraceptive use in the month of the interview, this report provides a snapshot of current contraceptive status among women aged 15-44 in the United States. In addition to describing use of any method by age, Hispanic origin and race, and educational attainment, patterns of use are described for the four most commonly used contraceptive methods: the oral contraceptive pill, female sterilization, the male condom, and long-acting reversible contraceptives, which include contraceptive implants and intrauterine devices.

  6. Aerospace Concurrent Engineering Design Teams: Current State, Next Steps and a Vision for the Future

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hihn, Jairus; Chattopadhyay, Debarati; Karpati, Gabriel; McGuire, Melissa; Borden, Chester; Panek, John; Warfield, Keith

    2011-01-01

    Over the past sixteen years, government aerospace agencies and aerospace industry have developed and evolved operational concurrent design teams to create novel spaceflight mission concepts and designs. These capabilities and teams, however, have evolved largely independently. In today's environment of increasingly complex missions with limited budgets it is becoming readily apparent that both implementing organizations and today's concurrent engineering teams will need to interact more often than they have in the past. This will require significant changes in the current state of practice. This paper documents the findings from a concurrent engineering workshop held in August 2010 to identify the key near term improvement areas for concurrent engineering capabilities and challenges to the long-term advancement of concurrent engineering practice. The paper concludes with a discussion of a proposed vision for the evolution of these teams over the next decade.

  7. Public health services and systems research: current state of finance research.

    PubMed

    Ingram, Richard C; Bernet, Patrick M; Costich, Julia F

    2012-11-01

    There is a growing recognition that the US public health system should strive for efficiency-that it should determine the optimal ways to utilize limited resources to improve and protect public health. The field of public health finance research is a critical part of efforts to understand the most efficient ways to use resources. This article discusses the current state of public health finance research through a review of public health finance literature, chronicles important lessons learned from public health finance research to date, discusses the challenges faced by those seeking to conduct financial research on the public health system, and discusses the role of public health finance research in relation to the broader endeavor of Public Health Services and Systems Research.

  8. The LandScan Global Population Distribution Project: Current State of the Art and Prospective Innovation

    SciTech Connect

    Rose, Amy N; Bright, Eddie A

    2014-01-01

    Advances in remote sensing, dasymetric mapping techniques, and the ever-increasing availability of spatial datasets have enhanced global human population distribution databases. These datasets demonstrate an enormous improvement over the conventional use of choropleth maps to represent population distribution and are vital for analysis and planning purposes including humanitarian response, disease mapping, risk analysis, and evacuation modeling. Dasymetric mapping techniques have been employed to address spatial mismatch, but also to develop finer resolution population distributions in areas of the world where subnational census data are coarse or non-existent. One such implementation is the LandScan Global model which provides a 30 arc-second global population distribution based on ancillary datasets such as land cover, slope, proximity to roads, and settlement locations. This work will review the current state of the LandScan model, future innovations aimed at increasing spatial and demographic resolution, and situate LandScan within the landscape of other global population distribution datasets.

  9. African swine fever virus: current state and future perspectives in vaccine and antiviral research.

    PubMed

    Zakaryan, Hovakim; Revilla, Yolanda

    2016-03-15

    African swine fever (ASF) is among the most significant of swine diseases for which no effective vaccines and antivirals are available. The disease, which is endemic in Africa, was introduced to Trans-Caucasian countries and the Russian Federation in 2007, where it remains prevalent today among domestic pigs and wild boars. Although some measures were implemented, ASF continues to pose a global risk for all countries, and thereby highlighting the importance of vaccine and antiviral research. In this review, an overview of research efforts toward the development of effective vaccines during the past decades is presented. As an alternative to vaccine development, the current state in antiviral research against ASFV is also presented. Finally, future perspectives in vaccine and antiviral research giving emphasis on some strategies that may allow researchers to develop effective countermeasures against ASF are discussed.

  10. Automatic liquid handling for life science: a critical review of the current state of the art.

    PubMed

    Kong, Fanwei; Yuan, Liang; Zheng, Yuan F; Chen, Weidong

    2012-06-01

    Liquid handling plays a pivotal role in life science laboratories. In experiments such as gene sequencing, protein crystallization, antibody testing, and drug screening, liquid biosamples frequently must be transferred between containers of varying sizes and/or dispensed onto substrates of varying types. The sample volumes are usually small, at the micro- or nanoliter level, and the number of transferred samples can be huge when investigating large-scope combinatorial conditions. Under these conditions, liquid handling by hand is tedious, time-consuming, and impractical. Consequently, there is a strong demand for automated liquid-handling methods such as sensor-integrated robotic systems. In this article, we survey the current state of the art in automatic liquid handling, including technologies developed by both industry and research institutions. We focus on methods for dealing with small volumes at high throughput and point out challenges for future advancements. PMID:22357568

  11. Identification of Fe 3d empty states from the total current spectra of an ?(0001) surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Møller, P. J.; Komolov, S. A.; Lazneva, E. F.

    1996-09-01

    An intensive triplet line is revealed in the total current spectrum (TCS) of a reconstructed 0953-8984/8/36/009/img7 surface. The nature of the observed structure in the TCS is discussed in comparison with previously reported data from photoemission, inverse photoemission and theoretical investigations. It is found to be a consequence of the electron transitions into an Fe 3d band of empty states. Energy locations of Fe 3d-band extrema (0953-8984/8/36/009/img8 and 0953-8984/8/36/009/img9 above the bottom of the conduction band) and its splitting 0953-8984/8/36/009/img10 are estimated from the proposed schemes of electron transitions.

  12. Engineering Ethics Education : Its Necessity, Objectives, Methods, Current State, and Challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fudano, Jun

    The importance of engineering ethics education has become widely recognized in the industrialized countries including Japan. This paper examines the background against which engineering ethics education is required, and reviews its objectives, methods, and challenges, as well as its current state. In pointing out important issues associated with the apparent acceptance and quantitative development of ethics education, especially after the establishment of the Japan Accreditation Board for Engineering Education in 1999, the author stresses that the most serious problem is the lack of common understanding on the objectives of engineering ethics education. As a strategy to improve the situation, the so-called “Ethics-across-the-Curriculum” approach is introduced. The author also claims that business/organization ethics which is consistent with engineering ethics should be promoted in Japan.

  13. The current state of intestine transplantation: indications, techniques, outcomes and challenges.

    PubMed

    Sudan, D

    2014-09-01

    Intestine transplantation is the least common form of organ transplantation in the United States and often deemed one of the most difficult. Patient and graft survival have historically trailed well behind other organ transplants. Over the past 5-10 years registry reports and single center series have demonstrated improvements to patient survival after intestinal transplantation that now match patient survival for those without life-threatening complications on parenteral nutrition. For various reasons including improvements in medical care of patients with intestinal failure and difficulty accessing transplant care, the actual number of intestine transplants has declined by 25% over the past 6 years. In light of the small numbers of intestine transplants, many physicians and the lay public are often unaware that this is a therapeutic option. The aim of this review is to describe the current indications, outcomes and advances in the field of intestine transplantation and to explore concerns over future access to this important and life-saving therapy.

  14. Nonequilibrium current-carrying steady states in the anisotropic XY spin chain.

    PubMed

    Lancaster, Jarrett L

    2016-05-01

    Out-of-equilibrium behavior is explored in the one-dimensional anisotropic XY model. Initially preparing the system in the isotropic XX model with a linearly varying magnetic field to create a domain-wall magnetization profile, dynamics is generated by rapidly changing the exchange interaction anisotropy and external magnetic field. Relaxation to a nonequilibrium steady state is studied analytically at the critical transverse Ising point, where correlation functions may be computed in closed form. For arbitrary values of anisotropy and external field, an effective generalized Gibbs' ensemble is shown to accurately describe observables in the long-time limit. Additionally, we find spatial oscillations in the exponentially decaying, transverse spin-spin correlation functions with wavelength set by the magnetization jump across the initial domain wall. This wavelength depends only weakly on anisotropy and magnetic field in contrast to the current, which is highly dependent on these parameters.

  15. Nanomaterials in plant protection and fertilization: current state, foreseen applications, and research priorities.

    PubMed

    Gogos, Alexander; Knauer, Katja; Bucheli, Thomas D

    2012-10-01

    Scientific publications and patents on nanomaterials (NM) used in plant protection or fertilizer products have exponentially increased since the millennium shift. While the United States and Germany have published the highest number of patents, Asian countries released most scientific articles. About 40% of all contributions deal with carbon-based NM, followed by titanium dioxide, silver, silica, and alumina. Nanomaterials come in many diverse forms (surprisingly often ≫100 nm), from solid doped particles to (often nonpersistent) polymer and oil-water based structures. Nanomaterials serve equally as additives (mostly for controlled release) and active constituents. Product efficiencies possibly increased by NM should be balanced against enhanced environmental NM input fluxes. The dynamic development in research and its considerable public perception are in contrast with the currently still very small number of NM-containing products on the market. Nanorisk assessment and legislation are largely in their infancies. PMID:22963545

  16. Automatic liquid handling for life science: a critical review of the current state of the art.

    PubMed

    Kong, Fanwei; Yuan, Liang; Zheng, Yuan F; Chen, Weidong

    2012-06-01

    Liquid handling plays a pivotal role in life science laboratories. In experiments such as gene sequencing, protein crystallization, antibody testing, and drug screening, liquid biosamples frequently must be transferred between containers of varying sizes and/or dispensed onto substrates of varying types. The sample volumes are usually small, at the micro- or nanoliter level, and the number of transferred samples can be huge when investigating large-scope combinatorial conditions. Under these conditions, liquid handling by hand is tedious, time-consuming, and impractical. Consequently, there is a strong demand for automated liquid-handling methods such as sensor-integrated robotic systems. In this article, we survey the current state of the art in automatic liquid handling, including technologies developed by both industry and research institutions. We focus on methods for dealing with small volumes at high throughput and point out challenges for future advancements.

  17. Nanomaterials in plant protection and fertilization: current state, foreseen applications, and research priorities.

    PubMed

    Gogos, Alexander; Knauer, Katja; Bucheli, Thomas D

    2012-10-01

    Scientific publications and patents on nanomaterials (NM) used in plant protection or fertilizer products have exponentially increased since the millennium shift. While the United States and Germany have published the highest number of patents, Asian countries released most scientific articles. About 40% of all contributions deal with carbon-based NM, followed by titanium dioxide, silver, silica, and alumina. Nanomaterials come in many diverse forms (surprisingly often ≫100 nm), from solid doped particles to (often nonpersistent) polymer and oil-water based structures. Nanomaterials serve equally as additives (mostly for controlled release) and active constituents. Product efficiencies possibly increased by NM should be balanced against enhanced environmental NM input fluxes. The dynamic development in research and its considerable public perception are in contrast with the currently still very small number of NM-containing products on the market. Nanorisk assessment and legislation are largely in their infancies.

  18. ICD-9 to ICD-10: evolution, revolution, and current debates in the United States.

    PubMed

    Topaz, Maxim; Shafran-Topaz, Leah; Bowles, Kathryn H

    2013-01-01

    The International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (ICD) has undergone a long evolution from its initial inception in the late 18th century. Today, ICD is the internationally recognized classification that helps clinicians, policy makers, and patients to navigate, understand, and compare healthcare systems and services. Currently in the United States, hot debates surround the transition from the International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM) to the International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-10-CM). This article presents an analysis of the views of the proponents and opponents of the upcoming change. We also briefly present and analyze the quality of the most frequently cited scientific evidence that underpins the recent debates focusing on two major issues: ICD-10-CM implementation costs and revenue gains and the projected clinical data quality improvement. We conclude with policy and research suggestions for healthcare stakeholders.

  19. ICD-9 to ICD-10: evolution, revolution, and current debates in the United States.

    PubMed

    Topaz, Maxim; Shafran-Topaz, Leah; Bowles, Kathryn H

    2013-01-01

    The International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (ICD) has undergone a long evolution from its initial inception in the late 18th century. Today, ICD is the internationally recognized classification that helps clinicians, policy makers, and patients to navigate, understand, and compare healthcare systems and services. Currently in the United States, hot debates surround the transition from the International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM) to the International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-10-CM). This article presents an analysis of the views of the proponents and opponents of the upcoming change. We also briefly present and analyze the quality of the most frequently cited scientific evidence that underpins the recent debates focusing on two major issues: ICD-10-CM implementation costs and revenue gains and the projected clinical data quality improvement. We conclude with policy and research suggestions for healthcare stakeholders. PMID:23805064

  20. Modeling practical performance limits of photoelectrochemical water splitting based on the current state of materials research.

    PubMed

    Seitz, Linsey C; Chen, Zhebo; Forman, Arnold J; Pinaud, Blaise A; Benck, Jesse D; Jaramillo, Thomas F

    2014-05-01

    Photoelectrochemical (PEC) water splitting is a means to store solar energy in the form of hydrogen. Knowledge of practical limits for this process can help researchers assess their technology and guide future directions. We develop a model to quantify loss mechanisms in PEC water splitting based on the current state of materials research and calculate maximum solar-to-hydrogen (STH) conversion efficiencies along with associated optimal absorber band gaps. Various absorber configurations are modeled considering the major loss mechanisms in PEC devices. Quantitative sensitivity analyses for each loss mechanism and each absorber configuration show a profound impact of both on the resulting STH efficiencies, which can reach upwards of 25 % for the highest performance materials in a dual stacked configuration. Higher efficiencies could be reached as improved materials are developed. The results of the modeling also identify and quantify approaches that can improve system performance when working with imperfect materials.

  1. Public health services and systems research: current state of finance research.

    PubMed

    Ingram, Richard C; Bernet, Patrick M; Costich, Julia F

    2012-11-01

    There is a growing recognition that the US public health system should strive for efficiency-that it should determine the optimal ways to utilize limited resources to improve and protect public health. The field of public health finance research is a critical part of efforts to understand the most efficient ways to use resources. This article discusses the current state of public health finance research through a review of public health finance literature, chronicles important lessons learned from public health finance research to date, discusses the challenges faced by those seeking to conduct financial research on the public health system, and discusses the role of public health finance research in relation to the broader endeavor of Public Health Services and Systems Research. PMID:23023275

  2. Beer and wort proteomics.

    PubMed

    Iimure, Takashi; Kihara, Makoto; Sato, Kazuhiro

    2014-01-01

    Proteome analysis provides a way to identify proteins related to the quality traits of beer. A number of protein species in beer and wort have been identified by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis combined with enzyme digestion such as trypsin, followed by mass spectrometry analyses and/or liquid chromatography mass/mass spectrometry. In addition, low molecular weight polypeptides in beer have been identified by the combination of non-enzyme digestion and mass analyses. These data sets of various molecular weight polypeptides (i.e., proteomes) provide a platform for analyzing protein functions in beer. Several novel proteins related to beer quality traits such as foam stability and haze formation have been identified by analyzing these proteomes. Some of the proteins have been applied to the development of efficient protein or DNA markers for trait selection in malting barley breeding. In this chapter, recent proteome studies of beer and wort are reviewed, and the methods and protocols of beer and wort proteome analysis are described.

  3. Environmental proteomics and metallomics.

    PubMed

    López-Barea, Juan; Gómez-Ariza, José Luis

    2006-04-01

    Monitoring environmental pollution using biomarkers requires detailed knowledge about the markers, and many only allow a partial assessment of pollution. New proteomic methods (environmental proteomics) can identify proteins that, after validation, might be useful as alternative biomarkers, although this approach also has its limitations, derived mainly from their application to non-model organisms. Initial studies using environmental proteomics were carried out in animals exposed to model pollutants, and led to the concept of protein expression signatures. Experiments have been carried out in model organisms (yeast, Arabidopsis, rat cells, or mice) exposed to model contaminants. Over the last few years, proteomics has been applied to organisms from ecosystems with different pollution levels, forming the basis of an environmental branch in proteomics. Another focus is connected with the presence of metals bound to biomolecules, which adds an additional dimension to metal-biomolecule and metalloprotein characterization - the field of metallomics. The metallomic approach considers the metallome: a whole individual metal or metalloid species within a cell or tissue. A metallomic analytical approach (MAA) is proposed as a new tool to study and identify metalloproteins.

  4. Blood-related proteomics.

    PubMed

    Liumbruno, Giancarlo; D'Alessandro, Angelo; Grazzini, Giuliano; Zolla, Lello

    2010-01-01

    Blood-related proteomics is an emerging field, recently gaining momentum. Indeed, a wealth of data is now available and a plethora of groups has contributed to add pieces to the jigsaw puzzle of protein complexity within plasma and blood cells. In this review article we purported to sail across the mare magnum of the actual knowledge in this research endeavour. The main strides in proteomic investigations on red blood cells, platelets, plasma and white blood cells are hereby presented in a chronological order. Moreover, a glance is given at prospective studies which promise to shift the focus of attention from the end product to its provider, the donor, in a sort of Kantian "Copernican revolution". A well-rounded portrait of the usefulness of proteomics in blood-related research is accurately given. In particular, proteomic tools could be adopted to follow the main steps of the blood-banking production processes (a comparison of collection methods, pathogen inactivation techniques, storage protocols). Thus proteomics has been recently transformed from a mere basic-research extremely-expensive toy into a dramatically-sensitive and efficient eye-lens to either delve into the depths of the molecular mechanisms of blood and blood components or to establish quality parameters in the blood-banking production chain totally anew. PMID:19567275

  5. Proteomics in alcohol research.

    PubMed

    Anni, Helen; Israel, Yedy

    2002-01-01

    The proteome is the complete set of proteins in an organism. It is considerably larger and more complex than the genome--the collection of genes that encodes these proteins. Proteomics deals with the qualitative and quantitative study of the proteome under physiological and pathological conditions (e.g., after exposure to alcohol, which causes major changes in numerous proteins of different cell types). To map large proteomes such as the human proteome, proteins from discrete tissues, cells, cell components, or biological fluids are first separated by high-resolution two-dimensional electrophoresis and multidimensional liquid chromatography. Then, individual proteins are identified by mass spectrometry. The huge amount of data acquired using these techniques is analyzed and assembled by fast computers and bioinformatics tools. Using these methods, as well as other technological advances, alcohol researchers can gain a better understanding of how alcohol globally influences protein structure and function, protein-protein interactions, and protein networks. This knowledge ultimately will assist in the early diagnosis and prognosis of alcoholism and the discovery of new drug targets and medications for treatment.

  6. Money Income and Poverty Status in the United States: 1987. (Advance Data from the March 1988 Current Population Survey). Current Population Reports: Consumer Income.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Current Population Reports, 1988

    1988-01-01

    This report presents data from the March 1988 Current Population Survey (CPS) on the income and poverty status of families and persons in the United States for the calender year 1987. The following family characteristics are examined: (1) family income; (2) family composition, race, and Hispanic origin; (3) educational attainment of householder;…

  7. Review of the Current State of Knowledge on the Effects of Radiation on Concrete

    DOE PAGES

    Rosseel, Thomas M.; Maruyama, Ippei; Le Pape, Yann; Kontani, Osamu; Giorla, Alain B.; Remec, Igor; Wall, James J.; Sircar, Madhumita; Andrade, Carmen; Ordonez, Manuel

    2016-07-01

    A review of the current state of knowledge on the effects of radiation on concrete in nuclear applications is presented. Emphasis is placed on the effects of radiation damage as reflected by changes in engineering properties of concrete in the evaluation of the long-term operation (LTO) and for Plant Life or Aging Management of nuclear power plants (NPPs) in Japan, Spain, and the United States. National issues and concerns are described for Japan and the US followed by a discussion of the fundamental understanding of the effects radiation on concrete. Specifically, the effects of temperature, moisture content, and irradiation onmore » ordinary Portland cement paste and the role of temperature and neutron energy spectra on radiation induced volumetric expansion (RIVE) of aggregate-forming minerals are described. This is followed by a discussion of the bounding conditions for extended operation, the significance of accelerated irradiation conditions, the role of temperature, creep, and how these issues are being incorporated into numerical and meso-scale models. From these insights on radiation damage, analyses of these effects on concrete structures are reviewed and the current status of work in Japan and the US are described. Also discussed is the recent formation of a new international scientific and technical organization, the International Committee on Irradiated Concrete (ICIC), to provide a forum for timely information exchanges among organizations pursuing the identification, quantification, and modeling of the effects of radiation on concrete in commercial nuclear applications. Lastly, the paper concludes with a discussion of research gaps including: 1) interpreting test-reactor data, 2) evaluating service-irradiated concrete for aging management and to inform radiation damage models with the Zorita NPP (Spain) serving as the first comprehensive test case, 3) irradiated-assisted alkali-silica reactions, and 4) RIVE under constrained conditions.« less

  8. Brain-computer interfaces using sensorimotor rhythms: current state and future perspectives.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Han; He, Bin

    2014-05-01

    Many studies over the past two decades have shown that people can use brain signals to convey their intent to a computer using brain-computer interfaces (BCIs). BCI systems extract specific features of brain activity and translate them into control signals that drive an output. Recently, a category of BCIs that are built on the rhythmic activity recorded over the sensorimotor cortex, i.e., the sensorimotor rhythm (SMR), has attracted considerable attention among the BCIs that use noninvasive neural recordings, e.g., electroencephalography (EEG), and have demonstrated the capability of multidimensional prosthesis control. This paper reviews the current state and future perspectives of SMR-based BCI and its clinical applications, in particular focusing on the EEG SMR. The characteristic features of SMR from the human brain are described and their underlying neural sources are discussed. The functional components of SMR-based BCI, together with its current clinical applications, are reviewed. Finally, limitations of SMR-BCIs and future outlooks are also discussed.

  9. Brain-Computer Interfaces Using Sensorimotor Rhythms: Current State and Future Perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Han; He, Bin

    2014-01-01

    Many studies over the past two decades have shown that people can use brain signals to convey their intent to a computer using brain-computer interfaces (BCIs). BCI systems extract specific features of brain activity and translate them into control signals that drive an output. Recently, a category of BCIs that are built on the rhythmic activity recorded over the sensorimotor cortex, i.e. the sensorimotor rhythm (SMR), has attracted considerable attention among the BCIs that use noninvasive neural recordings, e.g. electroencephalography (EEG), and have demonstrated the capability of multi-dimensional prosthesis control. This article reviews the current state and future perspectives of SMR-based BCI and its clinical applications, in particular focusing on the EEG SMR. The characteristic features of SMR from the human brain are described and their underlying neural sources are discussed. The functional components of SMR-based BCI, together with its current clinical applications are reviewed. Lastly, limitations of SMR-BCIs and future outlooks are also discussed. PMID:24759276

  10. Measurements of the normal state persistent current in Au rings at high and low magnetic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petkovic, Ivana; Ngo, Dustin; Lollo, Anthony; Harris, Jack

    2014-03-01

    Flux biased normal metal rings smaller than the phase coherence length can sustain persistent current (PC). We employ cantilever torque magnetometry to detect PC with high sensitivity, efficient background rejection, and in an electromagnetically clean environment. Previously, our group focused on the high magnetic field regime, where the PC is well described by single-particle theory. However at low magnetic field (few flux quanta) interaction effects are expected to be dominant. Previous low field studies by other groups employing SQUID and resonator-based techniques have found that Au, Ag, Cu, and GaAs rings show a large diamagnetic average PC, indicative of attractive e-e interactions. One possible explanation is that the superconductivity that would normally arise from this interaction is suppressed by a small number of magnetic impurities (~ 1 ppm), while the interaction-enhanced persistent current is not. In this talk we will describe measurements of Au rings. We have fabricated arrays of 100,000 rings with 125 nm radius on ultrasensitive silicon cantilevers. At high magnetic fields, we find that the PC agrees with single-particle theory. We also describe the results at low field, expected to give further insight into the many body ground state of this system. We gratefully acknowledge support from NSF Grant #1205861.

  11. Finite current stationary states of random walks on one-dimensional lattices with aperiodic disorder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miki, Hiroshi

    2016-11-01

    Stationary states of random walks with finite induced drift velocity on one-dimensional lattices with aperiodic disorder are investigated by scaling analysis. Three aperiodic sequences, the Thue-Morse (TM), the paperfolding (PF), and the Rudin-Shapiro (RS) sequences, are used to construct the aperiodic disorder. These are binary sequences, composed of two symbols A and B, and the ratio of the number of As to that of Bs converges to unity in the infinite sequence length limit, but their effects on diffusional behavior are different. For the TM model, the stationary distribution is extended, as in the case without current, and the drift velocity is independent of the system size. For the PF model and the RS model, as the system size increases, the hierarchical and fractal structure and the localized structure, respectively, are broken by a finite current and changed to an extended distribution if the system size becomes larger than a certain threshold value. Correspondingly, the drift velocity is saturated in a large system while in a small system it decreases as the system size increases.

  12. Current Tobacco Use Among Adults in the United States: Findings From the National Adult Tobacco Survey

    PubMed Central

    Dube, Shanta R.; Tynan, Michael A.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. We assessed the prevalence and sociodemographic correlates of tobacco use among US adults. Methods. We used data from the 2009–2010 National Adult Tobacco Survey, a national landline and cell phone survey of adults aged 18 years and older, to estimate current use of any tobacco; cigarettes; cigars, cigarillos, or small cigars; chewing tobacco, snuff, or dip; water pipes; snus; and pipes. We stratified estimates by gender, age, race/ethnicity, education, income, sexual orientation, and US state. Results. National prevalence of current use was 25.2% for any tobacco; 19.5% for cigarettes; 6.6% for cigars, cigarillos, or small cigars; 3.4% for chewing tobacco, snuff, or dip; 1.5% for water pipes; 1.4% for snus; and 1.1% for pipes. Tobacco use was greatest among respondents who were male, younger, of non-Hispanic “other” race/ethnicity, less educated, less wealthy, and lesbian, gay, bisexual, or transgender. Prevalence ranged from 14.1% (Utah) to 37.4% (Kentucky). Conclusions. Tobacco use varies by geography and sociodemographic factors, but remains prevalent among US adults. Evidence-based prevention strategies are needed to decrease tobacco use and the health and economic burden of tobacco-related diseases. PMID:22994278

  13. The economic burden of systemic lupus erythematosus in Asia: the current state.

    PubMed

    Mak, A

    2010-10-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a chronic systemic inflammatory disorder which imposes considerable negative impact on patients' function and quality of life, and it appears to entail substantial loss of work productivity and healthcare cost. Although much has been studied regarding the epidemiology, pathogenesis, disease activity, disease damage and pharmacological treatment of SLE, publications on the economic burden of lupus are scarce. As the majority of lupus patients are residing in the Asia Pacific region where many are financially and socially deprived, and, from what we know from the current literature, work disability of lupus patients in Asia is substantial, cost-of-illness studies on SLE are thus particularly relevant in countries around the region. Reliable data from properly conducted prospective SLE cost studies are imperative for policymakers to efficiently distribute healthcare resources, especially in Asia where limited resources are unable to cope with the huge population. In this paper, we review the current state of cost-of-illness research on lupus in Asia and analyze the reasons why such studies are urgently required in the Asia Pacific region.

  14. Current state and prospects of researches on the control of turbulent boundary layer by air blowing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kornilov, V. I.

    2015-07-01

    The paper presents the analytical review of the current state of the investigations and development trends on the problem of turbulent friction and aerodynamic drag reduction in simple model configurations, which is among key ones in modern aeromechanics. Under consideration is the modern fast progressing method of the turbulent flow control by air- and other gases (micro)blowing through a permeable surface, which is utilized in incompressible and compressible turbulent boundary layers. Several computational results to understand the essential flow physics are also included. The problem of simulation of the flow over a perforated wall where some ambiguities, in particular, at the permeable/impermeable boundary being still remained is discussed. Special attention is paid to the analysis of most important experimental and numerical results obtained with the air blowing through a finely-perforated surface, analysis of the physical peculiarities and regularities of the flow with the blowing, probability to describe the properties of such a flow within simple approach frameworks, evaluation of the efficiency of this control method, as well as the trends and opportunities of this method progress in view of state-of-the-art achievements. Although this technology has a penalty for developing the effective turbulent-flow control method, some modifications of the air blowing are an attractive alternative for real applications.

  15. Forensic palynology: current status of a rarely used technique in the United States of America.

    PubMed

    Bryant, Vaughn M; Jones, Gretchen D

    2006-11-22

    The United States of America would seem to be an excellent location for using pollen data in forensic applications. The vegetation within the region is highly diverse ranging from areas of Arctic tundra to some of the most inhospitable deserts anywhere in the Western Hemisphere. The highly varied ecology, great plant diversity, thousands of vegetational microhabitats, and extensive published pollen records for the region provide an ideal setting for these types of analyses. This diversity, often characterized in most locations by unique combinations of pollen types, makes the use of forensic pollen a reliable technique that can often be used to associate individuals with a unique crime scene or geographical region. Nevertheless, forensic pollen studies in the United States of America are currently one of the most highly under utilized techniques available to assist in solving criminal and civil cases. During the past century there has been a very limited attempt to use pollen evidence in either criminal or civil cases, for a variety of reasons, including a lack of available information about the technique, a very limited number of specialists trained to do forensic pollen work, and an almost total absence of academic centers able to train needed specialists or forensic facilities able, or willing, to fund research in this area. Hopefully, this paucity of use will change if certain steps are taken to encourage the routine collection and use of pollen evidence in both criminal and civil cases.

  16. Current practices in mycobacteriology: results of a survey of state public health laboratories.

    PubMed Central

    Huebner, R E; Good, R C; Tokars, J I

    1993-01-01

    Fifty-six state and territorial public health laboratories were surveyed to determine whether currently available rapid methods for the identification and drug susceptibility testing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis were being performed. Forty (71%) laboratories use fluorochrome rather than conventional basic fuchsin stains for screening clinical specimens for acid-fast bacilli. Of the 55 laboratories that routinely culture for mycobacteria, 16 (29%) use the more rapid radiometric methods. Species identification of isolates is done by biochemical tests in 13 (23%) laboratories; 40 (72%) use nucleic acid probes, high-performance liquid chromatography, or the BACTEC p-nitro-alpha-acetylamino-beta-hydroxypropiophenone (NAP) test (rapid tests); 3 laboratories do not perform species identification. Drug susceptibility testing is performed with solid media by 36 of 45 (80%) laboratories, while the more rapid radiometric methods are used by 9 (20%) laboratories. Compared with the laboratories that use conventional methods, laboratories that use rapid methods report results more quickly: for species identification, 43 days (conventional) versus 22 days (rapid); for drug susceptibility testing, 44 days (conventional) versus 31 days (rapid) from specimen processing. Rapid technologies for microscopy and species identification are being used by many, but not all, state and territorial public health laboratories; however, most laboratories do not use the more rapid radiometric methods for routine culture or drug susceptibility testing of mycobacteria. Implementation of such rapid technologies can shorten turnaround times for the laboratory diagnosis of tuberculosis and recognition of drug resistance. PMID:8463385

  17. AAPM/SNMMI Joint Task Force: report on the current state of nuclear medicine physics training.

    PubMed

    Harkness, Beth A; Allison, Jerry D; Clements, Jessica B; Coffey, Charles W; Fahey, Frederic H; Gress, Dustin A; Kinahan, Paul E; Nickoloff, Edward L; Mawlawi, Osama R; MacDougall, Robert D; Pizzutiello, Robert J

    2015-09-08

    The American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM) and the Society of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging (SNMMI) recognized the need for a review of the current state of nuclear  medicine physics training and the need to explore pathways for improving nuclear medicine physics training opportunities. For these reasons, the two organizations formed a joint AAPM/SNMMI Ad Hoc Task Force on Nuclear Medicine Physics  Training. The mission of this task force was to assemble a representative group of stakeholders to:• Estimate the demand for board-certified nuclear medicine physicists in the next 5-10 years,• Identify the critical issues related to supplying an adequate number of physicists who have received the appropriate level of training in nuclear medicine physics, and• Identify approaches that may be considered to facilitate the training of nuclear medicine physicists.As a result, a task force was appointed and chaired by an active member of both organizations that included representation from the AAPM, SNMMI, the American Board of Radiology (ABR), the American Board of Science in Nuclear Medicine (ABSNM), and the Commission for the Accreditation of Medical Physics Educational Programs (CAMPEP). The Task Force first met at the AAPM Annual Meeting in Charlotte in July 2012 and has met regularly face-to-face, online, and by conference calls. This manuscript reports the findings of the Task Force, as well as recommendations to achieve the stated mission.

  18. The rings of Saturn: State of current knowledge and some suggestions for future studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cuzzi, J. N.

    1978-01-01

    The state of our current knowledge of the properties of the ring system as a whole, and of the particles individually, is assessed. Attention is primarily devoted to recent results and possibilities for exploration of the ring system by a Saturn orbiter. In particular, the infrared and microwave properties of the ring system are discussed. The behavior of the ring brightness is not well understood in the critical transition spectral region from approximately 100 micrometers to approximately 1 cm. Also, the dynamical behavior of the ring system is discussed. Recent theoretical studies show that ongoing dynamical effects continually affect the ring structure in azimuth (possibly producing the A ring brightness asymmetry) and in the vertical direction. Orbital spacecraft-based studies of the rings will offer several unique advantages and impact important cosmogonical questions. Bistatic radar studies and millimeter-wavelength spectrometer/radiometry will give particle sizes and composition limits needed to resolve the question of the density of the rings, and provide important boundary conditions on the state of Saturn's protoplanetary nebula near the time of planetary formation.

  19. Progress toward steady-state tokamak operation exploiting the high bootstrap current fraction regime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Q. L.; Garofalo, A. M.; Gong, X. Z.; Holcomb, C. T.; Lao, L. L.; McKee, G. R.; Meneghini, O.; Staebler, G. M.; Grierson, B. A.; Qian, J. P.; Solomon, W. M.; Turnbull, A. D.; Holland, C.; Guo, W. F.; Ding, S. Y.; Pan, C. K.; Xu, G. S.; Wan, B. N.

    2016-06-01

    Recent DIII-D experiments have increased the normalized fusion performance of the high bootstrap current fraction tokamak regime toward reactor-relevant steady state operation. The experiments, conducted by a joint team of researchers from the DIII-D and EAST tokamaks, developed a fully noninductive scenario that could be extended on EAST to a demonstration of long pulse steady-state tokamak operation. Improved understanding of scenario stability has led to the achievement of very high values of βp and βN , despite strong internal transport barriers. Good confinement has been achieved with reduced toroidal rotation. These high βp plasmas challenge the energy transport understanding, especially in the electron energy channel. A new turbulent transport model, named TGLF-SAT1, has been developed which improves the transport prediction. Experiments extending results to long pulse on EAST, based on the physics basis developed at DIII-D, have been conducted. More investigations will be carried out on EAST with more additional auxiliary power to come online in the near term.

  20. Environmental Proteomics: a Paradigm Shift in Characterizing Microbial Activities at the Molecular Level

    SciTech Connect

    Hettich, Robert {Bob} L

    2009-01-01

    The increase in sequencing capacity led to a new wave of metagenomic projects, enabling and setting the prerequisite for the application of environmental proteomics technologies. This review describes the current status of environmental proteomics. It describes sample preparation as well as the two major technologies applied within this field: two-dimensional electrophoresis-based environmental proteomics and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry-based environmental proteomics. It also highlights current publications and describes major scientific findings. The review closes with a discussion of critical improvements in the area of integrating experimental mass spectrometry technologies with bioinformatics as well as improved sample handling.

  1. Current status of preventive cardiology training among United States cardiology fellowships and comparison to training guidelines.

    PubMed

    Pack, Quinn R; Keteyian, Steven J; McBride, Patrick E; Weaver, W Douglas; Kim, Henry E

    2012-07-01

    We evaluated preventive cardiology education in United States cardiology fellowship programs and their adherence to Core Cardiovascular Training Symposium training guidelines, which recommend 1 month of training, faculty with expertise, and clinical experience in cardiac rehabilitation, lipid disorder management, and diabetes management as a part of the prevention curricula. We sent an anonymous survey to United States cardiology program directors and their chief fellow. The survey assessed the program curricula, rotation structure, faculty expertise, obstacles, and recommended improvements. The results revealed that 24% of surveyed programs met the Core Cardiovascular Training Symposium guidelines with a dedicated 1-month rotation in preventive cardiology, 24% had no formalized training in preventive cardiology, and 30% had no faculty with expertise in preventive cardiology, which correlated with fewer rotations in prevention than those with specialized faculty (p = 0.009). Fellows rotated though the following experiences (% of programs): cardiac rehabilitation, 71%; lipid management, 37%; hypertension, 15%; diabetes, 7%; weight management/obesity, 6%; cardiac nutrition, 6%; and smoking cessation, 5%. The program directors cited "lack of time" as the greatest obstacle to providing preventive cardiology training and the chief fellows reported "lack of a developed curriculum" (p = 0.01). The most recommended improvement was for the American College of Cardiology to develop a web-based curriculum/module. In conclusion, most surveyed United States cardiology training programs currently do not adhere to basic preventive cardiovascular medicine Core Cardiovascular Training Symposium recommendations. Additional attention to developing curricular content and structure, including the creation of an American College of Cardiology on-line knowledge module might improve fellowship training in preventive cardiology.

  2. Current status of solid waste management in small island developing states: A review

    SciTech Connect

    Mohee, Romeela; Mauthoor, Sumayya; Bundhoo, Zumar M.A.; Somaroo, Geeta; Soobhany, Nuhaa; Gunasee, Sanjana

    2015-09-15

    Highlights: • Waste management is a matter of great concern for small island developing states. • On average, waste generation rate in these islands amounts to 1.29 kg/capita/day. • Illegal dumping and landfilling prevail in most small island developing states. • Sustainable waste management practices, previously absent, are now emerging. • However, many challenges still hinder the implementation of these practices. - Abstract: This article reviews the current status of waste management in Small Island Developing States (SIDS) and the challenges that are faced in solid waste management. The waste generation rates of SIDS were compared within the three geographic regions namely Caribbean SIDS, Pacific SIDS and Atlantic, Indian Ocean, Mediterranean and South China (AIMS) SIDS and with countries of the Organisation for Economic Co-Operation and Development (OECD). Only Pacific SIDS had a waste generation rate less than 1 kg/capita/day. The waste generation rates for the three SIDS regions averaged 1.29 kg/capita/day while that for OECD countries was at a mean value of 1.35 kg/capita/day. The waste compositions in the different SIDS regions were almost similar owing to comparable consumption patterns while these differed to a large extent with wastes generated in OECD countries. In SIDS, the major fraction of MSW comprised of organics (44%) followed by recyclables namely paper, plastics, glass and metals (total: 43%). In contrast, MSW in OECD countries consisted mainly of recyclables (43%) followed by organics (37%). This article also reviewed the other functional elements of the waste management systems in SIDS. Several shortcomings were noted in the process of waste collection, transfer and transport namely the fact of having outdated collection vehicles and narrow roads which are inaccessible. Among the waste management practices in SIDS, waste disposal via landfilling, illegal dumping and backyard burning were favoured most of the time at the expense of

  3. Targeted Proteomics Approaches To Monitor Microbial Activity In Basalt Aquifer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paszczynski, A. J.; Paidisetti, R.

    2007-12-01

    Microorganisms play a major role in biogeochemical cycles of the Earth. Information regarding microbial community composition can be very useful for environmental monitoring since the short generation times of microorganisms allows them to respond rapidly to changing environmental conditions. Microbial mediated attenuation of toxic chemicals offers great potential for the restoration of contaminated environments in an ecologically acceptable manner. Current knowledge regarding the structure and functional activities of microbial communities is limited, but more information is being acquired every day through many genomic- and proteomic- based methods. As of today, only a small fraction of the Earth's microorganisms has been cultured, and so most of the information regarding the biodegradation and therapeutic potentials of these uncultured microorganisms remains unknown. Sequence analysis of DNA and/or RNA has been used for identifying specific microorganisms, to study the community composition, and to monitor gene expression providing limited information about metabolic state of given microbial system. Proteomic studies can reveal information regarding the real-time metabolic state of the microbial communities thereby aiding in understanding their interaction with the environment. In research described here the involvement of microbial communities in the degradation of anthropogenic contaminants such as trichloroethylene (TCE) was studied using mass spectrometry-based proteomics. The co- metabolic degradation of TCE in the groundwater of the Snake River Plain Aquifer at the Test Area North (TAN) site of Idaho National Laboratory (INL) was monitored by the characterization of peptide sequences of enzymes such as methane monooxygenases (MMOs). MMOs, expressed by methanotrophic bacteria are involved in the oxidation of methane and non-specific co-metabolic oxidation of TCE. We developed a time- course cell lysis method to release proteins from complex microbial

  4. Establishing Substantial Equivalence: Proteomics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lovegrove, Alison; Salt, Louise; Shewry, Peter R.

    Wheat is a major crop in world agriculture and is consumed after processing into a range of food products. It is therefore of great importance to determine the consequences (intended and unintended) of transgenesis in wheat and whether genetically modified lines are substantially equivalent to those produced by conventional plant breeding. Proteomic analysis is one of several approaches which can be used to address these questions. Two-dimensional PAGE (2D PAGE) remains the most widely available method for proteomic analysis, but is notoriously difficult to reproduce between laboratories. We therefore describe methods which have been developed as standard operating procedures in our laboratory to ensure the reproducibility of proteomic analyses of wheat using 2D PAGE analysis of grain proteins.

  5. The proteomics quantification dilemma.

    PubMed

    Jungblut, Peter R

    2014-07-31

    Proteomics is dominated today by the protein expression discourse, which favorites the bottom-up approach because of its high throughput and its high sensitivity. For quantification this proceeding is misleading, if a protein is present with more than one protein species in the sample to be analyzed. The protein speciation discourse considers this more realistic situation and affords the top-down procedures or at least a separation of the protein species in advance to identification and quantification. Today all of the top-down procedures are one order of magnitude less sensitive than the bottom-up ones. To increase sensitivity and to increase throughput are major challenges for proteomics of the next years. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: 20years of Proteomics in memory of Viatliano Pallini. Guest Editors: Luca Bini, Juan J. Calvete, Natacha Turck, Denis Hochstrasser and Jean-Charles Sanchez. PMID:24681132

  6. High-Throughput Proteomics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhaorui; Wu, Si; Stenoien, David L.; Paša-Tolić, Ljiljana

    2014-06-01

    Mass spectrometry (MS)-based high-throughput proteomics is the core technique for large-scale protein characterization. Due to the extreme complexity of proteomes, sophisticated separation techniques and advanced MS instrumentation have been developed to extend coverage and enhance dynamic range and sensitivity. In this review, we discuss the separation and prefractionation techniques applied for large-scale analysis in both bottom-up (i.e., peptide-level) and top-down (i.e., protein-level) proteomics. Different approaches for quantifying peptides or intact proteins, including label-free and stable-isotope-labeling strategies, are also discussed. In addition, we present a brief overview of different types of mass analyzers and fragmentation techniques as well as selected emerging techniques.

  7. Implementing the Common Core State Standards for Mathematics: A Comparison of Current District Content in 41 States. Working Paper #32

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cogan, Leland; Schmidt, William; Houang, Richard

    2013-01-01

    Beginning in the spring of 2011 the Center for the Study of Curriculum at Michigan State University conducted a survey of school district curriculum directors/supervisors in the 41 states that had officially adopted the new Common Core State Standards for Mathematics (CCSSM). The Center's goal was to provide baseline information to inform and…

  8. Assessing Current State Science Teaching and Learning Standards for Ability to Achieve Climate Science Literacy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Busch, K. C.

    2012-12-01

    Even though there exists a high degree of consensus among scientists about climate change, doubt has actually increased over the last five years within the general U.S. public. In 2006, 79% of those polled agreed that there is evidence for global warming, while only 59% agreed in 2010 (Pew Research Center, 2010). The source for this doubt can be partially attributed to lack of knowledge. Formal education is one mechanism that potentially can address inadequate public understanding as school is the primary place where students - and future citizens - learn about the climate. In a joint effort, several governmental agencies, non-governmental organizations, scientists and educators have created a framework called The Essential Principles of Climate Science Literacy, detailing seven concepts that are deemed vital for individuals and communities to understand Earth's climate system (USGCRP, 2009). Can students reach climate literacy - as defined by these 7 concepts - if they are taught using a curriculum based on the current state standards? To answer this question, the K-12 state science teaching and learning standards for Texas and California - two states that heavily influence nation-wide textbook creation - were compared against the Essential Principles. The data analysis consisted of two stages, looking for: 1) direct reference to "climate" and "climate change" and 2) indirect reference to the 7 Essential Principles through axial coding. The word "climate" appears in the California K-12 science standards 4 times and in the Texas standards 7 times. The word "climate change" appears in the California and Texas standards only 3 times each. Indirect references to the 7 Essential Principles of climate science literacy were more numerous. Broadly, California covered 6 of the principles while Texas covered all 7. In looking at the 7 principles, the second one "Climate is regulated by complex interactions among component of the Earth system" was the most substantively

  9. Proteomics of the periconception milieu.

    PubMed

    Fazeli, Alireza; Moein Vaziri, Najmeh; Holt, William Vincent

    2015-02-01

    There is increasing realisation that human health status in adulthood depends critically upon environmental conditions pertaining around the time of conception and during pregnancy. Poor maternal diet or adverse environmental conditions around the periconception period somehow induces the resultant embryo to adapt predictively in order to survive this level of stress for the whole of its life. However, if there is a mismatch between expectation and reality, where the conditions during later life are better than expected, things go wrong and the adult suffers a range of illnesses, including diabetes, heart disease, hypertension and stroke. Understanding the molecular signals that direct the early embryo to adopt appropriate adaptations to suit its future life would be extremely valuable. However, although it appears to be an ideal task for proteomic applications, there are technical, ethical and practical limitations to what can be achieved with the current framework of proteomic technology. Here, we review what has been achieved to date, explain some of the experimental problems and suggest some strategies for taking this field forward.

  10. Plasma proteomics, the Human Proteome Project, and cancer-associated alternative splice variant proteins.

    PubMed

    Omenn, Gilbert S

    2014-05-01

    This article addresses three inter-related subjects: the development of the Human Plasma Proteome Peptide Atlas, the launch of the Human Proteome Project, and the emergence of alternative splice variant transcripts and proteins as important features of evolution and pathogenesis. The current Plasma Peptide Atlas provides evidence on which peptides have been detected for every protein confidently identified in plasma; there are links to their spectra and their estimated abundance, facilitating the planning of targeted proteomics for biomarker studies. The Human Proteome Project (HPP) combines a chromosome-centric C-HPP with a biology and disease-driven B/D-HPP, upon a foundation of mass spectrometry, antibody, and knowledgebase resource pillars. The HPP aims to identify the approximately 7000 "missing proteins" and to characterize all proteins and their many isoforms. Success will enable the larger research community to utilize newly-available peptides, spectra, informative MS transitions, and databases for targeted analyses of priority proteins for each organ and disease. Among the isoforms of proteins, splice variants have the special feature of greatly enlarging protein diversity without enlarging the genome; evidence is accumulating of striking differential expression of splice variants in cancers. In this era of RNA-sequencing and advanced mass spectrometry, it is no longer sufficient to speak simply of increased or decreased expression of genes or proteins without carefully examining the splice variants in the protein mixture produced from each multi-exon gene. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Biomarkers: A Proteomic Challenge.

  11. Proteome Dynamics Reveals Pro-Inflammatory Remodeling of Plasma Proteome in a Mouse Model of NAFLD.

    PubMed

    Li, Ling; Bebek, Gurkan; Previs, Stephen F; Smith, Jonathan D; Sadygov, Rovshan G; McCullough, Arthur J; Willard, Belinda; Kasumov, Takhar

    2016-09-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Because the liver is the major source of circulatory proteins, it is not surprising that hepatic disease could lead to alterations in the plasma proteome, which are therein implicated in atherosclerosis. The current study used low-density lipoprotein receptor-deficient (LDLR(-/-)) mice to examine the impact of Western diet (WD)-induced NAFLD on plasma proteome homeostasis. Using a (2)H2O-metabolic labeling method, we found that a WD led to a proinflammatory distribution of circulatory proteins analyzed in apoB-depleted plasma, which was attributed to an increased production. The fractional turnover rates of short-lived proteins that are implicated in stress-response, lipid metabolism, and transport functions were significantly increased with WD (P < 0.05). Pathway analyses revealed that alterations in plasma proteome dynamics were related to the suppression of hepatic PPARα, which was confirmed based on reduced gene and protein expression of PPARα in mice fed a WD. These changes were associated with ∼4-fold increase (P < 0.0001) in the proinflammatory property of apoB-depleted plasma. In conclusion, the proteome dynamics method reveals proinflammatory remodeling of the plasma proteome relevant to liver disease. The approach used herein may provide a useful metric of in vivo liver function and better enable studies of novel therapies surrounding NAFLD and other diseases. PMID:27439437

  12. Optimal control of gene expression for fast proteome adaptation to environmental change.

    PubMed

    Pavlov, Michael Y; Ehrenberg, Måns

    2013-12-17

    Bacterial populations growing in a changing world must adjust their proteome composition in response to alterations in the environment. Rapid proteome responses to growth medium changes are expected to increase the average growth rate and fitness value of these populations. Little is known about the dynamics of proteome change, e.g., whether bacteria use optimal strategies of gene expression for rapid proteome adjustments and if there are lower bounds to the time of proteome adaptation in response to growth medium changes. To begin answering these types of questions, we modeled growing bacteria as stoichiometrically coupled networks of metabolic pathways. These are balanced during steady-state growth in a constant environment but are initially unbalanced after rapid medium shifts due to a shortage of enzymes required at higher concentrations in the new environment. We identified an optimal strategy for rapid proteome adjustment in the absence of protein degradation and found a lower bound to the time of proteome adaptation after medium shifts. This minimal time is determined by the ratio between the Kullback-Leibler distance from the pre- to the postshift proteome and the postshift steady-state growth rate. The dynamics of optimally controlled proteome adaptation has a simple analytical solution. We used detailed numerical modeling to demonstrate that realistic bacterial control systems can emulate this optimal strategy for rapid proteome adaptation. Our results may provide a conceptual link between the physiology and population genetics of growing bacteria. PMID:24297927

  13. Pressurized Pepsin Digestion in Proteomics

    PubMed Central

    López-Ferrer, Daniel; Petritis, Konstantinos; Robinson, Errol W.; Hixson, Kim K.; Tian, Zhixin; Lee, Jung Hwa; Lee, Sang-Won; Tolić, Nikola; Weitz, Karl K.; Belov, Mikhail E.; Smith, Richard D.; Paša-Tolić, Ljiljana

    2011-01-01

    Integrated top-down bottom-up proteomics combined with on-line digestion has great potential to improve the characterization of protein isoforms in biological systems and is amendable to high throughput proteomics experiments. Bottom-up proteomics ultimately provides the peptide sequences derived from the tandem MS analyses of peptides after the proteome has been digested. Top-down proteomics conversely entails the MS analyses of intact proteins for more effective characterization of genetic variations and/or post-translational modifications. Herein, we describe recent efforts toward efficient integration of bottom-up and top-down LC-MS-based proteomics strategies. Since most proteomics separations utilize acidic conditions, we exploited the compatibility of pepsin (where the optimal digestion conditions are at low pH) for integration into bottom-up and top-down proteomics work flows. Pressure-enhanced pepsin digestions were successfully performed and characterized with several standard proteins in either an off-line mode using a Barocycler or an on-line mode using a modified high pressure LC system referred to as a fast on-line digestion system (FOLDS). FOLDS was tested using pepsin and a whole microbial proteome, and the results were compared against traditional trypsin digestions on the same platform. Additionally, FOLDS was integrated with a RePlay configuration to demonstrate an ultrarapid integrated bottom-up top-down proteomics strategy using a standard mixture of proteins and a monkey pox virus proteome. PMID:20627868

  14. Bioinformatic challenges in targeted proteomics.

    PubMed

    Reker, Daniel; Malmström, Lars

    2012-09-01

    Selected reaction monitoring mass spectrometry is an emerging targeted proteomics technology that allows for the investigation of complex protein samples with high sensitivity and efficiency. It requires extensive knowledge about the sample for the many parameters needed to carry out the experiment to be set appropriately. Most studies today rely on parameter estimation from prior studies, public databases, or from measuring synthetic peptides. This is efficient and sound, but in absence of prior data, de novo parameter estimation is necessary. Computational methods can be used to create an automated framework to address this problem. However, the number of available applications is still small. This review aims at giving an orientation on the various bioinformatical challenges. To this end, we state the problems in classical machine learning and data mining terms, give examples of implemented solutions and provide some room for alternatives. This will hopefully lead to an increased momentum for the development of algorithms and serve the needs of the community for computational methods. We note that the combination of such methods in an assisted workflow will ease both the usage of targeted proteomics in experimental studies as well as the further development of computational approaches. PMID:22866949

  15. Automated glycopeptide analysis--review of current state and future directions.

    PubMed

    Dallas, David C; Martin, William F; Hua, Serenus; German, J Bruce

    2013-05-01

    Glycosylation of proteins is involved in immune defense, cell-cell adhesion, cellular recognition and pathogen binding and is one of the most common and complex post-translational modifications. Science is still struggling to assign detailed mechanisms and functions to this form of conjugation. Even the structural analysis of glycoproteins-glycoproteomics-remains in its infancy due to the scarcity of high-throughput analytical platforms capable of determining glycopeptide composition and structure, especially platforms for complex biological mixtures. Glycopeptide composition and structure can be determined with high mass-accuracy mass spectrometry, particularly when combined with chromatographic separation, but the sheer volume of generated data necessitates computational software for interpretation. This review discusses the current state of glycopeptide assignment software-advances made to date and issues that remain to be addressed. The various software and algorithms developed so far provide important insights into glycoproteomics. However, there is currently no freely available software that can analyze spectral data in batch and unambiguously determine glycopeptide compositions for N- and O-linked glycopeptides from relevant biological sources such as human milk and serum. Few programs are capable of aiding in structural determination of the glycan component. To significantly advance the field of glycoproteomics, analytical software and algorithms are required that: (i) solve for both N- and O-linked glycopeptide compositions, structures and glycosites in biological mixtures; (ii) are high-throughput and process data in batches; (iii) can interpret mass spectral data from a variety of sources and (iv) are open source and freely available. PMID:22843980

  16. Current Cigarette Smoking Among Workers in Accommodation and Food Services--United States, 2011-2013.

    PubMed

    Syamlal, Girija; Jamal, Ahmed; Mazurek, Jacek M

    2015-07-31

    Tobacco use is the leading cause of preventable disease and death in the United States. One of the Healthy People 2020 objectives calls for reducing the proportion of U.S. adults who smoke cigarettes to ≤12% (objective TU-1.1). Despite progress in reducing smoking prevalence over the past several decades, nearly one in five U.S. adults, including millions of workers, still smoke cigarettes. During 2004-2010, nearly one fifth (19.6%) of U.S. working adults aged ≥18 years smoked cigarettes, and of all the industry sectors, current smoking prevalence among the accommodation and food services sector workers (30%) was the highest. CDC analyzed National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) data for 2011-2013 to estimate current cigarette smoking prevalence among adults working in the accommodation and food services sector, and found that these workers had higher cigarette smoking prevalence (25.9%) than all other workers (17.3%). Among workers in accommodation and food services sector, the highest smoking prevalences were observed among males, non-Hispanic whites, those aged 25-44 years, those with a high school diploma or a General Educational Development (GED) certificate and no college education, those with an annual family income <$35,000, those with no health insurance, and those working in the food services and drinking places industry. These results indicate a need to better understand the reasons for higher smoking prevalence observed among accommodation and food services workers (e.g., workplace culture), so that appropriate intervention strategies can be developed and implemented. Evidence suggests that smoke-free worksites and workplace cessation programs, including comprehensive worksite smoke-free policies, health promotion, access to smoking cessation programs, and increasing the cost of tobacco products, can substantially reduce smoking among workers.

  17. The current and projected economic burden of Parkinson's disease in the United States.

    PubMed

    Kowal, Stacey L; Dall, Timothy M; Chakrabarti, Ritashree; Storm, Michael V; Jain, Anjali

    2013-03-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD), following Alzheimer's disease, is the second-most common neurodegenerative disorder in the United States. A lack of treatment options for changing the trajectory of disease progression, in combination with an increasing elderly population, portends a rising economic burden on patients and payers. This study combined information from nationally representative surveys to create a burden of PD model. The model estimates disease prevalence, excess healthcare use and medical costs, and nonmedical costs for each demographic group defined by age and sex. Estimated prevalence rates and costs were applied to the U.S. Census Bureau's 2010 to 2050 population data to estimate current and projected burden based on changing demographics. We estimate that approximately 630,000 people in the United States had diagnosed PD in 2010, with diagnosed prevalence likely to double by 2040. The national economic burden of PD exceeds $14.4 billion in 2010 (approximately $22,800 per patient). The population with PD incurred medical expenses of approximately $14 billion in 2010, $8.1 billion higher ($12,800 per capita) than expected for a similar population without PD. Indirect costs (e.g., reduced employment) are conservatively estimated at $6.3 billion (or close to $10,000 per person with PD). The burden of chronic conditions such as PD is projected to grow substantially over the next few decades as the size of the elderly population grows. Such projections give impetus to the need for innovative new treatments to prevent, delay onset, or alleviate symptoms of PD and other similar diseases.

  18. Report to Congress: Summary Report of the Assessment of Current State Practices in Title XX Funded Day Care Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Administration for Children, Youth, and Families (DHHS), Washington, DC.

    In 1980 the federal government mandated that assistance be given states to conduct systematic assessment of current practices in Title XX funded day care programs and that a summary report of this assessment be provided to Congress. Assessment findings are given in this document. Overall, provider practices exceeded state licensing standards and…

  19. Xylem sap proteomics.

    PubMed

    de Bernonville, Thomas Dugé; Albenne, Cécile; Arlat, Matthieu; Hoffmann, Laurent; Lauber, Emmanuelle; Jamet, Elisabeth

    2014-01-01

    Proteomic analysis of xylem sap has recently become a major field of interest to understand several biological questions related to plant development and responses to environmental clues. The xylem sap appears as a dynamic fluid undergoing changes in its proteome upon abiotic and biotic stresses. Unlike cell compartments which are amenable to purification in sufficient amount prior to proteomic analysis, the xylem sap has to be collected in particular conditions to avoid contamination by intracellular proteins and to obtain enough material. A model plant like Arabidopsis thaliana is not suitable for such an analysis because efficient harvesting of xylem sap is difficult. The analysis of the xylem sap proteome also requires specific procedures to concentrate proteins and to focus on proteins predicted to be secreted. Indeed, xylem sap proteins appear to be synthesized and secreted in the root stele or to originate from dying differentiated xylem cells. This chapter describes protocols to collect xylem sap from Brassica species and to prepare total and N-glycoprotein extracts for identification of proteins by mass spectrometry analyses and bioinformatics.

  20. “Seed Proteomics"

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Proteomic analysis of seeds encounters some specific problems that do not impinge on analyses of other plant cells, tissues, or organs. There are anatomic considerations. Seeds comprise the seed coat, the storage organ(s), and the embryonic axis. Are these to be studied individually or as a compo...